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Sample records for nm emission intensity

  1. Enhancement of 800 nm upconversion emission in a thulium doped tellurite microstructured fiber pumped by a 1560 nm femtosecond fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Zhixu; Zheng, Kezhi [State Key Laboratory of Optical Fiber and Cable Manufacture Technology, Yangtze Optical Fiber and Cable Joint Stock Limited Company, Wuhan 430073 (China); State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Yao, Chuanfei; Wang, Shunbin; Qin, Guanshi, E-mail: qings@jlu.edu.cn; Qin, Weiping, E-mail: wpqin@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Xiong, Liangming; Luo, Jie; Lv, Dajuan [State Key Laboratory of Optical Fiber and Cable Manufacture Technology, Yangtze Optical Fiber and Cable Joint Stock Limited Company, Wuhan 430073 (China); Ohishi, Yasutake [Research Center for Advanced Photon Technology, Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468–8511 (Japan)

    2016-04-28

    We report enhanced upconversion (UC) fluorescence in Tm{sup 3+} doped tellurite microstructured fibers (TDTMFs) fabricated by using a rod-in-tube method. Under the pumping of a 1560 nm femtosecond fiber laser, ultrabroadband supercontinuum light expanding from ∼1050 to ∼2700 nm was generated in a 4 cm long TDTMF. Simultaneously, intense 800 nm UC emission from the {sup 3}H{sub 4} → {sup 3}H{sub 6} transition of Tm{sup 3+} was observed in the same TDTMF. Compared to that pumped by a 1560 nm continuous wave fiber laser, the UC emission intensity was enhanced by ∼4.1 times. The enhancement was due to the spectral broadening in the TDTMF under the pumping of the 1560 nm femtosecond fiber laser.

  2. Strongly Coupled Tin-Halide Perovskites to Modulate Light Emission: Tunable 550-640 nm Light Emission (FWHM 36-80 nm) with a Quantum Yield of up to 6.4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min-Yi; Lin, Jin-Tai; Hsu, Chia-Shuo; Chang, Chung-Kai; Chiu, Ching-Wen; Chen, Hao Ming; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2018-05-01

    Colloidal perovskite quantum dots represent one of the most promising materials for applications in solar cells and photoluminescences. These devices require a low density of crystal defects and a high yield of photogenerated carriers, which are difficult to realize in tin-halide perovskite because of the intrinsic instability of tin during nucleation. Here, an enhancement in the luminescent property of tin-halide perovskite nanoplates (TPNPs) that are composed of strongly coupled layered structures with the chemical formula of PEA 2 SnX 4 (PEA = C 6 H 5 (CH 2 ) 2 NH 3 , X = Br, I) is reported. TPNPs (X = I) show an emission at a wavelength of 640 nm, with high quantum yield of 6.40 ± 0.14% and full width at half maximum (FWHM) as small as 36 nm. The presence of aliphatic carboxylic acid is found to play a key role in reducing the tin perovskite defect density, which significantly improves the emission intensity and stability of TPNPs. Upon mixing iodo- and bromo- precursors, the emission wavelength is successfully tuned from 640 nm (PEA 2 SnI 4 ) to 550 nm (PEA 2 SnBr 4 ), with a corresponding emission quantum yield and FWHM of 0.16-6.40% and 36-80 nm, respectively. The results demonstrate a major advance for the emission yield and tunability of tin-halide perovskites. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Estimation of 557.7 nm Emission Altitude using Co-located Lidars and Photometers over Arecibo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, E.; Raizada, S.; Lautenbach, J.; Brum, C. G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Airglow at 557.7 nm (green line emission) is generated through the Barth mechanism in the E-region altitude and is sometimes associated with red line (630.0 nm) originating at F-region altitudes. Photons at 557.7 nm are produced through the quenching of excited atomic oxygen atoms, O(1S), while 630.0 nm results through the de-excitation of O(1D) atoms. Even though, the contribution of the green line from F-region is negligible and the significant component comes from the mesosphere, this uncertainty gives rise to a question related to its precise altitude. Previous studies have shown that perturbations generated by atmospheric gravity Waves (GWs) alter the airglow intensity and can be used for studying dynamics of the region where it originates. The uncertainty in the emission altitude of green line can be resolved by using co-located lidars, which provide altitude resolved metal densities. At Arecibo, the resonance lidars tuned to Na and K resonance wavelengths at 589 nm and 770 nm can be used in conjunction with simultaneous measurements from green line photometer to resolve this issue. Both photometer and lidars have narrow field of view as compared to airglow imagers, and hence provide an added advantage that these instruments sample same GW spectrum. Hence, correlation between density perturbations inferred from lidars and airglow intensity perturbations can shed light on the exact altitude of green line emission.

  4. A novel approach to obtain highly intense self-activated photoluminescence emissions in hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Thales R. [CDMF-UFSCar, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil); QIO-UJI, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castellón (Spain); Sczancoski, Júlio C. [CDMF-UFSCar, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil); Beltrán-Mir, Héctor [QIO-UJI, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castellón (Spain); Nogueira, Içamira C. [PPGEM-IFMA, Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Maranhão, 65030-005 São Luís, MA (Brazil); Li, Máximo S. [IFSC-USP, Universidade de São Paulo, P.O. Box 369, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Andrés, Juan [QFA-UJI, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castellón (Spain); Cordoncillo, Eloisa [QIO-UJI, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castellón (Spain); Longo, Elson, E-mail: elson.liec@gmail.com [CDMF-UFSCar, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    Defect-related photoluminescence (PL) in materials have attracted interest for applications including near ultraviolet (NUV) excitable light-emitting diodes and in biomedical field. In this paper, hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}] nanorods with intense PL bands (bluish- and yellowish-white emissions) were obtained when excited under NUV radiation at room temperature. These nanoparticles were synthesized via chemical precipitation at 90 °C followed by distinct heat treatments temperatures (200–800 °C). Intense and broad emission profiles were achieved at 350 °C (380–750 nm) and 400 °C (380–800 nm). UV–Vis spectroscopy revealed band gap energies (5.58–5.78 eV) higher than the excitation energies (~3.54 and ~2.98 eV at 350 and 415 nm, respectively), confirming the contribution of defect energy levels within the forbidden zone for PL emissions. The structural features were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement, thermogravimetric analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. By means of these techniques, the relation between structural order-disorder induced by defects, chemical reactions at both lattice and surface of the materials as well as the PL, without activator centers, was discussed in details. - Graphical abstract: The self-activated photoluminescence emissions of chemically precipitated hydroxyapatite nanorods were improved by different heat treatment temperatures. - Highlights: • HA nanorods were synthesized with improved self-activated PL at room temperature. • PL profile and intensity dependents on the temperature of posterior heat treatments. • Bluish- and yellowish-white emissions under NUV excitation (350 and 415 nm). • Broad and intense profiles achieved at 350 °C (380–750 nm) and 400 °C (380–800 nm). • PL from the e′–h{sup •} recombination between defect energy levels within the band gap.

  5. Double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: Experimental study of lead emission intensity dependence on the wavelengths and sample matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscitelli S, V; Martinez L, M A; Fernandez C, A J [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Laser, Escuela de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, DC 1020 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Gonzalez, J J; Mao, X L [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Russo, R.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: RERusso@lbl.gov

    2009-02-15

    Lead (Pb) emission intensity (atomic line 405.78 nm) dependence on the sample matrix (metal alloy) was studied by means of collinear double pulse (DP)-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The measurement of the emission intensity produced by three different wavelength combinations (i.e. I:532 nm-II:1064 nm, I:532 nm-II:532 nm, and I:532 nm-II:355 nm) from three series of standard reference materials showed that the lead atomic line 405.78 nm emission intensity was dependent on the sample matrix for all the combination of wavelengths, however reduced dependency was found for the wavelength combination I:532 nm-II:355 nm. Two series of standard reference materials from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and one series from the British Chemical Standards (BCS) were used for these experiments. Calibration curves for lead ablated from NIST 626-630 ('Zn{sub 95}Al{sub 4}Cu{sub 1}') provided higher sensitivity (slope) than those calibration curves produced from NIST 1737-1741 ('Zn{sub 99.5}Al{sub 0.5}') and with the series BCS 551-556 ('Cu{sub 87}Sn{sub 11}'). Similar trends between lead emission intensity (calibration curve sensitivities) and reported variations in plasma temperatures caused by the differing ionization potentials of the major and minor elements in these samples were established.

  6. Modeling 13.3nm Fe XXIII Flare Emissions Using the GOES-R EXIS Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, H.; Thiemann, E.

    2017-12-01

    The solar EUV spectrum is dominated by atomic transitions in ionized atoms in the solar atmosphere. As solar flares evolve, plasma temperatures and densities change, influencing abundances of various ions, changing intensities of different EUV wavelengths observed from the sun. Quantifying solar flare spectral irradiance is important for constraining models of Earth's atmosphere, improving communications quality, and controlling satellite navigation. However, high time cadence measurements of flare irradiance across the entire EUV spectrum were not available prior to the launch of SDO. The EVE MEGS-A instrument aboard SDO collected 0.1nm EUV spectrum data from 2010 until 2014, when the instrument failed. No current or future instrument is capable of similar high resolution and time cadence EUV observation. This necessitates a full EUV spectrum model to study EUV phenomena at Earth. It has been recently demonstrated that one hot flare EUV line, such as the 13.3nm Fe XXIII line, can be used to model cooler flare EUV line emissions, filling the role of MEGS-A. Since unblended measurements of Fe XXIII are typically unavailable, a proxy for the Fe XXIII line must be found. In this study, we construct two models of this line, first using the GOES 0.1-0.8nm soft x-ray (SXR) channel as the Fe XXIII proxy, and second using a physics-based model dependent on GOES emission measure and temperature data. We determine that the more sophisticated physics-based model shows better agreement with Fe XXIII measurements, although the simple proxy model also performs well. We also conclude that the high correlation between Fe XXIII emissions and the GOES 0.1-0.8nm band is because both emissions tend to peak near the GOES emission measure peak despite large differences in their contribution functions.

  7. On the interpretation of the intense emission of tungsten ions at about 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonauskas, V; Kucas, S; Karazija, R

    2007-01-01

    The origin of the intense emission band at about 5 nm, dominating the emission spectra of tungsten ions in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak and EBIT, is discussed. It is shown that the emission spectra of various ions calculated taking into account only the excitations from the ground level agree fairly well with the results obtained in the collisional-radiative model; thus, the contribution of the excitations from the other levels is small. Though the excitation spectrum for all sequence of ions W 29+ -W 37+ corresponds to the same transitions 4p 6 4d N → 4p 5 4d N+1 + 4p 6 4d N-1 4f, its energetic width essentially changes going on from the charge of ion q = 34 to q = 35. It is caused by the appearance of the excitations 4p 1/2 -4d 3/2 to the open 4d N 3/2 subshell, which are not quenched by configuration mixing. The satellite line at about 4.5 nm is explained by the transitions of the same type, although between configurations with one spectator 5s electron. The existence of one more group of intense lines in the region of 2 nm, corresponding to 5s-4p transitions, is predicted

  8. Intense green emission from Tb3+- doped Teo2-Wo3-Geo2 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Tallam; Gopal, Kotalo Rama; Suvarna, Reniguntla Padma; Jamalaiah, Bungala Chinna

    2018-04-01

    Tb3+ -doped oxyfluoro tellurite (TWGTb) glasses were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. The Judd-Ofelt theory has been applied to evaluate the Ωλ (λ=2,4,6) intensity parameters. The TWGTb glasses exhibit 5D3 → 7F5-3 and 5D4 → 7F6-0 transitions when excited at 316 nm wavelength. The variation of intensity of 5D4 → 7F5 (Green) and 5D3 → 7F4 (Blue) transitions and the green to blue (IG/IB) intensity ratios were studied as a function of Tb3+ ions concentration. The laser characteristic parameters such as effective bandwidth (Δλeff), stimulated emission cross-section (σe), gain bandwidth (σe×Δλeff) and optical gain (σe×τR) were determined using the emission spectra and radiative parameters. The luminescence decay profiles exhibit single-exponential nature for all the samples. Based on the experimental results we suggest that the 1.0 mol% of Tb3+-doped TWGTb glass could be the suitable laser host materials to emit intense green luminescence at 545 nm.

  9. Spectroscopic studies of xenon EUV emission in the 40-80 nm wavelength range using an absolutely calibrated monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merabet, H [Mathematic and Sciences Unit, Dhofar University, Salalah 211, Sultanate of (Oman); Bista, R [Department of Physics, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Bruch, R [Department of Physics, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Fuelling, S [Department of Physics, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV 89557 (United States)

    2007-03-01

    We have measured and identified numerous Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) radiative line structures arising from xenon (Xe) ions in charge state q = 1 to 10 in the wavelength range 40-80 nm. To obtain reasonable intensities of different charged Xe ions, we have used a compact microwave plasma source which was designed and developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The EUV emission of the ECR plasma has been measured by a 1.5 m grazing incidence monochromator that was absolutely calibrated in the 10-80 nm wavelength range using well known and calibrated EUV light at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), LBNL. This calibration has enabled us to determine absolute intensities of previously measured EUV radiative lines in the wavelengths regions investigated for different ionization stages of Xe. In addition, emission spectra of xenon ions for corresponding measured lines have been calculated. The calculations have been carried out within the relativistic Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. Results of calculations are found to be in good agreement with current and available experimental and theoretical data.

  10. Sputtering and emission intensity of cast irons with different metallurgical structures in a Grimm glow lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, M.; Kashima, J.; Naganuma, K.

    1981-01-01

    The cathodic sputtering and emission intensities for the white, gray and malleable cast irons in the Grimm glow lamp are discussed. The intensities of the Fe 247.98-nm line for the samples of the three types depend linearly on the electrical power but the slopes of the plots differ. The intensity of the carbon line at 247.86 nm for malleable cast iron is weaker than those for the others. Sputtering is influenced by the form of the graphite, which can lead to distortion of the electrical field. Graphite on malleable cast iron is sputtered not only as atomic carbon but also as moieties containing several carbon atoms. The higher the supplied voltage, the shorter the time for the intensities of the Fe I and C I lines to reach constant values. (Auth.)

  11. Characterizations of the diurnal shapes of OI 630.0 nm dayglow intensity variations: inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chakrabarty

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of OI 630.0 nm thermospheric dayglow emission by means of the Dayglow Photometer (DGP at Mt. Abu (24.6° N, 73.7° E, dip lat 19.09° N, a station under the crest of Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA, reveal day-to-day changes in the shapes of the diurnal profiles of dayglow intensity variations. These shapes have been characterized using the magnetometer data from equatorial and low-latitude stations. Substantial changes have been noticed in the shapes of the dayglow intensity variations between 10:00–15:00 IST (Indian Standard Time during the days when normal and counter electrojet events are present over the equator. It is found that the width (the time span corresponding to 0.8 times the maximum dayglow intensity of the diurnal profile has a linear relationship with the integrated electrojet strength. Occasional deviation from this linear relationship is attributed to the presence of substantial mean meridional wind.Key words. Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionosphere – atmosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances

  12. Characterizations of the diurnal shapes of OI 630.0 nm dayglow intensity variations: inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chakrabarty

    Full Text Available Measurements of OI 630.0 nm thermospheric dayglow emission by means of the Dayglow Photometer (DGP at Mt. Abu (24.6° N, 73.7° E, dip lat 19.09° N, a station under the crest of Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA, reveal day-to-day changes in the shapes of the diurnal profiles of dayglow intensity variations. These shapes have been characterized using the magnetometer data from equatorial and low-latitude stations. Substantial changes have been noticed in the shapes of the dayglow intensity variations between 10:00–15:00 IST (Indian Standard Time during the days when normal and counter electrojet events are present over the equator. It is found that the width (the time span corresponding to 0.8 times the maximum dayglow intensity of the diurnal profile has a linear relationship with the integrated electrojet strength. Occasional deviation from this linear relationship is attributed to the presence of substantial mean meridional wind.

    Key words. Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionosphere – atmosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances

  13. Mutagenesis of mNeptune Red-Shifts Emission Spectrum to 681-685 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, ZhaoYang; Zhang, ZhiPing; Bi, LiJun; Cui, ZongQiang; Deng, JiaoYu; Wang, DianBing; Zhang, Xian-En

    2016-01-01

    GFP-like fluorescent proteins with diverse emission wavelengths have been developed through mutagenesis, offering many possible choices in cellular and tissue imaging, such as multi-targets imaging, deep tissue imaging that require longer emission wavelength. Here, we utilized a combined approach of random mutation and structure-based rational design to develop new NIR fluorescent proteins on the basis of a far-red fluorescent protein, mNeptune (Ex/Em: 600/650 nm). We created a number of new monomeric NIR fluorescent proteins with the emission range of 681-685 nm, which exhibit the largest Stocks shifts (77-80 nm) compared to other fluorescent proteins. Among them, mNeptune681 and mNeptune684 exhibit more than 30 nm redshift in emission relative to mNeptune, owing to the major role of the extensive hydrogen-bond network around the chromophore and contributions of individual mutations to the observed redshift. Furthermore, the two variants still maintain monomeric state in solution, which is a trait crucial for their use as protein tags. In conclusion, our results suggest that there is untapped potential for developing fluorescent proteins with desired properties.

  14. Proportion of influence phases anatase and rutile TiO_2 in the photoluminescence 538 nm emission wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, D.S.; Diniz, V.C.S.; Araujo, P.M.A.G.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Viana, R.S.; Junior, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    TiO2 is one of the most studied materials in the technology area, especially in photoluminescent applications involving catalysts from the biosensor. Therefore, we propose to obtain the Pechini method TiO_2 molar ratio of citric acid/metal ions of 3:1 and 4:1 in order to investigate the influence of the proportion of anatase and rutile phases with the photoluminescence excitation wavelength of 538nm emission. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and excitation spectroscopy. The results indicate the presence of two phases, with a proportion of 78.99 and 83.58 and 21.01% of anatase and rutile 16.42%, density 3.82 and 3.70 g/cm"3 and excitement in length wave emission 538nm with maximum intensity 91289.2 and 71880,7 cps for samples 3:1 and 4:1, respectively. Sample 3:1 with the highest percentage of rutile phase favored photoluminescence. (author)

  15. White emission via electroplex emission from two blue materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junming; Song, Dandan; Zhao, Suling; Zhang, Fujun; Xu, Zheng; Song, Jinglu; Lu, Lifang; Liu, Xiaodong; Wang, Yongsheng

    2010-03-01

    Influences of electric fields on the emission from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on poly (N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK); 2, 9-dimethyl-4, 7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (BCP); and tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) were studied. There are three emission peaks at 420 nm, 520 nm, and 620 nm of the device ITO/PEDOT: PSS/PVK/BCP/LiF/Al under different driving voltages. The emissions at 420 nm and 520 nm should be from the exciton emission of PVK and Alq3, respectively. The last emission at 620 nm could be attributed to electroplex emission at the interface between the PVK and BCP layers. A high intensity white emission via electroplex formation was obtained with Commission International d'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates (0.33, 0.34) at 15 V, which is very close to the equienergy white point (0.33, 0.33).

  16. Flat-topped emission centred at 1 250 nm from quantum dot superluminescent diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Hogg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a method for tailoring a broadband and flat-topped emission spectrum in quantum dot superluminescent diodes based upon modification of the dots-in-compositionally-modulated-well (DCMWELL technique. We demonstrate flat-topped emission with 95 nm full width at half maximum (FWHM, centred at 1 250 nm, and with output power in excess of 8 mW.

  17. Core-size regulated aggregation/disaggregation of citrate-coated gold nanoparticles (5-50 nm) and dissolved organic matter: Extinction, emission, and scattering evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Milad Rabbani; Pallem, Vasanta L.; Stretz, Holly A.; Wells, Martha J. M.

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of the interactions between gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) is significant in the development of detection devices for environmental sensing, studies of environmental fate and transport, and advances in antifouling water treatment membranes. The specific objective of this research was to spectroscopically investigate the fundamental interactions between citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (CT-GNPs) and DOM. Studies indicated that 30 and 50 nm diameter GNPs promoted disaggregation of the DOM. This result-disaggregation of an environmentally important polyelectrolyte-will be quite useful regarding antifouling properties in water treatment and water-based sensing applications. Furthermore, resonance Rayleigh scattering results showed significant enhancement in the UV range which can be useful to characterize DOM and can be exploited as an analytical tool to better sense and improve our comprehension of nanomaterial interactions with environmental systems. CT-GNPs having core size diameters of 5, 10, 30, and 50 nm were studied in the absence and presence of added DOM at 2 and 8 ppm at low ionic strength and near neutral pH (6.0-6.5) approximating surface water conditions. Interactions were monitored by cross-interpretation among ultraviolet (UV)-visible extinction spectroscopy, excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy (emission and Rayleigh scattering), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). This comprehensive combination of spectroscopic analyses lends new insights into the antifouling behavior of GNPs. The CT-GNP-5 and -10 controls emitted light and aggregated. In contrast, the CT-GNP-30 and CT-GNP-50 controls scattered light intensely, but did not aggregate and did not emit light. The presence of any CT-GNP did not affect the extinction spectra of DOM, and the presence of DOM did not affect the extinction spectra of the CT-GNPs. The emission spectra (visible range) differed only slightly between calculated and actual

  18. Optical emission from a small scale model electric arc furnace in 250-600 nm region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, A; Niskanen, J; Tikkala, H; Aksela, H

    2013-04-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy has been for long proposed for monitoring and studying industrial steel making processes. Whereas the radiative decay of thermal excitations is always taking place in high temperatures needed in steel production, one of the most promising environment for such studies are electric arc furnaces, creating plasma in excited electronic states that relax with intense characteristic emission in the optical regime. Unfortunately, large industrial scale electric arc furnaces also present a challenging environment for optical emission studies and application of the method is not straightforward. To study the usability of optical emission spectroscopy in real electric arc furnaces, we have developed a laboratory scale DC electric arc furnace presented in this paper. With the setup, optical emission spectra of Fe, Cr, Cr2O3, Ni, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, and MgO were recorded in the wavelength range 250-600 nm and the results were analyzed with the help of reference data. The work demonstrates that using characteristic optical emission, obtaining in situ chemical information from oscillating plasma of electric arc furnaces is indeed possible. In spite of complications, the method could possibly be applied to industrial scale steel making process in order to improve its efficiency.

  19. Emission intensity in New Zealand manufacturing and the short-run impacts of emissions pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartleet, Matthew; Iyer, Kris; Numan-Parsons, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity of the New Zealand (NZ) manufacturing sector at a combination of industry group and class levels (sub-sectors). The short-run impacts of a price on emissions are investigated with a focus on exporting activities. Sub-sectors that could be materially impacted by an expected range of emissions prices accounted for slightly over 9% of national gross domestic product. It is found that there is much variability of emission intensity within manufacturing and even within sub-sectors. An assessment of trade intensities further indicates that several emissions-intensive activities are also export-intensive. These activities are at most risk of losing competitiveness in the short-run if they are subjected to a price on GHG emissions that their competitors in other countries are not. Emissions reduction policies must take account of trade competitiveness imperatives if NZ is to meet its international GHG emissions target while maintaining manufacturing sector competitiveness. - Research Highlights: →Estimates initial short-term competitiveness impacts of ETS on NZ manufacturing. →Materiality of impacts determined based on firm level emissions and export intensity. →Results suggest that food processing sub-sectors are likely to be most impacted. →Iron and steel processing, and paper and pulp manufacture are impacted as well. →Cumulative GDP share of materially affected sub-sectors slightly over 9%.

  20. Dependence of upconversion emission intensity on Yb3+ concentration in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped flake shaped Y2(MoO4)3 phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weili; Cheng Lihong; Zhong Haiyang; Sun Jiashi; Wan Jing; Tian Yue; Chen Baojiu

    2010-01-01

    Yttrium molybdate phosphors with fixed Er 3+ and various Yb 3+ concentrations were synthesized via a co-precipitation method. The crystal structure and the morphology of the phosphor were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Under 980 nm excitation, red and green upconversion emissions centred at 660, 553 and 530 nm were observed. Quantitative analyses on the dependence of upconversion emission intensity on the working current of a laser diode (LD) indicated that two-photon processes are responsible for both red and green upconversion emissions in both cases of low and high Yb 3+ concentrations. The relationship between the emission intensity ratio of 2 H 11/2 → 4 I 15/2 to 4 S 3/2 → 4 I 15/2 and the working current of the LD was studied for the samples doped with low and high Yb 3+ concentrations. Finally, a set of rate equations was established based on the possible upconversion mechanism, and an empirical formula was proposed to describe the Yb 3+ concentration dependence of upconversion emission intensity; the empirical formula fits well with the experimental data.

  1. Study on the specificity of yeast cell damage by high-intensity UV radiation (266nm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchuladze, T.G.; Frajkin, G.Ya.; Rubin, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    Peculiarities of photoreactivation and photoprotection of the Candida guilliermondii and Candida utilis yeast cells, irradiated with far and near ultraviolet radiation, are considered. New results on the study of the dependence of the cells inactivation degree on the intensity of ultraviolet radiation are presented. The impulse rate density at 266 nm reached 10 10 Ix m -2 xs -1 at the impulse duration of 10 -8 s. Survival curves of the yeast cells during their irradiation with ultraviolet radiation of 266 nm and 254 nm are given. It is shown that with the increase of the irradiation intensity of 266 nm the rates and final levels of photoreactivation decrease. Under the effect of ultraviolet irradiation of high intensity contribution of pyrimidine dimers to the cell inactivation decreases [ru

  2. Aqueous based synthesis of N-acetyl-L-cysteine capped ZnSe nanocrystals with intense blue emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheyli, Ehsan; Sahraei, Reza; Nabiyouni, Gholamreza

    2016-10-01

    In this work a very simple reflux route for preparation of ZnSe nanocrystals with minor modification and faster preparation over conventional ones is introduced. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the ZnSe nanocrystals have a cubic structure. The complete disappearance of the S-H band in FT-IR spectrum of N-acetyl-L-cysteine capped ZnSe nanocrystals was an indication over formation of Zn-thiol covalent bonds at the surface of the nanocrystals which results in passivation of small nanocrystals. The strong size-quantization regime was responsible of significant blue shift in absorption/emission spectra. Using the well-known calculations, band gap and Urbach energy of the ZnSe nanocrystals were measured and their average size was estimated optically to be around 4.6 nm along with the TEM image. A dark blue emission with higher relative intensity of excitonic to trap emissions (compared to conventional method), very narrow excitonic emission peak of about 16 nm and remarkable stability was obtained from the ZnSe nanocrystals.

  3. Transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obarski, Gregory E.; Splett, Jolene D.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise (RIN) of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), when it is optically filtered over a narrow band (<5 nm), yields a stable RIN spectrum that is practically constant to several tens of gigahertz. The RIN is calculated from the power spectral density as measured with a calibrated optical spectrum analyzer. For a typical device it is -110 dB/Hz, with uncertainty ≤0.12 dB/Hz. The invariance of the RIN under attenuation yields a considerable dynamic range with respect to rf noise levels. Results are compared with those from a second method that uses a distributed-feedback laser (DFB) that has a Poisson-limited RIN. Application of each method to the same RIN measurement system yields frequency-dependent calibration functions that, when they are averaged, differ by ≤0.2 dB. [copyright] 2001 Optical Society of America

  4. L-shell emission from high-Z solid targets by intense (10{sup 19}W/cm{sup 2}) irradiation with a 248nm laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, T. R.; Borisov, A. B.; Boyer, K.; Schroeder, W. A.; Santoro, J.; Van Tassle, A. J.; Rhodes, C. K.; Luk, T. S.; Cameron, S.; Longworth, J. W.; McPherson, A.

    1999-11-22

    Efficient (1.2% yield) multikilovolt x-ray emission from Ba(L) (2.4--2.8{angstrom}) and Gd(L) (1.7--2.1{angstrom}) is produced by ultraviolet (248nm) laser-excited BaF{sub 2} and Gd solids. The high efficiency is attributed to an inner shell-selective collisional electron ejection.

  5. Photoelectron Emission Studies in CsBr at 257 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, Juan R.; Liu, Zhi; Sun, Yun; Pianetta, Piero A.; Pease, Fabian W.

    2006-01-01

    CsBr/Cr photocathodes were found [1,2] to meet the requirements of a multi-electron beam lithography system operating with a light energy of 4.8 eV (257nm). The fact that photoemission was observed with a light energy below the reported 7.3 eV band gap for CsBr was not understood. This paper presents experimental results on the presence of intra-band gap absorption sites (IBAS) in CsBr thin film photo electron emitters, and presents a model based on IBAS to explain the observed photoelectron emission behavior at energies below band gap. A fluorescence band centered at 330 nm with a FWHM of about 0.34 eV was observed in CsBr/Cr samples under 257 nm laser illumination which can be attributed to IBAS and agrees well with previously obtained synchrotron photoelectron spectra[1] from the valence band of CsBr films

  6. Quenching and blue shift of UV emission intensity of hydrothermally grown ZnO:Mn nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinod, R. [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India); Junaid Bushiri, M., E-mail: junaidbushiri@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India); Achary, Sreekumar Rajappan; Muñoz-Sanjosé, Vicente [Departamento de FisicaAplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de Valencia, c/Dr. Moliner 50, Burjassot, Valencia 46100 (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Single crystalline ZnO:Mn nanorods. • Reduced optical active defects. • Quenching and blue shift of UV emission. - Abstract: ZnO:Mn alloyed nanorods (Mn nominal concentration – 3–5 wt%) were synthesized by using hydrothermal process at an optimized growth temperature of 200 °C and a growth time of 3 h. The XRD, SEM and Raman, FTIR investigations reveal that ZnO:Mn (Mn – 3–5 wt%) retained hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with nanorod morphology. The HRTEM and SAED analysis confirm the single crystalline nature of hydrothermally grown ZnO and ZnO:Mn (5 wt%) nanorods. The ZnO:Mn nanorods (Mn – 0–5 wt%) displayed optical band gap in the range 3.23–3.28 eV. The blue shift of UV emission peak (PL) from 393 (ZnO) to 386 nm and quenching of photoluminescence emission in ZnO:Mn is due to the Mn incorporation in ZnO lattice. Relative increase in intensity of Raman band at 660 cm{sup −1} with nominal doping of Mn 3–5 wt% in ZnO indicate that defects are introduced in ZnO:Mn system as a result of doping that leads to the quenching of photoluminescence emission at 393 nm.

  7. Characteristic emission in glutaraldehyde polymerized hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Li; Wang Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    Hemoglobin with different modifications has been investigated using spectroscopic techniques. A new emission at around 371 nm has been observed under excitation of 305 nm from glutaraldehyde polymerized human hemoglobin. Intensity and peak position of the emission are dependent on both oxidation state and ligand environment and the emission has been identified from the hemoglobin oligomer.

  8. Narrow band flame emission from dieseline and diesel spray combustion in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zengyang

    2016-08-18

    In this paper, spray combustion of diesel (No. 2) and diesel-gasoline blend (dieseline: 80% diesel and 20% gasoline by volume) were investigated in an optically accessible constant volume combustion chamber. Effects of ambient conditions on flame emissions were studied. Ambient oxygen concentration was varied from 12% to 21% and three ambient temperatures were selected: 800 K, 1000 K and 1200 K. An intensified CCD camera coupled with bandpass filters was employed to capture the quasi-steady state flame emissions at 430 nm and 470 nm bands. Under non-sooting conditions, the narrow-band flame emissions at 430 nm and 470 nm can be used as indicators of CH∗ (methylidyne) and HCHO∗ (formaldehyde), respectively. The lift-off length was measured by imaging the OH∗ chemiluminescence at 310 nm. Flame emission structure and intensity distribution were compared between dieseline and diesel at wavelength bands. Flame emission images show that both narrow band emissions become shorter, thinner and stronger with higher oxygen concentration and higher ambient temperature for both fuels. Areas of weak intensity are observed at the flame periphery and the upstream for both fuels under all ambient conditions. Average flame emission intensity and area were calculated for 430 nm and 470 nm narrow-band emissions. At a lower ambient temperature the average intensity increases with increasing ambient oxygen concentration. However, at the 1200 K ambient temperature condition, the average intensity is not increasing monotonically for both fuels. For most of the conditions, diesel has a stronger average flame emission intensity than dieseline for the 430 nm band, and similar phenomena can be observed for the 470 nm band with 800 K and 1200 K ambient temperatures. However, for the 1000 K ambient temperature cases, dieseline has stronger average flame emission intensities than diesel for all oxygen concentrations at 470 nm band. Flame emissions for the two bands have a

  9. Electroplex emission of the blend film of PVK and DPVBi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junming; Xu, Zheng; Zhang, Fujun; Zhao, Suling; Song, Dandan; Zhu, Haina; Song, Jinglu; Wang, Yongsheng; Xu, Xurong

    2010-04-01

    Influences of electric fields on the emission from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and 4‧-bis(2-2diphenylvinyl)-1,1‧-biphenyl (DPVBi) as the active emission layer are studied. Electroluminescence (EL) spectra of PVK:DPVBi (1:1 w/w) films show one new emission peak locating at 640 nm compared with its photoluminescence (PL) spectra. There may be exists an electroplex emission between the PVK and DPVBi under high electric field strength. The emission intensity of peaking at 640 nm strongly depends on the driving voltage, and the ratio of electroplex emission intensity to exciton emission intensity (Ielectroplex/Iexciton) increases with the increase of driving voltage.

  10. Transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obarski, Gregory E.; Splett, Jolene D.

    2001-06-01

    We have developed a transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise (RIN) of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), when it is optically filtered over a narrow band ({lt}5 nm), yields a stable RIN spectrum that is practically constant to several tens of gigahertz. The RIN is calculated from the power spectral density as measured with a calibrated optical spectrum analyzer. For a typical device it is {minus}110 dB/Hz, with uncertainty {le}0.12 dB/Hz. The invariance of the RIN under attenuation yields a considerable dynamic range with respect to rf noise levels. Results are compared with those from a second method that uses a distributed-feedback laser (DFB) that has a Poisson-limited RIN. Application of each method to the same RIN measurement system yields frequency-dependent calibration functions that, when they are averaged, differ by {le}0.2 dB. {copyright} 2001 Optical Society of America

  11. Changes in CO2 emission intensities in the Mexican industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Domingo; Martínez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    A CO 2 emission intensity analysis in the Mexican industry from 1965 to 2010 is carried out by taking into consideration four stages: 1965–1982, 1982–1994, 1994–2003, and 2004–2010. Based on the LMDI decomposition methodology, three influencing factors are analyzed: energy intensity, CO 2 coefficient, and structure in terms of their contributions of each individual attributes to the overall percent change of them as it was proposed in Choi and Ang (2011). The energy intensity effect was the driving factor behind the main decreases of CO 2 intensity, the CO 2 coefficient effect contributed to less extent to mitigate it, and the structure effect tended to increased it. It is observed that CO 2 intensity declined by 26.2% from 1965 to 2003, but it increased by 10.1% from 2004 to 2010. In addition, the move of Mexico from an economic model based on import-substitution to an export-oriented economy brought more importance to the Mexican industry intended to export, thus maintaining high levels of activity of industries such as cement, iron and steel, chemical, and petrochemical, while industries such as automotive, and ‘other’ industries grown significantly not only as far their energy consumptions and related CO 2 emissions but they also increased their contributions to the national economy. - Highlights: ► Industrial CO 2 emission intensity was reduced by 26.2% from 1965 to 2003. ► Industrial CO 2 emission intensity was increased by 10.1% from 2003 to 2010. ► 1965–2003: Intensity effect took down CO 2 emission intensity. ► 2003–2010: Export-oriented industries raised CO 2 emission intensity.

  12. Emission spectrum and relaxation kinetics of SO2 induced by 266 nm laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiyin; Zhang, Lianshui; Jin, Yidong

    2010-09-15

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) emission spectrum of SO(2) in the range of 270.0-470.0 nm has been obtained with the quadruple harmonic output (266 nm) of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as excitation source. The spectrum is composed of a continuous envelope in the short wavelength side, while it shows the character of banded structure superimposed on a continuous one in the long wavelength region. Fluorescence emission from the hybrid states of A(1)A(2)+B(1)B(1) and X(1)A(1)+B(1)B(1) forms the continuous envelope and phosphorescence emission from the triplet state a(3)B(1) forms the banded progression. It is also found that direct emission from laser excited states is very weak. The primary portion of the emission is from the energy levels populated by collision relaxation or collision induced intersystem crossing process. The harmonic frequencies and inharmonic coefficients of the symmetric stretching vibration and the bending vibration of X(1)A(1) state are derived from the ascription of the phosphorescence progression. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electroplex emission from bi-layer blue emitting organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fujun; Zhao, Suling; Zhao, Dewei; Jiang, Weiwei; Li, Yuan; Yuan, Guangcai; Zhu, Haina; Xu, Zheng

    2007-04-01

    Electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of an electron donor, an (poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK))/electron acceptor, and a (2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD)) bi-layer solid film are analysed. The EL emission peak has an apparent red-shift with the increase of driving voltage. There maybe exist an electroplex emission between the PVK and PBD interface under high electric field strength. According to their energy level, the electroplex emission peak should locate at 460 nm. There are great spectra overlapping between PVK emission and electroplex emission, and the ratio of electroplex emission intensity to exciton emission intensity (Ielectroplex/Iexciton) increases from 0.38 at 10 to 0.81 at 16 V. Therefore the measured emission peaks continuously shift from 410 nm at 10 V to 445 nm at 16 V.

  14. Electroplex emission from bi-layer blue emitting organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fujun; Zhao Suling; Zhao Dewei; Jiang Weiwei; Li Yuan; Yuan Guangcai; Zhu Haina; Xu Zheng

    2007-01-01

    Electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of an electron donor, an (poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK))/electron acceptor, and a (2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD)) bi-layer solid film are analysed. The EL emission peak has an apparent red-shift with the increase of driving voltage. There maybe exist an electroplex emission between the PVK and PBD interface under high electric field strength. According to their energy level, the electroplex emission peak should locate at 460 nm. There are great spectra overlapping between PVK emission and electroplex emission, and the ratio of electroplex emission intensity to exciton emission intensity (I electroplex /I exciton ) increases from 0.38 at 10 to 0.81 at 16 V. Therefore the measured emission peaks continuously shift from 410 nm at 10 V to 445 nm at 16 V

  15. Electroplex emission from bi-layer blue emitting organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fujun; Zhao Suling; Zhao Dewei; Jiang Weiwei; Li Yuan; Yuan Guangcai; Zhu Haina; Xu Zheng [Key Laboratory for Information Storage, Display and Materials, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2007-04-15

    Electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of an electron donor, an (poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK))/electron acceptor, and a (2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD)) bi-layer solid film are analysed. The EL emission peak has an apparent red-shift with the increase of driving voltage. There maybe exist an electroplex emission between the PVK and PBD interface under high electric field strength. According to their energy level, the electroplex emission peak should locate at 460 nm. There are great spectra overlapping between PVK emission and electroplex emission, and the ratio of electroplex emission intensity to exciton emission intensity (I{sub electroplex}/I{sub exciton}) increases from 0.38 at 10 to 0.81 at 16 V. Therefore the measured emission peaks continuously shift from 410 nm at 10 V to 445 nm at 16 V.

  16. Evidence for Radiative Recombination of O+ Ions as a Significant Source of O 844.6 nm Emission Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, L.; Kerr, R. B.; Huang, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Photoelectron (PE) impact on ground-state O(3P) atoms is well known as a major source of twilight 844.6 nm emission in the midlatitude thermosphere. Knowledge of the PE flux can be used to infer thermospheric oxygen density, [O], from photometric measurements of 844.6 nm airglow, provided that PE impact is the dominant process generating the observed emission. During several spring observational campaigns at Arecibo Observatory, however, we have observed significant 844.6 nm emission throughout the night, which is unlikely to arise from PE impact excitation which requires solar illumination of either the local or geomagnetically conjugate thermosphere. Here we show that radiative recombination (RR) of O+ ions is likely responsible for the observed nighttime emission, based on model predictions of electron and O+ ion density and temperature by the Incoherent Scatter Radar Ionosphere Model. The calculated emission brightness produced by O + RR exhibits good agreement with the airglow data, in that both decay approximately monotonically throughout the night at similar rates. We conclude that the conventional assumption of a pure PE impact source is most likely to be invalid during dusk twilight, when RR-generated emission is most significant. Estimation of [O] from measurements of 844.6 nm emission demands isolation of the PE impact source via coincident estimation of the RR source, and the effective cross section for RR-generated emission is found here to be consistent with optically thin conditions.

  17. Nitrogen capillary plasma as a source of intense monochromatic radiation at 2.88 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrba, P., E-mail: vrbovmir@fbmi.cvut.cz [Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences, Za Slovankou 3, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Vrbova, M. [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, CTU in Prague, Sitna 3105, Kladno 2 (Czech Republic); Zakharov, S.V. [EPPRA sas, Villebon/Yvette (France); Zakharov, V.S. [EPPRA sas, Villebon/Yvette (France); KIAM RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Jancarek, A.; Nevrkla, M. [Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering, CTU in Prague, Brehova 7, Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Pinching capillary discharge is studied as a source of monochromatic SXR. • Modeling of the laboratory device was performed by RMHD Z* code. • Results of computer and laboratory experiments are presented. - Abstract: Capillary discharge plasma related to our laboratory device is modeled and the results are compared with experimental data. Time dependences of selected plasma quantities (e.g. plasma mass density, electron temperature and density and emission intensities) evaluated by 2D Radiation-Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic code Z* describe plasma evolution. The highest output pulse energy at 2.88 nm wavelength is achieved for nitrogen filling pressure ∼100 Pa. The estimated output energy of monochromatic radiation 5.5 mJ sr{sup −1} (∼10{sup 14} photons sr{sup −1}) corresponds properly to observe experimental value ∼3 × 10{sup 13} photons sr{sup −1}. Ray tracing inspection along the capillary axis proves an influence of radiation self-absorption for the investigated wavelength. The spectra, evaluated using the FLY code, agree to the measured ones.

  18. Inhibition of enteric pathogens using integrated high intensity 405 nm LED on the surface of almonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The disinfecting properties of 405 nm light were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and their non-pathogenic surrogates inoculated onto the surface of almonds. High intensity monochromatic light was generated from an array of narrow-band 405 nm light emitting diodes (LED). Al...

  19. Enhanced broadband upconversion emission and 23 dB optical gain at 780 nm in Tm3+/Nd3+ codoped optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Weiwei; Chen, Shuyue; Htein, Lin; Han, Won-Taek

    2015-01-01

    Maximum gain of 23 dB at 780 nm and a broadband optical gain with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 88 nm (761–849 nm) were obtained from the Tm 3+ /Nd 3+ codoped fiber upon pumping at 1550 nm. The enhancement of the upconversion emission stretching from 730 to 970 nm was observed in the Tm 3+ /Nd 3+ codoped fiber due to the energy transfer from Tm 3+ to Nd 3+ ions. - Highlights: • We fabricated the Tm 3+ /Nd 3+ codoped silica based fiber. • The broadband upconversion emission was observed with 1550 nm pumping. • Maximum gain of 23 dB was observed at 780 nm from the Tm 3+ /Nd 3+ codoped fiber. • The gain bandwidth of the upconversion emission was largely increased due to energy transfer process

  20. Onset of surface stimulated emission at 260 nm from AlGaN multiple quantum wells

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xiaohang

    2015-12-14

    We demonstrated onset of deep-ultraviolet (DUV) surface stimulated emission (SE) from c-plane AlGaNmultiple-quantum well(MQW)heterostructuresgrown on a sapphire substrate by optical pumping at room temperature. The onset of SE became observable at a pumping power density of 630 kW/cm2. Spectral deconvolution revealed superposition of a linearly amplified spontaneous emission peak at λ ∼ 257.0 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ∼12 nm and a superlinearly amplified SE peak at λ ∼ 260 nm with a narrow FWHM of less than 2 nm. In particular, the wavelength of ∼260 nm is the shortest wavelength of surface SE from III-nitride MQWheterostructures to date. Atomic force microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements were employed to investigate the material and structural quality of the AlGaNheterostructures, showing smooth surface and sharp layer interfaces. This study offers promising results for AlGaNheterostructuresgrown on sapphire substrates for the development of DUV vertical cavity surface emitting lasers(VCSELs).

  1. Effect of solvent-controlled aggregation on the intrinsic emission properties of PAMAM dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasmine, Maria J.; Kavitha, Manniledam; Prasad, Edamana

    2009-01-01

    Solvent-induced aggregation and its effect on the intrinsic emission properties of amine, hydroxy and carboxylate terminated, poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have been investigated in glycerol, ethylene glycol, methanol, ethylene diamine and water. Altering the solvent medium induces remarkable changes in the intrinsic emission properties of the PAMAM dendrimers at identical concentration. Upon excitation at 370 nm, amine terminated PAMAM dendrimer exhibits an intense emission at 470 nm in glycerol, ethylene glycol as well as glycerol-water mixtures. Conversely, weak luminescence is observed for hydroxy and carboxylate terminated PAMAM dendrimers in the same solvent systems. When the solvent is changed to ethylene diamine, hydroxy terminated PAMAM exhibits intense blue emission at 425 nm. While the emission intensity is varied when the solvent milieu is changed, excited state lifetime values of PAMAM dendrimers remain independent of the solvent used. UV-visible absorption and dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments confirm the formation of solvent-controlled dendrimer aggregates in the systems. Comparison of the fluorescence and DLS data reveals that the size distribution of the dendrimer aggregates in each solvent system is distinct, which control the intrinsic emission intensity from PAMAM dendrimers. The experimental results suggest that intrinsic emission intensity from PAMAM dendrimers can be regulated by proper selection of solvents at neutral conditions and room temperature

  2. Origin of the blue emissions of polyacetylenes bearing carbazole side groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuanming; Song Yibing; Huang Chong; Zhou Xueping; Ouyang Yandong; Ge Weikun; Lam, Jacky W.Y.; Tang Benzhong

    2005-01-01

    The optical properties and electronic structures of one mono-substituted polyacetylene and two di-substituted polyacetylenes have been investigated. Each of the substituted polyacetylenes bears a carbazole unit in the side chain. In spite of the differences in their molecular structures, the dilute solutions (∼1x10 -6 M) of these substituted polyacetylenes exhibit the same absorptions and the same deep-blue emissions (∼360 nm). Interestingly, the absorption and emission spectra of these substituted polyacetylenes are similar to those of the small molecule carbazole. As the concentration of the substituted polyacetylenes increases to about 1x10 -3 M, we have detected intense blue emissions at about 475 nm. Using Hueckel tight binding programs, we have calculated the electronic structures of the carbazole-containing polyacetylenes. Our results indicate that the absorption, the deep-blue emission (∼360 nm) and the intense blue emission (∼475 nm) originate from the carbazole chromophores in the side chain

  3. Cigar burning under different smoking intensities and effects on emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethloff, Ole; Mueller, Christian; Cahours, Xavier; Colard, Stéphane

    2017-12-01

    The effect of smoking intensity on cigar smoke emissions was assessed under a range of puff frequencies and puff volumes. In order to potentially reduce emissions variability and to identify patterns as accurately as possible, cigar weights and diameters were measured, and outliers were excluded prior to smoking. Portions corresponding to 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the cigar, measured down to the butt length, were smoked under several smoking conditions, to assess nicotine, CO and water yields. The remaining cigar butts were analysed for total alkaloids, nicotine, and moisture. Results showed accumulation effects during the burning process having a significant impact on smoke emission levels. Condensation and evaporation occur and lead to smoke emissions dependent on smoking intensity. Differences were observed for CO on one side as a gas phase compound and nicotine on the other side as a particulate phase compound. For a given intensity, while CO emission increases linearly as the cigar burns, nicotine and water emissions exhibited an exponential increase. Our investigations showed that a complex phenomena occurs during the course of cigar smoking which makes emission data: difficult to interpret, is potentially misleading to the consumer, and inappropriate for exposure assessment. The results indicate that, tobacco content and physical parameters may well be the most robust basis for product characterisation and comparison rather than smoke emission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. UV and visible photoluminescence emission intensity of undoped and In-doped ZnO thin film and photoresponsivity of ZnO:In/Si hetero-junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebbar, N.; Chabane, L.; Gabouze, N.; Kechouane, M.; Trari, M.; Aida, M.S.; Belhousse, S.; Hadj Larbi, F.

    2016-01-01

    Undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) and indium-doped (ZnO:In) thin films were grown at different temperatures (250–400 °C) on alkali-free borosilicate glass and n-Si (100) substrates by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis method. The structural, compositional, optical and electrical properties of ZnO films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Rutherford Back Scattering Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and the four-point probe technique. The predominance of ultraviolet (UV) and blue emission intensities was found to be closely dependent on the resistivity of the film. The visible emission band (peaking at 432 nm) prevails for low film resistivity, ranging from 10 −2 to 1 Ω·cm. By contrast, for higher resistivity (> 1 Ω·cm), there is a predominance of the UV band (382 nm). The PL and photoresponsivity results of fabricated ZnO:In/n-Si(100) heterojunctions prepared at different temperatures are discussed. The maximum spectral response of the ZnO:8%In/Si heterojunction diode fabricated at 250 °C was about 80 mA/W at zero bias. The highlighted results are attractive for the optoelectronic applications. - Highlights: • Properties of ZnO thin films grown by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis at 350 °C. • Photoluminescence emission intensity in undoped ZnO film: effect of the resistivity • Photoluminescence emission intensity of In-doped ZnO film is resistivity dependent. • The spectral response of ZnO:In/Si hetero-junction deposited in the range (250–400 °C)

  5. UV and visible photoluminescence emission intensity of undoped and In-doped ZnO thin film and photoresponsivity of ZnO:In/Si hetero-junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebbar, N., E-mail: nacbar2003@yahoo.fr [LCMS, Faculty of Physics, University of Sciences and Technology (USTHB), BP 32, El-Alia, Algiers (Algeria); Chabane, L. [LCMS, Faculty of Physics, University of Sciences and Technology (USTHB), BP 32, El-Alia, Algiers (Algeria); Gabouze, N. [CRTSE, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, BP 140, Algiers (Algeria); Kechouane, M. [LCMS, Faculty of Physics, University of Sciences and Technology (USTHB), BP 32, El-Alia, Algiers (Algeria); Trari, M. [Laboratory of Storage and Valorization of Renewable Energies, Faculty of Chemistry (USTHB), BP 32, El-Alia, Algiers (Algeria); Aida, M.S. [LCM et Interface, Faculty of Sciences, University of Constantine, 25000 (Algeria); Belhousse, S. [CRTSE, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, BP 140, Algiers (Algeria); Hadj Larbi, F. [MEMS & Sensors, Division Microélectronique et Nanotechnologie, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées (CDTA), BP 17, Baba Hassen, Algiers (Algeria)

    2016-04-30

    Undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) and indium-doped (ZnO:In) thin films were grown at different temperatures (250–400 °C) on alkali-free borosilicate glass and n-Si (100) substrates by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis method. The structural, compositional, optical and electrical properties of ZnO films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Rutherford Back Scattering Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and the four-point probe technique. The predominance of ultraviolet (UV) and blue emission intensities was found to be closely dependent on the resistivity of the film. The visible emission band (peaking at 432 nm) prevails for low film resistivity, ranging from 10{sup −2} to 1 Ω·cm. By contrast, for higher resistivity (> 1 Ω·cm), there is a predominance of the UV band (382 nm). The PL and photoresponsivity results of fabricated ZnO:In/n-Si(100) heterojunctions prepared at different temperatures are discussed. The maximum spectral response of the ZnO:8%In/Si heterojunction diode fabricated at 250 °C was about 80 mA/W at zero bias. The highlighted results are attractive for the optoelectronic applications. - Highlights: • Properties of ZnO thin films grown by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis at 350 °C. • Photoluminescence emission intensity in undoped ZnO film: effect of the resistivity • Photoluminescence emission intensity of In-doped ZnO film is resistivity dependent. • The spectral response of ZnO:In/Si hetero-junction deposited in the range (250–400 °C)

  6. CO2 emissions and economic activity: Short- and long-run economic determinants of scale, energy intensity and carbon intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Fredrik N.G.; Karpestam, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the short-term and the long-term determinants of energy intensity, carbon intensity and scale effects for eight developed economies and two emerging economies from 1973 to 2007. Our results show that there is a difference between the short-term and the long-term results and that climate policy are more likely to affect emission over the long-term than over the short-term. Climate policies should therefore be aimed at a time horizon of at least 8 years and year-on-year changes in emissions contains little information about the trend path of emissions. In the long-run capital accumulation is the main driver of emissions. Productivity growth reduces the energy intensity while the real oil price reduces both the energy intensity and the carbon intensity. The real oil price effect suggests that a global carbon tax is an important policy tool to reduce emissions, but our results also suggest that a carbon tax is likely to be insufficient decouple emission from economic growth. Such a decoupling is likely to require a structural transformation of the economy. The key policy challenge is thus to build new economic structures where investments in green technologies are more profitable. - Highlights: • We model determinants of scale, energy intensity and carbon intensity. • Using band spectrum regressions, we separate between short and long run effects. • Different economic variables affect emission in the short and long run. • CO 2 reducing policies should have a long run horizon of (at least 8 years). • A low carbon society requires a structural transformation of the economy

  7. Low-threshold stimulated emission at 249 nm and 256 nm from AlGaN-based multiple-quantum-well lasers grown on sapphire substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiao-Hang; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Kao, Tsung-Ting; Satter, Md. Mahbub; Shen, Shyh-Chiang; Douglas Yoder, P.; Dupuis, Russell D., E-mail: dupuis@gatech.edu [Center for Compound Semiconductors and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 (United States); Wang, Shuo; Wei, Yong O.; Xie, Hongen; Fischer, Alec M.; Ponce, Fernando A. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Wernicke, Tim; Reich, Christoph; Martens, Martin; Kneissl, Michael [Technical University of Berlin, Institute for Solid State Physics, Berlin D-10623 (Germany)

    2014-10-06

    Optically pumped deep-ultraviolet (DUV) lasing with low threshold was demonstrated from AlGaN-based multiple-quantum-well (MQW) heterostructures grown on sapphire substrates. The epitaxial layers were grown pseudomorphically by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on (0001) sapphire substrates. Stimulated emission was observed at wavelengths of 256 nm and 249 nm with thresholds of 61 kW/cm{sup 2} and 95 kW/cm{sup 2} at room temperature, respectively. The thresholds are comparable to the reported state-of-the-art AlGaN-based MQW DUV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates emitting at 266 nm. These low thresholds are attributed to the optimization of active region and waveguide layer as well as the use of high-quality AlN/sapphire templates. The stimulated emission above threshold was dominated by transverse-electric polarization. This work demonstrates the potential candidacy of sapphire substrates for DUV diode lasers.

  8. Low-threshold stimulated emission at 249 nm and 256 nm from AlGaN-based multiple-quantum-well lasers grown on sapphire substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiao-Hang; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Kao, Tsung-Ting; Satter, Md. Mahbub; Shen, Shyh-Chiang; Douglas Yoder, P.; Dupuis, Russell D.; Wang, Shuo; Wei, Yong O.; Xie, Hongen; Fischer, Alec M.; Ponce, Fernando A.; Wernicke, Tim; Reich, Christoph; Martens, Martin; Kneissl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Optically pumped deep-ultraviolet (DUV) lasing with low threshold was demonstrated from AlGaN-based multiple-quantum-well (MQW) heterostructures grown on sapphire substrates. The epitaxial layers were grown pseudomorphically by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on (0001) sapphire substrates. Stimulated emission was observed at wavelengths of 256 nm and 249 nm with thresholds of 61 kW/cm 2 and 95 kW/cm 2 at room temperature, respectively. The thresholds are comparable to the reported state-of-the-art AlGaN-based MQW DUV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates emitting at 266 nm. These low thresholds are attributed to the optimization of active region and waveguide layer as well as the use of high-quality AlN/sapphire templates. The stimulated emission above threshold was dominated by transverse-electric polarization. This work demonstrates the potential candidacy of sapphire substrates for DUV diode lasers.

  9. Absolute cross sections for emission of 284.7-nm (Hg II) and 479.7-nm (Hg III) radiation in electron--mercury-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaneuf, R.A.; Taylor, P.O.; Dunn, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    Crossed beams of electrons and Hg + ions have been used to measure absolute cross sections for emission of 284.7-nm radiation, resulting from excitation of a predominantly ground-state Hg + target to the 7s 2 S 1 / 2 state. Values range from 3 x 10 -17 cm 2 near threshold, where the cross section is strongly peaked, to 1.3 x 10 -18 cm 2 at 280 eV. Also reported are some measurements of emission of 479.7-nm (Hg III) radiation, resulting from electron impact on both Hg + and Hg ++ targets. Cross sections range from approximately 5 x 10 -19 to 5 x 10 -20 cm 2 , and in the case of electron-Hg ++ collisions, are more than an order of magnitude smaller than predicted by an available semiclassical binary-encounter calculation

  10. Does uncertainty justify intensity emission caps?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirion, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Environmental policies often set 'relative' or 'intensity' emission caps, i.e. emission limits proportional to the polluting firm's output. One of the arguments put forth in favour of relative caps is based on the uncertainty on business-as-usual output: if the firm's production level is higher than expected, so will be business-as-usual emissions, hence reaching a given level of emissions will be more costly than expected. As a consequence, it is argued, a higher emission level should be allowed if the production level is more important than expected. We assess this argument with a stochastic analytical model featuring two random variables: the business-as-usual emission level, proportional to output, and the slope of the marginal abatement cost curve. We compare the relative cap to an absolute cap and to a price instrument, in terms of welfare impact. It turns out that in most plausible cases, either a price instrument or an absolute cap yields a higher expected welfare than a relative cap. Quantitatively, the difference in expected welfare is typically very small between the absolute and the relative cap but may be significant between the relative cap and the price instrument. (author)

  11. Proportion of influence phases anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2} in the photoluminescence 538 nm emission wavelength; Influencia da proporcao das fases anatasio e rutilo na fotoluminescincia do TiO{sub 2} em comprimento de onda de emissao de 538 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, D.S.; Diniz, V.C.S.; Araujo, P.M.A.G.; Costa, A.C.F.M., E-mail: dagobertoufcg@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Viana, R.S.; Junior, S.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    TiO2 is one of the most studied materials in the technology area, especially in photoluminescent applications involving catalysts from the biosensor. Therefore, we propose to obtain the Pechini method TiO{sub 2} molar ratio of citric acid/metal ions of 3:1 and 4:1 in order to investigate the influence of the proportion of anatase and rutile phases with the photoluminescence excitation wavelength of 538nm emission. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and excitation spectroscopy. The results indicate the presence of two phases, with a proportion of 78.99 and 83.58 and 21.01% of anatase and rutile 16.42%, density 3.82 and 3.70 g/cm{sup 3} and excitement in length wave emission 538nm with maximum intensity 91289.2 and 71880,7 cps for samples 3:1 and 4:1, respectively. Sample 3:1 with the highest percentage of rutile phase favored photoluminescence. (author)

  12. Technology for Intensive Poultry Production as a Source of Odour Emissions with Time-Varying Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuneš Radim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The technology for intensive broiler breeding using deep litter method provides convenient conditions for production of odour substances inside the barn. As a consequence, there are relatively high odour emissions in the breeding area and its surrounding, which has significant impacts on the life quality of both people and animals. The amount of produced emissions increases in time because it is closely related to the amount of poultry droppings accumulated in litter inside the barn. This paper deals with changes in odour intensity depending on time measured since the beginning of broiler fattening. Odour intensity was measured by methods of dynamic olfactometry. The estimated values gradually increased from 45 ouE·m-3 to the highest value of 259 ouE·m-3, which was determined in the final fattening phase (broilers’ age 33 days. The calculated odour substances emission values were in range from 0.02 ouE·s-1·bird-1 at the beginning of fattening up to 0.10 ouE·s-1·bird-1 in the final fattening phase. Odour emissions increased five times during the fattening period.

  13. Extinction, emission, and scattering spectroscopy of 5-50 nm citrate-coated gold nanoparticles: An argument for curvature effects on aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Milad Rabbani; Pallem, Vasanta L.; Stretz, Holly A.; Wells, Martha J. M.

    2017-03-01

    The interaction of macromolecules with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) is of interest in the emerging field of biomedical and environmental detection devices. However, the physicochemical properties, including spectra, of GNPs in aqueous solution in the absence of metal-macromolecular interactions must first be considered before their activity in biological and environmental systems can be understood. The specific objective of this research was to experimentally illuminate the role of nanoparticle core size on the spectral (simultaneous consideration of extinction, emission, and scattering) versus aggregation behaviors of citrate-coated GNPs (CT-GNPs). It is difficult to find in the literature systematic simultaneous presentation of scattering, emission, and extinction spectra, including the UV range, and thus the present work will aid those who would use such particles for spectroscopic related separations or sensors. The spectroscopic behavior of CT-GNPs with different core sizes (5, 10, 30, and 50 nm) was studied in ultra-pure water at pH 6.0-6.5 employing UV-visible extinction, excitation-emission matrix (EEM), resonance Rayleigh scattering, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) spectroscopies. The CT-GNP-5 and CT-GNP-10 samples aggregated, absorbed light, and emitted light. In contrast, the CT-GNP-30 and CT-GNP-50 samples did not aggregate and did not emit light, but scattered light intensely. Multimodal peaks were observed in the intensity-based DLS spectra of CT-GNP-5 and CT-GNP-10 samples. Monomodal peaks in the volume-based DLS spectra overestimated particle diameters by 60% and 30% for the CT-GNP-5 and CT-GNP-10 samples, respectively, but underestimated diameters by 10% and 4% for the CT-GNP-30 and CT-GNP-50 samples. The volume-based DLS spectra indicated that dimer and trimer aggregates contributed most to the overall volume of particles in the 5- and 10-nm CT-GNPs, whereas the CT-GNP-30 and CT-GNP-50 samples did not aggregate. Here, we discuss the potential

  14. Onset of surface stimulated emission at 260 nm from AlGaN multiple quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaohang; Xie, Hongen; Ponce, Fernando A.; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated onset of deep-ultraviolet (DUV) surface stimulated emission (SE) from c-plane AlGaN multiple-quantum well (MQW) heterostructures grown on a sapphire substrate by optical pumping at room temperature. The onset of SE became observable at a pumping power density of 630 kW/cm 2 . Spectral deconvolution revealed superposition of a linearly amplified spontaneous emission peak at λ ∼ 257.0 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ∼12 nm and a superlinearly amplified SE peak at λ ∼ 260 nm with a narrow FWHM of less than 2 nm. In particular, the wavelength of ∼260 nm is the shortest wavelength of surface SE from III-nitride MQW heterostructures to date. Atomic force microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements were employed to investigate the material and structural quality of the AlGaN heterostructures, showing smooth surface and sharp layer interfaces. This study offers promising results for AlGaN heterostructures grown on sapphire substrates for the development of DUV vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs)

  15. K and L X-ray emission intensities of some radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, H R; Pal, D [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1985-01-01

    The K and L x-ray emission intensities per 100 disintegrations have been calculated for some radionuclides using the latest adopted data for gamma-ray intensities, electron capture and internal conversion coefficients for the parent nuclides, fluorescence yield values, Coster-Kronig transition probabilities, average total number of primary L shell vacancies produced in the decay of K shell vacancies and emission rates for various shells and subshells for the daughter nuclei. The results are in good agreement with theoretical and experimental values for the K x-ray intensities. There are no experimental results available to compare with the present calculations for the L x-ray intensities; however, there is a marked discrepancy in the L..cap alpha.. and L..beta.. intensities available on the basis of theoretical estimates.

  16. Near-Infrared Phosphorus-Substituted Rhodamine with Emission Wavelength above 700 nm for Bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiaoyun; Cui, Xiaoyan; Wang, Baogang; Yang, Fan; Cai, Yi; Wu, Qiuye; Wang, Ting

    2015-11-16

    Phosphorus has been successfully fused into a classic rhodamine framework, in which it replaces the bridging oxygen atom to give a series of phosphorus-substituted rhodamines (PRs). Because of the electron-accepting properties of the phosphorus moiety, which is due to effective σ*-π* interactions and strengthened by the inductivity of phosphine oxide, PR exhibits extraordinary long-wavelength fluorescence emission, elongating to the region above 700 nm, with bathochromic shifts of 140 and 40 nm relative to rhodamine and silicon-substituted rhodamine, respectively. Other advantageous properties of the rhodamine family, including high molar extinction coefficient, considerable quantum efficiency, high water solubility, pH-independent emission, great tolerance to photobleaching, and low cytotoxicity, stay intact in PR. Given these excellent properties, PR is desirable for NIR-fluorescence imaging in vivo. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Emissions intensity targeting: From China's 12th Five Year Plan to its Copenhagen commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yingying; Stegman, Alison; Cai, Yiyong

    2013-01-01

    China is currently the world's largest single source of fossil fuel related CO 2 emissions. In response to pressure from the international community, and in recognition of its role in global climate change mitigation, the Chinese government has announced a series of climate policy commitments, in both the Copenhagen Accord and its domestic 12th 5 Year Plan, to gradually reduce emissions intensity by 2020. Emissions intensity reduction commitments differ significantly from emission level reduction commitments that are commonly adopted by developed economies. In this paper, we investigate the economic implications of China's recent commitments to reduce emissions intensity, and highlight the complexities involved in modelling intensity targets under uncertainty. Using G-Cubed, an intertemporal, computable general equilibrium model of the world economy, we show that China's emissions intensity targets could be achieved with a range of low and high growth emissions level trajectories corresponding to low and high growth GDP scenarios, which lead to different welfare consequences. - Highlights: • We investigate the economic implication of China's recent climate commitments. • We address the complexity of modelling reduction in emissions intensity. • The 2015 target gives China more flexibility towards its 2020 target. • The policy restriction is eased in high growth periods. • In low growth periods an intensity target places a further restriction on the economy

  18. [Emission spectrum temperature sensitivity of Mg4FGeO6 : mn induced by laser].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Liu, Jing-Ru; Shao, Jun; Hu, Zhi-Yun; Tao, Bo; Huang, Mei-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    In order to develop a new sort of thermally sensitive phosphor coating, the emission spectrum thermally sensitivity of Mg4FGeO6 : Mn induced by laser was studied. The spectrum measurement system with heating function was set up, and the emission spectrum of Mg4FGeO6 : Mn at various temperatures were measured. Absorption spectrum was measured, and the mechanism of formation of the structure of double peak was analyzed with the perturbation theory of crystal lattice. The group of peaks around 630 nm is represented by the transitions 4F"2 to 4A2, whereas the group of peaks around 660 nm is due to the transitions 4F'2 to 4A2. The occupancy of both excited states 4F'2 and 4F"2 is in thermal equilibrium. Thus increasing temperature causes the intensity of the emission in the group around 630 nm to increase at the expense of the emission intensity of the group around 660 nm. The various spectral regions in emission differ with temperature, which could be used to support the intensity-ratio measurement method. The intensity-ratio change curve as a function of temperature was fitted, which shows that the range of temperature measurement is between room temperature and 800 K.

  19. High resolution emission spectra of H2 and D2 near 80 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larzilliere, M.; Roncin, J.-Y.; Launay, F.

    1980-01-01

    A few lines have been observed in the far ultraviolet emission spectrum of molecular hydrogen and deuterium. They are assigned to transitions from levels of the 3pπD 1 PIsub(u)sup(-) state, lying above the dissociation limit into H(ls) + H(n=2), near 84.5 nm, and, for some of them, above the first ionization limit near 80.4 nm, the lower state being X 1 Σsub(g)sup(+) (v''=1). This is in fair agreement with measured predissociation and preionization yields. Accurate line position measurements lead to molecular constants in very good agreement with theoretical calculations

  20. Incorporation of electricity GHG emissions intensity variability into building environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubi, Eduard; Doluweera, Ganesh; Bergerson, Joule

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Current building assessment does not account for variability in the electric grid. • A new method incorporates hourly grid variability into building assessment. • The method is complementary with peak-shaving policies. • The assessment method can affect building design decisions. - Abstract: Current building energy and GHG emissions assessments do not account for the variable performance of the electric grid. Incorporating hourly grid variability into building assessment methods can help to better prioritize energy efficiency measures that result in the largest environmental benefits. This article proposes a method to incorporate GHG emissions intensity changes due to grid variability into building environmental assessment. The proposed method encourages building systems that reduce electricity use during peak periods while accounting for differences in grid GHG emissions intensity (i.e., peak shaving is more strongly encouraged in grids that have GHG intense peak generation). A set of energy saving building technologies are evaluated in a set of building variants (office, residential) and grid types (hydro/nuclear dominated, coal/gas dominated) to demonstrate the proposed method. Differences between total GHG emissions calculated with the new method compared with the standard (which assumes a constant GHG emissions intensity throughout the year) are in the 5–15% range when the contribution of electricity to total GHG emissions is more significant. The influence of the method on the assessment of the relative performance of some energy efficiency measures is much higher. For example, the estimated GHG emissions savings with heat pumps and photovoltaics can change by −40% and +20%, respectively, using the new assessment method instead of the standard. These differences in GHG emissions estimates can influence building design decisions. The new method could be implemented easily, and would lead to better decision making and more accurate

  1. Picosecond buildup and relaxation of intense stimulated emission in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageeva, N. N.; Bronevoi, I. L.; Zabegaev, D. N.; Krivonosov, A. N.

    2013-01-01

    In support of the idea developed previously based on circumstantial evidence, we have found that stimulated emission emerges in GaAs and its intensity increases with a picosecond delay relative to the front of powerful picosecond optical pumping that produced a dense electron-hole plasma. The emission intensity relaxes with decreasing pumping with a characteristic time of ∼10 ps. We have derived the dependences of the delay time, the relaxation time, and the duration of the picosecond emission pulse on its photon energy. The estimates based on the fact that the relaxation of emission is determined by electron-hole plasma cooling correspond to the measured relaxation time.

  2. Broadened band C-telecom and intense upconversion emission of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped CaYAlO{sub 4} luminescent material obtained by an easy route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrella, R.V.; Schiavon, M.A. [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del Rei (UFSJ), Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, 36301-160 São João del Rei, MG (Brazil); Pecoraro, E.; Ribeiro, S.J.L. [UNESP, Institute of Chemistry, P.O. Box 355, 14800-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, J.L., E-mail: ferrari@ufsj.edu.br [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del Rei (UFSJ), Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, 36301-160 São João del Rei, MG (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    This work reports on photoluminescence properties of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped CaYAlO{sub 4} in powder form, synthesized by an easy route using citric acid as ligand to form complex precursor. The 1.2 mol% of Yb{sup 3+} was fixed, while the amount of Er{sup 3+} changed in 0.5, 1.5 and 3 mol% in order to evaluate the photoluminescence properties as a function of the Er{sup 3+} concentration. The structural and thermal properties of the viscous solutions and powder materials obtained after the heat-treatment at 1000, 1100 and 1200 °C for 4 h were evaluated by XRD, FTIR and TG/DTA analysis. The results showed the formation of pure CaYAlO{sub 4} tetragonal crystalline phase after heat-treatment at 1100 °C and 1200 °C. Intense emission in the visible region under excitation at 980 nm was attributed to upconversion process, from Er{sup 3+} intra-configurational f–f transitions. The emissions were assigned to the transitions {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} (green region), and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} (red region) energy levels. The ratio between emission band integrated areas assigned to the red and green emissions increased as a function of Er{sup 3+} concentration. Under excitation at 980 nm with 100 mW of power pump, the materials also showed intense and broadening emission with maximum at 1520 nm with FWHM of 84.74 nm for the sample CaYAlO{sub 4}:1.5% Er{sup 3+}/1.2% Yb{sup 3+} heat-treated at 1000 °C for 4 h. The photoluminescence properties showed that these materials are promising for use in C-telecom band as optical amplifier biological marker or/and solid-state laser devices under excitation at 980 nm.

  3. High multi-photon visible upconversion emissions of Er3+ singly doped BiOCl microcrystals: A photon avalanche of Er3+ induced by 980 nm excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yongjin; Song, Zhiguo; Li, Chen; Wan, Ronghua; Qiu, Jianbei; Yang, Zhengwen; Yin, Zhaoyi; Yang, Yong; Zhou, Dacheng; Wang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Under 980 nm excitation, high multi-photon upconversion (UC) emission from the 2 H 11/2 / 4 S 3/2 (green) and 4 F 9/2 (red) levels of Er 3+ ions were observed from Er 3+ singly doped BiOCl microcrystals. These high-energy excited states were populated by a three to ten photon UC process conditionally, which depended on the pump power density and the Er 3+ ion doping concentration, characterizing as a hetero-looping enhanced energy transfer avalanche UC process. UC emission lifetime and Raman analysis suggest that the unusual UC phenomena are initiated by the new and intense phonon vibration modes of BiOCl lattices due to Er 3+ ions doping

  4. Life-cycle analysis on energy consumption and GHG emission intensities of alternative vehicle fuels in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Xunmin; Yan, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Xiliang; Liu, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyzed the life cycle energy intensity and GHG emissions of about 40 pathways of alternative vehicle fuels in China. ► Coal-based liquid fuel has higher life cycle energy intensities and first generation technology bio-fuel has relatively lower intensity. ► By 2020 electricity will have significantly lower GHG intensity and second generation technology bio-fuel will have near zero intensities. -- Abstract: Fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensities of major alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) in China are calculated and compared with conventional fuels by means of full life-cycle analysis. Currently most of the AVFs have not relatively obvious GHG emission reduction when compared to the gasoline pathway: (1) coal-based AVF has higher intensities in terms of both the FEC and GHG emissions; (2) electricity from the average Chinese grid has the GHG emission intensity similar to that of gasoline pathway although relatively lower FEC intensity; and (3) first generation technology bio-fuel has relatively lower GHG emission intensity and substantially lower FEC intensity. It is forecasted that by 2020 when still comparing to the gasoline pathway: (1) coal-based AVF will still have FEC and GHG emission intensities that are 1.5–1.8 and 1.8–2.5 time those of gasoline pathway, and the application of carbon capture and storage technology can reduce the GHG emission intensity of coal-based AVF; (2) electricity will have significantly lower GHG intensity; and (3) second generation technology bio-fuel will have near zero FEC and GHG intensities.

  5. Theory of atomic spectral emission intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yngstroem, S.

    1989-02-01

    The theoretical derivation of a new spectral line intensity formula for atomic radiative emission is presented. The theory is based on first principles of quantum physics and statistical physics. It is argued that the formulation of the theory provides a very good example of the manner in which quantum logic transforms into common sense logic. The theory is strongly supported by experimental evidence. (author) (16 refs.)

  6. Prominent blue emission through Tb3+ doped La2O3 nano-phosphors for white LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neha; Singh, Rajan Kr; Srivastava, Amit; Mishra, S. K.; Singh, Jai

    2018-06-01

    In this article, we report the tunable luminescence emission of Tb3+ doped La2O3 nanophosphors synthesized by a facile and effective Polyol method. The structural and surface morphological studies have been carried out by employing X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The XRD studies elucidate the proper phase formation and the results emanate from Raman spectroscopy of the as synthesized nanophosphor affirms it. The optical properties of the as fabricated nanoparticles have been investigated by Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The PL spectroscopy shows the occurrence of excitation peaks at 305, 350 and 375 nm for 543 nm emissions, correspond to transition 5D4 →7F5. Emission spectra with 305 nm excitation exhibits characteristic emission peaks of Tb3+ion at 472, 487, 543 and 580 nm. The intensity of emission increases with Tb3+ concentration and is most prominent for 7 at% Tb3+ ion. The characteristic emissions of Tb3+ ion owes to the transition in which intensities of blue and green emission are prominent. The dominant intensity has been found for 472 nm (for blue emission). Commission international d 'Eclairage (CIE) co-ordinates have found in the light blue to green region. The research work provides a new interesting insight dealing with tunable properties with Tb3+ doping in La2O3 nanophosphors, to be useful for display devices, solar cells, LEDs and optoelectronic devices.

  7. The odd couple: The relationship between state economic performance and carbon emissions economic intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidsdottir, B.; Fisher, M.

    2011-01-01

    Historical time trends indicate that both carbon and energy intensity have declined in the United States over the last several decades, while economic performance, as measured by per capita GSP, has improved. This observation indicates that it may be possible to reduce carbon intensity without a reduction in economic performance. This paper assesses using panel analysis, the empirical relationship between carbon emissions intensity and economic performance, and examines the direction of causality between the two variables. Data for the analysis covered 48 states, excluding Hawaii, Alaska, and Washington DC, from 1980 to 2000. The results indicate significant bi-directional relationship between carbon emissions intensity and state economic performance, both using an aggregate indicator for carbon emissions intensity, decomposed using Laspeyres indexes and disaggregated by sector. This implies that it should be possible to implement statewide and sector-specific policies to reduce energy and carbon intensity and at the same time improve economic performance. - Highlights: → The empirical relationship between carbon emissions intensity and economic performance is assessed → The direction of causality between the two variables is examined. → Results indicate significant relationship between carbon emissions intensity and state economic performance. → Relationship is bi-directional, and holds for both aggregate analysis and by sector. → It is possible to implement policies to reduce carbon intensity and improve economic performance.

  8. Analysis of two colliding laser-produced plasmas by emission spectroscopy and fast photography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Ake, C., E-mail: citlali.sanchez@ccadet.unam.m [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-186, Mexico D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Mustri-Trejo, D. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-186, Mexico D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Garcia-Fernandez, T. [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Prolongacion San Isidro 151, Col. San Lorenzo Tezonco, Mexico DF, C.P. 09790 (Mexico); Villagran-Muniz, M. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-186, Mexico D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico)

    2010-05-15

    In this work two colliding laser-induced plasmas (LIP) on Cu and C were studied by means of time resolved emission spectroscopy and fast photography. The experiments were performed using two opposing parallel targets of Cu and C in vacuum, ablated with two synchronized ns lasers. The results showed an increased emission intensity from copper ions Cu II (368.65, 490.97, 493.16, 495.37 and 630.10 nm) and Cu III (374.47 and 379.08 nm) due to the ionization that occurs during collisions of Cu and C species. It was found that the optimum delay between pulses, which yields the maximum emission enhancement of Cu ions, depends on the sampling distance. On the other hand, the emission intensity of C lines, C II (426.70 nm), C III (406.99 and 464.74 nm) and C IV (465.83 nm), decreased and the formation of C{sub 2} molecules was observed. A comparison between the temporal evolution of the individual plasmas and their collision performed by combining imaging and the time resolved emission diagnostics, revealed an increase of the electron temperature and electron density and the splitting of the plume into slow and fast components.

  9. Chirp-free direct modulation of 550 nm emission in Er3+ -Doped Fluoroindate glass by nonlinear feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Runyu; Thitsa, Makhin; Bluiett, Althea; Brown, Ei; Hommerich, Uwe

    2017-06-01

    We propose a direct modulation method with nonlinear feedback controller which can produce chirp-free modulation of the output pulse without bulky external modulators. This work reports the design of the controller which, via a feedback loop, varies and controls the pump rate in real time by automatically adjusting the pump power to precisely modulate the emission of 550 nm in Er3+ -doped Fluoroindate glass under 1.48 μm pumping. In this interdisciplinary paper, well established theoretical tools from nonlinear control theory are applied to the dynamical system of the laser material in order to produce the desired output of the laser. The controller is simulated in MATLAB Simulink and the simulation results show that our technique yields precise modulation of the output intensity without frequency chirping. Results on both theoretical analysis of the control methodology and simulation are presented.

  10. Investigation on the spatial evolution of the emission spectra in laser-induced Ni plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Chuanmei; Xu Ying; Zhang Mingxu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the spatial resolved emission spectrum of Ni atom in laser induced Ni plasma is measured in the wavelength region from 350 nm to 600 nm. The spatial evolution of the relative intensities and the Stark broadening of the 385.83 nm emission spectrum lines are also obtained. It is shown that Stark broadening and intensity of the spectrum lines increases firstly to its maximum and then de- creases along the direction of laser beam when the distance from the target surface is in the range from 0 to 2.5 mm. The maximum value of Stark broadening and relative intensity of the spectrum lines appear at 1.5 mm from the target surface. (authors)

  11. Anomalous optical emission in hot dense oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Gregoryanz, Eugene; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, Russell J.

    2007-11-01

    We report the observation of unusually strong, broad-band optical emission peaked between 590 and 650 nm when solid and fluid oxygen are heated by a near infrared laser at pressures from 3 to 46 GPa. In situ Raman spectra of oxygen were collected and corresponding temperatures were measured from the Stokes/anti-Stokes intensity ratios of vibrational transitions. The intense optical emission overwhelmed the Raman spectrum at temperatures exceeding 750 K. The spectrum was found to be much narrower than Planck-type thermal emission, and the intensity increase with input power was much steeper than expected for the thermal emission. The result places an important general caveat on calculating temperatures based on optical emission spectra in high-pressure laser-heating experiments. The intense emission in oxygen is photo-induced rather than being purely thermal, through multiphoton or multi-step single photon absorption processes related to the interaction with infrared radiation. The results suggest that short lived ionic species are induced by this laser-matter interaction.

  12. White phosphor using Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-and Tm3+-doped sol-gel derived lead-fluorosilicate transparent glass ceramic excited at 980 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, M. C. P.; da Costa, E. B.; Bueno, L. A.; Gouveia-Neto, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    Generation of primary colors and white light through frequency upconversion using sol-gel derived 80SiO2:20PbF2 vitroceramic phosphors doped with Er3+, Er3+/Yb3+, Tm3+/Yb3+, and Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+ excited at 980 nm is demonstrated. For Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ doped samples emissions were obtained in the blue (410 nm), green (530, and 550 nm) and red (670 nm) regions, corresponding to the 2H9/2 → 4I15/2,2H11/2 → 4I15/2, 4S3/2 → 4I152 and 4F9/2 → 4I15/2 transitions of Er3+, respectively. The codoping with Yb3+ ions altered the spectral profile of most of the emissions compared to the single doped samples, resulting in changes in the emitted color, in addition to a significant increase in the emission intensity. In Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped samples visible emissions in the blue (480 nm), and red (650 nm), corresponding to transitions 1G4 → 3H6 and 1G4 → 3F4 of Tm3+, respectively, were obtained. The emission intensity around 480 nm overcome the red emission, and luminescence showed a predominantly blue tone. White light with CIE-1931 coordinates (0.36; 0.34) was produced by homogeneously mixing up powders of heat treated at 400 °C co-doped samples 5.0Er3+/5.0Yb3+ and 0.5Tm3+/2.5Yb3+ in the mass ratio of 13%, and 87%, respectively. The measured emission spectrum for a sample resulting from the mixture showed a profile with very good agreement with the spectrum found from the superimposition of the spectra of the co-doped samples.

  13. Inhibition of enteric pathogens and surrogates using integrated, high intensity 405nm led light on the surface of almonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The disinfecting properties of 405 nm light were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and their non-pathogenic surrogate bacteria on the surface of almonds. High intensity monochromatic blue light (MBL) was generated from an array of narrow-band 405 nm light-emitting diodes (LE...

  14. Host sensitized near-infrared emission in Nd3+ doped different alkaline-sodium-phosphate phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishna, A.; Swart, H. C.; Kroon, R. E.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.

    2018-04-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) emitting phosphors of different alkaline based sodium-phosphate (MNa[PO4], where M = Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba were prepared by a conventional solution combustion method with fixed doping concentration of Nd3+ (1.0 mol%). The phosphors were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescent spectrophotometry. The optical properties including reflectance, excitation and emission were investigated. The excitation spectra of the phosphors were characterized by a broadband extending from 450 to 900 nm. Upon excitation with a wavelength of 580 nm, the phosphor emits intensely infrared region at 872 nm, 1060 nm and 1325 nm which correspond to the 4F3/2 → 4I9/2, 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 and 4F3/2 → 4I13/2 transitions of Nd3+ ions and were found to vary for the different hosts. The strongest emission wavelength reaches 1060 nm. The most intense emission of Nd3+ was observed from Ca2+ incorporated host. The down conversion emissions of the material fall in the NIR region suggesting that the prepared phosphors have potential application in the development of photonic devices emitting in the NIR.

  15. Revealing discriminating power of the elements in edible sea salts: Line-intensity correlation analysis from laser-induced plasma emission spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yonghoon, E-mail: yhlee@mokpo.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Kyung-Sik [Department of Food Engineering, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Song-Hee [Division of Maritime Transportation System, Mokpo National Maritime University, Jeonnam 530-729 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jonghyun, E-mail: jyoo@appliedspectra.com [Applied Spectra, Inc., 46665 Fremont Boulevard, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Jeong, Sungho [School of Mechatronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the discriminating power of the elements in edible sea salts using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). For the ten different sea salts from South Korea, China, Japan, France, Mexico and New Zealand, LIBS spectra were recorded in the spectral range between 190 and 1040 nm, identifying the presence of Na, Cl, K, Ca, Mg, Li, Sr, Al, Si, Ti, Fe, C, O, N, and H. Intensity correlation analysis of the observed emission lines provided a valuable insight into the discriminating power of the different elements in the sea salts. The correlation analysis suggests that the elements with independent discrimination power can be categorized into three groups; those that represent dissolved ions in seawater (K, Li, and Mg), those that are associated with calcified particles (Ca and Sr), and those that are present in soils contained in the sea salts (Al, Si, Ti, and Fe). Classification models using a few emission lines selected based on the results from intensity correlation analysis and full broadband LIBS spectra were developed based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and their performances were compared. Our results indicate that effective combination of a few emission lines can provide a dependable model for discriminating the edible sea salts and the performance is not much degraded from that based on the full broadband spectra. This can be rationalized by the intensity correlation results. - Highlights: • Broadband LIBS spectra of various edible sea salts were obtained. • Intensity correlation of emission lines of the elements in edible sea salts was analyzed. • The elements were categorized into three groups with independent discriminating power. • The effective combination of a few lines can provide dependable classification models.

  16. Theory of atomic spectral emission intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yngström, Sten

    1994-07-01

    The theoretical derivation of a new spectral line intensity formula for atomic radiative emission is presented. The theory is based on first principles of quantum physics, electrodynamics, and statistical physics. Quantum rules lead to revision of the conventional principle of local thermal equilibrium of matter and radiation. Study of electrodynamics suggests absence of spectral emission from fractions of the numbers of atoms and ions in a plasma due to radiative inhibition caused by electromagnetic force fields. Statistical probability methods are extended by the statement: A macroscopic physical system develops in the most probable of all conceivable ways consistent with the constraining conditions for the system. The crucial role of statistical physics in transforming quantum logic into common sense logic is stressed. The theory is strongly supported by experimental evidence.

  17. Radiative and magnetic properties of solar active regions. II. Spatially resolved analysis of O V 62.97 nm transition region emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludra, A.; Warren, H.

    2010-11-01

    Context. Global relationships between the photospheric magnetic flux and the extreme ultraviolet emission integrated over active region area have been studied in a previous paper by Fludra & Ireland (2008, A&A, 483, 609). Spatially integrated EUV line intensities are tightly correlated with the total unsigned magnetic flux, and yet these global power laws have been shown to be insufficient for accurately determining the coronal heating mechanism owing to the mathematical ill-conditioning of the inverse problem. Aims: Our aim is to establish a relationship between the EUV line intensities and the photospheric magnetic flux density on small spatial scales in active regions and investigate whether it provides a way of identifying the process that heats the coronal loops. Methods: We compare spatially resolved EUV transition region emission and the photospheric magnetic flux density. This analysis is based on the O V 62.97 nm line recorded by the SOHO Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) and SOHO MDI magnetograms for six solar active regions. The magnetic flux density ϕ is converted to a simulated O V intensity using a model relationship I(ϕ, L) = Cϕδ Lλ, where the loop length L is obtained from potential magnetic field extrapolations. This simulated spatial distribution of O V intensities is convolved with the CDS instrument's point spread function and compared pixel by pixel with the observed O V line intensity. Parameters δ and λ are derived to give the best fit for the observed and simulated intensities. Results: Spatially-resolved analysis of the transition region emission reveals the complex nature of the heating processes in active regions. In some active regions, particularly large, local intensity enhancements up to a factor of five are present. When areas with O V intensities above 3000 erg cm-2 s-1 sr-1 are ignored, a power law has been fitted to the relationship between the local O V line intensity and the photospheric magnetic flux density in each

  18. Photochemistry of acrylates at 222 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knolle, Wolfgang; Naumov, Sergej; Madani, Mohamed; Sonntag, Clemens von

    2005-01-01

    Excimer lamps as monochromatic UV sources with an intense short-wavelength emission (especially KrCl * , 222 nm) allow a photoinitiator-free initiation of the acrylate polymerisation. Laser photolysis (KrCl * excimer laser, pulse width 20 ns, up to 5 mJ per pulse) gives rise to similar transient spectra (λ max ∼ 280 nm) for all acrylates studied. As the rather unspecific spectra do not allow conclusions as to the main reaction channel, a product study has been performed by GC-MS following steady-state photolysis of acrylate solutions in acetonitrile, methanol and n-hexane. Somewhat unexpected, α-cleavage seems to be a main reaction channel, and quantum chemical calculations show that such a reaction can occur from either the excited singlet state or the unrelaxed triplet state, but not from the relaxed triplet state that is observed spectroscopically. A reaction scheme accounting for the observed products is presented

  19. Variations in embodied energy and carbon emission intensities of construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Omar, Wan-Mohd-Sabki [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland 4222 (Australia); School of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Doh, Jeung-Hwan, E-mail: j.doh@griffith.edu.au [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland 4222 (Australia); Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland 4222 (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    Identification of parameter variation allows us to conduct more detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) of energy and carbon emission material over their lifecycle. Previous research studies have demonstrated that hybrid LCA (HLCA) can generally overcome the problems of incompleteness and accuracy of embodied energy (EE) and carbon (EC) emission assessment. Unfortunately, the current interpretation and quantification procedure has not been extensively and empirically studied in a qualitative manner, especially in hybridising between the process LCA and I-O LCA. To determine this weakness, this study empirically demonstrates the changes in EE and EC intensities caused by variations to key parameters in material production. Using Australia and Malaysia as a case study, the results are compared with previous hybrid models to identify key parameters and issues. The parameters considered in this study are technological changes, energy tariffs, primary energy factors, disaggregation constant, emission factors, and material price fluctuation. It was found that changes in technological efficiency, energy tariffs and material prices caused significant variations in the model. Finally, the comparison of hybrid models revealed that non-energy intensive materials greatly influence the variations due to high indirect energy and carbon emission in upstream boundary of material production, and as such, any decision related to these materials should be considered carefully. - Highlights: • We investigate the EE and EC intensity variation in Australia and Malaysia. • The influences of parameter variations on hybrid LCA model were evaluated. • Key significant contribution to the EE and EC intensity variation were identified. • High indirect EE and EC content caused significant variation in hybrid LCA models. • Non-energy intensive material caused variation between hybrid LCA models.

  20. Variations in embodied energy and carbon emission intensities of construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Omar, Wan-Mohd-Sabki; Doh, Jeung-Hwan; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak

    2014-01-01

    Identification of parameter variation allows us to conduct more detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) of energy and carbon emission material over their lifecycle. Previous research studies have demonstrated that hybrid LCA (HLCA) can generally overcome the problems of incompleteness and accuracy of embodied energy (EE) and carbon (EC) emission assessment. Unfortunately, the current interpretation and quantification procedure has not been extensively and empirically studied in a qualitative manner, especially in hybridising between the process LCA and I-O LCA. To determine this weakness, this study empirically demonstrates the changes in EE and EC intensities caused by variations to key parameters in material production. Using Australia and Malaysia as a case study, the results are compared with previous hybrid models to identify key parameters and issues. The parameters considered in this study are technological changes, energy tariffs, primary energy factors, disaggregation constant, emission factors, and material price fluctuation. It was found that changes in technological efficiency, energy tariffs and material prices caused significant variations in the model. Finally, the comparison of hybrid models revealed that non-energy intensive materials greatly influence the variations due to high indirect energy and carbon emission in upstream boundary of material production, and as such, any decision related to these materials should be considered carefully. - Highlights: • We investigate the EE and EC intensity variation in Australia and Malaysia. • The influences of parameter variations on hybrid LCA model were evaluated. • Key significant contribution to the EE and EC intensity variation were identified. • High indirect EE and EC content caused significant variation in hybrid LCA models. • Non-energy intensive material caused variation between hybrid LCA models

  1. Spectral emissivity of tungsten: analytic expressions for the 340-nm to 2.6-μm spectral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pon, R.M.; Hessler, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    To correct emission spectra a standard radiance source is often used to determine the spectral responsivity of the detection system. In the near-UV, visible, and near-IR spectral regions the most common radiance standard is a tungsten strip lamp calibrated by a standards laboratory. For day-to-day experiments where slightly less accuracy is acceptable, a less expensive uncalibrated lamp is useful. In this case, the radiant temperature T/sub r/ of the lamp is measured with an optical pyrometer, generally at a single wavelength such as 650 nm, and the source spectral radiance L(λ) is calculated from L(λ) = tau(λ)epsilon(λ,T)L/sub B/(λ,T). The transmittance of the source is tau(λ), the spectral emissivity is epsilon(λ,T), and L/sub B/(λ,T) is the spectral distribution of blackbody radiation, Planck's radiation law. To obtain the true temperature T, Wien's approximation is employed. To conveniently calibrate a system, especially one which utilizes a microcomputer, it is advantageous to have analytic expressions for the spectral emissivity of tungsten. Although Larrabee has published such expressions, they are limited to the 450-800-nm spectral region. To obtain analytic expressions from 340 nm to 2.6 μm they have used the measurements of DeVos. Although DeVos's results differ by 2% from those of Larrabee, this difference is assumed to be acceptable

  2. [Study on plasma temperature of a large area surface discharge by optical emission spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Fang; Tong, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Bin

    2014-04-01

    A large area surface discharge was realized in air/argon gas mixture by designing a discharge device with water electrodes. By using optical emission spectrum, the variations of the molecular vibrational temperature, the mean energy of electron, and the electronic excitation temperature as a function of the gas pressure were studied. The nitrogen molecular vibrational temperature was calculated according to the emission line of the second positive band system of the nitrogen molecule (C3 pi(u) --> B 3 pi(g)). The electronic excitation temperature was obtained by using the intensity ratio of Ar I 763.51 nm (2P(6) --> 1S(5)) to Ar I 772.42 nm (2P(2) --> 1S(3)). The changes in the mean energy of electron were studied by the relative intensity ratio of the nitrogen molecular ion 391.4 nm to nitrogen 337.1 nm. It was found that the intensity of emission spectral line increases with the increase in the gas pressure, meanwhile, the outline and the ratios of different spectral lines intensity also change. The molecular vibrational temperature, the mean energy of electron, and the electronic excitation temperature decrease as the gas pressure increases from 0.75 x 10(5) Pa to 1 x 10(5) Pa.

  3. Experimental and theoretical study on emission spectra of a nitrogen photoionized plasma induced by intense EUV pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Ismail; Bartnik, Andrzej; Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Jarocki, Roman; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Limpouch, Jiri

    2018-01-01

    Spectral lines of low-temperature nitrogen photoionized plasma were investigated. The photoionized plasma was created in the result of irradiation N2 gas using laser plasma EUV radiation pulses. The source was based on a 10J/10ns Nd:YAG (λ = 1064 nm) laser system and a gas puff target. The EUV radiation pulses were collected and focused using a grazing incidence multifoil EUV collector. The emission spectra were measured in the ultraviolet and visible (UV/Vis) range. It was found that the plasma emission lines in the lower region of the UV range are relativley weak. Nonetheless, a part of the spectra contains strong molecular band in the 300 - 430 nm originated from second positive and first negative systems band transitions of nitrogen. These molecular band transitions were identified using a code for study the diatomic molecules, LIFBASE. The vibrational band of Δv = 0 and ±1 transitions were significantly populated than of that with Δv = ±2 and 3 transitions. A comparison of the calculated and measured spectrum is presented. With an assumption of a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), the vibrational temperature was determined from the integrated band intensities with the help of the Boltzmann plot method and compared to the temperature predicted by SPECAIR and LIFBASE simulations. A summary of the results and the variations in the vibrational temperatures was discussed.

  4. Experimental and theoretical study on emission spectra of a nitrogen photoionized plasma induced by intense EUV pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Ismail

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral lines of low-temperature nitrogen photoionized plasma were investigated. The photoionized plasma was created in the result of irradiation N2 gas using laser plasma EUV radiation pulses. The source was based on a 10J/10ns Nd:YAG (λ = 1064 nm laser system and a gas puff target. The EUV radiation pulses were collected and focused using a grazing incidence multifoil EUV collector. The emission spectra were measured in the ultraviolet and visible (UV/Vis range. It was found that the plasma emission lines in the lower region of the UV range are relativley weak. Nonetheless, a part of the spectra contains strong molecular band in the 300 - 430 nm originated from second positive and first negative systems band transitions of nitrogen. These molecular band transitions were identified using a code for study the diatomic molecules, LIFBASE. The vibrational band of Δv = 0 and ±1 transitions were significantly populated than of that with Δv = ±2 and 3 transitions. A comparison of the calculated and measured spectrum is presented. With an assumption of a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE, the vibrational temperature was determined from the integrated band intensities with the help of the Boltzmann plot method and compared to the temperature predicted by SPECAIR and LIFBASE simulations. A summary of the results and the variations in the vibrational temperatures was discussed.

  5. Decomposition of intensity of energy-related CO_2 emission in Chinese provinces using the LMDI method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Ke; Zhou, Dequn; Zhang, Wenrui; Gao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Uncovering the driving factors of CO_2 emission intensity declining is important for China. This paper improves the logarithmic mean Divisia index technique, which includes energy density and energy consumption intensity, to explore the driving factors of carbon emission intensity (CI) in 29 Chinese provinces from 1995–2012. The main results are: (1) energy consumption intensity plays a more important role than carbon emission density (CD) for a rapid decrease in CI during the research period, so a much room is left for a significant CD reduction through carbon emission reduction technology, energy structural reduction, and energy consumption proportional reduction. (2) The decrease in energy consumption technology and energy structure in secondary industries contributes the most reduction in energy consumption intensity. (3)The energy consumption proportions of secondary and tertiary industries are the two most important drivers to decrease CD. (4) During the research period, the energy consumption proportions of secondary industries result in the most decrease in CD, whereas the energy consumption proportions of tertiary industries cause the most increase in CD. - Highlights: •Carbon emission intensity decreased rapidly from 1995 to 2012. •Energy intensity is the more significant driver for decrease of carbon intensity. •The most contribution of EI's decrease came from secondary industries. •The most contribution of CD's decrease came from secondary and tertiary industries. •Several policies of reducing carbon emission intensity in China have been raised.

  6. High multi-photon visible upconversion emissions of Er{sup 3+} singly doped BiOCl microcrystals: A photon avalanche of Er{sup 3+} induced by 980 nm excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yongjin; Song, Zhiguo, E-mail: songzg@kmust.edu.cn; Li, Chen; Wan, Ronghua; Qiu, Jianbei; Yang, Zhengwen; Yin, Zhaoyi; Yang, Yong; Zhou, Dacheng; Wang, Qi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)

    2013-12-02

    Under 980 nm excitation, high multi-photon upconversion (UC) emission from the {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}/{sup 4}S{sub 3/2} (green) and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} (red) levels of Er{sup 3+} ions were observed from Er{sup 3+} singly doped BiOCl microcrystals. These high-energy excited states were populated by a three to ten photon UC process conditionally, which depended on the pump power density and the Er{sup 3+} ion doping concentration, characterizing as a hetero-looping enhanced energy transfer avalanche UC process. UC emission lifetime and Raman analysis suggest that the unusual UC phenomena are initiated by the new and intense phonon vibration modes of BiOCl lattices due to Er{sup 3+} ions doping.

  7. Air Treatment Techniques for Abatement of Emissions from Intensive Livestock Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including emissions of ammonia (NH3), greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O), odour, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). Possible strategies for emission reduction include feed management, adaptation of housing design,

  8. Synthesis of green emission upconversion phosphor nanosheets (LaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7}) doped with Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasugi, Soichi [Course of Science and Technology, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Iida, Riku [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Tomita, Koji, E-mail: tomita@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Iwaoka, Michio [Course of Science and Technology, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Katagiri, Kiyofumi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Osada, Minoru [International Center for Materials Nano architectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Kakihana, Masato [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    LaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Er{sup 3+},Yb{sup 3+} upconversion (UPC) phosphor nanosheets were prepared by exfoliating a KLaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Er{sup 3+},Yb{sup 3+} layered compound. Highly crystalline nanosheets with a thickness and lateral size of 3.91 nm and approximately 300 nm, respectively, were obtained. The UPC emission intensity of the nanosheets was 7.6 times greater than that of mechanically milled particles (100–500 nm) of bulk KLaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Er{sup 3+},Yb{sup 3+}. The UPC emission intensities of the nanosheets dispersed in different solvents (H{sub 2}O, D{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}OH, CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, and CCl{sub 4}) were measured, and the intensities were observed to decrease in the order CCl{sub 4}>CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}>D{sub 2}O>CH{sub 3}OH>H{sub 2}O. Because of the large surface area of the nanosheets, their emission intensity was decreased depending on the solvent's vibrational energy. - Highlights: • La{sub 0.45}Er{sub 0.05}Yb{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanosheets were synthesized by a soft breakdown method (exfoliation). • The lateral size and thickness of the nanosheets were approximately 300 nm and approximately 3.91 nm, respectively. • The exfoliated nanosheets exhibited bright upconversion emission 7.6 times more intense than that of the milled sample (100–500 nm). • The nanosheets dispersed in solvents exhibited greatly different upconversion emission intensities depending on the solvent's vibrational energy.

  9. Intensities of the Venusian N2 electron-impact excited dayglow emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jane L.; F. Hać, Nicholas E.

    2013-12-01

    Dayglow emissions are signatures of both the energy deposition into an atmosphere and the abundances of the species from which they arise. The first N2 dayglow emissions from Mars, the (0,5) and (0,6) bands of the N2 Vegard-Kaplan band system, were detected by the Spectroscopy for Investigations of the Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) UV spectrometer on board the Mars Express spacecraft. The Vegard-Kaplan band system arises from the transition from the lowest N2 triplet state (A3Σu+;v') to the electronic ground state (X1Σg+;v″). It is populated by direct electron-impact excitation and by cascading from higher triplet states. The Venus UV dayglow is currently being probed by an instrument similar to SPICAM, the Spectroscopy for the Investigations of the Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Venus (SPICAV) UV spectrometer on Venus Express, but no N2 emissions have been detected. Because the N2 mixing ratios in the Venus thermosphere are larger than those in the thermosphere of Mars and the solar flux is greater at the orbit of Venus than that at Mars, we expect the Venus N2 emissions to be significantly more intense than those of Mars. A prediction of the intensities of various N2 emissions from Venus could be used to guide observations by the SPICAV and other instruments that are used to measure the Venus dayglow. Employing updated data, we here construct models of the low and high solar activity thermospheres of Venus, and we compute the integrated overhead intensities of 17 N2 band systems and limb profiles of the Vegard-Kaplan bands. The ratios of the predicted intensities of the various N2 bands at Venus to those at Mars are in the range 5.5-9.5.

  10. Radar and photometric measurements of an intense type A red aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. M.; Mende, S. B.; Vondrak, R. R.; Kozyra, J. U.; Nagy, A. F.

    1985-01-01

    On the evening of March 5, 1981, an intense, type A red aurora appeared over southern Alaska. Radar and photometric measurements were made of the aurora from the Chatanika radar site. The line of sight intensity of the 630.0-nm emissions exceeded 150 kR and was accompanied by enhanced emissions at 486.1 and 427.8 nm. The Chatanika radar measured electron densities of 10 to the 6th per cu cm and electron temperatures of 6000 K at an altitude of 400 km and an invariant latitude of 59 deg in association with the aurora. Comparison of optical and radar measurements indicated that the 630.0-nm emissions were produced to a large degree by thermal excitation of O(1D) in the region of high electron temperatures and densities. Model calculations indicate that the observed density and temperature enhancements and the related optical emissions were the results of a relatively short duration (5-10 min) pulse of precipitating, low-energy (about 30 eV) electrons. Whereas conventional stable auroral red arcs are associated with a gradual decrease in ring current energy density during the recovery phase of a magnetic storm, the type A red aurora may be produced by impulsive ring current energy loss during the main phase.

  11. The influencing factors of CO2 emission intensity of Chinese agriculture from 1997 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xingle; Luo, Yusen; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Jijian

    2018-05-01

    In China, agriculture produces the greatest chemical oxygen demand (COD) emissions in wastewater and the most methane (CH 4 ) emissions. It is imperative that agricultural pollution in China be reduced. This study investigated the influencing factors of the CO 2 emission intensity of Chinese agriculture from 1997 to 2014. We analyzed the influencing factors of the CO 2 emission intensity through the first-stage least-square regression. We also analyzed determinants of innovation through the second-stage least-square regression. We found that innovation negatively affected the CO 2 emission intensity in the model of the nation. FDI positively affected innovation in China. It is important to enhance indigenous innovation for green agriculture through labor training and collaboration between agriculture and academia.

  12. Parametric investigations on the saturation intensity of Coumarin 102 for stimulated emission depletion application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H-Y; Zhao, W-X; Zhao, W; Zhang, C; Feng, X-Q; Liu, S-P; Wang, K-G

    2018-04-23

    Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy performed using continuous-wave (CW) lasers has been investigated and developed by Willig et al. (Nature Methods, 2007, 4(11):915) for nearly a decade. Kuang et al. (Review of Scientific Instruments, 2010, 81:053709) developed the CW STED microscopy technique with 405 nm excitation and 532 nm depletion beams. In their research, Coumarin 102 dye was adopted and was found to be depletable. In this study, a parametric investigation of the depletion of Coumarin 102 dye is carried out experimentally. The influence of the excitation and depletion beam intensities and dye concentrations on the depletion efficiency are studied in detail. The results indicate the following: (1) The highest depletion occurs for the 100 μM Coumarin 102 solution, with a 1.4 μW excitation beam and a 115.3 mW depletion beam. (2) The minimum saturation intensity (Is) of STED, that is 13 MW cm -2 , is observed when the Coumarin 102 solution concentration is 10 μM. (3) Is values calculated directly from the depletion power derived with the cross-sectional area due to the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of the depletion beam show poor accuracy, where Is may be overestimated. Thus, a correction factor for the cross-sectional area is proposed. We also find that Is is not exactly constant for a fixed excitation beam power and dye concentration. This trend indicates that the conventional suppression function η(x)=e- ln (2)ISTED(x)/Is derived from picosecond STED may cause errors in evaluating the depletion process in CW STED microscopy. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2018 Royal Microscopical Society.

  13. Thermal runaway of metal nano-tips during intense electron emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyritsakis, A.; Veske, M.; Eimre, K.; Zadin, V.; Djurabekova, F.

    2018-06-01

    When an electron emitting tip is subjected to very high electric fields, plasma forms even under ultra high vacuum conditions. This phenomenon, known as vacuum arc, causes catastrophic surface modifications and constitutes a major limiting factor not only for modern electron sources, but also for many large-scale applications such as particle accelerators, fusion reactors etc. Although vacuum arcs have been studied thoroughly, the physical mechanisms that lead from intense electron emission to plasma ignition are still unclear. In this article, we give insights to the atomic scale processes taking place in metal nanotips under intense field emission conditions. We use multi-scale atomistic simulations that concurrently include field-induced forces, electron emission with finite-size and space-charge effects, Nottingham and Joule heating. We find that when a sufficiently high electric field is applied to the tip, the emission-generated heat partially melts it and the field-induced force elongates and sharpens it. This initiates a positive feedback thermal runaway process, which eventually causes evaporation of large fractions of the tip. The reported mechanism can explain the origin of neutral atoms necessary to initiate plasma, a missing key process required to explain the ignition of a vacuum arc. Our simulations provide a quantitative description of in the conditions leading to runaway, which shall be valuable for both field emission applications and vacuum arc studies.

  14. Efficient soft x-ray emission source at 13.5 nm by use of a femtosecond-laser-produced Li-based microplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Rajyaguru, Chirag; Kubodera, Shoichi; Sasaki, Wataru; Yugami, Noboru; Kikuchi, Takashi; Kawata, Shigeo; Andreev, Alex

    2005-01-01

    A proof-of-principle experiment was demonstrated to optimize a Li-based microjet target coupled to dual subpicosecond laser pulses as a 13.5 nm soft x-ray emission source. An optimum pulse duration of 450 fs to achieve a maximum emission at 13.5 nm was well explained by the resonant absorption process. Utilization of dual femtosecond pulses revealed that the optimum pulse separation around 500 ps was necessary to achieve a maximum soft x-ray conversion efficiency of 0.2%, where plasma hydrodynamics could not be neglected. A one-fluid two-temperature hydrodynamic simulation reproduced this optimum pulse separation behavior

  15. Effects of low-intensity GaAlAs laser radiation (λ=660 nm) on dentine-pulp interface after class I cavity preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, Bruno Miranda

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity irradiation with GaAlAs laser (red emission) on the ultrastructure of dentine-pulp interface after conventionally prepared class I cavity preparation. Two patients with 8 premolars for extraction indicated for orthodontic reasons. Class I cavities were prepared in these teeth that were then divided into two groups. The first group received a treatment with laser with continuous emission, λ=660 nm, with maximum power output of 30 mW. The dosimetry applied was of approximately 2J/cm 2 , directly and perpendicularly into the cavity in only one section. After the irradiation, the cavities were filled with composite resin. The second group received the same treatment, except by the laser therapy. Twenty-eight days after the preparation, the teeth were extracted and were processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Two sound teeth, without any preparation, were also studied. The irradiated group presented odontoblastic processes in higher contact with the extracellular matrix and the collagen fibers appeared more aggregated and organized than those of control group. These results were also observed in the healthy-teeth. Thus, we suggest that laser irradiation accelerates the recovery of the dental structures involved in the cavity preparation at the pre-dentine level. (author)

  16. Absolutely calibrated vacuum ultraviolet spectra in the 150-250-nm range from plasmas generated by the NIKE KrF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, J.F.; Feldman, Uri; Holland, G.E.; Weaver, J.L.; Mostovych, A.N.; Obenschain, S.P.; Schmitt, A.J.; Lehmberg, R.; Kjornarattanawanich, Benjawan; Back, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectra were recorded from plasmas generated by the NIKE KrF laser for the purpose of observing emission from the two-plasmon decay instability (TPDI) at 2/3 the NIKE wavelength (165 nm). The targets were irradiated by up to 43 overlapping beams with intensity up to ≅10 14 W/cm 2 and with beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence (ISI). The targets consisted of planar foils of CH, BN, Al, Si, S, Ti, Pd, and Au. Titanium-doped silica aerogels in Pyrex cylinders were also irradiated. The spectra of the target elements were observed from charge states ranging from the neutral atoms to five times ionized. The spectrometer was absolutely calibrated using synchrotron radiation, and absolute VUV plasma emission intensities were determined. Emission from the TPDI at 165-nm wavelength was not observed from any of the irradiated targets. An upper bound on the possible TPDI emission was less than 4x10 -8 the incident NIKE laser energy. The NIKE laser radiation backscattered from the silica aerogel targets at 248 nm was typically 6x10 -6 the incident NIKE laser energy, and the spectral broadening corresponded to the 1-THz bandwidth of the ISI smoothing. The spectra from the moderately charged plasma ions (up to five times ionized), spectral linewidths, absolute continuum emission level, and slope of the continuum were consistent with plasma temperatures in the 100-300-eV range

  17. Constraining Line-of-sight Confusion in the Corona Using Linearly Polarized Observations of the Infrared FeXIII 1075nm and SiX 1430nm Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, G. I.; Kuhn, J. R.; Berdyugina, S.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of the coronal magnetic field are difficult because of the intrinsically faint emission of coronal plasma and the large spurious background due to the bright solar disk. This work addresses the problem of resolving the confusion of the line-of-sight (LOS) integration through the optically-thin corona being observed. Work on developing new measuring techniques based on single-point inversions using the Hanle effect has already been described (Dima et al. 2016). It is important to develop a technique to assess when the LOS confusion makes comparing models and observations problematic. Using forward integration of synthetic emission through magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models together with simultaneous linearly polarized observations of the FeXIII 1075nm and SiX 1430nm emission lines allows us to assess LOS confusion. Since the lines are both in the Hanle saturated regime their polarization angles are expected to be aligned as long as the gas is sampling the same magnetic field. If significant contributions to the emission is taking place from different regions along the LOS due to the additive nature of the polarized brightness the measured linear polarization between the two lines will be offset. The size of the resolution element is important for this determination since observing larger coronal regions will confuse the variation along the LOS with that in the plane-of-sky. We also present comparisons between synthetic linearly polarized emission through a global MHD model and observations of the same regions obtained using the 0.5m Scatter-free Observatory for Limb Active Regions and Coronae (SOLARC) telescope located on Haleakala, Maui. This work is being done in preparation for the type of observations that will become possible when the next generation 4m DKIST telescope comes online in 2020.

  18. Thermoluminescence emission spectra and optical bleaching of oligoclase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, A.J.J.; Piters, T.M.; Ypma, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) spectra of oligoclase samples have been recorded in the temperature range from 300 to 700 K and the wavelength range from 300 to 850 nm. Like other feldspars, oligoclase produces blue (peaking at 460 nm) and red (peaking at 765 nm) emission bands. The maximum of the red emission occurs 20 K lower than that of the blue band. Optical bleaching was performed at wavelengths varying from 360 to 800 nm. Bleaching of artificially irradiated oligoclase causes a decrease of the TL signal. The bleaching efficiency increases with decreasing wavelength. Bleaching does not only influence the height of the glow curve but also the shape. An interesting observation is that the ratio of the blue and red band intensities is not affected by a bleaching procedure. No evidence has been found that bleaching influences the shape of the emission spectra. The correlation between the blue and red bands is discussed. (Author)

  19. Air Treatment Techniques for Abatement of Emissions from Intensive Livestock Production

    OpenAIRE

    Melse, R.W.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including emissions of ammonia (NH3), greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O), odour, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). Possible strategies for emission reduction include feed management, adaptation of housing design, and, in case of mechanically ventilated animal houses, the application of end-of-pipe air treatment, viz acid scrubbers and bioscrubbers. Air treatment techniques can achieve very high emission red...

  20. Effect of equatorial electrodynamics on low-latitude thermosphere as inferred from neutral optical dayglow emission observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, D. K.; Duggirala, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    The diurnal variations in daytime airglow emission intensity measurements at three wavelengths OI 777.4 nm, OI 630.0 nm, and OI 557.7 nm made from a low-latitude location, Hyderabad (Geographic 17.50 N, 78.40 E; 8.90 N Mag. Lat) in India have been investigated. The intensity patterns showed both symmetric and asymmetric behavior in their respective diurnal emission variability with respect to local noon. The asymmetric diurnal behavior is not expected considering the photochemical nature of the production mechanisms. The reason for this observed asymmetric diurnal behavior has been found to be predominantly the temporal variation in the equatorial electrodynamics. The plasma that is transported across latitudes due to the action of varying electric field strength over the magnetic equator in the daytime contributes to the asymmetric diurnal behavior in the neutral daytime airglow emissions. Independent magnetic and radio measurements support this finding. It is also noted that this asymmetric diurnal behavior in the neutral emission intensities has a solar cycle dependence with more number of days during high solar activity period showing asymmetric diurnal behavior compared to those during low-solar activity epoch. These intensity variations over long time scale demonstrate that the daytime neutral optical emissions are extremely sensitive to the changes in the eastward electric field over low- and equatorial-latitudes.

  1. Visible light emission from silicon implanted and annealed SiO2layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghislotti, G.; Nielsen, B.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Di Mauro, L.F.; Bottani, C.E.; Corni, F.; Tonini, R.; Ottaviani, G.P.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon implanted and annealed SiO 2 layers are studied using photoluminescence (PL) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). Two PL emission bands are observed. A band centered at 560 nm is present in as-implanted samples and it is still observed after 1,000 C annealing. The emission time is fast. A second band centered at 780 nm is detected after 1,000 C annealing. The intensity of the 780 nm band further increased when hydrogen annealing was performed. The emission time is long (1 micros to 0.2 ms). PAS results show that defects produced by implantation anneal at 600 C. Based on the annealing behavior and on the emission times, the origin of the two bands is discussed

  2. Decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity between oil-producing and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebohon, Obas John; Ikeme, Anthony Jekwu

    2006-01-01

    The need to decompose CO 2 emission intensity is predicated upon the need for effective climate change mitigation and adaptation policies. Such analysis enables key variables that instigate CO 2 emission intensity to be identified while at the same time providing opportunities to verify the mitigation and adaptation capacities of countries. However, most CO 2 decomposition analysis has been conducted for the developed economies and little attention has been paid to sub-Saharan Africa. The need for such an analysis for SSA is overwhelming for several reasons. Firstly, the region is amongst the most vulnerable to climate change. Secondly, there are disparities in the amount and composition of energy consumption and the levels of economic growth and development in the region. Thus, a decomposition analysis of CO 2 emission intensity for SSA affords the opportunity to identify key influencing variables and to see how they compare among countries in the region. Also, attempts have been made to distinguish between oil and non-oil-producing SSA countries. To this effect a comparative static analysis of CO 2 emission intensity for oil-producing and non oil-producing SSA countries for the periods 1971-1998 has been undertaken, using the refined Laspeyres decomposition model. Our analysis confirms the findings for other regions that CO 2 emission intensity is attributable to energy consumption intensity, CO 2 emission coefficient of energy types and economic structure. Particularly, CO 2 emission coefficient of energy use was found to exercise the most influence on CO 2 emission intensity for both oil and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries in the first sub-interval period of our investigation from 1971-1981. In the second subinterval of 1981-1991, energy intensity and structural effect were the two major influencing factors on emission intensity for the two groups of countries. However, energy intensity effect had the most pronounced impact on CO 2 emission

  3. Emission-energy dependence of ultrafast P-emission decay in ZnO from bulk to nanofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakaiki, Shuji; Ichida, Hideki; Bamba, Motoaki; Kawase, Toshiki; Kawakami, Masaki; Mizoguchi, Kohji; Kim, DaeGwi; Nakayama, Masaaki; Kanematsu, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    We have performed time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy for ZnO thin films with thicknesses of 90, 460, and 2800 nm under intense excitation condition. We clearly observed the P emission due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. It was found that, in the 460- and 2800-nm thick samples, the decay time of the P emission considerably depends on the detection energy inversely proportional to the group velocity of the polariton in a bulk crystal with each factor of proportionality. In contrast, the energy dependence is less remarkable in the 90-nm thick sample. The decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. The thickness dependence of the P-emission-decay profiles is explained by considering the crossover from the polariton modes in the 2800-nm thick sample (bulk-like film) to the exciton-/photon-like modes in the 90-nm thick sample (nanofilm). - Highlights: • We clearly observed the P-PL dynamics due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. • The P-PL decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. • The P-PL decay time depends on the detection energy in the bulk-like sample. • The energy dependence of the P-PL decay time almost disappears in the 90-nm sample. • The thickness dependence is explained by the crossover between exciton and photon

  4. Emission-energy dependence of ultrafast P-emission decay in ZnO from bulk to nanofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakaiki, Shuji, E-mail: s.wakaiki@mls.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ichida, Hideki [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Laboratory, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Bamba, Motoaki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Kawase, Toshiki; Kawakami, Masaki [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Mizoguchi, Kohji [Department of Physical Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kim, DaeGwi; Nakayama, Masaaki [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Kanematsu, Yasuo [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Laboratory, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We have performed time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy for ZnO thin films with thicknesses of 90, 460, and 2800 nm under intense excitation condition. We clearly observed the P emission due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. It was found that, in the 460- and 2800-nm thick samples, the decay time of the P emission considerably depends on the detection energy inversely proportional to the group velocity of the polariton in a bulk crystal with each factor of proportionality. In contrast, the energy dependence is less remarkable in the 90-nm thick sample. The decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. The thickness dependence of the P-emission-decay profiles is explained by considering the crossover from the polariton modes in the 2800-nm thick sample (bulk-like film) to the exciton-/photon-like modes in the 90-nm thick sample (nanofilm). - Highlights: • We clearly observed the P-PL dynamics due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. • The P-PL decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. • The P-PL decay time depends on the detection energy in the bulk-like sample. • The energy dependence of the P-PL decay time almost disappears in the 90-nm sample. • The thickness dependence is explained by the crossover between exciton and photon.

  5. In Situ Measurement of Alkali Metals in an MSW Incinerator Using a Spontaneous Emission Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental investigations of the in situ diagnosis of the alkali metals in the municipal solid waste (MSW flame of an industrial grade incinerator using flame emission spectroscopy. The spectral radiation intensities of the MSW flame were obtained using a spectrometer. A linear polynomial fitting method is proposed to uncouple the continuous spectrum and the characteristic line. Based on spectra processing and a non-gray emissivity model, the flame temperature, emissivity, and intensities of the emission of alkali metals were calculated by means of measuring the spectral radiation intensities of the MSW flame. Experimental results indicate that the MSW flame contains alkali metals, including Na, K, and even Rb, and it demonstrates non-gray characteristics in a wavelength range from 500 nm to 900 nm. Peak intensities of the emission of the alkali metals were found to increase when the primary air was high, and the measured temperature varied in the same way as the primary air. The temperature and peak intensities of the lines of emission of the alkali metals may be used to adjust the primary airflow and to manage the feeding of the MSW to control the alkali metals in the MSW flame. It was found that the peak intensity of the K emission line had a linear relationship with the peak intensity of the Na emission line; this correlation may be attributed to their similar physicochemical characteristics in the MSW. The variation trend of the emissivity of the MSW flame and the oxygen content in the flue gas were almost opposite because the increased oxygen content suppressed soot formation and decreased soot emissivity. These results prove that the flame emission spectroscopy technique is feasible for monitoring combustion in the MSW incinerator in situ.

  6. Short- and Long-Timescale Thermospheric Variability as Observed from OI 630.0 nm Dayglow Emissions from Low Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallamraju, Duggirala; Das, Uma; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    2011-01-01

    We carried out high-cadence (5 min) and high-spatial resolution (2deg magnetic latitude) observations of daytime OI 630.0 nm airglow emission brightness from a low-latitude station to understand the behavior of neutral dynamics in the daytime. The results indicate that the wave periodicities of 12.20 min, and 2 h exist over a wide spatial range of around 8deg-12deg magnetic latitudes. The 20.80 min periodicities in the dayglow seem to appear more often in the measurements closer to the magnetic equator and not at latitudes farther away. Further, periodicities in that range are found to be frequent in the variations of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) strength as well. We show that wave periodicities due to the neutral dynamics, at least until around 8deg magnetic latitude, are influenced by those that affect the EEJ strength variation as well. Furthermore, the average daily OI 630.0 nm emission brightness over 3 months varied in consonance with that of the sunspot numbers indicating a strong solar influence on the magnitudes of dayglow emissions.

  7. [Comparative investigation of underwater-LIBS using 532 and 1 064 nm lasers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiao-Jian; Tian, Ye; Lu, Yuan; Li, Ying; Zheng, Rong-Er

    2014-11-01

    With the hope of applying laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the ocean applications, the laser energy at 532 and 1 064 nm wavelength with 3 and 40 mj respectively was used, which was near their breakdown threshold. Extensive experimental investigations of LIBS from CaCl2 water solution were carried out in this paper using different laser wavelengths of 532 and 1 064 nm. The obtained results show that compared with the 532 nm laser, the 1 064 nm laser can induce the plasma in water with higher emission intensity and longer lifetime, while the reproducibility of LIBS signal under 1 064 nm laser is poorer. On the other hand, due to the different attenuation ratios of 532 and 1 064 nm laser energies in water, the LIBS signal of 1 064 nm laser decreases a lot within the transmission distance range 2-5 cm, while LIBS signal of 532 nm remains the same, because that the wavelength of 532 nm lies in the "transmission window" of the water solution. This study will provide valuable design considerations for the development of LIBS-sea system in near future.

  8. CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction allocation over provincial industrial sectors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jie; Zhu, Qingyuan; Liang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • DEA is used to evaluate the energy and environmental efficiency of 30 provincial industrial sector in China. • A new DEA-based model is proposed to allocate the CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction targets. • The context-dependent DEA is used to characterize the production plans. - Abstract: High energy consumption by the industry of developing countries has led to the problems of increasing emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) (primarily CO_2) and worsening energy shortages. To address these problems, many mitigation measures have been utilized. One major measure is to mandate fixed reductions of GHG emission and energy consumption. Therefore, it is important for each developing country to disaggregate their national reduction targets into targets for various geographical parts of the country. In this paper, we propose a DEA-based approach to allocate China’s national CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction targets over Chinese provincial industrial sectors. We firstly evaluate the energy and environmental efficiency of Chinese industry considering energy consumption and GHG emissions. Then, considering the necessity of mitigating GHG emission and energy consumption, we develop a context-dependent DEA technique which can better characterize the changeable production with reductions of CO_2 emission and energy intensity, to help allocate the national reduction targets over provincial industrial sectors. Our empirical study of 30 Chinese regions for the period 2005–2010 shows that the industry of China had poor energy and environmental efficiency. Considering three major geographical areas, eastern China’s industrial sector had the highest efficiency scores while in this aspect central and western China were similar to each other at a lower level. Our study shows that the most effective allocation of the national reduction target requires most of the 30 regional industrial to reduce CO_2 emission and energy intensity, while a

  9. Studies of optical emission in the high intensity pumping regime of top-down ZnO nanostructures and thin films grown on c-sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divay, L.; Kostcheev, S.; McMurtry, S.; Lerondel, G. [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, ICD CNRS (FRE2848), Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Troyes (France); Rogers, D.J.; Teherani, F.H. [Nanovation SARL, Versailles, 91400 Orsay (France); Lusson, A. [GEMaC, CNRS - Universite de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines,Meudon (France)

    2008-07-01

    We report on the emission of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films obtained by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) under high intensity excitation. In order to clarify the origin of the emission bands, we compared results for high quality thin films (75 nm) before and after 'top-down' nanopatterning. A nanopattering technique was developed for this purpose. The technique combined Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) and lift-off techniques and Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching (ICP RIE). The emission spectra of the two types of samples were found to have a difference in their fine structure that was attributed, in part, to the existence of guided emission in the thin films and exciton weak confinement effects in the nanostructures. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence of Mn doped zinc silicate nanophosphors for green and yellow field emissions displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omri, K.; Alyamani, A.; Mir, L. El

    2018-02-01

    Mn2+-doped Zn2SiO4 (ZSM2+) was synthesized by a facile sol-gel technique. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) techniques. Under UV excitation, spectra showed that the α-ZSM2+ phosphor exhibited a strong green emission around 525 nm and reached the highest luminescence intensity with the Mn doping concentration of 5 at.%. However, for the β-ZSM2+ phase, an interesting yellow emission band centered at 575 nm of Mn2+ at the Zn2+ tetrahedral sites was observed. In addition, an unusual red shift with increasing Mn2+ content was also found and attributed to an exchange interaction between Mn2+. Both PL and CL spectra exhibit an intense green and yellow emission centered at 525 and 573 nm, respectively, due to the 4T1 (4G)-6A1 (6S) transition of Mn2+. Furthermore, these results indicated that the Mn2+-doped zinc silicate phosphors may have potential applications in green and yellow emissions displays like field emission displays (FEDs).

  11. Localized-Surface-Plasmon Enhanced the 357 nm Forward Emission from ZnMgO Films Capped by Pt Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song XM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Pt nanoparticles (NPs, which posses the wider tunable localized-surface-plasmon (LSP energy varying from deep ultraviolet to visible region depending on their morphology, were prepared by annealing Pt thin films with different initial mass-thicknesses. A sixfold enhancement of the 357 nm forward emission of ZnMgO was observed after capping with Pt NPs, which is due to the resonance coupling between the LSP of Pt NPs and the band-gap emission of ZnMgO. The other factors affecting the ultraviolet emission of ZnMgO, such as emission from Pt itself and light multi-scattering at the interface, were also discussed. These results indicate that Pt NPs can be used to enhance the ultraviolet emission through the LSP coupling for various wide band-gap semiconductors.

  12. Vacuum ultraviolet Ar2*laser pumped by a high-intensity laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubodera, Shoichi; Kaku, Masanori; Higashiguchi, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    We observed a small-signal gain of Ar 2 * emission at 126 nm by use of an Ar-filled hollow fiber to guide the ultrashort-pulse high-intensity laser propagation. The small signal gain coefficient was measured to be 0.05 cm -1 at 126 nm. Kinetic analysis revealed that the electrons produced by the high-intensity laser through an optical-field ionization process initiated the Ar 2 * production process. This laser scheme could be combined with high harmonic radiation of the pump laser in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), leading to the production of amplified ultrashort VUV pulses. (author)

  13. Sky-distribution of intensity of synchrotron radio emission of relativistic electrons trapped in Earth’s magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimenko V.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the calculations of synchrotron radio emission intensity from Van Allen belts with Gaussian space distribution of electron density across L-shells of a dipole magnetic field, and with Maxwell’s relativistic electron energy distribution. The results of these calculations come to a good agreement with measurements of the synchrotron emission intensity of the artificial radiation belt’s electrons during the Starfish nuclear test. We have obtained two-dimensional distributions of radio brightness in azimuth — zenith angle coordinates for an observer on Earth’s surface. The westside and eastside intensity maxima exceed several times the maximum level of emission in the meridian plane. We have also constructed two-dimensional distributions of the radio emission intensity in decibels related to the background galactic radio noise level. Isotropic fluxes of relativistic electrons (Е~1 MeV should be more than 107 cm–2s–1 for the synchrotron emission intensity in the meridian plane to exceed the cosmic noise level by 0.1 dB (riometer sensitivity threshold.

  14. Upconversion emission and cathodoluminescence of Er"3"+-doped NaYbF_4 nanoparticles for low-temperature thermometry and field emission displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Peng; Yu, Jae Su; Luo, Laihui

    2017-01-01

    The Er"3"+-doped NaYbF_4 nanoparticles were fabricated by a hydrothermal method. The green and red emissions located at around 525, 542 and 657 nm corresponding to the "2H_1_1_/_2 → "4I_1_5_/_2, "4S_3_/_2 → "4I_1_5_/_2 and "4F_9_/_2 → "4I_1_5_/_2 transitions of Er"3"+ ions, respectively, were observed when pumped at 980 nm light. Furthermore, with the help of the fluorescence intensity ratio technique, the thermometric properties of as-prepared products from the thermally coupled "2H_1_1_/_2 and "4S_3_/_2 levels of Er"3"+ ions were studied by analyzing temperature-dependent upconversion (UC) emission spectra. The maximum sensitivity for the Er"3"+-doped NaYbF_4 nanoparticles was found to be around 0.0043 K"- "1 with a temperature range of 93-293 K. In addition, the cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum of the synthesized nanoparticles was nearly the same as the UC emission spectrum and the CL emission intensity did not exhibit saturation with the increase of accelerating voltage and filament current. (orig.)

  15. Distributions of emissions intensity for individual beef cattle reared on pasture-based production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, G A; Takahashi, T; Orr, R J; Harris, P; Lee, M R F

    2018-01-10

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of livestock production systems is often based on inventory data for farms typical of a study region. As information on individual animals is often unavailable, livestock data may already be aggregated at the time of inventory analysis, both across individual animals and across seasons. Even though various computational tools exist to consider the effect of genetic and seasonal variabilities in livestock-originated emissions intensity, the degree to which these methods can address the bias suffered by representative animal approaches is not well-understood. Using detailed on-farm data collected on the North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP) in Devon, UK, this paper proposes a novel approach of life cycle impact assessment that complements the existing LCA methodology. Field data, such as forage quality and animal performance, were measured at high spatial and temporal resolutions and directly transferred into LCA processes. This approach has enabled derivation of emissions intensity for each individual animal and, by extension, its intra-farm distribution, providing a step towards reducing uncertainty related to agricultural production inherent in LCA studies for food. Depending on pasture management strategies, the total emissions intensity estimated by the proposed method was higher than the equivalent value recalculated using a representative animal approach by 0.9-1.7 kg CO 2 -eq/kg liveweight gain, or up to 10% of system-wide emissions. This finding suggests that emissions intensity values derived by the latter technique may be underestimated due to insufficient consideration given to poorly performing animals, whose emissions becomes exponentially greater as average daily gain decreases. Strategies to mitigate life-cycle environmental impacts of pasture-based beef productions systems are also discussed.

  16. Plasmon-Induced Selective Enhancement of Green Emission in Lanthanide-Doped Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weina; Li, Juan; Lei, Hongxiang; Li, Baojun

    2017-12-13

    By introducing an 18 nm thick Au nanofilm, selective enhancement of green emission from lanthanide-doped (β-NaYF 4 :Yb 3+ /Er 3+ ) upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) is demonstrated. The Au nanofilm is deposited on a microfiber surface by the sputtering method and then covered with the UCNPs. The plasma on the surface of the Au nanofilm can be excited by launching a 980 nm wavelength laser beam into the microfiber, resulting in an enhancement of the local electric field and a strong thermal effect. A 36-fold luminescence intensity enhancement of the UCNPs at 523 nm is observed, with no obvious reduction in the photostability of the UCNPs. Further, the intensity ratios of the emissions at 523-545 nm and at 523-655 nm are enhanced with increasing pump power, which is attributed to the increasing plasmon-induced thermal effect. Therefore, the fabricated device is further demonstrated to exhibit an excellent ability in temperature sensing. By controlling the pump power and the UCNP concentration, a wide temperature range (325-811 K) and a high temperature resolution (0.035-0.046 K) are achieved in the fabricated device.

  17. Influence of gas discharge parameters on emissions from a dielectric barrier discharge excited argon excimer lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Collier

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A dielectric barrier discharge excited neutral argon (Ar I excimer lamp has been developed and characterised. The aim of this study was to develop an excimer lamp operating at atmospheric pressure that can replace mercury lamps and vacuum equipment used in the sterilisation of medical equipment and in the food industry. The effects of discharge gas pressure, flow rate, excitation frequency and pulse width on the intensity of the Ar I vacuum ultraviolet (VUV emission at 126 nm and near infrared (NIR lines at 750.4 nm and 811.5 nm have been investigated. These three lines were chosen as they represent emissions resulting from de-excitation of excimer states that emit energetic photons with an energy of 9.8 eV. We observed that the intensity of the VUV Ar2* excimer emission at 126 nm increased with increasing gas pressure, but decreased with increasing excitation pulse frequency and pulse width. In contrast, the intensities of the NIR lines decreased with increasing gas pressure and increased with increasing pulse frequency and pulse width. We have demonstrated that energetic VUV photons of 9.8 eV can be efficiently generated in a dielectric barrier discharge in Ar.

  18. Optical absorption and emission characteristics of Pr{sup 3+}-doped RTP glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, D.V.R. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Jamalaiah, B.C. [Department of Physics, Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College, Tirupati (India); Sasikala, T. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Rama Moorthy, L., E-mail: lrmphysics@yahoo.co.i [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Jayasimhadri, M.; Jang, Kiwan; Lee, Ho Sueb [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Soung Soo [Department of Photonics, Silla University, Pusan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jung Hyun [Department of Physics, Pukyong National University, Pusan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Judd-Ofelt (J-O) parameters are calculated for Pr{sup 3+}ions doped alkaline earth potassium titanium phosphate (RTP, where R=Mg, Ca, Sr) glasses. The best fit for the oscillator strengths has been obtained by omitting the {sup 3}H{sub 4}->{sup 3}P{sub 2} hypersensitive transition. In all the three glasses, the J-O parameters follow the same trend as OMEGA{sub 2}OMEGA{sub 6}. These J-O intensity parameters are then used to compute the radiative properties such as the radiative transition probabilities (A{sub R}), branching ratios (beta{sub R}) and radiative lifetimes (tau{sub R}) for the observed fluorescence bands. The fluorescence spectra obtained upon 445 nm excitation exhibited an intense emission band centered at 484 nm ({sup 3}P{sub 0}->{sup 3}H{sub 4}), four medium intense bands at 525 nm ({sup 3}P{sub 1}->{sup 3}H{sub 5}), 598 nm ({sup 1}D{sub 2}->{sup 3}H{sub 4}), 608 nm ({sup 3}P{sub 0}->{sup 3}H{sub 6}) and 641 nm ({sup 3}P{sub 0}->{sup 3}F{sub 2}) and one weak band at 669 nm ({sup 3}P{sub 1}->{sup 3}F{sub 3}). The experimental branching ratios (beta{sub exp}) obtained from steady state fluorescence are compared with the calculated values. The decay curves measured from the {sup 3}P{sub 0} excited metastable state are found to be single exponential in all the glasses. The gain bandwidths (sigma{sub e}xDELTAlambda{sub P}) and optical gain (sigma{sub e}xtau{sub m}) parameters suggest that the RTP glasses could be used for laser active materials to emit intense blue emission at 484 nm.

  19. Air treatment techniques for abatement of emissions from intensive livestock production

    OpenAIRE

    Melse, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Air treatment; Scrubber; Bioscrubber; Biofilter; Biotrickling filter; Ammonia; NH3; Odour; Livestock production; Animal husbandry; Pig; Poultry. Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including emissions of ammonia (NH3), greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O), odour, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). Possible strategies for emission reduction from animal houses include feed management, adaptation of housing design, and the application o...

  20. Achieving high-efficiency emission depletion nanoscopy by employing cross relaxation in upconversion nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Qiuqiang; Liu, Haichun; Wang, Baoju; Wu, Qiusheng; Pu, Rui; Zhou, Chao; Huang, Bingru; Peng, Xingyun; Ågren, Hans; He, Sailing

    2017-10-20

    Stimulated emission depletion microscopy provides a powerful sub-diffraction imaging modality for life science studies. Conventionally, stimulated emission depletion requires a relatively high light intensity to obtain an adequate depletion efficiency through only light-matter interaction. Here we show efficient emission depletion for a class of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles with the assistance of interionic cross relaxation, which significantly lowers the laser intensity requirements of optical depletion. We demonstrate two-color super-resolution imaging using upconversion nanoparticles (resolution ~ 66 nm) with a single pair of excitation/depletion beams. In addition, we show super-resolution imaging of immunostained cytoskeleton structures of fixed cells (resolution ~ 82 nm) using upconversion nanoparticles. These achievements provide a new perspective for the development of photoswitchable luminescent probes and will broaden the applications of lanthanide-doped nanoparticles for sub-diffraction microscopic imaging.

  1. Atmospheric stabilization of CO2 emissions: Near-term reductions and absolute versus intensity-based targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes CO 2 emissions reduction targets for various countries and geopolitical regions by the year 2030 to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 at 450 ppm (550 ppm including non-CO 2 greenhouse gases) level. It also determines CO 2 intensity cuts that would be required in those countries and regions if the emission reductions were to be achieved through intensity-based targets without curtailing their expected economic growth. Considering that the stabilization of CO 2 concentrations at 450 ppm requires the global trend of CO 2 emissions to be reversed before 2030, this study develops two scenarios: reversing the global CO 2 trend in (i) 2020 and (ii) 2025. The study shows that global CO 2 emissions would be limited at 42 percent above 1990 level in 2030 if the increasing trend of global CO 2 emissions were to be reversed by 2020. If reversing the trend is delayed by 5 years, global CO 2 emissions in 2030 would be 52 percent higher than the 1990 level. The study also finds that to achieve these targets while maintaining expected economic growth, the global average CO 2 intensity would require a 68 percent drop from the 1990 level or a 60 percent drop from the 2004 level by 2030

  2. Laser-plasma source parameters for Kr, Gd, and Tb ions at 6.6 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masnavi, Majid; Szilagyi, John; Parchamy, Homaira; Richardson, Martin C. [The Townes Laser Institute, College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)

    2013-04-22

    There is increasing interest in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) laser-based lamps for sub-10-nm lithography operating in the region of 6.6 nm. A collisional-radiative model is developed as a post-processor of a hydrodynamic code to investigate emission from resonance lines in Kr, Gd, and Tb ions under conditions typical for mass-limited EUV sources. The analysis reveals that maximum conversion efficiencies of Kr occur at 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}W/cm{sup 2}, while for Gd and Tb it was Asymptotically-Equal-To 0.9%/2{pi}sr for laser intensities of (2-5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12}W/cm{sup 2}.

  3. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies on the intensity changes of the 5.9 and 5.1 nm actin layer lines from frog skeletal muscle during an isometric tetanus using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, K.; Tanaka, H.; Amemiya, Y.; Fujishima, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Hamanaka, T.; Sugi, H.; Mitsui, T.

    1985-01-01

    Time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies have been made on the 5.9- and 5.1-nm actin layer lines from frog skeletal muscles during an isometric tetanus at 6 degrees C, using synchrotron radiation. The integrated intensities of these actin layer lines were found to increase during a tetanus by 30-50% for the 5.9-nm reflection and approximately 70% for the 5.1-nm reflection of the resting values. The intensity increase of both reflections was greater than that taking place in the transition from rest to rigor state. The intensity change of the 5.9-nm reflection preceded those of the myosin 42.9-nm off-meridional reflection and of the equatorial reflections, as well as the isometric tension development. The intensity profile of the 5.9-nm layer line during contraction was found to be different from that observed in the rigor state

  4. Positron emission intensities in the decay of 64Cu, 76Br and 124I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.; Bisinger, T.; Hilgers, K.; Nayak, D.; Coenen, H.H.

    2007-01-01

    The relatively long-lived positron emitters 64 Cu (t 1/2 = 12.7 h), 76 Br (t 1/2 = 16.2 h) and 124 I (t 1/2 = 4.18 d) are finding increasing applications in positron emission tomography (PET). For precise determination of their positron emission intensities, each radionuclide was prepared via a charged particle induced reaction in a ''no-carrier-added'' form and with high radionuclidic purity. It was then subjected to γ-ray and X-ray spectroscopy as well as to anticoincidence beta and γγ-coincidence counting. The positron emission intensities measured were: 64 Cu (17.8 ± 0.4)%, 76 Br (58.2 ± 1.9)% and 124 I (22.0 ± 0.5)%. The intensity of the weak 1346 keV γ-ray emitted in the decay of 64 Cu was determined as (0.54 ± 0.03)%. Some implications of the precisely determined nuclear data are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Optical emission from Al target irradiated by FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stránský, M; Rohlena, K

    2014-01-01

    The following text touches on some peculiarities in optical emission spectroscopy results from experiments on the free-electron laser FLASH [1, 2]. Aluminum targets were irradiated with 13.5 nm ∼ 25 fs pulses at intensities of 10 13 and 10 16 W/cm 2 (20 and 1 μm foci). Surprisingly, only neutral atom lines for the case with wider focus and traces of ion lines in the tighter focus case were observed with the optical emission spectroscopy (200–600 nm range), [2]. The motivating idea behind this work is the suggestion in [1] by Zastrau that the optical spectrometer sees only emissions from a cold expanding lower-density (< 10 22 cm −3 ) plasma plume. In this contribution the notion of UV range screening is analyzed in detail.

  6. Pressure dependence of emission intensity of rare-gas excimer light produced by silent discharge; Teikiatsu ryoiki ni okeru musei hoden reiki ki gas excimer hikari shutsuryoku no atsuryoku izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Yukimura, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-09-20

    To establish the pressure dependence of silent discharge excited rare gas excimer light emission, a vacua ultraviolet light was subjected to spectroscopic analysis at a pressure lower than 20kPa. Researches are under way to apply the discharge excited rare gas excimer lamp as a vacuum ultraviolet light source for the development of new materials and for the conservation of environments. When the pressure is as low as 1.8kPa or 4.4kPa, the emission has peaks at wavelengths centering on 147nm and 149nm, both of which are the resonance lines of the xenon atom. Excimer generation becomes prominent as the pressure increases, with the second continuum of light growing dominant at 35kPa to weaken relatively the resonance lines and the first continuum of light. In the first continuum, emission increases only at a suppressed rate, as compared with emission in the second continuum, due for instance to a collision caused relaxation process in which excimers are lost. In the case of xenon in the vicinity of 10-11kPa, the first continuum of light and the second continuum of light are approximately equal in emission intensity, producing a vacuum ultraviolet light source with a bandwidth relatively large for a single gas spectrum. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Air treatment techniques for abatement of emissions from intensive livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Air treatment; Scrubber; Bioscrubber; Biofilter; Biotrickling filter; Ammonia; NH3; Odour; Livestock production; Animal husbandry; Pig; Poultry.

    Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including emissions of ammonia (NH3), greenhouse

  8. Combination of the ionic-to-atomic line intensity ratios from two test elements for the diagnostic of plasma temperature and electron number density in Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tognoni, E. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Area della Ricerca del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: tognoni@ipcf.cnr.it; Hidalgo, M.; Canals, A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Universidad de Alicante. Apdo. 99, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Salvetti, A.; Palleschi, V. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Area della Ricerca del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    In Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) spectrochemical analysis, the MgII(280.270 nm)/MgI(285.213 nm) ionic to atomic line intensity ratio is commonly used as a monitor of the robustness of operating conditions. This approach is based on the univocal relationship existing between intensity ratio and plasma temperature, for a pure argon atmospheric ICP in thermodynamic equilibrium. In a multi-elemental plasma in the lower temperature range, the measurement of the intensity ratio may not be sufficient to characterize temperature and electron density. In such a range, the correct relationship between intensity ratio and plasma temperature can be calculated only when the complete plasma composition is known. We propose the combination of the line intensity ratios of two test elements (double ratio) as an effective diagnostic tool for a multi-elemental low temperature LTE plasma of unknown composition. In particular, the variation of the double ratio allows us discriminating changes in the plasma temperature from changes in the electron density. Thus, the effects on plasma excitation and ionization possibly caused by introduction of different samples and matrices in non-robust conditions can be more accurately interpreted. The method is illustrated by the measurement of plasma temperature and electron density in a specific analytic case.

  9. Narrow spectral emission CaMoO{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} phosphor crystals for white light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, A. [Smart Lighting Engineering Research Center, 110, 8th Street, Troy, New York, 12180 (United States); Electrical, Computer and Systems Engineering Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110, 8th Street, Troy, New York, 12180 (United States); Dutta, P.S., E-mail: duttap@rpi.edu [Smart Lighting Engineering Research Center, 110, 8th Street, Troy, New York, 12180 (United States); Electrical, Computer and Systems Engineering Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110, 8th Street, Troy, New York, 12180 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Alkaline earth metal molybdates are promising candidates as a host material for high efficiency narrow spectral emission phosphors. These phosphors could potentially be used for the fabrication of phosphor-converted light emitting diodes (pc-LEDs). Phosphor crystals of calcium molybdate doped with rare earth dopant Ln{sup 3+}(Ln=Eu, Dy, Tb) grown using flux growth method have been shown to exhibit higher excitation efficiency than the powders synthesized by solid-state reaction process. Molybdenum (VI) oxide has been found to be a suitable flux for growing large size optically transparent high quality crystals at a temperature around 1100 Degree-Sign C. Using the excitation wavelengths of 465 nm, 454 nm and 489 nm for CaMoO{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+}, CaMoO{sub 4}: Dy{sup 3+} and CaMoO{sub 4}: Tb{sup 3+}, respectively, intense emission lines at wavelengths of 615 nm, 575 nm and 550 nm were observed. The optimized doping concentrations of 12%, 2% and 5% for Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}, respectively, provided the highest luminescence intensity. - Graphical Abstract: CaMoO{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+} phosphor crystals grown using a molybdenum (VI) oxide flux exhibited around 1.5 times the emission intensity of powders obtained from solid-state reaction at the same synthesis temperature. These crystals were found to efficiently emit 615 nm red light when excited by near UV light up to a wavelength of 395 nm. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CaMoO{sub 4}: Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}) phosphor crystals were successfully grown using high temperature flux (solutions) containing molybdenum (VI) oxide or lithium chloride. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Narrow spectral emission at 615 nm, 575 nm and 550 nm, respectively, was observed from CaMoO{sub 4}: Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}) phosphor crystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimized doping concentrations of Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} in CaMoO{sub 4} for highest

  10. White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using one-emissive layer of the DCJTB doped DPVBi layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M.S.; Jeong, C.H.; Lim, J.T. [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyonggi-Do, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, G.Y. [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyonggi-Do, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); The National Program for Tera-level Devices, Hawolgok-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: gyyeom@skku.edu

    2008-04-01

    White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (TEOLEDs) composed of one doped emissive layer which emits two-wavelength light though the radiative recombination were fabricated. As the emissive layer, 4,4-bis(2,2-diphenylethen-1-yl)biphenyl (DPVBi) was used as the host material and 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl) -4H-pyran (DCJTB) was added as the dopant material. By optimizing the DCJTB concentration (1.2%) and the thickness of the DPVBi layer (30 nm), the intensity ratio of the two wavelengths could be adjusted for balanced white light emission. By using the device composed of glass/Ag (100 nm)/ITO (90 nm)/2-TNATA (60 nm)/NPB (15 nm)/DPVBi:DCJTB (1.2%, 30 nm)/Alq{sub 3} (20 nm)/Li (1.0 nm)/Al (2.0 nm)/Ag (20 nm)/ITO (63 nm)/SiO{sub 2} (42 nm), the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinate of (0.32, 0.34) close to the ideal white color CIE coordinate could be obtained at 100 cd/m{sup 2}.

  11. Upconversion emission study of Er3+/Yb3+ doped barium titanate phosphor prepared by co-precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahata, M.K.; Dey, R.; Kumar, K.; Rai, V.K.; Rai, S.B.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work we have successfully synthesized the Er 3+ , Yb 3+ doped barium titanate phosphor via co-precipitation synthesis method. Under 980 nm excitation, tri-color upconversion fluorescence has been observed. The Fourier Transform Infrared measurement was done to check the presence of organic impurities. In order to find out how many photons are involved in each emission band, the variation of UC emission intensity of the codoped phosphor is studied with increase in excitation power. Upconversion emission spectra show that as the annealing temperature of the powder is increased, intensity of red emission decreases and intensity of green emission increases due to the decrease in maximum phonon frequency of the host material. (author)

  12. THE FORMATION OF IRIS DIAGNOSTICS. VII. THE FORMATION OF THE O i 135.56 NM LINE IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hsiao-Hsuan; Carlsson, Mats, E-mail: h.h.lin@astro.uio.no, E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.no [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2015-11-01

    The O i 135.56 nm line is covered by NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) small explorer mission which studies how the solar atmosphere is energized. We study here the formation and diagnostic potential of this line by means of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium modeling employing both 1D semi-empirical and 3D radiation magnetohydrodynamic models. We study the basic formation mechanisms and derive a quintessential model atom that incorporates essential atomic physics for the formation of the O i 135.56 nm line. This atomic model has 16 levels and describes recombination cascades through highly excited levels by effective recombination rates. The ionization balance O i/O ii is set by the hydrogen ionization balance through charge exchange reactions. The emission in the O i 135.56 nm line is dominated by a recombination cascade and the line is optically thin. The Doppler shift of the maximum emission correlates strongly with the vertical velocity in its line forming region, which is typically located at 1.0–1.5 Mm height. The total intensity of the line emission is correlated with the square of the electron density. Since the O i 135.56 nm line is optically thin, the width of the emission line is a very good diagnostic of non-thermal velocities. We conclude that the O i 135.56 nm line is an excellent probe of the middle chromosphere, and compliments other powerful chromospheric diagnostics of IRIS such as the Mg ii h and k lines and the C ii lines around 133.5 nm.

  13. Surface-plasmon-enhanced lasing emission based on polymer distributed feedback laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dingke, E-mail: dingke.zhang@gmail.com, E-mail: shijianchen@gmail.com [School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Chen, Shijian, E-mail: dingke.zhang@gmail.com, E-mail: shijianchen@gmail.com; Huang, Yingzhou; Zhang, Zhen [School of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Wang, Yanping; Ma, Dongge [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2015-01-14

    Optical losses associated with the metallic contacts necessary for charge injection are an obstacle to the development of electrically pumped organic lasers. In this work, we show that it is possible to overcome these losses by introducing surface plasmons (SPs) in a distributed feedback laser to enhance the lasing emission. We perform a detailed study of the SPs influence on the lasing emission. We experimentally show that enhanced lasing emission has been successfully achieved in the presence of a metal electrode. The laser emission is strongly dependent on the thickness of Ag layer. By optimizing the thickness of Ag layer, surface-plasmon-enhanced lasing emission has been achieved with much reduced thresholds and higher intensity. When the thickness of the Ag layer increases to 50 nm, the device exhibits ten-fold emission intensity and a fifth of excitation threshold comparing with Ag-free one. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) results show that large field intensity is built at the 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-i-propyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl) -4H-pyran:/poly(9-vinylcarbazole)Ag interface, which could lead to a strong coupling between lasing and SPs, and consequently a much enhanced laser emission at the photon energy of around 2.02 eV (615 nm). Our FDTD simulations gave an explanation of the effects of the SPs on lasing operation in the periodic structures. The use of SPs would lead to a new class of highly efficient solid-state laser sources and provide a new path to achieve electrically pumped organic lasers.

  14. Green emission from ZnO–MgO nanocomposite due to Mg diffusion at the interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowri Babu, K.; Ramachandra Reddy, A.; Venugopal Reddy, K.

    2015-01-01

    The origin and electronic transitions responsible for green emission observed from ZnO–MgO nanocomposite are investigated. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of ZnO–MgO nanocomposite annealed at 600 °C showed only a sharp and intense UV emission peak centered at 396 nm. As the annealing temperature increased from 600 °C to 1000 °C, the green emission positioned at 503 nm is emerged and its intensity enhanced gradually and reached maximum value at 900 °C and then decreased at 1000 °C. It is observed that both UV and green emission intensities are enhanced with variation of atomic ratio (Zn/Mg=1.52, 0.50, 0.30, 0.21, 0.15). Our experiments confirmed that the enhancement of green emission intensity is due to the formation of oxygen vacancies (V o ) due to Mg doping at the interface of ZnO and MgO. This experimental observation is in good agreement with the recent theoretical predictions which states that Mg doping in ZnO lowers the formation energies of oxygen vacancies (V o ) and zinc interstitials (Zn i ) significantly. PL excitation and emission spectra analysis reveals that excited state for both UV and green emissions is same and lies 0.24 eV below the conduction band of ZnO. Hence, the green emission is attributed to the transition of an electron form the shallow donor (defect level of Zn i ) to the deep acceptor (defect level of V o ). - Highlights: • It is found that the UV emission intensity from ZnO–MgO nanocomposite enhanced with increase of Mg concentration. • The intensity of the green emission is enhanced gradually as the temperature increased from 600 °C to 900 °C and then decreased at 1000 °C. • The effect of Mg concentration, MgO, strain at the interface on green emission is investigated. • These experiments confirmed that green emission is due to the oxygen vacancies created in ZnO due to the Mg doping at the interface and it is in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. • The decrease of green emission intensity is

  15. Effect of calcinations temperature on the luminescence intensity and fluorescent lifetime of Tb3+-doped hydroxyapatite (Tb-HA nanocrystallines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Yin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite luminescent nanocrystallines doped with 6 mol.% Tb3+ (Tb-HA were prepared via chemical deposition method and calcined at different temperature, and the effects of calcinations temperature on the luminescence intensity and fluorescent lifetime were studied. TEM image of Tb-HA revealed that the shape of nanocrystallines changed from needle-like to short rod-like and sphere-like with the increase of calcinations temperature; while the particles sizes decreased from 190 nm to 110 nm. The crystallinity degree increased. The typical emission peaks attributed to Tb3+ ions were observed in emission spectra of 6 mol.% Tb-HA under 378 nm excitation. The luminescent intensity of Tb-HA, which showed the fluorescence quenching, firstly enhanced and then decreased at 700 °C; while the fluorescent lifetime increased firstly and then decreased after 600 °C. Furthermore, the ratio of intensity between 545 nm and 490 nm corresponding to electric-dipole and magnetic-dipole transition (IR: IO increases firstly and then decreases, which revealed that the proportion of substitute type and site of Ca2+ ions by Tb3+ ions were helpful to realize the substitute process and functional structure design.

  16. Impact of subclinical mastitis on greenhouse gas emissions intensity and profitability of dairy cows in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan Gülzari, Şeyda; Vosough Ahmadi, Bouda; Stott, Alistair W

    2018-02-01

    Impaired animal health causes both productivity and profitability losses on dairy farms, resulting in inefficient use of inputs and increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced per unit of product (i.e. emissions intensity). Here, we used subclinical mastitis as an exemplar to benchmark alternative scenarios against an economic optimum and adjusted herd structure to estimate the GHG emissions intensity associated with varying levels of disease. Five levels of somatic cell count (SCC) classes were considered namely 50,000 (i.e. SCC50), 200,000, 400,000, 600,000 and 800,000cells/mL (milliliter) of milk. The effects of varying levels of SCC on milk yield reduction and consequential milk price penalties were used in a dynamic programming (DP) model that maximizes the profit per cow, represented as expected net present value, by choosing optimal animal replacement rates. The GHG emissions intensities associated with different levels of SCC were then computed using a farm-scale model (HolosNor). The total culling rates of both primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) cows for the five levels of SCC scenarios estimated by the model varied from a minimum of 30.9% to a maximum of 43.7%. The expected profit was the highest for cows with SCC200 due to declining margin over feed, which influenced the DP model to cull and replace more animals and generate higher profit under this scenario compared to SCC50. The GHG emission intensities for the PP and MP cows with SCC50 were 1.01kg (kilogram) and 0.95kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO 2 e) per kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM), respectively, with the lowest emissions being achieved in SCC50. Our results show that there is a potential to reduce the farm GHG emissions intensity by 3.7% if the milk production was improved through reducing the level of SCC to 50,000cells/mL in relation to SCC level 800,000cells/mL. It was concluded that preventing and/or controlling subclinical mastitis consequently reduces the GHG

  17. White light emission from fluorescent SiC with porous surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Weifang; Ou, Yiyu; Fiordaliso, Elisabetta Maria

    2017-01-01

    We report for the frst time a NUV light to white light conversion in a N-B co-doped 6H-SiC (fuorescent SiC) layer containing a hybrid structure. The surface of fuorescent SiC sample contains porous structures fabricated by anodic oxidation method. After passivation by 20nm thick Al2O3, the photol......We report for the frst time a NUV light to white light conversion in a N-B co-doped 6H-SiC (fuorescent SiC) layer containing a hybrid structure. The surface of fuorescent SiC sample contains porous structures fabricated by anodic oxidation method. After passivation by 20nm thick Al2O3...... the bulk fuorescent SiC layer. A high color rendering index of 81.1 has been achieved. Photoluminescence spectra in porous layers fabricated in both commercial n-type and lab grown N-B co-doped 6H-SiC show two emission peaks centered approximately at 460nm and 530nm. Such bluegreen emission phenomenon can......, the photoluminescence intensity from the porous layer was signifcant enhanced by a factor of more than 12. Using a porous layer of moderate thickness (~10µm), high-quality white light emission was realized by combining the independent emissions of blue-green emission from the porous layer and yellow emission from...

  18. Characteristics of extreme ultraviolet emission from high-Z plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, H.; Higashiguchi, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Kawasaki, M.; Suzuki, C.; Tomita, K.; Nishikino, M.; Fujioka, S.; Endo, A.; Li, B.; Otsuka, T.; Dunne, P.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray sources in the 2 to 7 nm spectral region related to the beyond EUV (BEUV) question at 6.x nm and the water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs), extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on high-Z plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics. (paper)

  19. Characteristics of extreme ultraviolet emission from high-Z plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, H.; Higashiguchi, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Kawasaki, M.; Suzuki, C.; Tomita, K.; Nishikino, M.; Fujioka, S.; Endo, A.; Li, B.; Otsuka, T.; Dunne, P.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray sources in the 2 to 7 nm spectral region related to the beyond EUV (BEUV) question at 6.x nm and the water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs), extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on high-Z plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

  20. How Often Do Thermally Excited 630.0 nm Emissions Occur in the Polar Ionosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwagala, Norah Kaggwa; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Lorentzen, Dag A.; Johnsen, Magnar G.

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies thermally excited emissions in the polar ionosphere derived from European Incoherent Scatter Svalbard radar measurements from the years 2000-2015. The peak occurrence is found around magnetic noon, where the radar observations show cusp-like characteristics. The ionospheric, interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind conditions favor dayside magnetic reconnection as the dominant driving process. The thermal emissions occur 10 times more frequently on the dayside than on the nightside, with an average intensity of 1-5 kR. For typical electron densities in the polar ionosphere (2 × 1011 m-3), we find the peak occurrence rate to occur for extreme electron temperatures (>3000 K), which is consistent with assumptions in literature. However, for extreme electron densities (>5 × 1011 m-3), we can now report on a completely new population of thermal emissions that may occur at much lower electron temperatures (˜2300 K). The empirical atmospheric model (NRLMSISE-00) suggests that the latter population is associated with enhanced neutral atomic oxygen densities.

  1. Particle emission from polymer-doped water ice matrices induced by non-linear absorption of laser light at 1064 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purice, A.; Schou, Jørgen; Dinescu, M.

    2006-01-01

    Emission of PEG (polyethylene glycol) molecules and ions from an ice target induced by laser irradiation in the infrared (IR) regime at 1064 nm was studied. Matrices of 1 wt% PEG flash-frozen solutions were used for polymer deposition with MAPLE (matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation). Even...

  2. Effects of alcohols on fluorescence intensity and color of a discharged-obelin-based biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alieva, Roza R; Belogurova, Nadezhda V; Petrova, Alena S; Kudryasheva, Nadezhda S

    2014-05-01

    Photoproteins are responsible for bioluminescence of marine coelenterates; bioluminescent and fluorescent biomarkers based on photoproteins are useful for monitoring of calcium-dependent processes in medical investigations. Here, we present the analysis of intensity and color of light-induced fluorescence of Ca(2+)-discharged photoprotein obelin in the presence of alcohols (ethanol and glycerol). Complex obelin spectra obtained at different concentrations of the alcohols at 350- and 280-nm excitation (corresponding to polypeptide-bound coelenteramide and tryptophan absorption regions) were deconvoluted into Gaussian components; fluorescent intensity and contributions of the components to experimental spectra were analyzed. Five Gaussian components were found in different spectral regions-ultraviolet (tryptophan emission), blue-green (coelenteramide emission), and red (hypothetical indole-coelenteramide exciplex emission). Inhibition coefficients and contributions of the components to experimental fluorescent spectra showed that presence of alcohols increased contributions of ultraviolet, violet, and red components, but decreased contributions of components in the blue-green region. The effects were related to (1) changes of proton transfer efficiency in fluorescent S*1 state of coelenteramide in the obelin active center and (2) formation of indole-coelenteramide exciplex at 280-nm photoexcitation. The data show that variation of fluorescence color and intensity in the presence of alcohols and dependence of emission spectra on excitation wavelength should be considered while applying the discharged obelin as a fluorescence biomarker.

  3. EU energy-intensive industries and emissions trading: losers becoming winners?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wettestad, Joergen

    2008-11-15

    The EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) initially treated power producers and energy-intensive industries similarly, despite clear structural differences between these industries regarding pass through of costs and vulnerability to global competition. Hence, the energy-intensive industries could be seen as losing out in the internal distribution. In the January 2008 proposal for a reformed ETS post-2012, a differentiated system was proposed where the energy-intensive industries come out relatively much better. What is the explanation for the change taking place? Although power producers still have a dominant position in the system, the increasing consensus about windfall profits has weakened their standing. Conversely, the energy-intensive industries have become better organised and more active. This balance shift is first and foremost noticeable in several important EU-level stake holder consultation processes. Energy-intensive industries have, however, also successfully utilised the national pathway to exert influence on Brussels policy-making. Finally, growing fear of lax global climate policies and related carbon leakage has strengthened the case of these industries further. The latter dimension indicates that although energy-intensive industries have managed to reduce internal distribution anomalies, external challenges remain. (author). 9 refs

  4. Simulations of bremsstrahlung emission in ultra-intense laser interactions with foil targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskočil, Jiří; Klimo, Ondřej; Weber, Stefan

    2018-05-01

    Bremsstrahlung emission from interactions of short ultra-intense laser pulses with solid foils is studied using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A module for simulating bremsstrahlung has been implemented in the PIC loop to self-consistently account for the dynamics of the laser–plasma interaction, plasma expansion, and the emission of gamma ray photons. This module made it possible to study emission from thin targets, where refluxing of hot electrons plays an important role. It is shown that the angular distribution of the emitted photons exhibits a four-directional structure with the angle of emission decreasing with the increase of the width of the target. Additionally, a collimated forward flash consisting of high energy photons has been identified in thin targets. The conversion efficiency of the energy of the laser pulse to the energy of the gamma rays rises with both the driving pulse intensity, and the thickness of the target. The amount of gamma rays also increases with the atomic number of the target material, despite a lower absorption of the driving laser pulse. The angular spectrum of the emitted gamma rays is directly related to the increase of hot electron divergence during their refluxing and its measurement can be used in experiments to study this process.

  5. Red Emission of SrAl2O4:Mn4+ Phosphor for Warm White Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, N. T. K.; Tuan, N. T.; Lien, N. T. K.; Nguyen, D. H.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, SrAl2O4:Mn4+ phosphor is prepared by co-precipitation. The phase structure, morphology, composition and luminescent performance of the phosphor are investigated in detail with x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, steady-state photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and temperature-dependent PL measurements. The phosphor shows a strong red emission peak at ˜ 690 nm, which is due to the transition between electronic levels and the electric dipole transition 2Eg to 4A2g of Mn4+ ions located at the sites with D3d local symmetry. The sample doped with 0.04 mol.% Mn4+ exhibits intense red emission with high thermal stability and appropriate International Commission on Illumination (CIE) coordinates (x = 0.6959, y = 0.2737). It is also found that the phosphor absorption in an extended band from 250 nm to 500 nm has three peaks at 320 nm, 405 nm, and 470 nm, which match well with the emission band of ultraviolet (UV) lighting emission diode (LED) or blue LED chips. These results demonstrate that SrAl2O4:Mn4+ phosphor can play the role of activator in narrow red-emitting phosphor, which is potentially useful in UV (˜ 320 nm) or blue (˜ 460 nm) LED.

  6. Comparative analysis of the effect of the GaAlAs laser irradiation in 780 nm and 660 nm in the hypersensitive dentin; Analise comparativa do efeito da irradiacao do laser de GaAlAs em 780 nm e 660 nm na hipersensibilidade dentinaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Sun Chien

    2003-07-01

    This study was to evaluate and compare the effects of the low intensity in laser radiation among GaAlAs 780 nm and GaAlAs 660 nm. The main proposal is to verify if there is any difference of the effects or results in low intensity laser application treatment of hypersensitive dentin, keeping the same parameters, only differing in wavelength. The samples were distributed in two groups. Group A 90 cases, treated with GaAlAs 780 nm and group B irradiated with GaAlAs 660 nm with a total of 76 cases analyzed. The results of application with GaAlAs 660 nm and GaAlAs 780 nm do not differ statistically. Which means using any one of the irradiation gives the same results. However can be noted that the response of reduction of hypersensitivity is faster with the radiation of GaAlAs 780 nm, but the results after three applications is the same for both types of radiation. (author)

  7. Emission spectra of phosphor MgSO4 doped with Dy and Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunxiang; Chen Lixin; Tang Qiang; Luo Daling; Qiu Zhiren

    2001-01-01

    Emission spectra of phosphor MgSO 4 doped with Dy and Dy/Mn were measured with an optical multichannel analyzer and a linear heating system whose temperature was controlled by a microcomputer. The emission spectrum bands at 480 nm and 580 nm of phosphor MgSO 4 doped with Dy were observed in the three dimensional (3D) glow curves. Compared with the 3D spectrum of CaSO 4 :Dy and the spectrum bands of MgSO 4 :Dy shows the same wavelengths which resulted from the quantum transitions among the energy levels of Dy 3 '+ ions. The intensities of the glow peaks in both spectrum bands (480 nm and 580 nm) of phosphor MgSO 4 doped with Dy/Mn were dramatically reduced except the 380 degree C glow peak

  8. Top-down Estimates of Greenhouse Gas Intensities and Emissions for Individual Oil Sands Facilities in Alberta Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggio, J.; Li, S. M.; Staebler, R. M.; Hayden, K. L.; Mittermeier, R. L.; McLaren, R.; Baray, S.; Darlington, A.; Worthy, D.; O'Brien, J.

    2017-12-01

    The oil sands (OS) region of Alberta contributes approximately 10% to Canada's overall anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Such emissions have traditionally been estimated through "bottom-up" methods which seek to account for all individual sources of GHGs within a given facility. However, it is recognized that bottom-up approaches for complex industrial facilities can be subject to uncertainties associated with incomplete or inaccurate emission factor and/or activity data. In order to quantify air pollutant emissions from oil sands activities an aircraft-based measurement campaign was performed in the summer of 2013. The aircraft measurements could also be used to quantify GHG emissions for comparison to the bottom up emissions estimates. Utilizing specific flight patterns, together with an emissions estimation algorithm and measurements of CO2 and methane, a "top-down" estimate of GHG intensities for several large surface mining operations was obtained. The results demonstrate that there is a wide variation in emissions intensities (≈80 - 220 kg CO2/barrel oil) across OS facilities, which in some cases agree with calculated intensities, and in other cases are larger than that estimated using industry reported GHG emission and oil production data. When translated to annual GHG emissions, the "top-down" approach results in a CO2 emission of approximately 41 Mega Tonnes (MT) CO2/year for the 4 OS facilities investigated, in contrast to the ≈26 MT CO2/year reported by industry. The results presented here highlight the importance of using "top-down" approaches as a complimentary method in evaluating GHG emissions from large industrial sources.

  9. Secondary Emission From Synthetic Opal Infiltrated by Colloidal Gold and Glycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovbeshko, G.I.; Fesenko, O.M.; Boyko, V.V.; Romanyuk, V.R.; Gorelik, V.S.; Moiseyenko, V.N.; Sobolev, V.B.; Shvalagin, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of the secondary emission (photoluminescence) and Bragg reflection spectra of photonic crystals (PC), namely, synthetic opals, opals infiltrated by colloidal gold, glycine, and a complex of colloidal gold with glycine is performed. The infiltration of colloidal gold and a complex of colloidal gold with glycine into the pores of PC causes a short-wavelength shift (about 5-15 nm) of the Bragg reflection and increases the intensity of this band by 1.5-3 times. In photoluminescence, the infiltration of PC by colloidal gold and colloidal gold with glycine suppresses the PC emission band near 375-450 nm and enhances the shoulder of the stop-zone band of PC in the region of 470-510 nm. The shape of the observed PC emission band connected with defects in synthetic opal is determined by the type of infiltrates and the excitation wavelength. Possible mechanisms of the effects are discussed.

  10. Upconversion emission and cathodoluminescence of Er{sup 3+}-doped NaYbF{sub 4} nanoparticles for low-temperature thermometry and field emission displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Peng; Yu, Jae Su [Kyung Hee University, Department of Electronics and Radio Engineering, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Luo, Laihui [Ningbo University, Department of Microelectronic Science and Engineering, Ningbo (China)

    2017-03-15

    The Er{sup 3+}-doped NaYbF{sub 4} nanoparticles were fabricated by a hydrothermal method. The green and red emissions located at around 525, 542 and 657 nm corresponding to the {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transitions of Er{sup 3+} ions, respectively, were observed when pumped at 980 nm light. Furthermore, with the help of the fluorescence intensity ratio technique, the thermometric properties of as-prepared products from the thermally coupled {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} levels of Er{sup 3+} ions were studied by analyzing temperature-dependent upconversion (UC) emission spectra. The maximum sensitivity for the Er{sup 3+}-doped NaYbF{sub 4} nanoparticles was found to be around 0.0043 K{sup -} {sup 1} with a temperature range of 93-293 K. In addition, the cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum of the synthesized nanoparticles was nearly the same as the UC emission spectrum and the CL emission intensity did not exhibit saturation with the increase of accelerating voltage and filament current. (orig.)

  11. Spectroscopic properties of the 1.4 microm emission of Tm3+ ions in TeO2-WO3-PbO glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balda, R; Lacha, L M; Fernández, J; Arriandiaga, M A; Fernández-Navarro, J M; Muñoz-Martin, D

    2008-08-04

    In this work, we report the spectroscopic properties of the infrared 3H4-->3F4 emission of Tm3+ ions in two different compositions of glasses based on TeO2, WO3, and PbO for three Tm2O3 concentrations (0.1,0.5, and 1 wt%). Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters have been determined and used to calculate the radiative transition probabilities and radiative lifetimes. The infrared emission at around 1490 nm corresponding to the 3H4-->F4 transition has two noticeable features if compared to fluoride glasses used for S-band amplifiers. On one hand, it is broader by nearly 30 nm, and on the other, the stimulated emission cross section is twice the value for fluoride glasses. Both the relative intensity ratio of the 1490 nm emission to 1820 nm and the measured lifetime of the 3H4 level decrease as concentration increases, due to the existence of energy transfer via cross-relaxation among Tm3+ ions. The analysis of the decays from the 3H4 level with increasing concentration indicates the presence of a dipole-dipole quenching process assisted by energy migration.

  12. An investigation of the ionospheric F region near the EIA crest in India using OI 777.4 and 630.0 nm nightglow observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Parihar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous observations of OI 777.4 and OI 630.0 nm nightglow emissions were carried at a low-latitude station, Allahabad (25.5° N, 81.9° E; geomag. lat.  ∼  16.30° N, located near the crest of the Appleton anomaly in India during September–December 2009. This report attempts to study the F region of ionosphere using airglow-derived parameters. Using an empirical approach put forward by Makela et al. (2001, firstly, we propose a novel technique to calibrate OI 777.4 and 630.0 nm emission intensities using Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate/Formosa Satellite Mission 3 (COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 electron density profiles. Next, the electron density maximum (Nm and its height (hmF2 of the F layer have been derived from the information of two calibrated intensities. Nocturnal variation of Nm showed the signatures of the retreat of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA and the midnight temperature maximum (MTM phenomenon that are usually observed in the equatorial and low-latitude ionosphere. Signatures of gravity waves with time periods in the range of 0.7–3.0 h were also seen in Nm and hmF2 variations. Sample Nm and hmF2 maps have also been generated to show the usefulness of this technique in studying ionospheric processes.

  13. Experimental Studies of Simultaneous 351 nm and 527 nm Laser Beam Interactions in a Long Scalelength Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J D; Divol, L; Glenzer, S H; MacKinnon, A J; Froula, D H; Gregori, G; Kruer, W L; Suter, L J; Williams, E A; Bahr, R; Seka, W

    2003-01-01

    We describe experiments investigating the simultaneous backscattering from 351 nm (3w) and 527 nm (2w) interaction beams in a long scalelength laser-produced plasma for intensities (le) 1 x 10 15 W/cm 2 . Measurements show comparable scattering fractions for both color probe beams. Time resolved spectra of stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering (SRS and SBS) indicate the effects of laser intensity and smoothing as well as plasma composition and parameters on the scattering levels

  14. The Formation of IRIS Diagnostics. IX. The Formation of the C i 135.58 NM Line in the Solar Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hsiao-Hsuan; Carlsson, Mats; Leenaarts, Jorrit, E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.no, E-mail: jorrit.leenaarts@astro.su.se [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2017-09-01

    The C i 135.58 nm line is located in the wavelength range of NASA’s Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) small explorer mission. We study the formation and diagnostic potential of this line by means of non local-thermodynamic-equilibrium modeling, employing both 1D and 3D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic models. The C i/C ii ionization balance is strongly influenced by photoionization by Ly α emission. The emission in the C i 135.58 nm line is dominated by a recombination cascade and the line forming region is optically thick. The Doppler shift of the line correlates strongly with the vertical velocity in its line forming region, which is typically located at 1.5 Mm height. With IRIS , the C i 135.58 nm line is usually observed together with the O i 135.56 nm line, and from the Doppler shift of both lines, we obtain the velocity difference between the line forming regions of the two lines. From the ratio of the C i/O i line core intensity, we can determine the distance between the C i and the O i forming layers. Combined with the velocity difference, the velocity gradient at mid-chromospheric heights can be derived. The C i/O i total intensity line ratio is correlated with the inverse of the electron density in the mid-chromosphere. We conclude that the C i 135.58 nm line is an excellent probe of the middle chromosphere by itself, and together with the O i 135.56 nm line the two lines provide even more information, which complements other powerful chromospheric diagnostics of IRIS such as the Mg ii h and k lines and the C ii lines around 133.5 nm.

  15. Multimodal emissions from Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate glass: Upconversion, downshifting and quantum cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadur, A.; Yadav, R.S.; Yadav, R.V.; Rai, S.B., E-mail: sbrai49@yahoo.co.in

    2017-02-15

    This paper reports the optical properties of Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate (LB) glass prepared by melt quench method. The absorption spectrum of the Yb{sup 3+} doped LB glass contains intense NIR band centered at 976 nm due to {sup 2}F{sub 7/2}→{sup 2}F{sub 5/2} transition. The emission spectra of the prepared glasses have been monitored on excitation with 266, 355 and 976 nm. The Yb{sup 3+} doped glass emits a broad NIR band centered at 976 nm whereas the Tb{sup 3+} doped glass gives off visible bands on excitations with 266 and 355 nm. When the Tb{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} ions are co-doped together, the emission intensity in the visible region decreases whereas it increases in the NIR region significantly. The increase in the emission intensity in the NIR region is due to efficient cooperative energy transfer (CET) from Tb{sup 3+} to Yb{sup 3+} ions. The quantum cutting efficiency for Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass has been calculated and compared for 266 and 355 nm excitations. The quantum cutting efficiency is larger for 355 nm excitation (137%). The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped LB glass also emits upconverted visible bands on excitation with 976 nm. The mechanisms involved in the energy transfer have been discussed using schematic energy level diagram. The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped LB glass may be used in the optical devices and in solar cell for solar spectral conversion and behaves as a multi-modal photo-luminescent material. - Graphical abstract: The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate (LB) glass prepared by melt quench method emits upconverted visible emissions through upconversion CET from Yb{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+} ions and quantum cutting emissions through downconversion CET from Tb{sup 3+} to Yb{sup 3+} ions. Therefore, the Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped LB glass may find applications in optical devices and solar cell and behaves as a multi-modal photo-luminescent material. - Highlights: • The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3

  16. Intense 2.7 µm emission and structural origin in Er3+-doped bismuthate (Bi2O3-GeO2-Ga2O3-Na2O) glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanyan; Li, Ming; Hu, Lili; Zhang, Junjie

    2012-01-15

    The 2.7 μm emission properties in Er3+-doped bismuthate (Bi2O3-GeO2-Ga2O3-Na2O) glass were investigated in the present Letter. An intense 2.7 μm emission in Er3+-doped bismuthate glass was observed. It is found that Er3+-doped bismuthate glass possesses high spontaneous transition probability A (65.26 s(-1)) and large 2.7 μm emission cross section σ(em) (9.53×10(-21) cm2) corresponding to the stimulated emission of Er3+:4I11/2→4I13/2 transition. The emission characteristic and energy transfer process upon excitation of a conventional 980 nm laser diode in bismuthate glass were analyzed. Additionally, the structure of bismuthate glass was analyzed by the Raman spectrum. The advantageous spectroscopic characteristics of Er3+ single-doped bismuthate glass together with the prominent thermal property indicate that bismuthate glass might become an attractive host for developing solid-state lasers around 2.7 μm.

  17. Upcoversion performance improvement of NaYF4:Yb, Er by Sn codoping: Enhanced emission intensity and reduced decay time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Han; Cao, Wenbing; Huang, Qingming; Ma, En; Zhang, Xinqi; Yu, Jianchang

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript we report a phenomenon that upconversion emission intensity of Er 3+ was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased obviously by Sn codoping with Yb/Er into hexagonal NaYF 4 synchronously. X-ray powder diffiraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron spin-resonance spectroscopy and upconversion emission spectra were employed to explore the relation of crystal structure and properties. From these characterizations we found that symmetry of the rare earth ion local crystal field could be tuned by different Sn codoping concentration. For the variable valence property of Sn the local crystal field asymmetry and emission intensity of NaYF 4 :Yb, Er arrived to the maximum when 3 mol% Sn was codoped, while decay time was reduced. The study of this changing tends of upconversion emission intensity and decay time constant may be helpful for design and fabrication of high performance upconversion materials. - Graphical abstract: Variable-valenced Sn is introduced with Yb/Er into NaFY 4 to tune structure and local crystal field. Upconversion emission intensity of Er 3+ was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased. Display Omitted - Highlights: • NaYF 4 : Yb, Er was codoped with different concentration Sn. • Upconversion emission intensity was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased. • Introduction of variable-valenced Sn is effective to tune structure and crystal field of NaFY 4

  18. Relative emissions intensity of dairy production systems: employing different functional units in life-cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S A; Topp, C F E; Ennos, R A; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the merit and suitability of individual functional units (FU) in expressing greenhouse gas emissions intensity in different dairy production systems. An FU provides a clearly defined and measurable reference to which input and output data are normalised. This enables the results from life-cycle assessment (LCA) of different systems to be treated as functionally equivalent. Although the methodological framework of LCA has been standardised, selection of an appropriate FU remains ultimately at the discretion of the individual study. The aim of the present analysis was to examine the effect of different FU on the emissions intensities of different dairy production systems. Analysis was based on 7 years of data (2004 to 2010) from four Holstein-Friesian dairy systems at Scotland's Rural College's long-term genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd. Implementation of LCA accounted for the environmental impacts of the whole-farm systems and their production of milk from 'cradle to farm gate'. Emissions intensity was determined as kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents referenced to six FU: UK livestock units, energy-corrected milk yield, total combined milk solids yield, on-farm land used for production, total combined on- and off-farm land used for production, and the proposed new FU-energy-corrected milk yield per hectare of total land used. Energy-corrected milk was the FU most effective for reflecting differences between the systems. Functional unit that incorporated a land-related aspect did not find difference between systems which were managed under the same forage regime, despite their comprising different genetic lines. Employing on-farm land as the FU favoured grazing systems. The proposed dual FU combining both productivity and land use did not differentiate between emissions intensity of systems as effectively as the productivity-based units. However, this dual unit displayed potential to quantify in a simple way

  19. A new method of organizing spectral line intensity ratio fluctuations of nightglow emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, B.

    1986-02-01

    In this paper a new kind of linearization effect between the atmospheric night airglow emissions is presented. The same kind of linearization effect has previously been studied with spectrochemical light sources together with a spectrometer. A linear graph was obtained for atomic spectral lines and vibrational bandspectra when the spectral line intensity ratio fluctuations were plotted versus the photon energies of these emissions. To study this effect data from a number of different photometer investigations of night airglow emissions at different times and places have been used. (author)

  20. Emission parameters and thermal management of single high-power 980-nm laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezotosnyi, V V; Krokhin, O N; Oleshchenko, V A; Pevtsov, V F; Popov, Yu M; Cheshev, E A

    2014-01-01

    We report emission parameters of high-power cw 980-nm laser diodes (LDs) with a stripe contact width of 100 μm. On copper heat sinks of the C-mount type, a reliable output power of 10 W is obtained at a pump current of 10 A. Using a heat flow model derived from analysis of calculated and measured overall efficiencies at pump currents up to 20 A, we examine the possibility of raising the reliable power limit of a modified high-power LD mounted on heat sinks of the F-mount type using submounts with optimised geometric parameters and high thermal conductivity. The possibility of increasing the maximum reliable cw output power to 20 W with the use of similar laser crystals is discussed. (lasers)

  1. Manufacturing sector carbon dioxide emissions in nine OECD countries 1973--87: A Divisia index decomposition to changes in fuel mix, emission coefficients, industry structure, energy intensities, and international structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvanger, A.

    1990-11-01

    In this paper the reduction in energy-related manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions for nine OECD countries in the period 1973 to 1987 is analyzed. Carbon dioxide emissions are estimated from energy use data. The emphasis is on carbon dioxide intensities, defined as emissions divided by value added. The overall manufacturing carbon dioxide intensity for the nine OECD countries was reduced by 42% in the period 1973--1987. Five fuels are specified together with six subsectors of manufacturing. Carbon dioxide emissions are estimated from fossil fuel consumption, employing emissions coefficients for gas, oil and solids. In addition, electricity consumption is specified. For electricity use an emission coefficient index is calculated from the shares of fossil fuels, nuclear power and hydro power used to generate electricity, and the efficiency in electricity generation from these energy sources. A Divisia index approach is used to sort out the contribution to reduced carbon dioxide intensity from different components. The major finding is that the main contribution to reduced carbon dioxide intensity is from the general reduction in manufacturing energy intensity, most likely driven by economic growth and increased energy prices, giving incentives to invest in new technology and new industrial processes. There is also a significant contribution from reduced production in the most carbon dioxide intensive subsectors, and a contribution from higher efficiency in electricity generation together with a larger nuclear power share at the expense of oil. 19 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs

  2. Luminescent sensitization and blue shift emission of Ir(ppy){sub 2}(VPHD) by copolymerization with MMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An Baoli, E-mail: blan@staff.shu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Dai Fanzeng; Zhang Yanling; Song Jian; Huang, Xiao-Di [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Xu, Jia-Qiang, E-mail: xujiaqiang@shu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Ir(ppy){sub 2}(VPHD) (ppy=2-phenyl pyridine, VPHD=6-(4-vinylphenyl)-2,4-hexanedione) was copolymerized with methyl methacrylate (MMA). The copolymer had high quantum yield of 52.3{+-}0.5% in dilute ethyl acetate solution, and the yield increased around 45% than that of the iridium monomer. The maximum emission peaks for the copolymers shifted from 515 to 489 nm while the iridium complex content was less than 0.005 mol% in the feed. The blue emission at 489 nm and the green emission at 520 nm were analyzed by Lorenz function. They are attributed to {sup 1}MLCT and {sup 3}MLCT emissions, respectively. - Highlights: > PMMA-Ir(ppy){sub 2}(VPHD) as luminescent material with high yield of 53%. > The blue color emission at 489 nm from {sup 1}MLCT in conformity with Lorenz function. > The quantum yield for the copolymer increases 45% than that of the iridium monomer. > The {sup 3}MLCT Ex. intensity versus the monomer concentration is in conformity with Boltzmann function.

  3. Spectroscopic study of emission coal mineral plasma produced by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, L P; Pérez, J A; Riascos, H

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic analysis of plasma produced by laser ablation of coal samples using 1064 nm radiation pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG on different target under air ambient, was performed. The emission of molecular band systems such as C 2 Swan System (d 3 Π g →a 3 Π u ), the First Negative System N 2 (Band head at 501,53 nm) and emission lines of the C I, C II, were investigated using the optical emission spectroscopy technique. The C 2 molecular spectra (Swan band) were analyzed to determine vibrational temperature (0,62 eV); the density and electron temperature of the plasma have been evaluated using Stark broadening and the intensity of the nitrogen emission lines N II, the found values of 1,2 eV and 2,2 x10 18 cm −3 respectively.

  4. Absolute UV and VUV emission in the 110-400 nm region from 13.56 MHz driven hollow slot microplasmas operating in open air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A; Yalin, A P; Surla, V; Stan, O; Hoshimiya, K; Yu, Z; Littlefield, Eric; Collins, G J

    2004-01-01

    We present absolute optical emission spectra in the 110-400 nm regions from radio-frequency-driven (13.56 MHz) hollow slot microplasmas operating in open air at atmospheric pressure. The term microplasma in our research refers to inter-electrode separation (100-600 μm) only, as electrode lengths are scalable from 1 to 30 cm. This creates an extended slot plasma and an associated afterglow plume as described herein. Spectra are presented for gas flows through the microelectrodes of argon and helium with small admixtures of hydrogen and nitrogen into open air. The spectra are discussed in terms of species origin and magnitude of the dominant emission lines. Atomic O and N lines dominate the 110-200 nm region, whereas, in the 200-400 nm region, NO, N 2 , N 2 + and NH molecular lines are strongest. The role of the N 2 A 3 Σ u state in the open air microplasmas is discussed and the second positive system of molecular nitrogen (N 2 (C 3 Π g -B 3 Π g )), is used to measure the rotational (gas) temperature. Finally, we compare the efficiency and magnitude of light emission from the open air microplasmas with values attainable from commercial sealed mercury lamps in the UVB and UVC regions

  5. Pulsed, atmospheric pressure plasma source for emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jin, Zhe; Su, Yongxuan

    2004-05-11

    A low-power, plasma source-based, portable molecular light emission generator/detector employing an atmospheric pressure pulsed-plasma for molecular fragmentation and excitation is described. The average power required for the operation of the plasma is between 0.02 W and 5 W. The features of the optical emission spectra obtained with the pulsed plasma source are significantly different from those obtained with direct current (dc) discharge higher power; for example, strong CH emission at 431.2 nm which is only weakly observed with dc plasma sources was observed, and the intense CN emission observed at 383-388 nm using dc plasma sources was weak in most cases. Strong CN emission was only observed using the present apparatus when compounds containing nitrogen, such as aniline were employed as samples. The present apparatus detects dimethylsulfoxide at 200 ppb using helium as the plasma gas by observing the emission band of the CH radical. When coupled with a gas chromatograph for separating components present in a sample to be analyzed, the present invention provides an apparatus for detecting the arrival of a particular component in the sample at the end of the chromatographic column and the identity thereof.

  6. Dual emission fluorescent silver nanoclusters for sensitive detection of the biological coenzyme NAD+/NADH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yufeng; Huang, Kehan; Chang, Mengfang; Qin, Cuifang; Zhang, Sanjun; Pan, Haifeng; Chen, Yan; Xu, Jianhua

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescent silver nanoclusters (Ag NCs) displaying dual-excitation and dual-emission properties have been developed for the specific detection of NAD(+) (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, oxidized form). With the increase of NAD(+) concentrations, the longer wavelength emission (with the peak at 550 nm) was gradually quenched due to the strong interactions between the NAD(+) and Ag NCs, whereas the shorter wavelength emission (peaking at 395 nm) was linearly enhanced. More important, the dual-emission intensity ratio (I395/I550), fitting by a single-exponential decay function, can efficiently detect various NAD(+) levels from 100 to 4000 μM, as well as label NAD(+)/NADH (reduced form of NAD) ratios in the range of 1-50. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Split-face comparison of intense pulsed light and nonablative 1,064-nm Q-switched laser in skin rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Meng-Hua; Wang, Yong-Qian; Yang, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Multiple nonablative skin rejuvenation techniques have been used to improve facial aging. To compare rejuvenation efficiency of intense pulsed light (IPL) with nonablative 1,064-nm Q-switched laser in Asian patients. Twelve female subjects were enrolled and received five sessions of treatments at 2-week intervals. A split-face study was performed, with IPL applied to the left side of the face and nonablative 1,064-nm Q-switched laser to the right side. All assessments showed significant skin rejuvenation. For the improvement of skin texture, pore size, and sebum secretion, similar efficiency from laser and IPL was observed. For lightening of skin tone and macula, the IPL was more efficient than the laser after the first treatment, although no further clinical improvement resulted after three treatments. The laser gradually lightened the skin tone and macula and was ultimately more efficient than the IPL after five treatments. A series of IPL and nonablative 1,064-nm Q-switched laser treatments were performed with similar efficiency and safety for the improvement in skin texture, pore size, and sebum secretion. IPL was faster, but nonablative 1,064-nm Q-switched laser was more effective in improving skin tone and macula. © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  8. Water absorption lines, 931-961 nm - Selected intensities, N2-collision-broadening coefficients, self-broadening coefficients, and pressure shifts in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giver, L. P.; Gentry, B.; Schwemmer, G.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Intensities were measured for 97 lines of H2O vapor between 932 and 961 nm. The lines were selected for their potential usefulness for remote laser measurements of H2O vapor in the earth's atmosphere. The spectra were obtained with several different H2O vapor abundances and N2 broadening gas pressures; the spectral resolution was 0.046/cm FWHM. Measured H2O line intensities range from 7 x 10 to the -25th to 7 x 10 to the -22nd/cm per (molecules/sq cm). H2O self-broadening coefficients were measured for 13 of these strongest lines; the mean value was 0.5/cm per atm. N2-collision-broadening coefficients were measured for 73 lines, and the average was 0.11 cm per atm HWHM. Pressure shifts in air were determined for a sample of six lines between 948 and 950 nm; these lines shift to lower frequency by an amount comparable to 0.1 of the collision-broadened widths measured in air or N2. The measured intensities of many lines of 300-000 band are much larger than expected from prior computations, in some cases by over an order of magnitude. Coriolis interactions with the stronger 201-000 band appear to be the primary cause of the enhancement of these line intensities.

  9. Near infrared emission and multicolor tunability of enhanced upconversion emission from Er{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanocrystals embedded in silica-based nanocomposite and planar waveguides for photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Felipe Thomaz [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo. Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, CEP 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, Jefferson Luis [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo. Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, CEP 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João Del Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, 36301-160 São João Del Rei, MG (Brazil); Maia, Lauro June Queiroz [Grupo Física de Materiais, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Campus II, C.P. 131, CEP 74001-970, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima [Institute of Chemistry- São Paulo State University- UNESP, Araraquara, SP 14800-900 (Brazil); Ferrier, Alban [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech - CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, 75005 Paris (France); and others

    2016-02-15

    This work reports on the Yb{sup 3+} ion addition effect on the near infrared emission and infrared-to-visible up conversion from planar waveguides based on Er{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanocrystals embedded in SiO{sub 2}-based nanocomposite prepared by a sol–gel process with controlled crystallization in situ. Planar waveguides and xerogels containing Si/Nb molar ratio of 90:10 up to 50:50 were prepared. Spherical-like orthorhombic or monoclinic Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanocrystals were grown in the amorphous SiO{sub 2}-based host depending on the niobium content and annealing temperature, resulting in transparent glass ceramics. Crystallization process was intensely affected by rare earth content increase. Enhancement and broadening of the NIR emission has been achieved depending on the rare earth content, niobium content and annealing temperature. Effective Yb{sup 3+}→Er{sup 3+} energy transfer and a high-intensity broad band emission in the near infrared region assigned to the Er{sup 3+} ions {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition, and longer {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} lifetimes were observed for samples containing orthorhombic Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanocrystals. Intense green and red emissions were registered for all Er{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 3+} co-doped waveguides under 980 nm excitation, assigned to {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} (525 nm),{sup 4}S{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} (545nm) and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} (670 nm) transitions, respectively. Different relative green and red intensities emissions were observed, depending upon niobium oxide content and the laser power. Upconversion dynamics were determined by the photons number, evidencing that ESA or ETU mechanisms are probably occurring. The 1931 CIE chromaticity diagrams indicated interesting color tunability based on the waveguides composition and pump power. The nanocomposite waveguides are promising materials for photonic applications as optical amplifiers and

  10. Angle-dependent light emission from aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes under CO2 laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y; Gong, T; Liu, W J; Wei, J Q; Zhang, X F; Wang, K L; Zhong, M L; Wu, D H

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the light emission from aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) under continuous wave CO 2 laser (λ = 10.6 μm) irradiation. Results indicate that the light emission is dependent on the angle θ between the laser incident direction and the nanotube axis. The relative intensity of the light emission at certain wavelengths shows a Lorentzian feature when θ varies from 0 0 to 90 0 . The Lorentzian fitting curve displays a distinct tendency between shorter (λ 700 nm). A minimum intensity was observed at θ m close to 67 0 under shorter wavelength, whereas a maximum intensity was shown at θ m of about 60 0 at longer wavelength. These results show the anisotropic property of aligned MWNTs

  11. Evidence of feasible hardness test on Mars using ratio of ionic/neutral emission intensities measured with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in low pressure CO_2 ambient gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Lahna, Kurnia; Idris, Nasrullah; Pardede, Marincan; Suyanto, Hery; Ramli, Muliadi; Marpaung, Alion Mangasi; Hedwig, Rinda; Lie, Zener Sukra; Kurniawan, Davy Putra; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Lie, Tjung Jie; Tjia, May On; Kagawa, Kiichiro

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study is conducted on the possibility and viability of performing hardness measurement of the various stone and chert samples in low pressure (600 Pa) CO_2 ambient gas, a condition that is encountered in the Mars atmosphere. For this study, a nanosecond Nd-YAG laser is employed to generate plasma emission from the samples with different degrees of hardness. This technique is developed in light of the role of the shock wave in the generation of a laser-induced plasma. It was previously shown that the speed of the shock front depends on the hardness of the sample, and a positive relationship was found between the speed of the shock front and the ionization rate of the ablated atoms. Hence, the ratio of the intensity between the Mg II 279.5 nm and Mg I 285.2 nm emission lines detected from the laser-induced plasma can be used to estimate the hardness of a material. In fact, it is shown that the ratio changes linearly with respect to changes of sample hardness. The result has thus demonstrated the feasibility and viability of using LIBS for non contact hardness measurement on Mars.

  12. Full-profile fitting of emission spectrum to determine transition intensity parameters of Yb3+:GdTaO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qingli; Sun Guihua; Ning Kaijie; Liu Wenpeng; Sun Dunlu; Yin Shaotang; Shi Chaoshu

    2016-01-01

    The Judd–Ofelt theoretic transition intensity parameters of luminescence of rare-earth ions in solids are important for the quantitative analysis of luminescence. It is very difficult to determine them with emission or absorption spectra for a long time. A “full profile fitting” method to obtain in solids with its emission spectrum is proposed, in which the contribution of a radiative transition to the emission spectrum is expressed as the product of transition probability, line profile function, instrument measurement constant and transition center frequency or wavelength, and the whole experimental emission spectrum is the sum of all transitions. In this way, the emission spectrum is expressed as a function with the independent variables intensity parameters , full width at half maximum (FWHM) of profile functions, instrument measurement constant, wavelength, and the Huang–Rhys factor S if the lattice vibronic peaks in the emission spectrum should be considered. The ratios of the experimental to the calculated energy lifetimes are incorporated into the fitting function to remove the arbitrariness during fitting and other parameters. Employing this method obviates measurement of the absolute emission spectrum intensity. It also eliminates dependence upon the number of emission transition peaks. Every experiment point in emission spectra, which usually have at least hundreds of data points, is the function with variables and other parameters, so it is usually viable to determine and other parameters using a large number of experimental values. We applied this method to determine twenty-five of Yb 3+ in GdTaO 4 . The calculated and experiment energy lifetimes, experimental and calculated emission spectrum are very consistent, indicating that it is viable to obtain the transition intensity parameters of rare-earth ions in solids by a full profile fitting to the ions’ emission spectrum. The calculated emission cross sections of Yb 3+ :GdTaO 4 also indicate

  13. Spontaneous and stimulated emission in Sm3+-doped YAl3(BO3)4 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryba-Romanowski, Witold; Lisiecki, Radosław; Beregi, Elena; Martín, I.R.

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4 doped with trivalent samarium were grown by the top-seeded high temperature solution method and their absorption and emission spectra were investigated. Optical pumping into prominent absorption band around 405 nm feeds the 4 G 5/2 metastable level giving rise to intense visible luminescence distributed in several spectral lines with the most intense line around 600 nm characterized by a branching ratio of 0.42 and peak emission cross section of 0.25×10 −20 cm 2 . Optical amplification at 600 nm with a gain coefficient of 2.9 cm −1 was achieved during a pump-and-probe experiment. - Highlights: • YAB:Sm crystal grown by the top-seeded high temperature solution method. • Spectroscopic qualities relevant for visible laser operation. • YAB:Sm single crystal used in a pump-and-probe experiment. • Optical amplification properties of samarium doped YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4

  14. Intense Non-Linear Soft X-Ray Emission from a Hydride Target during Pulsed D Bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George H.; Yang, Yang; Lipson, Andrei; Haque, Munima; Percel, Ian; Romer, Michael

    Radiation emission from low-energy nuclear radiation (LENR) electrodes (both charged-particle and X-rays) represents an important feature of LENR in general. Here, calibration, measurement techniques, and soft X-ray emission results from deuterium bombardment of a Pd target (cathode) placed in a pulsed deuterium glow discharge (PGD) are described. An X-ray intensity of 13.4 mW/cm2 and a dose of 3.3 μJ/cm2 were calculated over a 0.5 ms pulse time from AXUV photodiode radiation detector measurements. A most striking feature is that X-ray energies >600 V are observed with a discharge voltage only about half of that value. To further investigate this phenomenon, emission during room temperature D-desorption from electrolytically loaded Pd:Dx cathodes was also studied. The X-ray emission energy observed was quite similar to the PGD case. However, the intensity in this case was almost 13 orders of magnitude lower due to the much lower deuterium fluxes involved.

  15. Intense non-linear soft X-ray emission from a hydride target during pulsed D bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.; Yang, Yang; Lipson, Andrei; Haque, Munima; Percel, Ian; Romer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Radiation emission from low-energy nuclear radiation (LENR) electrodes (both charged-particle and X-rays) represents an important feature of LENR in general. Here, calibration, measurement techniques, and soft X-ray emission results from deuterium bombardment of a Pd target (cathode) placed in a pulsed deuterium glow discharge (PGD) are described. An X-ray intensity of 13.4 mW/cm 2 and a dose of 3.3 μJ/cm 2 were calculated over a 0.5 ms pulse time from AXUV photodiode radiation detector measurements. A most striking feature is that X-ray energies >600 V are observed with a discharge voltage only about half of that value. To further investigate this phenomenon, emission during room temperature D-desorption from electrolytically loaded Pd:Dx cathodes was also studied. The X-ray emission energy observed was quite similar to the PGD case. However, the intensity in this case was almost 13 orders of magnitude lower due to the much lower deuterium fluxes involved. (author)

  16. Emission analysis of RE3+ (RE = Sm, Dy):B2O3-TeO2-Li2O-AlF3 glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, C Nageswara; Sailaja, S; Kumari, S Pavan; Dhoble, S J; Kumar, V Ramesh; Ramanaiah, M V; Reddy, B Sudhakar

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the optical properties of 0.5% mol of Sm(3+), Dy(3+) ion-doped B2O3-TeO2-Li2O-AlF3 (LiAlFBT) glasses. The glass samples were characterized by optical absorption and emission spectra. Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to analyze the optical absorption spectra and calculate the intensity parameters and radiative properties of the emission transitions. The emission spectra of Sm(3+) and Dy(3+):LiAlFBT glasses showed a bright reddish-orange emission at 598 nm ((4)G5/2 → (6)H7/2) and an intense yellow emission at 574 nm ((4)F9/2 → (6)H13/2), respectively. Full width at half maximum (FWHM), stimulated emission cross section, gain bandwidth and optical gain values were also calculated to extend the applications of the Sm(3+) and Dy(3+):LiAlFBT glasses. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Energy intensity, CO{sub 2} emissions and the environmental Kuznets curve. The Spanish case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, J. [Universitat de Barcelona (Spain). Dpt. Teoria Economica; Alcantara, V. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Dpt. Economia Aplicada

    2001-06-01

    This article analyses the role of energy intensity and the relationship between CO{sub 2} emissions and primary energy in order to explain the evolution of CO{sub 2} emissions by unit of real GDP. It also distinguishes two different meanings of CO{sub 2} emissions Kuznets curve hypothesis: the weak and the strong sense. It considers the case of Spain in the period 1972-1997 as an example in which there is not any evidence supporting this hypothesis in either sense. (author)

  18. Color tunable emission through energy transfer from Yb3+ co-doped SrSnO3: Ho3+ perovskite nano-phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neha; Singh, Rajan Kr.; Sinha, Shriya; Singh, R. A.; Singh, Jai

    2018-04-01

    First time color tunable lighting observed from Ho3+ and Yb3+ co-doped SrSnO3 perovskite. Down-conversion and up-conversion (UC) photoluminescence emission spectra were recorded to understand the whole mechanism of energy migration between Ho3+ and Yb3+ ions. The intensity of green and red emission varies with Yb3+ doping which causes multicolour emissions from nano-phosphor. The intensity of UC red emission (654 nm) obtained from 1 at.% Ho3+ and 3 at.% Yb3+ co-doped nano-phosphor is nine times higher than from 1 at.% Ho3+ doped SrSnO3 nano-phosphor. Enhanced brightness of 654 nm in UC process belongs in biological transparency window so that it might be a promising phosphor in the bio-medical field. Moreover, for the other Yb3+ co-doped nano-phosphor, Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage chromaticity co-ordinates were found near the white region and their CCT values lie in the range 4900-5100 K indicating cool white. Decay time was measured for 545 nm emission of Ho3+ ion found in 7.652 and 8.734 µs at 355 nm excitation. The variation in lifetime was observed in ascending order with increasing Yb3+ concentration which supports PL emission spectra observation that with increasing Yb3+ concentration, rate of transition has changed. These studies reveal that Ho3+ and Yb3+ co-doped phosphor is useful for fabrication of white LEDs.

  19. Thermal dependence of free exciton emission in ultraviolet cathodoluminescence of colloidal ZnS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, Hong Van; Pham, Van Ben [Faculty of Physics, VNU-Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Le, Si Dang [Institut Néel, CNRS, 25 rue des Martyrs, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Hoang, Nam Nhat, E-mail: namnhat@gmail.com [Faculty of Engineering Physics and Nanotechnology, VNU-University of Engineering and Technology, 144 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2016-10-15

    Cathodoluminescence properties of the colloidal ZnS nanopowders synthesized by using hydrothermal process, a large scale production method, are reported. The cathodoluminescence spectra were obtained for temperature from 5 to 300 K, where an intensive free exciton originated 326 nm emission was observed. This band did not split under the increase of excitation beam current density and prevailed even at room temperature. The weaker emissions appeared at 331, 333, 337 and 343 nm which were related to excitons bound to neutral acceptor (A{sup o}, X), transition from conduction band to acceptor levels (e, A) and their corresponding (e, A)−1LO, (e, A)−2LO phonon replicas. With increasing temperature the free exciton band shifted towards lower energy and its intensity decreased at 36.5 meV thermal quenching threshold. The dependence of band gap on temperature was also determined.

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emission Intensities for the Livestock Sector in Indonesia, Based on the National Specific Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eska Nugrahaeningtyas

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to calculate greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and to identify the trends of GHG emission intensity, based on meat production from the livestock sector in Indonesia, which had not been done before. The total emissions from the livestock sector from 2000 to 2015 in Indonesia were calculated using the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guideline (2006 IPCC GL using Tier 1 and Tier 2, with its default values and some of the country specific data that were found in the grey literature. During 2000 to 2015, the change from the Tier 1 to Tier 2 methods resulted in an approximately 7.39% emission decrease from enteric fermentation and a 4.24% increase from manure management, which resulted in a 4.98% decrease in the total emissions. The shared emission from manure management increased by about 9% and 6% using Tier 1 and Tier 2, respectively. In contrast with the total emissions, the overall emission intensity in Indonesia decreased (up to 60.77% for swine, showing that the livestock productivity in Indonesia has become more efficient. In order to meet the meat demand with less GHG emissions, chicken farming is one option to be developed. The increased emission and share from manure management indicated that manure management system needs to be of concern, especially for beef cattle and swine.

  1. Effects of low-intensity GaAlAs laser radiation ({lambda}=660 nm) on dentine-pulp interface after class I cavity preparation; Efeitos da radiacao laser GaAlAs ({lambda}=660 nm) em baixa intensidade na interface dentina-polpa pos-preparo cavitario classe 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy, Bruno Miranda

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity irradiation with GaAlAs laser (red emission) on the ultrastructure of dentine-pulp interface after conventionally prepared class I cavity preparation. Two patients with 8 premolars for extraction indicated for orthodontic reasons. Class I cavities were prepared in these teeth that were then divided into two groups. The first group received a treatment with laser with continuous emission, {lambda}=660 nm, with maximum power output of 30 mW. The dosimetry applied was of approximately 2J/cm{sup 2}, directly and perpendicularly into the cavity in only one section. After the irradiation, the cavities were filled with composite resin. The second group received the same treatment, except by the laser therapy. Twenty-eight days after the preparation, the teeth were extracted and were processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Two sound teeth, without any preparation, were also studied. The irradiated group presented odontoblastic processes in higher contact with the extracellular matrix and the collagen fibers appeared more aggregated and organized than those of control group. These results were also observed in the healthy-teeth. Thus, we suggest that laser irradiation accelerates the recovery of the dental structures involved in the cavity preparation at the pre-dentine level. (author)

  2. Dominant transverse-electric polarized emission from 298 nm MBE-grown AlN-delta-GaN quantum well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Ooi, Yu Kee; Islam, S. M.; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep; Zhang, Jing

    2017-02-01

    III-nitride based ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) are of considerable interest in replacing gas lasers and mercury lamps for numerous applications. Specifically, AlGaN quantum well (QW) based LEDs have been developed extensively but the external quantum efficiencies of which remain less than 10% for wavelengths UV wavelengths is by the use of the AlGaN-delta-GaN QW where the insertion of the delta-GaN layer can ensure the dominant conduction band (C) - heavyhole (HH) transition, leading to large transverse-electric (TE) optical output. Here, we proposed and investigated the physics and polarization-dependent optical characterizations of AlN-delta- GaN QW UV LED at 300 nm. The LED structure is grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) where the delta-GaN layer is 3-4 monolayer (QW-like) sandwiched by 2.5-nm AlN sub-QW layers. The physics analysis shows that the use of AlN-delta-GaN QW ensures a larger separation between the top HH subband and lower-energy bands, and strongly localizes the electron and HH wave functions toward the QW center and hence resulting in 30-time enhancement in TEpolarized spontaneous emission rate, compared to that of a conventional Al0.35Ga0.65N QW. The polarization-dependent electroluminescence measurements confirm our theoretical analysis; a dominant TE-polarized emission was obtained at 298 nm with a minimum transverse-magnetic (TM) polarized emission, indicating the feasibility of high-efficiency TEpolarized UV emitters based on our proposed QW structure.

  3. Violet and visible up-conversion emission in Yb{sup 3+}-Ho{sup 3+} co-doped germanium-borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yanmin, E-mail: mihuyym@163.co [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Zhang Meixin [Forensic Science Lab, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Yang Zhiping [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Fu Zuoling [Key Laboratory of Coherent Light, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, College of physics, Jilin University, Ministry of Education, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2010-10-15

    The up-conversion emission properties of Yb{sup 3+}-Ho{sup 3+} co-doped germanium-borate glasses have been investigated with 980 nm excitation. The violet, blue, green and red emission bands at about 350, 485, 544 and 653 nm can be identified, respectively. Experimental results indicated that the relative intensity ratios of the peaks I{sub Red}/I{sub Green} increased with increasing B{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration, which led to changing color of up-conversion emission from green at x=0 to yellow at x=40, to red at x=60. The violet emission at 350 nm was first reported in germanium-borate glass host and up-conversion mechanisms of the emissions were discussed. The Yb{sup 3+}-Ho{sup 3+} co-doped germanium-borate glasses could be an alternative for the generation of violet and primary colors for application in solid-state displays.

  4. Upcoversion performance improvement of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb, Er by Sn codoping: Enhanced emission intensity and reduced decay time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Han, E-mail: fjfzyh@fzu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China); Cao, Wenbing [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China); Huang, Qingming [Instrumentation Analysis and Research Center, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Ma, En [Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Zhang, Xinqi [Instrumentation Analysis and Research Center, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Yu, Jianchang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China)

    2013-11-15

    In this manuscript we report a phenomenon that upconversion emission intensity of Er{sup 3+} was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased obviously by Sn codoping with Yb/Er into hexagonal NaYF{sub 4} synchronously. X-ray powder diffiraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron spin-resonance spectroscopy and upconversion emission spectra were employed to explore the relation of crystal structure and properties. From these characterizations we found that symmetry of the rare earth ion local crystal field could be tuned by different Sn codoping concentration. For the variable valence property of Sn the local crystal field asymmetry and emission intensity of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb, Er arrived to the maximum when 3 mol% Sn was codoped, while decay time was reduced. The study of this changing tends of upconversion emission intensity and decay time constant may be helpful for design and fabrication of high performance upconversion materials. - Graphical abstract: Variable-valenced Sn is introduced with Yb/Er into NaFY{sub 4} to tune structure and local crystal field. Upconversion emission intensity of Er{sup 3+} was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased. Display Omitted - Highlights: • NaYF{sub 4}: Yb, Er was codoped with different concentration Sn. • Upconversion emission intensity was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased. • Introduction of variable-valenced Sn is effective to tune structure and crystal field of NaFY{sub 4}.

  5. Evidence of feasible hardness test on Mars using ratio of ionic/neutral emission intensities measured with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in low pressure CO{sub 2} ambient gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Lahna, Kurnia; Idris, Nasrullah [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Pardede, Marincan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Pelita Harapan, 1100 M.H. Thamrin Boulevard, Lippo Village, Tangerang 15811 (Indonesia); Suyanto, Hery [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Denpasar 80361, Bali (Indonesia); Ramli, Muliadi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Marpaung, Alion Mangasi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Jakarta State University, 10 Rawamangun, Jakarta 13220 (Indonesia); Hedwig, Rinda [Department of Computer Engineering, Bina Nusantara University, 9 K.H. Syahdan, Jakarta 14810 (Indonesia); Lie, Zener Sukra [Department of Computer Engineering, Bina Nusantara University, 9 K.H. Syahdan, Jakarta 14810 (Indonesia); Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Jakarta 11630 (Indonesia); Kurniawan, Davy Putra; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik, E-mail: kurnia18@cbn.net.id; Lie, Tjung Jie [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Jakarta 11630 (Indonesia); Tjia, May On [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Jakarta 11630 (Indonesia); Physics of Magnetism and Photonics Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Kagawa, Kiichiro [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Jakarta 11630 (Indonesia); Fukui Science Education Academy, Takagi Chuo 2 chome, Fukui 910-0804 (Japan)

    2016-04-28

    An experimental study is conducted on the possibility and viability of performing hardness measurement of the various stone and chert samples in low pressure (600 Pa) CO{sub 2} ambient gas, a condition that is encountered in the Mars atmosphere. For this study, a nanosecond Nd-YAG laser is employed to generate plasma emission from the samples with different degrees of hardness. This technique is developed in light of the role of the shock wave in the generation of a laser-induced plasma. It was previously shown that the speed of the shock front depends on the hardness of the sample, and a positive relationship was found between the speed of the shock front and the ionization rate of the ablated atoms. Hence, the ratio of the intensity between the Mg II 279.5 nm and Mg I 285.2 nm emission lines detected from the laser-induced plasma can be used to estimate the hardness of a material. In fact, it is shown that the ratio changes linearly with respect to changes of sample hardness. The result has thus demonstrated the feasibility and viability of using LIBS for non contact hardness measurement on Mars.

  6. 15 years of VLT/UVES OH intensities and temperatures in comparison with TIMED/SABER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Stefan; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Proxauf, Bastian; Unterguggenberger, Stefanie; Kausch, Wolfgang; Jones, Amy M.

    2017-10-01

    The high-resolution echelle spectrograph UVES of the Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal in Chile has been regularly operated since April 2000. Thus, UVES archival data originally taken for astronomical projects but also including sky emission can be used to study airglow variations on a time scale longer than a solar cycle. Focusing on OH emission and observations until March 2015, we considered about 3000 high-quality spectra from two instrumental set-ups centred on 760 and 860 nm, which cover about 380 nm each. These data allowed us to measure line intensities for several OH bands in order to derive band intensities and rotational temperatures for different upper vibrational levels as a function of solar activity and observing date. The results were compared with those derived from emission and temperature profile data of the radiometer SABER on the TIMED satellite taken in the Cerro Paranal area between 2002 and 2015. In agreement with the SABER data, the long-term variations in OH intensity and temperature derived from the UVES data are dominated by the solar cycle, whereas secular trends appear to be negligible. Combining the UVES and SABER results, the solar cycle effects for the OH intensity and temperature are about 12-17% and 4-5 K per 100 sfu and do not significantly depend on the selected OH band. The data also reveal that variations of the effective OH emission layer height and air density can cause significant changes in the OH rotational temperatures due to a varying ratio of OH thermalising collisions by air molecules and OH radiation, deactivation, and destruction processes which impede the rotational relaxation. However, this effect appears to be of minor importance for the explanation of the rotational temperature variations related to the solar activity cycle, which causes only small changes in the OH emission profile.

  7. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy of vitiligo skin in vivo (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianhua; Richer, Vincent; Al Jasser, Mohammed; Zandi, Soodabeh; Kollias, Nikiforos; Kalia, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; Lui, Harvey

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescence signals depend on the intensity of the exciting light, the absorption properties of the constituent molecules, and the efficiency with which the absorbed photons are converted to fluorescence emission. The optical features and appearance of vitiligo have been explained primarily on the basis of reduced epidermal pigmentation, which results in abnormal white patches on the skin. The objective of this study is to explore the fluorescence properties of vitiligo and its adjacent normal skin using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. Thirty five (35) volunteers with vitiligo were acquired using a double-grating spectrofluorometer with excitation and emission wavelengths of 260-450 nm and 300-700 nm respectively. As expected, the most pronounced difference between the spectra obtained from vitiligo lesions compared to normally pigmented skin was that the overall fluorescence was much higher in vitiligo; these differences increased at shorter wavelengths, thus matching the characteristic spectral absorption of epidermal melanin. When comparing the fluorescence spectra from vitiligo to normal skin we detected three distinct spectral bands centered at 280nm, 310nm, and 335nm. The 280nm band may possibly be related to inflammation, whereas the 335 nm band may arise from collagen or keratin cross links. The source of the 310 nm band is uncertain; it is interesting to note its proximity to the 311 nm UV lamps used for vitiligo phototherapy. These differences are accounted for not only by changes in epidermal pigment content, but also by other optically active cutaneous biomolecules.

  8. Carbon emission intensity in electricity production: A global analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.; Su, Bin

    2016-01-01

    We study changes in the aggregate carbon intensity (ACI) for electricity at the global and country levels. The ACI is defined as the energy-related CO_2 emissions in electricity production divided by the electricity produced. It is a performance indicator since a decrease in its value is a desirable outcome from the environmental and climate change viewpoints. From 1990 to 2013, the ACI computed at the global level decreased only marginally. However, fairly substantial decreases were observed in many countries. This apparent anomaly arises from a geographical shift in global electricity production with countries having a high ACI increasingly taking up a larger electricity production share. It is found that globally and in most major electricity producing countries, reduction in their ACI was due mainly to improvements in the thermal efficiency of electricity generation rather than to fuel switching. Estimates of the above-mentioned effects are made using LMDI decomposition analysis. Our study reveals several challenges in reducing global CO_2 emissions from the electricity production sector although technically the reduction potential for the sector is known to be great. - Highlights: •Variations of aggregate carbon intensity (ACI) for electricity of world countries are analysed. •Main drivers of changes in ACI of major electricity producing countries are studied using index decomposition analysis. •Geographical shift in electricity production had a significant impact on global ACI. •Improvements in the thermal efficiency of generation were the main driver of reduction in ACI.

  9. Investigation of spectral interference effects on determination of uranium concentration in phosphate ore by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachari, Ayoob H.; Jalali, Fatemeh; Alahyarizadeh, Ghasem [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Engineering Dept.

    2017-04-01

    Effects of spectral interferences on determination of the uranium concentration in phosphate ore were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Eleven high intensity emission lines including four lines recommended by ICP-OES apparatus were chosen to determine the uranium concentration. The ore samples were collected from phosphate acid producing industry in the south of Iran. Three different acid combinations [(HNO{sub 3}:HCl:HF-2:6:2), (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}:H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:HF-3:3:3), (HNO{sub 3}:H{sub 2}O{sub 2}:HF-4:2:2)] used in microwave digestion method to explore the spectral interference effects in different solvent environments. The results showed that the trusty uranium concentration, obtained in the 367.007 nm, 386.592 nm, 389.036 nm and 409.014 nm by second acid digestion method which were 0.665 ppm, 0.972 ppm, 0.670 ppm and 0.801 ppm, respectively. Although the line of 409.014 nm was reported as the best line for determining of the uranium concentration in several literatures, the results showed that this line has a significant spectral interference with vanadium in some ores which should be considered in determining of the uranium concentration. Spectral interference effects of some elements which have high concentrations in the phosphate ore including Ca, Fe, Mg, Pb, V, Mn, and Ti on the line intensities were also investigated. Results indicated that the chosen elements affect emission intensities of all of 11 lines. They also indicated that the line of 409.014 nm provides a trusty precision in the determination of the uranium concentration in the ore sample with low vanadium concentration (at least, U/V ratio of 1:5). Results show that the line of 409.014 nm provides acceptable precision with some corrections in comparison with other selected lines. For instance in high concentrations of other elements including Fe and Ti in the ore samples, strong influences on the line intensities of the 367.007 nm (by Fe

  10. Visible and ultraviolet emission from pulse irradiated amorphous and polycrystalline H2O ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, C.G.; Quickenden, T.I.; Litjens, R.A.J.; Sangster, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    Luminescence peaking at 405 nm was observed when thin films of amorphous or polycrystalline ice at 97 K were irradiated with a pulsed beam of 0.53 MeV electrons. These emissions differed from the luminescence emitted by crystalline ice in that memory effects were not observed; the peak wavelengths were red shifted by approx.20 nm; and the half-lives were 6--9 ns instead of approx.400 ns. The emission spectra of polycrystalline ice samples produced by rapid deposition or by annealing amorphous ice were similar, but both had substantially lower intensities than amorphous ice spectra

  11. The dynamic intensity of CO 2 emissions: empirical evidence for the 20 th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO CARNEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The debate around the economic growth and environmental degradation is the hot topic among academics. However, up to a point, all of them embrace the uncontroversial view that tells us that anthropic factors have leverage on global climate. It happens that the so-called greenhouse effect is closely related to the accumulation of certain gases in the atmosphere, e.g., carbon dioxide, whose original source comes from productive sectors. Thus, our purpose in this article is to estimate the rate of emission intensity - here we mean the ratio between CO2 emissions and GDP - which has increased since the early part of the 20th century. To support that idea, this study reports on data from 24 different countries. In terms of C02 emission, the results undoubtedly show that United Kingdom and the United States highlight a negative picture, particularly when both are compared to India. It should be noted the presence of structural changes, which coincide with three major historical events: the World War I (1914-1918, the Great Depression in the 1930s, and finally the Oil-price shocks in the 1970s. As the result of the analysis demonstrates, the amount of emission produced by developing countries is surprisingly low. That the technology reveals its relative merit for reducing the overall emission intensity is transparently obvious.

  12. Comparative analysis of the effect of the GaAlAs laser irradiation in 780 nm and 660 nm in the hypersensitive dentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Sun Chien

    2003-01-01

    This study was to evaluate and compare the effects of the low intensity in laser radiation among GaAlAs 780 nm and GaAlAs 660 nm. The main proposal is to verify if there is any difference of the effects or results in low intensity laser application treatment of hypersensitive dentin, keeping the same parameters, only differing in wavelength. The samples were distributed in two groups. Group A 90 cases, treated with GaAlAs 780 nm and group B irradiated with GaAlAs 660 nm with a total of 76 cases analyzed. The results of application with GaAlAs 660 nm and GaAlAs 780 nm do not differ statistically. Which means using any one of the irradiation gives the same results. However can be noted that the response of reduction of hypersensitivity is faster with the radiation of GaAlAs 780 nm, but the results after three applications is the same for both types of radiation. (author)

  13. Modeling of energy consumption and related GHG (greenhouse gas) intensity and emissions in Europe using general regression neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antanasijević, Davor; Pocajt, Viktor; Ristić, Mirjana; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the estimation of energy-related GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions at the national level that combines the simplicity of the concept of GHG intensity and the generalization capabilities of ANNs (artificial neural networks). The main objectives of this work includes the determination of the accuracy of a GRNN (general regression neural network) model applied for the prediction of EC (energy consumption) and GHG intensity of energy consumption, utilizing general country statistics as inputs, as well as analysis of the accuracy of energy-related GHG emissions obtained by multiplying the two aforementioned outputs. The models were developed using historical data from the period 2004–2012, for a set of 26 European countries (EU Members). The obtained results demonstrate that the GRNN GHG intensity model provides a more accurate prediction, with the MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) of 4.5%, than tested MLR (multiple linear regression) and second-order and third-order non-linear MPR (multiple polynomial regression) models. Also, the GRNN EC model has high accuracy (MAPE = 3.6%), and therefore both GRNN models and the proposed approach can be considered as suitable for the calculation of GHG emissions. The energy-related predicted GHG emissions were very similar to the actual GHG emissions of EU Members (MAPE = 6.4%). - Highlights: • ANN modeling of GHG intensity of energy consumption is presented. • ANN modeling of energy consumption at the national level is presented. • GHG intensity concept was used for the estimation of energy-related GHG emissions. • The ANN models provide better results in comparison with conventional models. • Forecast of GHG emissions for 26 countries was made successfully with MAPE of 6.4%

  14. Mechanically induced strong red emission in samarium ions doped piezoelectric semiconductor CaZnOS for dynamic pressure sensing and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Peng, Dengfeng; Zhang, Hanlu; Yang, Xiaohong; Pan, Caofeng

    2017-07-01

    Piezoelectric semiconductor with optical, electrical and mechanical multifunctions has great potential applications in future optoelectronic devices. The rich properties and applications mainly encompass the intrinsic structures and their coupling effects. Here, we report that lanthanide ions doped piezoelectric semiconductor CaZnOS:Sm3+ showing strong red emission induced by dynamic mechanical stress. Under moderate mechanical load, the doped piezoelectric semiconductor exhibits strong visible red emission to the naked eyes even under the day light. A flexible dynamic pressure sensor device is fabricated based on the prepared CaZnOS:Sm3+ powders. The mechanical-induced emission properties of the device are investigated by the optical fiber spectrometer. The linear characteristic emissions are attributed to the 4G5/2→6H5/2 (566 nm), 4G5/2→6H7/2 (580-632 nm), 4G5/2→6H9/2 (653-673 nm) and 4G5/2→6H11/2 (712-735 nm) f-f transitions of Sm3+ ions. The integral emission intensity is proportional to the value of applied pressure. By using the linear relationship between integrated emission intensity and the dynamic pressure, the real-time pressure distribution is visualized and recorded. Our results highlight that the incorporation of lanthanide luminescent ions into piezoelectric semiconductors as smart materials could be applied into the flexible mechanical-optical sensor device without additional auxiliary power, which has great potential for promising applications such as mapping of personalized handwriting, smart display, and human machine interface.

  15. X ray emission: a tool and a probe for laser - clusters interaction; L'emission X: un outil et une sonde pour l'interaction laser - agregats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prigent, Ch

    2004-12-01

    In intense laser-cluster interaction, the experimental results show a strong energetic coupling between radiation and matter. We have measured absolute X-ray yields and charge state distributions under well control conditions as a function of physical parameters governing the interaction; namely laser intensity, pulse duration, wavelength or polarization state of the laser light, the size and the species of the clusters (Ar, Kr, Xe). We have highlighted, for the first time, an intensity threshold in the X-ray production very low ({approx} 2.10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} for a pulse duration of 300 fs) which can results from an effect of the dynamical polarisation of clusters in an intense electric field. A weak dependence with the wavelength (400 nm / 800 nm) on the absolute X-ray yields has been found. Moreover, we have observed a saturation of the X-ray emission probability below a critical cluster size. (author)

  16. [Effect of charge compensation on emission spectrum of Sr2SiO4 : Dy3+ phosphor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan-Lai; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Yang, Zhi-Ping; Guo, Qing-Lin

    2009-01-01

    The Sr2SiO4 : Dy3+ phosphor was synthesized by the high temperature solid-state reaction method in air. Dy2O3 (99.9%), SiO2 (99.9%), SrCO3 (99.9%), Li2CO3 (99.9%), Na2CO3 (99.9%) and K2CO3 (99.9%) were used as starting materials, and the Dy3+ doping concentration was 2 mol%. The emission spectrum was measured by a SPEX1404 spectrophotometer, and all the characterization of the phosphors was conducted at room temperature. The emission spectrum of Sr2 SiO4 : Dy3+ phosphor showed several bands centered at 486, 575 and 665 nm under the 365 nm excitation. The effect of Li+, Na+ and K+ on the emission spectra of Sr2SiO4 : Dy3+ phosphor was studied. The results show that the location of the emission spectrum of Sr2SiO4 : Dy3+ phosphor was not influenced by Li+, Na+ and K+. However, the emission spectrum intensity was greatly influenced by Li+, Na+ and K+, and the evolvement trend was monotone with different charge compensation, i. e. the emission spectrum intensity of Sr2SiO4 : Dy3+ phosphor firstly increased with increasing Li+ concentration, then decreased. However the charge compensation concentration corresponding to the maximum emission intensity was different with different charge compensation, and the concentration is 4, 3 and 3 mol% corresponding to Li+, Na+ and K+, respectively. And the theoretical reason for the above results was analyzed.

  17. White light emission from Er2O3 nano-powder excited by infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabanli, Sevcan; Eryurek, Gonul; Di Bartolo, Baldassare

    2017-07-01

    Phosphors of Er2O3 nano-crystalline powders were synthesized by the thermal decomposition method. The structural properties of the nano-powders were investigated with XRD and HRTEM measurements. The cubic phase with a = 10.540 Å was the only phase observed. The average crystalline sizes and the widths of the grain size distribution curves were determined to be 27.2, 18.7 and 9.7 nm, respectively. The spectroscopic properties of the Er2O3 nano-powder were studied by measuring the luminescence, decay and rise patterns under 808 and 975 nm diode laser excitations. A peculiar effect of the pressure was observed since an optically active ion (Er) is part of the complex and not a dopant. A broad band of the white light emission combined with blue, green and red up-conversion emission bands of Er3+ ions were observed at 0.03 mbar pressure under both excitation wavelengths. Only, an intense broad band white light emission was observed from these nanocrystals at atmospheric pressure. Rising patterns show that the white light intensity reaches its maximum value more rapidly under 975 nm excitation although it decays slower than that of 808 nm excitation. The color quality parameters such as the color coordinate (CRI), correlated color temperature and the color rendering index were found to vary with both the excitation wavelength and the ambient pressure indicating that these nanocrystals could be considered good white light emitting source under the infrared excitations.

  18. Simultaneous quantum dash-well emission in a chirped dash-in-well superluminescent diode with spectral bandwidth >700 nm

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2013-10-01

    We report on the quantitative evidence of simultaneous amplified spontaneous emission from the AlGaInAs/InAs/ InP-based quantum-well (Qwell) and quantum-dashes (Qdash) in a multistack dash-in-an-asymmetric-well superluminescent diode heterostructure. As a result, an emission bandwidth (full width at half-maximum) of 700 nm is achieved, covering entire O-E-S-C-L-U communication bands, and a maximum continuous wave output power of 1.3 mW, from this device structure. This demonstration paves a way to bridge entire telecommunication bands through proper optimization of device gain region, bringing significant advances and impact to a variety of cross-disciplinary field applications. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  19. Simultaneous quantum dash-well emission in a chirped dash-in-well superluminescent diode with spectral bandwidth >700 nm

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Cha, Dong Kyu; Majid, Mohammed Abdul; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the quantitative evidence of simultaneous amplified spontaneous emission from the AlGaInAs/InAs/ InP-based quantum-well (Qwell) and quantum-dashes (Qdash) in a multistack dash-in-an-asymmetric-well superluminescent diode heterostructure. As a result, an emission bandwidth (full width at half-maximum) of 700 nm is achieved, covering entire O-E-S-C-L-U communication bands, and a maximum continuous wave output power of 1.3 mW, from this device structure. This demonstration paves a way to bridge entire telecommunication bands through proper optimization of device gain region, bringing significant advances and impact to a variety of cross-disciplinary field applications. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  20. Efficiency of Cathodoluminescence Emission by Nitrogen-Vacancy Color Centers in Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiliang; Glenn, David R; Schalek, Richard; Lichtman, Jeff W; Walsworth, Ronald L

    2017-06-01

    Correlated electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging using functionalized nanoparticles is a promising nanoscale probe of biological structure and function. Nanodiamonds (NDs) that contain CL-emitting color centers are particularly well suited for such applications. The intensity of CL emission from NDs is determined by a combination of factors, including particle size, density of color centers, efficiency of energy deposition by electrons passing through the particle, and conversion efficiency from deposited energy to CL emission. This paper reports experiments and numerical simulations that investigate the relative importance of each of these factors in determining CL emission intensity from NDs containing nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers. In particular, it is found that CL can be detected from NV-doped NDs with dimensions as small as ≈40 nm, although CL emission decreases significantly for smaller NDs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Charge carriers at organic heterojunction interface: Exciplex emission or electroplex emission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengyi; Zhang, Xiulong; Hou, Yanbing; Deng, Zhenbo; Xu, Xurong

    2007-05-01

    We report the electroluminescence (EL) of organic heterojunction devices based on N ,N'-diphenyl-N ,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4',-diamine (TPD) and 2-(4'-biphenyl)-5-(4″-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD). Besides monomolecular emissions from TPD, there are two additional EL peaks at around 460 and 480nm from the bilayer device indium tin oxide (ITO)/TPD(100nm )/PBD(45nm)/Al. Our experimental data confirmed that the EL emission maximized at around 460nm is from electroplex as the result of charge carriers cross recombination at the TPD/PBD interface and the EL emission maximized at around 480nm originates from (TPD*PBD)-type exciplex.

  2. Theoretical study of amplified spontaneous emission intensity and bandwidth reduction in polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariri, A.; Sarikhani, S.

    2015-01-01

    Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), including intensity and bandwidth, in a typical example of BuEH-PPV is calculated. For this purpose, the intensity rate equation is used to explain the reported experimental measurements of a BuEH-PPV sample pumped at different pump intensities from I p = 0.61 MW/cm 2 to 5.2 MW/cm 2 . Both homogeneously and inhomogeneously broadened transition lines along with a model based on the geometrically dependent gain coefficient (GDGC) are examined and it is confirmed that for the reported measurements the homogeneously broadened line is responsible for the light–matter interaction. The calculation explains the frequency spectrum of the ASE output intensity extracted from the sample at different pump intensities, unsaturated and saturated gain coefficients, and ASE bandwidth reduction along the propagation direction. Both analytical and numerical calculations for verifying the GDGC model are presented in this paper. Although the introduced model has shown its potential for explaining the ASE behavior in a specific sample it can be universally used for the ASE study in different active media. (paper)

  3. X ray emission: a tool and a probe for laser - clusters interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigent, Ch.

    2004-12-01

    In intense laser-cluster interaction, the experimental results show a strong energetic coupling between radiation and matter. We have measured absolute X-ray yields and charge state distributions under well control conditions as a function of physical parameters governing the interaction; namely laser intensity, pulse duration, wavelength or polarization state of the laser light, the size and the species of the clusters (Ar, Kr, Xe). We have highlighted, for the first time, an intensity threshold in the X-ray production very low (∼ 2.10 14 W/cm 2 for a pulse duration of 300 fs) which can results from an effect of the dynamical polarisation of clusters in an intense electric field. A weak dependence with the wavelength (400 nm / 800 nm) on the absolute X-ray yields has been found. Moreover, we have observed a saturation of the X-ray emission probability below a critical cluster size. (author)

  4. Size dependent emission stimulation in ZnO nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torchynska, T.V.; El Filali, B.

    2014-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL), X ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering have been studied in crystalline ZnO nanosheets (NSs) of different sizes, estimated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). ZnO NSs with the size from the range of 60–600 nm were created by the electrochemical (anodization) method and followed thermal annealing at 400 °C for 2 h in ambient air. XRD study confirms the wurtzite structure of ZnO NSs and has revealed that the lattice parameters increase monotonically with decreasing NS sizes. Simultaneously the intensity of a set of Raman peaks increases and Raman peaks shift into the low energy range. The surface phonon has been detected in smallest size ZnO NSs. Two types of PL bands deal with a set of phonon replicas of free excitons and the defect related emission have been detected in ZnO NSs. The intensity enhancement of exciton- and defect-related PL bands with decreasing ZnO NS sizes has been detected. The intensity stimulation of exciton-related PL bands is attributed to the realization of the week confinement and the exciton-light coupling with the formation of polariton in small size ZnO NSs of 67–170 nm. The intensity rising of defect-related PL bands is attributed to the concentration enlargement of surface defects when the surface to volume ration increases at decreasing ZnO NS sizes. Numerical simulations of radiative lifetimes and exciton radiative recombination rates in ZnO NSs for different emission wavelengths have been done using the exciton-light coupling model. Then the experimental and numerically simulated PL results have been compared and discussed. - Highlights: • Optical and structural investigations of the ZnO nanosheets with the sizes 60–600 nm. • The enlargement of interplanar distances in the wurtzite ZnO crystal lattice is detected. • The change of optic phonon energy and surface phonon appearing are reveled. • ZnO emission stimulation at the week confinement and electron-light coupling with the

  5. Modelling the impacts of a carbon emission-differentiated vehicle tax system on CO2 emissions intensity from new vehicle purchases in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giblin, S.; McNabola, A.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing awareness of the effects of climate change on the environment and the economic pressure on oil supply has focused international attention on reducing CO 2 emissions and energy usage across all sectors. In order to meet their Kyoto protocol commitments and in line with European Union policy, the Irish government has introduced a carbon-based tax system for new vehicles purchased from the 1st of July 2008. This new legislation aims to reduce carbon emissions in the transport sector, a sector which is responsible for a significant proportion of both. This paper presents the results of the development, calibration, and application of a car choice model which predicts the changes in CO 2 emissions intensity from new vehicle purchases as a result of the changes in vehicle tax policy and fuel price in Ireland. The model also predicts the impact of such changes on tax revenue for the Irish government and the changes in the split between the number of diesel and petrol vehicles purchased. The investigation found that the introduction of these new carbon-based taxes in Ireland will result in a reduction of 3.6-3.8% in CO 2 emissions intensity and a reduction in annual tax revenue of EUR191 M. (author)

  6. A novel broadband emission phosphor Ca2KMg2V3O12 for white light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Junfu; Qiu, Kehui; Li, Junfeng; Li, Wei; Yang, Qian; Li, Junhan

    2010-01-01

    A novel broadband emission phosphor Ca 2 KMg 2 V 3 O 12 was first synthesized by solution combustion method. The X-ray diffraction showed that Ca 2 KMg 2 V 3 O 12 phase can be obtained at 600-900 o C through combustion route. The crystal structure of this material was refined by Rietveld method using powder X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in cubic system and belongs to space group Ia3d with z = 8, a = 0.12500 nm. The excitation band of Ca 2 KMg 2 V 3 O 12 peaks at 320 nm in a region between 260 nm and 425 nm, and the emission spectrum exhibits an intense band centered at about 528 nm covering from 400 nm to 800 nm. The colour coordinates of samples prepared at different ignition temperatures are in a range of x = 0.323-0.339, y = 0.430-0.447.

  7. X ray emission: a tool and a probe for laser - clusters interaction; L'emission X: un outil et une sonde pour l'interaction laser - agregats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prigent, Ch

    2004-12-01

    In intense laser-cluster interaction, the experimental results show a strong energetic coupling between radiation and matter. We have measured absolute X-ray yields and charge state distributions under well control conditions as a function of physical parameters governing the interaction; namely laser intensity, pulse duration, wavelength or polarization state of the laser light, the size and the species of the clusters (Ar, Kr, Xe). We have highlighted, for the first time, an intensity threshold in the X-ray production very low ({approx} 2.10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} for a pulse duration of 300 fs) which can results from an effect of the dynamical polarisation of clusters in an intense electric field. A weak dependence with the wavelength (400 nm / 800 nm) on the absolute X-ray yields has been found. Moreover, we have observed a saturation of the X-ray emission probability below a critical cluster size. (author)

  8. The impact of fiscal and other measures on new passenger car sales and CO2 emissions intensity. Evidence from Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Lisa; Convery, Frank; Ferreira, Susana

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of national fiscal measures in the EU (EU15) on passenger car sales and the CO 2 emissions intensity of the new car fleet over the period 1995-2004. CO 2 emissions and energy consumption from road transport have been increasing in the EU and as a result since 1999 the EU has attempted to implement a high profile policy strategy to address this problem at European level. Less prominent is the fact that Member States apply vehicle and fuel taxes, which may also be having an impact on the quantity of passenger cars sold and their CO 2 emissions intensity. Diesel vehicle sales have increased appreciably in many countries over the same period and this study makes a first attempt to examine whether Member State fiscal measures have influenced this phenomenon. This work uses a panel dataset to investigate the relationship between national vehicle and fuel taxes on new passenger car sales and the fleet CO 2 emissions intensity in EU15 over a 10-year period. Our results show that national vehicle and fuel taxes have had an impact on passenger car sales and fleet CO 2 emissions intensity and that different taxes have disparate effects. (author)

  9. Surface defect assisted broad spectra emission from CdSe quantum dots for white LED application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Boni; Mathew, S.; Anand, V. R.; Correya, Adrine Antony; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Mujeeb, A.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports, broadband photoluminescence from CdSe quantum dots (QDs) under the excitation of 403 nm using fluorimeter and 403 nm CW laser excitation. The broad spectrum obtained from the colloidal quantum dots was ranges from 450 nm to 800 nm. The broadness of the spectra was attributed to the merging of band edge and defect driven emissions from the QDs. Six different sizes of particles were prepared via kinetic growth method by using CdO and elemental Se as sources of Cd and Se respectively. The particle sizes were measured from TEM images. The size dependent effect on broad emission was also studied and the defect state emission was found to be predominant in very small QDs. The defect driven emission was also observed to be redshifted, similar to the band edge emission, due to quantum confinement effect. The emission corresponding to different laser power was also studied and a linear relation was obtained. In order to study the colour characteristics of the emission, CIE chromaticity coordinate, CRI and CCT of the prepared samples were measured. It is observed that, these values were tunable by the addition of suitable intensity of blue light from the excitation source to yield white light of various colour temperatures. The broad photoluminescence spectrum of the QDs, were compared with that of a commercially available white LED. It was found that the prepared QDs are good alternatives for the phosphor in phosphor converted white LEDs, to provide good spectral tunability.

  10. Limestone: some observations on luminescence in the region of 360 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    An empirical study of luminescence around 360 nm from limestone is presented. Thermoluminescence glow curves from natural limestone show broad peaks at 440 deg. C, 350 deg. C, 530 deg. C and 286 deg. C in order of decreasing amplitude in contrast to the usual observation, for luminescence around 535 nm, of a sharp peak at 286 deg. C with a broader less intense peak at 350 deg. C. Recuperation occurs around 350 deg. C and 525 deg. C, which has a time dependence consistent with quantum tunnelling. Dependent on the history of heating and light exposure of the sample, sharp peaks at about 325 deg. C and 425 deg. C can be observed. Laboratory irradiated limestone shows a peak at 140 deg. C. The stimulation of luminescence by light of 470 nm with preheating at 145 deg. C for 300 s, shows an increasing signal for successive cycles of measurement associated with the heating, light exposure having little influence. Beta irradiation of a sample, with the same measurement conditions, gives a signal which increases in proportion to radiation dose but which does not survive storage for 17 h. Time resolved luminescence spectra, with no preheating, show a luminescence lifetime between stimulation and emission of less than a few μs for natural limestone, and an exponential increase in signal with increase in temperature (over the rang 20-167 deg. C) during stimulation. A signal proportional to laboratory applied beta dose is measurable at room temperature, with lifetime between stimulation and emission of this signal of 35 μs, but it does not survive heating to 100 deg. C

  11. Effects of temperature on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from intensive aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Shukra Raj; Choi, Ohkyung; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Lee, Jae Woo

    2015-06-15

    This study examines the effects of temperature on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in a bench-scale intensive aquaculture system rearing Koi fish. The water temperature varied from 15 to 24 °C at interval of 3 °C. Both volumetric and specific rate for nitrification and denitrification declined as the temperature decreased. The concentrations of ammonia and nitrite, however, were lower than the inhibitory level for Koi fish regardless of temperature. The effects of temperature on N2O emissions were significant, with the emission rate and emission factor increasing from 1.11 to 1.82 mg N2O-N/d and 0.49 to 0.94 mg N2O-N/kg fish as the temperature decreased from 24 to 15 °C. A global map of N2O emission from aquaculture was established by using the N2O emission factor depending on temperature. This study demonstrates that N2O emission from aquaculture is strongly dependent on regional water temperatures as well as on fish production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Substantial enhancement of red emission intensity by embedding Eu-doped GaN into a microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Inaba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate resonantly excited photoluminescence from a Eu,O-codoped GaN layer embedded into a microcavity, consisting of an AlGaN/GaN distributed Bragg reflector and a Ag reflecting mirror. The microcavity is responsible for a 18.6-fold increase of the Eu emission intensity at ∼10K, and a 21-fold increase at room temperature. We systematically investigate the origin of this enhancement, and we conclude that it is due to the combination of several effects including, the lifetime shortening of the Eu emission, the strain-induced piezoelectric effect, and the increased extraction and excitation field efficiencies. This study paves the way for an alternative method to enhance the photoluminescence intensity in rare-earth doped semiconductor structures.

  13. Energy Transfer Efficiency from ZnO-Nanocrystals to Eu3+ Ions Embedded in SiO₂ Film for Emission at 614 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalam, Vivek; Pita, Kantisara

    2017-08-10

    In this work, we study the energy transfer mechanism from ZnO nanocrystals (ZnO-nc) to Eu 3+ ions by fabricating thin-film samples of ZnO-nc and Eu 3+ ions embedded in a SiO₂ matrix using the low-cost sol-gel technique. The time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) measurements from the samples were analyzed to understand the contribution of energy transfer from the various ZnO-nc emission centers to Eu 3+ ions. The decay time obtained from the TRPL measurements was used to calculate the energy transfer efficiencies from the ZnO-nc emission centers, and these results were compared with the energy transfer efficiencies calculated from steady-state photoluminescence emission results. The results in this work show that high transfer efficiencies from the excitonic and Zn defect emission centers is mostly due to the energy transfer from ZnO-nc to Eu 3+ ions which results in the radiative emission from the Eu 3+ ions at 614 nm, while the energy transfer from the oxygen defect emissions is most probably due to the energy transfer from ZnO-nc to the new defects created due to the incorporation of the Eu 3+ ions.

  14. On the origins of 718 nm fluorescence from Porphyridium cruentum at 77 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R T; Graham, J R; Myers, J

    1980-09-05

    Emission spectra and transient behavior of fluorescence in Porphyridium cruentum have been studied in search of the pathway of excitation energy from the phycobilisome to Photosystem I (PS I) of photosynthesis. For activating light at 436 nm, absorbed almost entirely by chlorophyll, fluorescence is dominated by the 718 nm band generally attributed to chlorophyll of PS I. Activating light at 550 nm, absorbed mostly by the phycobilisome, gives rise to the distinctive fluorescence band of PS II chlorophyll at 696 nm but also gives a large component at 718 nm. Analysis depends critically upon the source of emission at 718 nm under 550 nm activation: does it arise from PS I or PS IIC0 Ley and Butler (Ley, A.C. and Butler, W.L. (1976) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73, 3956-3960) have proposed that the 718 nm arises mostly from PS I, to which it is transferred by spillover from PS II. We suggest a different proposition: that under 550 nm activation most of the 718 emission arises from PS II. Analysis shows that this proposition provides an alternative explanation. Using the small change in fluorescence yield observed under 436 nm activation as a monitor of excitation in PS I, we provide evidence that under 550 activation most of the 718 nm fluorescence arises from PS II.

  15. Excitation-emission spectra and fluorescence quantum yields for fresh and aged biogenic secondary organic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Ji; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.

    2013-05-10

    Certain biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA) become absorbent and fluorescent when exposed to reduced nitrogen compounds such as ammonia, amines and their salts. Fluorescent SOA may potentially be mistaken for biological particles by detection methods relying on fluorescence. This work quantifies the spectral distribution and effective quantum yields of fluorescence of SOA generated from two monoterpenes, limonene and a-pinene, and two different oxidants, ozone (O3) and hydroxyl radical (OH). The SOA was generated in a smog chamber, collected on substrates, and aged by exposure to ~100 ppb ammonia vapor in air saturated with water vapor. Absorption and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of aqueous extracts of aged and control SOA samples were measured, and the effective absorption coefficients and fluorescence quantum yields (~0.005 for 349 nm excitation) were determined from the data. The strongest fluorescence for the limonene-derived SOA was observed for excitation = 420+- 50 nm and emission = 475 +- 38 nm. The window of the strongest fluorescence shifted to excitation = 320 +- 25 nm and emission = 425 +- 38 nm for the a-pinene-derived SOA. Both regions overlap with the excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of some of the fluorophores found in primary biological aerosols. Our study suggests that, despite the low quantum yield, the aged SOA particles should have sufficient fluorescence intensities to interfere with the fluorescence detection of common bioaerosols.

  16. Rocket-borne EUV-visible emission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidtke, G.; Baker, K.D.; Stasek, G.

    1982-01-01

    Two rocket-borne experiments for measuring EUV atmospheric emissions have been conducted. The first measured emissions at 391.4 nm and 557.7 nm, and the second measured emissions in the range from 50 to 650 nm. Height profiles of selected auroral emissions from atomic oxygen at 130.4 nm (exhibiting resonant radiation diffusion) and from atomic oxygen at 557.7 nm, and from neutral and ionized molecular nitrogen are shown. Some details of the recorded spectra are given. In the shorter wavelength regions, emissions from atomic oxygen and nitrogen dominate. Over 140 nm, Lyman-Birge-Hopfield bands, second positive bands and Vegard-Kaplan bands of molecular nitrogen contribute most strongly except for some atomic lines. The Lyman-Birge-Hopfield bands of molecular nitrogen are relatively weak during the auroral arc as compared to the diffuse aurora

  17. UV, blue and red upconversion emission in Tm3+ doped Y2O3 phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Anurag; Kaushal Kumar; Rai, Vineet Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Optimized solution combustion route has been adopted to prepare Tm 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 phosphor. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the doped phosphor for getting the structural information has been performed. Intense UV, blue and red emissions exhibiting narrow band have been monitored using 980 nm diode laser excitation. The origin of UV, blue and red upconversion emissions has been explained based on the available data. (author)

  18. A methodology framework for weighting genetic traits that impact greenhouse gas emission intensities in selection indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, P R; Hely, F S; Quinton, C D; Cromie, A R

    2018-01-01

    A methodological framework was presented for deriving weightings to be applied in selection indexes to account for the impact genetic change in traits will have on greenhouse gas emissions intensities (EIs). Although the emission component of the breeding goal was defined as the ratio of total emissions relative to a weighted combination of farm outputs, the resulting trait-weighting factors can be applied as linear weightings in a way that augments any existing breeding objective before consideration of EI. Calculus was used to define the parameters and assumptions required to link each trait change to the expected changes in EI for an animal production system. Four key components were identified. The potential impact of the trait on relative numbers of emitting animals per breeding female first has a direct effect on emission output but, second, also has a dilution effect from the extra output associated with the extra animals. Third, each genetic trait can potentially change the amount of emissions generated per animal and, finally, the potential impact of the trait on product output is accounted for. Emission intensity weightings derived from this equation require further modifications to integrate them into an existing breeding objective. These include accounting for different timing and frequency of trait expressions as well as a weighting factor to determine the degree of selection emphasis that is diverted away from improving farm profitability in order to achieve gains in EI. The methodology was demonstrated using a simple application to dairy cattle breeding in Ireland to quantify gains in EI reduction from existing genetic trends in milk production as well as in fertility and survival traits. Most gains were identified as coming through the dilution effect of genetic increases in milk protein per cow, although gains from genetic improvements in survival by reducing emissions from herd replacements were also significant. Emission intensities in the Irish

  19. Selective excitation of singly-ionized silver emission lines by Grimm glow discharge plasmas using several different plasma gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagatsuma, K.

    1996-01-01

    The relative intensities of silver emission lines from Grimm glow discharge plasmas were investigated in the wavelength range from 160 to 600 nm when using different plasma gases. It was characteristic of the plasma excitation that the spectral patterns were strongly dependent on the nature of the plasma gas employed. Intense emission lines of silver ion were observed when argon-helium mixed gases were employed as the plasma gas. Selective excitation of the ionic lines could be principally attributed to the charge transfer collisions between silver atoms and helium ions. (orig.)

  20. Temperature dependent emission characteristics of monoclinic YBO{sub 3}: Eu{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Suchinder K., E-mail: suchindersharma@gmail.com [AMO-Physics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380009 (India); Malik, M. Manzar [Department of Physics, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology (MANIT), Bhopal (India)

    2016-05-15

    YBO{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} phosphor samples synthesized by modified combustion method are studied in the present work using powder X-ray diffraction, UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray excited luminescence spectroscopy and optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based laser excited emission spectroscopy. The temperature dependence of luminescence emission is also studied. The structural analysis suggests that the samples possess monoclinic structure with C2/c space group. The emission maximum was excitation wavelength dependent and prominent emission was observed at 593 nm (241 nm excitation) and 613 nm (300 nm excitation) for YBO{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} samples. The prominent magnetic/ electric (593/613 nm) dipole-moment allowed transitions are attributed to the presence of Eu{sup 3+} at different sites. For YBO{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} phosphor, 543 nm emission was prominent and had no impact of the cite symmetry. The increase in PL intensity in Eu{sup 3+} doped samples above 225 K is associated with the carrier mobility. An energy level scheme showing the positions of the 4f and 5d energy levels of all divalent and trivalent lanthanide ions relative to the valence and conduction band of the YBO{sub 3} has been constructed opening the possibility of using YBO{sub 3} for other interesting applications. - Highlights: • Synthesis of YBO{sub 3} by modified combustion method using glycine as fuel. • Crystallization in monoclinic phase (rarely investigated). • Eu and Tb doping and investigation of temperature dependent PL. • VRBE diagram generated in YBO{sub 3} to develop new optical materials.

  1. Controllable synthesis and upconversion emission of ultrasmall near-monodisperse lanthanide-doped Sr2LaF7 nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Yifu; Ma, Mo; Gong, Lunjun; Xu, Changfu; Ren, Guozhong; Yang, Qibin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Apropos NaOH content facilitates the growth of pure phase Sr 2 LaF 7 NCs. • Yb 3+ doping is favorable to the formation of Sr 2 LaF 7 NCs with uniform size. • Ultrasmall near-monodispersed Sr 2 LaF 7 NCs(sub-10 nm) were synthesized for the first time. • Intense multicolor upconversion can be obtained by properly lanthanide doping. - Abstract: Fluorite phase Sr 2 LaF 7 nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized via solvothermal method using oleic acid as capping ligands. The effects of preparing conditions on the phase structure, crystal size, morphology, and upconversion (UC) emission properties of the products were studied. The results reveal that just apropos NaOH content facilitates the growth of near-monodispersed pure phase Sr 2 LaF 7 NCs, and Yb 3+ doping is favorable to the formation of pure Sr 2 LaF 7 phase with more uniform size distribution. The average crystalline size of the products can be controlled less than 10 nm. Following appropriate lanthanide ions doping, the NCs show intense blue, yellow, and white-color UC emission under the excitation of a 980 nm laser. The energy transfer UC mechanisms for the fluorescent intensity were also investigated

  2. Relationship Study on Land Use Spatial Distribution Structure and Energy-Related Carbon Emission Intensity in Different Land Use Types of Guangdong, China, 1996–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to discuss the relationship between land use spatial distribution structure and energy-related carbon emission intensity in Guangdong during 1996–2008. We quantized the spatial distribution structure of five land use types including agricultural land, industrial land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land through applying spatial Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Then the corresponding energy-related carbon emissions in each type of land were calculated in the study period. Through building the reasonable regression models, we found that the concentration degree of industrial land is negatively correlated with carbon emission intensity in the long term, whereas the concentration degree is positively correlated with carbon emission intensity in agricultural land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land. The results also indicate that land use spatial distribution structure affects carbon emission intensity more intensively than energy efficiency and production efficiency do. These conclusions provide valuable reference to develop comprehensive policies for energy conservation and carbon emission reduction in a new perspective.

  3. Intensity of emission lines of the quiescent solar corona: comparison between calculated and observed values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krissinel, Boris

    2018-03-01

    The paper reports the results of calculations of the center-to-limb intensity of optically thin line emission in EUV and FUV wavelength ranges. The calculations employ a multicomponent model for the quiescent solar corona. The model includes a collection of loops of various sizes, spicules, and free (inter-loop) matter. Theoretical intensity values are found from probabilities of encountering parts of loops in the line of sight with respect to the probability of absence of other coronal components. The model uses 12 loops with sizes from 3200 to 210000 km with different values of rarefaction index and pressure at the loop base and apex. The temperature at loop apices is 1 400 000 K. The calculations utilize the CHIANTI database. The comparison between theoretical and observed emission intensity values for coronal and transition region lines obtained by the SUMER, CDS, and EIS telescopes shows quite satisfactory agreement between them, particularly for the solar disk center. For the data acquired above the limb, the enhanced discrepancies after the analysis refer to errors in EIS measurements.

  4. Intense blue upconversion emission and intrinsic optical bistability in Tm3+/Yb3+/Zn2+ tridoped YVO4 phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Manglesh; Mondal, Manisha; Mukhopadhyay, Lakshmi; Rai, Vineet Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Tm3+/Yb3+/Zn2+:yttrium metavanadate (YVO4) phosphors prepared through chemical coprecipitation and the solid state reaction method have been structurally characterized by an x-ray diffraction (XRD) study. Photoluminescence study of the developed phosphors under ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) excitation has been performed. The excitation spectrum of the tetragonal zircon type YVO4 phosphors corresponding to the emission at ˜476 nm exhibits a broad excitation peak in the 250-350 nm region, which is due to charge distribution in the {{{{VO}}}4}3- group. Under 980 nm CW diode laser excitation, enhancements of about ˜3000 times and ˜40 times have been observed for the blue band in the tridoped Tm3+Yb3+Zn2+:YVO4 phosphors compared to those of the Tm3+:YVO4 singly and Tm3+/Yb3+:YVO4 codoped phosphors, respectively. A downconversion (DC) emission study shows an enhancement of about ˜50 times for the blue band in the tridoped phosphors compared to that of the singly doped phosphors. Optical bistability (OB) behavior of the developed phosphors has been also investigated upon 980 nm excitation. The calculated Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage (CIE) color coordinates lie in the blue region with 96.5% color purity under 980 nm excitation, having a color temperature of ˜3400 K. Our observations show that the developed phosphors may be suitably used in dual mode luminescence spectroscopy, display devices, and UV LED chips.

  5. Near UV-visible line emission from tungsten highly-charged ions in Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, D.; Sakaue, H.A.; Murakami, I.; Goto, M.; Oishi, T.; Morita, S.; Fujii, K.; Nakamura, N.; Koike, F.; Sasaki, Akira; Ding, X.-B.; Dong, C.-Z.

    2015-01-01

    Wavelengths of emission lines from tungsten highly-charged ions have been precisely measured in near UV-visible range (320 - 356 nm and 382 - 402 nm) at Large Helical Device (LHD) by tungsten pellet injection. The tungsten emission lines were assigned based on its line-integrated intensity profiles on a poloidal cross section. The ground-term magnetic-dipole (M1) lines of W 26+,27+ and an M1 line of a metastable excited state of W 28+ , whose wavelengths have been determined by measurements using electron-beam-ion-traps (EBITs), are identified in the LHD spectra. The present results partially compliment wavelength data of tungsten highly-charged ions in the near UV-visible range. (author)

  6. Ca²⁺ signal contributing to the synthesis and emission of monoterpenes regulated by light intensity in Lilium 'siberia'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zenghui; Li, Tianjiao; Zheng, Jian; Yang, Kai; He, Xiangfeng; Leng, Pingsheng

    2015-06-01

    The floral scent is an important part of plant volatile compounds, and is influenced by environmental factors. The emission of monoterpenes of Lilium 'siberia' is regulated by light intensity, but the mechanism is large unknown. In this study, the expression of Li-mTPS, a monoterpene synthase gene in the tepals of Lilium 'siberia', and net Ca(2+) flux were investigated after exposure to different levels of light intensity (0, 100, 300, 600, 1000, and 1500 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). Moreover the effect of LaCl3 and ethylene glycol-bis-(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) on the Li-mTPS expression, monoterpene emission, and net Ca(2+) flux were examined at 600 μmol m(-2) s(-1). The results showed that along with the enhancement of light intensity, the expression level of Li-mTPS increased gradually, and the net Ca(2+) influx was also enhanced showing a similar pattern. It was found that LaCl3 and EGTA effectively inhibited the increase in expression of Li-mTPS and the net Ca(2+) influx induced by light treatment. Moreover, the release amounts of monoterpenes decreased significantly after treatment with LaCl3 and EGTA. So it can be concluded that Ca(2+) signal contributed to the biosynthesis and emission of monoterpenes regulated by light intensity in Lilium 'siberia' tepals. The increased light intensity firstly triggered the Ca(2+) influx to cytoplasm, and then the gene expression of monoterpene synthases downstream was activated to regulate the biosynthesis and emission of monoterpenes. But in the signaling pathway other mechanisms were thought to be involved in the emission of monoterpenes regulated by light intensity, which need to be investigated in future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. UV light induced red emission in Eu3+-doped zincborophosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hima Bindu, S.; Siva Raju, D.; Vinay Krishna, V.; Rajavardhana Rao, T.; Veerabrahmam, K.; Linga Raju, Ch.

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports the preparation of transparent zincborophosphate (ZBP) glasses doped with Eu3+ ions by the conventional melt quenching technique. The prepared glasses were characterized using powder XRD, FTIR, optical absorption, photoluminescence and decay curves. Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters calculated under various constraints using absorption and emission spectra. These JO intensity parameters have been used to predict the radiative properties such as radiative life time, branching ratios and stimulated emission cross section of the 5D0→7FJ (J = 0-4) transitions. Decay curves for the 5D0 level of Eu3+ ions shows single exponential for all concentrations. Luminescence properties of 5D0→7F2 transitions of Eu3+ions have revealed that the present ZBP:Eu3+ glasses have significant in optical applications at around 613 nm. An intense red luminescence has been observed due to 5D0→7F2 transition of Eu3+ ion in these glasses. From the CIE color coordinate diagram, it is observed that the present glass system is prominent material for red emission.

  8. A new method of derived equatorial plasma bubbles motion by tracing OI 630 nm emission all-sky images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Yu, T.; Chunliang, X.; Zuo, X.; Liu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    A new method for estimating the equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) motions from airglow emission all-sky images is presented in this paper. This method, which is called 'cloud-derived wind technology' and widely used in satellite observation of wind, could reasonable derive zonal and meridional velocity vectors of EPBs drifts by tracking a series of successive airglow 630.0 nm emission images. Airglow emission images data are available from an all sky airglow camera in Hainan Fuke (19.5°N, 109.2°E) supported by China Meridional Project, which can receive the 630.0nm emission from the ionosphere F region at low-latitudes to observe plasma bubbles. A series of pretreatment technology, e.g. image enhancement, orientation correction, image projection are utilized to preprocess the raw observation. Then the regions of plasma bubble extracted from the images are divided into several small tracing windows and each tracing window can find a target window in the searching area in following image, which is considered as the position tracing window moved to. According to this, velocities in each window are calculated by using the technology of cloud-derived wind. When applying the cloud-derived wind technology, the maximum correlation coefficient (MCC) and the histogram of gradient (HOG) methods to find the target window, which mean to find the maximum correlation and the minimum euclidean distance between two gradient histograms in respectively, are investigated and compared in detail. The maximum correlation method is fianlly adopted in this study to analyze the velocity of plasma bubbles because of its better performance than HOG. All-sky images from Hainan Fuke, between August 2014 and October 2014, are analyzed to investigate the plasma bubble drift velocities using MCC method. The data at different local time at 9 nights are studied and find that zonal drift velocity in different latitude at different local time ranges from 50 m/s to 180 m/s and there is a peak value at

  9. The decrease of CO2 emission intensity is decarbonization at national and global levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    This viewpoint proposes the definition: 'Decarbonization refers to a decrease of CO 2 emission intensity in a trend'. This viewpoint then argues that an analysis of decarbonization at national and global levels based on that definition would lead to the correct calculation of decarbonization

  10. Dual mode emission and harmonic generation in ZnO-CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Er{sup 3+} nano-composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, R.K. [Laser and Spectroscopy Laboratory, Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Kumar, K. [Laser and Spectroscopy Laboratory, Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Nano-technology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad (India); Rai, S.B., E-mail: sbrai49@yahoo.co.i [Laser and Spectroscopy Laboratory, Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2011-05-15

    Er{sup 3+} doped ZnO-CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-composite phosphor has been synthesized through combustion method and its emission and harmonic generation properties have been studied. The X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques have been used to prove the dual phase (ZnO and CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nature of the phosphor. The phosphor has shown up-conversion emission on near-infra-red (976 nm) excitation and down-conversion emission on 355 nm excitation in presence of Er{sup 3+} and thus behaves as a dual mode phosphor. On excitation with 976 nm diode laser, material shows color tunability (calcination of composite material at different temperatures). Formation of ZnO nanocrystals on heat treatment of as-synthesized sample has shown its characteristic emission at 388 nm and also the energy transfer from ZnO to Er{sup 3+} ions. The low temperature emission measurements have been carried out and the results have been discussed. Phosphor has shown strong second harmonic generation (SHG) at 532 nm on 1064 nm and at 266 nm on 532 nm excitation. - Research highlights: {yields} We have synthesized Er{sup 3+} doped composite material by combustion method. The two phases of composites are ZnO and CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. {yields} The phosphor has shown up-conversion emission on near-infra-red (976 nm) excitation and down-conversion emission on 355 nm excitation in presence of Er{sup 3+} and thus behaves as a dual mode phosphor. This material also shows colour tenability on excitation of 976 nm diode laser at different temperature calcinations (i.e., As-synthesized to calcinated at 1473 K). {yields} Low temperature effects on Er{sup 3+} as well as ZnO emission have been carried out. We observed that at low temperature the efficiency of Er{sup 3+} increases while in the case of ZnO its intensity increases and also 12 nm shifting observed. {yields} Composite material has shown strong second harmonic generation (SHG) at 532 nm on 1064 nm and at 266 nm on 532 nm

  11. Intensities of the Martian N2 electron-impact excited dayglow emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jane L.; Hać, Nicholas E. F.

    2013-06-01

    The first N2 emissions in the Martian dayglow were detected by the SPICAM UV spectrograph on board the Mars Express spacecraft. Intensities of the (0,5) and (0,6) Vegard-Kaplan bands were found to be about one third of those predicted more than 35 years ago. The Vegard-Kaplan band system arises from the transition from the lowest N2 triplet state (A3Σu+;v') to the electronic ground state (X1Σg+;v″). It is excited in the Martian dayglow by direct electron-impact excitation of the ground N2(X) state to the A state and by excitation to higher triplet states that populate the A state by cascading. Using revised data, we compute here updated intensities of several of the bands in the N2 triplet systems and those involving the a1Πg state, the upper state of the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield bands. We find that the predicted limb intensities for the (0,5) and (0,6) Vegard-Kaplan bands are consistent with the measured values.

  12. Long-pulsed Nd: YAG laser and intense pulse light-755 nm for idiopathic facial hirsutism: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpit Shrimal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hirsutism means excessive terminal hair growth in a female in male pattern distribution. Perception of hirsutism is subjective. Permanent laser hair reduction is a slow process taking many sessions and tracking of improvement parameters is tedious. Hence, a lot of confusion still exists regarding the type of laser most beneficial for treatment. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety profile of long-pulsed Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm and intense pulse light (IPL-755 nm in management of idiopathic facial hirsutism. Settings and Design: Open-labelled, randomly allocated experimental study. Subjects and Methods: The study included 33 cases of idiopathic facial hirsutism. Patients were randomly divided into Group A, treated with long-pulsed Nd: YAG laser and Group B, treated with IPL-755 for a total of six sessions at 1 month interval. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was used in Medcalc® version 9.0 and the test of significance was taken to be P75% reduction in hair after six sessions in Group A was seen in fourteen (93.33% out of fifteen patients, whereas in Group B, it was seen only in three (16.66% out of eighteen patients. In Group A, erythema was seen in 26.67%, perifollicular edema and hyperpigmentation in 13.33% each. In Group B, erythema was seen in 50% patients, perifollicular edema in 16.67% and hyperpigmentation in 38.89% patients. Conclusions: Long-pulsed Nd: YAG Laser (1064 nm is better than IPL-755 nm in terms of safety and effectiveness in the management of idiopathic facial hirsutism.

  13. Experimental and numerical analysis for high intensity swirl based ultra-low emission flameless combustor operating with liquid fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Vanteru, Mahendra Reddy; Katoch, Amit; Roberts, William L.; Kumar, Sudarshan

    2014-01-01

    Flameless combustion offers many advantages over conventional combustion, particularly uniform temperature distribution and lower emissions. In this paper, a new strategy is proposed and adopted to scale up a burner operating in flameless combustion mode from a heat release density of 5.4-21 MW/m(3) (thermal input 21.5-84.7 kW) with kerosene fuel. A swirl flow based configuration was adopted for air injection and pressure swirl type nozzle with an SMD 35-37 lm was used to inject the fuel. Initially, flameless combustion was stabilized for a thermal input of 21.5 kW ((Q) over dot '''= 5.37 MW/m(3)). Attempts were made to scale this combustor to higher intensities i.e. 10.2, 16.3 and 21.1 MW/m(3). However, an increase in fuel flow rate led to incomplete combustion and accumulation of unburned fuel in the combustor. Two major difficulties were identified as possible reasons for unsustainable flameless combustion at the higher intensities. (i) A constant spray cone angle and SMD increases the droplet number density. (ii) Reactants dilution ratio (R-dil) decreased with increased thermal input. To solve these issues, a modified combustor configuration, aided by numerical computations was adopted, providing a chamfer near the outlet to increase the R-dil. Detailed experimental investigations showed that flameless combustion mode was achieved at high intensities with an evenly distributed reaction zone and temperature in the combustor at all heat intensities. The emissions of CO, NOx and HC for all heat intensities (Phi = 1-0.6) varied between 11-41, 6-19 and 0-9 ppm, respectively. These emissions are well within the range of emissions from other flameless combustion systems reported in the literature. The acoustic emission levels were also observed to be reduced by 8-9 dB at all conditions. (C) 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental and numerical analysis for high intensity swirl based ultra-low emission flameless combustor operating with liquid fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Vanteru, Mahendra Reddy

    2014-06-21

    Flameless combustion offers many advantages over conventional combustion, particularly uniform temperature distribution and lower emissions. In this paper, a new strategy is proposed and adopted to scale up a burner operating in flameless combustion mode from a heat release density of 5.4-21 MW/m(3) (thermal input 21.5-84.7 kW) with kerosene fuel. A swirl flow based configuration was adopted for air injection and pressure swirl type nozzle with an SMD 35-37 lm was used to inject the fuel. Initially, flameless combustion was stabilized for a thermal input of 21.5 kW ((Q) over dot \\'\\'\\'= 5.37 MW/m(3)). Attempts were made to scale this combustor to higher intensities i.e. 10.2, 16.3 and 21.1 MW/m(3). However, an increase in fuel flow rate led to incomplete combustion and accumulation of unburned fuel in the combustor. Two major difficulties were identified as possible reasons for unsustainable flameless combustion at the higher intensities. (i) A constant spray cone angle and SMD increases the droplet number density. (ii) Reactants dilution ratio (R-dil) decreased with increased thermal input. To solve these issues, a modified combustor configuration, aided by numerical computations was adopted, providing a chamfer near the outlet to increase the R-dil. Detailed experimental investigations showed that flameless combustion mode was achieved at high intensities with an evenly distributed reaction zone and temperature in the combustor at all heat intensities. The emissions of CO, NOx and HC for all heat intensities (Phi = 1-0.6) varied between 11-41, 6-19 and 0-9 ppm, respectively. These emissions are well within the range of emissions from other flameless combustion systems reported in the literature. The acoustic emission levels were also observed to be reduced by 8-9 dB at all conditions. (C) 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tomographic intensity mapping versus galaxy surveys: observing the Universe in H α emission with new generation instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, B. Marta; Zaroubi, Saleem; Kooistra, Robin; Cooray, Asantha

    2018-04-01

    The H α line emission is an important probe for a number of fundamental quantities in galaxies, including their number density, star formation rate (SFR), and overall gas content. A new generation of low-resolution intensity mapping (IM) probes, e.g. SPHEREx and CDIM, will observe galaxies in H α emission over a large fraction of the sky from the local Universe till a redshift of z ˜ 6 - 10, respectively. This will also be the target line for observations by the high-resolution Euclid and WFIRST instruments in the z ˜ 0.7-2 redshift range. In this paper, we estimate the intensity and power spectra of the H α line in the z ˜ 0-5 redshift range using observed line luminosity functions (LFs), when possible, and simulations, otherwise. We estimate the significance of our predictions by accounting for the modelling uncertainties (e.g. SFR, extinction, etc.) and observational contamination. We find that IM surveys can make a statistical detection of the full H α emission between z ˜ 0.8 and 5. Moreover, we find that the high-frequency resolution and the sensitivity of the planned CDIM surveys allow for the separation of H α emission from several interloping lines. We explore ways to use the combination of these line intensities to probe galaxy properties. As expected, our study indicates that galaxy surveys will only detect bright galaxies that contribute up to a few per cent of the overall H α intensity. However, these surveys will provide important constraints on the high end of the H α LF and put strong constraints on the active galactic nucleus LF.

  16. Potential for reducing GHG emissions and energy consumption from implementing the aluminum intensive vehicle fleet in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, J.D.; Han, W.J.; Peng, Y.H.; Gu, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    The automobile industry in China has rapidly developed in recent years which resulted in an increase in gasoline usage and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Focus on climate change has also accelerated to grow pressure on reducing vehicle weight and improving fuel efficiency. Aluminum (Al) as a light metal has demonstrated a great potential for weight savings in applications such as engine blocks, cylinder heads, wheels, hoods, tailgates etc. However, primary Al production requires intensive energy and the cost of Al is more than traditional steel, which may affect the total benefits realized from using Al in automobiles. Therefore, it is very essential to conduct a study to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption if the plan is to achieve fleet-wide Al intensive vehicles. This paper describes a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and the general modeling assumptions used to evaluate the impact of Al intensive vehicle on GHG emissions and energy consumption. The results indicated that the reductions in life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption were not significant when the maximum Al content in an automobile is 145 kg, which is the average level of Al usage in automobiles in North America. A neural network methodology was used to forecast the vehicle stock in China from 2010 to 2020 and a vehicle fleet model was established to track GHG emissions and energy consumption of the vehicle fleet. A material availability factor was also introduced into the LCA methodology to further assist decision makers in providing rational proposals for a widespread implementation of Al in automobiles. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to study the impact of the Al content in a vehicle on the final outcomes. The GHG emissions and energy consumption could be further reduced when the Al content in an automobile increases.

  17. A modified GHG intensity indicator: Toward a sustainable global economy based on a carbon border tax and emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrahi Moghaddam, Reza; Farrahi Moghaddam, Fereydoun; Cheriet, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    It will be difficult to gain the agreement of all the actors on any proposal for climate change management, if universality and fairness are not considered. In this work, a universal measure of emissions to be applied at the international level is proposed, based on a modification of the Greenhouse Gas Intensity (GHG-INT) measure. It is hoped that the generality and low administrative cost of this measure, which we call the Modified Greenhouse Gas Intensity measure (MGHG-INT), will eliminate any need to classify nations. The core of the MGHG-INT is what we call the IHDI-adjusted Gross Domestic Product (IDHIGDP), based on the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). The IDHIGDP makes it possible to propose universal measures, such as MGHG-INT. We also propose a carbon border tax applicable at national borders, based on MGHG-INT and IDHIGDP. This carbon tax is supported by a proposed global Emissions Trading System (ETS). The proposed carbon tax is analyzed in a short-term scenario, where it is shown that it can result in a significant reduction in global emissions while keeping the economy growing at a positive rate. In addition to annual GHG emissions, cumulative GHG emissions over two decades are considered with almost the same results. - Highlights: ► An IHDI-adjusted GDP (IHDIGDP) is introduced to universally account the activities of nations. ► A modified GHG emission intensity (MGHG-INT) is introduced based on the IHDIGDP. ► Based on green and red scenarios, admissible emissions and RED percentage are introduced. ► The RED percentage is used to define a border carbon tax (BCT) and emission trading system. ► The MGHG-INT can provide a universal control on emissions while allowing high economical growth

  18. [The influence of pulsed low-intensity laser radiation of the red (635 nm) and infrared (904 nm) spectra on the human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvin, S V; Kliuchnikov, D Iu; Antipov, E V; Volchkov, S E; Kiseleva, O N

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have for a long time been an object of investigation with a view to elucidating the prospects for their application in clinical medicine and cosmetology. One of the approaches to the non-specific regulation of the activity of these cells at the stage of preliminary in vitro combination is the treatment with low-intensity laser radiation (LILR). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of using pulsed LILR of the infrared and red spectra for this purpose. We used the 4th passage adhesive MSC cultures based at the umbilical tissue of a donor who gave the informed consent to participate in the study. The source of illumination was a Lazmik-VLOK laser therapeutic apparatus (RU No RZN 2014/1410 dated 06.02.2014) with the matrix laser infrared radiation heads (wavelength 904 nm, light pulse length 108 ns, frequency 1500 Hz). The apparatus was operated either in the multi-frequency Lazmik regime [Moskvin S.V., 2014] with mean power density 0.05 and 0.14 mW/cm2 and the red spectrum (wavelength 635 nm, light pulse length 144 ns, frequency 1500 Hz) or in the multi-frequency Lazmik regime [Moskvin S.V., 2014] with mean power density 0.03 and 0.12. The exposition was 5 min in both regimes. The study has demonstrated that neither the morphological structure nor the viability of mesenchymal stem cells changed under the influence of energy and time parameters used in experiments. The number of cells was shown to slightly increase in comparison with control. The most pronounced effect was documented after illumination with pulse infrared (904 nm) LILR in the multi-frequency Lazmik regime. The maximum effect was observed during a period between days 1 and 3 of cultivation.

  19. Highly stable colloidal TiO2 nanocrystals with strong violet-blue emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghamsari, Morteza Sasani; Gaeeni, Mohammad Reza; Han, Wooje; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Improved sol–gel method has been applied to prepare highly stable colloidal TiO 2 nanocrystals. The synthesized titania nanocrystals exhibit strong emission in the violet-blue wavelength region. Very long evolution time was obtained by preventing the sol to gel conversion with reflux process. FTIR, XRD, UV–vis absorption, photoluminescence and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) were used to study the optical properties, crystalline phase, morphology, shape and size of prepared TiO 2 colloidal nanocrystals. HRTEM showed that the diameter of TiO 2 colloidal nanocrystals is about 5 nm. Although the PL spectra show similar spectral features upon excitation wavelengths at 280, 300 and 350 nm, but their emission intensities are significantly different from each other. Photoluminescence quantum yield for TiO 2 colloidal nanocrystals is estimated to be 49% with 280 nm excitation wavelength which is in agreement and better than reported before. Obtained results confirm that the prepared colloidal TiO 2 sample has enough potential for optoelectronics applications.

  20. Multispectral Emissions of Lanthanide-Doped Gadolinium Oxide Nanophosphors for Cathodoluminescence and Near-Infrared Upconversion/Downconversion Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doan Thi Kim Dung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive imaging of a biological individual can be achieved by utilizing the variation in spatial resolution, the scale of cathodoluminescence (CL, and near-infrared (NIR, as favored by imaging probe Gd2O3 co-doped lanthanide nanophosphors (NPPs. A series of Gd2O3:Ln3+/Yb3+ (Ln3+: Tm3+, Ho3+, Er3+ NPPs with multispectral emission are prepared by the sol-gel method. The NPPs show a wide range of emissions spanning from the visible to the NIR region under 980 nm excitation. The dependence of the upconverting (UC/downconverting (DC emission intensity on the dopant ratio is investigated. The optimum ratios of dopants obtained for emissions in the NIR regions at 810 nm, 1200 nm, and 1530 nm are applied to produce nanoparticles by the homogeneous precipitation (HP method. The nanoparticles produced from the HP method are used to investigate the dual NIR and CL imaging modalities. The results indicate the possibility of using Gd2O3 co-doped Ln3+/Yb3+ (Ln3+: Tm3+, Ho3+, Er3+ in correlation with NIR and CL imaging. The use of Gd2O3 promises an extension of the object dimension to the whole-body level by employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.

  1. Blue and green emission from Ce3+ and Tb3+ co-doped Y2O3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loitongbam, Romeo Singh; Singh, W. Rameshwor; Phaomei, Ganngam; Singh, N. Shanta

    2013-01-01

    Tb 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles of 4–10 nm size were synthesized from nitrate precursors by the urea hydrolysis method in ethylene glycol medium at a low temperature of 140 °C. Characteristic green emission of Tb 3+ corresponding to 5 D 4 → 7 F J is observed to be very strong, which is further enhanced with heat treatment temperature. Characteristic blue color emission of Ce 3+ ion originating from 5d→ 2 F 7/2 (424 nm) and 2 F 5/2 (486 nm) transitions are found to be very strong in as-synthesized Ce 0.02 Tb 0.06 Y 1.92 O 3 nanoparticles. However, its luminescence intensity decreases with increase in heating temperature or increase in the particle size/crystallinity, whereas a weak emission peak of Tb 3+ ion at 545 nm is witnessed. The polycrystalline nature of the as-prepared sample changed to highly crystalline state when heated at an elevated temperature (1200 °C). -- Highlights: • Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles doped with Tb 3+ and Ce 3+ of 4–10 nm are synthesized. • Strong green emission of Tb 3+ from 5 D 4 → 7 F J transition is observed. • Strong blue emission of Ce 3+ from 5d→ 2 F 7/2 and 2 F 5/2 transitions is observed. • Ce 3+ emission decreases with annealing or increase in particle size. • Such nanoparticles can be used in LEDs and bio-labeling

  2. NIR upconversion emission of Tm{sup 3+} doped glassceramics for solar cells applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Mendoza, U.R., E-mail: urguez@ull.edu.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Materiales y Nanotecnología, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Lahoz, F. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Estudios Avanzados en Atómica, Molecular y Fotónica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    The Tm{sup 3+} 800 nm upconversion emission corresponding to the {sup 3}H{sub 4}→{sup 3}H{sub 6} transition has been obtained upon infrared sub-Si bandgap excitation at 1210 nm in Tm{sup 3+} doped transparent glasses and glass ceramics with composition SiO{sub 2}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–CdF{sub 2}–PbF{sub 2}–YF{sub 3}. Possible energy transfer mechanisms have been carefully studied through different experimental measurements such as the excitation spectrum, decay rate of the emission and laser pump power versus integrated emission. The results suggest that energy transfer upconversion (ETU) mechanism is responsible for the emission. It is based on the following process: Tm{sup 3+}({sup 3}F{sub 4})+Tm{sup 3+}({sup 3}F{sub 4})→Tm{sup 3+}({sup 3}H{sub 6})+Tm{sup 3+}({sup 3}H{sub 4}). The upconverted emission is about three times more intense in the glass ceramic samples than in the precursor glasses. This emission can be used to enhance the performances in crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells.

  3. Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasonen, Pauli; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Klimont, Zbigniew; Visschedijk, Antoon; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Amann, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number emissions under different future scenarios, consistent with emissions of other pollutants and greenhouse gases. In addition to determining the general particulate number emissions, we also describe a method to estimate the number size distributions of the emitted black carbon particles. The first results show that the sources dominating the particle number emissions are different to those dominating the mass emissions. The major global number source is road traffic, followed by residential combustion of biofuels and coal (especially in China, India and Africa), coke production (Russia and China), and industrial combustion and processes. The size distributions of emitted particles differ across the world, depending on the main sources: in regions dominated by traffic and industry, the number size distribution of emissions peaks in diameters range from 20 to 50 nm, whereas in regions with intensive biofuel combustion and/or agricultural waste burning, the emissions of particles with diameters around 100 nm are dominant. In the baseline (current legislation) scenario, the particle number emissions in Europe, Northern and Southern Americas, Australia, and China decrease until 2030, whereas especially for India, a strong increase is estimated. The results of this study provide input for modelling of the future changes in aerosol-cloud interactions as well as particle number related adverse health effects, e.g. in response to tightening

  4. Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Paasonen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas–Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number emissions under different future scenarios, consistent with emissions of other pollutants and greenhouse gases. In addition to determining the general particulate number emissions, we also describe a method to estimate the number size distributions of the emitted black carbon particles. The first results show that the sources dominating the particle number emissions are different to those dominating the mass emissions. The major global number source is road traffic, followed by residential combustion of biofuels and coal (especially in China, India and Africa, coke production (Russia and China, and industrial combustion and processes. The size distributions of emitted particles differ across the world, depending on the main sources: in regions dominated by traffic and industry, the number size distribution of emissions peaks in diameters range from 20 to 50 nm, whereas in regions with intensive biofuel combustion and/or agricultural waste burning, the emissions of particles with diameters around 100 nm are dominant. In the baseline (current legislation scenario, the particle number emissions in Europe, Northern and Southern Americas, Australia, and China decrease until 2030, whereas especially for India, a strong increase is estimated. The results of this study provide input for modelling of the future changes in aerosol–cloud interactions as well as particle number related adverse health effects, e.g. in response

  5. Advances in 750 nm VECSELs (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, Esa J.; Ranta, Sanna; Lyytikäinen, Jari; Saarela, Antti; Sirbu, Alexei; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Kapon, Eli; Guina, Mircea

    2017-03-01

    Lasers operating in the transmission window of tissue at wavelengths between 700 and 800 nm are needed in numerous medical and biomedical applications, including photodynamic therapy and fluorescence microscopy. However, the performance of diode lasers in this spectral range is limited by the lack of appropriate compound semiconductors. Here, we review our recent research on 750 nm VECSELs. Two approaches to reaching the 750 nm wavelength will be discussed. The first approach relies on intra-cavity frequency doubling a wafer-fused 1500 nm VECSEL. The VECSEL gain chip comprises a GaAs-based DBR and an InP-based gain section, which allows for optical pumping with low-cost commercial diodes at 980 nm. With this scheme we have achieved watt-level output powers and tuning of the laser wavelength over a 40 nm band at around 750 nm. The second approach is direct emission at 750 nm using the AlGaAs/GaAs material system. In this approach visible wavelengths are required for optical pumping. However, the consequent higher costs compared to pumping at 980 nm are mitigated by the more compact laser setup and prospects of doubling the frequency to the ultraviolet range.

  6. Liquid Carbon Reflectivity at 19 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Mincigrucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We hereby report on a pump-probe reflectivity experiment conducted on amorphous carbon, using a 780 nm laser as a pump and a 19 nm FEL emission as probe. Measurements were performed at 50 degrees with respect to the surface normal to have an un-pumped reflectivity higher than 0.5%. A sub-10 fs time synchronization error could be obtained exploiting the nearly jitter-free capabilities of FERMI. EUV FEL-based experiments open the way to study the behaviour of a liquid carbon phase being unaffected by plasma screening.

  7. Laser induced broad band anti-Stokes white emission from LiYbF4 nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Marciniak; R. Tomala; M. Stefanski; D. Hreniak; W. Strek

    2016-01-01

    Spectroscopic properties of tetragonal LiYbF4 nanocrystals under high dense NIR excitation at vacuum condition were in-vestigated. White, broad band emission covering whole visible part of the spectrum from LiYbF4 nanocrystals was observed. Its in-tensity strongly depended on the excitation power, excitation wavelength and ambient pressure. Temperature of the nanocrystals un-der 975 nm excitation was determined as a function of excitation power. Strong photo-induced current was observed from LiYbF4 pallet. The emission kinetic was analyzed. The mechanism of the anti-Stokes white emission was discussed in terms of the la-ser-induced charge transfer emission from Yb2+ states.

  8. Optical breakdown threshold investigation of 1064 nm laser induced air plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Thompson, Shane

    2012-01-01

    We present the theoretical and experimental measurements and analysis of the optical breakdown threshold for dry air by 1064 nm infrared laser radiation and the significance of the multiphoton and collisional cascade ionization process on the breakdown threshold measurements over pressures range from 10 to 2000 Torr. Theoretical estimates of the breakdown threshold laser intensities and electric fields are obtained using two distinct theories namely multiphoton and collisional cascade ionization theories. The theoretical estimates are validated by experimental measurements and analysis of laser induced breakdown processes in dry air at a wavelength of 1064 nm by focusing 450 mJ max, 6 ns, 75 MW max high-power 1064 nm IR laser radiation onto a 20 μm radius spot size that produces laser intensities up to 3 - 6 TW/cm 2 , sufficient for air ionization over the pressures of interest ranging from 10 to 2000 Torr. Analysis of the measured breakdown threshold laser intensities and electric fields are carried out in relation with classical and quantum theoretical ionization processes, operating pressures. Comparative analysis of the laser air breakdown results at 1064 nm with corresponding results of a shorter laser wavelength (193 nm) [M. Thiyagarajan and J. E. Scharer, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36, 2512 (2008)] and a longer microwave wavelength (10 8 nm) [A. D. MacDonald, Microwave Breakdown in Gases (Wiley, New York, 1966)]. A universal scaling analysis of the breakdown threshold measurements provided a direct comparison of breakdown threshold values over a wide range of frequencies ranging from microwave to ultraviolet frequencies. Comparison of 1064 nm laser induced effective field intensities for air breakdown measurements with data calculated based on the collisional cascade and multiphoton breakdown theories is used successfully to determine the scaled collisional microwave portion. The measured breakdown threshold of 1064 nm laser intensities are then scaled to

  9. [Measurement of plasma parameters in slot microplasma by optical emission spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Fang; Lü, Ying-Hui; Liu, Wei-Yuan; Yue, Han; Lu, Ning; Li, Xin-Chun

    2010-12-01

    Slot microplasma was generated in argon and air mixture by using dielectric barrier discharge device with two parallel water electrodes. The molecular vibrational temperature, molecular rotational temperature and average electron energy of the slot plasma were studied by optical emission spectrum. The molecular vibrational temperature was calculated using the second positive system of nitrogen molecules ( C3 pi(u) --> B3 pi(g)). The molecular rotational temperature was calculated using the first negative system of nitrogen molecular ions ( B 2sigma(u)+ --> X sigma(g)+). The relative intensities of the first negative system of nitrogen molecular ions (391.4 nm) and nitrogen molecules in the excitation level (337.1 nm) emission spectrum line were measured for studying the variations of electron energy. It was found that the molecular vibrational temperature, molecular rotational temperature and average electron energy decrease with gas pressure increasing.

  10. An intensity map of hydrogen 21-cm emission at redshift z approximately 0.8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tzu-Ching; Pen, Ue-Li; Bandura, Kevin; Peterson, Jeffrey B

    2010-07-22

    Observations of 21-cm radio emission by neutral hydrogen at redshifts z approximately 0.5 to approximately 2.5 are expected to provide a sensitive probe of cosmic dark energy. This is particularly true around the onset of acceleration at z approximately 1, where traditional optical cosmology becomes very difficult because of the infrared opacity of the atmosphere. Hitherto, 21-cm emission has been detected only to z = 0.24. More distant galaxies generally are too faint for individual detections but it is possible to measure the aggregate emission from many unresolved galaxies in the 'cosmic web'. Here we report a three-dimensional 21-cm intensity field at z = 0.53 to 1.12. We then co-add neutral-hydrogen (H i) emission from the volumes surrounding about 10,000 galaxies (from the DEEP2 optical galaxy redshift survey). We detect the aggregate 21-cm glow at a significance of approximately 4sigma.

  11. Study of 660 nm laser-induced photoluminescence of chlorophyll-a and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Y; Zhang, D X; Zhang, H J

    2007-01-01

    Based on the phenomenon of chlorophyll a photoluminescence, this paper introduces a new method to measure the chlorophyll a content, using 660nm laser diode as a new kind of light source to stimulate fluorescence as well as combining a fiber and spectrum technique. We analyze the characteristics of laser-induced fluorescence spectrum of chlorophyll a and then put forward the new method using two parameters, the relative fluorescence intensity and fluorescence intensity ratio F685/F735, to measure the chlorophyll a content in the water and green leaves respectively. The experimental results indicate that it is completely feasible to give a visual judgment for chlorophyll a content, according to the fluorescence emission spectrum of chlorophyll a. Subsequently, it is verified by three kinds of typical applications. All of these provide a new kind of light source to develop the chlorophyll a fluorometry and further give a technical foundation of on-spot monitoring the chlorophyll a content in the ocean or in green leaves

  12. The Role of NADPH Oxidase in the Inhibition of Trichophyton rubrum by 420-nm Intense Pulsed Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the effect of intense pulsed light (IPL on Trichophyton rubrum and investigate its mechanism of action.Methods: The viability of fungi treated with IPL alone and with IPL combined with an NADPH oxidase inhibitor (DPI pretreatment was determined by MTT assays. The reactive oxygen species (ROS were quantified with a DCFH-DA fluorescent probe. Malondialdehyde (MDA content and superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities were determined by commercial kits. The transcription of the Nox gene was quantified using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis, and micromorphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In addition, fungal keratinase activity was detected by measuring dye release from keratin azure.Results: The growth declined with statistical significance after 6 h of treatment (P < 0.001. The ROS and MDA content increased after IPL treatment, whereas the SOD and GSH-Px activity decreased. Nox gene expression was upregulated, and the micromorphology was damaged. Keratinase activity decreased. Fungi that received DPI pretreatment exhibited contrasting outcomes.Conclusion: We found that 420-nm IPL significantly inhibited the growth and pathogenicity of T. rubrum in vitro. A suggested mechanism involves Nox as a factor that mediates 420-nm IPL-induced oxidative damage of T. rubrum.

  13. Low-intensity laser irradiation at 660 nm stimulates cytochrome c oxidase in stressed fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houreld, Nicolette N; Masha, Roland T; Abrahamse, Heidi

    2012-07-01

    Low-intensity laser irradiation (LILI) has been used to modulate a variety of biological processes, including diabetic wound healing. The mechanism of action is thought to exist primarily with the mitochondria. This study aimed to determine the effect of irradiation on normal, diabetic, and ischemic mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes. Normal, diabetic and ischemic human skin fibroblast mitochondria were irradiated in vitro at a wavelength of 660 nm and a fluence of either 5 or 15 J/cm(2). Non-irradiated mitochondria served as controls. Enzyme activities of mitochondrial complexes I, II, III, and IV were determined immediately post-irradiation. Normal, diabetic, and ischemic cells were irradiated and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and active mitochondria were determined by luminescence and fluorescent microscopy, respectively. Irradiated diabetic mitochondria at a fluence of 15 J/cm(2) showed a significant decrease in complex III activity (P < 0.05). Normal (P < 0.01) and diabetic (P < 0.05) mitochondria irradiated at either 5 or 15 J/cm(2) showed a significant increase in complex IV activity. ATP results showed a significant increase in irradiated normal cells (5 J/cm(2); P < 0.05) and diabetic cells (15 J/cm(2); P < 0.01). There was a higher accumulation of active mitochondria in irradiated cells than non-irradiated cells. Irradiation at 660 nm has the ability to influence mitochondrial enzyme activity, in particular cytochrome c oxidase. This leads to increased mitochondrial activity and ATP synthesis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Laboratory reflectometer for the investigation of optical elements in a wavelength range of 5-50 nm: description and testing results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garakhin, S. A.; Zabrodin, I. G.; Zuev, S. E.; Kas'kov, I. A.; Lopatin, A. Ya.; Nechay, A. N.; Polkovnikov, V. N.; Salashchenko, N. N.; Tsybin, N. N.; Chkhalo, N. I.; Svechnikov, M. V.

    2017-05-01

    We describe a laboratory reflectometer developed at the IPM RAS for precision measurements of spectral and angular dependences of the reflection and transmission coefficients of optical elements in a wavelength range of 5-50 nm. The radiation is monochromatised using a high-resolution Czerny-Turner spectrometer with a plane diffraction grating and two spherical collimating mirrors. A toroidal mirror focuses the probe monochromatic beam on a sample. The X-ray source is a highly ionised plasma produced in the interaction of a high-power laser beam with a solid target at an intensity of 1011-1012 W cm-2. To stabilise the emission characteristics, the target executes translatory and rotary motions in such a way that every pulse irradiates a new spot. The short-focus lens is protected from contamination by erosion products with the use of a specially designed electromagnetic system. The samples under study are mounted on a goniometer is accommodated in a dedicated chamber, which provides five degrees of freedom for samples up to 500 mm in diameter and two degrees of freedom for a detector. The sample mass may range up to 10 kg. The X-ray radiation is recorded with a detector composed of a CsI photocathode and two microchannel plates. A similar detector monitors the probe beam intensity. The spectral reflectometer resolution is equal to 0.030 nm with the use of ruled gratings with a density of 900 lines mm-1 (spectral range: 5-20 nm) and to 0.067 nm for holographic gratings with a density of 400 lines mm-1 (spectral range: 10-50 nm). We analyse the contribution of higher diffraction orders to the probe signal intensity and the ways of taking it into account in the measurements. Examples are given which serve to illustrate the reflectometer application to the study of multilayer mirrors and filters.

  15. Signal enhancement of neutral He emission lines by fast electron bombardment of laser-induced He plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Suyanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A time-resolved spectroscopic study is performed on the enhancement signals of He gas plasma emission using nanosecond (ns and picosecond (ps lasers in an orthogonal configuration. The ns laser is used for the He gas plasma generation and the ps laser is employed for the ejection of fast electrons from a metal target, which serves to excite subsequently the He atoms in the plasma. The study is focused on the most dominant He I 587.6 nm and He I 667.8 nm emission lines suggested to be responsible for the He-assisted excitation (HAE mechanism. The time-dependent intensity enhancements induced by the fast electrons generated with a series of delayed ps laser ablations are deduced from the intensity time profiles of both He emission lines. The results clearly lead to the conclusion that the metastable excited triplet He atoms are actually the species overwhelmingly produced during the recombination process in the ns laser-induced He gas plasma. These metastable He atoms are believed to serve as the major energy source for the delayed excitation of analyte atoms in ns laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS using He ambient gas.

  16. Signal enhancement of neutral He emission lines by fast electron bombardment of laser-induced He plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyanto, Hery [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Denpasar 80361, Bali (Indonesia); Pardede, Marincan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Pelita Harapan, 1100 M.H. Thamrin Boulevard, Lippo Village, Tangerang 15811 (Indonesia); Hedwig, Rinda [Department of Computer Engineering, Bina Nusantara University, 9 K.H. Syahdan, Jakarta 14810 (Indonesia); Marpaung, Alion Mangasi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Jakarta State University, Rawamangun, Jakarta 12440 (Indonesia); Ramli, Muliadi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Lie, Tjung Jie; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik, E-mail: kurnia18@cbn.net.id [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Tjia, May On [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Physics of Magnetism and Photonics Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha,Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Kagawa, Kiichiro [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Fukui Science Education Academy, Takagi Chuo 2 chome, Fukui 910-0804 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    A time-resolved spectroscopic study is performed on the enhancement signals of He gas plasma emission using nanosecond (ns) and picosecond (ps) lasers in an orthogonal configuration. The ns laser is used for the He gas plasma generation and the ps laser is employed for the ejection of fast electrons from a metal target, which serves to excite subsequently the He atoms in the plasma. The study is focused on the most dominant He I 587.6 nm and He I 667.8 nm emission lines suggested to be responsible for the He-assisted excitation (HAE) mechanism. The time-dependent intensity enhancements induced by the fast electrons generated with a series of delayed ps laser ablations are deduced from the intensity time profiles of both He emission lines. The results clearly lead to the conclusion that the metastable excited triplet He atoms are actually the species overwhelmingly produced during the recombination process in the ns laser-induced He gas plasma. These metastable He atoms are believed to serve as the major energy source for the delayed excitation of analyte atoms in ns laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using He ambient gas.

  17. Nearest-IR superluminescent diodes with a 100-nm spectral width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il' chenko, S N; Ladugin, M A; Marmalyuk, Aleksandr A; Yakubovich, S D

    2012-11-30

    This paper presents an experimental study of quantum well superluminescent diodes with an extremely thin (InGa)As active layer. Under cw injection, the output power of such diodes is several milliwatts, with a centre wavelength of 830 nm and emission bandwidth of about 100 nm. (letters)

  18. Spectral emissivities at wavelengths in the range 500--653 nm, enthalpies, and heat capacities of the liquid phases of cobalt, titanium, and zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, J.; Roesner-Kuhn, M.; Drewes, K.; Thiedemann, U.; Kuppermann, G.; Camin, B.; Blume, R.; Frohberg, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    A review is given of the literature data for spectral emissivities at wavelengths (λ) in the range 500--653 nm, the enthalpies, and heat capacities of the liquid phases of cobalt, titanium, and zirconium. Emissivity measurements were carried out by means of electromagnetic levitation at the solid-to-liquid transition with a partial-radiation pyrometer operating at λ = 547 and 650 nm. Considering the sensitivity of the optical properties to surface impurities, investigations on the surfaces of several titanium and zirconium samples by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were performed that confirmed a nitrogen- and oxygen-free process atmosphere during the measurements. Liquid phase normal emissivities obtained were var-epsilon n,547 = 0.365 and var-epsilon n,650 = 0.331 for cobalt, var-epsilon n,547 = 0.409 and var-epsilon n,650 = 0.393 for titanium, and var-epsilon n,547 = 0.365 and var-epsilon n,650 = 0.355 for zirconium. Enthalpy measurements on the liquid metals were carried out by means of levitation-drop calorimetry in the range 1591--2159 K for cobalt, 1847--2430 K for titanium, and 2025--2897 K for zirconium. The resulting heat capacities (values in J·mol -1 ·K -1 ) obtained were 42.78 for cobalt, 43.79 for titanium, and 39.81 for zirconium

  19. An expression for the atomic fluorescence and thermal-emission intensity under conditions of near saturation and arbitrary self-absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omenetto, N.; Winefordner, J.D.; Alkemade, C.T.J.

    An expression for the effect of self-absorption on the fluorescence and thermal emission intensities is derived by taking into account stimulated emission. A simple, idealized case is considered, consisting of a two level atomic system, in a flame, homogeneous with respect to temperature and

  20. Impacts of EU carbon emission trade directive on energy-intensive industries. Indicative micro-economic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The cost impacts from the European emission trading system (ETS) on energy-intensive manufacturing industries have been investigated. The effects consist of direct costs associated to the CO 2 reduction requirements stated in the EU Directive, and of indirect costs of comparable magnitude that originate from a higher electricity price triggered by the ETS in the power sector. The total cost impacts remain below 2% of the production value for most industries within the ETS in the Kyoto period. In the post-Kyoto phase assuming a 30% CO 2 reduction, the total cost impact may raise up to 8% of production value in the heaviest industry sectors. In steel and cement industries the cost impacts are 3-4 fold compared to the least affected pulp and paper and oil refining. Electricity-intensive industries outside the ETS will also be affected, for example in aluminum and chlorine production the indirect cost impacts from ETS could come up to 10% of production value already in the Kyoto period. As industry sectors are affected differently by the ETS some correcting mechanisms may be worthwhile to consider in securing the operation of the most electricity-intensive sectors, e.g. balancing taxation schemes that may include as income source a levy on the wind-fall profits of the power sector due to ETS. A future improvement in ETS for industries within the scheme could be scaling of the emission reduction requirement so that the relative total emission reduction costs are at about the same level. (author)

  1. The implications of the historical decline in US energy intensity for long-run CO2 emission projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sue Wing, Ian; Eckaus, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of the long-run decline in US energy intensity on projections of energy use and carbon emissions to the year 2050. We build on our own recent work which decomposes changes in the aggregate US energy-GDP ratio into shifts in sectoral composition (structural change) and adjustments in the energy demand of individual industries (intensity change), and identifies the impact on the latter of price-induced substitution of variable inputs, shifts in the composition of capital and embodied and disembodied technical progress. We employ a recursive-dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the US economy to analyze the implications of these findings for future energy use and carbon emissions. Comparison of the simulation results against projections of historical trends in GDP, energy use and emissions reveals that the range of values for the rate of autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) conventionally used in CGE models is consistent with the effects of structural changes at the sub-sector level, rather than disembodied technological change. Even so, our results suggest that US emissions may well grow faster in the future than in the recent past

  2. A high power, continuous-wave, single-frequency fiber amplifier at 1091 nm and frequency doubling to 545.5 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stappel, M; Steinborn, R; Kolbe, D; Walz, J

    2013-01-01

    We present a high power single-frequency ytterbium fiber amplifier system with an output power of 30 W at 1091 nm. The amplifier system consists of two stages, a preamplifier stage in which amplified spontaneous emission is efficiently suppressed (>40 dB) and a high power amplifier with an efficiency of 52%. Two different approaches to frequency doubling are compared. We achieve 8.6 W at 545.5 nm by single-pass frequency doubling in a MgO-doped periodically poled stoichiometric LiTaO 3 crystal and up to 19.3 W at 545.5 nm by frequency doubling with a lithium-triborate crystal in an external enhancement cavity. (paper)

  3. Chinese Milk Vetch as Green Manure Mitigates Nitrous Oxide Emission from Monocropped Rice System in South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Xie

    Full Text Available Monocropped rice system is an important intensive cropping system for food security in China. Green manure (GM as an alternative to fertilizer N (FN is useful for improving soil quality. However, few studies have examined the effect of Chinese milk vetch (CMV as GM on nitrous oxide (N2O emission from monocropped rice field in south China. Therefore, a pot-culture experiment with four treatments (control, no FN and CMV; CMV as GM alone, M; fertilizer N alone, FN; integrating fertilizer N with CMV, NM was performed to investigate the effect of incorporating CMV as GM on N2O emission using a closed chamber-gas chromatography (GC technique during the rice growing periods. Under the same N rate, incorporating CMV as GM (the treatments of M and NM mitigated N2O emission during the growing periods of rice plant, reduced the NO3- content and activities of nitrate and nitrite reductase as well as the population of nitrifying bacteria in top soil at maturity stage of rice plant versus FN pots. The global warming potential (GWP and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI of N2O from monocropped rice field was ranked as M<NMNM increased rice grain yield and soil NH4+ content, which were dramatically decreased in the M pots, over the treatment of FN. Hence, it can be concluded that integrating FN with CMV as GM is a feasible tactic for food security and N2O mitigation in the monocropped rice based system.

  4. Compact 2100 nm laser diode module for next-generation DIRCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvinelis, Edgaras; Greibus, Mindaugas; TrinkÅ«nas, Augustinas; NaujokaitÄ--, Greta; Vizbaras, Augustinas; Vizbaras, Dominykas; Vizbaras, Kristijonas

    2017-10-01

    Compact high-power 2100 nm laser diode module for next-generation directional infrared countermeasure (DIRCM) systems is presented. Next-generation DIRCM systems require compact, light-weight and robust laser modules which could provide intense IR light emission capable of disrupting the tracking sensor of heat-seeking missile. Currently used solid-state and fiber laser solutions for mid-IR band are bulky and heavy making them difficult to implement in smaller form-factor DIRCM systems. Recent development of GaSb laser diode technology greatly improved optical output powers and efficiencies of laser diodes working in 1900 - 2450 nm band [1] while also maintaining very attractive size, weight, power consumption and cost characteristics. 2100 nm laser diode module presented in this work performance is based on high-efficiency broad emitting area GaSb laser diode technology. Each laser diode emitter is able to provide 1 W of CW output optical power with working point efficiency up to 20% at temperature of 20 °C. For output beam collimation custom designed fast-axis collimator and slow-axis collimator lenses were used. These lenses were actively aligned and attached using UV epoxy curing. Total 2 emitters stacked vertically were used in 2100 nm laser diode module. Final optical output power of the module goes up to 2 W at temperature of 20 °C. Total dimensions of the laser diode module are 35 x 25 x 16 mm (L x W x H) with a weight of 28 grams. Finally output beam is bore-sighted to mechanical axes of the module housing allowing for easy integration into next-generation DIRCM systems.

  5. Plasma ion emission from high intensity picosecond laser pulse interactions with solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fews, A.P.; Norreys, P.A.; Beg, F.N.; Bell, A.R.; Dangor, A.E.; Danson, C.N.; Lee, P.; Rose, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The fast ion emission from high intensity, picosecond laser plasmas has been measured to give the characteristic ion energy and the amount of laser energy transferred to ions with energies ≥100 keV/nucleon as a function of incident intensity. The characteristic ion energy varies from 0.2 to 1.3 MeV over the range 2.0x10 17 --2.0x10 18 W cm -2 . Ten percent of the laser energy is transferred into MeV ions at 2.0x10 18 W cm -2 . Calculations of stopping power in high density materials are presented that show that fast ions cannot be ignored in modeling fast ignitor schemes

  6. Optical Emission Spectroscopy of an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet During Tooth Bleaching Gel Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šantak, Vedran; Zaplotnik, Rok; Tarle, Zrinka; Milošević, Slobodan

    2015-11-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy was performed during atmospheric pressure plasma needle helium jet treatment of various tooth-bleaching gels. When the gel sample was inserted under the plasma plume, the intensity of all the spectral features increased approximately two times near the plasma needle tip and up to two orders of magnitude near the sample surface. The color change of the hydroxylapatite pastille treated with bleaching gels in conjunction with the atmospheric pressure plasma jet was found to be in correlation with the intensity of OH emission band (309 nm). Using argon as an additive to helium flow (2 L/min), a linear increase (up to four times) of OH intensity and, consequently, whitening (up to 10%) of the pastilles was achieved. An atmospheric pressure plasma jet activates bleaching gel, accelerates OH production, and accelerates tooth bleaching (up to six times faster).

  7. Simulations and observations of plasma depletion, ion composition, and airglow emissions in two auroral ionospheric depletion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, A.W.; Whalen, B.A.; Harris, F.R.; Gattinger, R.L.; Pongratz, M.B.; Bernhardt, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    In an ionospheric depletion experiment where chemically reactive vapors such as H 2 O and CO 2 are injected into the O + dominant F region to accelerate the plasma recombination rate and to reduce the plasma density, the ion composition in the depleted region is modified, and photometric emissions are produced. We compare in situ ion composition, density, and photometric measurements from two ionospheric depletion experiments with predictions from chemical modeling. The two injections, Waterhole I and III, were part of an auroral perturbation experiment and occurred in different ambient conditions. In both injections a core region of greater than fivefold plasma depletion was observed over roughly-equal5-km diameter within seconds of the injection, surrounded by an outer region of less drastic and slower depletion. In Waterhole I the plasma density was depleted tenfold over a 30-km diamter region after 2 min. The ambient O + density was drastically reduced, and the molecular O + 2 abundance was enhanced fivehold in the depletion region. OH airglow emission associated with the depletion was observed with a peak emission intensity of roughly-equal1 kR. In Waterhole III the ambient density was a decade lower, and the plasma depletion was less drastic, being twofold over 30 km after 2 min. The airglow emissions were also much less intense and below measurement sensitivity (30 R for the OH 306.4-nm emission; 50 R for the 630.0-nm emission)

  8. IMF control of cusp proton emission intensity and dayside convection: implications for component and anti-parallel reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We study a brightening of the Lyman-a emission in the cusp which occurred in response to a short-lived south-ward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF during a period of strongly enhanced solar wind plasma concentration. The cusp proton emission is detected using the SI-12 channel of the FUV imager on the IMAGE spacecraft. Analysis of the IMF observations recorded by the ACE and Wind spacecraft reveals that the assumption of a constant propagation lag from the upstream spacecraft to the Earth is not adequate for these high time-resolution studies. The variations of the southward IMF component observed by ACE and Wind allow for the calculation of the ACE-to-Earth lag as a function of time. Application of the derived propagation delays reveals that the intensity of the cusp emission varied systematically with the IMF clock angle, the relationship being particularly striking when the intensity is normalised to allow for the variation in the upstream solar wind proton concentration. The latitude of the cusp migrated equatorward while the lagged IMF pointed southward, confirming the lag calculation and indicating ongoing magnetopause reconnection. Dayside convection, as monitored by the SuperDARN network of radars, responded rapidly to the IMF changes but lagged behind the cusp proton emission response: this is shown to be as predicted by the model of flow excitation by Cowley and Lockwood (1992. We use the numerical cusp ion precipitation model of Lockwood and Davis (1996, along with modelled Lyman-a emission efficiency and the SI-12 instrument response, to investigate the effect of the sheath field clock angle on the acceleration of ions on crossing the dayside magnetopause. This modelling reveals that the emission commences on each reconnected field line 2–2.5 min after it is opened and peaks 3–5 min after it is opened. We discuss how comparison of the Lyman-a intensities with oxygen emissions observed simultaneously by the SI-13

  9. A case study of HF radar spectra and 630.0 nm auroral emission in the pre-midnight sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lester

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of HF radar backscatter observed by the CUTLASS Finland radar, meridian scanning photometer data from Longyearbyen, magnetic field variations from IMAGE stations, and particle precipitation measured by the DMSP F12 spacecraft is presented. The interval under discussion occurred in the pre-midnight local time sector, during a period of weakly northward interplanetary magnetic field. A region of HF backscatter, typically 8 degrees wide, occurred in the field of view of the CUTLASS Finland radar. A well defined gradient in the spectral width parameter was present, with mainly low (< 200 m s - 1 spectral widths in the lower latitude part of the scatter and predominantly large (> 200 ms - 1 spectral widths in the higher latitude part. The relationship between the spectral width and the red line (630.0 nm emission measured by the meridian scanning photometer is considered. The poleward border of the red line emission, which has, in the past, been proposed as being representative of the polar cap boundary, was co-located to within 1° of magnetic latitude with the gradient in spectral width for part of the interval. Statistically, large spectral widths occurred poleward of the red line emission, while small spectral widths occurred within or equatorward of the red line emission. Near simultaneous DMSP particle observations in the 20 eV to 20 keV range indicate that the poleward border of the red line emission and the gradient in spectral width occurred at the same latitude as the transition from auroral oval to polar rain particle energies. We conclude that the large spectral widths were not caused by particle precipitation associated with the auroral oval. There were two periods of special interest when the relationship between the red line and the spectral width broke down. The first of these happened during enhanced red line and green line (557.7 nm emission, with a drop out of the radar scatter and an enhanced, narrow westward

  10. Asymmetries in angular distributions of nucleon emission intensity in high energy hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1982-01-01

    Asymmetry in nucleon emission intensity angular distributions relatively to the hadron deflection plane and to two planes normal to it and related to it uniquely is analyzed, using appropriate experimental data on pion-xenon nucleus collisions at 3.5 GeV/c momentum. Quantative characteristics of the asymmetries found are presented in tables and on figures

  11. Effect of concentration variation on 2.0 µm emission of Ho3+-doped SiO2-Al2O3-Na2CO3-SrF2-CaF2 oxyfluorosilicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelija, Devarajulu; Borelli, Deva Prasad Raju

    2018-02-01

    The concentration variation of Ho3+ ion-doped SiO2-Al2O3-Na2CO3-SrF2-CaF2 glasses has been prepared by conventional melt quenching method. The thermal stability of 1 mol % of Ho3+-doped oxyfluorosilicate glass has been calculated using the differential thermal analysis (DTA) spectra. The phenomenological Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ωλ ( λ = 2, 4 and 6) were calculated for all concentrations of Ho3+ ions. The luminescence spectra in visible region of Ho3+ ion-doped glasses were recorded under the excitation wavelength of 452 nm. The spectra consists of several intense emission bands (5F4, 5S2) → 5I8 (547 nm), 5F3 → 5I8 (647 nm), 5F5 → 5I7 (660 nm) and (5F4, 5S2) → 5I7 (750 nm) in the range 500-780 nm. The fluorescence emission at ˜2.0 µm (5I7 → 5I8) was observed under the excitation of 488 nm Ar-ion laser. The stimulated emission cross section for 5I7 → 5I8 transition (˜2.0 µm) varies from 8.46 to 9.52 × 10-21 cm2, as calculated by the Fuchtbauer-Ladenburg (FL) theory. However, Mc-Cumber theory was used to calculate emission cross section values about 4.24-5.75 × 10-21 cm2 for the 5I7 → 5I8 transition in all concentrations of Ho3+-doped oxyfluorosilicate glasses. Therefore, these results reveal that the 0.5 mol % of Ho3+-doped oxyfluorosilicate glasses, exhibiting higher emission cross section, has potentially been used for laser applications at ˜ 2.0 µm.

  12. The effect of the operation modes of a gas discharge low-pressure amalgam lamp on the intensity of generation of 185 nm UV vacuum radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyak, L. M., E-mail: vasilyak@ihed.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute of High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Drozdov, L. A., E-mail: lit@npo.lit.ru; Kostyuchenko, S. V.; Sokolov, D. V. [ZAO LIT (Russian Federation); Kudryavtsev, N. N.; Sobur, D. A., E-mail: soburda@gmail.com [Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    The effect of the discharge current, mercury vapor pressure, and the inert gas pressure on the intensity and efficiency of the 185 nm line generation are considered. The spectra of the UV radiation (vacuum ultraviolet) transmission by protective coatings from the oxides of rare earth metals and aluminum are investigated.

  13. Improving pure red upconversion emission of Co-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb{sup 3+}–Er{sup 3+} nanocrystals with a combination of sodium sulfide and surfactant Pluronic-F127

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Luke, T., E-mail: tzarara@cio.mx [Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica, A.P. 1-948, León, Gto. 37160, México (Mexico); De la Rosa, E., E-mail: elder@cio.mx [Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica, A.P. 1-948, León, Gto. 37160, México (Mexico); Campos Villalobos, I. [Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica, A.P. 1-948, León, Gto. 37160, México (Mexico); Rodriguez, R.A. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Unidad Lagos, Lagos de Moreno, Jal. 47460, México (Mexico); Ángles-Chávez, C. [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Cd. México, D.F. 07730, México (Mexico); Salas, P. [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 1-1010, Querétaro, Qro. 76000, México (Mexico); Wheeler, Damon A.; Zhang, J.Z. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Nanocrystals of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb{sup 3+}–Er{sup 3+} (2:1 mol% Yb{sup 3+}:Er{sup 3+}) were prepared by a novel precipitation technique using Na{sub 2}S and Pluronic-F127 (PF127) surfactant. Crystal structure, particle size, red emission intensity and fluorescence decay lifetimes were determined using microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. TEM analysis indicates that the average particle size ranged from 40 to 70 nm. The nanocrystals showed a strong red emission band centered at 663 nm after excitation at 970 nm. The upconverted signal intensity was improved 250% with an optimum concentration of Na{sub 2}S (0.48 M) and PF127 (0.1 mM). The improvement was explained in terms of the reduction of surface contaminants as well as the cubic crystalline phase of the parent Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} material. Interestingly, the formation of sulfates (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) is faster than that of O–H, which is responsible for quenching the red and green emissions. The results suggest that Na{sub 2}S and PF127 are good candidates for surface passivation, especially when used in conjunction. The preparation of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb{sup 3+}–Er{sup 3+} using Na{sub 2}S with strong red emission band was produced at a lower cost than that of other sulfuration processes. -- Highlights: • . • Strong red emission band centered at 663 nm was obtained after excitation at 970 nm. • Yb-Er codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals with average size ranging from 40 to 70 nm. • Improvement of the red emission in Y2O3:Yb-Er nanocrystals by the introduction of sodium sulfide and pluronic. • Passivation of nanocrystal surface with sodium sulfide and pluoronic.

  14. CO2 emissions abatement in the Nordic carbon-intensive industry – An end-game in sight?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rootzén, Johan; Johnsson, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Analysing different future trajectories of technological developments we assess the prospects for Nordic carbon-intensive industries to significantly reduce direct CO 2 emissions in the period 2010–2050. This analysis covers petroleum refining, integrated iron and steel production, and cement manufacturing in the four largest Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Our results show that the implementation of currently available abatement measures will not be enough to meet the ambitious emissions reduction targets envisaged for the Year 2050. We show how an extensive deployment of CCS (carbon capture and storage) could result in emissions reductions that are in line with such targets. However, large-scale introduction of CCS would come at a significant price in terms of energy use and the associated flows of captured CO 2 would place high requirements on timely planning of infrastructure for the transportation and storage of CO 2 . Further the assessment highlights the importance of, especially in the absence of successful deployment of CO 2 capture, encouraging increased use of biomass in the cement and integrated iron and steel industries, and of promoting the utilisation of alternative raw materials in cement manufacturing to complement efforts to improve energy efficiency. - Highlights: • Scenarios exploring the potential for reducing CO 2 emissions in Nordic industry. • Current measures not sufficient to comply with stringent emission reduction targets. • CCS enables carbon-intensive industries to comply with stringent reduction targets. • CCS would come at a high price in terms of energy use. • Without CO 2 capture increased use of biomass and alternative raw materials vital

  15. Fluorescence-based calculus detection using a 405-nm excitation wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, O.; Schelle, F.; Krueger, S.; Oehme, B.; Dehn, C.; Frentzen, M.; Braun, A.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the difference of fluorescence signals of cement and calculus using a 405 nm excitation wavelength. A total number of 20 freshly extracted teeth was used. The light source used for this study was a blue LED with a wavelength of 405nm. For each tooth the spectra of calculus and cementum were measured separately. Fluorescence light was collimated into an optical fibre and spectrally analyzed using an echelle spectrometer (aryelle 200, Lasertechnik Berlin, Germany) with an additionally bandpass (fgb 67, Edmund Industrial Optics, Karlsruhe, Germany). From these 40 measurements the median values were calculated over the whole spectrum, leading to two different median spectra, one for calculus and one for cementum. For further statistical analysis we defined 8 areas of interest (AOI) in wavelength regions, showing remarkable differences in signal strength. In 7 AOIs the intensity of the calculus spectrum differed statistically significant from the intensity of the cementum spectrum (p calculus and cement between 600nm and 700nm. Thus, we can conclude that fluorescence of calculus shows a significant difference to the fluorescence of cement. A differentiation over the intensity is possible as well as over the spectrum. Using a wavelength of 405nm, it is possible to distinguish between calculus and cement. These results could be used for further devices to develop a method for feedback controlled calculus removal.

  16. Laser terahertz emission microscopy with near-field probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Using an AFM, an optical near-field image at 800 nm of a dipole antenna for THz emission is measured, and by simultaneously collecting the emitted THz radiation, the laser light confined under the AFM probe gives a THz emission resolution of less than 50 nm.......Using an AFM, an optical near-field image at 800 nm of a dipole antenna for THz emission is measured, and by simultaneously collecting the emitted THz radiation, the laser light confined under the AFM probe gives a THz emission resolution of less than 50 nm....

  17. Effect of barrier layers in burnthrough experiments with 351-nm laser illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delettrez, J.; Bradley, D.K.; Jaanimagi, P.A.; Verdon, C.P.

    1990-01-01

    The time-resolved x-ray emission is measured from spherical targets consisting of glass shells overcoated with plastic in which thin signature layers are embedded. These targets are illuminated at 351 nm by the 24-beam OMEGA laser system at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester. We measure a large burnthrough rate for bare plastic targets that can only be replicated in one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations with laser intensities in excess of ten times the nominal intensity. We observe that the burnthrough times are affected by the presence of a thin outer coating (barrier layer). The burnthrough times depend strongly on the barrier-layer material and thickness, whereas one-dimensional simulation results predict only a small effect. Several processes are considered to explain these results: illumination nonuniformity, early shinethrough of the laser light through the plastic, prepulses, filamentation, self-focusing of hot spots, and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We conclude that mixing due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, enhanced by early shinethrough, is the most probable cause of the observed large burnthrough rates

  18. Up-conversion emission of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+}co-doped BaBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (BBN) phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Façanha, M.X., E-mail: marcello.facanha@uece.br [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências, Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Faculdade de Educação de Crateús (FAEC), Universidade Estadual do Ceará (UECE), Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Laboratório de Telecomunicações e Ciências e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM), Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Nascimento, J.P.C. do [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências, Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Laboratório de Telecomunicações e Ciências e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM), Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Silva, M.A.S., E-mail: marceloassilva@yahoo.com.br [Laboratório de Telecomunicações e Ciências e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM), Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); and others

    2017-03-15

    On this paper, polycrystalline samples of the tetragonal systems BaBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (BBN) and BBN co-doped with Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} (BBN: 0.04Er{sup 3+}yYb{sup 3+}, where y=0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mol%) were synthesized by the solid state method. The crystalline structure and photoluminescent properties of the ceramic phosphors were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy and spectral analysis of up-conversion (UC) emission. The results reveal that all compositions crystallize in the I4/mmm space group at room temperature, and show UC green emissions (centered at 525 nm and 550 nm) and red (around 660 nm) coming from ({sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}) and ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}) transitions, respectively, under excitation at 980 nm. Increasing variations of the Yb{sup 3+} sensitizer concentration in the host BBN, lead to a significant intensity increase in both UC emissions due to the efficiency of the energy-transfer process. The BBN: 0.04 mol%Er{sup 3+}0.08 mol%Yb{sup 3+} composition showed the higher intensity bands, thus establishing the BBN as an alternative host material for luminescent centers.

  19. Effect of concentration variation on 2.0 μm emission of Ho3+-doped SiO2-Al2O3-Na2CO3-SrF2-CaF2 oxyfluorosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelija, Devarajulu; Borelli, Deva Prasad Raju

    2018-01-01

    The concentration variation of Ho 3+ ion-doped SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -Na 2 CO 3 -SrF 2 -CaF 2 glasses has been prepared by conventional melt quenching method. The thermal stability of 1 mol % of Ho 3+ -doped oxyfluorosilicate glass has been calculated using the differential thermal analysis (DTA) spectra. The phenomenological Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ω λ (λ = 2, 4 and 6) were calculated for all concentrations of Ho 3+ ions. The luminescence spectra in visible region of Ho 3+ ion-doped glasses were recorded under the excitation wavelength of 452 nm. The spectra consists of several intense emission bands ( 5 F 4 , 5 S 2 ) → 5 I 8 (547 nm), 5 F 3 → 5 I 8 (647 nm), 5 F 5 → 5 I 7 (660 nm) and ( 5 F 4 , 5 S 2 ) → 5 I 7 (750 nm) in the range 500-780 nm. The fluorescence emission at ∝ 2.0 μm ( 5 I 7 → 5 I 8 ) was observed under the excitation of 488 nm Ar-ion laser. The stimulated emission cross section for 5 I 7 → 5 I 8 transition (∝ 2.0 μm) varies from 8.46 to 9.52 x 10 -21 cm 2 , as calculated by the Fuchtbauer-Ladenburg (FL) theory. However, Mc-Cumber theory was used to calculate emission cross section values about 4.24-5.75 x 10 -21 cm 2 for the 5 I 7 → 5 I 8 transition in all concentrations of Ho 3+ -doped oxyfluorosilicate glasses. Therefore, these results reveal that the 0.5 mol % of Ho 3+ -doped oxyfluorosilicate glasses, exhibiting higher emission cross section, has potentially been used for laser applications at ∝ 2.0 μm. (orig.)

  20. Atomic Emission Spectra Diagnosis and Electron Density Measurement of Semiconductor Bridge (SCB) Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Hongyan; Zhu Shunguan; Zhang Lin; Wan Xiaoxia; Li Yan; Shen Ruiqi

    2010-01-01

    Emission spectra of a semiconductor bridge (SCB) plasma in a visible range was studied in air. The electron density was measured in a conventional way from the broadening of the A1 I 394.4 nm Stark width. Based on the Saha equation, a system for recording the intensity of Si I 390.5 nm and Si II 413.1 nm was designed. With this technique, the SCB plasma electron density was measured well and accurately. Moreover, the electron density distribution Vs time was acquired from one SCB discharge. The individual result from the broadening of the Al I 394.4 nm Stark width and Saha equation was all in the range of 10 15 cm -3 to 10 16 cm -3 . Finally the presumption of the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) condition was validated.

  1. Diode-pumped continuous-wave eye-safe Nd:YAG laser at 1415 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Chul; Byeon, Sung Ug; Lukashev, Alexei

    2012-04-01

    We describe the output performance of the 1415 nm emission in Nd:YAG in a plane-concave cavity under traditional pumping into the 4F5/2 level (808 nm) and direct in-band pumping into the 4F3/2 level (885 nm). An end-pumped Nd:YAG laser yielded maximum cw output power of 6.3 W and 4.2 W at 885 nm and 808 nm laser diode (LD) pumping, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power of a LD-pumped 1415 nm laser.

  2. Planck intermediate results. XXII. Frequency dependence of thermal emission from Galactic dust in intensity and polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, J. F.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.

    2015-01-01

    )% from 353 to 70 GHz. We discuss this result within the context of existing dust models. The decrease in p could indicate differences in polarization efficiency among components of interstellar dust (e.g., carbon versus silicate grains). Our observational results provide inputs to quantify and optimize......Planck has mapped the intensity and polarization of the sky at microwave frequencies with unprecedented sensitivity. We use these data to characterize the frequency dependence of dust emission. We make use of the Planck 353 GHz I, Q, and U Stokes maps as dust templates, and cross-correlate them...... of the cosmic microwave background. We use a mask that focuses our analysis on the diffuse interstellar medium at intermediate Galactic latitudes. We determine the spectral indices of dust emission in intensity and polarization between 100 and 353 GHz, for each sky patch. Both indices are found to be remarkably...

  3. Emission spectra from super-critical rippled plasma density profiles illuminated by intense laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondarza R, R.; Boyd, T.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    High-order harmonic emission from the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with super-critical plasmas characterized by a rippled density profile at the vacuum-plasma interface has been observed from particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A plasma simulation box several laser wavelengths in extent was prepared with a rippled density of a fraction of a laser wavelength. Emission spectra at the very initial stage of the interaction were recorded with spectral characteristics dissimilar to those previously reported in the literature. The reflected light spectra were characterized by a strong emission at the plasma line and by a series of harmonics at multiples of the ripple frequency. Harmonic spectra were obtained for different values of the plasma ripple frequency. In all cases the harmonics were emitted at the precise multiple harmonic number of the ripple frequency. Another important feature apparent from the simulations was that the emission peaks appeared to havea complex structure as compared with those for unrippled plasmas. For the cases when the plasma was rippled the peaks that corresponded to the multiples of the rippled density typically showed a double peak for the first few harmonics. The reflected emission plots for the main laser pulse showed strong emission at the plasma frequency and at multiples of that frequency as reported by the authors in the literature. (Author)

  4. Bandgap Engineering of 1300 nm Quantum Dots/Quantum Well Nanostructures Based Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Alhashim, Hala H.

    2016-05-29

    The main objectives of this thesis are to develop viable process and/or device technologies for bandgap tuning of 1300-nm InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot (QD) laser structures, and broad linewidth 1300-nm InGaAsP/InP quantum well (QW) superluminescent diode structures. The high performance bandgap-engineered QD laser structures were achieved by employing quantum-dot intermixing (QDI) based on impurity free vacancy diffusion (IFVD) technique for eventual seamless active-passive integration, and bandgap-tuned lasers. QDI using various dielectric-capping materials, such as HfO2, SrTiO3, TiO2, Al2O3 and ZnO, etc, were experimented in which the resultant emission wavelength can be blueshifted to ∼ 1100 nm ─ 1200 nm range depending on process conditions. The significant results extracted from the PL characterization were used to perform an extensive laser characterization. The InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers with QDs transition energies were blueshifted by ~185 nm, and lasing around ~1070 – 1190 nm was achieved. Furthermore, from the spectral analysis, a simultaneous five-state lasing in the InAs/InGaAs intermixed QD laser was experimentally demonstrated for the first time in the very important wavelength range from 1030 to 1125 nm. The QDI methodology enabled the facile formation of a plethora of devices with various emission wavelengths suitable for a wide range of applications in the infrared. In addition, the wavelength range achieved is also applicable for coherent light generation in the green – yellow – orange visible wavelength band via frequency doubling, which is a cost-effective way of producing compact devices for pico-projectors, semiconductor laser based solid state lighting, etc. [1, 2] In QW-based superluminescent diode, the problem statement lies on achieving a flat-top and ultra-wide emission bandwidth. The approach was to design an inhomogeneous active region with a comparable simultaneous emission from different transition states in the QW stacks, in

  5. Effects of the ZnO layer on the structure and white light emission properties of a ZnS:Mn/GaN nanocomposite system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cai-Feng; Hu, Bo

    2017-10-01

    ZnO films were inserted between the ZnS:Mn films and GaN substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The structure, morphology, and optical properties of the ZnS:Mn/ZnO/GaN nanocomposite systems have been investigated. X-ray diffraction results show that there are three diffraction peaks located at 28.4°, 34.4°, and 34.1°, which correspond to the β-ZnS(111), ZnO(002), and GaN(002) planes, respectively. Due to the insertion of ZnO films, the diffraction peak intensity of ZnS:Mn in ZnS:Mn/ZnO/GaN is stronger than that of ZnS:Mn in ZnS:Mn/GaN, and the full width at half-maximum is smaller. Though the transmittance of ZnS:Mn/ZnO films is slightly lower than that of ZnS:Mn films, the transmittance is still higher than 80%. Compared with ZnS:Mn/GaN, an ultraviolet (UV) emission at 387 nm (originated from the near-band emission of ZnO) and a green light emission at about 520 nm appeared in the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnS:Mn/ZnO/GaN, in addition to the blue emission at 435 nm and the orange-red emission at 580 nm. The emission at 520 nm may be related to the deep-level emission from ZnO and the interface of ZnS:Mn/ZnO. The PL spectrum of ZnS:Mn/ZnO/GaN covers the visible region from the blue light to the red light (400-700 nm), and its color coordinate and color temperature are (0.3103,0.3063) and 6869 K, respectively, presenting strong white light emission.

  6. 5.5nm wavelength-tunable high-power MOPA diode laser system at 971 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfieq, Mahmoud; Müller, André; Fricke, Jörg; Della Casa, Pietro; Ressel, Peter; Ginolas, Arnim; Feise, David; Sumpf, Bernd; Tränkle, Günther

    2018-02-01

    In this work, a widely tunable hybrid master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) diode laser with 6.2 W of output power at 971.8 nm will be presented. The MO is a DBR laser, with a micro heater embedded on top of the DBR grating for wavelength tunability. The emitted light of the MO is collimated and coupled into a tapered amplifier using micro cylindrical lenses, all constructed on a compact 25 mm × 25 mm conduction cooled laser package. The MOPA system emits light with a measured spectral width smaller than 17 pm, limited by the spectrometer, and with a beam propagation factor of M2 1/e2 = 1.3 in the slow axis. The emission is thus nearly diffraction limited with 79% of the total power within the central lobe (4.9 W diffraction limited). The electrically controlled micro-heater provides up to 5.5 nm of wavelength tunability, up to a wavelength of 977.3 nm, while maintaining an output power variation of only +/- 0.16 % for the entire tuning range.

  7. [Multiplayer white organic light-emitting diodes with different order and thickness of emission layers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Lu, Fu-Han; Cao, Jin; Zhu, Wen-Qing; Jiang, Xue-Yin; Zhang, Zhi-Lin; Xu, Shao-Hong

    2008-02-01

    In multilayer OLED devices, the order and thickness of the emission layers have great effect on their spectrum. Based on the three basic colours of red, blue and green, a series of white organic light-emitting diodes(WOLEDS)with the structure of ITO/CuPc(12 nm)/NPB(50 nm)/EML/LiF(1 nm)/Al(100 nm) and a variety of emission layer's orders and thicknesses were fabricated. The blue emission material: 2-t-butyl-9,10-di-(2-naphthyl)anthracene (TBADN) doped with p-bis(p-N, N-diphenyl-amono-styryl)benzene(DSA-Ph), the green emission material: tris-[8-hydroxyquinoline]aluminum(Alq3) doped with C545, and the red emission material: tris-[8-hydroxyquinoline]aluminum( Alq3) doped with 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1, 1, 7, 7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) were used. By adjusting the order and thickness of each emission layer in the RBG structure, we got a white OLED with current efficiency of 5.60 cd x A(-1) and Commission Internationale De L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0. 34, 0.34) at 200 mA x cm(-2). Its maximum luminance reached 20 700 cd x m(-2) at current density of 400 mA x cm(-2). The results were analyzed on the basis of the theory of excitons' generation and diffusion. According to the theory, an equation was set up which relates EL spectra to the luminance efficiency, the thickness of each layer and the exciton diffusion length. In addition, in RBG structure with different thickness of red layer, the ratio of th e spectral intensity of red to that of blue was calculated. It was found that the experimental results are in agreement with the theoretical values.

  8. Role of Gd{sup 3+} ion on downshifting and upconversion emission properties of Pr{sup 3+}, Yb{sup 3+} co-doped YNbO{sub 4} phosphor and sensitization effect of Bi{sup 3+} ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwivedi, A.; Rai, S. B., E-mail: sbrai49@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Mishra, Kavita [Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007 (India)

    2016-07-28

    Dual-mode luminescence (downshifting-DS and upconversion-UC) properties of Pr{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Y{sub 1−x}Gd{sub x}NbO{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.5, and 1.0) phosphors synthesized by solid state reaction technique have been explored with and without Gd{sup 3+} ion. The structural characterizations (XRD, SEM, and FTIR) confirm the pure phase of YNbO{sub 4} phosphor. Further, with the Gd{sup 3+} ion co-doping, the YNbO{sub 4} phosphors having a random shape and the large particle size are found to be transformed into nearly spherical shape particles with the reduced particle size. The optical band gaps (E{sub g}) of Y{sub 1−x}Gd{sub x}NbO{sub 4} (x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00) calculated from UV-Vis-NIR measurements are ∼3.69, 4.00, 4.38, and 4.44 eV, respectively. Moreover, YNbO{sub 4} phosphor is a promising blue emitting material, whereas Y{sub 1−x−y−z}Pr{sub y}Yb{sub z}Gd{sub x}NbO{sub 4} phosphor gives intense green, blue, and red emissions via dual-mode optical processes. The broad blue emission arises due to (NbO{sub 4}){sup 3−} group of the host with λ{sub ex} = 264 nm, whereas Pr{sup 3+} doped YNbO{sub 4} phosphor gives dominant red and blue emissions along with comparatively weak green emission on excitation with λ{sub ex} = 300 nm and 491 nm. The concentration dependent variation in emission intensity at 491 nm ({sup 3}P{sub 0}→{sup 3}H{sub 4} transition) and 612 nm ({sup 1}D{sub 2}→{sup 3}H{sub 4} transition); at 612 nm ({sup 1}D{sub 2}→{sup 3}H{sub 4} transition) and 658 nm ({sup 3}P{sub 0}→{sup 3}F{sub 2} transition) of Pr{sup 3+} ion in YNbO{sub 4} phosphor with λ{sub ex} = 300 nm and 491 nm excitations, respectively, has been thoroughly explored and explained by the cross-relaxation process through different channels. The sensitization effect of Bi{sup 3+} ion co-doping on DS properties of the phosphor has also been studied. The observed DS results have been optimized by varying the

  9. Li{sub 3}Gd{sub 3}Te{sub 2}O{sub 12}:Eu{sup 3+}- an intense red phosphor for solid state lighting applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Hansnath [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Asiri Naidu, S. [Department of Chemistry, Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies, Nuzvid, Andhra Pradesh 521202 (India); Varadaraju, U.V., E-mail: varada@iitm.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2017-02-15

    Li{sub 3}Gd{sub 3−3x}Eu{sub 3x}Te{sub 2}O{sub 12} (x=0.05−1.0) phases with garnet structure were synthesized by high temperature solid state reaction and the photoluminescence properties were investigated. The appearance of bands due to intra 4 f transitions of Gd{sup 3+} in the excitation spectra recorded by monitoring the 612 nm emission line of the activator indicates Gd{sup 3+}→Eu{sup 3+} energy transfer in this host lattice. Under 395 nm excitation, the electric dipole transition is predominant in the emission spectrum of Eu{sup 3+} and is in agreement with the C{sub 2} point group (noncentrosymmetric) of the EuO{sub 8} polyhedron. The critical concentration of the Eu{sup 3+} activator in this series was found to be 0.6 (x=0.2) above which, concentration quenching occurs. The emission intensity of the phosphor composition, Li{sub 3}Gd{sub 2.4}Eu{sub 0.6}Te{sub 2}O{sub 12} is ~4 times that of the commercial sample of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor. - Highlights: • New Eu{sup 3+} doped garnet. • Intense electric dipole emission. • Gd{sup 3+}→Eu{sup 3+} energy transfer.

  10. Dynamics of the deep-level emission in ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Dongchao; Rueckmann, Ilja; Voss, Tobias [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Bremen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Due to its wide direct band gap and large exciton binding energy (60 meV), ZnO nanowires possess an efficient near band-edge emission (NBE) in UV range. Additional energy levels in the band gap of ZnO, commonly introduced by point defects such as oxygen or zinc vacancies and Cu impurities, can largely weaken the UV emission by providing extra recombination routes for the electrons in conduction band. In ZnO nanowires this deep-level emission band (DLE) is expected to be largely activated by tunneling processes of holes trapped in the surface depletion layer after optical excitation. We studied the dependence of the DLE and NBE intensities of ZnO nanowires on the excitation power at different temperatures. For the experiments, the fundamental (1064 nm) and frequency-tripled (355 nm) pulses of an Nd:YAG microchip laser were used. The additional infrared laser radiation was used to directly populate the defect levels with electrons from the valence band. Our results show that the additional infrared photons lead to a reduction of the DLE while the NBE is enhanced. We discuss the implications of our results for the models of DLE in ZnO nanowires.

  11. Identification of S VIII through S XIV emission lines between 17.5 and 50 nm in a magnetically confined plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Tamura, N.; Combs, S. K.; García, R.; Hernández Sánchez, J.; Navarro, M.; Panadero, N.; Pastor, I.; Soleto, A.; the TJ-II Team

    2018-03-01

    43 spectral emission lines from F-like to Li-like sulphur ions have been identified in the wavelength range from 17.5 to 50 nm in spectra obtained following tracer injection into plasmas created in a magnetically confined plasma device, the stellarator TJ-II. Plasmas created and maintained in this heliac device with electron cyclotron resonance heating achieve central electron temperatures and densities up to 1.5 keV and 8 × 1018 m-3, respectively. Tracer injections were performed with ≤6 × 1016 atoms of sulphur contained within ˜300 μm diameter polystyrene capsules, termed tracer encapsulated solid pellets, using a gas propulsion system to achieve velocities between 250 and 450 m s-1. Once ablation of the exterior polystyrene shell by plasma particles is completed, the sulphur is deposited in the plasma core where it is ionized up to S+13 and transported about the plasma. In order to aid line identification, which is made using a number of atomic line emission databases, spectra are collected before and after injection using a 1 m focal length normal incidence spectrometer equipped with a CCD camera. This work is motivated by the need to clearly identify sulphur emission lines in the vacuum ultraviolet range of magnetically confined plasmas, as sulphur x-ray emission lines are regularly observed in both tokamak and stellarator plasmas.

  12. Laboratory Measurements of the 940, 1130, and 1370 nm Water Vapor Absorption Band Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giver, Lawrence P.; Gore, Warren J.; Pilewskie, P.; Freedman, R. S.; Chackerian, C., Jr.; Varanasi, P.

    2001-01-01

    We have used the solar spectral flux radiometer (SSFR) flight instrument with the Ames 25 meter base-path White cell to obtain about 20 moderate resolution (8 nm) pure water vapor spectra from 650 to 1650 nm, with absorbing paths from 806 to 1506 meters and pressures up to 14 torr. We also obtained a set at 806 meters with several different air-broadening pressures. Model simulations were made for the 940, 1130, and 1370 nm absorption bands for some of these laboratory conditions using the Rothman, et al HITRAN-2000 linelist. This new compilation of HITRAN includes new intensity measurements for the 940 nm region. We compared simulations for our spectra of this band using HITRAN-2000 with simulations using the prior HITRAN-1996. The simulations of the 1130 nm band show about 10% less absorption than we measured. There is some evidence that the total intensity of this band is about 38% stronger than the sum of the HITRAN line intensities in this region. In our laboratory conditions the absorption depends approximately on the square root of the intensity. Thus, our measurements agree that the band is stronger than tabulated in HITRAN, but by about 20%, substantially less than the published value. Significant differences have been shown between Doppler-limited resolution spectra of the 1370 nm band obtained at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and HITRAN simulations. Additional new intensity measurements in this region are continuing to be made. We expect the simulations of our SSFR lab data of this band will show the relative importance of improving the HITRAN line intensities of this band for atmospheric measurements.

  13. The fluorescence intensities ratio is not a reliable parameter for evaluation of protein unfolding transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žoldák, Gabriel; Jancura, Daniel; Sedlák, Erik

    2017-06-01

    Monitoring the fluorescence of proteins, particularly the fluorescence of intrinsic tryptophan residues, is a popular method often used in the analysis of unfolding transitions (induced by temperature, chemical denaturant, and pH) in proteins. The tryptophan fluorescence provides several suitable parameters, such as steady-state fluorescence intensity, apparent quantum yield, mean fluorescence lifetime, position of emission maximum that are often utilized for the observation of the conformational/unfolding transitions of proteins. In addition, the fluorescence intensities ratio at different wavelengths (usually at 330 nm and 350 nm) is becoming an increasingly popular parameter for the evaluation of thermal transitions. We show that, under certain conditions, the use of this parameter for the analysis of unfolding transitions leads to the incorrect determination of thermodynamic parameters characterizing unfolding transitions in proteins (e.g., melting temperature) and, hence, can compromise the hit identification during high-throughput drug screening campaigns. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  14. Substantial enhancement of red emission intensity by embedding Eu-doped GaN into a microcavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inaba, T.; Lee, D.-G.; Wakamatsu, R.; Kojima, T.; Mitchell, B.; Capretti, A.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Koizumi, A.; Fujiwara, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate resonantly excited photoluminescence from a Eu,O-codoped GaN layer embedded into a microcavity, consisting of an AlGaN/GaN distributed Bragg reflector and a Ag reflecting mirror. The microcavity is responsible for a 18.6-fold increase of the Eu emission intensity at ∼10K, and a

  15. IMF control of cusp proton emission intensity and dayside convection: implications for component and anti-parallel reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    Full Text Available We study a brightening of the Lyman-a emission in the cusp which occurred in response to a short-lived south-ward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF during a period of strongly enhanced solar wind plasma concentration. The cusp proton emission is detected using the SI-12 channel of the FUV imager on the IMAGE spacecraft. Analysis of the IMF observations recorded by the ACE and Wind spacecraft reveals that the assumption of a constant propagation lag from the upstream spacecraft to the Earth is not adequate for these high time-resolution studies. The variations of the southward IMF component observed by ACE and Wind allow for the calculation of the ACE-to-Earth lag as a function of time. Application of the derived propagation delays reveals that the intensity of the cusp emission varied systematically with the IMF clock angle, the relationship being particularly striking when the intensity is normalised to allow for the variation in the upstream solar wind proton concentration. The latitude of the cusp migrated equatorward while the lagged IMF pointed southward, confirming the lag calculation and indicating ongoing magnetopause reconnection. Dayside convection, as monitored by the SuperDARN network of radars, responded rapidly to the IMF changes but lagged behind the cusp proton emission response: this is shown to be as predicted by the model of flow excitation by Cowley and Lockwood (1992. We use the numerical cusp ion precipitation model of Lockwood and Davis (1996, along with modelled Lyman-a emission efficiency and the SI-12 instrument response, to investigate the effect of the sheath field clock angle on the acceleration of ions on crossing the dayside magnetopause. This modelling reveals that the emission commences on each reconnected field line 2–2.5 min after it is opened and peaks 3–5 min after it is opened. We discuss how comparison of the Lyman-

  16. Highly stable colloidal TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals with strong violet-blue emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghamsari, Morteza Sasani, E-mail: msghamsari@yahoo.com [Laser & Optics Research School, NSTRI, 11155-3486 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gaeeni, Mohammad Reza [Laser & Optics Research School, NSTRI, 11155-3486 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Han, Wooje; Park, Hyung-Ho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Improved sol–gel method has been applied to prepare highly stable colloidal TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals. The synthesized titania nanocrystals exhibit strong emission in the violet-blue wavelength region. Very long evolution time was obtained by preventing the sol to gel conversion with reflux process. FTIR, XRD, UV–vis absorption, photoluminescence and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) were used to study the optical properties, crystalline phase, morphology, shape and size of prepared TiO{sub 2} colloidal nanocrystals. HRTEM showed that the diameter of TiO{sub 2} colloidal nanocrystals is about 5 nm. Although the PL spectra show similar spectral features upon excitation wavelengths at 280, 300 and 350 nm, but their emission intensities are significantly different from each other. Photoluminescence quantum yield for TiO{sub 2} colloidal nanocrystals is estimated to be 49% with 280 nm excitation wavelength which is in agreement and better than reported before. Obtained results confirm that the prepared colloidal TiO{sub 2} sample has enough potential for optoelectronics applications.

  17. Quasi-three level Nd:YLF fundamental and Raman laser operating under 872-nm and 880-nm direct diode pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Niklaus U.; Bereczki, Allan; Paes, João. Pedro Fonseca

    2018-02-01

    Nd:YLiF4 is the gain material of choice whenever outstanding beam quality or a birefringent gain material is necessary such as in certain applications for terahertz radiation or dual-frequency mode-locking. However, for high power CW applications the material is hampered by a low thermal fracture threshold. This problem can be mitigated by special 2D pump set-ups or by keeping the quantum defect to a minimum. Direct pumping into the upper laser level of Nd:YLiF4 is usually performed at 880 nm. For quasi-three level laser emission at 908 nm, direct pumping at this wavelength provides a high quantum defect of 0.97, which allows for very high CW pump powers. Although the direct pumping transition to the upper laser state at 872 nm has a slightly smaller quantum defect of 0.96, its pump absorption cross section along the c-axis is 50% higher than at 880 nm, leading to a higher absorption efficiency. In this work we explore, for the first time to our knowledge, 908 nm lasing under 872 nm diode pumping and compare the results with 880 nm pumping for quasicw and cw operation. By inserting a KGW crystal in the cavity, Raman lines at 990 nm and 972 nm were obtained for the first time from a directly pumped 908 nm Nd:YLF fundamental laser for both quasi-cw and cw conditions.

  18. Photon emission induced by brittle fracture of borosilicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiota, Tadashi, E-mail: tshiota@ceram.titech.ac.jp [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramic Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Sato, Yoshitaka [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramic Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Kishi, Tetsuo [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Yasuda, Kouichi [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramic Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    Photon emission (PE) at wavelength ranges of 430–490 nm (B-PE), 500–600 nm (G-PE) and 610–680 nm (R-PE) caused by brittle fracture was simultaneously measured in the nanosecond-to-microsecond and millisecond time domains for two types of borosilicate glasses: Pyrex-type Tempax glass and BK7 glass. The results were compared to those for silica and soda lime glasses. The time dependence of the PE of Tempax glass was similar to that of silica glass, while the PE intensity was lower. Because Tempax glass contains both silica-rich and borate-rich amorphous phases, the PE must be mainly produced by the fracture of the silica-rich phase. Moreover, the proportion of B-PE of Tempax glass was higher than that of silica glass. This suggests that the measured B-PE might also include very weak PE caused by the fracture of the borate-rich phase. The PE time dependence of BK7 glass was similar to that of soda lime glass, which was different from the case for Tempax glass. The PE intensity of BK7 glass was slightly higher than that of soda lime glass, but much lower than that of Tempax glass. The result indicates that non-bridging oxygen in the glasses affects crack propagation behavior and reduces the PE. - Highlights: • Photon emission (PE) upon brittle fracture of borosilicate glasses was measured. • Pyrex-type Tempax and BK7 glasses showed different PE characteristics. • The rupture of Si–O bonds produces much stronger PE than that of B–O bonds. • Non-bridging oxygen in glass affects crack propagation behavior and reduces the PE.

  19. Emission dynamics of hybrid plasmonic gold/organic GaN nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, F.; Schmitzer, H.; Kunert, G.; Hommel, D.; Ge, J.; Duscher, G.; Langbein, W.; Wagner, H. P.

    2017-12-01

    We studied the emission of bare and aluminum quinoline (Alq3)/gold coated wurtzite GaN nanorods by temperature- and intensity-dependent time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL). The GaN nanorods of ˜1.5 μm length and ˜250 nm diameter were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Gold/Alq3 coated GaN nanorods were synthesized by organic molecular beam deposition. The near band-edge and donor-acceptor pair luminescence was investigated in bare GaN nanorods and compared with multilevel model calculations providing the dynamical parameters for electron-hole pairs, excitons, impurity bound excitons, donors and acceptors. Subsequently, the influence of a 10 nm gold coating without and with an Alq3 spacer layer was studied and the experimental results were analyzed with the multilevel model. Without a spacer layer, a significant PL quenching and lifetime reduction of the near band-edge emission is found. The behavior is attributed to surface band-bending and Förster energy transfer from excitons to surface plasmons in the gold layer. Inserting a 5 nm Alq3 spacer layer reduces the PL quenching and lifetime reduction which is consistent with a reduced band-bending and Förster energy transfer. Increasing the spacer layer to 30 nm results in lifetimes which are similar to uncoated structures, showing a significantly decreased influence of the gold coating on the excitonic dynamics.

  20. X-mode artificial optical emissions and attendant phenomena at EISCAT/Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, Nataly; Sergienko, Tima; Rietveld, Michael; Brandstrom, Urban; Senior, Andrew; Haggstrom, Ingemar; Kosch, Michael; Borisova, Tatiana; Yeoman, Tim

    We present the experimental evidence for the formation of the artificial optical emissions induced by the X-mode powerful HF radio waves injected towards the magnetic zenith (MZ) into the high latitude F region of the ionosphere. The experiments were conducted in the course of Russian EISCAT heating campaigns in October 2012 and October 2013 at the Heating facility at Tromsø, Norway. The HF pump wave with the X-mode polarization was radiated at 7.1 or 6.2 MHz. The phased array 1, resulting in an ERP = 430 - 600 MW was used. Optical emissions at red (630 nm) and green (557 nm) lines were imaged from Tromsø site by the digital All-Sky Imager mark 2 (DASI - 2) and from a remote site at Abisco by the Auroral Large Imaging System (ALIS) in Scandinavia. The intensities of X-mode emissions at red and green lines varied between about of 150 - 1000 R and 50 - 300 R above the background respectively in different experiments. The artificial optical emissions were accompanied by very strong HF-enhanced ion lines and HF induced plasma lines from the EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar measurements and artificial small-scale field-aligned irregularities from CUTLASS (SuperDARN) HF coherent radar in Finland. The results obtained are discussed.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from high demand, natural gas-intensive energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Since coal and oil emit 70% and 30% more CO 2 per unit of energy than natural gas (methane), fuel switching to natural gas is an obvious pathway to lower CO 2 emissions and reduced theorized greenhouse warming. However, methane is, itself, a strong greenhouse gas so the CO 2 advantages of natural gas may be offset by leaks in the natural gas recovery and supply system. Simple models of atmospheric CO 2 and methane are used to test this hypothesis for several natural gas-intensive energy scenarios, including the work of Ausubel et al (1988). It is found that the methane leaks are significant and may increase the total 'greenhouse effect' from natural gas-intensive energy scenarios by 10%. Furthermore, because methane is short-lived in the atmosphere, leaking methane from natural gas-intensive, high energy growth scenarios effectively recharges the concentration of atmospheric methane continuously. For such scenarios, the problem of methane leaks is even more serious. A second objective is to explore some high demand scenarios that describe the role of methane leaks in the greenhouse tradeoff between gas and coal as energy sources. It is found that the uncertainty in the methane leaks from the natural gas system are large enough to consume the CO 2 advantages from using natural gas instead of coal for 20% of the market share. (author)

  2. Water-molecular emission from cavitation bubbles affected by electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyang-Bok; Choi, Pak-Kon

    2018-04-01

    Orange emission was observed during multibubble sonoluminescence at 1 MHz in water saturated with noble gas. The emission arose in the vicinity of the peeled ground electrode of a piezoceramic transducer exposed to water, suggesting that cavitation bubbles were affected by the electric fields that leaked from the transducer. The spectrum of the emission exhibited a broad component whose intensity increased towards the near-infrared region with peaks at 713 and 813 nm. The spectral shape was independent of the saturation gas of He, Ne, or Kr. The broad component was attributed to the superposition of lines due to vibration-rotation transitions of water molecules, each of which was broadened by the high pressure and electric fields at bubble collapse. An emission mechanism based on charge induction by electric fields and the charged droplet model is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. New ultrafast X-ray sources and their applications. Coherent ultrashort X UV emission by harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salieres, P.; Le deroff, L.; Hergott, J.F.; Merdji, H.; Carre, B.

    2000-01-01

    By focusing an intense short-pulse laser into a rare gas jet, high-order harmonics of the laser frequency are generated. Considerable progress have been made in the last few years, with the observation of harmonic orders higher that 200, extending the emission down to 3 nm. Besides its fundamental interest, this XUV emission represents a new source with unique properties of coherence and ultrashort (femtosecond) duration. A growing number of applications are reported, ranging from atomic and molecular spectroscopy to solid-state and plasma physics. (authors)

  4. Data to calculate emissions intensity for individual beef cattle reared on pasture-based production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. McAuliffe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing concern about environmental burdens originating from livestock production, the importance of farming system evaluation has never been greater. In order to form a basis for trade-off analysis of pasture-based cattle production systems, liveweight data from 90 Charolais × Hereford-Friesian calves were collected at a high temporal resolution at the North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP in Devon, UK. These data were then applied to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC modelling framework to estimate on-farm methane emissions under three different pasture management strategies, completing a foreground dataset required to calculate emissions intensity of individual beef cattle.

  5. Time-resolved plasma spectroscopy of thin foils heated by a relativistic-intensity short-pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audebert, P.; Gauthier, J.-C.; Shepherd, R.; Fournier, K.B.; Price, D.; Lee, R.W.; Springer, P.; Peyrusse, O.; Klein, L.

    2002-01-01

    Time-resolved K-shell x-ray spectra are recorded from sub-100 nm aluminum foils irradiated by 150-fs laser pulses at relativistic intensities of Iλ 2 =2x10 18 W μm 2 /cm 2 . The thermal penetration depth is greater than the foil thickness in these targets so that uniform heating takes place at constant density before hydrodynamic motion occurs. The high-contrast, high-intensity laser pulse, broad spectral band, and short time resolution utilized in this experiment permit a simplified interpretation of the dynamical evolution of the radiating matter. The observed spectrum displays two distinct phases. At early time, ≤500 fs after detecting target emission, a broad quasicontinuous spectral feature with strong satellite emission from multiply excited levels is seen. At a later time, the He-like resonance line emission is dominant. The time-integrated data is in accord with previous studies with time resolution greater than 1 ps. The early time satellite emission is shown to be a signature of an initial large area, high density, low-temperature plasma created in the foil by fast electrons accelerated by the intense radiation field in the laser spot. We conclude that, because of this early time phenomenon and contrary to previous predictions, a short, high-intensity laser pulse incident on a thin foil does not create a uniform hot and dense plasma. The heating mechanism has been studied as a function of foil thickness, laser pulse length, and intensity. In addition, the spectra are found to be in broad agreement with a hydrodynamic expansion code postprocessed by a collisional-radiative model based on superconfiguration average rates and on the unresolved transition array formalism

  6. Low-intensity laser irradiation at 660 nm stimulates transcription of genes involved in the electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masha, Roland T; Houreld, Nicolette N; Abrahamse, Heidi

    2013-02-01

    Low-intensity laser irradiation (LILI) has been shown to stimulate cellular functions leading to increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of LILI on genes involved in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC, complexes I-IV) and oxidative phosphorylation (ATP synthase). Four human skin fibroblast cell models were used in this study: normal non-irradiated cells were used as controls while wounded, diabetic wounded, and ischemic cells were irradiated. Cells were irradiated with a 660 nm diode laser with a fluence of 5 J/cm(2) and gene expression determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). LILI upregulated cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIb polypeptide 2 (COX6B2), cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc (COX6C), and pyrophosphatase (inorganic) 1 (PPA1) in diabetic wounded cells; COX6C, ATP synthase, H+transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit B1 (ATP5F1), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 11 (NDUFA11), and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 7 (NDUFS7) in wounded cells; and ATPase, H+/K+ exchanging, beta polypeptide (ATP4B), and ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C2 (subunit 9) (ATP5G2) in ischemic cells. LILI at 660 nm stimulates the upregulation of genes coding for subunits of enzymes involved in complexes I and IV and ATP synthase.

  7. Intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent photoluminescence emission in the blue-violet region from phosphorene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shuaipeng; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Peijie; Fang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale phosphorene quantum dots (PQDs) with few-layer structures were fabricated by pulsed laser ablation of a bulk black phosphorus target in diethyl ether. An intense and stable photoluminescence (PL) emission of the PQDs in the blue-violet wavelength region is clearly observed for the first time, which is attributed to electronic transitions from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and occupied molecular orbitals below the HOMO (H-1, H-2), respectively. Surprisingly, the PL emission peak positions of the PQDs are not red-shifted with progressively longer excitation wavelengths, which is in contrast to the cases of graphene and molybdenum disulphide quantum dots. This excitation wavelength-independence is derived from the saturated passivation on the periphery and surfaces of the PQDs by large numbers of electron-donating functional groups which cause the electron density on the PQDs to be dramatically increased and the band gap to be insensitive to the quantum size effect in the PQDs. This work suggests that PQDs with intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent PL emission in the blue-violet region have a potential application as semiconductor-based blue-violet light irradiation sources. PMID:27265198

  8. Red, green, blue and white light upconversion emission in Yb3+/Tm3+/Ho3+ co-doped tellurite glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desirena, H; De la Rosa, E; Meza, O; Salas, P

    2011-01-01

    Several Yb 3+ /Tm 3+ /Ho 3+ co-doped transparent TeO 2 -ZnO-Na 2 O-Yb 2 O 3 -Ho 2 O 3 -Tm 2 O 3 glasses were prepared and luminescence properties were characterized. Simultaneous red, green and blue (RGB) emission were obtained after excitation at 970 nm. Colour emission was tuned from multicolour to white light with colour coordinate (0.32, 0.33) matching very well with the white reference (0.33, 0.33). Changes in colour emission were obtained by varying the intensity ratios between RGB bands that are strongly concentration dependent because of the interaction of co-dopants. The colour tunability, high quality of white light and high intensity of the emitted signal make these transparent glasses excellent candidates for applications in solid-state lighting.

  9. Semiconductor-based narrow-line and high-brilliance 193-nm laser system for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalevs, D.; Scholz, M.; Stuhler, J.; Gilfert, C.; Liu, L. J.; Wang, X. Y.; Vetter, A.; Kirner, R.; Scharf, T.; Noell, W.; Rockstuhl, C.; Li, R. K.; Chen, C. T.; Voelkel, R.; Leisching, P.

    2018-02-01

    We present a novel industrial-grade prototype version of a continuous-wave 193 nm laser system entirely based on solid state pump laser technology. Deep-ultraviolet emission is realized by frequency-quadrupling an amplified diode laser and up to 20 mW of optical power were generated using the nonlinear crystal KBBF. We demonstrate the lifetime of the laser system for different output power levels and environmental conditions. The high stability of our setup was proven in > 500 h measurements on a single spot, a crystal shifter multiplies the lifetime to match industrial requirements. This laser improves the relative intensity noise, brilliance, wall-plug efficiency and maintenance cost significantly. We discuss first lithographic experiments making use of this improvement in photon efficiency.

  10. Spectroscopic properties of 1.8 μm emission of thulium ions in germanate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R. R.; Tian, Y.; Wang, M.; Hu, L. L.; Zhang, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    A new type host of germanate glass (GeO2- BaO-BaF2-Ga2O3-La2O3) codoped with Tm2O3 has been investigated for application as laser material. It possesses a large emission cross section with the value of 9.3×10-21 cm2 at 1.8 μm. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters and radiative transition probability are calculated and analyzed by Judd-Ofelt theory and absorption spectra. The infrared emission spectra at 1.8 μm have been obtained by using a 794 nm laser diode as excitation resource. The emission intensity ratio of 1.8 (3F4→3H6) to 1.47 μm (3H4→3F4) increases, while the experimental lifetime of the Tm3+:3H4 level decreases by increasing Tm2O3 concentration, which is attributed to the presence of a cross relaxation process. The most intensive emission at 1.8 μm is achieved from the germanate glass with the concentration of Tm2O3 reaches 1.0 wt%. The extended overlap integral method is used to calculate the microparameter of the energy transfer and the critical distance, which are derived to better understand the energy transfer process of thulium ions in the germanate glass responsible for emission at 1.8 μm.

  11. Development of a high energy resolution magnetic bolometer for the determination of photon emission intensities by gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M.

    2007-12-01

    In this research thesis, a first chapter describes the metrological difficulties for the determination of radionuclide photon emission intensities. Then, it discusses the understanding and the required tools for the computing of a magnetic bolometer signal with respect to the different operation parameters and to the sensor geometry. The author describes the implementation of the experimental device and its validation with a first sensor. The new sensor is then optimised for the measurement of photon emission intensities with a good efficiency and a theoretical energy resolution less than 100 eV up to 200 keV. The sensor's detection efficiency and operation have been characterized with a 133 Ba source. The author finally presents the obtained results

  12. Laser-assisted electron emission from gated field-emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, H; Yokoo, K; Mimura, H; Shimawaki, H; Hosono, A

    2002-01-01

    Enhancement of electron emission by illumination of gated field-emitters was studied using a 100 mW cw YAG laser at a wavelength of 532 nm, intensities up to 10 sup 7 W/m sup 2 and mechanically chopped with a rise time of 4 mu s. When shining an array of 640 silicon emitters, the emission current responded quickly to on-off of the laser. The increase of the emission current was proportional to the basic emission current at low gate voltages, but it was saturated at approx 3 mu A as the basic current approached 100 mu A with the increase of gate voltage. The emission increase was proportional to the square root of laser power at low gate voltages and to the laser power at elevated gate voltages. For 1- and 3-tip silicon emitters, the rise and fall of the current due to on-off of the laser showed a significant time lag. The magnitude of emission increase was independent of the position of laser spot on the emitter base and reached 2 mu A at a basic current of 5 mu A without showing signs of saturation. The mech...

  13. Linear surface photoelectric effect of gold in intense laser field as a possible high-current electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, G.; Horvath, Z.G.; Toth, C.; Fotakis, C.; Hontzopoulos, E.

    1987-01-01

    Investigations were conducted on radiation-induced electron emission processes on a gold target surface with a high-intensity (2 MW/cm 2 ) KrF laser (λ = 248 nm). The single photon surface photoelectric emission obtained can be used for high-current density electron sources. The measured polarization dependence of electron current shows the dominance of the surface-type effect over that of the volume type, thereby making it possible to optimize the short, high-density electron current creation conditions. The advantage of the grazing light incidence and the multiphoton photoeffect giving rise to a 500 A/cm 2 electron current has been demonstrated

  14. Modulating emission intensity of GaN-based green light emitting diodes on c-plane sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Chunhua; Ma, Ziguang; Zhou, Junming; Lu, Taiping; Jiang, Yang; Jia, Haiqiang; Liu, Wuming; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetric dual-wavelength (green/blue) coupled InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells were proposed to modulate the green emission intensity. Electroluminescent measurements demonstrate the conspicuous increment of the green light intensity by decreasing the coupled barrier thickness. This was partly attributed to capture of more carriers when holes tunnel across the thinner barrier from the blue quantum wells, as a hole reservoir, to the green quantum wells. While lower effective barrier height of the blue quantum wells benefits improved hole transportation from p-GaN to the active region. Efficiency droop of the green quantum wells was partially alleviated due to the enhanced injection efficiency of holes

  15. Nitrification inhibitors mitigated reactive gaseous nitrogen intensity in intensive vegetable soils from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Changhua; Li, Bo; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2018-01-15

    Nitrification inhibitors, a promising tool for reducing nitrous oxide (N 2 O) losses and promoting nitrogen use efficiency by slowing nitrification, have gained extensive attention worldwide. However, there have been few attempts to explore the broad responses of multiple reactive gaseous nitrogen emissions of N 2 O, nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH 3 ) and vegetable yield to nitrification inhibitor applications across intensive vegetable soils in China. A greenhouse pot experiment with five consecutive vegetable crops was performed to assess the efficacies of two nitrification inhibitors, namely, nitrapyrin and dicyandiamide on reactive gaseous nitrogen emissions, vegetable yield and reactive gaseous nitrogen intensity in four typical vegetable soils representing the intensive vegetable cropping systems across mainland China: an Acrisol from Hunan Province, an Anthrosol from Shanxi Province, a Cambisol from Shandong Province and a Phaeozem from Heilongjiang Province. The results showed soil type had significant influences on reactive gaseous nitrogen intensity, with reactive gaseous nitrogen emissions and yield mainly driven by soil factors: pH, nitrate, C:N ratio, cation exchange capacity and microbial biomass carbon. The highest reactive gaseous nitrogen emissions and reactive gaseous nitrogen intensity were in Acrisol while the highest vegetable yield occurred in Phaeozem. Nitrification inhibitor applications decreased N 2 O and NO emissions by 1.8-61.0% and 0.8-79.5%, respectively, but promoted NH 3 volatilization by 3.2-44.6% across all soils. Furthermore, significant positive correlations were observed between inhibited N 2 O+NO and stimulated NH 3 emissions with nitrification inhibitor additions across all soils, indicating that reduced nitrification posed the threat of NH 3 losses. Additionally, reactive gaseous nitrogen intensity was significantly reduced in the Anthrosol and Cambisol due to the reduced reactive gaseous nitrogen emissions and increased

  16. A comparative analysis of the greenhouse gas emissions intensity of wheat and beef in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Kelly Twomey; Webber, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    The US food system utilizes large quantities of liquid fuels, electricity, and chemicals yielding significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are not considered in current retail prices, especially when the contribution of biogenic emissions is considered. However, because GHG emissions might be assigned a price in prospective climate policy frameworks, it would be useful to know the extent to which those policies would increase the incremental production costs to food within the US food system. This analysis uses lifecycle assessment (LCA) to (1) estimate the magnitude of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 e) emissions from typical US food production practices, using wheat and beef as examples, and (2) quantify the cost of those emissions in the context of a GHG-pricing regime over a range of policy constructs. Wheat and beef were chosen as benchmark staples to provide a representative range of less intensive and more intensive agricultural goods, respectively. Results suggest that 1.1 ± 0.13 and 31 ± 8.1 kg of lifecycle CO 2 e emissions are embedded in 1 kg of wheat and beef production, respectively. Consequently, the cost of lifecycle CO 2 e emissions for wheat (i.e. cultivation, processing, transportation, storage, and end-use preparation) over an emissions price range of $10 and $85 per tonne CO 2 e is estimated to be between $0.01 and $0.09 per kg of wheat, respectively, which would increase total wheat production costs by approximately 0.3–2% per kg. By comparison, the estimated lifecycle CO 2 e price of beef over the same range of CO 2 e prices is between $0.31 and $2.60 per kg of beef, representing a total production cost increase of approximately 5–40% per kg based on average 2010 food prices. This range indicates that the incremental cost to total US food production might be anywhere between $0.63–5.4 Billion per year for grain and $3.70 and $32 Billion per year for beef based on CO 2 e emissions assuming that total production

  17. Overview of European and Netherlands' regulations on airborne emissions from intensive livestock production with a focus on the application of air scrubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Intensive livestock production is of major importance to the economies of many countries but is also connected with a number of environmental effects, including airborne emissions. Currently emission standards are becoming increasingly stringent in European countries and the livestock industry is

  18. Developing the model of laser ablation by considering the interplay between emission and expansion of aluminum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, F.; Tavassoli, S. H. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, ShahidBeheshti University, 19396 4716, G. C., Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    In the present study, the ablation behavior of aluminum target and its plasma radiation in noble ambient gases by a laser pulse with wavelength of 266 nm and pulse duration of 10 ns are numerically studied. A thermal model of laser ablation considering heat conduction, Euler equations, Saha-Eggert equations, Knudsen layer, mass and energy balance relations and optical shielding effects are used for calculation of plasma parameters. Effects of excitation energy on plasma expansion and its emissivity are investigated. Time and spatial-resolved plasma emission including bremsstrahlung, recombination and spectral emission at early delay times after laser irradiation is obtained. Effects of two ambient gases (He and Ar) as well as different gas pressures of 100, 300, 500, and 760 Torr on plasma expansion and its spectrum are studied. Results illustrate that at initial delay times, especially at high noble gas pressures, ionic lines have the maximum intensities, while at later times neutral lines dominate. When the pressure of ambient gas increases, a confinement of the plasma plume is predicted and the intensity of neutral lines decreases. Continuous emission increases with wavelength in both ambient gases. Spatially resolved analysis shows that an intense continuous emission is predicted next to the sample surface decreasing with distance from the latter.

  19. Hydroxyl (6−2 airglow emission intensity ratios for rotational temperature determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Lowe

    Full Text Available OH(6–2 Q1/P1 and R1/P1 airglow emission intensity ratios, for rotational states up to j' = 4.5, are measured to be lower than implied by transition probabilities published by various authors including Mies, Langhoff et al. and Turnbull and Lowe. Experimentally determined relative values of j' transitions yield OH(6–2 rotational temperatures 2 K lower than Langhoff et al., 7 K lower than Mies and 13 K lower than Turnbull and Lowe.Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (airglow and aurora; pressure, density and temperature

  20. Influence of carbohydrate addition on nitrogen transformations and greenhouse gas emissions of intensive aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Sharma, Keshab; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing segments of the food economy in modern times. It is also being considered as an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To date, limited studies have been conducted on GHG emissions from aquaculture system. In this study, daily addition of fish feed and soluble starch at a carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 16:1 (w/w) was used to examine the effects of carbohydrate addition on nitrogen transformations and GHG emissions in a zero-water exchange intensive aquaculture system. The addition of soluble starch stimulated heterotrophic bacterial growth and denitrification, which led to lower total ammonia nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate concentrations in aqueous phase. About 76.2% of the nitrogen output was emitted in the form of gaseous nitrogen (i.e., N2 and N2O) in the treatment tank (i.e., aquaculture tank with soluble starch addition), while gaseous nitrogen accounted for 33.3% of the nitrogen output in the control tank (i.e., aquaculture tank without soluble starch addition). Although soluble starch addition reduced daily N2O emissions by 83.4%, it resulted in an increase of daily carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 91.1%. Overall, starch addition did not contribute to controlling the GHG emissions from the aquaculture system. © 2013.

  1. Design and engineering of IZO/Ag/glass solar filters for low-emissivity window performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Mainet, Luis C.; Aguilar, Miguel A.; Tamargo, Maria C.; Falcony, Ciro

    2017-10-01

    The electricity consumption in houses and commercial buildings generates about 18% of greenhouse gas emission. A critical issue of building energy consumption is heat and cooling loss through the window. Low-emissivity windows control thermal radiation through glass without decreasing the intensity of visible light. They are made up of optical filter coatings grown on a flat glass surface. Solar filters based on Ag/IZO multilayer films are grown and simulated on glass substrate. The targeted structure designs are grown by a sputtering system and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques. To accurately simulate transmission spectrum, silver (Ag) and IZO optical constants were estimated by fitting ellipsometric data at different thicknesses. Transmission spectrum shows a good agreement among experiment and simulation. In addition, optical constant curves strongly show layer thickness dependence in both materials. In particular, the ultrathin Ag layer displays a percolation threshold in the vicinity of 15 nm, which leads to surface plasmon resonance with absorption at about 450 nm. These types of optical filter coatings would have potential applications as low-emission windows.

  2. Impact of firing temperature on multi-wavelength selective Stokes and anti-Stokes luminescent behavior by Gd2O2S:Er,Yb phosphor and its application in solar energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, V.; Mehta, D. S.

    2018-04-01

    Erbium (Er3+)-ytterbium (Yb3+) doped gadolinium oxysulphide (Gd2O2S) phosphor has been developed via a facile method of solid-state flux fusion, and offers two-fold spectrum modification with highly intense Stokes and anti-Stokes shift. The effect of the firing cycle on the photoluminescent response and morphology of Gd2O2S:Er,Yb is scrutinized, wherein the firing temperature was varied (1000 °C-1250 °C), keeping firing time and all other parameters constant. Interestingly, the nanostructures fired below 1150 °C showed nanorods of diameter ~200 nm and length ~1-2 µm, whereas firing at 1150 °C and above rendered nanospheres with small diameter, ~350 nm. Highly bright upconversion (UC) emission was achieved even under an extremely low excitation power density of 800 µW cm-2 from a 980 nm laser, and was comfortably visible to the naked eye. The incident power dependent studies disclosed increase in UC-emission intensity with increasing excitation power and a quasi-linear dependence on excitation power density. Intense characteristic UC-emission of Er3+ excited states at 525 nm, 556 nm and 668 nm were observed, and the green emission band was found to be dominant over the red band in intensity. Concurrently, downconversion (DC) emission at 556 nm and 669 nm was also exhibited under ultraviolet excitation (285 nm and 380 nm), with the red band being more powerful than the green, unlike UC-emission. Firing temperature dependent studies divulged the dependence of luminescence intensity on the firing cycle of the luminophore and formation of the respective luminescent phase. The UC-emission intensity was found to be maximum for samples fired at 1150 °C, whereas samples fired at 1000 °C showed the highest DC-emission intensity. The excitation and emission profile of single Gd2O2S:Er,Yb phosphor lying in the desired spectral region and as a dual spectral converter marks its possible application for enhanced harvesting of sunlight.

  3. Normal spectral emissivity measurement of molten copper using an electromagnetic levitator superimposed with a static magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Ryo; Inoue, Takamitsu; Baba, Yuya; Sugioka, Ken-ichi; Kubo, Masaki; Tsukada, Takao; Fukuyama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The normal spectral emissivity of molten copper was determined in the wavelength range of 780–920 nm and in the temperature range of 1288–1678 K, by directly measuring the radiance emitted by an electromagnetically levitated molten copper droplet under a static magnetic field of 1.5 T. The spectrometer for radiance measurement was calibrated using the relation between the theoretical blackbody radiance from Planck's law and the light intensity of a quasi-blackbody radiation source measured using a spectrometer at a given temperature. As a result, the normal spectral emissivity of molten copper was determined as 0.075 ± 0.011 at a wavelength of 807 nm, and it was found that its temperature dependence is negligible in the entire measurement temperature range tested. In addition, the results of the normal spectral emissivity and its wavelength dependence were discussed, in comparison with those obtained using the Drude free-electron model. (paper)

  4. Waveguide source of amplified spontaneous emission ASE 1550 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razik, M.; Budnicki, A.; Abramski, M.

    2003-01-01

    Light source of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) type has been built on the base of double-clad waveguide doped with ytterbium and erbium. The characteristics and applications of the ASE source have been also presented

  5. Energy intensity, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, and economic assessment of liquid biofuel pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strogen, Bret; Horvath, Arpad; Zilberman, David

    2013-12-01

    Petroleum fuels are predominantly transported domestically by pipelines, whereas biofuels are almost exclusively transported by rail, barge, and truck. As biofuel production increases, new pipelines may become economically attractive. Location-specific variables impacting pipeline viability include construction costs, availability and costs of alternative transportation modes, electricity prices and emissions (if priced), throughput, and subsurface temperature. When transporting alcohol or diesel-like fuels, pipelines have a lower direct energy intensity than rail, barge, and trucks if fluid velocity is under 1 m/s for 4-inch diameter pipelines and 2 m/s for 8-inch or larger pipelines. Across multiple hypothetical state-specific scenarios, profit-maximizing design velocities range from 1.2 to 1.9 m/s. In costs and GHG emissions, optimized pipelines outperform trucks in each state and rail and barge in most states, if projected throughput exceeds four billion liters/year. If emissions are priced, optimum design diameters typically increase to reduce pumping energy demands, increasing the cost-effectiveness of pipeline projects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The development of new phosphors of Tb3+/Eu3+ co-doped Gd3Al5O12 with tunable emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xin; Wang, Wenzhi; Cao, Zhentao; Li, Jinkai; Duan, Guangbin; Liu, Zongming

    2017-07-01

    The gadolinium aluminum garnets Gd3Al5O12 (GdAG) activated with Tb3+/Eu3+ were successfully prepared via co-precipitation method at 1500 °C in this work. The crystal structure stabilization, elements analysis, microphotograph, PL/PLE spectra, decay behavior and quantum efficiency were discussed in detail. The metastable GdAG compounds been effectively stabilized by doping with smaller 10 at.% Tb3+, which then allows the development of new phosphors of (Gd0.9-xTb0.1Eux)3Al5O12 (GdAG:Tb3+/Eu3+, x = 0-0.03) for opto-functionality explorations. The PLE/PL spectra displays that the strongest PLE peak was located at ∼276 nm, which overlaps the 8S7/2 → 6IJ transition of Gd3+. Under 276 nm excitation, the phosphors exhibited both Tb3+ and Eu3+ emissions at 548 nm (green, 5D4 → 7F5 transition of Tb3+) and 592 nm (orange-red, 5D0 → 7F1 transition of Eu3+), respectively. The emission intensities of Tb3+ and Eu3+ remarkably varied with the Eu3+ incorporation. As a consequence, the emission color can be readily tuned from approximately green to orange-red. Fluorescence decay analysis found that the lifetime for the Tb3+ emission rapidly decreased conforming to the Tb3+ → Eu3+ energy transfer, and the energy transfer efficiency was calculated. Owing to the Gd3+ → Eu3+ and Gd3+ → Tb3+ energy transfer, the emission intensities of Tb3+ and Eu3+ in (Gd0.9-xTb0.1Eux)AG phosphor were higher than (Y0.87Tb0.1Eu0.03)AG and (Lu0.87Tb0.1Eu0.03)AG system. The (Gd0.9-xTb0.1Eux)AG garnet phosphors developed in this work may serve as a new type of phosphor which hopefully meets the requirements of various lighting and optical display applications.

  7. Raman Spectra and Bulk Modulus of Nanodiamond in a Size Interval of 2-5 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Mikhail; Churkin, Valentin; Kirichenko, Alexey; Denisov, Viktor; Ovsyannikov, Danila; Kulnitskiy, Boris; Perezhogin, Igor; Aksenenkov, Viktor; Blank, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Nanodiamond in a 2-5-nm size interval (which is typical for an appearance of quantum confinement effect) show Raman spectra composed of 3 bands at 1325, 1600, and 1500 cm-1 (at the 458-nm laser excitation) which shifts to 1630 cm-1 at the 257-nm laser excitation. Contrary to sp2-bonded carbon, relative intensities of the bands do not depend on the 458- and 257-nm excitation wavelengths, and a halfwidth and the intensity of the 1600 cm-1 band does not change visibly under pressure at least up to 50 GPa. Bulk modulus of the 2-5-nm nanodiamond determined from the high-pressure study is around 560 GPa. Studied 2-5-nm nanodiamond was purified from contamination layers and dispersed in Si or NaCl.

  8. Pr:Ca1-xRxF2+x (R=Y or Gd) crystals: Modulated blue, orange and red emission spectra with the proportion of R3+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Qian, Xiaobo; Guo, Linyang; Jiang, Dapeng; Wu, Qinghui; Tang, Fei; Su, Liangbi; Ju, Qiangwen; Wang, Jingya; Xu, Jun

    2018-04-01

    The spectroscopic properties of 0.6at.%:Pr:Ca1-xRxF2+x (R = Y, Gd; x = 0,0.006, 0.012, 0.03, 0.06) crystals were investigated and compared. The XRD tests were conducted and the cell dimensions of the crystals were calculated. Room temperature absorption spectra have been registered and analyzed. The emission spectra and decay curves of the crystals were obtained at room temperature. Increasing the proportion of the lattice regulators of Y3+ or Gd3+ ions could significantly enhance the luminescence intensity of all visible emission bands with different ratios. Particularly, the emission intensity ratio of orange to red increased from 0.15 to 1.9 in Pr:Ca1-xYxF2+x crystals and to 1.02 in Pr:Ca1-xGdxF2+x crystals, respectively. Furthermore, Pr:Ca1-xGdxF2+x crystals have substantially strong emission at orange and red region of 580-660 nm, comparable with blue light at 482 nm. The quantum efficiency of the crystals increased rapidly with the increment of R3+ concentration, and finally tend to be 100%.

  9. Intense upconversion luminescence in ytterbium-sensitized thulium-doped oxychloride germanate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hongtao; Zhanga Liyan; Zhang Junjie; Wen Lei; Yu Chunlei; Duan Zhongchao; Dai Shixun; Hu Lili; Jiang Zhonghong

    2005-01-01

    Structural and upconversion fluorescence properties in ytterbium-sensitized thulium-doped oxychloride germanate glass have been studied. The structure of oxychloride germanate glass was investigated by peak-deconvolution of Raman spectrum, and the structural information was obtained from the peak wavenumbers. The Raman spectrum investigation indicates that PbCl 2 plays an important role in the formation of glass network, and has an important influence on the upconversion luminescence. Intense blue and weak red emissions centered at 477 and 650 nm, corresponding to the transitions 1 G 4 → 3 H 6 and 1 G 4 → 3 H 4 , respectively, were observed at room temperature. The possible upconversion mechanisms are discussed and estimated. Intense upconversion luminescence indicates that oxychloride germanate glass can be used as potential host material for upconversion lasers

  10. WE-AB-303-04: A Tissue Model of Cherenkov Emission From the Skin Surface During Megavoltage X-Ray Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, A. N.; Loyalka, S. K. [University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Izaguirre, E. W. [University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Baylor Scott & White Health, Temple, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a tissue model of Cherenkov radiation emitted from the skin surface during external beam radiotherapy. Imaging Cherenkov radiation emitted from human skin allows visualization of the beam position and potentially surface dose estimates, and our goal is to characterize the optical properties of these emissions. Methods: We developed a Monte Carlo model of Cherenkov radiation generated in a semi-infinite tissue slab by megavoltage x-ray beams with optical transmission properties determined by a two-layered skin model. We separate the skin into a dermal and an epidermal layer in our model, where distinct molecular absorbers modify the Cherenkov intensity spectrum in each layer while we approximate the scattering properties with Mie and Rayleigh scattering from the highly structured molecular organization found in human skin. Results: We report on the estimated distributions of the Cherenkov wavelength spectrum, emission angles, and surface distribution for the modeled irradiated skin surface. The expected intensity distribution of Cherenkov radiation emitted from skin shows a distinct intensity peak around 475 nm, the blue region of the visible spectrum, between a pair of optical absorption bands in hemoglobin and a broad plateau beginning near 600 nm and extending to at least 700 nm where melanin and hemoglobin absorption are both low. We also find that the Cherenkov intensity decreases with increasing angle from the surface normal, the majority being emitted within 20 degrees of the surface normal. Conclusion: Our estimate of the spectral distribution of Cherenkov radiation emitted from skin indicates an advantage to using imaging devices with long wavelength spectral responsivity. We also expect the most efficient imaging to be near the surface normal where the intensity is greatest; although for contoured surfaces, the relative intensity across the surface may appear to vary due to decreasing Cherenkov intensity with increased angle from the

  11. Blue and red emission in wide band gap BaZrO{sub 3}:Yb{sup 3+},Tm{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja-Urby, R. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A. C., C. P. 37150 Leon, Gto. (Mexico); Diaz-Torres, L.A., E-mail: ditlacio@cio.mx [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A. C., C. P. 37150 Leon, Gto. (Mexico); Salas, P. [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 1-1010, Queretaro 76000 (Mexico); Vega-Gonzalez, M. [Centro de Geociencias-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 1-1010, Queretaro 76000 (Mexico); Angeles-Chavez, C. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Cd. Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico)

    2010-10-25

    Under NIR excitation at 967 intense blue and red photoluminescence (PL) emissions are observed at room temperature in codoped Tm{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} barium zirconate (BaZrO{sub 3}:Yb,Tm) powders. Powders were prepared by a simple hydrothermal method, and present a wide band gap that depends on the total rare earth content due to the degree of disorder induced in the BaZrO{sub 3} lattice by the substitution of the rare earth ions. Rietveld refinements of the XRD patterns indicated the presence of primary nanocrystallites with sizes between 50 and 70 nm depending on the Tm{sup 3+} content. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) shows that these primary particles self-aggregated in larger secondary particles which present a regular morphology with sizes around 1 {mu}m. The intense blue and red PL emissions in BaZrO{sub 3} powders under 967 nm excitation are governed by energy transfer processes from Yb{sup 3+} ions to Tm{sup 3+} ions and crossrelaxation among Tm{sup 3+} ions.

  12. Does climate policy lead to relocation with adverse effects for GHG emissions or not? A first assessment of the spillovers of climate policy for energy intensive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V.; Patel, M.; Worrell, E.

    2004-12-01

    Energy-intensive industries play a special role in climate policy. World-wide, industry is responsible for about 50% of greenhouse gas emissions. The emission intensity makes these industries an important target for climate policy. At the same time these industries are particularly vulnerable if climate policy would lead to higher energy costs, and if they would be unable to offset these increased costs. The side effects of climate policy on GHG emissions in foreign countries are typically referred to as 'spillovers'. Negative spillovers reduce the effectiveness of a climate policy, while positive spillovers increase its effectiveness. This paper provides a review of the literature on the spillover effects of climate policy for carbon intensive industries. Reviews of past trends in production location of energy-intensive industries show an increased share of non-Annex 1 countries. However, this trend is primarily driven by demand growth, and there is no empirical evidence for a role of environmental policy in these development patterns. In contrast, climate models do show a strong carbon leakage of emissions from these industries. Even though that climate policy may have a more profound impact than previous environmental policies, the results of the modelling are ambiguous. The energy and carbon intensity of energy-intensive industries is rapidly declining in most developing countries, and reducing the 'gap' between industrialized and developing countries. Still, considerable potential for emission reduction exists, both in developing and industrialized countries. Technology development is likely to deliver further reductions in energy use and CO2 emissions. Despite the potential for positive spillovers in the energy-intensive industries, none of the models used in the analysis of spillovers of climate policies has an endogenous representation of technological change for the energy-intensive industries. This underlines the need for a better understanding of

  13. Optical properties of Nd3+ doped barium lithium fluoroborate glasses for near-infrared (NIR) emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariselvam, K.; Arun Kumar, R.; Suresh, K.

    2018-04-01

    The neodymium doped barium lithium fluoroborate (Nd3+: BLFB) glasses with the chemical composition (70-x) H3BO3 - 10 Li2CO3 - 10 BaCO3- 5 CaF2-5 ZnO - x Nd2O3 (where x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 in wt %) have been prepared by the conventional melt quenching technique and characterised through optical absorption, near infrared emission and decay-time measurements. The x-ray diffraction studies confirm the amorphous nature of the prepared glasses. The optical absorption spectra and emission spectra were recorded in the wavelength ranges of 190-1100 nm. The optical band gap (Eg) and Urbach energy (ΔE) values were calculated from the absorption spectra. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters were determined from the systematic analysis of the absorption spectrum of neodymium ions in the prepared glasses. The emission spectra exhibited three prominent peaks at 874, 1057, 1331 nm corresponding to the 4F3/2 → 4I9/2, 11/2, 13/2 transitions levels respectively in the near infrared region. The emission intensity of the 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition increases with the increase in neodymium concentration up to 0.5 wt% and the concentration quenching mechanism was observed for 1 wt% and 2 wt% concentrations. The lifetime of the 4F3/2 level was found to decrease with increasing Nd3+ ion concentration. The nature of energy transfer process was a single exponential curve which was studied for all the glasses and analysed.

  14. Improvement of the detection limits in radio-frequency-powered glow discharge optical emission spectrometry associated with bias-current conduction method; Jiko bias denryu donyuho ni yoru koshuha glow hoden hakko bunseki ni okeru kenshutsu genkai no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagatsuma, K. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Research Institute for Materials

    1999-01-01

    A d.c. bias current driven by the self-bias voltage which is conducted through the r.f.-powered glow discharge plasma varies the emission characteristics drastically, leading to improvement of the detection power in the optical emission spectrometry. By conducting the bias currents of 20-30 mA, the emission intensities of the atomic resonance lines were 10-20 times larger than those obtained with conventional r.t.- powered plasmas. The detection limits for determination of alloyed elements in the re-based binary alloy samples were estimated to be l.6 x 10{sup -3}% Cr for CrI 425.43nm, 7 x 10{sup -4}% Mn for MnI 403.10nm, 1.9>10{sup -3}% Cu for CuI 327.40nm, 1.1 x 10{sup -3}% Al for AlI 396.16nm, and 6.6 x 10{sup -3}% Ni for NiI 352.45 nm. (author)

  15. Design of a portable optical emission tomography system for microwave induced compact plasma for visible to near-infrared emission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathore, Kavita, E-mail: kavira@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: pmunshi@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: sudeepb@iitk.ac.in; Munshi, Prabhat, E-mail: kavira@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: pmunshi@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: sudeepb@iitk.ac.in [Nuclear Engineering and Technology Programme, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur (India); Bhattacharjee, Sudeep, E-mail: kavira@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: pmunshi@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: sudeepb@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2016-03-15

    A new non-invasive diagnostic system is developed for Microwave Induced Plasma (MIP) to reconstruct tomographic images of a 2D emission profile. A compact MIP system has wide application in industry as well as research application such as thrusters for space propulsion, high current ion beams, and creation of negative ions for heating of fusion plasma. Emission profile depends on two crucial parameters, namely, the electron temperature and density (over the entire spatial extent) of the plasma system. Emission tomography provides basic understanding of plasmas and it is very useful to monitor internal structure of plasma phenomena without disturbing its actual processes. This paper presents development of a compact, modular, and versatile Optical Emission Tomography (OET) tool for a cylindrical, magnetically confined MIP system. It has eight slit-hole cameras and each consisting of a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor linear image sensor for light detection. The optical noise is reduced by using aspheric lens and interference band-pass filters in each camera. The entire cylindrical plasma can be scanned with automated sliding ring mechanism arranged in fan-beam data collection geometry. The design of the camera includes a unique possibility to incorporate different filters to get the particular wavelength light from the plasma. This OET system includes selected band-pass filters for particular argon emission 750 nm, 772 nm, and 811 nm lines and hydrogen emission H{sub α} (656 nm) and H{sub β} (486 nm) lines. Convolution back projection algorithm is used to obtain the tomographic images of plasma emission line. The paper mainly focuses on (a) design of OET system in detail and (b) study of emission profile for 750 nm argon emission lines to validate the system design.

  16. Spectroscopic investigations of hard x-ray emission from 120 ps laser-produced plasmas at intensities near 1017 W cm-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.; Young, B.K.F.; Osterheld, A.L.; Foord, M.E.; Walling, R.S.; Stewart, R.E.; Faenov, A.Y.

    1995-11-01

    Spectroscopic investigations of the x-ray emission of plasmas heated by 120 ps, frequency doubled pulses from the JANUS Nd: glass laser are presented. High Z K-shell spectra emitted from slab targets heated to near 10 17 W cm -2 intensity are investigated. High resolution (γ/Δγ>5000) x-ray spectra of multicharged ions of H-like Ti, Co, Ni, Cu, and also H-like Sc in the spectral range 1.5--3.0 angstrom are obtained in single laser shots using a spherically bent Mica crystal spectrograph with a 186 mm radius of curvature. The spectra- have one dimensional spatial resolution of about 25μm and indicate that the size of the emission zone of the resonance, transitions is 2 keV and density∼10 22 cm -3 . These experiments demonstrate that with modest laser energy, plasmas heated by high-intensity 120 ps lasers provide a very bright source of hard ∼8 keV x-ray emission

  17. Temporal-spatial structure of magnetic merging at the magnetopause inferred from 557.7-nm all-sky images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Maynard

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that high-resolution 557.7-nm all-sky images are useful tools for investigating the spatial and temporal evolution of merging on the dayside magnetopause. Analysis of ground and satellite measurements leads us to conclude that high-latitude merging events can occur at multiple sites simultaneously and vary asynchronously on time scales of 30s to 3min. Variations of 557.7nm emissions were observed at a 10s cadence at Ny-Ålesund on 19 December 2001, while significant changes in the IMF clock angle were reaching the magnetopause. The optical patterns are consistent with a scenario in which merging occurs around the rim of the high-latitude cusp at positions dictated by the IMF clock angle. Electrons energized at merging sites represent plausible sources for 557.7nm emissions in the cusp. Polar observations at the magnetopause have directly linked enhanced fluxes of ≥0.5keV electrons with merging. Spectra of electrons responsible for some of the emissions, measured during a DMSP F15 overflight, exhibit "inverted-V" features, indicating further acceleration above the ionosphere. SuperDARN spectral width boundaries, characteristic of open-closed field line transitions, are located at the equatorward edge of the 557.7nm emissions. Optical data suggest that with IMF BY>0, the Northern Hemisphere cusp divides into three source regions. When the IMF clock angle was ~150° structured 557.7-nm emissions came from east of the 13:00 MLT meridian. At larger clock angles the emissions appeared between 12:00 and 13:00 MLT. No significant 557.7-nm emissions were detected in the prenoon MLT sector. MHD simulations corroborate our scenario, showing that with the observed large dipole-tilt and IMF clock angles, merging sites develop near the front and eastern portions of the high-altitude cusp rim in the Northern Hemisphere and near the western part of the cusp rim in the Southern Hemisphere.

  18. Highly efficient green light harvesting from Mg doped ZnO nanoparticles: Structural and optical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Sarla, E-mail: mail2sarlasharma@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302055 (India); Vyas, Rishi [Department of Physics, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India); Sharma, Neha [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302055 (India); Singh, Vidyadhar [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Graduate University, Okinawa 9040495 (Japan); Singh, Arvind [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Kataria, Vanjula; Gupta, Bipin Kumar [National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), New Delhi 110012 (India); Vijay, Y.K. [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302055 (India)

    2013-03-05

    Graphical abstract: Demonstration of highly efficient green light emission harvesting from Mg doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized via facile wet chemical route with an average particle size ∼15 nm. The resulted nanoparticles exhibit intense green emission peaking at 530 nm upon 325 nm excitation. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of visible emission depends upon the doping concentration of Mg. The PL intensity was found maximum up to 4% doping of Mg and beyond it exhibits a decrees in emission. The obtained highly luminescent green emission of ZnO nanoparticle would be an ultimate choice for next generation optoelectronics device materials. Highlights: ► Zn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}O nanoparticles were prepared by mechanochemical processing. ► High blue emission intensity was observed contrary to previous reports. ► Blue emission is suggested to be originating from the high density of defects. ► Defect density in as-milled condition is very high resulting in high emission. ► Mg promoted non-radiative recombination and lowered intensities. -- Abstract: Highly efficient green light emission was observed from Mg doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized via facile wet chemical route with an average particle size ∼15 nm. The XRD analysis confirmed the growth of wurtzite phase of ZnO nanoparticles. Moreover, the optical properties of these nanoparticles were investigated by different spectroscopic techniques. The resulted nanoparticles exhibit intense green emission peaking at 530 nm (2.34 eV) upon 325 nm (3.81 eV) excitation. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of visible emission depends upon the doping concentration of Mg. The PL intensity was found maximum up to 4% doping of Mg, and beyond it exhibits a decrees in emission. Furthermore, by varying the band gap from 3.50 to 3.61 eV, the PL spectra showed a near band edge (NBE) emission at wavelength around 370 nm (3.35 eV) and a broad deep level emission in the visible region. The obtained highly

  19. Luminescence property and emission enhancement of YbAlO3:Mn4+ red phosphor by Mg2+ or Li+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Renping; Luo, Wenjie; Xu, Haidong; Luo, Zhiyang; Hu, Qianglin; Fu, Ting; Peng, Dedong

    2016-03-01

    YbAlO3:Mn4+, YbAlO3:Mn4+, Li+, and YbAlO3:Mn4+, Mg2+ phosphors are synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction method in air. Their crystal structures and luminescence properties are investigated. Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectrum monitored at 677 nm contains broad PLE band with three PLE peaks located at ∼318, 395, and 470 nm within the range 220-600 nm. Emission spectra with excitation 318 and 470 nm exhibit three emission band peaks located at ∼645, 677, and 700 nm in the range of 610-800 nm and their corresponding chromaticity coordinates are about (x = 0.6942, y = 0.3057). The possible luminous mechanism of Mn4+ ion is analyzed by the simple energy level diagram of Mn4+ ion. The optimum Mn4+-doped concentration in YbAlO3:Mn4+ phosphor is about 0.4 mol% and the luminescence lifetime of YbAlO3:0.4%Mn4+ phosphor is ∼0.59 ms. Emission intensity of YbAlO3:0.4%Mn4+ phosphor can be enhanced ∼6 times after Mg2+ ion is co-doped and it is ∼2 times when Li+ ion is co-doped. The content in the paper is useful to research new Mn4+-doped luminescence materials and improve luminescence property of other Mn4+-doped phosphors.

  20. Photorefractive effect at 775 nm in doped lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, G.; Minzioni, P.; Cristiani, I.; Degiorgio, V. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Biomedical Engineering, and CNISM, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Argiolas, N.; Bazzan, M.; Ciampolillo, M. V.; Pozza, G.; Sada, C. [Physics and Astronomy Departement, University of Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    The photorefractive effect induced by 775-nm laser light on doped lithium niobate crystals is investigated by the direct observation in the far field of the transmitted-beam distortion as a function of time. Measurements performed at various Zr-doping concentrations and different light intensities show that the 775-nm light beam induces a steady-state photorefractive effect comparable to that of 532-nm light, but the observed build-up time of the photovoltaic field is longer by three-orders of magnitude. The 775-nm photorefractivity of lithium niobate crystals doped with 3 mol. % ZrO{sub 2} or with 5.5 mol. % MgO is found to be negligible.

  1. Intra-cavity upconversion to 631 nm of images illuminated by an eye-safe ASE source at 1550 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, A J; Maestre, H; Capmany, J

    2015-11-15

    We report an image wavelength upconversion system. The system mixes an incoming image at around 1550 nm (eye-safe region) illuminated by an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) fiber source with a Gaussian beam at 1064 nm generated in a continuous-wave diode-pumped Nd(3+):GdVO(4) laser. Mixing takes place in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal placed intra-cavity. The upconverted image obtained by sum-frequency mixing falls around the 631 nm red spectral region, well within the spectral response of standard silicon focal plane array bi-dimensional sensors, commonly used in charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) video cameras, and of most image intensifiers. The use of ASE illumination benefits from a noticeable increase in the field of view (FOV) that can be upconverted with regard to using coherent laser illumination. The upconverted power allows us to capture real-time video in a standard nonintensified CCD camera.

  2. Fragmentation of dimethyl ether in femtosecond intense field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingyi; Guo, Wei; Wang, Yanqiu; Wang, Li

    2006-08-01

    The fragmentation of dimethyl ether (DME) in intense femtosecond laser field has been studied at 810, 405 and 270 nm with intensities up to 2.48 × 10 15, 3.86 × 10 15 and 1.62 × 10 14 W/cm 2, respectively. At 405 nm, DME is possibly firstly ionized by multiphoton absorption, and then parent ion DME + dissociates into fragments via filed-induced dissociation. For 810 and 270 nm laser fields, DME firstly dissociates into CH 3O and CH 3 fragments and then these neutral fragments are ionized by field tunneling. Another possible way for DME to dissociate at 810 and 270 nm is that DME is ionized by intense field ejection of inner valance electron and then the excited DME + dissociates into fragment ions. Ultrafast rearrangement of DME or DME + in intense field may be responsible to the unpredictable fragment ions, CHO+/C2H5+andH2+.

  3. [Resolving characteristic of CDOM by excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy combined with parallel factor analysis in the seawater of outer Yangtze Estuary in Autumn in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Hong; Chen, Xue-Jun; Su, Rong-Guo; Han, Xiu-Rong; Zhang, Chuan-Song; Shi, Xiao-Yong

    2013-01-01

    The distribution and estuarine behavior of fluorescent components of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the seawater of outer Yangtze Estuary were determined by fluorescence excitation emission matrix spectra combined with parallel factor analysis. Six individual fluorescent components were identified by PARAFAC models, including three terrestrial humic-like components C1 [330 nm/390(430) nm], C2 (390 nm/480 nm), C3 (360 nm/440 nm), marine biological production component C5 (300 nm/400 nm) and protein-like components C4 (290 nm/350 nm) and C6 (275 nm/300 nm). The results indicated that C1, C2, and C3 showed a conservative mixing behavior in the whole estuarine region, especially in high-salinity region. And the fluorescence intensity proportion of C1 and C3 decreased with increase of salinity and fluorescence intensity proportion of C2 kept constant with increase of salinity in the whole estuarine region. While C4 showed conservative mixing behavior in low-salinity region and non-conservative mixing behavior in high-salinity region, and fluorescence intensity proportion of C4 increased with increase of salinity. However, C5 and C6 showed a non-conservative mixing behavior and fluorescence intensity proportion increased with increase of salinity in high-salinity region. Significantly spatial difference was recorded for CDOM absorption coefficient in the coastal region and in the open water areas with the highest value in coastal region and the lowest value in the open water areas. The scope of absorption coefficient and absorption slope was higher in coastal region than that in the open water areas. Significantly positive correlations were found between CDOM absorption coefficient and the fluorescence intensities of C1, C2, C3, and C4, but no significant correlation was found between C5 and C6, suggesting that the river inputs contributed to the coastal areas, while CDOM in the open water areas was affected by terrestrial inputs and phytoplankton degradation.

  4. Generation of 25-TW Femtosecond Laser Pulses at 515 nm with Extremely High Temporal Contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Hornung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the frequency doubling of femtosecond laser pulses at 1030 nm center wavelength generated from the fully diode-pumped laser system POLARIS. The newly generated pulses at a center wavelength of 515 nm have a pulse energy of 3 J with a pulse duration of 120 fs. On the basis of initially ultra-high contrast seed pulses we expect a temporal intensity contrast better 10 17 200 ps before the peak of the main pulse. We analyzed the temporal intensity contrast from milliseconds to femtoseconds with a dynamic range covering more than 20 orders of magnitude. The pulses were focussed with a f/2-focussing parabola resulting in a peak intensity exceeding 10 20 W / cm 2 . The peak power and intensity are to the best of our knowledge the highest values for 515 nm-laser-pulses achieved so far.

  5. Enhancement of field emission and photoluminescence properties of graphene-SnO2 composite nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jijun; Yan, Xingbin; Li, Jun; Shen, Baoshou; Yang, Juan; Chen, Jiangtao; Xue, Qunji

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the SnO(2) nanostructures and graphene-SnO(2) (G-SnO(2)) composite nanostructures were prepared on n-Si (100) substrates by electrophoretic deposition and magnetron sputtering techniques. The field emission of SnO(2) nanostructures is improved largely by depositing graphene buffer layer, and the field emission of G-SnO(2) composite nanostructures can also further be improved by decreasing sputtering time of Sn nanoparticles to 5 min. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the SnO(2) nanostructures revealed multipeaks, which are consistent with previous reports except for a new peak at 422 nm. Intensity of six emission peaks increased after depositing graphene buffer layer. Our results indicated that graphene can also be used as buffer layer acting as interface modification to simultaneity improve the field emission and PL properties of SnO(2) nanostructures effectively.

  6. Ultra-violet emission in Ho:ZBLAN fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalska, M.; Klocek, G.; Piramidowicz, R.; Malinowski, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the short wavelength (green, blue, and ultra-violet (UV)) emission in trivalent holmium doped fluoro-zirconate fiber (Ho 3+ :ZBLAN) under direct and upconversion pumping. Efficient red to UV upconversion has been observed using 647 nm cw pumping by krypton ion laser. A close to cubic UV signal intensity dependence on incident red pump power was determined, confirming the three-photon character of the observed process. The responsible upconversion mechanisms were investigated and shown to be excited state absorption (ESA) via low-lying 5 I 7 and 5 I 6 sates. Dynamics of the involved excited states have been studied under pulsed laser excitation

  7. Energy transfer characteristics of silicate glass doped with Er{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+}, and Ho{sup 3+} for ∼2 μm emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ming; Liu, Xueqiang [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Guo, Yanyan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Hu, Lili [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhang, Junjie [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310 018 (China)

    2013-12-28

    A Er{sup 3+}/Tm{sup 3+}/Ho{sup 3+} tri-doped silicate glass with good thermal stability is prepared by melt-quenching method. Efficient ∼2 μm emission is observed under 808 nm laser excitation. It is found that the 2.0 μm emission of Ho{sup 3+} can be enhanced under the excitation at 808 nm by incorporating Er{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}. Based on the measurement of absorption spectra, the Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters, radiation emission probability, and branching ratio are calculated to evaluate the spectroscopic properties simultaneously. The maximum value of emission cross section of Ho{sup 3+} is 3.54 × 10{sup −21} cm{sup 2} at 2008 nm. Additionally, the phonon assistance and the micro-parameters in the energy transfer process are quantitatively analyzed by using Dexter model. The energy transfer coefficient from Tm{sup 3+} to Ho{sup 3+} can reach as high as 21.44 × 10{sup −40} cm{sup 6}/s, respectively. The emission property together with good thermal property indicates that Er{sup 3+}/Tm{sup 3+}/Ho{sup 3+} tri-doped silicate glass is a potential kind of laser glass for efficient 2 μm laser.

  8. Blue and white light emission from zinc oxide nanoforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafisa Noor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blue and white light emission is observed when high voltage stress is applied using micrometer-separated tungsten probes across a nanoforest formed of ZnO nanorods. The optical spectrum of the emitted light consistently shows three fine peaks with very high amplitude in the 465–485 nm (blue range, corresponding to atomic transitions of zinc. Additional peaks with smaller amplitudes in the 330–650 nm range and broad spectrum white light is observed depending on the excitation conditions. The spatial and spectral distribution of the emitted light, with pink–orange regions identifying percolation paths in some cases and high intensity blue and white light with center to edge variations in others, indicate that multiple mechanisms lead to light emission. Under certain conditions, the tungsten probe tips used to make electrical contact with the ZnO structures melt during the excitation, indicating that the local temperature can exceed 3422 °C, which is the melting temperature of tungsten. The distinct and narrow peaks in the optical spectra and the abrupt increase in current at high electric fields suggest that a plasma is formed by application of the electrical bias, giving rise to light emission via atomic transitions in gaseous zinc and oxygen. The broad spectrum, white light emission is possibly due to the free electron transitions in the plasma and blackbody radiation from molten silicon. The white light may also arise from the recombination through multiple defect levels in ZnO or due to the optical excitation from solid ZnO. The electrical measurements performed at different ambient pressures result in light emission with distinguishable differences in the emission properties and I–V curves, which also indicate that the dielectric breakdown of ZnO, sublimation, and plasma formation processes are the underlying mechanisms.

  9. Branchlike nano-electrodes for enhanced terahertz emission in photomixers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qing Yang Steve; Tanoto, Hendrix; Ding, Lu; Choy Chum, Chan; Bian Chew, Ah; Teng, Jinghua; Wang, Bing; Banas, Agnieszka; Banas, Krzysztof; Jin Chua, Soo

    2015-01-01

    Branchlike nano-electrode structures were found to improve the THz emission intensity of a photomixer by approximately one order of magnitude higher than that of a photomixer with one row of nano-electrodes separated by the same 100 nm gap. The enhancement is attributed to a more efficient collection of generated carriers, which is in turn due to a more intense electric field under the branchlike nano-electrodes’ structures. This is coupled with an increased number of effective areas where strong tip-to-tip THz field enhancements were observed. The optical-to-THz conversion efficiency of the photomixers with the new branchlike nano-electrodes was found to be 10 times higher. The more efficient THz photomixer will greatly benefit the development of continuous-wave THz imaging and spectroscopy systems. (paper)

  10. Diode-pumped cw Nd:YAG three-level laser at 869 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yanfei; Xia, Jing; Cheng, Weibo; Chen, Jifeng; Ning, Guobin; Liang, Zuoliang

    2010-11-01

    We report for the first time (to our knowledge) a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser emitting at 869 nm based on the (4)F(3/2)-(4)I(9/2) transition, generally used for a 946 nm emission. Power of 453 mW at 869 nm has been achieved in cw operation with a fiber-coupled laser diode emitting 35.4 W at 809 nm. Intracavity second-harmonic generation in the cw mode has also been demonstrated with power of 118 mW at 435 nm by using a BiB(3)O(6) nonlinear crystal. In our experiment, we used a LiNbO(3) crystal lens to complement the thermal lens of the laser rod, and we obtained good beam quality and high output power stability.

  11. Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Ian N.; Belley, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.; Therien, Michael J.

    2014-04-01

    Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2-xO3 Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40-220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2-xO3 Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 +/- 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 μm sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605-617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radiotransparent device recorded

  12. On-line depth measurement for laser-drilled holes based on the intensity of plasma emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chao-Ching; Chiu, Chih-Mu; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Hsu, Jin-Chen; Kuo, Chia-Lung

    2014-09-01

    The direct time-resolved depth measurement of blind holes is extremely difficult due to the short time interval and the limited space inside the hole. This work presents a method that involves on-line plasma emission acquisition and analysis to obtain correlations between the machining processes and the optical signal output. Given that the depths of laser-machined holes can be estimated on-line using a coaxial photodiode, this was employed in our inspection system. Our experiments were conducted in air under normal atmospheric conditions without gas assist. The intensity of radiation emitted from the vaporized material was found to correlate with the depth of the hole. The results indicate that the estimated depths of the laser-drilled holes were inversely proportional to the maximum plasma light emission measured for a given laser pulse number.

  13. Qualitative tissue differentiation by analysing the intensity ratios of atomic emission lines using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS): prospects for a feedback mechanism for surgical laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanawade, Rajesh; Mahari, Fanuel; Klämpfl, Florian; Rohde, Maximilian; Knipfer, Christian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Schmidt, Michael; Stelzle, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The research work presented in this paper focuses on qualitative tissue differentiation by monitoring the intensity ratios of atomic emissions using 'Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy' (LIBS) on the plasma plume created during laser tissue ablation. The background of this study is to establish a real time feedback control mechanism for clinical laser surgery systems during the laser ablation process. Ex-vivo domestic pig tissue samples (muscle, fat, nerve and skin) were used in this experiment. Atomic emission intensity ratios were analyzed to find a characteristic spectral line for each tissue. The results showed characteristic elemental emission intensity ratios for the respective tissues. The spectral lines and intensity ratios of these specific elements varied among the different tissue types. The main goal of this study is to qualitatively and precisely identify different tissue types for tissue specific laser surgery. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Biophotonics published by WILEY-VCH Verlag.

  14. Plasmon mediated enhancement and tuning of optical emission properties of two dimensional graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayan, Sayan; Gogurla, Narendar; Midya, Anupam; Singha, Achintya; Ray, Samit K

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate surface plasmon induced enhancement and tunablilty in optical emission properties of two dimensional graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) nanosheets through the attachment of gold (Au) nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy has revealed surface enhanced Raman scattering that arises due to the combined effect of the charge transfer process and localized surface plasmon induced enhancement in electromagnetic field, both occurring at the nanoparticle-nanosheet interface. Photoluminescence studies suggest that at an optimal concentration of nanoparticles, the emission intensity can be enhanced, which is maximum within the 500-525 nm region. Further, the fabricated electroluminescent devices reveal that the emission feature can be tuned from bluish-green to red (∼160 nm shift) upon attaching Au nanoparticles. We propose that the π*→π transition in g-C 3 N 4 can trigger surface plasmon oscillation in Au, which subsequently increases the excitation process in the nanosheets and results in enhanced emission in the green region of the photoluminescence spectrum. On the other hand, electroluminescence of g-C 3 N 4 can induce plasmon oscillation more efficiently and thus can lead to red emission from Au nanoparticles through the radiative damping of particle plasmons. The influence of nanoparticle size and coverage on the emission properties of two dimensional g-C 3 N 4 , nanosheets has also been studied in detail.

  15. Multiparameter-dependent spontaneous emission in PbSe quantum dot-doped liquid-core multi-mode fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Hua; Zhang, Tieqiang; Gu, Pengfei; Chu, Hairong; Cui, Tian; Wang, Yiding; Zhang, Hanzhuang; Zhao, Jun; Yu, William W.

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical model was established in this paper to analyze the properties of 3.50 and 4.39 nm PbSe quantum dot-doped liquid-core multi-mode fiber. This model was applicable to both single- and multi-mode fiber. The three-level system-based light-propagation equations and rate equations were used to calculate the guided spontaneous emission spectra. Considering the multi-mode in the fiber, the normalized intensity distribution of transversal model was improved and simplified. The detailed calculating results were thus obtained and explained using the above-mentioned model. The redshift of the peak position and the evolution of the emission power were observed and analyzed considering the influence of the fiber length, fiber diameter, doping concentration, and the pump power. The redshift increased with the increases of fiber length, fiber diameter, and doping concentration. The optimal fiber length, fiber diameter, and doping concentration were analyzed and confirmed, and the related spontaneous emission power was obtained. Besides, the normalized emission intensity increased with the increase of pump power in a nearly linear way. The calculating results fitted well to the experimental data

  16. Combustion synthesis of red emitting borate host PDP phosphor YCaBO4: Eu3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingle, J.T.; Hargunani, S.P.; Sonekar, R.P.; Nagpure, P.A.; Omanwar, S.K.; Moharil, S.V.

    2012-01-01

    The red emitting borate host phosphor YCaBO 4 : Eu 3+ has been prepared by a novel solution combustion technique. The synthesis is based on the exothermic reaction between the fuel (Urea) and Oxidizer (Ammonium nitrate). The photoluminescence properties of the powder samples of YCaBO 4 : Eu 3+ has been investigated under UV and VUV excitation. The phosphor shows strong absorption in UV and VUV region and exhibits intense red emission upon excited by 254 nm UV and 173 nm VUV radiation. Under UV 254 nm excitation, YCaBO 4 : Eu 3+ exhibits intense red emission around 610 nm. Under VUV excitation of 173 nm, the phosphor emits intense red emission around 610 nm and few weak emissions. These weak emissions could be suppressed by annealing the sample repeatedly at proper temperature and the borate phosphor YCaBO 4 : Eu 3+ could be a good red emitting phosphor for PDP display and mercury free lamps. (author)

  17. Raman Spectra and Bulk Modulus of Nanodiamond in a Size Interval of 2-5 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Mikhail; Churkin, Valentin; Kirichenko, Alexey; Denisov, Viktor; Ovsyannikov, Danila; Kulnitskiy, Boris; Perezhogin, Igor; Aksenenkov, Viktor; Blank, Vladimir

    2017-10-10

    Nanodiamond in a 2-5-nm size interval (which is typical for an appearance of quantum confinement effect) show Raman spectra composed of 3 bands at 1325, 1600, and 1500 cm -1 (at the 458-nm laser excitation) which shifts to 1630 cm -1 at the 257-nm laser excitation. Contrary to sp 2 -bonded carbon, relative intensities of the bands do not depend on the 458- and 257-nm excitation wavelengths, and a halfwidth and the intensity of the 1600 cm -1 band does not change visibly under pressure at least up to 50 GPa. Bulk modulus of the 2-5-nm nanodiamond determined from the high-pressure study is around 560 GPa. Studied 2-5-nm nanodiamond was purified from contamination layers and dispersed in Si or NaCl.

  18. Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography-Guided Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Limited-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirvani, Shervin M.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Heymach, John V.; Fossella, Frank V.; Chang, Joe Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Omitting elective nodal irradiation from planning target volumes does not compromise outcomes in patients with non–small-cell lung cancer, but whether the same is true for those with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) is unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we sought to determine the clinical outcomes and the frequency of elective nodal failure in patients with LS-SCLC staged using positron emission tomography/computed tomography and treated with involved-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 2005 and 2008, 60 patients with LS-SCLC at our institution underwent disease staging using positron emission tomography/computed tomography before treatment using an intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan in which elective nodal irradiation was intentionally omitted from the planning target volume (mode and median dose, 45 Gy in 30 fractions; range, 40.5 Gy in 27 fractions to 63.8 Gy in 35 fractions). In most cases, concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy was administered. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes to determine the overall survival, relapse-free survival, and failure patterns. Elective nodal failure was defined as recurrence in initially uninvolved hilar, mediastinal, or supraclavicular nodes. Survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median age of the study patients at diagnosis was 63 years (range, 39–86). The median follow-up duration was 21 months (range, 4–58) in all patients and 26 months (range, 4–58) in the survivors. The 2-year actuarial overall survival and relapse-free survival rate were 58% and 43%, respectively. Of the 30 patients with recurrence, 23 had metastatic disease and 7 had locoregional failure. We observed only one isolated elective nodal failure. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the outcomes in patients with LS-SCLC staged with positron emission tomography/computed tomography and treated with definitive

  19. Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography-Guided Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Limited-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvani, Shervin M.; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Heymach, John V.; Fossella, Frank V. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Chang, Joe Y., E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Omitting elective nodal irradiation from planning target volumes does not compromise outcomes in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, but whether the same is true for those with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) is unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we sought to determine the clinical outcomes and the frequency of elective nodal failure in patients with LS-SCLC staged using positron emission tomography/computed tomography and treated with involved-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 2005 and 2008, 60 patients with LS-SCLC at our institution underwent disease staging using positron emission tomography/computed tomography before treatment using an intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan in which elective nodal irradiation was intentionally omitted from the planning target volume (mode and median dose, 45 Gy in 30 fractions; range, 40.5 Gy in 27 fractions to 63.8 Gy in 35 fractions). In most cases, concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy was administered. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes to determine the overall survival, relapse-free survival, and failure patterns. Elective nodal failure was defined as recurrence in initially uninvolved hilar, mediastinal, or supraclavicular nodes. Survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median age of the study patients at diagnosis was 63 years (range, 39-86). The median follow-up duration was 21 months (range, 4-58) in all patients and 26 months (range, 4-58) in the survivors. The 2-year actuarial overall survival and relapse-free survival rate were 58% and 43%, respectively. Of the 30 patients with recurrence, 23 had metastatic disease and 7 had locoregional failure. We observed only one isolated elective nodal failure. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the outcomes in patients with LS-SCLC staged with positron emission tomography/computed tomography and treated with definitive intensity

  20. 20 W continuous-wave cladding-pumped Nd-doped fiber laser at 910 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, M; Cadier, B; Gilles, H; Girard, S; Lablonde, L; Robin, T

    2013-08-15

    We demonstrate a double-clad fiber laser operating at 910 nm with a record power of 20 W. Laser emission on the three-level scheme is enabled by the combination of a small inner cladding-to-core diameter ratio and a high brightness pump source at 808 nm. A laser conversion efficiency as high as 44% was achieved in CW operating regime by using resonant fiber Bragg reflectors at 910 nm that prevent the lasing at the 1060 nm competing wavelength. Furthermore, in a master oscillator power-amplifier scheme, an amplified power of 14.8 W was achieved at 914 nm in the same fiber.

  1. Impact of light polarization on photoluminescence intensity and quantum efficiency in AlGaN and AlInGaN layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzel, C.; Knauer, A.; Weyers, M.

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed emission intensity, quantum efficiency, and emitted light polarization of c-plane AlGaN and AlInGaN layers (λ = 320-350 nm) by temperature dependent photoluminescence. Low indium content in AlInGaN structures causes a significant intensity increase by change of the polarization of the emitted light. Polarization changes from E ⊥ c to E ‖ c with increasing aluminum content. It switches back to E ⊥ c with the incorporation of indium. The polarization degree decreases with temperature. This temperature dependence can corrupt internal quantum efficiency determination by temperature dependent photoluminescence.

  2. The FIREBall-2 UV sample grating efficiency at 200-208nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiret, S.; Milliard, B.; Grange, R.; Lemaitre, G. R.; Caillat, A.; Belhadi, M.; Cotel, A.

    2014-07-01

    The FIREBall-2 (Faint Intergalactic Redshifted Emission Balloon-2) is a balloon-borne ultraviolet spectro-imaging mission optimized for the study of faint diffuse emission around galaxies. A key optical component of the new spectrograph design is the high throughput cost-effective holographic 2400 ℓ =mm, 110x130mm aspherized reflective grating used in the range 200 - 208nm, near 28°deviation angle. In order to anticipate the efficiency in flight conditions, we have developed a PCGrate model for the FIREBall grating calibrated on linearly polarized measurements at 12° deviation angle in the range 240-350nm of a 50x50mm replica of the same master selected for the flight grating. This model predicts an efficiency within [64:7; 64:9]+/-0:7% (S polarization) and [38:3; 45]+/-2:2% (P-polarization) for the baseline aluminum coated grating with an Al2O3 natural oxidation layer and within [63:5; 65] +/-1% (S-polarization) and [51:3; 54:8] +/-2:8% (P-polarization) for an aluminum plus a 70nm MgF2 coating, in the range 200 - 208nm and for a 28°deviation angle. The model also shows there is room for significant improvements at shorter wavelengths, of interest for future deep UV spectroscopic missions.

  3. Nucleotide excision repair pathway assessment in DNA exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, A.S.; Campos, V.M.A.; Magalhaes, L.A.G.; Paoli, F.

    2015-01-01

    Low-intensity lasers are used for prevention and management of oral mucositis induced by anticancer therapy, but the effectiveness of treatment depends on the genetic characteristics of affected cells. This study evaluated the survival and induction of filamentation of Escherichia coli cells deficient in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, and the action of T 4 endonuclease V on plasmid DNA exposed to low-intensity red and near-infrared laser light. Cultures of wild-type (strain AB1157) E. coli and strain AB1886 (deficient in uvrA protein) were exposed to red (660 nm) and infrared (808 nm) lasers at various fluences, powers and emission modes to study bacterial survival and filamentation. Also, plasmid DNA was exposed to laser light to study DNA lesions produced in vitro by T 4 endonuclease V. Low-intensity lasers: i) had no effect on survival of wild-type E. coli but decreased the survival of uvrA protein-deficient cells, ii) induced bacterial filamentation, iii) did not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids in agarose gels, and iv) did not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids incubated with T 4 endonuclease V. These results increase our understanding of the effects of laser light on cells with various genetic characteristics, such as xeroderma pigmentosum cells deficient in nucleotide excision pathway activity in patients with mucositis treated by low-intensity lasers. (author)

  4. Nucleotide excision repair pathway assessment in DNA exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, A.S.; Campos, V.M.A.; Magalhaes, L.A.G., E-mail: adnfonseca@ig.com.br [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria. Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; Paoli, F. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas. Departamento de Morfologia

    2015-10-15

    Low-intensity lasers are used for prevention and management of oral mucositis induced by anticancer therapy, but the effectiveness of treatment depends on the genetic characteristics of affected cells. This study evaluated the survival and induction of filamentation of Escherichia coli cells deficient in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, and the action of T{sub 4} endonuclease V on plasmid DNA exposed to low-intensity red and near-infrared laser light. Cultures of wild-type (strain AB1157) E. coli and strain AB1886 (deficient in uvrA protein) were exposed to red (660 nm) and infrared (808 nm) lasers at various fluences, powers and emission modes to study bacterial survival and filamentation. Also, plasmid DNA was exposed to laser light to study DNA lesions produced in vitro by T{sub 4} endonuclease V. Low-intensity lasers: i) had no effect on survival of wild-type E. coli but decreased the survival of uvrA protein-deficient cells, ii) induced bacterial filamentation, iii) did not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids in agarose gels, and iv) did not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids incubated with T{sub 4} endonuclease V. These results increase our understanding of the effects of laser light on cells with various genetic characteristics, such as xeroderma pigmentosum cells deficient in nucleotide excision pathway activity in patients with mucositis treated by low-intensity lasers. (author)

  5. Field emission from a single nanomechanical pillar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun S; Qin Hua; Westphall, Michael S; Smith, Lloyd M; Blick, Robert H

    2007-01-01

    We measured field emission from a silicon nanopillar mechanically oscillating between two electrodes. The pillar has a height of about 200 nm and a diameter of 50 nm, allowing resonant mechanical excitations at radio frequencies. The tunnelling barriers for field emission are mechanically modulated via displacement of the gold island on top of the pillar. We present a rich frequency-dependent response of the emission current in the frequency range of 300-400 MHz at room temperature. Modified Fowler-Nordheim field emission is observed and attributed to the mechanical oscillations of the nanopillar

  6. Efficient green and red up-conversion emissions in Er/Yb co-doped TiO{sub 2} nanopowders prepared by hydrothermal-assisted sol–gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salhi, Rached, E-mail: salhi_rached@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de chimie industrielle, Ecole Nationale d’ingénieurs de Sfax, Université de Sfax, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Deschanvres, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire des Matériaux et du Génie Physique, 3 Parvis Louis Néel, BP 257, 38016 Grenoble (France)

    2016-08-15

    In this work, erbium and ytterbium co-doped titanium dioxide (Er–Yb:TiO{sub 2}) nanopowders have been successfully prepared by hydrothermal-assisted sol–gel method using supercritical drying of ethyl alcohol and annealing at 500 °C for 1 h. Nanopowders were prepared with fixed 5 mol% Erbium concentration and various Ytterbium concentrations of 5 and 10 mol%. The powders were characterized by studying their structural, morphology and photo-luminescent properties. The annealing treatment at 500 °C was found to enhance the crystallinity of the TiO{sub 2} anatase structure and the upconversion (UC) emission of the nanopowders. UC emissions were investigated under 980 nm excitation, and the Er–Yb:TiO{sub 2} nanopowders exhibited the intense green (520–570 nm) and red (640–690 nm) upconverted emissions of Er ions originating from an efficient Yb–Er energy transfer process. The absolute upconversion quantum yield (UC-QY) of each nanopowders was measured for the UC emissions centered at 525, 550 and 655 nm at varying excitation power densities. UC-QY analysis has revealed that 5 mol% Er–5 mol% Yb:TiO{sub 2} nanopowders possess the highest total quantum yield of 2.8±0.1% with a power density of 16.7 W/cm{sup 2}. These results make these nanopowders promising materials for efficient upconversion in photonic applications.

  7. High-Power 1180-nm GaInNAs DBR Laser Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aho, Antti T.; Viheriala, Jukka; Korpijarvi, Ville-Markus

    2017-01-01

    We report high-power 1180-nm GaInNAs distributed Bragg reflector laser diodes with and without a tapered amplifying section. The untapered and tapered components reached room temperature output powers of 655 mW and 4.04 W, respectively. The diodes exhibited narrow linewidth emission with side...... and better carrier confinement compared with traditional GaInAs quantum wells. The development opens new opportunities for the power scaling of frequency-doubled lasers with emission at yellow-orange wavelengths....

  8. Electron bunchlength measurement from analysis of fluctuations in spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catravas, P.; Leemans, W.P.; Wurtele, J.S.; Zolotorev, M.S.; Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Segalov, Z.; Wang, X.; Yakimenko, V.

    1999-01-01

    A statistical analysis of fluctuations in the spontaneous emission of a single bunch of electrons is shown to provide a new bunchlength diagnostic. This concept, originally proposed by Zolotorev and Stupakov [1], is based on the fact that shot noise from a finite bunch has a correlation length defined by the bunchlength, and therefore has a spiky spectrum. Single shot spectra of wiggler spontaneous emission have been measured at 632 nm from 44 MeV single electron bunches of 1 - 5 ps. The scaling of the spectral fluctuations with frequency resolution and the scaling of the spectral intensity distribution with bunchlength are studied. Bunchlength was extracted in a single shot measurement. Agreement was obtained between the experiment and a theoretical model, and with independent time integrated measurements. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  9. European emissions trading and the international competitiveness of energy-intensive industries: a legal and political evaluation of possible supporting measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselt, H. van; Biermann, F.

    2007-01-01

    The EU Emissions Trading Directive is expected by European energy-intensive industries to harm their competitiveness vis-a-vis non-European competitors. Many additional measures have thus been proposed to 'level the playing field' and to protect the competitiveness of European energy-intensive industries within the larger effort of reducing Europe's greenhouse gas emissions and of meeting its obligations under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. This article evaluates a range of proposed measures based on a set of political and legal criteria, including environmental effectiveness; the need to consider differentiated commitments, responsibilities and capabilities; conformity with world trade law and European Union law; and Europe's overall political interests. We discuss measures that could be adopted by the European Union and its member states, such as direct support for energy-intensive industries, restrictions of energy-intensive imports into the European Union through border cost adjustments, quotas or technical regulations, and cost reimbursement for affected developing countries. We also analyse measures available to multilateral institutions such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol and the World Trade Organisation. We conclude with a classification of the discussed measures with red (unfeasible), yellow (potentially feasible) or green (feasible) labels. (author)

  10. European emissions trading and the international competitiveness of energy-intensive industries: a legal and political evaluation of possible supporting measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselt, Harro van; Biermann, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The EU Emissions Trading Directive is expected by European energy-intensive industries to harm their competitiveness vis-a-vis non-European competitors. Many additional measures have thus been proposed to 'level the playing field' and to protect the competitiveness of European energy-intensive industries within the larger effort of reducing Europe's greenhouse gas emissions and of meeting its obligations under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. This article evaluates a range of proposed measures based on a set of political and legal criteria, including environmental effectiveness; the need to consider differentiated commitments, responsibilities and capabilities; conformity with world trade law and European Union law; and Europe's overall political interests. We discuss measures that could be adopted by the European Union and its member states, such as direct support for energy-intensive industries, restrictions of energy-intensive imports into the European Union through border cost adjustments, quotas or technical regulations, and cost reimbursement for affected developing countries. We also analyse measures available to multilateral institutions such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol and the World Trade Organisation. We conclude with a classification of the discussed measures with red (unfeasible), yellow (potentially feasible) or green (feasible) labels

  11. Spectral emissivity measurements of liquid refractory metals by spectrometers combined with an electrostatic levitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei T; Paradis, Paul-François; Ito, Yusuke; Masaki, Tadahiko; Watanabe, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    A spectral emissivity measurement system combined with an electrostatic levitator was developed for high-temperature melts. The radiation intensity from a high-temperature sample was measured with a multichannel photospectrometer (MCPD) over the 700–1000 nm spectral range, while a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) measured the radiation over the 1.1–6 µm interval. These spectrometers were calibrated with a blackbody radiation furnace, and the spectral hemispherical emissivity was calculated. The system's capability was evaluated with molten zirconium samples. The spectral hemispherical emissivity of molten zirconium showed a negative wavelength dependence and an almost constant variation over the 1850–2210 K temperature range. The total hemispherical emissivity of zirconium calculated by integrating the spectral hemispherical emissivity was found to be around 0.32, which showed good agreement with the literature values. The constant pressure heat capacity of molten zirconium at melting temperature was calculated to be 40.9 J mol −1 K −1 . (paper)

  12. From photoluminescence emissions to plasmonic properties in platinum nanoparticles embedded in silica by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornacelli, J., E-mail: jhbornacelli@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Silva-Pereyra, H.G. [IPICyT, Division de Materiales Avanzados, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. 78216 (Mexico); Rodríguez-Fernández, L. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Avalos-Borja, M. [IPICyT, Division de Materiales Avanzados, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. 78216 (Mexico); Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia – Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. Postal 2681, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Oliver, A. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2016-11-15

    We have studied photoluminescence emission and optical absorption from platinum nanoparticles (Pt-nps) embedded in a silica matrix obtained by ion implantation. The Pt ions were implanted at 2 MeV and the nanoclusters were nucleated after thermal treatment at 600, 800, and 1100 °C under two different atmospheres: argon gas and a reducing atmosphere compound of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. The luminescent spectrum is broader (400–600 nm) and is peaked at 530 nm, but its intensity decreases as the annealing temperature increases. However, at high annealing temperatures, a Mie resonance at 220 nm emerges in the absorption spectrum. We then observed a transition between two optical properties in a system of Pt-nps embedded in silica: from molecule-like properties such as photoluminescence emission to localized surface plasmon absorption. - Highlights: • Photoluminescence (PL) from ion-implanted Pt-nps in silica have been demonstrated. • PL properties depend on the temperature and atmosphere used to form Pt-nps in silica. • PL is quenched for samples with larger Pt-nps, however a Mie resonance appear. • Transition from molecule-like to bulk-like properties of Pt-nps in silica is reveled.

  13. Europium- and lithium-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals that provide a linear emissive response with X-ray radiation exposure†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Ian N.; Belley, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Giao; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Yifan; Kirsch, David G.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.

    2015-01-01

    Eu- and Li-doped yttrium oxide nanocrystals [Y2−xO3; Eux, Liy], in which Eu and Li dopant ion concentrations were systematically varied, were developed and characterized (TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopic, UV-excited lifetime, and ICP-AES data) in order to define the most emissive compositions under specific X-ray excitation conditions. These optimized [Y2−xO3; Eux, Liy] compositions display scintillation responses that: (i) correlate linearly with incident radiation exposure at X-ray energies spanning from 40–220 kVp, and (ii) manifest no evidence of scintillation intensity saturation at the highest evaluated radiation exposures [up to 4 Roentgen per second]. For the most emissive nanoscale scintillator composition, [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16], excitation energies of 40, 120, and 220 kVp were chosen to probe the dependence of the integrated emission intensity upon X-ray exposure-rate in energy regimes having different mass-attenuation coefficients and where either the photoelectric or the Compton effect governs the scintillation mechanism. These experiments demonstrate for the first time for that for comparable radiation exposures, when the scintillation mechanism is governed by the photoelectric effect and a comparably larger mass-attenuation coefficient (120 kVp excitation), greater integrated emission intensities are recorded relative to excitation energies where the Compton effect regulates scintillation (220 kVp) in nanoscale [Y2−xO3; Eux] crystals. Nanoscale [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16] (70 ± 20 nm) was further exploited as a detector material in a prototype fiber-optic radiation sensor. The scintillation intensity from the [Y1.9O3; Eu0.1, Li0.16]-modified, 400 μm sized optical fiber tip, recorded using a CCD-photodetector and integrated over the 605–617 nm wavelength domain, was correlated with radiation exposure using a Precision XRAD 225Cx small-animal image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. For both 80 and 225 kVp energies, this radio transparent

  14. Tunable high-power narrow-spectrum external-cavity diode laser based on tapered amplifier at 668 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Erbert, G.; Sumpf, B.

    2010-01-01

    A 668 nm tunable high-power narrow-spectrum diode laser system based on a tapered semiconductor optical amplifier in external cavity is demonstrated. The laser system is tunable from 659 to 675 nm. As high as 1.38 W output power is obtained at 668.35 nm. The emission spectral bandwidth is less than...

  15. Optical emission spectroscopy of carbon laser plasma ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balki, Oguzhan; Rahman, Md. Mahmudur; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2018-04-01

    Carbon laser plasma generated by an Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse width 7 ns, fluence 4-52 J cm-2) is studied by optical emission spectroscopy and ion time-of-flight. Up to C4+ ions are detected with the ion flux strongly dependent on the laser fluence. The increase in ion charge with the laser fluence is accompanied by observation of multicharged ion lines in the optical spectra. The time-integrated electron temperature Te is calculated from the Boltzmann plot using the C II lines at 392.0, 426.7, and 588.9 nm. Te is found to increase from ∼0.83 eV for a laser fluence of 22 J cm-2 to ∼0.90 eV for 40 J cm-2. The electron density ne is obtained from the Stark broadened profiles of the C II line at 392 nm and is found to increase from ∼ 2 . 1 × 1017cm-3 for 4 J cm-2 to ∼ 3 . 5 × 1017cm-3 for 40 J cm-2. Applying an external electric field parallel to the expanding plume shows no effect on the line emission intensities. Deconvolution of ion time-of-flight signal with a shifted Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for each charge state results in an ion temperature Ti ∼4.7 and ∼6.0 eV for 20 and 36 J cm-2, respectively.

  16. Multi-pulsed intense electron beam emission from velvet, carbon fibers, carbon nano-tubes and dispenser cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Liansheng; Yang Anmin; Chen Yi; Zhang Huang; Liu Xingguang; Li Jin; Jiang Xiaoguo; Zhang Kaizhi; Shi Jinshui; Deng Jianjun; Zhang Linwen

    2010-01-01

    The experimental results of studies of four kinds of cathode emitting intense electron beams are demonstrated under multi-pulsed mode based on an experimental setup including two multi-pulse high voltage sources. The tested cathodes include velvet, carbon fibers, carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) and dispenser cathodes. The results indicate that all four are able to emit multi-pulsed beams. For velvet, carbon fiber and CNTs, the electron induced cathode plasma emission may be the main process and this means that there are differences in beam parameters from pulse to pulse. For dispenser cathodes tested in the experiment, although there is a little difference from pulse to pulse for some reason, thermal-electric field emission may be the main process. (authors)

  17. The Influence of Climate, Soil and Pasture Type on Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Modeled Beef Cow-Calf Grazing Systems in Southern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Eckard

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A biophysical whole farm system model was used to simulate the interaction between the historical climate, soil and pasture type at sites in southern Australia and assess the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq. intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems. Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. Poorer feed quality and supply limited the annual carrying capacity of the kikuyu pasture compared to phalaris pastures, with an average long-term carrying capacity across sites estimated to be 0.6 to 0.9 cows/ha. A relative reduction in level of feed intake to productivity of calf live weight/ha at weaning by feeding supplementary feed reduced the average CO2-eq. emissions/kg calf live weight at weaning of cows on the kikuyu pasture (18.4 and 18.9 kg/kg with and without supplementation, respectively, whereas at the other sites studied an increase in intake level to productivity and emission intensity was seen (between 10.4 to 12.5 kg/kg without and with supplementary feed, respectively. Enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity, particularly at the lower rainfall sites. Emissions per unit product of low input systems can be minimized by efficient utilization of pasture to maximize the annual turnoff of weaned calves and diluting resource input per unit product.

  18. Secondary ion emission from ultra-thin oxide layers bombarded by energetic (MeV) heavy ions: depth of origin and layer homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allali, H.; Nsouli, B.; Thomas, J.P.; Cabaud, B.; Fuchs, G.; Hoareau, A.; Treilleux, M.; Danel, J.S.

    1993-09-01

    The escape depth of the secondary ions resulting from electronic sputtering of fast heavy ions in inorganic thin films has been investigated. Chromium layers deposited onto SiO 2 substrate as well as SiO x layers deposited onto chromium substrate have been characterized by secondary ion emission mass spectrometry (SIMS) in combination with time-of-flight (TOF) mass analysis (also referred as HSF-SIMS). These crossed experiments lead to a value around 1 nm for SiO x layers and 0.5 nm for Cr layers. On the other hand, HSF-SIMS can be used to correlate the intensity of the secondary ion emission to the film coverage rate and (or) the morphology of particular films like those produced by Low Energy Cluster Beam Deposition (LECBD). Using Sb deposits, the non-linear relationship between ion emission and coverage is interpreted in terms of sputtering enhancement in the individual supported clusters. (author) 22 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  19. Linkage between N2O emission and functional gene abundance in an intensively managed calcareous fluvo-aquic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liuqing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Ju, Xiaotang

    2017-02-01

    The linkage between N2O emissions and the abundance of nitrifier and denitrifier genes is unclear in the intensively managed calcareous fluvo-aquic soils of the North China Plain. We investigated the abundance of bacterial amoA for nitrification and narG, nirS, nirK, and nosZ for denitrification by in situ soil sampling to determine how the abundance of these genes changes instantly during N fertilization events and is related to high N2O emission peaks. We also investigated how long-term incorporated straw and/or manure affect(s) the abundance of these genes based on a seven-year field experiment. The overall results demonstrate that the long-term application of urea-based fertilizer and/or manure significantly enhanced the number of bacterial amoA gene copies leading to high N2O emission peaks after N fertilizer applications. These peaks contributed greatly to the annual N2O emissions in the crop rotation. A significant correlation between annual N2O emissions and narG, nirS, and nirK gene numbers indicates that the abundance of these genes is related to N2O emission under conditions for denitrification, thus partly contributing to the annual N2O emissions. These findings will help to draw up appropriate measures for mitigation of N2O emissions in this ‘hotspot’ region.

  20. VUV emission spectra from binary rare gas mixtures near the resonance lines of Xe I and Kr I

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A; Gerasimov, G; Arnesen, A; Hallin, R

    2003-01-01

    Emission spectra of Xe-X (X = He, Ne, Ar and Kr) and of Kr-Y (Y = He, Ne and Ar) mixtures with low concentrations of the heavier gases (0.1-1%) and moderate total pressures (50-200 hPa) have been recorded near each of the two resonance lines of Xe and Kr in DC glow capillary discharges. The recorded intense emissions have narrow spectral profiles with FWHM of about 0.1 nm. The profiles are very similar in shape to profiles of known high resolution absorption spectra recorded at comparable gas pressures. A tentative identification of the emission structures is given, which involves transitions in heteronuclear molecules and quasimolecules between weakly-bound states.

  1. Multicolor upconversion emission of dispersed ultrasmall cubic Sr2LuF7 nanocrystals synthesized by a solvothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Lunjun; Ma, Mo; Xu, Changfu; Li, Xujun; Wang, Suiping; Lin, Jianguo; Yang, Qibin

    2013-01-01

    Lanthanide (Ln 3+ ) doped Sr 2 LuF 7 (Ln 3+ =Er 3+ /Tm 3+ /Yb 3+ ) nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized via a solvothermal process using oleate as stabilizing agent. The as-synthesized NCs with a mean diameter of sub-20 nm can be well dispersed in cyclohexane and show a pure cubic phase structure with space group Fm3 ¯ m. Following appropriate lanthanide ion doping, the NCs show intense red, green, blue and white-color upconversion emission (UC) under the excitation of a 980 nm laser. Predominant near-infrared UC can also be obtained in the Yb 3+ /Tm 3+ doped Sr 2 LuF 7 NCs. The energy transfer UC mechanisms for the fluorescent intensity were also investigated. The desirable property of the ultrasmall dispersed NCs makes them promising materials for the applications in miniaturized solid-state light sources, multicolor three-dimensional display devices and fluorescent labels for biomedical imaging. - Highlights: ► Cubic-structure (Fm3 ¯ m) Sr 2 LuF 7 nanocrystals were synthesized for the first time. ► Nanocrystals (sub-20 nm) with cubic or spherical shape can be well dispersed. ► By doping properly, the nanocrystals show intense multicolor upconversion. ► Predominant near-infrared upconversion can be obtained in Sr 2 LuF 7 nanocrystals. ► Upconversion mechanism for the fluorescent intensity is mainly energy transfer.

  2. Emission and Dynamics of Charge Carriers in Uncoated and Organic/Metal Coated Semiconductor Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh Baghbadorani, Masoud

    In this dissertation, the dynamics of excitons in hybrid metal/organic/nanowire structures possessing nanometer thick deposited molecular and metal films on top of InP and GaAs nanowire (NW) surfaces were investigated. Optical characterizations were carried out as a function of the semiconductor NW material, design, NW size and the type and thickness of the organic material and metal used. Hybrid organic and plasmonic semiconductor nanowire heterostructures were fabricated using organic molecular beam deposition technique. I investigated the photon emission of excitons in 150 nm diameter polytype wurtzite/zincblende InP NWs and the influence of a few ten nanometer thick organic and metal films on the emission using intensity- and temperature-dependent time-integrated and time resolved (TR) photoluminescence (PL). The plasmonic NWs were coated with an Aluminum quinoline (Alq3) interlayer and magnesium-silver (Mg0.9:Ag0.1) top layer. In addition, the nonlinear optical technique of heterodyne four-wave mixing was used (in collaboration with Prof. Wolfgang Langbein, University of Cardiff) to study incoherent and coherent carrier relaxation processes on bare nanowires on a 100 femtosecond time-scale. Alq3 covered NWs reveal a stronger emission and a longer decay time of exciton transitions indicating surface state passivation at the Alq3/NW interface. Alq3/Mg:Ag NWs reveal a strong quenching of the exciton emission which is predominantly attributed to Forster energy-transfer from excitons to plasmon oscillations in the metal cluster film. Changing the Mg:Ag to gold and the organic Alq3 spacer layer to PTCDA leads to a similar behavior, but the PL quenching is strongly increased. The observed behavior is attributed to a more continuous gold deposition leading to an increased Forster energy transfer and to a metal induced band-bending. I also investigated ensembles of bare and gold/Alq3 coated GaAs-AlGaAs-GaAs core shell NWs of 130 nm diameter. Plasmonic NWs with Au

  3. Nanocrystalline silicon as the light emitting material of a field emission display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaggi-Labiosa, A; Sola, F; Resto, O; Fonseca, L F; Gonzalez-BerrIos, A; Jesus, J De; Morell, G

    2008-01-01

    A nanocrystalline Si-based paste was successfully tested as the light emitting material in a field emission display test device that employed a film of carbon nanofibers as the electron source. Stable emission in the 550-850 nm range was obtained at 16 V μm -1 . This relatively low field required for intense cathodoluminescence (CL) from the PSi paste may lead to longer term reliability of both the electron emitting and the light emitting materials, and to lower power consumption. Here we describe the synthesis, characterization, and analyses of the light emitting nanostructured Si paste and the electron emitting C nanofibers used for building the device, including x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The corresponding spectra and field emission curves are also shown and discussed

  4. Cooperative emission in ion implanted Yb:YAG waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, G V; Desirena, H; De la Rosa, E [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Flores-Romero, E; Rickards, J; Trejo-Luna, R [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20364, 01000 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Marquez, H, E-mail: gvvazquez@cio.mx [Departamento de Optica, CICESE, Km 107 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report the analysis of spectroscopic properties of waveguides fabricated by ion implantation in YAG doped with Yb{sup 3+} ions. Three emission bands were detected in the blue, green and red regions under 970-nm excitation. The strong blue-green emission can be explained by a cooperative process between ytterbium ion pairs, leading to emission centered at 514 nm. The additional blue bands as well as green and red emission bands are attributed to the presence of Tm{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+} traces. The results include absorption and emission curves as well as decay time rates.

  5. Cooperative emission in ion implanted Yb:YAG waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, G V; Desirena, H; De la Rosa, E; Flores-Romero, E; Rickards, J; Trejo-Luna, R; Marquez, H

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report the analysis of spectroscopic properties of waveguides fabricated by ion implantation in YAG doped with Yb 3+ ions. Three emission bands were detected in the blue, green and red regions under 970-nm excitation. The strong blue-green emission can be explained by a cooperative process between ytterbium ion pairs, leading to emission centered at 514 nm. The additional blue bands as well as green and red emission bands are attributed to the presence of Tm 3+ and Er 3+ traces. The results include absorption and emission curves as well as decay time rates.

  6. Heterogeneous nucleation for synthesis of sub-20nm ZnO nanopods and their application to optical humidity sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majithia, R; Ritter, S; Meissner, K E

    2014-02-17

    We present a novel method for colloidal synthesis of one-dimensional ZnO nanopods by heterogeneous nucleation on zero-dimensional ZnO nanoparticle 'seeds'. Ultra-small ZnO nanopods, multi-legged structures with sub-20 nm individual leg diameters, can be synthesized by hydrolysis of a Zn2+ precursor growth solution in presence of ∼4 nm ZnO seeds under hydrothermal conditions via microwave-assisted heating in as little as 20 min of reaction time. One-dimensional ZnO nanorods are initially generated in the reaction mixture by heterogeneous nucleation and growth along the [0001] direction of the ZnO crystal. Growth of one-dimensional nanorods subsequently yields to an 'attachment' and size-focusing phase where individual nanorods fuse together to form multi-legged nanopods having diameters ∼15 nm. ZnO nanopods exhibit broad orange-red defect-related photoluminescence in addition to a near-band edge emission at 373 nm when excited above the band-gap at 350 nm. The defect-related photoluminescence of the ZnO nanopods has been applied towards reversible optical humidity sensing at room temperature. The sensors demonstrated a linear response between 22% and 70% relative humidity with a 0.4% increase in optical intensity per % change in relative humidity. Due to their ultra-small dimensions, ZnO nanopods exhibit a large dynamic range and enhanced sensitivity to changes in ambient humidity, thus showcasing their ability as a platform for optical environmental sensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spectral narrowing of a 980 nm tapered diode laser bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Lucas Leclin, Ga"lle; Petersen, Paul Michael; Thestrup, Birgitte

    2011-03-01

    High power diode laser bars are interesting in many applications such as solid state laser pumping, material processing, laser trapping, laser cooling and second harmonic generation. Often, the free running laser bars emit a broad spectrum of the order of several nanometres which limit their scope in wavelength specific applications and hence, it is vital to stabilize the emission spectrum of these devices. In our experiment, we describe the wavelength narrowing of a 12 element 980 nm tapered diode laser bar using a simple Littman configuration. The tapered laser bar which suffered from a big smile has been "smile corrected" using individual phase masks for each emitter. The external cavity consists of the laser bar, both fast and slow axis micro collimators, smile correcting phase mask, 6.5x beam expanding lens combination, a 1200 lines/mm reflecting grating with 85% efficiency in the first order, a slow axis focusing cylindrical lens of 40 mm focal length and an output coupler which is 10% reflective. In the free running mode, the laser emission spectrum was 5.5 nm wide at an operating current of 30A. The output power was measured to be in excess of 12W. Under the external cavity operation, the wavelength spread of the laser could be limited to 0.04 nm with an output power in excess of 8 W at an operating current of 30A. The spectrum was found to be tuneable in a range of 16 nm.

  8. High-speed 405-nm superluminescent diode (SLD) with 807-MHz modulation bandwidth

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2016-08-25

    III-nitride LEDs are fundamental components for visible-light communication (VLC). However, the modulation bandwidth is inherently limited by the relatively long carrier lifetime. In this letter, we present the 405 nm emitting superluminescent diode (SLD) with tilted facet design on semipolar GaN substrate, showing a broad emission of ∼9 nm at 20 mW optical power. Owing to the fast recombination (τ<0.35 ns) through the amplified spontaneous emission, the SLD exhibits a significantly large 3-dB bandwidth of 807 MHz. A data rate of 1.3 Gbps with a bit-error rate of 2.9 × 10 was obtained using on-off keying modulation scheme, suggesting the SLD being a high-speed transmitter for VLC applications.

  9. High-speed 405-nm superluminescent diode (SLD) with 807-MHz modulation bandwidth

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Lee, Changmin; Ng, Tien Khee; Nakamura, Shuji; Speck, James S.; DenBaars, Steven P.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; El-Desouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    III-nitride LEDs are fundamental components for visible-light communication (VLC). However, the modulation bandwidth is inherently limited by the relatively long carrier lifetime. In this letter, we present the 405 nm emitting superluminescent diode (SLD) with tilted facet design on semipolar GaN substrate, showing a broad emission of ∼9 nm at 20 mW optical power. Owing to the fast recombination (τ<0.35 ns) through the amplified spontaneous emission, the SLD exhibits a significantly large 3-dB bandwidth of 807 MHz. A data rate of 1.3 Gbps with a bit-error rate of 2.9 × 10 was obtained using on-off keying modulation scheme, suggesting the SLD being a high-speed transmitter for VLC applications.

  10. Chinese Milk Vetch as Green Manure Mitigates Nitrous Oxide Emission from Monocropped Rice System in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhijian; Shah, Farooq; Tu, Shuxin; Xu, Changxu; Cao, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Monocropped rice system is an important intensive cropping system for food security in China. Green manure (GM) as an alternative to fertilizer N (FN) is useful for improving soil quality. However, few studies have examined the effect of Chinese milk vetch (CMV) as GM on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from monocropped rice field in south China. Therefore, a pot-culture experiment with four treatments (control, no FN and CMV; CMV as GM alone, M; fertilizer N alone, FN; integrating fertilizer N with CMV, NM) was performed to investigate the effect of incorporating CMV as GM on N2O emission using a closed chamber-gas chromatography (GC) technique during the rice growing periods. Under the same N rate, incorporating CMV as GM (the treatments of M and NM) mitigated N2O emission during the growing periods of rice plant, reduced the NO3- content and activities of nitrate and nitrite reductase as well as the population of nitrifying bacteria in top soil at maturity stage of rice plant versus FN pots. The global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) of N2O from monocropped rice field was ranked as Mrice grain yield and soil NH4+ content, which were dramatically decreased in the M pots, over the treatment of FN. Hence, it can be concluded that integrating FN with CMV as GM is a feasible tactic for food security and N2O mitigation in the monocropped rice based system.

  11. Controlling the exciton emission of gold coated GaAs-AlGaAs core-shell nanowires with an organic spacer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh, M.; Gao, Q.; Jagadish, C.; Ge, J.; Duscher, G.; Wagner, H. P.

    2016-12-01

    Excitons are the most prominent optical excitations and controlling their emission is an important step towards new optical devices. We have investigated the exciton emission from uncoated and gold/aluminum quinoline (Alq3) coated GaAs-AlGaAs-GaAs core-shell nanowires (NWs) using temperature-, intensity- and polarization dependent photoluminescence (PL). Plasmonic GaAs-AlGaAs-GaAs NWs with a ˜10 nm thick Au coating but without an Alq3 spacer layer reveal a significant reduction of the PL intensity of the exciton emission compared with the uncoated NW sample. Plasmonic NW samples with the same nominal Au coverage and an additional Alq3 interlayer of 3 or 6 nm thickness show a clearly stronger PL intensity which increases with rising Alq3 spacer thickness. Time-resolved (TR) PL measurements reveal an increase of the exciton decay rate by a factor of up to two with decreasing Alq3 spacer thickness suggesting the presence of Förster energy transfer from NW excitons to plasmon oscillations in the gold film. The weak change of the decay time, however, indicates that Förster energy-transfer is only partially responsible for the PL quenching in the gold coated NWs. The main reason for the reduction of the PL emission is attributed to a gold induced band-bending in the GaAs NW core which causes exciton dissociation. With increasing Alq3 spacer thickness the band-bending decreases leading to a reduction of the exciton dissociation and PL quenching. Our interpretation is supported by electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements which show a signal reduction and blue shift of defect (possibly EL2) transitions when gold particles are deposited on NWs compared with bare or Alq3 coated NWs.

  12. Photoluminescence study of Dy3+ doped SrCeVO5 phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, K.; Dai, Ch. Vijay Anil; Murthy, K.V.R.

    2016-01-01

    Dy 3+ doped SrCeVO 5 phosphor was synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. Photoluminescence (PL) technique was performed to characterize the sample. The excitation spectra monitored under 520 nm and 610 nm wavelength was characterized by a broad band ranging from 220-400 nm. From the excitation spectra two main bands at 265 nm and 325 nm were observed. The PLE intensity of 520 nm monitored shows high intensity than 610 nm spectrum. The emission spectra of SrCeVO 5 phosphor under excitations at 265 nm and 325 nm exhibited main peak at 515 nm (cyan) which is a strong, intense well resolved peak with FWHM (full width at half maximum) of 130 nm is observed. This emission is mainly may be due to Ce ion but not Dy ion. The same emission under 640 and 670 nm excitations (up conversion) with good intensity was also observed. Commission international de l'eclairage (CIE) co-ordinates under these excitations revealed that this phosphor emit cyan colour and could be used for the generation of white light in display and lamp devices. (author)

  13. Two-color phase control of high-order harmonic generation in intense laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telnov, D.A.; Wang, J.; Chu, S.

    1995-01-01

    We present a time-independent generalized Floquet approach for nonperturbative treatment of high-order harmonic generation (HG) in intense onea (i) determination of the complex quasienergy eigenvalue and eigenfunction by means of the non-Hermitian Floquet formalism, wherein the Floquet Hamiltonian is discretized by the complex-scaling generalized pseudospectral technique [Wang, Chu, and Laughlin, Phys. Rev. A 50, 3208 (1994)], and (ii) calculation of the HG rates based on the approach that implies the classical treatment of the electromagnetic field and quantal treatment of the atom. The method is applied to the nonperturbative study of HG by the hydrogen atom in strong laser fields with the fundamental frequencies 532 and 775 nm and their third harmonics. The results show a strong dependence on the relative phase δ between the fundamental frequency field and its harmonic. For the intensities used in calculations (1x10 13 and 5x10 13 W/cm 2 for the fundamental frequency 532 nm and 1x10 13 and 3x10 13 W/cm 2 for the fundamental frequency 775 nm, the harmonic intensity being 10 and 100 times weaker), the total photon emission rate has its maximum at δ=0 and minimum at δ=π. However, this tendency, while valid for the first several HG peaks, is reversed for the higher HG peaks. The HG spectrum for δ=π is broader and the peak heights decrease more slowly compared to the case of δ=0. These results have their analog in the multiphoton above-threshold detachment study performed recently for H - ions [Telnov, Wang, and Chu, Phys. Rev. A 51, 4797 (1995)

  14. Diode-pumped thin-disk Nd:GdVO4 laser at 893 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y L; Fu, X H; Wang, A G

    2011-01-01

    We report for the first time a Nd:GdVO 4 laser operating in a continuous wave (CW) on the quasi-three-level laser at 893 nm, based on the 4 F 3/2 – 4 I 9/2 transition, generally used for a 912 nm emission. The use of a pump module with 16 passes through the crystal allowed the realization of a Nd:GdVO 4 thin-disk laser with 157 mW of CW output power at 893 nm. Moreover, intracavity second-harmonic generation (SHG) has also been achieved with a power of 23 mW at 447 nm by using a BiB 3 O 6 (BiBO) nonlinear crystal

  15. Tuning excitation laser wavelength for secondary resonance in low-intensity phase-selective laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for in-situ analytical measurement of nanoaerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Gang; Li, Shuiqing; Tse, Stephen D.

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, a novel low-intensity phase-selective laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (PS-LIBS) technique has been developed for unique elemental-composition identification of aerosolized nanoparticles, where only the solid-phase nanoparticles break down, forming nanoplasmas, without any surrounding gas-phase breakdown. Additional work has demonstrated that PS-LIBS emissions can be greatly enhanced with secondary resonant excitation by matching the excitation laser wavelength with an atomic transition line in the formed nanoplasma, thereby achieving low limits of detection. In this work, a tunable dye laser is employed to investigate the effects of excitation wavelength and irradiance on in-situ PS-LIBS measurements of TiO2 nanoaerosols. The enhancement factor by resonant excitation can be 220 times greater than that for non-resonant cases under similar conditions. Moreover, the emitted spectra are unique for the selected resonant transition lines for a given element, suggesting the potential to make precise phase-selective and analyte-selective measurements of nanoparticles in a multicomponent multiphase system. The enhancement factor by resonant excitation is highly sensitive to excitation laser wavelength, with narrow excitation spectral windows, i.e., 0.012 to 0.023 nm (FWHM, full width at half maximum) for Ti (I) neutral atomic lines, and 0.051 to 0.139 nm (FWHM) for Ti (II) single-ionized atomic lines. Boltzmann analysis of the emission intensities, temporal response of emissions, and emission dependence on excitation irradiance are investigated to understand aspects of the generated nanoplasmas such as temperature, local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), and excitation mechanism.

  16. Comparison of neighborhood-scale residential wood smoke emissions inventories using limited and intensive survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, T.E.

    1998-01-01

    Emission inventory based estimations of pollutants resulting from residential combustion of wood are typically determined by collecting survey data that represent a single but relatively large area. While the pollutants in wood smoke emissions may represent a relatively low fraction (<10%) of an area's total annual emissions mass inventory, they can concentrate within the specific neighborhood areas where emitted. Thus, while the representativeness of a large-area survey approach is valid and useful, its application for estimating wood smoke pollutant levels within any particular neighborhood may be limited. The ability to obtain a better estimation of pollutant levels for evaluating potential health-related impacts within neighborhoods where wood smoke pollutants can concentrate requires survey data more representative of the particular area. This study compares residential wood combustion survey data collected from six residential neighborhoods in the metropolitan area of Flagstaff, Arizona. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the ability of data collected from a limited neighborhood-scale survey effort to represent that neighborhood's wood fuel consumption characteristics and wood smoke emissions. In addition, the variation that occurs between different neighborhoods regarding residential consumption of wood is also evaluated. Residential wood combustion survey data were collected compare wood burning device distribution, wood types and quantities burned, and emission rates. One neighborhood was surveyed once at approximately a 10% distribution rate and again at a 100% distribution rate providing data for evaluating the ability of a limited-effort survey to represent a more intensive survey. Survey methodology, results and recommendations are presented

  17. Three-dimensional thermoluminescence spectra of different origin quartz from Altay Orogenic belt, Xinjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Kaixuan; Liu Zehua; Zeng Sheng; Liu Yan; Xie Yanshi; Rieser, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional thermoluminescence spectra are measured for different types of geological origin quartz from the Altay orogenic belt, northern Xinjiang, China. The results show striking differences which appear to be characteristic of their geological origin. Granitic quartz is dominated by emission bands at 420-430 nm, 550-560 nm, at a temperature of 170 deg. C. Pegmatite quartz is characterized by an intense 480 nm emission band at 170 deg. C. Volcanic quartz has exclusive UV (340-360 nm) and violet (410-430 nm) emission bands. Hydrothermal quartz exhibits very different TL spectral characteristics because of different hydrothermal activity and mineralization. Only one TL peaks at 485 nm/170 deg. C was observed in sedimentary quartz. An intense 730 nm emission band observed at 170 deg. C considered generally to be characteristics of feldspar was observed in quartz from granite and hydrothermal Au-bearing quartz. This TL peak is probably related to the centre of [FeO 4 ] 0 on an Si site. All samples show an intense 990-1000 nm emission band at 330 deg. C. Identical types of quartz formed in different regions or different geological and tectonic settings can also exhibit striking differences in TL spectra.

  18. Analyzing the driving forces behind CO2 emissions and reduction strategies for energy-intensive sectors in Taiwan, 1996–2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yun-Hsun; Wu, Jung-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Between 1996 and 2006, CO 2 emissions in Taiwan increased by approximately 60%, with the industrial sector accounting for 50% of that increase. Among all industrial sectors, iron and steel, petrochemicals, electronics, textiles, pulp and paper and cement accounted for approximately three-quarters of the total industrial CO 2 emissions. Identifying the driving forces behind increased CO 2 emissions in these six sectors could be valuable for the development of effective environmental policy. This study used two-tier KLEM input–output structural decomposition analysis (I-O SDA) to analyze the factors that lead to changes in CO 2 emissions. Empirical results obtained in Taiwan reveal that increased exports level and elevated domestic autonomous final demand level were the main reasons for increases in CO 2 emissions. Technological changes in materials and labor tended to decrease CO 2 emissions, while the power generation mix contributed significantly to the increase. Relevant strategies for reducing CO 2 emissions from energy-intensive sectors are also highlighted. - Highlights: • Identifying the driving forces behind increased CO 2 emissions is important. • This study uses two-tier KLEM I-O SDA to analyze the changes in CO 2 emissions. • Three issues are identified to achieve future CO 2 emissions reduction in Taiwan

  19. Impact of the intensity of milk production on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions in Portuguese cattle farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, J.; Trindade, H.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate the relationship between the intensity of milk production for a wide range of Portuguese commercial cattle farms and NH3 and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manure management and enteric fermentation. A survey was carried out at 1471 commercial dairy cattle farms (Holstein-Friesian) and the NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions at each stage of manure management were estimated as well as CH4 losses from enteric fermentation. Gaseous emissions were estimated by a mass flow approach and following the recommendations of IPCC guidelines. The manure management and enteric fermentation in a typical Portuguese cattle farm contributes with 7.5±0.15 g N/L milk produced as NH3 and 1.2±0.22 kg CO2 equivalent per litre of milk as GHG. Increasing milk production will significantly reduce NH3 and GHG emissions per litre of milk produced. It can be concluded that a win-win strategy for reducing NH3 and GHG emissions from dairy cattle farms will be the increase of milk production on these farms. This goal can be achieved by implementing animal breeding programs and improving feed efficiency in order to increase productivity. (Author)

  20. Removing foxing stains from old paper at 157 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarantopoulou, E.; Samardzija, Z.; Kobe, S.; Kollia, Z.; Cefalas, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Using a molecular fluorine laser at 157 nm foxing stains were removed successfully from a 16th century old paper. Laser cleaning of stains and foxing from old paper manuscripts is far more effective at 157 nm in comparison to different wavelengths without leaving any yellowish after-effect on the paper. This is because at 157 nm illumination of old paper, complete bond breaking of all the organic molecules of the paper is taking place. Mass spectroscopy at 157 nm and for moderate laser intensities up to 1 mJ/cm 2 of old paper suffering from foxing indicate organic matter disintegration to small photofragments atomic, diatomic or triatomic, which are flying apart with supersonic speed. In addition high spatial resolution energy dispersive X-ray system (EDXS) analysis over the effected areas indicate the presence of iron, suggesting that biological activity is taking place preferentially in paper areas containing iron

  1. Up-conversion monodispersed spheres of NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+: green and red emission tailoring mediated by heating temperature, and greatly enhanced luminescence by Mn2+ doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qi; Song, Caiyun; Li, Xiaodong; Sun, Xudong; Li, Ji-Guang

    2018-04-09

    Submicron sized, monodispersed spheres of Mn2+, Yb3+/Er3+ and Mn2+/Yb3+/Er3+ doped α-NaYF4 were easily autoclaved from mixed solutions of the component nitrates and ammonium fluoride (NH4F), in the presence of EDTA-2Na. Detailed characterizations of the resultant phosphors were obtained using XRD, Raman spectroscopy, FE-SEM, HR-TEM, STEM, PLE/PL spectroscopy, and fluorescence decay analysis. Finer structure and better crystal perfection was observed at a higher calcination temperature, and the spherical shape and excellent dispersion of the original particles was retained at temperatures up to 600 °C. Under the 980 nm infrared excitation, the Yb3+/Er3+-doped sample (calcined at 400 °C) exhibits a stronger green emission centered at ∼524 nm (2H11/2 → 4I15/2 transition of Er3+) and a weaker red emission centered at ∼657 nm (4F9/2 → 4I15/2 transition of Er3+). A 200 °C increase in the temperature from 400 °C to 600 °C resulted in the dominant red emission originating from the 4F9/2 → 4I15/2 transition of Er3+, instead of the previously dominant green one. Mn2+ doping induced a remarkable more enhanced intensity at ∼657 nm and ∼667 nm (red emission area) than that at ∼524 nm and ∼546 nm (green emission area), because of the non-radiative energy transfer between Mn2+ and Er3+. However, a poor thermal stability was induced by Mn2+ doping. The observed upconversion luminescence of the samples calcined at 400 °C and 600 °C followed the two photon process and the four photon process, respectively.

  2. Self-reduction process and enhanced blue emission in SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}: Eu, Tb via electron transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongwei; Wang, Lili; Li, Minhong; Ran, Weiguang; Deng, Zhihan; Houzong, Ruizhi; Shi, Jinsheng [Department of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Science, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, Shandong, (China)

    2017-06-15

    Eu, Tb co-doped SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} luminescent materials were synthesized via a high-temperature solid-state reaction. Excitation spectra of SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}: Eu{sup 2+} gives two broad excitation bands maximizing at 270 and 330 nm, resulting from splitting Eu{sup 2+} energy levels in octahedral crystal field. Eu single doped SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} luminescent material exhibits two emission bands at about 406 and 616 nm. Intensity of the blue emission from Eu{sup 2+} is always strong, compared with that of the red emission band of Eu{sup 3+}. Reduction from Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} can be explained with the model of charge compensation. Blue emission in SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}: xEu was strengthened after incorporation of Tb, which can be explained by electron transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} (Tb{sup 3+} + Eu{sup 3+} → Tb{sup 4+} + Eu{sup 2+}). Under 230 nm excitation, intensity of Tb{sup 3+} emission was nearly unchanged and that of Eu{sup 2+} was increased, obviously due to the delivery of more electrons to Eu{sup 3+}. The strongest emission of Eu{sup 2+} in 0.09Eu/0.06Tb co-doped SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} and excited at 270 and 330 nm was remarkably enhanced by about four times compared to that of 0.15Eu Single doped SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}. All of the results indicate that SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}:xEu, yTb are potential blue emitting luminescent materials for UV-LEDs. More importantly, this research may provide a new perspective in designing broad band blue luminescent materials. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Decoupling of industrial energy consumption and CO2-emissions in energy-intensive industries in Scandinavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enevoldsen, Martin K.; Ryelund, Anders V.; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2007-01-01

    As methodology the ex-post analysis deserves more attention as a device to calibrate energy sector models. This paper studies the impact of energy prices and taxes on energy efficiency and carbon emissions of ten industrial sectors in the three Scandinavian countries. A database with sector-specific energy prices and taxes has been established, which allows the analysis to take various price reductions and tax exemptions better into account. A translog factor demand system estimation for a cross industry pooled model is explored and fixed effects across industries and time is estimated. The findings here confirm recent analyses which indicate higher long-term elasticities for industries than normally assumed in Scandinavian energy-sector models. With the observations on differences in energy-intensities among sectors and countries the findings allow for some optimism as to the opportunities for further decoupling between trends in gross value added, carbon emissions and energy consumption

  4. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Green emission and bandgap narrowing due to two-photon excitation in thin film CdS formed by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, B.; Schroeder, R.

    2001-08-01

    Thin (10 µm) film CdS on Pyrex® formed by spray pyrolysis is excited below the gap at 804 nm with 200 fs laser pulses at room temperature. Excitation intensities up to 250 GW cm-2 evoke green bandgap emission due to two-photon transitions. This two-photon photoluminescence does not show a red emission contribution in contrast to the single-photon excited emission, which is dominated by broad emission in the red spectral range. It is demonstrated that two-photon excitation causes photo-induced bandgap narrowing due to Debye screening. At 250 GW cm-2 bandgap narrowing of 47 meV is observed, which corresponds to an excited electron density of 1.6×1018 cm-3.

  5. Effect of the thickness of Zn(BTZ)2 emitting layer on the electroluminescent spectra of white organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, F.J.; Hua, Y.L.; Yin, S.G.; Deng, J.C.; Wu, K.W.; Niu, X.; Wu, X.M.; Petty, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are fabricated with a simple bilayer structure: ITO/TPD/ Zn(BTZ) 2 /Al. White emission is composed of two parts: one is 470 nm, which originates from exciton emission in Zn(BTZ) 2 emitting layer; the other is 580 nm, which originates from exciplexes formation at the interface of TPD and Zn(BTZ) 2 . Specially, the thickness of Zn(BTZ) 2 layer effects the relative intensity of two emissions. When the Zn(BTZ) 2 layer becomes thin (or thick), the 470 nm (or 580 nm) emission intensity turns into weak (or strong). Finally, We successfully fabricated pure white OLED when the thickness of Zn(BTZ) 2 layer was 65 nm

  6. Atomic gas temperature in a nonequilibrium high-intensity discharge lamp determined from the red wing of the resonance mercury line 254 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drakakis, E.; Karabourniotis, D.

    2012-01-01

    For developing low-wattage high intensity discharge (HID) lamps, a better understanding of the relatively unexplored nonequilibrium phenomena is essential. This needs interpretation of diagnostic results by methods free from equilibrium assumptions. In this paper, the atomic temperature is determined from the simulation of a quasistatic broadened resonance line by distinguishing between atomic temperature and excitation temperature in the equation of radiative transfer. The proposed method is applied to the red wing of the resonance mercury line 254 nm emitted from a HID lamp working on ac. The experimental results show severe deviation from local thermodynamic equilibrium. More than one thousand degrees difference was obtained between atomic and electron temperatures at the maximum current phase.

  7. Atomic gas temperature in a nonequilibrium high-intensity discharge lamp determined from the red wing of the resonance mercury line 254 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drakakis, E. [Technological Educational Institute, Department of Electrical Engineering, 71004 Heraklion (Greece); Karabourniotis, D. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece)

    2012-09-01

    For developing low-wattage high intensity discharge (HID) lamps, a better understanding of the relatively unexplored nonequilibrium phenomena is essential. This needs interpretation of diagnostic results by methods free from equilibrium assumptions. In this paper, the atomic temperature is determined from the simulation of a quasistatic broadened resonance line by distinguishing between atomic temperature and excitation temperature in the equation of radiative transfer. The proposed method is applied to the red wing of the resonance mercury line 254 nm emitted from a HID lamp working on ac. The experimental results show severe deviation from local thermodynamic equilibrium. More than one thousand degrees difference was obtained between atomic and electron temperatures at the maximum current phase.

  8. Free allocations in EU ETS Phase 3: The impact of emissions performance benchmarking for carbon-intensive industry - Working Paper No. 2013-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecourt, S.; Palliere, C.; Sartor, O.

    2013-02-01

    From Phase 3 (2013-20) of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme, carbon-intensive industrial emitters will receive free allocations based on harmonised, EU-wide benchmarks. This paper analyses the impacts of these new rules on allocations to key energy-intensive sectors across Europe. It explores an original dataset that combines recent data from the National Implementing Measures of 20 EU Member States with the Community Independent Transaction Log and other EU documents. The analysis reveals that free allocations to benchmarked sectors will be reduced significantly compared to Phase 2 (2008-12). This reduction should both increase public revenues from carbon auctions and has the potential to enhance the economic efficiency of the carbon market. The analysis also shows that changes in allocation vary mostly across installations within countries, raising the possibility that the carbon-cost competitiveness impacts may be more intense within rather than across countries. Lastly, the analysis finds evidence that the new benchmarking rules will, as intended, reward installations with better emissions performance and will improve harmonisation of free allocations in the EU ETS by reducing differences in allocation levels across countries with similar carbon intensities of production. (authors)

  9. Study on Spectrum Estimation in Biophoton Emission Signal Analysis of Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitao Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The photon emission signal in visible range (380 nm–630 nm was measured from various wheat kernels by means of a low noise photomultiplier system. To study the features of the photon emission signal, the spectrum estimation method of the photon emission signal is described for the first time. The biophoton emission signal, belonging to four varieties of wheat, is analyzed in time domain and frequency domain. It shows that the intensity of the biophoton emission signal for four varieties of wheat kernels is relatively weak and has dramatic changes over time. Mean and mean square value are obviously different in four varieties; the range was, respectively, 3.7837 and 74.8819. The difference of variance is not significant. The range is 1.1764. The results of power spectrum estimation deduced that the biophoton emission signal is a low frequency signal, and its power spectrum is mostly distributed in the frequency less than 0.1 Hz. Then three parameters, which are spectral edge frequency, spectral gravity frequency, and power spectral entropy, are adopted to explain the features of the kernels’ spontaneous biophoton emission signal. It shows that the parameters of the spontaneous biophoton emission signal for different varieties of wheat are similar.

  10. Emission line relative intensity variations in the symbiotic stars: CI Cygni, BF Cygni, AX Persei and V1016 Cygni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliversen, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    Low resolution spectra (lambda 3800 to lambda 5900) are presented of the symbiotic stars CI Cygni, BF Cygni, AX Persei and V1016 Cygni, which were obtained with the Washburn Observatory Boller and Chivens cassegrain spectrograph and intensified Reticon. The spectra were obtained as part of a monitoring program covering 36 months since November 1978. The nebular electron temperature and density are derived from the [O III] lambda 5007 and lambda 4363 emission lines and the uv intercombination lines of lambda 1661 and lambda 1667. Relative emission line intensity variations were observed in all four stars. The relative emission line changes correlated with photometric minima for CI Cyg, AX Per and possibly BF Cyg. These changes are interpreted as due to a red giant eclipsing a nebula surrounding the exciting source. Based on the [O III] line ratio change, the nebular density of V1016 Cyg has continued to decline since 1978. The thesis also contains a discussion of the use of the emision lines of [Ne III] lambda 3869, [O III] lambda 5007, lambda 4363 and He lambda 5876 to derive nebular electron temperature and density. A decline in the intensity ratios of I(lambda 3869)/(lambda 5007) and I(lambda 5876)/I(lambda 5007) were observed during the 1980 minimum of CI Cyg. The observed I(lambda 3869)/I(lambda 5007) decline was too large to be explained by temperature or density changes. The [Ne III] and He II regions in CI Cyg are therefore closer to the hot source than the more extended (o III] emission region. Contained within the appendix is a discussion of a graphical method of solution ot the nebular temperature and density, which is based on the emission lines of [Ne III], [O III] and He I

  11. Macular autofluorescence in eyes with cystoid macula edema, detected with 488 nm-excitation but not with 580 nm-excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, Kenichiro; Gomi, Fumi; Harino, Seiyo; Sawa, Miki; Sayanagi, Kaori; Tsujikawa, Motokazu; Tano, Yasuo

    2009-06-01

    Fundus autofluorescence (AF) derives from lipofuscin in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Because lipofuscin is a by-product of phagocytosis of photoreceptors by RPE, AF imaging is expected to describe some functional aspect of the retina. In this study we report distribution of AF in patients showing macular edema. Three eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) and 11 with retinal vein occlusion (RVO), associated with macular edema (ME) were examined. ME was determined by standard fundus examination, fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). AF was recorded using a Heidelberg confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO) with 488 nm laser exciter (488 nm-AF), and a conventional Topcon fundus camera with halogen lamp exciter and 580 nm band-pass filter (580 nm-AF). Color fundus picture, FA image and these two AF images were analyzed by superimposing all images. All subjects presented cystoid macular edema (CME) with petaloid pattern hyperfluorescence in FA. In 488 nm-AF, all eyes (100%) showed macular autofluorescence of a similar shape to that of the CME in FA. In contrast, in 580 nm-AF only one eye (7%) presented this corresponding petaloid-shaped autofluorescence. In all cases, peripheral retinal edemas did not show autofluorescence corresponding to the leakage in FA. In eyes with CME, analogous hyperautofluorescence to the CME was always observed in 488 nm-AF, while it was rarely observed in 580 nm-AF. Moreover, this CME hyperautofluorescence was only seen in the macular area. We hypothesize that autofluorescence from CME may be considered as a "pseudo" or "relative" autofluorescence, due to macular stretching following CME that may result in lateral displacement of macular pigments (MPs) and subsequent reduction of MPs density, as MPs block 488 nm-AF more intensely than 580 nm-AF. Although this phenomenon may not directly indicate change of RPE function, it may be used as a method to assess or track CME non-invasively.

  12. Comparison in the analytical performance between krypton and argon glow discharge plasmas as the excitation source for atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2009-04-01

    The emission characteristics of ionic lines of nickel, cobalt, and vanadium were investigated when argon or krypton was employed as the plasma gas in glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. A dc Grimm-style lamp was employed as the excitation source. Detection limits of the ionic lines in each iron-matrix alloy sample were compared between the krypton and the argon plasmas. Particular intense ionic lines were observed in the emission spectra as a function of the discharge gas (krypton or argon), such as the Co II 258.033 nm for krypton and the Co II 231.707 nm for argon. The explanation for this is that collisions with the plasma gases dominantly populate particular excited levels of cobalt ion, which can receive the internal energy from each gas ion selectively, for example, the 3d(7)4p (3)G(5) (6.0201 eV) for krypton and the 3d(7)4p (3)G(4) (8.0779 eV) for argon. In the determination of nickel as well as cobalt in iron-matrix samples, more sensitive ionic lines could be found in the krypton plasma rather than the argon plasma. Detection limits in the krypton plasma were 0.0039 mass% Ni for the Ni II 230.299-nm line and 0.002 mass% Co for the Co II 258.033-nm line. However, in the determination of vanadium, the argon plasma had better analytical performance, giving a detection limit of 0.0023 mass% V for the V II 309.310-nm line.

  13. Statistical model of intensity noise in con focal fluorescence microscopy images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montereali, R.M.; Almaviva, S.; Franzini, I.; Somma, F.

    2008-01-01

    The visible photoluminescence of aggregate F2 and F3+ color centers in Lithium Fluoride (LiF) thin layers, grown by thermal evaporation on various substrates (either crystalline or not) with different thicknesses, can be efficiently observed by using an optical con focal fluorescence microscope and a laser pump with emission wavelength tuned at about 450 nm. Starting from con focal fluorescence images of uniformly colored LiF samples, an automatic routine for the estimation of photoluminescence intensity noise has been developed at the Solid State Laser Laboratory and Spectroscopy of the ENEA Research Center in Frascati. We reported experimental results about application of that routine to the photoluminescence of LiF thin films, uniformly irradiated with an X-ray tube with energy spectrum centered on the Cu K? emission line (8,03 keV), at the CNR-IFN in Rome, that allow to identify a suitable statistical model for his description [it

  14. Tuning light emission of PbS nanocrystals from infrared to visible range by cation exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Binetti, Enrico

    2015-10-27

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, with intense and sharp-line emission between red and near-infrared spectral regions, are of great interest for optoelectronic and bio-imaging applications. The growth of an inorganic passivation layer on nanocrystal surfaces is a common strategy to improve their chemical and optical stability and their photoluminescence quantum yield. In particular, cation exchange is a suitable approach for shell growth at the expense of the nanocrystal core size. Here, the cation exchange process is used to promote the formation of a CdS passivation layer on the surface of very small PbS nanocrystals (2.3 nm in diameter), blue shifting their optical spectra and yielding luminescent and stable nanostructures emitting in the range of 700–850 nm. Structural, morphological and compositional investigation confirms the nanocrystal size contraction after the cation-exchange process, while the PbS rock-salt crystalline phase is retained. Absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrate the growth of a passivation layer with a decrease of the PbS core size, as inferred by the blue-shift of the excitonic peaks. The surface passivation strongly increases the photoluminescence intensity and the excited state lifetime. In addition, the nanocrystals reveal increased stability against oxidation over time. Thanks to their absorption and emission spectral range and the slow recombination dynamics, such highly luminescent nano-objects can find interesting applications in sensitized photovoltaic cells and light-emitting devices.

  15. Tuning light emission of PbS nanocrystals from infrared to visible range by cation exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Binetti, Enrico; Striccoli, Marinella; Sibillano, Teresa; Giannini, Cinzia; Brescia, Rosaria; Falqui, Andrea; Comparelli, Roberto; Corricelli, Michela; Tommasi, Raffaele; Agostiano, Angela; Curri, M Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, with intense and sharp-line emission between red and near-infrared spectral regions, are of great interest for optoelectronic and bio-imaging applications. The growth of an inorganic passivation layer on nanocrystal surfaces is a common strategy to improve their chemical and optical stability and their photoluminescence quantum yield. In particular, cation exchange is a suitable approach for shell growth at the expense of the nanocrystal core size. Here, the cation exchange process is used to promote the formation of a CdS passivation layer on the surface of very small PbS nanocrystals (2.3 nm in diameter), blue shifting their optical spectra and yielding luminescent and stable nanostructures emitting in the range of 700–850 nm. Structural, morphological and compositional investigation confirms the nanocrystal size contraction after the cation-exchange process, while the PbS rock-salt crystalline phase is retained. Absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrate the growth of a passivation layer with a decrease of the PbS core size, as inferred by the blue-shift of the excitonic peaks. The surface passivation strongly increases the photoluminescence intensity and the excited state lifetime. In addition, the nanocrystals reveal increased stability against oxidation over time. Thanks to their absorption and emission spectral range and the slow recombination dynamics, such highly luminescent nano-objects can find interesting applications in sensitized photovoltaic cells and light-emitting devices.

  16. Near-field enhanced electron acceleration from dielectric nanospheres in intense few-cycle laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherebtsov, S.; Znakovskaya, I.; Wirth, A.; Herrwerth, O.; Suessmann, F.; Ahmad, I.; Trushin, S.; Fennel, Th.; Plenge, J.; Antonsson, E.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The interaction of nanostructured materials with few-cycle laser light has attracted significant attention lately. This interest is driven by both the quest for fundamental insight into the real-time dynamics of many-electron systems and a wide range of far-reaching applications, such as, e.g. ultrafast computation and information storage on the nanoscale and the generation of XUV frequency combs. We investigated the above-threshold electron emission from isolated SiO 2 nanoparticles in waveform controlled few-cycle laser fields at intensities close to the tunneling regime. The enhancement of the electron acceleration from the silica nanoparticles was explored as a function of the particle size (ranging from 50 to 147 nm) and the laser peak intensity (1 - 4x10 13 W/cm 2 ). Obtained cut-off values in the kinetic energy spectra are displayed in Fig. 1. The cut-off values show a linear dependence with intensity within the studied intensity range, with the average cut-off energy being 53 U P , indicated by the black line. Quasi-classical simulations of the emission process reveal that electron rescattering in the locally enhanced near-field of the particle is responsible for the large energy gain. The observed near-field enhancement offers promising new routes for pushing the limits of strong-field phenomena relying on electron rescattering, such as, high-harmonic generation and molecular imaging.

  17. Optical characterization, 1.5 μm emission and IR-to-visible energy upconversion in Er3+-doped fluorotellurite glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Mendoza, U.R.; Lalla, E.A.; Caceres, J.M.; Rivera-Lopez, F.; Leon-Luis, S.F.; Lavin, V.

    2011-01-01

    The optical properties of Er 3+ ions in a novel glass based on TeO 2 -PbF 2 -AlF 3 oxyfluoride tellurites have been investigated using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopies as a function of the rare-earth doping concentration. Basic optical characterizations have been performed measuring and calculating the absorption and emission spectra and the cross-sections, the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, the radiative probabilities and the fluorescence decays and lifetimes. Special attention has been devoted to the broad 4 I 13/2 → 4 I 15/2 emission transition at around 1.53 μm since, with a wide broadening of around 70 nm and a relative long lifetime of around 3 ms compared to others glass hosts, it shows potential applications in the design of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. The absorption, the stimulated emission and the gain cross-sections of this transition have been obtained and compared with that obtained in different hosts. Finally, infrared-to-visible upconversion processes exciting at around 800 nm have been analyzed and different mechanisms involved in the energy conversion have been proposed. - Research highlights: → Broadened emission bands and high absorption and emission cross-sections for the transition 4 I 15/2 → 4 I 13/2 suitable for EDFAs. → Efficient green upconverted emission. → High value of C DA (6) energy transfer parameter.

  18. 2001-2002 carbon dioxide emissions in OECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    This document provides carbon dioxide emissions data, from energy uses and production, from 2001 to 2002 in the OECD. It concerns the climate corrected CO 2 emissions in France, the non corrected CO 2 emissions (M tons), the emissions intensity / the Gross Domestic Product and the emissions intensity / the population (tons per inhabitant). (A.L.B.)

  19. Spectral evolution of soft x-ray emission from optically thin, high electron temperature platinum plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Hara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The soft x-ray spectra of heavy element plasmas are frequently dominated by unresolved transition array (UTA emission. We describe the spectral evolution of an intense UTA under optically thin conditions in platinum plasmas. The UTA was observed to have a peak wavelength around 4.6 nm at line-of-sight averaged electron temperatures less than 1.4 keV at electron densities of (2.5–7.5 × 1013 cm−3. The UTA spectral structure was due to emission from 4d–4f transitions in highly charged ions with average charge states of q = 20–40. A numerical simulation successfully reproduced the observed spectral behavior.

  20. Spectroscopy and decay kinetics of Pr3+-doped chloride crystals for 1300-nm optical amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, R.H.; Schaffers, K.I.; Wilke, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    Several Pr 3+ -doped chloride crystals have been tested spectroscopically for suitability as 1300-nm optical amplifiers operating on the 1 G 4 - 3 H 5 transition. 1 G 4 lifetimes are much longer than in fluoride hosts, ranging up to 1300 μsec and suggesting a near-unity luminescence quantum yield. Emission spectra are typically broad (FWHM ∼ 70 nm) and include the 1310-nm zero-dispersion wavelength of standard telecommunications fiber

  1. Laser and intense pulsed light hair removal technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, M; Beerwerth, F; Nash, J F

    2011-01-01

    Light-based hair removal (LHR) is one of the fastest growing, nonsurgical aesthetic cosmetic procedures in the United States and Europe. A variety of light sources including lasers, e.g. alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) and broad-spectrum intense...

  2. Improved luminescence intensity and stability of thermal annealed ZnO incorporated Alq3 composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuba, M; Muralidharan, G

    2015-11-01

    The 30 wt% of ZnO (weight percentage of ZnO has been optimised) incorporated tris- (8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) has been synthesised and coated on to glass substrates using dip coating method. The structural and optical properties of the Alq3/ZnO composite film after thermal annealing from 50 to 300 °C insteps 50° has been studied and reported. XRD pattern reveals the presence of crystalline ZnO in all the annealed films. The films annealed above 150 °C reveal the presence of crystalline Alq3 along with crystalline ZnO. The FTIR spectra confirm the presence of hydroxyquinoline and ZnO vibration in all the annealed composite films. The composite films annealed above 150 °C show a partial sublimation and degradation of hydroxyquinoline compounds. The ZnO incorporated composite films (Alq3/ZnO) exhibit two emission peaks, one corresponding to ZnO at 487 nm and another at 513 nm due to Alq3. The films annealed at 200 °C exhibit maximum photoluminescence (PL) intensity than pristine film at 513 nm when excited at 390 nm.

  3. Multimode laser emission from free-standing cylindrical microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Jaison, E-mail: jaisonpeter@cusat.ac.in; Radhakrishnan, P.; Nampoori, V.P.N.; Kailasnath, M.

    2014-05-01

    We report a well resolved whispering gallery mode (WGM) laser emission from a free-standing microring cavity based on a dye doped hollow polymer optical fiber (DDHPOF), which is transversely pumped by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The microring laser is characterized by a well-defined, low threshold pump power at which the emission spectral intensity dramatically increases and collapses into several dominant microcavity laser modes with reduced mode spacing and high Q-value. Resonant modes are excited inside the gain medium which is strongly confined along the radial direction so that the spacing of lasing modes is controlled by the diameter of the cylindrical microcavity. A variation in the free spectral range of WGM spectra from 0.23 to 0.09 nm coupled with a red-shift is observed with an increase in the diameter of DDHPOFs. - Highlights: • Different diameter free-standing cylindrical microcavity lasers have been fabricated and their performances have been evaluated. • The microring laser is characterized by a well-defined, low threshold pump power, with reduced mode spacing and high Q-value. • When the diameter of DDHPOF increases, the number of lasing peaks increases along with the decrease of the FSR as observed from our studies. • It is also found that whispering gallery lasing envelope is shifted from 559 to 571 nm (Stokes shift) with the diameter.

  4. Investigation of intrinsic and extrinsic defects effective role on producing intense red emission in ZnO:Eu nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, Mehrdad, E-mail: najafi@shahroodut.ac.ir; Haratizadeh, Hamid

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Effective role of defects on producing red emission at indirect excitation. • V{sub Zn} and V{sub O} defects have important role on energy transfer. • Mg related defects and Zn{sub i} defects were responsible for blue emission. • Extrinsic and intrinsic defects mediated energy transfer to sensitize Eu{sup 3+} ions. • Decrease of red emission because of diminishing in oxygen vacancy. - Abstract: Europium doped ZnO nanorads and nanosheets were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Effects of Mg doping, morphology and annealing in oxygen ambient on structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis (PSA), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential thermo gravimetry (DTG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). This study recommends that both of intrinsic and extrinsic defects facilitate energy transfer (ET) from the ZnO host to Eu{sup 3+} ions and consequently have efficient role on producing intense red emission at indirect excitation. The results also showed that annealing process improved the crystal structure of ZnO nanosheets due to decrease of surface defects; however decreased ET and red emission because of diminishing in oxygen vacancy. In addition in ZnO nanorods sample with more surface area in comparison with ZnO nanosheets sample deep level emissions are enhanced.

  5. Bone repair of the periapical lesions treated or not with low intensity laser (λ = 904 nm).(An X-ray study in human)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Gerdal Roberto de

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of low intensity laser on the bone repair over periapical lesions of dental elements. Fifteen patients with a total of eighteen periapical lesions were selected and divided into two groups. Lesions of the control group were submitted to endodontic treatment and/or periapical surgery and the lesions of the experimental laser group, were submitted to the same procedures of the first group but also irradiated by low intensity laser. It was used a 904 nm wavelength laser GaAs, employing 11 mW of power delivered by a fiber optic system, irradiation continuos and contact mode, using a fluency of 9 J/cm 2 . The mentioned treatment was repeated for 10 sessions with intervals of 72 hours between each session. Bone repair was evaluated through lesion measurements, which were accessed from the X ray pictures using a time and then, were also statistically analyzed. Results showed a significant difference between lased and control groups (p<0,10), emphasizing that for the laser group presented a significant reduction of the lesions area, confirmed by X ray. (author)

  6. Studies on nanosecond 532nm and 355nm and ultrafast 515nm and 532nm laser cutting super-hard materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tao, Sha; Wang, Brian; Zhao, Jay

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, micro-processing of three kinds of super-hard materials of poly-crystal diamond (PCD)/tungsten-carbide (WC), CVD-diamond and cubic boron nitride (CNB) has been systematically studied using nanosecond laser (532nm and 355nm), and ultrafast laser (532nm and 515nm). Our purpose is to investigate a full laser micro-cutting solution to achieve a ready-to-use cutting tool insert (CTI). The results show a clean cut with little burns and recasting at edge. The cutting speed of 2-10mm/min depending on thickness was obtained. The laser ablation process was also studied by varying laser parameters (wavelength, pulse width, pulse energy, repetition rate) and tool path to improve cutting speed. Also, studies on material removal efficiency (MRE) of PCD/WC with 355nm-ns and 515nm-fs laser as a function of laser fluence show that 355nm-ns laser is able to achieve higher MRE for PCD and WC. Thus, ultrafast laser is not necessarily used for superhard material cutting. Instead, post-polishing with ultrafast laser can be used to clean cutting surface and improve smoothness.

  7. Impacts of GDP, Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption, Energy Consumption Intensity, and Economic Structure on SO2 Emissions: A Multi-Variate Panel Data Model Analysis on Selected Chinese Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution gradually become a focus of concern all over the world owing to its detrimental influence on human health as well as long range impact on global ecosystem. This paper investigated the relationship among SO2 emissions, GDP, fossil fuel energy consumption, energy consumption intensity, and economic structure of five provinces in China with the highest SO2 emissions spanning from 2002–2015 based on panel data model. Through comparatively analyzing the coefficients in the established panel data model for Hebei, Henan, Inner Mongolia, Shandong, and Shanxi, we can obtain that: (1 fossil fuel energy consumption made the most devotion to SO2 discharge compared with GDP, energy consumption intensity, and economic structure. And the more the fossil fuel energy consumption, the more the devotion made by it to SO2 discharge. (2 GDP devoted less to SO2 emissions than fossil fuel energy consumption, and the larger the scale of the economy, the greater the contribution made by it to SO2 emissions. (3 The higher the proportion of the secondary industry added value accounted in GDP, the more the devotion made by the economic structure and energy consumption intensity to SO2 emissions. Through analyzing the Granger causality examination results, it can be concluded that: (1 there existed a bi-directional causal relationship between fossil fuel energy consumption and SO2 emissions among five selected provinces. (2 There existed uni-directional causal nexus running from GDP to SO2 emissions, from energy consumption intensity to SO2 emissions, and from economic structure to SO2 emissions among five chosen provinces. Based on the empirical analysis, several policy implications were proposed to provide references for policy makers, which were (1 Giving full play to the guiding role of price signals, and improving the price policy for desulfurization. (2 Formulating a new comprehensive evaluation system to measure the regional development level

  8. Effect of the thickness of Zn(BTZ){sub 2} emitting layer on the electroluminescent spectra of white organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, F.J. [Institute of Material Physics, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300191 (China); Hua, Y.L. [Institute of Material Physics, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300191 (China)]. E-mail: yulinhua@tjut.edu.cn; Yin, S.G. [Institute of Material Physics, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300191 (China); Deng, J.C. [Institute of Material Physics, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300191 (China); Wu, K.W. [Institute of Material Physics, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300191 (China); Niu, X. [Institute of Material Physics, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300191 (China); Wu, X.M. [Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300191 (China); Petty, M.C. [Centre for Molecular and Nanoscale Electronics, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    White organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are fabricated with a simple bilayer structure: ITO/TPD/ Zn(BTZ){sub 2}/Al. White emission is composed of two parts: one is 470 nm, which originates from exciton emission in Zn(BTZ){sub 2} emitting layer; the other is 580 nm, which originates from exciplexes formation at the interface of TPD and Zn(BTZ){sub 2}. Specially, the thickness of Zn(BTZ){sub 2} layer effects the relative intensity of two emissions. When the Zn(BTZ){sub 2} layer becomes thin (or thick), the 470 nm (or 580 nm) emission intensity turns into weak (or strong). Finally, We successfully fabricated pure white OLED when the thickness of Zn(BTZ){sub 2} layer was 65 nm.

  9. Efficacy of 670 nm Light Therapy to Protect against Photoreceptor Cell Death Is Dependent on the Severity of Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Chu-Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photobiomodulation at a wavelength of 670 nm has been shown to be effective in preventing photoreceptor cell death in the retina. We treated Sprague-Dawley (SD rats with varying doses of 670 nm light (9; 18; 36; 90 J/cm2 before exposing them to different intensities of damaging white light (750; 1000; 1500 lux. 670 nm light exhibited a biphasic response in its amelioration of cell death in light-induced degeneration in vivo. Lower light damage intensities required lower doses of 670 nm light to reduce TUNEL cell death. At higher damage intensities, the highest dose of 670 nm light showed protection. In vitro, the Seahorse XFe96 Extracellular Flux Analyzer revealed that 670 nm light directly influences mitochondrial metabolism by increasing the spare respiratory capacity of mitochondria in 661 W photoreceptor-like cells in light damaged conditions. Our findings further support the use of 670 nm light as an effective treatment against retinal degeneration as well as shedding light on the mechanism of protection through the increase of the mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity.

  10. Tunable emission and concentration quenching of Tb{sup 3+} in magnesium phosphate lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Mingming; Zhang, Dongyun, E-mail: dyz@sit.edu.cn; Chang, Chengkang

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • It is very likely the first time to realize tunable emission using Tb{sup 3+} as emitting centers. • Tb{sup 3+}:LiMgPO{sub 4} with colorful emissions are obtained by simply adjusting the Tb concentration. • The energy transfer method is implied by calculating the index of electric multipole interaction. • Either the dipole–dipole or exchange interaction method is proposed for each emission. - Abstract: Tunable photoluminescence of Tb{sup 3+}-doped LiMgPO{sub 4} (Tb{sup 3+}:LiMgPO{sub 4}) phosphors with different Tb{sup 3+} concentrations are successfully synthesized by a high temperature solid-state reaction routine. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescent spectroscope (PLS) are employed to characterize the phosphors. It is found that a suitable firing temperature is important for the synthesis of the phosphors, and pure phase material can only be obtained around 900 °C. PL spectra reveals typical {sup 5}D{sub 4} to {sup 7}F{sub j} energy transition of Tb{sup 3+} ions, and the emission colors varied from red to green with Tb{sup 3+} concentration increasing, which is caused by the concentration quenching of Tb{sup 3+} emission centers in the LiMgPO{sub 4} matrix. The emissions peaking at 591, 619 and 695 nm are quenched at concentration of 1.5%, while the emissions at 489 nm and 543 nm are quenched at concentration of 8%. Further analysis of the data reveals two different energy transfer mechanisms for the five emission bands. The dipole–dipole model is proposed for the energy transfer of the red bands peaking at 694 nm, 619 nm and 591 nm, while the exchange interaction model is suggested for that of the green bands (543 nm and 489 nm), due to the different ion separations caused by different Tb concentrations.

  11. DNA fragmentation and nuclear phenotype in tendons exposed to low-intensity infrared laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paoli, Flavia; Ramos Cerqueira, Larissa; Martins Ramos, Mayara; Campos, Vera M.; Ferreira-Machado, Samara C.; Geller, Mauro; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson

    2015-03-01

    Clinical protocols are recommended in device guidelines outlined for treating many diseases on empirical basis. However, effects of low-intensity infrared lasers at fluences used in clinical protocols on DNA are controversial. Excitation of endogenous chromophores in tissues and free radicals generation could be described as a consequence of laser used. DNA lesions induced by free radicals cause changes in DNA structure, chromatin organization, ploidy degrees and cell death. In this work, we investigated whether low-intensity infrared laser therapy could alter the fibroblasts nuclei characteristics and induce DNA fragmentation. Tendons of Wistar rats were exposed to low-intensity infrared laser (830 nm), at different fluences (1, 5 and 10 J/cm2), in continuous wave (power output of 10mW, power density of 79.6 mW/cm2). Different frequencies were analyzed for the higher fluence (10 J/cm2), at pulsed emission mode (2.5, 250 and 2500 Hz), with the laser source at surface of skin. Geometric, densitometric and textural parameters obtained for Feulgen-stained nuclei by image analysis were used to define nuclear phenotypes. Significant differences were observed on the nuclear phenotype of tendons after exposure to laser, as well as, high cell death percentages was observed for all fluences and frequencies analyzed here, exception 1 J/cm2 fluence. Our results indicate that low-intensity infrared laser can alter geometric, densitometric and textural parameters in tendon fibroblasts nuclei. Laser can also induce DNA fragmentation, chromatin lost and consequently cell death, using fluences, frequencies and emission modes took out from clinical protocols.

  12. Seasonal characterization of CDOM for lakes in semi-arid regions of Northeast China using excitation-emission matrices fluorescence and parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Song, K.; Wen, Z.; Li, L.; Zang, S.; Shao, T.; Li, S.; Du, J.

    2015-04-01

    The seasonal characteristics of fluorescence components in CDOM for lakes in the semi-arid region of Northeast China were examined by excitation-emission matrices fluorescence and parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC). Two humic-like peaks C1 (Ex/Em = 230, 300/425 nm) and C2 (Ex/Em = 255, 350/460 nm) and two protein-like B (Ex/Em = 220, 275/320 nm) and T (Ex/Em = 225, 290/360 nm) peaks were identified using PARAFAC. The average fluorescence intensity of the four components differed with seasonal variation from June and August 2013 to February and April 2014. The total fluorescence intensity significantly varied from 2.54 ± 0.68 nm-1 in June to the mean value 1.93 ± 0.70 nm-1 in August 2013, and then increased to 2.34 ± 0.92 nm-1 in February and reduced to the lowest 1.57 ± 0.55 nm-1 in April 2014. In general, the fluorescence intensity was dominated by peak C1, indicating that most part of CDOM for inland waters being investigated in this study was originated from phytoplankton degradation. The lowest C2 represents only a small portion of CDOM from terrestrial imported organic matter to water bodies through rainwash and soil leaching. The two protein-like intensities (B and T) formed in situ through microbial activity have almost the same intensity. Especially, in August 2013 and February 2014, the two protein-like peaks showed obviously difference from other seasons and the highest C1 (1.02 nm-1) was present in February 2014. Components 1 and 2 exhibited strong linear correlation (R2 = 0.633). There were significantly positive linear relationships between CDOM absorption coefficients a(254) (R2 = 0.72, 0.46, p DOC. However, almost no obvious correlation was found between salinity and EEM-PARAFAC extracted components except for C3 (R2 = 0.469). Results from this investigation demonstrate that the EEM-PARAFAC technique can be used to evaluate the seasonal dynamics of CDOM fluorescence components for inland waters in semi-arid regions of Northeast China.

  13. Determination of Metals Present in Textile Dyes Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Cross-Validation Using Inductively Coupled Plasma/Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rehan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS was used for the quantitative analysis of elements present in textile dyes at ambient pressure via the fundamental mode (1064 nm of a Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Three samples were collected for this purpose. Spectra of textile dyes were acquired using an HR spectrometer (LIBS2000+, Ocean Optics, Inc. having an optical resolution of 0.06 nm in the spectral range of 200 to 720 nm. Toxic metals like Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn along with other elements like Al, Mg, Ca, and Na were revealed to exist in the samples. The %-age concentrations of the detected elements were measured by means of standard calibration curve method, intensities of every emission from every species, and calibration-free (CF LIBS approach. Only Sample 3 was found to contain heavy metals like Cr, Cu, and Ni above the prescribed limit. The results using LIBS were found to be in good agreement when compared to outcomes of inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES.

  14. Effect of composition on the spontaneous emission probabilities, stimulated emission cross-sections and local environment of Tm{sup 3+} in TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezen, G. E-mail: gozenl@itu.edu.tr; Aydinli, A.; Cenk, S.; Sennaroglu, A

    2003-04-01

    Effect of composition on the structure, spontaneous and stimulated emission probabilities of various 1.0 mol% Tm{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped (1-x)TeO{sub 2}+(x)WO{sub 3} glasses were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV/VIS/NIR) absorption and luminescence measurements. Absorption measurements in the UV/VIS/NIR region were used to determine spontaneous emission probabilities for the 4f-4f transitions of Tm{sup 3+} ions. Six absorption bands corresponding to the absorption of the {sup 1}G{sub 4}, {sup 3}F{sub 2}, {sup 3}F{sub 3} and {sup 3}F{sub 4}, {sup 3}H{sub 5} and {sup 3}H{sub 4} levels from the {sup 3}H{sub 6} ground level were observed. Integrated absorption cross-section of each band except that of {sup 3}H{sub 5} level was found to vary with the glass composition. Luminescence spectra of the samples were measured upon 457.9 nm excitation. Three emission bands centered at 476 nm ({sup 1}G{sub 4}{yields}{sup 3}H{sub 6} transition), 651 nm ({sup 1}G{sub 4}{yields}{sup 3}H{sub 4} transition) and 800 nm ({sup 1}G{sub 4}{yields}{sup 3}H{sub 5} transition) were observed. Spontaneous emission cross-sections together with the luminescence spectra measured upon 457.9 nm excitation were used to determine the stimulated emission cross-sections of these emissions. The effect of glass composition on the Judd-Ofelt parameters and therefore on the spontaneous and the stimulated emission cross-sections for the metastable levels of Tm{sup 3+} ions were discussed in detail. The effect of temperature on the stimulated emission cross-sections for the emissions observed upon 457.9 nm excitation was also discussed.

  15. Laser de baixa intensidade (830 nm na recuperação funcional do nervo isquiático de ratos Low intensity laser (830 nm functional to recover of the sciatic nerve in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Marcio Marcolino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do laser de baixa intensidade na melhora funcional da marcha de ratos após esmagamento do nervo ciático. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 18 ratos divididos alea-to-riamente em dois grupos: controle (sham e irradiado com densidade de energia de 40J/cm², em 21 dias consecutivos, utilizando o laser 830nm (AsGaAl. Os animais foram submetidos ao esmagamento do nervo ciático direito com o dispositivo portátil de peso morto e avaliados pelo "Índice Funcional do Ciático" (IFC. As pegadas foram coletadas no pré-operatório, 7º, 14º e 21º dias pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Os resultados do IFC foram significantes quando comparados os grupos no 7º e 14º dia pós-operatório (pOBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of low-intensity laser on functional improvement of the walking of rats after sciatic nerve axonotmesis. METHODS: We used 18 rats divided randomly in two groups: control (Sham and irradiated with an energy density of 40J/cm² for 21 consecutive days, using 830nm laser (AsGaAl. The animals were subjected to right sciatic nerve crushing by a portable device and assessed by the "Sciatic Functional Index" (SFI at an acrylic platform through video recorded by a digital camera. The footprints were collected preoperatively, and on the 7th, 14th and 21st postoperative days. RESULTS: The results of the SFI were significant when comparing the groups on the 7th and 14th postoperative day (p<0.05. On the 21st postoperative day there was no difference between groups. There were intra-group differences detected in each evaluated week (p<0.01. The irradiated animals showed improvement in motion pattern, shown by the SFI values in the initial periods, but after 3 weeks, there was a similar recovery. CONCLUSION: The low-intensity laser has shown to be effective in accelerating regeneration of the sciatic nerve of rats after crushing.

  16. A combined remote Raman and LIBS instrument for characterizing minerals with 532 nm laser excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shiv K; Misra, Anupam K; Lucey, Paul G; Lentz, Rachel C F

    2009-08-01

    The authors have developed an integrated remote Raman and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system for measuring both the Raman and LIBS spectra of minerals with a single 532 nm laser line of 35 mJ/pulse and 20 Hz. The instrument has been used for analyzing both Raman and LIBS spectra of carbonates, sulfates, hydrous and anhydrous silicates, and iron oxide minerals in air. These experiments demonstrate that by focusing a frequency-doubled 532 nm Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam with a 10x beam expander to a 529-microm diameter spot on a mineral surface located at 9 m, it is possible to measure simultaneously both the remote Raman and LIBS spectra of calcite, gypsum and olivine by adjusting the laser power electronically. The spectra of calcite, gypsum, and olivine contain fingerprint Raman lines; however, it was not possible to measure the remote Raman spectra of magnetite and hematite at 9 m because of strong absorption of 532 nm laser radiation and low intensities of Raman lines from these minerals. The remote LIBS spectra of both magnetite and hematite contain common iron emission lines but show difference in the minor amount of Li present in these two minerals. Remote Raman and LIBS spectra of a number of carbonates, sulfates, feldspars and phyllosilicates at a distance of 9 m were measured with a 532-nm laser operating at 35 mJ/pulse and by changing photon flux density at the sample by varying the spot diameter from 10 mm for Raman to 530 microm for LIBS measurements. The complementary nature of these spectra is highlighted and discussed. The combined Raman and LIBS system can also be re-configured to perform micro-Raman and micro-LIBS analyses, which have applications in trace/residue analysis and analysis of very small samples in the nano-gram range.

  17. Hydrodynamic time scales for intense laser-heated clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Enrique; Alexeev, Ilya; Fan, Jingyun; Kim, Kiong Y.; McNaught, Stuart J.; Milchberg, Howard M.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements are presented of x-ray (>1.5 keV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV, λ equal to 2-44 nm) emission from argon clusters irradiated with constant-energy (50 mJ), variable-width laser pulses ranging from 100 fs to 10 ns. The results for clusters can be understood in terms of two time scales: a short time scale for optimal resonant absorption at the critical-density layer in the expanding plasma, and a longer time scale for the plasma to drop below critical density. We present a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the intense laser-cluster interaction in which the laser field is treated self-consistently. We find that nonuniform expansion of the heated material results in long-time resonance of the laser field at the critical-density plasma layer. These simulations explain the dependence of generation efficiency on laser pulse width

  18. AN XMM-NEWTON SURVEY OF THE SOFT X-RAY BACKGROUND. II. AN ALL-SKY CATALOG OF DIFFUSE O VII AND O VIII EMISSION INTENSITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2012-01-01

    We present an all-sky catalog of diffuse O VII and O VIII line intensities, extracted from archival XMM-Newton observations. This catalog supersedes our previous catalog, which covered the sky between l = 120° and l = 240°. We attempted to reduce the contamination from near-Earth solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission by excluding times of high solar wind proton flux from the data. Without this filtering, we were able to extract measurements from 1868 observations. With this filtering, nearly half of the observations became unusable, and only 1003 observations yielded measurements. The O VII and O VIII intensities are typically ∼2-11 and ∼ –2 s –1 sr –1 (line unit, L.U.), respectively, although much brighter intensities were also recorded. Our data set includes 217 directions that have been observed multiple times by XMM-Newton. The time variation of the intensities from such directions may be used to constrain SWCX models. The O VII and O VIII intensities typically vary by ∼ 10 L.U. were observed. We compared our measurements with models of the heliospheric and geocoronal SWCX. The heliospheric SWCX intensity is expected to vary with ecliptic latitude and solar cycle. We found that the observed oxygen intensities generally decrease from solar maximum to solar minimum, both at high ecliptic latitudes (which is as expected) and at low ecliptic latitudes (which is not as expected). The geocoronal SWCX intensity is expected to depend on the solar wind proton flux incident on the Earth and on the sightline's path through the magnetosheath. The intensity variations seen in directions that have been observed multiple times are in poor agreement with the predictions of a geocoronal SWCX model. We found that the oxygen lines account for ∼40%-50% of the 3/4 keV X-ray background that is not due to unresolved active galactic nuclei, in good agreement with a previous measurement. However, we found that this fraction is not easily explainable by a

  19. Ho-doped SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} multifunctional ceramics with bright green emission and good electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lei; Hao, Jigong; Li, Wei [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng (China); Xu, Zhijun; Chu, Ruiqing [School of Environmental and Materials Engineering, Yantai University, Yantai (China)

    2017-10-15

    Ho{sup 3+}-doped SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} multifunctional ferroelectric ceramics with bright green light emission and good electrical properties were fabricated in this work. Under blue light excitation, samples showed bright green light with two typical emission bands: a strong green emission centered at 545 nm corresponding to the intra f-f transition from the excited {sup 5}S{sub 2} to the ground state {sup 5}I{sub 8} and a relatively weak red emission located 653 nm induced by the {sup 5}F{sub 5} → {sup 5}I{sub 8} transition of Ho{sup 3+}. Due to the concentration quenching effect, the intensity of emission was strongly dependent on the doping concentration. Furthermore, the electrical properties have improved by Ho{sup 3+} doping. At x = 0.004, samples exhibit optimal electrical properties with high Curie temperature (T{sub c} = 441 C) and large 2P{sub r} and d{sub 33} values (2P{sub r} = 15.54 μC cm{sup -2}, d{sub 33} = 19 pC/N). These results demonstrate that the SBN-xHo ceramics possess excellent multifunctional properties to achieve a variety of applications. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Acoustic emission intensity analysis of corrosion in prestressed concrete piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, William; Matta, Fabio; Ziehl, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Corrosion of steel strands in prestressed concrete (PC) bridges may lead to substantial damage or collapse well before the end of the design life. Acoustic Emission (AE) is a suitable nondestructive technique to detect and locate corrosion in reinforced and prestressed concrete, which is key to prioritize inspection and maintenance. An effective tool to analyze damage-related AE data is intensity analysis (IA), which is based on two data trends, namely Severity (average signal strength of high amplitude hits) and Historic Index (ratio of the average signal strength of the most recent hits to the average of all hits). IA criteria for corrosion assessment in PC were recently proposed based on empirical evidence from accelerated corrosion tests. In this paper, AE data from prestressed and non-prestressed concrete pile specimens exposed to salt water wet-dry cycling for over 600 days are used to analyze the relation between Severity and Historic Index and actual corrosion. Evidence of corrosion is gained from the inspection of decommissioned specimens. The selection of suitable J and K parameters for IA is discussed, and an IA chart with updated corrosion criteria for PC piles is presented.

  1. Optimal Fluorescence Waveband Determination for Detecting Defective Cherry Tomatoes Using a Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Suck Baek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A multi-spectral fluorescence imaging technique was used to detect defective cherry tomatoes. The fluorescence excitation and emission matrix was used to measure for defects, sound surface and stem areas to determine the optimal fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths for discrimination. Two-way ANOVA revealed the optimal excitation wavelength for detecting defect areas was 410 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to the fluorescence emission spectra of all regions at 410 nm excitation to determine the emission wavelengths for defect detection. The major emission wavelengths were 688 nm and 506 nm for the detection. Fluorescence images combined with the determined emission wavebands demonstrated the feasibility of detecting defective cherry tomatoes with >98% accuracy. Multi-spectral fluorescence imaging has potential utility in non-destructive quality sorting of cherry tomatoes.

  2. The regulatory role of endogenous iron on greenhouse gas emissions under intensive nitrogen fertilization in subtropical soils of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiangpei; Shi, Liangsheng; Wang, Yakun; Chen, Zhuowei; Wu, Laosheng

    2018-05-01

    Anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to study the regulatory role of endogenous iron in greenhouse gas emissions under intensive nitrogen fertilization in subtropical soils of China. Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ , and NO 3 - -N dynamics and N 2 O, CH 4 , and CO 2 emissions, as well as the relationships between N fertilizer, endogenous iron, and greenhouse gas emissions were investigated. The emissions of N 2 O increased to different extents from all the test soils by N1 (260 mg N kg -1 ) application compared with N0. After 24 days of anaerobic incubation, the cumulative emissions of N 2 O from red soils in De'an (DR) were significantly higher than that from paddy soils in De'an (DP) and Qujialing (QP) under N1. However, N application enhanced CH 4 and CO 2 emissions from the red soils slightly but inhibited the emissions from paddy soils. The maximal CH 4 and CO 2 emission fluxes occurred in DP soil without N input. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that there were significant correlations (P greenhouse gas emissions mainly through the involvement in denitrification. The proportion of the electrons donated by Fe 2+ used for N 2 O production in denitrification in DP soil was approximately 37.53%. Moreover, positive correlations between Fe 2+ and CH 4 , CO 2 were found in both DR and QP soils, suggesting that endogenous iron might regulate the anaerobic decomposition of organic carbon to CH 4 and CO 2 in the two soils. Soil pH was also an important factor controlling greenhouse gas emissions by affecting endogenous iron availability and C and N transformation processes.

  3. Structure, composition, morphology, photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties of ZnGeN{sub 2} and ZnGeN{sub 2}:Mn{sup 2+} for field emission displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q.-H. [MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275 (China); Guangzhou Research Institute of Non-ferrous Metals, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510651 (China); Wang, J., E-mail: ceswj@mail.sysu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275 (China); Yeh, C.-W.; Ke, W.-C.; Liu, R.-S. [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Tang, J.-K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Xie, M.-B.; Liang, H.-B.; Su, Q. [MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Yellowish-orange-emitting ZnGeN{sub 2} and orange-red-emitting ZnGeN{sub 2}:Mn were synthesized by a facile and mild gas-reduction-nitridation reaction at 1153 K under NH{sub 3} flow with air-stable raw materials ZnO, GeO{sub 2} and MnCO{sub 3}. The structure, composition, morphology, photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties of ZnGeN{sub 2} doped with or without Mn{sup 2+} were systematically investigated. Rietveld refinements show that the as-synthesized samples are obtained as single-phase compounds and crystallize as an orthorhombic structure with a space group of Pna2{sub 1}. The actual chemical composition of the as-prepared ZnGeN{sub 2} determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggests that the Ge vacancy defects probably exist in the host. The SEM image reveals that the Zn{sub 0.99}Mn{sub 0.01}GeN{sub 2} particles form aggregates {approx}500-600 nm in size. The diffuse reflection spectrum and photoluminescence excitation spectrum confirm that the band edge absorption of ZnGeN{sub 2} at low energy is 3.3 eV ({approx}376 nm). Upon UV light excitation and electron beam excitation, ZnGeN{sub 2} gives an intense yellowish-orange emission around 580-600 nm, associated with a deep defect level due to the Ge vacancy defects, and ZnGeN{sub 2}:Mn shows an intense red emission at 610 nm due to the {sup 4}T{sub 1g}({sup 4}G) {yields} 6A{sub 1g}({sup 6}S) of Mn{sup 2+}. The unusual red emission of Mn{sup 2+} in tetrahedral Zn{sup 2+} sites is attributed to the strong nephelauxetic effect between Mn{sup 2+} and the surrounding tetrahedrally coordinated nitrogen. The photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence emission colors of ZnGeN{sub 2}:Mn have a high color purity of {approx}93-98%. These results demonstrate that ZnGeN{sub 2}:Mn is a novel, promising red-emitting nitride, potentially applicable to field emission displays with brilliant color-rendering properties and a large color gamut.

  4. Short-wavelength out-of-band EUV emission from Sn laser-produced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torretti, F.; Schupp, R.; Kurilovich, D.; Bayerle, A.; Scheers, J.; Ubachs, W.; Hoekstra, R.; Versolato, O. O.

    2018-02-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic measurements in the extreme ultraviolet regime (7-17 nm) of molten tin microdroplets illuminated by a high-intensity 3 J, 60 ns Nd:YAG laser pulse. The strong 13.5 nm emission from this laser-produced plasma (LPP) is of relevance for next-generation nanolithography machines. Here, we focus on the shorter wavelength features between 7 and 12 nm which have so far remained poorly investigated despite their diagnostic relevance. Using flexible atomic code calculations and local thermodynamic equilibrium arguments, we show that the line features in this region of the spectrum can be explained by transitions from high-lying configurations within the Sn{}8+-Sn{}15+ ions. The dominant transitions for all ions but Sn{}8+ are found to be electric-dipole transitions towards the n = 4 ground state from the core-excited configuration in which a 4p electron is promoted to the 5s subshell. Our results resolve some long-standing spectroscopic issues and provide reliable charge state identification for Sn LPP, which could be employed as a useful tool for diagnostic purposes.

  5. Strong visible-light emission of ZnS nanocrystals embedded in sol-gel silica xerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ping; Lue, M.-K.; Song, C.-F.; Zhou, G.-J.; Ai, Z.-P.; Xu Dong; Yuan, D.-R.; Cheng, X.-F.

    2003-01-01

    ZnS nanoparticles embedded in novel porous phosphor silica xerogel have been synthesized by sol-gel processing. Their fluorescence properties have been evaluated and compared with those of the Na + -doped and un-doped silica xerogels. Stable and strong visible-light emission of the doped samples has been observed. The relative fluorescence intensities of the samples doped with ZnS nanoparticles (S 2- ions have been obtained by the water solution of NaS) are the highest among all of the doped samples. Its relative fluorescence intensity is about 7.5 times of that of the un-doped silica xerogel and about 300 times of that of pure ZnS nanoparticles. The emission wavelength of the ZnS-doped and Na + -doped samples is the same as that of the un-doped silica xerogel and ZnS nanoparticles (λ em =440-450 nm). This high efficiency luminescence of the doped silica xerogels has been assigned to the luminescence centers of ZnS nanoparticles and Na + in the porous phosphorescence silica xerogel

  6. Broadband white light emission from Ce:AlN ceramics: High thermal conductivity down-converters for LED and laser-driven solid state lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Wieg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce high thermal conductivity aluminum nitride (AlN as a transparent ceramic host for Ce3+, a well-known active ion dopant. We show that the Ce:AlN ceramics have overlapping photoluminescent (PL emission peaks that cover almost the entire visible range resulting in a white appearance under 375 nm excitation without the need for color mixing. The PL is due to a combination of intrinsic AlN defect complexes and Ce3+ electronic transitions. Importantly, the peak intensities can be tuned by varying the Ce concentration and processing parameters, causing different shades of white light without the need for multiple phosphors or light sources. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage coordinates calculated from the measured spectra confirm white light emission. In addition, we demonstrate the viability of laser driven white light emission by coupling the Ce:AlN to a readily available frequency tripled Nd-YAG laser emitting at 355 nm. The high thermal conductivity of these ceramic down-converters holds significant promise for producing higher power white light sources than those available today.

  7. Characteristics of merging at the magnetopause inferred from dayside 557.7-nm all-sky images: IMF drivers of poleward moving auroral forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Maynard

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We combine in situ measurements from Cluster with high-resolution 557.7 nm all-sky images from South Pole to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of merging on the dayside magnetopause. Variations of 557.7 nm emissions were observed at a 6 s cadence at South Pole on 29 April 2003 while significant changes in the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF clock angle were reaching the magnetopause. Electrons energized at merging sites are the probable sources for 557.7 nm cusp emissions. At the same time Cluster was crossing the pre-noon cusp in the Northern Hemisphere. The combined observations confirm results of a previous study that merging events can occur at multiple sites simultaneously and vary asynchronously on time scales of 10 s to 3 min (Maynard et al., 2004. The intensity of the emissions and the merging rate appear to vary with changes in the IMF clock angle, IMF BX and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind. Most poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs reflect responses to changes in interplanetary medium rather than to local processes. The changes in magnetopause position required by increases in dynamic pressure are mediated by merging and result in the generation of PMAFs. Small (15–20% variations in dynamic pressure of the solar wind are sufficient to launch PMAFs. Changes in IMF BX create magnetic flux compressions and rarefactions in the solar wind. Increases (decreases in IMF BX strengthens |B| near northern (southern hemisphere merging sites thereby enhancing merging rates and triggering PMAFs. When correlating responses in the two hemispheres, the presence of significant IMF BX also requires that different lag-times be applied to ACE measurements acquired ~0.1 AU upstream of Earth. Cluster observations set lag times for merging at Northern Hemisphere sites; post-noon optical emissions set times of Southern Hemisphere merging. All-sky images and magnetohydrodynamic simulations indicate that merging occurs in multiple

  8. Emission spectroscopy of highly ionized high-temperature plasma jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belevtsev, A A; Chinnov, V F; Isakaev, E Kh [Associated Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences Izhorskaya 13/19, Moscow, 125412 (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-01

    This paper deals with advanced studies on the optical emission spectroscopy of atmospheric pressure highly ionized high-temperature argon and nitrogen plasma jets generated by a powerful arc plasmatron. The emission spectra are taken in the 200-1000 nm range with a spectral resolution of {approx}0.01-0.02 nm. The exposure times are 6 x 10{sup -6}-2 x 10{sup -2} s, the spatial resolution is 0.02-0.03 mm. The recorded jet spectra are abundant in spectral lines originating from different ionization stages. In nitrogen plasmas, tens of vibronic bands are also observed. To interpret and process these spectra such that plasma characteristics can be derived, a purpose-developed automated processing system is applied. The use of a CCD camera at the spectrograph output allows a simultaneous recording of the spectral and chord intensity distributions of spectral lines, which can yet belong to the overlapped spectra of the first and second orders of interference. The modern optical diagnostic means and methods used permit the determination of spatial distributions of electron number densities and temperatures and evaluation of rotational temperatures. The radial profiles of the irradiating plasma components can also be obtained. Special attention is given to the method of deriving rotational temperatures using vibronic bands with an incompletely identified rotational structure.

  9. Influence of sample temperature on the expansion dynamics and the optical emission of laser-induced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eschlböck-Fuchs, S.; Haslinger, M.J.; Hinterreiter, A.; Kolmhofer, P.; Huber, N. [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Laser-Assisted Diagnostics, Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Rössler, R. [voestalpine Stahl GmbH, A-4031 Linz (Austria); Heitz, J. [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Laser-Assisted Diagnostics, Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Pedarnig, J.D., E-mail: johannes.pedarnig@jku.at [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Laser-Assisted Diagnostics, Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the influence of sample temperature on the dynamics and optical emission of laser induced plasma for various solid materials. Bulk aluminum alloy, silicon wafer, and metallurgical slag samples are heated to temperature T{sub S} ≤ 500 °C and ablated in air by Nd:YAG laser pulses (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse duration approx. 7 ns). The plasma dynamics is investigated by fast time-resolved photography. For laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) the optical emission of plasma is measured by Echelle spectrometers in combination with intensified CCD cameras. For all sample materials the temporal evolution of plume size and broadband plasma emission vary systematically with T{sub S}. The size and brightness of expanding plumes increase at higher T{sub S} while the mean intensity remains independent of temperature. The intensity of emission lines increases with temperature for all samples. Plasma temperature and electron number density do not vary with T{sub S}. We apply the calibration-free LIBS method to determine the concentration of major oxides in slag and find good agreement to reference data up to T{sub S} = 450 °C. The LIBS analysis of multi-component materials at high temperature is of interest for technical applications, e.g. in industrial production processes. - Highlights: • Size and emission of laser-induced plasma increase with sample temperature Ts. • Mean optical intensity of plasma is independent of Ts. • Plasma temperature and electron number density do not vary with Ts. • Major oxides in steel slag are quantified up to Ts = 450 °C. • Industrial steel slags are analyzed by calibration-free LIBS method.

  10. Cosmology on ultralarge scales with intensity mapping of the neutral hydrogen 21 cm emission: limits on primordial non-Gaussianity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Stefano; Santos, Mário G; Ferreira, Pedro G; Ferramacho, Luís

    2013-10-25

    The large-scale structure of the Universe supplies crucial information about the physical processes at play at early times. Unresolved maps of the intensity of 21 cm emission from neutral hydrogen HI at redshifts z=/~1-5 are the best hope of accessing the ultralarge-scale information, directly related to the early Universe. A purpose-built HI intensity experiment may be used to detect the large scale effects of primordial non-Gaussianity, placing stringent bounds on different models of inflation. We argue that it may be possible to place tight constraints on the non-Gaussianity parameter f(NL), with an error close to σ(f(NL))~1.

  11. Defect studies in quartz: Composite nature of the blue and UV emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Marco, E-mail: m.martini@unimib.it [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, via R. Cozzi 55, I-20125 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Fasoli, Mauro; Villa, Irene [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, via R. Cozzi 55, I-20125 Milano (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Quartz is an extremely diffused natural luminescence dosimeter. Thanks to the presence of traps and luminescence centres, its TSL and OSL (Thermally and Optically Stimulated Luminescence) properties have been extensively exploited. Quartz is then used for archaeological and geological dating and is one of the most useful materials for accident dosimetry. Many luminescence emissions are known to be present in the OSL and TSL of quartz. Three main emission bands are always reported, as the red, blue and UV bands, centred at around 650, 470, and 360–380 nm, respectively. Although the assignment of the luminescence emissions to specific defect centres in quartz is still undefined, a thorough analysis of the radioluminescence emissions and their response to irradiation and thermal treatments turned out to be very useful in understanding many features. Specifically, the presence of the same emission bands in natural and synthetic quartz and their dependence on the presence of extrinsic impurities is a common characteristic. The main impurities involve Al ions substituting Si ones and charge compensated by nearby either alkali ions, H{sup +}, or a hole. The emission spectra dynamics evidenced in our experiment confirm the role of Al-related centres in the luminescence properties of quartz. From the measurements presented in this paper the composite nature of the “blue” emission is confirmed. Two bands labelled as A at 2.5 eV and B at 2.8 eV contribute to the emission in this region, their behaviour being different as a function of irradiation. More complex is the picture in the UV region, where, besides the already detected C and D bands at 3.4 eV and 3.9 eV, respectively, two further emissions have been detected at 3.1 eV and 3.7 eV. Despite both the 3.4 eV and the 3.7 eV bands are shown to be affected by thermal treatments, the annealing temperature dependence of their intensity is markedly different. In fact, whereas the C band intensity, at 3.4 eV, increases

  12. Defect studies in quartz: Composite nature of the blue and UV emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, Marco; Fasoli, Mauro; Villa, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Quartz is an extremely diffused natural luminescence dosimeter. Thanks to the presence of traps and luminescence centres, its TSL and OSL (Thermally and Optically Stimulated Luminescence) properties have been extensively exploited. Quartz is then used for archaeological and geological dating and is one of the most useful materials for accident dosimetry. Many luminescence emissions are known to be present in the OSL and TSL of quartz. Three main emission bands are always reported, as the red, blue and UV bands, centred at around 650, 470, and 360–380 nm, respectively. Although the assignment of the luminescence emissions to specific defect centres in quartz is still undefined, a thorough analysis of the radioluminescence emissions and their response to irradiation and thermal treatments turned out to be very useful in understanding many features. Specifically, the presence of the same emission bands in natural and synthetic quartz and their dependence on the presence of extrinsic impurities is a common characteristic. The main impurities involve Al ions substituting Si ones and charge compensated by nearby either alkali ions, H + , or a hole. The emission spectra dynamics evidenced in our experiment confirm the role of Al-related centres in the luminescence properties of quartz. From the measurements presented in this paper the composite nature of the “blue” emission is confirmed. Two bands labelled as A at 2.5 eV and B at 2.8 eV contribute to the emission in this region, their behaviour being different as a function of irradiation. More complex is the picture in the UV region, where, besides the already detected C and D bands at 3.4 eV and 3.9 eV, respectively, two further emissions have been detected at 3.1 eV and 3.7 eV. Despite both the 3.4 eV and the 3.7 eV bands are shown to be affected by thermal treatments, the annealing temperature dependence of their intensity is markedly different. In fact, whereas the C band intensity, at 3.4 eV, increases after

  13. The cause of spatial structure in solar He I 1083 nm multiplet images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaarts, Jorrit; Golding, Thomas; Carlsson, Mats; Libbrecht, Tine; Joshi, Jayant

    2016-10-01

    Context. The He I 1083 nm is a powerful diagnostic for inferring properties of the upper solar chromosphere, in particular for the magnetic field. The basic formation of the line in one-dimensional models is well understood, but the influence of the complex three-dimensional structure of the chromosphere and corona has however never been investigated. This structure must play an essential role because images taken in He I 1083 nm show structures with widths down to 100 km. Aims: We aim to understand the effect of the three-dimensional temperature and density structure in the solar atmosphere on the formation of the He I 1083 nm line. Methods: We solved the non-LTE radiative transfer problem assuming statistical equilibrium for a simple nine-level helium atom that nevertheless captures all essential physics. As a model atmosphere we used a snapshot from a 3D radiation-MHD simulation computed with the Bifrost code. Ionising radiation from the corona was self-consistently taken into account. Results: The emergent intensity in the He I 1083 nm is set by the source function and the opacity in the upper chromosphere. The former is dominated by scattering of photospheric radiation and does not vary much with spatial location. The latter is determined by the photonionisation rate in the He I ground state continuum, as well as the electron density in the chromosphere. The spatial variation of the flux of ionising radiation is caused by the spatially-structured emissivity of the ionising photons from material at T ≈ 100 kK in the transition region. The hotter coronal material produces more ionising photons, but the resulting radiation field is smooth and does not lead to small-scale variation of the UV flux. The corrugation of the transition region further increases the spatial variation of the amount of UV radiation in the chromosphere. Finally we find that variations in the chromospheric electron density also cause strong variation in He I 1083 nm opacity. We compare our

  14. Electron emission of cathode holder of vacuum diode of an intense electron-beam accelerator and its effect on the output voltage

    OpenAIRE

    Xin-Bing Cheng; Jin-Liang Liu; Hong-Bo Zhang; Zhi-Qiang Hong; Bao-Liang Qian

    2011-01-01

    The vacuum diode which is used to generate relativistic electron beams is one of the most important parts of a pulsed-power modulator. In this paper, the electron