WorldWideScience

Sample records for nitrogen fixing bacterial

  1. Nitrogen fertilization has a stronger effect on soil nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities than elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthrong, Sean T; Yeager, Chris M; Gallegos-Graves, Laverne; Steven, Blaire; Eichorst, Stephanie A; Jackson, Robert B; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2014-05-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is the primary supply of N to most ecosystems, yet there is considerable uncertainty about how N-fixing bacteria will respond to global change factors such as increasing atmospheric CO2 and N deposition. Using the nifH gene as a molecular marker, we studied how the community structure of N-fixing soil bacteria from temperate pine, aspen, and sweet gum stands and a brackish tidal marsh responded to multiyear elevated CO2 conditions. We also examined how N availability, specifically, N fertilization, interacted with elevated CO2 to affect these communities in the temperate pine forest. Based on data from Sanger sequencing and quantitative PCR, the soil nifH composition in the three forest systems was dominated by species in the Geobacteraceae and, to a lesser extent, Alphaproteobacteria. The N-fixing-bacterial-community structure was subtly altered after 10 or more years of elevated atmospheric CO2, and the observed shifts differed in each biome. In the pine forest, N fertilization had a stronger effect on nifH community structure than elevated CO2 and suppressed the diversity and abundance of N-fixing bacteria under elevated atmospheric CO2 conditions. These results indicate that N-fixing bacteria have complex, interacting responses that will be important for understanding ecosystem productivity in a changing climate.

  2. Effect of vegetation types on soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities in a karst region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yueming; Pan, Fujing; He, Xunyang; Chen, Xiangbi; Su, Yirong

    2016-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria play important roles in plant growth and recovery in degraded ecosystems. The desertification in karst regions has become more severe in recent decades. Evaluation of the fungal and bacterial diversity of such regions during vegetation restoration is required for effective protection and restoration in these regions. Therefore, we analyzed relationships among AM fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria abundances, plant species diversity, and soil properties in four typical ecosystems of vegetation restoration (tussock (TK), shrub (SB), secondary forest (SF), and primary forest (PF)) in a karst region of southwest China. Abundance of AM fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, plant species diversity, and soil nutrient levels increased from the tussock to the primary forest. The AM fungus, nitrogen-fixing bacterium, and plant community composition differed significantly between vegetation types (p fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, respectively. Available phosphorus, total nitrogen, and soil organic carbon levels and plant richness were positively correlated with the abundance of AM fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (p fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria increased from the tussock to the primary forest and highlight the essentiality of these communities for vegetation restoration.

  3. An antimicrobial peptide essential for bacterial survival in the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Chen, Yuhui; Xi, Jiejun; Waters, Christopher; Chen, Rujin; Wang, Dong

    2015-12-08

    In the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between legume hosts and rhizobia, the bacteria are engulfed by a plant cell membrane to become intracellular organelles. In the model legume Medicago truncatula, internalization and differentiation of Sinorhizobium (also known as Ensifer) meliloti is a prerequisite for nitrogen fixation. The host mechanisms that ensure the long-term survival of differentiating intracellular bacteria (bacteroids) in this unusual association are unclear. The M. truncatula defective nitrogen fixation4 (dnf4) mutant is unable to form a productive symbiosis, even though late symbiotic marker genes are expressed in mutant nodules. We discovered that in the dnf4 mutant, bacteroids can apparently differentiate, but they fail to persist within host cells in the process. We found that the DNF4 gene encodes NCR211, a member of the family of nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides. The phenotype of dnf4 suggests that NCR211 acts to promote the intracellular survival of differentiating bacteroids. The greatest expression of DNF4 was observed in the nodule interzone II-III, where bacteroids undergo differentiation. A translational fusion of DNF4 with GFP localizes to the peribacteroid space, and synthetic NCR211 prevents free-living S. meliloti from forming colonies, in contrast to mock controls, suggesting that DNF4 may interact with bacteroids directly or indirectly for its function. Our findings indicate that a successful symbiosis requires host effectors that not only induce bacterial differentiation, but also that maintain intracellular bacteroids during the host-symbiont interaction. The discovery of NCR211 peptides that maintain bacterial survival inside host cells has important implications for improving legume crops.

  4. Competition and facilitation between the marine nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Cyanothece and its associated bacterial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, Verena S; Stomp, Maayke; Bouvier, Thierry; Fouilland, Eric; Leboulanger, Christophe; Confurius-Guns, Veronique; Weissing, Franz J; Stal, Lucas J; Huisman, Jef

    2015-01-01

    N2-fixing cyanobacteria represent a major source of new nitrogen and carbon for marine microbial communities, but little is known about their ecological interactions with associated microbiota. In this study we investigated the interactions between the unicellular N2-fixing cyanobacterium Cyanothece

  5. Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterial populations trapped from soils under agroforestry systems in the Western Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marcela Duque Jaramillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is an important grain-producing legume that can forego nitrogen fertilization by establishing an efficient symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Although inoculating strains have already been selected for this species, little is known about the genotypic and symbiotic diversity of native rhizobia. Recently, Bradyrhizobium has been shown to be the genus most frequently trapped by cowpea in agricultural soils of the Amazon region. We investigated the genetic and symbiotic diversity of 148 bacterial strains with different phenotypic and cultural properties isolated from the nodules of the trap species cowpea, which was inoculated with samples from soils under agroforestry systems from the western Amazon. Sixty non-nodulating strains indicated a high frequency of endophytic strains in the nodules. The 88 authenticated strains had varying symbiotic efficiency. The SPAD (Soil Plant Analysis Development index (indirect measurement of chlorophyll content was more efficient at evaluating the contribution of symbiotic N2-fixation than shoot dry matter under axenic conditions. Cowpea-nodulating bacteria exhibited a high level of genetic diversity, with 68 genotypes identified by BOX-PCR. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed a predominance of the genus Bradyrhizobium, which accounted for 70 % of all strains sequenced. Other genera identified were Rhizobium, Ochrobactrum, Paenibacillus, Bosea, Bacillus, Enterobacter, and Stenotrophomonas. These results support the promiscuity of cowpea and demonstrate the high genetic and symbiotic diversity of rhizobia in soils under agroforestry systems, with some strains exhibiting potential for use as inoculants. The predominance of Bradyrhizobium in land uses with different plant communities and soil characteristics reflects the adaptation of this genus to the Amazon region.

  6. Stimulation of Diesel Fuel Biodegradation by Indigenous Nitrogen Fixing Bacterial Consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehler; Swistak; Pinckney; Paerl

    1999-07-01

    > Abstract Successful stimulation of N2 fixation and petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in indigenous microbial consortia may decrease exogenous N requirements and reduce environmental impacts of bioremediation following petroleum pollution. This study explored the biodegradation of petroleum pollution by indigenous N2 fixing marine microbial consortia. Particulate organic carbon (POC) in the form of ground, sterile corn-slash (post-harvest leaves and stems) was added to diesel fuel amended coastal water samples to stimulate biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by native microorganisms capable of supplying a portion of their own N. It was hypothesized that addition of POC to petroleum amended water samples from N-limited coastal waters would promote the growth of N2 fixing consortia and enhance biodegradation of petroleum. Manipulative experiments were conducted using samples from coastal waters (marinas and less polluted control site) to determine the effects of POC amendment on biodegradation of petroleum pollution by native microbial consortia. Structure and function of the microbial consortia were determined by measurement of N2 fixation (acetylene reduction), hydrocarbon biodegradation (14C hexadecane mineralization), bacterial biomass (AODC), number of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria (MPN), and bacterial productivity (3H-thymidine incorporation). Throughout this study there was a consistent enhancement of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in response to the addition of POC. Stimulation of diesel fuel biodegradation following the addition of POC was likely attributable to increases in bacterial N2 fixation, diesel fuel bioavailability, bacterial biomass, and metabolic activity. Toxicity of the bulk phase water did not appear to be a factor affecting biodegradation of diesel fuel following POC addition. These results indicate that the addition of POC to diesel-fuel-polluted systems stimulated indigenous N2 fixing microbial consortia to degrade petroleum

  7. Climate change affects key nitrogen-fixing bacterial populations on coral reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Henrique F.; Carmo, Flavia L.; Duarte, Gustavo; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Castro, Clovis B.; Rosado, Alexandre S.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Peixoto, Raquel S.

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs are at serious risk due to events associated with global climate change. Elevated ocean temperatures have unpredictable consequences for the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. The nitrogen cycle is driven by complex microbial transformations, including nitrogen fixation. This study

  8. Climate change affects key nitrogen-fixing bacterial populations on coral reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Henrique F.; Carmo, Flavia L.; Duarte, Gustavo; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Castro, Clovis B.; Rosado, Alexandre S.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Peixoto, Raquel S.

    Coral reefs are at serious risk due to events associated with global climate change. Elevated ocean temperatures have unpredictable consequences for the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. The nitrogen cycle is driven by complex microbial transformations, including nitrogen fixation. This study

  9. Can mushrooms fix atmospheric nitrogen?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Introduction. Rhizobium is a genus of symbiotic N2-fixing soil bacteria that induce ... To produce biofilm cultures, a 2 × 2 cm yeast manitol agar. (YMA) slab was .... determination of antibiotic susceptibilities of bacterial biofilms;. J. Clin. Microbiol.

  10. Utilization of nitrogen fixing trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewbaker, J.L.; Beldt, R. van den; MacDicken, K.; Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O.; Escalante, G.; Herrera, R.; Aranguren, J.; Arkcoll, D.B.; Doebereinger, J. (cord.)

    1983-01-01

    Six papers from the symposium are noted. Brewbaker, J.L., Beldt, R. van den, MacDicken, K. Fuelwood uses and properties of nitrogen-fixing trees, pp 193-204, (Refs. 15). Includes a list of 35 nitrogen-fixing trees of high fuelwood value. Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O. Leguminous trees for shade, pp 205-222, (Refs. 68). Escalante, G., Herrera, R., Aranguren, J.; Nitrogen fixation in shade trees (Erythrina poeppigiana) in cocoa plantations in northern Venezuela, pp 223-230, (Refs. 13). Arkcoll, D.B.; Some leguminous trees providing useful fruits in the North of Brazil, pp 235-239, (Refs. 13). This paper deals with Parkia platycephala, Pentaclethra macroloba, Swartzia sp., Cassia leiandra, Hymenaea courbaril, dipteryz odorata, Inga edulis, I. macrophylla, and I. cinnamonea. Baggio, A.J.; Possibilities of the use of Gliricidia sepium in agroforestry systems in Brazil, pp 241-243; (Refs. 15). Seiffert, N.F.; Biological nitrogen and protein production of Leucaena cultivars grown to supplement the nutrition of ruminants, pp 245-249, (Refs. 14). Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru, L. campina grande (L. leucocephala), and L. cunningham (L. leucocephalae) were promising for use as browse by beef cattle in central Brazil.

  11. Nitrogen availability for nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria upon growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 7120 is able to convert dinitrogen to ammonia in the absence of combined nitrogen. The expression of 20% of coding sequences from all major metabolic categories was examined in nitrogen fixing and non-nitrogen fixing growth conditions. The expression data were correlated ...

  12. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) roots

    KAUST Repository

    Garcias Bonet, Neus

    2016-03-09

    Biological nitrogen fixation by diazotrophic bacteria in seagrass rhizosphere and leaf epiphytic community is an important source of nitrogen required for plant growth. However, the presence of endophytic diazotrophs remains unclear in seagrass tissues. Here, we assess the presence, diversity and taxonomy of nitrogen-fixing bacteria within surface-sterilized roots of Posidonia oceanica. Moreover, we analyze the nitrogen isotopic signature of seagrass tissues in order to notice atmospheric nitrogen fixation. We detected nitrogen-fixing bacteria by nifH gene amplification in 13 out of the 78 roots sampled, corresponding to 9 locations out of 26 meadows. We detected two different types of bacterial nifH sequences associated with P. oceanica roots, which were closely related to sequences previously isolated from the rhizosphere of a salt marsh cord grass and a putative anaerobe. Nitrogen content of seagrass tissues showed low isotopic signatures in all the sampled meadows, pointing out the atmospheric origin of the assimilated nitrogen by seagrasses. However, this was not related with the presence of endophytic nitrogen fixers, suggesting the nitrogen fixation occurring in rhizosphere and in the epiphytic community could be an important source of nitrogen for P. oceanica. The low diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria reported here suggests species-specific relationships between diazotrophs and P. oceanica, revealing possible symbiotic interactions that could play a major role in nitrogen acquisition by seagrasses in oligotrophic environments where they form lush meadows.

  13. Actinorhizal nitrogen fixing nodules: infection process, molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Actinorhizal nitrogen fixing nodules: infection process, molecular biology and genomics. Mariana Obertello, Mame Oureye SY, Laurent Laplaze, Carole Santi, Sergio Svistoonoff, Florence Auguy, Didier Bogusz, Claudine Franche ...

  14. Can mushrooms fix atmospheric nitrogen?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    culation was maintained as a control. At maximum mycelial colonization by the ... cant increase in nitrogen concentration were observed in the inoculated cultures compared to the controls. The mycelial weight reduction could be .... ing of Belgian Administration for Development Corpora- tion (BADC) during that period were ...

  15. Competition and facilitation between unicellular nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria and non-nitrogen-fixing phytoplankton species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agawin, N.S.; Rabouille, S.; Veldhuis, M.; Servatius, L.; Hol, S.; van Overzee, H.M.J.; Huisman, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Recent discoveries show that small unicellular nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are more widespread than previously thought and can make major contributions to the nitrogen budget of the oceans. We combined theory and experiments to investigate competition for nitrogen and light between these

  16. Stress tolerant crops from nitrogen fixing trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, R.; Saunders, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Notes are given on the nutritional quality and uses of: pods of Geoffroea decorticans, a species tolerant of saline and limed soils and saline water; seeds of Olneya tesota which nodulates readily and fixes nitrogen and photosynthesizes at low water potential; and pods of Prosopis chilensis and P. tamarugo which tolerate long periods without rain. 3 references.

  17. Effect of free and symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterial co-inoculation on seed and seedling of soybean seeds produced under deficit water condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Hadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of free and symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria on seed and seedling produced seeds under deficit irrigation was conducted in laboratory and field experiments in 2006. In laboratory of karaj’s Seed and Plant Research and Certificate Institute an experiment was conducted based on factorial in form of completely randomized design with four replications and in field’s of Islamic Azad University, Varamin Branch were split factorial in form of randomized completely block design with three replications. Treatments included water stress [Irrigation after 50 (Normal irrigation, 100 (Middle stress, 150 (Severe stress mm evaporation from pan class A], Cultivar [Manokin & Williams and SRF×T3 Line] and inoculation [Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Bradyrhizobium japonicum co-inoculated with Azotobacter chroococcum, No seed inoculation]. Results showed that drought stress decreased the uniformity and germination speed and seedling emergence. Bacteria increased leaf dry weight, stem dry weight, leaf area and seedling vigor index but had no effect on emergence. In irrigation levels inoculated treatments had higher seedling length, leaf, stem, seedling dry weight and seedling vigor. Severs stress seeds inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum had higher root dry weight than control. Therefore in seeds which were produced under deficit irrigation conditions, bacteria increased seedlings vigor.

  18. Corals Form Characteristic Associations with Symbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, Kimberley A.; Willis, Bette L.

    2012-01-01

    The complex symbiotic relationship between corals and their dinoflagellate partner Symbiodinium is believed to be sustained through close associations with mutualistic bacterial communities, though little is known about coral associations with bacterial groups able to fix nitrogen (diazotrophs). In this study, we investigated the diversity of diazotrophic bacterial communities associated with three common coral species (Acropora millepora, Acropora muricata, and Pocillopora damicormis) from three midshelf locations of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) by profiling the conserved subunit of the nifH gene, which encodes the dinitrogenase iron protein. Comparisons of diazotrophic community diversity among coral tissue and mucus microenvironments and the surrounding seawater revealed that corals harbor diverse nifH phylotypes that differ between tissue and mucus microhabitats. Coral mucus nifH sequences displayed high heterogeneity, and many bacterial groups overlapped with those found in seawater. Moreover, coral mucus diazotrophs were specific neither to coral species nor to reef location, reflecting the ephemeral nature of coral mucus. In contrast, the dominant diazotrophic bacteria in tissue samples differed among coral species, with differences remaining consistent at all three reefs, indicating that coral-diazotroph associations are species specific. Notably, dominant diazotrophs for all coral species were closely related to the bacterial group rhizobia, which represented 71% of the total sequences retrieved from tissue samples. The species specificity of coral-diazotroph associations further supports the coral holobiont model that bacterial groups associated with corals are conserved. Our results suggest that, as in terrestrial plants, rhizobia have developed a mutualistic relationship with corals and may contribute fixed nitrogen to Symbiodinium. PMID:22344646

  19. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) roots

    KAUST Repository

    Garcias Bonet, Neus; Arrieta, J M; Duarte, Carlos M.; Marbà , Nú ria

    2016-01-01

    of nitrogen for P. oceanica. The low diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria reported here suggests species-specific relationships between diazotrophs and P. oceanica, revealing possible symbiotic interactions that could play a major role in nitrogen acquisition

  20. Bacterial adhesion of porphyromonas gingivalis on provisional fixed prosthetic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Zortuk

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion : The quantity of bacterial adhesion and surface roughness differed among the assessed provisional fixed prosthodontic materials. The light-polymerized provisional material Revotek LC had rougher surface and more bacterial adhesion compared with the others.

  1. Bacterial nitrogen fixation in sand bioreactors treating winery wastewater with a high carbon to nitrogen ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welz, Pamela J; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Braun, Lorenz; Vikram, Surendra; Le Roes-Hill, Marilize

    2018-02-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria proliferate in organic-rich environments and systems containing sufficient essential nutrients. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are the nutrients required in the highest concentrations. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen is an important consideration for wastewater bioremediation because insufficient nitrogen may result in decreased treatment efficiency. It has been shown that during the treatment of effluent from the pulp and paper industry, bacterial nitrogen fixation can supplement the nitrogen requirements of suspended growth systems. This study was conducted using physicochemical analyses and culture-dependent and -independent techniques to ascertain whether nitrogen-fixing bacteria were selected in biological sand filters used to treat synthetic winery wastewater with a high carbon to nitrogen ratio (193:1). The systems performed well, with the influent COD of 1351 mg/L being reduced by 84-89%. It was shown that the nitrogen fixing bacterial population was influenced by the presence of synthetic winery effluent in the surface layers of the biological sand filters, but not in the deeper layers. It was hypothesised that this was due to the greater availability of atmospheric nitrogen at the surface. The numbers of culture-able nitrogen-fixing bacteria, including presumptive Azotobacter spp. exhibited 1-2 log increases at the surface. The results of this study confirm that nitrogen fixation is an important mechanism to be considered during treatment of high carbon to nitrogen wastewater. If biological treatment systems can be operated to stimulate this phenomenon, it may obviate the need for nitrogen addition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Symbiosis within Symbiosis: Evolving Nitrogen-Fixing Legume Symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigi, Philippe; Zhu, Jun; Young, J Peter W; Masson-Boivin, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial accessory genes are genomic symbionts with an evolutionary history and future that is different from that of their hosts. Packages of accessory genes move from strain to strain and confer important adaptations, such as interaction with eukaryotes. The ability to fix nitrogen with legumes is a remarkable example of a complex trait spread by horizontal transfer of a few key symbiotic genes, converting soil bacteria into legume symbionts. Rhizobia belong to hundreds of species restricted to a dozen genera of the Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, suggesting infrequent successful transfer between genera but frequent successful transfer within genera. Here we review the genetic and environmental conditions and selective forces that have shaped evolution of this complex symbiotic trait. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dissecting hormonal pathways in nitrogen-fixing rhizobium symbioses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeijl, van Arjan

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen is a key element for plant growth. To meet nitrogen demands, some plants establish an endosymbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing rhizobium or Frankia bacteria. This involves formation of specialized root lateral organs, named nodules. These nodules are colonized

  4. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of intact cells of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnev, A. A.; Ristić, M.; Antonyuk, L. P.; Chernyshev, A. V.; Ignatov, V. V.

    1997-06-01

    The data of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic measurements performed on intact cells of the soil nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense grown in a standard medium and under the conditions of an increased metal uptake are compared and discussed. The structural FTIR information obtained is considered together with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) data on the content of metal cations in the bacterial cells. Some methodological aspects concerning preparation of bacterial cell samples for FTIR measurements are also discussed.

  5. Evaluation of the influence of nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three biofertilizers nitrobein, phosphorein, and potash, containing nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing, and potash mobilizing microorganisms, respectively were studied in peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Amendment with each of these biofertilizers enhanced different growth ...

  6. High diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in upper reaches of Heihe River, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, X. S.; Mao, W. L.; Liu, G. X.; Chen, T.; Zhang, W.; Wu, X. K.; Long, H. Z.; Zhang, B. G.

    2013-03-01

    Vegetation plays a key role to water conservation in southern Qilian Mountains (Northwestern China), the upper reaches of Heihe River. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are crucial for vegetation protection because they can supply plants with nitrogen source. Nevertheless, little is known about nitrogen-fixing bacteria in this region. In present study, nifH gene clone libraries were established for detecting the difference of nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities between Potentilla parvifolia shrub and Carex alrofusca meadow in the southern Qilian Mountains. All the identified nitrogen-fixing bacterial clones belonged to Proteobacteria. At the genus level, the Azospirillum sp. was only detected in shrub soil while Thiocapsa sp., Derxiasp., Ectothiorhodospira sp., Mesorhizobium sp., Klebsiella sp., Ensifer sp., Methylocella sp. and Peseudomonas sp. were just detected in meadow soil. Shannon-Wiener index of nifH gene ranged from 1.5 to 2.8 and was higher in meadow soil than shrub soil. Contrarily, the nifH gene copies and CFUs of cultured nitrogen-fixing bacteria ranged from 0.4 × 107 to 6.9 × 107 copies g-1 soil and 0.97 × 106 to 12.78 × 106 g-1 soil, respectively. Furthermore, both of them were lower in meadow soil than shrub soil. Statistical analysis revealed that diversity and copies of nifH gene mostly correlated with aboveground biomass in shrub soil. In meadow soil, nifH gene diversity was principally affected by altitude while copies did by soil available K.

  7. Endophytic colonization of plant roots by nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocking, Edward C.

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are able to enter into roots from the rhizosphere, particularly at the base of emerging lateral roots, between epidermal cells and through root hairs. In the rhizosphere growing root hairs play an important role in symbiotic recognition in legume crops. Nodulated legumes in endosymbiosis with rhizobia are amongst the most prominent nitrogen-fixing systems in agriculture. The inoculation of non-legumes, especially cereals, with various non-rhizobial diazotrophic bacteria has been undertaken with the expectation that they would establish themselves intercellularly within the root system, fixing nitrogen endophytic ally and providing combined nitrogen for enhanced crop production. However, in most instances bacteria colonize only the surface of the roots and remain vulnerable to competition from other rhizosphere micro-organisms, even when the nitrogen-fixing bacteria are endophytic, benefits to the plant may result from better uptake of soil nutrients rather than from endophytic nitrogen fixation. Azorhizobium caulinodans is known to enter the root system of cereals, other nonlegume crops and Arabidopsis, by intercellular invasion between epidermal cells and to internally colonize the plant intercellularly, including the xylem. This raises the possibility that xylem colonization might provide a nonnodular niche for endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation in rice, wheat, maize, sorghum and other non-legume crops. A particularly interesting, naturally occurring, non-qodular xylem colonising endophytic diazotrophic interaction with evidence for endophytic nitrogen fixation is that of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in sugarcane. Could this beneficial endophytic colonization of sugarcane by G. diazotrophicus be extended to other members of the Gramineae, including the major cereals, and to other major non-legume crops of the World? (author)

  8. Differential Sensitivity of Nitrogen-Fixing, Azolla Microphylla to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    photosynthesizing and nitrogen fixing micro-organisms contributing significantly ... Pesticide treatment with increasing doses accelerated the formation of reactive ... increased amount of proline in all the insecticide treated concentrations was .... monitoring the nitrite formation from ... centrifuged for 10 minutes in high speed.

  9. Tracing the evolutionary path to nitrogen-fixing crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Radhakrishnan, Guru; Oldroyd, Giles

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen-fixing symbioses between plants and bacteria are restricted to a few plant lineages. The plant partner benefits from these associations by gaining access to the pool of atmospheric nitrogen. By contrast, other plant species, including all cereals, rely only on the scarce nitrogen present in the soil and what they can glean from associative bacteria. Global cereal yields from conventional agriculture are dependent on the application of massive levels of chemical fertilisers. Engineering nitrogen-fixing symbioses into cereal crops could in part mitigate the economic and ecological impacts caused by the overuse of fertilisers and provide better global parity in crop yields. Comparative phylogenetics and phylogenomics are powerful tools to identify genetic and genomic innovations behind key plant traits. In this review we highlight recent discoveries made using such approaches and we discuss how these approaches could be used to help direct the engineering of nitrogen-fixing symbioses into cereals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional Genomics Approaches to Studying Symbioses between Legumes and Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardi, Martina; Pessi, Gabriella

    2018-05-18

    Biological nitrogen fixation gives legumes a pronounced growth advantage in nitrogen-deprived soils and is of considerable ecological and economic interest. In exchange for reduced atmospheric nitrogen, typically given to the plant in the form of amides or ureides, the legume provides nitrogen-fixing rhizobia with nutrients and highly specialised root structures called nodules. To elucidate the molecular basis underlying physiological adaptations on a genome-wide scale, functional genomics approaches, such as transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, have been used. This review presents an overview of the different functional genomics approaches that have been performed on rhizobial symbiosis, with a focus on studies investigating the molecular mechanisms used by the bacterial partner to interact with the legume. While rhizobia belonging to the alpha-proteobacterial group (alpha-rhizobia) have been well studied, few studies to date have investigated this process in beta-proteobacteria (beta-rhizobia).

  11. Bacterial Adhesion of Porphyromonas Gingivalis on Provisional Fixed Prosthetic Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Zortuk, Mustafa; Kesim, Servet; Kaya, Esma; Özbilge, Hatice; Kiliç, Kerem; Çölgeçen, Özlem

    2010-01-01

    Background: When provisional restorations are worn for long term period, the adhesion of bacteria becomes a primary factor in the development of periodontal diseases. The aims of this study were to evaluate the surface roughness and bacterial adhesion of four different provisional fixed prosthodon-tic materials. Methods: Ten cylindrical specimens were prepared from bis-acrylic composites (PreVISION CB and Protemp 3 Garant), a light-polymerized composite (Revotek LC), and a polymethyl metha...

  12. Indigenous Fixed Nitrogen on Mars: Implications for Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J. C.; Sutter, B.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; McKay, C. P.; Freissinet, C.; Archer, D., Jr.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Conrad, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrate has been detected in Mars surface sediments and aeolian deposits by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover (Stern et al., 2015). This detection is significant because fixed nitrogen is necessary for life, a requirement that drove the evolution of N-fixing metabolism in life on Earth. The question remains as to the extent to which a primitive N cycle ever developed on Mars, and whether N is currently being deposited on the martian surface at a non-negligible rate. It is also necessary to consider processes that could recycle oxidized N back into the atmosphere, and how these processes may have changed the soil inventory of N over time. The abundance of fixed nitrogen detected as NO from thermal decomposition of nitrate is consistent with both delivery of nitrate via impact generated thermal shock early in martian history and dry deposition from photochemistry of thermospheric NO, occurring in the present. Processes that could recycle N back into the atmosphere may include nitrate reduction by Fe(II) in aqueous environments on early Mars, impact decomposition, and/or UV photolysis. In order to better understand the history of nitrogen fixation on Mars, we look to cycling of N in Mars analog environments on Earth such as the Atacama Desert and the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. In particular, we examine the ratio of nitrate to perchlorate (NO3-/ClO4-) in these areas compared to those calculated from data acquired on Mars.

  13. Novel nitrogen-fixing Acetobacter nitrogenifigens sp. nov., isolated from Kombucha tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debasree; Gachhui, Ratan

    2006-08-01

    The four nitrogen-fixing bacteria so far described in the family Acetobacteraceae belong to the genera Gluconacetobacter and Acetobacter. Nitrogen-fixing bacterial strain RG1(T) was isolated from Kombucha tea and, based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence which is supported by a high bootstrap value, was found to belong to the genus Acetobacter. Strain RG1(T) differed from Acetobacter aceti, the nearest member with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 98.2 %, and type strains of other Acetobacter species with regard to several characteristics of growth features in culture media, growth in nitrogen-free medium, production of gamma-pyrone from glucose and dihydroxyacetone from glycerol. Strain RG1(T) utilized maltose, glycerol, sorbitol, fructose, galactose, arabinose and ethanol, but not methanol as a carbon source. These results, along with electrophoretic mobility patterns of nine metabolic enzymes, suggest that strain RG1(T) represents a novel nitrogen-fixing species. The ubiquinone present was Q-9 and DNA G+C content was 64.1 mol%. Strain RG1(T) exhibited a low value of 2-24 % DNA-DNA relatedness to the type strains of related acetobacters, which placed it as a separate taxon. On the basis of this data, the name Acetobacter nitrogenifigens sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain RG1(T) (=MTCC 6912(T)=LMG 23498(T)).

  14. Effects of oxytetracycline on the abundance and community structure of nitrogen-fixing bacteria during cattle manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiajun; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Gao, Hua

    2016-09-01

    The effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) on nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities were investigated during cattle manure composting. The abundance and community structure of nitrogen-fixing bacteria were determined by qPCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), respectively. The matrix was spiked with OTC at four levels: no OTC, 10mg/kg dry weight (DW) OTC (L), 60mg/kg DW OTC (M), and 200mg/kg DW OTC (H). The high temperature period of composting was shorter with M and H, and the decline in temperature during the cooling stage was accelerated by OTC. OTC had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the nitrogenase activity during early composting, and the nifH gene abundance declined significantly during the later composting stage. The DGGE profile and statistical analysis showed that OTC changed the nitrogen-fixing bacterial community succession and reduced the community richness and dominance. The nitrogen-fixing bacterial community structure was affected greatly by the high level of OTC. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Identification of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria from three African leguminous trees in Gorongosa National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Helena; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2016-07-01

    The symbiosis between leguminous plants and symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria is a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. Woody legumes are well represented in tropical African forests but despite their ecological and socio-economic importance, they have been little studied for this symbiosis. In this study, we examined the identity and diversity of symbiotic-nitrogen fixing bacteria associated with Acacia xanthophloea, Faidherbia albida and Albizia versicolor in the Gorongosa National Park (GNP) in Mozambique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identity of symbiotic-nitrogen fixing bacteria in this region. 166 isolates were obtained and subjected to molecular identification. BOX-A1R PCR was used to discriminate different bacterial isolates and PCR-sequencing of 16S rDNA, and two housekeeping genes, glnII and recA, was used to identify the obtained bacteria. The gene nifH was also analyzed to assess the symbiotic capacity of the obtained bacteria. All isolates from F. albida and Al. versicolor belonged to the Bradyrhizobium genus whereas isolates from Ac. xanthophloea clustered with Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium or Ensifer strains. Soil chemical analysis revealed significant differences between the soils occupied by the three studied species. Thus, we found a clear delimitation in the rhizobial communities and soils associated with Ac. xanthophloea, F. albida and Al. versicolor, and higher rhizobial diversity for Ac. xanthophloea than previously reported. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Prone to fix: Resilience of the active nitrogen-fixing rice root microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurek, Thomas; Sabale, Mugdha; Sarkar, Abhijit; Pees, Tobias; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Due to water consumption, many lowland rice areas in Asia are undergoing a transition that involves adoption of new management strategies, with crop rotations encompassing a non-flooded crop, including maize. Shifting from flooded to non-flooded cropping is likely to affect microbial nitrogen cycling. For analysis of the root-associated microbiome of rice and maize in response to flooding or nitrogen fertilizer, we combine methods of microbial ecology (Next-Generation sequencing of amplicons), and a reductionist approach with pure cultures of the endophytic diazotroph Azoarus sp.. Field plots of the ICON project (Introducing non-flooded crops in rice-dominated landscapes: Impact on Carbon, nitrogen and water budgets) at the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines were analyzed. Root-associated activity of nitrogenase gene expression was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR of nifH. For rice, expression levels were surprisingly stable, in response to non-flooded versus flooded conditions, or in response to conventional nitrogen fertilizer applications versus lack of N-fertilizer. In contrast, the active diazotrophic population of maize roots was not resistant to N-fertilization, nifH expression strongly decreased. Concordant changes in the diazotrophic resident or active communities were detected by nifH amplicon sequence analysis, based on bacterial DNA or mRNA, respectively. For high-resolution analyses of the endobiome in gnotobiotic culture, we developed a dual fluorescence reporter system for Azoarcus sp. BH72 which allows to quantify and visualize epi- and endophytic gene expression by concfocal microscopy (CLSM). This allowed us to demonstrate sites of active nitrogen fixation (gene expression) in association with rice roots. We confirmed that at low nitrogen fertilizer levels, endophytic nifH gene expression persisted in rice roots, while it was repressed in maize roots. This supports our observation of remarkable stability of nitrogen fixation

  17. Study On Ammonia Accumulation of Cellulose-Utilizing and Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Isolated from Various Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soe Myat Thandar; Aung Ko Ko Oo; Weine Nway Nway Oo

    2011-12-01

    Cellulose-utilizing and nitrogen-fixing bacteria were isolated from various soil. 42 bacterial strains were obtained. Among those stains, 13 strains were screened for nitrogen-fixing activity. Among them, 4 strains coded as CPB1, CMB1, GPB2 and 3LC4 showed the high nitrogen-fixing activity. Different strains produced different amount of ammonium compounds at various incubation periods. CMB1 produced the maximum amount of ammonium 1.2 mg/L NH4+ at 6th day culture but 3LC4, GPB2 and CPB1 produced more amount of NH4+ with 2, 2.5 and 3 mg/L NH4+ respectively at 5th day culture.

  18. Nitrogen fixed by cyanobacteria is utilized by deposit-feeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Agnes M L; Gorokhova, Elena; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Benthic communities below the photic zone depend for food on allochthonous organic matter derived from seasonal phytoplankton blooms. In the Baltic Sea, the spring diatom bloom is considered the most important input of organic matter, whereas the contribution of the summer bloom dominated by diazotrophic cyanobacteria is less understood. The possible increase in cyanobacteria blooms as a consequence of eutrophication and climate change calls for evaluation of cyanobacteria effects on benthic community functioning and productivity. Here, we examine utilization of cyanobacterial nitrogen by deposit-feeding benthic macrofauna following a cyanobacteria bloom at three stations during two consecutive years and link these changes to isotopic niche and variations in body condition (assayed as C:N ratio) of the animals. Since nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria have δ(15)N close to -2‰, we expected the δ(15)N in the deposit-feeders to decrease after the bloom if their assimilation of cyanobacteria-derived nitrogen was substantial. We also expected the settled cyanobacteria with their associated microheterotrophic community and relatively high nitrogen content to increase the isotopic niche area, trophic diversity and dietary divergence between individuals (estimated as the nearest neighbour distance) in the benthic fauna after the bloom. The three surface-feeding species (Monoporeia affinis, Macoma balthica and Marenzelleria arctia) showed significantly lower δ(15)N values after the bloom, while the sub-surface feeder Pontoporeia femorata did not. The effect of the bloom on isotopic niche varied greatly between stations; populations which increased niche area after the bloom had better body condition than populations with reduced niche, regardless of species. Thus, cyanobacterial nitrogen is efficiently integrated into the benthic food webs in the Baltic, with likely consequences for their functioning, secondary production, transfer efficiency, trophic interactions, and

  19. Nitrogen fixed by cyanobacteria is utilized by deposit-feeders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes M L Karlson

    Full Text Available Benthic communities below the photic zone depend for food on allochthonous organic matter derived from seasonal phytoplankton blooms. In the Baltic Sea, the spring diatom bloom is considered the most important input of organic matter, whereas the contribution of the summer bloom dominated by diazotrophic cyanobacteria is less understood. The possible increase in cyanobacteria blooms as a consequence of eutrophication and climate change calls for evaluation of cyanobacteria effects on benthic community functioning and productivity. Here, we examine utilization of cyanobacterial nitrogen by deposit-feeding benthic macrofauna following a cyanobacteria bloom at three stations during two consecutive years and link these changes to isotopic niche and variations in body condition (assayed as C:N ratio of the animals. Since nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria have δ(15N close to -2‰, we expected the δ(15N in the deposit-feeders to decrease after the bloom if their assimilation of cyanobacteria-derived nitrogen was substantial. We also expected the settled cyanobacteria with their associated microheterotrophic community and relatively high nitrogen content to increase the isotopic niche area, trophic diversity and dietary divergence between individuals (estimated as the nearest neighbour distance in the benthic fauna after the bloom. The three surface-feeding species (Monoporeia affinis, Macoma balthica and Marenzelleria arctia showed significantly lower δ(15N values after the bloom, while the sub-surface feeder Pontoporeia femorata did not. The effect of the bloom on isotopic niche varied greatly between stations; populations which increased niche area after the bloom had better body condition than populations with reduced niche, regardless of species. Thus, cyanobacterial nitrogen is efficiently integrated into the benthic food webs in the Baltic, with likely consequences for their functioning, secondary production, transfer efficiency, trophic

  20. Vertical zonation and seed germination indices of chromium resistant cellulolytic and nitrogen fixing bacteria from a chronically metal exposed land area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, S.; Qazi, J.I.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty eight cellulolytic and 25 nitrogen fixing bacteria were isolated from 20, 40 and 60 cm depths of the chromium contaminated land area. The cellulolytic as well as nitrogen fixing microbial communities in soil profiles were dominated by genus Bacillus. More diverse nitrogen fixing bacterial isolates belonging to different genera Paenibacillus, Corynebacterium and Pseudomonas were observed as compared to cellulolytic bacterial community. Majority of the cellulolytic bacteria were found inhabitants of 20 cm soil layer while 40 cm depth was the preferred zone for the nitrogen fixing bacteria. Screening of the bacterial isolates for chromium resistance showed that isolates designated as ASK15 and ASK16 were able to resist up to 1800 mg/l of chromium while the nitrogen fixing isolates which offered a maximum resistant level up to 1650 mg/l of chromium were ASNt10 and ASNS13. Nitrogen fixing isolates enhanced seed germination by 33% and expressed efficient nitrogenase activity up to 0.80 (C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ nmol/ml/hr). Growth promoting assay proved ASNt10 a potential isolate which produced 90 meu g/ml of indoleacetic acid (IAA). Though cellulolytic isolates did not affect seed germination, a significant influence on root length similar to that of ASNt10 and ASNS13 with nearly 5-fold increase in comparison with uninoculated control was observed. The isolates ASK15, ASK16 were identified as Bacillus cereus while ASNt10 and ASNS13 as Paenibacillus barcinonensis and Bacillus megaterium, respectively. (author)

  1. Bacteroidales ectosymbionts of gut flagellates shape the nitrogen-fixing community in dry-wood termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mahesh S; Brune, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Although it is well documented that the lack of nitrogen in the diet of wood-feeding termites is compensated by the nitrogen-fixing capacity of their gut microbiota, the bacteria responsible for this activity are largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the diversity and expression of nitrogenase genes (homologs of nifH) in four species of dry-wood termites (Kalotermitidae), which thrive on a particularly nitrogen-poor resource. Although each species harbored a highly diverse suite of termite-specific homologs in their microliter-sized hindgut, only a core set related to nifH genes of Treponema and Azoarcus spp., ‘Azobacteroides pseudotrichonymphae', the first member of the Bacteroidales identified as a diazotroph, and termite-gut-specific anfH genes of hitherto unknown origin were preferentially expressed. Transcription patterns corroborated that the populations of active diazotrophs differ fundamentally between termite genera. Capillary-picked suspensions of the flagellates Devescovina arta and Snyderella tabogae revealed that their bacterial ectosymbionts each possess two paralogs of nifH, which apparently have been acquired consecutively during evolution of Bacteroidales, but only one of them (anfH) is actively expressed. Transcription patterns correlated neither with the molybdenum content of the diet nor with intestinal hydrogen concentrations, measured with microsensors. We propose that the nitrogen-fixing community in different dry-wood termites is shaped by the symbionts of their specific flagellate populations. Our findings suggest that the diazotrophic nature of ‘Armantifilum devescovinae' has an important role in the nitrogen metabolism of dry-wood termites and is the driving force of co-evolution with its flagellate host. PMID:22189498

  2. Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium with a high phycoerythrin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, H; Rivas, J; Guerrero, M G; Losada, M

    1989-03-01

    The elemental and molecular composition, pigment content, and productivity of a phycoerythrin-rich nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium-an Anabaena strain isolated from the coastal lagoon Albufera de Valencia, Spain-has been investigated. When compared with other heterocystous species, this strain exhibits similar chlorophyll a, carotene, and total phycobiliprotein contents but differs remarkably in the relative proportion of specific phycobiliproteins; the content of C-phycoerythrin amounts to 8.3% (versus about 1% in the other species) of cell dry weight. Absorption and fluorescence spectra of intact phycobilisomes isolated from this Anabaena sp. corroborate the marked contribution of phycoerythrin as an antenna pigment, a circumstance that is unusual for cyanobacteria capable of fixing N(2). The pigment content of cells is affected by variations in irradiance and cell density, these adaptive changes being more patent for C-phycoerythrin than for phycocyanins. The Anabaena strain is clumpy and capable of rapid flocculation. It exhibits outdoor productivities higher than 20 g (dry weight) m day during summer.

  3. Temporal dynamics of abundance and composition of nitrogen-fixing communities across agricultural soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele C Pereira E Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that the fixation of nitrogen is one of the most significant nutrient processes in the terrestrial ecosystem, a thorough study of the spatial and temporal patterns in the abundance and distribution of N-fixing communities has been missing so far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to understand the dynamics of diazotrophic communities and their resilience to external changes, we quantified the abundance and characterized the bacterial community structures based on the nifH gene, using real-time PCR, PCR-DGGE and 454-pyrosequencing, across four representative Dutch soils during one growing season. In general, higher nifH gene copy numbers were observed in soils with higher pH than in those with lower pH, but lower numbers were related to increased nitrate and ammonium levels. Results from nifH gene pyrosequencing confirmed the observed PCR-DGGE patterns, which indicated that the N fixers are highly dynamic across time, shifting around 60%. Forward selection on CCA analysis identified N availability as the main driver of these variations, as well as of the evenness of the communities, leading to very unequal communities. Moreover, deep sequencing of the nifH gene revealed that sandy soils (B and D had the lowest percentage of shared OTUs across time, compared with clayey soils (G and K, indicating the presence of a community under constant change. Cosmopolitan nifH species (present throughout the season were affiliated with Bradyrhizobium, Azospirillum and Methylocistis, whereas other species increased their abundances progressively over time, when appropriate conditions were met, as was notably the case for Paenibacilus and Burkholderia. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides the first in-depth pyrosequencing analysis of the N-fixing community at both spatial and temporal scales, providing insights into the cosmopolitan and specific portions of the nitrogen fixing bacterial communities in soil.

  4. Robust biological nitrogen fixation in a model grass-bacterial association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankievicz, Vânia C S; do Amaral, Fernanda P; Santos, Karina F D N; Agtuca, Beverly; Xu, Youwen; Schueller, Michael J; Arisi, Ana Carolina M; Steffens, Maria B R; de Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Stacey, Gary; Ferrieri, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    Nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria can promote plant growth; however, it is controversial whether biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) from associative interaction contributes to growth promotion. The roots of Setaria viridis, a model C4 grass, were effectively colonized by bacterial inoculants resulting in a significant enhancement of growth. Nitrogen-13 tracer studies provided direct evidence for tracer uptake by the host plant and incorporation into protein. Indeed, plants showed robust growth under nitrogen-limiting conditions when inoculated with an ammonium-excreting strain of Azospirillum brasilense. (11)C-labeling experiments showed that patterns in central carbon metabolism and resource allocation exhibited by nitrogen-starved plants were largely reversed by bacterial inoculation, such that they resembled plants grown under nitrogen-sufficient conditions. Adoption of S. viridis as a model should promote research into the mechanisms of associative nitrogen fixation with the ultimate goal of greater adoption of BNF for sustainable crop production. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. High diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the upper reaches of the Heihe River, northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. S. Tai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation plays a key role in water conservation in the southern Qilian Mountains (northwestern China, located in the upper reaches of the Heihe River. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are crucial for the protection of the nitrogen supply for vegetation in the region. In the present study, nifH gene clone libraries were established to determine differences between the nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities of the Potentilla parvifolia shrubland and the Carex alrofusca meadow in the southern Qilian Mountains. All of the identified nitrogen-fixing bacterial clones belonged to the Proteobacteria. At the genus level, Azospirillum was only detected in the shrubland soil, while Thiocapsa, Derxia, Ectothiorhodospira, Mesorhizobium, Klebsiella, Ensifer, Methylocella and Pseudomonas were only detected in the meadow soil. The phylogenetic tree was divided into five lineages: lineages I, II and III mainly contained nifH sequences obtained from the meadow soils, while lineage IV was mainly composed of nifH sequences obtained from the shrubland soils. The Shannon–Wiener index of the nifH genes ranged from 1.5 to 2.8 and was higher in the meadow soils than in the shrubland soils. Based on these analyses of diversity and phylogeny, the plant species were hypothesised to influence N cycling by enhancing the fitness of certain nitrogen-fixing taxa. The number of nifH gene copies and colony-forming units (CFUs of the cultured nitrogen-fixing bacteria were lower in the meadow soils than in the shrubland soils, ranging from 0.4 × 107 to 6.9 × 107 copies g−1 soil and 0.97 × 106 to 12.78 × 106 g−1 soil, respectively. Redundancy analysis (RDA revealed that the diversity and number of the nifH gene copies were primarily correlated with aboveground biomass in the shrubland soil. In the meadow soil, nifH gene diversity was most affected by altitude, while copy number was most impacted by soil-available K. These results suggest that the nitrogen-fixing bacterial

  6. High diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the upper reaches of the Heihe River, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, X. S.; Mao, W. L.; Liu, G. X.; Chen, T.; Zhang, W.; Wu, X. K.; Long, H. Z.; Zhang, B. G.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-08-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in water conservation in the southern Qilian Mountains (northwestern China), located in the upper reaches of the Heihe River. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are crucial for the protection of the nitrogen supply for vegetation in the region. In the present study, nifH gene clone libraries were established to determine differences between the nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities of the Potentilla parvifolia shrubland and the Carex alrofusca meadow in the southern Qilian Mountains. All of the identified nitrogen-fixing bacterial clones belonged to the Proteobacteria. At the genus level, Azospirillum was only detected in the shrubland soil, while Thiocapsa, Derxia, Ectothiorhodospira, Mesorhizobium, Klebsiella, Ensifer, Methylocella and Pseudomonas were only detected in the meadow soil. The phylogenetic tree was divided into five lineages: lineages I, II and III mainly contained nifH sequences obtained from the meadow soils, while lineage IV was mainly composed of nifH sequences obtained from the shrubland soils. The Shannon-Wiener index of the nifH genes ranged from 1.5 to 2.8 and was higher in the meadow soils than in the shrubland soils. Based on these analyses of diversity and phylogeny, the plant species were hypothesised to influence N cycling by enhancing the fitness of certain nitrogen-fixing taxa. The number of nifH gene copies and colony-forming units (CFUs) of the cultured nitrogen-fixing bacteria were lower in the meadow soils than in the shrubland soils, ranging from 0.4 × 107 to 6.9 × 107 copies g-1 soil and 0.97 × 106 to 12.78 × 106 g-1 soil, respectively. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that the diversity and number of the nifH gene copies were primarily correlated with aboveground biomass in the shrubland soil. In the meadow soil, nifH gene diversity was most affected by altitude, while copy number was most impacted by soil-available K. These results suggest that the nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities beneath Potentilla

  7. What Does It Take to Evolve A Nitrogen-Fixing Endosymbiosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Rene; Xiao, Ting Ting; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Plant rhizo- and phyllospheres are exposed to a plethora of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, providing opportunities for the establishment of symbiotic associations. Nitrogen-fixing endosymbioses are most profitable and have evolved more than ten times in the angiosperms. This suggests that the

  8. Nitrogen-fixing and cellulose-producing Gluconacetobacter kombuchae sp. nov., isolated from Kombucha tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debasree; Gachhui, Ratan

    2007-02-01

    A few members of the family Acetobacteraceae are cellulose-producers, while only six members fix nitrogen. Bacterial strain RG3T, isolated from Kombucha tea, displays both of these characteristics. A high bootstrap value in the 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis supported the position of this strain within the genus Gluconacetobacter, with Gluconacetobacter hansenii LMG 1527T as its nearest neighbour (99.1 % sequence similarity). It could utilize ethanol, fructose, arabinose, glycerol, sorbitol and mannitol, but not galactose or xylose, as sole sources of carbon. Single amino acids such as L-alanine, L-cysteine and L-threonine served as carbon and nitrogen sources for growth of strain RG3T. Strain RG3T produced cellulose in both nitrogen-free broth and enriched medium. The ubiquinone present was Q-10 and the DNA base composition was 55.8 mol% G+C. It exhibited low values of 5.2-27.77 % DNA-DNA relatedness to the type strains of related gluconacetobacters, which placed it within a separate taxon, for which the name Gluconacetobacter kombuchae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain RG3T (=LMG 23726T=MTCC 6913T).

  9. Assessment of free-living nitrogen fixing microorganisms for commercial nitrogen fixation. [economic analysis of ammonia production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, B. O.; Wallace, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Ammonia production by Klebsiella pneumoniae is not economical with present strains and improving nitrogen fixation to its theoretical limits in this organism is not sufficient to achieve economic viability. Because the value of both the hydrogen produced by this organism and the methane value of the carbon source required greatly exceed the value of the ammonia formed, ammonia (fixed nitrogen) should be considered the by-product. The production of hydrogen by KLEBSIELLA or other anaerobic nitrogen fixers should receive additional study, because the activity of nitrogenase offers a significant improvement in hydrogen production. The production of fixed nitrogen in the form of cell mass by Azotobacter is also uneconomical and the methane value of the carbon substrate exceeds the value of the nitrogen fixed. Parametric studies indicate that as efficiencies approach the theoretical limits the economics may become competitive. The use of nif-derepressed microorganisms, particularly blue-green algae, may have significant potential for in situ fertilization in the environment.

  10. Nitrogen fixed by wheat plants as affected by nitrogen fertilizer levels and Non-symbiotic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.; Aly, S.S.M.; Gadalla, A.M.; Abou Seeda, M.

    1995-01-01

    Inorganic nitrogen is required for all egyptian soils for wheat. Free living and N 2-fixing microorganisms are able associate closely related with the roots of geraminacae. Pot experiment studies were carried out to examine the response of wheat plants to inoculation with Azospirillum Brasilense and Azotobacter Chroococcum, single or in combination, under various levels of ammonium sulfate interaction between both the inoculants increased straw or grain yield as well as N-uptake by wheat plants with increasing N levels. Results showed that grains of wheat plants derived over 19,24 and 15% of its N content from the atmospheric - N 2 (Ndfa) with application of 25,50 and 75 mg N kg-1 soil in the presence of + Azospirillum + azotobacter. The final amount of N 2-fixers. The highest values of N 2-fixed were observed with mixed inoculants followed by inoculation with Azospirillum and then azotobacter. The recovery of applied ammonium sulfate-N was markedly increased by inoculation with combined inoculants, but less in uninoculated treatments. Seeds inoculated with non-symbiotic fixing bacteria could be saved about 25 kg N without much affecting the grain yield. i fig., 4 tabs

  11. Nitrogen fixed by wheat plants as affected by nitrogen fertilizer levels and Non-symbiotic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, S; Aly, S S.M.; Gadalla, A M [Soils and Water Dept., Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Abou Seeda, M [Soils and Water Dept., National Res. Centre, Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Inorganic nitrogen is required for all egyptian soils for wheat. Free living and N 2-fixing microorganisms are able associate closely related with the roots of geraminacae. Pot experiment studies were carried out to examine the response of wheat plants to inoculation with Azospirillum Brasilense and Azotobacter Chroococcum, single or in combination, under various levels of ammonium sulfate interaction between both the inoculants increased straw or grain yield as well as N-uptake by wheat plants with increasing N levels. Results showed that grains of wheat plants derived over 19,24 and 15% of its N content from the atmospheric - N 2 (Ndfa) with application of 25,50 and 75 mg N kg-1 soil in the presence of + Azospirillum + azotobacter. The final amount of N 2-fixers. The highest values of N 2-fixed were observed with mixed inoculants followed by inoculation with Azospirillum and then azotobacter. The recovery of applied ammonium sulfate-N was markedly increased by inoculation with combined inoculants, but less in uninoculated treatments. Seeds inoculated with non-symbiotic fixing bacteria could be saved about 25 kg N without much affecting the grain yield. i fig., 4 tabs.

  12. Ecological occurrence of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and nitrogen-fixing Acetobacteraceae members: their possible role in plant growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, V S; Madhaiyan, M; Osborne, Jabez; Thangaraju, M; Sa, T M

    2008-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus has a long-standing history of bacterial-plant interrelationship as a symbiotic endophyte capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen. In low nitrogen fertilized sugarcane fields it plays a significant role and its occurrence was realised in most of the sugarcane growing countries. In this mini review, the association of G. diazotrophicus with sugarcane, other crop plants and with various hosts is discussed. The factors affecting survival in the rhizosphere and the putative soil mode of transmission are emphasized. In addition, other N(2)-fixing Acetobacteraceae members, including Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans, Gluconacetobacter johannae and Swaminathania salitolerans, occurring in coffee, corn and rice plants are also covered. Lastly, the plant-growth-promoting traits identified in this group of bacteria, including N(2) fixation, phytohormone synthesis, P and Zn solubilization and biocontrol, are analysed.

  13. Culture-independent molecular approaches reveal a mostly unknown high diversity of active nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with Pennisetum purpureum—a bioenergy crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videira, Sandy Sampaio; de Cássia Pereira e Silva, Michele; Galisa, Pericles de Souza; Franco Dias, Armando Cavalcante; Nissinen, Riitta; Baldani Divan, Vera Lucia; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Baldani, Jose Ivo; Salles, Joana Falcao

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that elephant grass is colonized by nitrogen-fixing bacterial species; however, these results were based on culture-dependent methods, an approach that introduces bias due to an incomplete assessment of the microbial community. In this study, we used culture-independent

  14. Microencapsulation by spray drying of nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with lupin nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Daniela C; Acevedo, Francisca; Morales, Eduardo; Aravena, Javiera; Amiard, Véronique; Jorquera, Milko A; Inostroza, Nitza G; Rubilar, Mónica

    2014-09-01

    Plant growth promoting bacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB) used for crop inoculation have important biotechnological potential as a sustainable fertilization tool. However, the main limitation of this technology is the low inoculum survival rate under field conditions. Microencapsulation of bacterial cells in polymer matrices provides a controlled release and greater protection against environmental conditions. In this context, the aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative NFB associated with lupin nodules and to evaluate their microencapsulation by spray drying. For this purpose, 21 putative NFB were isolated from lupin nodules and characterized (16S rRNA genes). Microencapsulation of bacterial cells by spray drying was studied using a mixture of sodium alginate:maltodextrin at different ratios (0:15, 1:14, 2:13) and concentrations (15 and 30% solids) as the wall material. The microcapsules were observed under scanning electron microscopy to verify their suitable morphology. Results showed the association between lupin nodules of diverse known NFB and nodule-forming bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In microencapsulation assays, the 1:14 ratio of sodium alginate:maltodextrin (15% solids) showed the highest cell survival rate (79%), with a microcapsule yield of 27% and spherical microcapsules of 5-50 µm in diameter. In conclusion, diverse putative NFB genera and nodule-forming bacteria are associated with the nodules of lupine plants grown in soils in southern Chile, and their microencapsulation by spray drying using sodium alginate:maltodextrin represents a scalable process to generate a biofertilizer as an alternative to traditional nitrogen fertilization.

  15. Incorporating nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria in the global biogeochemical model HAMOCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Hanna; Ilyina, Tatiana; Six, Katharina

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen fixation by marine diazotrophs plays a fundamental role in the oceanic nitrogen and carbon cycle as it provides a major source of 'new' nitrogen to the euphotic zone that supports biological carbon export and sequestration. Since most global biogeochemical models include nitrogen fixation only diagnostically, they are not able to capture its spatial pattern sufficiently. Here we present the incorporation of an explicit, dynamic representation of diazotrophic cyanobacteria and the corresponding nitrogen fixation in the global ocean biogeochemical model HAMOCC (Hamburg Ocean Carbon Cycle model), which is part of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth system model (MPI-ESM). The parameterization of the diazotrophic growth is thereby based on available knowledge about the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium spp., which is considered as the most significant pelagic nitrogen fixer. Evaluation against observations shows that the model successfully reproduces the main spatial distribution of cyanobacteria and nitrogen fixation, covering large parts of the tropical and subtropical oceans. Besides the role of cyanobacteria in marine biogeochemical cycles, their capacity to form extensive surface blooms induces a number of bio-physical feedback mechanisms in the Earth system. The processes driving these interactions, which are related to the alteration of heat absorption, surface albedo and momentum input by wind, are incorporated in the biogeochemical and physical model of the MPI-ESM in order to investigate their impacts on a global scale. First preliminary results will be shown.

  16. N2-fixing red alder indirectly accelerates ecosystem nitrogen cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakis, Steven S.; Matkins, Joselin J.; Hibbs, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic N2-fixing tree species can accelerate ecosystem N dynamics through decomposition via direct pathways by producing readily decomposed leaf litter and increasing N supply to decomposers, as well as via indirect pathways by increasing tissue and detrital N in non-fixing vegetation. To evaluate the relative importance of these pathways, we compared three-year decomposition and N dynamics of N2-fixing red alder leaf litter (2.34 %N) to both low-N (0.68 %N) and high-N (1.21 %N) litter of non-fixing Douglas-fir, and decomposed each litter source in four forests dominated by either red alder or Douglas-fir. We also used experimental N fertilization of decomposition plots to assess elevated N availability as a potential mechanism of N2-fixer effects on litter mass loss and N dynamics. Direct effects of N2-fixing red alder on decomposition occurred primarily as faster N release from red alder than Douglas-fir litter, but direct increases in N supply to decomposers via fertilization did not stimulate decomposition of any litter. Fixed N indirectly influenced detrital dynamics by increasing Douglas-fir tissue and litter N concentrations, which accelerated litter N release without accelerating mass loss. By increasing soil N, tissue N, and the rate of N release from litter of non-fixers, we conclude that N2-fixing vegetation can indirectly foster plant-soil feedbacks that contribute to the persistence of elevated N availability in terrestrial ecosystems.

  17. Unusual radioresistance of nitrogen-fixing cultures of Anabaena ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Atlas R M 2004 Handbook of microbiological media; third edition. (Florida: CRC Press) ... nitrogen-fixation, and nodularin production by two Baltic sea cyanobacteria ... Sharma A 1998 Mycotoxins: risk evaluation and management in radiation ...

  18. Estimate of symbiotically fixed nitrogen in field grown soybeans using variations in 15N natural abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarger, N.; Durr, J.C.; Bourguignon, C.; Lagacherie, B.; Mariotti, A.; Mariotti, F.

    1979-01-01

    The use of variations in natural abundance of 15 N between nitrogen fixing and non nitrogen fixing soybeans was investigated for quantitative estimate of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Isotopic analysis of 4 varieties of inoculated and non-inoculated soybeans growing under field conditions, with and without N-fertilizer was determined. It was found that inoculated soybeans had a significantly lower 15 N content than non-inoculated ones. Estimates of the participation of fixed N to the total nitrogen content of inoculated soybeans were calculated from these differences. They were compared to estimates calculated from differences in N yield between inoculated and non-inoculated plants and to the nitrogenase activity, measured by the C 2 H 2 reduction assay over the growing season. Estimates given by the 15 N measurements were correlated with the C 2 H 2 reducing activity but not with the differences in the N yield. This shows that the isotopic composition was dependent on the amount of fixed nitrogen and consequently that the estimates of fixed nitrogen based on natural 15 N abundance should be reliable. The absence of correlation between estimates based on 15 N content and estimates based on N yield was explained by differences in the uptake of soil nitrogen between inoculated and non inoculated soybeans. (Auth.)

  19. The optimum energy harvest efficiency of nitrogen fixing hydrophyte: Azolla pinnata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennakone, K. (Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy (LK) Ruhuna Univ., Matara (LK). Dept. of Physics); Punchihewa, S.; Jayasuriya, A.C. (Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy (LK))

    1989-01-01

    Azolla is a nitrogen fixing hydrophyte that can be cultivated in absence of nitrogenous fertilizer. It is found that when biomass is continuously harvested from a culture of Azolla, solar energy can be converted at an optimum efficiency of 1.1%. (author).

  20. Comparative diversity and composition of nitrogen-fixing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three contrasting land use systems: reserve forests, rice fields and coal fields located at Upper Assam region of North East India were explored for documenting diversity and species composition of N2-fixing cyanobacteria. Altogether 24 taxa (16 heterocystous and 8 non-heterocystous) belonging to nine different genera ...

  1. Bacterial quorum sensing and nitrogen cycling in rhizosphere soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeAngelis, K.M.; Lindow, S.E.; Firestone, M.K.

    2008-10-01

    Plant photosynthate fuels carbon-limited microbial growth and activity, resulting in increased rhizosphere nitrogen (N)-mineralization. Most soil organic N is macromolecular (chitin, protein, nucleotides); enzymatic depolymerization is likely rate-limiting for plant N accumulation. Analyzing Avena (wild oat) planted in microcosms containing sieved field soil, we observed increased rhizosphere chitinase and protease specific activities, bacterial cell densities, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compared to bulk soil. Low-molecular weight DON (<3000 Da) was undetectable in bulk soil but comprised 15% of rhizosphere DON. Extracellular enzyme production in many bacteria requires quorum sensing (QS), cell-density dependent group behavior. Because proteobacteria are considered major rhizosphere colonizers, we assayed the proteobacterial QS signals acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), which were significantly increased in the rhizosphere. To investigate the linkage between soil signaling and N cycling, we characterized 533 bacterial isolates from Avena rhizosphere: 24% had chitinase or protease activity and AHL production; disruption of QS in 7 of 8 eight isolates disrupted enzyme activity. Many {alpha}-Proteobacteria were newly found with QS-controlled extracellular enzyme activity. Enhanced specific activities of N-cycling enzymes accompanied by bacterial density-dependent behaviors in rhizosphere soil gives rise to the hypothesis that QS could be a control point in the complex process of rhizosphere N-mineralization.

  2. Denitrification, anammox and fixed nitrogen removal in the water column of a tropical great lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darchambeau, François; Roland, Fleur; Crowe, Sean A.; De Brabandere, Loreto; Llirós, Marc; Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; Inceoglu, Ozgul; Michiels, Céline; Servais, Pierre; Morana, Cédric D. T.; Bouillon, Steven; Meysman, Filip; Veuger, Bart; Masilya, Pascal M.; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Borges, Alberto V.

    2013-04-01

    If rates of microbial denitrification in aquatic systems are poorly constrained, it is much more the case for tropical water bodies. Lake Kivu [2.50° S 1.59° S, 29.37° E 28.83° E] is one of the great lakes of the East African Rift. It is an oligotrophic lake characterized by anoxic deep waters rich in dissolved gases (methane and carbon dioxide) and nutrients, and by well oxygenated and nutrient-depleted surface waters. During the seasonally stratified rainy season (October to May), a nitrogenous zone characterized by the accumulation of nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) is often observed in the lower layer of the mixolimnion. It results from nitrification of ammonium released by decaying organic matter. With the seasonal uplift of the oxygen minimum zone, the nitrogenous zone becomes anoxic and might be the most preferential area for fixed nitrogen (N) removal in Lake Kivu. Our work aimed at identifying and quantifying the processes of N losses by denitrification and/or anammox in the nitrogenous zone of the Lake Kivu water column. During 5 sampling campaigns (March 2010, October 2010, June 2011, February 2012 and September 2012), isotopic labelling experiments were used to quantify denitrification and anammox rates along vertical profiles at two pelagic stations of the main lake. Moreover, N2:Ar ratios were estimated during the September 2012 campaign, and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing was used to describe bacterial community composition during the last 2 campaigns. No bacteria related to organisms performing anammox was observed and labelling experiments failed to detect anammox at any locations and any depths. In Lake Kivu, denitrifying bacteria were mainly related to Denitratisoma and Thiobacillus genus. Significant denitrification rates were observed at several occasions, especially under the oxic-anoxic interface in the bottom of the nitracline. The annual average denitrification rate was estimated at ~150 μmoles N m-2 d-1. Denitrification was not the only

  3. Soil Nitrogen Availability Is Reflected in the Bacterial Pathway1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.KRIVTSOV; B.S.GRIFFITHS; K.LIDDELL; A.GARSIDE; R.SALMOND; T.BEZGINOVA; J.THOMPSON

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of concentrations of easily extractable soil nitrogen (N) were carried out on samples collected at the Heron Wood Reserve, Scotland, concurrently with investigations of N associated with total microbial biomass and the abundances of bacteria,fungi, and invertebrates. Soil biota at the studied site appeared to be limited by N. There was a remarkable difference between the ambient (i.e., easily extractable N) and biomass nitrogen. The abundance data of bacteria, protozoa and nematodes significantly negatively correlated with ambient N but showed positive correlations with the total microbial N content. There were, however,remarkable differences between the correlation patterns exhibited by the fungal and the bacterial pathways, as fungi did not show any correlations with chemical variables. These differences should be taken into account whilst interpreting biological interactions both at this important site and elsewhere.

  4. Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover. PMID:25340502

  5. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover.

  6. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva

    Full Text Available Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira. We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover.

  7. Biochemical changes induced by fungicides in nitrogen fixing Nostoc sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviram, G V N S; Pant, Gaurav; Prasuna, R Gyana

    2013-01-01

    The present study indicates the effect of fungicides (approved by WHO) and their behavior on nitrogen fixer of rice eco system Nostoc sp. Application of plant protecting chemicals at recommended levels braced up the growth of blue green algae thereby enhancing heterocyst formation and nitrogenase activity. Nostoc sp demoed varying degrees of sensitivity to fungicides. Biomass yield, protein, carbohydrate content reduced after 3pg/mL concentration. Heterocyst damage was observed from 4μg/mL, Proline content increased with increase in fungicide concentration, utmost yellowing of the culture started from 4μg/mL. The decreasing order of the toxicity to Nostoc sp with fungicides was Mancozeb> Ediphenphos> Carbendazim> Hexaconazole.

  8. Beneficial effects of aluminum enrichment on nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaxing; Zhou, Linbin; Ke, Zhixin; Li, Gang; Shi, Rongjun; Tan, Yehui

    2018-04-01

    Few studies focus on the effects of aluminum (Al) on marine nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, which play important roles in the ocean nitrogen cycling. To examine the effects of Al on the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, bioassay experiments in the oligotrophic South China Sea (SCS) and culture of Crocosphaera watsonii in the laboratory were conducted. Field data showed that 200 nM Al stimulated the growth and the nitrogenase gene expression of Trichodesmium and unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium group A, and the nitrogen fixation rates of the whole community. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that Al stimulated the growth and nitrogen fixation of C. watsonii under phosphorus limited conditions. Both field and laboratory results indicated that Al could stimulate the growth of diazotrophs and nitrogen fixation in oligotrophic oceans such as the SCS, which is likely related to the utilization of phosphorus, implying that Al plays an important role in the ocean nitrogen and carbon cycles by influencing nitrogen fixation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Visualization of channels connecting cells in filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omairi-Nasser, Amin; Haselkorn, Robert; Austin, Jotham

    2014-07-01

    Cyanobacteria, formerly called blue-green algae, are abundant bacteria that carry out green plant photosynthesis, fixing CO2 and generating O2. Many species can also fix N2 when reduced nitrogen sources are scarce. Many studies imply the existence of intracellular communicating channels in filamentous cyanobacteria, in particular, the nitrogen-fixing species. In a species such as Anabaena, growth in nitrogen-depleted medium, in which ∼10% of the cells differentiate into anaerobic factories for nitrogen fixation (heterocysts), requires the transport of amino acids from heterocysts to vegetative cells, and reciprocally, the transport of sugar from vegetative cells to heterocysts. Convincing physical evidence for such channels has been slim. Using improved preservation of structure by high-pressure rapid freezing of samples for electron microscopy, coupled with high-resolution 3D tomography, it has been possible to visualize and measure the dimensions of channels that breach the peptidoglycan between vegetative cells and between heterocysts and vegetative cells. The channels appear to be straight tubes, 21 nm long and 14 nm in diameter for the latter and 12 nm long and 12 nm in diameter for the former.-Omairi-Nasser, A., Haselkorn, R., Austin, J. II. Visualization of channels connecting cells in filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. © FASEB.

  10. Sterol Compositions of the Filamentous Nitrogen-Fixing Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Scytonema sp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Dembitsky, V. M.; Go, J. V.; Dor, I.; Prell, Aleš; Hanuš, L.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2003), s. 357-360 ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : nitrogen-fixing * cyanobacterium * scytonema Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.857, year: 2003

  11. Parallel loss of symbiosis genes in relatives of nitrogen-fixing non-legume Parasponia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzen, van R.; Holmer, R.; Bu, F.; Rutten, L.J.J.; Zeijl, van A.L.; Liu, W.; Santuari, L.; Cao, Q.; Sharma, Trupti; Shen, D.; Purwana Roswanjaya, Yuda; Wardhani, T.; Seifi Kalhor, M.; Jansen, Joelle; Hoogen, van den D.J.; Gungor, Berivan; Hartog, M.V.; Hontelez, J.; Verver, J.W.G.; Yang, W.C.; Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Repin, Rimi; Schilthuizen, M.; Schranz, M.E.; Heidstra, R.; Miyata, Kana; Fedorova, E.; Kohlen, W.; Bisseling, A.H.J.; Smit, S.; Geurts, R.

    2017-01-01

    Rhizobium nitrogen-fixing nodules are a well-known trait of legumes, but nodules also occur in other plant lineages either with rhizobium or the actinomycete Frankia as microsymbiont. The widely accepted hypothesis is that nodulation evolved independently multiple times, with only a few losses.

  12. Novel Metabolic Attributes of the Genus Cyanothece, Comprising a Group of Unicellular Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Anindita; Elvitigala, Thanura; Welsh, Eric; Stöckel, Jana; Liberton, Michelle; Min, Hongtao; Sherman, Louis A.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genus Cyanothece comprises unicellular cyanobacteria that are morphologically diverse and ecologically versatile. Studies over the last decade have established members of this genus to be important components of the marine ecosystem, contributing significantly to the nitrogen and carbon cycle. System-level studies of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, a prototypic member of this group, revealed many interesting metabolic attributes. To identify the metabolic traits that define this class of cyanobacteria, five additional Cyanothece strains were sequenced to completion. The presence of a large, contiguous nitrogenase gene cluster and the ability to carry out aerobic nitrogen fixation distinguish Cyanothece as a genus of unicellular, aerobic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. Cyanothece cells can create an anoxic intracellular environment at night, allowing oxygen-sensitive processes to take place in these oxygenic organisms. Large carbohydrate reserves accumulate in the cells during the day, ensuring sufficient energy for the processes that require the anoxic phase of the cells. Our study indicates that this genus maintains a plastic genome, incorporating new metabolic capabilities while simultaneously retaining archaic metabolic traits, a unique combination which provides the flexibility to adapt to various ecological and environmental conditions. Rearrangement of the nitrogenase cluster in Cyanothece sp. strain 7425 and the concomitant loss of its aerobic nitrogen-fixing ability suggest that a similar mechanism might have been at play in cyanobacterial strains that eventually lost their nitrogen-fixing ability. PMID:21972240

  13. An oceanic fixed nitrogen sink exceeding 400 Tg N a−1 vs the concept of homeostasis in the fixed-nitrogen inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Codispoti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the N2 produced by denitrification, a better understanding of non-canonical pathways for N2 production such as the anammox reaction, better appreciation of the multiple environments in which denitrification can occur (e.g. brine pockets in ice, within particles outside of suboxic water, etc. suggest that it is unlikely that the oceanic denitrification rate is less than 400 Tg N a−1. Because this sink term far exceeds present estimates for nitrogen fixation, the main source for oceanic fixed-N, there is a large apparent deficit (~200 Tg N a−1 in the oceanic fixed-N budget. The size of the deficit appears to conflict with apparent constraints of the atmospheric carbon dioxide and sedimentary δ15N records that suggest homeostasis during the Holocene. In addition, the oceanic nitrate/phosphate ratio tends to be close to the canonical Redfield biological uptake ratio of 16 (by N and P atoms which can be interpreted to indicate the existence of a powerful feed-back mechanism that forces the system towards a balance. The main point of this paper is that one cannot solve this conundrum by reducing the oceanic sink term. To do so would violate an avalanche of recent data on oceanic denitrification. A solution to this problem may be as simple as an upwards revision of the oceanic nitrogen fixation rate, and it is noted that most direct estimates for this term have concentrated on nitrogen fixation by autotrophs in the photic zone, even though nitrogen fixing genes are widespread. Another simple explanation may be that we are simply no longer in the Holocene and one might expect to see temporary imbalances in the oceanic fixed-N budget as we transition from the Holocene to the Anthropocene in line with an apparent denitrification maximum during the Glacial-Holocene transition. Other possible full or partial explanations involve plausible changes in the oceanic nitrate/phosphate and N/C ratios, an oceanic phosphorus budget that may also

  14. Long-term clinical and bacterial effects of xylitol on patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Mohamed I; Allarakia, Reem; Alamoudi, Najlaa M; Nalliah, Romesh; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term clinical and bacterial effects of using 6 g of xylitol per day for 3 months on patients with full fixed orthodontic appliances. The study was a pilot clinical trial that included 41 subjects who were undergoing orthodontic treatment. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups. Group A received xylitol chewing gum, group B received xylitol dissolvable chewable tablets, and Group C served as the control group and did not receive xylitol gums or tablets. Clinical examination and the collection of plaque and saliva samples were carried out at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months. All three groups were given oral hygiene instruction and were put on a 6-month cleaning and topical fluoride schedule. Plaque scores and bacterial counts were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the different approaches at reducing the caries risk. Xylitol groups did not experience any more reduction in plaque score, plaque MS counts, or salivary MS counts than the control group nor did they have lower values at any of the time points. Chewing gum did not significantly increase the incidence of debonded brackets over the other groups. Xylitol does not have a clinical or bacterial benefit in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Oral hygiene instructions and 6-month topical fluoride application were effective at reducing plaque scores and bacterial counts in patients with full fixed appliances regardless of whether or not xylitol was used.

  15. Metabolic profiling of two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines inoculated with the nitrogen fixing plant-interacting bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusamarello-Santos, Liziane Cristina; Gilard, Françoise; Brulé, Lenaïg; Quilleré, Isabelle; Gourion, Benjamin; Ratet, Pascal; Maltempi de Souza, Emanuel; Lea, Peter J.; Hirel, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    Maize roots can be colonized by free-living atmospheric nitrogen (N2)-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs). However, the agronomic potential of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in such an economically important species as maize, has still not been fully exploited. A preliminary approach to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the establishment of such N2-fixing associations has been developed, using two maize inbred lines exhibiting different physiological characteristics. The bacterial-plant interaction has been characterized by means of a metabolomic approach. Two established model strains of Nif+ diazotrophic bacteria, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense and their Nif- couterparts defficient in nitrogenase activity, were used to evaluate the impact of the bacterial inoculation and of N2 fixation on the root and leaf metabolic profiles. The two N2-fixing bacteria have been used to inoculate two genetically distant maize lines (FV252 and FV2), already characterized for their contrasting physiological properties. Using a well-controlled gnotobiotic experimental system that allows inoculation of maize plants with the two diazotrophs in a N-free medium, we demonstrated that both maize lines were efficiently colonized by the two bacterial species. We also showed that in the early stages of plant development, both bacterial strains were able to reduce acetylene, suggesting that they contain functional nitrogenase activity and are able to efficiently fix atmospheric N2 (Fix+). The metabolomic approach allowed the identification of metabolites in the two maize lines that were representative of the N2 fixing plant-bacterial interaction, these included mannitol and to a lesser extend trehalose and isocitrate. Whilst other metabolites such as asparagine, although only exhibiting a small increase in maize roots following bacterial infection, were specific for the two Fix+ bacterial strains, in comparison to their Fix- counterparts. Moreover, a number

  16. Metabolic profiling of two maize (Zea mays L. inbred lines inoculated with the nitrogen fixing plant-interacting bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziane Cristina Brusamarello-Santos

    Full Text Available Maize roots can be colonized by free-living atmospheric nitrogen (N2-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs. However, the agronomic potential of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in such an economically important species as maize, has still not been fully exploited. A preliminary approach to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the establishment of such N2-fixing associations has been developed, using two maize inbred lines exhibiting different physiological characteristics. The bacterial-plant interaction has been characterized by means of a metabolomic approach. Two established model strains of Nif+ diazotrophic bacteria, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense and their Nif- couterparts defficient in nitrogenase activity, were used to evaluate the impact of the bacterial inoculation and of N2 fixation on the root and leaf metabolic profiles. The two N2-fixing bacteria have been used to inoculate two genetically distant maize lines (FV252 and FV2, already characterized for their contrasting physiological properties. Using a well-controlled gnotobiotic experimental system that allows inoculation of maize plants with the two diazotrophs in a N-free medium, we demonstrated that both maize lines were efficiently colonized by the two bacterial species. We also showed that in the early stages of plant development, both bacterial strains were able to reduce acetylene, suggesting that they contain functional nitrogenase activity and are able to efficiently fix atmospheric N2 (Fix+. The metabolomic approach allowed the identification of metabolites in the two maize lines that were representative of the N2 fixing plant-bacterial interaction, these included mannitol and to a lesser extend trehalose and isocitrate. Whilst other metabolites such as asparagine, although only exhibiting a small increase in maize roots following bacterial infection, were specific for the two Fix+ bacterial strains, in comparison to their Fix- counterparts

  17. Metabolic profiling of two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines inoculated with the nitrogen fixing plant-interacting bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusamarello-Santos, Liziane Cristina; Gilard, Françoise; Brulé, Lenaïg; Quilleré, Isabelle; Gourion, Benjamin; Ratet, Pascal; Maltempi de Souza, Emanuel; Lea, Peter J; Hirel, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    Maize roots can be colonized by free-living atmospheric nitrogen (N2)-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs). However, the agronomic potential of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in such an economically important species as maize, has still not been fully exploited. A preliminary approach to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the establishment of such N2-fixing associations has been developed, using two maize inbred lines exhibiting different physiological characteristics. The bacterial-plant interaction has been characterized by means of a metabolomic approach. Two established model strains of Nif+ diazotrophic bacteria, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense and their Nif- couterparts defficient in nitrogenase activity, were used to evaluate the impact of the bacterial inoculation and of N2 fixation on the root and leaf metabolic profiles. The two N2-fixing bacteria have been used to inoculate two genetically distant maize lines (FV252 and FV2), already characterized for their contrasting physiological properties. Using a well-controlled gnotobiotic experimental system that allows inoculation of maize plants with the two diazotrophs in a N-free medium, we demonstrated that both maize lines were efficiently colonized by the two bacterial species. We also showed that in the early stages of plant development, both bacterial strains were able to reduce acetylene, suggesting that they contain functional nitrogenase activity and are able to efficiently fix atmospheric N2 (Fix+). The metabolomic approach allowed the identification of metabolites in the two maize lines that were representative of the N2 fixing plant-bacterial interaction, these included mannitol and to a lesser extend trehalose and isocitrate. Whilst other metabolites such as asparagine, although only exhibiting a small increase in maize roots following bacterial infection, were specific for the two Fix+ bacterial strains, in comparison to their Fix- counterparts. Moreover, a number

  18. Response of nitrogen-fixing water fern Azolla biofertilization to rice crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, K; Singh, Pawan Kumar

    2015-08-01

    The water fern Azolla harbors nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae as symbiont in its dorsal leaves and is known as potent N 2 fixer. Present investigation was carried out to study the influence of fresh Azolla when used as basal incorporation in soil and as dual cropped with rice variety Mahsoori separately and together with and without chemical nitrogen fertilizer in pots kept under net house conditions. Results showed that use of Azolla as basal or dual or basal plus dual influenced the rice crop positively where use of fern as basal plus dual was superior and served the nitrogen requirement of rice. There was marked increase in plant height, number of effective tillers, dry mass and nitrogen content of rice plants with the use of Azolla and N-fertilizers alone and other combinations. The use of Azolla also increased organic matter and potassium contents of the soil.

  19. Identification of nitrogen-fixing genes and gene clusters from metagenomic library of acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhimin; Guo, Xue; Yin, Huaqun; Liang, Yili; Cong, Jing; Liu, Xueduan

    2014-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is an essential function of acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial communities. However, most acidophiles in AMD environments are uncultured microorganisms and little is known about the diversity of nitrogen-fixing genes and structure of nif gene cluster in AMD microbial communities. In this study, we used metagenomic sequencing to isolate nif genes in the AMD microbial community from Dexing Copper Mine, China. Meanwhile, a metagenome microarray containing 7,776 large-insertion fosmids was constructed to screen novel nif gene clusters. Metagenomic analyses revealed that 742 sequences were identified as nif genes including structural subunit genes nifH, nifD, nifK and various additional genes. The AMD community is massively dominated by the genus Acidithiobacillus. However, the phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms is much higher than previously thought in the AMD community. Furthermore, a 32.5-kb genomic sequence harboring nif, fix and associated genes was screened by metagenome microarray. Comparative genome analysis indicated that most nif genes in this cluster are most similar to those of Herbaspirillum seropedicae, but the organization of the nif gene cluster had significant differences from H. seropedicae. Sequence analysis and reverse transcription PCR also suggested that distinct transcription units of nif genes exist in this gene cluster. nifQ gene falls into the same transcription unit with fixABCX genes, which have not been reported in other diazotrophs before. All of these results indicated that more novel diazotrophs survive in the AMD community.

  20. Identification of nitrogen-fixing genes and gene clusters from metagenomic library of acid mine drainage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Dai

    Full Text Available Biological nitrogen fixation is an essential function of acid mine drainage (AMD microbial communities. However, most acidophiles in AMD environments are uncultured microorganisms and little is known about the diversity of nitrogen-fixing genes and structure of nif gene cluster in AMD microbial communities. In this study, we used metagenomic sequencing to isolate nif genes in the AMD microbial community from Dexing Copper Mine, China. Meanwhile, a metagenome microarray containing 7,776 large-insertion fosmids was constructed to screen novel nif gene clusters. Metagenomic analyses revealed that 742 sequences were identified as nif genes including structural subunit genes nifH, nifD, nifK and various additional genes. The AMD community is massively dominated by the genus Acidithiobacillus. However, the phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms is much higher than previously thought in the AMD community. Furthermore, a 32.5-kb genomic sequence harboring nif, fix and associated genes was screened by metagenome microarray. Comparative genome analysis indicated that most nif genes in this cluster are most similar to those of Herbaspirillum seropedicae, but the organization of the nif gene cluster had significant differences from H. seropedicae. Sequence analysis and reverse transcription PCR also suggested that distinct transcription units of nif genes exist in this gene cluster. nifQ gene falls into the same transcription unit with fixABCX genes, which have not been reported in other diazotrophs before. All of these results indicated that more novel diazotrophs survive in the AMD community.

  1. Identification of Nitrogen-Fixing Genes and Gene Clusters from Metagenomic Library of Acid Mine Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huaqun; Liang, Yili; Cong, Jing; Liu, Xueduan

    2014-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is an essential function of acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial communities. However, most acidophiles in AMD environments are uncultured microorganisms and little is known about the diversity of nitrogen-fixing genes and structure of nif gene cluster in AMD microbial communities. In this study, we used metagenomic sequencing to isolate nif genes in the AMD microbial community from Dexing Copper Mine, China. Meanwhile, a metagenome microarray containing 7,776 large-insertion fosmids was constructed to screen novel nif gene clusters. Metagenomic analyses revealed that 742 sequences were identified as nif genes including structural subunit genes nifH, nifD, nifK and various additional genes. The AMD community is massively dominated by the genus Acidithiobacillus. However, the phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms is much higher than previously thought in the AMD community. Furthermore, a 32.5-kb genomic sequence harboring nif, fix and associated genes was screened by metagenome microarray. Comparative genome analysis indicated that most nif genes in this cluster are most similar to those of Herbaspirillum seropedicae, but the organization of the nif gene cluster had significant differences from H. seropedicae. Sequence analysis and reverse transcription PCR also suggested that distinct transcription units of nif genes exist in this gene cluster. nifQ gene falls into the same transcription unit with fixABCX genes, which have not been reported in other diazotrophs before. All of these results indicated that more novel diazotrophs survive in the AMD community. PMID:24498417

  2. Cowpea symbiotic efficiency, pH and aluminum tolerance in nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lima Soares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cultivation in northern and northeastern Brazil provides an excellent source of nutrients and carbohydrates for the poor and underprivileged. Production surplus leads to its consumption in other regions of Brazil and also as an export commodity. Its capacity to establish relationships with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria is crucial to the reduction of production costs and the environmental impact of nitrogen fertilizers. This study assessed the symbiotic efficiency of new strains of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria with cowpea and their tolerance to pH and aluminum. Twenty-seven strains of bacteria from different soils were evaluated under axenic conditions. These strains were compared to the following inoculant strains: INPA03-11B, UFLA03-84 and BR3267 and two controls that were not inoculated (with and without mineral nitrogen. Six strains and the three strains approved as inoculants were selected to increase the dry weight production of the aerial part (DWAP and were tested in pots with soil that had a high-density of nitrogen-fixing native rhizobia. In this experiment, three strains (UFLA03-164, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-154 yielded higher DWAP values. These strains grow at pH levels of 5.0, 6.0, 6.8 and at high aluminum concentration levels, reaching 10(9 CFU mL-1. In particular UFLA03-84, UFLA03-153, and UFLA03-164 tolerate up to 20 mmol c dm-3 of Al+3. Inoculation with rhizobial strains, that had been carefully selected according to their ability to nodulate and fix N2, combined with their ability to compete in soils that are acidic and contain high levels of Al, is a cheaper and more sustainable alternative that can be made available to farmers than mineral fertilizers.

  3. Determination of isotopic identity of nitrogen fixed by Frankia associated with the genus Alnus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Domenach, A.M.; Daniere, C.; Bardin, R.

    1988-01-01

    To use the 15 N natural abundance method to evaluate the symbiotic nitrogen fixation by actinorhizal trees, it is necessary to determine the isotopic identity of assimilated nitrogen from two sources: the soil and the air. This study reports an isotopic value of fixed nitrogen by two alder species (Alnus Incana(L.) Moench and Alnus glutinosa(L.) Gaertn.) growing on nitrogen-free medium in greenhouse experiments. The δ 15 N value of the aerial parts was -2. This value was stable with time and did not depend on the Frankia strains used. This value could be used to estimate the nitrogen fixation in the natural ecosystem. Other parameters such as the mobilization of nitrogen reserves and the choice of the reference plant must be investigated to apply this method. The nodules of these two alder species were enriched in 15 N relative to the rest of the plant but there was no relationship between symbiotic effectiveness of Frankia strains and 15 N enrichment of nodules. On the other hand, for naturally growing trees, an enrichment in 15 N was found primarily in the vesicles of nodules that are the sites of nitrogen fixation. 37 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs. (author)

  4. Aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen transformation processes in N2-fixing cyanobacterial aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawonn, Isabell; Bonaglia, Stefano; Brüchert, Volker; Ploug, Helle

    2015-06-01

    Colonies of N(2)-fixing cyanobacteria are key players in supplying new nitrogen to the ocean, but the biological fate of this fixed nitrogen remains poorly constrained. Here, we report on aerobic and anaerobic microbial nitrogen transformation processes that co-occur within millimetre-sized cyanobacterial aggregates (Nodularia spumigena) collected in aerated surface waters in the Baltic Sea. Microelectrode profiles showed steep oxygen gradients inside the aggregates and the potential for nitrous oxide production in the aggregates' anoxic centres. (15)N-isotope labelling experiments and nutrient analyses revealed that N(2) fixation, ammonification, nitrification, nitrate reduction to ammonium, denitrification and possibly anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) can co-occur within these consortia. Thus, N. spumigena aggregates are potential sites of nitrogen gain, recycling and loss. Rates of nitrate reduction to ammonium and N(2) were limited by low internal nitrification rates and low concentrations of nitrate in the ambient water. Presumably, patterns of N-transformation processes similar to those observed in this study arise also in other phytoplankton colonies, marine snow and fecal pellets. Anoxic microniches, as a pre-condition for anaerobic nitrogen transformations, may occur within large aggregates (⩾1 mm) even when suspended in fully oxygenated waters, whereas anoxia in small aggregates (1.5 μM), O(2)-depleted water layers, for example, in the chemocline of the Baltic Sea or the oceanic mesopelagic zone, aggregates may promote N-recycling and -loss processes.

  5. Novel metabolic attributes of the genus cyanothece, comprising a group of unicellular nitrogen-fixing Cyanothece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Anindita; Elvitigala, Thanura; Welsh, Eric; Stöckel, Jana; Liberton, Michelle; Min, Hongtao; Sherman, Louis A; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2011-01-01

    The genus Cyanothece comprises unicellular cyanobacteria that are morphologically diverse and ecologically versatile. Studies over the last decade have established members of this genus to be important components of the marine ecosystem, contributing significantly to the nitrogen and carbon cycle. System-level studies of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, a prototypic member of this group, revealed many interesting metabolic attributes. To identify the metabolic traits that define this class of cyanobacteria, five additional Cyanothece strains were sequenced to completion. The presence of a large, contiguous nitrogenase gene cluster and the ability to carry out aerobic nitrogen fixation distinguish Cyanothece as a genus of unicellular, aerobic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. Cyanothece cells can create an anoxic intracellular environment at night, allowing oxygen-sensitive processes to take place in these oxygenic organisms. Large carbohydrate reserves accumulate in the cells during the day, ensuring sufficient energy for the processes that require the anoxic phase of the cells. Our study indicates that this genus maintains a plastic genome, incorporating new metabolic capabilities while simultaneously retaining archaic metabolic traits, a unique combination which provides the flexibility to adapt to various ecological and environmental conditions. Rearrangement of the nitrogenase cluster in Cyanothece sp. strain 7425 and the concomitant loss of its aerobic nitrogen-fixing ability suggest that a similar mechanism might have been at play in cyanobacterial strains that eventually lost their nitrogen-fixing ability. The unicellular cyanobacterial genus Cyanothece has significant roles in the nitrogen cycle in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 was extensively studied over the last decade and has emerged as an important model photosynthetic microbe for bioenergy production. To expand our understanding of the distinctive metabolic capabilities of

  6. Compatibility between Legumes and Rhizobia for the Establishment of a Successful Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clúa, Joaquín; Roda, Carla; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio A

    2018-02-27

    The root nodule symbiosis established between legumes and rhizobia is an exquisite biological interaction responsible for fixing a significant amount of nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems. The success of this interaction depends on the recognition of the right partner by the plant within the richest microbial ecosystems on Earth, the soil. Recent metagenomic studies of the soil biome have revealed its complexity, which includes microorganisms that affect plant fitness and growth in a beneficial, harmful, or neutral manner. In this complex scenario, understanding the molecular mechanisms by which legumes recognize and discriminate rhizobia from pathogens, but also between distinct rhizobia species and strains that differ in their symbiotic performance, is a considerable challenge. In this work, we will review how plants are able to recognize and select symbiotic partners from a vast diversity of surrounding bacteria. We will also analyze recent advances that contribute to understand changes in plant gene expression associated with the outcome of the symbiotic interaction. These aspects of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis should contribute to translate the knowledge generated in basic laboratory research into biotechnological advances to improve the efficiency of the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis in agronomic systems.

  7. Nitrogen-fixing trees inhibit growth of regenerating Costa Rican rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Benton N; Chazdon, Robin L; Bachelot, Benedicte; Menge, Duncan N L

    2017-08-15

    More than half of the world's tropical forests are currently recovering from human land use, and this regenerating biomass now represents the largest carbon (C)-capturing potential on Earth. How quickly these forests regenerate is now a central concern for both conservation and global climate-modeling efforts. Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing trees are thought to provide much of the nitrogen (N) required to fuel tropical secondary regrowth and therefore to drive the rate of forest regeneration, yet we have a poor understanding of how these N fixers influence the trees around them. Do they promote forest growth, as expected if the new N they fix facilitates neighboring trees? Or do they suppress growth, as expected if competitive inhibition of their neighbors is strong? Using 17 consecutive years of data from tropical rainforest plots in Costa Rica that range from 10 y since abandonment to old-growth forest, we assessed how N fixers influenced the growth of forest stands and the demographic rates of neighboring trees. Surprisingly, we found no evidence that N fixers facilitate biomass regeneration in these forests. At the hectare scale, plots with more N-fixing trees grew slower. At the individual scale, N fixers inhibited their neighbors even more strongly than did nonfixing trees. These results provide strong evidence that N-fixing trees do not always serve the facilitative role to neighboring trees during tropical forest regeneration that is expected given their N inputs into these systems.

  8. Regime shift by an exotic nitrogen-fixing shrub mediates plant facilitation in primary succession.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Stinca

    Full Text Available Ecosystem invasion by non-native, nitrogen-fixing species is a global phenomenon with serious ecological consequences. However, in the Mediterranean basin few studies addressed the impact of invasion by nitrogen-fixing shrubs on soil quality and hydrological properties at local scale, and the possible effects on succession dynamics and ecosystem invasibility by further species. In this multidisciplinary study we investigated the impact of Genista aetnensis (Biv. DC., an exotic nitrogen-fixing shrub, on the Vesuvius Grand Cone (Southern Italy. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that the invasion of G. aetnensis has a significant impact on soil quality, soil hydrological regime, local microclimate and plant community structure, and that its impact increases during the plant ontogenetic cycle. We showed that G. aetnensis, in a relatively short time-span (i.e. ~ 40 years, has been able to build-up an island of fertility under its canopy, by accumulating considerable stocks of C, N, and P in the soil, and by also improving the soil hydrological properties. Moreover, G. aetnensis mitigates the daily range of soil temperature, reducing the exposure of coexisting plants to extremely high temperatures and water loss by soil evaporation, particularly during the growing season. Such amelioration of soil quality, coupled with the mitigation of below-canopy microclimatic conditions, has enhanced plant colonization of the barren Grand Cone slopes, by both herbaceous and woody species. These results suggest that the invasion of G. aetnensis could eventually drive to the spread of other, more resource-demanding exotic species, promoting alternative successional trajectories that may dramatically affect the local landscape. Our study is the first record of the invasion of G. aetnensis, an additional example of the regime shifts driven by N-fixing shrubs in Mediterranean region. Further studies are needed to identity specific management practices that can

  9. Differences in Plant Traits among N-fixing Trees in Hawaii Affect Understory Nitrogen Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    August-Schmidt, E.; D'Antonio, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) fixing trees are frequently used to restore soil functions to degraded ecosystems because they can increase soil organic matter and N availability. Although N-fixers are lumped into a single functional group, the quality and quantity of the plant material they produce and the rate at which they accrete and add N to the cycling pool likely vary. This talk will focus on the questions: (1) How does N-cycling differ among N-fixing tree species? And (2) Which plant traits are most important in distinguishing the soil N environment? To address these questions, we investigated planted stands of two Hawaiian native N-fixing trees (Acacia koa and Sophora chrysophylla) and `natural' stands of an invasive N-fixing tree (Morella faya) in burned seasonal submontane woodlands in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. We measured the relative availability of nitrogen in the soil pool and understory plant community as well as characterizing the rate and amount of N cycling in these stands both in the field and using long term soil incubations in the laboratory. We found that N is cycled very differently under these three N-fixers and that this correlates with differences in their leaf traits. S. chrysophylla had the highest foliar %N and highest specific leaf area, and stands of these trees are associated with faster N-cycling, resulting in greater N availability compared to all other site types. Incubated S. chrysophylla soils mineralized almost twice as much N as any other soil type over the course of the experiment. The comparatively high-N environment under S. chrysophylla suggests that litter quality may be more important than litter quantity in determining nitrogen availability to the understory community.

  10. Is the distribution of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in the oceans related to temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stal, Lucas J

    2009-07-01

    Approximately 50% of the global natural fixation of nitrogen occurs in the oceans supporting a considerable part of the new primary production. Virtually all nitrogen fixation in the ocean occurs in the tropics and subtropics where the surface water temperature is 25°C or higher. It is attributed almost exclusively to cyanobacteria. This is remarkable firstly because diazotrophic cyanobacteria are found in other environments irrespective of temperature and secondly because primary production in temperate and cold oceans is generally limited by nitrogen. Cyanobacteria are oxygenic phototrophic organisms that evolved a variety of strategies protecting nitrogenase from oxygen inactivation. Free-living diazotrophic cyanobacteria in the ocean are of the non-heterocystous type, namely the filamentous Trichodesmium and the unicellular groups A-C. I will argue that warm water is a prerequisite for these diazotrophic organisms because of the low-oxygen solubility and high rates of respiration allowing the organism to maintain anoxic conditions in the nitrogen-fixing cell. Heterocystous cyanobacteria are abundant in freshwater and brackish environments in all climatic zones. The heterocyst cell envelope is a tuneable gas diffusion barrier that optimizes the influx of both oxygen and nitrogen, while maintaining anoxic conditions inside the cell. It is not known why heterocystous cyanobacteria are absent from the temperate and cold oceans and seas.

  11. Global Transcriptomic and Proteomic Responses of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes Strain 195 to Fixed Nitrogen Limitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Patrick K. H. [University of California, Berkeley; Dill, Brian [ORNL; Louie, Tiffany S. [University of California, Berkeley; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Andersen, Gary L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Zinder, Stephen H. [Cornell University; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Dehalococcoides play an important role in the reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes. A systems level approach was taken in this study to examine the global transcriptomic and proteomic responses of exponentially growing D. ethenogenes strain 195 to fixed nitrogen limitation (FNL) as dechlorination activity and cell yield both decrease during FNL. As expected, the nitrogen-fixing (nif) genes were differentially up-regulated in the transcriptome and proteome of strain 195 during FNL. Aside from the nif operon, a putative methylglyoxal synthase-encoding gene (DET1576), the product of which is predicted to catalyze the formation of the toxic electrophile methylglyoxal and implicated in the uncoupling of anabolism from catabolism in bacteria, was strongly up-regulated in the transcriptome and could potentially play a role in the observed growth inhibition during FNL. Carbon catabolism genes were generally down regulated in response to FNL and a number of transporters were differentially regulated in response to nitrogen limitation, with some playing apparent roles in nitrogen acquisition while others were associated with general stress responses. A number of genes related to the functions of nucleotide synthesis, replication, transcription, translation, and post-translational modifications were also differentially expressed. One gene coding for a putative reductive dehalogenase (DET1545) and a number coding for oxidoreductases, which have implications in energy generation and redox reactions, were also differentially regulated. Interestingly, most of the genes within the multiple integrated elements were not differentially expressed. Overall, this study elucidates the molecular responses of strain 195 to FNL and identifies differentially expressed genes that are potential biomarkers to evaluate environmental cellular nitrogen status.

  12. Kinetics of Nif gene expression in a nitrogen-fixing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza-Carrión, César; Jiménez-Vicente, Emilio; Navarro-Rodríguez, Mónica; Echavarri-Erasun, Carlos; Rubio, Luis M

    2014-02-01

    Nitrogen fixation is a tightly regulated trait. Switching from N2 fixation-repressing conditions to the N2-fixing state is carefully controlled in diazotrophic bacteria mainly because of the high energy demand that it imposes. By using quantitative real-time PCR and quantitative immunoblotting, we show here how nitrogen fixation (nif) gene expression develops in Azotobacter vinelandii upon derepression. Transient expression of the transcriptional activator-encoding gene, nifA, was followed by subsequent, longer-duration waves of expression of the nitrogenase biosynthetic and structural genes. Importantly, expression timing, expression levels, and NifA dependence varied greatly among the nif operons. Moreover, the exact concentrations of Nif proteins and their changes over time were determined for the first time. Nif protein concentrations were exquisitely balanced, with FeMo cofactor biosynthetic proteins accumulating at levels 50- to 100-fold lower than those of the structural proteins. Mutants lacking nitrogenase structural genes or impaired in FeMo cofactor biosynthesis showed overenhanced responses to derepression that were proportional to the degree of nitrogenase activity impairment, consistent with the existence of at least two negative-feedback regulatory mechanisms. The first such mechanism responded to the levels of fixed nitrogen, whereas the second mechanism appeared to respond to the levels of the mature NifDK component. Altogether, these findings provide a framework to engineer N2 fixation in nondiazotrophs.

  13. RESISTANCE OF KARST CAVERNS NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA TO EXTREME FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashyrev O. B.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the studied bacteria resistance quantitative parameters of extreme factors such as toxic metals (Cu2+, organic xenobiotics (p-nitrochlorobenzene and UV-irradiation were the aim of the research. Six strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from clays of two caverns Mushkarova Yama (Podolia, Ukraine and Kuybyshevskaya (Western Caucasus, Abkhazia and Azotobacter vinelandii УКМ В-6017 as a reference strain have been tested. For this purpose the maximum permissible concentration of Cu2+ and p-nitrochlorobenzene in the concentration gradient and lethal doses of UV by the survival caverns have been determined. Maximum permissible concentrations for strains were as 10 ppm Cu2+, 70–120 ppm of p-nitrochlorobenzene. The maximum doses of UV-irradiation varied in the range of 55–85 J/m2 (LD99.99. It is shown that three classes of extreme factors resistance parameters of karst caverns strains are similar to the strain of terrestrial soil ecosystems. The most active studied strains reduce the concentration of p-nitrochlorobenzene in the medium in 13 times. The ability of nitrogen-fixing bacteria to degrade p-nitrochlorobenzene could be used in creation new environmental biotechnology for industrial wastewater treatment from nitrochloroaromatic xenobiotics. Isolated strains could be used as destructors for soils bioremediation in agrobiotechnologies and to optimize plants nitrogen nutrition in terrestrial ecosystems.

  14. Beijerinckia derxii stimulates the viability of non-N2-fixing bacteria in nitrogen-free media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Heloiza R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between the nitrogen-fixing microorganism Beijerinckia derxii with two non-diazotrophic bacteria, either Escherichia coli or a facultative sulphur-oxidizing chemolitotroph, were studied in mixed cultures. Direct and indirect contact between B. derxii and E. coli were tested. B. derxii increased CFU numbers and/or maintained the viability of the non-diazotrophic bacteria, but neither growth nor nitrogenase activity of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium were affected by either partner.

  15. Long-term clinical and bacterial effects of xylitol on patients with fixed orthodontic appliances

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud, Mohamed I.; Allarakia, Reem; Alamoudi, Najlaa M.; Nalliah, Romesh; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term clinical and bacterial effects of using 6 g of xylitol per day for 3 months on patients with full fixed orthodontic appliances. Methods The study was a pilot clinical trial that included 41 subjects who were undergoing orthodontic treatment. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups. Group A received xylitol chewing gum, group B received xylitol dissolvable chewable tablets, and Group C served as the control group and...

  16. Symbiosome-like intracellular colonization of cereals and other crop plants by nitrogen-fixing bacteria for reduced inputs of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocking, Edward C; Stone, Philip J; Davey, Michael R

    2005-09-01

    It has been forecast that the challenge of meeting increased food demand and protecting environmental quality will be won or lost in maize, rice and wheat cropping systems, and that the problem of environmental nitrogen enrichment is most likely to be solved by substituting synthetic nitrogen fertilizers by the creation of cereal crops that are able to fix nitrogen symbiotically as legumes do. In legumes, rhizobia present intracellularly in membrane-bound vesicular compartments in the cytoplasm of nodule cells fix nitrogen endosymbiotically. Within these symbiosomes, membrane-bound vesicular compartments, rhizobia are supplied with energy derived from plant photosynthates and in return supply the plant with biologically fixed nitrogen, usually as ammonia. This minimizes or eliminates the need for inputs of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers. Recently we have demonstrated, using novel inoculation conditions with very low numbers of bacteria, that cells of root meristems of maize, rice, wheat and other major non-legume crops, such as oilseed rape and tomato, can be intracellularly colonized by the non-rhizobial, non-nodulating, nitrogen fixing bacterium,Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus that naturally occurs in sugarcane.G. diazotrophicus expressing nitrogen fixing (nifH) genes is present in symbiosome-like compartments in the cytoplasm of cells of the root meristems of the target cereals and non-legume crop species, somewhat similar to the intracellular symbiosome colonization of legume nodule cells by rhizobia. To obtain an indication of the likelihood of adequate growth and yield, of maize for example, with reduced inputs of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, we are currently determining the extent to which nitrogen fixation, as assessed using various methods, is correlated with the extent of systemic intracellular colonization byG. diazotrophicus, with minimal or zero inputs.

  17. Estimate of symbiotically fixed nitrogen in field grown soybeans using variations in /sup 15/N natural abundance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarger, N; Durr, J C; Bourguignon, C; Lagacherie, B [INRA Centre de Recherches de Dijon, 21 (France). Lab. de Microbiologie des Sols; Mariotti, A; Mariotti, F [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Lab. de Geologie Dynamique

    1979-07-01

    The use of variations in natural abundance of /sup 15/N between nitrogen fixing and non nitrogen fixing soybeans was investigated for quantitative estimate of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Isotopic analysis of 4 varieties of inoculated and non-inoculated soybeans growing under field conditions, with and without N-fertilizer was determined. It was found that inoculated soybeans had a significantly lower /sup 15/N content than non-inoculated ones. Estimates of the participation of fixed N to the total nitrogen content of inoculated soybeans were calculated from these differences. They were compared to estimates calculated from differences in N yield between inoculated and non-inoculated plants and to the nitrogenase activity, measured by the C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reduction assay over the growing season. Estimates given by the /sup 15/N measurements were correlated with the C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reducing activity but not with the differences in the N yield. This shows that the isotopic composition was dependent on the amount of fixed nitrogen and consequently that the estimates of fixed nitrogen based on natural /sup 15/N abundance should be reliable. The absence of correlation between estimates based on /sup 15/N content and estimates based on N yield was explained by differences in the uptake of soil nitrogen between inoculated and non inoculated soybeans.

  18. Transfer of biologically fixed nitrogen to the non-legume component of mixed pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haystead, A.

    1983-01-01

    Pasture ecosystems are extremely diverse, as are the management procedures imposed upon them by the pastoralist. In low input pasture enterprises in marginal areas, legume nitrogen fixation is frequently (but not invariably) crucial to continued productivity. Legumes usually do not dominate a pasture and their role in transferring fixed nitrogen to a non-legume, frequently graminaceous, species is important. Methods for measuring this transfer are critically assessed in terms of their usefulness in realistic pasture environments. Existing techniques all have serious disadvantages in this respect. Isotopic studies of individual processes within the transfer system are described and some new lines of investigation are proposed. The value of isotopic studies in improving pasture management is discussed. (author)

  19. Root-to-seed transport and metabolism of fixed nitrogen in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    The great energetic demand of nitrogen fixation to support growth of the exceptionally high-N seeds is certainly a major yield barrier for soybeans. Transport of carbohydrate energy supplies to the root and of fixed nitrogen (N) from the root appear to contribute to the yield barrier, also. N is loaded into the soybean xylem stream principally as allantoin (ALL), and allantonic acid (ALLA), but xylem carries only dilute N and cannot reach the seeds at sufficient rate to support their N needs. Explants consisting of stem and a few leaves and pods were allowed to take up 14 C- and/or 15 N-ALL/ALLA in synthetic xylem sap. The 14 C label was found to become fairly quantitatively immobilized in leaves. The N (and 15 N label) almost certainly is separated from the C( 14 C label) at this time

  20. Contribution of bacterial cell nitrogen to soil humic fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, R.; Barro, L.

    1981-01-01

    Living cells of Serratia marcescens, uniformly labelled with 15 N, were added to samples of maple (Acer saccharum) and black spruce (Picea mariana) forest soils. After different periods of incubation from zero time to 100 days, the soils were subjected to alkali-acid and phenol extraction to provide humic acid, fulvic acid, humin and 'humoprotein' fractions. Significant amounts of the cell nitrogen were recovered in the humic and fulvic acids immediately after addition. After incubation, less cell nitrogen appeared in the humic acid and more in the fulvic acid. The amount of cell nitrogen recovered in the humin fraction increased with incubation. Roughly 5 to 10 per cent of the added cell nitrogen was found as amino acid nitrogen from humoprotein in a phenol extract of the humic acid. The data are consistent with the occurrence of co-precipitation of biologically labile biomass nitrogen compounds with humic polymers during the alkaline extraction procedure involved in the humic-fulvic fractionation. (orig.)

  1. Acromyrmex Leaf-Cutting Ants Have Simple Gut Microbiota with Nitrogen-Fixing Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Zhukova, Mariya; Hansen, Lars H; Sørensen, Søren J; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2015-08-15

    Ants and termites have independently evolved obligate fungus-farming mutualisms, but their gardening procedures are fundamentally different, as the termites predigest their plant substrate whereas the ants deposit it directly on the fungus garden. Fungus-growing termites retained diverse gut microbiota, but bacterial gut communities in fungus-growing leaf-cutting ants have not been investigated, so it is unknown whether and how they are specialized on an exclusively fungal diet. Here we characterized the gut bacterial community of Panamanian Acromyrmex species, which are dominated by only four bacterial taxa: Wolbachia, Rhizobiales, and two Entomoplasmatales taxa. We show that the Entomoplasmatales can be both intracellular and extracellular across different gut tissues, Wolbachia is mainly but not exclusively intracellular, and the Rhizobiales species is strictly extracellular and confined to the gut lumen, where it forms biofilms along the hindgut cuticle supported by an adhesive matrix of polysaccharides. Tetracycline diets eliminated the Entomoplasmatales symbionts but hardly affected Wolbachia and only moderately reduced the Rhizobiales, suggesting that the latter are protected by the biofilm matrix. We show that the Rhizobiales symbiont produces bacterial NifH proteins that have been associated with the fixation of nitrogen, suggesting that these compartmentalized hindgut symbionts alleviate nutritional constraints emanating from an exclusive fungus garden diet reared on a substrate of leaves. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Characterization of free nitrogen fixing bacteria of the genus Azotobacter in organic vegetable-grown Colombian soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez Avella, Diego; Montaña, José Salvador; Martínez, María Mercedes

    With the purpose of isolating and characterizing free nitrogen fixing bacteria (FNFB) of the genus Azotobacter, soil samples were collected randomly from different vegetable organic cultures with neutral pH in different zones of Boyacá-Colombia. Isolations were done in selective free nitrogen

  3. Microbial removal of fixed nitrogen in an oceanic oxygen minimum zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; Thamdrup, Bo; Revsbech, Niels Peter

    We quantified the removal of fixed nitrogen as N2 production by anammox and N2 and N2O production by denitrification over a distance of 1900 km along the coast of Chile and Peru, using short-term incubations with 15N-labeled substrates. The eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) holds an oxygen...... and that denitrification is needed for the mineralization of organic matter and production of NH4+ for anammox. Our data from frequent sampling along a 1900 km cruise track parallel to the coast of Chile and Peru show that denitrification does indeed occur, but less frequent and at higher rates than anammox...

  4. Bacterial Diversity and Nitrogen Utilization Strategies in the Upper Layer of the Northwestern Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Huang; Xie, Zhang-Xian; Li, Dong-Xu; Wu, Peng-Fei; Kong, Ling-Fen; Lin, Lin; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a primary limiting nutrient for bacterial growth and productivity in the ocean. To better understand bacterial community and their N utilization strategy in different N regimes of the ocean, we examined bacterial diversity, diazotrophic diversity, and N utilization gene expressions in the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWPO) using a combination of high-throughput sequencing and real-time qPCR methods. 521 and 204 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in the 16s rRNA and nifH libraries from nine surface samples. Of the 16s rRNA gene OTUs, 11.9% were observed in all samples while 3.5 and 15.9% were detected only in N-sufficient and N-deficient samples. Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated the bacterial community. Prochlorococcus and Pseudoalteromonas were the most abundant at the genus level in N-deficient regimes, while SAR86, Synechococcus and SAR92 were predominant in the Kuroshio-Oyashio confluence region. The distribution of the nifH gene presented great divergence among sampling stations: Cyanobacterium_UCYN-A dominated the N-deficient stations, while clusters related to the Alpha-, Beta- , and Gamma-Proteobacteria were abundant in other stations. Temperature was the main factor that determined bacterial community structure and diversity while concentration of NO X -N was significantly correlated with structure and distribution of N 2 -fixing microorganisms. Expression of the ammonium transporter was much higher than that of urea transporter subunit A ( urtA ) and ferredoxin-nitrate reductase , while urtA had an increased expression in N-deficient surface water. The predicted ammonium transporter and ammonium assimilation enzymes were most abundant in surface samples while urease and nitrogenase were more abundant in the N-deficient regions. These findings underscore the fact that marine bacteria have evolved diverse N utilization strategies to adapt to different N habitats, and that urea metabolism is of

  5. Bacterial Diversity and Nitrogen Utilization Strategies in the Upper Layer of the Northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is a primary limiting nutrient for bacterial growth and productivity in the ocean. To better understand bacterial community and their N utilization strategy in different N regimes of the ocean, we examined bacterial diversity, diazotrophic diversity, and N utilization gene expressions in the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWPO using a combination of high-throughput sequencing and real-time qPCR methods. 521 and 204 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs were identified in the 16s rRNA and nifH libraries from nine surface samples. Of the 16s rRNA gene OTUs, 11.9% were observed in all samples while 3.5 and 15.9% were detected only in N-sufficient and N-deficient samples. Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated the bacterial community. Prochlorococcus and Pseudoalteromonas were the most abundant at the genus level in N-deficient regimes, while SAR86, Synechococcus and SAR92 were predominant in the Kuroshio-Oyashio confluence region. The distribution of the nifH gene presented great divergence among sampling stations: Cyanobacterium_UCYN-A dominated the N-deficient stations, while clusters related to the Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-Proteobacteria were abundant in other stations. Temperature was the main factor that determined bacterial community structure and diversity while concentration of NOX-N was significantly correlated with structure and distribution of N2-fixing microorganisms. Expression of the ammonium transporter was much higher than that of urea transporter subunit A (urtA and ferredoxin-nitrate reductase, while urtA had an increased expression in N-deficient surface water. The predicted ammonium transporter and ammonium assimilation enzymes were most abundant in surface samples while urease and nitrogenase were more abundant in the N-deficient regions. These findings underscore the fact that marine bacteria have evolved diverse N utilization strategies to adapt to different N habitats, and that urea

  6. Response of the nitrogen-fixing lichen Lobaria pulmonaria to phosphorus, molybdenum, and vanadium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jade A; Pett-Ridge, Julie; Perakis, Steven S.; Allen, Jessica L; McCune, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing lichens (cyanolichens) are an important source of nitrogen (N) in Pacific Northwest forests, but limitation of lichen growth by elements essential for N fixation is poorly understood. To investigate how nutrient limitation may affect cyanolichen growth rates, we fertilized a tripartite cyanobacterial lichen (Lobaria pulmonaria) and a green algal non-nitrogen fixing lichen (Usnea longissima) with the micronutrients molybdenum (Mo) and vanadium (V), both known cofactors for enzymes involved in N fixation, and the macronutrient phosphorus (P). We then grew treated lichens in the field for one year in western Oregon, USA. Lichen growth was very rapid for both species and did not differ across treatments, despite a previous demonstration of P-limitation in L. pulmonaria at a nearby location. To reconcile these disparate findings, we analyzed P, Mo, and V concentrations, natural abundance δ15N isotopes, %N and change in thallus N in Lobaria pulmonaria from both growth experiments. Nitrogen levels in deposition and in lichens could not explain the large difference in growth or P limitation observed between the two studies. Instead, we provide evidence that local differences in P availability may have caused site-specific responses of Lobaria to P fertilization. In the previous experiment, Lobaria had low background levels of P, and treatment with P more than doubled growth. In contrast, Lobaria from the current experiment had much higher background P concentrations, similar to P-treated lichens in the previous experiment, consistent with the idea that ambient variation in P availability influences the degree of P limitation in cyanolichens. We conclude that insufficient P, Mo, and V did not limit the growth of either cyanolichens or chlorolichens at the site of the current experiment. Our findings point to the need to understand landscape-scale variation in P availability to cyanolichens, and its effect on spatial patterns of cyanolichen nutrient

  7. Nitrogen removal capacity and bacterial community dynamics of a Canon biofilter system at different organic matter concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, María J; Maza-Márquez, Paula; González-López, Jesús; Osorio, Francisco

    2018-02-01

    Three Canon bench-scale bioreactors with a volume of 2 L operating in parallel were configured as submerged biofilters. In the present study we investigated the effects of a high ammonium concentration (320 mgNH 4 + · L -1 ) and different concentrations of organic matter (0, 100 and 400 mgCOD·L -1 ) on the nitrogen removal capacity and the bacterial community structure. After 60 days, the Canon biofilters operated properly under concentrations of 0 and 100 mgCOD·L -1 of organic matter, with nitrogen removal efficiencies up to 85%. However, a higher concentration of organic matter (400 mgCOD·L -1 ) produced a partial inhibition of nitrogen removal (68.1% efficiency). The addition of higher concentrations of organic matter a modified the bacterial community structure in the Canon biofilter, increasing the proliferation of heterotrophic bacteria related to the genera of Thauera, Longilinea, Ornatilinea, Thermomarinilinea, unclassified Chlorobiales and Denitratisoma. However, heterotrophic bacteria co-exist with Nitrosomonas and Candidatus Scalindua. Thus, our study confirms the co-existence of different microbial activities (AOB, Anammox and denitrification) and the adaptation of a fixed-biofilm system to different concentrations of organic matter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genomics and ecophysiology of heterotrophic nitrogen fixing bacteria isolated from estuarine surface water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Severin, Ina; Hansen, Lars H.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to reduce atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia, known as N2 fixation, is a widely distributed trait among prokaryotes that accounts for an essential input of new N to a multitude of environments. Nitrogenase reductase gene (nifH) composition suggests that putative N2-fixing heterotrop......The ability to reduce atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia, known as N2 fixation, is a widely distributed trait among prokaryotes that accounts for an essential input of new N to a multitude of environments. Nitrogenase reductase gene (nifH) composition suggests that putative N2-fixing...... heterotrophic organisms are widespread in marine bacterioplankton, but their autecology and ecological significance are unknown. Here, we report genomic and ecophysiology data in relation to N2 fixation by three environmentally relevant heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Baltic Sea surface water: Pseudomonas...... liter-1, presumably accommodated through aggregate formation. Glucose stimulated N2 fixation in general, and reactive N repressed N2 fixation, except that ammonium (NH4 ) stimulated N2 fixation in R. palustris BAL398, indicating the use of nitrogenase as an electron sink. The lack of correlations...

  9. Plant growth promoting potential and phylogenetic characteristics of a lichenized nitrogen fixing bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Chidanandamurthy Thippeswamy; Gayathri, Devaraja; Devaraja, Thimmalapura Neelakantaiah; Bandekar, Mandar; D'Souza, Stecy Elvira; Meena, Ram Murti; Ramaiah, Nagappa

    2016-12-01

    Lichens are complex symbiotic association of mycobionts, photobionts, and bacteriobionts, including chemolithotropic bacteria. In the present study, 46 lichenized bacteria were isolated by conventional and enrichment culture methods on nitrogen-free bromothymol blue (NFb) medium. Only 11 of the 46 isolates fixed nitrogen on NFb and had reduced acetylene. All these 11 isolates had also produced siderophore and 10 of them the IAA. Further, ammonia production was recorded from nine of these nitrogen fixers (NF). On molecular characterization, 16 S rRNA sequencing recorded that, nine NF belonged to Proteobacteria, within Gammaproteobacteria, and were closely related to Enterobacter sp. with a maximum similarity to Enterobacter cloacae. Each one of our NF isolates was aligned closely to Enterobacter pulveris strain E443, Cronobacter sakazakii strain PNP8 and Providencia rettgeri strain ALK058. Notably, a few strains we examined found to possess plant growth promoting properties. This is the first report of Enterobacter sp. from lichens which may be inhabit lichen thalli extrinsically or intrinsically. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Improved Alkane Production in Nitrogen-Fixing and Halotolerant Cyanobacteria via Abiotic Stresses and Genetic Manipulation of Alkane Synthetic Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Hakuto; Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Sirisattha, Sophon; Tanaka, Yoshito; Mahakhant, Aparat; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-07-01

    Cyanobacteria possess the unique capacity to produce alkane. In this study, effects of nitrogen deficiency and salt stress on biosynthesis of alkanes were investigated in three kinds of cyanobacteria. Intracellular alkane accumulation was increased in nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120, but decreased in non-diazotrophic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 and constant in a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica under nitrogen-deficient condition. We also found that salt stress increased alkane accumulation in Anabaena sp. PCC7120 and A. halophytica. The expression levels of two alkane synthetic genes were not upregulated significantly under nitrogen deficiency or salt stress in Anabaena sp. PCC7120. The transformant Anabaena sp. PCC7120 cells with additional alkane synthetic gene set from A. halophytica increased intracellular alkane accumulation level compared to control cells. These results provide a prospect to improve bioproduction of alkanes in nitrogen-fixing halotolerant cyanobacteria via abiotic stresses and genetic engineering.

  11. The oceanic fixed nitrogen and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Codispoti

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available New data force us to raise previous estimates of oceanic denitrification. Our revised estimate of ~ 450 Tg N yr-1 (Tg = 1012 g produces an oceanic fixed N budget with a large deficit (~ 200 Tg N yr-1 that can be explained only by positing an ocean that has deviated far from a steady-state, the need for a major upwards revision of fixed N inputs, particularly nitrogen fixation, or both. Oceanic denitrification can be significantly altered by small re-distributions of carbon and dissolved oxygen. Since fixed N is a limiting nutrient, uncompensated changes in denitrification affect the ocean´s ability to sequester atmospheric CO2 via the "biological pump". We have also had to modify our concepts of the oceanic N2O regime to take better account of the extremely high N2O saturations that can arise in productive, low oxygen waters. Recent results from the western Indian Shelf during a period when hypoxic, suboxic and anoxic waters were present produced a maximum surface N2O saturation of > 8000%, a likely consequence of "stop and go" denitrification. The sensitivity of N2O production and consumption to small changes in the oceanic dissolved oxygen distribution and to the "spin-up" phase of denitrification suggests that the oceanic source term for N2O could change rapidly.

  12. Nitrogen symbiotically fixed by cowpea and gliricidia in traditional and agroforestry systems under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Rodrigues Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the amounts of N fixed by cowpea in a traditional system and by cowpea and gliricidia in an agroforestry system in the Brazilian Northeast semiarid. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design, in a split-plot arrangement, with four replicates, in the semiarid region of the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Plots consisted of agroforestry and traditional systems (no trees, and split-plots of the three crops planted between the tree rows in the agroforestry system. To estimate N fixation, plant samples were collected in the fourth growth cycle of the perennial species and in the fourth planting cycle of the annual species. In the agroforestry system with buffel grass and prickly-pear cactus, gliricidia plants symbiotically fix high proportions of N (>50% and contribute with higher N amounts (40 kg ha-1 in leaves than in the traditional system (11 kg ha-1 in grain and 18 kg ha-1 in straw. In the agroforestry system with maize and cowpea, gliricidia plants do not fix nitrogen, and N input is limited to the fixation by cowpea (2.7 kg ha-1, which is lower than in the traditional system due to its lower biomass production.

  13. Restoration using Azolla imbricata increases nitrogen functional bacterial groups and genes in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Yang, Ke

    2017-05-01

    Microbial groups are major factors that influence soil function. Currently, there is a lack of studies on microbial functional groups. Although soil microorganisms play an important role in the nitrogen cycle, systematic studies of the effects of environmental factors on microbial populations in relation to key metabolic processes in the nitrogen cycle are seldom reported. In this study, we conducted a systematic analysis of the changes in nitrogen functional groups in mandarin orange garden soil treated with Azolla imbricata. The structures of the major functional bacterial groups and the functional gene abundances involved in key processes of the soil nitrogen cycle were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. The results indicated that returning A. imbricata had an important influence on the composition of soil nitrogen functional bacterial communities. Treatment with A. imbricata increased the diversity of the nitrogen functional bacteria. The abundances of nitrogen functional genes were significantly higher in the treated soil compared with the control soil. Both the diversity of the major nitrogen functional bacteria (nifH bacteria, nirK bacteria, and narG bacteria) and the abundances of nitrogen functional genes in the soil showed significant positive correlations with the soil pH, the organic carbon content, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, and NH 4 + -N and NO 3 - -N contents. Treatment with 12.5 kg fresh A. imbricata per mandarin orange tree was effective to improve the quality of the mandarin orange garden soil. This study analyzed the mechanism of the changes in functional bacterial groups and genes involved in key metabolic processes of the nitrogen cycle in soil treated by A. imbricata.

  14. Genome erosion in a nitrogen-fixing vertically transmitted endosymbiotic multicellular cyanobacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ran

    can thus be considered at the initial phase of a transition from free-living organism to a nitrogen-fixing plant entity, a transition process which may mimic what drove the evolution of chloroplasts from a cyanobacterial ancestor.

  15. Inhibition of nitrogen-fixing activity of the cyanobiont affects the localization of glutamine synthetase in hair cells of Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uheda, Eiji; Maejima, Kazuhiro

    2009-10-15

    In the Azolla-Anabaena association, the host plant Azolla efficiently incorporates and assimilates ammonium ions that are released from the nitrogen-fixing cyanobiont, probably via glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) in hair cells, which are specialized cells protruding into the leaf cavity. In order to clarify the regulatory mechanism underlying ammonium assimilation in the Azolla-Anabaena association, Azolla plants were grown under an argon environment (Ar), in which the nitrogen-fixing activity of the cyanobiont was inhibited specifically and completely. The localization of GS in hair cells was determined by immunoelectron microscopy and quantitative analysis of immunogold labeling. Azolla plants grew healthily under Ar when nitrogen sources, such as NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+), were provided in the growth medium. Both the number of cyanobacterial cells per leaf and the heterocyst frequency of the plants under Ar were similar to those of plants in a nitrogen environment (N(2)). In hair cells of plants grown under Ar, regardless of the type of nitrogen source provided, only weak labeling of GS was observed in the cytoplasm and in chloroplasts. In contrast, in hair cells of plants grown under N(2), abundant labeling of GS was observed in both sites. These findings indicate that specific inhibition of the nitrogen-fixing activity of the cyanobiont affects the localization of GS isoenzymes. Ammonium fixed and released by the cyanobiont could stimulate GS synthesis in hair cells. Simultaneously, the abundant GS, probably GS1, in these cells, could assimilate ammonium rapidly.

  16. Biochemical and Molecular Phylogenetic Study of Agriculturally Useful Association of a Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium and Nodule Sinorhizobium with Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Karaushu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed inoculation with bacterial consortium was found to increase legume yield, providing a higher growth than the standard nitrogen treatment methods. Alfalfa plants were inoculated by mono- and binary compositions of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. Their physiological and biochemical properties were estimated. Inoculation by microbial consortium of Sinorhizobium meliloti T17 together with a new cyanobacterial isolate Nostoc PTV was more efficient than the single-rhizobium strain inoculation. This treatment provides an intensification of the processes of biological nitrogen fixation by rhizobia bacteria in the root nodules and an intensification of plant photosynthesis. Inoculation by bacterial consortium stimulates growth of plant mass and rhizogenesis and leads to increased productivity of alfalfa and to improving the amino acid composition of plant leaves. The full nucleotide sequence of the rRNA gene cluster and partial sequence of the dinitrogenase reductase (nifH gene of Nostoc PTV were deposited to GenBank (JQ259185.1, JQ259186.1. Comparison of these gene sequences of Nostoc PTV with all sequences present at the GenBank shows that this cyanobacterial strain does not have 100% identity with any organisms investigated previously. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this cyanobacterium clustered with high credibility values with Nostoc muscorum.

  17. PGPRs and nitrogen-fixing legumes: a perfect team for efficient Cd phytoremediation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa eGómez-Sagasti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a toxic, biologically non-essential and highly mobile metal that has become an increasingly important environmental hazard to both wildlife and humans. In contrast to conventional remediation technologies, phytoremediation based on rhizobia-legume symbiosis has emerged as an inexpensive decontamination alternative which also revitalize contaminated soils due to the role of legumes in nitrogen cycling. In recent years, there is growing interest in understanding symbiotic rhizobia-legume relationship and its interactions with Cd. The aim of the present review is to provide a comprehensive picture of the main effects of Cd in N2-fixing leguminous plants and the benefits of exploiting this symbiosis together with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs to boost an efficient reclamation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  18. Exploiting an ancient signalling machinery to enjoy a nitrogen fixing symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Rene; Lillo, Alessandra; Bisseling, Ton

    2012-08-01

    For almost a century now it has been speculated that a transfer of the largely legume-specific symbiosis with nitrogen fixing rhizobium would be profitable in agriculture [1,2]. Up to now such a step has not been achieved, despite intensive research in this era. Novel insights in the underlying signalling networks leading to intracellular accommodation of rhizobium as well as mycorrhizal fungi of the Glomeromycota order show extensive commonalities between both interactions. As mycorrhizae symbiosis can be established basically with most higher plant species it raises questions why is it only in a few taxonomic lineages that the underlying signalling network could be hijacked by rhizobium. Unravelling this will lead to insights that are essential to achieve an old dream. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Bacterial Degradation of Nitrogenous Energetic Compounds (NEC) in Coastal Waters and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-10

    isotope values in the upper bay; C) DOC appears to be high in lignin concentration, especially in the Patuxent River. Figure 12. Bacterial...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, lignin ; Suen et al. 1996). We hypothesized that nitrogenous energetics will be transient in nitrogen-limited...water, TNT nitro groups can be reduced to amines (Barrows et al. 1996) affecting its reactivity (Achtnich et al. 2000). The presence of reduced

  20. EFFECT OF NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA ON GRAIN YIELD AND DEVELOPMENT OF FLOODED IRRIGATED RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMAURI NELSON BEUTLER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of Azospirillum brasilense , a nitrogen - fixing bacterium, on flooded irrigated rice yield. Evaluations were carried out in a shaded nursery, with seedlings grown on an Alfisol. Were performed two sets of experiments. In the first, were carried out four experiments using the flooded rice cultivars INIA Olimar, Puitá Inta - CL, Br Irga 409 and Irga 424; these trials were set up as completely randomized design in a 5x4 factorial scheme, with four replications. Treatments consisted of five nitrogen rates (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha - 1 and four levels of liquid inoculant Ab - V5 and Ab - V6 - A. brasilense (0, 1, 2 and 4 times the manufacturer's recommendation without seed treatment. In second set, were performed two experiments using the cultivars Puitá Inta - CL and Br Irga 409, arranged in the same design, but using a 4x2 factorial. In this set, treatments were composed of four levels of Ab - V5 and Ab - V6 - A. brasilense liquid inoculant (0, 1, 2 and 4 times the recommendation of 100 mL ha - 1 , using rice seeds with and without insecticide and fungicide treatment. Shoot dry matter, number of panicles, and rice grain yield per pot were the assessed variables. The results showed that rice seed inoculation with A. brasilense had no effects on rice grain yield of the cultivars INIA Olimar, Puitá Inta - CL, Br Irga 409 and Irga 424.

  1. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart. Macbr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Quintino de Oliveira Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract The family Leguminosae comprises approximately 20,000 species that mostly form symbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB. This study is aimed at investigating and confirming the dependence on nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation in the specie Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart. Macbr., which belongs to the Piptadenia group. Two consecutive experiments were performed in a greenhouse. The experiments were fully randomized with six replicates and a factorial scheme. For the treatments, the two AMF species and three NFB strains were combined to nodulate P. gonoacantha in addition to the control treatments. The results indicate this species’ capacity for nodulation without the AMF; however, the AMF + NFB combinations yielded a considerable gain in P. gonoacantha shoot weight compared with the treatments that only included inoculating with bacteria or AMF. The results also confirm that the treatment effects among the AMF + NFB combinations produced different shoot dry weight/root dry weight ratios. We conclude that AMF is not necessary for nodulation and that this dependence improves species development because plant growth increases upon co-inoculation.

  2. Relationship between sodium influx and salt tolerance of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, S.K.; Reddy, B.R.; Thomas, J.

    1987-08-01

    The relationship between sodium uptake and cyanobacterial salt (NaCl) tolerance has been examined in two filamentous, heterocystous, nitrogen-fixing species of Anabaena. During diazotrophic growth at neutral pH of the growth medium, Anabaena sp. strain L-31, a freshwater strain, showed threefold higher uptake of Na+ than Anabaena torulosa, a brackish-water strain, and was considerably less salt tolerant (50% lethal dose of NaCl, 55 mM) than the latter (50% lethal dose of NaCl, 170 mM). Alkaline pH or excess K+ (more than 25 mM) in the medium causes membrane depolarization and inhibits Na+ influx in both cyanobacteria (S.K. Apte and J. Thomas, Eur. J. Biochem. 154:395-401, 1986). The presence of nitrate or ammonium in the medium caused inhibition of Na+ influx accompanied by membrane depolarization. These experimental manipulations affecting Na+ uptake demonstrated a good negative correlation between Na+ influx and salt tolerance. All treatments which inhibited Na+ influx (such as alkaline pH, K+ above 25 mM, NO3-, and NH4+), enhanced salt tolerance of not only the brackish-water but also the freshwater cyanobacterium. The results indicate that curtailment of Na+ influx, whether inherent or effected by certain environmental factors (e.g., combined nitrogen, alkaline pH), is a major mechanism of salt tolerance in cyanobacteria. (Refs. 27)

  3. Comparison of biomass productivity and nitrogen fixing potential of Azolla SPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, A.; Singh, P.K. [Indian Agricultural Research Inst., New Delhi (India)

    2003-03-01

    Study was conducted on six different Azolla species, available in the germplasm collection of NCCUBGA, IARI, New Delhi namely A. filiculoides, A. mexicana, A. microphylla, A. pinnata, A. rubra and A. caroliniana in a polyhouse to assess their growth potential by determining their maximal biomass productivity, doubling time and relative growth rates. Their nitrogen fixing potential was assessed by acetylene reduction assay. Among them Azolla microphylla gave highest biomass production and relative growth rate followed by Azolla caroliniana. Both these had high nitrogenase activity also. Peak nitrogenase activity of these strains was found on 14th day of growth and it declined on further incubation. Azolla microphylla and Azolla rubra were more tolerant to salinity than others. On the other hand Azolla pinnata, which is endemic species found in India, exhibited low biomass production, relative growth rate and lower nitrogenase activity compared to other species. It was unable to sustain growth in saline medium. Under polyhouse conditions, A. microphylla was found to perform better than other cultures in terms of biomass productivity, N fixing ability and salt tolerance. Hence it is taken up for mass production.(author)

  4. Hydrologic Control on Bacterial Nitrogen Fixation in the Holocene Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J. M.; Arthur, M. A.; Freeman, K. H.

    2008-12-01

    Stratified oceans of the Phanerozoic Oceanic Anoxic Events apparently were dominated by bacterial nitrogen fixation. Decreased marine N:P nutrient ratios resulting from increased denitrification and decreased phosphate burial efficiency under anoxic waters drove this nutrient regime. This model is upheld by the presence of cyanobacterial hopanoid biomarkers in sedimentary records and δ15N values indicative of nitrogen fixation. However, in the largest modern redox-stratified marine basin, the Black Sea, bacterial nitrogen fixation seems to be only a minor contributor to the nitrogen cycle. In this study, we use geochemical proxies to evaluate the role of bacterial nitrogen fixation during the deposition of the Holocene Black Sea sapropel, starting 7.8 ka. We report compound-specific nitrogen and carbon stable isotope values of pyropheophytin a, a chlorophyll degradation product, and bacteriochlorophyll e produced by green sulfur bacteria. We also present the surprising finding of scytonemin, a pigment produced only by filamentous cyanobacteria exposed to ultraviolet radiation, in certain intervals in these sediments. In the Holocene, nitrogen fixation in the Black Sea is most prominent during times of reduced river water influx. This directly decreases the external flux of nitrate into the surface waters. Reduced freshwater influx also decreases the volume of low salinity water dispersed around the sea by the Rim Current, allowing the chemocline to shoal along the margins. Previous geochemical studies have described this changing chemocline geometry. The exposure of shallow water sediments to anoxic waters further stimulates nitrogen fixation by releasing more phosphorus to the system. Nitrogen fixation is recorded in the sediments as bulk and compound-specific pyropheophytin a δ15N values near 0 ‰ and -5 ‰, respectively. We have also detected scytonemin in two intervals characterized by especially low δ15N values. This compound suggests abundant filamentous

  5. Genetic Diversity of Nitrogen-Fixing and Plant Growth Promoting Pseudomonas Species Isolated from Sugarcane Rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Bi; Singh, Rajesh K; Singh, Pratiksha; Song, Qi-Qi; Xing, Yong-Xiu; Yang, Li-Tao; Li, Yang-Rui

    2017-01-01

    The study was designed to isolate and characterize Pseudomonas spp. from sugarcane rhizosphere, and to evaluate their plant- growth- promoting (PGP) traits and nitrogenase activity. A biological nitrogen-fixing microbe has great potential to replace chemical fertilizers and be used as a targeted biofertilizer in a plant. A total of 100 isolates from sugarcane rhizosphere, belonging to different species, were isolated; from these, 30 isolates were selected on the basis of preliminary screening, for in vitro antagonistic activities against sugarcane pathogens and for various PGP traits, as well as nitrogenase activity. The production of IAA varied from 312.07 to 13.12 μg mL -1 in tryptophan supplemented medium, with higher production in AN15 and lower in CN20 strain. The estimation of ACC deaminase activity, strains CY4 and BA2 produced maximum and minimum activity of 77.0 and 15.13 μmoL mg -1 h -1 . For nitrogenase activity among the studied strains, CoA6 fixed higher and AY1 fixed lower in amounts (108.30 and 6.16 μmoL C 2 H 2 h -1 mL -1 ). All the strains were identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the phylogenetic diversity of the strains was analyzed. The results identified all strains as being similar to Pseudomonas spp. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of nifH and antibiotic genes was suggestive that the amplified strains had the capability to fix nitrogen and possessed biocontrol activities. Genotypic comparisons of the strains were determined by BOX, ERIC, and REP PCR profile analysis. Out of all the screened isolates, CY4 ( Pseudomonas koreensis ) and CN11 ( Pseudomonas entomophila ) showed the most prominent PGP traits, as well as nitrogenase activity. Therefore, only these two strains were selected for further studies; Biolog profiling; colonization through green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged bacteria; and nifH gene expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. The Biolog

  6. Controlling cyanobacterial blooms in hypertrophic Lake Taihu, China: will nitrogen reductions cause replacement of non-N2 fixing by N2 fixing taxa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans W Paerl

    Full Text Available Excessive anthropogenic nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P inputs have caused an alarming increase in harmful cyanobacterial blooms, threatening sustainability of lakes and reservoirs worldwide. Hypertrophic Lake Taihu, China's third largest freshwater lake, typifies this predicament, with toxic blooms of the non-N2 fixing cyanobacteria Microcystis spp. dominating from spring through fall. Previous studies indicate N and P reductions are needed to reduce bloom magnitude and duration. However, N reductions may encourage replacement of non-N2 fixing with N2 fixing cyanobacteria. This potentially counterproductive scenario was evaluated using replicate, large (1000 L, in-lake mesocosms during summer bloom periods. N+P additions led to maximum phytoplankton production. Phosphorus enrichment, which promoted N limitation, resulted in increases in N2 fixing taxa (Anabaena spp., but it did not lead to significant replacement of non-N2 fixing with N2 fixing cyanobacteria, and N2 fixation rates remained ecologically insignificant. Furthermore, P enrichment failed to increase phytoplankton production relative to controls, indicating that N was the most limiting nutrient throughout this period. We propose that Microcystis spp. and other non-N2 fixing genera can maintain dominance in this shallow, highly turbid, nutrient-enriched lake by outcompeting N2 fixing taxa for existing sources of N and P stored and cycled in the lake. To bring Taihu and other hypertrophic systems below the bloom threshold, both N and P reductions will be needed until the legacy of high N and P loading and sediment nutrient storage in these systems is depleted. At that point, a more exclusive focus on P reductions may be feasible.

  7. Solidago canadensis invasion affects soil N-fixing bacterial communities in heterogeneous landscapes in urban ecosystems in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Jiang, Kun; Zhou, Jiawei; Wu, Bingde

    2018-03-12

    Soil nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities (SNB) can increase the level of available soil N via biological N-fixation to facilitate successful invasion of several invasive plant species (IPS). Meanwhile, landscape heterogeneity can greatly enhance regional invasibility and increase the chances of successful invasion of IPS. Thus, it is important to understand the soil micro-ecological mechanisms driving the successful invasion of IPS in heterogeneous landscapes. This study performed cross-site comparisons, via metagenomics, to comprehensively analyze the effects of Solidago canadensis invasion on SNB in heterogeneous landscapes in urban ecosystems. Rhizospheric soil samples of S. canadensis were obtained from nine urban ecosystems [Three replicate quadrats (including uninvaded sites and invaded sites) for each type of urban ecosystem]. S. canadensis invasion did not significantly affect soil physicochemical properties, the taxonomic diversity of plant communities, or the diversity and richness of SNB. However, some SNB taxa (i.e., f_Micromonosporaceae, f_Oscillatoriaceae, and f_Bacillaceae) changed significantly with S. canadensis invasion. Thus, S. canadensis invasion may alter the community structure, rather than the diversity and richness of SNB, to facilitate its invasion process. Of the nine urban ecosystems, the diversity and richness of SNB was highest in farmland wasteland. Accordingly, the community invasibility of farmland wasteland may be higher than that of the other types of urban ecosystem. In brief, landscape heterogeneity, rather than S. canadensis invasion, was the strongest controlling factor for the diversity and richness of SNB. One possible reason may be the differences in soil electrical conductivity and the taxonomic diversity of plant communities in the nine urban ecosystems, which can cause notable shifts in the diversity and richness of SNB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Organic amendment of crop soil and its relation to hotspots of bacterial nitrogen cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereg, Lily; McMillan, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Crop production in Australian soils requires a high use of fertilisers, including N, P and K for continues utilisation of the soil. Growers often grow crops in rotation of summer crop, such as cotton with winter crop, such as wheat in the same field. Growers are getting more and more aware about sustainability of the soil resources and the more adventurous ones use soil amendments, such as organic supplements in addition to the chemical fertilisers. We have collected soil samples from fields that were cultivated in preparation for planting cotton and tested the soil for its bacterial populations with potential to perform different functions, including those related to the nitrogen cycling. One of our aims was to determine whether organic amendments create hotspots for bacterial functions related to bacterial nitrogen cycling. This pan of the project will be discussed in this presentation.

  9. Endophytic Actinobacteria and the Interaction of Micromonospora and Nitrogen Fixing Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Martha E.; Riesco, Raúl; Benito, Patricia; Carro, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, it was believed that a healthy plant did not harbor any microorganisms within its tissues, as these were often considered detrimental for the plant. In the last three decades, the numbers of studies on plant microbe-interactions has led to a change in our view and we now know that many of these invisible partners are essential for the overall welfare of the plant. The application of Next Generation Sequencing techniques is a powerful tool that has permitted the detection and identification of microbial communities in healthy plants. Among the new plant microbe interactions recently reported several actinobacteria such as Micromonospora are included. Micromonospora is a Gram-positive bacterium with a wide geographical distribution; it can be found in the soil, mangrove sediments, and freshwater and marine ecosistems. In the last years our group has focused on the isolation of Micromonospora strains from nitrogen fixing nodules of both leguminous and actinorhizal plants and reported for the first time its wide distribution in nitrogen fixing nodules of both types of plants. These studies have shown how this microoganism had been largely overlooked in this niche due to its slow growth. Surprisingly, the genetic diversity of Micromonospora strains isolated from nodules is very high and several new species have been described. The current data indicate that Micromonospora saelicesensis is the most frequently isolated species from the nodular tissues of both leguminous and actinorhizal plants. Further studies have also been carried out to confirm the presence of Micromonospora inside the nodule tissues, mainly by specific in situ hybridization. The information derived from the genome of the model strain, Micromonospora lupini, Lupac 08, has provided useful information as to how this bacterium may relate with its host plant. Several strategies potentially necessary for Micromonospora to thrive in the soil, a highly competitive, and rough environment, and

  10. Paenibacillus brasilensis sp nov., a novel nitrogen-fixing species isolated from the maize rhizosphere in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weid, von der I.; Duarte, G.F.; Elsas, van J.D.; Seldin, L.

    2002-01-01

    Sixteen nitrogen-fixing strains isolated from the rhizosphere of maize planted in Cerrado soil, Brazil, which showed morphological and biochemical characteristics similar to the gas-forming Paenibacillus spp., were phenotypically and genetically characterized. Their identification as members of the

  11. An eddy-stimulated hotspot for fixed nitrogen-loss from the Peru oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altabet, M. A.; Ryabenko, E.; Stramma, L.; Wallace, D. W. R.; Frank, M.; Grasse, P.; Lavik, G.

    2012-12-01

    Fixed nitrogen (N) loss to biogenic N2 in intense oceanic O2 minimum zones (OMZ) accounts for a large fraction of the global N sink and is an essential control on the ocean's N-budget. However, major uncertainties exist regarding microbial pathways as well as net impact on the magnitude of N-loss and the ocean's overall N-budget. Here we report the discovery of a N-loss hotspot in the Peru OMZ associated with a coastally trapped mesoscale eddy that is marked by an extreme N-deficit matched by biogenic N2 production, high NO2- levels, and the highest isotope enrichments observed so far in OMZ's for the residual NO3-. High sea surface chlorophyll in seaward flowing streamers provides evidence for offshore eddy transport of highly productive, inshore water. Resulting pulses in the downward flux of particles likely stimulated heterotrophic dissimilatory NO3- reduction and subsequent production of biogenic N2 within the OMZ. A shallower biogenic N2 maximum within the oxycline is likely a feature advected by the eddy streamer from the shelf. Eddy-associated temporal-spatial heterogeneity of N-loss, mediated by a local succession of microbial processes, may explain inconsistencies observed among prior studies. Similar transient enhancements of N-loss likely occur within all other major OMZ's exerting a major influence on global ocean N and N isotope budgets.

  12. Higher survival drives the success of nitrogen-fixing trees through succession in Costa Rican rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menge, Duncan N L; Chazdon, Robin L

    2016-02-01

    Trees capable of symbiotic nitrogen (N) fixation ('N fixers') are abundant in many tropical forests. In temperate forests, it is well known that N fixers specialize in early-successional niches, but in tropical forests, successional trends of N-fixing species are poorly understood. We used a long-term census study (1997-2013) of regenerating lowland wet tropical forests in Costa Rica to document successional patterns of N fixers vs non-fixers, and used an individual-based model to determine the demographic drivers of these trends. N fixers increased in relative basal area during succession. In the youngest forests, N fixers grew 2.5 times faster, recruited at a similar rate and were 15 times less likely to die as non-fixers. As succession proceeded, the growth and survival disparities decreased, whereas N fixer recruitment decreased relative to non-fixers. According to our individual-based model, high survival was the dominant driver of the increase in basal area of N fixers. Our data suggest that N fixers are successful throughout secondary succession in tropical rainforests of north-east Costa Rica, and that attempts to understand this success should focus on tree survival. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Co-inoculation of arbusculr mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixing bacteria enhance alfalfa yield under saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, R.; Tang, F.; Liu, F.; Chen, J.

    2016-01-01

    The study was to investigate the effects of combined inoculation of Glomus mosseae (arbusculr mycorrhizae fungi, AMF) and Sinorhizobium meliloti (nitrogen-fixing bacteria, i.e., an Rhizobium meliloti, RM) on yield, nutrient contents, nodulation and mycorrhizal colonization of different alfalfa cultivars under saline conditions. An experiment was conducted to test the efficacy of AMF and RM inoculation in development of salt tolerance in alfalfa cultivars (Zhaodong, Nongjing and Longmu) under different salinity levels (0, 60, 120 and 180 mM NaCl). We found that under non stress condition, double inoculation of alfalfa with rhizobium and AM increased the alfalfa yield, nodule weight and number, as well as shoot proline contents, the most when plants were double inoculated followed by AM and rhizobium inoculation, respectively. Whereas under salinity condition, double inoculation of alfalfa with rhizobium and AM increased alfalfa yield, mycorrhizal infection, nodule weight and number as well as increased in shoot proline content, the most followed by AM and rhizobium inoculation, respectively. The Results suggest that growth of alfalfa may be improved by combined inoculation of alfalfa with AM and rhizobium under salt and non-stress conditions. Alleviation of alfalfa growth under saline condition was perhaps due to an increase in mycorrhizal infection and nodule weight and number as well as an increased in shoot proline content by dual inoculation. (author)

  14. Paenibacillus sonchi sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing species isolated from the rhizosphere of Sonchus oleraceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Yu-Chao; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Gao, Fei; Liu, Hong-Can; Chen, San-Feng

    2009-11-01

    A nitrogen-fixing bacterium, designated strain X19-5(T), was isolated from rhizosphere soil of Sonchus oleraceus. Phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the nifH gene and the full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain X19-5(T) was a member of the genus Paenibacillus. Strain X19-5(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (98.8 %) with Paenibacillus graminis RSA19(T) and below 97 % similarity with other recognized members of the genus. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain X19-5(T) and P. graminis RSA19(T) was 45.7 %. The DNA G+C content of strain X19-5(T) was 46.8 mol%. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and the level of DNA-DNA hybridization, strain X19-5(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus sonchi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is X19-5(T) (=CCBAU 83901(T)=LMG 24727(T)).

  15. Melanin from the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum: a spectroscopic characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulie Banerjee

    Full Text Available Melanins, the ubiquitous hetero-polymer pigments found widely dispersed among various life forms, are usually dark brown/black in colour. Although melanins have variety of biological functions, including protection against ultraviolet radiation of sunlight and are used in medicine, cosmetics, extraction of melanin from the animal and plant kingdoms is not an easy task. Using complementary physicochemical techniques (i.e. MALDI-TOF, FTIR absorption and cross-polarization magic angle spinning solid-state (13C NMR, we report here the characterization of melanins extracted from the nitrogen-fixing non-virulent bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum, a safe viable source. Moreover, considering dihydroxyindole moiety as the main constituent, an effort is made to propose the putative molecular structure of the melanin hetero-polymer extracted from the bacterium. Characterization of the melanin obtained from Azotobacter chroococcum would provide an inspiration in extending research activities on these hetero-polymers and their use as protective agent against UV radiation.

  16. A common genomic framework for a diverse assembly of plasmids in the symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C Crossman

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This work centres on the genomic comparisons of two closely-related nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacteria, Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae 3841 and Rhizobium etli CFN42. These strains maintain a stable genomic core that is also common to other rhizobia species plus a very variable and significant accessory component. The chromosomes are highly syntenic, whereas plasmids are related by fewer syntenic blocks and have mosaic structures. The pairs of plasmids p42f-pRL12, p42e-pRL11 and p42b-pRL9 as well large parts of p42c with pRL10 are shown to be similar, whereas the symbiotic plasmids (p42d and pRL10 are structurally unrelated and seem to follow distinct evolutionary paths. Even though purifying selection is acting on the whole genome, the accessory component is evolving more rapidly. This component is constituted largely for proteins for transport of diverse metabolites and elements of external origin. The present analysis allows us to conclude that a heterogeneous and quickly diversifying group of plasmids co-exists in a common genomic framework.

  17. Phylogenetic constraints do not explain the rarity of nitrogen-fixing trees in late-successional temperate forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menge, Duncan N L; DeNoyer, Jeanne L; Lichstein, Jeremy W

    2010-08-06

    Symbiotic nitrogen (N)-fixing trees are rare in late-successional temperate forests, even though these forests are often N limited. Two hypotheses could explain this paradox. The 'phylogenetic constraints hypothesis' states that no late-successional tree taxa in temperate forests belong to clades that are predisposed to N fixation. Conversely, the 'selective constraints hypothesis' states that such taxa are present, but N-fixing symbioses would lower their fitness. Here we test the phylogenetic constraints hypothesis. Using U.S. forest inventory data, we derived successional indices related to shade tolerance and stand age for N-fixing trees, non-fixing trees in the 'potentially N-fixing clade' (smallest angiosperm clade that includes all N fixers), and non-fixing trees outside this clade. We then used phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs) to test for associations between these successional indices and N fixation. Four results stand out from our analysis of U.S. trees. First, N fixers are less shade-tolerant than non-fixers both inside and outside of the potentially N-fixing clade. Second, N fixers tend to occur in younger stands in a given geographical region than non-fixers both inside and outside of the potentially N-fixing clade. Third, the potentially N-fixing clade contains numerous late-successional non-fixers. Fourth, although the N fixation trait is evolutionarily conserved, the successional traits are relatively labile. These results suggest that selective constraints, not phylogenetic constraints, explain the rarity of late-successional N-fixing trees in temperate forests. Because N-fixing trees could overcome N limitation to net primary production if they were abundant, this study helps to understand the maintenance of N limitation in temperate forests, and therefore the capacity of this biome to sequester carbon.

  18. Studies on utilization of nitrogen-fixing bacteria for saving energy; Chisso koteikin no katsuyo ni yoru sho energy no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uozumi, T; Koyama, R; Horiuchi, M; Hidaka, M; Masaki, H [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Shigematsu, T; Inoue, A [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes analysis and enhancement of nitrogen-fixing gene of rice root bacteria, such as Klebsiella oxytoca, Azospirillum lipoferumn and Sphingomonas paucimobilis, for realizing energy saving through conservation of nitrogenous fertilizers. For K. oxytoca, modified strain R-16 was developed, which can fix nitrogen effectively even in the presence of NH4{sup +}. Nitrogen-fixing ability of A. lipoferumn depends on the activity control by the modification of nitrogen-fixing enzyme as well as on the adjustment of transcription level by the transcription activating gene, nifA. The control gene relating to the above was analyzed by making clones. As a result, a modified strain TAl without the control by NH4{sup +} was developed. The R-16 and TAl strains were inoculated into rice sterile-cultured without nitrogen. Consequently, inoculated strains were settled in the root, which resulted in the increased vegetation weight of plant to two times heavier than that without inoculation. 9 refs.

  19. Symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria: nodulation and phylogenetic data across legume genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhami, Michelle E; Luke Mahler, D; Burns, Jean H; Weber, Marjorie G; Wojciechowski, Martin F; Sprent, Janet; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2018-02-01

    How species interactions shape global biodiversity and influence diversification is a central - but also data-hungry - question in evolutionary ecology. Microbially based mutualisms are widespread and could cause diversification by ameliorating stress and thus allowing organisms to colonize and adapt to otherwise unsuitable habitats. Yet the role of these interactions in generating species diversity has received limited attention, especially across large taxonomic groups. In the massive angiosperm family Leguminosae, plants often associate with root-nodulating bacteria that ameliorate nutrient stress by fixing atmospheric nitrogen. These symbioses are ecologically-important interactions, influencing community assembly, diversity, and succession, contributing ~100-290 million tons of N annually to natural ecosystems, and enhancing growth of agronomically-important forage and crop plants worldwide. In recent work attempting to determine whether mutualism with N-fixing bacteria led to increased diversification across legumes, we were unable to definitively resolve the relationship between diversification and nodulation. We did, however, succeed in compiling a very large searchable, analysis-ready database of nodulation data for 749 legume genera (98% of Leguminosae genera; LPWG 2017), which, along with associated phylogenetic information, will provide a valuable resource for future work addressing this question and others. For each legume genus, we provide information about the species richness, frequency of nodulation, subfamily association, and topological correspondence with an additional data set of 100 phylogenetic trees curated for database compatibility. We found 386 legume genera were confirmed nodulators (i.e., all species examined for nodulation nodulated), 116 were non-nodulating, four were variable (i.e., containing both confirmed nodulators and confirmed non-nodulators), and 243 had not been examined for nodulation in published studies. Interestingly

  20. Global climate change will increase the abundance of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing trees in much of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenying; Menge, Duncan N L; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Ángeles-Pérez, Gregorio

    2017-11-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen (N)-fixing trees can drive N and carbon cycling and thus are critical components of future climate projections. Despite detailed understanding of how climate influences N-fixation enzyme activity and physiology, comparatively little is known about how climate influences N-fixing tree abundance. Here, we used forest inventory data from the USA and Mexico (>125,000 plots) along with climate data to address two questions: (1) How does the abundance distribution of N-fixing trees (rhizobial, actinorhizal, and both types together) vary with mean annual temperature (MAT) and precipitation (MAP)? (2) How will changing climate shift the abundance distribution of N-fixing trees? We found that rhizobial N-fixing trees were nearly absent below 15°C MAT, but above 15°C MAT, they increased in abundance as temperature rose. We found no evidence for a hump-shaped response to temperature throughout the range of our data. Rhizobial trees were more abundant in dry than in wet ecosystems. By contrast, actinorhizal trees peaked in abundance at 5-10°C MAT and were least abundant in areas with intermediate precipitation. Next, we used a climate-envelope approach to project how N-fixing tree relative abundance might change in the future. The climate-envelope projection showed that rhizobial N-fixing trees will likely become more abundant in many areas by 2080, particularly in the southern USA and western Mexico, due primarily to rising temperatures. Projections for actinorhizal N-fixing trees were more nuanced due to their nonmonotonic dependence on temperature and precipitation. Overall, the dominant trend is that warming will increase N-fixing tree abundance in much of the USA and Mexico, with large increases up to 40° North latitude. The quantitative link we provide between climate and N-fixing tree abundance can help improve the representation of symbiotic N fixation in Earth System Models. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Bacterial microflora in Stichococcus bacillaris culture in nitrogenous-organic wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisz-Konarzewska, A.; Przytocka-Jusiak, M.; Rzeczycka, M.; Kowalska, A.

    1985-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative composition of the population of heterotrophic bacteria accompanying Stichococcus bacillaris in culture in non-sterile nitrogenous-organic wastewater was examined. During 5 days of incubation the total number of bacteria did not show any marked changes and averaged 4 X 10(6) cells per ml. Twenty per cent of the isolated bacterial strains were gram-positive. Gram-negative rods were dominated by Enterobacteriaceae (40%) and Pseudomonas (17%).

  2. An eddy-stimulated hotspot for fixed nitrogen-loss from the Peru oxygen minimum zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Altabet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fixed nitrogen (N loss to biogenic N2 in intense oceanic O2 minimum zones (OMZ accounts for a large fraction of the global N sink and is an essential control on the ocean's N-budget. However, major uncertainties exist regarding microbial pathways as well as net impact on the magnitude of N-loss and the ocean's overall N-budget. Here we report the discovery of a N-loss hotspot in the Peru OMZ associated with a coastally trapped mesoscale eddy that is marked by an extreme N-deficit matched by biogenic N2 production, high NO2 levels, and the highest isotope enrichments observed so far in OMZ's for the residual NO3. High sea surface chlorophyll in seaward flowing streamers provides evidence for offshore eddy transport of highly productive, inshore water. Resulting pulses in the downward flux of particles likely stimulated heterotrophic dissimilatory NO3 reduction and subsequent production of biogenic N2 within the OMZ. A shallower biogenic N2 maximum within the oxycline is likely a feature advected by the eddy streamer from the shelf. Eddy-associated temporal-spatial heterogeneity of N-loss, mediated by a local succession of microbial processes, may explain inconsistencies observed among prior studies. Similar transient enhancements of N-loss likely occur within all other major OMZ's exerting a major influence on global ocean N and N isotope budgets.

  3. Short-term fertilizer application alters phenotypic traits of symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Anna K; Han, Shery; Rekret, Phil; Rentschler, Christine S; Heath, Katy D; Stinchcombe, John R

    2015-01-01

    Fertilizer application is a common anthropogenic alteration to terrestrial systems. Increased nutrient input can impact soil microbial diversity or function directly through altered soil environments, or indirectly through plant-microbe feedbacks, with potentially important effects on ecologically-important plant-associated mutualists. We investigated the impacts of plant fertilizer, containing all common macro and micronutrients on symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), a group of bacteria that are important for plant productivity and ecosystem function. We collected rhizobia nodule isolates from natural field soil that was treated with slow-release plant fertilizer over a single growing season and compared phenotypic traits related to free-living growth and host partner quality in these isolates to those of rhizobia from unfertilized soils. Through a series of single inoculation assays in controlled glasshouse conditions, we found that isolates from fertilized field soil provided legume hosts with higher mutualistic benefits. Through growth assays on media containing variable plant fertilizer concentrations, we found that plant fertilizer was generally beneficial for rhizobia growth. Rhizobia isolated from fertilized field soil had higher growth rates in the presence of plant fertilizer compared to isolates from unfertilized field soil, indicating that plant fertilizer application favoured rhizobia isolates with higher abilities to utilize fertilizer for free-living growth. We found a positive correlation between growth responses to fertilizer and mutualism benefits among isolates from fertilized field soil, demonstrating that variable plant fertilizer induces context-dependent genetic correlations, potentially changing the evolutionary trajectory of either trait through increased trait dependencies. Our study shows that short-term application is sufficient to alter the composition of rhizobia isolates in the population or community, either directly

  4. Short-term fertilizer application alters phenotypic traits of symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Simonsen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fertilizer application is a common anthropogenic alteration to terrestrial systems. Increased nutrient input can impact soil microbial diversity or function directly through altered soil environments, or indirectly through plant-microbe feedbacks, with potentially important effects on ecologically-important plant-associated mutualists. We investigated the impacts of plant fertilizer, containing all common macro and micronutrients on symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia, a group of bacteria that are important for plant productivity and ecosystem function. We collected rhizobia nodule isolates from natural field soil that was treated with slow-release plant fertilizer over a single growing season and compared phenotypic traits related to free-living growth and host partner quality in these isolates to those of rhizobia from unfertilized soils. Through a series of single inoculation assays in controlled glasshouse conditions, we found that isolates from fertilized field soil provided legume hosts with higher mutualistic benefits. Through growth assays on media containing variable plant fertilizer concentrations, we found that plant fertilizer was generally beneficial for rhizobia growth. Rhizobia isolated from fertilized field soil had higher growth rates in the presence of plant fertilizer compared to isolates from unfertilized field soil, indicating that plant fertilizer application favoured rhizobia isolates with higher abilities to utilize fertilizer for free-living growth. We found a positive correlation between growth responses to fertilizer and mutualism benefits among isolates from fertilized field soil, demonstrating that variable plant fertilizer induces context-dependent genetic correlations, potentially changing the evolutionary trajectory of either trait through increased trait dependencies. Our study shows that short-term application is sufficient to alter the composition of rhizobia isolates in the population or community

  5. Nitrogen cycling and bacterial community structure of sinking and aging diatom aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Ann Sofie Birch; Treusch, Alexander H.; Stief, Peter

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Sinking phycodetrital aggregates can contribute to anaerobic nitrogen turnover as they may represent oxygen-depleted microbial hot spots in otherwise oxygenated waters. However, the dynamics of anaerobic nitrogen cycling during the long descent of aggregates through oxic or hypoxic waters...... are unknown. Thus, model aggregates prepared from the diatom Skeletonema marinoi were allowed to age for 4 d at high and low ambient O2 levels (70 and 15% air saturation, respectively), and changes in nitrogen transformations and microbial community structure were followed. At both O2 levels, denitrification...... at average production rates of 0.66 nmol N2-N aggregate (aggr.)–1 h–1 and 0.26 nmol NO2– aggr.–1 h–1. At both O2 levels, but more pronouncedly at 70% air saturation, the microbial community underwent succession as expressed by an increase in (1) relative abundance of specific bacterial taxonomic units; (2...

  6. Rhizospheric fungi and their link with the nitrogen-fixing Frankia harbored in host plant Hippophae rhamnoides L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue; Tian, Lei; Zhang, Jianfeng; Ma, Lina; Li, Xiujun; Tian, Chunjie

    2017-12-01

    Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is a pioneer plant used for land reclamation and an appropriate material for studying the interactions of symbiotic microorganisms because of its nitrogen-fixing root nodules and mycorrhiza. We used high-throughput sequencing to reveal the diversities and community structures of rhizospheric fungi and their link with nitrogen-fixing Frankia harbored in sea buckthorn collected along an altitude gradient from the Qinghai Tibet Plateau to interior areas. We found that the fungal diversities and compositions varied between different sites. Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota were the dominant phyla. The distribution of sea buckthorn rhizospheric fungi was driven by both environmental factors and the geographic distance. Among all examined soil characteristics, altitude, AP, and pH were found to have significant (p < 0.05) effect on the rhizospheric fungal community. The rhizospheric fungal communities became more distinct as the distance increased. Moreover, co-inertia analysis identified significant co-structures between Frankia and AMF communities in the rhizosphere of sea buckthorn. We conclude that at the large scale, there are certain linkages between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and the AMF expressed in the distributional pattern. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Transcriptional Activities of the Microbial Consortium Living with the Marine Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium Reveal Potential Roles in Community-Level Nitrogen Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael D; Webb, Eric A; Walworth, Nathan G; Fu, Fei-Xue; Held, Noelle A; Saito, Mak A; Hutchins, David A

    2018-01-01

    Trichodesmium is a globally distributed cyanobacterium whose nitrogen-fixing capability fuels primary production in warm oligotrophic oceans. Like many photoautotrophs, Trichodesmium serves as a host to various other microorganisms, yet little is known about how this associated community modulates fluxes of environmentally relevant chemical species into and out of the supraorganismal structure. Here, we utilized metatranscriptomics to examine gene expression activities of microbial communities associated with Trichodesmium erythraeum (strain IMS101) using laboratory-maintained enrichment cultures that have previously been shown to harbor microbial communities similar to those of natural populations. In enrichments maintained under two distinct CO 2 concentrations for ∼8 years, the community transcriptional profiles were found to be specific to the treatment, demonstrating a restructuring of overall gene expression had occurred. Some of this restructuring involved significant increases in community respiration-related transcripts under elevated CO 2 , potentially facilitating the corresponding measured increases in host nitrogen fixation rates. Particularly of note, in both treatments, community transcripts involved in the reduction of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide were detected, suggesting the associated organisms may play a role in colony-level nitrogen cycling. Lastly, a taxon-specific analysis revealed distinct ecological niches of consistently cooccurring major taxa that may enable, or even encourage, the stable cohabitation of a diverse community within Trichodesmium consortia. IMPORTANCE Trichodesmium is a genus of globally distributed, nitrogen-fixing marine cyanobacteria. As a source of new nitrogen in otherwise nitrogen-deficient systems, these organisms help fuel carbon fixation carried out by other more abundant photoautotrophs and thereby have significant roles in global nitrogen and carbon cycling. Members of the Trichodesmium genus tend to

  8. Effect of nitrogen on cellular production and release of the neurotoxin anatoxin-a in a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis eGagnon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anatoxin-a (ANTX is a neurotoxin produced by several freshwater cyanobacteria and implicated in lethal poisonings of domesticated animals and wildlife. The factors leading to its production in nature and in culture are not well understood. Resource availability may influence its cellular production as suggested by the carbon-nutrient hypothesis, which links the amount of secondary metabolites produced by plants or microbes to the relative abundance of nutrients. We tested the effects of nitrogen supply on ANTX production and release in a toxic strain of the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi (Nostocales. We hypothesized that nitrogen deficiency might constrain the production of ANTX. However, the total concentration and more significantly the cellular content of anatoxin-a peaked (max. 146 µg/L and 1683 µg•g-1 dry weight at intermediate levels of nitrogen supply when N-deficiency was evident based on phycocyanin to chlorophyll a and carbon to nitrogen ratios. The results suggest that the cellular production of anatoxin-a may be stimulated by moderate nutrient stress as described recently for another cyanotoxin (microcystin.

  9. Responsiveness of soil nitrogen fractions and bacterial communities to afforestation in the Loess Hilly Region (LHR) of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chengjie; Sun, Pingsheng; Kang, Di; Zhao, Fazhu; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin; Han, Xinhui; Yang, Gaihe

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, we investigated the effects of afforestation on nitrogen fractions and microbial communities. A total of 24 soil samples were collected from farmland (FL) and three afforested lands, namely Robinia pseudoacacia L (RP), Caragana korshinskii Kom (CK), and abandoned land (AL), which have been arable for the past 40 years. Quantitative PCR and Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes were used to analyze soil bacterial abundance, diversity, and composition. Additionally, soil nitrogen (N) stocks and fractions were estimated. The results showed that soil N stock, N fractions, and bacterial abundance and diversity increased following afforestation. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla of soil bacterial compositions. Overall, soil bacterial compositions generally changed from Actinobacteria (Acidobacteria)-dominant to Proteobacteria-dominant following afforestation. Soil N fractions, especially for dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), were significantly correlated with most bacterial groups and bacterial diversity, while potential competitive interactions between Proteobacteria (order Rhizobiales) and Cyanobacteria were suggested. In contrast, nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) influenced soil bacterial compositions less than other N fractions. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that bacterial diversity and specific species respond to farmland-to-forest conversion and hence have the potential to affect N dynamic processes in the Loess Plateau.

  10. Inorganic Nitrogen Application Affects Both Taxonomical and Predicted Functional Structure of Wheat Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa N. Kavamura

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fertilizer regime on bulk soil microbial communities have been well studied, but this is not the case for the rhizosphere microbiome. The aim of this work was to assess the impact of fertilization regime on wheat rhizosphere microbiome assembly and 16S rRNA gene-predicted functions with soil from the long term Broadbalk experiment at Rothamsted Research. Soil from four N fertilization regimes (organic N, zero N, medium inorganic N and high inorganic N was sown with seeds of Triticum aestivum cv. Cadenza. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was performed with the Illumina platform on bulk soil and rhizosphere samples of 4-week-old and flowering plants (10 weeks. Phylogenetic and 16S rRNA gene-predicted functional analyses were performed. Fertilization regime affected the structure and composition of wheat rhizosphere bacterial communities. Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes were significantly depleted in treatments receiving inorganic N, whereas the addition of high levels of inorganic N enriched members of the phylum Bacteroidetes, especially after 10 weeks. Bacterial richness and diversity decreased with inorganic nitrogen inputs and was highest after organic treatment (FYM. In general, high levels of inorganic nitrogen fertilizers negatively affect bacterial richness and diversity, leading to a less stable bacterial community structure over time, whereas, more stable bacterial communities are provided by organic amendments. 16S rRNA gene-predicted functional structure was more affected by growth stage than by fertilizer treatment, although, some functions related to energy metabolism and metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides were enriched in samples not receiving any inorganic N, whereas inorganic N addition enriched predicted functions related to metabolism of other amino acids and carbohydrates. Understanding the impact of different fertilizers on the structure and dynamics of the rhizosphere microbiome is an important step

  11. Is the distribution of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in the oceans related to temperature?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stal, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 50% of the global natural fixation of nitrogen occurs in the oceans supporting a considerable part of the new primary production. Virtually all nitrogen fixation in the ocean occurs in the tropics and subtropics where the surface water temperature is 25°C or higher. It is attributed

  12. Achieving mainstream nitrogen removal through simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification process in an integrated fixed film activated sludge reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Sitong; Xu, Xiaochen; Zhang, Chaolei; Wang, Dong; Yang, Fenglin

    2018-07-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is becoming a critical technology for energy neutral in mainstream wastewater treatment. However, the presence of chemical oxygen demanding in influent would result in a poor nitrogen removal efficiency during the deammonification process. In this study, the simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification process (SNAD) for mainstream nitrogen removal was investigated in an integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor. SNAD-IFAS process achieved a total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency of 72 ± 2% and an average COD removal efficiency was 88%. The optimum COD/N ratio for mainstream wastewater treatment was 1.2 ± 0.2. Illumina sequencing analysis and activity tests showed that anammox and denitrifying bacteria were the dominant nitrogen removal microorganism in the biofilm and the high COD/N ratios (≥2.0) leaded to the proliferation of heterotrophic bacteria (Hydrogenophaga) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrospira) in the suspended sludge. Network analysis confirmed that anammox bacteria (Candidatus Kuenenia) could survive in organic matter environment due to that anammox bacteria displayed significant co-occurrence through positive correlations with some heterotrophic bacteria (Limnobacter) which could protect anammox bacteria from hostile environments. Overall, the results of this study provided more comprehensive information regarding the community composition and assemblies in SNAD-IFAS process for mainstream nitrogen removal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Combined carbon and nitrogen removal from acetonitrile using algal-bacterial bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, R.; Jacinto, M.; Guieysse, B.; Mattiasson, B. [Dept. of Biotechnology, Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    When compared with Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus and Selenastrum capricornutum, C. sorokiniana presented the highest tolerance to acetonitrile and the highest O{sub 2} production capacity. It also supported the fastest acetonitrile biodegradation when mixed with a suitable acetonitrile-degrading bacterial consortium. Consequently, this microalga was tested in symbiosis with the bacterial culture for the continuous biodegradation of acetonitrile at 2 g l{sup -1} in a stirred tank photobioreactor and in a column photobioreactor under continuous illumination (250 {mu}E m{sup -2} s{sup -1}). Acetonitrile removal rates of up to 2.3 g l{sup -1} day{sup -1} and 1.9 g l{sup -1} day{sup -1} were achieved in the column photobioreactor and the stirred-tank photobioreactor, respectively, when operated at the shortest retention times tested (0.4 days, 0.6 days, respectively). In addition, when the stirred-tank photobioreactor was operated with a retention time of 3.5 days, the microbial culture was capable of assimilating up to 71% and nitrifying up to 12% of the NH{sub 4}{sup +} theoretically released through the biodegradation of acetonitrile, thus reducing the need for subsequent nitrogen removal. This study suggests that complete removal of N-organics can be combined with a significant removal of nitrogen by using algal-bacterial systems and that further residual biomass digestion could pay-back part of the operation costs of the treatment plant. (orig.)

  14. Interspecific Plant Interactions Reflected in Soil Bacterial Community Structure and Nitrogen Cycling in Primary Succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Knelman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Past research demonstrating the importance plant–microbe interactions as drivers of ecosystem succession has focused on how plants condition soil microbial communities, impacting subsequent plant performance and plant community assembly. These studies, however, largely treat microbial communities as a black box. In this study, we sought to examine how emblematic shifts from early successional Alnus viridus ssp. sinuata (Sitka alder to late successional Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce in primary succession may be reflected in specific belowground changes in bacterial community structure and nitrogen cycling related to the interaction of these two plants. We examined early successional alder-conditioned soils in a glacial forefield to delineate how alders alter the soil microbial community with increasing dominance. Further, we assessed the impact of late-successional spruce plants on these early successional alder-conditioned microbiomes and related nitrogen cycling through a leachate addition microcosm experiment. We show how increasingly abundant alder select for particular bacterial taxa. Additionally, we found that spruce leachate significantly alters the composition of these microbial communities in large part by driving declines in taxa that are enriched by alder, including bacterial symbionts. We found these effects to be spruce specific, beyond a general leachate effect. Our work also demonstrates a unique influence of spruce on ammonium availability. Such insights bolster theory relating the importance of plant–microbe interactions with late-successional plants and interspecific plant interactions more generally.

  15. Interspecific Plant Interactions Reflected in Soil Bacterial Community Structure and Nitrogen Cycling in Primary Succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knelman, Joseph E; Graham, Emily B; Prevéy, Janet S; Robeson, Michael S; Kelly, Patrick; Hood, Eran; Schmidt, Steve K

    2018-01-01

    Past research demonstrating the importance plant-microbe interactions as drivers of ecosystem succession has focused on how plants condition soil microbial communities, impacting subsequent plant performance and plant community assembly. These studies, however, largely treat microbial communities as a black box. In this study, we sought to examine how emblematic shifts from early successional Alnus viridus ssp. sinuata (Sitka alder) to late successional Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce) in primary succession may be reflected in specific belowground changes in bacterial community structure and nitrogen cycling related to the interaction of these two plants. We examined early successional alder-conditioned soils in a glacial forefield to delineate how alders alter the soil microbial community with increasing dominance. Further, we assessed the impact of late-successional spruce plants on these early successional alder-conditioned microbiomes and related nitrogen cycling through a leachate addition microcosm experiment. We show how increasingly abundant alder select for particular bacterial taxa. Additionally, we found that spruce leachate significantly alters the composition of these microbial communities in large part by driving declines in taxa that are enriched by alder, including bacterial symbionts. We found these effects to be spruce specific, beyond a general leachate effect. Our work also demonstrates a unique influence of spruce on ammonium availability. Such insights bolster theory relating the importance of plant-microbe interactions with late-successional plants and interspecific plant interactions more generally.

  16. Metatranscriptomic and metagenomic description of the bacterial nitrogen metabolism in waste water wet oxidation effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Crovadore

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is a common method for reducing the amount of sludge solids in used waters and enabling biogas production. The wet oxidation process (WOX improves anaerobic digestion by converting carbon into methane through oxidation of organic compounds. WOX produces effluents rich in ammonia, which must be removed to maintain the activity of methanogens. Ammonia removal from WOX could be biologically operated by aerobic granules. To this end, granulation experiments were conducted in 2 bioreactors containing an activated sludge (AS. For the first time, the dynamics of the microbial community structure and the expression levels of 7 enzymes of the nitrogen metabolism in such active microbial communities were followed in regard to time by metagenomics and metatranscriptomics. It was shown that bacterial communities adapt to the wet oxidation effluent by increasing the expression level of the nitrogen metabolism, suggesting that these biological activities could be a less costly alternative for the elimination of ammonia, resulting in a reduction of the use of chemicals and energy consumption in sewage plants. This study reached a strong sequencing depth (from 4.4 to 7.6 Gb and enlightened a yet unknown diversity of the microorganisms involved in the nitrogen pathway. Moreover, this approach revealed the abundance and expression levels of specialised enzymes involved in nitrification, denitrification, ammonification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA and nitrogen fixation processes in AS. Keywords: Applied sciences, Biological sciences, Environmental science, Genetics, Microbiology

  17. Increased root exudation of 14C-compounds by sorghum seedlings inoculated with nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.J.; Gaskins, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    Organic components leaked from Sorghum bicolor seedlings ('root exudates') were examined by recovering 14 C labelled compounds from root solutions of seedlings inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter vinelandii or Klebsiella pneumoniae nif-. Up to 3.5% of the total 14 C recovered from shoots, roots, and nutrient solutions was found in the root solutions. Inoculation with Azospirillum and Azotobacter increased the amounts of 14 C and decreased the amounts of carbohydrates in the root solutions. When sucrose was added as a carbon source for the bacteria, the increase of 14 C in the solutions did not occur. Quantities of 14 C found in the root solutions were proportional to amounts of mineral nitrogen supplied to the plants. Bacterial growth also was proportional to nitrogen levels. When sorghum plants were grown in soil and labelled with 14 CO 2 , about 15% of the total 14 C recovered within 48 hours exposure was found in soil leachates. (orig.)

  18. Symbiosis between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and Medicago truncatula is not significantly affected by silver and silver sulfide nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Jonathan D; Kirby, Jason K; McLaughlin, Mike J; McNear, David; Bertsch, Paul M

    2016-07-01

    Silver (Ag) engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are being released into waste streams and are being discharged, largely as Ag2S aged-ENMs (a-ENMs), into agroecosystems receiving biosolids amendments. Recent research has demonstrated that biosolids containing an environmentally relevant mixture of ZnO, TiO2, and Ag ENMs and their transformation products, including Ag2S a-ENMs, disrupted the symbiosis between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and legumes. However, this study was unable to unequivocally determine which ENM or combination of ENMs and a-ENMs was responsible for the observed inhibition. Here, we examined further the effects of polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP) coated pristine Ag ENMs (PVP-Ag), Ag2S a-ENMs, and soluble Ag (as AgSO4) at 1, 10, and 100 mg Ag kg(-1) on the symbiosis between the legume Medicago truncatula and the nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Sinorhizobium melliloti in biosolids-amended soil. Nodulation frequency, nodule function, glutathione reductase production, and biomass were not significantly affected by any of the Ag treatments, even at 100 mg kg(-1), a concentration analogous to a worst-case scenario resulting from long-term, repeated biosolids amendments. Our results provide additional evidence that the disruption of the symbiosis between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and legumes in response to a mixture of ENMs in biosolids-amended soil reported previously may not be attributable to Ag ENMs or their transformation end-products. We anticipate these findings will provide clarity to regulators and industry regarding potential unintended consequences to terrestrial ecosystems resulting from of the use of Ag ENMs in consumer products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional specialization of one copy of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase in ureide production from symbiotically fixed nitrogen in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleto, Inmaculada; Trenas, Almudena T; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Pineda, Manuel; Alamillo, Josefa M

    2016-08-01

    Purines are essential molecules formed in a highly regulated pathway in all organisms. In tropical legumes, the nitrogen fixed in the nodules is used to generate ureides through the oxidation of de novo synthesized purines. Glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase (PRAT) catalyses the first committed step of de novo purine synthesis. In Phaseolus vulgaris there are three genes coding for PRAT. The three full-length sequences, which are intron-less genes, were cloned, and their expression levels were determined under conditions that affect the synthesis of purines. One of the three genes, PvPRAT3, is highly expressed in nodules and protein amount and enzymatic activity in these tissues correlate with nitrogen fixation activity. Inhibition of PvPRAT3 gene expression by RNAi-silencing and subsequent metabolomic analysis of the transformed roots shows that PvPRAT3 is essential for the synthesis of ureides in P. vulgaris nodules. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Demography of Symbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Trees Explains Their Rarity and Successional Decline in Temperate Forests in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenying; Menge, Duncan N L

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen (N) fixation is the major N input to many ecosystems. Although temperate forests are commonly N limited, symbiotic N-fixing trees ("N fixers") are rare and decline in abundance as succession proceeds-a challenging paradox that remains unexplained. Understanding demographic processes that underlie N fixers' rarity and successional decline would provide a proximate answer to the paradox. Do N fixers grow slower, die more frequently, or recruit less in temperate forests? We quantified demographic rates of N-fixing and non-fixing trees across succession using U.S. forest inventory data. We used an individual-based model to evaluate the relative contribution of each demographic process to community dynamics. Compared to non-fixers, N fixers had lower growth rates, higher mortality rates, and lower recruitment rates throughout succession. The mortality effect contributed more than the growth effect to N fixers' successional decline. Canopy and understory N fixers experienced these demographic disadvantages, indicating that factors in addition to light limitation likely contribute to N fixers' successional decline. We show that the rarity and successional decline of N-fixing trees in temperate forests is due more to their survival disadvantage than their growth disadvantage, and a recruitment disadvantage might also play a large role.

  1. Coffea arabica L., a new host plant for Acetobacter diazotrophicus, and isolation of other nitrogen-fixing acetobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Salgado, T; Fuentes-Ramirez, L E; Tapia-Hernandez, A; Mascarua-Esparza, M A; Martinez-Romero, E; Caballero-Mellado, J

    1997-09-01

    Acetobacter diazotrophicus was isolated from coffee plant tissues and from rhizosphere soils. Isolation frequencies ranged from 15 to 40% and were dependent on soil pH. Attempts to isolate this bacterial species from coffee fruit, from inside vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores, or from mealybugs (Planococcus citri) associated with coffee plants were not successful. Other acid-producing diazotrophic bacteria were recovered with frequencies of 20% from the coffee rhizosphere. These N2-fixing isolates had some features in common with the genus Acetobacter but should not be assigned to the species Acetobacter diazotrophicus because they differed from A. diazotrophicus in morphological and biochemical traits and were largely divergent in electrophoretic mobility patterns of metabolic enzymes at coefficients of genetic distance as high as 0.950. In addition, these N2-fixing acetobacteria differed in the small-subunit rRNA restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns obtained with EcoRI, and they exhibited very low DNA-DNA homology levels, ranging from 11 to 15% with the A. diazotrophicus reference strain PAI 5T. Thus, some of the diazotrophic acetobacteria recovered from the rhizosphere of coffee plants may be regarded as N2-fixing species of the genus Acetobacter other than A. diazotrophicus. Endophytic diazotrophic bacteria may be more prevalent than previously thought, and perhaps there are many more potentially beneficial N2-fixing bacteria which can be isolated from other agronomically important crops.

  2. Study of changes in bacterial and viral abundance in formaldehyde - Fixed water samples by epifluorescence microscopy

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvathi, A.; Radhakrishnan, S.; Sajila, M.P.; Jacob, B.

    of bacteria and viruses in water samples from Cochin Backwater was determined by SYBR Green I staining and epifluorescence microscopy. The counts were determined for 45 days in samples fixed with 1–6% formaldehyde. The results suggest rapid decline in counts...

  3. Organic carbon and nitrogen availability determine bacterial community composition in paddy fields of the Indo-Gangetic plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Rai, Lal Chand

    2017-07-01

    Soil quality is an important factor and maintained by inhabited microorganisms. Soil physicochemical characteristics determine indigenous microbial population and rice provides food security to major population of the world. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of physicochemical variables on bacterial community composition and diversity in conventional paddy fields which could reflect a real picture of the bacterial communities operating in the paddy agro-ecosystem. To fulfill the objective; soil physicochemical characterization, bacterial community composition and diversity analysis was carried out using culture-independent PCR-DGGE method from twenty soils distributed across eight districts. Bacterial communities were grouped into three clusters based on UPGMA cluster analysis of DGGE banding pattern. The linkage of measured physicochemical variables with bacterial community composition was analyzed by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). CCA ordination biplot results were similar to UPGMA cluster analysis. High levels of species-environment correlations (0.989 and 0.959) were observed and the largest proportion of species data variability was explained by total organic carbon (TOC), available nitrogen, total nitrogen and pH. Thus, results suggest that TOC and nitrogen are key regulators of bacterial community composition in the conventional paddy fields. Further, high diversity indices and evenness values demonstrated heterogeneity and co-abundance of the bacterial communities.

  4. Molecular aspects of the nitrogen fixing system in pea root nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisseling, T.

    1980-01-01

    The author considers symbiotic nitrogen fixation of Pisum sativum and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Some general aspects of nodule formation and the regulation of the proteins nitrogenase and leghemoglobin (Lb) have been studied. Synthesis of these proteins was studied by 35 SO 4 labelling of intact pea plants. The sequence of appearance of the proteins was determined with specific radioimmunoassays for each protein. (Auth.)

  5. Regulation of Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571 nitrogen fixation (NIF/FIX) genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, J.

    1994-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is the microbial process by which atmospheric dinitrogen (N 2 ) is reduced to ammonia. In all microbes studied, dinitrogen reduction is catalyzed by a highly conserved enzyme complex, called nitrogenase.

  6. Characterization of the Symbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Common Bean Low Phytic Acid (lpa1) Mutant Response to Water Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzotto, Remo; Ramírez, Mario; Talbi, Chouhra; Cominelli, Eleonora; Girard, Lourdes; Sparvoli, Francesca; Hernández, Georgina

    2018-02-15

    The common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) low phytic acid ( lpa1 ) biofortified genotype produces seeds with improved nutritional characteristics and does not display negative pleiotropic effects. Here we demonstrated that lpa1 plants establish an efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Rhizobium etli CE3. The lpa1 nodules showed a higher expression of nodule-function related genes than the nodules of the parental wild type genotype (BAT 93). We analyzed the response to water stress of lpa1 vs. BAT 93 plants grown under fertilized or under symbiotic N₂-fixation conditions. Water stress was induced by water withholding (up to 14% soil moisture) to fertilized or R. etli nodulated plants previously grown with normal irrigation. The fertilized lpa1 plants showed milder water stress symptoms during the water deployment period and after the rehydration recovery period when lpa1 plants showed less biomass reduction. The symbiotic water-stressed lpa1 plants showed decreased nitrogenase activity that coincides with decreased sucrose synthase gene expression in nodules; lower turgor weight to dry weight (DW) ratio, which has been associated with higher drought resistance index; downregulation of carbon/nitrogen (C/N)-related and upregulation of stress-related genes. Higher expression of stress-related genes was also observed in bacteroids of stressed lpa1 plants that also displayed very high expression of the symbiotic cbb ₃ oxidase ( fixN d).

  7. The oceanic fixed nitrogen and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Codispoti, L; Brandes, J.A.; Christensen, J.P.; Devol, A.H.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Paerl, H.W.; Yoshinari, T.

    New data forced to raise previous estimates of oceanic denitrification. The revised estimate of approx. 450 Tg N yr sup(-1) (Tg = 10 sup(12) g) produces an oceanic fixed N budget with a large deficit (approx. 200 Tg N yr sup(1)) that can...

  8. Elevated enzyme activities in soils under the invasive nitrogen-fixing tree Falcataria moluccana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven D. Allison; Caroline Nielsen; R. Flint. Hughes

    2006-01-01

    Like other N-fixing invasive species in Hawaii, Falcataria moluccana dramatically alters forest structure, litterfall quality and quantity, and nutrient dynamics. We hypothesized that these biogeochemical changes would also affect the soil microbial community and the extracellular enzymes responsible for carbon and nutrient mineralization. Across...

  9. Induction of bacterial antibiotic resistance by mutagenic halogenated nitrogenous disinfection byproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Lu; Yu, Xin; Xu, Qian; Ye, Chengsong

    2015-01-01

    Halogenated nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) raise concerns regarding their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity threatening public health. However, environmental consequence of their mutagenicity has received less attention. In this study, the effect of halogenated N-DBPs on bacterial antibiotic resistance (BAR) was investigated. After exposure to bromoacetamide (BAcAm), trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN) or tribromonitromethane (TBNM), the resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to both individual and multiple antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, polymyxin B, rifampin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin + gentamicin and ciprofloxacin + tetracycline) was increased, which was predominantly ascribed to the overexpression of efflux pumps. The mechanism of this effect was demonstrated to be mutagenesis through sequencing and analyzing antibiotic resistance genes. The same induction phenomena also appeared in Escherichia coli, suggesting this effect may be universal to waterborne pathogens. Therefore, more attention should be given to halogenated N-DBPs, as they could increase not only genotoxicological risks but also epidemiological risks of drinking water. - Highlights: • The halogenated N-DBPs could induce bacterial antibiotic resistance. • Both individual and multiple resistances could be induced. • Efflux mechanism played an important role in the induced antibiotic resistance. • The halogenated N-DBPs induced bacterial antibiotic resistance via mutagenesis. • Effects of N-DBPs on antibiotic resistance may be universal to waterborne pathogens. - Halogenated N-DBPs could increase antibiotic resistance, even multidrug resistance via mutagenesis, contributing to the enrichment of antibiotic resistant bacteria in drinking water

  10. Prevalence of potential nitrogen-fixing, green sulphur bacteria in the skeleton of reef-building coral Isopora palifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S. H.

    2016-02-01

    Microbial endoliths, which inhabit interior pores of rocks, skeletons and coral, are ubiquitous in terrestrial and marine environments. In the present study, various colored layers stratified the endolithic environment within the skeleton of Isopora palifera; however, there was a distinct green-pigmented layer in the skeleton (beneath the living coral tissue). To characterize diversity of endolithic microorganisms, 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing was used to investigate bacterial communities in the green layer of Isopora palifera coral colonies retrieved fromGreen Island, Taiwan. The dominant bacterial group in the green layer belonged to the bacterial phylum Chlorobi, green sulphur bacteria capable of anoxygenic photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. Specifically, bacteria of the genus Prosthecochloris were dominant in this green layer. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide a detailed profile of endolithic bacteria in coral and to determine prevalence of Prosthecochloris in the green layer. Based on our findings, we infer that these bacteria may have an important functional role in the coral holobiont in the nutrient-limited coral reef ecosystem.

  11. Responses of the nitrogen-fixing aquatic fern Azolla to water contaminated with ciprofloxacin: Impacts on biofertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; de Brito, Júlio César Moreira; Carvalho Carneiro, Marília Mércia Lima; Ribeiro da Cunha, Mariem Rodrigues; Garcia, Queila Souza; Figueredo, Cleber Cunha

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the ability of the aquatic fern Azolla to take up ciprofloxacin (Cipro), as well as the effects of that antibiotic on the N-fixing process in plants grown in medium deprived (-N) or provided (+N) with nitrogen (N). Azolla was seen to accumulate Cipro at concentrations greater than 160 μg g -1 dry weight when cultivated in 3.05 mg Cipro l -1 , indicating it as a candidate for Cipro recovery from water. Although Cipro was not seen to interfere with the heterocyst/vegetative cell ratios, the antibiotic promoted changes with carbon and nitrogen metabolism in plants. Decreased photosynthesis and nitrogenase activity, and altered plant's amino acid profile, with decreases in cell N concentrations, were observed. The removal of N from the growth medium accentuated the deleterious effects of Cipro, resulting in lower photosynthesis, N-fixation, and assimilation rates, and increased hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Our results shown that Cipro may constrain the use of Azolla as a biofertilizer species due to its interference with nitrogen fixation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The fate of fixed nitrogen in marine sediments with low organic loading: an in situ study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonaglia, Stefano; Hylén, Astrid; Rattray, Jane E.

    2017-01-01

    Given the increasing impacts of human activities on global nitrogen (N) cycle, investigations on N transformation processes in the marine environment have drastically increased in the last years. Benthic N cycling has mainly been studied in anthropogenically impacted estuaries and coasts, while its...... sediments worldwide (range 34–344 µmol N m−2 d−1). Anammox accounted for 18–26 % of the total N2 production. Absence of free hydrogen sulfide and low concentrations of dissolved iron in sediment pore waters suggested that denitrification and DNRA were driven by organic matter oxidation rather than...... chemolithotrophy. DNRA was as important as denitrification at a shallow, coastal station situated in the northern Bothnian Bay. At this pristine and fully oxygenated site, ammonium regeneration through DNRA contributed more than one third to the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) diffusing from the sediment...

  13. Evaluation of nodulation and nitrogen fixing potentials of some herbaceous legumes in inland valley soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayorbor, T. B.; Addai, I. K.; Lawson, I. Y. D.; Dogbe, W.; Djagbletey, D.

    2006-01-01

    A screening experiment was conducted to evaluate the nodulation, nitrogen fixation and biomass production of eleven herbaceous legumes in three soil series mainly used for rice production in the Guinea savannah agro-ecological zone of Ghana. This study was carried out with a view to fully exploiting the potential of N-fixating legumes as a supplement to inorganic N-fertilizers in rice-based cropping systems. The treatment combinations were laid out in a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Plant samples were harvested at flowering for nodule count, biomass production and N-fixation. The study revealed that the mucuna and crotalaria species were the best nitrogen fixers and biomass producers. For increased yields of rice in the study area, these legumes require more intensive field study for their integration into the rice-based cropping systems. (au)

  14. Evaluation of Frankia and Rhizobial strains as inocula for nitrogen-fixing trees in saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, F.Y.; Hameed, S.; Malik, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    Frankia strains isolated from various Casuarina species were screened for nodulation and N 2 -fixing ability on C. glauca and C. obesa under controlled-environment conditions. Five out of thirteen strains induced effective root nodules on C. glauca, but none did so on C. obesa; two strains were selected. Similarly, various rhizobial strains were screened for nodulation and N 2 fixation on four Acacia species and finally three were selected for compatibility with A. ampliceps. The two Frankia strains (CcOl and CcI3) and three Rhizobium strains (Abal, Ar2-1 and PMA63/1) were checked for NaCl-tolerance in vitro, and were used as inocula to estimate N 2 fixation in fast-growing trees under highly saline field conditions. The isotope-dilution method was used to estimate the proportion and amount of N 2 -fixed by A. ampliceps and C. glauca with Eucalyptus camaldulensis as the non-fixing check. After a year, A. ampliceps plants formed a few root nodules at low Ec c levels, but during the second and third years profuse nodulation was observed. In 1-year-old plants the fraction of N derived from fixation (Ndfa) ranged from 7 to 55% (average 31%) in A. ampliceps and from 7 to 24% (average 15%) in C. glauca, and after two years %Ndfa for A. ampliceps increased markedly, with values up to 86%. On the other hand, increases in %Ndfa for C. glauca were insignificant, possibly due to the use of E. camaldulensis as the non-fixing reference plant. Infection of tree roots by vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM), scored after 3 years, showed a negative relationship with soil electric conductivity, as did VAM spore number. The spores isolated from saline soils had thicker walls than those from a fertile soil. Decreases in the soil salinity levels were observed at the end of the 3-year experiment. (author)

  15. [The change of bacterial adhesion during deposition nitrogen-diamond like carbon coating on pure titanium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lu; Xiao, Yun

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the change of bacterial adhesion on pure titanium coated with nitrogen-diamond like carbon (N-DLC) films and to guide the clinical application. N-DLC was deposited on titanium using ion plating machine, TiN film, anodic oxide film and non-deposition were used as control, then made specimens adhering on the surface of resin denture base for 6 months. The adhesion of Saccharomyces albicans on the titanium surface was observed using scanning electron microscope, and the roughness was tested by roughness detector. The number of Saccharomyces albicans adhering on diamond-like carbon film was significantly less than on the other groups (P DLC film was less than other group (P coated with N-DLC film reduced the adhesion of Saccharomyces albicans after clinical application, thereby reduced the risk of denture stomatitis.

  16. Economy of Photosynthate Use in Nitrogen-fixing Legume Nodules: Observations on Two Contrasting Symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layzell, D B; Rainbird, R M; Atkins, C A; Pate, J S

    1979-11-01

    The economy of C use by root nodules was examined in two symbioses, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (cv. Caloona):Rhizobium CB756 and Lupinus albus L. (cv. Ultra):Rhizobium WU425 over a 2-week period in early vegetative growth. Plants were grown in minus N water culture with cuvettes attached to the nodulated zone of their primary roots for collection of evolved CO(2) and H(2). Increments in total plant N and in C and N of nodules, and C:N weight ratios of xylem and phloem exudates were studied by periodic sampling from the plant populations. Itemized budgets were constructed for the partitioning and utilization of C in the two species. For each milligram N fixed and assimilated by the cowpea association, 1.54 +/- 0.26 (standard error) milligrams C as CO(2) and negligible H(2) were evolved and 3.11 milligrams of translocated C utilized by the nodules. Comparable values for nodules of the lupin association were 3.64 +/- 0.28 milligrams C as CO(2), 0.22 +/- 0.05 milligrams H(2), and 6.58 milligrams C. More efficient use of C by cowpea nodules was due to a lesser requirement of C for synthesis of exported N compounds, a smaller allocation of C to nodule dry matter, and a lower evolution of CO(2). The activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in nodule extracts and the rate of (14)CO(2) fixation by detached nodules were greater for the cowpea symbiosis (0.56 +/- 0.06 and 0.22 milligrams C as CO(2) fixed per gram fresh weight per hour, respectively) than for the lupin 0.06 +/- 0.02 and 0.01 milligrams C as CO(2) fixed per gram fresh weight per hour. The significance of the data was discussed in relation to current information on theoretical costs of nitrogenase functioning and associated nodule processes.

  17. [Rice endogenous nitrogen fixing and growth promoting bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae DX35].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiucheng; Cao, Yanhua; Tang, Xue; Ma, Xiaotong; Gao, Jusheng; Zhang, Xiaoxia

    2014-03-04

    To screen efficient nitrogen fixation endophytes from rice and to analyze their growth-promoting properties. We isolated strains from the roots of rice in the field where it has a rice-rice-green manure rotation system for 30 years. Efficient strains were screened by acetylene reduction assay. Phylogenetic analysis is based on 16S rRNA gene, nifH gene and the composition of fatty acid. In addition, we also detected the ability of indole acetic acid secretion through the Salkowski colorimetric method, measured the production of siderophore through the blue plate assay and detected phosphate solubilization, to analyze the growth-promoting properties. A total of 48 strains were isolated, in which DX35 has the highest nitrogenase activity. It belongs to Herbaspirillum seropedicae after identification. Its nitrogenase activity (181.21 nmol C2H4/(mg protein x h)) was 10 times as much as the reference strain Azotobacter chroococcum ACCC10006. In addition, it also can secrete siderophore and solubilize phosphorus. Strain DX35, belonging to Herbaspirillum seropedicae, is an efficient nitrogen fixation endophytes.

  18. (Methyl)ammonium Transport in the Nitrogen-Fixing Bacterium Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dommelen, Anne; Keijers, Veerle; Vanderleyden, Jos; de Zamaroczy, Miklos

    1998-01-01

    An ammonium transporter of Azospirillum brasilense was characterized. In contrast to most previously reported putative prokaryotic NH4+ transporter genes, A. brasilense amtB is not part of an operon with glnB or glnZ which, in A. brasilense, encode nitrogen regulatory proteins PII and PZ, respectively. Sequence analysis predicts the presence of 12 transmembrane domains in the deduced AmtB protein and classifies AmtB as an integral membrane protein. Nitrogen regulates the transcription of the amtB gene in A. brasilense by the Ntr system. amtB is the first gene identified in A. brasilense whose expression is regulated by NtrC. The observation that ammonium uptake is still possible in mutants lacking the AmtB protein suggests the presence of a second NH4+ transport mechanism. Growth of amtB mutants at low ammonium concentrations is reduced compared to that of the wild type. This suggests that AmtB has a role in scavenging ammonium at low concentrations. PMID:9573149

  19. Responses of Ammonia-Oxidising Bacterial Communities to Nitrogen, Lime, and Plant Species in Upland Grassland Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooney, D.C.; Kennedy, N.M.; Clipson, N.J.W.; Rooney, D.C.; Kennedy, N.M.; Gleeson, D.B.

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural improvement of semi natural grasslands has been shown to result in changes to plant and microbial diversity, with consequences for ecosystem functioning. A microcosm approach was used to elucidate the effects of two key components of agricultural improvement (nitrogen addition and liming) on ammonia-oxidising bacterial (AOB) communities in an upland grassland soil. Plant species characteristic of unimproved and improved pastures (A. capillaries and L. perenne) were planted in microcosms, and lime, nitrogen (NH 4 NO 3 ), or lime plus nitrogen added. The AOB community was profiled using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of the amoA gene. AOB community structure was largely altered by NH 4 NO 3 addition, rather than liming, although interactions between nitrogen addition and plant species were also evident. Results indicate that nitrogen addition drives shifts in the structure of key microbial communities in upland grassland soils, and that plant species may play a significant role in determining AOB community structure

  20. Isolation and Identification of Phosphate Solubilizing and Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria from Soil in Wamena Biological Garden, Jayawijaya, Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI WIDAWATI

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB from soil samples of Wamena Biological Garden (WbiG. Eleven soil samples were collected randomly to estimate microbial population which used plate count method. The result showed that the microbial population ranged from 5.0x103-7.5x106 cells of bacteria/gram of soil and 5.0x103-1.5x107 cells of bacteria/gram of soil for PSB and NFB respectively. There were 17 isolates which have been identified till genus and species. The isolated microorganism were identified as PSB i.e. Bacillus sp., B. pantothenticus, B. megatherium, Flavobacterium sp., F. breve, Klebsiella sp., K. aerogenes, Chromobacterium lividum, Enterobacter alvei, E. agglomerans, Pseudomonas sp., Proteus sp. and as NFB i.e. Azotobacter sp., A. chroococcum, A. paspalii, Rhizobium sp., and Azospirillum sp.

  1. Fixed-nitrogen loss associated with sinking zooplankton carcasses in a coastal oxygen minimum zone (Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Lundgaard, Ann Sofie Birch; Morales Ramirez, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the ocean are of key importance for pelagic fixed-nitrogen loss (N-loss) through microbial denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Recent studies document that zooplankton is surprisingly abundant in and around OMZs and that the microbial community...... associated with carcasses of a large copepod species mediates denitrification. Here, we investigate the complex N-cycling associated with sinking zooplankton carcasses exposed to the steep O2 gradient in a coastal OMZ (Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica). 15N-stable-isotope enrichment experiments revealed...... that the carcasses of abundant copepods and ostracods provide anoxic microbial hotspots in the pelagic zone by hosting intense anaerobic N-cycle activities even in the presence of ambient O2. Carcass-associated anaerobic N-cycling was clearly dominated by dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) at up...

  2. Improving nitrogen utilization efficiency of aquaponics by introducing algal-bacterial consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yingke; Hu, Zhen; Zou, Yina; Zhang, Jian; Zhu, Zhuoran; Zhang, Jianda; Nie, Lichao

    2017-12-01

    Aquaponics is a promising technology combining aquaculture with hydroponics. In this study, algal-bacterial consortia were introduced into aquaponics, i.e., algal-bacterial based aquaponics (AA), to improve the nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) of aquaponics. The results showed that the NUE of AA was 13.79% higher than that of media-based aquaponics (MA). In addition, higher NO 3 - removal by microalgae assimilation led to better water quality in AA, which made up for the deficiencies of poor aquaponic management of nitrate. As a result of lower NO 3 - concentrations and dramatically higher dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations caused by microalgae photosynthesis in the photobioreactor, the N 2 O emission of AA was 89.89% lower than that of MA, although nosZ gene abundance in MA's hydroponic bed was approximately 30 times over that in AA. Considering the factors mentioned above, AA would improve the sustainability of aquaponics and have a good application foreground. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 454-Pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial communities from autotrophic nitrogen removal bioreactors utilizing universal primers : Effect of annealing temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, A.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, A.; Rodelas, B.; Abbas, B.A.; Martinez-Toledo, M.V.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Osorio, F.; Gonzalez-Lopez, J.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria by molecular tools aimed at the evaluation of bacterial diversity in autotrophic nitrogen removal systems is limited by the difficulty to design universal primers for the Bacteria domain able to amplify the anammox 16S

  4. Proteomic analysis reveals contrasting stress response to uranium in two nitrogen-fixing Anabaena strains, differentially tolerant to uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, Bandita; Basu, Bhakti; Acharya, Celin; Rajaram, Hema; Apte, Shree Kumar, E-mail: aptesk@barc.gov.in

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Response of two native cyanobacterial strains to uranium exposure was studied. • Anabaena L-31 exhibited higher tolerance to uranium as compared to Anabaena 7120. • Uranium exposure differentially affected the proteome profiles of the two strains. • Anabaena L-31 showed better sustenance of photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. • Anabaena L-31 displayed superior oxidative stress defense than Anabaena 7120. - Abstract: Two strains of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena, native to Indian paddy fields, displayed differential sensitivity to exposure to uranyl carbonate at neutral pH. Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 and Anabaena sp. strain L-31 displayed 50% reduction in survival (LD{sub 50} dose), following 3 h exposure to 75 μM and 200 μM uranyl carbonate, respectively. Uranium responsive proteome alterations were visualized by 2D gel electrophoresis, followed by protein identification by MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. The two strains displayed significant differences in levels of proteins associated with photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, and oxidative stress alleviation, commensurate with their uranium tolerance. Higher uranium tolerance of Anabaena sp. strain L-31 could be attributed to sustained photosynthesis and carbon metabolism and superior oxidative stress defense, as compared to the uranium sensitive Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. Significance: Uranium responsive proteome modulations in two nitrogen-fixing strains of Anabaena, native to Indian paddy fields, revealed that rapid adaptation to better oxidative stress management, and maintenance of metabolic and energy homeostasis underlies superior uranium tolerance of Anabaena sp. strain L-31 compared to Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

  5. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and free living nitrogen fixing bacteria on growth, photosynthesis and yield of corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohsen jahan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, biological fertilizers have received special attention by scientists in sustainable and low input agriculture. In order to study the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and free living nitrogen fixing bacteria on growth and photosynthesis characteristics of corn in conventional and ecological cropping systems, a field experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during year 2006. A split plots arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments consisted four cropping systems (1- High input conventional system, 2- Medium input conventional system, 3- Low input conventional system and 4- Ecological system and four inoculations (1- Mycorrhiza fungus, Glomus intraradices, 2- Bacteria, Azotobacter paspali and Azospirillum brasilense, 3- Dual inoculation, Fungus plus bacteria, and 4- No-inoculation, control, which were allocated to main plots and sub plots, respectively. All agronomic practices and inputs application during planting and nursing for each of cropping systems were conducted according to regional traditions. Results showed that the effect of inoculation on photosynthesis rates of corn was significant, as the highest photosynthesis rate obtained in dual inoculation. Single inoculation (fungus or bacteria was ranked second. The effect of all inoculations on corn dry matter production was significant and dual inoculation produced the highest dry matter yield. The cropping systems have significant effect on corn yield and the difference between medium input conventional system and high input conventional system was significant, but the high input, low input and ecological cropping systems showed no differences. Inoculants affected the SPAD readings, and dual inoculation showed the highest SPAD readings. This study showed that utilization of low input conventional and ecological systems in combination with use of dual inoculation of

  6. Chemical composition of lipopolysaccharides isolated from various endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Herbaspirillum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrato, R V; Sassaki, G L; Cruz, L M; Carlson, R W; Muszyński, A; Monteiro, R A; Pedrosa, F O; Souza, E M; Iacomini, M

    2010-04-01

    Bacteria from the genus Herbaspirillum are endophytes responsible for nitrogen fixation in gramineous plants of economic importance such as maize, sugarcane, sorghum, rice, and wheat. Some species are known to produce plant growth substances. In contrast, Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans strains are known to be mild plant pathogens. The molecular communication between the plant and the microbes might involve lipopolysaccharides present in the outer membrane of these gram-negative bacteria. Phenol-water extraction was used to obtain lipopolysaccharides from 7 strains of Herbaspirillum seropedicae (SmR1, Z67, Z78, ZA95, and M2) and H. rubrisubalbicans (M1 and M4). The electrophoretic profiles and chemical composition of the lipopolysaccharides obtained in the phenol and aqueous extracts were shown herein.

  7. Physiological and biochemical responses involved in water deficit tolerance of nitrogen-fixing Vicia faba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbadj, Ablaa; Makoudi, Bouchra; Mouradi, Mohammed; Frendo, Pierre; Ghoulam, Cherki

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is increasingly impacting the water deficit over the world. Because of drought and the high pressure of the rising human population, water is becoming a scarce and expensive commodity, especially in developing countries. The identification of crops presenting a higher acclimation to drought stress is thus an important objective in agriculture. The present investigation aimed to assess the adaptation of three Vicia faba genotypes, Aguadulce (AD), Luz d’Otonio (LO) and Reina Mora (RM) to water deficit. Multiple physiological and biochemical parameters were used to analyse the response of the three genotypes to two soil water contents (80% and 40% of field capacity). A significant lower decrease in shoot, root and nodule dry weight was observed for AD compared to LO and RM. The better growth performance of AD was correlated to higher carbon and nitrogen content than in LO and RM under water deficit. Leaf parameters such as relative water content, mass area, efficiency of photosystem II and chlorophyll and carotenoid content were significantly less affected in AD than in LO and RM. Significantly higher accumulation of proline was correlated to the higher performance of AD compared to LO and RM. Additionally, the better growth of AD genotype was related to an important mobilisation of antioxidant enzyme activities such as ascorbate peroxidase and catalase. Taken together, these results allow us to suggest that AD is a water deficit tolerant genotype compared to LO and RM. Our multiple physiological and biochemical analyses show that nitrogen content, leaf proline accumulation, reduced leaf hydrogen peroxide accumulation and leaf antioxidant enzymatic activities (ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase) are potential biological markers useful to screen for water deficit resistant Vicia faba genotypes. PMID:29281721

  8. Physiological and biochemical responses involved in water deficit tolerance of nitrogen-fixing Vicia faba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ablaa Kabbadj

    Full Text Available Climate change is increasingly impacting the water deficit over the world. Because of drought and the high pressure of the rising human population, water is becoming a scarce and expensive commodity, especially in developing countries. The identification of crops presenting a higher acclimation to drought stress is thus an important objective in agriculture. The present investigation aimed to assess the adaptation of three Vicia faba genotypes, Aguadulce (AD, Luz d'Otonio (LO and Reina Mora (RM to water deficit. Multiple physiological and biochemical parameters were used to analyse the response of the three genotypes to two soil water contents (80% and 40% of field capacity. A significant lower decrease in shoot, root and nodule dry weight was observed for AD compared to LO and RM. The better growth performance of AD was correlated to higher carbon and nitrogen content than in LO and RM under water deficit. Leaf parameters such as relative water content, mass area, efficiency of photosystem II and chlorophyll and carotenoid content were significantly less affected in AD than in LO and RM. Significantly higher accumulation of proline was correlated to the higher performance of AD compared to LO and RM. Additionally, the better growth of AD genotype was related to an important mobilisation of antioxidant enzyme activities such as ascorbate peroxidase and catalase. Taken together, these results allow us to suggest that AD is a water deficit tolerant genotype compared to LO and RM. Our multiple physiological and biochemical analyses show that nitrogen content, leaf proline accumulation, reduced leaf hydrogen peroxide accumulation and leaf antioxidant enzymatic activities (ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase are potential biological markers useful to screen for water deficit resistant Vicia faba genotypes.

  9. Thiol-based redox signaling in the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre eFrendo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In nitrogen poor soils legumes establish a symbiotic interaction with rhizobia that results in the formation of root nodules. These are unique plant organs where bacteria differentiate into bacteroids, which express the nitrogenase enzyme complex that reduces atmospheric N2 to ammonia. Nodule metabolism requires a tight control of the concentrations of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS so that they can perform useful signaling roles while avoiding nitro-oxidative damage. In nodules a thiol-dependent regulatory network that senses, transmits and responds to redox changes is starting to be elucidated. A combination of enzymatic, immunological, pharmacological and molecular analyses has allowed to conclude that glutathione and its legume-specific homolog, homoglutathione, are abundant in meristematic and infected cells, their spatio-temporally distribution is correlated with the corresponding (homoglutathione synthetase activities, and are crucial for nodule development and function. Glutathione is at high concentrations in the bacteroids and at moderate amounts in the mitochondria, cytosol and nuclei. Less information is available on other components of the network. The expression of multiple isoforms of glutathione peroxidases, peroxiredoxins, thioredoxins, glutaredoxins and NADPH-thioredoxin reductases has been detected in nodule cells using antibodies and proteomics. Peroxiredoxins and thioredoxins are essential to regulate and in some cases to detoxify RONS in nodules. Further research is necessary to clarify the regulation of the expression and activity of thiol redox-active proteins in response to abiotic, biotic and developmental cues, their interactions with downstream targets by disulfide-exchange reactions, and their participation in signaling cascades. The availability of mutants and transgenic lines will be crucial to facilitate systematic investigations into the function of the various proteins in the legume

  10. Rhizobium laguerreae is the main nitrogen-fixing symbiont of cultivated lentil (Lens culinaris) in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kaoutar; Berraho, El Bekkay; El Attar, Imane; Dekkiche, Samia; Aurag, Jamal; Béna, Gilles

    2018-03-01

    Genetic diversity and population structure of 268 Lens culinaris symbiotic rhizobia collected from 40 cultivated fields in the main lentil production regions in Morocco were estimated. Three chromosomal housekeeping genes (recA, glnII and atpD) and one common symbiotic gene (nodC) were sequenced and analyzed in order to identify the local symbionts of lentil. The molecular phylogeny of the concatenated housekeeping genes clustered more than 95% of the isolates in one main clade together with Rhizobium laguerreae species. R. laguerreae represents the main symbiont of cultivated lentil in Morocco and, for the first time, a large sample of individuals is obtained for this species. There is a significant and high genetic differentiation of bacterial populations among the four regions for their symbiotic gene, and much lower for their housekeeping genes. The reasons why R. laguerreae is so frequently recovered in our study is discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of indigenous nitrogen-fixing micro organisms lineages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew Woan Ying Pauline; Jong Bor Chyan; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2006-01-01

    The use of PCR-RFLP analysis as a useful microbial identification tool has been evaluated for years. This approach was verified effective worldwide, where differential DNA bands and sequence markers distinctive to specific microbes or microbial groups have been identified. In our study, PCR-RFLP technique has been adopted in the identification of our indigenous N 2 -fixing isolates obtained from several local environments. RFLP was carried out with suitable restriction enzymes and the patterns were documented. Representatives of the different patterns were selected and analysed with the 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing method. The results demonstrated correlation between the differential RFLP patterns and the 16S rDNA identities. (Author)

  12. The bacterial carbon-fixing organelle is formed by shell envelopment of preassembled cargo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H Chen

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. In Synechococcuselongatus, the carbon-fixing enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO is concentrated into polyhedral, proteinaceous compartments called carboxysomes.Using live cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that carboxysomes are first detected as small seeds of RuBisCO that colocalize with existing carboxysomes. These seeds contain little or no shell protein, but increase in RuBisCO content over several hours, during which time they are exposed to the solvent. The maturing seed is then enclosed by shell proteins, a rapid process that seals RuBisCO from the cytosol to establish a distinct, solvent-protected microenvironment that is oxidizing relative to the cytosol. These closure events can be spatially and temporally coincident with the appearance of a nascent daughter RuBisCO seed.Carboxysomes assemble in a stepwise fashion, inside-to-outside, revealing that cargo is the principle organizer of this compartment's biogenesis. Our observations of the spatial relationship of seeds to previously formed carboxysomes lead us to propose a model for carboxysome replication via sequential fission, polymerization, and encapsulation of their internal cargo.

  13. Use of a solid-phase radioimmunoassay and formalin-fixed whole bacterial antigen in the detection of antigen-specific immunoglobulin in prostatic fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Shortliffe, L M; Wehner, N; Stamey, T A

    1981-01-01

    The prostatic fluid of two patients with Escherichia coli bacterial prostatitis was analyzed for evidence of a local immune response to bacterial infection. A solid-phase radioimmunoassay was modified to measure the immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG antigen-specific antibody responses to infecting bacteria in serum and prostatic fluid from patient. Formalin-fixed whole E. coli were used as antigen. In one patient with acute E. coli prostatic infection, measurements of antigen-specific antibody con...

  14. Increased root exudation of /sup 14/C-compounds by sorghum seedlings inoculated with nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.J. (Institute of Forest Genetics, Suweon (Republic of Korea)); Gaskins, M.H. (Florida Univ., Gainesville (USA). Dept. of Agriculture)

    1982-01-01

    Organic components leaked from Sorghum bicolor seedlings ('root exudates') were examined by recovering /sup 14/C labelled compounds from root solutions of seedlings inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter vinelandii or Klebsiella pneumoniae nif-. Up to 3.5% of the total /sup 14/C recovered from shoots, roots, and nutrient solutions was found in the root solutions. Inoculation with Azospirillum and Azotobacter increased the amounts of /sup 14/C and decreased the amounts of carbohydrates in the root solutions. When sucrose was added as a carbon source for the bacteria, the increase of /sup 14/C in the solutions did not occur. Quantities of /sup 14/C found in the root solutions were proportional to amounts of mineral nitrogen supplied to the plants. Bacterial growth also was proportional to nitrogen levels. When sorghum plants were grown in soil and labelled with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, about 15% of the total /sup 14/C recovered within 48 hours exposure was found in soil leachates.

  15. Field performance of new cowpea cultivars inoculated with efficient nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains in the Brazilian Semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Nunes Marinho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the contribution of efficient nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains to grain yield of new cowpea cultivars, indicated for cultivation in the Brazilian Semiarid region, in the sub-medium of the São Francisco River Valley. Two experiments were set up at the irrigated perimeters of Mandacaru (Juazeiro, state of Bahia and Bebedouro (Petrolina, state of Pernambuco. The treatments consisted of single inoculation of five rhizobial strains - BR 3267, BR 3262, INPA 03-11B, UFLA 03-84 (Bradyrhizobium sp., and BR 3299T (Microvirga vignae -, besides a treatment with nitrogen and a control without inoculation or N application. The following cowpea cultivars were evaluated: BRS Pujante, BRS Tapaihum, BRS Carijó, and BRS Acauã. A randomized complete block design, with four replicates, was used. Inoculated plants showed similar grain yield to the one observed with plants fertilized with 80 kg ha-1 N. The cultivars BRS Tapaihum and BRS Pujante stood out in grain yield and protein contents when inoculated, showing their potential for cultivation in the sub-medium of the São Francisco River Valley.

  16. Systems biology of bacterial nitrogen fixation: High-throughput technology and its integrative description with constraint-based modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resendis-Antonio Osbaldo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial nitrogen fixation is the biological process by which atmospheric nitrogen is uptaken by bacteroids located in plant root nodules and converted into ammonium through the enzymatic activity of nitrogenase. In practice, this biological process serves as a natural form of fertilization and its optimization has significant implications in sustainable agricultural programs. Currently, the advent of high-throughput technology supplies with valuable data that contribute to understanding the metabolic activity during bacterial nitrogen fixation. This undertaking is not trivial, and the development of computational methods useful in accomplishing an integrative, descriptive and predictive framework is a crucial issue to decoding the principles that regulated the metabolic activity of this biological process. Results In this work we present a systems biology description of the metabolic activity in bacterial nitrogen fixation. This was accomplished by an integrative analysis involving high-throughput data and constraint-based modeling to characterize the metabolic activity in Rhizobium etli bacteroids located at the root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris (bean plant. Proteome and transcriptome technologies led us to identify 415 proteins and 689 up-regulated genes that orchestrate this biological process. Taking into account these data, we: 1 extended the metabolic reconstruction reported for R. etli; 2 simulated the metabolic activity during symbiotic nitrogen fixation; and 3 evaluated the in silico results in terms of bacteria phenotype. Notably, constraint-based modeling simulated nitrogen fixation activity in such a way that 76.83% of the enzymes and 69.48% of the genes were experimentally justified. Finally, to further assess the predictive scope of the computational model, gene deletion analysis was carried out on nine metabolic enzymes. Our model concluded that an altered metabolic activity on these enzymes induced

  17. Long-term nitrogen amendment alters the diversity and assemblage of soil bacterial communities in tallgrass prairie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D Coolon

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic changes are altering the environmental conditions and the biota of ecosystems worldwide. In many temperate grasslands, such as North American tallgrass prairie, these changes include alteration in historically important disturbance regimes (e.g., frequency of fires and enhanced availability of potentially limiting nutrients, particularly nitrogen. Such anthropogenically-driven changes in the environment are known to elicit substantial changes in plant and consumer communities aboveground, but much less is known about their effects on soil microbial communities. Due to the high diversity of soil microbes and methodological challenges associated with assessing microbial community composition, relatively few studies have addressed specific taxonomic changes underlying microbial community-level responses to different fire regimes or nutrient amendments in tallgrass prairie. We used deep sequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene to explore the effects of contrasting fire regimes and nutrient enrichment on soil bacterial communities in a long-term (20 yrs experiment in native tallgrass prairie in the eastern Central Plains. We focused on responses to nutrient amendments coupled with two extreme fire regimes (annual prescribed spring burning and complete fire exclusion. The dominant bacterial phyla identified were Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteriodetes, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria and made up 80% of all taxa quantified. Chronic nitrogen enrichment significantly impacted bacterial community diversity and community structure varied according to nitrogen treatment, but not phosphorus enrichment or fire regime. We also found significant responses of individual bacterial groups including Nitrospira and Gammaproteobacteria to long-term nitrogen enrichment. Our results show that soil nitrogen enrichment can significantly alter bacterial community diversity, structure, and individual taxa abundance, which have

  18. Diversity and activity of nitrogen fixing archaea and bacteria associated with micro-environments of wetland rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hannes; Woebken, Dagmar

    2017-04-01

    Wetland rice is one of the world's most important crop plants. The cultivation on waterlogged paddy soils is strongly limited by nitrogen (N), which is typically supplied by industrial fertilizers that are not only costly but also exhibit hazardous effects on the environment. It has been reported that "Biological Nitrogen Fixation" through N2-fixing bacteria and archaea (diazotrophs) can alleviate the N-shortage in rice cultivation, thus carrying out an important ecosystem function. However, our understanding of the diversity and in situ N2 fixation activity of diazotrophs in flooded rice fields is still rudimentary. Moreover, knowledge on the impact of biochemical gradients established by root activity (i.e. exudation, radial oxygen loss) on the functioning of N-fixing microorganisms in paddy soil ecosystems is limited. We aimed at studying underlying processes on biologically relevant scales. Greenhouse studies were performed to identify key factors that control rice-diazotroph association and related N2 fixation activities. Paddy soils of different geographical origin were cultivated with two commercially used genotypes of wetland rice. Samples were separated into bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, rhizoplane, and roots at flowering stage of rice plant development. These samples were subjected to functional assays and various molecular biological techniques in order to analyze the associated diazotroph communities. Based on Illumina amplicon sequencing of nifH genes and transcripts, we show that the diversity and potential activity of diazotroph communities varies according to micro-environments. We will comparatively discuss the influence of (a) the soil microbial "seed bank" and (b) plant genotype in shaping the respective microbiomes and selecting for potentially active diazotrophs. Actual N2 fixation activities of soil-genotype combinations and micro-environments will be shown on the basis of incubation assays using 15N2-containing atmospheres. Areas of potential

  19. FY1995 studies on saving energy by use of nitrogen- fixing bacteria; 1995 nendo chisso koteikin no katsuyo ni yoru sho energy no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    To save energy by improving the ability of nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Kebsiella oxytoca, Azospirillum lipoferum and Sphingomonas paucimobilis) in the rhizosphere of rice, by means of genetic analysis and engineering of the nif genes. Analysis and improvement of the nif genes were performed in 3 species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the rhizoshere of rice. (1) In an facultative anaerobe, K. oxytoca, the repressor gene, nifL was destroyed, and the activator gene, nifA was fortified, to attain a novel mutant strain R16, which fixes nitrogen even in the presence of NH{sub 4}{sup +}. (2) In a microaerophilic nitrogen fixer, A. lipoferum, the regulatory genes draT and draG were cloned and analysed, and an improved strain TA1 was obtained by introduction of K. oxytoca nifA gene. (3) In an aerobic nitrogen-fixer S. paucimobilis, the nifA gene was cloned and sequenced, and the activity was expressed in E. coil to show that the product activates the nif promoters of Azospirillurn and Klebsiella. (4) The improved strains K. oxytoca R16 and A. lipoferun TA1 were inoculated to rice plant cultured in a pot without addition of nitrogen source. The inoculated plant showed twice as much dry weight as the noninoculated plant, showing that the improved strains are effective to stimulate the growth of rice. (NEDO)

  20. Micromonospora from nitrogen fixing nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A new promising Plant Probiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Galindo-Villardón, Purificación; Trujillo, Martha E; Igual, José M; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio

    2014-09-17

    Biotic interactions can improve agricultural productivity without costly and environmentally challenging inputs. Micromonospora strains have recently been reported as natural endophytes of legume nodules but their significance for plant development and productivity has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity and function of Micromonospora isolated from Medicago sativa root nodules. Micromonospora-like strains from field alfalfa nodules were characterized by BOX-PCR fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The ecological role of the interaction of the 15 selected representative Micromonospora strains was tested in M. sativa. Nodulation, plant growth and nutrition parameters were analyzed. Alfalfa nodules naturally contain abundant and highly diverse populations of Micromonospora, both at the intra- and at interspecific level. Selected Micromonospora isolates significantly increase the nodulation of alfalfa by Ensifer meliloti 1021 and also the efficiency of the plant for nitrogen nutrition. Moreover, they promote aerial growth, the shoot-to-root ratio, and raise the level of essential nutrients. Our results indicate that Micromonospora acts as a Rhizobia Helper Bacteria (RHB) agent and has probiotic effects, promoting plant growth and increasing nutrition efficiency. Its ecological role, biotechnological potential and advantages as a plant probiotic bacterium (PPB) are also discussed.

  1. Spectroscopic characterization of a truncated hemoglobin from the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzera, Guilherme; Vernal, Javier; Baruh, Debora; Serpa, Viviane I; Tavares, Carolina; Lara, Flávio; Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Almeida, Fábio C L; Terenzi, Hernán; Valente, Ana Paula

    2008-09-01

    The Herbaspirillum seropedicae genome sequence encodes a truncated hemoglobin typical of group II (Hs-trHb1) members of this family. We show that His-tagged recombinant Hs-trHb1 is monomeric in solution, and its optical spectrum resembles those of previously reported globins. NMR analysis allowed us to assign heme substituents. All data suggest that Hs-trHb1 undergoes a transition from an aquomet form in the ferric state to a hexacoordinate low-spin form in the ferrous state. The close positions of Ser-E7, Lys-E10, Tyr-B10, and His-CD1 in the distal pocket place them as candidates for heme coordination and ligand regulation. Peroxide degradation kinetics suggests an easy access to the heme pocket, as the protein offered no protection against peroxide degradation when compared with free heme. The high solvent exposure of the heme may be due to the presence of a flexible loop in the access pocket, as suggested by a structural model obtained by using homologous globins as templates. The truncated hemoglobin described here has unique features among truncated hemoglobins and may function in the facilitation of O(2) transfer and scavenging, playing an important role in the nitrogen-fixation mechanism.

  2. Linkage of the Nit1C gene cluster to bacterial cyanide assimilation as a nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lauren B; Ghosh, Pallab; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Chou, Chia-Ni; Kunz, Daniel A

    2018-05-21

    A genetic linkage between a conserved gene cluster (Nit1C) and the ability of bacteria to utilize cyanide as the sole nitrogen source was demonstrated for nine different bacterial species. These included three strains whose cyanide nutritional ability has formerly been documented (Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf11764, Pseudomonas putida BCN3 and Klebsiella pneumoniae BCN33), and six not previously known to have this ability [Burkholderia (Paraburkholderia) xenovorans LB400, Paraburkholderia phymatum STM815, Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN, Cupriavidus (Ralstonia) eutropha H16, Gluconoacetobacter diazotrophicus PA1 5 and Methylobacterium extorquens AM1]. For all bacteria, growth on or exposure to cyanide led to the induction of the canonical nitrilase (NitC) linked to the gene cluster, and in the case of Pf11764 in particular, transcript levels of cluster genes (nitBCDEFGH) were raised, and a nitC knock-out mutant failed to grow. Further studies demonstrated that the highly conserved nitB gene product was also significantly elevated. Collectively, these findings provide strong evidence for a genetic linkage between Nit1C and bacterial growth on cyanide, supporting use of the term cyanotrophy in describing what may represent a new nutritional paradigm in microbiology. A broader search of Nit1C genes in presently available genomes revealed its presence in 270 different bacteria, all contained within the domain Bacteria, including Gram-positive Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, and Gram-negative Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria. Absence of the cluster in the Archaea is congruent with events that may have led to the inception of Nit1C occurring coincidentally with the first appearance of cyanogenic species on Earth, dating back 400-500 million years.

  3. Characterization of N2-fixing plant growth promoting endophytic and epiphytic bacterial community of Indian cultivated and wild rice (Oryza spp.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Avishek; Mukhopadhaya, Subhra Kanti; Dangar, Tushar Kanti

    2016-03-01

    The diversity of endophytic and epiphytic diazotrophs in different parts of rice plants has specificity to the niche (i.e. leaf, stem and root) of different genotypes and nutrient availability of the organ. Inoculation of the indigenous, polyvalent diazotrophs can facilitate and sustain production of non-leguminous crops like rice. Therefore, N2-fixing plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) were isolated from different parts of three Indian cultivated [Oryza sativa L. var. Sabita (semi deep/deep water)/Swarna (rain fed shallow lowland)/Swarna-Sub1(submergence tolerant)] and a wild (O. eichingeri) rice genotypes which respond differentially to nitrogenous fertilizers. Thirty-five isolates from four rice genotypes were categorized based on acetylene reduction assay on nitrogenase activity, biochemical tests, BIOLOG and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The bacteria produced 9.36-155.83 nmole C2H4 mg(-1) dry bacteria h(-1) and among them nitrogenase activity of 11 potent isolates was complemented by nifH-sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequencing divided them into five groups (shared 95-100 % sequence homology with type strains) belonging to five classes-alpha (Ancylobacter, Azorhizobium, Azospirillum, Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Novosphingobium, spp.), beta (Burkholderia sp.), gamma (Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Azotobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas spp.) Proteobacteria, Bacilli (Bacillus, Paenibacillus spp.) and Actinobacteria (Microbacterium sp.). Besides, all bacterial strains possessed the intrinsic PGP traits of like indole (0.44-7.4 µg ml(-1)), ammonia (0.18-6 mmol ml(-1)), nitrite (0.01-3.4 mol ml(-1)), and siderophore (from 0.16-0.57 μmol ml(-1)) production. Inoculation of rice (cv. Swarna) seedlings with selected isolates had a positive impact on plant growth parameters like shoot and root elongation which was correlated with in vitro PGP attributes. The results indicated that the

  4. 16S Ribosomal DNA Characterization of Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Isolated from Banana (Musa spp.) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães Cruz, Leonardo; Maltempi de Souza, Emanuel; Weber, Olmar Baler; Baldani, José Ivo; Döbereiner, Johanna; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from banana (Musa spp.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) were characterized by amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Herbaspirillum seropedicae, Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans, Burkholderia brasilensis, and Burkholderia tropicalis were identified. Eight other types were placed in close proximity to these genera and other alpha and beta Proteobacteria. PMID:11319127

  5. MASS LOSS AND NITROGEN DYNAMICS DURING THE DECOMPOSITION OF A N-LABELED N2-FIXING EPOPHYTIC LICHEN, LOBARIA OREGANA (TUCK.) MULL. ARG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied mass loss and nitrogen dynamics during fall and spring initiated decomposition of an N2-fixing epiphytic lichen, Lobaria oregana (Tuck.) Mull. Arg. using 15N. We developed a method of labeling lichens with 15N that involved spraying lichen material with a nutrient sol...

  6. Characterization of free nitrogen fixing bacteria of the genus Azotobacter in organic vegetable-grown Colombian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Javier Jiménez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of isolating and characterizing free nitrogen fixing bacteria (FNFB of the genus Azotobacter, soil samples were collected randomly from different vegetable organic cultures with neutral pH in different zones of Boyacá-Colombia. Isolations were done in selective free nitrogen Ashby-Sucrose agar obtaining a recovery of 40%. Twenty four isolates were evaluated for colony and cellular morphology, pigment production and metabolic activities. Molecular characterization was carried out using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA. After digestion of 16S rDNA Y1-Y3 PCR products (1487pb with AluI, HpaII and RsaI endonucleases, a polymorphism of 16% was obtained. Cluster analysis showed three main groups based on DNA fingerprints. Comparison between ribotypes generated by isolates and in silico restriction of 16S rDNA partial sequences with same restriction enzymes was done with Gen Workbench v.2.2.4 software. Nevertheless, Y1-Y2 PCR products were analysed using BLASTn. Isolate C5T from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum grown soils presented the same in silico restriction patterns with A. chroococcum (AY353708 and 99% of similarity with the same sequence. Isolate C5CO from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis grown soils showed black pigmentation in Ashby-Benzoate agar and high similarity (91% with A. nigricans (AB175651 sequence. In this work we demonstrated the utility of molecular techniques and bioinformatics tools as a support to conventional techniques in characterization of the genus Azotobacter from vegetable-grown soils.

  7. Nitrogen gas plasma treatment of bacterial spores induces oxidative stress that damages the genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Toyokawa, Yoichi; Nakamura, Tetsuji; Yagyu, Yoshihito; Imanishi, Yuichiro

    2017-01-01

    Gas plasma, produced by a short high‑voltage pulse generated from a static induction thyristor power supply [1.5 kilo pulse/sec (kpps)], was demonstrated to inactivate Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores (decimal reduction time at 15 min, 2.48 min). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assays further indicated that nitrogen gas plasma treatment for 15 min decreased the level of intact genomic DNA and increased the level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, a major product of DNA oxidation. Three potential inactivation factors were generated during operation of the gas plasma instrument: Heat, longwave ultraviolet-A and oxidative stress (production of hydrogen peroxide, nitrite and nitrate). Treatment of the spores with hydrogen peroxide (3x2‑4%) effectively inactivated the bacteria, whereas heat treatment (100˚C), exposure to UV-A (75‑142 mJ/cm2) and 4.92 mM peroxynitrite (•ONOO‑), which is decomposed into nitrite and nitrate, did not. The results of the present study suggest the gas plasma treatment inactivates bacterial spores primarily by generating hydrogen peroxide, which contributes to the oxidation of the host genomic DNA.

  8. Response of free-living nitrogen-fixing microorganisms to land use change in the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Babur S; Potisap, Chotima; Nüsslein, Klaus; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Rodrigues, Jorge L M

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest, the largest equatorial forest in the world, is being cleared for pasture and agricultural use at alarming rates. Tropical deforestation is known to cause alterations in microbial communities at taxonomic and phylogenetic levels, but it is unclear whether microbial functional groups are altered. We asked whether free-living nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (diazotrophs) respond to deforestation in the Amazon rainforest, using analysis of the marker gene nifH. Clone libraries were generated from soil samples collected from a primary forest, a 5-year-old pasture originally converted from primary forest, and a secondary forest established after pasture abandonment. Although diazotroph richness did not significantly change among the three plots, diazotroph community composition was altered with forest-to-pasture conversion, and phylogenetic similarity was higher among pasture communities than among those in forests. There was also 10-fold increase in nifH gene abundance following conversion from primary forest to pasture. Three environmental factors were associated with the observed changes: soil acidity, total N concentration, and C/N ratio. Our results suggest a partial restoration to initial levels of abundance and community structure of diazotrophs following pasture abandonment, with primary and secondary forests sharing similar communities. We postulate that the response of diazotrophs to land use change is a direct consequence of changes in plant communities, particularly the higher N demand of pasture plant communities for supporting aboveground plant growth.

  9. A comprehensive aligned nifH gene database: a multipurpose tool for studies of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaby, John Christian; Buckley, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    We describe a nitrogenase gene sequence database that facilitates analysis of the evolution and ecology of nitrogen-fixing organisms. The database contains 32 954 aligned nitrogenase nifH sequences linked to phylogenetic trees and associated sequence metadata. The database includes 185 linked multigene entries including full-length nifH, nifD, nifK and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. Evolutionary analyses enabled by the multigene entries support an ancient horizontal transfer of nitrogenase genes between Archaea and Bacteria and provide evidence that nifH has a different history of horizontal gene transfer from the nifDK enzyme core. Further analyses show that lineages in nitrogenase cluster I and cluster III have different rates of substitution within nifD, suggesting that nifD is under different selection pressure in these two lineages. Finally, we find that that the genetic divergence of nifH and 16S rRNA genes does not correlate well at sequence dissimilarity values used commonly to define microbial species, as stains having <3% sequence dissimilarity in their 16S rRNA genes can have up to 23% dissimilarity in nifH. The nifH database has a number of uses including phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses, the design and assessment of primers/probes and the evaluation of nitrogenase sequence diversity. Database URL: http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/buckley/nifh.htm.

  10. Understanding the contribution of biofilm in an integrated fixed-film-activated sludge system (IFAS) designed for nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, P; Choubert, J M; Canler, J P; Petrimaux, O; Buffiere, P; Lessard, P

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to improve knowledge on the integrated fixed-film-activated sludge (IFAS) system designed for nitrogen removal. Biofilm growth and its contribution to nitrification were monitored under various operating conditions in a semi-industrial pilot-scale plant. Nitrification rates were observed in biofilms developed on free-floating media and in activated sludge operated under a low sludge retention time (4 days) and at an ammonia loading rate of 45-70 gNH4-N/kgMLVSS/d. Operational conditions, i.e. oxygen concentration, redox potential, suspended solids concentration, ammonium and nitrates, were monitored continuously in the reactors. High removal efficiencies were observed for carbon and ammonium at high-loading rate. The contribution of biofilm to nitrification was determined as 40-70% of total NOx-N production under the operating conditions tested. Optimal conditions to optimize process compacity were determined. The tested configuration responds especially well to winter and summer nitrification conditions. These results help provide a deeper understanding of how autotrophic biomass evolves through environmental and operational conditions in IFAS systems.

  11. NAD1 Controls Defense-Like Responses in Medicago truncatula Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixing Nodules Following Rhizobial Colonization in a BacA-Independent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domonkos, Ágota; Kovács, Szilárd; Gombár, Anikó; Kiss, Ernő; Horváth, Beatrix; Kováts, Gyöngyi Z.; Farkas, Attila; Tóth, Mónika T.; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Bóka, Károly; Fodor, Lili; Endre, Gabriella; Kaló, Péter

    2017-01-01

    Legumes form endosymbiotic interaction with host compatible rhizobia, resulting in the development of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Within symbiotic nodules, rhizobia are intracellularly accommodated in plant-derived membrane compartments, termed symbiosomes. In mature nodule, the massively colonized cells tolerate the existence of rhizobia without manifestation of visible defense responses, indicating the suppression of plant immunity in the nodule in the favur of the symbiotic partner. Medicago truncatula DNF2 (defective in nitrogen fixation 2) and NAD1 (nodules with activated defense 1) genes are essential for the control of plant defense during the colonization of the nitrogen-fixing nodule and are required for bacteroid persistence. The previously identified nodule-specific NAD1 gene encodes a protein of unknown function. Herein, we present the analysis of novel NAD1 mutant alleles to better understand the function of NAD1 in the repression of immune responses in symbiotic nodules. By exploiting the advantage of plant double and rhizobial mutants defective in establishing nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction, we show that NAD1 functions following the release of rhizobia from the infection threads and colonization of nodule cells. The suppression of plant defense is self-dependent of the differentiation status of the rhizobia. The corresponding phenotype of nad1 and dnf2 mutants and the similarity in the induction of defense-associated genes in both mutants suggest that NAD1 and DNF2 operate close together in the same pathway controlling defense responses in symbiotic nodules. PMID:29240711

  12. NAD1 Controls Defense-Like Responses in Medicago truncatula Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixing Nodules Following Rhizobial Colonization in a BacA-Independent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágota Domonkos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Legumes form endosymbiotic interaction with host compatible rhizobia, resulting in the development of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Within symbiotic nodules, rhizobia are intracellularly accommodated in plant-derived membrane compartments, termed symbiosomes. In mature nodule, the massively colonized cells tolerate the existence of rhizobia without manifestation of visible defense responses, indicating the suppression of plant immunity in the nodule in the favur of the symbiotic partner. Medicago truncatula DNF2 (defective in nitrogen fixation 2 and NAD1 (nodules with activated defense 1 genes are essential for the control of plant defense during the colonization of the nitrogen-fixing nodule and are required for bacteroid persistence. The previously identified nodule-specific NAD1 gene encodes a protein of unknown function. Herein, we present the analysis of novel NAD1 mutant alleles to better understand the function of NAD1 in the repression of immune responses in symbiotic nodules. By exploiting the advantage of plant double and rhizobial mutants defective in establishing nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction, we show that NAD1 functions following the release of rhizobia from the infection threads and colonization of nodule cells. The suppression of plant defense is self-dependent of the differentiation status of the rhizobia. The corresponding phenotype of nad1 and dnf2 mutants and the similarity in the induction of defense-associated genes in both mutants suggest that NAD1 and DNF2 operate close together in the same pathway controlling defense responses in symbiotic nodules.

  13. NAD1 Controls Defense-Like Responses in Medicago truncatula Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixing Nodules Following Rhizobial Colonization in a BacA-Independent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domonkos, Ágota; Kovács, Szilárd; Gombár, Anikó; Kiss, Ernő; Horváth, Beatrix; Kováts, Gyöngyi Z; Farkas, Attila; Tóth, Mónika T; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Bóka, Károly; Fodor, Lili; Ratet, Pascal; Kereszt, Attila; Endre, Gabriella; Kaló, Péter

    2017-12-14

    Legumes form endosymbiotic interaction with host compatible rhizobia, resulting in the development of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Within symbiotic nodules, rhizobia are intracellularly accommodated in plant-derived membrane compartments, termed symbiosomes. In mature nodule, the massively colonized cells tolerate the existence of rhizobia without manifestation of visible defense responses, indicating the suppression of plant immunity in the nodule in the favur of the symbiotic partner. Medicago truncatula DNF2 (defective in nitrogen fixation 2) and NAD1 (nodules with activated defense 1) genes are essential for the control of plant defense during the colonization of the nitrogen-fixing nodule and are required for bacteroid persistence. The previously identified nodule-specific NAD1 gene encodes a protein of unknown function. Herein, we present the analysis of novel NAD1 mutant alleles to better understand the function of NAD1 in the repression of immune responses in symbiotic nodules. By exploiting the advantage of plant double and rhizobial mutants defective in establishing nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction, we show that NAD1 functions following the release of rhizobia from the infection threads and colonization of nodule cells. The suppression of plant defense is self-dependent of the differentiation status of the rhizobia. The corresponding phenotype of nad1 and dnf2 mutants and the similarity in the induction of defense-associated genes in both mutants suggest that NAD1 and DNF2 operate close together in the same pathway controlling defense responses in symbiotic nodules.

  14. Simulating changes in ecosystem structure and composition in response to climate change: a case study focused on tropical nitrogen-fixing trees (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvigy, D.; Levy, J.; Xu, X.; Batterman, S. A.; Hedin, L.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystems, by definition, involve a community of organisms. These communities generally exhibit heterogeneity in their structure and composition as a result of local variations in climate, soil, topography, disturbance history, and other factors. Climate-driven shifts in ecosystems will likely include an internal re-organization of community structure and composition and as well as the introduction of novel species. In terms of vegetation, this ecosystem heterogeneity can occur at relatively small scales, sometimes of the order of tens of meters or even less. Because this heterogeneous landscape generally has a variable and nonlinear response to environmental perturbations, it is necessary to carefully aggregate the local competitive dynamics between individual plants to the large scales of tens or hundreds of kilometers represented in climate models. Accomplishing this aggregation in a computationally efficient way has proven to be an extremely challenging task. To meet this challenge, the Ecosystem Demography 2 (ED2) model statistically characterizes a distribution of local resource environments, and then simulates the competition between individuals of different sizes and species (or functional groupings). Within this framework, it is possible to explicitly simulate the impacts of climate change on ecosystem structure and composition, including both internal re-organization and the introduction of novel species or functional groups. This presentation will include several illustrative applications of the evolution of ecosystem structure and composition under climate change. One application pertains to the role of nitrogen-fixing species in tropical forests. Will increasing CO2 concentrations increase the demand for nutrients and perhaps give a competitive edge to nitrogen-fixing species? Will potentially warmer and drier conditions make some tropical forests more water-limited, reducing the demand for nitrogen, thereby giving a competitive advantage to non-nitrogen-fixing

  15. Biochar amendment decreases soil microbial biomass and increases bacterial diversity in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantations under simulated nitrogen deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan; Lei, Zhaofeng; Song, Xinzhang; Zhang, Zhiting; Ying, Yeqing; Peng, Changhui

    2018-04-01

    Biochar amendment has been proposed as a strategy to improve acidic soils after overuse of nitrogen fertilizers. However, little is known of the role of biochar in soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and bacterial community structure and diversity after soil acidification induced by nitrogen (N) deposition. Using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we determined the effects of biochar amendment (BC0, 0 t bamboo biochar ha‑1 BC20, 20 t bamboo biochar ha‑1 and BC40, 40 t bamboo biochar ha‑1) on the soil bacterial community structure and diversity in Moso bamboo plantations that had received simulated N deposition (N30, 30 kg N ha‑1 yr‑1 N60, 60 kg N ha‑1 yr‑1 N90, 90 kg N ha‑1 yr‑1 and N-free) for 21 months. After treatment of N-free plots, BC20 significantly increased soil MBC and bacterial diversity, while BC40 significantly decreased soil MBC but increased bacterial diversity. When used to amend N30 and N60 plots, biochar significantly decreased soil MBC and the reducing effect increased with biochar amendment amount. However, these significant effects were not observed in N90 plots. Under N deposition, biochar amendment largely increased soil bacterial diversity, and these effects depended on the rates of N deposition and biochar amendment. Soil bacterial diversity was significantly related to the soil C/N ratio, pH, and soil organic carbon content. These findings suggest an optimal approach for using biochar to offset the effects of N deposition in plantation soils and provide a new perspective for understanding the potential role of biochar amendments in plantation soil.

  16. Nitrogen-Fixing Nodules Are an Important Source of Reduced Sulfur, Which Triggers Global Changes in Sulfur Metabolism in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalloniati, Chrysanthi; Krompas, Panagiotis; Karalias, Georgios; Udvardi, Michael K; Rennenberg, Heinz; Herschbach, Cornelia; Flemetakis, Emmanouil

    2015-09-01

    We combined transcriptomic and biochemical approaches to study rhizobial and plant sulfur (S) metabolism in nitrogen (N) fixing nodules (Fix(+)) of Lotus japonicus, as well as the link of S-metabolism to symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the effect of nodules on whole-plant S-partitioning and metabolism. Our data reveal that N-fixing nodules are thiol-rich organs. Their high adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase activity and strong (35)S-flux into cysteine and its metabolites, in combination with the transcriptional upregulation of several rhizobial and plant genes involved in S-assimilation, highlight the function of nodules as an important site of S-assimilation. The higher thiol content observed in nonsymbiotic organs of N-fixing plants in comparison to uninoculated plants could not be attributed to local biosynthesis, indicating that nodules are an important source of reduced S for the plant, which triggers whole-plant reprogramming of S-metabolism. Enhanced thiol biosynthesis in nodules and their impact on the whole-plant S-economy are dampened in plants nodulated by Fix(-) mutant rhizobia, which in most respects metabolically resemble uninoculated plants, indicating a strong interdependency between N-fixation and S-assimilation. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  17. The independent acquisition of plant root nitrogen-fixing symbiosis in Fabids recruited the same genetic pathway for nodule organogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Svistoonoff

    Full Text Available Only species belonging to the Fabid clade, limited to four classes and ten families of Angiosperms, are able to form nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses (RNS with soil bacteria. This concerns plants of the legume family (Fabaceae and Parasponia (Cannabaceae associated with the Gram-negative proteobacteria collectively called rhizobia and actinorhizal plants associated with the Gram-positive actinomycetes of the genus Frankia. Calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK is a key component of the common signaling pathway leading to both rhizobial and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses (AM and plays a central role in cross-signaling between root nodule organogenesis and infection processes. Here, we show that CCaMK is also needed for successful actinorhiza formation and interaction with AM fungi in the actinorhizal tree Casuarina glauca and is also able to restore both nodulation and AM symbioses in a Medicago truncatula ccamk mutant. Besides, we expressed auto-active CgCCaMK lacking the auto-inhibitory/CaM domain in two actinorhizal species: C. glauca (Casuarinaceae, which develops an intracellular infection pathway, and Discaria trinervis (Rhamnaceae which is characterized by an ancestral intercellular infection mechanism. In both species, we found induction of nodulation independent of Frankia similar to response to the activation of CCaMK in the rhizobia-legume symbiosis and conclude that the regulation of actinorhiza organogenesis is conserved regardless of the infection mode. It has been suggested that rhizobial and actinorhizal symbioses originated from a common ancestor with several independent evolutionary origins. Our findings are consistent with the recruitment of a similar genetic pathway governing rhizobial and Frankia nodule organogenesis.

  18. Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an overview of the nitrogen chemical market as of July 2013, including the production of ammonia compounds. Industrial uses for ammonia include fertilizers, explosives, and plastics. Other topics include industrial capacity of U.S. ammonia producers CF Industries Holdings Inc., Koch Nitrogen Co., PCS Nitrogen, Inc., and Agrium Inc., the impact of natural gas prices on the nitrogen industry, and demand for corn crops for ethanol production.

  19. Burkholderia vietnamiensis isolated from root tissues of Nipa Palm (Nypa fruticans) in Sarawak, Malaysia, proved to be its major endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sui-Yan; Hara, Shintaro; Melling, Lulie; Goh, Kah-Joo; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Root-associating bacteria of the nipa palm (Nypa fruticans), preferring brackish-water affected mud in Sarawak, Malaysia, were investigated. In a comparison of rhizobacterial microbiota between the nipa and the sago (Metroxylon sagu) palm, it was found that the nipa palm possessed a group of Burkholderia vietnamiensis as its main active nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacterium. Acetylene reduction by the various isolates of B. vietnamiensis was constant (44 to 68 nmol h(-1) in ethylene production rate) in soft gel medium containing 0.2% sucrose as sole carbon source, and the bacterium also showed motility and biofilm-forming capacity. This is the first report of endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria from nipa palm.

  20. Functional Single-Cell Approach to Probing Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Soil Communities by Resonance Raman Spectroscopy with 15N2 Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li; Yang, Kai; Li, Hong-Zhe; Zhang, Han; Su, Jian-Qiang; Paraskevaidi, Maria; Martin, Francis L; Ren, Bin; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2018-04-17

    Nitrogen (N) fixation is the conversion of inert nitrogen gas (N 2 ) to bioavailable N essential for all forms of life. N 2 -fixing microorganisms (diazotrophs), which play a key role in global N cycling, remain largely obscure because a large majority are uncultured. Direct probing of active diazotrophs in the environment is still a major challenge. Herein, a novel culture-independent single-cell approach combining resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy with 15 N 2 stable isotope probing (SIP) was developed to discern N 2 -fixing bacteria in a complex soil community. Strong RR signals of cytochrome c (Cyt c, frequently present in diverse N 2 -fixing bacteria), along with a marked 15 N 2 -induced Cyt c band shift, generated a highly distinguishable biomarker for N 2 fixation. 15 N 2 -induced shift was consistent well with 15 N abundance in cell determined by isotope ratio mass spectroscopy. By applying this biomarker and Raman imaging, N 2 -fixing bacteria in both artificial and complex soil communities were discerned and imaged at the single-cell level. The linear band shift of Cyt c versus 15 N 2 percentage allowed quantification of N 2 fixation extent of diverse soil bacteria. This single-cell approach will advance the exploration of hitherto uncultured diazotrophs in diverse ecosystems.

  1. Nitrogen-fixing and uricolytic bacteria associated with the gut of Dendroctonus rhizophagus and Dendroctonus valens (Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Jiménez, Jesús; Vera-Ponce de León, Arturo; García-Domínguez, Aidé; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Hernández-Rodríguez, César

    2013-07-01

    The bark beetles of the genus Dendroctonus feed on phloem that is a nitrogen-limited source. Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen recycling may compensate or alleviate such a limitation, and beetle-associated bacteria capable of such processes were identified. Raoultella terrigena, a diazotrophic bacteria present in the gut of Dendroctonus rhizophagus and D. valens, exhibited high acetylene reduction activity in vitro with different carbon sources, and its nifH and nifD genes were sequenced. Bacteria able to recycle uric acid were Pseudomonas fluorescens DVL3A that used it as carbon and nitrogen source, Serratia proteomaculans 2A CDF and Rahnella aquatilis 6-DR that used uric acid as sole nitrogen source. Also, this is the first report about the uric acid content in whole eggs, larvae, and adults (male and female) samples of the red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens). Our results suggest that the gut bacteria of these bark beetles could contribute to insect N balance.

  2. Effect of bacterial root symbiosis and urea as source of nitrogen on performance of soybean plants grown hydroponically for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Roberta; Buonomo, Roberta; Dixon, Mike A; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Soybean is traditionally grown in soil, where root symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium japonicum can supply nitrogen (N), by means of bacterial fixation of atmospheric N2. Nitrogen fertilizers inhibit N-fixing bacteria. However, urea is profitably used in soybean cultivation in soil, where urease enzymes of telluric microbes catalyze the hydrolysis to ammonium, which has a lighter inhibitory effect compared to nitrate. Previous researches demonstrated that soybean can be grown hydroponically with recirculating complete nitrate-based nutrient solutions. In Space, urea derived from crew urine could be used as N source, with positive effects in resource procurement and waste recycling. However, whether the plants are able to use urea as the sole source of N and its effect on root symbiosis with B. japonicum is still unclear in hydroponics. We compared the effect of two N sources, nitrate and urea, on plant growth and physiology, and seed yield and quality of soybean grown in closed-loop Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) in growth chamber, with or without inoculation with B. japonicum. Urea limited plant growth and seed yield compared to nitrate by determining nutrient deficiency, due to its low utilization efficiency in the early developmental stages, and reduced nutrients uptake (K, Ca, and Mg) throughout the whole growing cycle. Root inoculation with B. japonicum did not improve plant performance, regardless of the N source. Specifically, nodulation increased under fertigation with urea compared to nitrate, but this effect did not result in higher leaf N content and better biomass and seed production. Urea was not suitable as sole N source for soybean in closed-loop NFT. However, the ability to use urea increased from young to adult plants, suggesting the possibility to apply it during reproductive phase or in combination with nitrate in earlier developmental stages. Root symbiosis did not contribute significantly to N nutrition and did not enhance the plant ability to use

  3. 454-Pyrosequencing Analysis of Bacterial Communities from Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal Bioreactors Utilizing Universal Primers: Effect of Annealing Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Rodelas, Belén; Abbas, Ben A; Martinez-Toledo, Maria Victoria; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Osorio, F; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Identification of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria by molecular tools aimed at the evaluation of bacterial diversity in autotrophic nitrogen removal systems is limited by the difficulty to design universal primers for the Bacteria domain able to amplify the anammox 16S rRNA genes. A metagenomic analysis (pyrosequencing) of total bacterial diversity including anammox population in five autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies, two bench-scale models (MBR and Low Temperature CANON) and three full-scale bioreactors (anammox, CANON, and DEMON), was successfully carried out by optimization of primer selection and PCR conditions (annealing temperature). The universal primer 530F was identified as the best candidate for total bacteria and anammox bacteria diversity coverage. Salt-adjusted optimum annealing temperature of primer 530F was calculated (47°C) and hence a range of annealing temperatures of 44-49°C was tested. Pyrosequencing data showed that annealing temperature of 45°C yielded the best results in terms of species richness and diversity for all bioreactors analyzed.

  4. Rhizosphere bacterial communities of dominant steppe plants shift in response to a gradient of simulated nitrogen deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An eYang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated effects of 9-year simulation of simulated nitrogen (N deposition on microbial composition and diversity in the rhizosphere of two dominant temperate grassland species: grass Stipa krylovii and forb Artemisia frigida. Microbiomes in S. krylovii and A.frigida rhizosphere differed, but changed consistently along the N gradient. These changes were correlated to N-induced shifts to plant community. Hence, as plant biomass changed, so did bacterial rhizosphere communities, a result consistent with the role that N fertilizer has been shown to play in altering plant-microbial mutualisms. A total of 23 bacterial phyla were detected in the two rhizospheric soils by pyrosequencing, with Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominating the sequences of all samples. Bacterioidetes and Proteobacteria tended to increase, while Acidobacteria declined with increase in N addition rates. TM7 increased >5-fold in the high N addition rates, especially in S. krylovii rhizosphere. Nitrogen addition also decreased diversity of OTUs (operational taxonomic units, Shannon and Chao1 indices of rhizospheric microbes regardless of plant species. These results suggest that there were both similar but also specific changes in microbial communities of temperate steppes due to N deposition.

  5. Increasing atmospheric deposition nitrogen and ammonium reduced microbial activity and changed the bacterial community composition of red paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fengwu; Cui, Jian; Zhou, Jing; Yang, John; Li, Yong; Leng, Qiangmei; Wang, Yangqing; He, Dongyi; Song, Liyan; Gao, Min; Zeng, Jun; Chan, Andy

    2018-03-27

    Atmospheric deposition nitrogen (ADN) increases the N content in soil and subsequently impacts microbial activity of soil. However, the effects of ADN on paddy soil microbial activity have not been well characterized. In this study, we studied how red paddy soil microbial activity responses to different contents of ADN through a 10-months ADN simulation on well managed pot experiments. Results showed that all tested contents of ADN fluxes (27, 55, and 82kgNha -1 when its ratio of NH 4 + /NO 3 - -N (R N ) was 2:1) enhanced the soil enzyme activity and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and 27kgNha -1 ADN had maximum effects while comparing with the fertilizer treatment. Generally, increasing of both ADN flux and R N (1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 with the ADN flux of 55kgNha -1 ) had similar reduced effects on microbial activity. Furthermore, both ADN flux and R N significantly reduced soil bacterial alpha diversity (pADN flux and R N were the main drivers in shaping paddy soil bacteria community. Overall, the results have indicated that increasing ADN flux and ammonium reduced soil microbial activity and changed the soil bacterial community. The finding highlights how paddy soil microbial community response to ADN and provides information for N management in paddy soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 454-Pyrosequencing Analysis of Bacterial Communities from Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal Bioreactors Utilizing Universal Primers: Effect of Annealing Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gonzalez-Martinez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox bacteria by molecular tools aimed at the evaluation of bacterial diversity in autotrophic nitrogen removal systems is limited by the difficulty to design universal primers for the Bacteria domain able to amplify the anammox 16S rRNA genes. A metagenomic analysis (pyrosequencing of total bacterial diversity including anammox population in five autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies, two bench-scale models (MBR and Low Temperature CANON and three full-scale bioreactors (anammox, CANON, and DEMON, was successfully carried out by optimization of primer selection and PCR conditions (annealing temperature. The universal primer 530F was identified as the best candidate for total bacteria and anammox bacteria diversity coverage. Salt-adjusted optimum annealing temperature of primer 530F was calculated (47°C and hence a range of annealing temperatures of 44–49°C was tested. Pyrosequencing data showed that annealing temperature of 45°C yielded the best results in terms of species richness and diversity for all bioreactors analyzed.

  7. Comparison of topical fixed-combination fortified vancomycin-amikacin (VA solution) to conventional separate therapy in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, C-C; Lin, J-M; Chen, W-L; Chiu, Y-T; Tsai, Y-Y

    2009-02-01

    In an in vitro study, fixed-combination fortified vancomycin and amikacin ophthalmic solutions (VA solution) had the same potency and stable physical properties as the separate components. In this retrospective clinical study, we evaluated the efficacy of the topical VA solution in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcer and comparison with separate topical fortified vancomycin and amikacin. Separate topical fortified eye drops was used prior to January 2004 and switched to the VA solution afterwards in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcer. The medical records of 223 patients diagnosed with bacterial corneal ulcers between January 2002 and December 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 122 patients in the VA group and 101 in the separate group. Cure was defined as complete healing of the ulcer accompanied by a nonprogressive stromal infiltrate on two consecutive visits. No significant difference was found between the VA and separate therapy group. The mean treatment duration was 15.4 days in the VA group and 16.1 days in the separate therapy group. The average hospital stay was 5.4 days (VA) and 7.2 days (separate antibiotics). Stromal infiltration regressed significantly without further expansion in both groups. All corneal ulcers completely re-epithelialized without complications related to drugs. VA solution provided similar efficacy to the conventional separate therapy in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers; however, it is more convenient and tolerable, promotes patient's compliance, avoids the washout effect, and reduces nurse utilization. Hence, VA solution is a good alternative to separate therapy.

  8. Deciphering the Principles of Bacterial Nitrogen Dietary Preferences: a Strategy for Nutrient Containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jilong; Yan, Dalai; Dixon, Ray; Wang, Yi-Ping

    2016-07-19

    A fundamental question in microbial physiology concerns why organisms prefer certain nutrients to others. For example, among different nitrogen sources, ammonium is the preferred nitrogen source, supporting fast growth, whereas alternative nitrogen sources, such as certain amino acids, are considered to be poor nitrogen sources, supporting much slower exponential growth. However, the physiological/regulatory logic behind such nitrogen dietary choices remains elusive. In this study, by engineering Escherichia coli, we switched the dietary preferences toward amino acids, with growth rates equivalent to that of the wild-type strain grown on ammonia. However, when the engineered strain was cultured together with wild-type E. coli, this growth advantage was diminished as a consequence of ammonium leakage from the transport-and-catabolism (TC)-enhanced (TCE) cells, which are preferentially utilized by wild-type bacteria. Our results reveal that the nitrogen regulatory (Ntr) system fine tunes the expression of amino acid transport and catabolism components to match the flux through the ammonia assimilation pathway such that essential nutrients are retained, but, as a consequence, the fast growth rate on amino acids is sacrificed. Bacteria exhibit different growth rates under various nutrient conditions. These environmentally related behaviors reflect the coordination between metabolism and the underlying regulatory networks. In the present study, we investigated the intertwined nitrogen metabolic and nitrogen regulatory systems to understand the growth differences between rich and poor nitrogen sources. Although maximal growth rate is considered to be evolutionarily advantageous for bacteria (as remarked by François Jacob, who said that the "dream" of every cell is to become two cells), we showed that negative-feedback loops in the regulatory system inhibit growth rates on amino acids. We demonstrated that in the absence of regulatory feedback, amino acids are capable

  9. Evaluation of the Effects of Bio Fertilizers Containing non Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixing and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria on Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohtadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Wheat crop plays an important role in food security in a country such as Iran. Therefore, serious attention has been paid to ecological farming systems and sustainable management of wheat. For this purpose extensive efforts is done to find proper strategies to improve the quality of soil, agricultural products and started removal pollutants. One of the factors to achieve sustainable agriculture is to use natural agents such as biofertilizers. Several mechanisms are proposed to explain how effective plant growth promoting rhizobacteria is for growth and development of plants. These mechanisms include two groups, direct and indirect in general. Indirect mechanism is to increase absorption and availability of the nutrient elements soluble, producing plant growth regulators, siderophore production of iron chelator, and the phosphate soluble. Through indirect mechanisms such as antagonistic relation, PGPRs moderate the harmful effects of of plant pathogens and thereby lead to increase plant growth. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of biofertilizers containing non-symbiotic nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing bacteria on quantitative and qualitative traits of wheat. Materials and Methods This Experiment was conducted in the research farm of Baykola agricultural research stations affiliated by agriculture and natural resources research center of Mazandaran during 2011-12 cropping season. In order to determine physical and chemical properties of the soil samples were taken from the depth of 0-30 cm,. Experimental design was split plots arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications. In this experiment chemical fertilizer was assumed as the main plot in 3 levels include: 1- noconsumption (C0, 2- equivalent to 50% of the fertilizer recommendations (C1, 3- equivalent to 100% of the fertilizer recommendations(C2 and two types of biological fertilizers was applied in the sub plot in

  10. Burkholderia caballeronis sp. nov., a nitrogen fixing species isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) with the ability to effectively nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aguilar, Lourdes; Salazar-Salazar, Corelly; Méndez, Rafael Díaz; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús; Hirsch, Ann M; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Estrada-de los Santos, Paulina

    2013-12-01

    During a survey of Burkholderia species with potential use in agrobiotechnology, a group of 12 strains was isolated from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of tomato plants growing in Mexico (Nepantla, Mexico State). A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains are related to Burkholderia kururiensis and Burkholderia mimosarum (97.4 and 97.1 %, respectively). However, they induced effective nitrogen-fixing nodules on roots of Phaseolus vulgaris. Based on polyphasic taxonomy, the group of strains represents a novel species for which the name Burkholderia caballeronis sp. nov. is proposed. The type species is TNe-841(T) (= LMG 26416(T) = CIP 110324(T)).

  11. [Regulatory genes of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) controlling the development of nitrogen-fixing nodules and arbuscular mycorrhiza: a review of basic and applied aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borisov, A Iu; Vasil'chikov, A G; Voroshilova, V A

    2007-01-01

    The review sums up the long experience of the authors and other researchers in studying the genetic system of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.), which controls sthe development of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis and arbuscular mycorrhiza. A justified phenotypic classification of pea mutants is presented....... Progress in identifying and cloning symbiotic genes is adequately reflected. The feasibility of using double inoculation as a means of increasing the plant productivity is demonstrated, in which the potential of a tripartite symbiotic system (pea plants-root nodule bacteria-arbuscular mycorrhiza...

  12. Effect of systemic herbicides on N2-fixing and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in relation to availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in paddy soils of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amal Chandra; Debnath, Anjan

    2006-11-01

    A field experiment has been conducted with four systemic herbicides viz., butachlor [N-(butoxymethyl)-2-chloro-2',6'-diethyl-acetanilide], fluchloralin [N-(2-chloroethyl)-(2,6-dinitro-N-propyl-4-trifluoromethyl) aniline], oxadiazon [5-terbutyl-3-(2,4-dichloro-5-isopro poxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-one] and oxyfluorfen [2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzene] at their recommended field rates (2.0, 1.5, 0.4 and 0.12kga.i.ha(-1), respectively) to investigate their effects on growth and activities of aerobic non-symbiotic N(2)-fixing bacteria and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in relation to availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in the rhizosphere soils as well as yield of the rice crop (Oryza sativa L cv. IR-36). Application of herbicides, in general, highly stimulated the population and activities of the target microorganisms, which resulted in a greater amount of atmospheric nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization in the rhizosphere soils of the test crop. The greater microbial activities subsequently augmented the mineralization and availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil solution, which in turn increased the yield of the crop. Among the herbicides, oxyfluorfen was most stimulative followed by fluchloralin and oxadiazon in augmenting the microbial activities in soil. Butachlor also accentuated the mineralization and availability of nitrogen due to higher incitement of non-symbiotic N(2)-fixing bacteria in paddy soil. The grain and straw yields of the crop were also significantly increased due to the application of oxyfluorfen (20.2% and 21%) followed by fluchloralin (13.1% and 15.4%) and butachlor (9.1% and 10.2%), respectively.

  13. Biodegradation of BOD and ammonia-free using bacterial consortium in aerated fixed film bioreactor (AF2B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayitno, Rulianah, Sri; Saroso, Hadi; Meilany, Diah

    2017-06-01

    BOD and Ammonia-free (NH3-N) are pollutants of hospital wastewater which often exceed the quality standards. It is because biological processes in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) have not been effective in degrading BOD and NH3-N. Therefore, a study on factors that influence the biodegradation of BOD and NH3-N by choosing the type of bacteria to improve the mechanisms of biodegradation processes is required. Bacterial consortium is a collection of several types of bacteria obtained from isolation process, which is known to be more effective than a single bacterial in degrading pollutants. On the other hand, AF2B is a type of reactor in wastewater treatment system. The AF2B contains a filter media that has a large surface area so that the biodegradation process of pollutants by microorganism can be improved. The objective of this research is to determine the effect of volume of starter and air supplies on decreasing BOD and NH3-N in hospital wastewater using bacterial consortium in the AF2B on batch process. The research was conducted in three stages: the making of the growth curve of the bacterial consortium, bacterial consortium acclimatization, and hospital wastewater treatment in the AF2B with batch process. The variables used are the volume of starter (65%, 75%, and 85% in volume) and air supplies (2.5, 5, and 7.5 L/min). Meanwhile, the materials used are hospital wastewater, bacterial consortium (Pseudomonas diminuta, Pseudomonas capica, Bacillius sp, and Nitrobacter sp), blower, and AF2B. AF2B is a plastic basin containing a filter media with a wasp-nest shape used as a medium for growing the bacterial consortium. In the process of making the growth curve, a solid form of bacterial consortium was dissolved in sterilized water, then grown in a nutrient broth (NB). Then, shaking and sampling were done at any time to determine the path growth of bacterial consortium. In the acclimatization process, bacterial isolates were grown using hospital wastewater as a

  14. [Bacterial anaerobic ammonia oxidation (Anammox) in the marine nitrogen cycle--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yiguo; Li, Meng; Gu, Jidong

    2009-03-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) is a microbial oxidation process of ammonium, with nitrite as the electron acceptor and dinitrogen gas as the main product, and is performed by a clade of deeply branched Planctomycetes, which possess an intracytoplasmic membrane-bounded organelle, the anammoxosome, for the Anammox process. The wide distribution of Anammox bacteria in different natural environments has been greatly modified the traditional view of biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen, in which microbial denitrifier is considered as the only organism to respire nitrate and nitrite to produce nitric and nitrous oxides, and eventually nitrogen gas. More evidences indicate that Anammox is responsible for the production of more than 50% of oceanic N2 and plays an important role in global nitrogen cycling. Moreover, due to the close relationship between nitrogen and carbon cycling, it is anticipated that Anammox process might also affect the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, and influence the global climate change. In addition, the simultaneous transformation of nitrite and ammonium in wastewater treatment by Anammox would allow a 90% reduction in operational costs and provide a much more effective biotechnological process for wastewater treatment.

  15. Characterizing bacterial gene expression in nitrogen cycle metabolism with RT-qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James E; Wantland, Nicholas B; Campbell, Mark; Klotz, Martin G

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in DNA sequencing have greatly accelerated our ability to obtain the raw information needed to recognize both known and potential novel modular microbial genomic capacity for nitrogen metabolism. With PCR-based approaches to quantifying microbial mRNA expression now mainstream in most laboratories, researchers can now more efficiently propose and test hypotheses on the contributions of individual microbes to the biological accessibility of nitrogen upon which all other life depends. We review known microbial roles in these key nitrogen transformations, and describe the necessary steps in carrying out relevant gene expression studies. An example experimental design is then provided characterizing Nitrosococcus oceani mRNA expression in cultures responding to ammonia. The approach described, that of assessing microbial genome inventory and testing putative modular gene expression by mRNA quantification, is likely to remain an important tool in understanding individual microbial contributions within microbial community activities that maintain the Earth's nitrogen balance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nitrogen fertilization decreases forest soil fungal and bacterial biomass in three long-term experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew D. Wallenstein; Steven McNulty; Ivan J. Fernandez; Johnny Boggs; William H. Schlesinger

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of N fertilization on forest soil fungal and bacterial biomass at three long-term experiments in New England (Harvard Forest, MA; Mt. Ascutney, VT; Bear Brook, ME). At Harvard Forest, chronic N fertilization has decreased organic soil microbial biomass C (MBC) by an average of 54% and substrate induced respiration (SIR) was decreased by an...

  17. Nitrogen-fixing symbiosis inferred from stable isotope analysis of fossil tree rings from the Oligocene of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik L. Gulbranson; Bonnie F. Jacobs; William C. Hockaday; Michael C. Wiemann; Lauren A. Michel; Kaylee Richards; John W. Kappelman

    2017-01-01

    The acquisition of reduced nitrogen (N) is essential for plant life, and plants have developed numerous strategies and symbioses with soil microorganisms to acquire this form of N. The evolutionary history of specific symbiotic relationships of plants with soil bacteria, however, lacks evidence from the fossil record confirming these mutualistic relationships. Here we...

  18. Alteration of the exopolysaccharide production and the transcriptional profile of free-living Frankia strain CcI3 under nitrogen-fixing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-In; Donati, Andrew J; Hahn, Dittmar; Tisa, Louis S; Chang, Woo-Suk

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effect of different nitrogen (N) sources on exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and composition by Frankia strain CcI3, a N2-fixing actinomycete that forms root nodules with Casuarina species. Frankia cells grown in the absence of NH4Cl (i.e., under N2-fixing conditions) produced 1.7-fold more EPS, with lower galactose (45.1 vs. 54.7 mol%) and higher mannose (17.3 vs. 9.7 mol%) contents than those grown in the presence of NH4Cl as a combined N-source. In the absence of the combined N-source, terminally linked and branched residue contents were nearly twice as high with 32.8 vs. 15.1 mol% and 15.1 vs. 8.7 mol%, respectively, than in its presence, while the content of linearly linked residues was lower with 52.1 mol% compared to 76.2 mol%. To find out clues for the altered EPS production at the transcriptional level, we performed whole-gene expression profiling using quantitative reverse transcription PCR and microarray technology. The transcription profiles of Frankia strain CcI3 grown in the absence of NH4Cl revealed up to 2 orders of magnitude higher transcription of nitrogen fixation-related genes compared to those of CcI3 cells grown in the presence of NH4Cl. Unexpectedly, microarray data did not provide evidence for transcriptional regulation as a mechanism for differences in EPS production. These findings indicate effects of nitrogen fixation on the production and composition of EPS in Frankia strain CcI3 and suggest posttranscriptional regulation of enhanced EPS production in the absence of the combined N-source.

  19. Increased protein content of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria under water deficit conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui S; Carvalho, Patrícia; Marques, Guilhermina; Ferreira, Luís; Nunes, Mafalda; Rocha, Inês; Ma, Ying; Carvalho, Maria F; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2017-10-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a widely cropped pulse and an important source of proteins for humans. In Mediterranean regions it is predicted that drought will reduce soil moisture and become a major issue in agricultural practice. Nitrogen (N)-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have the potential to improve plant growth and drought tolerance. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of N-fixing bacteria and AM fungi on the growth, grain yield and protein content of chickpea under water deficit. Plants inoculated with Mesorhizobium mediterraneum or Rhizophagus irregularis without water deficit and inoculated with M. mediterraneum under moderate water deficit had significant increases in biomass. Inoculation with microbial symbionts brought no benefits to chickpea under severe water deficit. However, under moderate water deficit grain crude protein was increased by 13%, 17% and 22% in plants inoculated with M. mediterraneum, R. irregularis and M. mediterraneum + R. irregularis, respectively. Inoculation with N-fixing bacteria and AM fungi has the potential to benefit agricultural production of chickpea under water deficit conditions and to contribute to increased grain protein content. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effect of different levels of nitrogen on rhizosphere bacterial community structure in intensive monoculture of greenhouse lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Gang; Shen, Min-Chong; Hou, Jin-Feng; Li, Ling; Wu, Jun-Xia; Dong, Yuan-Hua

    2016-04-28

    Pyrosequencing-based analyses revealed significant effects among low (N50), medium (N80), and high (N100) fertilization on community composition involving a long-term monoculture of lettuce in a greenhouse in both summer and winter. The non-fertilized control (CK) treatment was characterized by a higher relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi; however, the average abundance of Firmicutes typically increased in summer, and the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes increased in winter in the N-fertilized treatments. Principle component analysis showed that the distribution of the microbial community was separated by a N gradient with N80 and N100 in the same group in the summer samples, while CK and N50 were in the same group in the winter samples, with the other N-level treatments existing independently. Redundancy analysis revealed that available N, NO3(-)-N, and NH4(+)-N, were the main environmental factors affecting the distribution of the bacterial community. Correlation analysis showed that nitrogen affected the shifts of microbial communities by strongly driving the shifts of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria in summer samples, and Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Acidobacteria in winter samples. The study demonstrates a novel example of rhizosphere bacterial diversity and the main factors influencing rizosphere microbial community in continuous vegetable cropping within an intensive greenhouse ecosystem.

  1. Bacterial community involved in the nitrogen cycle in a down-flow sponge-based trickling filter treating UASB effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Conell, E F A; Almeida, P G S; Martins, K E L; Araújo, J C; Chernicharo, C A L

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community composition of a down-flow sponge-based trickling filter treating upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent was investigated by pyrosequencing. Bacterial community composition considerably changed along the reactor and over the operational period. The dominant phyla detected were Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes. The abundance of denitrifiers decreased from the top to the bottom and it was consistent with the organic matter concentration gradients. At lower loadings (organic and nitrogen loading rates), the abundance of anammox bacteria was higher than that of the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the upper portion of the reactor, suggesting that aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidation occurred. Nitrification occurred in all the compartments, while anammox bacteria prominently appeared even in the presence of high organic carbon to ammonia ratios (around 1.0-2.0 gCOD gN(-1)). The results suggest that denitrifiers, nitrifiers, and anammox bacteria coexisted in the reactor; thus, different metabolic pathways were involved in ammonium removal in the post-UASB reactor sponge-based.

  2. Effect of different levels of nitrogen on rhizosphere bacterial community structure in intensive monoculture of greenhouse lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Gang; Shen, Min-Chong; Hou, Jin-Feng; Li, Ling; Wu, Jun-Xia; Dong, Yuan-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Pyrosequencing-based analyses revealed significant effects among low (N50), medium (N80), and high (N100) fertilization on community composition involving a long-term monoculture of lettuce in a greenhouse in both summer and winter. The non-fertilized control (CK) treatment was characterized by a higher relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi; however, the average abundance of Firmicutes typically increased in summer, and the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes increased in winter in the N-fertilized treatments. Principle component analysis showed that the distribution of the microbial community was separated by a N gradient with N80 and N100 in the same group in the summer samples, while CK and N50 were in the same group in the winter samples, with the other N-level treatments existing independently. Redundancy analysis revealed that available N, NO3--N, and NH4+-N, were the main environmental factors affecting the distribution of the bacterial community. Correlation analysis showed that nitrogen affected the shifts of microbial communities by strongly driving the shifts of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria in summer samples, and Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Acidobacteria in winter samples. The study demonstrates a novel example of rhizosphere bacterial diversity and the main factors influencing rizosphere microbial community in continuous vegetable cropping within an intensive greenhouse ecosystem.

  3. Coffea arabica L., a new host plant for Acetobacter diazotrophicus, and isolation of other nitrogen-fixing acetobacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez-Salgado, T; Fuentes-Ramirez, L E; Tapia-Hernandez, A; Mascarua-Esparza, M A; Martinez-Romero, E; Caballero-Mellado, J

    1997-01-01

    Acetobacter diazotrophicus was isolated from coffee plant tissues and from rhizosphere soils. Isolation frequencies ranged from 15 to 40% and were dependent on soil pH. Attempts to isolate this bacterial species from coffee fruit, from inside vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores, or from mealybugs (Planococcus citri) associated with coffee plants were not successful. Other acid-producing diazotrophic bacteria were recovered with frequencies of 20% from the coffee rhizosphere. These N...

  4. Soil bacterial and fungal community responses to nitrogen addition across soil depth and microhabitat in an arid shrubland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rebecca C.; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-01-01

    Arid shrublands are stressful environments, typified by alkaline soils low in organic matter, with biologically-limiting extremes in water availability, temperature, and UV radiation. The widely-spaced plants and interspace biological soil crusts in these regions provide soil nutrients in a localized fashion, creating a mosaic pattern of plant- or crust-associated microhabitats with distinct nutrient composition. With sporadic and limited rainfall, nutrients are primarily retained in the shallow surface soil, patterning biological activity. We examined soil bacterial and fungal community responses to simulated nitrogen (N) deposition in an arid Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa field experiment in southern Nevada, USA, using high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes. To examine potential interactions among the N application, microhabitat and soil depth, we sampled soils associated with shrub canopies and interspace biological crusts at two soil depths (0–0.5 or 0–10 cm) across the N-amendment gradient (0, 7, and 15 kg ha−1 yr−1). We hypothesized that localized compositional differences in soil microbiota would constrain the impacts of N addition to a microhabitat distribution that would reflect highly localized geochemical conditions and microbial community composition. The richness and community composition of both bacterial and fungal communities differed significantly by microhabitat and with soil depth in each microhabitat. Only bacterial communities exhibited significant responses to the N addition. Community composition correlated with microhabitat and depth differences in soil geochemical features. Given the distinct roles of soil bacteria and fungi in major nutrient cycles, the resilience of fungi and sensitivity of bacteria to N amendments suggests that increased N input predicted for many arid ecosystems could shift nutrient cycling toward pathways driven primarily by fungal communities.

  5. Soil bacterial and fungal community responses to nitrogen addition across soil depths and microhabitat in an arid shrubland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Mueller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arid shrublands are stressful environments, typified by alkaline soils low in organic matter, with biologically-limiting extremes in water availability, temperature and UV radiation. The widely-spaced plants and interspace biological soil crusts in these regions provide soil nutrients in a localized fashion, creating a mosaic pattern of plant- or crust-associated microhabitats with distinct nutrient composition. With sporadic and limited rainfall, nutrients are primarily retained in the shallow surface soil, patterning biological activity. We examined soil bacterial and fungal community responses to simulated nitrogen (N deposition in an arid Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa field experiment in southern Nevada, USA, using high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes. To examine potential interactions among the N application, microhabitat and soil depth, we sampled soils associated with shrub canopies and interspace biological crusts at two soil depths (0-0.5 cm or 0-10 cm across the N-amendment gradient (0, 7 and 15 kg ha-1 yr-1. We hypothesized that localized compositional differences in soil microbiota would constrain the impacts of N addition to a microhabitat distribution that would reflect highly localized geochemical conditions and microbial community composition. The richness and community composition of both bacterial and fungal communities differed significantly by microhabitat and with soil depth in each microhabitat. Only bacterial communities exhibited significant responses to the N addition. Community composition correlated with microhabitat and depth differences in soil geochemical features. Given the distinct roles of soil bacteria and fungi in major nutrient cycles, the resilience of fungi and sensitivity of bacteria to N amendments suggests that increased N input predicted for many arid ecosystems could shift nutrient cycling toward pathways driven primarily by fungal communities.

  6. Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia was produced by 13 companies at 23 plants in 16 states during 2009. Sixty percent of all U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana. Oklahoma and Texas because of those states' large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock. In 2009, U.S. producers operated at about 83 percent of their rated capacity (excluding plants that were idle for the entire year). Five companies — Koch Nitrogen Co.; Terra Industries Inc.; CF Industries Inc.; PCS Nitrogen Inc. and Agrium Inc., in descending order — accounted for 80 percent of the total U.S. ammonia production capacity. U.S. production was estimated to be 7.7 Mt (8.5 million st) of nitrogen (N) content in 2009 compared with 7.85 Mt (8.65 million st) of N content in 2008. Apparent consumption was estimated to have decreased to 12.1 Mt (13.3 million st) of N, a 10-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was the world's fourth-ranked ammonia producer and consumer following China, India and Russia. Urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphates, nitric acid and ammonium sulfate were the major derivatives of ammonia in the United States, in descending order of importance.

  7. Gnotobiotic cultures of rice plants up to ear stage in the absence of combined nitrogen source but in the presence of free living nitrogen fixing bacteria Azotobacter vinelandii and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maudinas, B.; Chemardin, M.; Yovanovitch, E.; Gadal, P.

    1981-01-01

    An all glass tight growth chamber, entirely sterilizable, has been constructed to carry out axenic and gnotobiotic cultures of rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). When grown in liquid medium and in the absence of combined nitrogen but in the presence of the diazotrophs Azotobacter vinelandii and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata, rice plants exhibited a complete biological cycle from germination up to ear stage, during a period of time similiar to the one encountered in French paddy soil of Camargue. In one experiment, mannitol was given to rice culture medium together with Azotobacter vinelandii and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata. In another experiment, mannitol was not given together with Rhodopseudomonas, and still positive nitrogen gain was obtained, although it was less than culture with mannitol. When 15 N labeled cells of Rhodopseudomonas were added in rice culture medium, 15 N was partly transferred to rice plant. Among the nitrogen substances excreted from the bacteria in the rhizosphere medium, large organic molecules were shown to be the most abundant in our experimental conditions. Moreover, the concentration of free ammonia or aminoacids present in the rice rhizosphere were always compatible with a bacterial nitrogenase activity. (orig.)

  8. Long-Term Exposure of Agricultural Soil to Veterinary Antibiotics Changes the Population Structure of Symbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobacteria Occupying Nodules of Soybeans (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revellin, Cécile; Hartmann, Alain; Solanas, Sébastien; Topp, Edward

    2018-05-01

    Antibiotics are entrained in agricultural soil through the application of manures from medicated animals. In the present study, a series of small field plots was established in 1999 that receive annual spring applications of a mixture of tylosin, sulfamethazine, and chlortetracycline at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg · kg -1 soil. These antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production. The field plots were cropped continuously for soybeans, and in 2012, after 14 annual antibiotic applications, the nodules from soybean roots were sampled and the occupying bradyrhizobia were characterized. Nodules and isolates were serotyped, and isolates were distinguished using 16S rRNA gene and 16S to 23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer region sequencing, multilocus sequence typing, and RSα fingerprinting. Treatment with the antibiotic mixture skewed the population of bradyrhizobia dominating the nodule occupancy, with a significantly larger proportion of Bradyrhizobium liaoningense organisms even at the lowest dose of 0.1 mg · kg -1 soil. Likewise, all doses of antibiotics altered the distribution of RSα fingerprint types. Bradyrhizobia were phenotypically evaluated for their sensitivity to the antibiotics, and there was no association between in situ treatment and a decreased sensitivity to the drugs. Overall, long-term exposure to the antibiotic mixture altered the composition of bradyrhizobial populations occupying nitrogen-fixing nodules, apparently through an indirect effect not associated with the sensitivity to the drugs. Further work evaluating agronomic impacts is warranted. IMPORTANCE Antibiotics are entrained in agricultural soil through the application of animal or human waste or by irrigation with reused wastewater. Soybeans obtain nitrogen through symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Here, we evaluated the impact of 14 annual exposures to antibiotics commonly used in swine production on the distribution of bradyrhizobia occupying nitrogen-fixing

  9. Overexpression of miR169o, an Overlapping microRNA in Response to Both Nitrogen Limitation and Bacterial Infection, Promotes Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Susceptibility to Bacterial Blight in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu; Chen, Yutong; Cao, Yaqian; Chen, Huamin; Wang, Jichun; Bi, Yong-Mei; Tian, Fang; Yang, Fenghuan; Rothstein, Steven J; Zhou, Xueping; He, Chenyang

    2018-03-15

    Limiting nitrogen (N) supply contributes to improved resistance to bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) in susceptible rice (Oryza sativa). To understand the regulatory roles of microRNAs in this phenomenon, sixty-three differentially-expressed overlapping miRNAs in response to Xoo infection and N-limitation stress in rice were identified through deep RNA-sequence and stem loop qRT-PCR. Among these, miR169o was further assessed as a typical overlapping miRNA through the overexpression of the miR169o primary gene. Osa-miR169o-OX plants were taller, and had more biomass accumulation with significantly increased nitrate and total amino acid contents in roots than wild type (WT). Transcript level assays showed that under different N supply conditions miR169o opposite regulated NRT2 which is reduced under normal N supply condition but remarkably induced under N limiting stress. On the other hand, osa-miR169o-OX plants also displayed increased disease lesion lengths and reduced transcriptional levels of defense gene (PR1b, PR10a, PR10b and PAL) compared with WT after inoculation with Xoo. In addition, miR169o impeded Xoo-mediated NRT transcription. Therefore, the overlapping miR169o contributes to increase N use efficiency and negatively regulates the resistance to bacterial blight in rice. Consistently, transient expression of NF-YAs in rice protoplast promoted the transcripts of PR genes and NRT2 genes, while reduced the transcripts of NRT1 genes. Our results provide novel and additional insights into the coordinated regulatory mechanisms of crosstalk between Xoo infection and N-deficiency responses in rice.

  10. Ascorbate oxidase: the unexpected involvement of a 'wasteful enzyme' in the symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Ott, Thomas; Güther, Mike; Bonfante, Paola; Udvardi, Michael K; De Tullio, Mario C

    2012-10-01

    Ascorbate oxidase (AO, EC 1.10.3.3) catalyzes the oxidation of ascorbate (AsA) to yield water. AO over-expressing plants are prone to ozone and salt stresses, whereas lower expression apparently confers resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions. Previous studies have suggested a role for AO as a regulator of oxygen content in photosynthetic tissues. For the first time we show here that the expression of a Lotus japonicus AO gene is induced in the symbiotic interaction with both nitrogen-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. In this framework, high AO expression is viewed as a possible strategy to down-regulate oxygen diffusion in root nodules, and a component of AM symbiosis. A general model of AO function in plants is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Putative N2-fixing heterotrophic bacteria associated with dinoflagellate-Cyanobacteria consortia in the low-nitrogen Indian Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farnelid, H.; Tarangkoon, Woraporn; Hansen, Gert

    2010-01-01

    that the symbionts fix gaseous nitrogen (N2). Individual heterotrophic dinoflagellates containing cyanobacterial symbionts were isolated from the open Indian Ocean and off Western Australia, and characterized using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nitrogenase (nifH) gene amplification......, cloning, and sequencing. Cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria and eukaryotic algae were recognized as symbionts of the heterotrophic dinoflagellates. nifH gene sequences were obtained from 23 of 37 (62%) specimens of dinoflagellates (Ornithocercus spp. and Amphisolenia spp.). Interestingly, only 2...... specimens contained cyanobacterial nifH sequences, while 21 specimens contained nifH genes related to heterotrophic bacteria. Of the 137 nifH sequences obtained 68% were most similar to Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, 8% clustered with anaerobic bacteria, and 5% were related to second alternative...

  12. Comparative effectiveness of ACC-deaminase and/or nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria in promotion of maize (Zea mays L.) growth under lead pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waseem; Bano, Rizwana; Bashir, Farhat; David, Julie

    2014-09-01

    Lead (Pb) pollution is appearing as an alarming threat nowadays. Excessive Pb concentrations in agricultural soils result in minimizing the soil fertility and health which affects the plant growth and leads to decrease in crop production. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria which can protect the plants against many abiotic stresses, and enhance the growth. The study aimed to identify important rhizobacterial strains by using the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) enrichment technique and examine their inoculation effects in the growth promotion of maize, under Pb pollution. A pot experiment was conducted and six rhizobacterial isolates were used. Pb was added to 2 kg soil in each pot (with 4 seeds/pot) using Pb(NO3)2 at the rate of 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg kg(-1) Pb with three replications in completely randomized design. Rhizobacterial isolates performed significantly better under all Pb levels, i.e., 100 to 400 Pb mg kg(-1) soil, compared to control. Comparing the efficacy of the rhizobacterial isolates under different Pb levels, rhizobacterial isolates having both ACC-deaminase and nitrogen-fixing activities (AN8 and AN12) showed highest increase in terms of the physical, chemical and enzymatic growth parameters of maize, followed by the rhizobacterial isolates having ACC-deaminase activity only (ACC5 and ACC8), and then the nitrogen-fixing rhizobia (Azotobacter and RN5). However, the AN8 isolate showed maximum efficiency, and highest shoot and root length (14.2 and 6.1 cm), seedling fresh and dry weights (1.91 and 0.14 g), chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids (24.1, 30.2 and 77.7 μg/l), protein (0.82 mg/g), proline (3.42 μmol/g), glutathione S-transferase, peroxidase and catalase (12.3, 4.2 and 7.2 units/mg protein), while the lowest Pb uptake in the shoot and root (0.83 and 0.48 mg/kg) were observed under this rhizobial isolate at the highest Pb level (i.e., 400 Pb mg kg(-1) soil). The results revealed that PGPR

  13. Complete Genome sequence of Burkholderia phymatum STM815, a broad host range and efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Mimosa species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulin, Lionel [UMR, France; Klonowska, Agnieszka [UMR, France; Caroline, Bournaud [UMR, France; Booth, Kristina [University of Massachusetts; Vriezen, Jan A.C. [University of Massachusetts; Melkonian, Remy [UMR, France; James, Euan [James Hutton Institute, Dundee, United Kingdom; Young, Peter W. [University of York, United Kingdom; Bena, Gilles [UMR, France; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle [University of Massachusetts; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Riley, Monica [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia phymatum is a soil bacterium able to develop a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with species of the legume genus Mimosa, and is frequently found associated specifically with Mimosa pudica. The type strain of the species, STM 815T, was isolated from a root nodule in French Guiana in 2000. The strain is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod, and is a highly competitive strain for nodulation compared to other Mimosa symbionts, as it also nodulates a broad range of other legume genera and species. The 8,676,562 bp genome is composed of two chromosomes (3,479,187 and 2,697,374 bp), a megaplasmid (1,904,893 bp) and a plasmid hosting the symbiotic functions (595,108 bp).

  14. Expression of organophosphorus-degradation gene ( opd) in aggregating and non-aggregating filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Tang, Qing; Xu, Xudong; Gao, Hong

    2010-11-01

    Genetic engineering in filamentous N2-fixing cyanobacteria usually involves Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and several other non-aggregating species. Mass culture and harvest of such species are more energy consuming relative to aggregating species. To establish a gene transfer system for aggregating species, we tested many species of Anabaena and Nostoc, and identified Nostoc muscorum FACHB244 as a species that can be genetically manipulated using the conjugative gene transfer system. To promote biodegradation of organophosphorus pollutants in aquatic environments, we introduced a plasmid containing the organophosphorus-degradation gene ( opd) into Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and Nostoc muscorum FACHB244 by conjugation. The opd gene was driven by a strong promoter, P psbA . From both species, we obtained transgenic strains having organophosphorus-degradation activities. At 25°C, the whole-cell activities of the transgenic Anabaena and Nostoc strains were 0.163±0.001 and 0.289±0.042 unit/μg Chl a, respectively. However, most colonies resulting from the gene transfer showed no activity. PCR and DNA sequencing revealed deletions or rearrangements in the plasmid in some of the colonies. Expression of the green fluorescent protein gene from the same promoter in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 showed similar results. These results suggest that there is the potential to promote the degradation of organophosphorus pollutants with transgenic cyanobacteria and that selection of high-expression transgenic colonies is important for genetic engineering of Anabaena and Nostoc species. For the first time, we established a gene transfer and expression system in an aggregating filamentous N2-fixing cyanobacterium. The genetic manipulation system of Nostoc muscorum FACHB244 could be utilized in the elimination of pollutants and large-scale production of valuable proteins or metabolites.

  15. Achieve efficient nitrogen removal from real sewage in a plug-flow integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor via partial nitritation/anammox pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yandong; Zhang, Liang; Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Shujun; Li, Baikun; Peng, Yongzhen

    2017-09-01

    This study tested the feasibility of plug-flow integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor in applying sewage partial nitritation/anammox (PN/A) process. The IFAS reactor was fed with real pre-treated sewage (C/N ratio=1.3) and operated for 200days. High nitrogen removal efficiency of 82% was achieved with nitrogen removal rates of 0.097±0.019kgN/(m 3 ·d). Therefore, plug-flow IFAS reactor could be an alternative to applying sewage PN/A process. Besides, it was found that the stability of sewage PN/A process was significantly affected by residual ammonium. Nitrate accumulated in effluent and PN/A performance deteriorated when residual ammonium was below 1mg/L. On the contrary, long-term stable PN/A operation was achieved when residual ammonium was over 3mg/L. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural characterization of the RNA chaperone Hfq from the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Marco Antonio Seiki; Iulek, Jorge; Barbosa, João Alexandre Ribeiro Gonçalves; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Chubatsu, Leda Satie; Monteiro, Rose Adele; de Oliveira, Marco Aurélio Schüler; Steffens, Maria Berenice Reynaud

    2012-02-01

    The RNA chaperone Hfq is a homohexamer protein identified as an E. coli host factor involved in phage Qβ replication and it is an important posttranscriptional regulator of several types of RNA, affecting a plethora of bacterial functions. Although twenty Hfq crystal structures have already been reported in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), new insights into these protein structures can still be discussed. In this work, the structure of Hfq from the β-proteobacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae, a diazotroph associated with economically important agricultural crops, was determined by X-ray crystallography and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Biochemical assays such as exclusion chromatography and RNA-binding by the electrophoretic shift assay (EMSA) confirmed that the purified protein is homogeneous and active. The crystal structure revealed a conserved Sm topology, composed of one N-terminal α-helix followed by five twisted β-strands, and a novel π-π stacking intra-subunit interaction of two histidine residues, absent in other Hfq proteins. Moreover, the calculated ab initio envelope based on small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data agreed with the Hfq crystal structure, suggesting that the protein has the same folding structure in solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiple mutualist effects on genomewide expression in the tripartite association between Medicago truncatula, nitrogen-fixing bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhami, Michelle E; Stinchcombe, John R

    2016-10-01

    While all species interact with multiple mutualists, the fitness consequences and molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions remain largely unknown. We combined factorial ecological experiments with genomewide expression analyses to examine the phenotypic and transcriptomic responses of model legume Medicago truncatula to rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi. We found synergistic effects of these mutualists on plant performance and examined unique features of plant gene expression responses to multiple mutualists. There were genomewide signatures of mutualists and multiple mutualists on expression, with partners often affecting unique sets of genes. Mycorrhizal fungi had stronger effects on plant expression than rhizobia, with 70% of differentially expressed genes affected by fungi. Fungal and bacterial mutualists had joint effects on 10% of differentially expressed genes, including unexpected, nonadditive effects on some genes with important functions such as nutrient metabolism. For a subset of genes, interacting with multiple mutualists even led to reversals in the direction of expression (shifts from up to downregulation) compared to interacting with single mutualists. Rhizobia also affected the expression of several mycorrhizal genes, including those involved in nutrient transfer to host plants, indicating that partner species can also impact each other's molecular phenotypes. Collectively, these data illustrate the diverse molecular mechanisms and transcriptional responses associated with the synergistic benefits of multiple mutualists. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Microalgal bacterial flocs treating paper mill effluent: A sunlight-based approach for removing carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hende, Sofie; Rodrigues, André; Hamaekers, Helen; Sonnenholzner, Stanislaus; Vervaeren, Han; Boon, Nico

    2017-10-25

    Treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent from a paper mill in aerated activated sludge reactors involves high aeration costs. Moreover, this calcium-rich effluent leads to problematic scale formation. Therefore, a novel strategy for the aerobic treatment of paper mill UASB effluent in microalgal bacterial floc sequencing batch reactors (MaB-floc SBRs) is proposed, in which oxygen is provided via photosynthesis, and calcium is removed via bio-mineralization. Based on the results of batch experiments in the course of this study, a MaB-floc SBR was operated at an initial neutral pH. This SBR removed 58±21% organic carbon, 27±8% inorganic carbon, 77±5% nitrogen, 73±2% phosphorus, and 27±11% calcium. MaB-flocs contained 10±3% calcium, including biologically-influenced calcite crystals. The removal of calcium and inorganic carbon by MaB-flocs significantly decreased when inhibiting extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that catalyses the hydration and dehydration of CO 2 . This study demonstrates the potential of MaB-floc SBRs for the alternative treatment of calcium-rich paper mill effluent, and highlights the importance of extracellular CA in this treatment process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Development of a liquid fermentation system and encystment for a nitrogen-fixing bacterium strain having biofertilizer potential].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo-Rusinque, Mauricio; Moreno-Galván, Andrés; Romero-Perdomo, Felipe; Bonilla-Buitrago, Ruth

    The indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers has contributed to the deterioration of the biological, physical and chemical properties of the soil, resulting in the loss of its productive capacity. For this reason, the use of biofertilizers has emerged as a technological alternative. The objective of this research was to develop a suitable liquid fermentation system and encystment for the multiplication of Azotobacter chroococcum AC1 strain, a bacterium employed in a biofertilizer formulation produced at present by CARPOICA, Colombia. Sequential statistical designs were used to determine the conditions in the fermentation system. The interaction between agitation, aeration and pH was evaluated on the viable biomass (CFU/ml) of AC1. In addition, the encystment ability of the strain was evaluated using two encystment agents and the potential plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) activity was assessed by different techniques, such as nitrogen fixation by ARA, phosphate solubilization by the phospho-molybdenum-blue reaction and indolic compound production by colorimetric reaction using the Salkowski reagent. Results showed significant effects (p<0.05) on the viable biomass in the three conditions (pH, aeration and agitation) tested individually, in one dual interaction and one tripartite interaction, were demonstrated to have a positive effect on the response variable aeration and agitation. The addition of the two encystment agents evaluated, AE01 and AE02, demonstrated the ability of AC1 to form cysts under stress conditions. Likewise, fermentation and encystment conditions did not affect the biological activities tested. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Nitrogen Fixing Pre-Crops and Fertilizers on Physical and Chemical Properties Down the Soil Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobley, E.; Honermeier, B.; Don, A.; Gocke, M. I.; Amelung, W.; Kogel-Knabner, I.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the effects of pre-crops with and without biological nitrogen fixation capacity (fava beans, clover mulch, fodder maize) and fertilization (no fertilizer, NPK fertilizer, PK fertilizer) on soil physico-chemical properties (bulk density, electrical conductivity, soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration and stocks, N concentration and stocks) and their depth distribution (down to 1 m) at a long-term field experiment set up in 1982 in Gießen, Germany. Fertilization had significant but small impacts on the soil chemical environment, most particularly the salt content of the soil, with PK fertilization increasing electrical conductivity throughout the soil profile. Similarly, fertilization resulted in a small reduction of soil pH throughout the entire soil profile. The soil was physically and chemically affected by the type of pre-crop. Plots with fava beans and maize had lower bulk densities in the subsoil than those with clover. Pre-crop type also significantly affected the depth distribution of both N and SOC. Specifically, clover pre-cropping led to an enrichment of N at the surface compared with fava beans and maize. SOC enrichment at the surface was also observed under clover, with the effect most pronounced under PK fertilization. Combined with the bulk density effects, this shift in N distribution resulted in significantly higher N stocks under clover than under fava beans. However, the total stocks of SOC were not affected by pre-crop or fertilizer regime. Our results indicate that humans influence C and N cycling and distribution in soils through the selection of pre-crops and that the influence of crop type is greater than that of fertilization regimes. Pre-cropping with clover, which is used as a mulch, leads to N enrichment in the topsoil, reducing the need for N fertilizer for the subsequent cereal crop. In contrast, the use of fava beans as a pre-crop does not lead to N enrichment. We believe this is due to the greater rooting depth of

  1. Bradyrhizobium tropiciagri sp. nov. and Bradyrhizobium embrapense sp. nov., nitrogen-fixing symbionts of tropical forage legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Marçon; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Parma, Marcia Maria; Melo, Itamar Soares; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2015-12-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is a key process for agricultural production and environmental sustainability, but there are comparatively few studies of symbionts of tropical pasture legumes, as well as few described species of the genus Bradyrhizobium, although it is the predominant rhizobial genus in the tropics. A detailed polyphasic study was conducted with two strains of the genus Bradyrhizobium used in commercial inoculants for tropical pastures in Brazil, CNPSo 1112T, isolated from perennial soybean (Neonotonia wightii), and CNPSo 2833T, from desmodium (Desmodium heterocarpon). Based on 16S-rRNA gene phylogeny, both strains were grouped in the Bradyrhizobium elkanii superclade, but were not clearly clustered with any known species. Multilocus sequence analysis of three (glnII, gyrB and recA) and five (plus atpD and dnaK) housekeeping genes confirmed that the strains are positioned in two distinct clades. Comparison with intergenic transcribed spacer sequences of type strains of described species of the genus Bradyrhizobium showed similarity lower than 93.1 %, and differences were confirmed by BOX-PCR analysis. Nucleotide identity of three housekeeping genes with type strains of described species ranged from 88.1 to 96.2 %. Average nucleotide identity of genome sequences showed values below the threshold for distinct species of the genus Bradyrhizobium ( < 90.6 %), and the value between the two strains was also below this threshold (91.2 %). Analysis of nifH and nodC gene sequences positioned the two strains in a clade distinct from other species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Morphophysiological, genotypic and genomic data supported the description of two novel species in the genus Bradyrhizobium, Bradyrhizobium tropiciagri sp. nov. (type strain CNPSo 1112T = SMS 303T = BR 1009T = SEMIA 6148T = LMG 28867T) and Bradyrhizobium embrapense sp. nov. (type strain CNPSo 2833T = CIAT 2372T = BR 2212T = SEMIA 6208T = U674T

  2. Bacterial-cellulose-derived carbon nanofiber@MnO₂ and nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber electrode materials: an asymmetric supercapacitor with high energy and power density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Feng; Huang, Zhi-Hong; Liang, Hai-Wei; Guan, Qing-Fang; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2013-09-14

    A new kind of high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor is designed with pyrolyzed bacterial cellulose (p-BC)-coated MnO₂ as a positive electrode material and nitrogen-doped p-BC as a negative electrode material via an easy, efficient, large-scale, and green fabrication approach. The optimal asymmetric device possesses an excellent supercapacitive behavior with quite high energy and power density. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Large fractions of CO2-fixing microorganisms in pristine limestone aquifers appear to be involved in the oxidation of reduced sulfur and nitrogen compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Martina; Rusznyák, Anna; Akob, Denise M.; Schulze, Isabel; Opitz, Sebastian; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The traditional view of the dependency of subsurface environments on surface-derived allochthonous carbon inputs is challenged by increasing evidence for the role of lithoautotrophy in aquifer carbon flow. We linked information on autotrophy (Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle) with that from total microbial community analysis in groundwater at two superimposed—upper and lower—limestone groundwater reservoirs (aquifers). Quantitative PCR revealed that up to 17% of the microbial population had the genetic potential to fix CO2 via the Calvin cycle, with abundances of cbbM and cbbL genes, encoding RubisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) forms I and II, ranging from 1.14 × 103 to 6 × 106 genes liter−1 over a 2-year period. The structure of the active microbial communities based on 16S rRNA transcripts differed between the two aquifers, with a larger fraction of heterotrophic, facultative anaerobic, soil-related groups in the oxygen-deficient upper aquifer. Most identified CO2-assimilating phylogenetic groups appeared to be involved in the oxidation of sulfur or nitrogen compounds and harbored both RubisCO forms I and II, allowing efficient CO2 fixation in environments with strong oxygen and CO2 fluctuations. The genera Sulfuricellaand Nitrosomonas were represented by read fractions of up to 78 and 33%, respectively, within the cbbM and cbbL transcript pool and accounted for 5.6 and 3.8% of 16S rRNA sequence reads, respectively, in the lower aquifer. Our results indicate that a large fraction of bacteria in pristine limestone aquifers has the genetic potential for autotrophic CO2 fixation, with energy most likely provided by the oxidation of reduced sulfur and nitrogen compounds.

  4. Study of the Bioremediation of Atrazine under Variable Carbon and Nitrogen Sources by Mixed Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Corn Field Soil in Fars Province of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Simin; Hashemi, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Atrazine herbicide that is widely used in corn production is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on atrazine biodegradation by mixed bacterial consortium and by evaluating the feasibility of using mixed bacterial consortium in soil culture. Shiraz corn field soil with a long history of atrazine application has been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds and the effect of nitrogen sources and a different pH (5.5–8.5) on atrazine removal efficiency by mixed bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. Sodium citrate and sucrose had the highest atrazine biodegradation rate (87.22%) among different carbon sources. Atrazine biodegradation rate decreased more quickly by the addition of urea (26.76%) compared to ammonium nitrate. Based on the data obtained in this study, pH of 7.0 is optimum for atrazine biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of atrazine reduction rates were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (60.5%) as compared to uninoculated control soils (12%) at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with mixed bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of atrazine degradation in a highly polluted soil. PMID:23533452

  5. Study of the Bioremediation of Atrazine under Variable Carbon and Nitrogen Sources by Mixed Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Corn Field Soil in Fars Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansooreh Dehghani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine herbicide that is widely used in corn production is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on atrazine biodegradation by mixed bacterial consortium and by evaluating the feasibility of using mixed bacterial consortium in soil culture. Shiraz corn field soil with a long history of atrazine application has been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds and the effect of nitrogen sources and a different pH (5.5–8.5 on atrazine removal efficiency by mixed bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. Sodium citrate and sucrose had the highest atrazine biodegradation rate (87.22% among different carbon sources. Atrazine biodegradation rate decreased more quickly by the addition of urea (26.76% compared to ammonium nitrate. Based on the data obtained in this study, pH of 7.0 is optimum for atrazine biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of atrazine reduction rates were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (60.5% as compared to uninoculated control soils (12% at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with mixed bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of atrazine degradation in a highly polluted soil.

  6. Effect of bacterial lipase on anaerobic co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater and grease in batch condition and continuous fixed-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affes, Maha; Aloui, Fathi; Hadrich, Fatma; Loukil, Slim; Sayadi, Sami

    2017-10-10

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of bacterial lipase on biogas production of anaerobic co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater (SHWW) and hydrolyzed grease (HG). A neutrophilic Staphylococcus xylosus strain exhibiting lipolytic activity was used to perform microbial hydrolysis pretreatment of poultry slaughterhouse lipid rich waste. Optimum proportion of hydrolyzed grease was evaluated by determining biochemical methane potential. A high biogas production was observed in batch containing a mixture of slaughterhouse composed of 75% SHWW and 25% hydrolyzed grease leading to a biogas yield of 0.6 L/g COD introduced. Fixed bed reactor (FBR) results confirmed that the proportion of 25% of hydrolyzed grease gives the optimum condition for the digester performance. Biogas production was significantly high until an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2 g COD/L. d. This study indicates that the use of biological pre-treatment and FBR for the co-digestion of SHWW and hydrolyzed grease is feasible and effective.

  7. Endomicrobium proavitum, the first isolate of Endomicrobia class. nov. (phylum Elusimicrobia)--an ultramicrobacterium with an unusual cell cycle that fixes nitrogen with a Group IV nitrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Dietrich, Carsten; Radek, Renate; Brune, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial tree contains many deep-rooting clades without any cultured representatives. One such clade is 'Endomicrobia', a class-level lineage in the phylum Elusimicrobia represented so far only by intracellular symbionts of termite gut flagellates. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of the first free-living member of this clade from sterile-filtered gut homogenate of defaunated (starch-fed) Reticulitermes santonensis. Strain Rsa215 is a strictly anaerobic ultramicrobacterium that grows exclusively on glucose, which is fermented to lactate, acetate, hydrogen and CO2. Ultrastructural analysis revealed a Gram-negative cell envelope and a peculiar cell cycle. The genome contains a single set of nif genes that encode homologues of Group IV nitrogenases, which were so far considered to have functions other than nitrogen fixation. We documented nitrogenase activity and diazotrophic growth by measuring acetylene reduction activity and (15)N2 incorporation into cell mass, and demonstrated that transcription of nifH and nitrogenase activity occur only in the absence of ammonium. Based on the ancestral relationship to 'Candidatus Endomicrobium trichonymphae' and other obligate endosymbionts, we propose the name 'Endomicrobium proavitum' gen. nov., sp. nov. for the first isolate of this lineage and the name 'Endomicrobia' class. nov. for the entire clade. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobium sullae Type Strain IS123T Focusing on the Key Genes for Symbiosis with its Host Hedysarum coronarium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sablok

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The prominent feature of rhizobia is their molecular dialogue with plant hosts. Such interaction is enabled by the presence of a series of symbiotic genes encoding for the synthesis and export of signals triggering organogenetic and physiological responses in the plant. The genome of the Rhizobium sullae type strain IS123T nodulating the legume Hedysarum coronarium, was sequenced and resulted in 317 scaffolds for a total assembled size of 7,889,576 bp. Its features were compared with those of genomes from rhizobia representing an increasing gradient of taxonomical distance, from a conspecific isolate (Rhizobium sullae WSM1592, to two congeneric cases (Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and Rhizobium etli and up to different genera within the legume-nodulating taxa. The host plant is of agricultural importance, but, unlike the majority of other domesticated plant species, it is able to survive quite well in the wild. Data showed that that the type strain of R. sullae, isolated from a wild host specimen, is endowed with a richer array of symbiotic genes in comparison to other strains, species or genera of rhizobia that were rescued from domesticated plant ecotypes. The analysis revealed that the bacterium by itself is incapable of surviving in the extreme conditions that its host plant can tolerate. When exposed to drought or alkaline condition, the bacterium depends on its host to survive. Data are consistent with the view of the plant phenotype as the primary factor enabling symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria to survive in otherwise limiting environments.

  9. Nitrogen Fixed by Pea Plant as Affected by Lead,Cadmium and Rates of N-Fertilizer Using 15N Tracer Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.M.; El-Degwy, S.M.; Abdel-Aziz, H.A.; Elbaz, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out in greenhouse to investigate the effect Pb and Cd applied on growth, yield and the amount of fixed nitrogen by pea's plants. 15 N-labelled (5 % atom excess) ammonium nitrate was applied at three levels (0,20 and 40 mg N -1 kg soil). The legume pea seeds were inoculated with Rhizobium Leguminesarum. Lead was applied as lead sulfate at rates of 0, 50 and 200 mg Pb kg -1 soil, while the cadmium applied as cadmium sulfate at rates of 0, 5 and 10 mg Cd kg -1 soil. Results indicated that the highest values of Pb uptake were 540,11.55 and 552 mg -1 pot for pea shoot, pods and whole plant at the rate of 200 mg Pb kg -1 soil + 40 mg N kg -1 soil, respectively, While, the highest values of Cd-uptake were 13.90, 6.54 and 20 mg -1 pot at the rate of 10 mg Cd kg -1 + 20 mg N kg -1 soil for the same sequence. The values of Ndff and Ndfa were 43.74 and 278.2 while Ndfs recorded 164.1 mg pot -1 at rate of 5 mg Cd kg -1 soil + 40 mg N kg -1 soil compared to the control.

  10. High-quality forage production under salinity by using a salt-tolerant AtNXH1-expressing transgenic alfalfa combined with a natural stress-resistant nitrogen-fixing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritzler, Margarita; Elba, Pagano; Berini, Carolina; Gomez, Cristina; Ayub, Nicolás; Soto, Gabriela

    2018-06-20

    Alfalfa, usually known as the "Queen of Forages", is the main source of vegetable protein to meat and milk production systems worldwide. This legume is extremely rich in proteins due to its highly efficient symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing strains. In the last years, alfalfa culture has been displaced to saline environments by other important crops, including major cereals, a fact that has reduced its biomass production and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. In this short communication, we report the high forage production and nutrient quality of alfalfa under saline conditions by alfalfa transformation with the AtNHX1 Na + /H + antiporter and inoculation with the stress-resistant nitrogen-fixing strain Sinorhizobium meliloti B401. Therefore, the incorporation of transgenic traits into salt-sensitive legumes in association with the inoculation with natural stress-resistant isolates could be a robust approach to improve the productivity and quality of these important nitrogen-fixing crops. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Reactor performance in terms of COD and nitrogen removal and bacterial community structure of a three-stage rotating bioelectrochemical contactor

    KAUST Repository

    Sayess, Rassil R.

    2013-02-01

    Integrating microbial fuel cell (MFC) into rotating biological contactor (RBC) creates an opportunity for enhanced removal of COD and nitrogen coupled with energy generation from wastewater. In this study, a three-stage rotating bioelectrochemical contactor (referred to as RBC-MFC unit) integrating MFC with RBC technology was constructed for simultaneous removal of carbonaceous and nitrogenous compounds and electricity generation from a synthetic medium containing acetate and ammonium. The performance of the RBC-MFC unit was compared to a control reactor (referred to as RBC unit) that was operated under the same conditions but without current generation (i.e. open-circuit mode). The effect of hydraulic loading rate (HLR) and COD/N ratio on the performance of the two units was investigated. At low (3.05 gCOD g-1N) and high COD/N ratio (6.64 gCOD g-1N), both units achieved almost similar COD and ammonia-nitrogen removal. However, the RBC-MFC unit achieved significantly higher denitrification and nitrogen removal compared to the RBC unit indicating improved denitrification at the cathode due to current flow. The average voltage under 1000 Ω external resistance ranged between 0.03 and 0.30 V and between 0.02 and 0.21 V for stages 1 and 2 of the RBC-MFC unit. Pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene revealed high bacterial diversity at the anode and cathode of both units. Genera that play a role in nitrification (Nitrospira; Nitrosomonas), denitrification (Comamonas; Thauera) and electricity generation (Geobacter) were identified at the electrodes. Geobacter was only detected on the anode of the RBC-MFC unit. Nitrifiers and denitrifiers were more abundant in the RBC-MFC unit compared to the RBC unit and were largely present on the cathode of both units suggesting that most of the nitrogen removal occurred at the cathode. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Nodulation of legumes, nitrogenase activity of roots and occurrence of nitrogen-fixing Azospirillum spp. In representative soils of central Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvester-Bradley, R; De Oliverira, L A; De Podesta Filho, J A; John, T V

    1980-12-01

    Leguminosae do not predominate in the Brazilian Amazon rain forest, although they are among the five best represented families. Plant roots from various soils were examined for the presence of nodules, acetylene-reducing activity and N/sub 2/-fixing Azospirillum spp. Abundant nodulation was found in black earth (''terra preta dos indios'') and in one case on sandy soil under campinarana vegetation along a tributary of the upper Rio Negro. In sandy latosol some nodules occurred in secondary forest and fewer in primary forest. Legumes in disturbed clayey or sandy latosol showed more frequent nodulation. Primary forest on alluvial (''varzea'') soil, and in Bahia coastal rain forest on sandy latosol and Erythrina glauca used for shading cacao plantations were abundantly nodulated. Acetylene reduction assays showed no, or very little, nitrogenase activity of roots from primary or secondary forest on clayey latosol near Manaus. Nodulated roots from secondary forest on sandy latosol showed acetylene-reducing activity. High rates of acetylene reduction were observed in nodulated roots of primary forest on alluvial ''varzea'' soil. Root samples showed ethylene absorption in controls without acetylene which might interfere with the results of acetylene reduction tests. The incidence of Azospirillum was also higher in black earth than the other soils examined, and in soils with higher pH. The hypothesis that Azospirillum is associated with Trema micantha roots was refuted. Roots and soils collected under cultivated grasses showed a higher incidence of Azospirillum when fertilized with phosphorus and lime. Results indicate that nitrogen fixation did occur in association with roots in some soils, but not with roots of primary or secondary forest on clayey latosol in the vicinity of Manaus, which is the most common soil in Central Amazonia. The possible reasons for this are discussed.

  13. nfluences of ammonium-nitrate, food waste compost and bacterial fertilizer on soluble soil nitrogen forms and on the growth of carrot (Daucus Carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Balla Kovács

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a greenhouse study to compare the effects of food waste compost, bacterial fertilizer and their combination with the effect of mineral fertilizer on yield of carrot and the available nutrient content of soils. The study was conducted on calcareous chernozem and acidic sandy soils and consisted of 8 treatments in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The NH4NO3 resulted in reduced growing of carrot plant in sandy soil, and the treatment effect of mineral fertilizer was not observed significantly in chernozem soil. Sandy soil showed higher response of growth of carrot to food waste compost fertilization than chernozem soil. Sole application of EM-1 bacterial fertilizer did not have marked effect on yield parameters and sizes of roots. When EM-1 bacterial fertilizer was applied together with ammonium-nitrate or with compost in chernozem soil, the weights of roots and the sizes of roots in some cases became higher compared to the values of appropriate treatments without inoculation. In sandy soil the diameter of roots slightly increased when EM-1 bacterial fertilizer was applied with ammonium-nitrate and with ammonium-nitrate+compost combination compared to appropriate treatment without inoculation. In chernozem soil the maximum weights and sizes of roots were achieved with the combined treatment of ammonium-nitrate+compost+EM-1 bacterial fertilizer and in sandy soil with compost treatment. Our results of soluble nitrogen content of soils are in good agreement with yield parameters of carrot. Results suggest that food waste compost could be a good substitute for mineral fertilizer application in carrot production mainly in sandy soil. EM-1 bacterial fertilizer did not cause marked effect on yield and yield parameters of carrot plant, but its combination with other fertilizers promises a little bit higher yield or plant available nutrient in the soil. These effects do not clear exactly, so further studies are

  14. Genomic characterization of Ensifer aridi, a proposed new species of nitrogen-fixing rhizobium recovered from Asian, African and American deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Antoine; Tak, Nisha; Gehlot, Hukam Singh; Lavire, Celine; Meyer, Thibault; Chapulliot, David; Rathi, Sonam; Sakrouhi, Ilham; Rocha, Guadalupe; Rohmer, Marine; Severac, Dany; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Munive, Jose-Antonio

    2017-01-14

    Nitrogen fixing bacteria isolated from hot arid areas in Asia, Africa and America but from diverse leguminous plants have been recently identified as belonging to a possible new species of Ensifer (Sinorhizobium). In this study, 6 strains belonging to this new clade were compared with Ensifer species at the genome-wide level. Their capacities to utilize various carbon sources and to establish a symbiotic interaction with several leguminous plants were examined. Draft genomes of selected strains isolated from Morocco (Merzouga desert), Mexico (Baja California) as well as from India (Thar desert) were produced. Genome based species delineation tools demonstrated that they belong to a new species of Ensifer. Comparison of its core genome with those of E. meliloti, E. medicae and E. fredii enabled the identification of a species conserved gene set. Predicted functions of associated proteins and pathway reconstruction revealed notably the presence of transport systems for octopine/nopaline and inositol phosphates. Phenotypic characterization of this new desert rhizobium species showed that it was capable to utilize malonate, to grow at 48 °C or under high pH while NaCl tolerance levels were comparable to other Ensifer species. Analysis of accessory genomes and plasmid profiling demonstrated the presence of large plasmids that varied in size from strain to strain. As symbiotic functions were found in the accessory genomes, the differences in symbiotic interactions between strains may be well related to the difference in plasmid content that could explain the different legumes with which they can develop the symbiosis. The genomic analysis performed here confirms that the selected rhizobial strains isolated from desert regions in three continents belong to a new species. As until now only recovered from such harsh environment, we propose to name it Ensifer aridi. The presented genomic data offers a good basis to explore adaptations and functionalities that enable them

  15. Bacterial microbiomes of individual ectomycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris roots are shaped by soil horizon and differentially sensitive to nitrogen addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marupakula, Srisailam; Mahmood, Shahid; Jernberg, Johanna; Nallanchakravarthula, Srivathsa; Fahad, Zaenab A; Finlay, Roger D

    2017-11-01

    Plant roots select non-random communities of fungi and bacteria from the surrounding soil that have effects on their health and growth, but we know little about the factors influencing their composition. We profiled bacterial microbiomes associated with individual ectomycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris roots colonized by different fungi and analyzed differences in microbiome structure related to soils from distinct podzol horizons and effects of short-term additions of N, a growth-limiting nutrient commonly applied as a fertilizer, but known to influence patterns of carbon allocation to roots. Ectomycorrhizal roots growing in soil from different horizons harboured distinct bacterial communities. The fungi colonizing individual roots had a strong effect on the associated bacterial communities. Even closely related species within the same ectomycorrhizal genus had distinct bacterial microbiomes in unfertilized soil, but fertilization removed this specificity. Effects of N were rapid and context dependent, being influenced by both soil type and the particular ectomycorrhizal fungi involved. Fungal community composition changed in soil from all horizons, but bacteria only responded strongly to N in soil from the B horizon where community structure was different and bacterial diversity was significantly reduced, possibly reflecting changed carbon allocation patterns. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Nitrogen fixation and induction of pseudo-nodules in grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasul, G.; Hassan, U.; Mehnaz, S.; Malik, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    The rice grown nitrogen depleted saline sols showed higher values for in-situ ARA. Isolations of N/sub 2/ fixing bacteria were carried out on soil Azotobacter was observed in plant rhizosphere. The 2,4-D (0.5 and 1 ppm) with diazo trophic bacteria induced nodule like structure on the wheat roots. The bacteria were found in nodules in the form of micro colonies or bacterial aggregates which were responsible for nitrogen fixation providing optimum 02 concentrations was incorporations /sup 15/N dilution data indicated that 125-46.5% atmosphere N was incorporated in nitrogen pool of inoculated plants. (author)

  17. Adsorption and oxidation of SO₂in a fixed-bed reactor using activated carbon produced from oxytetracycline bacterial residue and impregnated with copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Baohua; Yu, Lei; Song, Hanning; Li, Yaqi; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Bin; Duan, Erhong

    2015-02-01

    The SO₂removal ability (including adsorption and oxidation ability) of activated carbon produced from oxytetracycline bacterial residue and impregnated with copper was investigated. The activated carbon produced from oxytetracycline bacterial residue and modified with copper was characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The effects of the catalysts, SO₂concentration, weight hourly space velocity, and temperature on the SO₂adsorption and oxidation activity were evaluated. Activated carbon produced from oxytetracycline bacterial residue and used as catalyst supports for copper oxide catalysts provided high catalytic activity for the adsorbing and oxidizing of SO₂from flue gases.

  18. Bacterial endophytes enhance competition by invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Marnie E; Chrzanowski, Thomas H; Westlie, Tara K; DeLuca, Thomas H; Callaway, Ragan M; Holben, William E

    2013-09-01

    Invasive plants can alter soil microbial communities and profoundly alter ecosystem processes. In the invasive grass Sorghum halepense, these disruptions are consequences of rhizome-associated bacterial endophytes. We describe the effects of N2-fixing bacterial strains from S. halepense (Rout and Chrzanowski, 2009) on plant growth and show that bacteria interact with the plant to alter soil nutrient cycles, enabling persistence of the invasive. • We assessed fluxes in soil nutrients for ∼4 yr across a site invaded by S. halepense. We assayed the N2-fixing bacteria in vitro for phosphate solubilization, iron chelation, and production of the plant-growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). We assessed the plant's ability to recruit bacterial partners from substrates and vertically transmit endophytes to seeds and used an antibiotic approach to inhibit bacterial activity in planta and assess microbial contributions to plant growth. • We found persistent alterations to eight biogeochemical cycles (including nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron) in soils invaded by S. halepense. In this context, three bacterial isolates solubilized phosphate, and all produced iron siderophores and IAA in vitro. In growth chamber experiments, bacteria were transmitted vertically, and molecular analysis of bacterial community fingerprints from rhizomes indicated that endophytes are also horizontally recruited. Inhibiting bacterial activity with antibiotics resulted in significant declines in plant growth rate and biomass, with pronounced rhizome reductions. • This work suggests a major role of endophytes on growth and resource allocation of an invasive plant. Indeed, bacterial isolate physiology is correlated with invader effects on biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphate, and iron.

  19. Nitrogen and energy balance in growing mink (Mustela vison) fed different levels of bacterial protein meal produced with natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Øystein

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on energy and protein metabolism in growing mink kits. Sixteen male mink kits of the standard brown genotype were randomly fed one of four diets: A control (Diet III) and 60% (...

  20. Quantitative estimation of net rates of production of bacterial and protozoal nitrogen and their interconversion in the rumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    A technique is described using 35 S-labelled bacteria or protozoa by which the rates of production of microbial and protozoal protein N may be calculated. The results indicate an average microbial protein yield of about 13.7gN.d -1 in sheep maintained on a diet consisting largely of cottonseed cake and wheat and rice bran. Evidence is presented that protozoa made little contribution to the microbial protein-N leaving the rumen. Also, the average rate of N flow from the protozoal to the bacterial pool was about 3.5g.d -1 , whereas about 1.4g.d -1 of bacterial N was consumed by protozoa. (author)

  1. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate and alginate from glycerol by Azotobacter vinelandii under nitrogen-free conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Yoneyama, Fuminori; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is an interesting feedstock for biomaterials such as biofuels and bioplastics because of its abundance as a by-product during biodiesel production. Here we demonstrate glycerol metabolism in the nitrogen-fixing species Azotobacter vinelandii through metabolomics and nitrogen-free bacterial production of biopolymers, such as poly-d-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and alginate, from glycerol. Glycerol-3-phosphate was accumulated in A. vinelandii cells grown on glycerol to the exponential phase...

  2. Long-term nitrogen fertilization decreases bacterial diversity and favors the growth of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in agro-ecosystems across the globe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Zhongmin [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Su, Weiqin [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Chen, Huaihai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division; Barberan, Albert [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Soil, Water and Environmental Science; Zhao, Haochun [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Yu, Mengjie [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Yu, Lu [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Brookes, Philip C. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Schadt, Christopher W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division; Chang, Scott X. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources; Xu, Jianming [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment

    2018-04-25

    Long-term Elevated nitrogen (N) input from anthropogenic sources may cause soil acidification and decrease crop yield, yet the response of the belowground microbial community to long-term N input and the input of N combined with phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) is still poorly understood. Here, we explored the effect of long-term N and NPK fertilization on soil bacterial diversity and community composition using meta-analysis of a global dataset. Nitrogen fertilization decreased soil pH, and increased soil organic carbon (C) and available N contents. Bacterial taxonomic diversity was decreased by N fertilization alone, but was increased by NPK fertilization. The effect of N fertilization on bacterial diversity depends on soil texture and water management, but independent of crop type or N application rate. Both soil pH and organic C content were positively related to changes in bacterial diversity under N fertilization, while soil organic C was the dominant factor determining changes in bacterial diversity under NPK fertilization. Microbial biomass C decreased with decreasing bacterial diversity under long-term N fertilization. Nitrogen fertilization increased the relative abundance of copiotrophic bacteria (i.e. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria), but reduced the abundance of oligotrophic taxa (i.e. Acidobacteria), consistent with the general life history strategy theory for bacteria. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria was also increased by NPK fertilization. The positive correlation between N application rate and the relative abundance of Actinobacteria indicates that increased N availability favored the growth of Actinobacteria. This first global analysis of long-term N and NPK fertilization effect on bacterial diversity and community composition suggests that N input decreases bacterial diversity but favors the growth of copiotrophic bacteria, providing a reference for nutrient management strategies for maintaining belowground microbial diversity in agro

  3. Spatial distribution of archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers in the littoral buffer zone of a nitrogen-rich lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Zhu, Guibing; Ye, Lei; Feng, Xiaojuan; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Yin, Chengqing

    2012-01-01

    The spatial distribution and diversity of archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers (AOA and AOB) were evaluated targeting amoA genes in the gradient of a littoral buffer zone which has been identified as a hot spot for N cycling. Here we found high spatial heterogeneity in the nitrification rate and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in the five sampling sites. The bacterial amoA gene was numerically dominant in most of the surface soil but decreased dramatically in deep layers. Higher nitrification potentials were detected in two sites near the land/water interface at 4.4-6.1 microg NO(2-)-N/(g dry weight soil x hr), while only 1.0-1.7 microg NO(2-)-N/(g dry weight soil x hr) was measured at other sites. The potential nitrification rates were proportional to the amoA gene abundance for AOB, but with no significant correlation with AOA. The NH4+ concentration was the most determinative parameter for the abundance of AOB and potential nitrification rates in this study. Higher richness in the surface layer was found in the analysis of biodiversity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the bacterial amoA sequences in surface soil were affiliated with the genus of Nitrosopira while the archaeal sequences were almost equally affiliated with Candidatus 'Nitrososphaera gargensis' and Candidatus 'Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii'. The spatial distribution of AOA and AOB indicated that bacteria may play a more important role in nitrification in the littoral buffer zone of a N-rich lake.

  4. Bacterial structure of aerobic granules is determined by aeration mode and nitrogen load in the reactor cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated how the microbial composition of biomass and kinetics of nitrogen conversions in aerobic granular reactors treating high-ammonium supernatant depended on nitrogen load and the number of anoxic phases in the cycle. Excellent ammonium removal and predomination of full nitrification was observed in the reactors operated at 1.1 kg TKN m(-3) d(-1) and with anoxic phases in the cycle. In all reactors, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria predominated, comprising between 90.14% and 98.59% of OTUs. Extracellular polymeric substances-producing bacteria, such as Rhodocyclales, Xanthomonadaceae, Sphingomonadales and Rhizobiales, were identified in biomass from all reactors, though in different proportions. Under constant aeration, bacteria capable of autotrophic nitrification were found in granules, whereas under variable aeration heterotrophic nitrifiers such as Pseudomonas sp. and Paracoccus sp. were identified. Constant aeration promoted more even bacteria distribution among taxa; with 1 anoxic phase, Paracoccus aminophilus predominated (62.73% of OTUs); with 2 phases, Corynebacterium sp. predominated (65.10% of OTUs). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of bacterial lipase on anaerobic co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater and grease in batch condition and continuous fixed-bed reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Affes, Maha; Aloui, Fathi; Hadrich, Fatma; Loukil, Slim; Sayadi, Sami

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the effects of bacterial lipase on biogas production of anaerobic co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater (SHWW) and hydrolyzed grease (HG). A neutrophilic Staphylococcus xylosus strain exhibiting lipolytic activity was used to perform microbial hydrolysis pretreatment of poultry slaughterhouse lipid rich waste. Results Optimum proportion of hydrolyzed grease was evaluated by determining biochemical methane potential. A high biogas production was o...

  6. Automated system measuring triple oxygen and nitrogen isotope ratios in nitrate using the bacterial method and N2 O decomposition by microwave discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Shohei; Savarino, Joel; Kamezaki, Kazuki; Ishino, Sakiko; Dyckmans, Jens; Fujinawa, Tamaki; Caillon, Nicolas; Barbero, Albane; Mukotaka, Arata; Toyoda, Sakae; Well, Reinhard; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-12-30

    Triple oxygen and nitrogen isotope ratios in nitrate are powerful tools for assessing atmospheric nitrate formation pathways and their contribution to ecosystems. N 2 O decomposition using microwave-induced plasma (MIP) has been used only for measurements of oxygen isotopes to date, but it is also possible to measure nitrogen isotopes during the same analytical run. The main improvements to a previous system are (i) an automated distribution system of nitrate to the bacterial medium, (ii) N 2 O separation by gas chromatography before N 2 O decomposition using the MIP, (iii) use of a corundum tube for microwave discharge, and (iv) development of an automated system for isotopic measurements. Three nitrate standards with sample sizes of 60, 80, 100, and 120 nmol were measured to investigate the sample size dependence of the isotope measurements. The δ 17 O, δ 18 O, and Δ 17 O values increased with increasing sample size, although the δ 15 N value showed no significant size dependency. Different calibration slopes and intercepts were obtained with different sample amounts. The slopes and intercepts for the regression lines in different sample amounts were dependent on sample size, indicating that the extent of oxygen exchange is also dependent on sample size. The sample-size-dependent slopes and intercepts were fitted using natural log (ln) regression curves, and the slopes and intercepts can be estimated to apply to any sample size corrections. When using 100 nmol samples, the standard deviations of residuals from the regression lines for this system were 0.5‰, 0.3‰, and 0.1‰, respectively, for the δ 18 O, Δ 17 O, and δ 15 N values, results that are not inferior to those from other systems using gold tube or gold wire. An automated system was developed to measure triple oxygen and nitrogen isotopes in nitrate using N 2 O decomposition by MIP. This system enables us to measure both triple oxygen and nitrogen isotopes in nitrate with comparable precision

  7. Effect of incorporation of nitrogen atoms in Al2O3 gate dielectric of wide-bandgap-semiconductor MOSFET on gate leakage current and negative fixed charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Eiji; Chokawa, Kenta; Shirakawa, Hiroki; Araidai, Masaaki; Hosoi, Takuji; Watanabe, Heiji; Shiraishi, Kenji

    2018-06-01

    We performed first-principle calculations to investigate the effect of incorporation of N atoms into Al2O3 gate dielectrics. Our calculations show that the defect levels generated by VO in Al2O3 are the origin of the stress-induced gate leakage current and that VOVAl complexes in Al2O3 cause negative fixed charge. We revealed that the incorporation of N atoms into Al2O3 eliminates the VO defect levels, reducing the stress-induced gate leakage current. Moreover, this suppresses the formation of negatively charged VOVAl complexes. Therefore, AlON can reduce both stress-induced gate leakage current and negative fixed charge in wide-bandgap-semiconductor MOSFETs.

  8. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISTIC OF NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA AND PHOSPHATE-SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA FROM SOIL HIGH IN MERCURY IN TAILINGS AND COMPOST AREAS OF ARTISANAL GOLD MINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Nuraini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted at Brawijaya University and West Nusa Tenggara, from March 2013 to October 2013. The tailings areas of the gold mine contains high mercury (Hg as much as 1,090 ppm, and living microbes (resistance exist in a small number in such a condition. Microbial P solvents encountered came from the genus Bacillus with a population of 23 x 103 cfu g-1 and N-fixing bacteria encountered are of the genus Bacillus, with a population of 4 x 103 cfu g-1. Identification of species using Becton Dickinson Phoenix test, both species belong to Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus pumilus. While the waste corn and peanuts that has been composted for 4 weeks acquired P-solubilizing bacteria, such as Enterobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas, and N-fixing bacteria found was Pseudomonas and Azotobacter. While testing the activity and antagonism of N-fixing and P-solubilizing bacteria, the result on agar media did not show antagonism in its growth. Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus megaterium effective at 5 % molasses medium with the number of 0.15 x 1012 on seven days of incubation.

  9. Nitrogen starvation affects bacterial adhesion to soil Adesão de bactérias desnutridas por nitrogênio a solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Borges

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main factors limiting the bioremediation of subsoil environments based on bioaugmentation is the transport of selected microorganisms to the contaminated zones. The characterization of the physiological responses of the inoculated microorganisms to starvation, especially the evaluation of characteristics that affect the adhesion of the cells to soil particles, is fundamental to anticipate the success or failure of bioaugmentation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of nitrogen starvation on cell surface hydrophobicity and cell adhesion to soil particles by bacterial strains previously characterized as able to use benzene, toluene or xilenes as carbon and energy sources. The strains LBBMA 18-T (non-identified, Arthrobacter aurescens LBBMA 98, Arthrobacter oxydans LBBMA 201, and Klebsiella sp. LBBMA 204-1 were used in the experiments. Cultivation of the cells in nitrogen-deficient medium caused a significant reduction of the adhesion to soil particles by all the four strains. Nitrogen starvation also reduced significantly the strength of cell adhesion to the soil particles, except for Klebsiella sp. LBBMA 204-1. Two of the four strains showed significant reduction in cell surface hydrophobicity. It is inferred that the efficiency of bacterial transport through soils might be potentially increased by nitrogen starvation.Um dos principais fatores limitantes da biorremediação in situ de solos subterrâneos, baseada na bioaumentação, é o transporte dos microrganismos selecionados até o local contaminado. A caracterização das respostas fisiológicas dos microrganismos introduzidos no subsolo a condições de escassez nutricional, notadamente a avaliação de características que afetam a adesão celular ao solo, é fundamental para se prever o sucesso da bioaumentação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da desnutrição em meio com escassez de nitrogênio sobre a hidrofobicidade celular e a

  10. Effect of Elevated CO2 Concentration, Elevated Temperature and No Nitrogen Fertilization on Methanogenic Archaeal and Methane-Oxidizing Bacterial Community Structures in Paddy Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongyan; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Tokida, Takeshi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Usui, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Asakawa, Susumu

    2016-09-29

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) enhance the production and emission of methane in paddy fields. In the present study, the effects of elevated [CO2], elevated temperature (ET), and no nitrogen fertilization (LN) on methanogenic archaeal and methane-oxidizing bacterial community structures in a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experimental paddy field were investigated by PCR-DGGE and real-time quantitative PCR. Soil samples were collected from the upper and lower soil layers at the rice panicle initiation (PI) and mid-ripening (MR) stages. The composition of the methanogenic archaeal community in the upper and lower soil layers was not markedly affected by the elevated [CO2], ET, or LN condition. The abundance of the methanogenic archaeal community in the upper and lower soil layers was also not affected by elevated [CO2] or ET, but was significantly increased at the rice PI stage and significantly decreased by LN in the lower soil layer. In contrast, the composition of the methane-oxidizing bacterial community was affected by rice-growing stages in the upper soil layer. The abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria was significantly decreased by elevated [CO2] and LN in both soil layers at the rice MR stage and by ET in the upper soil layer. The ratio of mcrA/pmoA genes correlated with methane emission from ambient and FACE paddy plots at the PI stage. These results indicate that the decrease observed in the abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria was related to increased methane emission from the paddy field under the elevated [CO2], ET, and LN conditions.

  11. Analysis of early bacterial communities on volcanic deposits on the island of Miyake (Miyake-jima), Japan: a 6-year study at a fixed site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Reiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Nishizawa, Tomoyasu; Nanba, Kenji; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Microbial colonization on new terrestrial substrates represents the initiation of new soil ecosystem formation. In this study, we analyzed early bacterial communities growing on volcanic ash deposits derived from the 2000 Mount Oyama eruption on the island of Miyake (Miyake-jima), Japan. A site was established in an unvegetated area near the summit and investigated over a 6-year period from 2003 to 2009. Collected samples were acidic (pH 3.0-3.6), did not utilize any organic substrates in ECO microplate assays (Biolog), and harbored around 106 cells (g dry weight)(-1) of autotrophic Fe(II) oxidizers by most-probable-number (MPN) counts. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans, and the Leptospirillum groups I, II and III were found to be abundant in the deposits by clone library analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The numerical dominance of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was also supported by analysis of the gene coding for the large subunit of the form I ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). Comparing the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from samples differing in age, shifts in Fe(II)-oxidizing populations seemed to occur with deposit aging. The detection of known 16S rRNA gene sequences from Fe(III)-reducing acidophiles promoted us to propose the acidity-driven iron cycle for the early microbial ecosystem on the deposit.

  12. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Relevance of various nitrogen fixing microorganisms in ecology and plant productivity as a basis for evaluating their damage by environmental chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagnow, G

    1981-01-01

    To evaluate detrimental side-effects of environmental chemicals on the biological N/sub 2/-fixation the relative importance of the N/sub 2/-fixation of legume and non-legume root nodules, of symbiotic and free living blue-green algae, of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic rhizosphere bacteria and of anaerobic bacteria is discussed on the basis of their fixation rate and their contribution to the conservation of ecosystems. From an agricultural and ecological point of view the symbiotic N/sub 2/-fixation of legumes and non-legumes takes the first place, being followed by that of blue-green algae and rhizosphere bacteria. Compared with these, the strictly anaerobic N/sub 2/-fixation has only a minor importance. Variable side-effects of herbicides on N/sub 2/-fixing bacteria are cited to stress the necessity of testing representatives of various ecological groups. Suitable test systems are proposed with soybeans, white clover, Rhizobium cultures, N/sub 2/-fixing blue-green algae and with Azospirillum species.

  14. Bacterial communities and the nitrogen cycle in the gypsum soils of Cuatro Ciénegas Basin, coahuila: a Mars analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Lozano, Nguyen E; Eguiarte, Luis E; Bonilla-Rosso, Germán; García-Oliva, Felipe; Martínez-Piedragil, Celeste; Rooks, Christine; Souza, Valeria

    2012-07-01

    The OMEGA/Mars Express hyperspectral imager identified gypsum at several sites on Mars in 2005. These minerals constitute a direct record of past aqueous activity and are important with regard to the search of extraterrestrial life. Gale Crater was chosen as Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity's landing site because it is rich in gypsum, as are some desert soils of the Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) (Chihuahuan Desert, Mexico). The gypsum of the CCB, which is overlain by minimal carbonate deposits, was the product of magmatic activity that occurred under the Tethys Sea. To examine this Mars analogue, we retrieved gypsum-rich soil samples from two contrasting sites with different humidity in the CCB. To characterize the site, we obtained nutrient data and analyzed the genes related to the N cycle (nifH, nirS, and nirK) and the bacterial community composition by using 16S rRNA clone libraries. As expected, the soil content for almost all measured forms of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus were higher at the more humid site than at the drier site. What was unexpected is the presence of a rich and divergent community at both sites, with higher taxonomic diversity at the humid site and almost no taxonomic overlap. Our results suggest that the gypsum-rich soils of the CCB host a unique microbial ecosystem that includes novel microbial assemblies.

  15. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas profile of a process for the production of ammonium sulfate from nitrogen-fixing photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razon, Luis F

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, an alternative means for nitrogen fixation that may consume less energy and release less greenhouse gases than the Haber-Bosch process is explored. A life-cycle assessment was conducted on a process to: culture the cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047, in open ponds; harvest the biomass and exopolysaccharides and convert these to biogas; strip and convert the ammonia from the biogas residue to ammonium sulfate; dry the ammonium sulfate solution to ammonium sulfate crystals and transport the finished product. The results suggest that substantial reductions in non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions may be realized. The study opens the possibility that Haber-Bosch ammonia may be replaced with ammonia from a biomass process which simultaneously generates renewable energy. The process is intrinsically safer than the Haber-Bosch process. However, there are trade-offs in terms of land use and possibly, water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fix 40!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Ansambel Fix peab 13. detsembril Tallinnas Saku Suurhallis oma 40. sünnipäeva. Kontserdi erikülaline on ansambel Apelsin, kaastegevad Jassi Zahharov ja HaleBopp Singers. Õhtut juhib Tarmo Leinatamm

  17. Is nitrogen the next carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battye, William; Aneja, Viney P.; Schlesinger, William H.

    2017-09-01

    Just as carbon fueled the Industrial Revolution, nitrogen has fueled an Agricultural Revolution. The use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and the cultivation of nitrogen-fixing crops both expanded exponentially during the last century, with most of the increase occurring after 1960. As a result, the current flux of reactive, or fixed, nitrogen compounds to the biosphere due to human activities is roughly equivalent to the total flux of fixed nitrogen from all natural sources, both on land masses and in the world's oceans. Natural fluxes of fixed nitrogen are subject to very large uncertainties, but anthropogenic production of reactive nitrogen has increased almost fivefold in the last 60 years, and this rapid increase in anthropogenic fixed nitrogen has removed any uncertainty on the relative importance of anthropogenic fluxes to the natural budget. The increased use of nitrogen has been critical for increased crop yields and protein production needed to keep pace with the growing world population. However, similar to carbon, the release of fixed nitrogen into the natural environment is linked to adverse consequences at local, regional, and global scales. Anthropogenic contributions of fixed nitrogen continue to grow relative to the natural budget, with uncertain consequences.

  18. The nitrogen biological fixing as support for renewable energy production; A fixacao biologica de nitrogenio como suporte para a producao de energia renovavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quesada, Diego Mureb; Frade, Catia; Resende, Alexander; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Reis, Veronica Massena; Boddey, Robert; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; Urquiaga, Segundo [EMBRAPA, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Agrobiologia; Xavier, Deise [EMBRAPA, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Gado de Leite

    2000-07-01

    Recently, rapid-growing grasses which possess the C4 photosynthetic pathway such as Miscanthus and Pennisetum spp. have been considered as prime candidates for the production of bio-fuels. In the case of Pennisetum purpureum (Elephant grass) and related hybrids, the genotypes studied until now have generally been selected for high production of forage for cattle under high N fertiliser additions. For forage production it is desirable that the tissues have high protein content. However, for biomass production the priority should be for carbon accumulation and the highest possible biomass production per unit of applied fertiliser. The manufacture of N fertiliser involves a very high cost in terms of fossil energy, and if large additions are made the grass biomass produced may have only a little more (or even less) calorific value than that utilised in the manufacture of the fertiliser. This completely negates the prime objective of bio fuel production which the replacement of energy derived from non-renewable fossil sources with that derived from solar radiation. Recently the team headed by Dr Johanna Doebereiner at EMBRAPA Agrobiologia have shown that several tropical grasses (including sugar cane and elephant grass) are able to obtain significant quantities of N through the action of associated endo phytic N{sub 2}-fixing bacteria. Derived from this line of reasoning a study is being conducted in the field to select appropriate genotypes of Pennisetum purpureum which are efficient is biomass production in soil of very low N fertility. In the first stage four genotypes have been selected : Gramafante, Cameroon, BAG 02 and Roxo, which have been the most productive over a 5 year period without N fertiliser addition.A complementary study is underway to evaluate biomass production and quantify the N{sub 2} fixation input. Preliminary results are promising and show that these materials produce well without N fertiliser application a with a contribution of approximately

  19. Desempenho do arroz irrigado em resposta à utilização de cianobactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio = Performance of paddy rice in response to the use of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Oscar Brenzoni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a utilização de inóculos decianobactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio como alternativa à adubação química de nitrogênio na cultura do arroz irrigado. Para tanto, foram conduzidos quatro experimentos, nos anos agrícolas de 1999/00 a 2002/03, avaliando os tratamentos: testemunha sem aplicação de N em cobertura; 20 kg ha-1 de N aplicado em cobertura; 40 kg ha-1 de N aplicado em cobertura; 90 kg ha-1 de N aplicado em cobertura; 50 g ha-1 de Rizogram®; 100 g ha-1 de Rizogram®. Verificou-se interação dos tratamentos com os anos avaliados, o que pode ter ocultado o desempenho destes. Além disso, verificou-se que, para a variável “número de grãos por panícula”, a utilização de cianobactérias nas duas dosagens estudadas (50 e 100 g ha-1 produziu resultados semelhantes à adubação nitrogenada (90 kg ha-1, com potencialredução do número porcentual de espiguetas estéreis. Os tratamentos não afetaram o rendimento de grãos do arroz irrigado, devido às variações ambientais dos anos avaliados.A four-year experiment irrigated rice was carried out in order to evaluate the performance of Nostoc sp. and Tolypothrix sp. nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria strains (Rizogram™, as an alternative to chemical nitrogen fertilization in irrigated rice. The treatments evaluated in the experiments included: control without top dressing Napplication; top dressing application of 20, 40 and 90 kg ha-1; 50 g ha-1 of Rizogram™, and 100 g ha-1 of Rizogram™. It was verified interaction between the years of the study and the treatments, which may have affected the performance of these treatments. Moreover, it was observed that, for the number of grains per panicle, the use of cyanobacteria in two studied rates (50 e 100 g ha-1 produced the same results as the nitrogen fertilization (90 kg ha-1, showing potential reduction of sterile spikelets. However, the treatments did not affected rice grain yield.

  20. Temporal changes in the diazotrophic bacterial communities associated with Caribbean sponges Ircinia stroblina and Mycale laxissima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan eZhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sponges that harbor microalgal or cyanobacterial symbionts may benefit from photosynthetically derived carbohydrates, which are rich in carbon but devoid of nitrogen, and may therefore encounter nitrogen limitation. Diazotrophic communities associated with two Caribbean sponges, Ircinia strobilina and Mycale laxissima were studied in a time series during which three individuals of each sponge were collected in four time points (5:00 AM, 12:00 noon, 5:00 PM, 10:00 PM. nifH genes were successfully amplified from the corresponding gDNA and cDNA pools and sequenced by high throughput 454 amplicon sequencing. In both sponges, over half the nifH transcripts were classified as from cyanobacteria and the remainder from heterotrophic bacteria. We found various groups of bacteria actively expressing the nifH gene during the entire day-night cycle, an indication that the nitrogen fixation potential was fully exploited by different nitrogen fixing bacteria groups associated with their hosts. This study showed for the first time the dynamic changes in the activity of the diazotrophic bacterial communities in marine sponges. Our study expands understanding of the diazotrophic groups that contribute to the fixed nitrogen pool in the benthic community. Sponge bacterial community-associated diazotrophy may have an important impact on the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle in the coral reef ecosystem.

  1. Temporal changes in the diazotrophic bacterial communities associated with Caribbean sponges Ircinia stroblina and Mycale laxissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Vicente, Jan; Hill, Russell T

    2014-01-01

    Sponges that harbor microalgal or, cyanobacterial symbionts may benefit from photosynthetically derived carbohydrates, which are rich in carbon but devoid of nitrogen, and may therefore encounter nitrogen limitation. Diazotrophic communities associated with two Caribbean sponges, Ircinia strobilina and Mycale laxissima were studied in a time series during which three individuals of each sponge were collected in four time points (5:00 AM, 12:00 noon, 5:00 PM, 10:00 PM). nifH genes were successfully amplified from the corresponding gDNA and cDNA pools and sequenced by high throughput 454 amplicon sequencing. In both sponges, over half the nifH transcripts were classified as from cyanobacteria and the remainder from heterotrophic bacteria. We found various groups of bacteria actively expressing the nifH gene during the entire day-night cycle, an indication that the nitrogen fixation potential was fully exploited by different nitrogen fixing bacteria groups associated with their hosts. This study showed for the first time the dynamic changes in the activity of the diazotrophic bacterial communities in marine sponges. Our study expands understanding of the diazotrophic groups that contribute to the fixed nitrogen pool in the benthic community. Sponge bacterial community-associated diazotrophy may have an important impact on the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle in the coral reef ecosystem.

  2. Nitrogen-fixing methane-utilizing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, de J.A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Methane occurs abundantly in nature. In the presence of oxygen this gas may be metabolized by bacteria that are able to use it as carbon and energy source. Several types of bacteria involved in the oxidation of methane have been described in literature. Methane-utilizing bacteria have in

  3. Reactor performance in terms of COD and nitrogen removal and bacterial community structure of a three-stage rotating bioelectrochemical contactor

    KAUST Repository

    Sayess, Rassil R.; Saikaly, Pascal; El-Fadel, Mutasem E.; Li, Dong; Semerjian, Lucy A.

    2013-01-01

    contactor (referred to as RBC-MFC unit) integrating MFC with RBC technology was constructed for simultaneous removal of carbonaceous and nitrogenous compounds and electricity generation from a synthetic medium containing acetate and ammonium. The performance

  4. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  5. Parental material and cultivation determine soil bacterial community structure and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Gao, Jusheng; Huang, Ting; Kendall, Joshua R A; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2015-01-01

    Microbes are the key components of the soil environment, playing important roles during soil development. Soil parent material provides the foundation elements that comprise the basic nutritional environment for the development of microbial community. After 30 years artificial maturation of cultivation, the soil developments of three different parental materials were evaluated and bacterial community compositions were investigated using the high-throughput sequencing approach. Thirty years of cultivation increased the soil fertility and soil microbial biomass, richness and diversity, greatly changed the soil bacterial communities, the proportion of phylum Actinobacteria decreased significantly, while the relative abundances of the phyla Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Armatimonadetes and Nitrospira were significantly increased. Soil bacterial communities of parental materials were separated with the cultivated ones, and comparisons of different soil types, granite soil and quaternary red clay soil were similar and different with purple sandy shale soil in both parental materials and cultivated treatments. Bacterial community variations in the three soil types were affected by different factors, and their alteration patterns in the soil development also varied with soil type. Soil properties (except total potassium) had a significant effect on the soil bacterial communities in all three soil types and a close relationship with abundant bacterial phyla. The amounts of nitrogen-fixing bacteria as well as the abundances of the nifH gene in all cultivated soils were higher than those in the parental materials; Burkholderia and Rhizobacte were enriched significantly with long-term cultivation. The results suggested that crop system would not deplete the nutrients of soil parental materials in early stage of soil maturation, instead it increased soil fertility and changed bacterial community, specially enriched the nitrogen-fixing bacteria to accumulate

  6. Evaluación de la asociación bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno - líneas interespecíficas de arroz-nitrógeno, en Typic haplustalf. Ibagué, Colombia Evaluation of the association nitrogen fixing bacterias interspecific - rice lines - nitrogen, in typic haplustalf. Ibagué, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita M Vallejo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se llevó a cabo en la hacienda Cauchitos, municipio de Ibagué, departamento del Tolima (Norte 4° 23' 51" y Oeste 75° 9' 7", 979 msnm, 24.3°C, bosque seco tropical (bs-T, con el objetivo de evaluar las asociaciones entre bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno con inóculo y sin él en diez líneas interespecíficas de arroz, con tres dosis de nitrógeno (0%, 50% y 100% de 250 kg/ha-1 y tres repeticiones por tratamiento. La inoculación se realizó con 1 cm³ de unidades formadoras de colonias por 250 g de semilla de cada cultivar. Se aislaron 2.260 bacterias de los géneros Azotobacter spp y Azospirillum spp, se identificaron las especies A. brasilense, A. lipoferum, A. amazonense y del género Azotobacter las especies A. chroococcum, A. vinelandii, A. paspali y A. beijerinckii. Respecto al inóculo no se encontraron diferencias significativas al realizar su aplicación, se determinó que Azotobacter spp y Azospirillum spp fueron géneros típicos de la flora bacteriana en el cultivo del arroz y en condiciones de campo hubo efecto de los tratamientos en la flora bacteriana, y Azotobacter spp fue el predominante en cada uno de los tratamientos.The study was carried out at the Cauchitos farm, Ibague municipality department of Tolima, with bounds: North 4°23'51" and west 75°9'7", 979 ansm, the average temperature is 24,3°C, tropical dry forest (bs-t in the Holdridge classification. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between the nitrogen fixation bacteries with and without inoculo in 10 interespecific rice lines with three nitrogen dosis (0, 50 and 100% de 250 kg/ ha-1 and three repetitions. The inoculation was realized with 10(8 former units of colonies per millimeter. 2.260 bacteries of the generums Azotobacter spp y Azospirrillum spp., and identification the species: Azospirillum brasilense, Azospirillum lipoferum, Azospirillum amazonense, were identified and from the genus Azotobacter were identified the

  7. Novel anammox bacteria and nitrogen loss from Lake Superior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowe, Sean A.; Treusch, Alexander H.; Forth, Michael

    2017-01-01

    and diversity of anammox bacteria in the world's largest freshwater lake - Lake Superior. We found that anammox performed by previously undiscovered bacteria is an important contributor to sediment N2 production. We observed striking differences in the anammox bacterial populations found at different locations...... within Lake Superior and those described from other locations. Our data thus reveal that novel anammox bacteria underpin N-loss from Lake Superior, and if more broadly distributed across inland waters would play an important role in continental N-cycling and mitigation of fixed nitrogen transfer from...

  8. Growh performance, nitrogen balance and urinary purine derivatives in growing-furring mink (Mustela vison) fed bacterial protein produced from natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Ø.; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2006-01-01

    A bacterial protein meal (BPM), containing 70% crude protein and produced on natural gas, was evaluated versus fish meal as protein source for mink in the growing-furring period (June 29-November 26). BPM, rich in nucleic acids, accounted for 0 (control), 20 and 40% of dietary crude protein...

  9. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    compounds these must first be undergo extracellular hydrolysis. Bacteria have a great diversity with respect to types of metabolism that far exceeds the metabolic repertoire of eukaryotic organisms. Bacteria play a fundamental role in the biosphere and certain key processes such as, for example......, the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity...... biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life....

  10. Influence of heterogeneous ammonium availability on bacterial community structure and the expression of nitrogen fixation and ammonium transporter genes during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouser, P.J.; N' Guessan, A.L.; Elifantz, H.; Holmes, D.E.; Williams, K.H.; Wilkins, M.J.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.

    2009-04-01

    The impact of ammonium availability on microbial community structure and the physiological status and activity of Geobacter species during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater was evaluated. Ammonium concentrations varied by as much as two orders of magnitude (<4 to 400 {micro}M) across the study site. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that ammonium influenced the composition of the microbial community prior to acetate addition with Rhodoferax species predominating over Geobacter species at the site with the highest ammonium, and Dechloromonas species dominating at sites with lowest ammonium. However, once acetate was added, and dissimilatory metal reduction was stimulated, Geobacter species became the predominant organisms at all locations. Rates of U(VI) reduction appeared to be more related to the concentration of acetate that was delivered to each location rather than the amount of ammonium available in the groundwater. In situ mRNA transcript abundance of the nitrogen fixation gene, nifD, and the ammonium importer gene, amtB, in Geobacter species indicated that ammonium was the primary source of nitrogen during in situ uranium reduction, and that the abundance of amtB transcripts was inversely correlated to ammonium levels across all sites examined. These results suggest that nifD and amtB expression by subsurface Geobacter species are closely regulated in response to ammonium availability to ensure an adequate supply of nitrogen while conserving cell resources. Thus, quantifying nifD and amtB expression appears to be a useful approach for monitoring the nitrogen-related physiological status of Geobacter species in subsurface environments during bioremediation. This study also emphasizes the need for more detailed analysis of geochemical/physiological interactions at the field scale, in order to adequately model subsurface microbial processes.

  11. Molecular characterization of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from brazilian agricultural plants at São Paulo state Caracterização molecular de bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio isoladas de plantas brasileiras no estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica. L. Reinhardt

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria were isolated from different agricultural plant species, including cassava, maize and sugarcane, using nitrogen-deprived selective isolation conditions. Ability to fix nitrogen was verified by the acetylene reduction assay. All potentially nitrogen-fixing strains tested showed positive hybridization signals with a nifH probe derived from Azospirillum brasilense. The strains were characterized by RAPD, ARDRA and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. RAPD analyses revealed 8 unique genotypes, the remaining 6 strains clustered into 3 RAPD groups, suggesting a clonal origin. ARDRA and 16S rDNA sequence analyses allowed the assignment of 13 strains to known groups of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, including organisms from the genera Azospirillum, Herbaspirillum, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae. Two strains were classified as Stenotrophomonas ssp. Molecular identification results from 16S rDNA analyses were also corroborated by morphological and biochemical data.Quatorze linhagens de bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio foram isoladas de diferentes espécies de plantas, incluindo cassava, milho e cana-de-açúcar, usando condições seletivas desprovidas de nitrogênio. A capacidade de fixar nitrogênio foi verificada por ensaio de redução de acetileno. Todas as linhagens fixadoras de nitrogênio testadas apresentaram hibridização positiva com sonda de gene nifH derivada de Azospirillum brasilense. As linhagens foram caracterizadas por RAPD, ARDRA e sequenciamento do gene 16S rDNA. As análises de RAPD revelaram 8 genótipos, as 6 linhagens restantes foram agrupadas em 3 grupos de RAPD, sugerindo uma origem clonal. ARDRA e seqüências de 16S rDNA foram alocadas em 13 grupos conhecidos de bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio, incluindo organismos dos gêneros Azospirillum, Herbaspirillum, Pseudomonas e Enterobacteriaceae. Duas linhagens foram classificadas como Stenotrophomonas ssp. Os resultados da identifica

  12. [Assimilation of biological nitrogen by European beaver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecherskiĭ, M V; Naumova, E I; Kostina, N V; Umarov, M M

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogenase activity, the abundance of diazotrophic bacteria, the structure and functional characteristics of the complex of microorganisms, and the content of nitrogen and carbon were determined in the contents of the gastrointestinal tract of the European beaver. A high nitrogen-fixing activity in the large intestine correlated with an increase in nitrogen content in the chyme upon its transfer over the gastrointestinal tract. It is assumed that microbial nitrogen fixation plays a major role in nitrogen nutrition of the European beaver.

  13. Enhancing biological nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danso, S.K.A.; Eskew, D.L. (Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Vienna (Austria))

    1984-06-01

    Several co-ordinated research programmes (CRPs) conducted by the Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division have concentrated on finding the most efficient way of applying nitrogen fertilizers to various crops, using nitrogen-15 (/sup 15/N) as a tracer. The findings of these studies have been adopted in many countries around the world, resulting in savings of nitrogen fertilizers worth many millions of dollars every year. More recently, the Section's CRPs have focused on enhancing the natural process of biological di-nitrogen fixation. The /sup 15/N isotope technique has proven to be very valuable in studies of the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis, allowing many more experiments than before to be done and yielding much new practical information. The Soils Section is now working to extend the use of the technique to other nitrogen-fixing symbioses.

  14. Swivel Joint For Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, James F.

    1988-01-01

    Swivel joint allows liquid-nitrogen pipe to rotate through angle of 100 degree with respect to mating pipe. Functions without cracking hard foam insulation on lines. Pipe joint rotates on disks so mechanical stress not transmitted to thick insulation on pipes. Inner disks ride on fixed outer disks. Disks help to seal pressurized liquid nitrogen flowing through joint.

  15. Nitrogen Fixation in Cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stal, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria that are widespread in marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments and many of them are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen. But ironically, nitrogenase, the enzyme that is responsible for the reduction of N2, is extremely sensitive to O2.

  16. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate and alginate from glycerol by Azotobacter vinelandii under nitrogen-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Fuminori; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is an interesting feedstock for biomaterials such as biofuels and bioplastics because of its abundance as a by-product during biodiesel production. Here we demonstrate glycerol metabolism in the nitrogen-fixing species Azotobacter vinelandii through metabolomics and nitrogen-free bacterial production of biopolymers, such as poly-d-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and alginate, from glycerol. Glycerol-3-phosphate was accumulated in A. vinelandii cells grown on glycerol to the exponential phase, and its level drastically decreased in the cells grown to the stationary growth phase. A. vinelandii also overexpressed the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene when it was grown on glycerol. These results indicate that glycerol was first converted to glycerol-3-phosphate by glycerol kinase. Other molecules with industrial interests, such as lactic acid and amino acids including γ-aminobutyric acid, have also been accumulated in the bacterial cells grown on glycerol. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that glycerol-grown A. vinelandii stored PHB within the cells. The PHB production level reached 33% per dry cell weight in nitrogen-free glycerol medium. When grown on glycerol, alginate-overproducing mutants generated through chemical mutagenesis produced 2-fold the amount of alginate from glycerol than the parental wild-type strain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on bacterial production of biopolymers from glycerol without addition of any nitrogen source.

  17. Loss of the nodule-specific cysteine rich peptide, NCR169, abolishes symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the Medicago truncatula dnf7 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Beatrix; Domonkos, Ágota; Kereszt, Attila; Szűcs, Attila; Ábrahám, Edit; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Bóka, Károly; Chen, Yuhui; Chen, Rujin; Murray, Jeremy D; Udvardi, Michael K; Kondorosi, Éva; Kaló, Péter

    2015-12-08

    Host compatible rhizobia induce the formation of legume root nodules, symbiotic organs within which intracellular bacteria are present in plant-derived membrane compartments termed symbiosomes. In Medicago truncatula nodules, the Sinorhizobium microsymbionts undergo an irreversible differentiation process leading to the development of elongated polyploid noncultivable nitrogen fixing bacteroids that convert atmospheric dinitrogen into ammonia. This terminal differentiation is directed by the host plant and involves hundreds of nodule specific cysteine-rich peptides (NCRs). Except for certain in vitro activities of cationic peptides, the functional roles of individual NCR peptides in planta are not known. In this study, we demonstrate that the inability of M. truncatula dnf7 mutants to fix nitrogen is due to inactivation of a single NCR peptide, NCR169. In the absence of NCR169, bacterial differentiation was impaired and was associated with early senescence of the symbiotic cells. Introduction of the NCR169 gene into the dnf7-2/NCR169 deletion mutant restored symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Replacement of any of the cysteine residues in the NCR169 peptide with serine rendered it incapable of complementation, demonstrating an absolute requirement for all cysteines in planta. NCR169 was induced in the cell layers in which bacteroid elongation was most pronounced, and high expression persisted throughout the nitrogen-fixing nodule zone. Our results provide evidence for an essential role of NCR169 in the differentiation and persistence of nitrogen fixing bacteroids in M. truncatula.

  18. Effect of combined N applied at low level on the nitrogen fixation by grasses and contribution to nitrogen fertility in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yunyin; Chen Ming; Ma Changlin

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the study on the effect of combined N applied at low level on teh nitrogen fixation by alfalfa in monoculture and mixed culture with meadow fescue, and the effect on the absorption and utilization of indigenous soil nitrogen and nitrogen fertilizer. Amount of nitrogen fixed by alfalfa could be raised and duration of high peak of symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity could be extended when nitrogen fertilizer was applied reasonably. It was especially important for the early pastures or pastures with low supporting nitrogen capacity. Transfer of nitrogen fixed by alfalfa to meadow fescue occured in mixed culture. Nitrogen fixed from alfalfa was uptaken more easily than indigenous nitrogen in soil. Planting alfalfa could raise soil fertility significantly. Meadow fescue may be able to fix nitrogen from the air in some way. When combined N was appropriately applied to soil, on which alfalfa and meadow fescue had been planted, it could promote increasing nitrogen fertility in soil

  19. Biodegradation of Various Aromatic Compounds by Enriched Bacterial Cultures: Part B--Nitrogen-, Sulfur-, and Oxygen-Containing Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Akashdeep Singh; Philip, Ligy; Bhallamudi, S Murty

    2015-07-01

    Present study focused on the biodegradation of various heterocyclic nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen (NSO) compounds using naphthalene-enriched culture. Target compounds in the study were pyridine, quinoline, benzothiophene, and benzofuran. Screening studies were carried out using different microbial consortia enriched with specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and NSO compounds. Among different microbial consortia, naphthalene-enriched culture was the most efficient consortium based on high substrate degradation rate. Substrate degradation rate with naphthalene-enriched culture followed the order pyridine > quinoline > benzofuran > benzothiophene. Benzothiophene and benzofuran were found to be highly recalcitrant pollutants. Benzothiophene could not be biodegraded when concentration was above 50 mg/l. It was observed that 2-(1H)-quinolinone, benzothiophene-2-one, and benzofuran-2,3-dione were formed as metabolic intermediates during biodegradation of quinoline, benzothiophene, and benzofuran, respectively. Quinoline-N and pyridine-N were transformed into free ammonium ions during the biodegradation process. Biodegradation pathways for various NSO compounds are proposed. Monod inhibition model was able to simulate single substrate biodegradation kinetics satisfactorily. Benzothiophene and benzofuran biodegradation kinetics, in presence of acetone, was simulated using a generalized multi-substrate model.

  20. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation. Final program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  1. The nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Lisa Y; Klotz, Martin G

    2016-02-08

    Nitrogen is the fourth most abundant element in cellular biomass, and it comprises the majority of Earth's atmosphere. The interchange between inert dinitrogen gas (N2) in the extant atmosphere and 'reactive nitrogen' (those nitrogen compounds that support, or are products of, cellular metabolism and growth) is entirely controlled by microbial activities. This was not the case, however, in the primordial atmosphere, when abiotic reactions likely played a significant role in the inter-transformation of nitrogen oxides. Although such abiotic reactions are still important, the extant nitrogen cycle is driven by reductive fixation of dinitrogen and an enzyme inventory that facilitates dinitrogen-producing reactions. Prior to the advent of the Haber-Bosch process (the industrial fixation of N2 into ammonia, NH3) in 1909, nearly all of the reactive nitrogen in the biosphere was generated and recycled by microorganisms. Although the Haber-Bosch process more than quadrupled the productivity of agricultural crops, chemical fertilizers and other anthropogenic sources of fixed nitrogen now far exceed natural contributions, leading to unprecedented environmental degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental factors influencing milk urea nitrogen in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    following fixed effects model, in matrix notation, was used for the ANOVA: .... Estimation of genetic parameters for milk urea nitrogen and its ... urea nitrogen concentration: Heritability and genetic correlations with reproductive performance and.

  3. The nitrogen cycle on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    1989-01-01

    Nirtogen is an essential element for the evolution of life, because it is found in a variety of biologically important molecules. Therefore, N is an important element to study from a exobiological perspective. In particular, fixed nitrogen is the biologically useful form of nitrogen. Fixed nitrogen is generally defines as NH3, NH4(+), NO(x), or N that is chemically bound to either inorganic or organic molecules, and releasable by hydrolysis to NH3 or NH4(+). On Earth, the vast majority of nitrogen exists as N2 in the atmosphere, and not in the fixes form. On early Mars the same situations probably existed. The partial pressure of N2 on early Mars was thought to be 18 mb, significantly less than that of Earth. Dinitrogen can be fixed abiotically by several mechanisms. These mechanisms include thernal shock from meteoritic infall and lightning, as well as the interaction of light and sand containing TiO2 which produces NH3 that would be rapidly destroyed by photolysis and reaction with OH radicals. These mechanisms could have been operative on primitive Mars.The chemical processes effecting these compounds and possible ways of fixing or burying N in the Martian environment are described. Data gathered in this laboratory suggest that the low abundance of nitrogen along (compared to primitive Earth) may not significantly deter the origin and early evolution of a nitrogen utilizing organisms. However, the conditions on current Mars with respect to nitrogen are quite different, and organisms may not be able to utilize all of the available nitrogen.

  4. Root nodule symbiosis in Lotus japonicus drives the establishment of distinctive rhizosphere, root, and nodule bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Jensen, Dorthe Bodker; Koprivova, Anna; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Radutoiu, Simona

    2016-12-06

    Lotus japonicus has been used for decades as a model legume to study the establishment of binary symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia that trigger root nodule organogenesis for bacterial accommodation. Using community profiling of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we reveal that in Lotus, distinctive nodule- and root-inhabiting communities are established by parallel, rather than consecutive, selection of bacteria from the rhizosphere and root compartments. Comparative analyses of wild-type (WT) and symbiotic mutants in Nod factor receptor5 (nfr5), Nodule inception (nin) and Lotus histidine kinase1 (lhk1) genes identified a previously unsuspected role of the nodulation pathway in the establishment of different bacterial assemblages in the root and rhizosphere. We found that the loss of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis dramatically alters community structure in the latter two compartments, affecting at least 14 bacterial orders. The differential plant growth phenotypes seen between WT and the symbiotic mutants in nonsupplemented soil were retained under nitrogen-supplemented conditions that blocked the formation of functional nodules in WT, whereas the symbiosis-impaired mutants maintain an altered community structure in the nitrogen-supplemented soil. This finding provides strong evidence that the root-associated community shift in the symbiotic mutants is a direct consequence of the disabled symbiosis pathway rather than an indirect effect resulting from abolished symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Our findings imply a role of the legume host in selecting a broad taxonomic range of root-associated bacteria that, in addition to rhizobia, likely contribute to plant growth and ecological performance.

  5. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Karen L.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency. Empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy should be initiated as soon as a single set of blood cultures has been obtained. Clinical signs suggestive of bacterial meningitis include fever, headache, meningismus, vomiting, photophobia, and an

  6. Terrestrial nitrogen cycles: Some unanswered questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, P.

    1984-01-01

    Nitrogen is generally considered to be the element which most often limits the growth of plants in both natural and agricultural ecosystems. It regulates plant growth because photosynthetic rates are strongly dependent on the concentration of nitrogen in leaves, and because relatively large mounts of protein are required for cell division and growth. Yet nitrogen is abundant in the biosphere - the well-mixed pool in the atmosphere is considered inexhaustible compared to biotic demand, and the amount of already fixed organic nitrogen in soils far exceeds annual plant uptake in terrestrial ecosystems. In regions where natural vegetation is not nitrogen limited, continuous cultivation induces nitrogen deficiency. Nitrogen loss from cultivated lands is more rapid than that of other elements, and nitrogen fertilization is generally required to maintain crop yield under any continuous system. The pervasiveness of nitrogen deficiency in many natural and most managed sites is discussed.

  7. Penggunaan Azospirillum pada Tanah Masam dengan Aluminium Tinggi Terhadap Produksi dan Serapan Nitrogen Rumput Setaria splendida dan Chloris gayana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D.M.H. Karti

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available High content of Al on the soil maybe harmful (toxic for plant. Red and yellow podzolic soil was marginal land that characterized by high Al content. Azospirillum is free living N fixing bacteria that can be associated with grass. This research was conducted to find the best yield of grass planted on the soil inoculated with Azospirillum. The research consisted of some steps; 1 soil sampling 2 laboratory research: bacterial isolation, isolate selection, standardized of population, content of IAA 3 pod experiment. Pod experiment in the glass house was designed in completely randomized design, that consisted of six treatments. The variables observed were dry mass production of shoot and root, nitrogen content of shoot and root, and nitrogen absorption. Four best isolates chosen were; SM Setaria, OBIS/BD, PO2 and PM2. Azospirillum isolates enhanced shoot and root production, nitrogen content and N total absorption of tolerance one (S. splendida. The susceptible (C. gayana, Azospirillum significantly enhanced shoot and root nitrogen content, but did not affect the growth, production and N total absorption. Root growth that was inhibited by Al toxicity, decreased the symbiotic capability of nitrogen fixing bacteria. PM2 isolate showed the best effect on production and quality of S. splendida as well as on C. gayana. This isolate will be used for future research. PM2 produces 6.4 ppm Indole Acetic Acid that promoted root growth.

  8. Wpływ szczepów bakterii wyizolowanych z hydroponicznej uprawy sałaty (Lactuca sativa L. na wzrost siewek sałaty, rosnących w obecnosci rożnych form pożywienia azotowego [Influence of bacterial strains isolated from hydroponic cultures of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. on the growth of lettuce seedlings growing in the presence of various forms of nitrogen nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kobierzyńska-Gołąb

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 320 bacterial strains isolated from the surface of cultivated plants, as well as from other parts of hydroponic cultures showed stimulating (49 bacterial strains or inhibitory (9 bacterial strains properties in respect to the investigated plant. The following bacteria were isolated: Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Agrobacterium, Achromobacter and Chromobacterium. The effects of active bacterial strains on the growth of seedlings were investigated in dependence on the kind of inorganic form of nitrogen present in the nutrient solutions. The same bacterial strains exerted a stimulating effect on seedlings growing on nitrates, weaker stimulation was observed in cultures with ammonium nitrate; the growth of lettuce seedlings on nutrient solution with ammonium only, was, as a rule, inhibited by the bacteria.

  9. Identification and characterisation of potential biofertilizer bacterial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöz, Kenan; Kotan, Recep; Dadaşoǧlu, Fatih; Dadaşoǧlu, Esin

    2016-04-01

    In this study we aimed that isolation, identification and characterizations of PGPR strains from rhizosphere of legume plants. 188 bacterial strains isolated from different legume plants like clover, sainfoin and vetch in Erzurum province of Turkey. These three plants are cultivated commonly in the Erzurum province. It was screen that 50 out of 188 strains can fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphate. These strains were identified via MIS (Microbial identification system). According to MIS identification results, 40 out of 50 strains were identified as Bacillus, 5 as Pseudomonas, 3 as Paenibacillus, 1 as Acinetobacter, 1 as Brevibacterium. According to classical test results, while the catalase test result of all isolates are positive, oxidase, KOH and starch hydrolysis rest results are variable.

  10. Fuel rod fixing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    This is a reusable system for fixing a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support. An interlock cap is fixed to the fuel rod and an interlock strip is fixed to the support. The interlock cap has two opposed fingers, which are shaped so that a base is formed with a body part. The interlock strip has an extension, which is shaped so that this is rigidly fixed to the body part of the base. The fingers of the interlock cap are elastic in bending. To fix it, the interlock cap is pushed longitudinally on to the interlock strip, which causes the extension to bend the fingers open in order to engage with the body part of the base. To remove it, the procedure is reversed. (orig.) [de

  11. Bacterial Infections across the Ants: Frequency and Prevalence of Wolbachia, Spiroplasma, and Asaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Kautz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endosymbionts are common across insects, but we often lack a deeper knowledge of their prevalence across most organisms. Next-generation sequencing approaches can characterize bacterial diversity associated with a host and at the same time facilitate the fast and simultaneous screening of infectious bacteria. In this study, we used 16S rRNA tag encoded amplicon pyrosequencing to survey bacterial communities of 310 samples representing 221 individuals, 176 colonies and 95 species of ants. We found three distinct endosymbiont groups—Wolbachia (Alphaproteobacteria: Rickettsiales, Spiroplasma (Firmicutes: Entomoplasmatales, and relatives of Asaia (Alphaproteobacteria: Rhodospirillales—at different infection frequencies (at the ant species level: 22.1%, 28.4%, and 14.7%, resp. and relative abundances within bacterial communities (1.0%–99.9%. Spiroplasma was particularly enriched in the ant genus Polyrhachis, while Asaia relatives were most prevalent in arboreal ants of the genus Pseudomyrmex. While Wolbachia and Spiroplasma have been surveyed in ants before, Asaia, an acetic acid bacterium capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, has received much less attention. Due to sporadic prevalence across all ant taxa investigated, we hypothesize facultative associations for all three bacterial genera. Infection patterns are discussed in relation to potential adaptation of specific bacteria in certain ant groups.

  12. Nitrogen research for perennial crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, G.D.; Danso, S.K.A.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes the role of trees in restoring and maintaining soil fertility. Cropping systems that include trees can provide the ecological framework within which food, fuelwood, and fibre production can be intergrated. The IAEA has been actively involved in studies on nitrogen-fixing pasture legumes and is ready to embark on similar studies of trees. 1 tab

  13. How Does Salinity Shape Bacterial and Fungal Microbiomes of Alnus glutinosa Roots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiem, Dominika; Gołębiewski, Marcin; Hulisz, Piotr; Piernik, Agnieszka; Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Black alder (Alnus glutinosa Gaertn.) belongs to dual mycorrhizal trees, forming ectomycorrhizal (EM) and arbuscular (AM) root structures, as well as represents actinorrhizal plants that associate with nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia sp. We hypothesized that the unique ternary structure of symbionts can influence community structure of other plant-associated microorganisms (bacterial and fungal endophytes), particularly under seasonally changing salinity in A. glutinosa roots. In our study we analyzed black alder root bacterial and fungal microbiome present at two forest test sites (saline and non-saline) in two different seasons (spring and fall). The dominant type of root microsymbionts of alder were ectomycorrhizal fungi, whose distribution depended on site (salinity): Tomentella, Lactarius, and Phialocephala were more abundant at the saline site. Mortierella and Naucoria (representatives of saprotrophs or endophytes) displayed the opposite tendency. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi belonged to Glomeromycota (orders Paraglomales and Glomales), however, they represented less than 1% of all identified fungi. Bacterial community structure depended on test site but not on season. Sequences affiliated with Rhodanobacter, Granulicella, and Sphingomonas dominated at the saline site, while Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium were more abundant at the non-saline site. Moreover, genus Frankia was observed only at the saline site. In conclusion, bacterial and fungal community structure of alder root microsymbionts and endophytes depends on five soil chemical parameters: salinity, phosphorus, pH, saturation percentage (SP) as well as total organic carbon (TOC), and seasonality does not appear to be an important factor shaping microbial communities. Ectomycorrhizal fungi are the most abundant symbionts of mature alders growing in saline soils. However, specific distribution of nitrogen-fixing Frankia (forming root nodules) and association of arbuscular fungi at early stages of

  14. Effect of water salinity on wheat inoculated with N fixing bacteria using 15N tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sayed, M. A.; Soliman, S. M.; Galal, Y. G. M.; El-Hadidi, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under greenhouse controlled conditions to investigate the effect of water salinity and bacterial inoculation on growth parameters and nutrient uptake by wheat ( Triticum aestivum, L. seda 6). Dry matter yield of shoots was gradually increased with increasing water salinity levels under dual inoculation (Rh + Az). This phenomenon was more pronounced with 6 ds m -1 rather than 3 ds m -1 water salinity level. This holds true with all inoculation treatments. Similar trend was noticed with root dry matter yield. N uptake by shoots was positively affected by water salinity levels under bacterial inoculation especially the dual treatments where N uptake tended to increase with increasing water salinity levels. N uptake by roots was severely affected by increasing water salinity levels as compared to fresh water treatment. N uptake by shoots was enhanced by inoculation under different water salinity levels as compared to the un inoculated treatment. Nitrogen uptake roots was dramatically affected by inoculation. It was only increased by inoculation when plants were irrigated with fresh water. Portions of Ndff were frequently affected by both water salinity levels and microbial inoculation. wheat plant as representative of cereal crops was more dependent on the portion of nitrogen up taken from fertilizer rather than those fixed from the air. Therefore, the plant-bacteria association was not efficient enough. Inoculated treatments compensated considerable amounts of its N demand from air beside those derived from fertilizer, therefore the remained N from fertilizer in soil was higher than those of un inoculated control which is more dependable on Ndff as well as Ndf s. 1 5N recovery by wheat plants was enhanced by bacterial inoculation as well as water salinity levels did. (Author)

  15. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Bidochka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates.

  16. Heterotrophic N2-fixation contributes to nitrogen economy of a common wetland sedge, Schoenoplectus californicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejmánková, Eliška; Sirová, Dagmara; Castle, Stephanie T; Bárta, Jiří; Carpenter, Heather

    2018-01-01

    A survey of the ecological variability within 52 populations of Schoenoplectus californicus (C.A. Mey.) Soják across its distributional range revealed that it is commonly found in nitrogen (N) limited areas, but rarely in phosphorus limited soils. We explored the hypothesis that S. californicus supplements its nitrogen demand by bacterial N2-fixation processes associated with its roots and rhizomes. We estimated N2-fixation of diazotrophs associated with plant rhizomes and roots from several locations throughout the species' range and conducted an experiment growing plants in zero, low, and high N additions. Nitrogenase activity in rhizomes and roots was measured using the acetylene reduction assay. The presence of diazotrophs was verified by the detection of the nifH gene. Nitrogenase activity was restricted to rhizomes and roots and it was two orders of magnitude higher in the latter plant organs (81 and 2032 nmol C2H4 g DW-1 d-1, respectively). Correspondingly, 40x more nifH gene copies were found on roots compared to rhizomes. The proportion of the nifH gene copies in total bacterial DNA was positively correlated with the nitrogenase activity. In the experiment, the contribution of fixed N to the plant N content ranged from 13.8% to 32.5% among clones from different locations. These are relatively high values for a non-cultivated plant and justify future research on the link between N-fixing bacteria and S. californicus production.

  17. Application of Bioorganic Fertilizer Significantly Increased Apple Yields and Shaped Bacterial Community Structure in Orchard Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Jing; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2017-02-01

    and Rhodospirillaceae, were found to be the significantly increased by the BOF addition and the genus Lysobacter may identify members of this group effective in biological control-based plant disease management and the members of family Rhodospirillaceae had an important role in fixing molecular nitrogen. These results strengthen the understanding of responses to the BOF and possible interactions within bacterial communities in soil that can be associated with disease suppression and the accumulation of carbon and nitrogen. The increase of apple yields after the application of BOF might be attributed to the fact that the application of BOF increased SOM, and soil total nitrogen, and changed the bacterial community by enriching Rhodospirillaceae, Alphaprotreobateria, and Proteobacteria.

  18. Role of antimicrobial peptides in controlling symbiotic bacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergaert, P

    2018-04-25

    Covering: up to 2018 Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been known for well over three decades as crucial mediators of the innate immune response in animals and plants, where they are involved in the killing of infecting microbes. However, AMPs have now also been found to be produced by eukaryotic hosts during symbiotic interactions with bacteria. These symbiotic AMPs target the symbionts and therefore have a more subtle biological role: not eliminating the microbial symbiont population but rather keeping it in check. The arsenal of AMPs and the symbionts' adaptations to resist them are in a careful balance, which contributes to the establishment of the host-microbe homeostasis. Although in many cases the biological roles of symbiotic AMPs remain elusive, for a number of symbiotic interactions, precise functions have been assigned or proposed to the AMPs, which are discussed here. The microbiota living on epithelia in animals, from the most primitive ones to the mammals, are challenged by a cocktail of AMPs that determine the specific composition of the bacterial community as well as its spatial organization. In the symbiosis of legume plants with nitrogen-fixing rhizobium bacteria, the host deploys an extremely large panel of AMPs - called nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides - that drive the bacteria into a terminally differentiated state and manipulate the symbiont physiology to maximize the benefit for the host. The NCR peptides are used as tools to enslave the bacterial symbionts, limiting their reproduction but keeping them metabolically active for nitrogen fixation. In the nutritional symbiotic interactions of insects and protists that have vertically transmitted bacterial symbionts with reduced genomes, symbiotic AMPs could facilitate the integration of the endosymbiont and host metabolism by favouring the flow of metabolites across the symbiont membrane through membrane permeabilization.

  19. Fixed automated spray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    This research project evaluated the construction and performance of Boschungs Fixed Automated : Spray Technology (FAST) system. The FAST system automatically sprays de-icing material on : the bridge when icing conditions are about to occur. The FA...

  20. Complete genome sequence of the N2-fixing broad host range endophyte Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and virulence predictions verified in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick E Fouts

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the nitrogen-fixing endophyte, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342. Although K. pneumoniae 342 is a member of the enteric bacteria, it serves as a model for studies of endophytic, plant-bacterial associations due to its efficient colonization of plant tissues (including maize and wheat, two of the most important crops in the world, while maintaining a mutualistic relationship that encompasses supplying organic nitrogen to the host plant. Genomic analysis examined K. pneumoniae 342 for the presence of previously identified genes from other bacteria involved in colonization of, or growth in, plants. From this set, approximately one-third were identified in K. pneumoniae 342, suggesting additional factors most likely contribute to its endophytic lifestyle. Comparative genome analyses were used to provide new insights into this question. Results included the identification of metabolic pathways and other features devoted to processing plant-derived cellulosic and aromatic compounds, and a robust complement of transport genes (15.4%, one of the highest percentages in bacterial genomes sequenced. Although virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were predicted, experiments conducted using mouse models showed pathogenicity to be attenuated in this strain. Comparative genomic analyses with the presumed human pathogen K. pneumoniae MGH78578 revealed that MGH78578 apparently cannot fix nitrogen, and the distribution of genes essential to surface attachment, secretion, transport, and regulation and signaling varied between each genome, which may indicate critical divergences between the strains that influence their preferred host ranges and lifestyles (endophytic plant associations for K. pneumoniae 342 and presumably human pathogenesis for MGH78578. Little genome information is available concerning endophytic bacteria. The K. pneumoniae 342 genome will drive new research into this less-understood, but

  1. Fixed mobile convergence handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A

    2010-01-01

    From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo

  2. Growth and foliar nitrogen concentrations of interplanted native woody legumes and pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W. Van Sambeek; Nadia E. Navarrete-Tindall; Kenneth L. Hunt

    2008-01-01

    The interplanting and underplanting of nodulated nitrogen-fixing plants in tree plantings can increase early growth and foliage nitrogen content of hardwoods, especially black walnut and pecan. Recent studies have demonstrated that some non-nodulated woody legumes may be capable of fixing significant levels of atmospheric nitrogen. The following nine nurse crop...

  3. Two isotopic methods for estimation of soybean nitrogen fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenach, A.-M.; Chalamet, Alain; Pachiaudi, Christiane

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of rate of nitrogen symbiotic fixation by Soybean were determined by two different methods: variations in the natural abundance of 15 N in plants; use of 'A' value determined from labelled nitrogen applications to the soil. The results from both methods were in good agreement. Rates of fixed nitrogen were similar when using non nodulated Soybean or Ray-Grass as reference [fr

  4. Two isotopic methods for estimation of soybean nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenach, A M; Chalamet, A; Pachiaudi, C [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1979-07-16

    Measurements of rate of nitrogen symbiotic fixation by Soybean were determined by two different methods: variations in the natural abundance of /sup 15/N in plants; use of 'A' value determined from labelled nitrogen applications to the soil. The results from both methods were in good agreement. Rates of fixed nitrogen were similar when using non nodulated Soybean or Ray-Grass as reference.

  5. Differential distribution and abundance of diazotrophic bacterial communities across different soil niches using a gene-targeted clone library approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Basit; Kumar, Raghawendra; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-11-01

    Diazotrophs are key players of the globally important biogeochemical nitrogen cycle, having a significant role in maintaining ecosystem sustainability. Saline soils are pristine and unexplored habitats representing intriguing ecosystems expected to harbour potential diazotrophs capable of adapting in extreme conditions, and these implicated organisms are largely obscure. Differential occurrence of diazotrophs was studied by the nifH gene-targeted clone library approach. Four nifH gene clone libraries were constructed from different soil niches, that is saline soils (low and high salinity; EC 3.8 and 7.1 ds m(-1) ), and agricultural and rhizosphere soil. Additionally, the abundance of diazotrophic community members was assessed using quantitative PCR. Results showed environment-dependent metabolic versatility and the presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria affiliated with a range of taxa, encompassing members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Firmicutes. The analyses unveiled the dominance of Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria (Pseudomonas, Halorhodospira, Ectothiorhodospira, Bradyrhizobium, Agrobacterium, Amorphomonas) as nitrogen fixers in coastal-saline soil ecosystems, and Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria (Bradyrhizobium, Azohydromonas, Azospirillum, Ideonella) in agricultural/rhizosphere ecosystems. The results revealed a repertoire of novel nitrogen-fixing bacterial guilds particularly in saline soil ecosystems. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anaerobic Nitrogen Fixers on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. G.

    2000-07-01

    The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen gas to the protein of living systems is an amazing process of nature. The first step in the process is biological nitrogen fixation, the transformation of N2 to NH3. The phenomenon is crucial for feeding the billions of our species on Earth. On Mars, the same process may allow us to discover how life can adapt to a hostile environment, and render it habitable. Hostile environments also exist on Earth. For example, nothing grows in coal refuse piles due to the oxidation of pyrite and marcasite to sulfuric acid. Yet, when the acidity is neutralized, alfalfa and soybean plants develop root nodules typical of symbiotic nitrogen fixation with Rhizobium species possibly living in the pyritic material. When split open, these nodules exhibited the pinkish color of leghemoglobin, a protein in the nodule protecting the active nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase against the toxic effects of oxygen. Although we have not yet obtained direct evidence of nitrogenase activity in these nodules (reduction of acetylene to ethylene, for example), these findings suggested the possibility that nitrogen fixation was taking place in this hostile, non-soil material. This immediately raises the possibility that freeliving anaerobic bacteria which fix atmospheric nitrogen on Earth, could do the same on Mars.

  7. Bacterial prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bradley C; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2016-02-01

    The review provides the infectious disease community with a urologic perspective on bacterial prostatitis. Specifically, the article briefly reviews the categorization of prostatitis by type and provides a distillation of new findings published on bacterial prostatitis over the past year. It also highlights key points from the established literature. Cross-sectional prostate imaging is becoming more common and may lead to more incidental diagnoses of acute bacterial prostatitis. As drug resistance remains problematic in this condition, the reemergence of older antibiotics such as fosfomycin, has proven beneficial. With regard to chronic bacterial prostatitis, no clear clinical risk factors emerged in a large epidemiological study. However, bacterial biofilm formation has been associated with more severe cases. Surgery has a limited role in bacterial prostatitis and should be reserved for draining of a prostatic abscess or the removal of infected prostatic stones. Prostatitis remains a common and bothersome clinical condition. Antibiotic therapy remains the basis of treatment for both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Further research into improving prostatitis treatment is indicated.

  8. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea . These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease ( ...

  9. Effects of water and nitrogen availability on nitrogen contribution by the legume, Lupinus argenteus Pursh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Goergen; Jeanne C. Chambers; Robert Blank

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing species contribute to ecosystem nitrogen budgets, but background resource levels influence nodulation, fixation, and plant growth. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine the separate and interacting effects of water and N availability on biomass production, tissue N concentration, nodulation, nodule activity, and rhizodeposition of ...

  10. Evaluation of the association nitrogen fixing bacterias interspecific – rice lines – nitrogen, in typic haplustalf. Ibagué, Colombia Evaluación de la asociación bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno – líneas interespecíficas de arroz–nitrógeno, en Typic haplustalf. Ibagué, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Correa Carmen Rosa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out at the Cauchitos farm, Ibague municipality department of Tolima, with bounds: North 4°23'51"; and west 75°9'7";, 979 ansm, the average temperature is 24,3°C, tropical dry forest (bs–t in the Holdridge classification. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between the nitrogen fixation bacteries with and without inoculo in 10 interespecific rice lines with three nitrogen dosis (0, 50 and 100% de 250 kg/ ha–1 and three repetitions. The inoculation was realized with 108 former units of colonies per millimeter. 2.260 bacteries of the generums Azotobacter spp y Azospirrillum spp., and identification the species: Azospirillum brasilense, Azospirillum lipoferum, Azospirillum amazonense, were identified and from the genus Azotobacter were identified the species: A. choroococcum, A. vinelandii, A. paspali and A. veijerinckii. Weren't found none significative differences after the inoculation. Azotobacter spp and Azospirillum spp. were typical generums of the bacterian flora in the rice plantation and in field conditions were effect of the treatment effects in the bacterian . The Azotobacter spp was the predominant in generum in each one of the treatments.El estudio se llevó a cabo en la hacienda Cauchitos, municipio de Ibagué, departamento del Tolima (Norte 4° 23' 51"; y Oeste 75° 9' 7";, 979 msnm, 24.3°C, bosque seco tropical (bs–T, con el objetivo de evaluar las asociaciones entre bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno con inóculo y sin él en diez líneas interespecíficas de arroz, con tres dosis de nitrógeno (0%, 50% y 100% de 250 kg/ha–1 y tres repeticiones por tratamiento. La inoculación se

  11. Evaluation of the biological nitrogen fixation contribution in sugarcane plants originated from seeds and inoculated with nitrogen-fixing endophytes Avaliação da contribuição da fixação biológica de nitrogênio em cana-de-açúcar originada de sementes e inoculada com endófitos fixadores de nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erineudo de Lima Canuto

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The inoculation technique with endophytic diazotrophic bacteria in sugarcane has been shown as an alternative practice to plant growth promotion. The aim of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF contribution by different strains of Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in sugarcane plant inoculated from seeds. The seeds were planted in pots filled with non-sterile soil, inoculated with the bacterial strains and grown 10 months outside of the greenhouse. The BNF contribution of the inoculated bacteria varied depending on the plant species used as a control. The highest BNF contribution as well as the highest populations of reisolated bacteria was observed with inoculation of H. seropedicae strains. The roots appeared to be the preferential tissues for the establishment of the inoculated species.A técnica de inoculação com bactérias diazotróficas endofíticas na cana-de-açúcar apresenta-se como uma prática alternativa para promover o crescimento vegetal menos dependente da adubação nitrogenada. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a contribuição da fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN por diferentes estirpes de Herbaspirillum seropedicae e Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus inoculadas em plantas de cana-de-açúcar originadas de semente. As sementes foram plantadas em vasos com solo não estéril, inoculadas com as diferentes bactérias e mantidas por 10 meses ao ar livre. As maiores contribuições da FBN ocorreram com a inoculação de estirpes Herbaspirillum seropedicae, e dependeram da espécie vegetal utilizada como testemunha. As raízes apresentaram-se como o órgão vegetal preferencial para o estabelecimento das espécies inoculadas.

  12. Least fixed points revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. de Bakker (Jaco)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractParameter mechanisms for recursive procedures are investigated. Contrary to the view of Manna et al., it is argued that both call-by-value and call-by-name mechanisms yield the least fixed points of the functionals determined by the bodies of the procedures concerned. These functionals

  13. Characterizing fixed points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo Zlobec

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A set of sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence of a point x⋆ such that f(x⋆ = x⋆ is called a "fixed point theorem". Many such theorems are named after well-known mathematicians and economists. Fixed point theorems are among most useful ones in applied mathematics, especially in economics and game theory. Particularly important theorem in these areas is Kakutani's fixed point theorem which ensures existence of fixed point for point-to-set mappings, e.g., [2, 3, 4]. John Nash developed and applied Kakutani's ideas to prove the existence of (what became known as "Nash equilibrium" for finite games with mixed strategies for any number of players. This work earned him a Nobel Prize in Economics that he shared with two mathematicians. Nash's life was dramatized in the movie "Beautiful Mind" in 2001. In this paper, we approach the system f(x = x differently. Instead of studying existence of its solutions our objective is to determine conditions which are both necessary and sufficient that an arbitrary point x⋆ is a fixed point, i.e., that it satisfies f(x⋆ = x⋆. The existence of solutions for continuous function f of the single variable is easy to establish using the Intermediate Value Theorem of Calculus. However, characterizing fixed points x⋆, i.e., providing answers to the question of finding both necessary and sufficient conditions for an arbitrary given x⋆ to satisfy f(x⋆ = x⋆, is not simple even for functions of the single variable. It is possible that constructive answers do not exist. Our objective is to find them. Our work may require some less familiar tools. One of these might be the "quadratic envelope characterization of zero-derivative point" recalled in the next section. The results are taken from the author's current research project "Studying the Essence of Fixed Points". They are believed to be original. The author has received several feedbacks on the preliminary report and on parts of the project

  14. Distinct summer and winter bacterial communities in the active layer of Svalbard permafrost revealed by DNA- and RNA-based analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schostag, Morten; Stibal, Marek; Jacobsen, Carsten S.; Bælum, Jacob; Taş, Neslihan; Elberling, Bo; Jansson, Janet K.; Semenchuk, Philipp; Priemé, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The active layer of soil overlaying permafrost in the Arctic is subjected to dramatic annual changes in temperature and soil chemistry, which likely affect bacterial activity and community structure. We studied seasonal variations in the bacterial community of active layer soil from Svalbard (78°N) by co-extracting DNA and RNA from 12 soil cores collected monthly over a year. PCR amplicons of 16S rRNA genes (DNA) and reverse transcribed transcripts (cDNA) were quantified and sequenced to test for the effect of low winter temperature and seasonal variation in concentration of easily degradable organic matter on the bacterial communities. The copy number of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts revealed no distinct seasonal changes indicating potential bacterial activity during winter despite soil temperatures well below −10°C. Multivariate statistical analysis of the bacterial diversity data (DNA and cDNA libraries) revealed a season-based clustering of the samples, and, e.g., the relative abundance of potentially active Cyanobacteria peaked in June and Alphaproteobacteria increased over the summer and then declined from October to November. The structure of the bulk (DNA-based) community was significantly correlated with pH and dissolved organic carbon, while the potentially active (RNA-based) community structure was not significantly correlated with any of the measured soil parameters. A large fraction of the 16S rRNA transcripts was assigned to nitrogen-fixing bacteria (up to 24% in June) and phototrophic organisms (up to 48% in June) illustrating the potential importance of nitrogen fixation in otherwise nitrogen poor Arctic ecosystems and of phototrophic bacterial activity on the soil surface. PMID:25983731

  15. Nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria stimulates production in Baltic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Agnes M L; Duberg, Jon; Motwani, Nisha H; Hogfors, Hedvig; Klawonn, Isabell; Ploug, Helle; Barthel Svedén, Jennie; Garbaras, Andrius; Sundelin, Brita; Hajdu, Susanna; Larsson, Ulf; Elmgren, Ragnar; Gorokhova, Elena

    2015-06-01

    Filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria form extensive summer blooms in the Baltic Sea. Their ability to fix dissolved N2 allows cyanobacteria to circumvent the general summer nitrogen limitation, while also generating a supply of novel bioavailable nitrogen for the food web. However, the fate of the nitrogen fixed by cyanobacteria remains unresolved, as does its importance for secondary production in the Baltic Sea. Here, we synthesize recent experimental and field studies providing strong empirical evidence that cyanobacterial nitrogen is efficiently assimilated and transferred in Baltic food webs via two major pathways: directly by grazing on fresh or decaying cyanobacteria and indirectly through the uptake by other phytoplankton and microbes of bioavailable nitrogen exuded from cyanobacterial cells. This information is an essential step toward guiding nutrient management to minimize noxious blooms without overly reducing secondary production, and ultimately most probably fish production in the Baltic Sea.

  16. The marine nitrogen cycle: recent discoveries, uncertainties and the potential relevance of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voss, M.; Bange, H.W.; Dippner, J.W.; Middelburg, J.J.; Montoya, J.P.; Ward, B.

    2013-01-01

    The ocean’s nitrogen cycle is driven by complex microbial transformations, including nitrogen fixation, assimilation, nitrification, anammox and denitrification. Dinitrogen is the most abundant form of nitrogen in sea water but only accessible by nitrogen-fixing microbes. Denitrification and

  17. Nitrogen efficiency of Dutch dairy farms : A shadow cost system approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhard, S.; Thijssen, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the cost efficiency and nitrogen efficiency of an unbalanced panel of Dutch dairy farms. Nitrogen efficiency is defined as the ratio of minimal to observed use of nitrogen (N-containing inputs), conditional on output and quasi-fixed inputs. Nitrogen efficiency is computed in

  18. QTL analysis of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in a black bean RIL population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) acquires nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere through symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) but it has a low efficiency to fix nitrogen. The objective of this study is to map the genes controlling nitrogen fixation in common bean. A mapping population consisting of 122 recomb...

  19. BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons like benzen e, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene, together known as BTEX, has almost the same chemical structure. These aromatic hydrocarbons are released as pollutants in th e environment. This work was taken up to develop a solvent tolerant bacterial cons ortium that could degrade BTEX compounds as they all share a common chemical structure. We have isolated almost 60 different types of bacterial strains from different petroleum contaminated sites. Of these 60 bacterial strains almost 20 microorganisms were screene d on the basis of capability to tolerate high concentration of BTEX. Ten differe nt consortia were prepared and the compatibility of the bacterial strains within the consortia was checked by gram staining and BTEX tolerance level. Four successful mi crobial consortia were selected in which all the bacterial strains concomitantly grew in presence of high concentration of BTEX (10% of toluene, 10% of benzene 5% ethyl benzene and 1% xylene. Consortium #2 showed the highest growth rate in pr esence of BTEX. Degradation of BTEX by consortium #2 was monitored for 5 days by gradual decrease in the volume of the solvents. The maximum reduction observed wa s 85% in 5 days. Gas chromatography results also reveal that could completely degrade benzene and ethyl benzene within 48 hours. Almost 90% degradation of toluene and xylene in 48 hours was exhibited by consortium #2. It could also tolerate and degrade many industrial solvents such as chloroform, DMSO, acetonitrile having a wide range of log P values (0.03–3.1. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon like BTEX by a solvent tolerant bacterial consortium is greatly significant as it could degrade high concentration of pollutants compared to a bacterium and also reduces the time span of degradation.

  20. Use of 15N-isotope dilution for quantification of nitrogen fixation in Saccharum SPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.; Singh, G.B.; Joshi, B.B.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of present study were to quantify and compare the amount of nitrogen fixed by diazotrophes associated with roots of Saccharum spontaneum, S. barberi and S. sinense using Sclerotachya fusca as a non-fixing control. 5 refs

  1. Strong Regionality and Dominance of Anaerobic Bacterial Taxa Characterize Diazotrophic Bacterial Communities of the Arcto-Alpine Plant Species Oxyria digyna and Saxifraga oppositifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Nissinen, Riitta

    2017-01-01

    Arctic and alpine biomes are most often strongly nitrogen-limited, and hence biological nitrogen fixation is a strong driver of these ecosystems. Both biomes are characterized by low temperatures and short growing seasons, but they differ in seasonality of solar radiation and in soil water balance due to underlying permafrost in the Arctic. Arcto-alpine plant species are well-adapted to the low temperatures that prevail in their habitats, and plant growth is mainly limited by the availability of nutrients, in particular nitrogen, due to slow mineralization. Nitrogen fixing bacteria are likely important for plant growth in these habitats, but very little is known of these bacteria or forces shaping their communities. In this study, we characterized the potential nitrogen fixing bacterial (PNFB) communities associated with two arcto-alpine pioneer plant species, Oxyria digyna (mountain sorrel) and Saxifraga oppositifolia (blue saxifrage), in three climate regions. Both of these plants readily colonize low nutrient mineral soils. Our goal was to investigate how climate (region) and, on the other hand, host plant and plant species shape these communities. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study describing PNFB communities associated with pioneer plants in different arcto-alpine biomes. Replicate samples were taken from two arctic regions, Kilpisjärvi and Ny-Ålesund, and one alpine region, Mayrhofen. In these, the PNFB communities in the bulk and rhizosphere soils and the plant endospheres were characterized by nifH -targeted PCR and massive parallel sequencing. The data revealed strong effects of climatic region on the dominating nitrogen fixers. Specifically, nifH sequences related to Geobacter (δ- Proteobacteria ) were present in high relative abundances in the nitrogen-fixing communities in the Mayrhofen and Kilpisjärvi regions, while members of the Clostridiales prevailed in the Kilpisjärvi and Ny-Ålesund regions. The bulk and rhizosphere soil

  2. Strong Regionality and Dominance of Anaerobic Bacterial Taxa Characterize Diazotrophic Bacterial Communities of the Arcto-Alpine Plant Species Oxyria digyna and Saxifraga oppositifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Arctic and alpine biomes are most often strongly nitrogen-limited, and hence biological nitrogen fixation is a strong driver of these ecosystems. Both biomes are characterized by low temperatures and short growing seasons, but they differ in seasonality of solar radiation and in soil water balance due to underlying permafrost in the Arctic. Arcto-alpine plant species are well-adapted to the low temperatures that prevail in their habitats, and plant growth is mainly limited by the availability of nutrients, in particular nitrogen, due to slow mineralization. Nitrogen fixing bacteria are likely important for plant growth in these habitats, but very little is known of these bacteria or forces shaping their communities. In this study, we characterized the potential nitrogen fixing bacterial (PNFB communities associated with two arcto-alpine pioneer plant species, Oxyria digyna (mountain sorrel and Saxifraga oppositifolia (blue saxifrage, in three climate regions. Both of these plants readily colonize low nutrient mineral soils. Our goal was to investigate how climate (region and, on the other hand, host plant and plant species shape these communities. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study describing PNFB communities associated with pioneer plants in different arcto-alpine biomes. Replicate samples were taken from two arctic regions, Kilpisjärvi and Ny-Ålesund, and one alpine region, Mayrhofen. In these, the PNFB communities in the bulk and rhizosphere soils and the plant endospheres were characterized by nifH-targeted PCR and massive parallel sequencing. The data revealed strong effects of climatic region on the dominating nitrogen fixers. Specifically, nifH sequences related to Geobacter (δ-Proteobacteria were present in high relative abundances in the nitrogen-fixing communities in the Mayrhofen and Kilpisjärvi regions, while members of the Clostridiales prevailed in the Kilpisjärvi and Ny-Ålesund regions. The bulk and

  3. Diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in cyanobacterial mats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severin, I.; Acinas, S.G.; Stal, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the microbial community and the diversity of the functional gene for dinitrogenase reductase and its transcripts were investigated by analyzing >1400 16S rRNA gene and nifH sequences from two microbial mats situated in the intertidal zone of the Dutch barrier island Schiermonnikoog.

  4. Synthetic biology approaches to engineering the nitrogen symbiosis in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Christian; Oldroyd, Giles E D

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen is abundant in the earth's atmosphere but, unlike carbon, cannot be directly assimilated by plants. The limitation this places on plant productivity has been circumvented in contemporary agriculture through the production and application of chemical fertilizers. The chemical reduction of nitrogen for this purpose consumes large amounts of energy and the reactive nitrogen released into the environment as a result of fertilizer application leads to greenhouse gas emissions, as well as widespread eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. The environmental impacts are intensified by injudicious use of fertilizers in many parts of the world. Simultaneously, limitations in the production and supply of chemical fertilizers in other regions are leading to low agricultural productivity and malnutrition. Nitrogen can be directly fixed from the atmosphere by some bacteria and Archaea, which possess the enzyme nitrogenase. Some plant species, most notably legumes, have evolved close symbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Engineering cereal crops with the capability to fix their own nitrogen could one day address the problems created by the over- and under-use of nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture. This could be achieved either by expression of a functional nitrogenase enzyme in the cells of the cereal crop or through transferring the capability to form a symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. While potentially transformative, these biotechnological approaches are challenging; however, with recent advances in synthetic biology they are viable long-term goals. This review discusses the possibility of these biotechnological solutions to the nitrogen problem, focusing on engineering the nitrogen symbiosis in cereals.

  5. Quantification of Atmospheric N2 Fixed by Cowpea, Pigeonpea and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at taking advantage of legumes to replenish soil nitrogen (N due to legumes' N2 fixation). Glasshouse pot ... In both cases, maize (Katumani variety) was the non- N2- fixing reference crop. ... Biological N2 fixation is affected by several factors,.

  6. Vilified and Fixed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa; Westberg, Lysa

    , and imbalances of power between scholars and journalists on one side, and fans on the other are not rare occurrences. An analysis of a number of recent news articles, scholarly works, and websites, shows how the attempt of fixing fandom still prevails. Like Said's view on how the Orient is treated, fandom...... and tween website", 'Teen' managed to outrage fans. It took days and hundreds of comments, tweets, and mails to the publishers, before the article was taken down. Vilification in scholarly works and the media may have significantly lessened in recent years. Still, misunderstandings, applied exoticism...... is similarly exotisised, incorporated, and fixed. Scholars explain how to become better fans, attempting authority over fandom by applying rules to a culture, which already has their own. This, the notion of the 'better fan', devalues the existing discourses, rules, and traditions within fandom. The expert...

  7. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    , which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly...... tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion...... is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters...

  8. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency. Vaccination against common pathogens has decreased the burden of disease. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy are vital. Therapy should be initiated as soon as blood cultures have been obtained,

  9. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation,

  10. Bacterial stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Bacterial stress. Physicochemical and chemical parameters: temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, oxygen, irradiation. Nutritional depravation: nutrient starvation, water shortage. Toxic compounds: Antibiotics, heavy metals, toxins, mutagens. Interactions with other cells: ...

  11. Nutrient and organic matter inputs to Hawaiian anchialine ponds: influences of n-fixing and non-n-fixing trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehauwealani K. Nelson-Kaula; Rebecca Ostertag; R. Flint Hughes; Bruce D. Dudley

    2016-01-01

    Invasive nitrogen-fixing plants often increase energy and nutrient inputs to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems via litterfall, and these effects may be more pronounced in areas lacking native N2-fixers. We examined organic matter and nutrient inputs to and around anchialine ponds...

  12. Effect of nitrogen and phosphate limitation on utilization of bitumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... utilization of bitumen and production of bitu-oil and gas by a bacterial ... nitrogen and phosphorus, with a consequent limitation on degradation of the ..... concluded that in industrial setting, carbon starvation in anaerobic ...

  13. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Herrero, Daniel; Andreu Domingo, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. It is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. This is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic populations most likely play an important role in its pathogenesis. The main symptoms are an increase of vaginal discharge and the unpleasant smell of it. It can lead to serious consequences for women, such as an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus and upper genital tract and pregnancy complications. Gram stain is the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of BV, but can also be diagnosed using the Amsel clinical criteria. It should not be considered a sexually transmitted disease but it is highly related to sex. Recurrence is the main problem of medical treatment. Apart from BV, there are other dysbacteriosis less characterized like aerobic vaginitis of which further studies are coming slowly but are achieving more attention and consensus among specialists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Fixed target beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Cettour-Cave, S; Cornelis, K; Fraser, M A; Gatignon, L; Goddard, B; Velotti, F

    2017-01-01

    The CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) serves asLHC injector and provides beam for the North Area fixedtarget experiments. At low energy, the vertical acceptancebecomes critical with high intensity large emittance fixed tar-get beams. Optimizing the vertical available aperture is a keyingredient to optimize transmission and reduce activationaround the ring. During the 2016 run a tool was developed toprovide an automated local aperture scan around the entirering.The flux of particles slow extracted with the1/3inte-ger resonance from the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERNshould ideally be constant over the length of the extractionplateau, for optimum use of the beam by the fixed target ex-periments in the North Area. The extracted intensity is con-trolled in feed-forward correction of the horizontal tune viathe main SPS quadrupoles. The Mains power supply noiseat 50 Hz and harmonics is also corrected in feed-forwardby small amplitude tune modulation at the respective fre-quencies with a dedicated additional quad...

  15. The Bacterial Community Structure and Dynamics of Carbon and Nitrogen when Maize (Zea mays L.) and Its Neutral Detergent Fibre Were Added to Soil from Zimbabwe with Contrasting Management Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz-Barrón, Magali; Cruz-Mendoza, Alejandra; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Ruiz-Valdiviezo, Victor M; Ortíz-Gutiérrez, Daniel; Ramírez-Villanueva, Daniel A; Luna-Guido, Marco; Thierfelder, Cristian; Wall, Patrick C; Verhulst, Nele; Govaerts, Bram; Dendooven, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Water infiltration, soil carbon content, aggregate stability and yields increased in conservation agriculture practices compared to conventionally ploughed control treatments at the Henderson research station near Mazowe (Zimbabwe). How these changes in soil characteristics affect the bacterial community structure and the bacteria involved in the degradation of applied organic material remains unanswered. Soil was sampled from three agricultural systems at Henderson, i.e. (1) conventional mouldboard ploughing with continuous maize (conventional tillage), (2) direct seeding with a Fitarelli jab planter and continuous maize (direct seeding with continuous maize) and (3) direct seeding with a Fitarelli jab planter with rotation of maize sunn hemp (direct seeding with crop rotation). Soil was amended with young maize plants or their neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and incubated aerobically for 56 days, while C and N mineralization and the bacterial community structure were monitored. Bacillus (Bacillales), Micrococcaceae (Actinomycetales) and phylotypes belonging to the Pseudomonadales were first degraders of the applied maize plants. At day 3, Streptomyces (Actinomycetales), Chitinophagaceae ([Saprospirales]) and Dyella (Xanthomonadales) participated in the degradation of the applied maize and at day 7 Oxalobacteraceae (Burkholderiales). Phylotypes belonging to Halomonas (Oceanospirillales) were the first degraders of NDF and were replaced by Phenylobacterium (Caulobacterales) and phylotypes belonging to Pseudomonadales at day 3. Afterwards, similar bacterial groups were favoured by application of NDF as they were by the application of maize plants, but there were also clear differences. Phylotypes belonging to the Micrococcaceae and Bacillus did not participate in the degradation of NDF or its metabolic products, while phylotypes belonging to the Acidobacteriaceae participated in the degradation of NDF but not in that of maize plants. It was found that agricultural

  16. Endophytic Colonization and In Planta Nitrogen Fixation by a Herbaspirillum sp. Isolated from Wild Rice Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbeltagy, Adel; Nishioka, Kiyo; Sato, Tadashi; Suzuki, Hisa; Ye, Bin; Hamada, Toru; Isawa, Tsuyoshi; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were isolated from the stems of wild and cultivated rice on a modified Rennie medium. Based on 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, the diazotrophic isolates were phylogenetically close to four genera: Herbaspirillum, Ideonella, Enterobacter, and Azospirillum. Phenotypic properties and signature sequences of 16S rDNA indicated that three isolates (B65, B501, and B512) belong to the Herbaspirillum genus. To examine whether Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 isolated from wild rice, Oryza officinalis, endophytically colonizes rice plants, the gfp gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was introduced into the bacteria. Observations by fluorescence stereomicroscopy showed that the GFP-tagged bacteria colonized shoots and seeds of aseptically grown seedlings of the original wild rice after inoculation of the seeds. Conversely, for cultivated rice Oryza sativa, no GFP fluorescence was observed for shoots and only weak signals were observed for seeds. Observations by fluorescence and electron microscopy revealed that Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 colonized mainly intercellular spaces in the leaves of wild rice. Colony counts of surface-sterilized rice seedlings inoculated with the GFP-tagged bacteria indicated significantly more bacterial populations inside the original wild rice than in cultivated rice varieties. Moreover, after bacterial inoculation, in planta nitrogen fixation in young seedlings of wild rice, O. officinalis, was detected by the acetylene reduction and 15N2 gas incorporation assays. Therefore, we conclude that Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 is a diazotrophic endophyte compatible with wild rice, particularly O. officinalis. PMID:11679357

  17. Potato Bacterial Wilt Management in the Central Highlands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management measures of potato wilt, late blight and viruses. The result ... symptom less carriers of the pathogen (Rueda,. 1990 .... diffuse light store (DLS) based on cost sharing. Bacterial wilt ..... nitrogen from the air which increases the availability of the element to the plant and ..... Bacterial wilt disease in Asia and South.

  18. The Global Nitrogen Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, J. N.

    2003-12-01

    effective fertilizer. However, the source of nitrogen was still uncertain. Lightning and atmospheric deposition were thought to be the most important sources. Although the existence of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) was unknown at that time, in 1838 Boussingault demonstrated that legumes restore Nr to the soil and that somehow they create Nr directly. It took almost 50 more years to solve the puzzle. In 1888, Herman Hellriegel (1831-1895) and Hermann Wilfarth (1853-1904) published their work on microbial communities. They noted that microorganisms associated with legumes have the ability to assimilate atmospheric N2 (Smil, 2001). They also said that it was necessary for a symbiotic relationship to exist between legumes and microorganisms.Other important processes that drive the cycle were elucidated in the nineteenth century. In the late 1870s, Theophile Scholesing proved the bacterial origins of nitrification. About a decade later, Serfei Nikolaevich Winogradsky isolated the two nitrifers - Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter - and showed that the species of the former genus oxidize ammonia to nitrite and that the species of the latter genus convert nitrite to nitrate. Then in 1885, Ulysse Gayon isolated cultures of two bacteria that convert nitrate to N2. Although there are only two bacterial genera that can convert N2 to Nr, several can convert Nr back to N2, most notably Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Alcaligenes (Smil, 2001).By the end of the nineteenth century, humans had discovered nitrogen and the essential components of the nitrogen cycle. In other words, they then knew that some microorganisms convert N2 to NH4+, other microorganisms convert NH4+ to NO3-, and yet a third class of microorganisms convert NO3- back to N2, thus completing the cycle.The following sections of this chapter examine the biogeochemical reactions of Nr, the distribution of Nr in Earth's reservoirs, and the exchanges between the reservoirs. This chapter then discusses Nr creation by natural and

  19. Fixed term employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durant, B.W.; Schonberner, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    A series of brief notes were included with this presentation which highlighted certain aspects of contract management. Several petroleum companies have realized the benefits of taking advantage of contract personnel to control fixed G and A, manage the impacts on their organization, contain costs, to manage termination costs, and to fill gaps in lean personnel rosters. An independent contractor was described as being someone who is self employed, often with a variety of work experiences. The tax benefits and flexibility of contractor personnel were also described. Some liability aspects of hiring an independent contractor were also reviewed. The courts have developed the following 4 tests to help determine whether an individual is an employee or an independent contractor: (1) the control test, (2) the business integration test, (3) specific result test, and (4) the economic reality test

  20. Bacterial mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Borch, Jonas; Dam, Mette

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial DNA segregation takes place in an active and ordered fashion. In the case of Escherichia coli plasmid R1, the partitioning system (par) separates paired plasmid copies and moves them to opposite cell poles. Here we address the mechanism by which the three components of the R1 par system...... act together to generate the force required for plasmid movement during segregation. ParR protein binds cooperatively to the centromeric parC DNA region, thereby forming a complex that interacts with the filament-forming actin-like ParM protein in an ATP-dependent manner, suggesting that plasmid...

  1. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  2. Nitrogen tank

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Wanted The technical file about the pressure vessel RP-270 It concerns the Nitrogen tank, 60m3, 22 bars, built in 1979, and installed at Point-2 for the former L3 experiment. If you are in possession of this file, or have any files about an equivalent tank (probably between registered No. RP-260 and -272), please contact Marc Tavlet, the ALICE Glimos.

  3. Changes in symbiotic and associative interrelations in a higher plant-bacterial system during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, V. A.; Man'ko, V. G.; Popova, A. F.; Shcherbak, O. H.; Mashinsky, A. L.; Nguen-Hgue-Thyok

    The miniature cenosis consisting of the water fern Azolla with its associated symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena and the concomitant bacteria was investigated. Ecological closure was shown to produce sharp quantitative and qualitative changes in the number and type of concomitant bacteria. Changes in the distribution of bacterial types grown on beef-extract broth after space flight were recorded. Anabaena azollae underwent the most significant changes under spaceflight conditions. Its cell number per Azolla biomass unit increased substantially. Thus closure of cenosis resulted in a weakening of control over microbial development by Azolla. This tendency was augmented by spaceflight factors. Reduction in control exerted by macro-organisms over development of associated micro-organisms must be taken into account in constructing closed ecological systems in the state of weightlessness.

  4. Nitrogen fixation in Red Sea seagrass meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Malak

    2017-05-01

    Seagrasses are key coastal ecosystems, providing many ecosystem services. Seagrasses increase biodiversity as they provide habitat for a large set of organisms. In addition, their structure provides hiding places to avoid predation. Seagrasses can grow in shallow marine coastal areas, but several factors regulate their growth and distribution. Seagrasses can uptake different kinds of organic and inorganic nutrients through their leaves and roots. Nitrogen and phosphorous are the most important nutrients for seagrass growth. Biological nitrogen fixation is the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia by diazotrophic bacteria. This process provides a significant source of nitrogen for seagrass growth. The nitrogen fixation is controlled by the nif genes which are found in diazotrophs. The main goal of the project is to measure nitrogen fixation rates on seagrass sediments, in order to compare among various seagrass species from the Red Sea. Moreover, we will compare the fixing rates of the Vegetated areas with the bare sediments. This project will help to ascertain the role of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the development of seagrass meadows.

  5. Impacts of atmospheric anthropogenic nitrogen on the open ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duce, R.A.; LaRoche, J.; Altieri, K.; Arrigo, K.R.; Baker, A.R.; Capone, D.G.; Cornell, S.; Dentener, F.; Galloway, J.; Ganeshram, R.S.; Geider, R.J.; Jickells, T.; Kuypers, M.M.; Langlois, R.; Liss, P.S.; Liu, S.; Middelburg, J.J.; Moore, C.M.; Nickovic, S.; Oschlies, A.; Pedersen, T.; Prospero, J.; Schlitzer, R.; Seitzinger, S.; Sorensen, L.L.; Uematsu, M.; Ulloa, O.; Voss, M.; Ward, B.; Zamora, L.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing quantities of atmospheric anthropogenic fixed nitrogen entering the open ocean could account for up to about a third of the ocean's external (nonrecycled) nitrogen supply and up to 3% of the annual new marine biological production, 0.3 petagram of carbon per year. This input could account

  6. A Proteomic Approach of Bradyrhizobium/Aeschynomene Root and Stem Symbioses Reveals the Importance of the fixA Locus for Symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanael Delmotte

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobia are soil bacteria that are able to form symbiosis with plant hosts of the legume family. These associations result in the formation of organs, called nodules in which bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen to the benefit of the plant. Most of our knowledge on the metabolism and the physiology of the bacteria during symbiosis derives from studying roots nodules of terrestrial plants. Here we used a proteomics approach to investigate the bacterial physiology of photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium sp. ORS278 during the symbiotic process with the semi aquatical plant Aeschynomene indica that forms root and stem nodules. We analyzed the proteomes of bacteria extracted from each type of nodule. First, we analyzed the bacteroid proteome at two different time points and found only minor variation between the bacterial proteomes of 2-week- and 3-week-old nodules. High conservation of the bacteroid proteome was also found when comparing stem nodules and root nodules. Among the stem nodule specific proteins were those related to the phototrophic ability of Bradyrhizobium sp. ORS278. Furthermore, we compared our data with those obtained during an extensive genetic screen previously published. The symbiotic role of four candidate genes which corresponding proteins were found massively produced in the nodules but not identified during this screening was examined. Mutant analysis suggested that in addition to the EtfAB system, the fixA locus is required for symbiotic efficiency.

  7. Isolating silkworm genomic DNA without liquid nitrogen suitable for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genomic DNA was isolated from posterior silk gland of silkworms, Antheraea assama. Absolute alcohol was used as tissue fixing solution instead of grinding in liquid nitrogen, which yielded high molecular weight DNA (>40 kb). Samples yielded similar amount of DNA when fixed in absolute alcohol (400 μmg/g of silk gland ...

  8. Removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to identify the factors affecting the suspended and fixed biomass in the removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a coal gasification wastewater (CGWW) stream using a hybrid fixed-film bioreactor (H-FFBR) process under real-time plant operational conditions and ...

  9. Moss-nitrogen input to boreal forest soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Jones, Davey; DeLuca, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria living epiphytically on mosses in pristine, unpolluted areas fix substantial amounts of atmospheric nitrogen (N) and therefore represent a primary source of N in N-limited boreal forests. However, the fate of this N is unclear, in particular, how the fixed N2 enters the soil and bec...... and that transfer of N to the soil is not facilitated by fungal hyphae....

  10. Intracellular Nitrate of Marine Diatoms as a Driver of Anaerobic Nitrogen Cycling in Sinking Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Kamp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Diatom-bacteria aggregates are key for the vertical transport of organic carbon in the ocean. Sinking aggregates also represent pelagic microniches with intensified microbial activity, oxygen depletion in the center, and anaerobic nitrogen cycling. Since some of the aggregate-forming diatom species store nitrate intracellularly, we explored the fate of intracellular nitrate and its availability for microbial metabolism within anoxic diatom-bacteria aggregates. The ubiquitous nitrate-storing diatom Skeletonema marinoi was studied as both axenic cultures and laboratory-produced diatom-bacteria aggregates. Stable 15N isotope incubations under dark and anoxic conditions revealed that axenic S. marinoi is able to reduce intracellular nitrate to ammonium that is immediately excreted by the cells. When exposed to a light:dark cycle and oxic conditions, S. marinoi stored nitrate intracellularly in concentrations > 60 mmol L-1 both as free-living cells and associated to aggregates. Intracellular nitrate concentrations exceeded extracellular concentrations by three orders of magnitude. Intracellular nitrate was used up within 2-3 days after shifting diatom-bacteria aggregates to dark and anoxic conditions. Thirty-one percent of the diatom-derived nitrate was converted to nitrogen gas, indicating that a substantial fraction of the intracellular nitrate pool of S. marinoi becomes available to the aggregate-associated bacterial community. Only 5% of the intracellular nitrate was reduced to ammonium, while 59% was recovered as nitrite. Hence, aggregate-associated diatoms accumulate nitrate from the surrounding water and sustain complex nitrogen transformations, including loss of fixed nitrogen, in anoxic, pelagic microniches. Additionally, it may be expected that intracellular nitrate not converted before the aggregates have settled onto the seafloor could fuel benthic nitrogen transformations.

  11. Bacterial Actins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izoré, Thierry; van den Ent, Fusinita

    2017-01-01

    A diverse set of protein polymers, structurally related to actin filaments contributes to the organization of bacterial cells as cytomotive or cytoskeletal filaments. This chapter describes actin homologs encoded by bacterial chromosomes. MamK filaments, unique to magnetotactic bacteria, help establishing magnetic biological compasses by interacting with magnetosomes. Magnetosomes are intracellular membrane invaginations containing biomineralized crystals of iron oxide that are positioned by MamK along the long-axis of the cell. FtsA is widespread across bacteria and it is one of the earliest components of the divisome to arrive at midcell, where it anchors the cell division machinery to the membrane. FtsA binds directly to FtsZ filaments and to the membrane through its C-terminus. FtsA shows altered domain architecture when compared to the canonical actin fold. FtsA's subdomain 1C replaces subdomain 1B of other members of the actin family and is located on the opposite side of the molecule. Nevertheless, when FtsA assembles into protofilaments, the protofilament structure is preserved, as subdomain 1C replaces subdomain IB of the following subunit in a canonical actin filament. MreB has an essential role in shape-maintenance of most rod-shaped bacteria. Unusually, MreB filaments assemble from two protofilaments in a flat and antiparallel arrangement. This non-polar architecture implies that both MreB filament ends are structurally identical. MreB filaments bind directly to membranes where they interact with both cytosolic and membrane proteins, thereby forming a key component of the elongasome. MreB filaments in cells are short and dynamic, moving around the long axis of rod-shaped cells, sensing curvature of the membrane and being implicated in peptidoglycan synthesis.

  12. Transformation of nitrogenous fertilizers of surface and deep application in calcareous soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Dongfeng

    1990-01-01

    The transformations of 15 N labelled fertilizer N in calcareous soil were studied under greennhouse conditions. The experimental results indicate that the ratio of fixed ammonium is closely related to the methods of fertilizer application to the soil. When fertilizer N applied as deep dressing the fixation of nitrogen by clay minerals and microorganisms may markedly reduce the losses of nitrogen, but the amount of nitrogen fixed by the clay minerals and that by microorganisms showed negative correlation (r = -0.9185 ** ). The more the amount of fixed nitrogen by clay minerals, the less by microorganisms. No obvious interrelation between the residual utilization of urea, ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium sulfate and the ammount of nitrogen fixed by organisms can be observed, but the residual utilization of these fertilizers by the succeeding crop has been related to the total amount of mineral nitrogen

  13. Interconnection of nitrogen fixers and iron in the Pacific Ocean: Theory and numerical simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Dutkiewicz, S.; Ward, B. A.; Monteiro, F.; Follows, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the interplay between iron supply, iron concentrations and phytoplankton communities in the Pacific Ocean. We present a theoretical framework which considers the competition for iron and nitrogen resources between phytoplankton to explain where nitrogen fixing autotrophs (diazotrophs, which require higher iron quotas, and have slower maximum growth) can co-exist with other phytoplankton. The framework also indicates that iron and fixed nitrogen concentrations can be strongly contro...

  14. Investigations of the structure and function of bacterial communities associated with Sphagnum mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opelt, Katja; Chobot, Vladimir; Hadacek, Franz; Schönmann, Susan; Eberl, Leo; Berg, Gabriele

    2007-11-01

    High acidity, low temperature and extremely low concentration of nutrients form Sphagnum bogs into extreme habitats for organisms. Little is known about the bacteria associated with living Sphagnum plantlets, especially about their function for the host. Therefore, we analysed the endo- and ectophytic bacterial populations associated with two widely distributed Sphagnum species, Sphagnum magellanicum and Sphagnum fallax, by a multiphasic approach. The screening of 1222 isolates for antagonistic activity resulted in 326 active isolates. The bacterial communities harboured a high proportion of antifungal (26%) but a low proportion of antibacterial isolates (0.4%). Members of the genus Burkholderia (38%) were found to be the most dominant group of antagonistic bacteria. The finding that a large proportion (89%) of the antagonistic bacteria produced antifungal compounds may provide an explanation for the well-known antimicrobial activity of certain Sphagnum species. The secondary metabolites of the Sphagnum species themselves were analysed by HPLC-PDA. The different spectra of detected compounds may not only explain the antifungal activity but also the species specificity of the microbial communities. The latter was analysed using cultivation-independent single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Using Burkholderia-specific primers we found a high diversity of Burkholderia isolates in the endophytic and ectophytic habitats of Sphagnum. Furthermore, a high diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria was detected by using nifH-specific primers, especially inside Sphagnum mosses. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that both Sphagnum species were colonized by characteristic bacterial populations, which appear to be important for pathogen defence and nitrogen fixation.

  15. The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E El-Hadad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains, the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB Bacillus megaterium (three strains and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB B. circulans (three strains were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm, number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g / plant and root dry weight (g / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium and for the biological control of M. incognita.

  16. Content of nitrogen in atmospheric precipitation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angstroem, A; Hoegberg, L

    1952-01-01

    In the present paper an attempt is made to give a general idea of the geographical distribution of fixed nitrogen (NH/sub 4/-N) transferred to the soil through precipitation in Sweden. Further a map is given showing the distribution af alpha, a quantity proportional to the nitrogen concentration in the precipitation at the beginning of a rain and, it is assumed, representative for the content of fixed nitrogen in the atmosphere before the rain is falling. A discussion of different causes of the concentration of fixed nitrogen in precipitation is presented and a photochemical process is suggested, which would explain the almost constant ratio between NH/sub 4//sup -n/ and NO/sub 3//sup -n/ frequently found within the temperate zones. It is evident, however, that other causes also are at work, especially at lower latitudes. The need of laboratory experiments is emphasized.

  17. Azotobacter chroococcum as a potentially useful bacterial biofertilizer for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum): Effect in reducing N fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Perdomo, Felipe; Abril, Jorge; Camelo, Mauricio; Moreno-Galván, Andrés; Pastrana, Iván; Rojas-Tapias, Daniel; Bonilla, Ruth

    The aim of this research was to evaluate whether the application of two plant growth-promoting (rhizo)bacteria might reduce nitrogen fertilization doses in cotton. We used strains Azotobacter chroococcum AC1 and AC10 for their proven ability to promote seed germination and cotton growth. These microorganisms were characterized by their plant growth-promoting activities. Then, we conducted a glasshouse study to evaluate the plant growth promoting ability of these strains with reduced doses of urea fertilization in cotton. Results revealed that both strains are capable of fixing nitrogen, solubilizing phosphorus, synthesizing indole compounds and producing hydrolytic enzymes. After 12 weeks, the glasshouse experiment showed that cotton growth was positively influenced due to bacterial inoculation with respect to chemical fertilization. Notably, we observed that microbial inoculation further influenced plant biomass (p<0.05) than nitrogen content. Co-inoculation, interestingly, exhibited a greater beneficial effect on plant growth parameters compared to single inoculation. Moreover, similar results without significant statistical differences were observed among bacterial co-inoculation plus 50% urea and 100% fertilization. These findings suggest that co-inoculation of A. chroococcum strains allow to reduce nitrogen fertilization doses up to 50% on cotton growth. Our results showed that inoculation with AC1 and AC10 represents a viable alternative to improve cotton growth while decreasing the N fertilizer dose and allows to alleviate the environmental deterioration related to N pollution. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Fixed points of quantum gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Litim, D F

    2003-01-01

    Euclidean quantum gravity is studied with renormalisation group methods. Analytical results for a non-trivial ultraviolet fixed point are found for arbitrary dimensions and gauge fixing parameter in the Einstein-Hilbert truncation. Implications for quantum gravity in four dimensions are discussed.

  19. Biological Nitrogen Fixation on Legume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armiadi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is one of the major limiting factors for crop growth and is required in adequate amount, due to its function as protein and enzyme components. In general, plants need sufficient nitrogen supply at all levels of growth, especially at the beginning of growth phase. Therefore, the availability of less expensive N resources would reduce the production cost. The increasing use of chemical fertilizer would probably disturb soil microorganisms, reduce the physical and chemical characteristics of soil because not all of N based fertilizer applied can be absorbed by the plants. Approximately only 50% can be used by crops, while the rest will be altered by microorganism into unavailable N for crops or else dissappear in the form of gas. Leguminous crops have the capacity to immobilize N2 and convert into the available N if innoculated with Rhizobium. The amount of N2 fixed varies depending on legume species and their environment.

  20. Nitrogen fixation in denitrified marine waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Fernandez

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fixation is an essential process that biologically transforms atmospheric dinitrogen gas to ammonia, therefore compensating for nitrogen losses occurring via denitrification and anammox. Currently, inputs and losses of nitrogen to the ocean resulting from these processes are thought to be spatially separated: nitrogen fixation takes place primarily in open ocean environments (mainly through diazotrophic cyanobacteria, whereas nitrogen losses occur in oxygen-depleted intermediate waters and sediments (mostly via denitrifying and anammox bacteria. Here we report on rates of nitrogen fixation obtained during two oceanographic cruises in 2005 and 2007 in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP, a region characterized by the presence of coastal upwelling and a major permanent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ. Our results show significant rates of nitrogen fixation in the water column; however, integrated rates from the surface down to 120 m varied by ∼30 fold between cruises (7.5±4.6 versus 190±82.3 µmol m(-2 d(-1. Moreover, rates were measured down to 400 m depth in 2007, indicating that the contribution to the integrated rates of the subsurface oxygen-deficient layer was ∼5 times higher (574±294 µmol m(-2 d(-1 than the oxic euphotic layer (48±68 µmol m(-2 d(-1. Concurrent molecular measurements detected the dinitrogenase reductase gene nifH in surface and subsurface waters. Phylogenetic analysis of the nifH sequences showed the presence of a diverse diazotrophic community at the time of the highest measured nitrogen fixation rates. Our results thus demonstrate the occurrence of nitrogen fixation in nutrient-rich coastal upwelling systems and, importantly, within the underlying OMZ. They also suggest that nitrogen fixation is a widespread process that can sporadically provide a supplementary source of fixed nitrogen in these regions.

  1. Nitrogen Fixation in Denitrified Marine Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Camila; Farías, Laura; Ulloa, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation is an essential process that biologically transforms atmospheric dinitrogen gas to ammonia, therefore compensating for nitrogen losses occurring via denitrification and anammox. Currently, inputs and losses of nitrogen to the ocean resulting from these processes are thought to be spatially separated: nitrogen fixation takes place primarily in open ocean environments (mainly through diazotrophic cyanobacteria), whereas nitrogen losses occur in oxygen-depleted intermediate waters and sediments (mostly via denitrifying and anammox bacteria). Here we report on rates of nitrogen fixation obtained during two oceanographic cruises in 2005 and 2007 in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP), a region characterized by the presence of coastal upwelling and a major permanent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Our results show significant rates of nitrogen fixation in the water column; however, integrated rates from the surface down to 120 m varied by ∼30 fold between cruises (7.5±4.6 versus 190±82.3 µmol m−2 d−1). Moreover, rates were measured down to 400 m depth in 2007, indicating that the contribution to the integrated rates of the subsurface oxygen-deficient layer was ∼5 times higher (574±294 µmol m−2 d−1) than the oxic euphotic layer (48±68 µmol m−2 d−1). Concurrent molecular measurements detected the dinitrogenase reductase gene nifH in surface and subsurface waters. Phylogenetic analysis of the nifH sequences showed the presence of a diverse diazotrophic community at the time of the highest measured nitrogen fixation rates. Our results thus demonstrate the occurrence of nitrogen fixation in nutrient-rich coastal upwelling systems and, importantly, within the underlying OMZ. They also suggest that nitrogen fixation is a widespread process that can sporadically provide a supplementary source of fixed nitrogen in these regions. PMID:21687726

  2. CERN: Fixed target targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-03-15

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become visible for the first

  3. Nitrogen fixation by the Azolla-Anabaena azollae symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becking, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    A concise outline is presented on the main characteristics of the Azolla association in relation to tropical wetland rice cultivation and the nitrogen economy of paddy soils. Due to the presence of a nitrogen fixing cyanobiont occurring in a special leaf cavity of the Azolla leaf, the water fern Azolla can grow in a nitrogen-deficient environment and is able to contribute considerably to the nitrogen status of the soil. An experimental set-up is presented for how the nitrogen-fixing capacity of Azolla plants can be measured in the field by means of the acetylene reduction assay using a rather simple glass vessel. A comparison was made between 15 N 2 fixation by Azolla and acetylene reduction of Azolla plants under identical conditions

  4. Tightening the nitrogen cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, B.T.

    2004-01-01

    The availability of nitrogen to crop plants is a universally important aspect of soil quality, and often nitrogen represents the immediate limitation to crop productivity in modern agriculture. Nitrogen is decisive for the nutritive value of plant products and plays a key role in the environmental impact of agricultural production. The fundamental doctrine of nitrogen management is to optimise the nitrogen use efficiency of both introduced and native soil nitrogen by increasing the temporal a...

  5. Impact of Crab Bioturbation on Nitrogen-Fixation Rates in Red Sea Mangrove Sediment

    KAUST Repository

    Qashqari, Maryam S.

    2017-05-01

    Mangrove plants are a productive ecosystem that provide several benefits for marine organisms and industry. They are considered to be a food source and habitat for many organisms. However, mangrove growth is limited by nutrient availability. According to some recent studies, the dwarfism of the mangrove plants is due to the limitation of nitrogen in the environment. Biological nitrogen fixation is the process by which atmospheric nitrogen is fixed into ammonium. Then, this fixed nitrogen can be uptaken by plants. Hence, biological nitrogen fixation increases the input of nitrogen in the mangrove ecosystem. In this project, we focus on measuring the rates of nitrogen fixation on Red Sea mangrove (Avicennia marina) located at Thuwal, Saudi Arabia. The nitrogen fixation rates are calculated by the acetylene reduction assay. The experimental setup will allow us to analyze the effect of crab bioturbation on nitrogen fixing rates. This study will help to better understand the nitrogen dynamics in mangrove ecosystems in Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, this study points out the importance of the sediment microbial community in mangrove trees development. Finally, the role of nitrogen fixing bacteria should be taken in account for future restoration activities.

  6. CERN: Fixed target targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  7. Potential for Nitrogen Fixation and Nitrification in the Granite-Hosted Subsurface at Henderson Mine, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanner, Elizabeth D.; Templeton, Alexis S.

    2011-01-01

    The existence of life in the deep terrestrial subsurface is established, yet few studies have investigated the origin of nitrogen that supports deep life. Previously, 16S rRNA gene surveys cataloged a diverse microbial community in subsurface fluids draining from boreholes 3000 feet deep at Henderson Mine, CO, USA (Sahl et al., 2008). The prior characterization of the fluid chemistry and microbial community forms the basis for the further investigation here of the source of NH4+. The reported fluid chemistry included N2, NH4+ (5–112 μM), NO2− (27–48 μM), and NO3− (17–72 μM). In this study, the correlation between low NH4+ concentrations in dominantly meteoric fluids and higher NH4+ in rock-reacted fluids is used to hypothesize that NH4+ is sourced from NH4+-bearing biotite. However, biotite samples from the host rocks and ore-body minerals were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy and none-contained NH4+. However, the nitrogenase-encoding gene nifH was successfully amplified from DNA of the fluid sample with high NH4+, suggesting that subsurface microbes have the capability to fix N2. If so, unregulated nitrogen fixation may account for the relatively high NH4+ concentrations in the fluids. Additionally, the amoA and nxrB genes for archaeal ammonium monooxygenase and nitrite oxidoreductase, respectively, were amplified from the high NH4+ fluid DNA, while bacterial amoA genes were not. Putative nitrifying organisms are closely related to ammonium-oxidizing Crenarchaeota and nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospira detected in other subsurface sites based upon 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Thermodynamic calculations underscore the importance of NH4+ as an energy source in a subsurface nitrification pathway. These results suggest that the subsurface microbial community at Henderson is adapted to the low nutrient and energy environment by their capability of fixing nitrogen, and that fixed nitrogen may support subsurface biomass via

  8. National Radiological Fixed Lab Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Radiological Fixed Laboratory Data Asset includes data produced in support of various clients such as other EPA offices, EPA Regional programs, DOE,...

  9. Elevated Fixed Platform Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Elevated Fixed Platform (EFP) is a helicopter recovery test facility located at Lakehurst, NJ. It consists of a 60 by 85 foot steel and concrete deck built atop...

  10. The marine nitrogen cycle: recent discoveries, uncertainties and the potential relevance of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Voss, Maren; Bange, Hermann W.; Dippner, Joachim W.; Middelburg, Jack J.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Ward, Bess

    2013-01-01

    The ocean's nitrogen cycle is driven by complex microbial transformations, including nitrogen fixation, assimilation, nitrification, anammox and denitrification. Dinitrogen is the most abundant form of nitrogen in sea water but only accessible by nitrogen-fixing microbes. Denitrification and nitrification are both regulated by oxygen concentrations and potentially produce nitrous oxide (N2O), a climate-relevant atmospheric trace gas. The world's oceans, including the coastal areas and upwelli...

  11. Gene Deletions Resulting in Increased Nitrogen Release by Azotobacter vinelandii: Application of a Novel Nitrogen Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Lauren J.; Ohlert, Janet M.; Knutson, Carolann M.; Plunkett, Mary H.

    2015-01-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii is a widely studied model diazotrophic (nitrogen-fixing) bacterium and also an obligate aerobe, differentiating it from many other diazotrophs that require environments low in oxygen for the function of the nitrogenase. As a free-living bacterium, A. vinelandii has evolved enzymes and transporters to minimize the loss of fixed nitrogen to the surrounding environment. In this study, we pursued efforts to target specific enzymes and further developed screens to identify individual colonies of A. vinelandii producing elevated levels of extracellular nitrogen. Targeted deletions were done to convert urea into a terminal product by disrupting the urease genes that influence the ability of A. vinelandii to recycle the urea nitrogen within the cell. Construction of a nitrogen biosensor strain was done to rapidly screen several thousand colonies disrupted by transposon insertional mutagenesis to identify strains with increased extracellular nitrogen production. Several disruptions were identified in the ammonium transporter gene amtB that resulted in the production of sufficient levels of extracellular nitrogen to support the growth of the biosensor strain. Further studies substituting the biosensor strain with the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana confirmed that levels of nitrogen produced were sufficient to support the growth of this organism when the medium was supplemented with sufficient sucrose to support the growth of the A. vinelandii in coculture. The nature and quantities of nitrogen released by urease and amtB disruptions were further compared to strains reported in previous efforts that altered the nifLA regulatory system to produce elevated levels of ammonium. These results reveal alternative approaches that can be used in various combinations to yield new strains that might have further application in biofertilizer schemes. PMID:25888177

  12. In-situ effects of eutrophication and overfishing on physiology and bacterial diversity of the red sea coral Acropora hemprichii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Christian; Villa Lizcano, Javier Felipe; Bayer, Till; Roder, Cornelia; Aranda, Manuel; Wild, Christian; Voolstra, Christian R

    2013-01-01

    Coral reefs of the Central Red Sea display a high degree of endemism, and are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic effects due to intense local coastal development measures. Overfishing and eutrophication are among the most significant local pressures on these reefs, but there is no information available about their potential effects on the associated microbial community. Therefore, we compared holobiont physiology and 16S-based bacterial communities of tissue and mucus of the hard coral Acropora hemprichii after 1 and 16 weeks of in-situ inorganic nutrient enrichment (via fertilizer diffusion) and/or herbivore exclusion (via caging) in an offshore reef of the Central Red Sea. Simulated eutrophication and/or overfishing treatments did not affect coral physiology with respect to coral respiration rates, chlorophyll a content, zooxanthellae abundance, or δ (15)N isotopic signatures. The bacterial community of A. hemprichii was rich and uneven, and diversity increased over time in all treatments. While distinct bacterial species were identified as a consequence of eutrophication, overfishing, or both, two bacterial species that could be classified to the genus Endozoicomonas were consistently abundant and constituted two thirds of bacteria in the coral. Several nitrogen-fixing and denitrifying bacteria were found in the coral specimens that were exposed to experimentally increased nutrients. However, no particular bacterial species was consistently associated with the coral under a given treatment and the single effects of manipulated eutrophication and overfishing could not predict the combined effect. Our data underlines the importance of conducting field studies in a holobiont framework, taking both, physiological and molecular measures into account.

  13. In-situ effects of eutrophication and overfishing on physiology and bacterial diversity of the red sea coral Acropora hemprichii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Jessen

    Full Text Available Coral reefs of the Central Red Sea display a high degree of endemism, and are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic effects due to intense local coastal development measures. Overfishing and eutrophication are among the most significant local pressures on these reefs, but there is no information available about their potential effects on the associated microbial community. Therefore, we compared holobiont physiology and 16S-based bacterial communities of tissue and mucus of the hard coral Acropora hemprichii after 1 and 16 weeks of in-situ inorganic nutrient enrichment (via fertilizer diffusion and/or herbivore exclusion (via caging in an offshore reef of the Central Red Sea. Simulated eutrophication and/or overfishing treatments did not affect coral physiology with respect to coral respiration rates, chlorophyll a content, zooxanthellae abundance, or δ (15N isotopic signatures. The bacterial community of A. hemprichii was rich and uneven, and diversity increased over time in all treatments. While distinct bacterial species were identified as a consequence of eutrophication, overfishing, or both, two bacterial species that could be classified to the genus Endozoicomonas were consistently abundant and constituted two thirds of bacteria in the coral. Several nitrogen-fixing and denitrifying bacteria were found in the coral specimens that were exposed to experimentally increased nutrients. However, no particular bacterial species was consistently associated with the coral under a given treatment and the single effects of manipulated eutrophication and overfishing could not predict the combined effect. Our data underlines the importance of conducting field studies in a holobiont framework, taking both, physiological and molecular measures into account.

  14. In-situ effects of eutrophication and overfishing on physiology and bacterial diversity of the red sea coral Acropora hemprichii.

    KAUST Repository

    Jessen, Christian

    2013-04-22

    Coral reefs of the Central Red Sea display a high degree of endemism, and are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic effects due to intense local coastal development measures. Overfishing and eutrophication are among the most significant local pressures on these reefs, but there is no information available about their potential effects on the associated microbial community. Therefore, we compared holobiont physiology and 16S-based bacterial communities of tissue and mucus of the hard coral Acropora hemprichii after 1 and 16 weeks of in-situ inorganic nutrient enrichment (via fertilizer diffusion) and/or herbivore exclusion (via caging) in an offshore reef of the Central Red Sea. Simulated eutrophication and/or overfishing treatments did not affect coral physiology with respect to coral respiration rates, chlorophyll a content, zooxanthellae abundance, or δ (15)N isotopic signatures. The bacterial community of A. hemprichii was rich and uneven, and diversity increased over time in all treatments. While distinct bacterial species were identified as a consequence of eutrophication, overfishing, or both, two bacterial species that could be classified to the genus Endozoicomonas were consistently abundant and constituted two thirds of bacteria in the coral. Several nitrogen-fixing and denitrifying bacteria were found in the coral specimens that were exposed to experimentally increased nutrients. However, no particular bacterial species was consistently associated with the coral under a given treatment and the single effects of manipulated eutrophication and overfishing could not predict the combined effect. Our data underlines the importance of conducting field studies in a holobiont framework, taking both, physiological and molecular measures into account.

  15. Different land use intensities in grassland ecosystems drive ecology of microbial communities involved in nitrogen turnover in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Annabel; Focks, Andreas; Radl, Viviane; Keil, Daniel; Welzl, Gerhard; Schöning, Ingo; Boch, Steffen; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Understanding factors driving the ecology of N cycling microbial communities is of central importance for sustainable land use. In this study we report changes of abundance of denitrifiers, nitrifiers and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (based on qPCR data for selected functional genes) in response to different land use intensity levels and the consequences for potential turnover rates. We investigated selected grassland sites being comparable with respect to soil type and climatic conditions, which have been continuously treated for many years as intensely used meadows (IM), intensely used mown pastures (IP) and extensively used pastures (EP), respectively. The obtained data were linked to above ground biodiversity pattern as well as water extractable fractions of nitrogen and carbon in soil. Shifts in land use intensity changed plant community composition from systems dominated by s-strategists in extensive managed grasslands to c-strategist dominated communities in intensive managed grasslands. Along the different types of land use intensity, the availability of inorganic nitrogen regulated the abundance of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers. In contrast, the amount of dissolved organic nitrogen determined the abundance of denitrifiers (nirS and nirK). The high abundance of nifH carrying bacteria at intensive managed sites gave evidence that the amounts of substrates as energy source outcompete the high availability of inorganic nitrogen in these sites. Overall, we revealed that abundance and function of microorganisms involved in key processes of inorganic N cycling (nitrification, denitrification and N fixation) might be independently regulated by different abiotic and biotic factors in response to land use intensity.

  16. Different land use intensities in grassland ecosystems drive ecology of microbial communities involved in nitrogen turnover in soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel Meyer

    Full Text Available Understanding factors driving the ecology of N cycling microbial communities is of central importance for sustainable land use. In this study we report changes of abundance of denitrifiers, nitrifiers and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (based on qPCR data for selected functional genes in response to different land use intensity levels and the consequences for potential turnover rates. We investigated selected grassland sites being comparable with respect to soil type and climatic conditions, which have been continuously treated for many years as intensely used meadows (IM, intensely used mown pastures (IP and extensively used pastures (EP, respectively. The obtained data were linked to above ground biodiversity pattern as well as water extractable fractions of nitrogen and carbon in soil. Shifts in land use intensity changed plant community composition from systems dominated by s-strategists in extensive managed grasslands to c-strategist dominated communities in intensive managed grasslands. Along the different types of land use intensity, the availability of inorganic nitrogen regulated the abundance of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers. In contrast, the amount of dissolved organic nitrogen determined the abundance of denitrifiers (nirS and nirK. The high abundance of nifH carrying bacteria at intensive managed sites gave evidence that the amounts of substrates as energy source outcompete the high availability of inorganic nitrogen in these sites. Overall, we revealed that abundance and function of microorganisms involved in key processes of inorganic N cycling (nitrification, denitrification and N fixation might be independently regulated by different abiotic and biotic factors in response to land use intensity.

  17. Different Land Use Intensities in Grassland Ecosystems Drive Ecology of Microbial Communities Involved in Nitrogen Turnover in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Annabel; Focks, Andreas; Radl, Viviane; Keil, Daniel; Welzl, Gerhard; Schöning, Ingo; Boch, Steffen; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Understanding factors driving the ecology of N cycling microbial communities is of central importance for sustainable land use. In this study we report changes of abundance of denitrifiers, nitrifiers and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (based on qPCR data for selected functional genes) in response to different land use intensity levels and the consequences for potential turnover rates. We investigated selected grassland sites being comparable with respect to soil type and climatic conditions, which have been continuously treated for many years as intensely used meadows (IM), intensely used mown pastures (IP) and extensively used pastures (EP), respectively. The obtained data were linked to above ground biodiversity pattern as well as water extractable fractions of nitrogen and carbon in soil. Shifts in land use intensity changed plant community composition from systems dominated by s-strategists in extensive managed grasslands to c-strategist dominated communities in intensive managed grasslands. Along the different types of land use intensity, the availability of inorganic nitrogen regulated the abundance of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers. In contrast, the amount of dissolved organic nitrogen determined the abundance of denitrifiers (nirS and nirK). The high abundance of nifH carrying bacteria at intensive managed sites gave evidence that the amounts of substrates as energy source outcompete the high availability of inorganic nitrogen in these sites. Overall, we revealed that abundance and function of microorganisms involved in key processes of inorganic N cycling (nitrification, denitrification and N fixation) might be independently regulated by different abiotic and biotic factors in response to land use intensity. PMID:24039974

  18. Bacterial community composition characterization of a lead-contaminated Microcoleus sp. consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giloteaux, Ludovic; Solé, Antoni; Esteve, Isabel; Duran, Robert

    2011-08-01

    A Microcoleus sp. consortium, obtained from the Ebro delta microbial mat, was maintained under different conditions including uncontaminated, lead-contaminated, and acidic conditions. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and 16S rRNA gene library analyses were performed in order to determine the effect of lead and culture conditions on the Microcoleus sp. consortium. The bacterial composition inside the consortium revealed low diversity and the presence of specific terminal-restriction fragments under lead conditions. 16S rRNA gene library analyses showed that members of the consortium were affiliated to the Alpha, Beta, and Gammaproteobacteria and Cyanobacteria. Sequences closely related to Achromobacter spp., Alcaligenes faecalis, and Thiobacillus species were exclusively found under lead conditions while sequences related to Geitlerinema sp., a cyanobacterium belonging to the Oscillatoriales, were not found in presence of lead. This result showed a strong lead selection of the bacterial members present in the Microcoleus sp. consortium. Several of the 16S rRNA sequences were affiliated to nitrogen-fixing microorganisms including members of the Rhizobiaceae and the Sphingomonadaceae. Additionally, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that under lead-contaminated condition Microcoleus sp. cells were grouped and the number of electrodense intracytoplasmic inclusions was increased.

  19. Transport and partitioning of CO2 fixed by root nodules of ureide and amide producing legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, C.P.; Boylan, K.L.M.; Maxwell, C.A.; Heichel, G.H.; Hardman, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Nodulated and denodulated roots of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), soybean (Glycine max), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were exposed to 14 CO 2 to investigate the contribution of nodule CO 2 fixation to assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen. The distribution of radioactivity in xylem sap and partitioning of carbon fixed by nodules to the whole plant were measured. Radioactivity in the xylem sap of nodulated soybean and adzuki bean was located primarily (70 to 87%) in the acid fraction while the basic (amino acid) fraction contained 10 to 22%. In contrast radioactivity in the xylem sap of nodulated alfalfa was primarily in amino acids with about 20% in organic acids. Total ureide concentration was 8.1, 4.7, and 0.0 micromoles per milliliter xylem sap for soybean, adzuki bean, and alfalfa, respectively. While the major nitrogen transport products in soybeans and adzuki beans are ureides, this class of metabolites contained less than 20% of the the total radioactivity. When nodules of plants were removed, radioactivity in xylem sap decreased by 90% or more. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that CO 2 fixed by nodules was rapidly transported to shoots and incorporated into acid stable constituents. The data are consistent with a role for nodule CO 2 fixation providing carbon for the assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen in amide-based legumes. In contrast, CO 2 fixation by nodules of ureide transporting legumes appears to contribute little to assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen. 19 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  20. Contribución relativa del nitrógeno del suelo y del fijado biológicamente a la economía de la nutrición nitrogenada de maní (Arachis hypogaea L. en diferentes condiciones de fertilidad Relative contribution of biological fixed nitrogen and soil nitrogen to the nutrition economy of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. under different conditions of soil fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Castro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La producción de maní en Argentina se concentra en la región central de la provincia de Córdoba, la cual experimentó últimamente una pérdida importante de la productividad de los suelos y una declinación aleatoria del rendimiento de los cultivos. La contribución relativa de la fijación biológica (FBN de nitrógeno al maní en suelos de diferente fertilidad no ha sido suficientemente estudiada. Entonces, se evaluó el efecto de cepas de rizobios (TTOO2R, SEMIA 6144R y TAL 1000R sobre el rendimiento y el balance de nitrógeno de maní cultivado en suelos con alto y bajo contenido del nutriente. No hubo diferencias significativas en los parámetros simbióticos y de rendimiento del cultivo entre las cepas introducidas y las nativas, pero se observó una contribución relativa mayor de la FBN en el suelo con bajo contenido de nitrógeno (~58% de contribución que en el suelo con alto contenido (~27% de contribución. Esta comprobación del aporte relativo de la FBN asociada a la fertilidad del suelo, no registra antecedentes en la región central de Córdoba y debería recibir mayor consideración en el manejo del cultivo particularmente por su localización actual al sur de la provincia, donde los suelos presentan menores niveles de fertilidad. El rendimiento de maní confitería mostró mayores valores, si bien no significativos, con la inoculación en los 3 años del estudio.The peanut production in Argentina is concentrated in the central region of Córdoba province. At present, losses of soil fertility and a random decline peanut yield have been reported for this area. The relative contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (FBN in peanut plants cropped in soils with different fertility, has not been extensively studied. An experiment was carried out to determine the effects of rhizobia strains (TTOO2R, SEMIA 6144R and TAL 1000R on peanut crop yield and plant nitrogen balance under different conditions of soil nitrogen. The results

  1. Bacterial contamination of intraocular lens surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Vafidis, G C; Marsh, R J; Stacey, A R

    1984-01-01

    One hundred sterile intraocular lenses were placed on the external eye of 50 patients during cataract surgery. Half of the specimens were cultured for bacteria, the other half were examined under the light microscope after fixing and staining. A bacterial contamination rate of 26% was recorded. This is significantly higher than that found in conjunctival swabs (6%) or irrigation specimens (8%) taken at the same time, and higher than that recorded in a group of control lenses (15.2%) exposed t...

  2. Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandanegara, S.; Hendratno, K.

    1987-01-01

    Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines. A greenhouse experiment has been carried out to study photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability of five mutant lines and two soybean varieties. An amount of 330 uCi of 14 CO 2 was fed to the plants including of the non-fixing reference crop (Chippewa non-nodulating isoline). Nitrogen fixation measurements was carried out using 15 N isotope dilution technique according to A-value concept. Results showed that beside variety/mutant lines, plant growth also has important role in photosynthetic and N fixing capability. Better growth and a higher photosynthetic capability in Orba, mutant lines nos. 63 and 65 resulted in a greater amount of N 2 fixed (mg N/plant) than other mutant lines. (author). 12 refs.; 5 figs

  3. Evaluation in Cellulolytic Activity of Stenotrophomonas sp. in Cellulose Nitrogen Free Mineral Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honey Thet Paing Htway; San San Yu; Zaw Ko Latt

    2011-12-01

    Three bacterial strains were isolated from rice rhizospheric soil and their nitrogen fixing activity was determined in nitrogen free mineral medium and broth with glucose and cellulose as carbon sources and they produced ammonium concentration (above 3ppm) in G-NFFMM and (2-3ppm) in C-NFMM. Moreover, their cellulolytic activity was determined by DNS mothod and strain H3 having the cellulolytic activity was selected. Then, cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, baggasse, pea haulm, corn stem, rice straw were used as substrates and determined its reducing sugar concentration. After detection of the cellulolytic activity, the bacteria produced the highest concentration of reducing sugar on cellulose substrate at 12 day incubation period with the reducing sugar amount of 0.12mg/ml and 0.298mg/ml on CMC substrates. In the study of argicultral wastes as substrates, the selected strain, H3, produced in the reducing sugar concentration with 0.12, 0.116,0.103 and 0.098mg/ml respectively. The selected strain was identified by biochemical characterists and 16s ribosomal DNA analysis and it was Stenotrophomonas sp.

  4. Fixed points of quantum operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, A.; Gheondea, A.; Gudder, S.

    2002-01-01

    Quantum operations frequently occur in quantum measurement theory, quantum probability, quantum computation, and quantum information theory. If an operator A is invariant under a quantum operation φ, we call A a φ-fixed point. Physically, the φ-fixed points are the operators that are not disturbed by the action of φ. Our main purpose is to answer the following question. If A is a φ-fixed point, is A compatible with the operation elements of φ? We shall show in general that the answer is no and we shall give some sufficient conditions under which the answer is yes. Our results will follow from some general theorems concerning completely positive maps and injectivity of operator systems and von Neumann algebras

  5. Fixed-point signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Padgett, Wayne T

    2009-01-01

    This book is intended to fill the gap between the ""ideal precision"" digital signal processing (DSP) that is widely taught, and the limited precision implementation skills that are commonly required in fixed-point processors and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These skills are often neglected at the university level, particularly for undergraduates. We have attempted to create a resource both for a DSP elective course and for the practicing engineer with a need to understand fixed-point implementation. Although we assume a background in DSP, Chapter 2 contains a review of basic theory

  6. Apparatus for fixing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.D.; Pirro, J. Jr.; Lawrence, M.; Wisla, S.F.

    1975-01-01

    Fixing radioactive waste is disclosed in which the waste is collected as a slurry in aqueous media in a metering tank located within the nuclear facilities. Collection of waste is continued from time to time until a sufficient quantity of material to make up a full shipment to a burial ground has been collected. The slurry is then cast in shipping containers for shipment to a burial ground or the like by metering through a mixer into which fixing materials are simultaneously metered at a rate to yield the desired proportions of materials. (U.S.)

  7. Massive nitrogen loss from the Benguela upwelling system through anaerobic ammonium oxidation RID B-8834-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuypers, MMM; Lavik, G.; Woebken, D.

    2005-01-01

    ) and is commonly attributed to denitrification (reduction of nitrate to N-2 by heterotrophic bacteria). Here, we show that instead, the anammox process (the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium by nitrite to yield N-2) is mainly responsible for nitrogen loss in the OMZ waters of one of the most productive regions......In many oceanic regions, growth of phytoplankton is nitrogen-limited because fixation of N-2 cannot make up for the removal of fixed inorganic nitrogen (NH4+, NO2-, and NO3-) by anaerobic microbial processes. Globally, 30-50% of the total nitrogen loss occurs in oxygen-minimum zones (OMZs...... that anammox bacteria are responsible for massive losses of fixed nitrogen. We have identified and directly linked anammox bacteria to the removal of fixed inorganic nitrogen in the OMZ waters of an open-ocean setting. We hypothesize that anammox could also be responsible for substantial nitrogen loss from...

  8. Effect of the major components of industrial air pollution on nonsymbiotic nitrogen-fixation activity in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islamov, S S; Chunderova, A I

    1976-01-01

    Industrial pollution of atmosphere inhibits the activity of non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soils. The inhibiting effect of polluted air can be explained by the presence of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in it. Sulfur dioxide does not depress the nitrogenase complex of aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen fixing microorganisms.

  9. Use of 15N methodology to assess biological nitrogen fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardarson, G.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most important characteristics of legumes are their ability in symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen for growth. For proper management and a full realization of the benefits of this plant-microbial association, it is necessary to estimate how much nitrogen is fixed under different conditions in the field. It is only after this is known that various factors can be manipulated so as to increase the amount and proportion of N a plant derives from biological fixation. A suitable method for accurately measuring the amount of N crops derive from fixation is therefore an important requirement in any programme aimed at maximizing biological nitrogen fixation. There are several methods available to measure N 2 fixation (Bergersen, 1980) based on (1) increment in N yield and plant growth, (2) nitrogen balance (3) acetylene reduction and (4) the use of isotopes of N. Only isotopic methods will be illustrated here. 20 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  10. Flat Coalgebraic Fixed Point Logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Lutz; Venema, Yde

    Fixed point logics are widely used in computer science, in particular in artificial intelligence and concurrency. The most expressive logics of this type are the μ-calculus and its relatives. However, popular fixed point logics tend to trade expressivity for simplicity and readability, and in fact often live within the single variable fragment of the μ-calculus. The family of such flat fixed point logics includes, e.g., CTL, the *-nesting-free fragment of PDL, and the logic of common knowledge. Here, we extend this notion to the generic semantic framework of coalgebraic logic, thus covering a wide range of logics beyond the standard μ-calculus including, e.g., flat fragments of the graded μ-calculus and the alternating-time μ-calculus (such as ATL), as well as probabilistic and monotone fixed point logics. Our main results are completeness of the Kozen-Park axiomatization and a timed-out tableaux method that matches ExpTime upper bounds inherited from the coalgebraic μ-calculus but avoids using automata.

  11. Enumerating matroids of fixed rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pendavingh, R.; van der Pol, J.

    2017-01-01

    It has been conjectured that asymptotically almost all matroids are sparse paving, i.e. that~s(n)∼m(n)s(n)∼m(n), where m(n)m(n) denotes the number of matroids on a fixed groundset of size nn, and s(n)s(n) the number of sparse paving matroids. In an earlier paper, we showed that

  12. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  13. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Declan T; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Mattick, Rye Cr; Hickman, Joy; Mandall, Nicky A

    2016-10-25

    Orthodontic treatment involves using fixed or removable appliances (dental braces) to correct the positions of teeth. It has been shown that the quality of treatment result obtained with fixed appliances is much better than with removable appliances. Fixed appliances are, therefore, favoured by most orthodontists for treatment. The success of a fixed orthodontic appliance depends on the metal attachments (brackets and bands) being attached securely to the teeth so that they do not become loose during treatment. Brackets are usually attached to the front and side teeth, whereas bands (metal rings that go round the teeth) are more commonly used on the back teeth (molars). A number of adhesives are available to attach bands to teeth and it is important to understand which group of adhesives bond most reliably, as well as reducing or preventing dental decay during the treatment period. To evaluate the effectiveness of the adhesives used to attach bands to teeth during fixed appliance treatment, in terms of:(1) how often the bands come off during treatment; and(2) whether they protect the banded teeth against decay during fixed appliance treatment. The following electronic databases were searched: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (searched 2 June 2016), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 5) in the Cochrane Library (searched 2 June 2016), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 2 June 2016) and EMBASE Ovid (1980 to 2 June 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised and controlled clinical trials (RCTs and CCTs) (including split-mouth studies) of adhesives used to attach orthodontic bands to molar teeth were selected. Patients with full arch fixed orthodontic appliance(s) who had bands attached to molars were included. All review authors

  14. Engineering Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 for Nitrogen Fixation and its Application to Improve Plant Growth under Nitrogen-Deficient Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setten, Lorena; Soto, Gabriela; Mozzicafreddo, Matteo; Fox, Ana Romina; Lisi, Christian; Cuccioloni, Massimiliano; Angeletti, Mauro; Pagano, Elba; Díaz-Paleo, Antonio; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen is the second most critical factor for crop production after water. In this study, the beneficial rhizobacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 was genetically modified to fix nitrogen using the genes encoding the nitrogenase of Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501 via the X940 cosmid. Pf-5 X940 was able to grow in L medium without nitrogen, displayed high nitrogenase activity and released significant quantities of ammonium to the medium. Pf-5 X940 also showed constitutive expression and enzymatic activity of nitrogenase in ammonium medium or in nitrogen-free medium, suggesting a constitutive nitrogen fixation. Similar to Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas veronii and Pseudomonas taetrolens but not Pseudomonas balearica and Pseudomonas stutzeri transformed with cosmid X940 showed constitutive nitrogenase activity and high ammonium production, suggesting that this phenotype depends on the genome context and that this technology to obtain nitrogen-fixing bacteria is not restricted to Pf-5. Interestingly, inoculation of Arabidopsis, alfalfa, tall fescue and maize with Pf-5 X940 increased the ammonium concentration in soil and plant productivity under nitrogen-deficient conditions. In conclusion, these results open the way to the production of effective recombinant inoculants for nitrogen fixation on a wide range of crops. PMID:23675499

  15. Nitrogen signalling in plant interactions with associative and endophytic diazotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, T L G; Balsemão-Pires, E; Saraiva, R M; Ferreira, P C G; Hemerly, A S

    2014-10-01

    Some beneficial plant-interacting bacteria can biologically fix N2 to plant-available ammonium. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is an important source of nitrogen (N) input in agriculture and represents a promising substitute for chemical N fertilizers. Diazotrophic bacteria have the ability to develop different types of root associations with different plant species. Among the highest rates of BNF are those measured in legumes nodulated by endosymbionts, an already very well documented model of plant-diazotrophic bacterial association. However, it has also been shown that economically important crops, especially monocots, can obtain a substantial part of their N needs from BNF by interacting with associative and endophytic diazotrophic bacteria, that either live near the root surface or endophytically colonize intercellular spaces and vascular tissues of host plants. One of the best reported outcomes of this association is the promotion of plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. Besides fixing N, these bacteria can also produce plant growth hormones, and some species are reported to improve nutrient uptake and increase plant tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses. Thus, this particular type of plant-bacteria association consists of a natural beneficial system to be explored; however, the regulatory mechanisms involved are still not clear. Plant N status might act as a key signal, regulating and integrating various metabolic processes that occur during association with diazotrophic bacteria. This review will focus on the recent progress in understanding plant association with associative and endophytic diazotrophic bacteria, particularly on the knowledge of the N networks involved in BNF and in the promotion of plant growth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Enzyme Production and Nitrogen Fixation by Free, Immobilized and Coimmobilized Inoculants of Trichoderma harzianum and Azospirillum brasilense and Their Possible Role in Growth Promotion of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momein H. El-Katatny

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (Azospirillum brasilense strain Az and a biocontrol fungus (Trichoderma harzianum strain T24 have been evaluated for their individual and combined production of hydrolytic enzymes, nitrogen fixation and their possible role in growth promotion of tomato seedlings. The studied organisms were inoculated as free or calcium alginate-encapsulated cells. All freshly prepared macrobeads showed high encapsulation capacity (EC/% of inocula compared with dry macrobeads. Results of enzyme production did not exhibit consistent pattern of the effect of encapsulation process on enzyme production. Beads entrapping bacterial and/or fungal cells were used successfully in 3 repeated cycles in the presence of fresh sterile culture medium in each growth cycle. Enzyme production by immobilized bacterial and/or fungal cells increased as the growth cycles were repeated. Co-culturing of A. brasilense with T. harzianum (free or immobilized in semisolid nitrogen deficient medium (N-free medium enabled A. brasilense to fix nitrogen on pectin, chitin and carboxymethyl cellulose. The activity of nitrogen fixation by A. brasilense in the case of single and combined cultures with Trichoderma (using dry encapsulated beads into the sterile soil increased with the addition of carbon source. Most of inoculations with free or alginate macrobead formulations of T. harzianum and/or A. brasilense showed significant increase in the growth parameters of tomato seedlings. The root system grew more profusely in the case of all seeds treated with A. brasilense. The growth parameters of Az/T24-treated seeds using dry coimmobilized macrobeads were higher than those of the untreated control. Moreover, the effect was improved significantly in soil enriched with different C sources. Enhanced tomato seedling growth after the co-inoculation could be due to the synergistic effect of both Trichoderma and Azospirillum. Finally, co-inoculation with Azospirillum

  17. Metabolic Adaptation, a Specialized Leaf Organ Structure and Vascular Responses to Diurnal N2 Fixation by Nostoc azollae Sustain the Astonishing Productivity of Azolla Ferns without Nitrogen Fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Paul; Bräutigam, Andrea; Buijs, Valerie A; Tazelaar, Anne O E; van der Werf, Adrie; Schlüter, Urte; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Bolger, Anthony; Usadel, Björn; Weber, Andreas P M; Schluepmann, Henriette

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture demands reduced input of man-made nitrogen (N) fertilizer, yet N 2 fixation limits the productivity of crops with heterotrophic diazotrophic bacterial symbionts. We investigated floating ferns from the genus Azolla that host phototrophic diazotrophic Nostoc azollae in leaf pockets and belong to the fastest growing plants. Experimental production reported here demonstrated N-fertilizer independent production of nitrogen-rich biomass with an annual yield potential per ha of 1200 kg -1 N fixed and 35 t dry biomass. 15 N 2 fixation peaked at noon, reaching 0.4 mg N g -1 dry weight h -1 . Azolla ferns therefore merit consideration as protein crops in spite of the fact that little is known about the fern's physiology to enable domestication. To gain an understanding of their nitrogen physiology, analyses of fern diel transcript profiles under differing nitrogen fertilizer regimes were combined with microscopic observations. Results established that the ferns adapted to the phototrophic N 2 -fixing symbionts N. azollae by (1) adjusting metabolically to nightly absence of N supply using responses ancestral to ferns and seed plants; (2) developing a specialized xylem-rich vasculature surrounding the leaf-pocket organ; (3) responding to N-supply by controlling transcripts of genes mediating nutrient transport, allocation and vasculature development. Unlike other non-seed plants, the Azolla fern clock is shown to contain both the morning and evening loops; the evening loop is known to control rhythmic gene expression in the vasculature of seed plants and therefore may have evolved along with the vasculature in the ancestor of ferns and seed plants.

  18. Biological nitrogen fixation in non-legume plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Carole; Bogusz, Didier; Franche, Claudine

    2013-05-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient in plant growth. The ability of a plant to supply all or part of its requirements from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) thanks to interactions with endosymbiotic, associative and endophytic symbionts, confers a great competitive advantage over non-nitrogen-fixing plants. Because BNF in legumes is well documented, this review focuses on BNF in non-legume plants. Despite the phylogenic and ecological diversity among diazotrophic bacteria and their hosts, tightly regulated communication is always necessary between the microorganisms and the host plant to achieve a successful interaction. Ongoing research efforts to improve knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying these original relationships and some common strategies leading to a successful relationship between the nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and their hosts are presented. Understanding the molecular mechanism of BNF outside the legume-rhizobium symbiosis could have important agronomic implications and enable the use of N-fertilizers to be reduced or even avoided. Indeed, in the short term, improved understanding could lead to more sustainable exploitation of the biodiversity of nitrogen-fixing organisms and, in the longer term, to the transfer of endosymbiotic nitrogen-fixation capacities to major non-legume crops.

  19. Bacterial community structure in High-Arctic snow and freshwater as revealed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes and cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette K. Møller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial community structures in High-Arctic snow over sea ice and an ice-covered freshwater lake were examined by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of cultivated isolates. Both the pyrosequence and cultivation data indicated that the phylogenetic composition of the microbial assemblages was different within the snow layers and between snow and freshwater. The highest diversity was seen in snow. In the middle and top snow layers, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria dominated, although Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were relatively abundant also. High numbers of chloroplasts were also observed. In the deepest snow layer, large percentages of Firmicutes and Fusobacteria were seen. In freshwater, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were the most abundant phyla while relatively few Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria were present. Possibly, light intensity controlled the distribution of the Cyanobacteria and algae in the snow while carbon and nitrogen fixed by these autotrophs in turn fed the heterotrophic bacteria. In the lake, a probable lower light input relative to snow resulted in low numbers of Cyanobacteria and chloroplasts and, hence, limited input of organic carbon and nitrogen to the heterotrophic bacteria. Thus, differences in the physicochemical conditions may play an important role in the processes leading to distinctive bacterial community structures in High-Arctic snow and freshwater.

  20. Bacterial growth and DOC consumption in a tropical coastal lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Farjalla

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine the main limiting nutrient to bacterial growth in Imboassica lagoon, southeastern Brazil, to estimate the percentage of dissolved organic carbon (DOC available for bacterial growth, and to determine the bacterial growth efficiency (BGE of natural assemblages. Bacterial growth and DOC consumption were determined in batch culture experiments, in which water samples were supplemented with nitrogen and phosphorus together or separately, or incubated without nutrient additions. When added together, N and P stimulated higher bacterial growth rates and production, as well as higher DOC consumption. The BGEs and DOC consumption rates were strongly dependent on the method used to determine bacterial production. The BGE ranged from 11 to 72%. However, only a minor fraction of bulk DOC was consumed by the planktonic bacteria (from 0.7 to 3.4%. The results suggest that low availability of phosphorus and nitrogen coupled with excess organic carbon was the main factor responsible for the relatively low bacterial utilization of DOC in Imboassica lagoon.

  1. Different nitrogen sources change the transcriptome of welan gum-producing strain Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 31555.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaopeng; Nie, Zuoming; Zheng, Zhiyong; Zhu, Li; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhan, Xiaobei

    2017-09-01

    To reveal effects of different nitrogen sources on the expressions and functions of genes in Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 31555, it was cultivated in medium containing inorganic nitrogen (IN), organic nitrogen (ON), or inorganic-organic combined nitrogen (CN). Welan gum production and bacterial biomass were determined, and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the different ATCC 31555 groups were identified, and their functions were analyzed. Welan gum production and bacterial biomass were significantly higher in the ON and CN groups compared with those in the IN group. RNA-seq produced 660 unigenes, among which 488, 731, and 844 DEGs were identified between the IN vs. ON, IN vs. CN, and ON vs. CN groups, respectively. All the DEGs were related significantly to metabolic process and signal transduction. DEGs between the IN vs. CN and ON vs. CN groups were potentially associated with bacterial chemotaxis. Real-time PCR confirmed the expressions of selected DEGs. Organic nitrogen led to higher bacterial biomass and welan gum production than inorganic nitrogen, which might reflect differences in gene expression associated with metabolic process, signal transduction, and bacterial chemotaxis induced by different nitrogen sources.

  2. Fixed target flammable gas upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Squires, B.; Gasteyer, T.; Richardson, R.

    1996-12-01

    In the past, fixed target flammable gas systems were not supported in an organized fashion. The Research Division, Mechanical Support Department began to support these gas systems for the 1995 run. This technical memo describes the new approach being used to supply chamber gasses to fixed target experiments at Fermilab. It describes the engineering design features, system safety, system documentation and performance results. Gas mixtures provide the medium for electron detection in proportional and drift chambers. Usually a mixture of a noble gas and a polyatomic quenching gas is used. Sometimes a small amount of electronegative gas is added as well. The mixture required is a function of the specific chamber design, including working voltage, gain requirements, high rate capability, aging and others. For the 1995 fixed target run all the experiments requested once through gas systems. We obtained a summary of problems from the 1990 fixed target run and made a summary of the operations logbook entries from the 1991 run. These summaries primarily include problems involving flammable gas alarms, but also include incidents where Operations was involved or informed. Usually contamination issues were dealt with by the experimenters. The summaries are attached. We discussed past operational issues with the experimenters involved. There were numerous incidents of drift chamber failure where contaminated gas was suspect. However analyses of the gas at the time usually did not show any particular problems. This could have been because the analysis did not look for the troublesome component, the contaminant was concentrated in the gas over the liquid and vented before the sample was taken, or that contaminants were drawn into the chambers directly through leaks or sub-atmospheric pressures. After some study we were unable to determine specific causes of past contamination problems, although in argon-ethane systems the problems were due to the ethane only

  3. Impact of oil contamination and biostimulation on the diversity of indigenous bacterial communities in soil microcosms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, FF; Rosado, AS; Sebastian, GV; Casella, R; Machado, PLOA; Holmstrom, C; Kjelleberg, S; van Elsas, JD; Seldin, L

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of oil contamination and biostimulation (soil pH raise, and nitrogen, phosphate and sulphur addition) on the diversity of a bacterial community of an acidic Cambisol under Atlantic Forest. The experiment was based on the enumeration of bacterial

  4. Influence of Cervitec gel on periodontal health of patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Özdemir

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The present data suggested that brushing with Cervitec gel once a day has the potential to reduce bacterial accumulation around teeth and fixed appliances in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. However, within the limits of this study, Cervitec seems to have no significant effect on total bacteria, P.g., and T.d. levels of subgingival dental plaque.

  5. DesinFix TM 135 in fermentation process for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Barth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the world's largest ethanol production from sugarcane, but bacterial contamination decreases the ethanol yields. It was shown that the biocide DesinFixTM 135 can reduce the contamination without decreasing the yeasts' viability or negatively affecting the ethanol production.

  6. A fixed-point farrago

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, Joel H

    2016-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to some of the best-known fixed-point theorems, with an emphasis on their interactions with topics in analysis. The level of exposition increases gradually throughout the book, building from a basic requirement of undergraduate proficiency to graduate-level sophistication. Appendices provide an introduction to (or refresher on) some of the prerequisite material and exercises are integrated into the text, contributing to the volume’s ability to be used as a self-contained text. Readers will find the presentation especially useful for independent study or as a supplement to a graduate course in fixed-point theory. The material is split into four parts: the first introduces the Banach Contraction-Mapping Principle and the Brouwer Fixed-Point Theorem, along with a selection of interesting applications; the second focuses on Brouwer’s theorem and its application to John Nash’s work; the third applies Brouwer’s theorem to spaces of infinite dimension; and the fourth rests ...

  7. Marine nitrogen cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    ) such as the Marine nitrogen cycle The marine nitrogen cycle. ‘X’ and ‘Y’ are intra-cellular intermediates that do not accumulate in water column. (Source: Codispoti et al., 2001) Page 1 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www... and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?, Sci. Mar., 65, 85-105, 2001. Page 2 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www.eoearth.org/article/Marine_nitrogen_cycle square6 Gruber, N.: The dynamics...

  8. Independent behavior of bacterial laccases to inducers and metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Valued Acer Customer

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... The medium for production was a high nitrogen medium containing ... effects of metal ions on either laccase production or laccase activity were not clear. ... this study was to isolate bacterial strains that produce ... The growth of cell culture was measured by using optical ... Conditions of laccase production.

  9. Bacterial community analysis of an industrial wastewater treatment plant in Colombia with screening for lipid-degrading microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Bedoya, Lina Marcela; Sánchez-Pinzón, María Solange; Cadavid-Restrepo, Gloria Ester; Moreno-Herrera, Claudia Ximena

    2016-11-01

    The operation of wastewater treatment technologies depends on a combination of physical, chemical and biological factors. Microorganisms present in wastewater treatment plants play essential roles in the degradation and removal of organic waste and xenobiotic pollutants. Several microorganisms have been used in complementary treatments to process effluents rich in fats and oils. Microbial lipases have received significant industrial attention because of their stability, broad substrate specificity, high yields, and regular supply, as well as the fact that the microorganisms producing them grow rapidly on inexpensive media. In Colombia, bacterial community studies have focused on populations of cultivable nitrifying, heterotrophic and nitrogen-fixing bacteria present in constructed wetlands. In this study, culture-dependent methods, culture-independent methods (TTGE, RISA) and enzymatic methods were used to estimate bacterial diversity, to monitor temporal and spatial changes in bacterial communities, and to screen microorganisms that presented lipolytic activity. The dominant microorganisms in the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) examined in this study belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The enzymatic studies performed indicated that five bacterial isolates and three fungal isolates possessed the ability to degrade lipids; additionally, the Serratia, Kosakonia and Mucor genera presented lipase-mediated transesterification activity. The implications of these findings in regard to possible applications are discussed later in this paper. Our results indicate that there is a wide diversity of aerobic Gram-negative bacteria inhabiting the different sections of the WWTP, which could indicate its ecological condition, functioning and general efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Directional RNA deep sequencing sheds new light on the transcriptional response of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 to combined-nitrogen deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Head Steven R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyanobacteria are potential sources of renewable chemicals and biofuels and serve as model organisms for bacterial photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and responses to environmental changes. Anabaena (Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 (hereafter Anabaena is a multicellular filamentous cyanobacterium that can "fix" atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia when grown in the absence of a source of combined nitrogen. Because the nitrogenase enzyme is oxygen sensitive, Anabaena forms specialized cells called heterocysts that create a microoxic environment for nitrogen fixation. We have employed directional RNA-seq to map the Anabaena transcriptome during vegetative cell growth and in response to combined-nitrogen deprivation, which induces filaments to undergo heterocyst development. Our data provide an unprecedented view of transcriptional changes in Anabaena filaments during the induction of heterocyst development and transition to diazotrophic growth. Results Using the Illumina short read platform and a directional RNA-seq protocol, we obtained deep sequencing data for RNA extracted from filaments at 0, 6, 12, and 21 hours after the removal of combined nitrogen. The RNA-seq data provided information on transcript abundance and boundaries for the entire transcriptome. From these data, we detected novel antisense transcripts within the UTRs (untranslated regions and coding regions of key genes involved in heterocyst development, suggesting that antisense RNAs may be important regulators of the nitrogen response. In addition, many 5' UTRs were longer than anticipated, sometimes extending into upstream open reading frames (ORFs, and operons often showed complex structure and regulation. Finally, many genes that had not been previously identified as being involved in heterocyst development showed regulation, providing new candidates for future studies in this model organism. Conclusions Directional RNA-seq data were obtained that provide

  11. Bioturbation: impact on the marine nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverock, Bonnie; Gilbert, Jack A; Tait, Karen; Osborn, A Mark; Widdicombe, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Sediments play a key role in the marine nitrogen cycle and can act either as a source or a sink of biologically available (fixed) nitrogen. This cycling is driven by a number of microbial remineralization reactions, many of which occur across the oxic/anoxic interface near the sediment surface. The presence and activity of large burrowing macrofauna (bioturbators) in the sediment can significantly affect these microbial processes by altering the physicochemical properties of the sediment. For example, the building and irrigation of burrows by bioturbators introduces fresh oxygenated water into deeper sediment layers and allows the exchange of solutes between the sediment and water column. Burrows can effectively extend the oxic/anoxic interface into deeper sediment layers, thus providing a unique environment for nitrogen-cycling microbial communities. Recent studies have shown that the abundance and diversity of micro-organisms can be far greater in burrow wall sediment than in the surrounding surface or subsurface sediment; meanwhile, bioturbated sediment supports higher rates of coupled nitrification-denitrification reactions and increased fluxes of ammonium to the water column. In the present paper we discuss the potential for bioturbation to significantly affect marine nitrogen cycling, as well as the molecular techniques used to study microbial nitrogen cycling communities and directions for future study.

  12. Low temperature delays timing and enhances the cost of nitrogen fixation in the unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, V.S.; Stomp, M.; Rosso, C.; van Beusekom, S.A.M.; Emmerich, B.; Stal, L.J.; Huisman, J.

    2013-01-01

    Marine nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are largely confined to the tropical and subtropical ocean. It has been argued that their global biogeographical distribution reflects the physiologically feasible temperature range at which they can perform nitrogen fixation. In this study we refine this line of

  13. Nitrogen fixation and molecular oxygen: comparative genomic reconstruction of transcription regulation in Alphaproteobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V Tsoy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological nitrogen fixation plays a crucial role in the nitrogen cycle. An ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, reducing it to ammonium, was described for multiple species of Bacteria and Archaea. Being a complex and sensitive process, nitrogen fixation requires a complicated regulatory system, also, on the level of transcription. The transcriptional regulatory network for nitrogen fixation was extensively studied in several representatives of the class Alphaproteobacteria. This regulatory network includes the activator of nitrogen fixation NifA, working in tandem with the alternative sigma-factor RpoN as well as oxygen-responsive regulatory systems, one-component regulators FnrN/FixK and two-component system FixLJ. Here we used a comparative genomics analysis for in silico study of the transcriptional regulatory network in 50 genomes of Alphaproteobacteria. We extended the known regulons and proposed the scenario for the evolution of the nitrogen fixation transcriptional network. The reconstructed network substantially expands the existing knowledge of transcriptional regulation in nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and can be used for genetic experiments, metabolic reconstruction, and evolutionary analysis.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of two recombinant inbred lines of common bean contrasting for symbiotic nitrogen fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is able to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2) through symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF). Effective utilization of existing variability for SNF in common bean for genetic improvement requires an understanding of underlying genes and molecular mechanisms. The utility of ...

  15. Enzymology of biological nitrogen fixation. Final report, May 1, 1987--April 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is of central importance in the earth`s nitrogen economy. Fixation of nitrogen is accomplished by a variety of microorganisms, all of them procaryotic. Some operate independently and some function symbiotically or associatively with photosynthesizing plants. Biological nitrogen fixation is accomplished via the reaction: N{sub 2} + 8H{sup +} + 8e{sup {minus}} {yields} 2NH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}. This reaction requires a minimum of 16 ATP under ideal laboratory conditions, so it is obvious that the energy demand of the reaction is very high. When certain nitrogen-fixing organisms are supplied fixed nitrogen (e.g., ammonium) the organisms use the fixed nitrogen and turn off their nitrogenase system, thus conserving energy. When the fixed nitrogen is exhausted, the organism reactivates its nitrogenase. The system is turned off by dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyl transferase (DRAT) and turned back on by dinitrogenase reductase-activating glycohydrolase (DRAG). The authors have investigated the details of how DRAT and DRAG are formed, how they function, and the genetics of their formation and operation.

  16. Bacterial lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groskin, S.A.; Panicek, D.M.; Ewing, D.K.; Rivera, F.; Math, K.; Teixeira, J.; Heitzman, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective review of patients with bacterial lung abscess was carried out. Demographic, clinical, and radiographical features of this patient group are compared with similar data from patients with empyema and/or cavitated lung carcinoma; differential diagnostic points are stressed. The entity of radiographically occult lung abscess is discussed. Complications associated with bacterial lung abscess are discussed. Current therapeutic options and treatment philosophy for patients with bacterial lung abscess are noted

  17. Exploring the plant-associated bacterial communities in Medicago sativa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pini Francesco

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant-associated bacterial communities caught the attention of several investigators which study the relationships between plants and soil and the potential application of selected bacterial species in crop improvement and protection. Medicago sativa L. is a legume crop of high economic importance as forage in temperate areas and one of the most popular model plants for investigations on the symbiosis with nitrogen fixing rhizobia (mainly belonging to the alphaproteobacterial species Sinorhizobium meliloti. However, despite its importance, no studies have been carried out looking at the total bacterial community associated with the plant. In this work we explored for the first time the total bacterial community associated with M. sativa plants grown in mesocosms conditions, looking at a wide taxonomic spectrum, from the class to the single species (S. meliloti level. Results Results, obtained by using Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis, quantitative PCR and sequencing of 16 S rRNA gene libraries, showed a high taxonomic diversity as well as a dominance by members of the class Alphaproteobacteria in plant tissues. Within Alphaproteobacteria the families Sphingomonadaceae and Methylobacteriaceae were abundant inside plant tissues, while soil Alphaproteobacteria were represented by the families of Hyphomicrobiaceae, Methylocystaceae, Bradyirhizobiaceae and Caulobacteraceae. At the single species level, we were able to detect the presence of S. meliloti populations in aerial tissues, nodules and soil. An analysis of population diversity on nodules and soil showed a relatively low sharing of haplotypes (30-40% between the two environments and between replicate mesocosms, suggesting drift as main force shaping S. meliloti population at least in this system. Conclusions In this work we shed some light on the bacterial communities associated with M. sativa plants, showing that Alphaproteobacteria may

  18. Peritonitis - spontaneous bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP); Ascites - peritonitis; Cirrhosis - peritonitis ... who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure. Peritonitis may have other causes . These include infection from ...

  19. Nitrogen modulation of legume root architecture signaling pathways involves phytohormones and small regulatory molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Radzman, Nadiatul A; Djordjevic, Michael A; Imin, Nijat

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen, particularly nitrate is an important yield determinant for crops. However, current agricultural practice with excessive fertilizer usage has detrimental effects on the environment. Therefore, legumes have been suggested as a sustainable alternative for replenishing soil nitrogen. Legumes can uniquely form nitrogen-fixing nodules through symbiotic interaction with specialized soil bacteria. Legumes possess a highly plastic root system which modulates its architecture according to the nitrogen availability in the soil. Understanding how legumes regulate root development in response to nitrogen availability is an important step to improving root architecture. The nitrogen-mediated root development pathway starts with sensing soil nitrogen level followed by subsequent signal transduction pathways involving phytohormones, microRNAs and regulatory peptides that collectively modulate the growth and shape of the root system. This review focuses on the current understanding of nitrogen-mediated legume root architecture including local and systemic regulations by different N-sources and the modulations by phytohormones and small regulatory molecules.

  20. 小麦/玉米/大豆和小麦/玉米/甘薯套作对根际土壤细菌群落多样性及植株氮素吸收的影响%Effect of Wheat/Maize/Soybean and Wheat/Maize/Sweet Potato Relay Strip Intercropping on Bacterial Community Diversity of Rhizosphere Soil and Nitrogen Uptake of Crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雍太文; 杨文钰; 向达兵; 朱贞颖

    2012-01-01

    为探讨小麦/玉米/大豆和小麦/玉米/甘薯套作体系中根际细菌群落多样性与作物氮素高效吸收的差异特性及二者间的关系,应用变性梯度凝胶电泳(DGGE)技术研究了小麦-大豆(A1)、小麦-甘薯(A2)、玉米(A3)、小麦/玉米/大豆(A4)和小麦/玉米/甘薯(A5)5种种植模式的根际细菌群落多样性.结果表明,与A1、A2、A3及A5相比,A4套作提高了各作物在开花期(或吐丝期)与成熟期的籽粒吸氮量、地上部总吸氮量和Shannon-Weiner index多样性指数(H′).处理间的吸氮量与H′的变化规律为套作>单作、大豆茬口>甘薯茬口,以A4处理最高.不同种植模式下DGGE图谱条带的数量及亮度有较大区别,且有几条特征性条带发生了明显变化.不同种植模式间的细菌群落结构相似性较低,群落相似度系数(Cs)表现为套作与套作间>套作与单作间;A4与A5间的Cs相对较小,二者间的细菌群落结构差异较大.A4模式有利于提高根际细菌群落多样性,增强植株对氮素的吸收能力.%The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between diversity of rhizosphere bacterial community and nitrogen uptake of crops in two relay strip intercropping systems: wheat/maize/soybean and wheat/maize/sweet potato. We analyzed the diversities of rhizosphere bacterial community in five cropping systems using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) based on 16S rDNA. The cropping systems included wheat-soybean (Al), wheat-sweet potato (A2), maize single cropping (A3), wheat/maize/soybean (A4), and wheat/maize/sweet potato (A5). Compared to the sole cropping systems (Al, A2, and A3 treatments), the A4 treatment showed increases in grain nitrogen uptake and total nitrogen uptake amounts of aboveground of crops at both flowering (or silking) and maturity stages, and the Shannon-Weiner indices for rhizosphere bacterial community diversity was also increased significantly. The values of nitrogen

  1. Estimates of biological nitrogen fixation by Pterocarpus lucens in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen (N2) fixation by Pterocarpus lucens in a natural semi arid ecosystem, in Ferlo, Senegal was estimated using 15N natural abundance (15N) procedure. Other non-fixing trees accompanying P. lucens in the same area were also investigated as control. Results showed an important variation of 15N in leaves between ...

  2. Potential for nitrogen fixation in fungus-growing termite symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; de Verges, Jane; Rousk, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    Termites host a gut microbiota of diverse and essential symbionts that enable specialization on dead plant material; an abundant, but nutritionally imbalanced food source. To supplement the severe shortage of dietary nitrogen (N), some termite species make use of diazotrophic bacteria to fix atmo...

  3. Azospirillum Inoculation Alters Nitrate Reductase Activity and Nitrogen Uptake in Wheat Plant Under Water Deficit Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    N. Aliasgharzad, N. Aliasgharzad; Heydaryan, Zahra; Sarikhani, M.R

    2014-01-01

    Water deficit stress usually diminishes nitrogen uptake by plants. There are evidences that some nitrogen fixing bacteria can alleviate this stress by supplying nitrogen and improving its metabolism in plants. Four Azospirillum strains, A. lipoferum AC45-II, A. brasilense AC46-I, A. irakense AC49-VII and A. irakense AC51-VI were tested for nitrate reductase activity (NRA). In a pot culture experiment using a sandy loam soil, wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Sardari) were inoculated with...

  4. Culture-independent characterization of bacterial communities associated with the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, C.A.; Lisle, J.T.; Galkiewicz, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria are recognized as an important part of the total biology of shallow-water corals. Studies of shallow-water corals suggest that associated bacteria may benefit the corals by cycling carbon, fixing nitrogen, chelating iron, and producing antibiotics that protect the coral from other microbes. Cold-water or deep-sea corals have a fundamentally different ecology due to their adaptation to cold, dark, high-pressure environments and as such have novel microbiota. The goal of this study was to characterize the microbial associates of Lophelia pertusa in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. This is the first study to collect the coral samples in individual insulated containers and to preserve coral samples at depth in an effort to minimize thermal shock and evaluate the effects of environmental gradients on the microbial diversity of samples. Molecular analysis of bacterial diversity showed a marked difference between the two study sites, Viosca Knoll 906/862 (VK906/862) and Viosca Knoll 826 (VK826). The bacterial communities from VK826 were dominated by a variety of unknown mycoplasmal members of the Tenericutes and Bacteroidetes, whereas the libraries from VK906/862 were dominated by members of the Proteobacteria. In addition to novel sequences, the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed many bacterial sequences in common between Gulf of Mexico Lophelia corals and Norwegian fjord Lophelia corals, as well as shallow-water corals. Two Lophelia-specific bacterial groups were identified: a cluster of gammaproteobacteria related to sulfide-oxidizing gill symbionts of seep clams and a group of Mycoplasma spp. The presence of these groups in both Gulf and Norwegian Lophelia corals indicates that in spite of the geographic heterogeneity observed in Lophelia-associated bacterial communities, there are Lophelia-specific microbes. Copyright ?? 2009, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandall, N A; Millett, D T; Mattick, C R; Hickman, J; Macfarlane, T V; Worthington, H V

    2003-01-01

    Bonding of orthodontic brackets to teeth is important to enable effective and efficient treatment with fixed appliances. The problem is bracket failure during treatment which increases operator chairside time and lengthens treatment time. A prolonged treatment is likely to increase the oral health risks of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances one of which is irreversible enamel decalcification. To evaluate the effectiveness of different orthodontic adhesives for bonding. Electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE. Date of most recent searches: August 2002 (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2002). Trials were selected if they met the following criteria: randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing two different adhesive groups. Participants were patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. The interventions were adhesives that bonded stainless steel brackets to all teeth except the molars. The primary outcome was debond or bracket failure. Data were recorded on decalcification as a secondary outcome, if present. Information regarding methods, participants, interventions, outcome measures and results were extracted in duplicate by pairs of reviewers (Nicky Mandall (NM) and Rye Mattick (CRM); Declan Millett (DTM) and Joy Hickman (JH2)). Since the data were not presented in a form that was amenable to meta-analysis, the results of the review are presented in narrative form only. Three trials satisfied the inclusion criteria. A chemical cured composite was compared with a light cure composite (one trial), a conventional glass ionomer cement (one trial) and a polyacid-modified resin composite (compomer) (one trial). The quality of the trial reports was generally poor. It is difficult to draw any conclusions from this review, however, suggestions are made for methods of improving future research involving

  6. BRST gauge fixing and regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damgaard, P.H.; Jonghe, F. de; Sollacher, R.

    1995-05-01

    In the presence of consistent regulators, the standard procedure of BRST gauge fixing (or moving from one gauge to another) can require non-trivial modifications. These modifications occur at the quantum level, and gauges exist which are only well-defined when quantum mechanical modifications are correctly taken into account. We illustrate how this phenomenon manifests itself in the solvable case of two-dimensional bosonization in the path-integral formalism. As a by-product, we show how to derive smooth bosonization in Batalin-Vilkovisky Lagrangian BRST quantization. (orig.)

  7. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  8. Effect of water and nitrogen additions on free-living nitrogen fixer populations in desert grass root zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, R P; Provencio, K R; Torrez, R J; Seager, G M

    1993-01-01

    In this study we measured changes in population levels of free-living N2-fixing bacteria in the root zones of potted Bouteloua eriopoda and Sporobolus flexuosus plants as well as the photosynthetic indices of the plants in response to added nitrogen, added water, and added water plus nitrogen treatments. In addition, N2 fixer population changes in response to added carbon source and nitrogen were measured in plant-free soil columns. There were significant increases in the numbers of N2 fixers associated with both plant species in the water and the water plus nitrogen treatments. Both treatments increased the photosynthetic index, suggesting that plant exudates were driving N2 fixer population changes. Population increases were greatest in the water plus nitrogen treatments, indicating that added nitrogen was synergistic with added water and suggesting that nitrogen addition spared bacteria the metabolic cost of N2 fixation, allowing greater reproduction. Plant-free column studies demonstrated a synergistic carbon-nitrogen effect when carbon levels were limiting (low malate addition) but not when carbon was abundant (high malate), further supporting this hypothesis. The results of this study indicate the presence of N2 fixer populations which interact with plants and which may play a role in the nitrogen balance of desert grasslands. PMID:8215373

  9. A Greenhouse Assay on the Effect of Applied Urea Amount on the Rhizospheric Soil Bacterial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Shuanghua; Yi, Yanli

    2015-12-01

    The rhizospheric bacteria play key role in plant nutrition and growth promotion. The effects of increased nitrogen inputs on plant rhizospheric soils also have impacted on whole soil microbial communities. In this study, we analyzed the effects of applied nitrogen (urea) on rhizospheric bacterial composition and diversity in a greenhouse assay using the high-throughput sequencing technique. To explore the environmental factors driving the abundance, diversity and composition of soil bacterial communities, the relationship between soil variables and the bacterial communities were also analyzed using the mantel test as well as the redundancy analysis. The results revealed significant bacterial diversity changes at different amounts of applied urea, especially between the control treatment and the N fertilized treatments. Mantel tests showed that the bacterial communities were significantly correlated with the soil nitrate nitrogen, available nitrogen, soil pH, ammonium nitrogen and total organic carbon. The present study deepened the understanding about the rhizospheric soil microbial communities under different amounts of applied urea in greenhouse conditions, and our work revealed the environmental factors affecting the abundance, diversity and composition of rhizospheric bacterial communities.

  10. Auxins upregulate nif and fix genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Carmen; Defez, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    In a recent publication we analyzed the global effects triggered by IAA overproduction in S. meliloti RD64 under free-living conditions by comparing the gene expression pattern of wild type 1021 with that of RD64 and 1021 treated with IAA and other four chemically or functionally related molecules. Among the genes differentially expressed in RD64 and IAA-treated 1021 cells we found two genes of pho operon, phoT and phoC. Based on this finding we examined the mechanisms for mineral P solubilization in RD64 and the potential ability of this strain to improve Medicago growth under P-starved conditions. Here, we further analyze the expression profiles obtained in microarray analysis and evaluate the specificity and the extent of overlap between all treatments. Venn diagrams indicated that IAA- and 2,4-D-regulated genes were closely related. Furthermore, most differentially expressed genes from pSymA were induced in 1021 cells treated with 2,4-D, ICA, IND and Trp as compared to the untreated 1021 cells. RT-PCR analysis was employed to analyze the differential expression patterns of nitrogen fixation genes under free-living and symbiotic conditions. Under symbiotic condition, the relative expression levels of nif and fix genes were significantly induced in Mt- RD64 plants and in Mt-1021 plants treated with IAA and 2,4-D whereas they were unchanged or repressed in Mt-1021 plants treated with the other selected compounds when compared to the untreated Mt-1021 plants. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  11. The role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in nitrogen availability, competition and plant invasion into the sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin M. Goergen

    2009-01-01

    In the semi-arid sagebrush steppe of the Northeastern Sierra Nevada, resources are both spatially and temporally variable, arguably making resource availability a primary factor determining invasion success. N fixing plant species, primarily native legumes, are often relatively abundant in sagebrush steppe and can contribute to ecosystem nitrogen budgets. ...

  12. Fixed Target Collisions at STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Kathryn C.

    2016-12-15

    The RHIC Beam Energy Scan (BES) program was proposed to look for the turn-off of signatures of the quark gluon plasma (QGP), search for a possible QCD critical point, and study the nature of the phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter. Previous results have been used to claim that the onset of deconfinement occurs at a center-of-mass energy of 7 GeV. Data from lower energies are needed to test if this onset occurs. The goal of the STAR Fixed-Target Program is to extend the collision energy range in BES II to energies that are likely below the onset of deconfinement. Currently, STAR has inserted a gold target into the beam pipe and conducted test runs at center-of-mass energies of 3.9 and 4.5 GeV. Tests have been done with both Au and Al beams. First physics results from a Coulomb potential analysis of Au + Au fixed-target collisions are presented and are found to be consistent with results from previous experiments. Furthermore, the Coulomb potential, which is sensitive to the Z of the projectile and degree of baryonic stopping, will be compared to published results from the AGS.

  13. Fixed-Target Electron Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, William K.

    2001-01-01

    A tremendous amount of scientific insight has been garnered over the past half-century by using particle accelerators to study physical systems of sub-atomic dimensions. These giant instruments begin with particles at rest, then greatly increase their energy of motion, forming a narrow trajectory or beam of particles. In fixed-target accelerators, the particle beam impacts upon a stationary sample or target which contains or produces the sub-atomic system being studied. This is in distinction to colliders, where two beams are produced and are steered into each other so that their constituent particles can collide. The acceleration process always relies on the particle being accelerated having an electric charge; however, both the details of producing the beam and the classes of scientific investigations possible vary widely with the specific type of particle being accelerated. This article discusses fixed-target accelerators which produce beams of electrons, the lightest charged particle. As detailed in the report, the beam energy has a close connection with the size of the physical system studied. Here a useful unit of energy is a GeV, i.e., a giga electron-volt. (ne GeV, the energy an electron would have if accelerated through a billion volts, is equal to 1.6 x 10 -10 joules.) To study systems on a distance scale much smaller than an atomic nucleus requires beam energies ranging from a few GeV up to hundreds of GeV and more

  14. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    . As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become...

  15. Developments in nitrogen generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, C.L.; Abrardo, J.M.; Himmelberger, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Three process cycles for the production of nitrogen by the cryogenic separation of air are described in detail. These cycles are: (1) a waste expander cycle; (2) an air expander cycle; and (3) a cycle for producing large quantities of gaseous nitrogen. Each cycle has distinct advantages for various production ranges and delivery pressures. A dicussion of key parameters that must be considered when selecting a cycle to meet specific product requirements is presented. The importance of high plant reliability and a dependable liquid nitrogen back up system is also presented. Lastly, a discussion of plant safety dealing with the hazards of nitrogen, enriched oxygen, and hydrocarbons present in the air is reviewed

  16. Improved Landau gauge fixing and discretisation errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, F.D.R.; Bowman, P.O.; Leinweber, D.B.; Richards, D.G.; Williams, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    Lattice discretisation errors in the Landau gauge condition are examined. An improved gauge fixing algorithm in which O(a 2 ) errors are removed is presented. O(a 2 ) improvement of the gauge fixing condition displays the secondary benefit of reducing the size of higher-order errors. These results emphasise the importance of implementing an improved gauge fixing condition

  17. Oxygen-Poor Microzones as Potential Sites of Microbial N2 Fixation in Nitrogen-Depleted Aerobic Marine Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paerl, Hans W.; Prufert, Leslie E.

    1987-01-01

    The nitrogen-deficient coastal waters of North Carolina contain suspended bacteria potentially able to fix N2. Bioassays aimed at identifying environmental factors controlling the development and proliferation of N2 fixation showed that dissolved organic carbon (as simple sugars and sugar alcohols) and particulate organic carbon (derived from Spartina alterniflora) additions elicited and enhanced N2 fixation (nitrogenase activity) in these waters. Nitrogenase activity occurred in samples containing flocculent, mucilage-covered bacterial aggregates. Cyanobacterium-bacterium aggregates also revealed N2 fixation. In all cases bacterial N2 fixation occurred in association with surficial microenvironments or microzones. Since nitrogenase is oxygen labile, we hypothesized that the aggregates themselves protected their constituent microbes from O2. Microelectrode O2 profiles revealed that aggregates had lower internal O2 tensions than surrounding waters. Tetrazolium salt (2,3,5-triphenyl-3-tetrazolium chloride) reduction revealed that patchy zones existed both within microbes and extracellularly in the mucilage surrounding microbes where free O2 was excluded. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride reduction also strongly inhibited nitrogenase activity. These findings suggest that N2 fixation is mediated by the availability of the appropriate types of reduced microzones. Organic carbon enrichment appears to serve as an energy and structural source for aggregate formation, both of which were required for eliciting N2 fixation responses of these waters. Images PMID:16347337

  18. Decreasing Fertilizer use by Optimizing Plant-microbe Interactions for Sustainable Supply of Nitrogen for Bioenergy Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicklberger, M. F.; Huang, J.; Felix, P.; Pettenato, A.; Chakraborty, R.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential component of DNA and proteins and consequently a key element of life. N often is limited in plants, affecting plant growth and productivity. To alleviate this problem, tremendous amounts of N-fertilizer is used, which comes at a high economic price and heavy energy demand. In addition, N-fertilizer also significantly contributes to rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Therefore, the addition of fertilizer to overcome N limitation is highly undesirable. To explore reduction in fertilizer use our research focuses on optimizing the interaction between plants and diazotrophic bacteria, which could provide adequate amounts of N to the host-plant. Therefore we investigated the diversity of microbes associated with Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), considered as potential energy crop for bioenergy production. Several bacterial isolates with representatives from Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Bacilli were obtained from the roots, leaves, rhizoplane and rhizosphere of these plants. Majority of these isolates grew best with simple sugars and small organic acids. As shown by PCR amplification of nifH, several of these isolates are potential N2-fixing bacteria. We investigated diazotrophs for their response to elevated temperature and salinity (two common climate change induced stresses found on marginal lands), their N2-fixing ability, and their response to root exudates (which drive microbial colonization of the plant). Together this understanding is necessary for the development of eco-friendly, economically sustainable energy crops by decreasing their dependency on fertilizer.

  19. Bacterial leaching of pyritic gold ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardi, F.M.; Cashion, J.D.; Brown, J.; Jay, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Pyritic ores (pyrite and arsenopyrite) containing gold concentrations in excess of 50g Au/t can be processed to recover the gold by the removal of the sulphur from the ore. This may be achieved by roasting (producing sulphur dioxide emissions), pressure oxidation (expensive and suitable for large high grade deposits), pressure leaching (still currently being developed) or bacterial oxidation. The bacterial oxidation process is a well known process in nature but has only recently come under investigation as a economically viable and relatively clean method of gold recovery from deep low grade sulphidic ores. Samples were obtained from the Wiluna Gold Mine in Western Australia consisting of the original ore, six successive bacterial reactors and the final products. Moessbauer experiments have been performed at room temperature, liquid nitrogen and liquid helium temperatures, and in applied magnetic fields. The main components of the iron phases which were present during the bacterial treatment were pyrite and arsenopyrite which were readily oxidised by the bacteria. Ferric sulfates and ferric arsenates were identified as by-products of the process with a small amount of the oxyhydroxide goethite. These results are in contrast to the similar study of the Fairview Mine in South Africa where principally Fe(II) species were observed

  20. New insights into the evolutionary history of biological nitrogen fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eBoyd

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogenase, which catalyzes the ATP-dependent reduction of dinitrogen (N2 to ammonia (NH3, accounts for roughly half of the bioavailable nitrogen supporting extant life. The fundamental requirement for fixed forms of nitrogen for life on Earth, both at present and in the past, has led to broad and significant interest in the origin and evolution of this fundamental biological process. One key question is whether the limited availability of fixed nitrogen was a factor in life’s origin or whether there were ample sources of fixed nitrogen produced by abiotic processes or delivered through the weathering of bolide impact materials to support this early life. If the latter, the key questions become what were the characteristics of the environment that precipitated the evolution of this oxygen sensitive process, when did this occur, and how was its subsequent evolutionary history impacted by the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis and the rise of oxygen in the Earth’s biosphere. Since the availability of fixed sources of nitrogen capable of supporting early life is difficult to glean from the geologic record, there are limited means to get direct insights into these questions. Indirect insights, however, can be gained by deep phylogenetic studies of nitrogenase structural gene products and additional gene products involved in the biosynthesis of the complex metal-containing prosthetic groups associated with this enzyme complex. Insights gained from such studies, as reviewed herein, challenge traditional models for the evolution of biological nitrogen fixation and provide the basis for the development of new conceptual models that explain the stepwise evolution of this highly complex and life sustaining process.

  1. Metagenomic assessment of the potential microbial nitrogen pathways in the rhizosphere of a mediterranean forest after a wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo-Díaz, José F; Fernández-González, Antonio J; Villadas, Pablo J; Robles, Ana B; Toro, Nicolás; Fernández-López, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    Wildfires are frequent in the forests of the Mediterranean Basin and have greatly influenced this ecosystem. Changes to the physical and chemical properties of the soil, due to fire and post-fire conditions, result in alterations of both the bacterial communities and the nitrogen cycle. We explored the effects of a holm oak forest wildfire on the rhizospheric bacterial communities involved in the nitrogen cycle. Metagenomic data of the genes involved in the nitrogen cycle showed that both the undisturbed and burned rhizospheres had a conservative nitrogen cycle with a larger number of sequences related to the nitrogen incorporation pathways and a lower number for nitrogen output. However, the burned rhizosphere showed a statistically significant increase in the number of sequences for nitrogen incorporation (allantoin utilization and nitrogen fixation) and a significantly lower number of sequences for denitrification and dissimilatory nitrite reductase subsystems, possibly in order to compensate for nitrogen loss from the soil after burning. The genetic potential for nitrogen incorporation into the ecosystem was assessed through the diversity of the nitrogenase reductase enzyme, which is encoded by the nifH gene. We found that nifH gene diversity and richness were lower in burned than in undisturbed rhizospheric soils. The structure of the bacterial communities involved in the nitrogen cycle showed a statistically significant increase of Actinobacteria and Firmicutes phyla after the wildfire. Both approaches showed the important role of gram-positive bacteria in the ecosystem after a wildfire.

  2. Uptake of fertilizer nitrogen and soil nitrogen by rice using 15N-labelled nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.R.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Data from five field experiments using labelled nitrogen fertilizer were used to determine the relative effects of soil nitrogen and fertilizer nitrogen on rice yield. Yield of grain was closely correlated with total aboveground nitrogen uptake (soil + fertilizer), less closely correlated with soil nitrogen uptake and not significantly correlated with fertilizer nitrogen uptake. When yield increase rather than yield was correlated with fertilizer nitrogen uptake, the correlation coefficient was statistically significant. (orig.)

  3. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandall, Nicky A; Hickman, Joy; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Mattick, Rye Cr; Millett, Declan T; Worthington, Helen V

    2018-04-09

    Bonding of orthodontic brackets to teeth is important to enable effective and efficient treatment with fixed appliances. The problem is bracket failure during treatment which increases operator chairside time and lengthens treatment time. A prolonged treatment is likely to increase the oral health risks of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances one of which is irreversible enamel decalcification. This is an update of the Cochrane Review first published in 2003. A new full search was conducted on 26 September 2017 but no new studies were identified. We have only updated the search methods section in this new version. The conclusions of this Cochrane Review remain the same. To evaluate the effects of different orthodontic adhesives for bonding. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 26 September 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 8) in the Cochrane Library (searched 26 September 2017), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 26 September 2017), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 26 September 2017). The US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Trials were selected if they met the following criteria: randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing two different adhesive groups. Participants were patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. The interventions were adhesives that bonded stainless steel brackets to all teeth except the molars. The primary outcome was debond or bracket failure. Data were recorded on decalcification as a secondary outcome, if present. Information regarding methods, participants, interventions, outcome measures and results were extracted in

  4. Studies on the roles of GlnK and GlnB in regulating Klebsiella pneumoniae NifL-dependent nitrogen control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arcondeguy, T.; van Heeswijk, W.C.; Merrick, M.

    1999-01-01

    In Klebsiella pneumoniae, nitrogen fixation (nif) genes are regulated in response to fixed nitrogen and oxygen. The activity of the nif-specific transcriptional activator NifA is modulated by NifL, which mediates both oxygen and nitrogen control. The signal transduction protein GlnK is required to

  5. Balancing the organic load and light supply in symbiotic microalgal–bacterial biofilm reactors treating synthetic municipal wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.; Temmink, B.G.; Janssen, M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic microalgal–bacterial biofilms can be very attractive for municipal wastewater treatment. Microalgae remove nitrogen and phosphorus and simultaneously produce the oxygen that is required for the aerobic, heterotrophic degradation of organic pollutants. For the application of these biofilms

  6. Quantitative determination of nitrogen biological fixation by the N-15 isotopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basantes, Emilio; Trivelin, Paulo; Mui Tsai, Siu

    1993-01-01

    In order to quantify the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and to evaluate the mycorrhiza effect in the BNF, an experiment was carried on by applying 1 5 N -ammonium sulphate and mycorrhiza fungi to the soil. The treatments included legumes: mucuna negra(Stizolobium atterrinum Piper et Tracv) and caupi (Vigna unguiculoata L. Walp). Two control plants: non nodulating soybean (Glycine max L.Merril) and rice (Oryza sativa), were used for measuring the fixed N in the legumes by isotope dilution method. Both legumes and control plants assimmilated the same ammounts of nitrogen from the soil and fertilizer. The greater N content in the legumnes was determined as coming from the fixed nitrogen. Rice and non nodulating soybean showed to be good controls for measuring biological nitrogen fixation using isotopic dilution method. The values of fixed nitrogen for legumes calculated using rice as control plant were slightly greater than those with non nodulating soybean, nevertheless there were no significant statistical differences between the values. The mucuna fixed more N than caupi in both mycorrhiza treatments (76.7, 66.6 and 56. 7 per cent of N fixed, respectively). The mycorrhiza increased dry matter yield (13.84 per cent), accumulation of N in the plant(14.85 per cent N) and the biological N fixation (16.06 per cent N-fixed) in caupi

  7. Biological nitrogen fixation in Crotalaria species estimated using the 15N isotope dilution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samba, R.T.; Neyra, M.; Gueye, M.; Sylla, S.N.; Ndoye, I.; Dreyfus, B.

    2002-01-01

    Growing in Senegal by using 15 N direct isotope dilution technique. Two non-fixing plants, Senna obtusifolia and Senna occidentalis served as reference plants. The amount of nitrogen fixed two months after planting was obtained using the average of the two reference plants. The atom % 15 N excess in the Crotalaria species was significantly lower than that of the reference plants, indicating that significant nitrogen fixation occurred in the three plants. Significant differences were observed between the Crotalaria species; C. ochroleuca yielded more dry matter weight and total nitrogen than did C. perrottetti and C. retusa. The % nitrogen derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa) in leaves and stems was also higher in C. ochroleuca. There was no significant difference in %Ndfa in the whole plant between the three Crotalaria species (47% to 53%). In contrast, interspecific variability was observed based on the %Ndfa. C. ochroleuca significantly exhibited the higher amount of total nitrogen fixed, equivalent to 83 kg of nitrogen fixed per hectare. Based on these data, it was concluded that C. ochroleuca could be used in multiple cropping systems in Senegal for making more nitrogen available to other plants. (author)

  8. Nitrogen trading tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrogen cycle is impacted by human activities, including those that increase the use of nitrogen in agricultural systems, and this impact can be seen in effects such as increased nitrate (NO3) levels in groundwater or surface water resources, increased concentration of nitrous oxide (N2O) in th...

  9. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for communications about resource use efficiency and for measures to increase the use efficiency of nutrients in relation to food production. This holds especially for nitrogen. Nitrogen (N) is essential for life and a main nutrient element. It is needed in relatively large

  10. Synergic Adsorption–Biodegradation by an Advanced Carrier for Enhanced Removal of High-Strength Nitrogen and Refractory Organics

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Muhammad; Liu, Sitong; Mahmood, Nasir; Mahmood, Asif; Ali, Muhammad; Zheng, Maosheng; Ni, Jinren

    2017-01-01

    Coking wastewater contains not only high-strength nitrogen but also toxic biorefractory organics. This study presents simultaneous removal of high-strength quinoline, carbon, and ammonium in coking wastewater by immobilized bacterial communities

  11. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  12. Postviral Complications: Bacterial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasso, Jason E; Deng, Jane C

    2017-03-01

    Secondary bacterial pneumonia after viral respiratory infection remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Susceptibility is mediated by a variety of viral and bacterial factors, and complex interactions with the host immune system. Prevention and treatment strategies are limited to influenza vaccination and antibiotics/antivirals respectively. Novel approaches to identifying the individuals with influenza who are at increased risk for secondary bacterial pneumonias are urgently needed. Given the threat of further pandemics and the heightened prevalence of these viruses, more research into the immunologic mechanisms of this disease is warranted with the hope of discovering new potential therapies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Modeling Nitrogen Decrease in Water Lettuce Ponds from Waste Stabilization Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Gitta Agnes; Sunarsih

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents about the dynamic modeling of the Water Lettuce ponds as a form of improvement from the Water Hyacinth ponds. The purpose of this paper is to predict nitrogen decrease and nitrogen transformation in Water Lettuce ponds integrated with Waste Stabilization Ponds. The model consists of 4 mass balances, namely Dissolved Organic Nitrogen (DON), Particulate Organic Nitrogen (PON), ammonium (NH4+), Nitrate and Nitrite (NOx). The process of nitrogen transformation which considered in a Water Lettuce ponds, namely hydrolysis, mineralization, nitrification, denitrification, plant and bacterial uptake processes. Numerical simulations are performed by giving the values of parameters and the initial values of nitrogen compounds based on a review of previous studies. Numerical results show that the rate of change in the concentration of nitrogen compounds in the integration ponds of waste stabilization and water lettuce decreases and reaches stable at different times.

  14. Nitrogen fixation on a coral reef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mague, T.H.; Holm-Hansen, O.

    1975-06-01

    Benthic, heterocystous blue-green algae (genera Calothrix, Hormothamnion and Nostoc) from Eniwetok Atoll were found to reduce acetylene at rapid rates. Slight acetylene reduction was associated with samples of Rhizoclonium (Chlorophyceae) and Oscillatoria (a cyanophyte lacking heterocysts), but this may have been due to contamination by epiphytes. There was virtually no acetylene reduction by phytoplankton, and nutrient enrichment experiments failed to selectively increase the numbers or activity of N/sub 2/-fixing algae in surface water samples. The Nostoc required light for acetylene reduction. Nitrogen fixation by this species could have supplied up to 11 ..mu..g N/cm/sup 2//day to the ecosystem. (auth)

  15. Demonstrating Paramagnetism Using Liquid Nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Ray; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes how liquid nitrogen is attracted to the poles of neodymium magnets. Nitrogen is not paramagnetic, so the attraction suggests that the liquid nitrogen contains a small amount of oxygen, which causes the paramagnetism. (MVL)

  16. Metagenomic assesment of the potential microbial nitrogen pathways in the rhizosphere of a Mediterranean forest after wildfire

    OpenAIRE

    Cobo-Díaz, José F.; Fernández-González, Antonio J.; Villadas, Pablo J.; Robles, Ana B.; Toro, Nicolás; Fernández-López, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Wildfires are frecuent in the forest of the Mediterranean Basin and have greatly influenced this ecosystem. Changes to the physical and chemical properties of the soil, due to fire and post-fire conditions result in alterations of both the bacterial communities and the nitrgen cycle,. We explored the effetcs of a holm-oak forest wildfire on the rhizospheric bacterial communities involved in the nitrogen cycle. Metagenomic data of the genes involved in the nitrogen