WorldWideScience

Sample records for nitrogen fertilization management

  1. Effect of weed management methods and nitrogen fertilizer rates on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inefficient weed management practices and the use of inappropriate nitrogen fertilizer rates are the major causes of low yield of wheat in Ethiopia. Therefore, field experiments were conducted at Bobicho and Faate in southern Ethiopia to determine the effect of weed management practices and N fertilizer rates on grain yield ...

  2. Operational nitrogen fertilizer management in dairy farming systems: identification of criteria and derivation of fertilizer application rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, T.V.; Andre, G.; Schils, R.L.M.; Oenema, O.

    2004-01-01

    Fertilizer-nitrogen (N) management is a decisive factor in grass-based, intensive dairy farming, as it strongly influences economic and environmental performance but little attention has been paid to providing guidance on N-fertilizer management at an operational level to meet these criteria of

  3. Nitrogen fertilization management and nitrogen (15N) utilization by corn crop in red latosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duete, Robson Rui Cotrim; Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen is the nutrient that is most absorbed by corn crop, influences grain yield most, and requires the most complex management. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen (urea 15 N) rate and split-applications, on grain yield, N fertilizer utilization and amount of soil native N absorbed by corn crop in a Red Latosol. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design, with nine treatments and four replications, represented by five N rates: 0, 55, 95, 135 and 175 kg ha -1 N, 15 kg of N applied at sowing, and the remaining amount in different split-applications: 40 and 80 kg ha -1 applied in single rates in the 8-leaf stage or half in the 4-leaf stage + half in the 8-leaf stage; 120 kg ha -1 split in 1/2 + 1/2 or 1/3 + 1/3 + 1/3 in the 4, 8 or 12-leaf stage; 160 kg ha-1 split in 1/4 + 3/8 + 3/8 or 1/4 + 1/4 + 1/4 + 1/4 in the 4, 8, 12-leaf stages or at flowering and pollination. The N fertilizer use by corn was, on average, 39 %, and the soil was the main source of the nutrient for the crop. With three split applications of 135 kg ha-1 N, until 8 leaves, the N fertilizer use is most efficient (52 %) and the grain yield highest (author)

  4. Impact of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, and spatial management on maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spatial management of irrigation water and N fertilization can be employed to reduce interactive effects, thus increasing water and N use efficiency and reducing pollution. Partial root-zone irrigation is a modified form of deficit irrigation which involves irrigating only one part of the root z...

  5. Commercial Nitrogen Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer nitrogen (N) purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year...

  6. Historical Agricultural Nitrogen Fertilizer Management in the Contiguous United States during 1850-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C.; Cao, P.; Yu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The United States has a century-long history of managing anthropogenic nitrogen (N) fertilizer to booster the crop production. Accurate characterization of N fertilizer use history could provide essential implications for N use efficiency (NUE) enhancement and N loss reduction. However, a spatially explicit time-series data remains lacking to describe how N fertilizer use varied among crop types, regions, and time periods. In this study, we therefore developed long-term gridded N management maps depicting N fertilizer application rate, timing, and ratio of fertilizer forms in nine major crops (i.e. corn, soybean, winter wheat, spring wheat, cotton, sorghum, rice, barley, and durum wheat) in the contiguous U.S. at a resolution of 1 km × 1 km during 1850-2015. We found that N application rates of the U.S. increased by approximately 34 times since 1940. Nonetheless, spatial analysis revealed that N-use hotspots have shifted from the West and Southeast to the Midwest and the Great Plains since 1900. Specifically, corn of the Corn Belt region received the most intensive N input in spring, followed by large N application amount in fall, implying a high N loss risk in this region. Moreover, spatiotemporal patterns of NH4+/NO3- ratio varied largely among regions. Generally, farmers have increasingly favored NH4+-form fertilizers over NO3- fertilizers since the 1940s. The N fertilizer use data developed in this study could serve as an essential input for modeling communities to fully assess the N addition impacts, and improve N management to alleviate environmental problems.

  7. Nitrogen management and nitrification inhibitor effects on nitrogen-15 urea: 1. Yield and fertilizer use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, D.T.; Malzer, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Nitrification inhibitors (NI) are sometimes recommended for use with ammoniacal fertilizers in corn (Zea mays L.) production to improve fertilizer N use efficiency (FUE). The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effects of the NI nitrapyrin [2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl) pyridine] application on yield and FUE of irrigated corn, and to monitor the fate of a single application of 15 N-enriched urea during a multiyear period in both soil and plant. Treatments included a factorial combination of two N rates (90 or 180 kg urea-N ha -1 yr -1 ) applied during a 3-yr period, with or without a NI and with or without incorporation, plus a zero-N control. Twenty-seven nonweighing lysimeters were used to quantify leaching load. Treatment effects on yield and FUE differed each year due to interactions of climate and N-management variables. Nonincorporated urea + NI reduced grain yield when leaching load was low and increased yield at the 90 kg ha -1 N rate when leaching load was low. The NI increased FUE only at the 90 kg ha -1 N rate when leaching load was high. Incorporation of urea + NI reduced plant recovery of fertilizer-derived N (FDN) in the year of application, but resulted in increased uptake of residual FDN in subsequent years. Incorporation of NI with moderate N rates coupled with conservative irrigation management should reduce the risk of yield loss and minimize NO 3 movement to groundwater

  8. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and residue management practices on ammonia emissions from subtropical sugarcane production

    Science.gov (United States)

    mudi, Sanku Datta; Wang, Jim J.; Dodla, Syam Kumar; Arceneaux, Allen; Viator, H. P.

    2016-08-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from soil is a loss of nitrogen (N) nutrient for plant production as well as an issue of air quality, due to the fact that it is an active precursor of airborne particulate matters. Ammonia also acts as a secondary source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission when present in the soil. In this study, the impacts of different sources of N fertilizers and harvest residue management schemes on NH3 emissions from sugarcane production were evaluated based on an active chamber method. The field experiment plots consisting of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN)) and two common residue management practices, namely residue retained (RR) and residue burned (RB), were established on a Commerce silt loam. The NH3 volatilized following N fertilizer application was collected in an impinger containing diluted citric acid and was subsequently analyzed using ion chromatography. The NH3 loss was primarily found within 3-4 weeks after N application. Average seasonal soil NH3 flux was significantly greater in urea plots with NH3-N emission factor (EF) twice or more than in UAN plots (2.4-5.6% vs. 1.2-1.7%). The RR residue management scheme had much higher NH3 volatilization than the RB treatment regardless of N fertilizer sources, corresponding to generally higher soil moisture levels in the former. Ammonia-N emissions in N fertilizer-treated sugarcane fields increased with increasing soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) up to 45-55% observed in the field. Both N fertilizer sources and residue management approaches significantly affected NH3 emissions.

  9. The fertilizer nitrogen problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.A.; Halstead, E.H.

    1974-01-01

    A world-wide fossil fuel crisis has surfaced in the past year by reason of shortage and high cost, which is felt throughout all segments of human society. Nor has the agriculture sector, with its very high demand for energy to supply its power, machinery, fertilizer, processing and transport, escaped the energy crisis. Among the agricultural inputs, fertilizer nitrogen is one of major concern. This commodity is currently in extremely short supply, world prices having more than doubled in the past year alone. Serious as this situation is to agricultural production in the highly developed countries of the world, it is a real disaster to the production potential of the developing countries. The birth of the 'Green Revolution' in those countries in the last ten years came about from an amalgamation of higher yielding varieties, improved pest and disease control, better crop watering practices, and the introduction of fertilizer nitrogen. Shortcomings in any one of these requisites invalidates the entire package. (author)

  10. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Nitrogen Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrogen Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of nitrogen fertilizer nutrients...

  11. Nitrogen management in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) using 15N-enriched fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivananda, T.N.; Iyengar, B.R.V.; Kotur, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted during 1991 to study nitrogen management using 15 N-enriched fertilizer, to achieve economy in fertilizer N input by reduction and postponement of the basal dose in Arka Vikas tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller nom. cons). Application of 90 kg N/ha in 3 equal splits at 10, 30 and 50 days after transplanting did not show any reduction in total N uptake, dry-matter and fruit yields compared with 120 kg N/ha applied in 3 splits (60 kg N/ha basal and 30 kg top-dressed 20 and 40 days after transplanting). Band application of the basal dose and top-dressing at 20 days after transplanting resulted in higher N derived from fertilizer (Ndff), its uptake and utilization. Top-dressing of 30 or 40 kg N/ha at 10 days after transplanting resulted in better utilization than broadcasting the basal dose of 60 kg N/ha. Application at 40-50 days after transplanting showed poor uptake and utilization of applied N. The succeeding Arka Kalyan onion (Allium cepa L.) utilized 2.95-6.37% residual N, the highest being from the split application at 40 days after transplanting. Thus there was economy in fertilizer N input and higher carry-over of residual N for determinate cultivar of tomato be delaying as well as reducing the basal dose and confining the top-dressing to 30 days after transplanting. (author)

  12. Simulation of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization management of maize under edaphic conditions of south of Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Seijas, Teresa; Cid, G.; Gonzalez, F.; Jorge, Y.; Chaterlan, Y.; Giralt, E.; Rodriguez, R.; Duennas, G.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to validate the crop simulation model STICS for the soil and climate conditions of south of Havana, especially for the water and nitrogen balances on Maize crop on Ferralitic soil, For this purpose was used all the available information from field experiments carried out in the Experimental Stations of the Irrigation and Drainage and Soil Research Institutes, both on south of Havana, The comparison between the simulation and observed values showed a good fitness for the variables related to the crop water uptake, while for the soil water content when the root water uptake flux is minimum and the soil water redistribution flux is maximum wasn't good, The soil nitrogen balance was adjusted from the optimization of the parameters related to the mineralization velocity of soil organic nitrogen, Nevertheless is necessary to complete this study involving other climate conditions and water and nitrogen managements to define the optimum strategy for irrigation and fertilization of Maize crop on the studied conditions,

  13. PRODUCTIVITY OF LETTUCE CULTURE IN THE FUNCTION OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER MANAGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Nascimento

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the lettuce yield under the different management of nitrogen fertilization. The ammonium sulfate (NH42 SO4 with 950 kg ha-1 was used as a source of nitrogen. The treatments were constituted: 100% of the N incorporated in the base; 100% of N in single application coverage; 50% of the N incorporated in the base and 50% in cover parceled in 2 times; 25% of the N incorporated in the base and 75% in coverage, divided in 3 times; 100% of N in 3-fold parcel coverage and the control (without N application. The plants were harvested 42 days after transplanting and analyzed the variables weight of the fresh aerial part, aerial dry mass, the number of leaves and height of plant and stem diameter. It was verified that, for all evaluated characteristics, the response to nitrogen application was positive. It was concluded that the treatments 2, 3, 4 and 5 did not difference significantly from each other, and there was no decrease in productivity, the control verified the nitrogen requirement for this crop being below the averages in all variables analyzed.

  14. Nitrogen fertilizer management for tidal submergence tolerant landrace rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Mamun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In tidal submergence ecosystem, nitrogen (N is a crucial nutrient for improved and sustainable rice production. Therefore, a series of on-farm and on-station field experiments were conducted to develop a suitable N management practice for tidal submergence tolerant landrace aman rice. In on-farm, urea deep placement (UDP through urea super granule before panicle initiation (PI stage was compared with no fertilizer application. Similarly, five N fertilizer management practices viz. (i. two splits of prilled urea (PU, (ii. UDP at 10 DAT, (iii. UDP before PI, (iv. full dose PU before PI and (v. No urea (control were compared at on-station trial. Tidal submergence tolerance aman rice varieties (Rajashail, Kutiagni, Sadamota and Lalmota were used as testing materials. In on farm experiment, aman cultivars produced 2.0–2.5 t ha−1 grain without N fertilizer. But, cultivated Rajashail, Kutiagni, Sadachikon, Sadapajam, Lalmota and Sadamota gave 3.0–3.5 t ha−1 grain yield with the UDP before PI in tidal prone areas. Though UDP required fertilizer and application cost but it gave profit upto 22,000 BDT ha−1 (Bangladeshi Taka. In on-station experiment, UDP before PI stage significantly increased rice yield and economic return although it was comparable to two splits of PU and top dressing of PU before PI stage. However, UDP at 10 DAT increased straw yield but failed to increase grain yield even compared to control. It could be concluded that UDP before PI stage of rice is an effective method for increasing rice yield and farm income in tidal prone areas.

  15. Optimal nitrogen fertilization of boreal conifer forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Pukkala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Forest fertilization offers a means to increase the production of renewable resources. Nitrogen is the most common fertilizer in boreal upland forests. There is plenty of research on the effect of nitrogen fertilization on volume growth, but less research on the optimal timing of fertilization and optimal management of fertilized stands. Methods This study used simulation and optimization to analyze the profitability of fertilization, optimal management of fertilized stands and the effects of fertilization on cash flows and timber yields. The management of 100 stands representing the most common growing sites of Scots pine and Norway spruce was optimized. Results Fertilization improved profitability in most of the analyzed stands. Profitability improved most in spruce stands growing on mesic site. Improving stem quality increased the economic benefit of fertilization. The timber yields of medium-aged conifer stands can be increased by almost 1 m3ha-1a-1 (15% in sub-xeric pine and mesic spruce sites and about 0.5 m3ha-1a-1 (5% in mesic pine and herb-rich spruce sites when the recommended nitrogen dose (150 kg ha-1 is applied once in 30 years. Conclusions Nitrogen fertilization of boreal conifer forest should be used mainly in spruce-dominated stands growing on medium sites. The gains are the highest in stands where the mean tree diameter is 16–20 cm and stand basal area is 14–20 m2ha-1.

  16. Nitrogen fertility and abiotic stresses management in cotton crop: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aziz; Tan, Daniel Kean Yuen; Afridi, Muhammad Zahir; Luo, Honghai; Tung, Shahbaz Atta; Ajab, Mir; Fahad, Shah

    2017-06-01

    This review outlines nitrogen (N) responses in crop production and potential management decisions to ameliorate abiotic stresses for better crop production. N is a primary constituent of the nucleotides and proteins that are essential for life. Production and application of N fertilizers consume huge amounts of energy, and excess is detrimental to the environment. Therefore, increasing plant N use efficiency (NUE) is important for the development of sustainable agriculture. NUE has a key role in crop yield and can be enhanced by controlling loss of fertilizers by application of humic acid and natural polymers (hydrogels), having high water-holding capacity which can improve plant performance under field conditions. Abiotic stresses such as waterlogging, drought, heat, and salinity are the major limitations for successful crop production. Therefore, integrated management approaches such as addition of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), the film antitranspirant (di-1-p-menthene and pinolene) nutrients, hydrogels, and phytohormones may provide novel approaches to improve plant tolerance against abiotic stress-induced damage. Moreover, for plant breeders and molecular biologists, it is a challenge to develop cotton cultivars that can tolerate plant abiotic stresses while having high potential NUE for the future.

  17. Management of irrigation frequency and nitrogen fertilization to mitigate GHG and NO emissions from drip-fertigated crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abalos, D.; Sanchez-Martin, L.; Garcia-Torres, L.; Groenigen, van J.W.; Vallejo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Drip irrigation combined with split application of fertilizer nitrogen (N) dissolved in the irrigation water (i.e. drip fertigation) is commonly considered best management practice for water and nutrient efficiency. As a consequence, its use is becoming widespread. Some of the main factors

  18. Streamside Management Zones Affect Movement of Silvicultural Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizers to Piedmont Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Secoges; Wallace M. Aust; John R. Seiler; C. Andrew Dolloff; William A. Lakel

    2013-01-01

    Forestry best management practices (BMP) recommendations for streamside management zones (SMZs) are based on limited data regarding SMZ width, partial harvests, and nutrient movements after forest fertilization. Agricultural fertilization is commonly linked to increased stream nutrients. However, less is known about effectiveness of SMZ options for controlling nutrient...

  19. Effect of fertilizer nitrogen management on N2O emissions in commercial corn fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebarth, B.J.; Rochette, P.; Burton, D.L.; Price, M.

    2008-01-01

    Corn crops receive higher fertilizer nitrogen (N) application rates than many other crops. Pre-sidedress soil nitrate tests (PSNT) are used to determine how much fertilizer N is applied at the sidedress of corn crops, and can provide an opportunity to reduce fertilizer N application rates and delay the timing of fertilizer N applications which contribute to nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions into the atmosphere. This study examined how the rate and time of fertilizer N application influence N 2 O emissions in corn crops grown in alluvial soils in Atlantic Canada. Starter fertilizer was applied at 45 and 59 kg N per hectare (ha) in 2004 and 2005. Treatments included the application of 75 or 150 kg N per ha banded at a sidedress, and 150 kg N per ha broadcast at the emergence of the crops. Soil mineral N content was measured using a soil core method. Cumulative N 2 O emissions were calculated using a linear interpolation method between sampling dates. Results showed that delays in fertilizer application to the sidedress, and reductions in fertilizer N application reduced nitrate (NO 3 ) intensity but had no impact on cumulative N 2 O emissions. It was concluded that further research is needed to understand controls on denitrification and N 2 O emissions. 28 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  20. Proper Management Of Irrigation Water And Nitrogen Fertilizer To Improve Spinach Yield And Reserve Environment Using 15N Tracer Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GADALLA, A.M.; GALAL, Y.G.M.; ISMAIL, M.M.; EL DEGWY, S.A.; HAMDY, A.; HAMED, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of water regime and N-fertilizer application rate and modality of its application were studied by the aim of identifying the most proper and effective combination of the above studied variables that provide a satisfactory spinach yield as well as to minimize the rational use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers to save the surrounding environment and to achieve a good water saving. The results indicated that reasonable production of spinach crop could be achieved by using 75% of the recommended rate of nitrogen fertilizer combined with 80% of the required water. It means that 20% of the required water could be saved as well as 25% of the required quantity of N-fertilizer. Similarly, the splitting of N-fertilizer into two equal doses prevented the excess of nitrate to be moved to the underground water lowering its concentration in the blades and plant leaves. Drip irrigation system accompanied with proper water scheduling regime and good fertilizer application practices is considered as a useful management practice that could be applied to improve the sandy soil productivity.

  1. INFLUENCE OF MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ON THE NITROGEN MINERALIZATION AND FERTILIZATION OF SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Mauricio Delgado Restrepo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, nitrogen fertilizer recommendations for sugarcane are based on data obtained with the Walkey & Black method, but they do not always result in the best yield. In this sense, the present study aimed to compare the results of the determination of fast mineralizable nitrogen (amino sugars, performed with the Illinois Soil Nitrogen test (ISNT and Direct Steam Distillation method (DSD for nitrogen recommendations for crops. A complete randomized block design was used with six treatments, adding nitrogen through urea and compost to Pachic haplustoll soils in Valle del Cauca with organic and conventional production systems that were evaluated from 2011 to 2013. The results showed that higher nitrogen mineralization was estimated using ISNT and DSD methodologies than with the Walkley-Black method, and that its content was different depending on the operating system. The best methodology The best methodology that quantified mineralization was Direct Steam Distillation (DSD; however for conventional systems sugarcane was Illinois Soil Nitrogen Test (ISNT, showing differences for the variables associated with the production and yield between the tested systems.

  2. Fertilizer nitrogen prescription for cotton by 15N recovery method under integrated nutrient management using soil test crop response function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arulmozhiselvan, K.; Govindaswamy, M.; Chellamuthu, S.

    2007-01-01

    Fertilizer efficiency is a vital parameter in prescription functions to compute fertilizer requirements of crops for achieving a specific yield target. In Soil Test Crop Response (STCR) function, nitrogen fertilizer efficiency is calculated by Apparent N Recovery (ANR) method, which includes the effect of added N interaction (ANI) on soil N reserves. In order to exclude soil effect and refine STCR function, the real efficiency of fertilizer N was estimated by 15 N recovery method. By fitting 15 N recovery in the function, the fertilizer N required for a specific yield target of cotton was estimated. The estimated N requirement by 15 N recovery method was lesser than ANR method when available soil N relatively increased. The approach also fine-tuned the N contributing efficiency of soil, farmyard manure and Azospirillum under Integrated Nutrient Management (INM). For achieving 25 q of seed cotton yield in a soil having 220 kg of available N ha -1 , the predicted N requirement was 159 kg ha -1 under ANR method, whereas in 15 N recovery method fertilizer N to be applied was 138 kg ha -1 with urea alone and 79 kg ha -1 with urea + FYM + Azospirillum. (author)

  3. Managing tile drainage, subirrigation, and nitrogen fertilization to enhance crop yields and reduce nitrate loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, C F; Tan, C S; Reynolds, W D; Welacky, T W; Oloya, T O; Gaynor, J D

    2009-01-01

    Improving field-crop use of fertilizer nitrogen is essential for protecting water quality and increasing crop yields. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of controlled tile drainage (CD) and controlled tile drainage with subsurface irrigation (CDS) for mitigating off-field nitrate losses and enhancing crop yields. The CD and CDS systems were compared on a clay loam soil to traditional unrestricted tile drainage (UTD) under a corn (Zea Mays L.)-soybean (Glycine Max. (L.) Merr.) rotation at two nitrogen (N) fertilization rates (N1: 150 kg N ha(-1) applied to corn, no N applied to soybean; N2: 200 kg N ha(-1) applied to corn, 50 kg N ha(-1) applied to soybean). The N concentrations in tile flow events with the UTD treatment exceeded the provisional long-term aquatic life limit (LT-ALL) for freshwater (4.7 mg N L(-1)) 72% of the time at the N1 rate and 78% at the N2 rate, whereas only 24% of tile flow events at N1 and 40% at N2 exceeded the LT-ALL for the CDS treatment. Exceedances in N concentration for surface runoff and tile drainage were greater during the growing season than the non-growing season. At the N1 rate, CD and CDS reduced average annual N losses via tile drainage by 44 and 66%, respectively, relative to UTD. At the N2 rate, the average annual decreases in N loss were 31 and 68%, respectively. Crop yields from CDS were increased by an average of 2.8% relative to UTD at the N2 rate but were reduced by an average of 6.5% at the N1 rate. Hence, CD and CDS were effective for reducing average nitrate losses in tile drainage, but CDS increased average crop yields only when additional N fertilizer was applied.

  4. Short term responses of nitrogen trace gas emissions to nitrogen fertilization in tropical sugar cane: Variations due to soils and management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, P. A.; Billow, C.; Hall, S.; Zachariassen, J.

    1994-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization of agricultural systems is thought to be a major source of the increase in atmospheric N2O; NO emissions from soils have also been shown to increase due to N fertilization. While N fertilizer use is increasing rapidly in the developing world and in the tropics, nearly all of our information on gas emissions is derived from studies of temperate zone agriculture. Using chambers, we measured fluxes of N2O and NO following urea fertilization in tropical sugar cane systems growing on a variety of soil types in the Hawaiian Islands, USA. On the island of Maui, where urea is applied in irrigation lines and soils are mollisols and inceptisols, N2O fluxes were elevated for a week or less following fertilization; maximum average fluxes were typically less than 30 ng cm(exp -2)/ h. NO fluxes were often an order of magnitude less than N2O. Together, N2O and NO represented from 0.01 - 0.5% of the applied N. In fields on the island of Hawaii, where urea is broadcast on the surface and soils are andisols, N2O fluxes were similar in magnitude to Maui but remained elevated for much longer periods after fertilization. NO emissions were 2-5 times higher than N2O through most of the sampling periods. Together the gases loss represented approximately 1. 1 - 3% of the applied N. Laboratory studies indicate that denitrification is a critical source of N2O in Maui, but that nitrification is more important in Hawaii. Experimental studies suggest that differences in the pattern of N2O/NO and the processes producing them are a result of both carbon availability and placement of fertilizer, and that the more information-intensive fertilizer management practice results in lower emissions.

  5. Are Nitrogen Fertilizers Deleterious to Soil Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijay- Singh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil is one of the most important natural resources and medium for plant growth. Anthropogenic interventions such as tillage, irrigation, and fertilizer application can affect the health of the soil. Use of fertilizer nitrogen (N for crop production influences soil health primarily through changes in organic matter content, microbial life, and acidity in the soil. Soil organic matter (SOM constitutes the storehouse of soil N. Studies with 15N-labelled fertilizers show that in a cropping season, plants take more N from the soil than from the fertilizer. A large number of long-term field experiments prove that optimum fertilizer N application to crops neither resulted in loss of organic matter nor adversely affected microbial activity in the soil. Fertilizer N, when applied at or below the level at which maximum yields are achieved, resulted in the build-up of SOM and microbial biomass by promoting plant growth and increasing the amount of litter and root biomass added to soil. Only when fertilizer N was applied at rates more than the optimum, increased residual inorganic N accelerated the loss of SOM through its mineralization. Soil microbial life was also adversely affected at very high fertilizers rates. Optimum fertilizer use on agricultural crops reduces soil erosion but repeated application of high fertilizer N doses may lead to soil acidity, a negative soil health trait. Site-specific management strategies based on principles of synchronization of N demand by crops with N supply from all sources including soil and fertilizer could ensure high yields, along with maintenance of soil health. Balanced application of different nutrients and integrated nutrient management based on organic manures and mineral fertilizers also contributed to soil health maintenance and improvement. Thus, fertilizer N, when applied as per the need of the field crops in a balanced proportion with other nutrients and along with organic manures, if available with the

  6. Soil respiration, microbial biomass and exoenzyme activity in switchgrass stands under nitrogen fertilization management and climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, S.; Li, J.; de Koff, J.; Celada, S.; Mayes, M. A.; Wang, G.; Guo, C.

    2016-12-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), as a model bioenergy crop, received nitrogen fertilizers for increasing its biomass yields. Studies rarely investigate the interactive effects of nitrogen fertilization and climate warming on soil microbial activity and carbon cycling in switchgrass cropping systems. Enhanced nitrogen availability under fertilization can alter rates of soil organic matter decomposition and soil carbon emissions to the atmosphere and thus have an effect on climate change. Here, we assess soil CO2 emission, microbial biomass and exoenzyme activities in two switchgrass stands with no fertilizer and 60 lbs N / acre. Soils were incubated at 15 ºC and 20 ºC for 180-day. Dry switchgrass plant materials were added to incubation jars and the 13C stable isotopic probing technique was used to monitor soil CO2 respiration derived from relatively labile litter and indigenous soil. Measurements of respiration, δ13C of respiration, microbial biomass carbon and exoenzyme activity were performed on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180. Soil respiration rate was greater in the samples incubated at 20 ºC as compared to those incubated at 15 ºC. Exoenzyme activities were significantly altered by warming, litter addition and nitrogen fertilization. There was a significant interactive effect of nitrogen fertilization and warming on the proportion of CO2 respired from soils such that nitrogen fertilization enhanced warming-induced increase by 12.0% (Pmineralization. Fertilization increased soil microbial biomass carbon at both temperatures (9.0% at 15 ºC and 14.5% at 20 ºC). Our preliminary analysis suggested that warming effects on enhanced soil respiration can be further increased with elevated fertilizer input via greater microbial biomass and exoenzyme activity. In addition to greater biomass yield under N fertilization, this study informs potential soil carbon loss from stimulated soil respiration under nitrogen fertilization and warming in

  7. Management of irrigation frequency and nitrogen fertilization to mitigate GHG and NO emissions from drip-fertigated crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalos, Diego; Sanchez-Martin, Laura; Garcia-Torres, Lourdes; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Vallejo, Antonio

    2014-08-15

    Drip irrigation combined with split application of fertilizer nitrogen (N) dissolved in the irrigation water (i.e. drip fertigation) is commonly considered best management practice for water and nutrient efficiency. As a consequence, its use is becoming widespread. Some of the main factors (water-filled pore space, NH4(+) and NO3(-)) regulating the emissions of greenhouse gases (i.e. N2O, CO2 and CH4) and NO from agroecosystems can easily be manipulated by drip fertigation without yield penalties. In this study, we tested management options to reduce these emissions in a field experiment with a melon (Cucumis melo L.) crop. Treatments included drip irrigation frequency (weekly/daily) and type of N fertilizer (urea/calcium nitrate) applied by fertigation. Crop yield, environmental parameters, soil mineral N concentrations and fluxes of N2O, NO, CH4 and CO2 were measured during 85 days. Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N2O and NO emissions by a factor of 2.4 and 2.9, respectively (Pfertigation with a NO3(-)-based fertilizer is the best option to combine agronomic productivity with environmental sustainability. Our study shows that adequate management of drip fertigation, while contributing to the attainment of water and food security, may provide an opportunity for climate change mitigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect Management Strategies Fertilizer Nitrogen and Biological on Morphological Traits, Yield and Quality Traits Corn (S.C. 704

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eisa maghsoudi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, surplus usage of chemical fertilizers and inattention the importance organic matter to improve soil fertility, leading to increasing use of chemical fertilizer, environmental pollution and etc. In order to study the different fertilizer levels (organic, chemical and combined on yield of grain corn (S.C.704 experiment was conducted at the Research Farm Faculty of Agriculture Tarbiat Modarres University 2010 growing season factorial treatment were arranged in manner based on randomized complete block design with three replications. One factor include of the five nutritional systems: 1- (8 ton ha-1 of organic fertilizer, 2- (6 ton ha-1 of organic fertilizer + 46 kg ha-1 nitrogen, 3- (4 ton ha-1 of organic fertilizer + 92 kg/ha nitrogen, 4- (2 ton ha-1 of organic fertilizer + 138 kg ha-1 nitrogen and 5- (184 kg ha-1 nitrogen and second factor consisting of: 1- (Seed inoculation with free living nitrogen fixation bacteria and 2- (Non-inoculated seed. The results showed that the experimental treatments had a significant effect on the traits measured. Maximum leaf area (7.7, grain yield (1000 g m-2, thousand grain weight (213 g and protein percent (11 percent of A3 fertilizer level and the highest plant height and biological yield amount 256 cm and 22 ton ha-1 of A4 fertilizer level, respectively. Also in seeds inoculated with biological fertilizer measured traits had greater extent than treatment control (no inoculation, so that the leaf area (7.7, plant height (252 cm, grain yield (978 g m-2, thousand grain weight (205 g, biological yield (22 ton ha-1 and protein percent (10 percent in the inoculated treatments (one. According to the results that obtained the usage from of bio-fertilizers and manure combined with chemical is considered as appropriate procedure for increasing the yield and quality of corn.

  9. Nitrogen Fertilizer Management for Enhancing Crop Productivity and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in a Rice-Oilseed Rape Rotation System in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yousaf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of efficient rates of nitrogen (N fertilizer application is important with regard to increasing crop productivity and maintaining environmental sustainability. Rice-oilseed rape rotations are a mainstay of the economy and food security of China. Therefore, a field experiment was carried out during 2011–2013 in Honghu to identify the most appropriate N application rates for enhancing crop productivity and N use efficiency for rice (Oryza sativa L.-oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. rotations. Six N fertilizer treatments (RO1, RO2, RO3, RO4, RO5, and RO6 were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. ROx represented the N fertilizer application rates (kg ha–1 for rice and oilseed rape, respectively. Grain yields from plots receiving N fertilizer were significantly increased by 59–71% (rice and 109–160% (oilseed rape during the total rotation (2011–2013, as compared to RO1 (control; no application. Furthermore, a similar trend was observed for N accumulation, ranging from 88–125% and 134–200% in aerial parts of rice and oilseed rape, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE was significantly higher (38.5% under RO2 and lower (34.2% under RO6 while apparent N balance (ANB was positively lowest under R05 (183.4 kg ha–1 followed by R02 (234.2 kg ha–1 and highest under R06 (344.5 kg ha–1 during the total rotation. The results of grain yield, NUE, and ANB indicated that the R02 rate of N application was superior. This information should help to develop a cost-effective and environment-friendly N management strategy for rice-oilseed rape rotation systems of central China.

  10. Influence of fertilizer nitrogen source and management practice of N2O emissions from two black chernozemic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is a major anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted by Canadian agricultural systems. Emissions of N 2 O are sporadic, which complicates their accurate quantification as well as the development of adequate management practices. This study was conducted to determine the relative N 2 O production potentials of various nitrogen (N) fertilizer sources and application methods used in cereal production practices in Manitoba. Wheat crops were used to examine variations in N 2 O emissions associated with N formulations applied at the same rate. Treatments included urea surface broadcast in the spring; urea subsurface bands in spring; urea subsurface bands in the fall; anhydrous ammonia subsurface bands in spring and fall; and a control plot where no N was applied. Treatments of polymer-coated urea were also applied. The treatments were established in the fall of 1999. N 2 O fluxes were measured using vented static chambers. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed in order to obtain cumulative annual N 2 O emissions. Results of the study showed that N 2 O emissions associated with the use of anhydrous ammonia were no greater than emissions associated with urea. Higher N 2 O emissions were observed in fall applications of N fertilizer. The dominant factors controlling differences in N 2 O emissions between sites and years included precipitation, soil water content, and soil texture. 26 refs., 6 tabs

  11. Nutrient management programs, nitrogen fertilizer practices, and groundwater quality in Nebraska's Central Platte Valley (U.S.), 1989-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daberkow, S; Taylor, H; Gollehon, N; Moravek, M

    2001-11-21

    Given the societal concern about groundwater pollution from agricultural sources, public programs have been proposed or implemented to change farmer behavior with respect to nutrient use and management. However, few of these programs designed to change farmer behavior have been evaluated due to the lack of detailed data over an appropriate time frame. The Central Platte Natural Resources District (CPNRD) in Nebraska has identified an intensively cultivated, irrigated area with average groundwater nitrate-nitrogen (N) levels about double the EPA"s safe drinking water standard. The CPNRD implemented a joint education and regulatory N management program in the mid-1980s to reduce groundwater N. This analysis reports N use and management, yield, and groundwater nitrate trends in the CPNRD for nearly 3000 continuous-corn fields from 1989 to 1998, where producers faced limits on the timing of N fertilizer application but no limits on amounts. Groundwater nitrate levels showed modest improvement over the 10 years of this analysis, falling from the 1989-1993 average of 18.9 to 18.1 mg/l during 1994-1998. The availability of N in excess of crop needs was clearly documented by the CPNRD data and was related to optimistic yield goals, irrigation water use above expected levels, and lack of adherence to commercial fertilizer application guidelines. Over the 10-year period of this analysis, producers reported harvesting an annual average of 9729 kg/ha, 1569 kg/ha (14%) below the average yield goal. During 1989-1998, producers reported annually applying an average of 162.5 kg/ha of commercial N fertilizer, 15.7 kg/ha (10%) above the guideline level. Including the N contribution from irrigation water, the potential N contribution to the environment (total N available less estimated crop use) was estimated at 71.7 kg/ha. This is an estimate of the nitrates available for denitrification, volatilization, runoff, future soil N, and leaching to groundwater. On average, between 1989

  12. Influence of Agricultural Management on Phytochemicals of Colored Corn Genotypes ( Zea mays L.). Part 1: Nitrogen Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Debora; Beta, Trust; Vanara, Francesca; Blandino, Massimo

    2018-04-19

    In this study, the influence of nitrogen (N) fertilization (170 versus 300 kg of N/ha) on the content of bioactive compounds of whole-meal flour of 10 different colored corn genotypes was investigated. Considerable differences in antioxidant capacity and phytochemical concentrations were observed among genotypes. Higher N fertilization rates significantly ( p corn cultivation, the application of high N fertilization rates, generally carried out to obtain higher grain yields, could positively influence the content of some bioactives particularly in years characterized by high rainfall levels responsible for N leaching from the soil.

  13. Management of irrigation frequency and nitrogen fertilization to mitigate GHG and NO emissions from drip-fertigated crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abalos, Diego, E-mail: diego.abalos@upm.es [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Martin, Laura; Garcia-Torres, Lourdes [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Groenigen, Jan Willem van [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Vallejo, Antonio [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Drip irrigation combined with split application of fertilizer nitrogen (N) dissolved in the irrigation water (i.e. drip fertigation) is commonly considered best management practice for water and nutrient efficiency. As a consequence, its use is becoming widespread. Some of the main factors (water-filled pore space, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup −}) regulating the emissions of greenhouse gases (i.e. N{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) and NO from agroecosystems can easily be manipulated by drip fertigation without yield penalties. In this study, we tested management options to reduce these emissions in a field experiment with a melon (Cucumis melo L.) crop. Treatments included drip irrigation frequency (weekly/daily) and type of N fertilizer (urea/calcium nitrate) applied by fertigation. Crop yield, environmental parameters, soil mineral N concentrations and fluxes of N{sub 2}O, NO, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} were measured during 85 days. Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N{sub 2}O and NO emissions by a factor of 2.4 and 2.9, respectively (P < 0.005). Daily irrigation reduced NO emissions by 42% (P < 0.005) but increased CO{sub 2} emissions by 21% (P < 0.05) compared with weekly irrigation. We found no relation between irrigation frequency and N{sub 2}O emissions. Based on yield-scaled Global Warming Potential as well as NO cumulative emissions, we conclude that weekly fertigation with a NO{sub 3}{sup −}-based fertilizer is the best option to combine agronomic productivity with environmental sustainability. Our study shows that adequate management of drip fertigation, while contributing to the attainment of water and food security, may provide an opportunity for climate change mitigation. - Highlights: • The effect of fertigation management techniques on GHG and NO emissions was studied. • Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N{sub 2}O by a factor of 2.4. • Daily irrigation reduced NO (42%) but increased CO

  14. Nanocomposites for controlled release of nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Viviane J.M. da; Visconte, Leila L.Y.; Nascimento, Regina Sandra V.

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed at the development of nano structured materials capable of reducing the rate of release of nitrogen in the soil from an agricultural nitrogen fertilizer. Four different systems of polymer composites were prepared: (1) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, (2) montmorillonite clay/thermoplastic starch and fertilizer, (3) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, thermoplastic starch and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and also (4) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, thermoplastic starch and polycaprolactone. It was confirmed the formation of nano structured materials by elemental analysis (CHN) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The kinetics of nitrogen release was detected by enzymatic colorimetric analysis and spectroscopy in the ultraviolet/visible. The results showed that all materials evaluated were able to reduce the rate of release of nitrogen in the fertilizers. (author)

  15. Exploring the effects of nitrogen fertilization management alternatives on nitrate loss and crop yields in tile-drained fields in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hanseok; Bhattarai, Rabin

    2018-05-01

    It is vital to manage the excessive use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in corn production, the single largest consumer of N fertilizer in the United States, in order to achieve more sustainable agroecosystems. This study comprehensively explored the effects of N fertilization alternatives on nitrate loss and crop yields using the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) in tile-drained fields in central Illinois. The RZWQM was tested for the prediction of tile flow, nitrate loss, and crop yields using eight years (1993-2000) of observed data and showed satisfactory model performances from statistical and graphical evaluations. Our model simulations demonstrated the maximum return to nitrogen (MRTN) rate (193 kgha -1 ), a newly advised N recommendation by the Illinois Nutrient Loss Reduction Strategy (INLRS), can be further reduced. Nitrate loss was reduced by 10.3% and 29.8%, but corn yields decreased by 0.3% and 1.9% at 156 and 150 kgha -1 of N fertilizer rate in the study sites A and E, respectively. Although adjustment of N fertilization timing presented a further reduction in nitrate loss, there was no optimal timing to ensure nitrate loss reduction and corn productivity. For site A, 100% spring application was the most productive and 40% fall, 10% pre-plant, and 50% side dress application generated the lowest nitrate loss. For site E, the conventional N application timing was verified as the best practice in both corn production and nitrate loss reduction. Compared to surface broadcast placement, injected N fertilizer in spring increased corn yield, but may also escalate nitrate loss. This study presented the need of an adaptive N fertilizer management due to the heterogeneity in agricultural systems, and raised the importance of timing and placement of N fertilizer, as well as further reduction in fertilizer rate to devise a better in-field N management practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative Studies of Nitrogen Fixing Potential of Desmodium ramississimon and Vigna unquiculata for Soil Fertility Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngwu, OE.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of large numbers of legume species in the tropics with potentials for nitrogen fixation could be exploited to supply nitrogen, if they can be integrated into the farming system. The N2 – fixing potential of a native herbaceous leguminous species namely, Desmodium ramississimon (Dm and grain legume, Vigna unquiculata (Cp were studied in the green house and field, on three types of soil. In both situations, nodulation was influenced by the soil type. Nsukka soil, which had sandy texture, highest level of available phosphorus among the soils investigated in the study and moderate level of other plant nutrients (Mg and K enhanced nodulation, which supported N-fixation. Soil type also influenced the quantity of N accumulated by each species, but had no effect on nitrogen concentration in the different plant parts. Desmodium ramississimon had higher nodule weight and accumulated more nitrogen and fixed more N2 than Vigna unquiculata in the three soils. The mean nodule dry weights were in the ranges of 61.6- 239.2 mg/plant for Dm in the three soils as compared to the range 3.2-31.4 mg/plant for Cp. Symbiotic dependence of DM varied with soil type ranging from 63.62% in Adani soil to 88% in Nkpologu soil, whereas Cp had the least symbiotic dependence value. These trends were confirmed in the field thereby indicating that Desmodium ramississimon had greater N2- potential than the cultivated legume studied.

  17. The use of nuclear techniques in the management of nitrogen fixation by trees to enhance fertility of fragile tropical soils. Results of a co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated in 1990 a Co-ordinated Research Project on The Use of Nuclear or Related Techniques in Management of Nitrogen Fixation by Trees for Enhancing Soil Fertility and Soil Conservation in Fragile Tropical Soils. This document contains nine papers referring to the results of the project. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  18. Increasing water productivity, nitrogen economy, and grain yield of rice by water saving irrigation and fertilizer-N management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Omar; Hussain, Saddam; Rizwan, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Bashir, Saqib; Lin, Lirong; Mehmood, Sajid; Imran, Muhammad; Yaseen, Rizwan; Lu, Guoan

    2018-03-29

    The looming water resources worldwide necessitate the development of water-saving technologies in rice production. An open greenhouse experiment was conducted on rice during the summer season of 2016 at Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China, in order to study the influence of irrigation methods and nitrogen (N) inputs on water productivity, N economy, and grain yield of rice. Two irrigation methods, viz. conventional irrigation (CI) and "thin-shallow-moist-dry" irrigation (TSMDI), and three levels of nitrogen, viz. 0 kg N ha -1 (N 0 ), 90 kg N ha -1 (N 1 ), and 180 kg N ha -1 (N 2 ), were examined with three replications. Study data indicated that no significant water by nitrogen interaction on grain yield, biomass, water productivity, N uptake, NUE, and fertilizer N balance was observed. Results revealed that TSMDI method showed significantly higher water productivity and irrigation water applications were reduced by 17.49% in TSMDI compared to CI. Thus, TSMDI enhanced root growth and offered significantly greater water saving along with getting more grain yield compared to CI. Nitrogen tracer ( 15 N) technique accurately assessed the absorption and distribution of added N in the soil crop environment and divulge higher nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) influenced by TSMDI. At the same N inputs, the TSMDI was the optimal method to minimize nitrogen leaching loss by decreasing water leakage about 18.63%, which are beneficial for the ecological environment.

  19. to nitrogen and organic fertilizer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of the compound fertilizer (NPK) were superior to single fertilizer (urea) and organic manure (cowdung) in that order. Average cumulative fresh weight of waterleaf under the different manurial regimes were 1.89 kg, 1.65 kg and 0.89 kg for NPK, urea and cowdung, respectively. Studies are, however, continuing to ...

  20. Management, regulation and environmental impacts of nitrogen fertilization in northwestern Europe under the Nitrates Directive; a benchmark study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. M. van Grinsven

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the Nitrates Directive (NiD and its environmental impacts were compared for member states in the northwest of the European Union (Ireland, United Kingdom, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, Northern France and Germany. The main sources of data were national reports for the third reporting period for the NiD (2004–2007 and results of the MITERRA-EUROPE model. Implementation of the NiD in the considered member states is fairly comparable regarding restrictions for where and when to apply fertilizer and manure, but very different regarding application limits for N fertilization. Issues of concern and improvement of the implementation of the NiD are accounting for the fertilizer value of nitrogen in manure, and relating application limits for total nitrogen (N to potential crop yield and N removal. The most significant environmental effect of the implementation of the NiD since 1995 is a major contribution to the decrease of the soil N balance (N surplus, particularly in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. This decrease is accompanied by a modest decrease of nitrate concentrations since 2000 in fresh surface waters in most countries. This decrease is less prominent for groundwater in view of delayed response of nitrate in deep aquifers. In spite of improved fertilization practices, the southeast of the Netherlands, the Flemish Region and Brittany remain to be regions of major concern in view of a combination of a high nitrogen surplus, high leaching fractions to groundwater and tenacious exceedance of the water quality standards. On average the gross N balance in 2008 for the seven member states in EUROSTAT and in national reports was about 20 kg N ha−1 yr−1 lower than by MITERRA. The major cause is higher estimates of N removal in national reports which can amount to more than 50 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Differences between procedures in member states to

  1. Management, regulation and environmental impacts of nitrogen fertilization in northwestern Europe under the Nitrates Directive; a benchmark study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grinsven, H. J. M.; ten Berge, H. F. M.; Dalgaard, T.; Fraters, B.; Durand, P.; Hart, A.; Hofman, G.; Jacobsen, B. H.; Lalor, S. T. J.; Lesschen, J. P.; Osterburg, B.; Richards, K. G.; Techen, A.-K.; Vertès, F.; Webb, J.; Willems, W. J.

    2012-12-01

    Implementation of the Nitrates Directive (NiD) and its environmental impacts were compared for member states in the northwest of the European Union (Ireland, United Kingdom, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, Northern France and Germany). The main sources of data were national reports for the third reporting period for the NiD (2004-2007) and results of the MITERRA-EUROPE model. Implementation of the NiD in the considered member states is fairly comparable regarding restrictions for where and when to apply fertilizer and manure, but very different regarding application limits for N fertilization. Issues of concern and improvement of the implementation of the NiD are accounting for the fertilizer value of nitrogen in manure, and relating application limits for total nitrogen (N) to potential crop yield and N removal. The most significant environmental effect of the implementation of the NiD since 1995 is a major contribution to the decrease of the soil N balance (N surplus), particularly in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. This decrease is accompanied by a modest decrease of nitrate concentrations since 2000 in fresh surface waters in most countries. This decrease is less prominent for groundwater in view of delayed response of nitrate in deep aquifers. In spite of improved fertilization practices, the southeast of the Netherlands, the Flemish Region and Brittany remain to be regions of major concern in view of a combination of a high nitrogen surplus, high leaching fractions to groundwater and tenacious exceedance of the water quality standards. On average the gross N balance in 2008 for the seven member states in EUROSTAT and in national reports was about 20 kg N ha-1 yr-1 lower than by MITERRA. The major cause is higher estimates of N removal in national reports which can amount to more than 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Differences between procedures in member states to assess nitrogen balances and water quality and a lack of cross

  2. The nitrogen mineral fertilizer tax in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2017-01-01

    Sweden’s tax on mineral fertilizers had been in place for 25 years when it was suddenly revoked in 2009 in response to the financial crisis. Initially it targeted both nitrogen and phosphorus, but cadmium present in phosphorus replaced the latter taxation base after the first ten years. The tax...... 6%, corresponding annually to about 10,000 tonnes of N. The cadmium tax component has previously been found to have been effective. The fertilizer tax was introduced initially to complement a price regulation charge on fertilizers that generated revenues for export subsidies to farmers. The latter...

  3. Effects of application of inhibitors and biochar to fertilizer on gaseous nitrogen emissions from an intensively managed wheat field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tiehu; Liu, Deyan; Yuan, Junji; Luo, Jiafa; Lindsey, Stuart; Bolan, Nanthi; Ding, Weixin

    2018-02-08

    The effects of biochar combined with the urease inhibitor, hydroquinone, and nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide, on gaseous nitrogen (N 2 O, NO and NH 3 ) emissions and wheat yield were examined in a wheat crop cultivated in a rice-wheat rotation system in the Taihu Lake region of China. Eight treatments comprised N fertilizer at a conventional application rate of 150kgNha -1 (CN); N fertilizer at an optimal application rate of 125kgNha -1 (ON); ON+wheat-derived biochar at rates of 7.5 (ONB1) and 15tha -1 (ONB2); ON+nitrification and urease inhibitors (ONI); ONI+wheat-derived biochar at rates of 7.5 (ONIB1) and 15tha -1 (ONIB2); and, a control. The reduced N fertilizer application rate in the ON treatment decreased N 2 O, NO, and NH 3 emissions by 45.7%, 17.1%, and 12.3%, respectively, compared with the CN treatment. Biochar application increased soil organic carbon, total N, and pH, and also increased NH 3 and N 2 O emissions by 32.4-68.2% and 9.4-35.2%, respectively, compared with the ON treatment. In contrast, addition of urease and nitrification inhibitors decreased N 2 O, NO, and NH 3 emissions by 11.3%, 37.9%, and 38.5%, respectively. The combined application of biochar and inhibitors more effectively reduced N 2 O and NO emissions by 49.1-49.7% and 51.7-55.2%, respectively, compared with ON and decreased NH 3 emission by 33.4-35.2% compared with the ONB1 and ONB2 treatments. Compared with the ON treatment, biochar amendment, either alone or in combination with inhibitors, increased wheat yield and N use efficiency (NUE), while addition of inhibitors alone increased NUE but not wheat yield. We suggest that an optimal N fertilizer rate and combined application of inhibitors+biochar at a low application rate, instead of biochar application alone, could increase soil fertility and wheat yields, and mitigate gaseous N emissions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Availability of residual nitrogen from fertilizers in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakovljevic, M.; Filipovic, R.; Petrovic, M.

    1983-01-01

    The plant availability of residual fertilizer nitrogen for the next crop was studied in chernozem and pseudogley soils. Release of nitrogen was examined after incubation at 3 and 30 0 C. It was found that the use of increased doses of nitrogen fertilizer (ammonium nitrate) led to an increased release of residual fertilizer nitrogen into plant available forms. The release of this nitrogen fraction was 5-10 times faster in comparison with the remaining soil nitrogen. (author)

  5. Availability of residual nitrogen from fertilizers in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakovljevic, M.; Filipovic, R.; Petrovic, M. (Institut za Primeni Nuklearne Energije u Poljoprivedri, Veterinarstvu i Sumarstvu, Zemun (Yugoslavia))

    1983-05-01

    The plant availability of residual fertilizer nitrogen for the next crop was studied in chernozem and pseudogley soils. Release of nitrogen was examined after incubation at 3 and 30/sup 0/C. It was found that the use of increased doses of nitrogen fertilizer (ammonium nitrate) led to an increased release of residual fertilizer nitrogen into plant available forms. The release of this nitrogen fraction was 5-10 times faster in comparison with the remaining soil nitrogen.

  6. Calendula and camelina response to nitrogen fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerging oil-seed crops calendula (Calendula officinalis) and camelina (Camelina sativa L.) can provide a domestic, renewable, non-food alternative to imported oil sources for bioenergy and industrial purposes. However, very little information exists concerning nitrogen (N) fertilizer guidelines...

  7. Effects of Irrigation Regime and Nitrogen Fertilizer Management on CH4, N2O and CO2 Emissions from Saline–Alkaline Paddy Fields in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation regime and fertilizer nitrogen (N are considered as the most effective agricultural management systems to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from crop fields, but few studies have involved saline–alkaline paddy soil. Gas emitted from saline–alkaline paddy fields (1-year-old and 57-year-old was collected during rice growing seasons by the closed chamber method. Compared to continuous flooding irrigation, lower average CH4 flux (by 22.81% and 23.62%, but higher CO2 flux (by 24.84% and 32.39% was observed from intermittent irrigation fields. No significant differences of N2O flux were detected. Application rates of N fertilizer were as follows: (1 No N (N0; (2 60 kg ha−1 (N60; (3 150 kg ha−1 (N150; and (4 250 kg ha−1 (N250. The cumulative emissions of GHG and N fertilizer additions have positive correlation, and the largest emission was detected at the rate of 250 kg N ha−1 (N250. Global warming potential (GWP, CH4 + N2O + CO2 of the 57-year-old field under the N250 treatment was up to 4549 ± 296 g CO2-eq m−2, approximately 1.5-fold that of N0 (no N application. In summary, the results suggest that intermittent irrigation would be a better regime to weaken the combined GWP of CH4 and N2O, but N fertilizer contributed positively to the GWP.

  8. Evaluation of Tillage, Residue Management and Nitrogen Fertilizer Effects on CO2 Emission in Maize (Zea Mays L. Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooholla Moradi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC states that future emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs will continue to increase and cause climatic change (16. These conditions are also true for Iran. The three greenhouse gases associated with agriculture are carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O. The three GHGs associated with agriculture CO2, CH4, and N2O differ in their effectiveness in trapping heat and in their turnover rates in the atmosphere. This environmental change will have serious impacts on different growth and development processes of crops. Increasing temperature could affect physiological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and partitioning of photoassimilates. Farmers are not able to change or manage the climatic conditions, but some factors such as soil, water, seed and agricultural practices can be managed to reduce the adverse impacts of climate change (32. Mitigation and adaptation are two known ways for reducing the negative impacts of climate change. Mitigation strategies are associated with decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions through management practices such as reducing chemical fertilizer application, mechanization, increasing carbon storage in agroecosystems, planting biofuel crops and moving towards organic farming (42, etc. Material and Methods: This study was carried out at the experimental field of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2011 and was repeated in 2012. The Research Station (36°16´N, 59°36´E is located at about 985 m a.s.l. Average temperature and precipitation rate of the research station in two years are shown in Figure. 1. The three-factor experiment was set up in a strip-split-plot arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experimental treatments were tillage systems (conventional and reduced tillage and residual management (remaining and leaving of maize residual assigned to main plots

  9. Energy Efficiency and Cost Saving Opportunities for Ammonia and Nitrogenous Fertilizer Production : An ENERGY STAR® Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kermeli, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411260553; Worrell, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/106856715; Graus, W.H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/308005015; Corsten, M.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326090908

    is Guide provides information to identify cost-effective practices and technologies to increase energy efficiency in the nitrogenous fertilizer industry. This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for ammonia, urea and ammonium nitrate plants and on potential

  10. Nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of legumes with residues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop rotation with legumes can help reduce the inorganic nitrogen fertilizer need of the following maize as a result of increased nitrogen availability in the soil. The Nitrogen Fertilizer Replacement Value (NFRV) method was used to estimate the nitrogen contribution of grain legumes (soybean, cowpea) and an herbaceous ...

  11. Optimizing nitrogen fertilizer use: Current approaches and simulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baethgen, W.E.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the most common limiting nutrient in agricultural systems throughout the world. Crops need sufficient available N to achieve optimum yields and adequate grain-protein content. Consequently, sub-optimal rates of N fertilizers typically cause lower economical benefits for farmers. On the other hand, excessive N fertilizer use may result in environmental problems such as nitrate contamination of groundwater and emission of N 2 O and NO. In spite of the economical and environmental importance of good N fertilizer management, the development of optimum fertilizer recommendations is still a major challenge in most agricultural systems. This article reviews the approaches most commonly used for making N recommendations: expected yield level, soil testing and plant analysis (including quick tests). The paper introduces the application of simulation models that complement traditional approaches, and includes some examples of current applications in Africa and South America. (author)

  12. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the nutritive value of oat forages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen fertilization is a routine part of forage management strategies for grasses, but the effects on forage nutritive value have been inconsistent. Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of N fertilization on the nutritive value of fall-grown oat fertilized at planting with 20, 40, 60, 80, ...

  13. INFLUENCE OF LEGUME RESIDUE AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    designed crop rotation creates farm diversity and improves soil condition and fertility. Despite its associated ... management practices like crop rotation which is fundamental to a sustainable cropping system. 10062 .... as chlorophyll, nucleotides, alkaloids, proteins, enzymes, hormones and vitamins[19]. The higher grain ...

  14. Nutrient Management Programs, Nitrogen Fertilizer Practices, and Groundwater Quality in Nebraska’s Central Platte Valley (U.S., 1989–1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Daberkow

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the societal concern about groundwater pollution from agricultural sources, public programs have been proposed or implemented to change farmer behavior with respect to nutrient use and management. However, few of these programs designed to change farmer behavior have been evaluated due to the lack of detailed data over an appropriate time frame. The Central Platte Natural Resources District (CPNRD in Nebraska has identified an intensively cultivated, irrigated area with average groundwater nitrate-nitrogen (N levels about double the EPA’s safe drinking water standard. The CPNRD implemented a joint education and regulatory N management program in the mid-1980s to reduce groundwater N. This analysis reports N use and management, yield, and groundwater nitrate trends in the CPNRD for nearly 3000 continuous-corn fields from 1989 to 1998, where producers faced limits on the timing of N fertilizer application but no limits on amounts. Groundwater nitrate levels showed modest improvement over the 10 years of this analysis, falling from the 1989–1993 average of 18.9 to 18.1 mg/l during 1994–1998. The availability of N in excess of crop needs was clearly documented by the CPNRD data and was related to optimistic yield goals, irrigation water use above expected levels, and lack of adherence to commercial fertilizer application guidelines. Over the 10-year period of this analysis, producers reported harvesting an annual average of 9729 kg/ha, 1569 kg/ha (14% below the average yield goal. During 1989�1998, producers reported annually applying an average of 162.5 kg/ha of commercial N fertilizer, 15.7 kg/ha (10% above the guideline level. Including the N contribution from irrigation water, the potential N contribution to the environment (total N available less estimated crop use was estimated at 71.7 kg/ha. This is an estimate of the nitrates available for denitrification, volatilization, runoff, future soil N, and leaching to groundwater. On

  15. Isotope studies on soil and fertilizer nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Reductions in isotope cost in the 1960s and equipment innovations, have extended compared to 1940, the research of soil and plant scientists so that 15 N is now an indispensable tool when working with N. Leadership of FAO/IAEA coordinated research programmes and the Nitrogen Laboratory of the Tennessee Valley Authority helped greatly in bringing about this expanded usage. Recognized isotope effects are of insufficient magnitude to invalidate tracer measurements of field crop uptake in the treatment year if enrichment of 0.3 at.% excess 15 N or greater is employed. Thus, use of 15 N depleted tracer with potential of 0.366% 15 N differential from the standard isotope ratio of N in air is feasible. Its manufacture has allowed further economy in the isotope tag and ultimate treatment of field-scale plots. Interest in Δ 15 N measurements for predicting the NO - 3 contaminant source in surface and ground waters has depreciated. Variations in natural isotope ratio of soil N commonly exceed the differences in Δ 15 N values of the presumed source materials. 15 N provides the only correct measure of fertilizer N utilization efficiency. The field study examples of irrigated maize demonstrate that little or no fertilizer N is likely to escape the root zone where the rate applied does not exceed that required for maximum yield; also, that light and frequent irrigations afford higher yields than heavier, less frequent irrigations. Delaying fertilizer N applications until the crop is well established affords not only higher yields, but greater residual fertilizer N for future crops. Measured effective root activity for absorbing NO - 3 has been invaluable in estimating fertilizer requirements of a crop in relation to residual mineral N in soil at planting and projecting the depth at which the NO - 3 becomes an environmental hazard. The tag likewise is indispensable in determining symbiotic N fixation

  16. Changes in soil surface chemistry after fifty years of tillage and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge gained on the long-term effects of crop management practices on soil fertility is critical in developing nutrient management strategies to optimize crop yields. This study examined the long-term effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application (N rates of 0, 22, 45 and 67 kg N ha-1) and till...

  17. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Nitrogen in Manure Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrogen in Manure Production dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of nitrogen manure produced and...

  18. Nitrogen fertilization and soil management of winter common bean crop Manejo do solo e adubação nitrogenada em feijoeiro de inverno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Gustavo da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of appropriate cultural management, which includes nitrogen fertilization and soil tillage system, is very important to increase the efficiency of plant in the utilization of available resource. This research work was conducted for three years aiming at evaluating the effect of sidedressing nitrogen application (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 kg ha-1 on winter bean crop under different systems of soil management (conventional, minimal, and no-tillage systems. The experimental design was a randomized block arranged in strips relative to tillage systems, with random distribution of nitrogen doses into each strip, with four replications. Grain yield was affected by nitrogen rates and significant increases were obtained with the application of 75 to 100 kg N ha-1. Soil management did not affect grain yield, although the "minimum system" provided better results in the two first years.A adoção de manejo cultural adequado, dentro do qual se insere a prática da adubação e do preparo do solo, é importante no sentido de aumentar a eficiência da planta na utilização dos recursos disponíveis. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido durante três anos, objetivando avaliar, no feijoeiro irrigado (Phaseolus vulgaris "de inverno", o efeito da aplicação de doses de nitrogênio em cobertura (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 kg ha-1, sob diferentes sistemas de preparo de solo (convencional, mínimo e direto. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi em blocos casualisados dispostos em faixas para os sistemas de preparo do solo, com casualização dentro destes para as doses de nitrogênio, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados: florescimento pleno, matéria seca de plantas, número de vagens e de grãos por planta, número de grãos por vagem, massa de 100 grãos, ciclo, rendimento de grãos e teor de nitrogênio nas plantas. O rendimento de grãos foi influenciado pelas doses de nitrogênio e incrementos significativos foram obtidos com a aplicação de 75 a 100 kg

  19. CORN PRODUCERS´ RESPONSE TO THE 2001 NITROGEN FERTILIZER PRICE INCREASE

    OpenAIRE

    Daberkow, Stan G.; McBride, William D.

    2004-01-01

    During the past few years, nitrogen fertilizer prices and price volatility have increased. Producers of nitrogen-intensive crops, such as corn, who are faced with increased nitrogen prices or price volatility, can adopt either cost-reducing or price variability-reducing strategies. Using a behavioral model in the logit specification and data from a 2001 national survey of U.S. corn producers, we found that the probability of forward pricing nitrogen fertilizer and the probability of using nit...

  20. Nitrogen fertilization management and nitrogen ({sup 15}N) utilization by corn crop in red latosol; Manejo da adubacao nitrogenada e utilizacao do nitrogenio ({sup 15}N) pelo milho em latossolo vermelho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duete, Robson Rui Cotrim [Empresa Baiana de Desenvolvimento Agrario S.A. (EBDA), Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Estacao Experimental). E-mail: rrcduete@oi.com.br; Muraoka, Takashi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Silva, Edson Cabral da [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: muraoka@cena.usp.br; ecsilva@cena.usp.br; pcotrive@cena.usp.br; Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), Piracicaba (Brazil). Estacao Experimental de Agronomia de Piracicaba (APTA). Centro de Acao Regional]. E-mail: edmilson@iac.br

    2008-01-15

    Nitrogen is the nutrient that is most absorbed by corn crop, influences grain yield most, and requires the most complex management. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen (urea {sup 15}N) rate and split-applications, on grain yield, N fertilizer utilization and amount of soil native N absorbed by corn crop in a Red Latosol. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design, with nine treatments and four replications, represented by five N rates: 0, 55, 95, 135 and 175 kg ha{sup -1} N, 15 kg of N applied at sowing, and the remaining amount in different split-applications: 40 and 80 kg ha{sup -1} applied in single rates in the 8-leaf stage or half in the 4-leaf stage + half in the 8-leaf stage; 120 kg ha{sup -1} split in 1/2 + 1/2 or 1/3 + 1/3 + 1/3 in the 4, 8 or 12-leaf stage; 160 kg ha-1 split in 1/4 + 3/8 + 3/8 or 1/4 + 1/4 + 1/4 + 1/4 in the 4, 8, 12-leaf stages or at flowering and pollination. The N fertilizer use by corn was, on average, 39 %, and the soil was the main source of the nutrient for the crop. With three split applications of 135 kg ha-1 N, until 8 leaves, the N fertilizer use is most efficient (52 %) and the grain yield highest (author)

  1. Nitrogen uptake and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency of wheat under different soil water conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baiqun; Zhang Wei; Yu Cunzu

    1999-01-01

    The pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of soil water regime and fertilizer nitrogen rate on the yields, nitrogen uptake and fertilizer nitrogen utilization of wheat by using 15 N tracer method. The results showed that the aboveground biomass, stem yield and grain yield increased with the increase of soil moisture in the fertilizer nitrogen treatments. All the yield increased with the increase of the fertilizer nitrogen rate in the soil water treatments. It was found that both soil water regime and fertilizer nitrogen rate significantly influenced the amount of nitrogen uptake by wheat according to the variance analysis. The amount of nitrogen uptake increased with the rise of the soil moisture in fertilizer nitrogen treatments and the amount also increased with the increase of the urea nitrogen rate in the soil water regime. Soil water regimes not only had an impact on nitrogen uptake but also had a close relationship with soil nitrogen supply and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency. The soil A values decreased in urea treatment and increased with the rise of the soil moisture in the combination treatment of urea with pig manure. The fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency rose with the rise of the soil moisture in the same fertilizer nitrogen treatment. The fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency of the urea treatment was 13.3%, 27.9% and 32.3% in the soils with 50%, 70% and 90% of the field water capacity, respectively. The fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency in the combination treatment of urea with pig manure was 20.0%, 29.9% and 34.4% in the soils of above three levels, respectively. It was concluded that the low soil moisture restricted urea nitrogen use efficiency (UNUE) and the UNUE could be raised by combination treatment of urea with manure in the soil of enough moisture

  2. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on maize/rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The generally low fertility status of the savanna soils requires the application of fertilizers to supply adequate amounts of nutrients needed by cereal crops to raise yields. The effect of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on grain yield, soil nitrogen and uptake of N and P by maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) in a ...

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions from nitrogen fertilizer use in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Li, Yunju; Su, Yufang; Tennigkeit, Timm; Wilkes, Andreas; Xu, Jianchu

    2010-01-01

    The use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers is an important driver of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China. This paper develops a GHG emission factor for synthetic N fertilizer application in China. Using this emission factor, we estimate the scale of GHG emissions from synthetic nitrogen fertilizer use in Chinese agriculture and explore the potential for GHG emission reductions from efficiency improvements in N fertilizer production and use. The paper concludes with a discussion on costs and financing for a large-scale fertilizer efficiency improvement program in China, and how a GHG mitigation framework might contribute to program design.

  4. Effeciency of soil and fertilizer nitrogen in relation to rice variety and application time using sup(15)N labelled fertilizer: pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.; Mok, S.K.; Seok, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    From sup(15)N labelled nitrogen experimens on 13 fields use efficiency by difference method was higher than that by labelling method in 80% of fields tested indicating augmentation of soil nitrogen uptake by fertilizer nitrogen. Both methods showed very similar trend among fields. Sulfur coated urea(SCU) and point application increased fertilization efficiency(yield increment per fertilizer nitrogen applied, Fe) to 23 from 15 of split application through the increase of fertilizer use efficiency from 29(Eu) to 50 but tended to decrease efficiency of absorbed fertilizer nitrogen(yield increment per nitrogen derived from fertilizer, Ef) from 50 to 46. High yielding capacity of Tongil line appears to be attributed to the higher Ef, translocation efficiency and soil nitrogen preference index(soil nitrogen increment in plant per the increment of fertilizer nitrogen in plant, PI). This study confirmed that yield under fertilizer application system depends on Fe which is the multiplication of Eu and Ef and that the improvement of fertilizer management(form, application method and time) increases principally Eu, the limit of which is controlled by Ef that is attributed mainly to varietal characteristics. (Author)

  5. The nitrogen fertilizer utilization and nitrogen balance by winter wheat in sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou Changlin; Wang Hengyu

    2003-01-01

    The effects of different fertilization stage on wheat yield, nitrogen uptake, utilization, residue, distribution and nitrogen balance were studied by potted plant experiment. The results showed that the highest yield obtained appeared in the treatment of topdressing on shooting age when 1/2 nitrogen fertilizer applied as base fertilizer. Topdressing on earning stage reached higher yield than that on regreening stage on the case of lower nitrogen applied. There was no difference between these two treatment if higher nitrogen applied. Nitrogen plant uptake in 1/2 nitrogen as topdressing treatment was significantly higher than that of all as base fertilizer, which mainly because of improved efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer. 31.7%-66.8% of residue nitrogen in soil was distributed in 0-40 cm soil layer after harvest and proportion of residue nitrogen in this layer was increased when nitrogen fertilizer applied later. However, in the treatment of all nitrogen applied as base fertilizer and topdressing on regreening stage, proportion of residue nitrogen in the subsoil was higher than topdressing in later state, which in 80-100 cm depth was even exceeded that in the topsoil

  6. Quantitative difference method for estimation of fertilizer nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The percentic recovery and balance of fertilizer nitrogen can be determined by different methods. In this study, quantitative difference method in recovery of Nitrogen of above-ground dry matter was applied to investigate the uptake of field applied nitrogen by maize cultivated in an orthic oxisol soil. It was found that the ...

  7. Effect of different nitrogen application types on nitrogen utilization efficiency and fate of fertilizer for sugacane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jianfeng; Wei Dongping; Liu Huanyu; Chen Chaojun; Lan Libin; Liang He

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment in greenhouse was conducted with 15 N-labeled urea 5 g/pot (equal to 450 kg · hm -2 ) total nitrogen by three kinds of treatments of disposable bottom application nitrogen before sowing (T1), 50% nitrogen before sowing and 50% nitrogrn during tillering stage (T2), and 30% nitrogen before sowing, 30% nitrogen during tillering stage and 40% nitrogen applied during elongation stage (T3) to investigate the use efficiency and fate of fertilizer nitrogen using the sugarcane cultivar ROC22. Results showed that almost 18% ∼ 29% of total N uptake by sugarcane was supplied by fertilizer, and 71% ∼ 82% N derived from soil and seed-stem. Nitrogen use efficiency ranged from 21.0% to 34.52%, with 15 N-fertilizer residue of 37.61% ∼ 44.13%, and 15 N-fertilizer loss of 21.35% ∼ 41.39% among three treatments. Under the three levels of nitrogen application, residual was 15 N-fertilizer was mainly distributed in 0 ∼ 20 cm top soil. The uptake of nitrogen and the proportion of total N from fertilizer in sugarcane plant, the yield of stalk and sugar after the nitrogen applied, and the use efficiency and residue ratio of 15 N-fertilizer increased significantly over time, while loss rate of 15 N-fertilizer decreased significantly with a slight decline trend of nitrogen distribution and sucrose accumulation in stalk. The results also indicated that after the nitrogen applied the amounts 15 N-fertilizer residue in 0 ∼ 20 cm top soil showed a rising trend, but dropped in 20 ∼ 40 cm soil profile. From the viewpoints of economic benefit and ecological benefit, the nitrogen fertilizer applied of T3 could be optimal treatment. (authors)

  8. Efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers for rice

    OpenAIRE

    Roger, Pierre-Armand; Grant, I.F.; Reddy, P.M.; Watanabe, I.

    1987-01-01

    The photosynthetic biomass that develops in the floodwater of wetland rice fields affects nitrogen dynamics in the ecosystem. This review summarizes available data on the nature, productivity, and composition of the photosynthetic aquatic biomass, and its major activities regarding the nitrogen cycle, i.e., nitrogen fixation by free living blue-green algae and #Azolla$, nitrogen trapping, nitrogen accumulation at the soil surface, its effect on nitrogen losses by ammonia volatilization, nitro...

  9. 155 - 164 Influence of Mineral Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilizers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    . Production on Alluvial Soil in ... rate of nitrogen fertilizer required to enhance seed tuber production was found to be higher than that required to optimize ware potato ...... to lime in the Midwestern United States. Soil acidity and liming: 267 ...

  10. Intensive straw harvesting, fertilization, and fertilizer source affect nitrogen mineralization and soil labile carbon of a loblolly pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Ellum; H.O. Liechty; M.A. Blazier

    2013-01-01

    Straw harvesting can supplement traditional revenues generated by loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation management. However, repeated raking may alter soil properties and nutrition. In northcentral Louisiana, a study was conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of intensive straw raking and fertilizer source (inorganic or organic) on nitrogen...

  11. Herbicides effect on the nitrogen fertilizer assimilation by sensitive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladonin, V.F.; Samojlov, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    It has been established in studying the effect of herbicides on pea plants that the penetration of the preparations into the tissues of leaves and stems results in a slight increase of the rate of formation of dry substance in the leaves of the treated plants within 24 hours after treatment as compared with control, whereas in the last period of the analysis the herbicides strongly inhibit the formation of dry substance in leaves. The applied herbicide doses have resulted in drastic changes of the distribution of the plant-assimilated nitrogen between the protein and non-protein fractions in the leaves and stems of pea. When affected by the studied herbicides, the fertilizer nitrogen supply to the pea plants changes and the rate of the fertilizer nitrogen assimilation by the plants varies noticeably. The regularities of the fertilizer nitrogen inclusion in the protein and non-protein nitrogen compounds of the above-ground pea organs have been studied

  12. Effectiveness of liquid organic-nitrogen fertilizer in enhancing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ever increasing price of nitrogenous (N) fertilizers coupled with the deleterious effects of imbalanced N fertilizers on the environment necessitates the enhancement of N use efficiency of plants. The objectives of this study were to: (1) Evaluate the uptake of selected nutrients due to application of liquid organic-N ...

  13. The fate of nitrogen affected by biochar and fertilizer source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous improvement of nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE) and minimizing environmental loss is necessary to address the issues related to N fertilizer use in agronomic systems. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of biochar amendment and fertilizer source on NUE impro...

  14. Measurement of nitrogen fertility of paddy field soil by the employment of 15N and productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Takeo

    1975-01-01

    After giving 15 N-nitrogenous fertilizer to a paddy field, the ratio of soil nitrogen to fertilizer nitrogen incorporated by rice plants was investigated by a tracer method. The nitrogen fertility of soil by employing 15 N fertilizer is expressed as N=M x S/F (N, soil nitrogen amount; M, fertilizer given; F, fertilizer nitrogen incorporated by plants; S, soil nitrogen incorporated by plants). The ratio of the incorporation of soil nitrogen to that of 15 N-labelled fertilizer nitrogen was measured by this method, and the influence of soil nitrogen and fertilizer nitrogen upon the productivity of rice was investigate. The mechanism of converting to organic matter in soil from 15 N-labelled fertilizer nitrogen was also observed. Further studies using 15 N is expected. (Kobatake, H.)

  15. The influence of nitrogen fertilization, spring burning and height of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation, conducted over a three-year period, emphasized the strong effect of nitrogen fertilization on both hay and seed production. The optimum level of nitrogen, for conditions on the Eastern Highveld being 100-150 kg N/ha applied in spring, followed by subsequent dressings dependent on rainfall. Although the ...

  16. GIS Modelling for Site-Specific Nitrogen Fertilization towards Soil Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis Papadopoulos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Farmers need to make decisions that in most cases incorporate the concept of prediction and can hardly be revoked. One such decision is the application of fertilizing inputs. During past crop management and decision-making on fertilizing practices, many significant errors have been recorded, which have led and continue to lead to reduced production and environmental burden. The methodology followed in this paper involves the use of GIS, fuzzy logic and expert knowledge, in order to model physical processes associated with nitrogen balance in cultivated ecosystems and to evaluate the capabilities of or limitations on the use of certain fertilizers, based on spatial criteria. An original spatial decision support system was designed, developed and applied in a given study area. The system is composed of two modules (“fertilizing rate” and “fertilizing type”, making use of soil, climate and cultivation practices’ data, as recorded in the area of interest in quantitative or categorical form. The results of the application spatially classify the involved area according to its demand for nitrogen on the basis of the characteristics of each sub-region. The “fertilizing rate” module suggests reduced fertilizing doses of nitrogenous fertilizers compared to those already applied in the area. The system further divides the area into zones where specific types of fertilizers should be applied, giving a certain prescription for the method and time of application.

  17. Nitrogenous fertilizer uptake by guinea grass in several growth flushes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosano, E.J.; Ambrosano, G.M.B.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen recovery was evaluated by the 15 N absorption by guineagrass cv. Tobiata. 15 N fertilizer was applied in February, March, May, June, August and September, in posts containing 5 kg of limed and fertilized soil, under greenhouse conditions in Piracicaba, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. For each 15 N application three cuttings were performed at approximately 5-7 week interval. The following measurements were taken: consumed water, dry matter yield, nitrogen content, nitrogen in the plant derived form the fertilizers (Ndff), nitrogen recovery (R), and the relation between dry matter yield and nitrogen content. It was also determined the number of vegetative and reproductive tillers and apical meristem elimination. Plant growth was reduced after flowing; highest values of nitrogen recovery in the three cutting were observed for 15 N-fertilizer applied in September and August; highest residual effects, in the second and third cuttings after fertilizers 15 N applications, were observed in September, June and August, reaching 22% in September. (author)

  18. Options for including nitrogen management in climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erisman, J.W.

    2010-12-01

    The outline of the presentation is as follows: Climate change and nitrogen; Nitrogen and climate interlinkages; Options for nitrogen management; Report, workshop and IPCC; and Conclusions. The concluding remarks are: Fertilizing the biosphere with reactive nitrogen compounds lead to ecosystem, health, water and climate impacts; Nitrogen deposition can lead to additional carbon sequestration and to impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services; Nitrogen addition to the biosphere might have a net cooling effect of 1 W/m 2 ; Life Cycle Analysis is needed to show the full impact; and Nitrogen management is essential for the environment and can have a positive effect on the net GHG exchange.

  19. [Effects of water deficit and nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat growth and nitrogen uptake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, You-Ling; Zhang, Fu-Cang; Li, Kai-Feng

    2009-10-01

    Winter wheat plants were cultured in vitro tubes to study their growth and nitrogen uptake under effects of water deficit at different growth stages and nitrogen fertilization. Water deficit at any growth stages could obviously affect the plant height, leaf area, dry matter accumulation, and nitrogen uptake. Jointing stage was the most sensitive stage of winter wheat growth to water deficit, followed by flowering stage, grain-filling stage, and seedling stages. Rewatering after the water deficit at seedling stage had a significant compensation effect on winter wheat growth, and definite compensation effect was observed on the biomass accumulation and nitrogen absorption when rewatering was made after the water deficit at flowering stage. Under the same nitrogen fertilization levels, the nitrogen accumulation in root with water deficit at seedling, jointing, flowering, and grain-filling stages was reduced by 25.82%, 55.68%, 46.14%, and 16.34%, and the nitrogen accumulation in aboveground part was reduced by 33.37%, 51.71%, 27.01%, and 2.60%, respectively, compared with no water deficit. Under the same water deficit stages, the nitrogen content and accumulation of winter wheat decreased with decreasing nitrogen fertilization level, i. e., 0.3 g N x kg(-1) FM > 0.2 g N x kg(-1) FM > 0.1 g N x kg(-1) FM. Nitrogen fertilization had obvious regulation effect on winter wheat plant growth, dry matter accumulation, and nitrogen uptake under water stress.

  20. Criteria for Selecting Optimal Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates for Precision Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Basso

    Full Text Available Yield rates vary spatially and maps produced by the yield monitor systems are evidence of the degree of withinfield variability. The magnitude of this variability is a good indication of the suitability of implementing a spatially variable management plan. Crop simulation models have the potential to integrate the effects of temporal and multiple stress interaction on crop growth under different environmental and management conditions. The strength of these models is their ability to account for stress by simulating the temporal interaction of stress on plant growth each day during the season. The objective of paper is to present a procedure that allows for the selection of optimal nitrogen fertilizer rates to be applied spatially on previously identified management zones through crop simulation modelling. The integration of yield maps, remote sensing imagery, ground truth measurements, electrical resistivity imaging allowed for the identifications of three distinct management zones based on their ability to produce yield and their stability over time (Basso et al., 2009. After validating the model, we simulated 7 N rates from 0 to 180 kg N/ha with a 30 kg N/ha increment. The model results illustrate the different N responses for each of the zone. The analysis allowed us to identify the optimal N rate for each of the zone based on agronomic, economic and environmental sustainability of N management.

  1. Criteria for Selecting Optimal Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates for Precision Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Basso

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Yield rates vary spatially and maps produced by the yield monitor systems are evidence of the degree of withinfield variability. The magnitude of this variability is a good indication of the suitability of implementing a spatially variable management plan. Crop simulation models have the potential to integrate the effects of temporal and multiple stress interaction on crop growth under different environmental and management conditions. The strength of these models is their ability to account for stress by simulating the temporal interaction of stress on plant growth each day during the season. The objective of paper is to present a procedure that allows for the selection of optimal nitrogen fertilizer rates to be applied spatially on previously identified management zones through crop simulation modelling. The integration of yield maps, remote sensing imagery, ground truth measurements, electrical resistivity imaging allowed for the identifications of three distinct management zones based on their ability to produce yield and their stability over time (Basso et al., 2009. After validating the model, we simulated 7 N rates from 0 to 180 kg N/ha with a 30 kg N/ha increment. The model results illustrate the different N responses for each of the zone. The analysis allowed us to identify the optimal N rate for each of the zone based on agronomic, economic and environmental sustainability of N management.

  2. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures and nitrogen profile to identify adulteration in organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verenitch, Sergei; Mazumder, Asit

    2012-08-29

    Recently it has been shown that stable isotopes of nitrogen can be used to discriminate between organic and synthetic fertilizers, but the robustness of the approach is questionable. This work developed a comprehensive method that is far more robust in identifying an adulteration of organic nitrogen fertilizers. Organic fertilizers of various types (manures, composts, blood meal, bone meal, fish meal, products of poultry and plant productions, molasses and seaweed based, and others) available on the North American market were analyzed to reveal the most sensitive criteria as well as their quantitative ranges, which can be used in their authentication. Organic nitrogen fertilizers of known origins with a wide δ(15)N range between -0.55 and 28.85‰ (n = 1258) were characterized for C and N content, δ(13)C, δ(15)N, viscosity, pH, and nitrogen profile (urea, ammonia, organic N, water insoluble N, and NO3). A statistically significant data set of characterized unique organic nitrogen fertilizers (n = 335) of various known origins has been assembled. Deliberately adulterated samples of different types of organic fertilizers mixed with synthetic fertilizers at a wide range of proportions have been used to develop the quantitative critical characteristics of organic fertilizers as the key indicators of their adulteration. Statistical analysis based on the discriminant functions of the quantitative critical characteristics of organic nitrogen fertilizers from 14 different source materials revealed a very high average rate of correct classification. The developed methodology has been successfully used as a source identification tool for numerous commercial nitrogen fertilizers available on the North American market.

  3. Nitrogenous fertilization of sugarcane in a soil with hydromorphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Pineda Ruiz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The element that sugarcane responds to more frequently is nitrogen. A deficiency of this element may decrease the agricultural yields, when applied below the rates the crop needs; and an over-abundance of this element causes smaller sucrose content in sugarcane juice. It is necessary to apply nitrogen fertilizers appropriately at the right time and in the right place. In a long-term (18-year experiment on a Vertisol, where doses ranging from 0 until 250 kg of N.ha-1 were applied, the nitrogen fertilization revealed a positive effect on the agricultural yields of the 14 studied crops, during the first 3 cycles. And all the evaluated stumps responded constantly to the nitrogen fertilization. The rate of consumption was of 1.13 kg of N per ton of sugarcane produced, lower than the one accepted by the Cuban sugarcane growers (1.5 kg of N/t of sugarcane. The organic matter content benefitted where the element was applied, although its content increased in the soil over a long period of time. The objective of this research was to evaluate of the response of sugarcane when nitrogen fertilizers were applied to hydromorphic soils.

  4. The Position of Mineral Nitrogen Fertilizer in Efficient Use of Nitrogen and Land: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroder, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Our attitude towards mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizers is ambivalent. N fertilizers have on one hand increased our supply of food, feed and other bio-based raw materials tremendously and also improved the use efficiency of land and labor, but have on the other hand a negative impact on the quality of

  5. JV Task-121 Electrochemical Synthesis of Nitrogen Fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junhua Jiang; Ted Aulich

    2008-11-30

    An electrolytic renewable nitrogen fertilizer process that utilizes wind-generated electricity, N{sub 2} extracted from air, and syngas produced via the gasification of biomass to produce nitrogen fertilizer ammonia was developed at the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center. This novel process provides an important way to directly utilize biosyngas generated mainly via the biomass gasification in place of the high-purity hydrogen which is required for Haber Bosch-based production of the fertilizer for the production of the widely used nitrogen fertilizers. Our preliminary economic projection shows that the economic competitiveness of the electrochemical nitrogen fertilizer process strongly depends upon the cost of hydrogen gas and the cost of electricity. It is therefore expected the cost of nitrogen fertilizer production could be considerably decreased owing to the direct use of cost-effective 'hydrogen-equivalent' biosyngas compared to the high-purity hydrogen. The technical feasibility of the electrolytic process has been proven via studying ammonia production using humidified carbon monoxide as the hydrogen-equivalent vs. the high-purity hydrogen. Process optimization efforts have been focused on the development of catalysts for ammonia formation, electrolytic membrane systems, and membrane-electrode assemblies. The status of the electrochemical ammonia process is characterized by a current efficiency of 43% using humidified carbon monoxide as a feedstock to the anode chamber and a current efficiency of 56% using high-purity hydrogen as the anode gas feedstock. Further optimization of the electrolytic process for higher current efficiency and decreased energy consumption is ongoing at the EERC.

  6. Public-private partnering for improving performance of corn nitrogen fertilization tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen fertilization for corn production is complicated by soil and weather variability, yet such has far-reaching economic and environmental implications. To address this challenge, alternative N management strategies have been explored extensively in recent years for determining the most consist...

  7. Sweetgum Response to Nitrogen Fertilization on Sites of Different Quality and Land Use History

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Donald J. Kaczmarek; James A. Burger; Michael B. Kane

    2002-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizer management in young hardwood plantations is difficult due to our lack of understanding of the site-specific mechanisms that control tree response. Differences in landuse history and soil characteristics can alter the plant response to added N considerably. Foliage biomass, N content, N concentration, resorption, and soil N supply characteristics...

  8. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in bread wheat: I. yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Monotti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union the production of high quality wheat is mainly located in the Mediterranean regions where the climatic conditions positively affect protein concentration in the grain. High quality wheat calls for proper management of nitrogen fertilization, thus there is a need to verify whether the limitations imposed by local governments on maximum rate of nitrogen fertilization admitted may affect bread making quality. Trials were conducted in fourteen environments (E to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizations on eight cultivars (C, belonging to four quality grades (Q. Nitrogen (N was applied to crops according to three rates/modalities: N1 corresponding to the maximum rate admitted calculated according to a balance sheet method and distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N2 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1, also distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N3 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1 but distributed at the stage of flag leaf appearance. The effects of environment, nitrogen and cultivar were significant for grain yield, test weight, 1000 kernel weight, heading time, plant height and for quality traits (protein content and alveograph indices. The existence of variability among cultivars and quality grades in the response to rate and timing of nitrogen fertilization was demonstrated by the significance of NxC and NxQ interactions. Dry matter and nitrogen contents of plant at anthesis and at harvest were significantly affected by the main sources of variation. High quality cultivars yielded more grain of better quality with higher N rates (N2 and N3 as compared to the maximum rate of nitrogen admitted by the local government (N1. These results demonstrated that the adopted balance sheet method for the calculation of N requirements of wheat crop adversely affects the full potential expression of the cultivars belonging to superior bread making quality grades.

  9. Nitrogen fertilization stimulates germination of dormant pin cherry seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.R. Auchmoody

    1979-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilizers triggered germination of dormant Prunus pensylvanica L. seed naturally buried in the forest floor of 60-year-old Allegheny hardwood stands. Neither triple superphosphate nor muriate of potash applied with urea increased germination over that which occurred with urea alone. Rates as low as 56 kg/ha N from urea and calcium...

  10. Nitrogen fertilization effects on sorghum forage yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study objective was to determine the effect of nitrogen fertilization on yield and quality of photoperiod sensitive (PS) and non-PS forage sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass, and sudangrass compared to corn. This study was a randomized complete block design with treatments arranged in a 4 x 8 factorial...

  11. Effect of nitrogen fertilization application and maturity of wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N) fertilizer application (0, 125 and 250kg N/ha) and stage of maturity on chemical composition and degradation characteristics of wild sunflower forage meal in West African Dwarf sheep. Nitrogen (0,125 and 250 kg N/ha) as NPK was applied ...

  12. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer Application on Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer Application on Yield Attributes, Grain Yield and Quality of Rain Fed Rice (NERICA-3) in Gambella, Southwestern ... Conversely, the effects of year by N interaction were significant (P . 0.05 and/or P . 0.01) for LAI, panicle length, grains panicle-1, crude fiber, plant height and ether ...

  13. Soybean response to nitrogen fertilizer under water deficit conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine the effect of water deficit and nitrogen fertilizer application on growth indices, yield and yield component of three soybean (Glycine Max L. Merr) genotypes a split plot factorial experiment based on randomized complete block with three replications was carried out. Soybean genotypes (Williams, K1410 ...

  14. Nitrogen fertilization of grass/clover swards under cutting or grazing by dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søegaard, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Intensively managed perennial ryegrass/white clover (Lolium perenne L. and Trifolium repens L.) swards receive relatively high levels of fertilizer N, and high N surpluses can subsequently be found. The N-fertilization effects on growth, yield, and herbage quality were therefore examined on three...... farms over a period of three years. Nitrogen was applied at four rates (0, 75, 150, and 225 kg N year-1) with cutting or grazing regime in Year 1 and Year 2, after establishment. A spring-only application of 150 kg N was compared with four applications during the season, which was the fertilization...... management in the rest of the experiment. N-response was greatly affected by management. Under cutting it was higher in Year 1 [16 kg dry matter (DM) kg-1 N] than in Year 2 (9 and 13 kg DM kg-1 N with and without residual effects of fertilization in Year 1). Under grazing with one or two rest periods...

  15. Seasonal temperatures have more influence than nitrogen fertilizer rates on cucumber yield and nitrogen uptake in a double cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ruiying; Li Xiaolin; Christie, Peter; Chen Qing; Zhang Fusuo

    2008-01-01

    Two-year greenhouse cucumber experiments were conducted to investigate seasonal effects on fruit yield, dry matter allocation, and N uptake in a double-cropping system with different fertilizer management. Seasonal effects were much greater than fertilizer effects, and winter-spring (WS) cucumber attained higher fruit yields and N uptake than autumn-winter (AW) cucumber due to lower cumulative air temperatures during fruit maturation in the AW season. Fertilizer N application and apparent N loss under recommended N management (Nmr) decreased by 40-78% and 33-48% without yield loss compared to conventional N management (Nmt) over four growing seasons. However, there were no seasonal differences in N recommendations, taking into consideration seasonal differences in crop N demand, critical nutrient supply in the root zone and N mineralization rate. - Nitrogen inputs can be reduced to minimize N losses to the environment while maintaining yields but N recommendations must reflect seasonal temperature effects

  16. [Interactions of straw, nitrogen fertilizer and bacterivorous nematodes on soil labile carbon and nitrogen and greenhouse gas emissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng-Hao; Wang, Nan; Liu, Man-Qiang; Li, Fang-Hui; Zhu, Kang-Li; Li, Hui-Xin; Hu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    A 3 x 2 factorial design of microcosm experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of straw, nitrogen fertilizer and bacterivorous nematodes on soil microbial biomass carbon (C(mic)) and nitrogen (N(mic)), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON), mineral nitrogen (NH(4+)-N and NO(3-)-N), and greenhouse gas (CO2, N2O and CH4) emissions. Results showed that straw amendment remarkably increased the numbers of bacterivorous nematodes and the contents of Cmic and Nmic, but Cmic and Nmic decreased with the increasing dose of nitrogen fertilization. The effects of bacterivorous nematodes strongly depended on either straw or nitrogen fertilization. The interactions of straw, nitrogen fertilization and bacterivorous nematodes on soil DOC, DON and mineral nitrogen were strong. Straw and nitrogen fertilization increased DOC and mineral nitrogen contents, but their influences on DON depended on the bacterivorous nematodes. The DOC and mineral nitrogen were negatively and positively influenced by the bacterivorous nematodes, re- spectively. Straw significantly promoted CO2 and N2O emissions but inhibited CH4 emission, while interactions between nematodes and nitrogen fertilization on emissions of greenhouse gases were obvious. In the presence of straw, nematodes increased cumulative CO2 emissions with low nitrogen fertilization, but decreased CO2 and N2O emissions with high nitrogen fertilization on the 56th day after incubation. In summary, mechanical understanding the soil ecological process would inevitably needs to consider the roles of soil microfauna.

  17. The effect of plant population and nitrogen fertilizer on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad reza asgaripor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest has increased towards hemp (Cannabis sativa L. fibre production due to renewed demand for natural fibre in the world. A Study was conducted in 2005 at Shirvan in Northern Khorasan province, Iran, to determine the effects of three plant populations (30, 90 and 150 plant per m2 and three rates of nitrogen application (50, 150 and 250 kg N per ha on final stand, stalk height, basal stalk diameter, total stalk yield as well as fibre content from stalk and fibre yield in male and female plants. A split plot experimental with three replications was used. The result indicated that due to enhanced competition for light at higher population on density and N2 level plant mortality was higher than other treatment Morphological characteristics were highly correlated with plant sexual, plant population and nitrogen fertilizer. Highest stem, leaf and inflorescence yield were obtained at 250 plant m-2 when 150 kg N ha-1 was used. Lowest plant density did not show self-thinning but reduced above ground dry matter. Shoot dry matter increased with increasing plant density and nitrogen supply. Apparently, fibre content was greater at medium density and lowest nitrogen fertilizer, however, fibre yield was greatest at highest plant population and nitrogen fertilizer. In terms of fibre yield, approximate 31.7% of the fibre was located in the bottom parts, 22.4% in the middle and only 9.9% in the top part of the stem. The results suggest that hemp can yield large quantities of useful fibre at Shirvan when planted in proper plant densities and suitable nitrogen fertilizer.

  18. Intercropping of wheat and pea as influenced by nitrogen fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaley, B.B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2005-01-01

    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on crop yield, fertilizer and soil nitrogen (N) use was tested on a sandy loam soil at three levels of urea fertilizer N (0, 4 and 8 g N m−2) applied at sowing. The 15N enrichment and natu...... with lower soil N levels, and vice versa for wheat, paving way for future option to reduce N inputs and negative environmental impacts of agricultural crop production......., grain N concentration, the proportion of N derived from symbiotic N2 fixation, and soil N accumulation. With increasing fertilizer N supply, intercropped and sole cropped wheat responded with increased yield, grain N yield and soil N accumulation, whereas the opposite was the case for pea. Fertilizer N...

  19. The effects of mother corm size and type of fertilizer on nitrogen use efficiency in saffron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Koocheki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mother corm size and nutrient management are the most important factors in relation to nitrogen uptake of saffron (Crocus sativus L.. In order to investigate the effects of mother corms size and type of fertilizer on uptake and use efficiency of nitrogen in Saffron, a field experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during the years 2013 and 2014. The mother corm size (4 g and lower (small, 4.1–8 g (medium, 8.1-12 g (relatively large and over 12 g (large and fertilizer sources (cow manure 25 t ha-1, chemical fertilizer (N+P and control were the first and second experimental factors, respectively. In both years, the larger mother corms (8.1-12 g and more significantly resulted in greater nitrogen content (g m-2 of replacement corms and whole plant of saffron. In addition, uptake and use efficiency of nitrogen were significantly increased with increasing mother corms size. In the first and the second years, nitrogen use efficiency in manure treatment was significantly higher than that of chemical fertilizer (by 21 and 61%, respectively.

  20. Aqueous and gaseous nitrogen losses induced by fertilizer application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, C.; Maggi, F.; Riley, W.J.; Hornberger, G.M.; Xu, T.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Spycher, N.; Miller, N.L.; Venterea, R.T.; Steefel, C.

    2009-01-15

    In recent years concern has grown over the contribution of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use to nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) water pollution and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), nitric oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) atmospheric pollution. Characterizing soil N effluxes is essential in developing a strategy to mitigate N leaching and emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, a previously described and tested mechanistic N cycle model (TOUGHREACT-N) was successfully tested against additional observations of soil pH and N{sub 2}O emissions after fertilization and irrigation, and before plant emergence. We used TOUGHREACT-N to explain the significantly different N gas emissions and nitrate leaching rates resulting from the different N fertilizer types, application methods, and soil properties. The N{sub 2}O emissions from NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N fertilizer were higher than from urea and NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N fertilizers in coarse-textured soils. This difference increased with decreases in fertilization application rate and increases in soil buffering capacity. In contrast to methods used to estimate global terrestrial gas emissions, we found strongly non-linear N{sub 2}O emissions as a function of fertilizer application rate and soil calcite content. Speciation of predicted gas N flux into N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} depended on pH, fertilizer form, and soil properties. Our results highlighted the need to derive emission and leaching factors that account for fertilizer type, application method, and soil properties.

  1. Tropical Legume Crop Rotation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Effects on Agronomic and Nitrogen Efficiency of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motior M. Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bush bean, long bean, mung bean, and winged bean plants were grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 2, 4, and 6 g N m−2 preceding rice planting. Concurrently, rice was grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 4, 8, and 12 g N m−2. No chemical fertilizer was used in the 2nd year of crop to estimate the nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE, nitrogen recovery efficiency (NRE, N uptake, and rice yield when legume crops were grown in rotation with rice. Rice after winged bean grown with N at the rate of 4 g N m−2 achieved significantly higher NRE, NAE, and N uptake in both years. Rice after winged bean grown without N fertilizer produced 13–23% higher grain yield than rice after fallow rotation with 8 g N m−2. The results revealed that rice after winged bean without fertilizer and rice after long bean with N fertilizer at the rate of 4 g N m−2 can produce rice yield equivalent to that of rice after fallow with N fertilizer at rates of 8 g N m−2. The NAE, NRE, and harvest index values for rice after winged bean or other legume crop rotation indicated a positive response for rice production without deteriorating soil fertility.

  2. Nitrogen fertilization on the establishment of Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Manuele Porto Sales

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the establishment of forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte propagated vegetatively. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with treatments arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial design - two ages (70 and 85 days after planting and four nitrogen doses (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha - with four replications. Morphogenetic and structural characteristics and production were evaluated. The nitrogen accelerated the establishment of the forage peanut with an increase in dry weight of green leaves and stolons. The greatest length of stolons (48.0 cm was obtained with a dose equivalent to 86 kg N/ha and higher density of stolons (20 stolons/vase between 78 and 82 kg N/ha. Nitrogen fertilization also reduced the phyllochron from 6.7 to 4.6 days/leaf. These data were more intense at 85 days, suggesting greater photosynthetic contribution during this period related to the large number of leaves after 70 days. Therefore, nitrogen can be an important tool to accelerate the establishment of pure stands of forage peanut.

  3. Translocation of labelled fertilizer nitrogen in soil columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haunold, E.; Zvara, J.

    1975-01-01

    The nitrogen translocation studies, 15 N was used in ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and K 15 NO 3 in rates of 150 and 300 kg/hectar. The fertilizers were in autumn added to soil columns (45cm x 0=5cm). The pH-value of the soil was 7.6. The following June, the columns were taken out, cutted into segment and analyzed. The drainage water, stored during this time in receptacles of the soil columns also analyzed. The water balance for the first year with a total precipitation of 393 mm was as follows: 7% drainage water, 30 % in the soil and 53 % lost by evaporation. At the end of the second year, with a rainfall of 170 mm during the investigation interval, these figures were 12 %, 56 % and 32 % respectively. The total amount of nitrogen, found in the drainage water after NH 4 -application was equal in both years and not significantly different from the controls. When nitrogen was applied as NO 3 , a higher amount of total nitrogen was recovered in the drains. When the fertilizer nitrogen was given as NH 4 , the interchange rate with the soil nitrogen was 10 % and 13 %, with NO 3 only 2 %, respectively. These figures, evaluated in the first year with an isotope method, did show in the second year the corresponding values of 1 and 6 %, or 0.5 % respectively. The balance of fertilizer nitrogen calculated with the distribution of 15 N indicated the following situation: When fertilizing with NH 4 7.6 % and 6.6 % were leached out, 37.9 % and 33.7 % remained in the soil, 54,5 % and 59,7 % were lost as gaseous nitrogen. After NO 3 application 29.6 % and 22.6 % were found in the drainage water, 18.1 % and 16.7 % remained in the soil and 52.3 % and 60.6 % were lost. At the end of the second year 10.3 % and 5.9 % of the applied NH 4 were recovered in the drainage water, 50.1 % and 44.1 % remained in the soil and 39.5 % and 50.1 % were lost. After NO 3 -application these figures were 47.3 % and 43.3 %, then 40.0 % and 34.8 % and the losses were 12.7 and 21.9 % respectively. (author)

  4. Agriculture: Nutrient Management and Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertilizers and soil amendments can be derived from raw materials, composts and other organic matter, and wastes, such as sewage sludge and certain industrial wastes. Overuse of fertilizers can result in contamination of surface water and groundwater.

  5. Relative Efficacy of Liquid Nitrogen Fertilizers in Dryland Spring Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga S. Walsh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at three locations in North Central and Western Montana (total of 6 site-years to evaluate the relative efficacy of three liquid nitrogen (N fertilizer sources, urea ammonium nitrate (UAN, 32-0-0, liquid urea (LU, 21-0-0, and High NRGN (HNRGN, 27-0-0-1S, in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. In addition to at-seeding urea application at 90 kg N ha−1 to all treatments (except for the unfertilized check plot, the liquid fertilizers were applied utilizing an all-terrain vehicle- (ATV- mounted stream-bar equipped sprayer at a rate of 45 kg N ha−1 at Feekes 5 growth stage (early tillering. Three dilution ratios of fertilizer to water were accessed: 100/0 (undiluted, 66/33, and 33/66. The effects of N source and the dilution ratio (fertilizer/water on N uptake (NUp, N use efficiency (NUE, spring wheat grain yield (GY, grain protein (GP content, and protein yield (PY were assessed. The dilution ratios had no effect on GY, GP, PY, NUp, and NUE at any of the site-years in this study. Taking into account agronomic and economic factors, LU can be recommended as the most suitable liquid N fertilizer source for spring wheat cropping systems of the Northern Great Plains.

  6. Environmental impact of nitrogen fertilization in tea eco-system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathy, R; Suganya, S; Singaram, P

    2007-10-01

    To quantify the nitrogen losses through runoff and leaching under a tea plantation in hilly soil, a field experiment was conducted from October 2001 to October 2002 at United Planters Association of Southern India (UPASI), Coonoorin Nilgiri district. Runoff water was collected in the collection tub on most rainy days but the leachate was collected in the soil water sampler when the rainfall exceeded 150 mm. Higher nitrogen fertilization levels significantly influenced the NO3-N concentration in both the runoff and leachate and it was likely to cause adverse environmental impact at the delivery end. The NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations in runoff decreased with the days after fertilizer application. NH4-N concentration reduced from 10.27 mg/l on the 9th day to 1.72 mg/l on the 34th day after fertilizer application. NO3-N concentration reduced from 23.5 mg/l on the 9th day to 4.32 mg/l on the 34th day after fertilizer application. Nitrogen loss varied depending on the quantity of rainfall and runoff. The NO3-N concentration in the leachate increased with increase in depth (18.06 mg/l at 22.5 cm depth to 20.98 mg/l at 45 cm depth) whereas NH4-N concentration decreased with increase in depth (6.32 mg/l at 22.5 cm depth to 5.79 mg/l at 45 cm depth.

  7. Cycling of fertilizer and cotton crop residue nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochester, I.J.; Constable, G.A.; MacLeod, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Mineral nitrogen (N), nitrate and ammonium contents were monitored in N-fertilized soils supporting cotton crops to provide information on the nitrification, mineralization and immobilization processes operating in the soil. The relative contributions of fertilizer N, previous cotton crop residue N and indigenous soil N to the mineral N pools and to the current crop's N uptake were calculated. After N fertilizer (urea) application, the soil's mineral N content rose rapidly and subsequently declined at a slower rate. The recovery of 15 N-labelled urea as mineral N declined exponentially with time. Biological immobilization (and possibly denitrification to some extent) were believed to be the major processes reducing post-application soil mineral N content. Progressively less N was mineralized upon incubation of soil sampled through the growing season. Little soil N (either from urea or crop residue) was mineralized at crop maturity. Cycling of N was evident between the soil mineral and organic N pools throughout the cotton growing season. Considerable quantities of fertilizer N were immobilized by the soil micro biomass; immobilized N was remineralized and subsequently taken up by the cotton crop. A large proportion of the crop N was taken up in the latter part of the season when the soil mineral N content was low. It is suggested that much of the N taken up by cotton was derived from microbial sources, rather than crop residues. The application of cotton crop residue (stubble) slightly reduced the mineral N content in the soil by encouraging biological immobilization. 15 N was mineralized very slowly from the labelled crop residue and did not contribute significantly to the supply of N to the current crop. Recovery of labelled fertilizer N and labelled crop residue N by the cotton crop was 28% and 1%, respectively. In comparison, the apparent recovery of fertilizer N was 48%. Indigenous soil N contributed 68% of the N taken up by the cotton crop. 33 refs., 1 tab

  8. Efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer applied at corn sowing in contrasting growing seasons in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Jorge Carneiro Amado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to select soil management practices that increase the nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE in agro-ecosystems, the different indices of agronomic fertilizer efficiency must be evaluated under varied weather conditions. This study assessed the NUE indices in no-till corn in southern Paraguay. Nitrogen fertilizer rates from 0 to 180 kg ha-1 were applied in a single application at corn sowing and the crop response investigated in two growing seasons (2010 and 2011. The experimental design was a randomized block with three replications. Based on the data of grain yield, dry matter, and N uptake, the following fertilizer indices were assessed: agronomic N-use efficiency (ANE, apparent N recovery efficiency (NRE, N physiological efficiency (NPE, partial factor productivity (PFP, and partial nutrient balance (PNB. The weather conditions varied largely during the experimental period; the rainfall distribution was favorable for crop growth in the first season and unfavorable in the second. The PFP and ANE indices, as expected, decreased with increasing N fertilizer rates. A general analysis of the N fertilizer indices in the first season showed that the maximum rate (180 kg ha-1 obtained the highest corn yield and also optimized the efficiency of NPE, NRE and ANE. In the second season, under water stress, the most efficient N fertilizer rate (60 kg ha-1 was three times lower than in the first season, indicating a strong influence of weather conditions on NUE. Considering that weather instability is typical for southern Paraguay, anticipated full N fertilization at corn sowing is not recommended due the temporal variability of the optimum N fertilizer rate needed to achieve high ANE.

  9. New technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions from nitrogenous fertilizer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Feng; Dou, Zheng-Xia; He, Pan; Ju, Xiao-Tang; Powlson, David; Chadwick, Dave; Norse, David; Lu, Yue-Lai; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Liang; Chen, Xin-Ping; Cassman, Kenneth G; Zhang, Fu-Suo

    2013-05-21

    Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has played a key role in enhancing food production and keeping half of the world's population adequately fed. However, decades of N fertilizer overuse in many parts of the world have contributed to soil, water, and air pollution; reducing excessive N losses and emissions is a central environmental challenge in the 21st century. China's participation is essential to global efforts in reducing N-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because China is the largest producer and consumer of fertilizer N. To evaluate the impact of China's use of N fertilizer, we quantify the carbon footprint of China's N fertilizer production and consumption chain using life cycle analysis. For every ton of N fertilizer manufactured and used, 13.5 tons of CO2-equivalent (eq) (t CO2-eq) is emitted, compared with 9.7 t CO2-eq in Europe. Emissions in China tripled from 1980 [131 terrogram (Tg) of CO2-eq (Tg CO2-eq)] to 2010 (452 Tg CO2-eq). N fertilizer-related emissions constitute about 7% of GHG emissions from the entire Chinese economy and exceed soil carbon gain resulting from N fertilizer use by several-fold. We identified potential emission reductions by comparing prevailing technologies and management practices in China with more advanced options worldwide. Mitigation opportunities include improving methane recovery during coal mining, enhancing energy efficiency in fertilizer manufacture, and minimizing N overuse in field-level crop production. We find that use of advanced technologies could cut N fertilizer-related emissions by 20-63%, amounting to 102-357 Tg CO2-eq annually. Such reduction would decrease China's total GHG emissions by 2-6%, which is significant on a global scale.

  10. Nitrogen fertilization of coffee: organic compost and Crotalaria juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Silva Araujo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Information concerning the response of coffee to organic fertilizers is scarce. This study evaluates the effect of different doses of compost and Crotalaria juncea L. on growth, production and nitrogen nutrition of coffee trees. The treatments consisted of compost at rates of 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the recommended fertilization, with or without the aerial part of C. juncea. C. juncea was grown with NH4-N (2% 15N and applied to coffee. The use of C. juncea increased growth in height and diameter of the coffee canopy. In the first year, the percentage of N derived from C. juncea reached 8.5% at seven months and 4.1% at fifteen months after fertilization. In the second year, the percentage of N derived from C. juncea reached 17.9% N at the early harvest, five months after fertilization. Increased rates of compost increased pH , P , K , Ca , Mg , sum of bases , effective CEC, base saturation and organic matter and reduced potential acidity. 15N allowed the identification of the N contribution from C. juncea with percentage of leaf N derived from Crotalaria juncea from 9.2 to 17.9%.

  11. A Meta Analysis on Nitrogen Fertilizer Experiments on Cereal Crops in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza koocheki

    2017-10-01

    -analysis. Fertilizer application rates for wheat, corn and rice varied in the range of 20-250, 25-275 and 10-90 kg.ha-1 N, respectively. Results and discussion About 86% of the experiments used treatments between 25 and 150 kg.ha-1 nitrogen, and the frequency of nitrogen levels above 200 kg.ha-1 was very low in corn experiments. In the case of wheat, the range of nitrogen levels in the experiments was between 20 and 250 kg.ha-1. In rice, the range of nitrogen uptake was far more limited than wheat and corn, it is between 10 and 90 kg ha-1. On average in all nitrogen levels, grain yield of wheat, corn and rice compared to control were increased by 2477, 4699 and 1509 kg.ha-1, respectively. Meta-analysis results showed that nitrogen fertilizers significantly increased both grain yield and Biological yield of the studied cereals. However, harvest index was not statistically affected. Maximum grain and biological yields were attained by 50-100 and 100-150 kg.ha-1 N, respectively. Meta-analysis was also conducted for each crop separately. The results indicated that optimal nitrogen levels for the grain and biological yields were 75-100 and 100 kg.ha-1 N except corn. For corn maximum amount could be achieved from 50-100 kg.ha-1 N for grain yield and from 50-100 kg.ha-1 N for biological yield. For rice, maximum of grain and biological yields were reported by 75-90 kg.ha-1 N. The studied cereals harvest index showed no significant response to nitrogen fertilizers. Conclusion The results of this study showed that despite the long history of using this inputs in the agricultural sector, the optimal use is still unclear. In this study, statistical comparisons between fertilizer levels were performed, while the ecological dimensions of nitrogen application were also significant. Further studies can compare types of efficacy, soil health and environmental aspects of nitrogen use and other chemical fertilizers, provide a wider range of possibilities for sustainable field management and sustainable

  12. Economic Benefits of Aerobic Rice Grown Using Integrated Nitrogen Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyle A. Pardillo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses in the effect of integrated nitrogen management to the yield and economic benefits of aerobic rice. This will help farmers to identify which of the two management technique to use to save costs while profit is high. A split plot experiment in Randomized Complete Block design is used with two main treatments and four sub treatments. Main treatments are the use of integrated nitrogen management and an application of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer. Sub treatments are the different rates of nitrogen fertilizer from 0 as control, 90, 120 and 150 kg N ha-1 . Data are consolidated and analyzed using the ANOVA of SAS 9.3 statistical tool and comparison means at 5% significance level in Duncan Multiple Range Test. Grain yield, income, costs, profit and return on expenses are the data gathered. There is an increasing yield from control to 120 kg N ha-1 and started to decline at 150 kg N ha-1 because optimum level reached at 120 kg N ha-1 . Significant increased in yield was observed in plants applied with integrated nitrogen management at 120 kg N ha-1 compared to plants applied with synthetic nitrogen due to release of nitrogen that contributed to the yield of aerobic rice. However, plants applied of 90 kg N ha-1 synthetic nitrogen gives significant yield increased compared to plants with integrated nitrogen management. Yield was subjected to economic analysis using gross income, costs and profit and return on expenses. Plants applied with synthetic nitrogen at 90 kg N ha-1 resulted to high income due to lower costs of fertilizer inputs and only treatment that has a positive return on expenses at 3.2% while other treatments have a negative remarks. This will lead to a conclusion that 90 kg N ha-1 is the optimum level of nitrogen that can give high yield and positive return on expenses that farmers will benefited.

  13. The Effects of Source and Rate of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Irrigation on Nitrogen Uptake of Silage Corn and Residual Soil Nitrate

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Khodshenas; J. Ghadbeiklou; M. Dadivar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Growing irrigation demand for corn production, along side with draws of ground water from stressed water sources, should be limited due to scarce resources and environmental protection aspects. Nitrogen fertilizer applied at rates higher than the optimum requirement for crop production may cause an increase in nitrate accumulation below the root zone and pose a risk of nitrate leaching. Improving nitrogen management for corn production has a close relation with soil water conten...

  14. Enhancement of Carbon Sequestration in west coast Douglas-fir Forests with Nitrogen Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Jassal, R.; Black, A.; Brummer, C.; Spittlehouse, D.; Nesic, Z.

    2008-12-01

    Fertilization is one of the eligible management practices for C sequestering and hence reducing CO2 emissions under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. In the coastal regions of British Columbia, which have very little nitrogen (N) deposition from pollution sources owing to their remote location, and soils deficient in N (Hanley et al., 1996), Douglas-fir stands respond to N fertilization (Brix, 1981; Fisher and Binkley, 2000; Chapin et al., 2002). However, a major concern with N fertilization is the potential loss from the soil surface of the highly potent greenhouse gas N2O, and little is known about such losses in N-fertilized forest soils. While it is necessary to determine and quantify the effects of N fertilization on stand C sequestration, it is also important to address environmental concerns by measuring N2O emissions to determine the net greenhouse gas (GHG) global warming potential (GWP). The GWP of N2O is 296 times (100-year time horizon) greater than that of CO2 (Ehhalt and Prather, 2001), yet there is little information on its net radiative forcing as a result of forest fertilization. We report two years of results on the effects of N fertilization in a chronosequence of three Douglas-fir stands (7, 19 and 58 years old, hereafter referred to as HDF00, HDF88 and DF49, respectively) on net C sequestration or net primary productivity measured using the eddy-covariance technique. DF49 (110 ha) and HDF88 (20 ha) were aerially fertilized with urea at 200 kg N ha-1 on Jan 13 and Feb 17, 2007, respectively, while due to its young age and competing understory, fertilizer to HDF00 (5 ha) was manually applied at 80 g urea/tree (60 kg N ha-1) along the tree drip line on Feb 13-14, 2007. Additionally, we calculate the net change in GHG GWP resulting from fertilization of DF49 by accounting for N2O emissions and energy costs of fertilizer production, transport, and application. We also compare polymer-coated slow-release urea (Environmentally Smart Nitrogen (ESN

  15. PENETRATION OF NITROGEN INTO WATER AS A RESULT OF FERTILIZATION OF LIGHT SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek Czyżyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article there are present the results of six-year study of infiltration of nitrogen through the sand soil (loamy sand. Every year the soil was fertilized by compost (from sewage sludge and equivalent doses of nitrogen in mineral fertilizers. Two variants of compost fertilization (K1-10 and K2-15 g N·m-2 were used. Additionally two variants of NPK with equivalent doses of nitrogen as an ammonium nitrate supplemented with PK as a superphosphate and potassium salt were applied. Systematically there were investigated the volume of all leachates and their chemical composition. With increasing doses of fertilizers the concentrations of total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in the leachate were increased. The concentration of nitrogen in the leachate from the soil fertilized by nitrate was much greater than in compost with equivalent dose of nitrogen. Not only nitrates but also nitrogen from soluble organic compounds were rinsed from the soil. In the case of soil fertilized by compost the participation of nitrates in the total value of nitorgen in the leachate was 41-77%. However in the case of fertilization by ammonium sulphate this proportion was significantly higher and was in the range 60-95%. Over the years, a systematic soil fertilization by both ways increased the nitrogen concentrations in leachate. It shows that in the soil there is surplus of nitrogen, increasing during the time.

  16. Use of nitrogen of fertilizers and soil by grass, balance of labelled by 15N nitrogen of fertilizers on irrigated cultured pasture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losev, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    The balance of fertilizer nitrogen in the soil - meadow - pasture grass system are studied using 15 N on the irrigated cultured pasture with cereals used for 5-7 years. Obtained are the data on the alienation dimensions with the crops of pasture grass of soil and fertilizer nitrogen at 3- and 5-fold 180 N introduction in the form of ammoniacal saltpetre, as well as the introduction of 60 N in spring in the form of calcium and ammoniacal saltpetre, ammonium sulphate and urea. The use of fertilizer nitrogen which has stayed in the root system of grass and in soil in the previous season is traced for two years

  17. Nitrogen fertilization for wheat growing in dual purpose integrated system of agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éderson Luis Henz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are numerous arrangements of Integrated Systems of Agricultural Production, due, the particularities of each region and/or rural enterprise. The use of dual-purpose species such as, for example, BRS Tarumã® wheat further intensifies the system, because there is plant-animal production in a short time. Study aimed to evaluate the production and chemical composition of dual purpose wheat pastures managed with different DAN during periods of spikelet terminal (ST and anthesis (AN, aiming crop production (pasture and grain and animal (milk and / or meat. The experimental randomized block design with five treatments (0, 75, 150, 225 e 300 Kg de N ha-1, in the form of ammonium nitrate and four replications. The average biomass values before the first and the second grazing were respectively: 2,164 and 2,127 kg DM per hectare and the waste of about 824 and 1,772 kg of DM per hectare and the daily average accumulation rate between the two grazing DM was 86 kg per hectare at 17 day intervals. The variables, number of spikes per square meter, grain number per square meter, thousand grain weight, hectoliter weight and grain yield did not differ (P>0.05 between treatments. Nitrogen fertilization increases linearly (P=0.0017 the size of the spikes depending on nitrogen rates. For the linear variable layering increased (P=0.0001, indicating the susceptibility of the crop to high levels of nitrogen. The application of nitrogen fertilizer levels in dual purpose grazed wheat before the spikelet terminal stage and anthesis does not influence on grain yield variables. The nitrogen fertilization on wheat double purpose must be fractionated at tillering and after each grazing increasing the remobilization rate of nitrogen by culture.

  18. Net effects of nitrogen fertilization on the nutritive value and digestibility of oat forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Akins, M S; Cavadini, J S; Jokela, W E

    2017-03-01

    Applications of soil amendments containing N are part of routine forage-management strategies for grasses, with a primary goal of increasing forage yield. However, the effects of N fertilization on forage nutritive value, estimates of energy density, and in vitro dry matter or neutral detergent fiber disappearance sometimes have been erratic or inconsistent. Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of N fertilization on the nutritive value of a single cultivar (ForagePlus, Kratz Farms, Slinger, WI) of fall-grown oat fertilized at planting with 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100 kg of N/ha of urea or 2 rates of dairy slurry (42,300 or 84,600 L/ha). Nitrogen fertilization exhibited consistent effects on fiber components; forages fertilized with urea or dairy slurry had greater concentrations of fiber components compared with those harvested from unfertilized check plots (0 kg of N/ha), and fiber concentrations increased linearly with urea fertilization rate. In contrast, concentrations of water-soluble carbohydrates were greatest for unfertilized forages (21.2%), but declined linearly with urea fertilization, exhibiting a minimum of 13.5% at the 80 kg of N/ha urea application rate. Similarly, nonfiber carbohydrates also declined linearly, from 34.8% for unfertilized check plots to a minimum of 24.6% at the 80 kg of N/ha urea application rate. Fertilization with urea resulted in consistent linear increases in crude protein (CP), neutral detergent soluble CP, neutral detergent insoluble CP, and acid detergent insoluble CP; however, the partitioning of CP on the basis of association with specific fiber fractions could not be related to N fertilization when concentrations were expressed on a percentage of CP basis. The summative calculation of energy, expressed as total digestible nutrients was closely related to N fertilization rate during both the 2013 (y = -0.038x + 72.2; R 2 = 0.961) and 2014 (y = -0.040x + 69.2; R 2 = 0.771) production years. Following 30- or 48-h

  19. Process for Nitrogen Oxide Waste Conversion to Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueck, Dale E. (Inventor); Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention describes a process for converting vapor streams from sources containing at least one nitrogen-containing oxidizing agent therein to a liquid fertilizer composition comprising the steps of: a) directing a vapor stream containing at least one nitrogen-containing oxidizing agent to a first contact zone; b) contacting said vapor stream with water to form nitrogen oxide(s) from said at least one nitrogen-containing oxidizing agent; c) directing said acid(s) as a second stream to a second contact zone; d) exposing said second stream to hydrogen peroxide which is present within said second contact zone in a relative amount of at least 0.1% by weight of said second stream within said second contact zone to convert at least some of any nitrogen oxide species or ions other than in the nitrate form present within said second stream to nitrate ion; e) sampling said stream within said second contact zone to determine the relative amount of hydrogen peroxide within said second contact zone; f) adding hydrogen peroxide to said second contact zone when a level of hydrogen peroxide less than 0.1 % by weight in said second stream is determined by said sampling; g) adding a solution comprising potassium hydroxide to said second stream to maintain a pH between 6.0 and 11.0 within said second stream within said second contact zone to form a solution of potassium nitrate; and h) removing said solution of potassium nitrate from said second contact zone.

  20. Effects of agricultural nutrient management on nitrogen fate and transport in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D.W.; Risser, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrogen inputs to, and outputs from, a 55-acre site in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, were estimated to determine the pathways and relative magnitude of loads of nitrogen entering and leaving the site, and to compare the loads of nitrogen before and after the implementation of nutrient management. Inputs of nitrogen to the site were manure fertilizer, commercial fertilizer, nitrogen in precipitation, and nitrogen in ground-water inflow; and these sources averaged 93, 4, 2, and 1 percent of average annual nitrogen additions, respectively. Outputs of nitrogen from the site were nitrogen in harvested crops, loads of nitrogen in surface runoff, volatilization of nitrogen, and loads of nitrogen in ground-water discharge, which averaged 37, less than 1,25, and 38 percent of average annual nitrogen removals from the site, respectively. Virtually all of the nitrogen leaving the site that was not removed in harvested crops or by volatilization was discharged in the ground water. Applications of manure and fertilizer nitrogen to 47.5 acres of cropped fields decreased about 33 percent, from an average of 22,700 pounds per year (480 pounds per acre per year) before nutrient management to 15,175 pounds of nitrogen per year (320 pounds per acre per year) after the implementation of nutrient management practices. Nitrogen loads in ground-water discharged from the site decreased about 30 percent, from an average of 292 pounds of nitrogen per million gallons of ground water before nutrient management to an average of 203 pounds of nitrogen per million gallons as a result of the decreased manure and commercial fertilizer applications. Reductions in manure and commercial fertilizer applications caused a reduction of approximately 11,000 pounds (3,760 pounds per year, 70 pounds per acre per year) in the load of nitrogen discharged in ground water from the 55-acre site during the three-year period 1987-1990.

  1. Quantifying nitrogen leaching response to fertilizer additions in China's cropland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuoshuo; Xu, Peng; Zhou, Feng; Yang, Hui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Cao, Wei; Tao, Shu; Piao, Shilong; Zhao, Yue; Ji, Xiaoyan; Shang, Ziyin; Chen, Minpeng

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural soils account for more than 50% of nitrogen leaching (LN) to groundwater in China. When excess levels of nitrogen accumulate in groundwater, it poses a risk of adverse health effects. Despite this recognition, estimation of LN from cropland soils in a broad spatial scale is still quite uncertain in China. The uncertainty of LN primarily stems from the shape of nitrogen leaching response to fertilizer additions (N rate) and the role of environmental conditions. On the basis of 453 site-years at 51 sites across China, we explored the nonlinearity and variability of the response of LN to N rate and developed an empirical statistical model to determine how environmental factors regulate the rate of N leaching (LR). The result shows that LN-N rate relationship is convex for most crop types, and varies by local hydro-climates and soil organic carbon. Variability of air temperature explains a half (∼ 52%) of the spatial variation of LR. The results of model calibration and validation indicate that incorporating this empirical knowledge into a predictive model could accurately capture the variation in leaching and produce a reasonable upscaling from site to country. The fertilizer-induced LN in 2008 for China's cropland were 0.88 ± 0.23 TgN (1σ), significantly lower than the linear or uniform model, as assumed by Food and Agriculture Organization and MITERRA-EUROPE models. These results also imply that future policy to reduce N leaching from cropland needs to consider environmental variability rather than solely attempt to reduce N rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fertilizer nitrogen fixation in plants and its transmutation in soils in case of annual application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilova, E.I.; Smirnov, P.M.; Khon, N.I.

    1974-01-01

    Using certain combinations of 15 N labeled and unlabeled nitrogen-containing fertilizers data were obtained for direct determination of nitrogen balance in the year of fertilization and subsequently. Annual and total (for 3 years) increment in utilization of soil nitrogen resulting from repeated fertilization was also determined. Coefficient of nitrogen utilization by barley decreased over the 3-year period after additional application of ammonium sulfate while biological immobilization of nitrogen tended to increase. Application of straw during the first year of the experiment did not significantly affect the nitrogen balance in the following years. The total coefficient of nitrogen utilization for the 2 to 3-year period was higher than that of the first year while biological immobilization was relatively lower. Additional utilization of soil nitrogen as compared to the control was the same over the whole 3-year period; additional mobilization (annual and total) was relatively higher due to lower removal of soil nitrogen in the subsequent years. Utilization of previously immobilized nitrogen was higher in the case of repeated fertilization than without application of nitrogen fertilizers. The content of newly immobilized nitrogen during 3 years in the hydrolyzable undistilable fraction (nitrogen of bounded amino acids) was relatively lower and this was accompanied by the growth of hydrolyzable distilable and unhydrolyzable nitrogen

  3. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Herbivores and Its Stimulation to Major Insect Pests in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-xian LU

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is one of the most important factors in development of herbivore populations. The application of nitrogen fertilizer in plants can normally increase herbivore feeding preference, food consumption, survival, growth, reproduction, and population density, except few examples that nitrogen fertilizer reduces the herbivore performances. In most of the rice growing areas in Asia, the great increases in populations of major insect pests of rice, including planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera, leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, and stem borers (Scirpophaga incertulas, Chilo suppressalis, S. innotata, C. polychrysus and Sesamia inferens were closely related to the long-term excessive application of nitrogen fertilizers. The optimal regime of nitrogen fertilizer in irrigated paddy fields is proposed to improve the fertilizer-nitrogen use efficiency and reduce the environmental pollution.

  4. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. Objective To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. Methods To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. Results There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Conclusions Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health. PMID:26878865

  5. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Sara; Rowe, Heather; Kirkman, Maggie; Jordan, Lynne; McNamee, Kathleen; Bayly, Christine; McBain, John; Sinnott, Vikki; Fisher, Jane

    2016-02-15

    As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health.

  6. INOCULATION OF DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIA AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION IN TOPDRESSING IN IRRIGATED CORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANESSA ZIRONDI LONGHINI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn is a nitrogen-intensive crop, and the use of management practices such as inoculation of the seed with diazotrophic bacteria, which can maximize crop productivity and reduce the need of nitrogen fertilizers, may result in lower production costs. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of inoculation of corn seed with Azospirillum brasilense and controlled addition of nitrogen to topdressing on the nutrition, production components, and productivity of crop grain. The experimental design was a randomized block design, with four replications in a 2 × 5 factorial scheme. The treatments consisted of inoculation or not of corn seed with A. brasilense (at 100 mL per 25 kg of seed and five nitrogen (N levels in topdressing (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 kg N ha-1 from urea [45% N] were applied when the corn was in the phenological growth stage V6. Foliar macronutrients, foliar chlorophyll index (FCI, production components, and yield of corn grain were valuated. Inoculation of corn seeds with A. brasilense increased plant height and grain yield. Fertilization in topdressing, with N levels up to 120 kg ha-1, linearly increased the foliar nutrients and productivity of corn cultivated in the spring/summer in the low-altitude Cerrado region of Brazil.

  7. Manejo do solo e da adubação nitrogenada na cultura de feijão de inverno e irrigado Soil management and nitrogen fertilization on winter irrigated common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ferreira da Silva Binotti

    2007-01-01

    of 2002, 2003 and 2004. A randomized block design was used, with 24 treatments, constituted by three soil management system (heavy disk + leveling disk, chisel ploughing + leveling disk and no tillage and eight stadia of nitrogen application (control without N application, at sowing - S, V3 stadium, V4 stadium, 1/2 S + 1/2 V3, 1/2 S + 1/2 V4, 1/2 V3 + 1/2 V4 and 1/3 S + 1/3 V3 + 1/3 V4, with 4 replications. As conclusion, for the three years of cropping, in only one of them, the no till system provided larger yield in the winter common bean irrigated by aspersion in relation to the conventional soil management. The stadia of nitrogen application did not provide differences in the yield of the bean plant. The nitrogen fertilization provided, on average of three crops, an increase of 62% in the yield of the common bean plant as compared with the control without N.

  8. Influence of legume residue and nitrogen fertilizer on the growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (11o38'N and 10o31'E) both in Bauchi state, during the rainy seasons of 2011 and 2012 to determine the influence of legume residue and nitrogen fertilizer on the growth and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). The treatments consist of two legumes (cowpea and soybean), nitrogen fertilizer applied at the rate ...

  9. Effect of source, rate and method of nitrogen fertilizer application on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted for three years to determine the effects of source, rate and method of application of nitrogen fertilizer on maize yield at Ilora in the derived savanna zone and Ogbomoso in the southern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria. The nitrogen fertilizers (Granulated urea, Regular urea and Calcium ...

  10. Use of isotopically labeled fertilizer to trace nitrogen fertilizer contributions to surface, soil, and ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkison, D.H.; Blevins, D.W.; Silva, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    The fate and transport of a single N fertilizer application through plants, soil, runoff, and the unsaturated and saturated zones was determined for four years at a field site under continuous corn (Zea mays L.) management. Claypan soils, which underlie the site, were hypothesized to restrict the movement of agrichemicals from the soil surface to ground water. However, N fertilizer moved rapidly through preferential flow paths in the soil and into the underlying glacial till aquifer. Most N transport occurred during the fall and winter when crops were not available to use excess N. Forty months after application, 33 percent of the fertilizer had been removed by grain harvests, 30 percent had been transpired to the atmosphere, and 33 percent had migrated to ground water. Although runoff volumes were 50 percent greater than infiltration, less than 2 percent of the fertilizer was lost to runoff. Small measured denitrification rates and large measured dissolved oxygen concentrations in ground water favor the long-term stability of NO3-1 in ground water. Successive fertilizer applications, in areas that lack the ability to moderate N concentrations through consumptive N reactions, risk the potential of N-saturated ecosystems.

  11. Energy assessment of nitrogen variable rate fertilization on wheat; Analise energetica da aplicacao de nitrogenio em taxa variavel em trigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaco, A.F.; Karam, E.H.; Romanelli, T.L.; Molin, J.P. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Biossistemas], Email: andrecolaco@usp.br; Povh, F.P. [Fundacao ABC Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Agropecuario, Castro, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Precision Agriculture (PA) is a technique that can reduce the inputs utilization in agriculture production, including the nitrogen fertilizer consume. Great importance is given to this fertilizer, due to its contribution on energy input in agriculture. Methodologies based on the calculation of energy flow of agriculture systems are capable to identify management practices that use energy more efficiently. So, this study's objective is to evaluate the variable-rate nitrogen fertilization on wheat, using energy assessment. This study was carried on in two wheat fields, in which the fertilization was done adopting strips alternated by conventional method (single nitrogen dose) and by nitrogen variable-rate technology. Thus, the input and output energy in the system, energy balance, energy return on investment (EROI) and incorporated energy were determined for each geo-referenced point within the fields. Results showed that less energy was demanded when using variable-rate technology, due to the nitrogen saving, providing greater energy balance, EROI and lower incorporated energy on the areas managed using PA. The energy assessment showed to be an important tool to evaluate systems that use PA, because it is capable of monitoring crops energy potential. (author)

  12. Reducing fertilizer-nitrogen losses from rowcrop landscapes: Insights and implications from a spatially explicit watershed model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Eileen; Schilling, Keith; Robertson, Dale M.

    2015-01-01

    We present conceptual and quantitative models that predict changes in fertilizer-derived nitrogen delivery from rowcrop landscapes caused by agricultural conservation efforts implemented to reduce nutrient inputs and transport and increase nutrient retention in the landscape. To evaluate the relative importance of changes in the sources, transport, and sinks of fertilizer-derived nitrogen across a region, we use the spatially explicit SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes watershed model to map the distribution, at the small watershed scale within the Upper Mississippi-Ohio River Basin (UMORB), of: (1) fertilizer inputs; (2) nutrient attenuation during delivery of those inputs to the UMORB outlet; and (3) nitrogen export from the UMORB outlet. Comparing these spatial distributions suggests that the amount of fertilizer input and degree of nutrient attenuation are both important in determining the extent of nitrogen export. From a management perspective, this means that agricultural conservation efforts to reduce nitrogen export would benefit by: (1) expanding their focus to include activities that restore and enhance nutrient processing in these highly altered landscapes; and (2) targeting specific types of best management practices to watersheds where they will be most valuable. Doing so successfully may result in a shift in current approaches to conservation planning, outreach, and funding.

  13. Effect of Irrigation and Preplant Nitrogen Fertilizer Source on Maize in the Southern Great Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob T. Bushong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the demand for maize increasing, production has spread into more water limited, semiarid regions. Couple this with the increasing nitrogen (N fertilizer costs and environmental concerns and the need for proper management practices has increased. A trial was established to evaluate the effects of different preplant N fertilizer sources on maize cultivated under deficit irrigation or rain-fed conditions on grain yield, N use efficiency (NUE, and water use efficiency (WUE. Two fertilizer sources, ammonium sulfate (AS and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN, applied at two rates, 90 and 180 kg N ha−1, were evaluated across four site-years. Deficit irrigation improved grain yield, WUE, and NUE compared to rain-fed conditions. The preplant application of a pure ammoniacal source of N fertilizer, such as AS, had a tendency to increase grain yields and NUE for rain-fed treatments. Under irrigated conditions, the use of UAN as a preplant N fertilizer source performed just as well or better at improving grain yield compared to AS, as long as the potential N loss mechanisms were minimized. Producers applying N preplant as a single application should adjust rates based on a reasonable yield goal and production practice.

  14. N{sub 2}O emissions from spring barley production as influenced by fertilizer nitrogen rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebarth, B.J. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Fredericton, NB (Canada). Potato Research Centre; Rochette, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Soils and Crops Research and Development Centre; Burton, D.L. [Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    Agricultural crop systems are responsible for a large portion of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions in Canada. N{sub 2}O emissions in agricultural soils are primarily associated with nitrification and denitrification processes. This study investigated the effect of fertilizer nitrogen (N) rates applied to spring barley on N{sub 2}O emissions in a maritime climate with humid soil moisture regimes. The study was part of a national program conducted to measure N{sub 2}O emissions under a variety of different cropping systems and management practices in Canada. Trials were conducted at a site in New Brunswick and consisted of a randomized complete block design with 6 different N fertility treatments replicated 4 times. N{sub 2}O flux measurements were made using a non-flow through, non-steady-state vented chamber on a weekly basis from early spring until late fall. Soil and air samples were collected on the same days. Statistical analyses were performed using a general linear model. Linear interpolation was used to derive cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions. Results showed that N{sub 2}O emissions increased with fertilizer N applications in each year of the study period. Elevated N{sub 2}O emissions occurred in the 6-week period following fertilizer application when soil N concentrations were high. It was concluded that excessive fertilization increases overall N{sub 2}O emissions. 49 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  15. Influence of family and nitrogen fertilizer on growth and nutrition of western hemlock seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell; J.E. Wilcox

    1990-01-01

    Effects of genotype and nitrogen fertilizer on growth and shoot nutrients of western hemlock seedlings were determined by using 11 open-pollinated families from coastal Oregon and Washington. The families differed significantly in growth, initially and after one growing season after treatment. All seedlings responded well to fertilizer, and fertilization significantly...

  16. The Comparison of Different Fertilizer Technologies on Nitrogen Leaching Losses and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Rice Production——Taking Ningxia Irrigation Region as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ai-ping

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available High N fertilizer and flooding irrigation applied to rice in anthropogenic-alluvial soil often result in N leaching and low use efficiency of applied fertilizer N from the rice field in Ningxia irrigation region in the upper reaches of the Yellow River. Sound N management practices need to be established to improve N use efficiency while sustain high grain yield levels and minimize fertilizer N loss to the environment. We investigated the effects of different fertilizer technologies on N leaching, N use efficiency and rice yield. The four fertilizer N treatments were CK (No nitrogen fertilizer application treatment; FP (Farmer's practice of application rate of urea at 300 kg N·hm-2, 60% used as base fertilizer, 20% as tillering fertilizer and 20% as booting fertilizer; SD (Controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer at 120 kg N·hm-2, all controlled-release fertilizer was applied as base fertilizer while transplant rice seedlings and NB (Controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer at 120 kg N·hm-2, all controlled-release fertilizer was applied as base fertilizer in the seeding soil. The results showed that the SD and NB treatments could reduce the amount of nitrogen applied by 60% compared to FP but still maintain crop yields while substantially reducing N losses to the environment. The SD could significantly decrease the N leaching losses from the paddy field. Under the FP treatment, the leaching losses of TN, NO3-N and NH4+-N were 39.89, 26.22 kg·hm-2 and 5.49 kg·hm-2, respectively. Compared with FP treatment, the SD treatment could decrease the leaching losses of TN, NO3-N and NH4+-N by 18.97, 11.18 kg·hm-2 and 2.27 kg·hm-2. The nitrogen use efficiency of SD treatment was 55.7% which increased by 21.4% compared with FP treatment. NB treatment also could decrease nitrogen leaching losses TN, NO3-N and NH4+-N by 14.36, 10.14 kg·hm-2 and 1.84 kg·hm-2 and increase the N use efficiency by 15.7% compared with FP, but it increased nitrogen leaching

  17. Guidelines on nitrogen management in agricultural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This publication deals with the topic of nitrogen management in agro-ecosystems. Nitrogen (N) is an essential plant nutrient, and N deficiency severely restricts crop yields in most cultivated soils. Therefore, substantial N inputs are required for optimum plant growth and adequate food, feed and fibre production. Developing countries use more than 55 million metric tons (t) of N fertilizers at an estimated value of US $16 billion annually, of which approximately 2 million t are used in Africa, 5 in Latin America and 50 in Asia. It is estimated that adequate production of food (in particular cereals) for present and future populations will not be achieved without external inputs of fertilizer N. However, management practices involving fertilizer N should be efficient in order to optimize crop production while minimizing adverse effects on the environment. Moreover, the use of alternative N sources such as organic residues and biological nitrogen fixation should be increased within the context of integrated soil fertility management to ensure food security in areas of the world where fertilizer N is too expensive or simply not available. At present, legumes such as soybean, common bean, groundnuts, chickpeas, cowpeas, etc., are fixing approximately 11 million t of N in developing countries. This publication covers, concisely and comprehensively, key topics dealing with the utilization of all sources of N in farming systems, in particular to demonstrate to scientists in developing countries how isotopic tracer technologies can be used in research to improve overall N use efficiency in agricultural systems while increasing crop yields in a sustainable manner, i.e. conserving the natural resource base and protecting the environment. It is a timely publication; increasing attention is being paid to N management in food production, energy consumption and environmental protection. The subject matter is covered in four chapters, starting with an introduction to N

  18. Effects of liming and nitrogen fertilizer application on soil acidity and gaseous nitrogen oxide emissions in grassland systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Sapek, A.

    2000-01-01

    This book contains 10 articles on the EU research project COGANOG (Controlling Gaseous Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Grassland Farming Systems in Europe). The papers present the results of studies on the effects of liming and N fertilizer application

  19. Reproductive response to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization along the Hawaiian archipelago's natural soil fertility gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiManno, Nicole M; Ostertag, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the most important nutrients involved in plant reproduction and typically the most limiting in terrestrial ecosystems. The natural soil fertility gradient of the Hawaiian archipelago, in which younger islands are N limited and older islands are P limited, provides a model system to examine questions regarding allocation of nutrients. Using fertilized plots (+N or +P) at the extreme sites of the Hawaiian archipelago, vegetative productivity (e.g., net primary productivity, growth, and litterfall) and foliar nutrient responses have previously been studied for the dominant canopy tree, Metrosideros polymorpha. Here, we investigated whether the reproductive response of M. polymorpha mirrors the previously found vegetative productivity and foliar nutrient responses, by quantifying: (1) inflorescence and seed productivity, and (2) nutrient concentration of reproductive structures. Fertilization with N and P did not significantly affect the productivity of inflorescences or seeds, or seed viability at either site. However, nutrient concentrations increased after fertilization; %P increased in inflorescences in the +P treatment at the P-limited site. Seeds and inflorescences generally contained higher nutrient concentrations than leaves at both sites. Unlike foliar data, reproductive strategies of M. polymorpha differed depending on soil nutrient limitation with emphasis on quality (higher seed viability/greater nutrient concentrations) at the P-limited site. We suggest that in response to P additions M. polymorpha employs a nutrient conservation strategy for its inflorescences and an investment strategy for its seeds. Examining N and P simultaneously challenges a basic assumption that reproductive allocation follows a similar pattern to the often measured aboveground productivity.

  20. Nitrogen loss by volatilization of nitrogen fertilizers applied to coffee orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson William Dominghetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ammonia volatilization (N-NH3 is one of the main pathways of Nitrogen loss reducing nitrogen use efficiency in coffee orchard. This work aimed at quantifying ammonia volatilization (N-NH3 losses from N-sources to be used in coffee plantations fertilization in Brazil. The experiment was conducted in the field on a dystrophic red latosol (Ferralsol in FAO's classification at the Coffee Research Sector, University of Lavras, MG, Brazil. The experimental design was of complete randomized blocks with three repetitions of the following treatments: conventional urea, ammonium nitrate and urea + 0.15% Cu and 0.4% B, urea + anionic polymers, urea + elementary sulfur (S0 + polymers, and urea + plastic resin. These N sources were split into three doses of 150 kg ha-1 and band applied. The N-NH3 losses by volatilization and variations of pH (H2O were measured, before and after N application. The N-sources contributed to reduce the soil pH, measured after the third nitrogen fertilization. The N-NH3 losses by volatilization (average from three applications was as follows: urea + anionic polymers (35.8% > conventional urea (31.2% = urea + S0 + polymers (31.0% > urea + 0.15% Cu + 0.4 % B (25.6% > urea + plastic resin (8.6% = ammonium nitrate (1.0%.

  1. Cover Crops and Fertilization Alter Nitrogen Loss in Organic and Conventional Conservation Agriculture Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rebecca E; Jacobsen, Krista L; McCulley, Rebecca L

    2017-01-01

    Agroecosystem nitrogen (N) loss produces greenhouse gases, induces eutrophication, and is costly for farmers; therefore, conservation agricultural management practices aimed at reducing N loss are increasingly adopted. However, the ecosystem consequences of these practices have not been well-studied. We quantified N loss via leaching, NH 3 volatilization, N 2 O emissions, and N retention in plant and soil pools of corn conservation agroecosystems in Kentucky, USA. Three systems were evaluated: (1) an unfertilized, organic system with cover crops hairy vetch ( Vicia villosa ), winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum ), or a mix of the two (bi-culture); (2) an organic system with a hairy vetch cover crop employing three fertilization schemes (0 N, organic N, or a fertilizer N-credit approach); and (3) a conventional system with a winter wheat cover crop and three fertilization schemes (0 N, urea N, or organic N). In the unfertilized organic system, cover crop species affected NO 3 -N leaching (vetch > bi-culture > wheat) and N 2 O-N emissions and yield during corn growth (vetch, bi-culture > wheat). Fertilization increased soil inorganic N, gaseous N loss, N leaching, and yield in the organic vetch and conventional wheat systems. Fertilizer scheme affected the magnitude of growing season N 2 O-N loss in the organic vetch system (organic N > fertilizer N-credit) and the timing of loss (organic N delayed N 2 O-N loss vs. urea) and NO 3 -N leaching (urea > organic N) in the conventional wheat system, but had no effect on yield. Cover crop selection and N fertilization techniques can reduce N leaching and greenhouse gas emissions without sacrificing yield, thereby enhancing N conservation in both organic and conventional conservation agriculture systems.

  2. Cover Crops and Fertilization Alter Nitrogen Loss in Organic and Conventional Conservation Agriculture Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Shelton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agroecosystem nitrogen (N loss produces greenhouse gases, induces eutrophication, and is costly for farmers; therefore, conservation agricultural management practices aimed at reducing N loss are increasingly adopted. However, the ecosystem consequences of these practices have not been well-studied. We quantified N loss via leaching, NH3 volatilization, N2O emissions, and N retention in plant and soil pools of corn conservation agroecosystems in Kentucky, USA. Three systems were evaluated: (1 an unfertilized, organic system with cover crops hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum, or a mix of the two (bi-culture; (2 an organic system with a hairy vetch cover crop employing three fertilization schemes (0 N, organic N, or a fertilizer N-credit approach; and (3 a conventional system with a winter wheat cover crop and three fertilization schemes (0 N, urea N, or organic N. In the unfertilized organic system, cover crop species affected NO3-N leaching (vetch > bi-culture > wheat and N2O-N emissions and yield during corn growth (vetch, bi-culture > wheat. Fertilization increased soil inorganic N, gaseous N loss, N leaching, and yield in the organic vetch and conventional wheat systems. Fertilizer scheme affected the magnitude of growing season N2O-N loss in the organic vetch system (organic N > fertilizer N-credit and the timing of loss (organic N delayed N2O-N loss vs. urea and NO3-N leaching (urea >> organic N in the conventional wheat system, but had no effect on yield. Cover crop selection and N fertilization techniques can reduce N leaching and greenhouse gas emissions without sacrificing yield, thereby enhancing N conservation in both organic and conventional conservation agriculture systems.

  3. Cover Crops and Fertilization Alter Nitrogen Loss in Organic and Conventional Conservation Agriculture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rebecca E.; Jacobsen, Krista L.; McCulley, Rebecca L.

    2018-01-01

    Agroecosystem nitrogen (N) loss produces greenhouse gases, induces eutrophication, and is costly for farmers; therefore, conservation agricultural management practices aimed at reducing N loss are increasingly adopted. However, the ecosystem consequences of these practices have not been well-studied. We quantified N loss via leaching, NH3 volatilization, N2O emissions, and N retention in plant and soil pools of corn conservation agroecosystems in Kentucky, USA. Three systems were evaluated: (1) an unfertilized, organic system with cover crops hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), or a mix of the two (bi-culture); (2) an organic system with a hairy vetch cover crop employing three fertilization schemes (0 N, organic N, or a fertilizer N-credit approach); and (3) a conventional system with a winter wheat cover crop and three fertilization schemes (0 N, urea N, or organic N). In the unfertilized organic system, cover crop species affected NO3-N leaching (vetch > bi-culture > wheat) and N2O-N emissions and yield during corn growth (vetch, bi-culture > wheat). Fertilization increased soil inorganic N, gaseous N loss, N leaching, and yield in the organic vetch and conventional wheat systems. Fertilizer scheme affected the magnitude of growing season N2O-N loss in the organic vetch system (organic N > fertilizer N-credit) and the timing of loss (organic N delayed N2O-N loss vs. urea) and NO3-N leaching (urea >> organic N) in the conventional wheat system, but had no effect on yield. Cover crop selection and N fertilization techniques can reduce N leaching and greenhouse gas emissions without sacrificing yield, thereby enhancing N conservation in both organic and conventional conservation agriculture systems. PMID:29403512

  4. Effect of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and foliar-applied iron (Fe) fertilizer at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional management is an important factor in the success of crop production. However, research on the effects of nitrogen (N) and iron (Fe) application on soybean yield is limited. In order to study the effects of N and Fe application at various reproductive stages on grain yield and quality of soybean seed, an experiment ...

  5. Comparisons between three nitrogen fertilizers (nitric, ammoniacal and uric) in an andic soil of the Comoro Islands. Studies in a controlled medium with nitrogen 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egoumenides, C.; Pichot, J.; Haribou, A.

    1980-01-01

    The fixation rate (nitrogen in the plant + nitrogen remaining in the soil) was measured for nitrogen from three different labelled fertilizers: calcium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and urea. This experiment, which was realized in pots with and without cultures led to the following observations: the same fixation rates occur for all fertilizers, which are greater when cultures are employed then when they are not employed (86% ans 72% respectively); the utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizers by plants is significantly higher with the nitric form of fertilizer than with the two other forms (73% and 63% respectively). With cultures, the nitrogen nonutilized by the plant is found in nitrogen organic forms of the soil. On the other hand, in the case of bare soil, the reorganization of nitrogen fertilizers (above all nitric fertilizers) is found to be highly limited, the greatest proportion of the fertilizer's nitrogen remaining in the mineral form [fr

  6. Productivity and carbon footprint of perennial grass-forage legume intercropping strategies with high or low nitrogen fertilizer input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Lachouani, Petra; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2016-01-01

    with either a high or a low rate of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the carbon footprint (global warming potential) of the grassland management including measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions after sward incorporation. Without applying any mineral N...... in the high fertilizer treatment. Nitrous oxide emissions were highest in the treatments containing legumes. The LCA showed that the low input N systems had markedly lower carbon footprint values than crops from the high N input system with the pure stand legumes without N fertilization having the lowest...... carbon footprint. Thus, a reduction in N fertilizer application rates in the low input systems offsets increased N2O emissions after forage legume treatments compared to grass plots due to the N fertilizer production-related emissions. When including the subsequent wheat yield in the total aboveground...

  7. Shelf life study of fresh celery (Apium graveolens L.) grown under different nitrogen fertilization treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Valeria; Muratore, Giuseppe; Russo, Marco Antonio; Belligno, Adalgisa

    2011-05-01

    Nitrogen fertilization is useful for obtaining higher growth and quality of productions, and the use of nitrogen fertilization is widespread. To evaluate the influence of nitrogen-rich fertilizers on quality characteristics of celery, shelf life tests of celery grown with 2 levels of nitrogen and 2 different nitrogen fertilizers were performed. The treatments of the celery samples were identified as follows: T1, mineral nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1)); T2, mineral nitrogen (120 kg ha(-1)); T3, organic nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1)); T4, organic nitrogen (120 kg ha(-1)); R4, residual organic nitrogen (120 kg ha(-1)); and C, untreated control. Celery plants were selected and packaged in either of the following 2 plastic films: antifog polyolefin (AFP) film or microperforated polypropylene (MPP) film. The nitrate contents, weight loss, hardness, changes in color parameters, and total phenols were studied for both packaging types during storage. The results demonstrated that celery fertilized with organic nitrogen and packaged in AFP film reached a shelf life of 37 d. The control sample packaged in MPP film was not marketable after 20 d, but the same untreated sample packaged in AFP film reached a shelf life of 30 d. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Nutritional value of sugarcane varieties in relation to nitrogen fertilization for the pre-Amazon Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayanna Karlla Lima Costa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the nutritional value of sugarcane varieties in relation to nitrogen fertilization. The varieties studied were RB 863129, RB 867515, and RB 92579, and nitrogen fertilizer was applied at doses of 0, 60, 80, 120, and 140 kg N ha-1. The experiment was divided into two stages: i Year I - plant cane, when the yield and nutritional quality of the three sugarcane varieties were evaluated; ii Years II and III, when and the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the nutritional quality of the first and second ratoon crops of the same varieties was evaluated. In plant cane the yield (t ha-1 and DM (dry matter and CP (crude protein contents were higher for the RB 863129 variety. There was no difference between the varieties regarding their NDF (neutral detergent fiber and ADF (acid detergent fiber contents and IVDMD (in vitro dry matter digestibility. In the first and second ratoon crops, there was a difference between the varieties and fertilizer doses for the evaluated parameters, with the exception of the DM content and IVDMD, which were influenced by the varieties, doses of N, and cutting years. The RB 92579 variety showed the best yield of the two ratoon crops (131 t ha-1 of stems and the best nutritional parameters (26% ADF, 41% NDF, 2.4% CP, and 69.4% IVDMD. The sugarcane yield and its nutritional quality can be influenced by the cutting year and nitrogen fertilization management system and by the variety type.

  9. Agronomic and Economic Efficiency of Common-Bean Inoculation with Rhizobia and Mineral Nitrogen Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lima Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Management of biological nitrogen fixation in common bean still requires improvement. The objective of this study was to verify the compatibility of nitrogen fertilization with biological N2 fixation to increase common bean yield and profitability. Four field experiments were performed in four municipalities of Minas Gerais, Brazil, during the 2009 and 2010 winter crop season. The 2009 crop experiments were set up under a no-till system and the 2010 crop was conducted using conventional tillage. A randomized block experimental design was used with four replications and seven treatments combining application rates of mineral N (at sowing and/or topdressing and seed inoculation with Rhizobium tropici strain CIAT899. Inoculation with 20 kg ha-1 N-urea at sowing and seed inoculation does not interfere with nodule dry matter and promotes yield comparable to that observed with 80 kg ha-1 N-urea with economic profitability in both no-till and conventional tillage systems. These results show the possibility of economic savings with respect to N fertilizers, but also a significant ecological contribution by avoiding problems associated with misuse of these fertilizers, such as eutrophication of waterways and denitrification.

  10. Moss-specific changes in nitrogen fixation following two decades of warming, shading, and fertilizer addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Lett, Signe; Michelsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Climate warming will induce changes in Arctic ecosystem carbon balance, but besides climate, nitrogen availability is a critical controlling factor of carbon cycling. It is therefore essential to obtain knowledge on the influence of a changing climate on nitrogen fixation, as this process...... is the main source of new nitrogen to arctic ecosystems. In order to gain information on future nitrogen fixation rates in a changing climate, we studied the effects of two decades of warming with passive greenhouses, shading with sackcloth, and fertilization with NPK fertilizer on nitrogen fixation rates....... To expand the knowledge on species-specific responses, we measured nitrogen fixation associated with two moss species: Hylocomium splendens and Aulacomnium turgidum. Our expectations of decreased nitrogen fixation rates in the fertilizer and shading treatments were met. However, contrary to our expectation...

  11. Nitrogen Limitation of Terrestrial Net Primary Production: Global Patterns From Field Studies with Nitrogen Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebauer, D. S.; Treseder, K. K.

    2006-12-01

    Net primary production (NPP) transfers carbon from the atmospheric CO2 pool into the biosphere. Experimental evidence demonstrates that NPP is often limited by nitrogen availability. Hence, accelerated nitrogen availability due to fertilizer production, fossil fuel use, and biomass burning could stimulate global NPP. Over the next century, these nitrogen sources are expected to both increase in strength and expand from their current concentration in the temperate regions of Europe and the United States into the tropical regions of South America, Southeast Asia, and India. In order to predict future carbon budgets, it is necessary to quantify the impact of nitrogen on NPP. Currently there is no synthesis of ecosystem scale experiments that evaluates responses among biomes and across environmental gradients. The aim of this investigation is to test the prediction that nitrogen limitation is widespread, and to evaluate global patterns of NPP response to nitrogen. The present study compiles results from field-based nitrogen addition experiments in a comprehensive meta-analysis. Published studies were obtained through key word searches and referenced articles. A response metric was derived from each study based on measurements of plant growth under ambient nitrogen deposition (control) and experimental nitrogen addition (treatment). This metric is the response ratio (R): the ratio of mean growth in treatment divided by control plots. Therefore, a positive effect of nitrogen results in R>1. A meta-analysis was performed on ln(R) weighted by within-study variance. We found that most ecosystems are nitrogen limited (P<0.0001) and that average growth response to nitrogen was 32%. However, response was not uniform across biomes. Significant responses were observed in grasslands and forests (P<0.0001), but not wetlands and tundra (P=0.08 and P=0.16). While mean annual precipitation (MAP) was significantly correlated to R overall (P<0.0001), the direction of the effect varied

  12. Effect of Different Application Rate of Nitrogen Fertilizer Under Straw Return on Maize Yield and Inorganic Nitrogen Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influences of different nitrogen fertilizer rate on maize production, nitrogen use efficiency and soil nitrate nitrogen at straw return farmland for two years. The results showed that maize production increased with the increment of nitrogen fertilizer. The maize production was the highest at 216 kg·hm -2(N216of nitrogen use and began to decrease when the amount of nitrogen use was beyond 216 kg· hm -2. There were significant interannual differences on maize production in the same treatment. The maize production in 2010 increased 0.69%~4.75% compared with that in 2009. Nitrogen use efficiency, nitrogen agronomic efficiency and nitrogen harvest index improved with the year of straw return. The highest nitrate nitrogen accumulation was found in the treatment of 240 kg· hm -2(N240in 0~100 cm soil layer. Soil nitrate content increased with the depth of soil. This may potentially increased the risk of nitrate pollution on shallow groundwater. Compared with N240, the nitrate nitrogen accumulation of N168(168 kg·hm -2 , N192(192 kg·hm -2 and N216(216 kg·hm -2 were equally reduced by respectively 39.87%, 35.84% and 29.38% in 0~100 cm soil layer. Considering the maize production, nitrogen use efficiency and ecological environmental benefits, the optimum amount of nitrogen use should be 200 kg·hm -2.

  13. Effect of combined N applied at low level on the nitrogen fixation by grasses and contribution to nitrogen fertility in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yunyin; Chen Ming; Ma Changlin

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the study on the effect of combined N applied at low level on teh nitrogen fixation by alfalfa in monoculture and mixed culture with meadow fescue, and the effect on the absorption and utilization of indigenous soil nitrogen and nitrogen fertilizer. Amount of nitrogen fixed by alfalfa could be raised and duration of high peak of symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity could be extended when nitrogen fertilizer was applied reasonably. It was especially important for the early pastures or pastures with low supporting nitrogen capacity. Transfer of nitrogen fixed by alfalfa to meadow fescue occured in mixed culture. Nitrogen fixed from alfalfa was uptaken more easily than indigenous nitrogen in soil. Planting alfalfa could raise soil fertility significantly. Meadow fescue may be able to fix nitrogen from the air in some way. When combined N was appropriately applied to soil, on which alfalfa and meadow fescue had been planted, it could promote increasing nitrogen fertility in soil

  14. Economic analysis of nitrogen fertilization in winter bean plant under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Traete Sabundjian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion and diversity of the no-tillage system, it is necessary to evaluate the economic benefits generated throughout the production cycle, especially those related to remnants of previous crops and nitrogen fertilizer management of succeeding crops. This study aimed to evaluate the economic viability of four cover nitrogen doses on winter bean grain yield grown under no-tillage system after different crops. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications, in a 8x4 factorial scheme, with 32 treatments consisting of a combination of crop remnants (mayze; mayze - Azospirillum brasilense; Urochloa ruziziensis; Urochloa ruziziensis - Azospirillum brasilense; mayze + U. ruziziensis; mayze -A. brasilense + U. ruziziensis; mayze + U. ruziziensis - A. brasilense; mayze -A. brasilense + U. ruziziensis - A. brasilense and cover nitrogen doses (0 kg ha-1, 30 kg ha-1, 60 kg ha-1 and 90 kg ha-1. It was possible to conclude that the highest grain yield of winter bean plants irrigated by aspersion was obtained with the use of 90 kg ha-1 of cover nitrogen in succession to Urochloa ruziziensis without the inoculation of Azospirillum brasilense. In order to improve profits, it is recommended to apply 90 kg ha-1 of cover nitrogen to bean crops succeeding the other crops, except for inoculated Urochloa ruziziensis.

  15. Relationships between soil-based management zones and canopy sensing for corn nitrogen management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrating soil-based management zones (MZ) with crop-based active canopy sensors to direct spatially variable nitrogen (N) applications has been proposed for improving N fertilizer management of corn (Zea mays L.). Analyses are needed to evaluate relationships between canopy sensing and soil-based...

  16. Higher yields of hybrid rice do not depend on nitrogen fertilization under moderate to high soil fertility conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Jiang, Peng; Shan, Shuanglü; Gao, Wei; Ma, Guohui; Zou, Yingbin; Uphoff, Norman; Yuan, Longping

    2017-09-21

    Increasing rice yield with fewer external inputs is critical to ensuring food security, reducing environmental costs, and improving returns. Use of hybrid rice has expanded greatly in China due to its higher yield potential. Meanwhile, large and increasing amounts of nitrogen (N) fertilizers have been used for expanding rice production in China. It is not clear to what extent the success of hybrid rice in China is associated with N fertilizer inputs. We observed that the higher grain yield with N fertilizer in hybrid rice was driven more by a higher yield without N fertilizer than by increases in grain yield with N fertilizer under moderate to high soil fertility conditions. Our results suggest that greater application of N fertilizers is not needed to benefit from hybrid rice production under moderate to high soil fertility conditions, and that improving and maintaining soil fertility should be a focus for sustaining hybrid rice production. Moreover, our study also indicates that zero-N testing may be a potentially useful tool to develop hybrid rice with high yield and without requirement of greater external N inputs under moderate to high soil fertility conditions.

  17. The economics of fertilizer management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardy, D.H.; Osmond, D.L.; Wossink, G.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Growers who practice nutrient management apply the proper rate and type of nutrients, and they place these nutrients correctly and at the right time based on their crop needs. Correctly applied nutrients can protect the environment and save money. Part of nutrient management is selecting the correct

  18. IMPROVING NITROGEN FERTILIZER ABSORPTION AND ITS EFFECT ON QUALITY AND SEED YIELD OF CORN (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuswanto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Improving nitrogen uptake by pyraclostrobin application in maize under green house and field conditions were investigated. There were three series experiments conducted in dry season, 2011 and 2012. The research conducted using nested design and three replications. Nested design applied to get information as careful as possible about the role of treatment, especially the main factor. The first and second experiments hold at field and green house and the third experiment hold at green house. They had two factors, pyraclostrobin application and nitrogen fertilizer. Vegetative growth, flowering and earing age, chlorophyll content, yield, amylose and protein content evaluated. Application of pyraclostrobin, significantly increase nitrogen fertilizer efficiency. Amylose content and fresh yield were different on nitrogen and pyraclostrobin application. Application of pyraclostrobin 400 ml/ha significantly increase amylose 10.85-18.5%. Both of amylose and protein content were increased by nitrogen fertilizer application. Vegetative growth and chlorophyll content were affected by nitrogen and pyraclostrobin.

  19. Can nitrogen fertilization aid restoration of mature tree productivity in degraded dryland riverine ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas C.; Adair, Elizabeth Carol; Nelson, Sigfrid Mark; Binkley, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of riparian forest productivity lost as a consequence of flow regulation is a common management goal in dryland riverine ecosystems. In the northern hemisphere, dryland river floodplain trees often include one or another species of Populus, which are fast-growing, nutrient-demanding trees. Because the trees are phreatophytic in drylands, and have water needs met in whole or in part by a shallow water table, their productivity may be limited by nitrogen (N) availability, which commonly limits primary productivity in mesic environments. We added 20 g N m−2 in a 2-m radius around the base of mature Populus fremontii along each of a regulated and free-flowing river in semiarid northwest Colorado, USA (total n = 42) in order to test whether growth is constrained by low soil N. Twelve years after fertilization, we collected increment cores from these and matched unfertilized trees and compared radial growth ratios (growth in the 3-year post-fertilization period/growth in the 3-year pre-fertilization period) in paired t tests. We expected a higher mean ratio in the fertilized trees. No effect from fertilization was detected, nor was a trend evident on either river. An alternative test using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) produced a similar result. Our results underscore the need for additional assessment of which and to what extent factors other than water control dryland riverine productivity. Positive confirmation of adequate soil nutrients at these and other dryland riparian sites would bolster the argument that flow management is necessary and sufficient to maximize productivity and enhance resilience in affected desert riverine forests.

  20. Sward structure and nutritive value of Alexandergrass fertilized with nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R. Salvador

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment evaluated forage production, sward structure, stocking rate, weight gain per area and nutritive value of forage as grazed by beef heifers on Alexandergrass (Urochloa plantaginea (Link Hitch pasture fertilized with nitrogen (N: 0; 100; 200 or 300 kg of N/ha. The experiment was a completely randomized design following a repeated measurement arrangement. The experimental animals were Angus heifers with initial age and weight of 15 months and 241.5±5 kg, respectively. The grazing method was continuous, with put-and-take stocking. N utilization, regardless of the level, increase by 25% the daily forage accumulation rate and the weight gain per area by 23%. The level of 97.2 kg N/ha leads to a higher leaf blade mass and increases by 20% the leaf:stem ratio. Alterations in sward structure changes the nutritive value of forage as grazed. The utilization of 112.7 kg of N/ha allows the highest stocking rate (2049.8 kg of BW/ha, equivalent to 7.5 heifers per hectare.

  1. Response of Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) to Nitrogen Phosphorous Fertilizers in Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouko, W.O; Owino, G.

    1999-01-01

    The requirements for nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers for growing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Kenya are 26-kg N ha - 1 and 27 kg P ha - 1, respectively. Calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) was recommended at the rate of 100 kg ha - 1 for black cotton soils while double superphosphate (DSP) was recommended at the rate of 150 kg ha - 1 on reddish brown clays. However, experiments conducted on a major soil types on which cotton is grown in Kenya showed that, soil colour is not the best indicator of nutrients supply power of the soil. It was found that Verto-eutric planosols of National Fibre Research Centres-Kibos requires application of 13-kg ha - 1 as CAN for optimal yields. Ferralo-eurtric Acrisols of Alupe Agricultural Research Sub-Centre, Busia needed 26-kg N ha - 1 and 9 kg P ha - 1 to give high yields. At Siaya FTC 9 kg P ha - 1 was adequate in providing the highest yields without nitrogen. Strict observation of recommended agronomic practices for growing cotton and good soil management practices for growing cotton and good soil management practices were observed a prerequisite for high response and efficient utilisation of fertilizers

  2. Fertilizers nitrogen balance under maizl and winter rye in lysimentric experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionova, O.N.

    1979-01-01

    The balance of the labelled 15 N nitrogen fertilizers in lysimentric experiment carried oUt in the turf-podsolic medium loamy soil has been studied. The results of two year experiment (1976-1977) have shown that depending on the doses and time of introduction the use of fertilizer nitrogen by maize varied from 51 to 58 % and by winter rye from 52 to 59 %. Consolidation in the organic substance of soil constituted 18-26 and 17-33 %, respectively. The losses of fertilizer nitrogen varied (14-29 % under maize and 9-23 % under winter rye). Nitrogen losses as a result of atmospheric precipitation infiltration both under maize and winter rye occured mainly at the expense of nitrogen of soil and reached considerable dimensions (31 kg) only under conditions of exceeding moistening of 1976. The losses of fertilizer nitrogen caused by washing out do not exceed 1 % for two years. The main losses of fertilizer nitrogen occurred in the form of gaseous nitrogen compounds

  3. Isotopic and non-isotopic estimations of fertilizer nitrogen uptake by wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, A.; Ahmad, M.

    1990-01-01

    Recoveries of fertilizer N in wheat (MexiPak-65) grown in a field experiment were calculated by difference methods including linear regression of total nitrogen in wheat plant, nitrogen 15 method and linear regression of fertilizer. The difference method overestimated recoveries of applied fertilizer at the rates of application when compared to the nitrogen 15 method. Similarly linear regression of total N in wheat on rates of N over estimated recoveries by 25% at the three rates. The difference method of calculating the recoveries of fertilizer N in wheat could give values similar to those calculated by nitrogen 15 method when the minimal N treatment was used as a base instead of zero-N. (orig./A.B.)

  4. Nitrogen content and nitrogen reserves in annual leaves and offshoots of apple trees undergoing foliar nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Foliar applications of nitrogen (N, when needed, have been used to supplement the fertilization of fruit trees through the soil. However, information on frequency effects, N amount to be applied, and the importance of increasing N content and N reserves in the leaves and offshoots are few. This paper aimed at evaluating the effect of foliar N applications on the N content and reserves in annual leaves and offshoots of apple trees. The study was carried out in an apple trees orchard (Eva cultivar, crop 2007/2008, in the experimental area of the Polytechnic College of Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, in the town of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, on a hydromorphic planosol. The treatments consisted of 1 and 2 foliar applications of 0; 1.11; 2.23; 3.31; 4.41; and 5.51g of N plant-1. The results showed that foliar N applications resulted in increased N contents in the whole leaves, especially up to the 8th day after application, but they do not affect N content in the annual offshoots. Nitrogen fertilization via the leaves did not increase the total content of amino acids and proteins in the annual whole leaves and offshoots

  5. Runoff, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses from purple slope cropland soil under rating fertilization in Three Gorges Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouraima, Abdel-Kabirou; He, Binghui; Tian, Taiqiang

    2016-03-01

    Soil erosion along with soil particles and nutrients losses is detrimental to crop production. We carried out a 5-year (2010 to 2014) study to characterize the soil erosion and nitrogen and phosphorus losses caused by rainfall under different fertilizer application levels in order to provide a theoretical evidence for the agricultural production and coordinate land management to improve ecological environment. The experiment took place under rotation cropping, winter wheat-summer maize, on a 15° slope purple soil in Chongqing (China) within the Three Gorges Region (TGR). Four treatments, control (CK) without fertilizer, combined manure with chemical fertilizer (T1), chemical fertilization (T2), and chemical fertilizer with increasing fertilization (T3), were designed on experimental runoff plots for a long-term observation aiming to study their effects on soil erosion and nutrients losses. The results showed that fertilization reduced surface runoff and nutrient losses as compared to CK. T1, T2, and T3, compared to CK, reduced runoff volume by 35.7, 29.6, and 16.8 %, respectively and sediment yield by 40.5, 20.9, and 49.6 %, respectively. Regression analysis results indicated that there were significant relationships between soil loss and runoff volume in all treatments. The combined manure with chemical fertilizer (T1) treatment highly reduced total nitrogen and total phosphorus losses by 41.2 and 33.33 %, respectively as compared with CK. Through this 5-year experiment, we can conclude that, on the sloping purple soil, the combined application of manure with fertilizer is beneficial for controlling runoff sediments losses and preventing soil erosion.

  6. Fertilizer nitrogen recovery efficiencies in crop production systems of China with and without consideration of the residual effect of nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xiaoyuan; Ti, Chaopu; Zhu, Zhaoliang; Vitousek, Peter; Chen, Deli; Leip, Adrian; Cai, Zucong

    2014-01-01

    China is the world’s largest consumer of synthetic nitrogen (N), where very low rates of fertilizer N recovery in crops have been reported, raising discussion around whether fertilizer N use can be significantly reduced without yield penalties. However, using recovery rates as indicator ignores a possible residual effect of fertilizer N—a factor often unknown at large scales. Such residual effect might store N in the soil increasing N availability for subsequent crops. The objectives of the present study were therefore to quantify the residual effect of fertilizer N in China and to obtain more realistic rates of the accumulative fertilizer N recovery efficiency (RE) in crop production systems of China. Long-term spatially-extensive data on crop production, fertilizer N and other N inputs to croplands in China were used to analyze the relationship between crop N uptake and fertilizer N input (or total N input), and to estimate the amount of residual fertilizer N. Measurement results of cropland soil N content in two time periods were obtained to compare the change in the soil N pool. At the provincial scale, it was found that there is a linear relationship between crop N uptake and fertilizer N input or total N input. With the increase in fertilizer N input, annual direct fertilizer N RE decreased and was indeed low (below 30% in recent years), while its residual effect increased continuously, to the point that 40–68% of applied fertilizer was used for crop production sooner or later. The residual effect was evidenced by a buildup of soil N and a large difference between nitrogen use efficiencies of long-term and short-term experiments. (paper)

  7. Managing Nitrogen in the anthropocene: integrating social and ecological science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Davidson, E. A.; Kanter, D.; Cai, R.; Searchinger, T.

    2014-12-01

    Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle by agricultural activities has provided nutritious food to society, but also poses increasing threats to human and ecosystem health through unintended pollution. Managing nitrogen more efficiently in crop production is critical for addressing both food security and environmental challenges. Technologies and management practices have been developed to increase the uptake of applied nitrogen by crops. However, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE, yield per unit nitrogen input) is also affected by social and economic factors. For example, to maximize profit, farmers may change crop choice or their nitrogen application rate, both of which lead to a change in NUE. To evaluate such impacts, we use both theoretical and empirical approaches on micro (farm) and macro (national) scales: 1) We developed a bio-economic model (NUE3) on a farm scale to investigate how market signals (e.g. fertilizer and crop prices), government policies, and nitrogen-efficient technologies affect NUE. We demonstrate that if factors that influence nitrogen inputs (e.g. fertilizer-to-crop price ratios) are not considered, NUE projections will be poorly constrained. The impact of nitrogen-efficient technologies on NUE not only depends on how technology changes the production function, but also relies on the prices of the technologies, fertilizers, and crops. 2) We constructed a database of the nitrogen budget in crop production for major crops and major crop producing countries from 1961 to 2010. Using this database, we investigate historical trends of NUE and its relationship to agronomic, economic, social, and policy factors. We find that NUE in most developed countries follows a "U-shape" relationship with income level, consistent with the Environmental Kuznets Curve theory. According to the dynamics revealed in the NUE3 model, we propose three major pathways by which economic development affects NUE, namely consumption, technology, and public policy

  8. Nitrogen fertilization plans for the main crops of Turkey to mitigate nitrates pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Karyotis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To create a rational nitrogen fertilization plan, a mass nitrogen (N balance was used for the main crops of Turkey. The following components are included in the suggested N fertilization plans: the quantity of N fertilizer which is required by the crop for a targeted and sustainable yield, nitrogen inputs available to the crop without fertilization, nitrogen losses mainly due to nitrates leaching and emissions to the atmosphere. This simple equation was transformed to a more detailed one and fertilization plans are based on the total N required to produce a crop of a targeted yield, N mineralized from Soil Organic Matter (SOM, the residual plant available inorganic N before sowing or planting, input of nitrogen from rainfall and losses through leaching and emissions. This work is based on available data and is an open sheet balance which can be easily used by local authorities. Decreased N fertilization can be applied without significant yield reduction and this can be explained by increased N use efficiency, as a result of proper time of application and splitting of N fertilizers in doses. This model can be appropriately adapted according to site-specific conditions, whilst new parameters can be added to improve precision of the performed calculations.

  9. Fate of nitrogen fertilizers labelled with 15 N in two soil samples of Central Amazon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaia, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    The efficiency of two nitrogen fertilizers, ammonium sulphate and urea, labelled with 15 N, in two major Central-Amazonian soils (Yellow Latosol an Oxisol and Red-Yellow Podzolic - an Ultisol), was studied in greenhouse experiments in Nancy, France, 1992. Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum L.) was used as the test plant. Rye-grass nitrogen uptake of ammonium sulphate ranged from 44 tp 49%, and of urea from 60 to 70%. Immobilization and losses of nitrogen were dependent on the fertilizer type. Microbial nitrogen immobilization was higher in the presence of urea, while losses were higher with ammonium sulphate. Since losses of nitrogen fertilizers from leaching were practically nil under the experimental conditions, they might have occurred mainly through gaseous form. (author)

  10. Fertilizer value of nitrogen captured using ammonia scrubbers attached to animal production facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over half of the nitrogen (N) excreted from broiler chickens is lost to the atmosphere before the manure is removed from the barns, resulting in air and water pollution and the loss of a valuable fertilizer resource. The objective of this study was to determine the fertilizer efficiency of N, which...

  11. Fertilization with phosphorus increases soil nitrogen absorption in young plants of Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina Graciano; Juan F. Goya; Jorge L. Frangi; Juan J. Guiamet

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the nutrients that most commonly limit tree growth. Interactions between fertilization and soil type are well known, and in soils with moderate or low N availability, N-fertilization is frequently recommended to improve tree nutrition. The aim of this paper was to analyze how different doses of P and N applied in three different...

  12. Nitrogen fertilizer practices for rapid establishment of highbush blueberry: a review of 6 years of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three field trials were conducted from 2006 to 2011 to evaluate nitrogen (N) fertilizer practices for establishment of highbush blueberry. In the first trial, we compared the effects of N fertigation to conventional granular fertilizer application in 'Bluecrop' blueberry and found that fertigation p...

  13. Discrimination of nitrogen fertilizer levels of tea plant (Camellia sinensis) based on hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Hu, Xin; Hou, Zhiwei; Ning, Jingming; Zhang, Zhengzhu

    2018-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizer plays an important role in tea plantation management, with significant impacts on the photosynthetic capacity, productivity and nutrition status of tea plants. The present study aimed to establish a method for the discrimination of N fertilizer levels using hyperspectral imaging technique. Spectral data were extracted from the region of interest, followed by the first derivative to reduce background noise. Five optimal wavelengths were selected by principal component analysis. Texture features were extracted from the images at optimal wavelengths by gray-level gradient co-occurrence matrix. Support vector machine (SVM) and extreme learning machine were used to build classification models based on spectral data, optimal wavelengths, texture features and data fusion, respectively. The SVM model using fused data gave the best performance with highest correct classification rate of 100% for prediction set. The overall results indicated that visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imaging combined with SVM were effective in discriminating N fertilizer levels of tea plants. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Application time of nitrogen fertilizer 15N by a potato crop (Solanum Tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas, O.G.; Urquiaga, S.

    1987-01-01

    This study was performed at the ''San Jorge'' experimental farm of the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA), Bogota, Colombia. The study was performed to investigate the effect of timing of application of nitrogen fertilizer on the productivity of, and the efficiency of utilization of 15 N-labelled fertilizer by, a potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.), cv. Tequendama. The crop was fertilized with 100, 200 and 100 Kg/ha -1 of N, P 2 O 5 and K 2 O respectively. The N fertilizers were either added as 15 N labelled urea (2.955 at.% 15 N excess) or as labelled ammonium sulphate (2.071 at.% 15 N excess). In all treatments with nitrogen, a total of 100 Kg N ha -1 was added, but the nitrogen was added either in two or three split doses (only one dose being labelled with 15 N) at the following times: at planting, 35 days after emergence (DAE) and/or 60 DAE. It was found that: a) Nitrogen fertilization increased tuber production from 24 to 43 t/ha -1 ; b) The tubers constituted approximately 80% of total plant dry matter and 70% of the total nitrogen and fertilizer N accumulated by the plant; c) The fertilizer use efficiency varied between 49 and 68%, and the highest efficiency occurred when the nitrogen was split in three doses; d) The urea and ammonium sulphate gave similar results in all parameters evaluated; e) When the total nitrogen difference method was applied to interpretation of the results the fertilizer use efficiency was overestimated by 15 to 30%

  15. MAIZE COSTS AND PROFITABILITY ACCORDING TO SOIL MANAGEMENT AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION CUSTOS E RENTABILIDADE DO MILHO EM FUNÇÃO DO MANEJO DO SOLO E DA ADUBAÇÃO NITROGENADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gonçalves Vilela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Agronomic practices that help farmers to raise yield and reduce costs must be studied to ensure agricultural sustainability. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze economically the effect of soil management and nitrogen fertilization in maize crops. Treatments consisted of a combination of 3 soil management techniques (plow harrows + floating harrows, chisel + floating harrows, and no-tillage, 5 periods of nitrogen fertilization (control - 0 kg ha-1 N; 120 kg ha-1 after sowing (S; 120 kg ha-1 in the V6 stage; 30 kg ha-1 (S + 90 kg  ha-1 in V6; 30 kg ha-1 (S + 45 kg ha-1 in V4 + 45 kg ha-1 in V

  16. Nitrogen Fertilizer Dependency and Its Contradictions: A Theoretical Exploration of Social-Ecological Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancus, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The global agro-food system relies heavily on inorganic nitrogenous fertilizers. In addition to consuming enormous amounts of energy, this manufactured input contributes to the accumulation of reactive nitrogen in the biosphere and undermines the biological basis of agricultural production itself. While technological inefficiency and population…

  17. The effect of nitrogen fertilization on the quality of Kikuyu silage. | M ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small-scale laboratory silos were used to study the fermentation process of Kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst) silage prepared from grass grown at three nitrogen fertilizer levels (300, 400 and 500 kg N/ha/year). Kikuyu grass was cut at three and six weeks growth stages. High nitrogen levels appeared to improve ...

  18. Nitrogen fertilization interacts with light to increase Rubus spp. cover in a temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Walter; Devon T. Raiff; Mark B. Burnham; Frank S. Gilliam; Mary Beth Adams; William T. Peterjohn

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen additions have caused species composition changes in many ecosystems by facilitating the growth of nitrophilic species. After 24 years of nitrogen fertilization in a 40 year-old stand at the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) in Central Appalachia, USA, the cover of Rubus spp. has increased from 1 to 19 % of total herbaceous-layer cover....

  19. Effect of different rates of nitrogen fertilizer on durum wheat (Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Asefa

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... The result showed that nitrogen rates and cultivars had significant effect on yield, yield related traits, nitrogen uptake ... cooking quality [8]. Durum wheat grain protein functionality can be influenced by N fertilization, particularly in the varieties of relatively with less gluten strength [9]. Information on the quality ...

  20. EFFECTS OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION ON FIELD PERFORMANCE OF DACTYLORHIZA-MAJALIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIJK, E; OLFF, H

    1994-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus fertilization on performance of Dactylorhiza majalis (Rchb.f.) Hunt & Summerh. were studied in a Juncus acutiflorus-dominated hayfield. Frequency, total shoot biomass and flowering incidence decreased as a result of both nitrogen and phosphorus

  1. Comparative study of nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency of cotton grown under conventional and fertigation practices using 15N methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Somi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilization and irrigation methods are the key factors of yield increase. With proper management of these two factors a good production and protection of the environment could be attained at the same time. Field experiments were carried out at Hama (Tezeen's Agricultural Research Station) for four consecutive years 1995=1998. The objectives of this study were: Assessment of nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency (NFUE) under conventional and fertigation practices; Nitrogen requirements of cotton crop grown under fertigation practices: Comparative study of water use efficiency (WUE), and seed cotton yield of cotton crop grown under conventional and drip irrigation. Treatments consisted of five nitrogen rates for the fertigated cotton crop (0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 kg N ha -1 ). While of the surface irrigated cotton treatment only one recommended rate by MAAR was applied (180 kg N ha -1 ). Irrigation methods and N treatments were arranged in RBD. The soil water content and available soil nitrogen were monitored according to the standard procedures. The results revealed that fertigation of cotton under the given circumstances improved water use efficiency, nitrogen use efficiency, seed cotton yield, dry matter production, earliness and in some cases lint properties. Under fertigation practices 35-55% of the irrigation water was saved in comparison with surface irrigated cotton grown under the same condition. The seed cotton yield was increased by more than 50% relatively to the surface irrigated cotton. Furthermore, water use efficiency of the fertigated cotton was increased by almost 90 %. (author)

  2. Productivity and carbon footprint of perennial grass-forage legume intercropping strategies with high or low nitrogen fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Lachouani, Petra; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Ambus, Per; Boelt, Birte; Gislum, René

    2016-01-15

    A three-season field experiment was established and repeated twice with spring barley used as cover crop for different perennial grass-legume intercrops followed by a full year pasture cropping and winter wheat after sward incorporation. Two fertilization regimes were applied with plots fertilized with either a high or a low rate of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the carbon footprint (global warming potential) of the grassland management including measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions after sward incorporation. Without applying any mineral N fertilizer, the forage legume pure stand, especially red clover, was able to produce about 15 t above ground dry matter ha(-1) year(-1) saving around 325 kg mineral Nfertilizer ha(-1) compared to the cocksfoot and tall fescue grass treatments. The pure stand ryegrass yielded around 3t DM more than red clover in the high fertilizer treatment. Nitrous oxide emissions were highest in the treatments containing legumes. The LCA showed that the low input N systems had markedly lower carbon footprint values than crops from the high N input system with the pure stand legumes without N fertilization having the lowest carbon footprint. Thus, a reduction in N fertilizer application rates in the low input systems offsets increased N2O emissions after forage legume treatments compared to grass plots due to the N fertilizer production-related emissions. When including the subsequent wheat yield in the total aboveground production across the three-season rotation, the pure stand red clover without N application and pure stand ryegrass treatments with the highest N input equalled. The present study illustrate how leguminous biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) represents an important low impact renewable N source without reducing crop yields and thereby farmers earnings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Studies of the utilization of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers by 32P and 15N isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombovari, Janos; Kiss, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    The utilization of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers in crop enhancement was studied with different plants and soils, using 15 N nad 32 P labelling. 15 N was determined by mass spectrometry, 32 P by radiometry. For nitrogen fertilizers better results were achieved by sequential small doses than by single higher doses. The utilization of phosphorus fertilizer strongly depends, in addition to the plant species, on the quality of the soil, especially on its Ca and N contents. Low and high soil liming increased and decreased the utilization of phosphorus, respectively, while nitrogen fertilizers increased it in each case. Measurement of the isotopically exchangable phosphorus content of soils represents a new technique for the determination of the phosphorus uptake. (A.L.)

  4. Studies of the efficiency of nitrogen placement methods and slow release nitrogen fertilizers for rice and wheat, using N-15 labelled fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaukat, A.

    1979-12-01

    A series of experiments with rice and wheat were carried out to study the efficiency of nitrogen placement methods and slow-release nitrogen fertilizers for these two crops using N-15-labelled fertilizer. The results show that (1) reduced N levels, of the order of 75 percent of the full recommended dose, are equally efficient as the full dose for wheat. The yield of rice grain increased with the increased dose of nitrogen; (2) Point placement of fertilizers for rice was superior to broadcast application in terms of uptake and yield. For optimum yield of wheat grain, urea should perferably be applied as a single dose banded between the rows at 5 cm depth or by broadcasting and incorporation in the soil at the time of sowing; (3) Sulphur-coated urea (SCU) at a comparable dose and mode of application gave better yields of rice grain than the application of urea and IBDU (Isobutylidine Diurea); (4) More nitrogen was taken up by wheat when SCU was applied. The best uptake was when it was applied half at sowing and half at tillering. The nitrogen uptake from the SCU by point placement was better for rice plants than broadcast application and was higher in magnitude than the IBDU

  5. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer on Agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    caraway plant (Carum carvi) grown from root tubers when phosphorus was applied at the rate of 40 kg/ ha. The significant reduction in the number of days to first flower appearance, number of days to 50% flower appearance and first fruit maturity with increasing rates of phosphorus fertilizer showed that well P-fertilized T.

  6. Long Term Sugarcane Crop Residue Retention Offers Limited Potential to Reduce Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates in Australian Wet Tropical Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Elizabeth A; Thorburn, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    The warming of world climate systems is driving interest in the mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the agricultural sector, practices that mitigate GHG emissions include those that (1) reduce emissions [e.g., those that reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions by avoiding excess nitrogen (N) fertilizer application], and (2) increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks (e.g., by retaining instead of burning crop residues). Sugarcane is a globally important crop that can have substantial inputs of N fertilizer and which produces large amounts of crop residues ('trash'). Management of N fertilizer and trash affects soil carbon and nitrogen cycling, and hence GHG emissions. Trash has historically been burned at harvest, but increasingly is being retained on the soil surface as a 'trash blanket' in many countries. The potential for trash retention to alter N fertilizer requirements and sequester SOC was investigated in this study. The APSIM model was calibrated with data from field and laboratory studies of trash decomposition in the wet tropics of northern Australia. APSIM was then validated against four independent data sets, before simulating location × soil × fertilizer × trash management scenarios. Soil carbon increased in trash blanketed soils relative to SOC in soils with burnt trash. However, further increases in SOC for the study region may be limited because the SOC in trash blanketed soils could be approaching equilibrium; future GHG mitigation efforts in this region should therefore focus on N fertilizer management. Simulated N fertilizer rates were able to be reduced from conventional rates regardless of trash management, because of low yield potential in the wet tropics. For crops subjected to continuous trash blanketing, there was substantial immobilization of N in decomposing trash so conventional N fertilizer rates were required for up to 24 years after trash blanketing commenced. After this period, there was potential to reduce N fertilizer

  7. Long term sugarcane crop residue retention offers limited potential to reduce nitrogen fertilizer rates in Australian wet tropical environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Anne Meier

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The warming of world climate systems is driving interest in the mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. In the agricultural sector, practices that mitigate GHG emissions include those that (1 reduce emissions (e.g. those that reduce nitrous oxide (N2O emissions by avoiding excess nitrogen (N fertilizer application, and (2 increase soil organic carbon (SOC stocks (e.g. by retaining instead of burning crop residues. Sugarcane is a globally important crop that can have substantial inputs of N fertilizer and which produces large amounts of crop residues (‘trash’. Management of N fertilizer and trash affects soil carbon and nitrogen cycling, and hence GHG emissions. Trash has historically been burned at harvest, but increasingly is being retained on the soil surface as a ‘trash blanket’ in many countries. The potential for trash retention to alter N fertilizer requirements and sequester SOC was investigated in this study. The APSIM model was calibrated with data from field and laboratory studies of trash decomposition in the wet tropics of northern Australia. APSIM was then validated against four independent data sets, before simulating location  soil  fertilizer  trash management scenarios. Soil carbon increased in trash blanketed soils relative to SOC in soils with burnt trash. However, further increases in SOC for the study region may be limited because the SOC in trash blanketed soils could be approaching equilibrium; future GHG mitigation efforts in this region should therefore focus on N fertilizer management. Simulated N fertilizer rates were able to be reduced from conventional rates regardless of trash management, because of low yield potential in the wet tropics. For crops subjected to continuous trash blanketing, there was substantial immobilization of N in decomposing trash so conventional N fertilizer rates were required for up to 24 yr after trash blanketing commenced. After this period, there was potential to

  8. Synthetic nitrogen fertilizers deplete soil nitrogen: a global dilemma for sustainable cereal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, R L; Khan, S A; Ellsworth, T R

    2009-01-01

    Cereal production that now sustains a world population of more than 6.5 billion has tripled during the past 40 yr, concurrent with an increase from 12 to 104 Tg yr(-1) of synthetic N applied largely in ammoniacal fertilizers. These fertilizers have been managed as a cost-effective form of insurance against low yields, without regard to the inherent effect of mineral N in promoting microbial C utilization. Such an effect is consistent with a net loss of soil organic C recently observed for the Morrow Plots, America's oldest experiment field, after 40 to 50 yr of synthetic N fertilization that substantially exceeded grain N removal. A similar decline in total soil N is reported herein for the same site and would be expected from the predominantly organic occurrence of soil N. This decline is in agreement with numerous long-term baseline data sets from chemical-based cropping systems involving a wide variety of soils, geographic regions, and tillage practices. The loss of organic N decreases soil productivity and the agronomic efficiency (kg grain kg(-1) N) of fertilizer N and has been implicated in widespread reports of yield stagnation or even decline for grain production in Asia. A major global evaluation of current cereal production systems should be undertaken, with a view toward using scientific and technological advances to increase input efficiencies. As one aspect of this strategy, the input of ammoniacal N should be more accurately matched to crop N requirement. Long-term sustainability may require agricultural diversification involving a gradual transition from intensive synthetic N inputs to legume-based crop rotations.

  9. The Effects of Source and Rate of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Irrigation on Nitrogen Uptake of Silage Corn and Residual Soil Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Khodshenas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing irrigation demand for corn production, along side with draws of ground water from stressed water sources, should be limited due to scarce resources and environmental protection aspects. Nitrogen fertilizer applied at rates higher than the optimum requirement for crop production may cause an increase in nitrate accumulation below the root zone and pose a risk of nitrate leaching. Improving nitrogen management for corn production has a close relation with soil water content. In this study, we investigated the effects of source and rate of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation on silage corn production and nitrogen concentration, nitrogen uptake and residual soil nitrate in two depths. Materials and Methods: This experiment carried out as split spli- plot in a Randomized Complete Block design (RCBD with three replications, in Arak station (Agricultural research center of markazi province, 34.12 N, 49.7 E; 1715 m above mean sea level during three years. The soil on the site was classified as a Calcaric Regosols (loamy skeletal over fragmental, carbonatic, thermic, calcixerollic xerochrepts. Main plots were irrigation treatments based on 70, 100 and 130 mm cumulative evaporation from A class Pan. Sub plots were two kinds of nitrogen fertilizers (Urea and Ammonium nitrate and sub sub-plots were five levels of nitrogen rates (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kgN.ha-1. Nitrogen fertilizer rates were split into three applications: 1/3 was applied at planting, 1/3 at 7-9 leaf stage and 1/3 remainder was applied before tasseling as a banding method. Phosphorus was applied at a rate of 150 kg.ha-1in each season and potassium at a rate of 30kg.ha-1 (only in first growth season based on soil testing as triple super phosphate and potassium sulfate, respectively. The corn variety of single cross 704 was planted at 20 m2 plots. The plants were sampled at dough stage from the two rows and weighted in each plot. Plant samples were dried in a forced air

  10. Contents of trichothecenes in oats during official variety, organic cultivation and nitrogen fertilization trials in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. HIETANIEMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural toxins, such as mycotoxins, have emerged as a significant factor affecting the safety image of cereal grains as a raw material for the food and feed industry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contents of trichothecenes in representative samples of oats during official variety, nitrogen fertilization and organic farming trials in Finland, 1997–1999. Further objectives were to promote industry and commerce by selection of high-quality oat varieties for various applications. The official variety trials conducted at 8–10 locations were managed following standard protocol. There were 2 types of agronomy trial, the first included comparison of oat cultivars grown in conventional and organic farming systems at 6 locations, and the second used 5 nitrogen rates (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg N ha-1 at 2 locations. Regardless of wet cold summer occurring in Finland during 1998, the concentrations of Fusarium toxins were lowest during this 3 year monitoring period. More mycotoxins were produced during the warm, dry summers of 1997 and 1999 than in 1998. In all, 55% of the oat samples in the official variety trials contained deoxynivalenol (DON within the range of 50– 896 µ g kg-1. The differences in DON concentrations between organic and conventional cultivation were small. The results showed also that the use of various nitrogen fertilization levels only slightly affected the trichothecene concentrations. The contents of trichothecenes in Finnish grains appeared to be similar to or lower than those reported earlier in the Northern Hemisphere.;

  11. Anthocyanin Management in Fruits by Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezek, Mareike; Zörb, Christian; Merkt, Nikolaus; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin

    2018-01-31

    Anthocyanins are water-soluble vacuolar plant pigments that are mainly synthesized in epidermal layers and the flesh of fruits such as apples, cherries, grapes, and other berries. Because of their attractive red to purple coloration and their health-promoting potential, anthocyanins are significant determinants for the quality and market value of fruits and fruit-derived products. In crops, anthocyanin accumulation in leaves can be caused by nutrient deficiency which is usually ascribed to insufficient nitrogen or phosphorus fertilization. However, it is a little-known fact that the plant's nutrient status also impacts anthocyanin synthesis in fruits. Hence, strategic nutrient supply can be a powerful tool to modify the anthocyanin content and consequently the quality and market value of important agricultural commodities. Here we summarize the current knowledge of the influence of plant nutrients on anthocyanin synthesis in fruits of major global market value and discuss the underlying cellular processes that integrate nutrient signaling with fruit anthocyanin formation. It is highlighted that fertilization that is finely tuned in amount and timing has the potential to positively influence the fruit quality by regulating anthocyanin levels. We outline new approaches to enrich plant based foods with health-promoting anthocyanins.

  12. Exploring a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure rice yields in paddy fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yiming; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jingping, E-mail: jpyang@zju.edu.cn; Zhao, Xing; Ye, Xinyi

    2016-09-15

    The application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was believed to dramatically influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Thus, providing a suitable nitrogen fertilization rate to ensure rice yields, reducing GHG emissions and exploring emission behavior are important issues for field management. In this paper, a two year experiment with six rates (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375 kg N/ha) of nitrogen fertilizer application was designed to examine GHG emissions by measuring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) flux and their cumulative global warming potential (GWP) from paddy fields in Hangzhou, Zhejiang in 2013 and 2014. The results indicated that the GWP and rice yields increased with an increasing application rate of nitrogen fertilizer. Emission peaks of CH{sub 4} mainly appeared at the vegetative phase, and emission peaks of CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mainly appeared at reproductive phase of rice growth. The CO{sub 2} flux was significantly correlated with soil temperature, while the CH{sub 4} flux was influenced by logging water remaining period and N{sub 2}O flux was significantly associated with nitrogen application rates. This study showed that 225 kg N/ha was a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to minimize GHG emissions with low yield-scaled emissions of 3.69 (in 2013) and 2.23 (in 2014) kg CO{sub 2}-eq/kg rice yield as well as to ensure rice yields remained at a relatively high level of 8.89 t/ha in paddy fields. - Highlights: • Exploiting co-benefits of rice yield and reduction of greenhouse gas emission. • Global warming potential and rice yield increased with nitrogen fertilizer rate up. • Emission peaks of CH{sub 4,} CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O appeared at vegetative and reproductive phase. • 225 kg N/ha rate benefits both rice yields and GWP reduction.

  13. Structural characteristics signal-grass under continuois stoking and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira de Morais

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From February to November 2003, the mass and morphological composition of forage from Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pastures under four different doses of nitrogen (75, 150, 225 and 300 kg/ha/year were evaluated. The pastures were managed under continuous stocking with growing cattle. The data were grouped within three periods: February to April, May to August and September to November. Randomized block design with subdivided plots and two repetitions was used. The plots correspond to the nitrogen (N doses, while the subplots to the time of the evaluation. In the period from May to August, the forage mass in the B. decumbens pasture increased linearly related to the N dose. The percentage of green leaf blade (GLB was lower in the May/August period if compared to the other periods. The highest percentage values for green stem (GS ocorred February/April. The relation between LFV masses and CV were influenced by the period of evaluation, reaching higher values in September/November. When 75 kg ha-1 of N was applied, the senescent tissue (ST participation in the pasture did not vary throughout the months of the year. However, when whith doses of 150 kg ha-1 of N were applied, the percentage of ST was lower for February/April in comparison to the other periods. The percentages of GFB and GS increased linearly and positively as the N doses increased in the February/April. The structure of the B. decumbens pasture under continuous stocking is influenced interactively by the nitrogen doses and time of the year. Nitrogen fertilization improves the structure of the B. decumbens pasture under continuous stocking managed with the same mean height.

  14. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men “I talked with my doctor ... learn what sexual changes or changes to your fertility you may have. The changes you may have ...

  15. The value of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by grain legumes in comparison to the cost of nitrogen fertilizer used in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardarson, G.; Bunning, S.; Montanez, A.; Roy, R.; MacMillan, A.

    2001-01-01

    A great challenge lies in devising more sustainable farming systems without compromising food production levels and food security. Obviously, increasing productivity is necessary to accommodate growth in the global population. World wide, the environmental factors that most severely restrict plant growth are the availability of water and nitrogen. The challenges in developing countries are to find ways of meeting this additional nitrogen demand without concomitant degrading natural productivity. Widespread adoption of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) would contribute to this goal. BNF, together with adequate N management in the ecosystem, appears to be the most promising alternative to increasing the use of inorganic fertiliser nitrogen. BNF technologies represent economic, sustainable and environmentally friendly means of ensuring the nitrogen requirement of an agro-ecosystem. Here we investigate the value of BNF by grain legumes and compares it to the cost of nitrogen fertilizer used in developing countries. Our data show that major grain legumes fix approximately 11.1 million metric tons of nitrogen per annum in developing countries. If this N was supplied by inorganic fertiliser one would have to apply at least double that amount to achieve the same yields, and this would cost approximately 6.7 billion US dollars. As the eight major grain legumes grown in developing countries contribute 30 - 40% of the annual N requirement the contribution of BNF is of great economic and environmental importance. (author)

  16. Nitrogen Balance During Sweet Sorghum Cropping Cycle as Affected by Irrigation and Fertilization Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lovelli

    Full Text Available A two-year trial was carried out on sweet sorghum, grown in semi-arid environments of southern Europe. The trial was aimed to monitor the main components of the crop N-balance under different irrigation regimes and nitrogen fertilization rates, in factorial combination. A rainfed condition (only one watering soon after sowing was compared with a deficit irrigation regime and a full irrigation treatment (50 and 100% restoration of total crop water consumption, respectively. Crop nitrogen uptake always showed to be the highest N-balance components and was included in the range of 125-194 kg ha-1 during 1997-1998, with respect to the total shoot biomass, according to the nitrogen fertilization rate; consequently, it significantly reduced both nitrogen concentration in the soil solution and the total nitrogen loss due to drainage. Nitrogen concentration in the drainage water didn’t result to be strictly dependent on the rate of fertiliser applied but on the actual soil nitrogen content; the maximum registered value of total nitrogen lost by leaching was 1.9 kg ha-1. Differently, total nitrogen loss due to volatilisation was proportional to the amount of fertilizer applied; irrigation favourably reduced this kind of loss. The limited amount of Nvolatilisation loss was probably due to the neutral pH soil conditions; as an order of magnitude, referring to the highest fertilized but rainfed treatment, the utmost N-volatilisation loss was equal to 5.5 Kg ha-1, as an average over the three years, that is to say less than the 5% of the fertilization rate. A fertilisation rate of 120 Kg ha-1 of nitrogen, together with water application, generally produced a balance between crop N-uptake and total N-loss due to volatilisation and drainage (only the stalk biomass was considered in this calculation. Lower rates of fertilizing nitrogen, indeed, determined a depletion in the soil nitrogen content because of the high crop biomass and the strong N-uptake by the

  17. Nitrogen Balance During Sweet Sorghum Cropping Cycle as Affected by Irrigation and Fertilization Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Perniola

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A two-year trial was carried out on sweet sorghum, grown in semi-arid environments of southern Europe. The trial was aimed to monitor the main components of the crop N-balance under different irrigation regimes and nitrogen fertilization rates, in factorial combination. A rainfed condition (only one watering soon after sowing was compared with a deficit irrigation regime and a full irrigation treatment (50 and 100% restoration of total crop water consumption, respectively. Crop nitrogen uptake always showed to be the highest N-balance components and was included in the range of 125-194 kg ha-1 during 1997-1998, with respect to the total shoot biomass, according to the nitrogen fertilization rate; consequently, it significantly reduced both nitrogen concentration in the soil solution and the total nitrogen loss due to drainage. Nitrogen concentration in the drainage water didn’t result to be strictly dependent on the rate of fertiliser applied but on the actual soil nitrogen content; the maximum registered value of total nitrogen lost by leaching was 1.9 kg ha-1. Differently, total nitrogen loss due to volatilisation was proportional to the amount of fertilizer applied; irrigation favourably reduced this kind of loss. The limited amount of Nvolatilisation loss was probably due to the neutral pH soil conditions; as an order of magnitude, referring to the highest fertilized but rainfed treatment, the utmost N-volatilisation loss was equal to 5.5 Kg ha-1, as an average over the three years, that is to say less than the 5% of the fertilization rate. A fertilisation rate of 120 Kg ha-1 of nitrogen, together with water application, generally produced a balance between crop N-uptake and total N-loss due to volatilisation and drainage (only the stalk biomass was considered in this calculation. Lower rates of fertilizing nitrogen, indeed, determined a depletion in the soil nitrogen content because of the high crop biomass and the strong N-uptake by the

  18. Effect of Different Sources of Nitrogen and Organic Fertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra saydi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi L. is an annual medicinal plant of the family Apiaceae which can reach 30 -100 cm in height. and its growth is highly depended on the availability of mineral nutrients in the soil. But, it has been shown that utilization of chemical fertilizers for growth promotion of Ajown could have negative impacts on environment and ecological systems. Nowadays, sustainable agriculture is the best approach to overcome such problems and prevent the excess accumulation of chemical fertilizers deposited within the soil. Application of bio-fertilizers as an alternative to chemical fertilizers is a new sustainable approach which have been raised in the new era of Agriculture. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the application of various source of biological fertilizers such as Vermicompost, Alkazotplus and Humic Acid in combination with nitrogen fertilizers on growth behavior, yield and yield components of Ajowan under Ahvaz growing condition. Materials and methods This research was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station of Shahid Chamran University in 2014-2015 to determine the effects of different sources of nitrogen and organic fertilizers on the yield and yield components of Ajowan based on two way randomized complete block design with three replications. The first factor of the experiment was Application of four different nitrogen sources including: Urea (U, Sulfur-coated Urea (SCU, %50 Sulfur-coated urea (1/2 SCU + Alkazot Plus biological fertilizer and Control (no nitrogen source used. Organic fertilizers were also applied at four levels, consisting of Humic Acid, Vermicompost, %50 Vermicompost + Humic Acid and Control (no organic Fertilizer as the second factor. After soil preparation, approximately four Kg.ha-1 of the seeds were planted on the rows with 30 cm distance. Plant height, number of sub branches, number of umbels per plant, number of seeds per umbel , 1000 seeds weight, biological

  19. [Effects of irrigation amount and nitrogen fertilization rate on wheat yield and soil nitrate content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong-Yan; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Xu, Zhen-Zhu

    2011-02-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of irrigation amount and nitrogen fertilization rate on wheat yield and soil nitrate content. With the increase of irrigation amount, the soil nitrate content in 0-200 cm layer at the same nitrogen fertilization rates had a trend of decrease -increase-decrease. Under irrigation, the soil nitrate content was significantly lower in 0-80 cm layer while significantly higher in 80-200 cm layer, compared with the control. As the irrigation amount increased, the translocation of soil nitrate nitrogen to deeper layers accelerated dramatically, with the content decreased in 0-80 cm layer, increased in 120-200 cm layer, and peaked in 120-140 cm layer. When the nitrogen fertilization rate increased from 210 kg x hm(-2) to 300 kg x hm(-2) the soil nitrate content at the same irrigation amounts increased significantly through anthesis, filling, and maturity stages. With the increase of irrigation amount, the grain yield decreased after an initial increase, being the highest when the irrigation amount in whole growth period was 60 mm. The grain yield, grain protein content, and grain protein yield all increased significantly with increasing nitrogen fertilization rate. Under the conditions of the present experiment, the treatment with nitrogen fertilization rate 210 kg N x hm(-2) and irrigation amount 60 mm (split into two times) had the highest grain yield, grain protein content, grain protein yield, and harvest index but the least NO3(-)-N leaching, being the more available irrigation and nitrogen fertilization mode for wheat production in the study area.

  20. Nitrogen fertilization of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines: yield, total nitrogen content in the leaves and must composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Lorensini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Grapevines grown on sandy soils are subjected to the application of supplemental nitrogen (N; however, there is little information available regarding the impact of these applications on yield, plant nutritional state and must composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield, nutritional state and must composition of grapevines subjected to N fertilization. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines were subjected to annual applications of 0, 10, 15, 20, 40, 80 and 120 kg N ha-1 in 2008, 2009 and 2010. During the 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11 harvest seasons, leaves were collected during full flowering and when the berries changed color, and the total N content was analyzed. The grape yield and the enological characteristics of the must were evaluated. The response to applied N was low, and the highest Cabernet Sauvignon grape yield was obtained in response to an application of 20 kg N ha-1 year-1. The application of N increased the nutrient content in the leaf collected at full flowering, but it had little effect on the total nutrient content in the must, and it did not affect the enological characteristics of the must, such as soluble solids, pH, total acidity, malic acid and tartaric acid.

  1. Effects of nitrogen fertilization in cotton crop on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Ricardo; Degrande, Paulo E.; Fernandes, Marcos G.; Nogueira, Rodrigo F.

    2007-01-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glove, is one of the pests of cotton crop and its relation with the host seem to depend on the amount of nitrogen available to the plant. The biology of A. gossypii using different cotton nitrogen fertility regimes was studied under greenhouse conditions, in Dourados, MS. A completely randomized design with nine replications in a factorial scheme (2x4x2)+1 was used. Two nitrogen sources (sulphate of ammonium and urea), four doses of nitrogen (50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1), two different times of nitrogen application and one additional treatment without nitrogen were taken as factors. The nymphal phases, the pre-reproductive, reproductive and pos-reproductive periods, longevity, the life cycle and fecundity of the cotton aphid were evaluated. The doses of nitrogen influenced the cotton aphid biology in both sources and times of application, favoring its development and fecundity. (author)

  2. Nitrogen-isotope ratios of nitrate in ground water under fertilized fields, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipse, W.J.; Bonner, F.T.

    1985-01-01

    Ground-water samples from two heavily fertilized sites in Suffolk County, New York, were collected through the 1978 growing season and analyzed for nitrate-N concentrations and nitrogen-isotope ratios. Six wells were at a potato farm; six were on a golf course. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the 15N/14N ratios (??15N values) of fertilizer are increased during transit from land surface to ground water to an extent which would preclude use of this ratio to distinguish agricultural from animal sources of nitrate in ground water. Ground water at both sites contained a greater proportion of 15N than the fertilizers being applied. At the potato farm, the average ??15N value of the fertilizers was 0.2???; the average ??15N value of the ground-water nitrate was 6.2???. At the golf course, the average ??15N value of the fertilizers was -5.9???, and that of ground-water nitrate was 6.5???. The higher ??15N values of ground-water nitrate are probably caused by isotopic fractionation during the volatile loss of ammonia from nitrogen applied in reduced forms (NH4+ and organic-N). The ??15N values of most ground-water samples from both areas were less than 10???, the upper limit of the range characteristic of agricultural sources of nitrate; these sources include both fertilizer nitrate and nitrate derived from increased mineralization of soil nitrogen through cultivation. Previous studies have shown that the ??15N values of nitrate derived from human or animal waste generally exceed 10???. The nitrogen-isotope ratios of fertilizer-derived nitrate were not altered to an extent that would make them indistinguishable from animal-waste-derived nitrates in ground water.Ground-water samples from two heavily fertilized sites in Suffolk County, New York, were collected through the 1978 growing season and analyzed for nitrate-N concentrations and nitrogen-isotope ratios. Six wells were at a potato farm; six were on a golf course. The purpose of this study was to

  3. Optimizing nitrogen fertilizer application to irrigated wheat. Results of a co-ordinated research project. 1994-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    This TECDOC summarizes the results of a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Use of Nuclear Techniques for Optimizing Fertilizer Application under Irrigated Wheat to Increase the Efficient Use of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Consequently Reduce Environmental Pollution. The project was carried out between 1994 and 1998 through the technical co-ordination of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Fourteen Member States of the IAEA and FAO carried out a series of field experiments aimed at improving irrigation water and fertilizer-N uptake efficiencies through integrated management of the complex Interactions involving inputs, soils, climate, and wheat cultivars. Its goals were: to investigate various aspects of fertilizer N uptake efficiency of wheat crops under irrigation through an interregional research network involving countries growing large areas of irrigated wheat; to use 15 N and the soil-moisture neutron probe to determine the fate of applied N, to follow water and nitrate movement in the soil, and to determine water balance and water-use efficiency in irrigated wheat cropping systems; to use the data generated to further develop and refine various relationships in the Ceres-Wheat computer simulation model; to use the knowledge generated to produce a N-rate-recommendation package to refine specific management strategies with respect to fertilizer applications and expected yields

  4. Soil fertility Status, Management, and Research in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reviews and synthesizes the soil fertility status, management among smallholder farmers and research in the three countries of east Africa, namely Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. We observe that many studies note the declining soil fertility, mainly due to soil fertility mining, putting crop production in an ...

  5. Determinants of the adoption of integrated soil fertility management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... yet people are still reliant on food imports, with the region registering high poverty levels. Depletion of soil fertility and the resulting decline in agricultural productivity in Mbale division has led to many attempts to develop and popularize Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) technologies that could restore soil fertility.

  6. Chemical properties of a Haplustalf soil under irrigation with treated wastewater and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda V. B. D. Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of irrigation with treated wastewater and nitrogen (N fertilization on the chemical characteristics of a Haplustalf soil cultivated with cotton. An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with four replicates, and arranged in a 5 x 4 factorial. Five doses of N fertilization (0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 kg ha-1 and four sources of irrigation water (freshwater, wastewater treated by an anaerobic reactor, wastewater treated by an anaerobic reactor and post-treated by intermittent sand filter in series, wastewater treated in a septic tank and post-treated by an intermittent sand filter were tested. Irrigation was daily performed from July 2011 to January 2012 according to the water demand of cotton resulting in a water depth of 620 mm. It was found that, compared with the conventional management with freshwater irrigation, treated wastewater provides greater accumulation of micronutrient, potassium and sodium in the soil, increasing the risk of sodification in irrigated areas.

  7. Nitrogen Fertigation is Less Efficient but Safer than Granular Fertilizer Application in Newly-Planted Blueberry

    OpenAIRE

    Bryla, David; Machado, rui

    2007-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer methods and rates were evaluated in a new field of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. `Bluecrop"). Treatments included four application methods (split fertigation, continuous fertigation, and two non-fertigated controls) and four rates of N application (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg/ha of N). Fertigation treatments were irrigated by drip and injected with dissolved ammonium sulfate fertilizer; split fertigation was applied as a triple split from April to June while conti...

  8. Additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time of rice down-regulates cellulose synthesis in seed endosperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Midorikawa

    Full Text Available The balance between carbon and nitrogen is a key determinant of seed storage components, and thus, is of great importance to rice and other seed-based food crops. To clarify the influence of the rhizosphere carbon/nitrogen balance during the maturation stage of several seed components, transcriptome analysis was performed on the seeds from rice plants that were provided additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time. As a result, it was assessed that genes associated with molecular processes such as photosynthesis, trehalose metabolism, carbon fixation, amino acid metabolism, and cell wall metabolism were differentially expressed. Moreover, cellulose and sucrose synthases, which are involved in cellulose synthesis, were down-regulated. Therefore, we compared cellulose content of mature seeds that were treated with additional nitrogen fertilization with those from control plants using calcofluor staining. In these experiments, cellulose content in endosperm from plants receiving additional nitrogen fertilization was less than that in control endosperm. Other starch synthesis-related genes such as starch synthase 1, starch phosphorylase 2, and branching enzyme 3 were also down-regulated, whereas some α-amylase and β-amylase genes were up-regulated. On the other hand, mRNA expression of amino acid biosynthesis-related molecules was up-regulated. Moreover, additional nitrogen fertilization caused accumulation of storage proteins and up-regulated Cys-poor prolamin mRNA expression. These data suggest that additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time changes the expression of some storage substance-related genes and reduces cellulose levels in endosperm.

  9. Additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time of rice down-regulates cellulose synthesis in seed endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Keiko; Kuroda, Masaharu; Terauchi, Kaede; Hoshi, Masako; Ikenaga, Sachiko; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Abe, Keiko; Asakura, Tomiko

    2014-01-01

    The balance between carbon and nitrogen is a key determinant of seed storage components, and thus, is of great importance to rice and other seed-based food crops. To clarify the influence of the rhizosphere carbon/nitrogen balance during the maturation stage of several seed components, transcriptome analysis was performed on the seeds from rice plants that were provided additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time. As a result, it was assessed that genes associated with molecular processes such as photosynthesis, trehalose metabolism, carbon fixation, amino acid metabolism, and cell wall metabolism were differentially expressed. Moreover, cellulose and sucrose synthases, which are involved in cellulose synthesis, were down-regulated. Therefore, we compared cellulose content of mature seeds that were treated with additional nitrogen fertilization with those from control plants using calcofluor staining. In these experiments, cellulose content in endosperm from plants receiving additional nitrogen fertilization was less than that in control endosperm. Other starch synthesis-related genes such as starch synthase 1, starch phosphorylase 2, and branching enzyme 3 were also down-regulated, whereas some α-amylase and β-amylase genes were up-regulated. On the other hand, mRNA expression of amino acid biosynthesis-related molecules was up-regulated. Moreover, additional nitrogen fertilization caused accumulation of storage proteins and up-regulated Cys-poor prolamin mRNA expression. These data suggest that additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time changes the expression of some storage substance-related genes and reduces cellulose levels in endosperm.

  10. Effects of cutting frequency and levels of nitrogen fertilizer on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of fertilizer-N application and cutting frequency on the herbage yield of Panicum maximum pasture were investigated in 2001 through 2004 in a sandy loam soil at Nsukka. The experiment was a 4 x 4 factorial arrangement laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments ...

  11. Belowground Processes in Nitrogen Fertilized Cottonwood and Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye-Han Lee; Shibu Jose

    2004-01-01

    We measured soil respiration, fine root biomass production, and microbial biomass along a fertilization gradient (0, 56, 112, and 224 kg N ha-1 per year) in 7-year-old cottonwood and loblolly pine plantations, established on a well-drained, Redbay sandy loam (a fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic Rhodic Paleudlt), in northwest Florida. Annual soil...

  12. Optical crop sensor for variable-rate nitrogen fertilization in corn: II - indices of fertilizer efficiency and corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardes Bragagnolo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally, in tropical and subtropical agroecosystems, the efficiency of nitrogen (N fertilization is low, inducing a temporal variability of crop yield, economic losses, and environmental impacts. Variable-rate N fertilization (VRF, based on optical spectrometry crop sensors, could increase the N use efficiency (NUE. The objective of this study was to evaluate the corn grain yield and N fertilization efficiency under VRF determined by an optical sensor in comparison to the traditional single-application N fertilization (TSF. With this purpose, three experiments with no-tillage corn were carried out in the 2008/09 and 2010/11 growing seasons on a Hapludox in South Brazil, in a completely randomized design, at three different sites that were analyzed separately. The following crop properties were evaluated: aboveground dry matter production and quantity of N uptake at corn flowering, grain yield, and vegetation index determined by an N-Sensor® ALS optical sensor. Across the sites, the corn N fertilizer had a positive effect on corn N uptake, resulting in increased corn dry matter and grain yield. However, N fertilization induced lower increases of corn grain yield at site 2, where there was a severe drought during the growing period. The VRF defined by the optical crop sensor increased the apparent N recovery (NRE and agronomic efficiency of N (NAE compared to the traditional fertilizer strategy. In the average of sites 1 and 3, which were not affected by drought, VRF promoted an increase of 28.0 and 41.3 % in NAE and NRE, respectively. Despite these results, no increases in corn grain yield were observed by the use of VRF compared to TSF.

  13. Nitrogen dynamics in soils cultivated with maize and fertilized with pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emília Borges Alves

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The proper disposal of pig manure is of great importance because, when mishandled, it can contaminate water resources. This study aimed to evaluate the nitrogen dynamics in a Cerrado Oxisol and its absorption, over time, by a maize crop managed with pig slurry associated with mineral fertilization (N P K. The study was conducted at a private farm, in the region of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The maize crop was able to recover 62% of the mineral nitrogen that entered the soil-plant system, while 9% leached as nitrate and, to a lesser amount, as ammonium. The maximum average content of nitrate and ammonium of 92 kg ha-1 and 43 kg ha-1, respectively, was observed in the 0 to 0.3 m soil layer during the early crop development stage. A minimum content of 5.8 kg ha-1 of nitrate and 9.0 kg ha-1 of ammonium, respectively, was measured at the end of the cycle. In addition, the nitrate content at that soil layer, at the end of the maize cycle, remained below the values measured at the native Cerrado, indicating that the agricultural use of the land poses no additional risk to the nitrate accumulation and leaching into the soil profile.

  14. Biochemical suitability of crop residues for cellulosic ethanol: disincentives to nitrogen fertilization in corn agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Morgan E; Hockaday, William C; Masiello, Caroline A; Snapp, Sieglinde; McSwiney, Claire P; Baldock, Jeffrey A

    2011-03-01

    Concerns about energy security and climate change have increased biofuel demand, particularly ethanol produced from cellulosic feedstocks (e.g., food crop residues). A central challenge to cropping for cellulosic ethanol is the potential environmental damage from increased fertilizer use. Previous analyses have assumed that cropping for carbohydrate in residue will require the same amount of fertilizer as cropping for grain. Using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance, we show that increases in biomass in response to fertilization are not uniform across biochemical classes (carbohydrate, protein, lipid, lignin) or tissues (leaf and stem, grain, reproductive support). Although corn grain responds vigorously and nonlinearly, corn residue shows only modest increases in carbohydrate yields in response to high levels of fertilization (25% increase with 202 kg N ha(-1)). Lignin yields in the residue increased almost twice as much as carbohydrate yields in response to nitrogen, implying that residue feedstock quality declines as more fertilizer is applied. Fertilization also increases the decomposability of corn residue, implying that soil carbon sequestration becomes less efficient with increased fertilizer. Our results suggest that even when corn is grown for grain, benefits of fertilization decline rapidly after the ecosystem's N demands are met. Heavy application of fertilizer yields minimal grain benefits and almost no benefits in residue carbohydrates, while degrading the cellulosic ethanol feedstock quality and soil carbon sequestration capacity.

  15. Nitrogen fertilization in corn with urea coated with different sources of polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio Valderrama; Salatiér Buzetti; Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto Teixeira Filho; Cleiton Gredson Sabin Benett; Marcelo Andreotti

    2014-01-01

     In view of theoretic increase in efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers for controlled release, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of nitrogen, using conventional urea and ureas coated by different polymers, in the leaf N content, leaf chlorophyll index, components production and grain yield of irrigated corn in growing season and second crop in the savannah region. The experiments were conducted at experimental area belonging to UNESP – Ilha Solteira, located in Selvíria – MS in a dystroph...

  16. Nitrogen fertilization in irrigated common bean at different times, with and without dose division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Pereira Ramos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilization at different times on the agronomic characteristics of common bean cultivars, within the intercrop period. An experiment was installed in the town of Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil, with randomized blocks, under a 3 x 5 factorial scheme, consisting of 3 cultivars and 5 nitrogen application times, with 4 repetitions. We evaluated the cultivars IAC Alvorada, IPR Juriti, and BRS Requinte. Regarding nitrogen fertilization, we evaluated 5 times, the first corresponding to control (E1 = N zero and the others applying 100 kg.ha-1 of nitrogen, using urea as their source, as follows: E2 = 100% of N applied at sowing; E3 = 100% of N applied 25 days after emergence (DAE; E4 = 50% of N applied 20 DAE and 50% 30 DAE; E5 = 33% of N applied 15 DAE, 33% 25 DAE, and 33% 35 DAE. There was genetic variability among cultivars with regard to response, as well as differences between nitrogen fertilization times. The cultivars IAC Alvorada and IPR Juriti obtained higher grain yields. The nitrogen application time divided into 15, 25 and 35 DAE enabled a higher grain yield for the cultivars IAC Alvorada and IPR Juriti.

  17. Fate of tagged nitrogen fertilizer applied to irrigated corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.V.

    1980-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted for 2 years with ammonium sulfate tagged with 5.93 at. % 15 N to determine the fate of N fertilizer applied to sprinkler-irrigated corn (Zea mays L.). All areas of triplicate, 356-cm square plots were treated with 50 or 150 kg tagged N/ha. N fertilizer used by the crop and that remaining in the top 240 cm of soil were measured. NH 4 + -N and NO 3 - -N in the 0- to 10-cm layers after the second harvest also were determined. Grain yields in 1976 did not differ significantly. In 1977 response to N was significant, but responses to two N rates did not differ significantly

  18. Short-term effects of grazing intensity and nitrogen fertilization on soil organic carbon pools under perennial grass pastures in the Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasture management can have important implications on the amounts and long-term stability of soil organic carbon (SOC). We investigated the short-term impacts of grazing intensity and nitrogen (N) fertilization levels on C dynamics into the various SOC pools in rotationally stocked ‘Tifton 85’ bermu...

  19. Apparent nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of grass-clover leys and of farmyard manure in an arable rotation. Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikula, D.; Berge, Ten H.F.M.; Goedhart, P.W.; Schröder, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The apparent nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of farmyard manure (NFRVFYM) was studied in a long-term experiment on a loamy sand soil at Grabow, Poland. The experiment combined five rates of FYM with four nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates in two rotations (RotA and RotB) started in

  20. Effects of hand weeding strip and nitrogen fertilizer on corn plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, João Renato Vaz; Martins, Dagoberto; Cardoso, Leonildo A; Carbonari, Caio Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to evaluate effects of different strip weed control associated with nitrogen fertilizer on corn applied after planting. The experiment was set and conducted in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, and the hybrid planted was Dekalb 333-B. A completely randomized block design with four replications was used. Experimental plots were disposed as a factorial scheme 2 x 2 x 4, constituted by two types of weeding on row (with or without manual hoeing), two types of weeding on inter-row (with or without manual hoeing), and four nitrogen levels applied after planting (00, 60, 90, and 120 kg ha(-1)). Plots were composed by six rows with 5 m length. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied at 35 days after emergence (d.a.e). For weed community it was evaluated: weed density, dominancy, frequency, and relative importance. The main weed species were: Brachiaria plantiginea, Amaranthus retroflexus, Bidens pilosa, Cyperus rotunds, Brachiaria decumbens, Euphorbia heterofila, Oxalis latifolia, Acanthospermum hispidum, Commelina benghalensis. It was evaluated corn height at 40 and 100 d.a.e., first ear insertion height at 100 d.a.e., and final grain yield at harvesting. Plants and first ear insertion height were affected when nitrogen fertilizer was not applied. Treatments without weed control showed that weed interfered negatively with plants height. There were no correlation between weeds and nitrogen fertilizer for all parameters evaluated. Parcels without weed showed the highest ear weights and final grain production. Treatments that received nitrogen fertilizer, independently of studied arrangement, provided higher yields.

  1. Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an overview of the nitrogen chemical market as of July 2013, including the production of ammonia compounds. Industrial uses for ammonia include fertilizers, explosives, and plastics. Other topics include industrial capacity of U.S. ammonia producers CF Industries Holdings Inc., Koch Nitrogen Co., PCS Nitrogen, Inc., and Agrium Inc., the impact of natural gas prices on the nitrogen industry, and demand for corn crops for ethanol production.

  2. effect of water harvesting methods, nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    irrigation as well as appropriate Nitrogen and. Phosphorus levels which are vital for crop establishment, growth and proper moisture utilization and retention under .... Benlate(50% Benomyl) fungicide spray at the rate of. 50g l-1. Plants were largely sustained by rainfall and irrigated with 10 liters of water per plant in the first.

  3. Corn nitrogen fertilization rate tools compared over eight Midwest states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publicly-available nitrogen (N) rate recommendation tools are utilized to help maximize yield in corn production. These tools often fail when N is over-applied and results in excess N being lost to the environment, or when N is under-applied and results in decreased yield and economic returns. Perfo...

  4. Nitrogen fertilization and use efficiency in an intercrop system of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted at the Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka Research farm during the 2008 and 2009 cropping seasons to determine the effects of intercropping cassava and soybean on cassava tuber and soybean grain yields respectively and on nitrogen use efficiency of cassava at the ...

  5. The role of management in an in vitro fertilization practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masler, Steve; Strickland, Robert R

    2013-05-01

    An in vitro fertilization (IVF) practice is an enterprise. Like any enterprise, it has management that plays a major role, forming the structure, framework, and components that make the practice viable. Management of an IVF practice consists of two key teams: the fertility team and the management team. Management activities of the teams fall into eight core areas: business operations, financial, human resources, information technology, organizational governance, risk management, patient care systems, and quality management. Shady Grove Fertility Centers and Huntington Reproductive Center are two examples of professionally managed large fertility practices, one managed mostly centrally and the other largely managed in a decentralized way. Management is what takes a physician's IVF practice and converts it to a professional enterprise. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Fate of fertilizer nitrogen in soil-plant system under irrigating condition. Pt.1: Effect of nitrogen level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qing; Wen Xianfang; Zheng Xingyun; Pan Jiarong

    1997-01-01

    Three nitrogen fertilization levels including optimum rate of nitrogen applied (N1.0, 150 kg N·ha -1 ), 150% of optimum rate (N1.5, 225 kg N·ha -1 ) and 50% of optimum rate (N0.5, 75 kg N·ha -1 ) were selected to determine the fate of nitrogen in soil plant system by 15 N technique in 1994∼1995 field experiment which was conducted in Shijiazhuang. The results showed that under irrigated condition the nitrogen use efficiencies (NUE) of ammonium bicarbonate by winter wheat in fertilized treatments were 38.5%, 32.3% and 22.4% respectively, while the highest NUE of winter wheat was found in N0.5 treatment due to a relatively high fertility. The highest yield (6.8 x 10 3 kg grain·ha -1 , 14.7 x 10 3 kg top·ha -1 ) was obtained in N1.0 treatment, but nitrogen uptake and grain yield in N1.5 treatment were lower than those of other fertilizer treatments and there was no significant difference between N0.0 and N1.5 in grain yield. the highest residue of fertilizer N was determined in N1.5 treatment, of which 46% existed in the top layer of the soil (0∼50 cm). There was no significant difference in residual fertilizer N in soil between the other two treatments (31.28% in N0.5, 31.12% in N1.0). In 15 N balance calculation, the unaccounted part of applied N which was leaching down 50 cm in the soil profile as nitrate or gaseous loss through volatilization, denitrification were 30.20%, the soil profile as nitrate or gaseous loss through volatilization, denitrification were 30.20%, 36.56%, 31.25% in N0.5, N1.5 treatments, respectively. It is very important to control residual N in order to prevent N pollution and promote the growth of next crop

  7. Comparing the performance of 11 crop simulation models in predicting yield response to nitrogen fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, T J; Palosuo, T; Kersebaum, K C

    2016-01-01

    Eleven widely used crop simulation models (APSIM, CERES, CROPSYST, COUP, DAISY, EPIC, FASSET, HERMES, MONICA, STICS and WOFOST) were tested using spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) data set under varying nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates from three experimental years in the boreal climate of Jokioinen...

  8. Validation on wheat response to irrigation, CO2 and nitrogen fertilization in the Community Land Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Wheat is a staple crop for global food security, and is the dominant vegetation cover for a significant fraction of earth's croplands. As such, it plays an important role in soil carbon balance, and land-atmosphere interactions in these key regions. Understanding whether the Community Land Model (CLM) appropriate response to elevated CO2 and different levels of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation is a crucial question. We participated the AgMIP-wheat project and run 72 simulations at Maricopa spring wheat FACE sites and five winter wheat sites in North America forcing with site observed meteorology data. After calibration on the phenology, carbon allocation, and soil hydrology parameters, wheat in CLM45 has reasonable response to irrigation and elevated CO2. However, wheat in CLM45 has no response to low or high N fertilization because the low amount of N fertilization is sufficient for wheat growth in CLM45. We plan to further extend the same simulations for CLM5 (will release in Fall 2016), which has substantial improvements on soil hydrology (improved soil evaporation and plant hydraulic parameterization) and nitrogen dynamics (flexible leaf CN ratio and Vcmax25, plant pays for carbon to get nitrogen). We will evaluate the uncertainties of wheat response to nitrogen fertilization, irrigation, CO2 due to model improvements.

  9. Effects of liquid nitrogen fertilizer and Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of combined treatment of liquid nitrogen fertilizer and benzyl amino purine (BAP) was studied on mineral elements (Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, sodium, iron and Manganese) and lipid content in relation to senescence. The experimental site for this study was situated at the botanical garden of ...

  10. Economic viability of splitting nitrogen fertilizer in maize ( Zea mays L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic viability of splitting nitrogen fertilizer in maize (Zea mays L.): case of Lubumbashi, southeastern DR Congo. Nyembo Kimuni Luciens, Useni Sikuzani Yannick, Chukiyabo Kibenge Minerve, Tshomba Kalumbu John, Ntumba Ndaye François, Muyambo Musaya Emmanuel, Kapalanga Kamina Prisca, Mpundu ...

  11. Recovery of nitrogen fertilizer by traditional and improved rice cultivars in the Bhutan Highlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaley, Bhim Bahadur; Jensen, Henning Høgh; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2010-01-01

    The recovery of soil derived nitrogen (NDFS) and fertilizer N (NDFF) was investigated in highland rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields in Bhutan, characterized by high inputs of farmyard manure (FYM). The effect of 60 kg N ha-1 (60 N) applied in two splits to a traditional and an improved cultivar...

  12. A Comparison of Continuous Nitrogen Fertigation to Conventional Granular Fertilizer Application in Highbush Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen fertigation practices are currently being evaluated and compared to conventional fertilizer aplication on 0.6 acres of 'Bluecrop' blueberry planted April 2006 in Corvallis, OR. Plants are spaced 2.5 x 10 ft. apart and growing on mulched, raised beds. Treatments include two methods of fert...

  13. The effects of nitrogen fertilization on N2O emissions from a rubber plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Ji, Hong-Li; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Sha, Li-Qing; Liu, Yun-Tong; Zhang, Xiang; Zhao, Wei; Dong, Yu-Xin; Bai, Xiao-Long; Lin, You-Xin; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Zheng, Xun-Hua

    2016-06-21

    To gain the effects of N fertilizer applications on N2O emissions and local climate change in fertilized rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in the tropics, we measured N2O fluxes from fertilized (75 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) and unfertilized rubber plantations at Xishuangbanna in southwest China over a 2-year period. The N2O emissions from the fertilized and unfertilized plots were 4.0 and 2.5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively, and the N2O emission factor was 1.96%. Soil moisture, soil temperature, and the area weighted mean ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) content controlled the variations in N2O flux from the fertilized and unfertilized rubber plantations. NH4(+)-N did not influence temporal changes in N2O emissions from the trench, slope, or terrace plots, but controlled spatial variations in N2O emissions among the treatments. On a unit area basis, the 100-year carbon dioxide equivalence of the fertilized rubber plantation N2O offsets 5.8% and 31.5% of carbon sink of the rubber plantation and local tropical rainforest, respectively. When entire land area in Xishuangbanna is considered, N2O emissions from fertilized rubber plantations offset 17.1% of the tropical rainforest's carbon sink. The results show that if tropical rainforests are converted to fertilized rubber plantations, regional N2O emissions may enhance local climate warming.

  14. Mineralization of residual fertilizer nitrogen in soil after rice harvest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarika, S.; Sarkar, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Remineralization of immobilized 15 N labelled urea N applied to rice crop at the rate of 180 kg N/ha was determined. Mineral N increased rapidly up to 14 days of incubation and thereafter remained more or less constant. The recovery of fertilizer as mineral N varied between 0.7 and 3.1 μg/g soil. The percent mineralization of labelled organic N ranged between 3.1 and 9.5. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  15. The response of winter wheat to water stress and nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.; Qi, M.; Wang, H.; Changjiu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The response of winter wheat to water stress imposed at different crop growth stages by deficit irrigation and fertilizer use under several schemes of irrigation were evaluated on fine sandy soil and sand loam soil. The results showed that according to grain yield response factor K, the order of sensitive growth stages of winter wheat to water stress in decreasing sequence were booting to flowering ( K= 0.90), winter afterward to booting ( K= 0.69), flowering to milking ( K= 0.44) and milking to ripening ( K= 0.25). Field water efficiency would get 16.7 kg/mm.ha when no water stress in growth period, and when water stress has occurred in some growth stages, the value of it decreased by 5 - 20 percent. It was also found that high fertilizer application rate without split application would not significantly influence the yield on fine sandy soil. But schedule of irrigation affected the translocation of nitrogen in the plant. When water stress occurred in later growth stage, the ratio of NUE in gain to straw decreased, and fertilizer was available for crop only about one month after fertilizer application, excessive fertilizer rate would result in decrease of NUE by leaching of nitrogen in sandy soil. Total recovery of fertilizer at harvest was half amount of application. 6 refs; 10 tabs; ( author)

  16. Nitrogen management through coupling carbon and nitrogen cycling in agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonitto, C.; Gardner, J. B.; David, M. B.; Drinkwater, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    We examined the potential to reduce N loss from agroecosystems through management practices which promote coupled C and N cycling. Point application of inorganic N fertilizer in conventional agricultural systems has decoupled C and N cycling. We compared alternative rotations which reduce bare fallow periods to conventional corn-soybean rotations with a winter bare fallow which are common across the Corn Belt. In a review using meta-analysis we demonstrated that including cover crops in current annual grain rotations reduces nitrate leaching an average of 70% relative to conventional rotations, with no statistically significant change in crop yield. The potential for significant reductions in nitrate leaching in alternative relative to conventional rotations was also demonstrated through simulations using the DNDC model. Rotations including a winter cover crop showed a 35% and 55% reduction in nitrate leaching from corn and soybean fields respectively relative to conventional management; more complex rotations which included a legume N source averaged a 50% reduction in nitrate leaching from corn and soybean fields relative to the conventional system. Our comparison of crop rotations using the DNDC model also demonstrated increasing rotation complexity reduced N2O emissions relative to conventional systems. Examination of N2O loss under different crop rotations using an empirical modeling approach verified a reduced cumulative N2O emission rate under complex rotations. However, while extreme N2O emissions were observed in DNDC simulation outcomes, empirical modeling work concludes extreme N2O flux events are statistically rare given currently available observations. Quantification of 15N recovery using meta-analysis demonstrated that management which varies the type, timing, or placement of inorganic fertilizer resulted in 0-26% recovery of N applied in vegetation or soil. In contrast in legume-fertilized systems 42% of legume-derived N inputs are recovered in

  17. Variations in the Use of Resources for Food: Land, Nitrogen Fertilizer and Food Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Ibarrola-Rivas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Future dietary changes will increase the global demand for agricultural resources per person. Food production requires several resources which are interrelated: land, water, nutrients and energy. Other studies have calculated the per capita requirements of only one resource (nitrogen or land. In this paper, we combine several parameters (diets, production systems and nitrogen-land trade-off in one analysis in order to provide a more integrated assessment of the impacts of the use of agricultural resources for food. We estimated the trade-off between the per capita use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer and crop land. With our methodology, we are able to identify separately the impacts of the type of diet and of the type of production system. We use national level data of five countries as examples of global extremes: from extensive to highly intensive systems, and from very basic diets to very affluent diets. The present differences in diets and production systems result in large differences in the per capita use of resources which ranges from 3 to 30 kg of nitrogen fertilizer use per person, and from 1800 to 4500 m2 of arable land use per person. As the results show, in 2050, the average per capita availability of crop land will not be enough to produce food for affluent diets with present production systems. Our results are useful to assess future requirements of nitrogen fertilizer for the limited land available on the planet.

  18. Influence of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizations on triticale yield under dry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goekmen, S.; Tasyuerek, T.; Demir, M.

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of N and P fertilizations on grain yield of triticale. Field experiments were conducted at three locations and four locations of Sivas province during 1996-97 and 1997-98 growing seasons, respectively. The experiment was designed in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Five rates of nitrogen (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg N ha -1 ) and phosphorus (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 ) were applied. The trials of nitrogen and phosphorus were conducted separately. Nitrogen application significantly increased the grain yield all sites in both years. Grain yield was significantly increased by P application at all locations in the first year and at only Uzunyayla in the second year. The highest grain yield was obtained from different fertilizer applications depending upon sites and years. Refs. 17 (author)

  19. Performance of phosphogypsum and calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer for nitrogen conservation in pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Luo, Wenhai; Li, Guoxue; Wang, Kun; Gong, Xiaoyan

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the performance of phosphogypsum and calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer for nitrogen conservation during pig manure composting with cornstalk as the bulking agent. Results show that phosphogypsum increased nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission, but significantly reduced ammonia (NH 3 ) emission and thus enhanced the mineral and total nitrogen (TN) contents in compost. Although N 2 O emission could be reduced by adding calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer, NH 3 emission was considerably increased, resulting in an increase in TN loss during composting. By blending these two additives, both NH 3 and N 2 O emissions could be mitigated, achieving effective nitrogen conservation in composting. More importantly, with the addition of 20% TN of the mixed composting materials, these two additives could synergistically improve the compost maturity and quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of cotton leaf-curl virus on the yield-components and fibre properties of cotton genotypes under varying plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Hayat, K.; Ashraf, F.; Sadiq, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Cotton leaf-curl virus (CLCu VB. Wala strain) is one of the major biotic constraints of cotton production in Punjab. Development of resistant cotton genotype is the most feasible, economical and effective method to combat this hazardous problem, but so far no resistant genotype has been reported. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare yield and yield-components and fiber traits of different genotypes/varieties under different plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer as a management strategy to cope with this viral disease. Field experiment was conducted during 2006-07 to evaluate the effect of genotype, plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer on cotton. Five genotypes (MNH-786, MNH-789, MNH- 6070, CIM- 496, and BH-160), three plant-spacings (15, 30 and 45 cm) and three nitrogen fertilizer-levels (6.5, 8.6 and 11 bags Urea / ha) were studied. Results showed that significant differences exist for plant height, no. of bolls/m/sup -2/, seed-cotton yield (kg/ha) due to genotype, interaction of genotype with plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer level. Whereas boll weight, ginning out-turn, staple length and fiber fineness were not affected significantly by the plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer, the effect due to genotype was significant for these traits. CLCuV infestation varied significantly with genotypes, while all other factors, i.e., plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizers, have non-significant effect. As the major objective of cotton cultivation is production of lint for the country and seed- cotton yield for the farmers, it is noted that genotypes grown in narrow plant-spacing (15 cm) and higher nitrogen fertilizer level (11.0 bags of urea/ha) produced maximum seed-cotton yield under higher CLCu V infestation in case of CIM-496, MNH-789 and BH-I60, while the new strain MNH-6070 gave maximum yield under 30cm plant-spacing and 8.6 bags of urea/ha has the 2.3% CLCu V infestation was observed in this variety. From the present study, it is concluded that

  1. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR application, nitrogen and zinc sulphate fertilizer on yield and nitrogen uptake in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jafari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of simultaneous application of ZnSO4 and biological fertilizer, Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense, on grain yield and nitrogen uptake efficiency in rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Hyola308, a field experiment was conducted as split plot factorial based on randomized complete block design at research field of Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Iran, during growing season of 2007-2008. Results showed that urea fertilizer, ZnSO4 fertilizer and biological fertilizer had significant effects on nitrogen uptake and accumulation. Maximum grain yield (2568 kg.ha-1 were obtained in 150kgN + ZnSO4+ bio treatment. Maximum accumulation of nitrogen in rosette stage (4.9% and nitrogen content of grain (3.6% was obtained in 150 kg N.ha-1N + ZnSO4 + bio. Maximum Nitrogen uptake efficiency and nitrogen use efficiency (0.86 and 29.56 kg.kg-1, respectively were obtained in 50 kgN.ha-1N + ZnSO4 + bio. In regard to significant effects of ZnSO4 and biological fertilizer with lower N rate and high nitrogen uptake efficiency of rapeseed, it seems that the ability of uptake and use of nitrogen fertilizers was greater for seed formation in the presence of ZnSO4 and biological fertilizer in rapeseed, cv. Hyola308. The most important of mechanisms of PGPRs is increase the bioavailability of mineral nutrients with biological nitrogen fixation and soluble phosphorus and potassium that lead to economize nitrogen fertilizer in rapeseed production and minimizing environmental pollution risk.

  2. Nitrogen fertilization and root growth dynamics of durum wheat for a sustainable production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato De Giorgio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In an area of the Apulian Tavoliere (southern Italy, the effects of three levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha–1 on root development, growth analysis and yield parameters of durum wheat were evaluated. The research was conducted over a four-year period (1994-97. The non-destructive mini-rhizotron method was used to study the root system at stem extension and at the beginning of heading and ripening stages. At the end of tillering and at boot and flowering stages, samples of wheat biomass were taken and subjected to growth analysis. Yield data and the main biometric parameters were collected at harvest time. The doses of nitrogen (N fertilizer 50 and 100 kg N ha–1 had a greater effect on root development in the 20-30 cm soil layer and on epigeal biomass than the control test (N0 without nitrogen fertilization. In the test (N0 the growth of root and epigeal biomass was slower during the first vegetative phases, however, afterwards both of them recovered and the root system was mainly developed in the 30-40 cm soil layer. A better development of root system in deeper soil layers, without nitrogen supply, has allowed the plant to overcome more easily the water-deficit and thermal stresses during the ripening stage. The results of this research have shown that the production of grain with 50 kg ha–1 of N is similar to those of 100 kg ha–1 of N doses and higher than the test without nitrogen fertilization. In this kind of environment can be recommended a nitrogen dose of 50 kg ha–1 for obtaining an increase in grain production with low costs and reduced agricultural sources of pollution.

  3. In Winter Wheat, No-Till Increases Mycorrhizal Colonization thus Reducing the Need for Nitrogen Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Verzeaux

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF play a major role in the uptake of nutrients by agricultural plants. Nevertheless, some agricultural practices can interrupt fungal-plant signaling and thus impede the establishment of the mycorrhizal symbiosis. A field experiment performed over a 5-year period demonstrated that both the absence of tillage and of nitrogen (N fertilization improved AMF colonization of wheat roots. Moreover, under no-till conditions, N uptake and aboveground biomass production did not vary significantly between N-fertilized and N-unfertilized plots. In contrast, both N uptake and above ground biomass were much lower when N fertilizer was not added during conventional tillage. This finding strongly suggests that for wheat, no-till farming is a sustainable agricultural system that allows a gradual reduction in N fertilizer use by promoting AMF functionality and at the same time increasing N uptake.

  4. Establishment and Early Growth of Willow at Different Levels of Weed Competition and Nitrogen Fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelfeldt, Stina; Lundkvist, Anneli; Forkman, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of weed competition and nitrogen fertilization on the early growth performance of willow, cuttings of the clone Tora (Salix schwerinii x S. viminalis) were planted in buckets together with model weeds (spring barley or white mustard) sown 15, 26, and 30 days after willow...... planting. The buckets were fertilized with 30 or 90 kg N ha−1. Willow with weeds sown after 15 days produced less biomass and smaller leaf area and had a lower maximum shoot height compared to willow planted without weeds and willow with weeds sown after 26 or 30 days. Fertilization with 90 kg N ha−1......, fertilization should be delayed....

  5. Best Management of Irrigation Fertilization to Sustain Environment and High yield of Maize in the Arid land in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameh Ali, M.

    2012-04-01

    Assiut is a county in the middle of Egypt,located 600 km south of the Mediterranean Sea. Water and fertilization management experimental trails were conducted to search for the best water consumption of Maize beside the best rate and type of nitrogen fertilization to reduce nitrate pollution and reduce fertilizer and save energy. Three irrigation regimes ( 25, 50, and 75% of soil moisture depletion of the available water, SMD) were used to irrigate Corn (Maize : Zea mays L. ) variety Tri hybrid cross. Three nitrogen fertilizer sources (Urea 46.5% N; Ammonium nitrate 33.5%N and slow release nitrogen 40%N) were applied at three rates of 90; 120 and 150 kg/ Feddan (4200m2 about one Acre). The results suggested that the best management is to use the slow release fertilizer at rate of 150 kg N/ Feddan (4200m2 ) with 50% SMD the highest Maize yield with good quality and reducing the environmental hazardous. Key words: Slow release fertilizer, Nitrogen leaching; Irrigation management. Environmental protection.

  6. Nitrogen fertilization and its effect on production and Diatraea saccharalis Fab. attack on sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Fatecha Fois

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization is essential to raise sugarcane yield in soils deficient in N. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen application in production and borer attack on sugarcane. The experiment was conducted at Escobar District, State of Paraguarí, Paraguay. Three sugarcane growing seasons were evaluated during 2011-2013. The experimental design was randomized blocks with seven treatments and three repetitions, with annual application of increasing of nitrogen (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 kg ha-1. At 360 days of each crop cycle, harvest was performed with the following assessments: industrial plant height, number of internodes per plant, infestation intensity index and yield. The nitrogen rate of maximum technical efficiency and maximum economic efficiency was determined. Statistical analysis of variance, means comparison and regression were performed. Nitrogen fertilization did not affect plant height and number of internodes, but increased yield and borer attack. For every kg ha-1 of nitrogen applied 0.25 t ha-1 of yield is added, and 0.27 % of infestation intensity index increase is obtained. The rate of maximum technical efficiency was 157,4 kg N ha-1 for a yield of 73,6 t ha-1, and the rate of maximum economic efficiency was 136.5 kg N ha-1 for a yield of 88,2 t ha-1.

  7. Research concerning the influence of soil type and fertilization prescriptions on nitrogen and phosphorus absorption by grapevine from fertilizers using 15N and 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serdinescu, A.

    1994-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted with the aim to study the effect of two types of soils (reddish-brown and podzol) fertilized with different N, P, K rates and ratios, on nitrogen and phosphorus absorption by grapevine from fertilizers. The mineral fertilizers were applied in pots as binary and ternary combinations between N, P and K. In case of each combination there were applied different levels for each nutrient (two levels for nitrogen and three levels for phosphorus and potassium). Nitrogen was applied at 3 mg NO 3 /100 g soil (N 1 ) as 2.375% 15 N atom excess labelled ammonium nitrate, phosphorus at 5 mg P 2 O 5 /100 g soil (P 1 ) as monosodium phosphate labelled with 32 P (0.30 mCi/pot) and potassium at 10 mg K 2 0/100 g soil (K 1 ) as potassium sulphate. Nitrogen and phosphorus absorption was estimated by means of Ndff% and Pdff% values, established in grapevine at blooming and at the beginning of ripening. The experimental data indicated a higher nitrogen and phosphorus absorption from mineral fertilizers in the reddish-brown soil, as compared to podzol. In both soils the nitrogen absorption was positively influenced by the increase of the nitrogen rate and by the simultaneous administration of phosphorus and potassium. Phosphorus absorption was not thoroughly influenced by the use of nitrogen and potassium. (author)

  8. Ammonia and carbon dioxide emissions by stabilized conventional nitrogen fertilizers and controlled release in corn crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Lima de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The market of stabilized, slow and controlled release nitrogen (N fertilizers represents 1% of the world fertilizer consumption. On the other hand, the increase in availability, innovation and application of these technologies could lead to the improvement of N use efficiency in agroecossystems and to the reduction of environmental impacts. The objective of this study was to quantify agronomic efficiency relative index, ammonia volatilization, and CO2 emissions from conventional, stabilized and controlled release N fertilizers in corn summer crop. The experiment was carried out in a corn crop area located in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, without irrigation. All treatments were applied in topdressing at rate of 150 kg ha-1 N. N-NH3 losses from N fertilizers were: Granular urea (39% of the applied N = prilled urea (38% > urea coated with 16% S0 (32% = blend of urea + 7.9% S0 + polymers + conventional urea (32% > prilled urea incorporated at 0.02 m depth (24% > urea + 530 mg kg-1 of NBPT (8% = Hydrolyzed leather (9% > urea + thermoplastic resin (3% = ammonium sulfate (1% = ammonium nitrate (0.7%. Thermoplastic resin coated urea, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate presented low values of cumulative CO2 emissions in corn crop. On the other hand, hydrolyzed leather promoted greater C-CO2 emission, when compared with other nitrogen fertilizers.

  9. Nitrous oxide emissions from fertilized soil: Can we manage it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropped fields in the upper Midwest have the potential to emit nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) gases resulting from soil transformation of nitrogen (N) fertilizers applied to crops such as corn and potatoes. Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse and also an important in ozone depleting che...

  10. Effect of ureaformaldehyde on the agronomic efficiency of nitrogen fertilization in rice (Oryza sativa lin. flooded.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Meneses Dartayet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work was carried out during the years 2004 - 2011 in the international Center of Tsukuba, belonging to the International Agency of Cooperation of Japan and in the Territorial Station of Investigations of Grains "Sur del Jíbaro" in Sancti Spíritus with the objective value the employment of the nitrogenous fertilizer of Slow Liberation Ureaformaldehído on the index of agronomic efficiency in the use of the nitrogen and the increment of the agricultural yield for the production of rice; in the first one you study the speed of liberation of the nitrogen of the Ureaformaldehído and the conventional Urea to three temperatures (10; 17.5 and 25 ºC; in the second one studies effect of the fertilizer Ureaformaldehído on the agricultural yield and the index of agronomic efficiency in the use of the nitrogen, in the cultivation of the flooded rice. The main results showed the Ureaformaldehído reacted in a significant way in the measure the temperature was incremented, ending up being mineralized a percentage from 82 to the 100 days; on the other hand, the best yield was reached statistically, with the dose of 120 kg of N/ha, for the fertilizer Ureaformaldehído.

  11. Nitrogen fertilization in mango, var. Tommy Atkins, at Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, E. V.; Molina, E.

    1999-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilization in mango, var. Tommy Atkins, at Guanacaste, Costa Rica. At Carrillo, Guancaste, a field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the mango variety Tommy Atkins. Five rates of nitrogen: 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg/ha/year were evaluated. A base fertilization of P and K were applied at rates of 30 kg/ha of P 2 O 5 and K 2 O respectively. Three harvest times (1995, 1996 and 1997) were evaluated. A split-plot design was used, where the whole plot was nitrogen rate and the subplot was harvest time. Fresh weight of commercial and non-commercial fruit in each harvest was determined. The analysis of the variance of the yield parameter indicated a significant (P≤0.05) and highly significant (P≤0.01) response to harvest time in the commercial and total yield. In the first year, the best yield was obtained with 80 kg/ha of N, with a fresh weight of 2197 kg/ha of fruits. In the next harvests, the rates of 60 kg/ha of N produced yields of 3087 kg/ha in 1997. A regression analysis of the three years indicated that a rate of 66 kg/ha of N (r=0.74) would be the best for commercial fruits yields. (Author) [es

  12. Winter wheat response to irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, and cold hazards in the Community Land Model 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Winter wheat is a staple crop for global food security, and is the dominant vegetation cover for a significant fraction of earth's croplands. As such, it plays an important role in soil carbon balance, and land-atmosphere interactions in these key regions. Accurate simulation of winter wheat growth is not only crucial for future yield prediction under changing climate, but also for understanding the energy and water cycles for winter wheat dominated regions. A winter wheat growth model has been developed in the Community Land Model 4.5 (CLM4.5), but its responses to irrigation and nitrogen fertilization have not been validated. In this study, I will validate winter wheat growth response to irrigation and nitrogen fertilization at five winter wheat field sites (TXLU, KSMA, NESA, NDMA, and ABLE) in North America, which were originally designed to understand winter wheat response to nitrogen fertilization and water treatments (4 nitrogen levels and 3 irrigation regimes). I also plan to further update the linkages between winter wheat yield and cold hazards. The previous cold damage function only indirectly affects yield through reduction on leaf area index (LAI) and hence photosynthesis, such approach could sometimes produce an unwanted higher yield when the reduced LAI saved more nutrient in the grain fill stage.

  13. Variation in foliar nitrogen and albedo in response to nitrogen fertilization and elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley F. Wicklein; Scott V. Ollinger; Mary E. Martin; David Y. Hollinger; Lucie C. Lepine; Michelle C. Day; Megan K. Bartlett; Andrew D. Richardson; Richard J. Norby

    2012-01-01

    Foliar nitrogen has been shown to be positively correlated with midsummer canopy albedo and canopy near infrared (NIR) reflectance over a broad range of plant functional types (e.g., forests, grasslands, and agricultural lands). To date, the mechanism(s) driving the nitrogen-albedo relationship have not been established, and it is unknown whether factors affecting...

  14. Grain, milling, and head rice yields as affected by nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed FIROUZI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application on grain, milling, and head rice yields, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Station of Tonekabon, Iran, in 2013. The experimental design was a factorial treatment arrangement in a randomized complete block with three replicates. Factors were three N rates (0, 75, and 150 kg ha-1 and two bio-fertilizer applications (inoculation and uninoculation with Nitroxin, a liquid bio-fertilizer containing Azospirillum spp. and Azotobacter spp. bacteria. Analysis of variance showed that rice grain yield, panicle number per m2, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, grains N concentration and uptake, grain protein concentration, and head rice yield were significantly affected by N rate, while bio-fertilizer application had significant effect on rice grain yield, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, harvest index, grains N concentration and uptake, and grain protein concentration. Results showed that regardless of bio-fertilizer application, rice grain and biological yields were significantly increased as N application rate increased from 0 to 75 kg ha-1, but did not significantly increase at the higher N rate (150 kg ha-1. Grain yield was significantly increased following bio-fertilizer application when averaged across N rates. Grains N concentration and uptake were significantly increased as N rate increased up to 75 kg ha-1, but further increases in N rate had no significant effect on these traits. Bio-fertilizer application increased significantly grains N concentration and uptake, when averaged across N rates. Regardless of bio-fertilizer application, head rice yield was significantly increased from 56 % to 60 % when N rate increased from 0 to 150 kg ha-1. Therefore, this experiment illustrated that rice grain and head yields increased with increasing N rate, while bio-fertilizer application increased only rice grain

  15. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on forest trees in relation to insect resistance and to red-listed insect species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, C.; Herms, D.A.

    2001-10-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are experiencing unprecedented nitrogen enrichment through fertilization and pollution. While longterm ecological consequences are difficult to predict, it seems that plants and animals adapted to nitrogen-limited environments are at particular risk from these changes. This report summarizes the limited body of literature which addresses this important topic. From a herbivoreAes perspective, fertilization increases the nutritional quality of host plant tissues. In some cases fertilization has lead to decreased production of defensive compounds. How this affects populations of insects is unclear because fertilization affects not only herbivores but their natural enemies. This report outlines how fertilization affects tree processes such as growth, photosynthesis, and production of defensive compounds. The many factors that affect insect repsonse to fertilization and the difficulties in assessing how fertilization affects insect populations are discussed

  16. soil fertility management practices by smallholder farmers in vhembe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    constraints associated with soil fertility management practices used by the farmers. ... nutrients. In addition, these drier areas often have highly degradable soils that are susceptible to soil erosion and eventual decline in soil fertility, especially under ... cases where the selected farm was a “community garden” (a group of.

  17. Studies involving tracer techniques for certain nutritional aspects of nitrogen and phosphorus with reference to fertilization of wheat plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizk, M. A.

    1987-01-01

    Two short-term experiments were carried out to study the mutual effects between nitrogen and phosphatic fertilizers, wheat seedlings being the indicator plant grown on different soil types, namely; sandy loam of inshas, clay of bahtim and calcareous of salheya. Response of wheat plants to mutual interactions between applied nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizers. 1- Dry matter content of wheat seedlings are significantly affected by the interactions between sources of nitrogen and phosphorus for the investigated seedlings which may reflect the importance of ion balance between the two concerned elements. 2- Nitrogen content in the two weeks old seedlings is positively affected with the interaction between P-source (ortho and poly-phosphate), nitrogen level and nitrogen source.3- A positive response of total P- uptaken by wheat plants for the rate of applied nitrogenous fertilizer is observed, trend being attributed to influence of nitrogen on the status of P in the soil adjacent to roots as to have a concentration gradient suitable for absorption. 4- Except for nitrogen rate, other parameters and certain interactions have been generally not significantly effective on P - in plant derived from both fertilizer and soil. 5- Utilization percentages of the used P- fertilizer show significant responses to applied N- rate along with interactions with source of applied N and P nutritional elements with one week old plants

  18. Combination of inoculation methods of Azospirilum brasilense with broadcasting of nitrogen fertilizer increases corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria Müller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is the most limiting nutrient for corn production. Thereby, the goal of the paper was to evaluate inoculation methods of Azospirillum brasilense in order to partially supply N required by the crop. The experiment was carried out in Guarapuava, PR, Brasil, in 2011/2012 growing season. Randomized blocks with factorial 3 inoculation methods (seed treatment, planting furrow and non-inoculated control x 5 doses of nitrogen (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300kg ha-1 x 8 replications was used as the experimental design. Leaf are index, foliar nitrogen content, total chlorophyll, grains per ear and yield were evaluated. There was significant interaction between inoculation methods and nitrogen fertilization to leaf area index, but not for yield. Inoculation with the diazotrophic bacteria provided yield increase of 702kg ha-1 for inoculation in seeding furrow and 432kg ha-1 for inoculation in seed treatment compared to the control, but both treatments did not differ between each other. Furthermore, total chlorophyll, grains per ear and yield were positively affected, with quadratic response, by the nitrogen fertilization in broadcasting

  19. Growth and yield of corn hybrids in response to association with Azospirillum brasilense and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniele Marini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in optimizing the positive effects of the association between Azospirillum bacteria and corn crop in order to reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. This study aimed to evaluate the inoculation efficiency of an A. brasilense-based commercial product in association with different rates of nitrogen fertilization in two corn genotypes. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 2 x 5 factorial randomized block design, with four replications. The treatments consisted of two corn hybrids (30F53 and CD386; with and without inoculation with a commercial product based on A. brasilense and five nitrogen rates (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1. The variables plant height, basal stem diameter, leaf area, shoot dry matter, leaf nitrogen content, length and diameter of the cob, weight of 100 grains and grain yield were evaluated. Inoculation with A. brasilense provided increases of 11 and 12% in leaf area and shoot dry matter, respectively. There were differences in the response of the corn hybrids for most variables and the increase in nitrogen supply provided increments in the growth and yield of corn.

  20. Growth and nutrition response of young sweetgum plantations to repeated nitrogen fertilization on two site types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.A.D.A. [USDA Forest Service, Pineville, LA (United States); Burger, J.A. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Forestry; Kaczmarek, D.J. [Mead Westvaco Forest Science and Technology, Summerville, SC (United States); Kane, M.B. [International Paper Corp., Ridgeland, MS (United States). Silviculture Research and Technology

    2004-10-01

    Short-rotation intensive tree culture is being investigated in the southern United States as a method of producing hardwood fiber, but little is known about the early productivity and nutritional needs of these systems, especially on different site types. We studied the growth and foliar nutrition response of two sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations on a converted agricultural field and a pine cutover site to biannual applications of three nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates: 0, 5 6, and 112 kg N ha{sup -1}. The trees did not respond to treatment at any age on the agricultural field site, but the fertilized trees on the cutover site had about 60% greater biomass at ages 5 and 6. Fertilization doubled foliar biomass on the cutover site in the years fertilizer was applied. Stem biomass was directly related to foliar biomass, but the relationship was age-specific at both sites. Stem biomass was also related to the foliar N concentration. Foliar critical values of N were about 18 g N kg{sup -1}. Foliage phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) contents were diluted by the N fertilization-induced growth responses at both sites. Fertilization of young intensive-culture sweetgum plantations is necessary for optimum foliar N concentrations and foliar and stem biomass production, but is site-specific. (author)

  1. Oxygen and nitrogen isotopic composition of nitrate in commercial fertilizers, nitric acid, and reagent salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Greg; Kolanowski, Michelle; Riha, Krystin M

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate is a key component of synthetic fertilizers that can be beneficial to crop production in agro-ecosystems, but can also cause damage to natural ecosystems if it is exported in large amounts. Stable isotopes, both oxygen and nitrogen, have been used to trace the sources and fate of nitrate in various ecosystems. However, the oxygen isotope composition of synthetic and organic nitrates is poorly constrained. Here, we present a study on the N and O isotope composition of nitrate-based fertilizers. The δ(15)N values of synthetic and natural nitrates were 0 ± 2 ‰ similar to the air N2 from which they are derived. The δ(18)O values of synthetic nitrates were 23 ± 3 ‰, similar to air O2, and natural nitrate fertilizer δ(18)O values (55 ± 5 ‰) were similar to those observed in atmospheric nitrate. The Δ(17)O values of synthetic fertilizer nitrate were approximately zero following a mass-dependent isotope relationship, while natural nitrate fertilizers had Δ(17)O values of 18 ± 2 ‰ similar to nitrate produced photochemically in the atmosphere. These narrow ranges of values can be used to assess the amount of nitrate arising from fertilizers in mixed systems where more than one nitrate source exists (soil, rivers, and lakes) using simple isotope mixing models.

  2. Available Nitrogen and Responses to Nitrogen Fertilizer in Brazilian Eucalypt Plantations on Soils of Contrasting Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Pulito

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus plantations have seldom responded to N fertilization in tropical and subtropical regions of Brazil. This implies that rates of N mineralization have been adequate to supply tree needs. However, subsequent crop rotations with low N fertilization may result in declining concentrations of organic and potentially mineralizable N (N0, and consequent loss of wood productivity. This study investigated (a in situ N mineralization and N0 in soils of eucalypt plantations in São Paulo state, Brazil; (b tree growth responses to N fertilizer applied 6–18 months after planting; and (c the relationships between N0, other soil attributes and tree growth. We established eleven N fertilizer trials (maximum 240 kg ha−1 of N in E. grandis and E. grandis x urophylla plantations. The soil types at most sites were Oxisols and Quartzipsamments, with a range of organic matter (18 to 55 g kg−1 and clay contents (8% to 67% in the 0–20 cm layer. Concentrations of N0 were measured using anaerobic incubation on soil samples collected every three months (different seasons. The samples collected in spring and summer had N0 140–400 kg ha−1 (10%–19% total soil N, which were best correlated with soil texture and organic matter content. Rates of in situ net N mineralization (0–20 cm ranged from 100 to 200 kg ha−1 year−1 and were not correlated with clay, total N, or N0. These high N mineralization rates resulted in a low response to N fertilizer application during the early ages of stand growth, which were highest on sandy soils. At the end of the crop rotation, the response to N fertilizer was negligible and non-significant at all sites.

  3. Manejo da adubação nitrogenada paraa batata-doce: fontes e parcelamento de aplicação Management of nitrogen fertilization for sweet potato: sources and application parceling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anarlete Ursulino Alves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o rendimento da batata-doce [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam.], cultivar Rainha Branca, submetida a fontes e parcelamentos da aplicação de 80 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio, instalou-se um experimento, no período de abril a agosto de 2007, na Universidade Federal da Paraíba, em Areia. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 2 x 7, com duas fontes de nitrogênio (uréia e sulfato de amônio e oito de épocas parcelamentos da aplicação (100% no plantio; 100% aos 30 dias após o plantio (DAP; 100% aos 60 DAP; 50% no plantio e 50% aos 30 DAP; 50% no plantio e 50% aos 60 DAP; 50% aos 30 e 50% aos 60 DAP; 33% no plantio, 33% aos 30 e 33% aos 60 DAP, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados o peso médio de raízes comerciais, a produção e o número de raízes comerciais por planta e as produtividades total e comercial de raízes de batatadoce. O maior peso médio de raízes comerciais (294 g foi obtido com o parcelamento do N, como uréia, 50% no plantio e 50% aos 30 DAP. O parcelamento de N 33% no plantio, 33% aos 30 DAP e 33% aos 60 DAP na forma sulfato de amônio foi responsável pela maior produção de raízes comerciais por planta (337 g. Para o número de raízes comercias e as produtividades total e comercial, o N na forma de sulfato de amônio parcelado 33% no plantio, 33% aos 30 DAP e 33% aos 60 DAP proporcionou os maiores valores, 1,50 raízes, 30,5 e 28,4 t ha-1, respectivamente.For the purpose of evaluating the yield of the sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam.], variety "Rainha Branca", subjected to sources and parceling of nitrogen, an experiment was carried out in soil classified as typical "Inceptisol Regolítico Psamítico" at the Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Areia county, from April to August 2007. The experimental design used was one of randomized blocks, with a factorial scheme of 2 x 7, using two sources of nitrogen fertilizer (urea and ammonium sulfate and

  4. Nitrogen Fertilizer Factory Effects on the Amino Acid and Nitrogen Content in the Needles of Scots Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenija Kupsinskiene

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate the content of amino acids in the needles of Pinus sylvestris growing in the area affected by a nitrogen fertilizer factory and to compare them with other parameters of needles, trees, and sites. Three young-age stands of Scots pine were selected at a distance of 0.5 km, 5 km, and 17 km from the factory. Examination of the current-year needles in winter of the year 2000 revealed significant (p

  5. Tomato nitrogen accumulation and fertilizer use efficiency on a sandy soil, as affected by nitrogen rate and irrigation scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zotarelli, L.; Dukes, M.D.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Munoz-Carpena, R.; Icerman, J.

    2009-01-01

    Tomato production systems in Florida are typically intensively managed with high inputs of fertilizer and irrigation and on sandy soils with low inherent water and nutrient retention capacities; potential nutrient leaching losses undermine the sustainability of such systems. The objectives of this

  6. The soil acidity as restrictive factor of the use of nitrogen fertilizer by spring barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejnak, V.; Lippold, H.

    1999-01-01

    In two - year micro - plot trials was studied the effect of soil pH value (pH > 6,5 and pH 15 N in first year and no enriched in second year, rates of 0, 85, 170 and 255 mg N per pot, i.e. 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N.ha -1 ) on the spring barley productivity and on the use of nitrogen fertilizer by plants in the application year of 15 N and in the following year. The productivity of spring barley is significantly higher in neutral soil than in acid soil. The gradated rates of nitrogen fertilization increased this difference. The total nitrogen uptake by plants was higher in neutral soil. The share of the nitrogen from 'the old soil's supply' in the total uptake by the harvest ranges from 95 to 82 % and is practically identical in studied soils. 'Priming effect' was higher in soil with better fertility (153 - 186 mg N per pot) than in acid soil (to 49 mg N per pot only). The gradated rates of ammonium sulphate increased the uptake nitrogen from fertilizer by harvest of spring barley in the application year of 15 N from 39 mg N to 107 mg N per pot in neutral soil and from 26 mg N to 83 mg N per pot in acid soil and in the following year from 3,05 mg N to 8,15 mg N per pot in neutral soil and from 1,76 mg N to 3,37 mg N per pot in acid soil. The total balance of fertilizer nitrogen ( 15 N) in soil - crop system in two years from application showed that in neutral soil 46 % used by spring barley (42 % in the application year and 4 % in the following year), 16 % rested in soil and loss was 38 % and in acid soil 35 % used by harvest (33 % in first year and 2 % second year), 12 % rested in soil and loss was 53 %. Refs. 5 (author)

  7. Use of fertilizer nitrogen by wheat in semiarid region of the pampa, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzari, M.A.; Laurent, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of nitrogen utilization by wheat (Buck Pucara cultivar) in semiarid region of the Argentina Pampas is studied. A single-treatment-fertility-experimet is used, and in this method all treatments, as far as the plant, soil or environment are concerned, are identical. The only difference is the occurrence of the 15 N label within a given subtreatment. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. Assesment of corn (zea mays l.) genotypes in relation to nitrogen fertilization under irrigated cropping conditions in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrikci, H.; Ulger, A.C.; Buyuk, G.; Korkmaz, K.; Ryan, J.; Karnez, E.; Cakir, B.; Konuskan, O.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient nitrogen (N) fertilizer management in crop production is based on supplying adequate amounts of the nutrient for optimum economic yield, while minimizing losses to the environment. Exploiting genotypic differences in N use is an additional consideration in achieving nutrient-use efficiency. Thus, in order to identify N-efficient corn genotypes, we established N-response field trials at 2 locations (University Research Farm, and Cutaem) for 2 years (1999, 2000) in the Cukurova region of Turkey. Ten corn genotypes, commonly grown in the region, were fertilized with N at application rates of 160, 240, 320 and 400kg N ha/sup -1/. The optimum N fertilizer rate was probably in the 160-240 kg N ha/sup -1/ rate based on response data. There were no significant or consistent differences between genotypes and N application for grain yield and N uptake. The average agronomic efficiency ranged between 20 to 65% across the genotypes and decreased with increasing N application rates. The pattern was similar for other efficiency indices with decreases with applied N, but little or no genotype differences. It is apparent that the genotypes used were bred for N as well as yield. There was little evidence of differences between genotypes or their response to N. Thus, while genotypic selection of corn can be one of the suitable potential N management practices in the Mediterranean region where genetic diversity exists, it is not appropriate considering genotypes are homogenous with respect to N use. (author)

  9. Anaerobic co-digestion of perennials: Methane potential and digestate nitrogen fertilizer value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller-Stover, Dorette Sophie; Sun, Guotao; Kroff, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    . Considering the high dry matter and methane yield ha-1, the possibility to substitute mineral N fertilizer inputs by leguminous biological N2 fixation capacity, and the digestate fertilizer value, the integration of grass-legume mixtures or sole legumes into anaerobic digestion systems as co......Co-digestion of crop biomass improves the traditional manure-based biogas yield due to an increased content of easily degradable carbon compounds. In this study, the methane potential of three perennials (grass, legumes, and grass+legume) was determined using various amounts together with animal...... manure. The nitrogen (N) mineralization dynamics in soil and the N-fertilizer value of the derived digestates were subsequently tested in both a soil incubation study and a pot experiment with spring barley. Digestion of all tested perennials together with a manure-based inoculum increased the cumulative...

  10. Effects of improving nitrogen management on nitrogen utilization, nitrogen balance, and reactive nitrogen losses in a Mollisol with maize monoculture in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Zhang, Jin-Jing; Gao, Qiang; Feng, Guo-Zhong; Abelrahman, A M; Chen, Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Traditional fertilization led to higher apparent N surplus, and optimized fertilization can reduce residual nitrogen in soils with keeping high yield. But in continuous spring maize cropping zone in Mollisol in Northeast China, the effect of the optimized N management on N balance and comprehensive environment was not clear. The primary objective of this study was to compare the differences of two fertilizations (traditional farmer N management (FNM) with single basal fertilizer and improvement N management (INM) by soil testing with top-dressing) in gain yield, N uptake and N efficiency, soil N balance, reactive N losses, and environment assessment. The results showed that INM treatment has no remarkable effect on grain yield and N uptake; N partial factor productivity (PFPN) of INM treatment was 19.8 % significantly higher than the FNM treatment. Nmin in soils of INM treatment reached to 111.0 kg ha(-1), which was 27.1 % lower than the FNM treatment after 6 years of continuous maize cropping; the apparent N Losses (ANL) and apparent N surplus (ANS) of INM were only half of FNM by soil N balance analysis. In reactive N losses, comparing with FNM treatment, INM treatment reduced NH3 volatilization, N2O emission, N leaching, and N runoff by 17.8, 35.6, 45, and 38.3 %, respectively, during planting period, and in integrated environment assessment by life cycle assessment (LCA) method, producing 1 t maize grain, energy depletion, acidification, eutrophication, and climate change impacts of INM treatment decreased 26.19, 30.16, 32.61, and 22.75 %, respectively. Therefore, INM treatment is a better N management strategy in comprehensive analysis.

  11. Cover crop and nitrogen fertilization influence soil carbon and nitrogen under bioenergy sweet sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crop and N fertilization may maintain soil C and N levels under sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) biomass harvested for bioenergy production. The effect of cover crops (hairy vetch [Vicia villosa Roth], rye [Secaele cereale L.], hairy vetch/rye mixture, and the control [no cover crop...

  12. Brachiaria sp yield and nutrient contents after nitrogen and sulphur fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reges Heinrichs

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the production factors, adequate fertilization is an important tool to raise the productivity of pastoral systems and consequently increase the share of Brazil in the supply chain of primary agricultural products at the global level. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization in BRACHIARIA DECUMBENS: Stapf. The experiment in pots with Dystrophic Oxisol was evaluated in a completely randomized design with four replications in a 5 x 3 factorial arrangement, involving five N doses (0, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg dm-3 in the form of ammonium nitrate and three S doses (0, 20 and 80 mg dm-3 in the form of calcium sulfate, with a total of 15 treatments. In the treatments with low S dose, calcium was provided as calcium chloride, to ensure a homogeneous Ca supply in all treatments. The results showed that the tiller production and dry weight of green leaves and of stems + sheaths and total dry weight were favored by the combination of N and S fertilizer, while the proportion of dry leaves was reduced. Nitrogen fertilization raised the N contents in green leaves and stems + sheaths and reduced K contents in fresh and dry leaves. The response to S rates in the N content of green leaves was quadratic.

  13. Econometric Analysis of Effects of Nitrogenous Fertilizer Usage on Tomato Yield in Tokat, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Gözener

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of nitrogen fertilizer application on tomato yield by using econometric models. The data obtained by questionnaire from 53 farmers who produce tomatoes in Tokat province constitute the main material of the study. The Simple Random Sampling Method was used to determine the sample size with a 90% confidence interval and 10% margin of error. Nine models were tried to determine the best model to explain the effect of nitrogenous fertilizer usage in tomato cultivation. The data in the models were used to calculate the growers’ optimal fertilizer amount of use (physical optimum and economical optimum values were calculated and the results were compared to the ones suggested by the experts. As a result, through the statistical studies, quadratic model was found to be the most suitable one. It has been determined that tomato farmers use less (10.54 kg da-1 or excess (23.48 kg da-1 N fertilizer than the level at which economic optimum is achieved.

  14. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women “Talk with your doctor before you start treatment. Ask how chemotherapy could affect your ability to have children. ” Ask what ...

  15. Shifts in species composition constrain restoration of overgrazed grassland using nitrogen fertilization in Inner Mongolian steppe, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Chen

    Full Text Available Long-term livestock over-grazing causes nitrogen outputs to exceed inputs in Inner Mongolia, suggesting that low levels of nitrogen fertilization could help restore grasslands degraded by overgrazing. However, the effectiveness of such an approach depends on the response of production and species composition to the interactive drivers of nitrogen and water availability. We conducted a five-year experiment manipulating precipitation (NP: natural precipitation and SWP: simulated wet year precipitation and nitrogen (0, 25 and 50 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 addition in Inner Mongolia. We hypothesized that nitrogen fertilization would increase forage production when water availability was relatively high. However, the extent to which nitrogen would co-limit production under average or below average rainfall in these grasslands was unknown.Aboveground net primary production (ANPP increased in response to nitrogen when precipitation was similar to or higher than the long-term average, but not when precipitation was below average. This shift in limitation was also reflected by water and nitrogen use efficiency. Belowground live biomass significantly increased with increasing water availability, but was not affected by nitrogen addition. Under natural precipitation (NP treatment, the inter-annual variation of ANPP was 3-fold greater than with stable water availability (CV(ANPP = 61±6% and 17±3% for NP and SWP treatment, respectively and nitrogen addition increased CV(ANPP even more (89±14%. This occurred in part because fertilizer nitrogen left in the soil in dry years remained available for uptake during wet years and because of high production by unpalatable annual species in wet years in the NP treatment. In summary, plant growth by residual fertilizer nitrogen could lead to sufficient yields to offset lack of additional production in dry years. However, the utility of fertilization for restoration may be constrained by shifts in species composition and

  16. Effects of biochar amendment and fertilizer sources on serrano chili pepper yield, uptake, and nitrogen fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient nitrogen (N) management strategies are a key approach in addressing the increase of food demand and environmental protection. Failing to achieve adequate nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in agricultural systems can cause damaging outcomes including degradative water quality, increase in green...

  17. Phosphorus Characteristics with Controlled Nitrogen in Fertile Soils in Protected Vegetable Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Heng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an unreasonable phenomenon of fertilization in vegetable facility cultivation, with the serious imbalance of soil nutrient. In purpose of understanding the absorption characteristics of phosphorus from nitrogen-rich soil, a long-term nitrogen-controlled experiment was carried from the year 2004 to 2007, and a split plot experiment of leaching was carried in winter-spring season of 2007. The results showed that the content of phosphorus varied with different nitrogen control. The TP was decreased with nitrogen supply of none(NN 、organic manure(MN 、organic manure and straw(MN+S, and the decreased range was NN>MN>MN+S, meanwhile the increase range of TP was traditional-nitrogen(CN >traditional-nitrogen+straw(CN+S >optimized-nitrogen+straw(SN+S >optimized-nitrogen(SN. The available P with CN and CN+S reached to 213.7 mg· kg -1 、225.4 mg·kg -1, which increased by 17.1 percent and 23.5 percent, which declared the phosphorus was accumulated; The available P with other nitrogen controlled decreased with the range of NN>MN>MN+S>SN+S>SN跃CN>CN+S, which showed that the supply reduction of nitrogen could slowdown the phosphorus accumulated and promote the utilization ratio of phosphorus. The organophosphorus was increased except NN, with obvious increase with CN、CN+S(308.4 mg·kg -1 、331.4 mg·kg -1 by 28.5 percent and 38.2 percent. The absorption coefficient of phosphorus with SN+S(P 2 O 5,mg· 100 g -1 reached to 1 571, increased by 143.6 percent; Otherwise the absorption coefficient of phosphorus with CN、CN+S showed negative growth, the CN dipped to 416(P 2 O 5,mg·100 g -1 by 35.5 percent. Adding wheat straw could greatly improved the capacity of absorption of phosphorus and slow down the accumulation of available phosphorus to some extent. The concentrations of total phosphorus in the filtrate with SN+S were less than SN, contrary to the concentration of organophosphorus, thus the straw returning had a certain effect on

  18. Effect of inorganic nitrogenous fertilizer on productivity of recently reclaimed saline sodic soils with and without biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, S M; Sarfraz, M; Shabbir, G; Abbas, G

    2007-07-15

    Saline sodic soils after reclamation become infertile due to leaching of most of the nutrients along with salts from the rooting medium. Microbes can play a vital role in the productivity improvement of such soils. In this study a saline sodic field having EC, 6.5 dS m(-1), pH, 9.1 and gypsum requirement (GR) 3.5 tons acre(-1) was reclaimed by applying gypsum at the rate of 100% GR. Rice and wheat crops were transplanted/sown for three consecutive years. Inorganic nitrogenous fertilizer was used with and without biofertilizers i.e., Biopower (Azospirillum) for rice and diazotroph inoculums for wheat. Nitrogen was applied at the rate of 0, 75% of recommended dose (RD), RD, 125% of RD and 150% of RD. Recommended dose of P without K was applied to all the plots. Biopower significantly improved Paddy and straw yield of rice over inorganic nitrogenous fertilizer. In case of wheat diazotroph inoculum improved grain and straw yield significantly over inorganic nitrogenous fertilizer. Among N fertilizer rates, RD + 25% additional N fertilizer was found to be the best dose for rice and wheat production in recently reclaimed soils. Nitrogen concentration and its uptake by paddy, grain and straw were also increased by biopower and diazotroph inoculum over inorganic nitrogenous fertilizer. Among N fertilizer rates, RD + 25% additional N fertilizer was found to be the best dose for nitrogen concentration and its uptake by paddy, grain and straw. Total soil N, available P and extractable K were increased while salinity/sodicity parameters were decreased with the passage of time. The productivity of the soil was improved more by biofertilizers over inorganic N fertilizers.

  19. Capacidade de suporte de pastagens de capim-tifton 85 adubado com nitrogênio manejadas em lotação contínua com ovinos Carring capacity of Tifton 85 grass forage fertilized with nitrogen managed under continuous stocking with sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson Lara Fagundes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio foi realizado com objetivo de avaliar a densidade populacional de perfilhos, biomassa e densidade volumétrica de forragem, o desempenho de ovinos e a taxa de lotação em pastos de capim-tifton 85 adubados com nitrogênio e submetidos ao regime de lotação contínua. Foram avaliadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg/ha/ano, em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os pastos de capim-tifton 85 sofreram influência da época de avaliação e das doses de nitrogênio, com efeito marcante na densidade populacional de perfilhos, na biomassa e na densidade volumétrica de forragem, que acabaram determinando o desempenho animal e a taxa de lotação. Quando manejados em pastejo contínuo com ovinos, o capim-tifton 85 possibilita aos animais desempenho satisfatório, em decorrência do efeito positivo da adubação nitrogenada na densidade populacional de perfilhos, na biomassa e na densidade volumétrica de forragem, permitindo maior taxa de lotação.This trial was conducted to evaluate the tiller population density, biomass and forage bulk density, sheep performance and stocking rate on pastures of Tifton 85 fertilized with nitrogen and subjected to continuous stocking system. Four doses of nitrogen (0, 100, 200 and 400 kg/ha/year, arranged in randomized blocks design with four replications were evaluated. The pastures of Tifton 85 were influenced by time of evaluation and nitrogen levels with a marked effect on tillers population density, biomass and forage bulk density, which ended up being crucial to animal performance and stocking rate. When managed in continuous grazing, Tifton 85 provides satisfactory performance of sheep due to the positive effect of nitrogen fertilization on tiller population density, biomass and forage bulk density, allowing better stocking rate.

  20. Nitrogen recycling in prairie species managed for biomass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.; Jackson, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Plant nutrient recycling is an important mechanism for nitrogen (N) retention in plants and has been identified as a means for reducing N losses in perennial grass systems managed for biomass production. Warm-season (C4 photosynthesis) prairie grasses are thought to be inherently good at recycling N, because they often thrive in nutrient-limited native grasslands where N recycling strategies would be advantageous. Results from studies of plant responses to altered N resources and the subsequent ability or need for plants to resorb N in high-productivity environments have been equivocal. We addressed N resorption of four species -- Panicum virgatum in a switchgrass monoculture, and Andropogen gerardii, Sorghastrum nutans and Helianthus grosseserratus in a restored prairie -- and their responses to fertilizer additions of 0, 50, or 150 kg N ha-1 on productive mollisols. We hypothesized that senesced leaf N (the final N concentration retained in a senesced leaf) would increase with fertility, while N resorption efficiency (the proportion of original green leaf N resorbed after senescence) would decrease with fertility. N resorption efficiency rates in the prairie differed mainly by species without significant treatment effects. Helianthus grosseserratus resorption efficiency was highest (69.0 ± 2.6% [s.e.]), followed by Sorghastrum nutans (47.9 ± 5.4%) and Andropogen gerardii (35.3 ± 5.7%). Panicum virgatum resorption efficiencies responded opposite to our predictions with the highest resorption rates in the high-fertility treatment (62.9 ± 5.7%) and the lowest resorption rates in the unfertilized treatment (49.4 ± 6.1%). Fertilizer effects were only significant in senesced Panicum virgatum leaves, but across all species, plants with high green leaf N tended to also have higher senesced leaf N. This suggests that plants with high N resorption efficiencies may resorb a higher proportion of original leaf N because there is more N to remobilize. However, these

  1. Effects of starter nitrogen fertilizer on soybean root activity, leaf photosynthesis and grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Zhijia; Zhang, Jingtao; Li, Caifeng

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the impact of starter nitrogen fertilizer on soybean root activity, leaf photosynthesis, grain yield and their relationship. To achieve this objective, field experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014, using a randomized complete block design, with three replications. Nitrogen was applied at planting at rates of 0, 25, 50, and 75 kg N ha-1. In both years, starter nitrogen fertilizer benefited root activity, leaf photosynthesis, and consequently its yield. Statistically significant correlation was found among root activity, leaf photosynthetic rate, and grain yield at the developmental stage. The application of N25, N50, and N75 increased grain yield by 1.28%, 2.47%, and 1.58% in 2013 and by 0.62%, 2.77%, and 2.06% in 2014 compared to the N0 treatment. Maximum grain yield of 3238.91 kg ha-1 in 2013 and 3086.87 kg ha-1 in 2014 were recorded for N50 treatment. Grain yield was greater for 2013 than 2014, possibly due to more favorable environmental conditions. This research indicated that applying nitrogen as starter is necessary to increase soybean yield in Sangjiang River Plain in China.

  2. Autoregulation of nodulation interferes with impacts of nitrogen fertilization levels on the leaf-associated bacterial community in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Seishi; Anda, Mizue; Inaba, Shoko; Eda, Shima; Sato, Shusei; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Tabata, Satoshi; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Sato, Tadashi; Shinano, Takuro; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2011-03-01

    The diversities leaf-associated bacteria on nonnodulated (Nod(-)), wild-type nodulated (Nod(+)), and hypernodulated (Nod(++)) soybeans were evaluated by clone library analyses of the 16S rRNA gene. To analyze the impact of nitrogen fertilization on the bacterial leaf community, soybeans were treated with standard nitrogen (SN) (15 kg N ha(-1)) or heavy nitrogen (HN) (615 kg N ha(-1)) fertilization. Under SN fertilization, the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria was significantly higher in Nod(-) and Nod(++) soybeans (82% to 96%) than in Nod(+) soybeans (54%). The community structure of leaf-associated bacteria in Nod(+) soybeans was almost unaffected by the levels of nitrogen fertilization. However, differences were visible in Nod(-) and Nod(++) soybeans. HN fertilization drastically decreased the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria in Nod(-) and Nod(++) soybeans (46% to 76%) and, conversely, increased those of Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes in these mutant soybeans. In the Alphaproteobacteria, cluster analyses identified two operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (Aurantimonas sp. and Methylobacterium sp.) that were especially sensitive to nodulation phenotypes under SN fertilization and to nitrogen fertilization levels. Arbuscular mycorrhizal infection was not observed on the root tissues examined, presumably due to the rotation of paddy and upland fields. These results suggest that a subpopulation of leaf-associated bacteria in wild-type Nod(+) soybeans is controlled in similar ways through the systemic regulation of autoregulation of nodulation, which interferes with the impacts of N levels on the bacterial community of soybean leaves.

  3. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer sources and temperature on soil CO2 efflux in Italian ryegrass crop under Mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a study that aimed to assess the dynamics of total and heterotrophic soil respiration and its relationships with soil temperature or soil moisture of an Italian ryegrass haycrop managed with different nitrogen (N fertilizer sources. The field experiment was carried out in the Nitrate Vulnerable Zone of the dairy district of Arborea, a reclaimed wetland in central-western Sardinia, Italy. This is an area characterized by sandy soils, shallow water table and intensive dairy cattle farming systems. Italian ryegrass is grown for hay production in the context of a double cropping rotation with silage maize. We analyzed the effects of N fertilizer treatments on soil carbon dioxide (CO2 efflux, soil water content and soil temperature: i farmyard manure; ii cattle slurry; iii mineral fertilizer; iv 70 kg ha-1 from slurry and 60 kg ha-1 from mineral fertilizer that corresponds to the prescriptions of the vulnerable zone management plan. During the monitoring period, soil water content never fell below 8.6% vol., corresponding to approximately -33 kPa matric potential. Total and heterotrophic soil respiration dynamics were both influenced by soil temperature over winter and early spring, reaching a maximum in the first ten days of April in manure and slurry treatments. In the last 30 days of the Italian ryegrass crop cycle, total soil respiration decreased and seemed not to be affected by temperature. The analysis of covariance with soil temperature as covariate showed that average respiration rates were significantly higher under the manure treatment and lower with mineral fertilizer than the slurry and slurry+mineral treatments, but with similar rates of respiration per unit increase of soil temperature for all treatments. The average soil respiration rates were significantly and positively related to the soil carbon (C inputs derived from fertilizers and preceding crop residuals. We concluded that: i the fertilizer source

  4. Variation of biometric parameters in corn cobs under the influence of nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigel, Prisecaru; Florin, Sala

    2017-07-01

    Biometric parameters as elements of productivity on corn cobs, along with plant density per unit area (ha) are essential in achieving production. The influence of differentiated fertilization with nitrogen was evaluated at the level of productivity elements on corn cobs, Andreea hybrid. Biometric parameters of the corn cobs (total length - L; usable length - l; uncoated length with corn kernels - lu; diameter at the base - Db, middle - Dm, and top of the corn cobs - Dt; corn cob weight - Cw, grain weight - Gw) were directly influenced by the doses of nitrogen. Regression analysis has facilitated the prediction of grain weight as the main element of productivity under different statistical certainty based on nitrogen doses (R2 = 0.962, pcorn cobs (R2 = 0.985, pcorn cobs (R2 = 0.996, pcorn cobs (R2 = 0.824, pcorn cobs (R2 = 0.807, pcorn kernels (R2 = 0.624, pcorn cobs (R2 = 0.384, p=0.015).

  5. Effect of application of fertilizer nitrogen, zinc and selenium on zinc nutrition of ryegrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Dongpu; Bai Lingyu; Yao Yunyin; Hua Luo

    2001-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of zinc or selenium fertilizer applied alone, combined application of nitrogen, zinc and selenium fertilizer on zinc nutrition of ryegrass in mono culture or in mixed culture in mountain yellow-brown earth of Hubei province. The results showed that: 1) Zn content was enhanced by mixed culture (white clover: ryegrass = 1:4), at the same time, Zn content of ryegrass in mixed culture was increased with increasing of Zn fertilizer. 2) The main reason of Zn content of ryegrass decreased in mixed culture was dilution effect due to the increase of dry weight. 3) In mono-Se treatment, Zn content of ryegrass in mixed culture was decreased with increasing of Se fertilizer. 4) In 9 treatment of combined applications of N, Zn and Se fertilizer, treatment of the highest Zn content of ryegrass in mixed culture was N46Zn25Se1; treatment of the highest Zn content of ryegrass in mono culture was N30Zn25Se5

  6. Modeling impacts of water and fertilizer management on ecosystem services from rice rotated crop systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Yu, Chaoqing; Li, Changsheng; Huang, Xiao; Zhang, Jie; Yue, Yali; Huang, Guorui

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable intensification in agriculture has stressed the need for management practices that could increase crop yields while simultaneously reducing environmental impacts. It is well recognized that water and nutrient management hold great promise to address these goals. This study uses the DNDC biogeochemical model to stimulate the impacts of water regime and nitrogen fertilizer management interactions on ecosystem services of rice rotated crop systems in China. County-level optimal nitrogen fertilizer application rates under various water management practices were captured and then multiple scenarios of water and nitrogen fertilizer management were set to more than 1600 counties with rice rotations in China. Results indicate that an national average of 15.7±5.9% (the mean value and standard deviation derive from variability of three water management practices) reduction of nitrogen fertilizer inputs can be achieved without significantly sacrificing rice yields. On a national scale, shallow flooding with optimal N application rates appear most potential to enhance ecosystem services, which led to 10.6% reduction of nitrogen fertilizer inputs, 34.3% decrease of total GHG emissions, 2.8% less of overall N loss (NH3 volatilization, denitrification and N leaching) and a 1.7% increase of rice yields compared to the baseline scenario. Regional GHG emissions mitigation derived from water regime change vary with soil properties and the multiple crop index. Among the main production regions of rice in China, the highest reduction happened in Jiangxu, Yunnan, Guizhou and Hubei (more than 40% reduction) with high SOC, high multiple crop index and low clay fraction. The highest reduction of GHG emissions derived from reducing current N application rate to optimal rate appeared in Zhejiang, Guangdong, Jiangsu where the serious over-application of mineral N exit. It was concluded that process models like DNDC would act an essential tool to identify sustainable agricultural

  7. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on distribution of starch granules in different regions of wheat endosperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xiong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study provided visual evidence of a nitrogen effect on starch granules (SGs in wheat endosperm. Winter wheat (Titicum aestivum L. cultivar Xumai 30 was cultured under no nitrogen (control and 240 kg ha− 1 of nitrogen applied at the booting stage. The number, morphology, and size of A- and B-type SGs in subaleurone of dorsal endosperm (SDE, center of dorsal endosperm (CDE, modified aleurone (MA, subaleurone of ventral endosperm (SVE, and center of ventral endosperm (CVE were observed under light and electron microscopes. (1 The distribution of SGs in SDE was similar to that in SVE, the distributions of SGs in CDE and CVE were similar, but the distribution of SGs in MA was different from those in the other four endosperm regions. The number of SGs in the five endosperm regions was in the order SDE > CDE > SVE > CVE > MA. (2 Nitrogen increased the number of A- and B-type SGs in SDE and SVE. Nitrogen also increased the number of B-type SGs but decreased the number of A-type SGs in CDE and CVE. Nitrogen decreased the numbers of A-type and B-type SGs in MA. The results suggest that increased N fertilizer application mainly increased the numbers of small SGs and decreased the numbers of large SGs, but that the results varied in different regions of the wheat endosperm.

  8. Reduced rates of controlled-release fertilizer lower potential nitrogen leaching from a Wisconsin bare-root tree nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryosuke Fujinuma; Nick J. Balster; Hyung-Kyung. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) typically increases nitrogen (N) fertilizer uptake and lowers N lost from the rooting zone via leaching. However, questions remain as to whether lower rates of CRF could further increase this efficiency, especially in sandy bare-root nurseries in Wisconsin. We hypothesized that: 1) a reduced CRF application at 60 percent of the...

  9. Changes in nitrogen mineralization, tissue nutrient concentrations and biomass compartmentation after cessation of fertilizer application to mown grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Han; Berendse, Frank; de Visser, Willem

    1 Nitrogen mineralization was studied in four grasslands (fields A-D), which had not been fertilized for 2, 6, 19 and 45 years, respectively, thereby forming a chronosequence. Fertilizer application was stopped in these fields in order to restore former species-rich communities characteristic of

  10. Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization on Growth of a Sweetgum Plantation Damaged by an Ice Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanfei Guo; Curtis Vanderschaaf

    2002-01-01

    In 1994, an ice storm impacted a 19-year-old sweetgum plantation (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) fertilized with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) at age 4. Thirty-nine percent of the stems were broken, 55 percent were not damaged, and 6 percent were leaning. After the ice storm, differences in height and dbh among the fertilization treatments disappeared...

  11. Effects of Positively Charged Dicyandiamide and Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources on Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Irrigated Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Hannah; Wade, Jordon; Horwath, William R; Burger, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer formulations vary in their effects as substrates on nitrous oxide (NO) emissions. Mitigation of NO emissions can potentially be achieved through appropriate choice of N fertilizer sources combined with stabilizers. The effects of three N fertilizers and urease and nitrification inhibitors on NO emissions, crop N uptake, and yields were determined in a furrow-irrigated corn ( L.) system in Reiff loam soil in the Sacramento Valley of California for one growing season. Aqua ammonia (Aq. NH), urea ammonium nitrate (UAN), and calcium nitrate were sidedressed at the rate of 202 kg N ha. The control treatment received only starter fertilizer (20 kg N ha). Total seasonal emissions were in the order Aq. NH > UAN > calcium nitrate = control with 1.38, 0.97, 0.35, and 0.27 kg NO-N ha, respectively. A novel, positively charged form of dicyandiamide, KAS-771G77 (G77), was combined with Aq. NH and UAN to test the effectiveness of this nitrification inhibitor in reducing NO emissions. When combined with Aq. NH, G77 did not reduce the emissions, but G77 significantly lowered them in the UAN treatment. A similar reduction of NO emissions in the UAN treatment was achieved with the urease and nitrification inhibitor AgrotainPlus. Yields and N use efficiency did not differ among the fertilized treatments. Ammoniacal fertilizers had higher NO emissions than nitrate-based fertilizers, which could imply nitrification pathways as a source of NO emissions. The use of G77 or AgrotainPlus, when applied with UAN, was an effective NO mitigation practice. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Grain quality and N uptake of spring cereals as affected by nitrogen fertilization in northern conditions: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Valkama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed quantitatively 40 Finnish field experiments related to the effect of nitrogen (N fertilizer on the main parameters of grain quality and N uptake of spring cereals. The experiments were conducted on a wide range of mineral soils under varying growth conditions from the 1950s to the 1990s. Overall there was no statistically significant effect on 1000 grain weight and a slightly negative effect on grain test weight. Nitrogen fertilizer increased N uptake much more steeply in slightly acidic soils (SA, pH 5.8–6.9, located mostly in South Finland, than in moderately acidic soils (MA, pH 5.0–5.7, located in Central Finland. With increasing N rates, protein content increased to a larger extent in spring barley and oats than in spring wheat. In the light of the current trend to reduce N fertilizerapplication, the obtained regressions between N rates and the parameters of grain quality may be used to maintain yield quality at a desirable level, while optimizing N management.

  13. Inhibition of methane oxidation by nitrogenous fertilizers in a paddy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saiful Alam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogenous fertilizers are generally thought to have an important role in regulating methane oxidation. In this study, the effect of ammonium on methane oxidation activity was investigated in a paddy soil using urea at concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 μg N per gram dry weight soil (N/g.d.w.s and ammonium sulfate at concentrations of 0, 50 and 200 μg N/g.d.w.s. The results of this study demonstrate that urea concentrations of 200 μg N/g.d.w.s. and above significantly inhibit methane oxidation activity, whereas no statistically significant difference was observed in methane oxidation activity among soil microcosms with urea concentrations of less than 200 μg N/g.d.w.s after incubation for 27 days. Similar results were obtained in a sense that methane oxidation activity was inhibited only when the ammonium sulfate concentration was 200 μg N/g.d.w.s in soil microcosms in this study. Phylogenetic analysis of pmoA genes showed that nitrogen fertilization resulted in apparent changes in the community composition of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB. Type I MOB displayed an increased abundance in soil microcosms amended with nitrogenous fertilizers, whereas type II MOB dominated the native soil. Furthermore, although no statistically significant relationship was observed between pmoA gene and amoA gene abundances, methane oxidation activity was significantly negatively correlated with nitrification activity in the presence of urea or ammonium sulfate. Our results indicate that the methane oxidation activity in paddy soils might be inhibited when the concentration of ammonium fertilizers is high and that the interactions between ammonia and methane oxidizers need to be further investigated.

  14. Assimilation of 15N-labelled urea nitrogen and ammonium nitrate nitrogen by plants in case of root and non-root fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muravin, Eh.A.; Kozhemyachko, V.A.; Vernichenko, I.V.

    1974-01-01

    Assimilation of 15 N labeled urea and ammonium nitrate in root and foliar application by spring wheat and barley has been studied during 1970-1973 period in a series of vegetative experiments at the Department of Agrochemistry, Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, and at D.N. Pryanishnikov Experimental Agrochemical Station. Additional fertilizer nitrogen applied at later ontogenesis stages (flowering and milky ripeness) is utilized mostly for protein synthesis in developing grains, thus leading to a significant increase in the relative grain protein content. A transfer of a part of nitrogen from the main ortion of fertilizer at later stages of nitrition results, at the same time, in a lower yield. Nitrogen utilization degree of urea and ammonium nitrate, when introduced before sowing or at the flowering stage is similar but in the latter case, however, additional assimilation of soil nitrogen is lower. The assimilation rate of nitrogen in root application is the lower the later the fertilizer is applied. When ammonium nitrate is additionally applied as nutrition to barley at the milky ripeness stage, ammonia and nitrate nitrogen are assimilated at the same rate and to the same extent but ammonia nitrogen is more rapidly used for protein synthesis and the rate of its transfer to the developing grains is higher. The rate of nitrogen assimilation at plant is much higher in foliar than in root application. Wheat utilizes more urea nitrogen at the flowering stage when root application is used but at the milky ripeness stage foliar application is more effective

  15. Soil nitrate testing supports nitrogen management in irrigated annual crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Lazicki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil nitrate (NO3− tests are an integral part of nutrient management in annual crops. They help growers make field-specific nitrogen (N fertilization decisions, use N more efficiently and, if necessary, comply with California's Irrigated Lands Regulatory Program, which requires an N management plan and an estimate of soil NO3− from most growers. As NO3− is easily leached into deeper soil layers and groundwater by rain and excess irrigation water, precipitation and irrigation schedules need to be taken into account when sampling soil and interpreting test results. We reviewed current knowledge on best practices for taking and using soil NO3− tests in California irrigated annual crops, including how sampling for soil NO3− differs from sampling for other nutrients, how tests performed at different times of the year are interpreted and some of the special challenges associated with NO3− testing in organic systems.

  16. Reducing Soil CO2 Emission and Improving Upland Rice Yield with no-Tillage, Straw Mulch and Nitrogen Fertilization in Northern Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossou-Yovo, E.; Brueggemann, N.; Naab, J.; Huat, J.; Ampofo, E.; Ago, E.; Agbossou, E.

    2015-12-01

    To explore effective ways to decrease soil CO2 emission and increase grain yield, field experiments were conducted on two upland rice soils (Lixisols and Gleyic Luvisols) in northern Benin in West Africa. The treatments were two tillage systems (no-tillage, and manual tillage), two rice straw managements (no rice straw, and rice straw mulch at 3 Mg ha-1) and three nitrogen fertilizers levels (no nitrogen, recommended level of nitrogen: 60 kg ha-1, and high level of nitrogen: 120 kg ha-1). Potassium and phosphorus fertilizers were applied to be non-limiting at 40 kg K2O ha-1 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1. Four replications of the twelve treatment combinations were arranged in a randomized complete block design. Soil CO2 emission, soil moisture and soil temperature were measured at 5 cm depth in 6 to 10 days intervals during the rainy season and every two weeks during the dry season. Soil moisture was the main factor explaining the seasonal variability of soil CO2 emission. Much larger soil CO2 emissions were found in rainy than dry season. No-tillage planting significantly reduced soil CO2 emissions compared with manual tillage. Higher soil CO2 emissions were recorded in the mulched treatments. Soil CO2 emissions were higher in fertilized treatments compared with non fertilized treatments. Rice biomass and yield were not significantly different as a function of tillage systems. On the contrary, rice biomass and yield significantly increased with application of rice straw mulch and nitrogen fertilizer. The highest response of rice yield to nitrogen fertilizer addition was obtained for 60 kg N ha-1 in combination with 3 Mg ha-1 of rice straw for the two tillage systems. Soil CO2 emission per unit grain yield was lower under no-tillage, rice straw mulch and nitrogen fertilizer treatments. No-tillage combined with rice straw mulch and 60 kg N ha-1 could be used by smallholder farmers to achieve higher grain yield and lower soil CO2 emission in upland rice fields in northern Benin.

  17. Wheat nitrogen fertilizer residues on an ultisol from the IX Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouanet M, Juan Luis; Pino N, Ines; Nario M, Adriana; Jobet, Claudio; Parada V, Ana Maria; Videla L, Ximena

    2005-01-01

    The soil nitrogen fertilizer residue is a relevant issue on a wheat production system at the IX Region of Chile, due to the high level of yield and use of resources, having an environmental impact from the use of fertilizer economy. The N-soil residue, not absorb by the plant, can be leach and contaminate the groundwater with nitrates or be redistributed by erosion. The application of isotopic techniques, using fertilizer labeled with 15 N, providing the quantitative information of the fate of this nutrient in the plant-soil system, important in the rate formulation based on the nitrogen use efficiency and in the benefit/cost relation. An assay was carried out in an Ultisol Metrenco Soil (Family fine, mixed, mesic, Typic Paleudults) at Pumalal locality. A Kumpa wheat variety was used, with a control treatment and five N rates applied as Urea labeled with 10% 15 N a.e., split in four times during the crop growth cycle. Total N (Kjeldhal) and 15 N optical emission spectrometer were determined in grain and straw samples harvested in February. Before to the next sow on may, soil sample were taken with an 3 cm diameter hugger (0-20; 20-40 and 40-60 cm depth). The samples were air dried, sieved and analyzed for total N and 15 N. The parameters determined for each depth were: N total (%), 15 N a.e. to obtain the plant-soil system N fertilizer recovery and its N residues in the soil profile. The wheat yield obtained was related with a cubic model using the N fertilizer rate applied (R 2 =0.75). The highest yield for the grain, 9.8 Mg ha -1 , was obtained applying 197 k ha -1 of N, with 45% of 15 N recovered by the grain. Nevertheless, the soil-crop system obtained a high 15 N recovery (>88%), in the soil remained 32-60% as N residue, being not used by the plant during the growth period. Between 27-54% of the 15 N total residue was found at the 0-20 cm soil depth, portion that is susceptible of distribution by erosion, implied in the use of fertilizer economy. Around 4

  18. Rice rhizodeposition and its utilization by microbial groups depends on nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Tida; Zhu, Zhenke; Wu, Jinshui

    2016-04-01

    Rhizodeposited carbon (C) has received considerable attention because it plays an important role in regulating soil C sequestration and global C cycling, and represents the main C source for rhizosphere microorganisms. However, limited information exists on the utilization of rhizodeposited C by different microbial groups, its role in the turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) pools in rice paddies and how this is influenced by nitrogen (N) fertilization. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) was grown in soil at one of five N fertilization rates (0, 10, 20, 40, or 60 mg N kg-1 soil) and then continuously labeled by exposure to a 13CO2 atmosphere for 18 days. The utilization of root-derived C by microbial groups within the rhizosphere was assessed by following the incorporation of 13C into phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). Rice shoot and root biomass strongly increased with N fertilization rate. Rhizodeposition was greater, but total 13C incorporation into microorganisms was lower, in N-fertilized soils than in unfertilized soil. The contribution of root-derived 13C to SOM formation increased with root biomass. The roots tended to grow into large aggregates (0.25-2.0 mm diameter), and N fertilization stimulated incorporation of 13C into these macroaggregates, presumably due to the relatively high root biomass. The ratio of 13C in soil pools (SOM, microbial biomass) to 13C in roots decreased as a result of N fertilization. N fertilization increased 13C incorporation into fungi (18:2ω6, 9c, 18:1ω9c), AM fungi (16:1ω5c), and actinomycetes (10Me 16:0, 10Me 18:0), but decreased 13C incorporation into Gram-positive (i14:0, i15:0, a15:0, i16:0, i17:0, a17:0) and Gram-negative (16:1ω7c, 18:1ω7c, cy17:0, cy19:0) bacteria. Thus, the uptake and processing of root-derived C by microbial groups depended on soil N status. Relative to the unfertilized controls, the contribution of rhizodeposited-C to SOM and microorganisms was increased by low to intermediate N fertilization rates, but

  19. Nitrogen fertilization strategies, morphogenetic and structural features in Brachiaria decumbens deferred for 95 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Andrade Teixeira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim this work was to evaluate the morphogenic and structural characteristics of Brachiaria decumbens pastures to determine the most suitable nitrogen fertilization strategies, for pastures deferred for a period of 95 days. Four strategies of fertilization at the beginning and end of the summer (0-0, 100- 0, 50-50, 0-100 kg ha-1 N were studied, respectively, with four replications. The strategy of 100 kg ha-1 N applied at the end of the summer (0-100, followed the parceling strategy at the beginning and end of the summer (50-50 favored higher rates of leaf appearance and lower values of phyllochron. Greater rate of leaf elongation was observed for 0-100 strategy, resulting in 40% increase compared to pastures that were not fertilized. However, there was no effect of fertilization strategies on stem elongation rate, registering an average of 0.28 cm.dia-1. There was a higher blade:stem ratio for the stratum A (40 cm above the soil in all treatments, observing higher blade:stem ratio for strategies 0-100 and 50-50, at this stratum. There was no effect for the total number of leaves and final leaf length. However, greater stem lengths were observed in pastures with 0-100 fertilizer strategy, followed by the 50-50 strategy. The strategy of applying 100 kg ha-1 at the end of summer, followed by the strategy of 50 kg ha-1 nitrogen divided at the beginning and end of summer, promote greater influence on the morphogenic and structural traits, in pastures deferred for 95 days.

  20. Effects of Fertilization on Surface Runoff Loss of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Mulberry in the Northern Zhejiang Plain, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHI Yan-ping

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 and 2013, the situ experimental plots in mulberry under two different kinds of treatment(control fertilization and farmer's conventional fertilization were conducted, and the runoff water in each plot were collected and tested in a period of two years to investigate the law of runoff, the regular pattern and the influential factors of nitrogen and phosphorus losses, and to study the coefficient of fertilizer losses from mulberry in northern Zhejiang plain. The results showed that the annual rainfall runoff coefficient was about 0.253 in mulberry field in northern Zhejiang plain. In those two years, TN and TP cumulative loss load in the conventional fertilization area reached 36.13 kg·hm-2 and 3.49 kg·hm-2, of which the N, P nutrient losses of fertilizer reached 6.415 kg·hm-2 and 1.090 kg·hm-2, respectively. N, P loss coefficients of fertilizer (the difference of nitrogen or phosphorus loss in the conventional fertilization area and the control area was divided by the total amount of fertilizer application were 0.744% and 3.047%. Nitrogen loss were mainly in soluble form, in which the NO3-N and NH4-N, accounting for about 38.3% and 14.4% respectively; while the phosphorus loss were in particulate form, accounting for about 68.9%. The larger amount of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient loss, were within the first year of the fertilization period, and the P loss was more serious than N. Within a period of fertilization, the cumulative loss of nitrogen and phosphorus caused by rainfall and the occurrence times of runoff increased with power function(R2>0.95.

  1. Nitrogen Oxide Fluxes and Nitrogen Cycling during Postagricultural Succession and Forest Fertilization in the Humid Tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather Erickson; Michael Keller; Eric Davidson

    2001-01-01

    The effects of changes in tropical land use on soil emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) are not well understood. We examined emissions of N2O and NO and their relationships to land use and forest composition, litterfall, soil nitrogen (N) pools and turnover, soil moisture, and patterns of carbon (C) cycling in a lower montane, subtropical wet region...

  2. Combined effects of pre-hardening and fall fertilization on nitrogen translocation and storage in Quercus variabilis seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guolei Li; Yan Zhu; Yong Liu; Jiaxi Wang; Jiajia Liu; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining proper seedling nitrogen status is important for outplanting success. Fall fertilization of evergreen conifer seedlings is a well-known technique for averting nitrogen (N) dilution caused by continued seedling growth during hardening. For deciduous seedlings, this technique is much less understood, and regardless of foliage type, the interaction of N status...

  3. Effect of Glycerol Levels on the Motility and Fertility of Kampung Chicken Spermatozoa Frozen in Liquid Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Saleh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of various levels of glycerol as a cryoprotective agent for freezing kampung chicken semen was examined with respect to intravaginal insemination. There was a significant (P<0.05 effect of various levels of glycerol (4, 8, 12 and 16 % on motile spermatozoa, but there was no significant effect on fertility. It was concluded that the use of glycerol for preservation of kampung chicken semen in liquid nitrogen gave satisfactory cryopreservative results on motility of thawed kampung chicken spermatozoa, but failed to produce fertile eggs. (Animal Production 9(1: 45-48 (2007 Key Words: glycerol, kampung chicken, semen, fertility, motility, liquid nitrogen

  4. Fertilization Management of Paddy Fields in Piedmont (NW Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Zavattaro

    Full Text Available A well-documented analysis of fertilization management techniques in use by farmers in a given region is the first step to improving the management standards of agronomic practices. The aim of this work was to summarize the fertilization management that farmers normally utilize for the rice crop in the Piedmont Region of Northwest Italy, and to analyze its agronomic and environmental sustainability. On average, 127 kg ha-1 of N, 67 kg ha-1 of P2O5, and 161 kg ha-1 of K2O were applied to the rice crop. Inorganic fertilizers were used on most of the surface. Calcium cyanamide was the most widely used slow-release product. Commercial organic compounds were spread on about 32% of the paddy surface, while farmyard manure was distributed over 6% of the surface. Organic-mineral products were also widely used. One fourth of the paddy surface received only inorganic products. Using organic or organic-mineral fertilizers together with inorganic products was the most common strategy (55% of the paddy surface. In most cases, N and P fertilization was balanced with crop removal. The N soil surface balance was in the ± 50 kg range for 77% of the surface, P fertilization was less than removal for 53% of the surface, whereas K fertilization was excessive (surplus >100 kg ha-1 for 53% of the surface. The nutrient balance was affected by the widespread practice of burning straw after harvest (66% of the paddy surface. The farmers modulated fertilization according to the rice variety requirements and tolerance to high N supply. The largest nutrient surplus was associated with stocking farms. Inefficient use of fertilizers that should be avoided to improve the territorial nutrient balance were then outlined, and possible specific actions were proposed.

  5. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the acidity and salinity of greenhouse soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiangpei; Shi, Jiachun; Zeng, Lingzao; Xu, Jianming; Wu, Laosheng

    2015-02-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of conventional nitrogen fertilization on soil acidity and salinity. Three N rates (urea; N0, 0 kg N ha(-1); N1, 600 kg N ha(-1); and N2, 1,200 kg N ha(-1)) were applied in five soils with different greenhouse cultivation years to evaluate soil acidification and salinization rate induced by nitrogen fertilizer in lettuce production. Both soil acidity and salinity increased significantly as N input increased after one season, with pH decrease ranging from 0.45 to 1.06 units and electrolytic conductivity increase from 0.24 to 0.68 mS cm(-1). An estimated 0.92 mol H(+) was produced for 1 mol (NO2 (-) + NO3 (-))-N accumulation in soil. The proton loading from nitrification was 14.3-27.3 and 12.1-58.2 kmol H(+) ha(-1) in the center of Shandong Province under N1 and N2 rate, respectively. However, the proton loading from the uptake of excess bases by lettuces was only 0.3-4.5 % of that from nitrification. Moreover, the release of protons induced the direct release of base cations and accelerated soil salinization. The increase of soil acidity and salinity was attributed to the nitrification of excess N fertilizer. Compared to the proton loading by lettuce, nitrification contributed more to soil acidification in greenhouse soils.

  6. Field trials show the fertilizer value of nitrogen in irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Cahn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased regulatory activity designed to protect groundwater from degradation by nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N is focusing attention on the efficiency of agricultural use of nitrogen (N. One area drawing scrutiny is the way in which growers consider the NO3-N concentration of irrigation water when determining N fertilizer rates. Four drip-irrigated field studies were conducted in the Salinas Valley evaluating the impact of irrigation water NO3-N concentration and irrigation efficiency on the N uptake efficiency of lettuce and broccoli crops. Irrigation with water NO3-N concentrations from 2 to 45 milligrams per liter were compared with periodic fertigation of N fertilizer. The effect of irrigation efficiency was determined by comparing an efficient (110% to 120% of crop evapotranspiration, ETc and an inefficient (160% to 200% of ETc irrigation treatment. Across these trials, NO3-N from irrigation water was at least as efficiently used as fertilizer N; the uptake efficiency of irrigation water NO3-N averaged approximately 80%, and it was not affected by NO3-N concentration or irrigation efficiency.

  7. Effect of Irrigation Methods, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer Rates on Sugar Beet Yield and Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Abudlkareem, J.

    2007-01-01

    The experiment was conducted at a research station near Adlib. Two irrigation methods, sprinkler irrigation and drip fertigation, two phosphorus rates and four nitrogen rates 0, 70, 140 and 210 kg N/ha were tested. All N fertilizers were injected for drip irrigation or broadcasted for the sprinkler-irrigated treatments in six equally split applications. Neutron probe Results revealed that the introduction of drip fertigation was not proved to be a water saving relative to sprinkler irrigation. Dry matter production was slightly increased for the drip-fertigated treatments relative to sprinkler irrigated treatments. Nitrogen use efficiency was not improved under drip fertigation relative to that of sprinkler irrigation. Application of phosphorus fertilizer improved sugar beet yield as well as N uptake. No significant differences in sugar beet yield were observed due to the application of N fertilizer under drip fertigation. On the other hand, there was a trend toward increasing sugar beet yield grown under sprinkler irrigation. Drip fertigation had no negative effects on sugar content and other related properties, furthermore some of those properties were enhanced due to the employment of drip fertigation. Field water-use efficiency followed a similar trend and was increased under sprinkler irrigation relative to drip-fertigation for sugar beet yield parameter.

  8. Effect of zeolite on the nitrogen fertilizer efficiency in rice crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villareal-Nunez, Jose Ezequiel; Barahona-Amores, Luis Alberto; Castillo-Ortiz, Ovidio Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of zeolite on the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer in rice crop. The experiment was conducted in Cacao, Tonosi, Los Santos, Panama, between August and December 2012 and 2013 under rainfed conditions. The rice variety used was IDIAP FL 106-11 with seeding density of 110 kg/ha in a medium- fertility vertic Fluvisol. This study consisted of five treatments with four replications, following a completely randomized block design using N rate of 80 kg/ha mixed with different percentages of zeolite (0; 15; 25; 35 and 45%). The isotopic technique 15 N 3% excess to determine the nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency (EUNF) was used. Each experimental unit consist of 15 m 2 with three micro-plots of 1 m 2 where 15 N-labeled urea was applied at different times of the crop cycle to determine EUNF in each application. Top grain yields were obtained with 80 kg N + 45% zeolite/ha and 80 kg N + 15% zeolite/ha. A 7% EUNF increase was achieved with the addition of natural zeolite. Small doses of 12 kg/ha (15%) of zeolite can improve EUNF; after subsequent experiments, it is recommended to reduce the amount of N applied in soils with similar soil and climatic conditions suitable for growing rice. (author) [es

  9. Effect of 26 years of intensively managed Carya cathayensis stands on soil organic carbon and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiasen; Huang, Jianqin; Liu, Dan; Li, Jianwu; Zhang, Jinchi; Wang, Hailong

    2014-01-01

    Chinese hickory (Carya cathayensis), a popular nut food tree species, is mainly distributed in southeastern China. A field study was carried out to investigate the effect of long-term intensive management on fertility of soils under a C. cathayensis forest. Results showed that after 26 years' intensive management, the soil organic carbon (SOC) content of the A and B horizons reduced by 19% and 14%, respectively. The reduced components of SOC are mainly the alkyl C and O-alkyl C, whereas the aromatic C and carbonyl C remain unchanged. The reduction of active organic matter could result in degradation of soil fertility. The pH value of soil in the A horizon had dropped by 0.7 units on average. The concentrations of the major nutrients also showed a decreasing trend. On average the concentrations of total nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) of tested soils dropped by 21.8%, 7.6%, and 13.6%, respectively, in the A horizon. To sustain the soil fertility and C. cathayensis production, it is recommended that more organic fertilizers (manures) should be used together with chemical fertilizers. Lime should also be applied to reduce soil acidity.

  10. Spacing, population density and nitrogen fertilization in corn grown in an Oxisoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Lana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate yield components, leaf nitrogen content and grain yield in corn as affected by row spacing, plant density and nitrogen topdressing. The experiment was conducted with the single-cross hybrid AG 8021, in the municipality of Toledo-PR, in an Oxisoil under no-tillage system, in the crop year 2005/ 2006. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design and treatments in split-split-plots, with four replications. The two row spacings (0.45 and 0.90 m were allocated in the main plots, the two plant densities (60,000 and 80,000 plants ha-1 were allocated in the subplots and the three nitrogen rates (80, 100, 120 and 140 kg ha-1 N were allocated in the sub-subplots. Topdress nitrogen was applied using urea as N source. The rise of the plant population from 60,000 to 80,000 plants ha-1 and the application of topdress nitrogen resulted in increased production components. The application of topdress fertilization provided increase in leaf N content and grain yield for the spacings 0.45 m and 0.90 m. Yield was higher in the spacing 0.45 m than 0.90 m. Yield was higher with 60,000 plants than with 80,000 plants at 0.90 m, while at 0.45 m there was no difference in relation to the plant density.

  11. Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Coffee at the Vegetative Stage as Influenced by Fertilizer Application Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca-Jimenez, Alveiro; Doane, Timothy A.; Horwath, William R.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient for coffee production in Colombia. An adequate supply is especially important during the vegetative period of growth, since any deficiency during this short period is known to have lasting effects on subsequent coffee bean production. Urea fertilizer is commonly applied on the soil surface since steep slopes hamper incorporation into soil, a practice which increases the risk of N volatilization. Little information is available on N recovery during early growth stages under different fertilizer application practices. The aim of this study was therefore to provide a comparison of 15N uptake during the early vegetative growth stage under surface-applied and incorporation practices at two contrasting locations. The highest proportion of plant N derived from fertilizer (Ndff) occurred 60 days following application at the site with greater precipitation and soil organic matter, where surface application also increased the Ndff in roots and stems after 120 days. Although fertilizer N supplied approximately 20–29% of total plant N after 4 months, this fertilizer-derived N corresponded on average to only 5% of the total application, indicating that very little fertilizer (relative to how much is applied) reaches plants during this time. Apart from the difference in Ndff observed at the wetter site, there was no effect of application method on dry weight and macronutrient content in different plant components, root to shoot ratio, and leaf 13C content. However, site effects were registered for most of these measurements, with the exception of total nutrient uptake. Similarly to Ndff trends, lower root/shoot ratio and higher concentrations of N, K, and Mg in aboveground biomass were found in the site with higher rainfall and soil organic matter, likely resulting from higher soil water and N availability. These findings provide new information useful as a direction for further research looking toward increasing NUE during the

  12. Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Long-term Patterns of Litter Decomposition in Two Humid Tropical Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, D. F.; Silver, W. L.; Torn, M. S.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition is known to impact decomposition in temperate ecosystems, but less is known about the effects of added N in tropical forests, where background soil N availability is relatively high. We examined changes in patterns and drivers of long-term litter decomposition with N fertilization in a lower elevation rainforest and an upper elevation cloud forest in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. We hypothesized that increased N would accelerate initial decomposition rates, while slowing later stages of decomposition. We predicted that litterfall chemistry would not change with N fertilization in these forests, but rather that N addition to the forest floor would directly alter the activity of microbial decomposers. We measured decomposition rates over three years for mixed native litter and a common substrate. We used 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess effects of N addition on initial litter chemical characteristics. Carbon and N concentrations of initial litter and decomposing litter were measured at multiple time points over the three years. As indices of microbial activity, we measured hydrolytic enzymes that degrade simpler C substrates, and oxidative enzymes that degrade more complex compounds, in decomposing litter over the three years. Decomposition rates for the common substrate were significantly higher in fertilized versus control plots in the lower elevation forest (p fertilized plots versus 0.7 ± 0.2 in control plots (per year, mean ± one s.e., n = 3). Initial litterfall C:N ratios and 13C-NMR chemistry did not respond significantly to N fertilization. Litter N concentrations were significant predictors of decomposition rates, and N fertilization did significantly alter C:N ratios of litter over the course of decomposition. Extracellular enzyme activities responded to N additions for some time points. These results indicate that litter turnover in tropical forests is likely to be sensitive to N deposition

  13. Silage of white oat under nitrogen fertilization and pre-wilting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Zamarchi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The forage conservation as silage is a way to provide good quality forage during grazing scarcity periods, in this way, the objective was to evaluate the effect of pre-wilting and nitrogen fertilization on the fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of white oat silage, in two harvest stages. The experiment was conducted in 2011 at UTFPR, Dois Vizinhos-PR, Brazil. The experimental design was in a randomized blocks with two factorial arrangement and three replicates. The main treatments were six nitrogen doses: 0, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 kg ha-1, and secondary the stages of cutting for silage: early flowering with and without pre-wilting, and at blooming without pre-wilting. It was observed that nitrogen fertilization promoted a reduction in pH and mineral content of the silage, reducing fiber content and increasing crude protein content (CP, when made at oat early flowering. The effect of pre-wilting in early flowering inhibits the production of effluents and has higher levels of CP, without any effect on the fermentation and nutritional value. The silage at blooming stage features better standards of fermentation, with lower pH and buffering capacity, but with lower nutritional value.

  14. Effect of irrigation and fertilization on the distribution and fate of nitrogen in greenhouse tomato (solanum lycopersicum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Xing, Y.

    2017-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., cv. 'Jinpeng 10') was conducted to investigate the fate and transport of nitrogen using different methods of irrigation and fertilization. Three treatments were designed with two irrigation methods (drip irrigation and furrow irrigation) and two fertilizer application methods (fertigation and conventional fertilization). Tomato fruit yield and biomass in the fertigation treatment were significantly higher than those in the conventional fertilization treatment. The highest total uptake of nitrogen by tomato was obtained with drip fertigation and increased significantly in the conventional fertilization and CK treatments. With an increase in nitrate uptake by the fruit, the uptake of the leaf nitrogen also increased in both years of the study. The distribution of the soil nitrate-N concentration tended to be symmetrical along the center of the emitter for drip irrigation and the furrows. The nitrate-N concentration in the CK treatment was 2.85-fold higher than that in the drip fertigation treatment. The proportion of nitrogen uptake of the total nitrogen input varied from 25.38% and 53.73% in two consecutive years, and the residual nitrogen in the fertigation treatment was 48.20% and 44.64% lower than that in the CK treatment in the same two respective years. (author)

  15. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Combined Forms and Transformation of Fluorine in Tea Garden Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yong-li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on combined forms and transformation of fluorine in tea garden soil, soil pot experiment was carried out. The research object was red-yellow soil in Shizipu tea plantation in the south of Anhui Province. Five treatments were N0P0K0 (CK, N0P1K1 (N0, N1P1K1 (N1, N2P1K1 (N2, N3P1K1 (N3. Water-soluble fluorine content, exchangeable fluorine content, Fe/Mn oxide-bound fluorine content, organic matter-bound fluorine content, ammonium nitrogen content and soil pH value in 0~15 cm soil layer were analyzed in 10, 20, 30, 50, 70, 90 days after fertilization. The results showed that compared with CK, in the short term (10 or 20 days after applying NPK, the content of water-soluble fluorine in 0~15 cm soil layer was decreased and the content of exchangeable fluorine, Fe/Mn oxide-bound fluorine and organic matter-bound fluorine were increased. After 20 days, the content of soil water-soluble fluorine was increased and the content of soil exchangeable fluorine, Fe/Mn oxide-bound fluorine and organic matter-bound fluorine were reduced. The effect on water-soluble fluorine and exchangeable fluorine increased with time and the application rate of nitrogen. The content of water-soluble fluorine in tea garden soil had a moderately positive correlation with the application rate of nitrogen while the content of exchangeable fluorine had a moderately or highly negative correlation with the application rate of nitrogen. The content of water-soluble fluorine had a quite highly negative correlation with the soil pH (P<0.01, but the content of exchangeable fluorine had a moderately or highly negative correlation with the soil pH (P<0.01. Therefore, nitrogen fertilizer changed the soil pH during its form transformation and thus affected the transformation and the availability of fluorine in soil.

  16. Nitrogen fluxes from irrigated common‑bean as affected by mulching and mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Thaís de Melo Carvalho

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to measure the fluxes of N2O‑N and NH3‑N throughout the growing season of irrigated common‑bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, as affected by mulching and mineral fertilization. Fluxes of N2O‑N and NH3‑N were evaluated in areas with or without Congo signal grass mulching (Urochloa ruziziensis or mineral fertilization. Fluxes of N were also measured in a native Cerrado area, which served as reference. Total N2O‑N and NH3‑N emissions were positively related to the increasing concentrations of moisture, ammonium, and nitrate in the crop system, within 0.5 m soil depth. Carbon content in the substrate and microbial biomass within 0.1 m soil depth were favoured by Congo signal grass and related to higher emissions of N2O‑N, regardless of N fertilization. Emission factors (N losses from the applied mineral nitrogen for N2O‑N (0.01-0.02% and NH3‑N (0.3-0.6% were lower than the default value recognized by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Mulch of Congo signal grass benefits N2O‑N emission regardless of N fertilization.

  17. Nitrogen fertilization of the host plant influences production and pathogenicity of Botrytis cinerea secondary inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abro, Manzoor Ali; Lecompte, François; Bryone, Florian; Nicot, Philippe C

    2013-03-01

    The influence of nitrogen (N) nutrition on a plant's susceptibility to Botrytis spp. and other pathogens is well documented. However, little is known of possible effects on sporulation of the pathogen on diseased tissue and on the pathogenicity of resulting secondary inoculum. To address this question, sporulation by two strains of Botrytis cinerea was quantified on tomato plants produced under different N irrigation regimes with inputs of NO(3)- at 0.5 to 45 mmol liter(-1) (mM). Sporulation decreased significantly (P tomato plants produced under a standard fertilization regime. Pathogenicity of the spores was significantly influenced by the nutritional status of their production substrate. Disease severity was highest with spores produced on plants with very low or very high N fertilization (NO(3)- at 0.5 or 30 mM). It was lowest for inoculum from plants with moderate levels of N fertilization. These results suggest that it may be possible to find an optimum level of N fertilization to reduce the production of secondary inoculum and its pathogenicity to tomato.

  18. Comparing carbon to carbon: Organic and inorganic carbon balances across nitrogen fertilization gradients in rainfed vs. irrigated Midwest US cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S. K.; McGill, B.

    2017-12-01

    The top meter of the earth's soil contains about twice the amount of carbon than the atmosphere. Agricultural management practices influence whether a cropland soil is a net carbon source or sink. These practices affect both organic and inorganic carbon cycling although the vast majority of studies examine the former. We will present results from several rarely-compared carbon fluxes: carbon dioxide emissions and sequestration from lime (calcium carbonate) weathering, dissolved gases emitted from groundwater-fed irrigation, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leaching to groundwater, and soil organic matter storage. These were compared in a corn-soybean-wheat rotation under no-till management across a nitrogen fertilizer gradient where half of the replicated blocks are irrigated with groundwater. DOC and liming fluxes are also estimated from a complementary study in neighboring plots comparing a gradient of management practices from conventional to biologically-based annuals and perennials. These studies were conducted at the Kellogg Biological Station Long Term Ecological Research site in Michigan where previous work estimated that carbon dioxide emissions from liming accounted for about one quarter of the total global warming impact (GWI) from no-till systems—our work refines that figure. We will present a first time look at the GWI of gases dissolved in groundwater that are emitted when the water equilibrates with the atmosphere. We will explore whether nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation increase soil organic carbon sequestration by producing greater crop biomass and residues or if they enhance microbial activity, increasing decomposition of organic matter. These results are critical for more accurately estimating how intensive agricultural practices affect the carbon balance of cropping systems.

  19. Nitrogen uptake during one year in subarctic plant functional groups and in microbes after long-term warming and fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2008-01-01

    and fertilization had no marked effect on soil inorganic N content, but both dissolved organic N (DON) and plant biomass did increase after fertilization. Soil microbes initially immobilized most of the added 15N, but in the following months, they lost two-thirds, while label concentration in plants increased......For the first time in an arctic long-term warming and fertilization experiment, the short-term (days) and longer-term (month and year) nitrogen (N) uptake and allocation in plants, microbes, and soil pools were studied, with 15N-labeling of an organic nitrogen form, glycine. The long-term warming...... saturated. The fraction of 15N in microbes tended to decrease after fertilization, but this was an effect of higher N pool dilution after 1 month and a year, and not due to lower initial uptake. Although the concentration of soil inorganic N did not change after fertilization, both increased DON...

  20. Effects of re-application of nitrogen fertilizer on forest soil-water chemistry, with special reference to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegbom, Lars; Nohrstedt, Hans-Oerjan

    2000-09-01

    A greatly increased concentration of cadmium was found in soil water following the application of nitrogen fertilizer. Our study was conducted at an experimental site in the western part of central Sweden. Prior to this, the area had been used to study the effects of the repeated application of fertilizer, under different regimes, on forest production. In this experiment, we examined the residual effects of previous nitrogen fertilizer application regimes on soil-water chemistry, following a final, additional fertilizer application. Soil water was sampled using suction lysimeters installed at a depth of 50 cm. However, due to the failure of the lysimeters at two of the study plots, the differences between fertilizer regimes could not be evaluated. Instead, we focused on changes in the solubility of cadmium and aluminium caused by soil-water acidification due to the re-application of nitrogen fertilizer. Every fourth or eighth year, between 1981 and 1997, the study plots received 150 kg N ha -1 , in the form of ammonium nitrate (AN) and calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN). The effects of the final fertilizer application (CAN) were studied. Application of nitrogen fertilizer resulted in a rapid increase in NO 3 - concentration in soil-water, and a decrease in pH. The increased soil-water acidity resulted in some metals becoming more soluble and occurring in higher concentrations within the soil water. The increase in concentration of some toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium, was of concern. The highest measured cadmium concentration was 2.7 μg l -1 , compared to the government health limit of 5 μg l -1 for drinking water. The cadmium detected must originate from the soil since it was not present in the nitrogen fertilizer. Cadmium is highly toxic to both animals and plants, and knowledge of its occurrence, in relation to various silvicultural operations, is of great importance

  1. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Light Interception and Light Extinction Coefficient in Different Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Samadiyan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Wheat (Triticum aestivum is a cereal grain, originated from the levant region of the near east and Ethiopian highlands, currently cultivated worldwide. Light extinction coefficient K is a coefficient that represents the amount of light reduced by the plant. Light or radiation extinction coefficient is a concept that expresses the light penetration decrease into the canopy in the way the upper leaves of the canopy with less angles have lower amount of K in comparison with the horizontal leaves. Green et al., (2003 stated that nitrogen fertilizer increased light absorption by plant leaves; and affects the yield. The distribution patterns of nitrogen allocation in leaves are more exposed therefore photosynthesis rate per unit leaf area and canopy were optimized. Differences in canopy structure by the light extinction coefficient (k of the Act Lambert - Beer is described, along LAI differing due to different species and genotypes which are important factors in absorption and light use efficiency. This experiment was performed to evaluate the maximum light absorption and light extinction coefficient in different levels of nitrogen usage and wheat cultivars. Materials and Methods An experiment was conducted during 2011-2012 on a research farm of Islamic Azad University, Isfahan Branch, located in Khatoon Abad Village (northern latitude of 320 and 40´ and eastern longitude of 510 and 48´ with altitude of 1555 m above sea level. A split plot layout within randomized complete block design was used with three replications. Main plots were consisted in four levels of N fertilizer (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 from an urea source in main plots and different cultivars of wheat included Pishtaz, Sepahan and SW-486 in sub plots. Planting was performed on 14 November 2011 and at a density of 400 plants per square meter. In order to strengthen the land and required elements for plant regarding soil test and treatments based on the test plan, the

  2. Trade-offs in soil fertility management on arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Jules F.F.P.; Berge, ten Hein F.M.; Verhagen, Jan; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2017-01-01

    Crop production and soil fertility management implies a multitude of decisions and activities on crop choice, rotation design and nutrient management. In practice, the choices to be made and the resulting outcomes are subject to a wide range of objectives and constraints. Objectives are economic

  3. Environmental and economic benefits of variable rate nitrogen fertilization in a nitrate vulnerable zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Bruno; Dumont, Benjamin; Cammarano, Davide; Pezzuolo, Andrea; Marinello, Francesco; Sartori, Luigi

    2016-03-01

    Agronomic input and management practices have traditionally been applied uniformly on agricultural fields despite the presence of spatial variability of soil properties and landscape position. When spatial variability is ignored, uniform agronomic management can be both economically and environmentally inefficient. The objectives of this study were to: i) identify optimal N fertilizer rates using an integrated spatio-temporal analysis of yield and site-specific N rate response; ii) test the sensitivity of site specific N management to nitrate leaching in response to different N rates; and iii) demonstrate the environmental benefits of variable rate N fertilizer in a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone. This study was carried out on a 13.6 ha field near the Venice Lagoon, northeast Italy over four years (2005-2008). We utilized a validated crop simulation model to evaluate crop response to different N rates at specific zones in the field based on localized soil and landscape properties under rainfed conditions. The simulated rates were: 50 kg N ha(-1) applied at sowing for the entire study area and increasing fractions, ranging from 150 to 350 kg N ha(-1) applied at V6 stage. Based on the analysis of yield maps from previous harvests and soil electrical resistivity data, three management zones were defined. Two N rates were applied in each of these zones, one suggested by our simulation analysis and the other with uniform N fertilization as normally applied by the producer. N leaching was lower and net revenue was higher in the zones where variable rates of N were applied when compared to uniform N fertilization. This demonstrates the efficacy of using crop models to determine variable rates of N fertilization within a field and the application of variable rate N fertilizer to achieve higher profit and reduce nitrate leaching. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Contrasting nitrogen fertilization treatments impact xylem gene expression and secondary cell wall lignification in Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Eduardo Leal Oliveira; Nascimento, Leandro Costa; Soler, Marçal; Salazar, Marcela Mendes; Lepikson-Neto, Jorge; Marques, Wesley Leoricy; Alves, Ana; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Martinez, Yves; Deckmann, Ana Carolina; Rodrigues, José Carlos; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2014-09-28

    Nitrogen (N) is a main nutrient required for tree growth and biomass accumulation. In this study, we analyzed the effects of contrasting nitrogen fertilization treatments on the phenotypes of fast growing Eucalyptus hybrids (E. urophylla x E. grandis) with a special focus on xylem secondary cell walls and global gene expression patterns. Histological observations of the xylem secondary cell walls further confirmed by chemical analyses showed that lignin was reduced by luxuriant fertilization, whereas a consistent lignin deposition was observed in trees grown in N-limiting conditions. Also, the syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio was significantly lower in luxuriant nitrogen samples. Deep sequencing RNAseq analyses allowed us to identify a high number of differentially expressed genes (1,469) between contrasting N treatments. This number is dramatically higher than those obtained in similar studies performed in poplar but using microarrays. Remarkably, all the genes involved the general phenylpropanoid metabolism and lignin pathway were found to be down-regulated in response to high N availability. These findings further confirmed by RT-qPCR are in agreement with the reduced amount of lignin in xylem secondary cell walls of these plants. This work enabled us to identify, at the whole genome level, xylem genes differentially regulated by N availability, some of which are involved in the environmental control of xylogenesis. It further illustrates that N fertilization can be used to alter the quantity and quality of lignocellulosic biomass in Eucalyptus, offering exciting prospects for the pulp and paper industry and for the use of short coppices plantations to produce second generation biofuels.

  5. Predicting nitrogen leaching losses from intensifying agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa: the role of soils and fertilizer type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, K. L.; Russo, T. A.; Palm, C.; Neill, C.

    2014-12-01

    Fertilizer use is rapidly increasing in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, we currently have little understanding of the consequences of increased nitrogen (N) fertilizer use on surface and groundwater resource quality in these tropical croplands. This is because there are few field studies that examine N dynamics in SSA, and extrapolation is difficult because soil biogeochemistry and land management differ from the regions where most of our understanding of N losses from agriculture has been developed. We present data on N leaching losses in the vadose zone from a high-clay soil in western Kenya and a low-clay soil in mid-western Tanzania. Experimental fields were established in both sites with fertilizer rates ranging from 0 to 200 kg N ha-1 yr-1. We combine measuring soil pore water concentrations from tension lysimeters with a variably saturated hydrologic flow model to estimate N leaching losses under different fertilizer scenarios in two soil types. Vertical N fluxes are given at the soil surface, within, and below the root zone. We find N losses from high-clay soils to be nearly two orders of magnitude lower than low-clay soils likely due to lower fluid flux and higher anion exchange in the high-clay soils. Organic material additions (from leguminous tree prunings) reduced N leaching losses substantially in low-clay soils likely by changing the timing of N-release and by increasing soil organic matter (and thus improving water retention and the formation of soil aggregates). Predicting the fate of added N in SSA is very important as N application is poised to increase in this vulnerable and under-studied region.

  6. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Combined Forms and Transformation of Fluorine in Tea Garden Soil

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG Yong-li; LIAO Wan-you; WANG Ye-jun; SU You-jian; LUO Yi; SONG Li; SUN Li

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on combined forms and transformation of fluorine in tea garden soil, soil pot experiment was carried out. The research object was red-yellow soil in Shizipu tea plantation in the south of Anhui Province. Five treatments were N0P0K0 (CK), N0P1K1 (N0), N1P1K1 (N1), N2P1K1 (N2), N3P1K1 (N3). Water-soluble fluorine content, exchangeable fluorine content, Fe/Mn oxide-bound fluorine content, organic matter-bound fluorine content, ammonium ni...

  7. Radioactivation method for simultaneous determination of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in plants and fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srapeniants, R.A.; Saveliev, I.B.; Kovtun, J.L.; Sidorov, A.V.; Tsagolov, K.S.; Miroshnikova, N.N.

    1982-01-01

    A radioactivation method for the simultaneous determination of the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in plants and fertilizers is described. Samples to be analyzed and standard samples are exposed to neutron irradiation, and the spectra of gamma radiation induced in the samples are recorded. The samples laid aside for a period of time determined by the half-life of interfering isotopes, and the spectra of the samples and standards are recorded again. The first and second spectra are superposed and shifted relative to each other along the energy axis, and the content of the elements being analyzed is determined by comparing the spectra of the samples and standards

  8. EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF WATERMELON, CV. TOP GUN

    OpenAIRE

    NOWAKI, RODRIGO HIYOSHI DALMAZZO; CECÍLIO FILHO, ARTHUR BERNARDES; FARIA, ROGÉRIO TEIXEIRA DE; WAMSER, ANDERSON FERNANDO; CORTEZ, JUAN WALDIR MENDONZA

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nitrogen (N) is the second most important nutrient required by watermelons that can limit their growth and affect fruit quality when deficient. We evaluated the soil (N-nitrate) and foliar N contents and soluble-solid content of the watermelon 'Top Gun' in Brazil at six rates of N fertilization (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg ha-1). N-nitrate and foliar N levels increased linearly with rate. Number of total and marketable fruit, weight of total and marketable fruit and total and mar...

  9. EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF WATERMELON, CV. TOP GUN

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGO HIYOSHI DALMAZZO NOWAKI; ARTHUR BERNARDES CECÍLIO FILHO; ROGÉRIO TEIXEIRA DE FARIA; ANDERSON FERNANDO WAMSER; JUAN WALDIR MENDONZA CORTEZ

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the second most important nutrient required by watermelons that can limit their growth and affect fruit quality when deficient. We evaluated the soil (N-nitrate) and foliar N contents and soluble-solid content of the watermelon 'Top Gun' in Brazil at six rates of N fertilization (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg ha-1). N-nitrate and foliar N levels increased linearly with rate. Number of total and marketable fruit, weight of total and marketable fruit and total and marketable y...

  10. Planty Organic 5 year: evaluation of soil fertility, nitrogen dynamics and production.

    OpenAIRE

    Burgt, Geert-Jan H.M.; Rietema, Carina; Bus, Michiel

    2018-01-01

    In the Planty Organic experimental field, located at the SPNA location ‘Kollumerwaard’, an organic arable farming system is developed based on three principles: • Nitrogen input fully based on leguminous crops • Use of farm-produced cut-and-carry fertilizers • Reduced tillage; no ploughing. The results of this research will be available for improvements in both organic and conventional arable farming. The experimental site consists of six plots, 0,8 hectare each. There is a six-ye...

  11. Effects of reclaimed water irrigation on microbial diversity and composition of soil with reducing nitrogen fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Guo; Qi, Xuebin; Xiao, Yatao

    2018-01-01

    community diversity and chemical properties of topsoil was investigated by monitoring nitrogen (N) rates. Tomato plants were grown on plots which had been irrigated with reclaimed water for 5 years with varying levels of N fertilization (N270, 270 kg ha−1; N216, 216 kg ha−1; N189, 189 kg ha−1; and N135, 135......Reclaimed water (RW) is an alternative water resource that has been utilized all over the world, but its environmental effects are not fully understood. Soil biodiversity is an important indicator of soil tolerance and resilience. In the present study, the impact of RW irrigation on the microbial...

  12. Net effects of nitrogen fertilization on the nutritive value and digestibility of oat forages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications of soil amendments containing N are part of routine forage management strategies for grasses, with a primary goal of increasing forage yield. However, the effects of N fertilization on forage nutritive value, estimates of energy density, and in-vitro DM or NDF disappearance often have b...

  13. Malt barley yield and quality affected by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the comparison of management practices on malt barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) yield and quality in irrigated and non-irrigated cropping systems. We evaluated the effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization on malt barley yield and quality in a sandy loam s...

  14. Utilization of 15N-labelled nitrogen fertilizer in dependence on organic manuring and carbon and nitrogen contents of loess chernozem profiles with different stratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greilich, J.

    1988-01-01

    In an outdoor model experiment with different total C and N contents in five profile variants of loess chernozem, the utilization of 15 N-labelled mineral fertilizer N by maize was investigated over three years. The total nitrogen uptake in the variants correlated with the yields at nearly uniform nitrogen contents in dry matter. Total C and N contents of the profile variants and one organic manure application per year had no statistically significant effects on the 15 N-labelled fertilizer N proportion in total N content of biomass. As a result of the low yields obtained from the variants with low total C and N contents of soil, mineral fertilizer utilization was found to be lower, too, in most of these variants. Organic manuring had no essential effect on mineral fertilizer N utilization. (author)

  15. Effect of Preplant Irrigation, Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Timing, and Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilization on Winter Wheat Grain Yield and Water Use Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob T. Bushong; D. Brian Arnall; William R. Raun

    2014-01-01

    Preplant irrigation can impact fertilizer management in winter wheat. The objective of this study was to evaluate the main and interactive effects of preplant irrigation, N fertilizer application timing, and different N, P, and K fertilizer treatments on grain yield and WUE. Several significant two-way interactions and main effects of all three factors evaluated were observed over four growing seasons for grain yield and WUE. These effects could be described by differences in rainfall and soi...

  16. Nitrogen balance and dynamics in corn under different soil fertility levels using “1“5N isotope tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rallos, R.V.; Rivera, F.G.; Samar, E.D.; Rojales, J.S.; Anida, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) Fertilizer plays a vital role on the growth and development of any crop. The inefficient N fertilizer utilization contributes to poor crop productivity and environment pollution. This study used the 15N isotope tracer technique to understand the nitrogen balance and dynamics in corn grown during the wet and dry season for low, medium and high N soils in Northern Luzon. The experiments were laid out following the randomized complete block design (RCBD) potassium requirements were applied at optimum level on solid chemical analysis and fertilizer recommendation. The study was able to separate the source of N from applied fertilizer and from the soils, traced using 15N during the 30 days after planting (DAP), 60 DAP and at harvest. Result show that, more than half of N in the plant came directly from added fertilizer during the early stage, which decreased towards harvest period. Fertilizer N yield use efficiency showed negative relationship with the rate of N application and soil fertility levels. Of N fertilization in different soil fertility levels were also established using isotope tracer technique. (author)

  17. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer application timing on nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield of winter wheat in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efretuei A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to determine the effects of initiating application of fertilizer nitrogen (N to winter wheat at different growth stages (GSs on grain yield and N use efficiency (NUE. A factorial experiment was carried out in two growing seasons (2011 and 2012 with five timings of first N application (GS 24/26 [tillering], GS 30, GS 31, GS 32 or GS 37 and an unfertilized control, two sowing densities (100 and 400 seeds/m2 and a cattle slurry treatment (with or without slurry. The latter was included to simulate variation in soil N supply (SNS. Delaying the first application of N from the tillering stage until GS 30 had no significant effect on grain yield in either year. Further delaying the initial N application until GS 31 caused a significant yield reduction in 2011, in comparison to GS 30 application, but not in 2012. Differences in efficiency of recovery and use of fertilizer N by the crop among the first three application timings were small. There was no evidence to support alteration in the timing of the first application of N in response to low plant density. Slurry application did not influence SNS, so the interaction between SNS and fertilizer N application timing could not be determined. It is concluded that in order to maximise yield and NUE, the first N application should be applied to winter wheat between late tillering and GS 30 and that delaying the first N until GS 31 can lead to yield reductions compared to the yield obtained with earlier application.

  18. Nitrogen fertilization of switchgrass increases biomass yield and improves net greenhouse gas balance in northern Michigan, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiema, Paligwende; Rothstein, David E.; Min, Doo-Hong; Kapp, Christian J.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization can increase bioenergy crop production; however, fertilizer production and application can contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, potentially undermining the GHG benefits of bioenergy crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of N fertilization on GHG emissions and biomass production of switchgrass bioenergy crop, in northern Michigan. Nitrogen fertilization treatments included 0 kg ha -1 (control), 56 kg ha -1 (low) and 112 kg ha -1 (high) of N applied as urea. Soil fluxes of CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 were measured every two weeks using static chambers. Indirect GHG emissions associated with field activities, manufacturing and transport of fertilizer and pesticides were derived from the literature. Switchgrass aboveground biomass yield was evaluated at the end of the growing season. Nitrogen fertilization contributed little to soil GHG emissions; relative to the control, there were additional global warming potential of 0.7 Mg ha -1 y -1 and 1.5 Mg ha -1 y -1 as CO 2 equivalents (CO 2 eq), calculated using the IPCC values, in the low and high N fertilization treatments, respectively. However, N fertilization greatly stimulated CO 2 uptake by switchgrass, resulting in 1.5- and 2.5-fold increases in biomass yield in the low and high N fertilization treatments, respectively. Nitrogen amendments improved the net GHG benefits by 2.6 Mg ha -1 y -1 and 9.4 Mg ha -1 y -1 as CO 2 eq relative to the control. Results suggest that N fertilization of switchgrass in this region could reduce (15-50%) the land base needed for bioenergy production and decrease pressure on land for food and forage crop production. -- Highlights: → We examine the effects of N fertilization of switchgrass on GHG emissions. → Effects of N fertilization on biomass production of switchgrass bioenergy crop. → N fertilization contributed little to greenhouse gas emissions. → N fertilization greatly stimulated CO 2 uptake by the switchgrass. → N

  19. Nitrogen Fertilization for Optimizing the Quality and Yield of Shade Grown Cuban Cigar Tobacco: Required Nitrogen Amounts, Application Schedules, Adequate Leaf Nitrogen Levels, and Early Season Diagnostic Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N fertilizers have a decisive influence on the yield and quality of tobacco. Yield, percentage of plant N, wrapper leaf quality, and nicotine content are all important quality characteristics in tobacco growing. This work is an attempt to provide a tool for optimizing mineral N nutrition for Cuban cigar tobacco, using a strategy that links N supply with leaf N concentration and wrapper yield. Similar approaches developed worldwide have mainly involved Virginia and Burley tobacco types but not Cuban cigar tobacco. The objective of the current work is to identify the effects of fertilizer N levels and timing of application on each of the mentioned quality factors for shade grown Cuban cigar tobacco. Another purpose is to explore the usefulness of a quick method of assessing the N status of plants based on measuring leaf transmission at two different wavelengths (650 and 940 nm. The experiments were done in the main tobacco growing area of Cuba (Vueltabajo. In each experiment, nine separate treatments were used covering different levels and times of fertilizer N application. The same experiment was carried out in three different years (2005-2006, 2006-2007, 2007-2008 but as the results were similar only one set of data is described (2006-2007. The patterns of response to N fertilizer of all four quality measurements, including yield and wrapper leaf quality, were similar in the different replications of the experiments. The optimal fertilizer level was 140-190 kg N/ha (40% applied on days 8-10 after transplanting and 60% on days 18-20 after transplanting. The optimal N concentration of leaves taken at the central foliar level of the middle stalk position was 4.3-4.7% at harvest time. Leaf transmission measurements by means of the SPAD-502 Chlorophyll Meter in the early stages of growth were correlated with leaf chlorophyll and N concentration and provide an excellent guide for predicting Cuban cigar tobacco wrapper leaf yield.

  20. Nitrogen fertilization decouples roots and microbes: Reductions in belowground carbon allocation limit microbial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, J.; Walter, C. A.; Govindarajulu, R.; Hawkins, J.; Brzostek, E. R.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition has enhanced the ability of trees to capture atmospheric carbon (C). The effect of elevated N on belowground C cycling, however, is variable and response mechanisms are largely unknown. Recent research has highlighted distinct differences between ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) trees in the strength of root-microbial interactions. In particular, ECM trees send more C to rhizosphere microbes to stimulate enzyme activity and nutrient mobilization than AM trees, which primarily rely on saprotrophic microbes to mobilize N. As such, we hypothesized that N fertilization would weaken root-microbial interactions and soil decomposition in ECM stands more than in AM stands. To test this hypothesis, we measured root-microbial interactions in ECM and AM plots in two long-term N fertilization studies, the Fernow Experimental Forest, WV and Bear Brook Watershed, ME. We found that N fertilization led to declines in plant C allocation belowground to fine root biomass, branching, and root exudation in ECM stands to a greater extent than in AM stands. As ECM roots are tightly coupled to the soil microbiome through energy and nutrient exchange, reductions in belowground C allocation were mirrored by shifts in microbial community composition and reductions in fungal gene expression. These shifts were accompanied by larger reductions in fungal-derived lignolytic and hydrolytic enzyme activity in ECM stands than in AM stands. In contrast, as the AM soil microbiome is less reliant on trees for C and are more adapted to high inorganic nutrient environments, the soil metagenome and transcriptome were more resilient to decreases in belowground C allocation. Collectively, our results indicate the N fertilization decoupled root-microbial interactions by reducing belowground carbon allocation in ECM stands. Thus, N fertilization may reduce soil turnover and increase soil C storage to a greater extent in forests dominated by ECM than AM trees.

  1. Recycling Improves Soil Fertility Management in Smallholdings in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Krause

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Residues from bioenergy and ecological sanitation (EcoSan can be utilized to sustain soil fertility and productivity. With regard to certain cooking and sanitation technologies used in smallholder households (hh, we systematically analyzed how utilization of the respective potentials to recover residues for farming affects (i soil nutrient balances, (ii the potential for subsistence production of composts, and (iii environmental emissions. On the example of an intercropping farming system in Karagwe, Tanzania, we studied specific farming practices including (1 current practices of using standard compost only; (2 a combination of using biogas slurry, urine, and standard compost; (3 a combination of using so-called “CaSa-compost” (containing biochar and sanitized human excreta, Project “Carbonization and Sanitation”, urine, and standard compost. The system analysis combines a soil nutrient balance (SNB with material flow analysis (MFA. Currently, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P are depleted by −54 ± 3 and −8 ± 1 kg∙ha−1∙year−1, respectively. Our analysis shows, however, a clear potential to reduce depletion rates of N, and to reverse the SNB of P, to bring about a positive outcome. Composts and biogas slurry supply sufficient P to crops, while urine effectively supplements N. By using resources recovered from cooking and sanitation, sufficient compost for subsistence farming may be produced. Human excreta contribute especially to total N and total P in CaSa-compost, whilst biochar recovered from cooking with microgasifier stoves adds to total carbon (C and total P. We conclude that the combined recycling of household residues from cooking and from sanitation, and CaSa-compost in particular, is especially suitable for sustainable soil management, as it mitigates existing P-deficiency and soil acidity, and also restores soil organic matter.

  2. The overwhelming role of soil N2O emissions in net greenhouse gas balance of the U.S. Corn Belt: Modeling estimate of nitrogen fertilizer impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C.; Yu, Z.; Cao, P.; Tian, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Corn Belt of the Midwestern U.S. is one of the most productive systems in the world during the growing season, with gross primary production exceeding even that of the Amazon forests. Fueled by increased commodity prices in the late 2000s, the area in corn and soybean in the U.S. has reached record highs with most of the newly added cropland converted from grasslands, wetland, and Conservation Reserve Program land. Intensive management practices, such as fertilizer use, irrigation, tillage, residue removal etc., have been implemented following cropland expansion to maximize crop yield from converted marginal land or from more monoculture production. The Corn Belt has been recognized as one of the major contributors to carbon sinks in the U.S., partially because crop harvest and residue removal reduced soil respiration. In the meanwhile, 75% of the total N2O emission in the U.S. comes from agriculture, among which the Corn Belt is the major source due to nitrogen management, and has large potential of climate mitigation. However, it remains far from certain how intensive cropland expansion and management practices in this region have affected soil carbon accumulation and non-CO2 GHG emissions. In this study, by using a process-based land ecosystem model, Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM), we investigated the impacts of nitrogen fertilizer use on soil carbon accumulation and direct N2O emissions across the U.S. Corn Belt. Surprisingly, we found N fertilizer-induced SOC storage continued shrinking after the 1980s while N2O emissions remains relatively constant. The N fertilizer use led to a net greenhouse gas release since 2000 in both the western and eastern Corn Belt, contributing to climate warming. This study implies an increasing importance of nitrogen management for both agricultural production and climate mitigation.

  3. Nitrogen translocation in wheat inoculated with Azospirillum and fertilized with nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGUES OSMAR

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The productivity and the translocation of assimilates and nitrogen (N were compared after inoculation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. BR-23 seeds with two strains of Azospirillum brasilense (strains 245 and JA 04 under field conditions. The inoculation of wheat seeds was done with a peat inoculant at sowing time. Plant material for evaluations were collected at anthesis and maturity. No differences in grain yield and in the translocation of assimilates resulting from inoculation were detected. Differences were observed in relation to N rates (0, 15, and 60 kg ha-1. N content in the grain increased significantly in the bacteria-inoculated treatments in which N was not added. This increase in N content in the grain with inoculation was probably due to higher N uptake after anthesis without any significant contribution on the grain yield. Such increment was of 8.4 kg ha-1 of N representing 66% more N than in no inoculated treatment. Regardless of the inoculation and the rate of N applied, it was observed that about 70% of the N accumulated at anthesis was translocated from vegetative parts to the grain.

  4. Nitrogen fixed by wheat plants as affected by nitrogen fertilizer levels and Non-symbiotic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.; Aly, S.S.M.; Gadalla, A.M.; Abou Seeda, M.

    1995-01-01

    Inorganic nitrogen is required for all egyptian soils for wheat. Free living and N 2-fixing microorganisms are able associate closely related with the roots of geraminacae. Pot experiment studies were carried out to examine the response of wheat plants to inoculation with Azospirillum Brasilense and Azotobacter Chroococcum, single or in combination, under various levels of ammonium sulfate interaction between both the inoculants increased straw or grain yield as well as N-uptake by wheat plants with increasing N levels. Results showed that grains of wheat plants derived over 19,24 and 15% of its N content from the atmospheric - N 2 (Ndfa) with application of 25,50 and 75 mg N kg-1 soil in the presence of + Azospirillum + azotobacter. The final amount of N 2-fixers. The highest values of N 2-fixed were observed with mixed inoculants followed by inoculation with Azospirillum and then azotobacter. The recovery of applied ammonium sulfate-N was markedly increased by inoculation with combined inoculants, but less in uninoculated treatments. Seeds inoculated with non-symbiotic fixing bacteria could be saved about 25 kg N without much affecting the grain yield. i fig., 4 tabs

  5. Nitrogen fertilization in the production of seedlings of Talisia esculenta (A. St. Hil Radlk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro da S. Tosta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT ‘Pitombeira’ does not have organized cultivation, thus requiring information related to the production of seedlings, particularly in relation to chemical fertilizer. In this context, an experiment was conducted in order to define the best dose of nitrogen (N, using urea as N source, to be applied in ‘pitombeira’ seedlings. The experimental design was complete randomized blocks with four replicates and ten plants per plot, testing five N doses (0, 400, 800, 1.600 and 3.200 mg dm-3. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and regression. The non-destructive measurements (number of leaves, stem diameter, shoot length and the ratio between shoot length and stem diameter were evaluated at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after transplanting (DAT. In addition, shoot, root and total dry matter and Dickson quality index were determined at 120 DAT. Nitrogen fertilizations, from the dose of 500 mg N dm-3 as top-dressing, were those that led to the most vigorous ‘pitombeira’ plants, while plants developed with dose above 1.600 mg of N dm-3 showed a reduction in their vigor.

  6. Dry matter accumulation and mineral nutrition of arracacha in response to nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Augusto Magolbo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the growth and yield of arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza, as well as on the plant's nutrient uptake, distribution, and removal. The experiment was carried out in a typical Oxisol, with sandy texture. A randomized complete block design was used, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of five N rates: 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 kg ha-1. The plots were composed of three 8-m-length rows, spaced at 0.60 m between rows and 0.40 m between plants. The plants were harvested after an 8-month cycle. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased the proportion of N and S accumulated in stems, and of Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn in leaves. N supply increased Zn distribution to stems and leaves, whereas high N rates increased Cu allocation to stems more than to the rootstock. High N rates increase plant dry matter (DM production and nutrient uptake and removal, but do not result in the greatest yield due to the greater development of leaves and stems, and to the lower allocation of DM in storage roots.

  7. Evaluate Effect of Water Stress and Different Amounts of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Seed Quality of Black Cumin (Nigella Sativa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Heidari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of water stress and different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on grian yield and accumulation macronutrients included: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and micronutrient included: iron, zinc, manganese and copper, oil, protein and thymoquinone contents in seed of black cumin, a field experiment was conducted as split plot design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station, Zahak, Zabol during growing season of 2010-2011. Water stress treatments included: W1= control, W2= no irrigation at stem elongation stage to flowering, W3= irrigation at flowering stage until the beginning of grain filling and W4= no irrigation at flowering and grain filling as the main plots and four levels of nitrogen application fertilizer, including N1= control or without any fertilizer consumption, N2= 30 kg N/ha, N3= 60 kg N/ha and N4= 90 kg N/ha in sub plot. Results showed that water stress had significant effect on the grain yield and accumulation of macro and micronutrient in the seed of Black Cumin. Except for and iron, the highest amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, manganese, copper and zinc and the lowest amount of grain yield were obtained at W4 treatment and manganese at W3 treatment. In this experiment the interaction effect between stress and nitrogen fertilizer except grain yield and potassium had significant impact on others elements. The results indicated that water stress at flowering and grain filling (W4 stages, the maximum amount of micro and macronutrients in seed was obtained at N1 and N2 nitrogen treatment. Also, water stress and nitrogen treatments increased the percentage of protein, oil and thymoquinone contents of seed, but during the onset of water stress and the use of nitrogen fertilizer, the highest percentage of protein in and thymoquinone were obtained in W4N4.

  8. Residual recovery and yield performance of nitrogen fertilizer applied at sugarcane planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe low effectiveness of nitrogen fertilizer (N is a substantial concern that threatens global sugarcane production. The aim of the research reported in this paper was to assess the residual effect of N-fertilizer applied at sugarcane planting over four crop seasons in relation to sugarcane crop yield. Toward this end three field experiments were established in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, during February of 2005 and July of 2009, in a randomized block design with four treatments: 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha−1 of N applied as urea during sugarcane planting. Within each plot, a microplot was established to which 15N-labeled urea was applied. The application of N at planting increased plant cane yield in two of the three sites and sucrose content at the other, whereas the only residual effect was higher sucrose content in one of the following ratoons. The combined effect was an increase in sugar yield for three of the 11 crop seasons evaluated. Over the crop cycle of a plant cane and three ratoon crops, only 35 % of the applied N was recovered, split 75, 13, 7 and 5 % in the plant cane, first, second and third ratoons, respectively. These findings document the low efficiency of N recovery by sugarcane, which increases the risk that excessive N fertilization will reduce profitability and have an adverse effect on the environment.

  9. Growth and yield of strawberry plants fertilized with nitrogen and phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo F. Medeiros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTStrawberry (Fragaria x ananassa is a crop that has rapid growth and is highly influenced by fertilization. Due to its development speed, the plant needs to absorb sufficient macronutrients in order to meet its demand. The objective of this research was to evaluate growth and yield of strawberry under different doses of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K fertilization. The treatments, using Box's central composite design, were distributed in randomized blocks with four replicates and consisted of five N doses (0.16, 0.37, 0.88, 1.4 and 1.6 g plant-1 and five P doses (0.3, 0.58, 1.2, 1.8 and 2.1 g plant-1, in the presence (1.67 g plant-1 and absence of K. Seedlings of the cultivar 'Oso Grande' were cultivated in 10-L pots. The analysed variables were: plant height, fresh fruit mass, number of leaves, number of fruits, total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The fertilization with N and P increased the values for most of the studied variables. At the highest doses of N and P, K stimulated plant yield.

  10. Stalk and sucrose yield in response to nitrogen fertilization of sugarcane under reduced tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Fortes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the agroindustrial production of sugarcane (millable stalks and sucrose yield after successive nitrogen fertilizations of plant cane and ratoons in a reduced tillage system. The experiment was carried out at Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, on a Rhodic Eutrustox soil, during four consecutive crop cycles (March 2005 to July 2009. Plant cane treatments consisted of N-urea levels (control, 40, 80, and 120 kg ha-1 N + 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 and K2O in furrow application. In the first and second ratoons, the plant cane plots were subdivided in N-ammonium nitrate treatments (control, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha-1 N + 150 kg ha-1 K2O as top dressing over rows. In the third ratoon, N fertilization was leveled to 100 kg ha-1 in all plots, including controls, to detect residual effects of previous fertilizations on the last crop's cycle. Sugarcane ratoon was mechanically harvested. A weighing truck was used to evaluate stalk yield (TCH, and samples were collected in the field for analysis of sugar content (TSH. Increasing N doses and meteorological conditions promote significant responses in TCH and TSH in cane plant and ratoons, in the average and accumulated yield of the consecutive crop cycles.

  11. Role of Slow-Release Nanocomposite Fertilizers on Nitrogen and Phosphate Availability in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroto, Amanda S.; Guimarães, Gelton G. F.; Foschini, Milene; Ribeiro, Caue

    2017-04-01

    Developing efficient crop fertilization practices has become more and more important due to the ever-increasing global demand for food production. One approach to improving the efficiency of phosphate and urea fertilization is to improve their interaction through nanocomposites that are able to control the release of urea and P in the soil. Nanocomposites were produced from urea (Ur) or extruded thermoplastic starch/urea (TPSUr) blends as a matrix in which hydroxyapatite particles (Hap) were dispersed at ratios 50% and 20% Hap. Release tests and two incubation experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the role played by nanocomposites in controlling the availability of nitrogen and phosphate in the soil. Tests revealed an interaction between the fertilizer components and the morphological changes in the nanocomposites. TPSUr nanocomposites provided a controlled release of urea and increased the release of phosphorus from Hap in citric acid solution. The TPSUr nanocomposites also had lower NH3 volatilization compared to a control. The interaction resulting from dispersion of Hap within a urea matrix reduced the phosphorus adsorption and provided higher sustained P availability after 4 weeks of incubation in the soil.

  12. Nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency, recovery and leaching of an alexandergrass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Ricardo Sartor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen usually determines the productive potential of forage crops, although it is highly unstable in the environment. Studies on recovery rates and use efficiency are important for more reliable fertilizer recommendations to reduce costs and avoid environmental pollution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate N use efficiency and recovery rate of Alexandergrass pasture (Brachiaria - Syn. Urochloa plantaginea as well as N-NO3- and N-NH4+ soil concentrations using different levels of N fertilization under two grazing intensities. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design in a factorial scheme with three replications. Treatments consisted of three N rates (0, 200 and 400 kg ha-1 N and two grazing intensities termed low mass (LM; forage mass of 2,000 kg ha-1 of DM and high mass (HM; forage mass of 3,600 kg ha-1 of DM under continuous stocking and variable stocking rates. Results of N fertilization with 200 kg ha-1 were better than with 400 kg ha-1 N. There was a significant effect of N rates on soil N-NO3-concentration with higher levels in the first layer of the soil profile in the treatment with 400 kg ha-1 N. Grazing intensity also affected soil N-NO3- concentration, by increasing the levels under the higher stocking rate (lower forage mass.

  13. Nitrogen (15 N) fertilizer use in subsistence culture in the semi-arid soil of Northeast-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, Everardo V.S.B.; Antonino, Antonio C.D.; Salcedo, Ignacio H.; Tiessen, Holm

    1997-01-01

    Productivity in the semi-arid area of Northeast Brazil is limited by nitrogen deficiency but fertilizers are not used due to the risk of this investment, usually calculated considering the year of application. Part of the fertilizer accumulates in the soil and can be used in subsequent crops. To provide information on accumulation, an experiment was established at Coxixola, city Pernambuco state consisting of combinations of single and intercropped corn and beans, with and without nitrogen fertilization (16 Kg.ha-1). Planting was done in holes, 1,1 x 1,0 m apart and 15N ammonium nitrate was applied in the there central holes of the plots. At harvest, plants in these hole were analysed separately and the soil was sampled at threre depths and five distances from the point of application of the fertilizer. Productivities were low, without differences between fertilized and non fertilized treatments for grain but with differences for straw. Single corn absorbed more (34%) and retained more of the N fertilizer in the soil (50%) than single beans (16 e 28%) and intercrop (corn 15% beans 11% soil 48%). Part of the unrecovered fertilizer may have migrated out of the sampled volume. This migration and the losses in beans indicate that only a small effect is expected for the accumulated N in the soil. (author). 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  14. Effects of Plant Density and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Dry Flower Yield and Essential Oil Content of Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Sharafi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chamomile is a valuable medicinal plant and is used as spice and herbal medicine. Application of agronomical methods has important role in increasing quantitative and qualitative traits of this medicinal plant. Fertilizer management is an important factor in successful cultivation of medicinal plants, which could have positive effects on their quantitative and qualitative indices. This experiment was conducted in order to determine the effects of plant density and nitrogen (N fertilizer on dry flower yield and essential oil content of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla using factorial randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Three N rates from urea source (0, 100 and 200 kg/ha and three plant densities (28.6, 40 and 66.7 plants per m2 were considered. The results showed that the highest single plant yield was produced in the lowest plant density (28.6 plants per m2 and application of 100 kg/ha N. The highest dry flower yield of 474.1 kg/ha and essential oil content of 0.2% was produced in 25 cm row width and fixed plant spacing of 10 cm (40 plants per m2 and application of 100 kg/ha N.

  15. Nitrogen Management Affects Nitrous Oxide Emissions under Varying Cotton Irrigation Systems in the Desert Southwest, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, Kevin F; Hunsaker, Doug J; Williams, Clinton F; Thorp, Kelly R; Rockholt, Sharette M; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Venterea, Rodney T; Barnes, Edward M

    2018-01-01

    Irrigation of food and fiber crops worldwide continues to increase. Nitrogen (N) from fertilizers is a major source of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (NO) in irrigated cropping systems. Nitrous oxide emissions data are scarce for crops in the arid western United States. The objective of these studies was to assess the effect of N fertilizer management on NO emissions from furrow-irrigated, overhead sprinkler-irrigated, and subsurface drip-irrigated cotton ( L.) in Maricopa, AZ, on Trix and Casa Grande sandy clay loam soils. Soil test- and canopy-reflectance-based N fertilizer management were compared. In the furrow- and overhead sprinkler-irrigated fields, we also tested the enhanced efficiency N fertilizer additive Agrotain Plus as a NO mitigation tool. Nitrogen fertilizer rates as liquid urea ammonium nitrate ranged from 0 to 233 kg N ha. Two applications of N fertilizer were made with furrow irrigation, three applications under overhead sprinkler irrigation, and 24 fertigations with subsurface drip irrigation. Emissions were measured weekly from May through August with 1-L vented chambers. NO emissions were not agronomically significant, but increased as much as 16-fold following N fertilizer addition compared to zero-N controls. Emission factors ranged from 0.10 to 0.54% of added N fertilizer emitted as NO-N with furrow irrigation, 0.15 to 1.1% with overhead sprinkler irrigation, and emissions due to addition of Agrotain Plus to urea ammonium nitrate was inconsistent. This study provides unique data on NO emissions in arid-land irrigated cotton and illustrates the advantage of subsurface drip irrigation as a low NO source system. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Effect of the nitrogen fertilizer type on the enzyme activity in the rhizosphere of calcic chernozem and soybean production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emnova, E. E.; Daraban, O. V.; Bizgan, Ya. V.; Toma, S. I.; Vozian, V. I.; Iacobuta, M. D.

    2015-05-01

    Three varieties (Aura, Magie, and Indra) of soybean ( Glycine max [L.] Merr.) were grown in a small-plot experiment on a calcic chernozem with the application of two types of nitrogen fertilizers: ammonium nitrate (Nan) or carbamide (Nc). These fertilizers at the rate of 20 kg N/ha were applied before sowing together with potassium phosphate (60 kg P2O5/ha). The microbial nitrification capacity and the activity of enzymes related to the nitrogen cycle (urease and nitrate reductase) were measured in the rhizosphere (0-20 cm) at the stage of soybean flowering. It was determined that the biological (enzyme) activity of the calcic chernozem in the soybean rhizosphere was more intense on the plots with the Nan fertilizer than on the plots with the Nc fertilizer. The urease activity depended on the type of nitrogen fertilizer (Nan or Nc) under the conditions of soil water deficiency. In the soil under the Aura variety, the urease activity was significantly lower in the treatments with Nc application, and this was accompanied by a decrease in the crop yield. The nitrification capacity of the calcic chernozem was generally low; in the case of the Nc fertilizer, it was significantly lower than in the case of the Nan fertilizer. The nitrate reductase activity of the soil was also lower in the case of the Nc fertilizer. Each of the three soybean varieties had its own response to changes in the nitrogen nutrition aimed at improving the soybean tolerance to fluctuations in the soil water content during the growing season.

  17. Fertility status and management of a tropudult toposequence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This Gmelina arborea plantation was established on Tropudults since 1976 to supply raw material to a Newsprint Manufacturing company in Nigeria. The main objective of this study was to investigate the native fertility status and recommend management strategies of this Tropudults sustaining the plantation. Profile pits ...

  18. 3. Integrated Organic-Inorganic Fertilizer Management for Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Integrated Organic-Inorganic Fertilizer Management for Rice. Production on the Vertisols of the Accra Plains of Ghana. K. K. Nyalemegbe1*, J. W. Oteng1 and S. Asuming-Brempong2. 1Agricultural Research Centre, Kpong, College of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences. (CACS), University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana.

  19. Yield And Rate Of Returns From Soil Fertility Management Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intercropping of food crops in coconut palm plantations is a popular practice among coconut palm farmers in Nigeria. However, farmers are not guided by scientific information on the best combination of food crops and coconut palm. This study is designed to determine suitable crop combinations and fertility management ...

  20. LEGUMES IN SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    02001, African Crop Science Society. LEGUMES IN SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF PIGEONPEA. IN SMALLHOLDER FARMING SYSTEMS OF ZIMBABWE. - P. MAPFUMO, B.M. CAMPBELL1, S. MPEPEREKI and P. MAFONGOYA2. Department of Soil Sclence and Agricultural Engineering, University of ...

  1. Soil fertility management in organic greenhouses in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tittatelli, Fabio; Bath, Brigitta; Ceglie, Francesco Giovanni; Garcia, M.C.; Moller, K.; Reents, H.J.; Vedie, Helene; Voogt, W.

    2016-01-01

    The management of soil fertility in organic greenhouse systems differs quite widely across Europe. The challenge is to identify and implement strategies which comply with the organic principles set out in (EC) Reg. 834/2007 and (EC) Reg. 889/2008 as well as supporting environmentally, socially and

  2. Plant growth-promoting bacteria associated with nitrogen fertilization at topdressing in popcorn agronomic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Teodoski Spolaor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of plant growth-promoting bacteria is a promising alternative with low environmental impact to increase the efficiency of use of chemical fertilizers, ensuring high yield with better cost-effective ratio. In maize crops, several studies have demonstrated an increased yield when Azospirillum-based inoculants are used. In the case of popcorn, there are no available studies related to use of inoculation and its response on yield parameters. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the field performance of popcorn when inoculated with the commercial product Masterfix L (A. brasilense Ab-V5 and A. brasilense Ab-V6 and the non-commercial inoculant UEL (A. brasilense Ab-V5 + Rhizobium sp. 53GRM1 associated with nitrogen fertilization. The trials were conducted in Londrina and Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil, in a randomized block design with four replications, in a split plot design with the inoculation treatments located in the plots (uninoculated, Masterfix L, and UEL and the different N rates located in the subplots where ammonium sulphate was applied in the topdressing at the V6 stage (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg∙ha–1. The variance analysis showed significant effects (p < 0.05 of inoculation (Londrina environment and N rates (both environments only for grain yield. There was no inoculation effect in the grain yield when inoculants were applied together with N-fertilization at topdressing. In the absence of N-fertilization at topdressing, the inoculants Masterfix L. and UEL promoted higher grain yield as compared to the uninoculated plants, with resulting increases of 13.21 and 26.61% in yield, respectively.

  3. Biomass Accumulation, Photosynthetic Traits and Root Development of Cotton as Affected by Irrigation and Nitrogen-Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongkui Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Limitations of soil water and nitrogen (N are factors which cause a substantial reduction in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. yield, especially in an arid environment. Suitable management decisions like irrigation method and nitrogen fertilization are the key yield improvement technologies in cotton production systems. Therefore, we hypothesized that optimal water-N supply can increase cotton plant biomass accumulation by maintaining leaf photosynthetic capacity and improving root growth. An outdoor polyvinyl chloride (PVC tube study was conducted to investigate the effects of two water-N application depths, i.e., 20 cm (H20 or 40 cm (H40 from soil surface and four water-N combinations [deficit irrigation (W55 and no N (N0 (W55N0, W55 and moderate N (N1 (W55N1, moderate irrigation (W75 and N0 (W75N0, W75N1] on the roots growth, leaf photosynthetic traits and dry mass accumulation of cotton crops. H20W55N1 combination increased total dry mass production by 29–82% and reproductive organs biomass by 47–101% compared with other counterparts. Root protective enzyme and nitrate reductase (NR activity, potential quantum yield of photosystem (PS II (Fv/Fm, PSII quantum yield in the light [Y(II] and electron transport rate of PSII were significantly higher in H20W55N1 prior to 82 days after emergence. Root NR activity and protective enzyme were significantly correlated with chlorophyll, Fv/Fm, Y(II and stomatal conductance. Hence, shallow irrigation (20 cm with moderate irrigation and N-fertilization application could increase cotton root NR activity and protective enzyme leading to enhance light capture and photochemical energy conversion of PSII before the full flowering stage. This enhanced photoassimilate to reproductive organs.

  4. Biomass Accumulation, Photosynthetic Traits and Root Development of Cotton as Affected by Irrigation and Nitrogen-Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zongkui; Tao, Xianping; Khan, Aziz; Tan, Daniel K Y; Luo, Honghai

    2018-01-01

    Limitations of soil water and nitrogen (N) are factors which cause a substantial reduction in cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) yield, especially in an arid environment. Suitable management decisions like irrigation method and nitrogen fertilization are the key yield improvement technologies in cotton production systems. Therefore, we hypothesized that optimal water-N supply can increase cotton plant biomass accumulation by maintaining leaf photosynthetic capacity and improving root growth. An outdoor polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tube study was conducted to investigate the effects of two water-N application depths, i.e., 20 cm (H 20 ) or 40 cm (H 40 ) from soil surface and four water-N combinations [deficit irrigation (W 55 ) and no N (N 0 ) (W 55 N 0 ), W 55 and moderate N (N 1 ) (W 55 N 1 ), moderate irrigation (W 75 ) and N 0 (W 75 N 0 ), W 75 N 1 ] on the roots growth, leaf photosynthetic traits and dry mass accumulation of cotton crops. H 20 W 55 N 1 combination increased total dry mass production by 29-82% and reproductive organs biomass by 47-101% compared with other counterparts. Root protective enzyme and nitrate reductase (NR) activity, potential quantum yield of photosystem (PS) II ( F v /F m ), PSII quantum yield in the light [Y(II)] and electron transport rate of PSII were significantly higher in H 20 W 55 N 1 prior to 82 days after emergence. Root NR activity and protective enzyme were significantly correlated with chlorophyll, F v /F m , Y(II) and stomatal conductance. Hence, shallow irrigation (20 cm) with moderate irrigation and N-fertilization application could increase cotton root NR activity and protective enzyme leading to enhance light capture and photochemical energy conversion of PSII before the full flowering stage. This enhanced photoassimilate to reproductive organs.

  5. Growth responses of trees and understory plants to nitrogen fertilization in a subtropical forest in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Reactive nitrogen (N increase in the biosphere has been a noteworthy aspect of global change, producing considerable ecological effects on the functioning and dynamics of the terrestrial ecosystems. A number of observational studies have explored responses of plants to experimentally simulated N enrichment in boreal and temperate forests. Here we investigate how the dominant trees and different understory plants respond to experimental N enrichment in a subtropical forest in China. We conducted a 3.4-year N fertilization experiment in an old-aged subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in eastern China with three treatment levels applied to nine 20 m  ×  20 m plots and replicated in three blocks. We divided the plants into trees, saplings, shrubs (including tree seedlings, and ground-cover plants (ferns according to the growth forms, and then measured the absolute and relative basal area increments of trees and saplings and the aboveground biomass of understory shrubs and ferns. We further grouped individuals of the dominant tree species, Castanopsis eyrei, into three size classes to investigate their respective growth responses to the N fertilization. Our results showed that the plot-averaged absolute and relative growth rates of basal area and aboveground biomass of trees were not affected by N fertilization. Across the individuals of C. eyrei, the small trees with a DBH (diameter at breast height of 5–10 cm declined by 66.4 and 59.5 %, respectively, in N50 (50 kg N ha−1 yr−1 and N100 fertilized plots (100 kg N ha−1 yr−1, while the growth of median and large trees with a DBH of  >  10 cm did not significantly change with the N fertilization. The growth rate of small trees, saplings, and the aboveground biomass of understory shrubs and ground-cover ferns decreased significantly in the N-fertilized plots. Our findings suggested that N might not be a limiting nutrient in this mature subtropical

  6. Growth responses of trees and understory plants to nitrogen fertilization in a subtropical forest in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Di; Li, Peng; Fang, Wenjing; Xu, Jun; Luo, Yongkai; Yan, Zhengbing; Zhu, Biao; Wang, Jingjing; Xu, Xiaoniu; Fang, Jingyun

    2017-07-01

    Reactive nitrogen (N) increase in the biosphere has been a noteworthy aspect of global change, producing considerable ecological effects on the functioning and dynamics of the terrestrial ecosystems. A number of observational studies have explored responses of plants to experimentally simulated N enrichment in boreal and temperate forests. Here we investigate how the dominant trees and different understory plants respond to experimental N enrichment in a subtropical forest in China. We conducted a 3.4-year N fertilization experiment in an old-aged subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in eastern China with three treatment levels applied to nine 20 m × 20 m plots and replicated in three blocks. We divided the plants into trees, saplings, shrubs (including tree seedlings), and ground-cover plants (ferns) according to the growth forms, and then measured the absolute and relative basal area increments of trees and saplings and the aboveground biomass of understory shrubs and ferns. We further grouped individuals of the dominant tree species, Castanopsis eyrei, into three size classes to investigate their respective growth responses to the N fertilization. Our results showed that the plot-averaged absolute and relative growth rates of basal area and aboveground biomass of trees were not affected by N fertilization. Across the individuals of C. eyrei, the small trees with a DBH (diameter at breast height) of 5-10 cm declined by 66.4 and 59.5 %, respectively, in N50 (50 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and N100 fertilized plots (100 kg N ha-1 yr-1), while the growth of median and large trees with a DBH of > 10 cm did not significantly change with the N fertilization. The growth rate of small trees, saplings, and the aboveground biomass of understory shrubs and ground-cover ferns decreased significantly in the N-fertilized plots. Our findings suggested that N might not be a limiting nutrient in this mature subtropical forest, and that the limitation of other nutrients in the forest

  7. Effect of different doses of nitrogen fertilizers and planting density on yield of wheat and triticale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Vukašin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the effect of different doses of nitrogen and planting density on grain yield in nine winter wheat varieties and one variety of triticale. All these varieties have been created at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. It was found that all three individual factors: variety, planting density and the amount of applied nitrogen had a significant impact on yields. Also, the interaction of variety/sowing density had a highly significant effect on yield, while the other interaction effects were not statistically significant. The highest yield was obtained in cultivar NS-40S, and was significantly higher than the of other varieties. On average for all varieties tested, highest yield was obtained when fertilizing with 100 kg ha-1 nitrogen, but was significantly higher only in comparison to the control variant. The highest yield was obtained at densities of 500 germinated seeds per m2, but not statistically significantly different than the yield obtained at 300 and 700 germinated grains/m2. The lowest yield was obtained at the highest planting density of 900 germinated grains/m2.

  8. Residual nitrogen fertilization effect of common bean production on succeeding corn intercropped with Congo grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos de Almeida Carmeis Filho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Crop production in conservation systems involving intercropped cultivations mainly with corn have been proposed as a technology to promote sustainability in the Brazilian Cerrado areas. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of residual nitrogen fertilization applied in common bean on subsequent corn sole or intercropped with Congo grass (Urochloa ruziziensis in no-tillage system. The experiment was carried out in randomized blocks with three replicates in a split-plot design. The treatments were composed by two cropping systems (sole and intercropped with Congo grass, and the sub-plots were five doses of nitrogen (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg of N ha-1, applied in topdressing on common-bean (previous crop. There was no effect of cropping systems and residual amount of nitrogen application in the vegetative and reproductive development of corn. Corn intercropped with Congo grass leaded an adequate formation of crop residue and total land covering target at sustainability of no-tillage system.

  9. Response of Cotton to Irrigation Methods and Nitrogen Fertilization: Yield Components, Water-Use Efficiency, Nitrogen Uptake, and Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.

    2009-01-01

    Efficient crop use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer is critical from economic and environmental viewpoints, especially under irrigated conditions. Cotton yield parameters, fiber quality, water- and N-use efficiency responses to N, and irrigation methods in northern Syria were evaluated. Field trials were conducted for two growing seasons on a Chromoxerertic Rhodoxeralf soil. Treatments consisted of drip fertigation, furrow irrigation, and five different rates of N fertilizer (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg N /ha). Cotton was irrigated when soil moisture in the specified active root depth was 80% of the field capacity as indicated by the neutron probe. Seed cotton yield was higher than the national average (3,928 kg/ha) by at least 12% as compared to all treatments. Lint properties were not negatively affected by the irrigation method or N rates. Water savings under drip fertigation ranged between 25 and 50% of irrigation water relative to furrow irrigation. Crop water-use efficiencies of the drip-fertigated treatments were in most cases 100% higher than those of the corresponding furrow-irrigated treatments. The highest water demand was during the fruit-setting growth stage. It was also concluded that under drip fertigation, 100 -150 N kg/ha was adequate and comparable with the highest N rates tested under furrow irrigation regarding lint yield, N uptake, and recovery. Based on cotton seed yield and weight of stems, the overall amount of N removed from the field for the drip-fertigated treatments ranged between 101-118 kg and 116-188 N/ha for 2001 and 2002, respectively. The N removal ranged between 94-113 and 111-144 kg N/ha for the furrow-irrigated treatments for 2001 and 2002, respectively. (author)

  10. Effect of Mulching and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Growth and Yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was carried out in 2008 cropping season at the experimental farm of the faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management to evaluate effect of different rates of nitrogen (0, 70, 140, 210 kg N/ ha) and mulching (grass mulch) on the vegetative growth and green pod yield of okra. The experiment ...

  11. Water deficit and nitrogen fertility effects on NDVI of 'Tifton 85' bermudagrass during regrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    A better understanding of how bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) regrowth is influenced by production inputs will aid in advancing precision management in the southeast US. The objective of this two-yr study was to evaluate how irrigation and nitrogen influence bermudagrass regrowth. Normalized difference ...

  12. Influence of phosphorus and the application of split doses of nitrogen on the nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency of a potato crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas, O.G.; Urquiaga, S.

    1988-01-01

    The study was performed in an inceptisol at the ''San Jorge'' experimental station (altitude 2.900 m), Bogota, Colombia. The influence of phosphate and the application of split doses of nitrogen on the nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency of a potato crop. (Solanum tuberosum, L.) cv Tequendama, was evaluated. The phosphate was applied at levels of 100, 150 and 200 Kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 in the form of triple super phosphate. The nitrogen (100 Kg N. ha -1 ) was applied in split doses at seeding and 60 days after emergence (DAE) in the following proportions: 1/3: 2/3 or 1/2. The N source used was Urea labelled with 1.5 atom % 15 N excess. The results showed that: a) The maximum tuber yield (41 t.ha -1 ) was experience with 100 Kg P 2 O 5 Ha -1 and this was significantly higher than a zero phosphate control (24t. ha -1 ) even though the soluble soil phosphorus (Bray II) was high. b) The phosphate favoured the productivity of the crop and increased the N fertilizer use efficiency (% FUE) from 28 to 51%.c). The different splitting of the N fertilizer application had no detectable effect on yield % FUE. d) The tubers represented 76% of the total dry matter and contained 63% of the total nitrogen and fertilizer N accumulated by the crop

  13. Regional distribution of nitrogen fertilizer use and N-saving potential for improvement of food production and nitrogen use efficiency in China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang Xiaobin,; Cai Diangxiong,; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Oenema, O.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An apparently large disparity still exists between developed and developing countries in historical trends of the amounts of nitrogen (N) fertilizers consumed, and the same situation holds true in China. The situation of either N overuse or underuse has become one of the major limiting

  14. Water consumption characteristics and water use efficiency of winter wheat under long-term nitrogen fertilization regimes in northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yangquanwei; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2014-01-01

    Water shortage and nitrogen (N) deficiency are the key factors limiting agricultural production in arid and semi-arid regions, and increasing agricultural productivity under rain-fed conditions often requires N management strategies. A field experiment on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was begun in 2004 to investigate effects of long-term N fertilization in the traditional pattern used for wheat in China. Using data collected over three consecutive years, commencing five years after the experiment began, the effects of N fertilization on wheat yield, evapotranspiration (ET) and water use efficiency (WUE, i.e. the ratio of grain yield to total ET in the crop growing season) were examined. In 2010, 2011 and 2012, N increased the yield of wheat cultivar Zhengmai No. 9023 by up to 61.1, 117.9 and 34.7%, respectively, and correspondingly in cultivar Changhan No. 58 by 58.4, 100.8 and 51.7%. N-applied treatments increased water consumption in different layers of 0-200 cm of soil and thus ET was significantly higher in N-applied than in non-N treatments. WUE was in the range of 1.0-2.09 kg/m3 for 2010, 2011 and 2012. N fertilization significantly increased WUE in 2010 and 2011, but not in 2012. The results indicated the following: (1) in this dryland farming system, increased N fertilization could raise wheat yield, and the drought-tolerant Changhan No. 58 showed a yield advantage in drought environments with high N fertilizer rates; (2) N application affected water consumption in different soil layers, and promoted wheat absorbing deeper soil water and so increased utilization of soil water; and (3) comprehensive consideration of yield and WUE of wheat indicated that the N rate of 270 kg/ha for Changhan No. 58 was better to avoid the risk of reduced production reduction due to lack of precipitation; however, under conditions of better soil moisture, the N rate of 180 kg/ha was more economic.

  15. Water consumption characteristics and water use efficiency of winter wheat under long-term nitrogen fertilization regimes in northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangquanwei Zhong

    Full Text Available Water shortage and nitrogen (N deficiency are the key factors limiting agricultural production in arid and semi-arid regions, and increasing agricultural productivity under rain-fed conditions often requires N management strategies. A field experiment on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was begun in 2004 to investigate effects of long-term N fertilization in the traditional pattern used for wheat in China. Using data collected over three consecutive years, commencing five years after the experiment began, the effects of N fertilization on wheat yield, evapotranspiration (ET and water use efficiency (WUE, i.e. the ratio of grain yield to total ET in the crop growing season were examined. In 2010, 2011 and 2012, N increased the yield of wheat cultivar Zhengmai No. 9023 by up to 61.1, 117.9 and 34.7%, respectively, and correspondingly in cultivar Changhan No. 58 by 58.4, 100.8 and 51.7%. N-applied treatments increased water consumption in different layers of 0-200 cm of soil and thus ET was significantly higher in N-applied than in non-N treatments. WUE was in the range of 1.0-2.09 kg/m3 for 2010, 2011 and 2012. N fertilization significantly increased WUE in 2010 and 2011, but not in 2012. The results indicated the following: (1 in this dryland farming system, increased N fertilization could raise wheat yield, and the drought-tolerant Changhan No. 58 showed a yield advantage in drought environments with high N fertilizer rates; (2 N application affected water consumption in different soil layers, and promoted wheat absorbing deeper soil water and so increased utilization of soil water; and (3 comprehensive consideration of yield and WUE of wheat indicated that the N rate of 270 kg/ha for Changhan No. 58 was better to avoid the risk of reduced production reduction due to lack of precipitation; however, under conditions of better soil moisture, the N rate of 180 kg/ha was more economic.

  16. The effect of different nitrogen fertilization rates on yield and quality of marigold (Calendula officinalis L. 'Tokaj' raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Król

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is an annual ornamental plant which is also grown for herbal raw material (flower heads used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. A field experiment was carried out in the years 2006-2008 in the Experimental Farm of the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The study was conducted on loess soil with the granulometric composition of silt loam. The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of different nitrogen rates (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 kg N × ha-1 on some morphological features of flower heads as well as on yield and quality of pot marigold raw material. Flowering of pot marigold was shortest in the control treatment (32 days and longest (43 days in the plot where nitrogen fertilization had been applied at the highest rate (160 kg N × ha-1. Nitrogen fertilization had a significant influence on the number of flower heads per plant, but no significant difference was found in diameter as well as in ligulate flowers and tubular flowers in the flower head. It was found to increase significantly raw material yield after the application of 80 kg N × ha-1, compared to the control treatment. Yield of flower heads did not differ markedly for fertilization rates from 80 to 160 kg N × ha-1. Nitrogen fertilization modified slightly essential oil content (this content increased with increasing nitrogen rates, but at the same time it decreased the percentage of flavonoid compounds.

  17. Effects of Water Volume and Nitrogen Fertilization on Yield and Quality Traits of Air-cured Burley Tobacco (Nicotianatabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascione S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a two-year field trial in the region of Campania (Southern Italy the effects of water volume and nitrogen fertilization on the yield and quality of Burley tobacco (Nicotianatabacum L. were investigated with reference to the following traits: cured leaf yield, price index, yield value, leaf area, specific leaf weight, burning capacity, color parameters, total alkaloid, nitrate and chloride leaf content. The experimental design was a factorial comparison among three water volumes (40, 80 and 120% evapotranspiration (ET, four nitrogen fertilization levels (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg ha-1 and two genotypes (cv TN86 and the hybrid R7-11. The yield of cured leaves rose with the increase in water and nitrogen availability, albeit at a decreasing rate. With the increase in water volume, the price index, burning capacity, specific leaf weight, total alkaloid and nitrate content decreased, while leaf area and chloride content increased. Up to a rate of 160 kg ha-1, nitrogen fertilization increased the price index, yield value, burning capacity, leaf area, specific leaf weight, total alkaloid and nitrates, and reduced leaf chloride content especially at 40% ET water volume. Both, nitrogen fertilization and water volume had little influence on leaf color. The year had considerable effects on yield, leaf area and color parameters, with higher values in the rainier season. In the two years, genotype TN86 showed higher stability for yield and yield value, lower alkaloid and higher nitrate content in the leaf than the R7-11 hybrid.

  18. Effects of split nitrogen fertilization on post-anthesis photoassimilates, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Jian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2011-01-01

    photosynthesis after anthesis, dry matter accumulation and assimilates remobilization, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield to fraction of topdressed nitrogen treatments were investigated in malting barley. Net photosynthetic rate of the penultimate leaf, leaf area index and light extinction coefficient...... and agronomic nitrogen use efficiencies. The enhanced nitrogen use efficiency was corresponding to the improved photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency in the leaves at fraction of topdressed nitrogen of 30%. In conclusion, appropriate fraction of topdressed nitrogen application on malting barley improved...

  19. Protein-based biorefining: metabolic engineering for production of chemicals and fuel with regeneration of nitrogen fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernick, David G; Liao, James C

    2013-02-01

    Threats to stable oil supplies and concerns over environmental emissions have pushed for renewable biofuel developments to minimize dependence on fossil resources. Recent biofuel progress has moved towards fossil resource-independent carbon cycles, but environmental issues regarding use of nitrogen fertilizers have not been addressed on a global scale. The recently demonstrated conversion of waste protein biomass into advanced biofuels and renewable chemicals, while recycling nitrogen fertilizers, offers a glimpse of the efforts needed to balance the nitrogen cycle at scale. In general, the catabolism of protein into biofuels is challenging because of physiological regulation and thermodynamic limitations. This conversion became possible with metabolic engineering around ammonia assimilation, intracellular nitrogen flux, and quorum sensing. This review highlights the metabolic engineering solutions in transforming those cellular processes into driving forces for the high yield of chemical products from protein.

  20. Effect of Phosphorous and Potassium Fertilization on Nitrogen Utilized by wheat Grown in Saline Soil Amended with Organic Manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.; Gadalla, A.M.; Kotb, E.A.; Mostafa, S.M.A.; Mansour, M.M.F.

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out on poor saline soil located at Wad Ras Sudr, South Saini Governorate, and suffers from shortage of water resources. Therefore, we aimed to utilize this soil as well as the saline ground water for plant production. Organic fertilizers such as green manure(GM) or poultry manure(PM) can be used as nutrient sources, where it improves the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. Economically, the yield improvement and nutrient supply will reflect the potential use of such organic materials. Also, phosphorus and/or potassium supplementation separately or in combination with green or poultry manures improved the growth of wheat plants under such adverse condition of salinity. Application of 15 N technique indicated that labeled nitrogen added as ammonium sulphate (AS) to investigate and discrimination between the different N sources i.e. nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff) and nitrogen derived from soil (Ndfs) as well as nitrogen use efficiency (FUE %)

  1. Understanding the Fate of Applied Nitrogen in Pine Plantations of the Southeastern United States Using 15N Enriched Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay E. Raymond

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of using enhanced efficiency fertilizer (EEFs products compared to urea to improve fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency (FNUE in forest plantations. All fertilizer treatments were labeled with 15N (0.5 atom percent and applied to 100 m2 circular plots at 12 loblolly pine stands (Pinus taeda L. across the southeastern United States. Total fertilizer N recovery for fertilizer treatments was determined by sampling all primary ecosystem components and using a mass balance calculation. Significantly more fertilizer N was recovered for all EEFs compared to urea, but there were generally no differences among EEFs. The total fertilizer N ecosystem recovery ranged from 81.9% to 84.2% for EEFs compared to 65.2% for urea. The largest amount of fertilizer N recovered for all treatments was in the loblolly pine trees (EEFs: 38.5%–49.9%, urea: 34.8% and soil (EEFs: 30.6%–38.8%, urea: 28.4%. This research indicates that a greater ecosystem fertilizer N recovery for EEFs compared to urea in southeastern pine plantations can potentially lead to increased FNUE in these systems.

  2. Effects of CO{sub 2} and nitrogen fertilization on growth and nutrient content of juvenile ponderosa pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.W. [Desert Research Inst., Reno, NV (United States). Biological Sciences Center]|[Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Coll. of Agriculture; Ball, J.T. [Desert Research Inst., Reno, NV (United States). Biological Sciences Center; Walker, R.F. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Coll. of Agriculture; Cushman, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    1998-03-01

    This data set presents measured values of plant diameter and height, biomass of plant components, and nutrient (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium, calcium, magnesium, boron, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc) concentrations from a study of the effects of carbon dioxide and nitrogen fertilization on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) conducted in open-top chambers in Placerville, California, from 1991 through 1996. This data set contains values from 1991 through 1993.

  3. Nitrogen fertilizer application affects lodging resistance by altering secondary cell wall synthesis in japonica rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wujun; Wu, Longmei; Ding, Yanfeng; Yao, Xiong; Wu, Xiaoran; Weng, Fei; Li, Ganghua; Liu, Zhenghui; Tang, She; Ding, Chengqiang; Wang, Shaohua

    2017-09-01

    Stem mechanical strength is an important agricultural quantitative trait that is closely related to lodging resistance in rice, which is known to be reduced by fertilizer with higher levels of nitrogen. To understand the mechanism that regulates stem mechanical strength in response to nitrogen, we analysed stem morphology, anatomy, mechanical properties, cell wall components, and expression of cell wall-related genes, in two varieties of japonica rice, namely, Wuyunjing23 (lodging-resistant variety) and W3668 (lodging-susceptible variety). The results showed that higher nitrogen fertilizer increased the lodging index in both varieties due to a reduction in breaking strength and bending stress, and these changes were larger in W3668. Cellulose content decreased slightly under higher nitrogen fertilizer, whereas lignin content reduced remarkably. Histochemical staining revealed that high nitrogen application decreased lignin deposition in the secondary cell wall of the sclerenchyma cells and vascular bundle cells compared with the low nitrogen treatments, while it did not alter the pattern of cellulose deposition in these cells in both Wuyunjing23 and W3668. In addition, the expression of the genes involved in lignin biosynthesis, OsPAL, OsCoMT, Os4CL3, OsCCR, OsCAD2, OsCAD7, OsCesA4, and OsCesA7, were also down-regulated under higher nitrogen conditions at the early stage of culm growth. These results suggest that the genes involved in lignin biosynthesis are down-regulated by higher nitrogen fertilizer, which causes lignin deficiency in the secondary cell walls and the weakening of mechanical tissue structure. Subsequently, this results in these internodes with reduced mechanical strength and poor lodging resistance.

  4. Effect of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer levels on yield and yield components of dill (Anethum graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Madadi Bonab

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and yield components of (Anethum graveolens L., a field experiment was performed in Agricultural Research Farm of the University of Tabriz, Iran, during growing season of 2009-2010. The experiment was carried out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Irrigation treatments (irrigation after 70, 100, 130 mm evaporation from class A pan and nitrogen levels (0, 40, 80, 120 kg.ha-1 were allocated to main and sub-plots, respectively. The results showed that nitrogen fertilizer had significant (p≤0.05 effect on minor diameter umbrella, 1000-seed weight, seed yield and harvest index. However, irrigation and effect between irrigation and nitrogen were not affected any of the traits. The greatest minor diameter umbrella was obtained with control nitrogen treatment and maximum 1000-seed weight, harvest index and seed yield were obtained from 40 kg.ha-1 nitrogen. There was no any significant difference between 40 and 80 kg.ha-1 nitrogen levels. Therefore, it seems that for producing the highest yield application of 40 kg.ha-1 nitrogen is suitable. As water deficit no significant effects on this traits, of dill, it can be concluded that dill is a tolerant plant to drought stress.

  5. The effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on light interception and dry matter yield in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad reza asghari poor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on canopy light interception and on flowering was investigated in hemp (Cannabis sativa L. cv. ‘Kompolti’ Crop grown at initial densities of 50, 150 and 250 plants/m2 at the Mashhad and 30, 90 and 150 plants/m2 at the Shirvan. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied before and 45 days after sowing at a rates of 50 and 200 kg/ha at the Mashhad, and 50, 150 and 250 kg/ha at the Shirvan. Rate of canopy development increased with increasing plant density and nitrogen fertilizer in both sites. At the Mashhad, interception of 90% of light was attained at 380 to 665 degree days (base 2°C from emergence for the crop grown at different densities. At Shirvan, rate of canopy development was slower. Interception of 90% of light was attained at 586 degree days from emergence for the crop grown at 30 plants/m2 and at 712 degree days for the crop grown at 150 plants/m2, probably as a result of cold weather. Nitrogen fertilizer in a similar way as plant density increased light interception. Maximum light interception did not depend on plant density and nitrogen fertilizer and was about 95%. In both sites, the flowering date was later with increasing plant density. Dates of 75% flowering for the initial densities of 50, 150 and 250 plants/m2 in Mashhad and 30, 90 and 150 plants/m2 in Shirvan were, respectively 26 August, 1, 6, 6, 11 and 12 September. Independent of plant density, canopy light interception started to decline at about 150 degree days after flowering, reaching 58 to 75% at about 700 degree days post-flowering. Morphological characteristics at both sites were highly correlated with plant sexual, plant population and nitrogen fertilizer. Highest stem, leaf and inflorescence yield were obtained in Mashhad at 250 plant/m-2 and in Shirvan at 150 plant m-2 when 200 kg N ha-1 in Mashhad and 250 kg N/ha in Shirvan was used. Above ground dry matter increased at both sites with increasing plant density and

  6. Nitrogen fixation in lysimeter-grown grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench.) saplings - influence of nitrogen fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericsson, Tom; Rytter, L.

    1998-07-01

    A lysimeter study was started in order to test if nitrogen fixation as well as biomass production in grey alder plantations (Alnus incana (L.) Moench.) can be stimulated by daily addition of small N doses. One-year-old grey alder saplings were planted in undrained lysimeters, each filled with 200 litres of quartz sand. Water and a low-concentrated balanced nutrient solution were distributed daily via a drip irrigation system. In this paper a complete N budget for the first growing season is presented. The results showed that presence of mineral N in the growth substrate had no beneficial effect on growth during the first growing season. The capacity of the plants to make use of the daily N additions was overestimated in this investigation. Almost twice as much N was added with fertilizers as the amount of N accumulating in the tissues. Consequently, the N concentration in the drainage water increased and the annual rate of N{sub 2}-fixation was strongly suppressed, 31 mg N plant{sup -1} (1 kg N ha{sup -1}) versus 1700 mg N plant{sup -1} (32 kg N ha{sup -1}) in the controls. However, no harmful effect of the elevated soil-N concentration on nodule development could be detected.

  7. Evaluation of interspecific hybrids and cultivars of Brachiaria spp. submitted to sourcers and levels of nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Atauri Cardelli Lucena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of nitrogen supply (N is a very important issue concerned to plant growth and the environment healthy. For farmers, to know how much N the plant requires enables the application of appropriate amounts of nitrogen fertilizer, maximizing the use of this material. The availability of N has been identified as one of the main limiting factors, but also a management tool in the production of grasses. The nitrogen in the soil either, as a constituent of organic matter or in the mineral form (ammonium and nitrate, has a limited supply and can be depleted rapidly in a few crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sources and nitrogen levels in four genotypes of Brachiaria (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Piata and two interspecific hybrids of Brachiaria spp on the total and the leaf dry matter production, leaf percentage and leaf: stem ratio. The soil was an Psament-Entisol, coming from a pasture of Brachiaria decumbens with low organic matter content. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse, in Nova Odessa, Sao Paulo, from October 2009 to April 2010. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks and the treatments were arranged in a factorial 4 x 2 x 4, four genotypes of Brachiaria , two N sources (urea and ammonium nitrate and four nitrogen rates (0, 75, 150 or 225 mg dm-3 with five replicates, totaling 160 pots with a capacity of 3.34 dm3 of soil. Two cuts were performed in the plants. After the second cut a soil sample was collected from each experimental unit. Two evaluations were performed on plants. The first one 52 days after sowing, and the second 56 days after the first cut. Data were analyzed by the mixed procedure of SAS V. 9.2; average qualitative factors were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The degrees of freedom related to N rates (quantitative factor were decomposed into orthogonal polynomials; to obtain the best equation fits the data. The variables

  8. Impact of sowing density and nitrogen fertilization on Rumex obtusifolius L. development in organic winter cereal crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodson, B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of Rumex obtusifolius L. (broad-leafed dock is very important in organic farming systems. Indeed, concerns about managing this weed without the use of herbicides is one of the major factors limiting the uptake of these systems by conventional farmers. Against this background, we analyzed the impact of two management practices on the development of R. obtusifolius populations in two winter cereal trials: spelt (Triticum spelta [L.] Thell. and triticale (×Triticosecale [A.Camus] Wittm.. The management factors were sowing density (SD and nitrogen fertilization (NF at the tillering stage. The results showed that an increase in SD and NF led to stronger crop growth and better soil coverage by the end of spring, demonstrated by a significant decrease in photosynthetic active radiation (PAR at soil level. However, although there was an SD effect, it was too weak in April to restrict an increase in R. obtusifolius populations through the recruitment of new R. obtusifolius plants. An increase in R. obtusifolius population density was also linked to an increase in the NF level, illustrating the nitrophilic character of this weed. Although an increase in SD and NF at the tillering stage led to a higher canopy density, these two practices failed to reduce R. obtusifolius density in the cereal crops. Nevertheless, cereal yields were shown to be maintained or improved. Our results indicate that, even when combining weed harrowing and some cultural weed control methods, this perennial weed is difficult to control.

  9. The effect of nitrogen fertilization and irradiation on barley susceptibility to net blotch disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M.I.E.; Al-safadi, B.; Charbaji, T.

    2000-11-01

    Isolates of Drechslera teres f. sp. teres that cause net blotch symptoms on barley were collected from fields in different regions of Syria. there virulence spectra were determined using 11 barley cultivars. Cultivars exhibited a continuos range of response from very susceptible to moderately resistant. Isolate Raqa 13 had the highest mean virulence, then Halap 2, whereas ICARDA 3 was the lowest virulent. The effect of three concentrations (1000, 1500, 2000 ppm) of nitrogen (Urea 45%) fertilizer, and two doses of gamma ray (10 and 20 Gy), on susceptibility to infection by Drechslera teres were studied. Two barley cultivars (Thibaut and Furia) were used in this study. Results showed that 1000 ppm (N) and 15 Gy dose treatment had a positive effect on decreasing the susceptibility. (author)

  10. Productivity of irrigated beans due to sources of stabilized nitrogen fertilizer and controlled release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiely Gomes Bernardes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT New nitrogen fertilizers are available in the market actually, however, does not have results on the efficiency of the Cerrado conditions. With that objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of urea including stabilized and controlled release urea on yield of irrigated common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L in no-tillage system. The experiment was conducted in the winter crop, at Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, State of Goiás, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five replicates. Treatments consisted of five N sources (urea, urea + NBPT, urea + polymer, ammonium sulphate, and ammonium nitrate and a control (without N being applied 20 kg ha-1 of N at sowing and 80 kg ha-1 onf N in topdressing. We evaluated the chlorophyll content in leaves of common beans, the leaf N content and dry mass weight (MSPA in the flowering of common beans, the number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod, mass of 100 grains, grain yield and final stand of the common beans. The sources of nitrogen fertilizer did not influence, leaf N content, the mass of MSPA and the relative chlorophyll index of common beans. The use of polymerized urea and urea with urease inhibitor, did not produce increases in the number of grains per pod, number of pods per plant, mass of 100 grains and common beans yield compared to traditional sources of N, urea, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate.

  11. Fertilization management in bean crop under organic production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Barradas Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the food production systems tend to include the sustainable management of soil and water. One of the main obstacles to the organic cultivation of common bean is the fertilization management. This study aimed to evaluate doses of organic fertilizer containing slaughterhouse residues (1.0 t ha-1, 1.5 t ha-1, 2.0 t ha-1 and 2.5 t ha-1. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 4x2x2 factorial scheme, with 16 treatments and 4 replications. Plant dry weight; foliar diagnose; initial and final plant population; number of pods per plant, grains per plant and grains per pod; 1000-grain weight; and grain yield were evaluated. It was concluded that the methods and time of organic fertilizer application do not affect the production components and yield in common bean. The dose of 2.5 t ha-1 of organic fertilizer provided the highest common bean yield in 2012, but it did not express its maximum production capacity.

  12. Production and nutrition of irrigated Tanzania guinea grass in response to nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celuta Machado Viana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N fertilization in the four seasons of the year on forage production, nitrate (NO3 in the sap, total N in the forage and relative chlorophyll index (SPAD reading in the leaves of irrigated Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania grass, establishing their critical ranges. In addition, we evaluated the ability to predict forage production based on NO3 in the sap, total N in the forage and relative chlorophyll index. The soil in the experimental area was classified as an Oxisol (Red-Yellow Latosol with a clayey texture. Annual rates of N (0, 200, 400 and 800 kg ha-1 in the form of urea were the treatments tested. Irrigation was performed through a conventional spray system. The NO3 content in the sap and the relative chlorophyll index were measured in leaves using a portable meter with NO3 selective electrode and the SPAD-502 portable chlorophyll meter device, respectively. Tanzania guinea grass was very responsive to N fertilization, except in the winter. The critical ranges of the SPAD reading proved to be more adequate for monitoring the nutritional state of N of Tanzania guinea grass in the different seasons of the year than the NO3content in the sap and the total N content in the dry matter. Use of the chlorophyll meter is more advantageous than the use of the portable meter with an nitrate selective electrode for predicting the nutritional status of Tanzania guinea grass.

  13. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization in yield and macronutrients contents of heliconia cv. Golden Torch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márkilla Z. Beckmann-Cavalcante

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of nitrogen (N and potassium (K fertilization in yield and contents of macronutrients in heliconia plants (Heliconia psittacorum x Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeguieta cv. Golden Torch. The experiment was set in a randomized block design, in a 4 x 4 factorial, corresponding to N doses (0, 120, 180 and 240 g of N hole-1 and K doses (0, 120, 180 and 240 g of K2O hole-1 with four replicates and five rhizomes per plot, under field conditions. After one year of cultivation, yield (number of flower stems per square meter and the leaf contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S were determined. The applied N doses did not influence either yield or the leaf contents of the evaluated macronutrients. K fertilization favored the increase in leaf K content and the decrease in the contents of P, Ca and Mg in leaves of heliconias. Under the conditions of this experiment, it is recommended to apply 161.46 g of K2O hole-1 for a maximum yield of 9.89 stems m-2 per month.

  14. Warming and nitrogen fertilization effects on winter wheat yields in northern China varied between four years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Liting; Hu, Chunsheng; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    Global warming is expected to affect wheat productivity significantly, but with large regional differences depending on current climatic conditions. We conducted a study that aimed to investigate how wheat growth and development as well as yield and yield components respond to warming combined wi...... evapotranspiration and thus severity of the drought leading to larger yield reduction in fertilized plots. Yield increased under warming when water was not a limited factor in a year with unusual cold and wet winter.......Global warming is expected to affect wheat productivity significantly, but with large regional differences depending on current climatic conditions. We conducted a study that aimed to investigate how wheat growth and development as well as yield and yield components respond to warming combined...... per m2. This suggests that the wheat yield loss may be related to reduction of spike number, which was affected by decreased soil water content under warming. Warming tended to give larger yield reductions at higher nitrogen fertilizer rates, and this may be related to larger water consumption...

  15. Carbon and carbon dioxide accumulation by marandu grass under nitrogen fertilization and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Dupas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen (N is the most limiting nutrient for growth of forage grasses, especially in conditions of low water availability. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effect of N fertilization and irrigation on the accumulation of carbon (C and carbon dioxide (CO2 by marandu grass in the Cerrado Paulista, in the rainy and dry seasons. Experiments were conducted to evaluate N fertilization in each season, with and without irrigation. Five N rates were used (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 per cutting, using urea as N source, totaling 0, 300, 600, 900 and 1200 kg ha-1 in the rainy season and 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg ha-1 in the dry season. The experiments were arranged in a split-plot randomized block design. There was no significant interaction (p > 0.05 between N and time of fertilization in the irrigated experiment. However, N promoted a quadratic effect in organic matter production (OMP, accumulation of C and CO2 by marandu grass, while there was no influence of the seasons. In the non-irrigated experiment, the interaction between N rates and seasons was significant (p < 0.05 only for the rainy season. Organic matter production and C and CO2 accumulation was greater in the rainy season than in the dry season. Irrigation provided increases of approximately 20% in C and CO2 accumulation. The use of N and irrigation increases the accumulation of C and CO2 by marandu grass, and this increase is higher during the rainy season.

  16. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a subtropical wheat field under different nitrogen fertilization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Wang, Jim J; Tian, Zhou; Wang, Xudong; Harrison, Stephen

    2017-07-01

    Minimizing soil ammonia (NH 3 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission factors (EFs) has significant implications in regional air quality and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions besides nitrogen (N) nutrient loss. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of different N fertilizer treatments of conventional urea, polymer-coated urea, ammonia sulfate, urease inhibitor (NBPT, N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide)-treated urea, and nitrification inhibitor (DCD, dicyandiamide)-treated urea on emissions of NH 3 and GHGs from subtropical wheat cultivation. A field study was established in a Cancienne silt loam soil. During growth season, NH 3 emission following N fertilization was characterized using active chamber method whereas GHG emissions of N 2 O, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and methane (CH 4 ) were by passive chamber method. The results showed that coated urea exhibited the largest reduction (49%) in the EF of NH 3 -N followed by NBPT-treated urea (39%) and DCD-treated urea (24%) over conventional urea, whereas DCD-treated urea had the greatest suppression on N 2 O-N (87%) followed by coated urea (76%) and NBPT-treated urea (69%). Split fertilization of ammonium sulfate-urea significantly lowered both NH 3 -N and N 2 O-N EF values but split urea treatment had no impact over one-time application of urea. Both NBPT and DCD-treated urea treatments lowered CO 2 -C flux but had no effect on CH 4 -C flux. Overall, application of coated urea or urea with NPBT or DCD could be used as a mitigation strategy for reducing NH 3 and N 2 O emissions in subtropical wheat production in Southern USA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Biomass and morphology of fine roots of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica after three years of nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyotaro eNoguchi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing nitrogen (N deposition may affect carbon and nutrient dynamics in forest ecosystems. To better understand the effects of N deposition, we need to improve our knowledge of N effects on fine roots (roots < 2 mm in diameter, as they are a key factor in carbon and nutrient dynamics. In this study, we fertilized 1 × 2 m plots in a sugi (Cryptomeria japonica stand (336 kg ha-1 y-1 for three years and evaluated the responses of the fine roots to high N load. After fertilization, the concentration of NO3-N in the soil of N-fertilized (NF plots was 5-times as large as that in the control plots and the effect was more remarkable in the subsurface soil than in the surface soil. The biomass of fine roots < 2 mm in diameter appeared to be greater in the NF plots (88 ± 19 g m-2 than in the control plots (56 ± 14 g m-2, but this difference was not statistically significant. In both plots, 76% of the biomass was accounted for by fine roots that were < 1 mm in diameter. In the surface soil, the specific root length (SRL of fine roots < 1 mm in diameter was significantly greater, and the diameter of those fine roots was marginally smaller, in the NF plots than in the control plots. In addition, the concentration of N in fine roots < 1 mm in diameter was marginally greater in the NF plots than in the control plots. There may have been increased production of thinner fine roots or increased root branching in the NF plots. This study suggests that, in general, high N load is likely to have positive effects on sugi in terms of fine root characteristics and the effects on fine-root morphology are more evident than the effects on fine-root biomass.

  18. ROW METHOD OF SUGAR BEET (BETA VULGARIS L. FERTILIZATION WITH MULTICOMPONENT FERTILIZER BASED ON UREA-AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION AS A WAY TO INCREASE NITROGEN EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław BARŁÓG

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet is the main crop commonly cultivated for sugar production in temperate regions of the World. Actual yields in main Central Europe producing countries are much lower, due to many limiting factors. Among them, nutrients supply is of great value, especially referring to efficiency of nitrogen, which is generally low. In the conducted study two methods of nitrogen application were compared (i broadcast of calcium saltpeter and (ii row application of the multicomponent fertilizer based on urea-ammonium-nitrate (UAN solution. The basic amount of the applied N was 75 kg ha-1. The highest yields of both taproots and refined sugar were harvested on the plot receiving 75 kg N-1 as UAN liquid multicomponent fertilizer and 50% of the recommended P and K rates. The positive effects of row application of liquid N fertilizer on taproot and sugar yields were also corroborated by high values of indices of agronomic efficiency for both N as well as P and K. However this method of sugar beets fertilization has some possibilities, as indicated by still high contents of melassogenic substances.

  19. A Precision Nitrogen Management Approach to Minimize Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen fertilizer is a crucial input for crop production but contributes to agriculture’s environmental footprint via CO2 emissions, N2O emissions, and eutrophication of coastal waters. The low-cost way to minimize this impact is to eliminate over-application of N. This is more difficult than it s...

  20. Nitrogen and phosphorus release from organic wastes and suitability as bio-based fertilizers in a circular economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, Sean; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2018-01-01

    The drive to a more circular economy has created increasing interest in recycling organic wastes as bio-based fertilizers. This study screened 15 different manures, digestates, sludges, composts, industry by-products, and struvites. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) release was compared following...

  1. Mineral fertilizer and manure effects on leached inorganic nitrogen, nitrate isotopic composition, phosphorus, and dissolved organic carbon under furrow irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    To improve nitrogen (N) use efficiency in irrigated agriculture, a better understanding is needed of mineral fertilizer and manure effects on nutrient leaching in a furrow irrigated silt loam in southern Idaho. In this 2003-to-2006 field study, we measured deep percolation fluxes at 1.2-m depth and...

  2. ASSESSING INTRA- AND INTER-FIELD VARIABILITY OF CORN NITROGEN FERTILIZER NEED USING GROUND-BASED REFLECTANCE SENSORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since soil types within and between corn (Zea mays L.) fields can be highly variable, the amount of nitrogen (N) provided by those different soil types to support production can also be highly variable. Ideally, the amount of N fertilizer added during a given growing season should be both climate-se...

  3. Apparent nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of grass-clover leys and of farmyard manure in an arable rotation. Part I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berge, Ten H.F.M.; Pikula, D.; Goedhart, P.W.; Schröder, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Apparent nitrogen fertilizer replacement values of grass-clover leys (NFRVGCL) and farmyard manure (NFRVFYM) were studied in a long-term (24 years) experiment. This paper reports the results for grass-clover leys (GCL). Five rates of farmyard manure (FYM) and four rates of

  4. Effect of Preplant Irrigation, Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Timing, and Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilization on Winter Wheat Grain Yield and Water Use Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob T. Bushong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preplant irrigation can impact fertilizer management in winter wheat. The objective of this study was to evaluate the main and interactive effects of preplant irrigation, N fertilizer application timing, and different N, P, and K fertilizer treatments on grain yield and WUE. Several significant two-way interactions and main effects of all three factors evaluated were observed over four growing seasons for grain yield and WUE. These effects could be described by differences in rainfall and soil moisture content among years. Overall, grain yield and WUE were optimized, if irrigation or adequate soil moisture were available prior to planting. For rain-fed treatments, the timing of N fertilizer application was not as important and could be applied before planting or topdressed without much difference in yield. The application of P fertilizer proved to be beneficial on average years but was not needed in years where above average soil moisture was present. There was no added benefit to applying K fertilizer. In conclusion, N and P fertilizer management practices may need to be altered yearly based on changes in soil moisture from irrigation and/or rainfall.

  5. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging for monitoring nitrogen fertilizing treatments of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, Francine; Sowinska, Malgorzata; Khalili, Elisabeth; Eckert, Caroline; Miehe, Joseph-Albert; Lichtenthaler, Hartmut K.

    1997-07-01

    The laser-induced fluorescence imaging system allows the recording of spectrally selected fluorescence images of the whole leaves or plants which is better and in contrast to the so far applied spot spectrofluorometer measurements. The fluorescence images of leaves of winter wheat (Soissons variety, Alsace) have been recorded at the four characteristic emission bands (440, 520, 690 and 740 nm) with a high resolution imaging device consisting of a frequency triplet or doubled Nd:YAG source for 355 nm or 532 nm excitation and of an intensified and gated CCD digitized camera. The effect of four different nitrogen treatments (0, 100, 140 and 180 kg/ha) on the fluorescence parameters (intensities F440, F520, F690, F740 and ratios F440/F520, F440/F690, F440/F740 and F690/F740) obtained by image processing has been analyzed by statistical treatment, in a randomized blocks experiment. The measurements have been carried out on two leaf storeys weekly gathered during two months (May and June 1996). For 355 nm excitation, a significant decrease of the fluorescence ratios F440/F690 and F440/F740 was observed for increasing nitrogen concentration: the blue and green mean fluorescence intensities remained much the same, while the red and far-red chlorophyll fluorescence emissions were enhanced by the fertilization. The fluorescence results are in excellent correlation with the crop yields.

  6. Canopy Reflectance-Based Nitrogen Management Strategies for Subsurface Drip Irrigated Cotton in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen fertilizer management in subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) systems for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) can be very efficient when N is injected with the irrigation water (fertigated) on a daily basis. However, the daily rates and total amounts of N fertigation are uncertain. Normalized diffe...

  7. Reconstruction of spatially detailed global map of NH4+ and NO3- application in synthetic nitrogen fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishina, Kazuya; Ito, Akihiko; Hanasaki, Naota; Hayashi, Seiji

    2017-02-01

    Currently, available historical global N fertilizer map as an input data to global biogeochemical model is still limited and existing maps were not considered NH4+ and NO3- in the fertilizer application rates. This paper provides a method for constructing a new historical global nitrogen fertilizer application map (0.5° × 0.5° resolution) for the period 1961-2010 based on country-specific information from Food and Agriculture Organization statistics (FAOSTAT) and various global datasets. This new map incorporates the fraction of NH4+ (and NO3-) in N fertilizer inputs by utilizing fertilizer species information in FAOSTAT, in which species can be categorized as NH4+- and/or NO3--forming N fertilizers. During data processing, we applied a statistical data imputation method for the missing data (19 % of national N fertilizer consumption) in FAOSTAT. The multiple imputation method enabled us to fill gaps in the time-series data using plausible values using covariates information (year, population, GDP, and crop area). After the imputation, we downscaled the national consumption data to a gridded cropland map. Also, we applied the multiple imputation method to the available chemical fertilizer species consumption, allowing for the estimation of the NH4+ / NO3- ratio in national fertilizer consumption. In this study, the synthetic N fertilizer inputs in 2000 showed a general consistency with the existing N fertilizer map (Potter et al., 2010) in relation to the ranges of N fertilizer inputs. Globally, the estimated N fertilizer inputs based on the sum of filled data increased from 15 to 110 Tg-N during 1961-2010. On the other hand, the global NO3- input started to decline after the late 1980s and the fraction of NO3- in global N fertilizer decreased consistently from 35 to 13 % over a 50-year period. NH4+-forming fertilizers are dominant in most countries; however, the NH4+ / NO3- ratio in N fertilizer inputs shows clear differences temporally and geographically. This

  8. The 15N isotope to evaluate fertilizer nitrogen absorption efficiency by the coffee plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiele A.B. Fenilli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of the 15N label for agronomic research involving nitrogen (N cycling and the fate of fertilizer-N is well established, however, in the case of long term experimentation with perennial crops like citrus, coffee and rubber tree, there are still shortcomings mainly due to large plant size, sampling procedures, detection levels and interferences on the system. This report tries to contribute methodologically to the design and development of 15N labeled fertilizer experiments, using as an example a coffee crop fertilized with 15N labeled ammonium sulfate, which was followed for two years. The N of the plant derived from the fertilizer was studied in the different parts of the coffee plant in order to evaluate its distribution within the plant and the agronomic efficiency of the fertilizer application practice. An enrichment of the fertilizer-N of the order of 2% 15N abundance was sufficient to study N absorption rates and to establish fertilizer-N balances after one and two years of coffee cropping. The main source of errors in the estimated values lies in the inherent variability among field replicates and not in the measurements of N contents and 15N enrichments of plant material by mass-spectrometry.O uso do traçador 15N em pesquisas agronômicas que envolvem o ciclo do nitrogênio (N e o destino do N do fertilizante está bem estabelecido, entretanto, para o caso de experimentação com plantas perenes como citrus, café e seringueira, ainda existem limitações devidas ao porte das plantas, à amostragem, aos níveis de detecção e à interferência no sistema. Este estudo procura contribuir metodologicamente no delineamento experimental e no desenvolvimento desse tipo de experimentação, em condições de campo, fazendo uso, por dois anos, do experimento de uma cultura de café adubada com fertilizante marcado com 15N. O N da planta derivado do fertilizante foi estudado nas diferentes partes da planta de café para determinar sua

  9. Conventional and organic soil fertility management practices affect corn plant nutrition and Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larval performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Ebony G; Cullen, Eileen M

    2014-10-01

    Few studies compare how different soil fertilization practices affect plant mineral content and insect performance in organic systems. This study examined: 1) The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), larval response on corn (Zea mays L.) grown in field soils with different soil management histories; and 2) resilience of these plants to O. nubilalis herbivory. Treatments included: 1) standard organic--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and 2 yr of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the rotation; 2) basic cation saturation ratio--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and alfalfa nitrogen credits, plus addition of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) according to the soil balance hypothesis; and 3) conventional--conventionally managed soil fertilized with synthetic fertilizers. Corn plants were reared to maturity in a greenhouse, and then infested with 0-40 O. nubilalis larvae for 17 d. O. nubilalis exhibited negative competitive response to increasing larval densities. Mean development time was significantly faster for larvae consuming basic cation saturation ratio plants than those on standard organic plants, with intermediate development time on conventional plants. Neither total yield (number of kernels) nor proportion kernels damaged differed among soil fertility treatments. Soil nutrients differed significantly in S and in Ca:Mg and Ca:K ratios, but principal components analysis of plant tissue samples taken before O. nubilalis infestation showed that S, Fe, and Cu contributed most to differences in plant nutrient profiles among soil fertility treatments. Results demonstrate that different fertilization regimens can significantly affect insect performance within the context of organic systems, but the effects in this study were relatively minor compared with effects of intraspecific competition.

  10. Comparative Effects of Nitrogen Fertigation and Granular Fertilizer Application on Growth and Availability of Soil Nitrogen during Establishment of Highbush Blueberry

    OpenAIRE

    Bryla, David R.; Machado, Rui M. A.

    2011-01-01

    A 2-year study was done to compare the effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil N during establishment of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. “Bluecrop”). Treatments included four methods of N application (weekly fertigation, split fertigation, and two non-fertigated controls) and four levels of N fertilizer (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg·ha−1 N). Fertigation treatments were irrigated by drip and injected with a liquid urea so...

  11. Variation in forest canopy nitrogen and albedo in response to N fertilization and elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklein, H. F.; Ollinger, S. V.; Martin, M.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Collatz, G. J.

    2009-12-01

    It is important to understand how high levels of nitrogen (N) deposition, through changes in N status, could influence a forest’s albedo and photosynthetic rates, and therefore the forest’s overall feedback (positive or negative) to global warming. Foliar N and albedo have recently been shown to covary at the canopy level across temperate and boreal forests. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of this relationship from leaf to canopy scales and how it might change in response N and CO2 fertilization. Research was conducted at two long-term forest experimental sites. The chronic N amendment site at Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA includes three treatments: high N (fertilized with 150 kg N ha-1 yr-1), low N (50 kg N ha-1 yr-1), and ambient deposition (around 8 kg N ha-1 yr-1). The Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park in Oak Ridge, TN includes a Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site where plots receive either ambient and elevated CO2 (540 ppm), and an N amendment site where plots are either fertilized with N (200 kg N ha-1 yr-1) or receive ambient deposition (10-15 kg N ha-1 yr-1). At Harvard Forest we measured seven black oak (Quercus velutina) and five red maple (Acer rubrum) trees in each treatment plot. At Oak Ridge we measured five sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) trees in each FACE treatment plot, and four sweetgum trees in each N amendment treatment plot. Leaves were collected from two to three canopy heights from trees in each treatment plot. For each tree height we measured reflectance and transmittance spectra for stacks of 1, 2, 4, and 8 leaves, both abaxial and adaxial sides. We also measured N concentration, water content, and leaf mass per unit area (LMA) of the leaves. Canopy-level reflectance was modeled using the Scattering by Arbitrarily Inclined Leaves (SAIL-2) radiative transfer model. Preliminary results show significant differences in average leaf-level reflectance in the N fertilized treatments, with higher NIR

  12. Interactions of tissue and fertilizer nitrogen on decomposition dynamics of lignin-rich conifer litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakis, Steven S.; Matkins, Joselin J.; Hibbs, David E.

    2012-01-01

    High tissue nitrogen (N) accelerates decomposition of high-quality leaf litter in the early phases of mass loss, but the influence of initial tissue N variation on the decomposition of lignin-rich litter is less resolved. Because environmental changes such as atmospheric N deposition and elevated CO2 can alter tissue N levels within species more rapidly than they alter the species composition of ecosystems, it is important to consider how within-species variation in tissue N may shape litter decomposition and associated N dynamics. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii ) is a widespread lignin-rich conifer that dominates forests of high carbon (C) storage across western North America, and displays wide variation in tissue and litter N that reflects landscape variation in soil N. We collected eight unique Douglas-fir litter sources that spanned a two-fold range in initial N concentrations (0.67–1.31%) with a narrow range of lignin (29–35%), and examined relationships between initial litter chemistry, decomposition, and N dynamics in both ambient and N fertilized plots at four sites over 3 yr. High initial litter N slowed decomposition rates in both early (0.67 yr) and late (3 yr) stages in unfertilized plots. Applications of N fertilizer to litters accelerated early-stage decomposition, but slowed late-stage decomposition, and most strongly affected low-N litters, which equalized decomposition rates across litters regardless of initial N concentrations. Decomposition of N-fertilized litters correlated positively with initial litter manganese (Mn) concentrations, with litter Mn variation reflecting faster turnover of canopy foliage in high N sites, producing younger litterfall with high N and low Mn. Although both internal and external N inhibited decomposition at 3 yr, most litters exhibited net N immobilization, with strongest immobilization in low-N litter and in N-fertilized plots. Our observation for lignin-rich litter that high initial N can slow decomposition

  13. Comparative Effects of Nitrogen Fertigation and Granular Fertilizer Application on Growth and Availability of Soil Nitrogen during Establishment of Highbush Blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryla, David R; Machado, Rui M A

    2011-01-01

    A 2-year study was done to compare the effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil N during establishment of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. "Bluecrop"). Treatments included four methods of N application (weekly fertigation, split fertigation, and two non-fertigated controls) and four levels of N fertilizer (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg·ha(-1) N). Fertigation treatments were irrigated by drip and injected with a liquid urea solution; weekly fertigation was applied once a week from leaf emergence to 60 d prior to the end of the season while split fertigation was applied as a triple-split from April to June. Non-fertigated controls were fertilized with granular ammonium sulfate, also applied as a triple-split, and irrigated by drip or microsprinklers. Weekly fertigation produced the smallest plants among the four fertilizer application methods at 50 kg·ha(-1) N during the first year after planting but the largest plants at 150 kg·ha(-1) N in both the first and second year. The other application methods required less N to maximize growth but were less responsive than weekly fertigation to additional N fertilizer applications. In fact, 44-50% of the plants died when granular fertilizer was applied at 150 kg·ha(-1) N. By comparison, none of the plants died with weekly fertigation. Plant death with granular fertilizer was associated with high ammonium ion concentrations (up to 650 mg·L(-1)) and electrical conductivity (>3 dS·m(-1)) in the soil solution. Early results indicate that fertigation may be less efficient (i.e., less plant growth per unit of N applied) at lower N rates than granular fertilizer application but is also safer (i.e., less plant death) and promotes more growth when high amounts of N fertilizer is applied.

  14. Soil nitrous oxide emissions following band-incorporation of fertilizer nitrogen and swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantigny, Martin H; Rochette, Philippe; Angers, Denis A; Bittman, Shabtai; Buckley, Katherine; Massé, Daniel; Bélanger, Gilles; Eriksen-Hamel, Nikita; Gasser, Marc-Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of liquid swine manure (LSM) offers opportunities to improve manure nutrient management. However, N2O fluxes and cumulative emissions resulting from application of treated LSM are not well documented. Nitrous oxide emissions were monitored following band-incorporation of 100 kg N ha(-1) of either mineral fertilizer, raw LSM, or four pretreated LSMs (anaerobic digestion; anaerobic digestion + flocculation: filtration; decantation) at the four-leaf stage of corn (Zea mays L.). In a clay soil, a larger proportion of applied N was lost as N2O with the mineral fertilizer (average of 6.6%) than with LSMs (3.1-5.0%), whereas in a loam soil, the proportion of applied N lost as N2O was lower with the mineral fertilizer (average of 0.4%) than with LSMs (1.2-2.4%). Emissions were related to soil NO3 intensity in the clay soil, whereas they were related to water-extractable organic C in the loam soil. This suggests that N2O production was N limited in the clay soil and C limited in the loam soil, and would explain the interaction found between N sources and soil type. The large N2O emission coefficients measured in many treatments, and the contradicting responses among N sources depending on soil type, indicate that (i) the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) default value (1%) may seriously underestimate N2O emissions from fine-textured soils where fertilizer N and manure are band-incorporated, and (ii) site-specific factors, such as drainage conditions and soil properties (e.g., texture, organic matter content), have a differential influence on emissions depending on N source.

  15. Uso do clorofilômetro no manejo da adubação nitrogenada para milho em sucessão a pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens Use of chlorophyll meter in nitrogen fertilizing management to corn after Brachiaria decumbens pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro José Grava de Godoy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A resposta do milho à adubação nitrogenada em cultivo após pastagem depende da espécie, da quantidade de palha, da relação C:N, da população microbiana, das condições climáticas e de outros fatores. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a utilização da intensidade da cor verde da folha (ICV, medida pelo clorofilômetro, como indicativo para o manejo da adubação nitrogenada em cobertura, na cultura do milho, em sucessão a pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em vasos com 29 litros de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, com três plantas por vaso. Foi utilizado o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com cinco repetições, constituído por quatro níveis de nitrogênio (0, 50, 100 e 150mg dm-3 e quatro de níveis de palhada de B. decumbens (0, 5, 10 e 15Mg ha-1, aplicados em cobertura. As doses de N foram parceladas em três épocas: a1/3 na semeadura; b1/3 no estádio de 4-5 folhas e c1/3 no estádio de 7-8 folhas. As determinações da ICV da folha foram efetuadas um dia antes e uma semana após a adubação nitrogenada em cobertura. As quantidades de fitomassa seca de braquiária influenciaram a ICV da folha somente no estádio de 7-8 folhas. A manutenção de maiores ICV da folha do estádio de 4-5 (46,6 unidades SPAD até o estádio de 8-9 folhas (53,0 unidades SPAD possibilitou o maior acúmulo da fitomassa seca na parte aérea do milho. O monitoramento da ICV da folha pode auxiliar na avaliação da disponibilidade de N para a planta do milho durante o ciclo.The corn response to the nitrogen fertilizing cultivated after pasture depends on of the species, straw amount, C: N rate, microbial population, climatic conditions and other factors. The study was aimed at evaluating the use of the green color intensity of the leaf (GCI, measured by the chlorophyll meter, as indicative for nitrogen fertilizing management sidedress in the corn crop, after B

  16. Comparative Study of Water and Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Potato Crop under Fertigation and Surface Irrigating Systems by Using Labeled Nitrogen (15N)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah Haidara, H. M.; Amin Alkirshi, A. H.; Saleh Husien, A.

    2007-01-01

    This research activity was conducted at Central Highland Research Station Farm-Dhamar, on potato Crop (Diamant cv.), during three seasons of 2000, 2001, and 2003.The objective of this activity was to study the Nitrogen Fertilizer Use Efficiency (WUE) which applied in different dosages with irrigation water (fertigation) and one dosage to the soil under surface irrigation, by using Labeled nitrogen fertilizer ( 15N ), comparing the quantity of irrigation water applied through Drip irrigation method and surface irrigation and its effect on WUE and yield of potato crop. The basic experiment was planted in randomized completely block design (RCBD) with five replications during 2000 season and six replication in 2001.and five treatments were tested (N1= 50kg N/ha, N2 =100kg N/ha, N3=150kg N/ha and N4=200kgN/ha as fertigated treatments under drip irrigation and Ns = 150kg N/ha as surface Nitrogen Application under surface irrigation. While in the 2003 season Verification trial was conducted with two replications, two treatments and RCB design. Results indicated that using Drip irrigation method in application of water saved 38% of irrigation water as compared to Surface irrigation. Fertigated treatments (N1, N2, N3 and N4) were, significantly superior to Surface Nitrogen Application treatment (NS), fertigated treatment (N3) gave the highest values of WUE which were 5.3, 6.4 and 6.1 kg/m3 for the three seasons (2000, 2001, 2003 respectively) with an average of 5.9 kg/m3 comparing to the surface Nitrogen Application treatment (NS) which gave the less yield per unit of water which was 3.8, 3.6 and 3.9 kg /m3 for the three seasons 2000, 2001 and 2003 respectively with an average of 3.7 kg/m3.The Average yield of potato tubers for (N3) treatment in the three seasons was 30 .3 t/ha comparing to the (NS) treatment, which gave an average of 29,5t/ha.The fertigatetd treatment (N1) recorded the highest efficient use of nitrogen Fertilizer followed by (N3) compare to the surface

  17. Respuesta del trigo a la fertilización nitrogenada y nitroazufrada en suelos arenosos Wheat response to nitrogen and nitrogen with sulfur fertilization in sandy soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Barraco

    2009-12-01

    (S additions. However, the available information is not consistent for the diagnosis and analysis of the marginal contribution of S on wheat grain responses in combination with N fertilization. Thus, the objective of this study was to quantify the yield response of dryland wheat crops to N and NS fertilization and to determine the relationship between yield response and several soil properties in sandy soils. The study consisted in 34 field experiments within the semiarid and subhumid sandy pampas region (Argentina managed under no-tillage practices. Three treatments were evaluated: i control (without fertilization, ii 140 kg of N ha-¹ [N-NO3 soil (0-40 cm + N fertilizer], iii 140 kg of N ha-¹ [N-NO3 soil (0- 40 cm + N fertilizer] + 12 kg of S ha-¹. A positive response to N fertilization was observed in every experimental site. Mean grain yield response to the application of N was 949 kg ha-¹. Although the mean grain yield response to S fertilization was 232 kg ha-¹, only 38% of the sites (13 sites showed a significant response to this treatment. Crop response to S fertilization was not related to soil organic matter (p = 0.61, sand content (p = 0.90, soil extractable S-S0(4 ²-(p = 0.29, nor soil N-N0(3 -(p = 0.47 levels. Furthermore, it decreased with increasing maximum grain yields and it was positively related to crop responses to N fertilization. We conclude that in coarse textured soils with significant N limitations, wheat responses to S fertilization are greater and more common in low productivity sites.

  18. Seed rate and nitrogen fertilizer effects on wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    karim moosavi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate wild mustard competitive effect on winter wheat, an additive series experiment was conducted in 2000-2001 at Agricultural Research Station of Mashhad University.The experiment had 3 factor: wheat seed rate (175 , 215 and 255 kg/ha, nitrogen rate (150 and 225 kg/ha, and a range of wild mustard densities. Hyperbolic functions was used to describe yield-weed density relationship. Increasing wild mustard density had a negative , asymptotic – type effect on wheat biomass and grain yield. By increasing wheat seed rate , in optimum nitrogen rate , maximum wheat biomas loss has reduced about 51 %. Maximum yield loss has increased from 42.1 % to 50.4 %, as nitrogen rate incrased from optimum to upper optimum rate of wheat. By increasing of wheat seed rate from 175 to 255 kg/ha, maximum tiller number reduction due to high densities of wild mustard, has decreased by 54 %. Reduction of fertile tiller number was mostly occurred at presence of high nitrogen level, thus, reduction of fertile tiller number compared to control in N1 was 18% , while in N2 has increased to 30%. Wild mustard competition has reduced wheat seed number per ear 30% in compare to weed free control. Results show that wheat 1000 seed weight was more affected by nitrogen rate than plant densities. Apparently, in competition with wheat, wild mustard was better able to utilize the added nitrogen and thus gained a competitive adventage over the wheat.

  19. Improving maize productivity through tillage and nitrogen management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuous cultivation of fields with same implement (cultivator) creates a hard pan in the subsoil which adversely affects crop productivity. In addition to tillage, nitrogen management is a key factor for better crop growth and yield. Impact of different tillage systems and nitrogen management on yield attributes and grain yield ...

  20. Soil microbial community structure is unaltered by plant invasion, vegetation clipping, and nitrogen fertilization in experimental semi-arid grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea J Carey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Global and regional environmental changes often co-occur, creating complex gradients of disturbance on the landscape. Soil microbial communities are an important component of ecosystem response to environmental change, yet little is known about how microbial structure and function respond to multiple disturbances, or whether multiple environmental changes lead to unanticipated interactive effects. Our study used experimental semi-arid grassland plots in a Mediterranean-climate to determine how soil microbial communities in a seasonally variable ecosystem respond to one, two, or three simultaneous environmental changes: exotic plant invasion, plant invasion + vegetation clipping (to simulate common management practices like mowing or livestock grazing, plant invasion + nitrogen (N fertilization, and plant invasion + clipping + N fertilization. We examined microbial community structure 5-6 years after plot establishment via sequencing of >1 million 16S rRNA genes. Abiotic soil properties (soil moisture, temperature, pH, and inorganic N and microbial functioning (nitrification and denitrification potentials were also measured and showed treatment-induced shifts, including altered NO3- availability, temperature, and nitrification potential. Despite these changes, bacterial and archaeal communities showed little variation in composition and diversity across treatments. Even communities in plots exposed to three interacting environmental changes were similar to those in restored native grassland plots. Historical exposure to large seasonal and inter-annual variations in key soil properties, in addition to prior site cultivation, may select for a functionally plastic or largely dormant microbial community, resulting in a microbial community that is structurally robust to single and multiple environmental changes.

  1. Effect of Organic and Inorganic nitrogen Fertilizers on Salinity tolerance in Sorghum Plants Grown in sandy Soil Using N-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out in the green house to study the effect of compost, farmyard manure (FYM) and/or ammonium sulphate on salinity tolerance and nutrients-uptake by sorghum plants grown on sandy soil using N-15. Nitrogen was added at full dose of 100 mg N/kg soil. In general, dry matter accumulation as well as N, P and K-uptake by root and stalk of sorghum plants were significantly fluctuated between decrease and increase as influenced by the combined effect of water salinity levels and organic nitrogen source. The data showed that the application of organic sources decreased the adverse effect of salinity on dry matter yield of root and stalk of sorghum plants. The lowest dry matter yield was recorded when the plant received mineral fertilizer combined with irrigation of high concentration of diluted sea water. In the same time, root and stalk of sorghum plants were more dependent on N derived from organic sources than those derived from fertilizer. Fertilizer use efficiency (FUE %) was negatively affected by increasing water salinity levels under all treatments of organic and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer

  2. Effects of Different Levels of Nitrogen and Phosphorous Fertilizers on Yield Quantity and Quality of Matricaria recutita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dadkhah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of different levels of nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers on flower yield , yield components and some quality components of German chamomile, a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with four replications was carried out in the Medicinal Plant Research Farm of Shirvan College of Agriculture during growing season of 2007-2008. Nitrogen had three levels (0, 100, 200 kg/ha urea and phosphorous also had three levels including 0, 30, 60 kg.ha-1 triple super phosphate. The results showed that application of nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers imposed a significant effects (p < 0.01 on plant height, number of branches per plant, number of flower per plant and flower yield. Plants treated with 200 kgha-1 urea had the highest flower yield (1423 kg.ha. Among phosphorous levels, plant treated with 60 kgha-1 triple super phosphate produced the highest flower yield (1309 kgha-1. Fertilizers had no effect the percentage of chamazulene. However, plant treated with 200 kgha-1 urea and 60 kgha-1 triple super phosphate fertilizers produced the highest essential oil and chamazulene per square meter due to higher flower yield.

  3. 7 CFR 205.203 - Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice... Requirements § 205.203 Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard. (a) The producer must... nutrients and soil fertility through rotations, cover crops, and the application of plant and animal...

  4. Impact of Soil Fertility Management Practices on a Major Insect Pest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To address soil nutrient depletion and the accompanying declining agricultural productivity, integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) has been adapted as a framework for enhancing crop productivity through combining fertilizer use with other soil fertility management technologies, adapted to local conditions. The current ...

  5. Influence of Bacillus subtilis on the physiological state of wheat and the microbial community of the soil under different rates of nitrogen fertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishchik, V. N.; Vorobyev, N. I.; Moiseev, K. G.; Sviridova, O. V.; Surin, V. G.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of inoculation with bacteria Bacillus subtilis strain No. 2 (hereinafter, B. subtilis 2) and of the physical properties of the soil on the physiological state of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) plants and the soil microbial community under different rates of nitrogen fertilizers are studied. In the field, the physiological state of wheat was evaluated using the optical vegetation index. It was found that (1) the impact of B. subtilis 2 on plants decreases with an increase in the rate of fertilizers and soil bulk density, (2) the inoculation of wheat with bacteria enhances the resistance of the plant-microbial system to the adverse impact of high rates of nitrogen fertilizers due to the rearrangement of bacteria in rhizosphere ecological niches, and (3) the highest agronomic efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers is observed in wheat inoculation with B. subtilis 2 at the rate of nitrogen fertilization of 120 kg/ha.

  6. AN APPROACH FOR TECHNOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT OF MINERAL FERTILIZATION OF CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATANAS Atanasov

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An approach for technological management of mineral fertilization in crops based on simulation was presented. The simulation of the interaction between technical means, agricultural workers, crops, soils and fi elds was based on step of the algorithm. It included the following main steps: calculation of the adequate rate of fertilizers depending on soil reserves and the crop requirements, computing the number of aggregates depending of the duration of work, calculation of the productivity of machines, determination of the optimal duration of work and the number of aggregates depending on the shift duration. The new approach presented enabled the following: optimization of time for actual use of the resources, within the boundaries of the agrothechnical terms; precisely simulation of the initial data; specifying the decision for the concrete conditions; easy accessibility and applicability for a broad range of users.

  7. Chemical soil attributes after wheat cropping under nitrogen fertilization and inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Shintate Galindo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Azospirillum brasilense plays an important role in biological nitrogen fixation (BNF in grasses. However, further studies are needed to define how much mineral N can be applied while simultaneously maintaining BNF contribution and maximizing crop yield and to determine the impact of these practices on soil fertility. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of inoculation with A. brasilense, in conjunction with varying N doses and sources in a Cerrado soil, on soil chemical attributes after two years of irrigated wheat production. The experiment was initiated in Selvíria - MS under no-tillage production in an Oxisol in 2014 and 2015. The experimental design was a randomized block design with four replications, and treatments were arranged in a 2 x 5 x 2 factorial arrangement as follows: two N sources (urea and Super N - urea with inhibitor of the enzyme urease NBPT (N - (n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide, five N rates (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1, and with or without seed inoculation with A. brasilense. The increase in N rates did not influence the chemical soil attributes. Super N acidified the soil more compared to urea. A. brasilense inoculation reduced the effect of soil acidification in intensive irrigated wheat cultivation; however, the base extraction was higher, resulting in a lower soil CEC after cultivation with inoculation. Therefore, the cultivation of wheat inoculated with A. brasilense was not harmful to soil fertility because it did not reduce the base saturation and organic matter content (P, K, Ca, Mg, and S.

  8. Influence of nitrogen fertilization on xylem traits and aquaporin expression in stems of hybrid poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacke, Uwe G; Plavcová, Lenka; Almeida-Rodriguez, Adriana; King-Jones, Susanne; Zhou, Wenchun; Cooke, Janice E K

    2010-08-01

    We studied the influence of nitrogen (N) on hydraulic traits and aquaporin (AQP) expression in the stem xylem of hybrid poplar saplings (Populus trichocarpa (Torr. & Gray) x deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh clone H11-11). Plants were grown in a controlled environment and were kept well watered throughout the experiments. Hydraulic measurements were done on basal and distal stem segments of plants receiving high N fertilization (high N plants) versus plants receiving only adequate N fertilization (adequate N plants). High N plants grew faster and exhibited more leaf area than adequate N controls. These morphological differences were paralleled by wider vessels and higher specific conductivities (K(S)) in high N plants. However, stems of high N plants were more vulnerable to xylem cavitation, at least in one of two experiments, and showed lower wood densities than stems of adequate N plants. Leaf area was strongly correlated with cross-sectional xylem area in both plant groups. Since higher K(S) in high N plants was accompanied by concomitant increases in leaf area, leaf-specific conductivities were similar in both plant groups. Influences of N on hydraulic traits were paralleled by changes in AQP expression. Seven AQPs were upregulated in the stem xylem of high N plants, five of which have been identified recently as water transporters. The enhanced growth of secondary xylem of high N plants has been shown to result from both increased cambial activity as well as increased cell size. We suggest that some of these water-transporting AQPs could play a role in xylogenesis, facilitating the influx of water into the zone of differentiating and maturing cells in secondary xylem, including expanding vessels.

  9. Effect of some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and nitrogen fertilizer on morphological characteristics of german chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dastborhan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available .In order to investigate the effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and nitrogen fertilizer on morphological traits of german chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L., a field experiment was carried out as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications in Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran, during 2007-2008. Factors were inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (B0: no-inoculation, B1: inoculation with Azotobacter chroocuccum, B2: inoculation with Azospirillum lipoferum and B3: inoculation with a mixture of two bacteria and nitrogen fertilizer (N0:0, N1:50, N2:100 and N3:150 kgN.ha-1. Results showed that inoculation with bacteria significantly improved plant height, stem diameter, number of lateral branches, number of flowers per plant, dry weight of flowers, stems, leaves and total dry weight per plant. These traits were significantly similar for inoculation with Azotobacter, inoculation with Azospirillum and inoculation with a mixture of two bacteria. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on all traits (except number of lateral branches was positive, but there were no significant differences among 50, 100 and 150 kg.ha-1 nitrogen. The highest and the lowest number and weight of flowers per plant were recorded for inoculation + 50 kg.ha-1 nitrogen application and no-inoculation + no-fertilizer, respectively. In general, application of biofertilizers had positive and significant effects on morphological traits of german chamomile. In addition, with adding 50 kg N.ha-1 the performance of bacteria increased and the highest flower yield were produced.

  10. Nitrogen use efficiency and life cycle of nodules in alfalfa after different mineral fertilization and soil cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vasileva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen use efficiency and life cycle of root nodules in alfalfa after different mineral fertilization and soil cultivation practices were studied. Field trial was conducted in the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria on leached chernozem subsoil type and no irrigation. The next treatments were tested: i for fertilization as follows: N0P0K0 (control; N60P100K80 (an accepted technology; N23P100K35 (nitrogen was applied 1/2 in first year of growing and 1/2 in third year; N23P100K35 (nitrogen was supplied pre-sowing; N35P80K50, and Аmophose - 250 kg/ha, calculated at fertilizing rates N27P120K0; ii for soil cultivation as follows: soil loosing 10-12 cm, plough at depth 12-15 cm, 22-24 cm (an accepted technology, 18-22 cm and 30-35 cm. It was found that soil cultivation and mineral fertilization had effect on nitrogen use efficiency and life cycle of root nodules in Alfalfa. Nitrogen use efficiency was found to be highest at N23P100K35 and plough at the depth of 22-24 cm. Life cycle of root nodules was the longest at N35P80K50 and plough at the depth of 18-22 cm. The better root mass to nodule number ratio was found at N23P100K35 and plough at the depth of 22-24 cm.

  11. To burn or not to burn: The question of straw burning and nitrogen fertilization effect on nitrous oxide emissions in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalco Vera, Jorge; Valeiro, Alejandro; Posse, Gabriela; Acreche, Martín Moisés

    2017-06-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is the main greenhouse gas emitted from farming systems and is associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application as well as decomposition of organic matter present in the environment. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of post-harvest straw burning and synthetic N fertilization on the dynamics of N 2 O emissions in the sugarcane-soil system in Tucuman, Argentina, compared with a native forest. Close-vented chambers were used to capture N 2 O during three consecutive growing seasons. The highest N 2 O emissions from the sugarcane-soil system coincided with the period of high soil and air temperatures, rainfall and soil N content. The effect of synthetic N fertilization on annual cumulative N 2 O emission was 7.4-61.5% higher in straw burned than in unburned treatments, especially during a wet growing season. There was a significant effect of treatments on N 2 O emission factors among growing seasons: 0.58-1.67% and 0.94-3.34% in the unburnt and burnt treatments, respectively. The emission factors for sugarcane are highly dependent on rainfall, temperature and crop management practices; regarding the latter, avoiding straw burning and reducing N soil availability, assessing alternative N fertilizers or new application modes such as split rates, seem to be the key for mitigating N 2 O emissions from the sugarcane-soil system in Tucumán, Argentina. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving nitrogen management via a regional management plan for Chinese rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Liang; Chen, Xinping; Cui, Zhenling; Wang, Guiliang; Zhang, Weifeng

    2015-01-01

    A lack of basic information on optimal nitrogen (N) management often results in over- or under-application of N fertilizer in small-scale intensive rice farming. Here, we present a new database of N input from a survey of 6611 small-scale rice farmers and rice yield in response to added N in 1177 experimental on-farm tests across eight agroecological subregions of China. This database enables us to evaluate N management by farmers and develop an optimal approach to regional N management. We also investigated grain yield, N application rate, and estimated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in comparison to N application and farming practices. Across all farmers, the average N application rate, weighted by the area of rice production in each subregion, was 210 kg ha −1 and ranged from 30 to 744 kg ha −1 across fields and from 131 to 316 kg ha −1 across regions. The regionally optimal N rate (RONR) determined from the experiments averaged 167 kg ha −1 and varied from 114 to 224 kg N ha −1 for the different regions. If these RONR were widely adopted in China, approximately 56% of farms would reduce their use of N fertilizer, and approximately 33% would increase their use of N fertilizer. As a result, grain yield would increase by 7.4% from 7.14 to 7.67 Mg ha −1 , and the estimated GHG emissions would be reduced by 11.1% from 1390 to 1236 kg carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) eq Mg −1 grain. These results suggest that to achieve the goals of improvement in regional yield and sustainable environmental development, regional N use should be optimized among N-poor and N-rich farms and regions in China. (letter)

  13. Nitrogen fertilization strategies for xaraes and tifton 85 grasses irrigated in the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Sávio Queiroz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to assess rates and nitrogen fertilization strategies on the forage yield using irrigation to supply the water deficit during the dry season. The grasses Cynodon spp cv. tifton 85 and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés were cultivated with nitrogen (N at levels of 200 and 400 kg/ha according to strategies: 1 half dose applied during the rainy season (RS and half during the dry season (DS; 2 1/3 during the RS and 2/3 during the DS; 3 2/3 during the RS and 1/3 during the DS; 4 all doses applied during the DS. In each season the dose was divided in three applications. Eleven harvests were conducted: six in the RS and five in the DS. When 2/3 of N was applied in the DS, forage yield in this period was statistically equivalent to those obtained in the RS in three of the five harvests for both 200 and 400 kg/ha of N. With 100% of N applied in the DS, the yield of four of five cuts of forage was similar to that obtained in the RS for both rates of N. The strategy of applying more N in the DS rather than in the RS was effective, keeping the yield steadily throughout the year. The application of 100% of the dose of 200 kg/ha N and 2/3 of the dose of 400 kg/ha N both in the dry period, under irrigation, promote uniform productions per harvest throughout the year.

  14. Nitrogen fertilization (15NH4NO3 of palisadegrass and residual effect on subsequent no-tillage corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Borghi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is required in large amounts by plants and their dinamics in corn and perennial forages intercropped is little known. This study analyzed the efficiency of nitrogen fertilization (15NH4NO3 applied after corn grain harvest to palisadegrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu in intercrops sown at two times, as well as the N residual effect on the subsequent corn crop. The field experiment was performed in Botucatu, São Paulo State, in southeastern Brazil, on a structured Alfisol under no-tillage. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design in a split plot scheme with four replications. The main plots consisted of two intercropping systems (corn and palisadegrass sown together and palisadegrass sown later, at corn top-dressing fertilization. The subplots consisted of four N rates (0, 30, 60, and 120 kg ha-1 N. The subplots contained microplots, in which enriched ammonium nitrate (15NH4NO3 was applied at the same rates. The time of intercrop sowing affected forage dry matter production, the amount of fertilizer-derived N in and the N use efficiency by the forage plants. Nitrogen applied in autumn to palisadegrass intercropped with corn, planted either at corn sowing or at N top-dressing fertilization, increased the forage yield up to a rate of 60 kg ha-1. The amount of fertilizer-derived N by the forage plants and the fertilizer use efficiency by palisadegrass were highest 160 days after fertilization for both intercrop sowing times, regardless of N rates. Residual N did not affect the N nutrition of corn plants grown in succession to palisadegrass, but increased grain yield at rates of 60 and 120 kg ha-1 N, when corn was grown on palisadegrass straw from the intercrop installed at corn fertilization (top-dressing. Our results indicated that the earlier intercropping allowed higher forage dry matter production. On the other hand, the later intercrop allowed a higher corn grain yield in succession to N-fertilized palisadegrass.

  15. Comparison of greenhouse gas emissions from rice paddy fields under different nitrogen fertilization loads in Chongming Island, Eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xianxian; Yin, Shan; Li, Yinsheng; Zhuang, Honglei; Li, Changsheng

    2014-01-01

    Rice is one of the major crops of southern China and Southeast Asia. Rice paddies are one of the largest agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) sources in this region because of the application of large quantities of nitrogen (N) fertilizers to the plants. In particular, the production of methane (CH 4 ) is a concern. Investigating a reasonable amount of fertilizers to apply to plants is essential to maintaining high yields while reducing GHG emissions. In this study, three levels of fertilizer application [high (300 kg N/ha), moderate (210 kg N/ha), and low (150 kg N/ha)] were designed to examine the effects of variation in N fertilizer application rate on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from the paddy fields in Chongming Island, Shanghai, China. The high level (300 kg N/ha) represented the typical practice adopted by the local farmers in the area. Maximum amounts of CH 4 and N 2 O fluxes were observed upon high-level fertilizer application in the plots. Cumulative N 2 O emissions of 23.09, 40.10, and 71.08 mg N 2 O/m 2 were observed over the growing season in 2011 under the low-, moderate-, and high-level applications plots, respectively. The field data also indicated that soil temperatures at 5 and 10 cm soil depths significantly affected soil respiration; the relationship between Rs and soil temperature in this study could be described by an exponential model. Our study showed that reducing the high rate of fertilizer application is a feasible way of attenuating the global-warming potential while maintaining the optimum yield for the studied paddy fields. - Highlights: • In Chongming Island, Shanghai, GHG emissions were measured under different nitrogen fertilizer rates from the paddy. • Low nitrogen fertilizer application reduced CH 4 and N 2 O emissions. • The study showed that 210 kg N/ha was the suitable fertilizer application rate

  16. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on soil carbon fractions in alpine meadows on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin Hua; Yang, Yu Jie; Li, Bo Wen; Li, Wen Jin; Wang, Gang; Knops, Johannes M H

    2014-01-01

    In grassland ecosystems, N and P fertilization often increase plant productivity, but there is no concensus if fertilization affects soil C fractions. We tested effects of N, P and N+P fertilization at 5, 10, 15 g m-2 yr-1 (N5, N10, N15, P5, P10, P15, N5P5, N10P10, and N15P15) compared to unfertilized control on soil C, soil microbial biomass and functional diversity at the 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm depth in an alpine meadow after 5 years of continuous fertilization. Fertilization increased total aboveground biomass of community and grass but decreased legume and forb biomass compared to no fertilization. All fertilization treatments decreased the C:N ratios of legumes and roots compared to control, however fertilization at rates of 5 and 15 g m-2 yr-1 decreased the C:N ratios of the grasses. Compared to the control, soil microbial biomass C increased in N5, N10, P5, and P10 in 0-20 cm, and increased in N10 and P5 while decreased in other treatments in 20-40 cm. Most of the fertilization treatments decreased the respiratory quotient (qCO2) in 0-20 cm but increased qCO2 in 20-40 cm. Fertilization increased soil microbial functional diversity (except N15) but decreased cumulative C mineralization (except in N15 in 0-20 cm and N5 in 20-40 cm). Soil organic C (SOC) decreased in P5 and P15 in 0-20 cm and for most of the fertilization treatments (except N15P15) in 20-40 cm. Overall, these results suggested that soils will not be a C sink (except N15P15). Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization may lower the SOC pool by altering the plant biomass composition, especially the C:N ratios of different plant functional groups, and modifying C substrate utilization patterns of soil microbial communities. The N+P fertilization at 15 g m-2 yr-1 may be used in increasing plant aboveground biomass and soil C accumulation under these meadows.

  17. High nitrogen fertilization and stem leaning have overlapping effects on wood formation in poplar but invoke largely distinct molecular pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitre, Frederic E; Lafarguette, Florian; Boyle, Brian; Pavy, Nathalie; Caron, Sébastien; Dallaire, Nancy; Poulin, Pier-Luc; Ouellet, Mario; Morency, Marie-Josée; Wiebe, Nicholas; Ly Lim, Emilia; Urbain, Aurélie; Mouille, Gregory; Cooke, Janice E K; Mackay, John J

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies indicated that high nitrogen fertilization may impact secondary xylem development and alter fibre anatomy and composition. The resulting wood shares some resemblance with tension wood, which has much thicker cell walls than normal wood due to the deposition of an additional layer known as the G-layer. This report compares the short-term effects of high nitrogen fertilization and tree leaning to induce tension wood, either alone or in combination, upon wood formation in young trees of Populus trichocarpa (Torr. & Gray) × P. deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. Fibre anatomy, chemical composition and transcript profiles were examined in newly formed secondary xylem. Each of the treatments resulted in thicker cell walls relative to the controls. High nitrogen and tree leaning had overlapping effects on chemical composition based on Fourier transform infrared analysis, specifically indicating that secondary cell wall composition was shifted in favour of cellulose and hemicelluloses relative to lignin content. In contrast, the high-nitrogen trees had shorter fibres, whilst the leaning trees had longer fibres that the controls. Microarray transcript profiling carried out after 28 days of treatment identified 180 transcripts that accumulated differentially in one or more treatments. Only 10% of differentially expressed transcripts were affected in all treatments relative to the controls. Several of the affected transcripts were related to carbohydrate metabolism, secondary cell wall formation, nitrogen metabolism and osmotic stress. RT-qPCR analyses at 1, 7 and 28 days showed that several transcripts followed very different accumulation profiles in terms of rate and level of accumulation, depending on the treatment. Our findings suggest that high nitrogen fertilization and tension wood induction elicit largely distinct and molecular pathways with partial overlap. When combined, the two types of environmental cue yielded additive effects.

  18. Nitrogen Out of the Bottle: The Challenge of Managing the Genie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    Human activity converts more N2 to reactive nitrogen (Nr; all nitrogen species other than N2) than do natural terrestrial processes (mostly biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in unmanaged ecosystems). Most of the Nr is created as a consequence of food production, fossil fuel combustion and industry. The Haber-Bosch process, invented in the early 20th century, now provides a virtually inexhaustible supply of nitrogen fertilizer. This one invention is responsible for the existence of about half of the world's population. That's the good news. The other news is that most of this nitrogen (and additional amounts from fossil fuel combustion and industry) is lost to the environment where it has exceeded the ability of the environment to convert it back to unreactive N2. The accumulating Nr contributes to smog, greenhouse effect, ecosystem eutrophication, acid rain and loss of stratospheric ozone in a sequential manner—the nitrogen cascade. Collectively these changes alter climate, decrease air quality, and diminish ecosystem sustainability. The challenge is how do we manage the genie—make sure we get the benefits of nitrogen, while minimizing the problems it causes. The paper will layout the possible, the probable and the improbable (but if it occurred, would be transformative) options for nitrogen management. Included will be the role that a nation vs. a person should play. The paper will also give examples of success stories, where nitrogen losses to the environment have been decreased, without impacting the service being provided—food and energy production. The paper will conclude with a forecast to the future, based upon the RCP scenarios for 2100.

  19. Analyzing and modelling the effect of long-term fertilizer management on crop yield and soil organic carbon in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Balkovič, Juraj; Azevedo, Ligia B; Skalský, Rastislav; Bouwman, Alexander F; Xu, Guang; Wang, Jinzhou; Xu, Minggang; Yu, Chaoqing

    2018-06-15

    This study analyzes the influence of various fertilizer management practices on crop yield and soil organic carbon (SOC) based on the long-term field observations and modelling. Data covering 11 years from 8 long-term field trials were included, representing a range of typical soil, climate, and agro-ecosystems in China. The process-based model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model) was used to simulate the response of crop yield and SOC to various fertilization regimes. The results showed that the yield and SOC under additional manure application treatment were the highest while the yield under control treatment was the lowest (30%-50% of NPK yield) at all sites. The SOC in northern sites appeared more dynamic than that in southern sites. The variance partitioning analysis (VPA) showed more variance of crop yield could be explained by the fertilization factor (42%), including synthetic nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) fertilizers, and fertilizer NPK combined with manure. The interactive influence of soil (total N, P, K, and available N, P, K) and climate factors (mean annual temperature and precipitation) determine the largest part of the SOC variance (32%). EPIC performs well in simulating both the dynamics of crop yield (NRMSE = 32% and 31% for yield calibration and validation) and SOC (NRMSE = 13% and 19% for SOC calibration and validation) under diverse fertilization practices in China. EPIC can assist in predicting the impacts of different fertilization regimes on crop growth and soil carbon dynamics, and contribute to the optimization of fertilizer management for different areas in China. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The effect of simple nitrogen fertilizer recommendation strategies on product carbon footprint and gross margin of wheat and maize production in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nan; Feike, Til; Back, Hans; Xiao, Haifeng; Bahrs, Enno

    2015-11-01

    Overuse of nitrogen (N) fertilizer constitutes the major issue of current crop production in China, exerting a substantial effect on global warming through massive emission of greenhouse gas (GHG). Despite the ongoing effort, which includes the promotion of technologically sophisticated N management schemes, farmers' N rates maintain at excessive rates. Therefore the current study tests three simple and easily to apply N fertilizer recommendation strategies, which could be implemented on large scale through the existing agricultural advisory system of China, at comparatively low cost. Building on a detailed crop production dataset of 65 winter wheat (WW) and summer maize (SM) producing farm households of the North China Plain, scenario analysis is applied. The effects of the three N strategies under constant and changing yield levels on product carbon footprint (PCF) and gross margin (GM) are determined for the production condition of every individual farm household. The N fixed rate strategy realized the highest improvement potential in PCF and GM in WW; while the N coefficient strategy performed best in SM. The analysis furthermore revealed that improved N management has a significant positive effect on PCF, but only a marginal and insignificant effect on GM. On the other side, a potential 10% yield loss would have only a marginal effect on PCF, but a detrimental effect on farmers' income. With farmers currently applying excessive N rates as "cheap insurance" against potential N limitation, it will be of vital importance to avoid any yield reductions (caused by N limitation) and respective severe financial losses, when promoting and implementing advanced fertilization strategies. To achieve this, it is furthermore recommended to increase the price of fertilizer, improve the agricultural extensions system, and recognize farmers' fertilizer related decision-making processes as key research areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Yield components and water use efficiency in coriander under irrigation and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline P. Angeli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Among the determining factors of yield, nitrogen (N fertilization and the correct supply of water play an important role in the quality and yield aspects of coriander. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the yield components and the water use efficiency (WUE in coriander subjected to different depths and N doses. A completely randomized design in split plot was used. Water depths were applied in the plots at the rates of 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125% of the Required Real Irrigation (RRI. N doses were distributed within the subplots at the following proportions: 50, 100 and 150% of the recommendation for the crop (70 kg ha-1. The N dose of 94 kg ha-1 and irrigation depth of 115% of RRI promoted the greatest yield (29.0 t ha-1 and number of bunches (29 bunches m-2. The highest number of leaves per plant was obtained with the N dose of 103.2 kg ha-1 and irrigation depth of 68% of the RRI. The maximum plant height (43 cm was obtained with N dose of 105 kg ha-1 and irrigation depth of 121% of RRI. The highest WUE in coriander (71 kg m-3 occurred at the irrigation depth of 26% of RRI and N dose of 105 kg ha-1.

  2. The role of stoichiometric flexibility in modelling forest ecosystem responses to nitrogen fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerholt, Johannes; Zaehle, Sönke

    2015-12-01

    The response of the forest carbon (C) balance to changes in nitrogen (N) deposition is uncertain, partly owing to diverging representations of N cycle processes in dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here, we examined how different assumptions about the degree of flexibility of the ecosystem's C : N ratios contribute to this uncertainty, and which of these assumptions best correspond to the available data. We applied these assumptions within the framework of a DGVM and compared the results to responses in net primary productivity (NPP), leaf N concentration, and ecosystem N partitioning, observed at 22 forest N fertilization experiments. Employing flexible ecosystem pool C : N ratios generally resulted in the most convincing model-data agreement with respect to production and foliar N responses. An intermediate degree of stoichiometric flexibility in vegetation, where wood C : N ratio changes were decoupled from leaf and root C : N ratio changes, led to consistent simulation of production and N cycle responses to N addition. Assuming fixed C : N ratios or scaling leaf N concentration changes to other tissues, commonly assumed by DGVMs, was not supported by reported data. Between the tested assumptions, the simulated changes in ecosystem C storage relative to changes in C assimilation varied by up to 20%. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Effects of Seeding Density and Nitrogen Fertilizer on the Productivity of Egyptian Clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jwan G. Rafaat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to show the effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg urea/ha, and two seeding rates 15 and 30 kg/ha. The study was conducted at Bakrajo research field during the winter season 2011-2012 to some growth characteristics of Egyptian clover, such as plant height, dry leaf weight percent, dry stem weight percent, leave stem ratio, fresh yield t/ha, dry yield t/ha and dry matter percent. The experiment was designed as (R.C.B.D. The results can be summarized as follow; significant differences were observed between all three cuts, and the third cut was superior in almost characters especially in the forage yield. The application of 40 and 60 kg urea gave maximum yield. Using 15 kg seeds/ha showed superior value due to fresh yield in compare to 30 kg for all cutting, while the dry yield responded non-significantly to seeding rates.

  4. Effect of planting methods, seed density and nitrogen phosphorus (NP) fertilizer levels on sweet corn (Zea maYs L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.; Razzaq, A.; Ullah, R.

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of planting methods, seed density and nitrogen phosphorus (NP) fertilizer levels on emergence m/sup -2/ growth and grain yield of sweet corn. The fertilizer and interaction of fertilizer x seed density had significant negative effect with increasing level while seed density had a positive effect with increased density on emergence per m/sup 2/. Increased seed density significantly reduced plant growth which increased with application of higher fertilizer dose. The grain yield was improves by ridge planting methods, increased seed density and increased fertilizer levels. The highest grain yield (3,553.50 kg ha/sup-1/) of sweet corn plants was recorded in ridge planting method with highest NP fertilizer level of 300:150 kg ha/sup 1/ and 4 seeds hill/sup -1/. The lowest grain yield (3,493.75 kg ha/sup -1/) of sweet corn was observed in flat sowing planting method with 120:75 NP level and 2 seeds hill/sup -1/ seed density. The ridge planting rank first then furrow and flat planting methods on basis of grain yield per hectare. The sweet corn plant yield was high with 4 seeds hill/sup -1/ compared with 2 seeds hill/sup -1/. (author)

  5. The effect of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization on the yield and content of sulforaphane and nitrates in cauliflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Čekey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field experiment with cauliflower, we investigated the effect of four different variants of nitrogen and suplhur fertilization on quantity and quality of cauliflower in the term of sulforaphane content and nitrate accumulation. The influence of fertilization was statistically significant between control variant and fertilization variants and in both experimental years within all parameters of cauliflower yield. The highest yield of cauliflower was reached at the variant 4 when it was fertilized on the level of nutrients N:S = 250:60 kg.ha−1. The increase of yield against control variant represented value 26.6%. The applied fertilization positively affected on the accumulation sulforaphane in the cauliflower. Its highest content was determined at the variant 4 (N:S = 250:60 kg.ha−1. In comparison with control variant, the sulforaphane content was increased about 18.4%. On the other side, applied nutrition resulted in increased accumulation of nitrates in the cauliflower. The most increase of nitrate content, compared to the control variant, was also ascertained at the variant 4 (about 31.4%.The gathered data point towards to the possibility and way how we could effect on the increased accumulation of sulforaphane in cauliflower florets. This sphere of fertilization effect on the sulforaphane content is not sufficiently explored well. Our aim is to continue in this research subject and to find way how to cultivate vegetables with higher content of health-promoting compounds.

  6. Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Respiration to Nitrogen Fertilization: Varying Effects between Growing and Non-Growing Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingfang; Wang, Rui; Li, Rujian; Hu, Yaxian; Guo, Shengli

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization has a considerable effect on food production and carbon cycling in agro-ecosystems. However, the impacts of N fertilization rates on the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) were controversial. Five N rates (N0, N45, N90, N135, and N180) were applied to a continuous winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop on the semi-arid Loess Plateau, and the in situ soil respiration was monitored during five consecutive years from 2008 to 2013. During the growing season, the mean soil respiration rates increased with increasing N fertilization rates, peaking at 1.53 μmol m-2s-1 in the N135 treatment. A similar dynamic pattern was observed during the non-growing season, yet on average with 7.3% greater soil respiration rates than the growing season. In general for all the N fertilization treatments, the mean Q10 value during the non-growing season was significantly greater than that during the growing season. As N fertilization rates increased, the Q10 values did not change significantly in the growing season but significantly decreased in the non-growing season. Overall, N fertilization markedly influenced soil respirations and Q10 values, in particular posing distinct effects on the Q10 values between the growing and non-growing seasons.

  7. Significant alteration of soil bacterial communities and organic carbon decomposition by different long-term fertilization management conditions of extremely low-productivity arable soil in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Weibing; Zhao, Jun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Guishan; Ran, Wei; Wang, Boren; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-06-01

    Different fertilization managements of red soil, a kind of Ferralic Cambisol, strongly affected the soil properties and associated microbial communities. The association of the soil microbial community and functionality with long-term fertilization management in the unique low-productivity red soil ecosystem is important for both soil microbial ecology and agricultural production. Here, 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S recombinant ribonucleic acid genes and GeoChip4-NimbleGen-based functional gene analysis were used to study the soil bacterial community composition and functional genes involved in soil organic carbon degradation. Long-term nitrogen-containing chemical fertilization-induced soil acidification and fertility decline and significantly altered the soil bacterial community, whereas long-term organic fertilization and fallow management improved the soil quality and maintained the bacterial diversity. Short-term quicklime remediation of the acidified soils did not change the bacterial communities. Organic fertilization and fallow management supported eutrophic ecosystems, in which copiotrophic taxa increased in relative abundance and have a higher intensity of labile-C-degrading genes. However, long-term nitrogen-containing chemical fertilization treatments supported oligotrophic ecosystems, in which oligotrophic taxa increased in relative abundance and have a higher intensity of recalcitrant-C-degrading genes but a lower intensity of labile-C-degrading genes. Quicklime application increased the relative abundance of copiotrophic taxa and crop production, although these effects were utterly inadequate. This study provides insights into the interaction of soil bacterial communities, soil functionality and long-term fertilization management in the red soil ecosystem; these insights are important for improving the fertility of unique low-productivity red soil. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Production components of Jatropha under irrigation and nitrogen fertilization in the semiarid region of Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton M. de Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTJatropha curcas L. proves to be a promising species, considering its inclusion in the National Program of Biodiesel Production and Use. However, since it has not been genetically improved, agronomic information is still scarce in the literature, especially under conditions of water and nutritional stress. Thus, this field study aimed to evaluate the effects of irrigation depths (735; 963; 1,191; 1,418 and 1,646 mm and nitrogen fertilization (0; 25; 50 and 75 kg ha-1 on the production of Jatropha plants. Plants under the highest irrigation depth showed the highest values of number of fruits and productivity of fruits, seeds and albumen. Plants under the irrigation depth of 1,191 mm showed the highest values of mean mass of albumen and the ratios between mass of albumen and mass of seeds and between mass of albumen and mass of fruits. Nitrogen fertilization did not influence the production components of Jatropha.

  9. Soil fertility management on natural pastures in Eastern Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi; Jolokhava, Tamar; Kenchiashvili, Naira; Tarkhnishvili, Maia

    2015-04-01

    The development of livestock production in Georgia is mainly based on productivity of natural common pasturelands as it is the cheapest way to keep animals. Therefore it is crucial to manage those pastures in order to supply domestic animals with adequate amount of green grass during whole grazing season. The problems associated with poor grassland management is especially evident under limited rainfall conditions. Usually farmers do not consider suitability of existing stocking rates with pasture productivity leading to overutilization of pastureland causing reduction of palatable plant species and total grass cover stimulating soil erosion processes, which deflates soil nutrients and soil organic matter. Intensification of negative processes may result in loss of soil fertility and poor grass regrowth capacities. Current study aims to evaluate existing grazing system on a selected plots from common pasturelands in Eastern Georgia and to develop a proper soil fertility management plan accepted in organic agriculture taking into account local soil-climatic conditions, pasture vegetation stand and its richness with palatable plant species.

  10. Applications of 15N-isotopic dilution techniques to study the recovery of nitrogen fertilizer in the soil and plant uptake in wheat cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouanet, Juan Luis; Godoy, Alejandra; Montenegro, Adolfo; Mera, Mario; Uribe, Hamil; Pino, Ines; Parada, Ana Maria; Nario, Adriana

    1999-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major concern of the Chilean Ministry of Agriculture, which supports actions to develop new approaches in order to decrease the loss of this fragile natural resource and to promote sustainable production systems. This study, based on the management of biological, chemical and physical characteristics of the soil, was aimed to save nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen fertilization is the most costly production factor in wheat cropping systems on Ultisols, one of the most eroded soil types in southern Chile. A field experiment was undertaken on a Ultisol (''Buenos Aires'' Farm) at Imperial, IX Region, during 1997 and 1998, in order to assess the nitrogen and water use efficiency by a wheat crop (cv. Dalcahue-INIA) under alternative soil tillage systems. 15 N-isotopic dilution techniques allowed determining aspects of plant nutrition, nitrogen and water movement in the soil, processes not evaluated so far under these conditions. A strip-plot field layout with four replications was used , with soil tillage systems (traditional, burning/no-till, and no burning/no-till) as the main plots and crop successions (wheat-lupin-wheat and lupin-wheat-oat) as the subplots (30 m-2). In each subplot, a microplot (1m-2 ) was delimited. N fertilizer in the form of urea was added on subplots, except the microplot, at the rate of 150 kg N ha-1. 15N-labelled urea at c. 10 atom % excess, at the rate of 150 kg N ha-1, was added to the microplots. The fertilizer was split three times, 10% at planting, 45% at tillering and 45% jointing stage. No significant differences were found for wheat grain yield among tillage treatments. N fertilizer recovery by the wheat crop was 43%, and 56% on the nitrogen found in plants was derived from soil. No significant differences for these proportions were found among treatments. Although the wheat crop did not respond to tillage treatments in terms of 15N recovery, the physiological nitrogen use efficiency, or grain production per unit of

  11. Effects of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, interception of radiation and productivity of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Felipe Elli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, radiation interception, and grain yield of three cultivars of wheat. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial scheme 3x5x2, with three cultivars (Mestre, Iguaçú and Itaipú, five nitrogen doses (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 Kg ha-1, and application or no application of a growth reducer, with three replications. The following characteristics were evaluated: plant height, SPAD index, leaf area index (LAI, Global Radiation Interception (GRI and grain yield. The Tukey test (p < 0.05 was used for the comparison between the means of cultivar and growth reducer factors, and for a regression analysis to evaluate N levels. Increasing the dose of nitrogen promotes an increase in LAI of plants of wheat crops differently among cultivars, which leads to a greater degree of global radiation interception. At doses higher or equal to 120 Kg ha-1 of nitrogen, there are significant differences in grain yield between treatments with and without the application of the growth reducer. The significant interaction between growth reducer and nitrogen dose, showed that applications of growth reducer increase the GRI at doses above and below 80 Kg ha-1 of nitrogen. Nitrogen rates of 138 and 109 Kg ha-1 are responsible for maximum grain yields of wheat, which is 4235 and 3787 Kg ha-1 with and without the use of growth reducer, respectively.

  12. The Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization on Nitrate Accumulation, and the Content of Minerals and Glucosinolates in Broccoli Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Toth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variable content of bioactive compounds and minerals is the main problem in the production of vegetables as functional food, due to genetic, abiotic and agronomic factors (especially fertilization, which may affect the nutritional and medicinal value of vegetables. In order to achieve the higher yield, producers often apply large amounts of nitrogen fertilizer, which can result in the accumulation of nitrate, reducing the quality of broccoli. There are no results about the content of bioactive compounds and minerals in broccoli inflorescence grown on the principles of Good Agricultural Practices in Croatia. Therefore, the research has been set up to determine the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the content of glucosinolates, some minerals (potassium, calcium and nitrogen and nitrate levels in the broccoli top inflorescence during different growing seasons. The two factorial field trials were conducted in spring/summer and summer/autumn growing seasons in 2009 according to a randomized complete block design with four replications. Two broccoli cultivars (Marathon and Parthenon and four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 60, 120 and 240 kg/ha were tested. There was a significant effect of cultivar and rate of nitrogen fertilization on the nutritional quality of broccoli top inflorescence in both growing seasons. The average values of total glucosinolates per g of dry mass (12.82 μmol and calcium (1.12 % in broccoli top inflorescence were significantly higher during the spring/summer growing season. The prevailing glucosinolates in that growing season were glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin. In the summer/autumn growing season, higher amounts of nitrate per kg of fresh mass (553 mg, nitrogen (5.40 % and glucoraphanin per g of dry mass (5.4 μmol were achieved and the dominant individual glucosinolates were glucoraphanin and glucobrassicin. Combination of Marathon with N 120 or 240 kg/ha, which resulted in the highest values of determined

  13. Effects of soil and foliar applications of nitrogen fertilizers on a 20-year-old Douglas-fir stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Steve. Wert

    1979-01-01

    We compared growth and cone production of Douglas-fir treated 4 years earlier with ISO pounds N per acre applied as urea prill by hand and as a 32-percent N solution applied by helicopter. Nitrogen fertilization increased growth by 3 88 ft per acre during the 4 years after treatment; this 3S-percent gain was similar for both soil (prill) and foliar (solution)...

  14. WATER CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF CASTOR BEAN PARAGUAÇÚ CULTIVAR SUBMITTED TO NITROGEN FERTILIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Helena Garófalo Chaves; Hans Raj Ghey; Susane Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Although the productivity of castor bean reduces under water deficit it is considered resistant to low precipitation conditions, thus constituting an alternative form of income for the semi-arid. The scarce information about the effect of nitrogen fertilization on water consumption and efficiency of use motivated this study. The study was conducted in a greenhouse located at the Federal University of Campina Grande – Campus I, with plants arranged in a factorial design with three replications...

  15. Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Some Physiological and Agronomical Traits of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. in Irrigated Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Namvar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of organic and inorganic nitrogen fertilization on some physiological and agronomical traits of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cv. ILC 482, investigated at the Experimental Farm of the Agriculture Faculty, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili. The trial was laid out in spilt plot design based on randomized complete block with four replications. Experimental factors were mineral nitrogen fertilizer at four levels (0, 50, 75 and 100 kg urea/ha in the main plots, and two levels of inoculation with Rhizobium bacteria (with and without inoculation as sub plots. N application and Rh. inoculation showed positive effects on physiological and agronomical traits of chickpea. The highest value of leaf RWC recorded in 50 kg urea/ha that was statistically in par with 75 kg urea/ha application while, usage of 75 kg urea/ha showed the maximum stem RWC. The maximum CMS obtained form application of 75 kg urea/ha. Chlorophyll content, leaf area index and grains protein content showed their maximum values in the highest level of nitrogen usage (100 kg urea/ha. Moreover, inoculated plants had the highest magnitudes of all physiological traits. In the case of agronomical traits, the highest values of plant height, number of primary and secondary branches, number of pods per plant, number of grains per plant, grain and biological yield were obtained from the highest level of nitrogen fertilizer (100 kg urea/ha and Rh. inoculation. Application of 75 kg urea/ha was statistically in par with 100 kg urea/ha in all of these traits. The results pointed out that some N fertilization (i.e. between 50 and 75 kg urea/ha as starter can be beneficial to improve growth, development, physiological traits and total yield of inoculated chickpea.

  16. Long Term Sugarcane Crop Residue Retention Offers Limited Potential to Reduce Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates in Australian Wet Tropical Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Elizabeth A.; Thorburn, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The warming of world climate systems is driving interest in the mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the agricultural sector, practices that mitigate GHG emissions include those that (1) reduce emissions [e.g., those that reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions by avoiding excess nitrogen (N) fertilizer application], and (2) increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks (e.g., by retaining instead of burning crop residues). Sugarcane is a globally important crop that can have substantial...

  17. Effects of reclaimed water irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on the chemical properties and microbial community of soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Wei; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Qi, Xue-bin

    2017-01-01

    physicochemical properties and microbial community structure in soils irrigated with reclaimed water and receiving varied amounts of N fertilizer. The results indicated that the reclaimed water irrigation increased soil electrical conductivity (EC) and soil water content (SWC). The N treatment has highly...... of microbial communities using either clean or reclaimed water for irrigation indicated that the type of irrigation water may have a greater influence on the structure of soil microbial community than N fertilizer treatment. Based on a canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) between the species of soil......The ecological effect of reclaimed water irrigation and fertilizer application on the soil environment is receiving more attention. Soil microbial activity and nitrogen (N) levels are important indicators of the effect of reclaimed water irrigation on environment. This study evaluated soil...

  18. Dry weight partitioning and hydraulic traits in young Pinus taeda trees fertilized with nitrogen and phosphorus in a subtropical area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, Laura I; Bulfe, Nardia M L; Pinazo, Martín A; Monteoliva, Silvia E; Graciano, Corina

    2013-03-01

    Plants of Pinus taeda L. from each of four families were fertilized with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) or N + P at planting. The H family had the highest growth in dry mass while the L family had the lowest growth. Measurements of plant hydraulic architecture traits were performed during the first year after planting. Stomatal conductance (gs), water potential at predawn (Ψpredawn) and at midday (Ψmidday), branch hydraulic conductivity (ks and kl) and shoot hydraulic conductance (K) were measured. One year after planting, dry weight partitioning of all aboveground organs was performed. Phosphorus fertilization increased growth in all four families, while N fertilization had a negative effect on growth. L family plants were more negatively affected than H family plants. This negative effect was not due to limitations in N or P uptake because plants from all the families and treatments had the same N and P concentration in the needles. Phosphorus fertilization changed some hydraulic parameters, but those changes did not affect growth. However, the negative effect of N can be explained by changes in hydraulic traits. L family plants had a high leaf dry weight per branch, which was increased by N fertilization. This change occurred together with a decrease in shoot conductance. Therefore, the reduction in gs was not enough to avoid the drop in Ψmidday. Consequently, stomatal closure and the deficient water status of the needles resulted in a reduction in growth. In H family plants, the increase in the number of needles per branch due to N fertilization was counteracted by a reduction in gs and also by a reduction in tracheid lumen size and length. Because of these two changes, Ψmidday did not drop and water availability in the needles was adequate for sustained growth. In conclusion, fertilization affects the hydraulic architecture of plants, and different families develop different strategies. Some of the hydraulic changes can explain the negative effect of N

  19. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer and Topsoil Amendment on Native Plant Cover in Roadside Revegetation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, Heidi L.; Schacht, Walter H.; Soper, Jonathan M.; Wienhold, Carol E.

    2018-01-01

    Establishing vegetation on roadsides following construction can be challenging, especially for relatively slow growing native species. Topsoil is generally removed during construction, and the surface soil following construction ("cut-slope soils") is often compacted and low in nutrients, providing poor growing conditions for vegetation. Nebraska Department of Transportation (NDOT) protocols have historically called for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization when planting roadside vegetation following construction, but these recommendations were developed for cool-season grass plantings and most current plantings use slower-establishing, native warm-season grasses that may benefit less than expected from current planting protocols. We evaluated the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization, and also topsoil amendment, on the foliar cover of seeded and non-seeded species planted into two post-construction roadside sites in eastern Nebraska. We also examined soil movement to determine how planting protocols and plant growth may affect erosion potential. Three years after planting, we found no consistent effects of N or P fertilization on foliar cover. Plots receiving topsoil amendment had 14% greater cover of warm-season grasses, 10% greater total foliar cover, and 4-13% lower bare ground (depending on site) than plots without topsoil. None of the treatments consistently affected soil movement. We recommend that NDOT change their protocols to remove N and P fertilization and focus on stockpiling and spreading topsoil following construction.

  20. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer and Topsoil Amendment on Native Plant Cover in Roadside Revegetation Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, Heidi L; Schacht, Walter H; Soper, Jonathan M; Wienhold, Carol E

    2018-01-01

    Establishing vegetation on roadsides following construction can be challenging, especially for relatively slow growing native species. Topsoil is generally removed during construction, and the surface soil following construction ("cut-slope soils") is often compacted and low in nutrients, providing poor growing conditions for vegetation. Nebraska Department of Transportation (NDOT) protocols have historically called for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization when planting roadside vegetation following construction, but these recommendations were developed for cool-season grass plantings and most current plantings use slower-establishing, native warm-season grasses that may benefit less than expected from current planting protocols. We evaluated the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization, and also topsoil amendment, on the foliar cover of seeded and non-seeded species planted into two post-construction roadside sites in eastern Nebraska. We also examined soil movement to determine how planting protocols and plant growth may affect erosion potential. Three years after planting, we found no consistent effects of N or P fertilization on foliar cover. Plots receiving topsoil amendment had 14% greater cover of warm-season grasses, 10% greater total foliar cover, and 4-13% lower bare ground (depending on site) than plots without topsoil. None of the treatments consistently affected soil movement. We recommend that NDOT change their protocols to remove N and P fertilization and focus on stockpiling and spreading topsoil following construction.

  1. Distinguishing nitrogen fertilization levels in field corn (Zea mays L.) with actively induced fluorescence and passive reflectance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurtrey, J.E. III; Chappelle, E.W.; Kim, M.S.; Meisinger, J.J.; Corp, L.A

    1994-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is an active sensing technique capable of capturing immediate and specific indications of changes in plant physiology and metabolism as they relate to the concentration and photosynthetic activity of the plant pigments. Reflectance is a passive sensing technique that can capture differences in the concentration of the primary plant pigments. Fluorescence and reflectance were compared for their ability to measure levels of plant stress that are of agronomic importance in corn (Zea mays L.) crops. Laboratory LIF and reflectance spectra were made on excised leaves from field grown corn. Changes in the visible region of the spectrum were compared between groups of plants fertilized with seven different levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization. A pulsed nitrogen laser emitting photons at a wavelength of 337 nm was used as a fluorescence excitation source. Differences in maximum intensity of fluorescence occurred at 440 nm, 525 nm, 685 nm, and 740 nm. Significant separations were found between levels of N fertilization at several LIF wavelength ratios. Several reflectance algorithms also produced significant separations between certain levels of N fertilization

  2. Effect of Nitrogen and biological Fertilizers on Seed Yield and Fatty acid Composition of Sesame cultivars under Yazd conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Shakeri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and biofertilizers Azotobacter sp. and Azosprillum sp. on seed yield, oil yield and its percent and fatty acid composition in three sesame (Sesamum indicum L. cultivars an experiment was conducted using splite plot factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Agricultural and Natural Resources Reasearch Center of Yazd in 2009 cropping season. The treatments included : cultivars ( Darab-14, Jiroft and Yazdi assigned to main plots, nitrogen fertilizer (0, 25 and 50 kg ha-1 and biofertilizer (inoculation and no-inoculation as factorial were randomized in sub-plots. Oil percent was measured using the Soxhlet method and fatty acid composition was measured using GC method. Results showed the significant differenc among three varieties concerning seed yield, oil yield and four fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, palmetic and stearis acid. Seed yield, oil yield, Oleic, Linolenic and Arasshidic acid significantly increased with applying N fertilizer. Seed yield, oil yield and linolenic acid percent significantly increased with applying biofertilizer. Oleic acid percent had negative and significant correlation with Linoleic acid (r = -0.759** and stearic acid (r=-0.774** percent. Generally, results showed the importance of applying biofertilizers against chemical fertilizers to protect the environment from harmful chemical pollution.

  3. Nitrogen fertilization affects silicon concentration, cell wall composition and biofuel potential of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Lindedam, Jane

    2014-01-01

    linearly from 0.32% to 0.71% over the range of nitrogen treatments. Cellulose and hemicellulose were not affected by the nitrogen supply while lignin peaked at medium rates of nitrogen application. The nitrogen treatments had a distinct influence on the silicon concentration, which decreased from 2.5% to 1...

  4. Improvement of wine terroir management according to biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najat, Nassr; Aude, Langenfeld; Mohammed, Benbrahim; Lionel, Ley; Laurent, Deliere; Jean-Pascal, Goutouly; David, Lafond; Marie, Thiollet-Scholtus

    2015-04-01

    Good wine terroir production implies a well-balanced Biogeochemical Cycle of Nitrogen (BCN) at field level i.e. in soil and in plant. Nitrogen is very important for grape quality and soil sustainability. The mineralization of organic nitrogen is the main source of mineral nitrogen for the vine. This mineralization depends mainly on the soil microbial activity. This study is focused on the functional microbial populations implicated in the BCN, in particular nitrifying bacteria. An experimental network with 6 vine sites located in Atlantic coast (Loire valley and Bordeaux) and in North-East (Alsace) of France has been set up since 2012. These vine sites represent a diversity of environmental factors (i.e. soil and climate). The adopted approach is based on the measure of several indicators to assess nitrogen dynamic in soil, i.e. nitrogen mineralization, regarding microbial biomass and activity. Statistical analyses are performed to determine the relationship between biological indicator and nitrogen mineralisation regarding farmer's practices. The variability of the BCN indicators seems to be correlated to the physical and chemical parameters in the soil of the field. For all the sites, the bacterial biomass is correlated to the rate and kinetic of nitrogen in soil, however this bioindicator depend also on others parameters. Moreover, the functional bacterial diversity depends on the soil organic matter content. Differences in the bacterial biomass and kinetic of nitrogen mineralization are observed between the sites with clayey (Loire valley site) and sandy soils (Bordeaux site). In some tested vine systems, effects on bacterial activity and nitrogen dynamic are also observed depending on the farmer's practices: soil tillage, reduction of inputs, i.e. pesticides and fertilizers, and soil cover management between rows. The BCN indicators seem to be strong to assess the dynamics of the nitrogen in various sites underline the functional diversity of the soils. These

  5. [Effects of nitrogen application and winter green manure on soil active organic carbon and the soil carbon pool management index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin-Juan; Huang, Guo-Qin; Lan, Yan; Chen, Hong-Jun; Wang, Shu-Bin

    2014-10-01

    Based on a cropping system of "winter green manure-double rice", the 4 x 4 two-factor test was used to study the effects of different nitrogen (N) application levels and winter green manure application on soil active organic carbon (AOC) and the C pool management index. The aim was to explore the ecological effects of winter green manure on soil improvement and determine the appropriate application levels of N fertilizer and winter green manure for improved rice yield. Results were as follows: 1) Compared with the control, the SOC and AOC contents increased by 22.2% and 26.7%, respectively, under the green manure only treatment, but the SOC contents decreased by 0.6%-3.4% under the single N fertilizer treatment. Compared with the control, the soil C pool management index increased by 24.55 and 15.17 under the green manure only and green manure plus N fertilizer treatments, respectively, and reduced by 2.59 under the single N fertilizer treatment. Compared with no fertilization, the average microbial biomass carbon (MBC) increased by 54.0%, 95.2% and 14.3% under the green manure, green manure plus N fertilizer and single N fertilizer treatments, respectively. 2) The soil AOC content was significantly positively correlated with the C pool management index (P management index, and the correlation coefficient was significantly greater than that with the total organic C. These results suggested that application of winter green manure at proper rates with inorganic fertilizer could increase SOC contents and the soil C pool management index, improve soil quality and fertility.

  6. Effects of Nitrogen Fixing Pre-Crops and Fertilizers on Physical and Chemical Properties Down the Soil Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobley, E.; Honermeier, B.; Don, A.; Gocke, M. I.; Amelung, W.; Kogel-Knabner, I.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the effects of pre-crops with and without biological nitrogen fixation capacity (fava beans, clover mulch, fodder maize) and fertilization (no fertilizer, NPK fertilizer, PK fertilizer) on soil physico-chemical properties (bulk density, electrical conductivity, soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration and stocks, N concentration and stocks) and their depth distribution (down to 1 m) at a long-term field experiment set up in 1982 in Gießen, Germany. Fertilization had significant but small impacts on the soil chemical environment, most particularly the salt content of the soil, with PK fertilization increasing electrical conductivity throughout the soil profile. Similarly, fertilization resulted in a small reduction of soil pH throughout the entire soil profile. The soil was physically and chemically affected by the type of pre-crop. Plots with fava beans and maize had lower bulk densities in the subsoil than those with clover. Pre-crop type also significantly affected the depth distribution of both N and SOC. Specifically, clover pre-cropping led to an enrichment of N at the surface compared with fava beans and maize. SOC enrichment at the surface was also observed under clover, with the effect most pronounced under PK fertilization. Combined with the bulk density effects, this shift in N distribution resulted in significantly higher N stocks under clover than under fava beans. However, the total stocks of SOC were not affected by pre-crop or fertilizer regime. Our results indicate that humans influence C and N cycling and distribution in soils through the selection of pre-crops and that the influence of crop type is greater than that of fertilization regimes. Pre-cropping with clover, which is used as a mulch, leads to N enrichment in the topsoil, reducing the need for N fertilizer for the subsequent cereal crop. In contrast, the use of fava beans as a pre-crop does not lead to N enrichment. We believe this is due to the greater rooting depth of

  7. The effect of different levels of fertilizer on nitrogen nutrient of pasture using 15N-isotope dilution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Dongpu; Bai Lingyu; Hua Luo; Yao Yunyin

    2000-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of different levels of fertilizer on N% of ryegrass in monoculture or mixed culture with white clover and symbiotic dinitrogen fixation of white clover by using 15 N-isotope dilution method. It showed that (1) N% of ryegrass in monoculture or mixed culture was the highest at 67 days after fertilizing (DAF) and decreased with time; (2) N% of white clover was the greatest at 67 DAF, slightly decreased at 92 DAF, and then increased at 137 DAF, related to the increasing of nitrogen fixation by white clover; (3) At 164 kg 15 NH 4 SO 4 /hm 2 , N% of ryegrass in mixed culture at different cutting time was greater than that in monoculture. It obviously occurred that fixed nitrogen was transferred from white clover to ryegrass in mixed; (4) During the whole growth period, the main nitrogen resource of white clover was symbiotic dinitrogen fixation and that of ryegrass was soil nitrogen; (5) Effect of different levels of applied N on N% of ryegrass and white clover was significant

  8. [Fertility-sparing management of endometrial cancer and atypical hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, C; Trefoux-Bourdet, A; Luton, D; Koskas, M

    2017-02-01

    The fertility sparing management of endometrial cancer and atypical hyperplasia concern women in childbearing age with stage 1, grade 1, endometrioid adenocarcinoma confined to endometrium or atypical hyperplasia (simple or complex). These pathologies affecting more frequently postmenopausal women, the number of people involved is relatively low. The main risk factor is hyperestrogenism and these patients often present a history of infertility with a desire for pregnancy. The recommendations for this conservative management are scarce and unclear. The national observatory in the gynecology and obstetrics department of Bichat hospital gives expert advice to help doctors and patients concerned. We present a type of conservative management based on the expertise of the national observatory. Rigorous pre-therapeutic assessment must first be made to avoid missing a more advanced lesion. Hormone therapy is then started to obtain complete remission. In case of remission, fast achieving pregnancy is advised, and the use of assisted reproductive therapy is possible if necessary. Monitoring by hysteroscopy and histological examination is essential during the treatment. Hysterectomy is the last time the conservative management. It is motivated by the risk of recurrence and progression. The probability of remission after conservative treatment is estimated at 78.0 % at 12 months, the probability of recurrence at 29.2 % at 24 months, and the risk of progression at 15 % (stage 1A with myometrial invasion or more on the hysterectomy specimen). In terms of fertility, 32 % of women get at least one pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Effects of Nitrogen Fertigation and Granular Fertilizer Application on Growth and Availability of Soil Nitrogen during Establishment of Highbush Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryla, David R.; Machado, Rui M. A.

    2011-01-01

    A 2-year study was done to compare the effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil N during establishment of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. “Bluecrop”). Treatments included four methods of N application (weekly fertigation, split fertigation, and two non-fertigated controls) and four levels of N fertilizer (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg·ha−1 N). Fertigation treatments were irrigated by drip and injected with a liquid urea solution; weekly fertigation was applied once a week from leaf emergence to 60 d prior to the end of the season while split fertigation was applied as a triple-split from April to June. Non-fertigated controls were fertilized with granular ammonium sulfate, also applied as a triple-split, and irrigated by drip or microsprinklers. Weekly fertigation produced the smallest plants among the four fertilizer application methods at 50 kg·ha−1 N during the first year after planting but the largest plants at 150 kg·ha−1 N in both the first and second year. The other application methods required less N to maximize growth but were less responsive than weekly fertigation to additional N fertilizer applications. In fact, 44–50% of the plants died when granular fertilizer was applied at 150 kg·ha−1 N. By comparison, none of the plants died with weekly fertigation. Plant death with granular fertilizer was associated with high ammonium ion concentrations (up to 650 mg·L−1) and electrical conductivity (>3 dS·m−1) in the soil solution. Early results indicate that fertigation may be less efficient (i.e., less plant growth per unit of N applied) at lower N rates than granular fertilizer application but is also safer (i.e., less plant death) and promotes more growth when high amounts of N fertilizer is applied. PMID:22639596

  10. Autoregulation of Nodulation Interferes with Impacts of Nitrogen Fertilization Levels on the Leaf-Associated Bacterial Community in Soybeans ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Seishi; Anda, Mizue; Inaba, Shoko; Eda, Shima; Sato, Shusei; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Tabata, Satoshi; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Sato, Tadashi; Shinano, Takuro; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2011-01-01

    The diversities leaf-associated bacteria on nonnodulated (Nod−), wild-type nodulated (Nod+), and hypernodulated (Nod++) soybeans were evaluated by clone library analyses of the 16S rRNA gene. To analyze the impact of nitrogen fertilization on the bacterial leaf community, soybeans were treated with standard nitrogen (SN) (15 kg N ha−1) or heavy nitrogen (HN) (615 kg N ha−1) fertilization. Under SN fertilization, the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria was significantly higher in Nod− and Nod++ soybeans (82% to 96%) than in Nod+ soybeans (54%). The community structure of leaf-associated bacteria in Nod+ soybeans was almost unaffected by the levels of nitrogen fertilization. However, differences were visible in Nod− and Nod++ soybeans. HN fertilization drastically decreased the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria in Nod− and Nod++ soybeans (46% to 76%) and, conversely, increased those of Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes in these mutant soybeans. In the Alphaproteobacteria, cluster analyses identified two operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (Aurantimonas sp. and Methylobacterium sp.) that were especially sensitive to nodulation phenotypes under SN fertilization and to nitrogen fertilization levels. Arbuscular mycorrhizal infection was not observed on the root tissues examined, presumably due to the rotation of paddy and upland fields. These results suggest that a subpopulation of leaf-associated bacteria in wild-type Nod+ soybeans is controlled in similar ways through the systemic regulation of autoregulation of nodulation, which interferes with the impacts of N levels on the bacterial community of soybean leaves. PMID:21239540

  11. Decreasing Fertilizer use by Optimizing Plant-microbe Interactions for Sustainable Supply of Nitrogen for Bioenergy Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicklberger, M. F.; Huang, J.; Felix, P.; Pettenato, A.; Chakraborty, R.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential component of DNA and proteins and consequently a key element of life. N often is limited in plants, affecting plant growth and productivity. To alleviate this problem, tremendous amounts of N-fertilizer is used, which comes at a high economic price and heavy energy demand. In addition, N-fertilizer also significantly contributes to rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Therefore, the addition of fertilizer to overcome N limitation is highly undesirable. To explore reduction in fertilizer use our research focuses on optimizing the interaction between plants and diazotrophic bacteria, which could provide adequate amounts of N to the host-plant. Therefore we investigated the diversity of microbes associated with Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), considered as potential energy crop for bioenergy production. Several bacterial isolates with representatives from Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Bacilli were obtained from the roots, leaves, rhizoplane and rhizosphere of these plants. Majority of these isolates grew best with simple sugars and small organic acids. As shown by PCR amplification of nifH, several of these isolates are potential N2-fixing bacteria. We investigated diazotrophs for their response to elevated temperature and salinity (two common climate change induced stresses found on marginal lands), their N2-fixing ability, and their response to root exudates (which drive microbial colonization of the plant). Together this understanding is necessary for the development of eco-friendly, economically sustainable energy crops by decreasing their dependency on fertilizer.

  12. [Coupling effects of periodic rewatering after drought stress and nitrogen fertilizer on growth and water and nitrogen productivity of Coffea arabica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kun; Liu, Xiao Gang; Zhang, Yan; Han, Zhi Hui; Yu, Ning; Yang, Qi Liang; Liu, Yan Wei

    2017-12-01

    The effects of periodic rewatering after drought stress and nitrogen fertilizer on growth, yield, photosynthetic characteristics of leaves and water and nitrogen productivity of Coffea arabica (Katim P7963) were studied under different nitrogen application levels in 2.5 consecutive years. Irrigation (periodic rewatering after drought stress) and nitrogen were designed as two factors, with four modes of irrigation, namely, full irrigation (I F-F : 100%ET 0 +100%ET 0 , ET 0 was reference crop evapotranspiration), rewatering after light drought stress (I L-F : 80%ET 0 +100%ET 0 ), rewatering after moderate drought stress (I M-F : 60%ET 0 +100%ET 0 ) and rewatering after severe drought stress (I S-F : 40%ET 0 +100%ET 0 ), and three levels of nitrogen, namely, high nitrogen (N H : 750 kg N·hm -2 each time), middle nitrogen (N M : 500 kg N·hm -2 each time), low nitrogen (N L : 250 kg N·hm -2 each time), and nitrogen was equally applied for 4 times. The results showed that irrigation and nitrogen had significant effect on plant height, stem diameter, yield and water and nitrogen productivity of C. arabica, and plant height and stem diameter showed S-curve with the day ordinal number, and leaf photosynthesis decreased significantly under drought stress but most photosynthesis index recovered somewhat after rewatering. Compared with I F-F , I L-F increased dry bean yield by 6.9%, while I M-F and I S-F decreased dry bean yield by 15.2% and 38.5%, respectively; I L-F and I M-F increased water use efficiency by 18.8% and 6.0%, respectively, while I S-F decreased water use efficiency by 12.1%; I L-F increased nitrogen partial productivity by 6.1%, while I M-F and I S-F decreased nitrogen partial productivity by 14.0% and 36.0%, respectively. Compared with N H , N M increased dry bean yield and water use efficiency by 20.9% and 19.3%, while N L decreased dry bean yield and water use efficiency by 42.4% and 41.9%, respectively; N M and N L increased nitrogen partial

  13. Sustainable irrigation and nitrogen management of fertigated vegetable crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, R.B.; Incrocci, L.; Voogt, W.; Pardossi, A.; Magán, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Fertigation in combination with drip irrigation is being increasingly used in vegetable crop production. From a nutrient management perspective, this combination provides the technical capacity for precise nitrogen (N) nutrition, both spatially and temporally. With these systems, N and other

  14. Tidal marsh plant responses to elevated CO2 , nitrogen fertilization, and sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Langley, J; Mozdzer, Thomas J; Shepard, Katherine A; Hagerty, Shannon B; Patrick Megonigal, J

    2013-05-01

    Elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition directly affect plant productivity and the mechanisms that allow tidal marshes to maintain a constant elevation relative to sea level, but it remains unknown how these global change drivers modify marsh plant response to sea level rise. Here we manipulated factorial combinations of CO2 concentration (two levels), N availability (two levels) and relative sea level (six levels) using in situ mesocosms containing a tidal marsh community composed of a sedge, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a grass, Spartina patens. Our objective is to determine, if elevated CO2 and N alter the growth and persistence of these plants in coastal ecosystems facing rising sea levels. After two growing seasons, we found that N addition enhanced plant growth particularly at sea levels where plants were most stressed by flooding (114% stimulation in the + 10 cm treatment), and N effects were generally larger in combination with elevated CO2 (288% stimulation). N fertilization shifted the optimal productivity of S. patens to a higher sea level, but did not confer S. patens an enhanced ability to tolerate sea level rise. S. americanus responded strongly to N only in the higher sea level treatments that excluded S. patens. Interestingly, addition of N, which has been suggested to accelerate marsh loss, may afford some marsh plants, such as the widespread sedge, S. americanus, the enhanced ability to tolerate inundation. However, if chronic N pollution reduces the availability of propagules of S. americanus or other flood-tolerant species on the landscape scale, this shift in species dominance could render tidal marshes more susceptible to marsh collapse. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Nitrogen fertilizer fate after introducing maize into a continuous paddy rice cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Irabella; He, Yao; Siemens, Jan; Brüggemann, Nicolas; Lehndorf, Eva; Amelung, Wulf

    2017-04-01

    After introducing upland crops into permanent flooded cropping systems, soil conditions temporally change from anaerobic to aerobic, which profoundly impacts nitrogen (N) dynamics. In the framework of the DFG research unit 1701 ICON we applied a single 15N-urea pulse in a field experiment in the Philippines with three different crop rotations: continuous paddy rice, paddy rice-dry rice, and paddy rice-maize. Subsequently, we traced the fate of the labelled urea in bulk soil, rhizosphere, roots, biomass and microbial residues (amino sugars) within the following two years. 15N recovery in the first 5 cm of bulk soil was highest in the first dry season of continuous paddy rice cropping (37.8 % of applied 15N) and lowest in the paddy rice-maize rotation (19.2 %). While an accumulation over time could be observed in bulk soil in 5-20 cm depth of the continuous paddy rice system, the recoveries decreased over time within the following two years in the other cropping systems. Highest 15N-recovery in shoots and roots were found in the continuous paddy rice system in the first dry season (27.3 % in shoots, 3.2 % in roots) as well as in the following wet season (4.2 % in shoots, 0.3 % in roots). Lowest recoveries in biomass were found for the paddy rice-dry rice rotation. Long-term fixation of 15N in microbial biomass residues was observed in all cropping systems (2-3 % in the 3rd dry season). The results indicate that the introduction of maize into a continuous paddy rice cropping system can reduce the fertilizer N use efficiency especially in the first year, most likely due to nitrate leaching and gaseous losses to the atmosphere.

  16. Using Multispectral and Elevation Data to Predict Soil Properties for a Better Management of Fertilizers at Field Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Ariane; Michaud, Aubert; Sylvain, Jean-Daniel; N'Dayegamiye, Adrien; Gasser, Marc-Olivier; Nolin, Michel; Perron, Isabelle; Grenon, Lucie; Beaudin, Isabelle; Desjardins, Jacques; Côté, Noémi

    2013-04-01

    Quebec through an experimental field protocol (spatial sampling by management zones). Soils will be sampled, but crop yields under different nitrogen rates will also be assessed. Specifically, in each of the management areas defined, five different doses of nitrogen were applied (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 kg N / ha) on corn fields. In fall, the corn is harvested to assess differences in yields between the management areas and also in terms of doses of nitrogen. Ultimately, on the basis of well-established management areas, showing contrasting soil properties, the farmer will be able to ensure optimal correction of soil acidity, nitrogen fertilization, richness of soil in P and K, and improve soil drainage and physical properties. Environmentally, the principles of integrated and localized management carries significant benefits, particularly in terms of reduction of diffuse nutrient pollution.

    </