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Sample records for nitrogen content a-cn

  1. sp sup 2 and sp sup 3 bonding configurations in low nitrogen content a-CN sub x thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Mezzasalma, A M; Neri, F; Trusso, S

    2003-01-01

    The results of an electron spectroscopy study carried out on a set of pulsed laser deposited CN sub x films are reported. A progressive degree of graphitization, deduced from the continuous increase in the sp sup 2 bond fraction, has been found for x values up to 25%. The mass density values, deduced by a proper treating of both the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy data, are consistent with a material made up by two phases, namely a sp sup 2 threefold (graphite-like) and a sp sup 3 fourfold (diamond-like) coordinated one. The behaviour of the density of the samples as a function of the N content does not show any abrupt change in going from lower to higher nitrogen concentrations as found by other authors, this certainly being due to differences in the starting sp sup 3 /sp sup 2 ratio of the films at zero N concentration and to their different preparation parameters.

  2. Apple wine processing with different nitrogen contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alberti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the nitrogen content in different varieties of apple musts and to study the effect of different nitrogen concentrations in apple wine fermentation. The average total nitrogen content in 51 different apples juices was 155.81 mg/L, with 86.28 % of the values above 100 mg/L. The apple must with 59.0, 122.0 and 163.0 mg/L of total nitrogen content showed the maximum population of 2.05x 10(7; 4.42 x 10(7 and 8.66 x 10(7 cell/mL, respectively. Therefore, the maximum fermentation rates were dependent on the initial nitrogen level, corresponding to 1.4, 5.1 and 9.2 g/L.day, respectively. The nitrogen content in the apple musts was an important factor of growth and fermentation velocity.

  3. Effects of nitrogen content on structure and electrical properties of nitrogen-doped fluorinated diamond-like carbon films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jian-rong; LI Xin-hai; WANG Zhi-xing

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped fluorinated diamond-like carbon (FN-DLC) films were prepared on single crystal silicon substrate by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) under different deposited conditions with CF4,CH4 and nitrogen as source gases.The influence of nitrogen content on the structure and electrical properties of the films was studied.The films were investigated in terms of surface morphology,microstructure,chemical composition and electrical properties.Atomic force microscopy (AFM) results revealed that the surface morphology of the films became smooth due to doping nitrogen.Fourier transform infrared absorption spectrometry (FTIR) results showed that amouts of C=N and C≡N bonds increased gradually with increasing nitrogen partial pressure r (r=p(N_2)/p(N_2+CF_4+CH_4)).Gaussian fit results of C 1s and N 1s in X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) showed that the incorporation of nitrogen presented mainly in the forms of β-C_3N_4 and a-CN_x (x=1,2,3) in the films.The current-voltage (I-V) measurement results showed that the electrical conductivity of the films increased with increasing nitrogen content.

  4. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Foliar Nitrogen Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schull, Mitchell A.; Stenberg, Pauline; Moettus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Yang, Yan; Marshak, Alexander; Carmona, Pedro Latorre; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Lewis, Philip; Disney, Mathias I.; Vanderbilt, Vern; Davis, Anthony B.; Baret, Frederic; Jacquemoud, Stephane; Lyapustin, Alexei; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship, if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its influence on surface albedo and may offer a simple approach for monitoring foliar nitrogen using satellite data. We report, however, that the previously reported correlation is an artifact - it is a consequence of variations in canopy structure, rather than of %N. The data underlying this relationship were collected at sites with varying proportions of foliar nitrogen-poor needleleaf and nitrogen-rich broadleaf species, whose canopy structure differs considerably. When the BRF data are corrected for canopy-structure effects, the residual reflectance variations are negatively related to %N at all wavelengths in the interval 423-855 nm. This suggests that the observed positive correlation between BRF and %N conveys no information about %N. We find that to infer leaf biochemical constituents, e.g., N content, from remotely sensed data, BRF spectra in the interval 710-790 nm provide critical information for correction of structural influences. Our analysis also suggests that surface characteristics of leaves impact remote sensing of its internal constituents. This further decreases the ability to remotely sense canopy foliar nitrogen. Finally, the analysis presented here is generic to the problem of remote sensing of leaf-tissue constituents and is therefore not a specific critique of articles espousing remote sensing of foliar %N.

  5. Nitrogen and protein contents in some aquatic plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Bytniewska

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen and protein contents in higher aquatic plants deriving from a natural habitat were determined. The following plants were examined: Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid., Elodea canadensis Rich., Riccia fluitans L. Total nitrogen and nitrogen of respective fractions were determined by the Kjeldahl method. Nitrogen compounds were fractionated according to Thimann et al. Protein was extracted after Fletcher and Osborne and fractionated after Osborne. It was found, that total protein conten...

  6. Nitrogen and protein contents in some aquatic plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Bytniewska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen and protein contents in higher aquatic plants deriving from a natural habitat were determined. The following plants were examined: Spirodela polyrrhiza (L. Schleid., Elodea canadensis Rich., Riccia fluitans L. Total nitrogen and nitrogen of respective fractions were determined by the Kjeldahl method. Nitrogen compounds were fractionated according to Thimann et al. Protein was extracted after Fletcher and Osborne and fractionated after Osborne. It was found, that total protein content in the plants under examination constitutes 18 to 25%o of dry matter. Albumins and glutelins are the most abundant protein fractions.

  7. Microbial Biofertilizer Decreases Nicotine Content by Improving Soil Nitrogen Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Cui; Chen, Anwei; Chen, Guiqiu; Li, Huanke; Guan, Song; He, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Biofertilizers have been widely used in many countries for their benefit to soil biological and physicochemical properties. A new microbial biofertilizer containing Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Bacillus thuringiensis was prepared to decrease nicotine content in tobacco leaves by regulating soil nitrogen supply. Soil NO3(-)-N, NH4(+)-N, nitrogen supply-related enzyme activities, and nitrogen accumulation in plant leaves throughout the growing period were investigated to explore the mechanism of nicotine reduction. The experimental results indicated that biofertilizer can reduce the nicotine content in tobacco leaves, with a maximum decrement of 16-18 % in mature upper leaves. In the meantime, the total nitrogen in mature lower and middle leaves increased with the application of biofertilizer, while an opposite result was observed in upper leaves. Protein concentration in leaves had similar fluctuation to that of total nitrogen in response to biofertilizer. NO3(-)-N content and nitrate reductase activity in biofertilizer-amended soil increased by 92.3 and 42.2 %, respectively, compared to those in the control, whereas the NH4(+)-N and urease activity decreased by 37.8 and 29.3 %, respectively. Nitrogen uptake was improved in the early growing stage, but this phenomenon was not observed during the late growth period. Nicotine decrease is attributing to the adjustment of biofertilizer in soil nitrogen supply and its uptake in tobacco, which result in changes of nitrogen content as well as its distribution in tobacco leaves. The application of biofertilizer containing P. chrysosporium and B. thuringiensis can reduce the nicotine content and improve tobacco quality, which may provide some useful information for tobacco cultivation.

  8. NITROGEN CONCENTRATION OF STOMACH CONTENTS AS AN INDEX OF DIETARY NITROGEN FOR HISPID COTTON RATS (SIGMODON HISPIDUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the reliability of using nitrogen concentration of stomach contents from hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) as an index of diet nitrogen. Stomach contents of cotton rats fed diets varying in nitrogen concentration were analyzed for stomach nitrogen. Regression a...

  9. NITROGEN CONCENTRATION OF STOMACH CONTENTS AS AN INDEX OF DIETARY NITROGEN FOR HISPID COTTON RATS (SIGMODON HISPIDUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the reliability of using nitrogen concentration of stomach contents from hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) as an index of diet nitrogen. Stomach contents of cotton rats fed diets varying in nitrogen concentration were analyzed for stomach nitrogen. Regression a...

  10. Estimation of rice leaf nitrogen contents based on hyperspectral LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lin; Gong, Wei; Shi, Shuo; Yang, Jian; Sun, Jia; Zhu, Bo; Song, Shalei

    2016-02-01

    Precision agriculture has become a global research hotspot in recent years. Thus, a technique for rapidly monitoring a farmland in a large scale and for accurately monitoring the growing status of crops needs to be established. In this paper, a novel technique, i.e., hyperspectral LIDAR (HL) which worked based on wide spectrum emission and a 32-channel detector was introduced, and its potential in vegetation detection was then evaluated. These spectra collected by HL were used to classify and derive the nitrogen contents of rice under four different nitrogen content levels with support vector machine (SVM) regression. Meanwhile the wavelength selection and channel correction method for achieving high spectral resolution were discussed briefly. The analysis results show that: (1) the reflectance intensity of the selected characteristic wavelengths of HL system has high correlation with different nitrogen contents levels of rice. (2) By increasing the number of wavelengths in calculation, the classification accuracy is greatly improved (from 54% with 4 wavelengths to 83% with 32 wavelengths) and so the regression coefficient r2 is (from 0.51 with 4 wavelengths to 0.75 with 32 wavelengths). (3) Support vector machine (SVM) is a useful regression method for rice leaf nitrogen contents retrieval. These analysis results can help farmers to make fertilization strategies more accurately. The receiving channels and characteristic wavelengths of HL system can be flexibly selected according to different requirements and thus this system will be applied in other fields, such as geologic exploration and environmental monitoring.

  11. Decomposition kinetics of expanded austenite with high nitrogen contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the decomposition kinetics of synthesized homogeneous expanded austenite formed by gaseous nitriding of stainless steel AISI 304L and AISI 316L with nitrogen contents up to 38 at.% nitrogen. Isochronal annealing experiments were carried out in both inert (N2) and reducing (H2......) atmospheres. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry were applied for identification of the decomposition reactions and X-ray diffraction analysis was applied for phase analysis. CrN precipitated upon annealing; the activation energies are 187 kJ/mol and 128 kJ/mol for AISI 316L and AISI 304L...

  12. Deconvolution Method for Determination of the Nitrogen Content in Cellulose Carbamates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Cellulose carbamates (CC) were synthesized with microcrystalline cellulose as raw materials. The Fourier transform infrared spectra of CC with different nitrogen content were recorded. The accurate results of the nitrogen content for CC can be obtained by using the deconvolution method when the nitrogen content is less than 3.5%. The relationship between the nitrogen content and the absorption intensity ratio of the corresponding separated absorption peaks in FTIR spectra has been expressed by an equation precisely.

  13. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil available nitrogen forms and their contents in typical temperate forest stands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-xin; Duan, Wen-biao

    2011-08-01

    An indoor experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on the soil available N in typical temperate forest stands. During the experiment period, nitrogen deposition increased the soil NH4+ -N, NO3- -N, and available N contents, as compared with the control, but the increments differed with stand types, soil layers, nitrogen treatment types, and treatment duration. Mixed forest soil had weaker responses in its available N contents to the nitrogen deposition than broad-leaved forest soil but stronger responses than artificially pure coniferous forest soil, and soil A horizon was more sensitive to nitrogen deposition than soil B horizon. Ammonium nitrogen deposition had larger effects on soil NH4+ -N content, nitrate nitrogen deposition had larger effects on soil NO3- -N content, while mixed ammonium and nitrate nitrogen deposition increased the contents of both soil NH4+ -N and soil NO3- -N, and the increments were higher than those of ammonium nitrogen deposition and nitrate nitrogen deposition, suggesting the additive effects of the mixed ammonium and nitrate nitrogen deposition on the forest soil available N.

  14. Long-term effect of tillage, nitrogen fertilization and cover crops on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record No-till practices, in conjunction with cover crops and nitrogen fertilization, have been shown to augment soil organic carbon content and total nitrogen content. However, interactions between these components in a no-till system are not well-known. This study offers a long-term (1993-2008) comparative analysis of conventional versus no-till practices as well as a some insight regarding the synergies between no-till, nitrogen fertilization, and cover crops. Maize, wheat...

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MANGOSTEEN LEAF NITROGEN CONTENTS AND LEAF SPAD VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Setiawan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated nitrogen contents on mangosteen leaf and related on leaf SPAD value. The experiment was conducted using mangosteen trees grown in commercial orchard in Bogor, Indonesia during May to October 2010. Mangosteen trees of 3 different ages, young (20-year-old, middle-aged (35-year-old, and old (50-year-old trees, each of five trees, were selected for study, and the canopy of each tree was divided into 9 sectors based on height (bottom, middle, top and width (inner, center, outer. SPAD values had a negative correlation with leaf N content in all ages and could be explained by regressionl equations N level (% DW = -0.0099 × SPAD + 2.2366; R² = 0.91; N level (% DW = -0.0177 × SPAD + 2.8001; R² = 0.67; and N level (% DW = -0.0187 × SPAD + 2.7785; R² = 0.45 in young, middle-aged and old trees, respectively. It is suggested that the SPAD value determined by a portable chlorophyll meter can be used to obtain a quick estimation of mangosteen leaf N status. Keywords: age, fruiting position, Garcinia mangostana L., nitrogen, SPAD

  16. Relationship between atmospheric ammonia concentration and nitrogen content in terricolous lichen (Cladonia portentosa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Knud Erik; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2014-01-01

    From April 2006 to April 2007, the geographical and seasonal variation in nitrogen content in terricolous lichen (Cladonia portentosa) and atmospheric ammonia concentrations were measured at five heathland sites. The seasonal variation in the nitrogen content of the lichen was small, even though...... there was a large seasonal variation in the air concentration of ammonia. A sizable local variation in the nitrogen content of the lichen was found even at the scale of a few kilometres. The nitrogen content in the lichen showed a high correlation to the yearly mean value of the measured ammonia concentration...

  17. Effects of Uniconazole on Nitrogen Metabolism and Grain Protein Content of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Zu-fen; YANG Wen-yu; REN Wan-jun; WANG Xiao-chun

    2005-01-01

    The effects of uniconazole by soaking seeds and spraying leaves at booting stage with different concentrations (0, 20 and40 mg/kg) on the nitrogen metabolism of flag leaf and grains after flowering, and rice grain protein content and yield were studied withhybrid rice combination Shanyou 63. Under uniconazole treatment, the soluble protein content in flag leaf was increased in early andmiddle period of grain filling, but this content was nearly the same as or even lower than that of control at maturity; Glutaminesynthetase activity in superior and inferior grains and non-protein nitrogen content in superior grains at early stage of graindevelopment were promoted, and moreover, the transforming speed from non-protein nitrogen to protein nitrogen was accelerated;Non-protein nitrogen content was lower than that of control at maturity, but protein nitrogen content at each stage was higher thanthose of control; Protein nitrogen content in superior and inferior grains and protein nitrogen absolutely accumulative content in agrain both were enhanced and protein content and yield in rice grain were raised. The application of uniconazole by soaking seedsand spraying leaves raised crude protein content by an average of 7.2% and 8.3%, and protein yield by an average of 13.1% and13.4%, respectively.

  18. Effects of soil moisture content on upland nitrogen loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Xu, Xueting; Hao, Zengchao; Gao, Xiang

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, nitrogen (N) loss from upland fields has become one of the most important sources for agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. Understanding the relationships between soil hydrological processes and N loss in NPS pollution is vital for controlling the agricultural NPS pollution in upland fields. The objective of this study was to analyze the interaction of N loss with different moisture conditions in the freeze-thaw zone. The semi-distributed hydrologic model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used in this study to simulate runoff and different forms of N loss, which provided a basis for analyzing characteristics of N loss in the study region. Results showed that the soil moisture content was an important factor affecting N loss in the study region. Different forms of N loss were also analyzed and it was found that N loss occurred primarily in the form of organic-N, which is likely due to the dominant role of erosion-induced pollution. This study provides useful information for preventing NPS pollution within the study region.

  19. Integrating species composition and leaf nitrogen content to indicate effects of nitrogen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Enzai

    2017-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition has been increasing globally and has arisen concerns of its impacts on terrestrial ecosystems. Ecological indicators play an important role in ecosystem monitoring, assessment and management in the context of an anthropogenic transformation of the global N cycle. By integrating species composition and leaf N stoichiometry, a new community N indicator was defined and validated in the understory plots of an N enrichment (as NH4NO3) experiment in an old-growth boreal forest in Northeast China. Three-year N additions showed no significant effect on the understory species richness, but an obvious shift in species composition occurred. The response of leaf N content to N additions was generally positive but varied by species. Overall, the community N indicator increased significantly with higher N addition level and soil available N content, being in the shape of a non-linear saturation response curve. The results suggest that the community N indicator could be an effective tool to indicate changes in ecosystem N availability. Critical values of the community N indicator for specific vegetation type could potentially provide useful information for nature conservation managers and policy makers.

  20. Effects of Nitrogen Content and Austenitization Temperature on Precipitation in Niobium Micro-alloyed Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei CAO; Zhong-min YANG; Ying CHEN; Hui-min WANG; Xiao-li ZHAO

    2015-01-01

    The influences of nitrogen content and austenitization temperature on Nb(C,N)precipitation in niobium micro-alloyed steels were studied by different methods:optical microscopy,tensile tests,scanning electron mi-croscopy,transmission electron microscopy,physicochemical phase analysis,and small-angle X-ray scattering. The results show that the strength of the steel with high nitrogen content is slightly higher than that of the steel with low nitrogen content.The increase in the nitrogen content does not result in the increase in the amount of Nb(C,N) precipitates,which mainly depends on the niobium content in the steel.The mass fraction of small-sized Nb(C,N) precipitates (1-10 nm)in the steel with high nitrogen content is less than that in the steel with low nitrogen con-tent.After austenitized at 1 150 ℃,a number of large cuboidal and needle-shaped particles are detected in the steel with high nitrogen content,whereas they dissolve after austenitized at 1 200 ℃ and the Nb(C,N)precipitates become finer in both steels.Furthermore,the results also show that part of the nitrogen in steel involves the formation of al-loyed cementite.

  1. Nitrogen fertilization and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria treatments affected amino acid content of cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Atilla; Yildirim, Ertan; Ekinci, Melek; Turan, Metin; Kul, Raziye; Karagöz, Fazilet P.

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to determine the influence of a nitrogen fixing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation (seed coating and seedling dipping) and 6 doses of nitrogen (0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 kg ha-1) application on amino acid contents of cabbage. Coating and seedling dipping applications caused a significant increase in values histidine, glycine, thionin, arginine and alanine of cabbage. Highest glutamate, serine, asparagines and glutamine contents were obtained from 160-200 kg ha-1 nitrogen dose applied plants. As a result, the use of bacteria treatments provides means of improving amino acid contents in cabbage.

  2. Nitrogen-doped graphene: effect of graphite oxide precursors and nitrogen content on the electrochemical sensing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawati, Monica; Chua, Chun Kiang; Sofer, Zdenek; Klímová, Kateřina; Pumera, Martin

    2017-06-21

    Graphene, produced via chemical methods, has been widely applied for electrochemical sensing due to its structural and electrochemical properties as well as its ease of production in large quantity. While nitrogen-doped graphenes are widely studied materials, the literature showing an effect of graphene oxide preparation methods on nitrogen quantity and chemical states as well as on defects and, in turn, on electrochemical sensing is non-existent. In this study, the properties of nitrogen-doped graphene materials, prepared via hydrothermal synthesis using graphite oxide produced by various classical methods using permanganate or chlorate oxidants Staudenmaier, Hummers, Hofmann and Brodie oxidation methods, were studied; the resulting nitrogen-doped graphene oxides were labeled as ST-GO, HU-GO, HO-GO and BR-GO, respectively. The electrochemical oxidation of biomolecules, such as ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine, nicotinamide adenine nucleotide and DNA free bases, was carried out using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry techniques. The nitrogen content in doped graphene oxides increased in the order ST-GO doped graphene followed this trend, as shown in the cyclic voltammograms. This is a very important finding that provides insight into the electrocatalytic effect of N-doped graphene. The nitrogen-doped graphene materials exhibited improved sensitivity over bare glassy carbon for ascorbic acid, uric acid and dopamine detection. These studies will enhance our understanding of the effects of graphite oxide precursors on the electrochemical sensing properties of nitrogen-doped graphene materials.

  3. Remote Sensing of Vegetation Nitrogen Content for Spatially Explicit Carbon and Water Cycle Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Miller, J. R.; Chen, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    Foliage nitrogen concentration is a determinant of photosynthetic capacity of leaves, thereby an important input to ecological models for estimating terrestrial carbon and water budgets. Recently, spectrally continuous airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery has proven to be useful for retrieving an important related parameter, total chlorophyll content at both leaf and canopy scales. Thus remote sensing of vegetation biochemical parameters has promising potential for improving the prediction of global carbon and water balance patterns. In this research, we explored the feasibility of estimating leaf nitrogen content using hyperspectral remote sensing data for spatially explicit estimation of carbon and water budgets. Multi-year measurements of leaf biochemical contents of seven major boreal forest species were carried out in northeastern Ontario, Canada. The variation of leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen content in response to various growth conditions, and the relationship between them,were investigated. Despite differences in plant type (deciduous and evergreen), leaf age, stand growth conditions and developmental stages, leaf nitrogen content was strongly correlated with leaf chlorophyll content on a mass basis during the active growing season (r2=0.78). With this general correlation, leaf nitrogen content was estimated from leaf chlorophyll content at an accuracy of RMSE=2.2 mg/g, equivalent to 20.5% of the average measured leaf nitrogen content. Based on this correlation and a hyperspectral remote sensing algorithm for leaf chlorophyll content retrieval, the spatial variation of leaf nitrogen content was inferred from the airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery acquired by Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI). A process-based ecological model Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was used for estimating terrestrial carbon and water budgets. In contrast to the scenario with leaf nitrogen content assigned as a constant value without

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Mesoporous Silicon Oxynitride MCM-41 with High Nitrogen Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cunman; XU Zheng; LIU Qian

    2005-01-01

    Mesoporous silicon oxynitrides MCM-41 were synthesized successfully. The resulting materials not only have high nitrogen contents and good structural characteristics of MCM-41 (high surface area, narrow pore size distribution and good order), but also are amorphous. The composition and structure of the materials were investigated by CNH element analysis, XPS, Si MAS NMR, XRD, HRTEM and N2 sorption, respectively. Mesoporous silicon oxynitrides MCM-41 with a high nitrogen content are still non-crystal (amorphous).

  5. Influence of the initial nitrogen content in titanium films on the nitridation and silicidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, C.; Perez-Casero, R.; Martinez-Duart, J.M. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Perez-Rigueiro, J. [Dpto. Ciencia de Materiales, ETSI Caminos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Vazquez, L.; Fernandez, M. [Instituto Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-08-15

    The rapid thermal annealing of Ti films on silicon in a nitrogen atmosphere seems to be a very promising method to obtain the Si/TiSi{sub 2}/TiN structure. We have tried to increase the final nitrogen content (i.e. TiN thickness) by incorporating nitrogen during the deposition of the initial Ti films. The influence of the nitrogen present in the titanium film on the silicidation process has been studied by comparison with the silicidation of pure titanium. The evolution of the nitrogen content with thermal treatment conditions has been established by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). The nitrogen initially incorporated in the Ti film plays a passive role during the nitridation process, since its initial presence does not strongly influence the further incorporation of nitrogen from the atmosphere. The final nitrogen content of the N-doped samples is the addition of the nitrogen incorporated from the atmosphere during the thermal treatment in pure titanium samples and the nitrogen incorporated during deposition. The silicidation process has been studied using complementary techniques. The sheet resistances, Rutherford backscattering spectra and grazing X-ray diffraction (GXRD) diagrams have allowed us to establish the evolution of the reaction. Silicidation is not affected by the nitrogen incorporated during deposition. No differences have been found due to the presence of nitrogen. Nevertheless, changes in the surface morphology were found by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Ti(N{sub 2}) samples are characterized by lower root mean square (rms) surface roughness values and different features. (orig.) 14 refs.

  6. Dynamics of nitrogenous substances content in the diet of the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Čepelka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The representation of nitrogenous substances in the stomach content of Apodemus sylvaticus was determined using the NIRS (near-infrared spectroscopy method. Out of the total of 247 examined stomachs, 66 were male and 181 female. Sampling of study material was conducted in 2003–2010 at three isolated forest sites in South Moravia with different habitat conditions and different type of management (old semi-natural forest with dominance of English Oak (Quercus robur; production forest with dominant Sessile Oak (Quercus petraea and Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia; pheasantry with variable mixture of forest plots. The determined nitrogenous substances content ranged from 9.5–64.4% of dry matter. With respect to nitrogenous substances content, the habitat, site and sex factors were assessed as statistically insignificant. On the other hand, the factor of a given year (χ2 = 31.14; p < 0.000 and that of sexual activity (χ2 = 7.86; p = 0.005 showed significant differences. In relation to season, both the average nitrogenous substances content in diet and the standard deviation oscillated. The highest average nitrogenous substances content was determined in winter months, when the most significant dispersion in values was determined as well. In years following mast years (2004 and 2007 high values of standard deviations in dietary nitrogenous compounds content were determined.

  7. Estimate of Leaf Chlorophyll and Nitrogen Content in Asian Pear (Pyrus serotina Rehd. by CCM-200

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa GHASEMI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In many cases evaluation of chlorophyll and nitrogen content in plants need to destructive methods, more time and organic solvents. Application of chlorophyll meters save time and resources. The aim of this study was estimating of chlorophyll and nitrogen content in Asian pear leaves using non-destructive method and rapid quantification of chlorophyll by chlorophyll content meter (CCM-200. This study was conducted on 8 years old Asian pear trees during June 2008 in Tehran, Iran. To develop our regression model, the chlorophyll meter data were correlated with extracted chlorophyll and nitrogen content data obtained from DMSO and Kejeldal methods, respectively. The results showed that, there was positive and linear correlation between CCM-200 data and chlorophyll a (R�=0.7183, chlorophyll b (R�=0.8523, total chlorophyll (R�=0.90, and total nitrogen content (R�=0.76 in Asian pear leaves. Thus, it can be concluded that, CCM-200 can be used in order to predict both chlorophyll and nitrogen content in Asian pear leaves.

  8. Quantitative inverse modeling of nitrogen content from hyperion data under stress of exhausted coal mining sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xia; HU Zhen-qi; GUO Li

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluating the nutritional status of vegetation under stress from exhausted coal mining sites by hy-per-spectral remote sensing is important in future ecological restoration engineering. The Wangpingcun coal mine, located in the Mentougou district of Beijing, was chosen as a ease study. The ecological damage was analyzed by 3S technology, field investiga-tion and from chemical data. The derivative spectra of the diagnostic absorption bands are derived from the spectra measured in the field and used as characteristic spectral variables. A correlation analysis was conducted for the nitrogen content of the vegetation samples and the first derivative spectrum and the estimation model of nitrogen content established by a multiple stepwise linear regression method. The spatial distribution of nitrogen content was extracted by a parameter mapping method from the Hyperion data which revealed the distribution of the nitrogen content. In addition, the estimation model was evaluated for two evaluation indicators which are important for the precision of the model. Experimental results indicate that by linear regression and parameter mapping, the estimation model precision was very high. The coefficient of determination, R2, was 0.795 and the standard deviation of residual (SDR) 0.19. The nitrogen content of most samples was about 1.03% and the nitrogen content in the study site seems inversely proportional to the distance from the piles of coal waste. Therefore, we can conclude that inversely modeling nitrogen content by hyper-speetral remote sensing in exhausted coal mining sites is feasible and our study can be taken as reference in spe-cies selection and in subsequent management and maintenance in ecological restoration.

  9. [Effects of irrigation amount and nitrogen fertilization rate on wheat yield and soil nitrate content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong-Yan; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Xu, Zhen-Zhu

    2011-02-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of irrigation amount and nitrogen fertilization rate on wheat yield and soil nitrate content. With the increase of irrigation amount, the soil nitrate content in 0-200 cm layer at the same nitrogen fertilization rates had a trend of decrease -increase-decrease. Under irrigation, the soil nitrate content was significantly lower in 0-80 cm layer while significantly higher in 80-200 cm layer, compared with the control. As the irrigation amount increased, the translocation of soil nitrate nitrogen to deeper layers accelerated dramatically, with the content decreased in 0-80 cm layer, increased in 120-200 cm layer, and peaked in 120-140 cm layer. When the nitrogen fertilization rate increased from 210 kg x hm(-2) to 300 kg x hm(-2) the soil nitrate content at the same irrigation amounts increased significantly through anthesis, filling, and maturity stages. With the increase of irrigation amount, the grain yield decreased after an initial increase, being the highest when the irrigation amount in whole growth period was 60 mm. The grain yield, grain protein content, and grain protein yield all increased significantly with increasing nitrogen fertilization rate. Under the conditions of the present experiment, the treatment with nitrogen fertilization rate 210 kg N x hm(-2) and irrigation amount 60 mm (split into two times) had the highest grain yield, grain protein content, grain protein yield, and harvest index but the least NO3(-)-N leaching, being the more available irrigation and nitrogen fertilization mode for wheat production in the study area.

  10. Environmentally Friendly Nitrogen Fertilizers Appplication for Winter Cereals Considering the Mineral Nitrogen Content in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Timbare, R.; Bušmanis, M.

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve nitrogen fertilizers application recommendations for cereals, the soil mineral nitrogen (Nmin) investigations (1995 – 2000) were carried out on sod – podzolic and brown – lesssive loamy sand and loamy soils in co-operation with other research institutions. The soil samples for determination of NO3 – N and NH4 – N were taken in depth 0 - 20, 21 – 40 and 41 – 60 cm in spring before the start of growth on winter cereals fields, but in 2001,2002- also in autumn before the sowi...

  11. Fluorescently tuned nitrogen-doped carbon dots from carbon source with different content of carboxyl groups

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    Hao Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different number of carboxyl groups. Owing to the interaction between amino and carboxyl, more amino groups conjugate the surface of the NCDs by the source with more carboxyl groups. Fluorescent NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different content of carboxyl groups. Correspondingly, the nitrogen content, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetime of NCDs increases with the content of carboxyl groups from the source. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assay and cell imaging test indicate that the resultant NCDs possess low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility.

  12. Fluorescently tuned nitrogen-doped carbon dots from carbon source with different content of carboxyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Yun; Dai, Xiao; Zou, Guifu, E-mail: kqzhang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Gao, Peng; Zhang, Ke-Qin, E-mail: kqzhang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn; Du, Dezhuang [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Guo, Jun [Testing and Analysis Center, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2015-08-01

    In this study, fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) were tuned via varying the sources with different number of carboxyl groups. Owing to the interaction between amino and carboxyl, more amino groups conjugate the surface of the NCDs by the source with more carboxyl groups. Fluorescent NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different content of carboxyl groups. Correspondingly, the nitrogen content, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetime of NCDs increases with the content of carboxyl groups from the source. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assay and cell imaging test indicate that the resultant NCDs possess low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility.

  13. Effect of different nickel soil contents on cock’s-foot yield and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents

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    Kuziemska Beata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the influence of liming and waste organic materials on the yield and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents in cock’s-foot (Dactylis glomerata L. grown on nickel-contaminated soil in the third year of a pot culture experiment. In the experiment, the following factors were taken into consideration: (1 nickel soil contamination (0, 75, 150 and 225 mg Ni·kg−1 of soil; (2 liming (0 Ca and Ca according to 1 Hh of soil and (3 organic materials (no waste organic materials added, brown coal from a coal mine in Turów and rye straw. Introducing nickel into the soil, regardless of its amount, caused a significant decrease in the total yield of cock’s-foot and increased the nitrogen and potassium contents. Liming caused a significant increase in the yield of cock’s-foot and decrease its potassium content, but it did not clearly differentiate the nitrogen and phosphorus content. The used organic materials (straw and brown coal caused a decrease in the phosphorus content in the grass biomass.

  14. THE EFFECT OF AGROTECHNICAL INTERVENTIONS ON SEASONAL CHANGES OF INORGANIC NITROGEN CONTENT IN THE SOIL

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    Peter Ondrišík

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We researched the influence of soil cultivation and fertilization on changes of nitrate, ammonium and inorganic nitrogen content in soil during the monitored vegetation periods (2004/2005 – 2005/2006. This experiment was realized on experimental bases of Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra – Dolná Malanta on the winter/summer wheat (Triticum aestivum, variety Bonita, with red clover as its before-crop. In the field trial we used two types of tillage, B1 – conventional tillage up to the depth of 0,25 m and B2 – disc ploughing up to 0,15 m, with three variants of fertilization, 0 – unfertilized control, PH – fertilization according to its content in soil and PZ – fertilization according to its content in soil + plough down of post harvest residues. Samples of the soil were taken from the two soil depth (0,0- 0,3 m and 0,3-0,6 m and in each vegetation period there were 8 takings of soil samples in four repetitions. During monitored vegetation period this dynamics was changeable. The content of nitrate nitrogen in the soil in autumn was about 40 % higher than content of ammonium nitrate. This tendency changed in spring, when the average content of ammonium nitrogen was higher than the content of nitrate nitrogen on average about 60 %. The cultivation had significant influence on dynamics of inorganic nitrogen. The average content of inorganic nitrogen in conventional tillage up to the depth of 0,25 m was 8,43 mg.kg-1 and in disc ploughing it was 7,60 mg.kg-1. The influence of fertilization on changes of inorganic nitrogen was significantly important. Monitored ways of fertilization within the content of nitrates in the soil had the following averages: in unfertilized soil 7,48 mg.kg-1, in fertilized soil NPK 8,20 mg.kg-1 and in the soil fertilized with plough down of post harvest residues 8,37 mg.kg-1. In the first and second variety of soil cultivation we found out a low increase of average concentration of nitrates in the

  15. Changes in the content of total nitrogen and mineral nitrogen in the basil herb depending on the cultivar and nitrogen nutrition

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    Katarzyna Dzida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Among fundamental nutrients, nitrogen fertilization is considered one of the most effective factors affecting both the yield and the quality of plant material. Nitrogen form used for fertilizing is also of great importance. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of nitrogen nutrition (calcium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, and urea as well as (green, purple, and‘Fino Verde’ on the chemical composition and yielding of basil (Ocimum basilicumL.. After drying the plant material at a temperature of 60°C and milling, total nitrogen was determined by means of Kjeldahl method, while mineral nitrogen content (N-NH 4, N-NO 3 was analyzed in 2% acetic acid extract. Yield of fresh basil matter depended significantly on the variety grown. The highest yields were obtained from a cultivar of ‘Fino Verde’ fertilized with ammonium nitrate. The purple variety plants fertilized with urea were characterized by a largest amount of total nitrogen. The‘Fino Verde’cultivar fertilized with urea accumulated the least quantities of nitrates in the basil herb.

  16. Determination of nitrogen content in thick TiN layers by proton backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havranek, V.; Hnatowicz, V.; Kvitek, J. (Nuclear Physics Inst., Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Rez (Czechoslovakia)); Musil, J.; Poulek, V. (Inst. of Physics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1990-06-01

    Non-Rutherford proton backscattering has been employed for the determination of the nitrogen content in TiN layers of a thickness of several micrometres deposited on a steel backing. The required proton scattering cross section has been measured using standards comprising thin TiN films on a light substrate. The scattering cross section of 2 MeV protons of nitrogen for {theta}{sub lab}=160deg was found to be 5.7 times the Rutherford value. Nitrogen detection limits in thick TiN samples are discussed. (orig.).

  17. Thermomechanical and Isothermal Fatigue Behavior of 316LN Stainless Steel with Varying Nitrogen Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Reddy, G. V.; Nagesha, A.; Sandhya, R.; Sankaran, S.; Mathew, M. D.; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.

    2015-02-01

    Thermomechanical (TMF) and isothermal (IF) fatigue behavior of 316LN stainless steel alloyed with 0.07, 0.14, and 0.22 wt pct nitrogen is presented in this manuscript. In the TMF tests with temperature cycling in the range of 573 K to 873 K (300 °C to 600 °C), life decreased with increasing nitrogen content for both in-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OP) cycling, with a peak at 0.07 wt pct N. In contrast, 0.14 wt pct N yielded maximum life under IF cycling carried out at 873 K (600 °C). Cyclic lives are seen to follow the sequence, IP-TMF < IF < OP-TMF cycling, and it remained same irrespective of the nitrogen content in 316LN SS. Lives under IP-TMF are lower than those in OP cycling by a factor of 2 to 2.5, in spite of the higher cyclic stress response in OP cycling. At all the nitrogen contents in the present study, nitrogen and dynamic strain aging induced slip localization in the form of planar slip bands both in IP and OP-TMF, in comparison to IF deformation wherein complete planar slip mode of deformation is evidenced only at 0.22 wt pct N. In TMF studies, increasing nitrogen content promoted strong slip localization ( i.e., increase in slip band density with a decrease in interband spacing) in combination with high tensile cyclic stresses that marred the beneficial effect of nitrogen content on TMF life.

  18. Response of Iron Content in Milled Rice to Nitrogen Levels and Its Genotypic Differences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Hai-yan; ZHANG Hong-cheng; DAI Qi-gen; MA Qun; LI Jie; ZHANG Qing; HUO Zhong-yang; XU Ke

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of nitrogen (N) level on iron (Fe) content in milled rice, a field experiment was carried out under three N application levels including 0, 150 and 300 kg/hm2 by using 120 rice genotypes. In addition to the genotypic differences of iron content in milled rice, grain yield, 1000-grain weight and N content in grains under the same N level, there were also variations in the response of Fe content in milled rice to N levels. Based on the range and variation coefficient of Fe content in milled rice under the three N levels, the response of Fe content in milled rice to N levels could be classified into four types including highly insensitive, insensitive, sensitive and highly sensitive types. A significant quadratic correlation was found between the Fe content in milled rice and 1000-grain weight or the N content in grains. However, no significant correlation between the Fe content in milled rice and grain yield was detected. In conclusion, there are genotypic differences in the effects of N levels on Fe content in milled rice, which is favorable to breeding of Fe-rich rice under different N environments. Furthermore, high yield and Fe-rich rice could be grown through the regulation of nitrogen on Fe content in milled rice, 1000-grain weight and N content in milled rice.

  19. 15N Content Reflects Development of Mycorrhizae and Nitrogen Dynamics During Primary Succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbie, E. A.; Jumpponen, A.

    2004-05-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous symbionts on terrestrial plants that are particularly important for plant nitrogen nutrition. 15N content appears to be a useful marker of the mycorrhizal role in plant nitrogen supply because of an apparent fractionation against 15N during transfer of nitrogen from mycorrhizal fungi to host plants. Because plants developing during primary succession are gradually colonized by mycorrhizal fungi, such situations provide good opportunities to study interactions between mycorrhizal colonization and plant 15N content. Here, we present results of a study of nitrogen isotope patterns in ecosystem components during the first 100 years of ecosystem development after glacial retreat, and compare those patterns with those on adjacent mature terrain. Soils in primary succession were depleted in 15N relative to nitrogen-fixing plants. Nonmycorrhizal plants and plants generally colonized by ectomycorrhizal, ericoid, or arbuscular fungi showed similar 15N content very early in succession (-4 to -6‰ ), corresponding to low colonization levels of all plant species. Subsequent colonization of evergreen plants by ectomycorrhizal and ericoid fungi led to a 5-6‰ decline in 15N content, indicating transfer of 15N-depleted N from fungi to plants. The values recorded (-10 to -14‰ ) are among the lowest yet observed in vascular plants. Nonmycorrhizal plants and plants colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi did not decline in 15N content. Most ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi were similar in 15N content in early succession (-1 to -3‰ ), with the notable exception of ectomycorrhizal fungi suspected of proteolytic capabilities, which were 15N enriched relative to all other fungi. 15N contents in both plants and soil from the mature site were 5‰ greater than in recently exposed sites. We conclude that 1) the primary nitrogen source to this ecosystem must be atmospheric deposition, 2) low plant 15N content generally corresponds with greater

  20. Nitrogen Contents and Fluxes in Sierra Nevada Forests of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, C. T.; Johnson, D.

    2011-12-01

    Forest health and water quality depend on understanding water and nutrient budgets; this understanding is critical to inform forest restoration in California. The Kings River Experimental Watersheds (KREW) were established to characterize nitrogen (N) budgets before, during, and after tree thinning and prescribed fire to restore forests. The KREW watershed complex receives moderately high atmospheric inputs of N. Quantitative soil pit sampling shows that there are some differences in soil properties between the high elevation Bull site and the lower elevation Providence site. Soils are relatively high in inorganic N; however, N appears to be efficiently mobilized within the ecosystem, allowing very little loss via soil leaching or streamflow. We are measuring N deposition amounts using different techniques in an effort to compare methods and accurately quantify deposition in this area of steep terrain and dense forests. Five years of using passive samplers during the summer months show that the concentration of N components in air is moderate to moderately high. The Providence site experiences higher levels of both HNO3 and NH3 (summer averages 2.4 and 4.3 μg m-3) than the Bull site (1.2 and 4.2 μg m-3). Background levels of HNO3 in summer should not exceed 0.4 μg m-3, while those for NH3 in remote mountain locations in North America should be less than 1 μg m-3. Above-ground ion-exchange resin columns (2006-2009) show that total inorganic N deposition under the forest canopy ranged from 5.6 to 11.3 kg ha-1 in two forested areas of the Providence site with slightly more NO3- than NH4+. A smaller type of resin collector placed on the ground at 470 locations measured inorganic N deposition ranging from 5 to 11 kg ha-1 yr-1 during the 2004-2008 sampling period in the Bull watersheds and from 3 to 10 kg ha-1yr-1 in the Providence watersheds. Fluxes of inorganic N in the shallow mineral soil varied considerably by year, ranging from 2-3 kg ha-1 yr-1 in both Bull and

  1. Short communication. Nitrogen content of residual alfalfa taproots under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. residues can provide significant amounts of N to subsequent crops, but most of the data on this subject has been obtained from 1-2 year old alfalfa stands. The objective of this study was to determine the biomass of alfalfa taproots and their N content in irrigated alfalfa stands that are more than 2 years old. Twenty-two commercial irrigated alfalfa fields were evaluated in the Ebro Valley (Northeast Spain from 2006 to 2010. The taproot biomass in the arable layer (0 to 30 cm depth ranged from 1.8 to 10.1 Mg ha-1 and averaged 4.8 Mg ha-1. In contrast, the N concentration in alfalfa taproots was constant among fields and averaged 24.6 g N kg-1. The total amount of N contained in alfalfa taproots (0-30 cm depth ranged from 47 to 96 kg N ha-1 in 55% of the fields, ranged from 97 to 200 kg N ha-1 in 22% of the fields, and exceeded 200 kg N ha-1 in 23% of the fields. The N content of the irrigated alfalfa taproots studied here is in the upper range previously reported in other areas, mainly with younger alfalfa stands. Based on the current finding, a classification of the quality of irrigated alfalfa stands is proposed to improve the estimates of the residual-N effects of alfalfa on subsequent crops.

  2. Some quantitative relationships between leaf area index and canopy nitrogen content and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xinyou; Lantinga, Egvert A; Schapendonk, Ad H C M; Zhong, Xuhua

    2003-06-01

    In a previous study (Yin et al. 2000. Annals of Botany 85: 579-585), a generic logarithmic equation for leaf area index (L) in relation to canopy nitrogen content (N) was developed: L=(1/ktn)1n(1+ktnN/nb). The equation has two parameters: the minimum leaf nitrogen required to support photosynthesis (nb), and the leaf nitrogen extinction coefficient (ktn). Relative to nb, there is less information in the literature regarding the variation of ktn. We therefore derived an equation to theoretically estimate the value of ktn. The predicted profile of leaf nitrogen in a canopy using this theoretically estimated value of ktn is slightly more uniform than the profile predicted by the optimum nitrogen distribution that maximizes canopy photosynthesis. Relative to the optimum profile, the predicted profile is somewhat closer to the observed one. Based on the L-N logarithmic equation and the theoretical ktn value, we further quantified early leaf area development of a canopy in relation to nitrogen using simulation analysis. In general, there are two types of relations between L and N, which hold for canopies at different developmental phases. For a fully developed canopy where the lowest leaves are senescing due to nitrogen shortage, the relationship between L and N is described well by the logarithmic model above. For a young, unclosed canopy (i.e. L < 1.0), the relation between L and N is nearly linear. This linearity is virtually the special case of the logarithmic model when applied to a young canopy where its total nitrogen content approaches zero and the amount of nitrogen in its lowest leaves is well above nb. The expected patterns of the L-N relationship are discussed for the phase of transition from young to fully developed canopies.

  3. Nitrogen and sugar content variability in tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus

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    Terzić Sreten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several nutritive values for tubers of 114 Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus populations were evaluated during 2006. The used material is a part of wild sunflower species collection at the Institute of field and vegetable crops and it is situated in Rimski Šancevi, Novi Sad. The samples were analyzed as fresh tubers on 'Venema' automatic laboratory for alpha amino nitrogen, sodium and potassium content. Total sugar content was determined as the brix value on a refractometer. Total nitrogen was determined by the Kjeldahl method on dried samples. Significant variability was found for all analyzed traits. Total nitrogen varied from 0,695 to 2,179% dry weight (mean 1,23%, alpha amino nitrogen content 0,012 to 0,118% fresh weight (m. 0,07%, potassium 0,231 0,452% fresh weight (m. 0,403% and sodium 0,0003 - 0,0143% fresh weight (m. 0,007%. Total sugar content varied from 13,69 - 22,94% fresh weight (m. 19,14%. Alpha amino nitrogen is an essential nutrient for animals so that it's presence in tubers of Jerusalem artichoke as food is positive. The protein content is similar to the one in potato and as such satisfactory for nutrition. The K/Na ratio is high which is useful, because an increased content of potassium in food can positively affect the reduction of Na/K ratio and lower systolic blood pressure by a significant amount in adults with mild hypertension. Inulin makes up to 80% of the total sugar content in the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke, and as a dietary fiber and a fructose polymer it positively influences digestion and sugar blood levels. The obtained results suggest that selection of cultivars and populations with inappropriate nutritive values is possible. Further research is needed to estimate the share of genetic in total variability and to determine whether the selection for new cultivars is justified.

  4. Comparison of spectroscopic techniques for the determination of Kjeldahl and ammoniacal nitrogen content of farmyard manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemsley, E K; Tapp, H S; Scarlett, A J; Miles, S J; Hammond, R; Wilson, R H

    2001-02-01

    The feasibility of determining the nitrogen content of farmyard manure using infrared spectroscopy was investigated. Fifteen samples each of cattle, pig, and turkey manure were analyzed by three infrared techniques: Fourier transform mid-infrared (MIR), using attenuated total reflection (ATR); near-infrared reflectance (NIR-R); and near-infrared optothermal photoacoustic (NIR-OT). The near-infrared measurements were made at wavelengths determined respectively by four (NIR-OT) and five (NIR-R) band-pass filters. The total nitrogen (using the Kjeldahl method) and volatile (ammoniacal) nitrogen contents of all samples were measured by wet chemistry. Internally cross-validated (ICV) partial least-squares (PLS) regression was then used to obtain calibrations for the nitrogen content. The data sets obtained by each technique were treated separately. Within these sets, data from each manure type were treated both separately and combined: the best predictive ability was obtained by combining data from all three manure types. From the combined data set, the residual standard deviations and correlation coefficients for the ICV-predicted versus actual Kjeldahl nitrogen content were, respectively, 6772 mg/kg dry wt, 0.862 (MIR); 9434 mg/kg dry wt, 0.771 (NIR-OT); and 8943 mg/kg dry wt, 0.865 (NIR-R). For the ammoniacal nitrogen content, the residual standard deviations and correlation coefficients were 3869 mg/kg dry wt, 0.899 (MIR); 6079 mg/kg dry wt, 0.820 (NIR-OT); and 3498 mg/kg dry wt, 0.961 (NIR-R).

  5. Indirect and direct determination of the casein content of milk by Kjeldahl nitrogen analysis: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J M; Barbano, D M; Fleming, J R

    1998-01-01

    The classic method for determination of milk casein is based on precipitation of casein at pH 4.6. Precipitated milk casein is removed by filtration and the nitrogen content of either the precipitate (direct casein method) or filtrate (noncasein nitrogen; NCN) is determined by Kjeldahl analysis. For the indirect casein method, milk total nitrogen (TN; Method 991.20) is also determined and casein is calculated as TN minus NCN. Ten laboratories tested 9 pairs of blind duplicate raw milk materials with a casein range of 2.42-3.05% by both the direct and indirect casein methods. Statistical performance expressed in protein equivalents (nitrogen x 6.38) with invalid and outlier data removed was as follows: NCN method (wt%), mean = 0.762, sr = 0.010, sR = 0.016, repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) = 1.287%, reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDr) = 2.146%; indirect casein method (wt%), mean = 2.585, repeatability = 0.015, reproducibility = 0.022, RSDr = 0.560%, RSDR = 0.841; direct casein method (wt%), mean = 2.575, sr = 0.015, sR = 0.025, RSDr = 0.597%, RSDR = 0.988%. Method performance was acceptable and comparable to similar Kjeldahl methods for determining nitrogen content of milk (Methods 991.20, 991.21, 991.22, 991.23). The direct casein, indirect casein, and noncasein nitrogen methods have been adopted by AOAC INTERNATIONAL.

  6. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Crop Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Jurišić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Production of biomass for energy, food or biomaterials requires certain agricultural practices. The increasing nitrogen loading due to inorganic fertilizers used in conventional agriculture is one of the major global environmental challenges. This research was conducted in central part of Croatia near Park of nature Lonjsko polje, on experimental field which was established 17 years ago in order to determine influence of mineral nitrogen fertilization on nitrate leaching. The soil type of trial site is drained distric Stagnosols and four different nitrogen fertilization levels are taken into consideration: 1. N0+P+K, 2. N100+P+K, 3. N200+P+K, 4. N300+P+K (kg N ha-1. Water samples were taken in periods with lysimeters discharge. Soil sampling (0-0.25 m was carried out four times in the investigated period from June 2007 to June 2008 during the vegetation of maize and winter wheat. Research results indicate that the soil NO3-N content significantly varied (27.3 kg ha–1 to 338.2 kg ha –1 depending on the treatment and sampling time. Compare to the winter sampling time (November 2007 and February 2008 significantly higher content of soil NO3-N was determined in the summer sampling (June 2007 and June 2008. Regarding to the water samples, results revealed that the total nitrate-nitrogen losses were in the range from 5.97 kg NO3-N ha-1 to 112.3 kg NO3-N ha-1. Lysimeter discharge varied in dependence on precipitation and crop type. Total amounts of precipitation during the investigation were 652.5 mm and 34.6 % of them were recorded in lysimeters. Average NO3-N concentration in lysimeter water varied from 2.4 mg L-1 (0 kg N ha-1 up to 54.5 mg L-1 (300 kg N ha-1.

  7. Assessment of nitrogen content in buffalo manure and land application costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Faugno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis livestock for mozzarella cheese production plays a fundamental role in the economy of southern Italy. European and Italian regulations consider nitrogen content in buffalo manure to be the same as that of cattle manure. This study aimed to assess whether this assumption is true. The first aim of the study was to assess nitrogen content in buffalo manure. Samples were taken from 35 farms to analyse nitrogen and phosphorous concentration in the manure. Analysis confirmed a lower nitrogen concentration (2% in buffalo manure. A secondary aim of the study was to evaluate whether manure application techniques that are apparently less suitable, e.g. splash plate spreader, could be feasible. The cost of different methods of land application of manure and their characteristics were evaluated on the basis of one operational cycle. Considering losses for volatilisation, and taking into account cost assessment, the immediate incorporation of buffalo manure (nitrogen content 2% is a suitable method of ammonia volatilisation. However, it is expensive and involves high fuel consumption in relation to the environmental benefit.

  8. Calibration of Soil Available Nitrogen and Water Content with Grain Yield of Dry land Wheat

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    V. Feiziasl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nitrogen (N is one of the most important growth-limiting nutrients for dryland wheat. Mineral nitrogen or ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3− are two common forms of inorganic nitrogen that can serve as limiting factors for plant growth. Nitrogen fertilization in dryland area can increase the use of soil moisture, and improve wheat yields to some extent. Many researchers have been confirmed interactions between water stress and nitrogen fertilizers on wheat, especially under field conditions. Because of water stress affects forms of nitrogen uptake that leads to disorder in plant metabolism, reduction in grain yield and crop quality in dryland condition. On the other hand, use of suitable methods for determining nitrogen requirement can increase dryland wheat production. However, nitrogen recommendations should be based on soil profile content or precipitation. An efficient method for nitrogen fertilizer recommendation involves choosing an effective soil extractant and calibrating soil nitrogen (Total N, NO3− andNH4+ tests against yield responses to applied nitrogen in field experiments. Soil testing enables initial N supply to be measured and N supply throughout the season due to mineralization to be estimated. This study was carried out to establish relationship between nitrogen forms (Total N, NO3− andNH4+ in soil and soil profile water content with plant response for recommendation of nitrogen fertilizer. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in split-split plot in a RCBD in Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI, Maragheh, Iranwhere N application times (fall, 2/3 in fall and 1/3 in spring were assigned to the main plots, N rates to sub plot (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg/ha, and 7 dryland wheat genotypes to sub-sub plots (Azar2, Ohadi, Rasad and 1-4 other genotypes in three replications in 2010-2011. Soil samples were collected from 0-20, 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm in sub-sub plots in shooting stage (ZGS32. Ammonium

  9. Nitrogen isotope and content record of Mesozoic orogenic gold deposits surrounding the North China craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    As an effective tracer, nitrogen isotopes have been used to determine the source of ore materials in recent years. In this study, the nitrogen isotopes and contents were measured on K- feldspar and sericite of gold deposits and some related granitic intrusions in Jiaodong, Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan, west Qinling, the west part of North Qilian and the Zhangjiakou-Xuanhua district around the North China craton (NCC). Although the gold deposits around the NCC are hosted in Precambrian metamorphic rocks, Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks, mafic volcanic rocks or granite, comparison of which with the nitrogen contents and isotope data of previous studies on mantle-derived rocks, granites, metamorphic rocks and gold deposits indicates that those deposits are closely related to granitic rocks. In addition, mantle-derived materials may have been involved in the ore-forming processes to a certain degree. This conclusion is consistent with the result of previous hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotopic studies of those gold deposits.

  10. Nitrogen Fertilizer Factory Effects on the Amino Acid and Nitrogen Content in the Needles of Scots Pine

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    Eugenija Kupsinskiene

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate the content of amino acids in the needles of Pinus sylvestris growing in the area affected by a nitrogen fertilizer factory and to compare them with other parameters of needles, trees, and sites. Three young-age stands of Scots pine were selected at a distance of 0.5 km, 5 km, and 17 km from the factory. Examination of the current-year needles in winter of the year 2000 revealed significant (p

  11. Spatial variability of chlorophyll and nitrogen content of rice from hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharana, Shreedevi; Dutta, Subashisa

    2016-12-01

    Chlorophyll and nitrogen are the most essential parameters for paddy crop growth. Spectroradiometric measurements were collected at canopy level during critical growth period of rice. Chemical analysis was performed to quantify the total leaf content. By exploiting the ground based measurements, regression models were established for chlorophyll and nitrogen aimed indices with their corresponding crop growth variables. Vegetation index models were developed for mapping these parameters from Hyperion imagery in an agriculture system. It was inferred that the present Simple Ratio (SR) and Leaf Nitrogen Concentration (LNC) indices, which followed a linear and nonlinear relationship respectively, were completely different from published Tian et al. (2011). The nitrogen content varied widely from 1 to 4% and only 2 to 3% for paddy crop using present modified index models and Tian et al. (2011) respectively. The modified LNC index model performed better than the established Tian et al. (2011) model as far as estimated nitrogen content from Hyperion imagery was concerned. Furthermore, within the observed chlorophyll range obtained from the studied rice varieties grown in the rice agriculture system, the index models (LNC, OASVI, Gitelson, mSR and MTCI) performed well in the spatial distribution of rice chlorophyll content from Hyperion imagery. Spatial distribution of total chlorophyll content varied widely from 1.77 to 5.81 mg/g (LNC), 3.0 to 13 mg/g (OASVI), 0.5 to 10.43 mg/g (Gitelson), 2.18 to 10.61 mg/g (mSR) and 2.90 to 5.40 mg/g (MTCI). The spatial information of these parameters will help in proper nutrient management, yield forecasting, and will serve as inputs for crop growth and forecasting models for a precision rice agriculture system.

  12. Crude Protein and Non-protein Nitrogen Content in Dairy Cow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruska Diana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk composition is of prime economic importance for farmers. Milk total proteins are composed of casein, whey proteins and non-protein nitrogen. The objective of this work was to establish milk crude protein, non-protein nitrogen (NPN and urea content in dairy cow milk produced in different farms in Latvia. Cow milk samples (n=30 were collected in September 2012 from four different farms breeding diverse cow breeds. Average crude protein, casein and urea content in milk varied significantly among farms. NPN content in cow milk varies among farms - from 0.194% to 0.232%. Average crude protein and casein content was significantly higher (p<0.05 for Latvia Brown breed cows, while NPN content did not differ significantly among breeds. Regression between NPN and urea content in milk was R² = 0.458. Correlation between NPN and urea content was significant (r = 0.677. This study allowed establishing that crude protein and NPN content in milk varied significantly (p<0.05 in farms with differing dairy cow housing and feeding technologies

  13. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EUROPEAN CORN BORER FEEDING ACTIVITY AND NITROGEN LEAF CONTENT UNDER DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Sarajlić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most destructive maize pest in Croatia is European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (ECB. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, different maize genotypes and nitrogen leaf content on ECB feeding activity. The experiment was set up in Osijek, Croatia under field conditions during 2012-2013 vegetation season. Experiment treatments were as follows: three irrigation levels (A1 - control, A2 from 60% to 80% field water capacity - FWC and A3 from 80% to100% FWC, three nitrogen fertilizer levels (B1 - 0, B2 - 100 and B3 - 200 kg N/ha and four different genotypes (C1 - OSSK 596; C2 - OSSK 617; C3 - OSSK 602 and C4 - OSSK 552. Ear weight, number of larvae in stem and shank, tunnel length and nitrogen leaf content were evaluated. Genotype C1 was the most susceptible for following the tested variables of ECB feeding: tunnel length (TL, larvae in stalk (LS and total number of larvae (TNL at P<0.05 probability level. By raising the level of irrigation, European corn borer feeding activity was reduced while by raising the level of nitrogen fertilization feeding activity was increased. These results suggest that good production practices can significantly affect the susceptibility of maize to European corn borer.

  14. Fuel-N Evolution during the Pyrolysis of Industrial Biomass Wastes with High Nitrogen Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yoshikawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sewage sludge and mycelial waste from antibiotic production were pyrolyzed in a batch scale fixed-bed reactor as examples of two kinds of typical industrial biomass wastes with high nitrogen content. A series of experiments were conducted on the rapid pyrolysis and the slow pyrolysis of these wastes in the temperature range from 500–800 °C to investigate the Fuel-N transformation behavior among pyrolysis products. The results showed that Fuel-N conversion to Char-N intimately depended on the pyrolysis temperature and the yield of Char-N reduced with the increase of the pyrolysis temperature. Under the same pyrolysis conditions, Tar-N production mainly depended on complex properties of the different biomasses, including volatile matter, nitrogen content and biomass functional groups. HCN was the predominant NOx precursor in the rapid pyrolysis of biomass, whereas in the slow pyrolysis of mycelial waste, more NH3 was produced than HCN due to the additional NH3 formation through the hydrogenation reaction of Char-N, HCN and H radicals. At the same time, some part of the char was analyzed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR to get more information on the nitrogen functionality changes and the tar was also characterized by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GCMS to identify typical nitrogenous tar compounds. Finally, the whole nitrogen distribution in products was discussed.

  15. Effect of Nitrogen on Water Content, Sap Flow, and Tolerance of Rice Plants to Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhong-xian; S. VILLAREAL; YU Xiao-ping; K. L. HEONG; HU Cui

    2004-01-01

    Water content (WC) and sap flow from leaf sheath of rice plants with varying nitrogen levels at different growth stages,and fluctuations in relative water content (RWC) of rice plants being damaged by brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens were determined in the laboratory, and the tolerance of rice plants to BPH at different nitrogen regimes was evaluated in the greenhouse at International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the Philippines. The results indicated that both WC and RWC were increased significantly, as the amount of sap flow from rice plants was reduced statistically, with the increase of nitrogen content in rice plants. RWC in rice plants applied with high nitrogen fertilizer decreased drastically by the injury of BPH nymphs, while the reduced survival duration of rice plants with the increase of nitrogen content was recorded. These may be considered to be one of the important factors in increasing the susceptibility to BPH damage on rice plants applied with nitrogen fertilizer.

  16. Effect of Nitrogen on Water Content, Sap Flow, and Tolerance of Rice Plants to Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuZhong-xian; S.VILLAREAL; YuXiao-ping; K.L.HEONG; HuCui

    2004-01-01

    Water content (WC) and sap flow from leaf sheath of rice plants with varying nitrogen levels at different growth stages and fluctuations in relative water content (RWC) of rice plants being damaged by brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens were determincd in the laboratory, and the tolerance of rice plants to BPH at different nitrogen regimes was evaluated in the greenhouse at International Rice Research institute (1RRI), the Philippines. The results indicated that both WC and RWC were increased significantly, as the amount of sap flow from rice plants was reduced statistically, with the in crease of nitrogen content inrice plants. RWC in rice plants applied with high nitrogen fertilizer decreased drastically by the injury, of BPH nymphs, while the reduced survival duration of rice plants with the increase of nitrogen content was recorded. These may be considered to be one of the important factors in increasing the susceptibility' to BPH damage on rice plants applied with nitrogen fertilizer

  17. Aporphine alkaloid contents increase with moderate nitrogen supply in Annona diversifolia Saff. (Annonaceae) seedlings during diurnal periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Castillo, José Agustín; Cruz-Ortega, Rocío; Martinez-Vázquez, Mariano; González-Esquinca, Alma Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Aporphine alkaloids are secondary metabolites that are obtained in low levels from species of the Annonaceae family. Nitrogen addition may increase the alkaloid content in plants. However, previous studies published did not consider that nitrogen could change the alkaloid content throughout the day. We conducted this short-term study to determine the effects of nitrogen applied throughout the diurnal period on the aporphine alkaloids via measurements conducted on the roots, stems and leaves of Annona diversifolia seedlings. The 60-day-old seedlings were cultured with the addition of three levels of nitrogen (0, 30 and 60 mM), and alkaloid extracts were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The highest total alkaloid content was measured in the treatment with moderate nitrogen supply. Further, the levels of aporphine alkaloids changed significantly in the first few hours of the diurnal period. We conclude that aporphine alkaloid content increased with moderate nitrogen supply and exhibited diurnal variation.

  18. A one-step carbonization route towards nitrogen-doped porous carbon hollow spheres with ultrahigh nitrogen content for CO 2 adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Nitrogen doped porous carbon hollow spheres (N-PCHSs) with an ultrahigh nitrogen content of 15.9 wt% and a high surface area of 775 m2 g-1 were prepared using Melamine-formaldehyde nanospheres as hard templates and nitrogen sources. The N-PCHSs were completely characterized and were found to exhibit considerable CO2 adsorption performance (4.42 mmol g-1).

  19. Novel Approach for Estimating Nitrogen Content in Paddy Fields Using Low Altitude Remote Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberioon, M. M.; Gholizadeh, A.

    2016-06-01

    Concerns over the use of nitrogen have been increasing due to the high cost of fertilizers and environmental pollutions caused by excess nitrogen application in agricultural fields. Several methods are available to assess the amount of nitrogen in crops, however, they are expensive, time-consuming, inaccurate, and/or require specialists to operate the tools. Researcher recently suggested remote sensing and specifically Low Altitude Remote Sensing (LARS) system of chlorophyll content in crop canopies as a low-cost alternative to estimate plant nitrogen status. The main objective of this study was to develop and test a new Vegetation Index (VI) to determine the status of nitrogen and chlorophyll content in rice leaf by analysing and considering all Visible (Vis) bands. Besides, capability of introduced VI has compared with all known VIs in both Vis and Near Infrared (NIR) bands in canopy scale. To develop the VI, images from 6-pannel leaf colour chart were acquired using Basler Scout scA640-70fc under light-emitting diode lighting, in which principal component analysis was used to retain the lower order principal component to develop a new index called IPCA. A conventional digital camera mounted to an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was also used to acquire images over the rice canopy in Vis bands. Simultaneously, Tetracam agriculture digital camera was employed to acquire rice canopy image in Vis-NIR bands. The results indicated that the proposed index at canopy (r = 0.78) scale could be used as a sensor to determine the status of chlorophyll content consequently for monitoring nitrogen in rice plant through different growth stages. Moreover, results confirmed that a lowcost LARS system would be suited for high spatial and temporal resolution images and data analysis for proper assessment of key nutrients in crop farming in a fast, inexpensive and non-destructive way.

  20. Seed quality, chlorophyll content index and leaf nitrogen levels in maize inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Matos Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate differences between maize genotypes in relation to the germination response of the seeds and the growth of seedlings inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, as well as the effect of inoculation on nitrogen levels and the chlorophyll content index of the leaves. The physiological seeds quality from the single-cross hybrids AG7098 and 2B707, and from the experimental synthetic varieties V2 and V4, inoculated with A. brasilense, was tested for germination, percentage and rate of emergence, and dry matter weight of the shoots and roots. Nitrogen levels and chlorophyll content index were evaluated in leaves of the same four genotypes grown in a greenhouse under different nitrogen supply systems and methods of inoculation with A. brasilense. The genotypes differ with regard to inoculation with A. brasilense. The hybrids were responsive to inoculation with A. brasilense for root dry matter weight. The V2 variety had a lower performance as regards root dry matter weight, with the opposite being seen for the dry matter weight of the shoots. V4 displayed no significant differences when inoculated. The results of the chlorophyll content index were not significant. Each genotype under evaluation displayed a different response for leaf nitrogen levels. It is possible to infer that the hybrids responded better to inoculation with the bacteria, with the greater root development leading to a better utilisation of water and nutrients.

  1. Determination of nitrogen content in milk by the Kjeldahl method using copper sulfate: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grappin, R; Horwitz, W

    1988-01-01

    Copper sulfate was substituted for mercury as the catalyst in the International Dairy Federation (IDF) Standard 20A:1986 method for the determination of nitrogen content in milk. The substitution was supported by results obtained in an interlaboratory study by 24 laboratories in 12 countries. Each laboratory analyzed 12 test samples of milk as blind duplicates in a double split level design with high, medium, and low nitrogen concentrations. The method protocol requires the concurrent analyses of an ammonium salt solution and a tryptophan solution as internal quality control standards with a minimum nitrogen recovery between 99 and 100% for the former and at least 98% for the latter. The repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations are 0.5 and 1%, respectively, for the range 0.35-0.70 g N/100 g. The performance of the laboratories that did not meet the required quality control specifications was clearly poorer than that of those that did meet the specifications.

  2. Remote estimation of canopy nitrogen content in winter wheat using airborne hyperspectral reflectance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianfeng; Huang, Wenjiang; Kong, Weiping; Ye, Huichun; Luo, Juhua; Chen, Pengfei

    2016-11-01

    Timely and accurate assessment of canopy nitrogen content (CNC) provides valuable insight into rapid and real-time nitrogen status monitoring in crops. A semi-empirical approach based on spectral index was extensively used for nitrogen content estimation. However, in many cases, due to specific vegetation types or local conditions, the applicability and robustness of established spectral indices for nitrogen retrieval were limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal spectral index for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) CNC estimation using Pushbroom Hyperspectral Imager (PHI) airborne hyperspectral data. Data collected from two different field experiments that were conducted during the major growth stages of winter wheat in 2002 and 2003 were used. Our results showed that a significant linear relationship existed between nitrogen and chlorophyll content at the canopy level, and it was not affected by cultivars, growing conditions and nutritional status of winter wheat. Nevertheless, it varied with growth stages. Periods around heading stage mainly worsened the relationship and CNC estimation, and CNC assessment for growth stages before and after heading could improve CNC retrieval accuracy to some extent. CNC assessment with PHI airborne hyperspectra suggested that spectral indices based on red-edge band including narrowband and broadband CIred-edge, NDVI-like and ND705 showed convincing results in CNC retrieval. NDVI-like and ND705 were sensitive to detect CNC changes less than 5 g/m2, narrowband and broadband CIred-edge were sensitive to a wide range of CNC variations. Further evaluation of CNC retrieval using field measured hyperspectra indicated that NDVI-like was robust and exhibited the highest accuracy in CNC assessment, and spectral indices (CIred-edge and CIgreen) that established on narrow or broad bands showed no obvious difference in CNC assessment. Overall, our study suggested that NDVI-like was the optimal indicator for winter

  3. Evaluation of nitrogen content in cabbage seedlings using hyper-spectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Suming; Chen, Chia-Tseng; Wang, Ching-Yin; Yang, I.-Chang; Hsiao, Shih-Chieh

    2007-09-01

    Monitoring of nutrient status of crops is essential for better management of crop production. Nitrogen is one of the most important elements in fertilizer for the growth and yield of vegetable crops. In this study, nitrogen content of cabbage seedlings was evaluated using hyper-spectral images. Cabbage seedlings, cultured at five nitrogen fertilization levels, were planted in the 128-cell plug trays and grown in a phytotron at National Taiwan University. The images, ranged from 410 to 1090 nm, of cabbage seedlings were analyzed by a hyper-spectral imaging system consisting of CCD cameras with liquid crystal tunable filters (LCTF), which was developed in this study. The digital images of seedling canopies were processed including image segmentation, gray level calibration and absorbance conversion. Models including modified partial least square regression (MPLSR), step-wise multi-linear regression (SMLR) and artificial neural network with cross-learning strategy (ANN-CL) were developed for the determination of the nitrogen content in cabbage seedlings. The three significant wavelengths derived from SMLR model are 470, 710, and 1080; and the best result is obtained by ANN-CL model, in which r c=0.89, SEC=6.41 mg/g, r v=0.87, and SEV=6.96 mg/g. The ANN-CL model is more suitable for the remote sensing in precision agriculture applications because not only its model accuracy but also only 3 wavelengths are needed.

  4. Data and prediction of water content of high pressure nitrogen, methane and natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Froyna, E.W.; Lovland, J.;

    2007-01-01

    New data for the equilibrium water content of nitrogen, methane and one natural gas mixture are presented. The new binary data and existing binary sets were compared to calculated values of dew point temperature using both the CPA (Cubic-Plus-Association) EoS and the GERG-water EoS. CPA is purely...... predictive (i.e. all binary interaction parameters are set equal to 0), while GERG-water uses a temperature dependent interaction parameter fitted to published data. The GERG-water model is proposed as an ISO standard for determining the water content of natural gas. The data sets for nitrogen cover...... they have large scatter. The data sets that have been measured at low pressures extrapolate well towards the ideal equilibrium values. The two models show similar results, but differ at high pressure and/or temperature. CPA is shown to extrapolate well for methane-water to 1000 bar and 573 K, and our...

  5. Seed quality, chlorophyll content index and leaf nitrogen levels in maize inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia de Matos Pereira; Elise de Matos Pereira; Lucas Tadeu Mazza Revolti; Sonia Marli Zingaretti; Gustavo Vitti Môro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between maize genotypes in relation to the germination response of the seeds and the growth of seedlings inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, as well as the effect of inoculation on nitrogen levels and the chlorophyll content index of the leaves. The physiological seeds quality from the single-cross hybrids AG7098 and 2B707, and from the experimental synthetic varieties V2 and V4, inoculated with A. brasilense, was tested for germination, ...

  6. Seasonal changes in tannin and nitrogen contents of Casuarina equisetifolia branchlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-hua ZHANG; Gong-fu YE; Yi-ming LIN; Hai-chao ZHOU; Qi ZENG

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal dynamics of total phenolics (TP),extractable condensed tannins (ECT),protein-bound condensed tannins (PBCT),fiber-bound condensed tannins (FBCT),total condensed tannins (TCT),and protein precipitation capacity (PPC) in young,mature and senescent branehlets of Casuarina equisetifolia were studied at Chishan Forestry Center of Dongshan County,Fujian Province,China.In addition,nitrogen contents of branehlets at the different developmental stages were also determined.The contents of TP and ECT,and PPC in young branchlets were significantly higher than those in mature and senescent branehlets through the season.However,PBCT contents were significantly higher in senescent branchlets than those in young and mature branchlets;FBCT fluctuated with season.Young branchlets had the highest N content,which decreased during branch maturity and senescence.The highest contents of TP and the lowest contents of TCT and N in young and mature branchlets were observed in summer.There was a significant negative correlation between TP and N contents.In contrast,TCT contents were positively correlated to N contents.Nutrient resorption during senescence and high TCT:N ratios in senescent branchlets are the important nutrient conservation strategies for C.equisetifolia.

  7. Total nitrogen vs. amino-acid profile as indicator of protein content of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nicolette G; Schönfeldt, Hettie C

    2013-10-01

    In most cited food composition studies and tables, the proximate system measures protein as total nitrogen (N) (determined by Kjeldahl or Dumas method) multiplied by a specific factor. A factor of 6.25 is used for determining total protein from total N (Jones, Munsey, & Walker, 1942). Although more expensive, it is considered more accurate to base protein content of foods on amino acid data (Greenfield & Southgate, 2003). A study on the nutrient composition of beef analysed the full amino-acid profile of fifteen retail cuts from three age groups and six fat codes, as well as determined total nitrogen content to determine proximate protein composition. For all cuts, the correlation coefficient of total amino acids to protein (N×6.25) was 0.635. This indicates a poor correlation for predicting actual protein content (as determined by total amino acid count), based on the nitrogen factor of 6.25. On average, the sum of amino acids per cut amounted to 91% of total determined protein (N×6.25) for the same cut.

  8. [Effects of nitrogen addition on available nitrogen content and acidification in cold-temperate coniferous forest soil in the growing season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gao-Qi; Fu, Wa-Li; Luo, Ya-Chen; Gao, Wen-Long; Li, Sheng-Gong; Yang, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Based on a low-level and multi-form N addition control experiment, this study took cold-temperate coniferous forest in Daxing'an Ling as the research object. After long-term and continuous nitrogen addition in situ, the available nitrogen (NH4(+) -N & NO3(-) -N) contents and pH values of the soil (0-10 cm) were measured in the early growing season (May) and the peak growing season (August) in 2010, 2012 and 2013. The results showed that, the available nitrogen in the early and peak growing seasons was mainly NH4(+) -N which accounted for over 96% of the inorganic nitrogen content, while the content of NO3(-) -N was very low. With the time extension of nitrogen addition, the effects of nitrogen addition on the NH4(+) -N content in 0-10 cm soil were more obvious in the early growing season than that in the peak growing season, and the NH4(+) -N content was mainly affected by the type of nitrogen addition. On the contrary, the NO3(-) -N content in 0-10 cm soil was higher in the peak growing season than that in the early growing season. The effect of N input was obvious on NO3(-) -N content in both early and peak growing seasons, and low nitrogen treatment tended to promote the enrichment of NO3(-) -N. As time went on, the response of NH4(+) -N and NO3(-) -N content to N addition was changed from insignificant in the early stage to significant in the late stage. N addition had a significant impact on the pH value of the 0-10 cm soil in the early and peak growing seasons. The pH values of the soil with low nitrogen treatment and the soil in the peak growing season were relatively lower. With the extension of the nitrogen addition time, the response of pH value also turned from insignificant in the early stage to significant in the late stage. Because of the long-term and continuous nitrogen addition, the 0 - 10 cm soil in this cold-temperate coniferous forest was obviously acidified.

  9. Effect of nitrification inhibitors on the content of available nitrogen forms in the soil under maize (Zea mays, L. growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana PANAKOVA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of nitrification inhibitors (dicyandiamide and 1,2,4 triazole on the content of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen in the soil and the effectiveness of nitrogen-sulphur nutrition of maize. The research was conducted in field small-plot experiment with maize on Haplic Luvisol with dominance of clay fraction in experimental years 2012 to 2015. The dose of nitrogen in all experimental treatments was 160 kg*ha-1 and was applied at one shot or split in three partial doses. Soil samples from all examined treatments were taken from three soil depths (0.0-0.3 m, 0.3-0.6 m and 0.6-0.9 m, respectively by probe rod in 4-5 week intervals. Achieved results indicate that on the average of four years and three depths of the soil profile, application of nitrification inhibitors contained in fertilizer ENSIN considerably reduced portion of nitrate nitrogen from the content of mineral nitrogen in the soil by 7-32 relative %. The application of fertilizer ENSIN considerably increased content of ammonium nitrogen in the soil by 10-59 relative %. A favourable effect on increase of ammonium nitrogen content and reduction of nitrate nitrogen content was found out in spite of the fact that in this treatment the total dose of fertilizer was applied at one shot.

  10. Historical nitrogen content of bryophyte tissue as an indicator of increased nitrogen deposition in the Cape Metropolitan Area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Stock, W.D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Centre for Ecosystem Management, School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia)], E-mail: w.stock@ecu.edu.au; Hedderson, T. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2009-03-15

    Information on changes in precipitation chemistry in the rapidly expanding Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) of South Africa is scarce. To obtain a long-term record of N deposition we investigated changes in moss foliar N, C:N ratios and nitrogen isotope values that might reflect precipitation chemistry. Tissue from 9 species was obtained from herbarium specimens collected between 1875 and 2000 while field samples were collected in 2001/2002. There is a strong trend of increasing foliar N content in all mosses collected over the past century (1.32-1.69 %N). Differences exist between ectohydric mosses which have higher foliar N than the mixohydric group. C:N ratios declined while foliar {delta}{sup 15}N values showed no distinct pattern. From relationships between moss tissue N and N deposition rates we estimated an increase of 6-13 kg N ha{sup -1} a{sup -1} since 1950. Enhanced N deposition rates of this magnitude could lead to biodiversity losses in native ecosystems. - This study of bryophyte tissue nutrient contents shows a historical increase in N deposition rates to the low nutrient adapted plant biodiversity hotspot in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  11. Novel porous carbon materials with ultrahigh nitrogen contents for selective CO 2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon materials were prepared by a nanocasting route using tri-continuous mesoporous silica IBN-9 as a hard template. Rationally choosing carbon precursors and carefully controlling activation conditions result in an optimized material denoted as IBN9-NC1-A, which possesses a very high nitrogen doping concentration (∼13 wt%) and a large surface area of 890 m 2 g -1 arising from micropores (<1 nm). It exhibits an excellent performance for CO 2 adsorption over a wide range of CO 2 pressures. Specifically, its equilibrium CO 2 adsorption capacity at 25 °C reaches up to 4.50 mmol g -1 at 1 bar and 10.53 mmol g -1 at 8 bar. In particular, it shows a much higher CO 2 uptake at low pressure (e.g. 1.75 mmol g -1 at 25 °C and 0.2 bar) than any reported carbon-based materials, owing to its unprecedented nitrogen doping level. The high nitrogen contents also give rise to significantly enhanced CO 2/N 2 selectivities (up to 42), which combined with the high adsorption capacities, make these new carbon materials promising sorbents for selective CO 2 capture from power plant flue gas and other relevant applications. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Failure of carnitine in improving hepatic nitrogen content in alcoholic and non-alcoholic malnourished rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana P. Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate the effect of carnitine supplementation on alcoholic malnourished rats' hepatic nitrogen content. METHODS: Malnourished rats, on 50% protein-calorie restriction with free access to water (malnutrition group and malnourished rats under the same conditions with free access to a 20% alcohol/water solution (alcohol group were studied. After the undernourishment period (4 weeks with or without alcohol, both groups were randomly divided into two subgroups, one of them nutritionally recovered for 28 days with free access to a normal diet and water (recovery groups and the other re-fed with free access to diet and water plus carnitine (0.1 g/g body weight/day by gavage (carnitine groups. No alcohol intake was allowed during the recovery period. RESULTS: The results showed: i no difference between the alcohol/no alcohol groups, with or without carnitine, regarding body weight gain, diet consumption, urinary nitrogen excretion, plasma free fatty acids, lysine, methionine, and glycine. ii Liver nitrogen content was highest in the carnitine recovery non-alcoholic group (from 1.7 to 3.3 g/100 g, P.05 was highest in the alcoholic animals. CONCLUSION: Carnitine supplementation did not induce better nutritional recovery.

  13. Improved anaerobic digestion performance and biogas production from poultry litter after lowering its nitrogen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Giorgos

    2015-11-01

    Poultry litter (PL) was pre-treated in order to reduce its nitrogen content and to increase the C/N ratio. The pre-treatment consisted of a first anaerobiosis phase of about 60days in order to accumulate ammonia nitrogen, followed by an ammonia stripping phase by heating the substrate at 80°C for 24h. The digestion was performed with PL and pre-treated PL (TPL) after ammonia stripping as mono-substrate under four total solids loads, i.e. 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The TPL after ammonia stripping displayed lower ammonia (62-73%) and VFA (41-65%) concentrations compared to digesters with raw PL, while bio-methane yield increased about 8-124%. Bio-methane yields in the series with TPL after ammonia stripping were about 193, 196, 215 and 147 [Formula: see text] /kgCOD, based on the COD added, for 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% TS load, respectively. The results indicate that lowering nitrogen content using the suggested process improves bio-methane yields significantly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Nitrogen Content on the HAZ Softening of Ti-Containing High Strength Steels Manufactured by Accelerated Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kook-soo; Jung, Ho-shin; Park, Chan [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The effects of nitrogen content on the HAZ softening of Ti-containing high strength steels manufactured by accelerating cooling were investigated and interpreted in terms of the microstructures in the softening zone. Regardless of their content, all of the steels investigated showed a softened zone 9-10 mm wide. The minimum hardness in the zone, however, was different, with lower hardness in the higher nitrogen content steel. Microstructural observations of the steel showed that the amount of soft ferrite was increased in the zone with an increase of nitrogen content of the steel, suggesting that microstructural evolution in the HAZ is influenced by the nitrogen content. Measurements of TiN particles showed that the degree of particles coarsening in the HAZ was lower in the higher nitrogen content steel. Therefore, it is believed that finer TiN particles in the HAZ inhibit austenite grain growth more effectively, and lead to an accelerated ferrite transformation in higher nitrogen content steel, resulting in a higher amount of soft ferrite microstructure in the softened zone.

  15. A PUBLISHED KINETIC MODEL EXPLAINS THE VARIATION IN NITROGEN CONTENT OF Pichia guilliermondii DURING ITS BATCH CULTIVATION ON DIESEL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORZANI W.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in nitrogen content of Pichia guilliermondii during its batch cultivation on media containing diesel oil as the main carbon source may be explained by means of a kinetic model proposed earlier to interpret the kinetics of nitrogen consumption during the process.

  16. Effect of Carbon and Nitrogen Content on Deformation and Fracture of AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Menapace

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of small differences in the content of carbon and nitrogen on the room temperature tensile deformation and fracture behaviour of an AISI 304 stainless steel was studied. In the steel containing the lower amount of carbon and nitrogen, a higher amount of strain induced alfa’ martensite is formed, which increases strain hardening rate and both uniform and total elongation at fracture. The presence of large martensitic areas in the cross section causes strain localization at the austenite/martensite interface, which promotes the nucleation of cracks and their propagation along the interface. This results in a decrease of Ultimate Tensile Strength. Strain induced transformation slightly reduces strain rate sensitivity, as well.

  17. In-line estimation of sulfur and nitrogen contents during hydrotreating of middle distillates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Pacheco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is analyzing whether it is possible to develop an empirical correlation for in-line estimation of the sulfur and nitrogen contents of the middle distillates Hydrotreating (HDT products for control purposes. Correlations are based only on readily available in-line information of specific gravity variation between feedstock and products, without considering any piece of information about the kinetic behavior of the catalyst. Experimental data were obtained in pilot plants under operating conditions that are representative of refinery operations. Results indicate that the removal of nitrogen and sulfur compounds during middle distillates HDT can be monitored in-line in real time, based on the available measurements of specific gravity. This allows for development and implementation of advanced in-line procedures for monitoring and control of the HDT process in real time.

  18. The influence of land use on soil organic carbon and nitrogen content and redox potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusliene, Gedrime

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate organic matter status in the soil according to the organic carbon content, total and mineral nitrogen amounts, carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio and redox potential depending on land usage and plant spieces. Soil samples were taken from the fields under...... different farming systems (conventional and organic) as well as abandoned lands. We choose the plants of two botanical species (Poaceae and Fabaceae) in organic and conventional farming systems as well as abandoned lands. Experimental results show that the best soil organic matter status according...... to the investigated indexes is in the soils of conventional and orgaic farming systems occupied with mixtures of Poaceae and Fabaceae and the worst - in the soils of abandoned Poaceae meadowa. In the abandoned lands, Fabaceae (galega) had better influence on soil organic matter status than Poaceae....

  19. Effect of Nitrogen Content and Cooling Rate on Transformation Characteristics and Mechanical Properties for 600 MPa High Strength Rebar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Fu-ming; Li, Chang-rong; Yang, Zhan-bing

    2016-10-01

    To obtain appropriate chemical composition and thermo-mechanical schedules for processing the V-N microalloyed 600 MPa grade high strength rebar, the microstructure analysis during dynamic continuous cooling and tensile tests of three experimental steels with different nitrogen contents were conducted. The results show that increasing nitrogen content promotes ferrite transformation and broadens the bainite transformation interval, when the nitrogen content is in the range of 0.019-0.034 mass%. Meanwhile, the martensite start temperatures decrease and the minimal cooling rate to form martensite increases. To achieve a good combination of strength and ductility, the cooling rates should be controlled in the range of 0.5-3°C/s, leading to the microstructure of ferrite, pearlite and less than 10% bainite (volume fraction). Furthermore, all the experimental steels satisfy the performance requirement of 600 MPa grade rebar and the rebar with nitrogen content of 0.034 mass% shows the highest strength through systematically comparative investigation.

  20. Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an overview of the nitrogen chemical market as of July 2013, including the production of ammonia compounds. Industrial uses for ammonia include fertilizers, explosives, and plastics. Other topics include industrial capacity of U.S. ammonia producers CF Industries Holdings Inc., Koch Nitrogen Co., PCS Nitrogen, Inc., and Agrium Inc., the impact of natural gas prices on the nitrogen industry, and demand for corn crops for ethanol production.

  1. Characterization of thin Ta-Si-N {sub x} layers of different nitrogen content using XPS, UPS and STM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, W. [University of Applied Science Zwickau, Dr.-Friedrichs-Ring 2A, D-08056 Zwickau (Germany)]. E-mail: wieland.zahn@fh-zwickau.de; Hildebrand, D. [University of Applied Science Zwickau, Dr.-Friedrichs-Ring 2A, D-08056 Zwickau (Germany); Menzel, S. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Oswald, S. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Heuer, H. [Dresden University of Technology, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2005-09-30

    Reactively sputtered Ta-Si-N {sub x} barrier systems of different nitrogen content on copper were investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, UPS) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). The measured photoelectron spectra (excitation He-I) showed a clear dependence of the electron state density near the Fermi edge on the content of nitrogen. These results correlate with the I(U) characteristics of the STM measurements and the electrical conductivity of these layers.

  2. Brachiaria sp yield and nutrient contents after nitrogen and sulphur fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reges Heinrichs

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the production factors, adequate fertilization is an important tool to raise the productivity of pastoral systems and consequently increase the share of Brazil in the supply chain of primary agricultural products at the global level. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization in BRACHIARIA DECUMBENS: Stapf. The experiment in pots with Dystrophic Oxisol was evaluated in a completely randomized design with four replications in a 5 x 3 factorial arrangement, involving five N doses (0, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg dm-3 in the form of ammonium nitrate and three S doses (0, 20 and 80 mg dm-3 in the form of calcium sulfate, with a total of 15 treatments. In the treatments with low S dose, calcium was provided as calcium chloride, to ensure a homogeneous Ca supply in all treatments. The results showed that the tiller production and dry weight of green leaves and of stems + sheaths and total dry weight were favored by the combination of N and S fertilizer, while the proportion of dry leaves was reduced. Nitrogen fertilization raised the N contents in green leaves and stems + sheaths and reduced K contents in fresh and dry leaves. The response to S rates in the N content of green leaves was quadratic.

  3. High-throughput analysis of total nitrogen content that replaces the classic Kjeldahl method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, T; Nokihara, K

    2001-10-01

    A high-throughput method for determination of total nitrogen content has been developed. The method involves decomposition of samples, followed by trapping and quantitative colorimetric determination of the resulting ammonia. The present method is rapid, facile, and economical. Thus, it can replace the classic Kjeldahl method through its higher efficiency for determining multiple samples. Compared to the classic method, the present method is economical and environmentally friendly. Based on the present method, a novel reactor was constructed to realize routine high-throughput analyses of multiple samples such as those found for pharmaceutical materials, foods, and/or excrements.

  4. [Nitrogen and protein content analysis of human milk, diurnality vs nocturnality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez López, C L; Hernández, A; Rodríguez, A B; Rivero, M; Barriga, C; Cubero, J

    2011-01-01

    Breast milk is changing with the progression of lactation and during a 24-h period. To determine the effect of diurnality or nocturnality on total nitrogen and protein content of the breast milk. We collected human milk samples from health mothers living throughout Community of Extremadura (Spain) from January 2008 to December 2008 with less than two months of lactation. We divided the samples in three groups: calostral group (1-5 days postpartum), transitional group (6-15 days postpartum) and mature group (> 15 days postpartum). All samples were stored in a freezer at -80 ºC. We considered as day period between 08:00-20:00 h and night period 20:00-08:00 h. Analysis of the human milk samples was based on the Kjeldahl method. Protein contents were calculated from total nitrogen x 6,25. The statistical analysis of the data was descriptive (mean ± standard deviation) and inferential (T-Student test). No differences (P > 0,05) were found to exist among the contents of individual human milk samples. The mean contents of each component were as follows: Total nitrogen of calostral, transitional and mature group was 0,30 ± 0,06 g/dL (night period), 0,29 ± 0,05 g/dL (day period); 0,26 ± 0,04 g/dL (night period), 0,25 ± 0,04 g/dL (day period); 0,22 ± 0,05 g/dL (night period), 0,20 ± 0,04 g/dL (day period) respectively, in this mature group with a statistical variation (P Protein content of calostral, transitional and mature group was 1,88 ± 0,4 g/dL (night period), 1,81 ± 0,3 g/dL (day period); 1,62 ± 0,3 g/dL (night period), 1,59 ± 0,3 g/dL (day period); 1,35 ± 0,3 g/dL (night period), 1,26 ± 0,3 g/dL (day period) respectively, in this mature group with a statistical variation (P protein content during the individual stages of lactation, it is just in the population of mature lactating women, where the components analyzed varied significantly between day and night.

  5. Nitrogen-fixing aerobic bacteria have higher genomic GC content than non-fixing species within the same genus

    OpenAIRE

    McEwan, Catriona E.; Gatherer, Derek; McEwan, Neil R.

    1998-01-01

    The genomic GC contents of both nitrogen-fixing and non-fixing members of eight genera of bacteria are investigated. Analysis by t-tests showed that in the two aerobic genera investigated (Aquaspirillum and Vibrio) there is a significantly higher GC content in the nitrogen-fixing members of the genus than in those unable to Fix nitrogen, whilst in anaerobic genera there is either no GC bias, or in the case of two genera (Rhodospirillum and Clostridium) there is a significantly higher GC conte...

  6. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization in yield and macronutrients contents of heliconia cv. Golden Torch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márkilla Z. Beckmann-Cavalcante

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of nitrogen (N and potassium (K fertilization in yield and contents of macronutrients in heliconia plants (Heliconia psittacorum x Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeguieta cv. Golden Torch. The experiment was set in a randomized block design, in a 4 x 4 factorial, corresponding to N doses (0, 120, 180 and 240 g of N hole-1 and K doses (0, 120, 180 and 240 g of K2O hole-1 with four replicates and five rhizomes per plot, under field conditions. After one year of cultivation, yield (number of flower stems per square meter and the leaf contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S were determined. The applied N doses did not influence either yield or the leaf contents of the evaluated macronutrients. K fertilization favored the increase in leaf K content and the decrease in the contents of P, Ca and Mg in leaves of heliconias. Under the conditions of this experiment, it is recommended to apply 161.46 g of K2O hole-1 for a maximum yield of 9.89 stems m-2 per month.

  7. Foliar nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in trees in environmentally toxic plastic industry area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sett, Rupnarayan; Soni, Bhawna

    2013-04-01

    In plants, nitrogen deficiency causes stunted growth and chlorosis or yellowing of the leaves due to decreased levels of chlorophyll, while excess nitrogen uptake may cause dark green overly vigorous foliage which may have increased susceptibility to disease and insect attacks. Phosphorus is an important nutrient in crop production, since many soils in their native state do not have sufficient available phosphorus to maximize crop yield. Potassium deficiency may cause necrosis or interveinal chlorosis. Plastics are synthetic or semi-synthetic moldable organic solids that are organic polymers of high molecular mass, most commonly derived from petrochemicals; these polymers are based on chains of carbon atoms alone or with oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen. Plastic is a non- biodegradable major toxic pollutant. It pollutes earth and leads to air pollution and water pollution. Merely there is any safe way to dispose the hazardous plastic wastes. The study was targeted to estimate foliar level of NPK content of three plant species, viz. Cassia tora (Herb), Ailanthus excelsa (Tree) and Dalbergia sissoo (Tree) from polluted areas associated to polythene-industries as well as control areas having least pollution, where all the parameters were found to be higher than the control experiments.

  8. Effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on fatty acid contents and composition in the green microalga, Chlorella sp. 227.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunja; Lee, Dukhaeng; Luong, Thao Thanh; Park, Sora; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Taeho

    2011-10-01

    In order to investigate and generalize the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on the growth of and lipid production in Chlorella sp. 227, several nutritional combinations consisting of different carbon and nitrogen sources and concentrations were given to the media for cultivation of Chlorella sp. 227, respectively. The growth rate and lipid content were affected largely by concentration rather than by sources. The maximum specific growth was negatively affected by low concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. There is a maximum allowable inorganic carbon concentration (less than 500~1,000 mM bicarbonate) in autotrophic culture, but the maximum lipid content per gram dry cell weight (g DCW) was little affected by the concentration of inorganic carbon within the concentration. The lipid content per g DCW was increased when the microalga was cultured with the addition of glucose and bicarbonate (mixotrophic) at a fixed nitrogen concentration and with the lowest nitrogen concentration (0.2 mM), relatively. Considering that lipid contents per g DCW increased in those conditions, it suggests that a high ratio of carbon to nitrogen in culture media promotes lipid accumulation in the cells. Interestingly, a significant increase of the oleic acid amount to total fatty acids was observed in those conditions. These results showed the possibility to induce lipid production of high quality and content per g DCW by modifying the cultivation conditions.

  9. Corrosion Behavior of the Stressed Sensitized Austenitic Stainless Steels of High Nitrogen Content in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Almubarak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of high nitrogen content on corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steels in seawater under severe conditions such as tensile stresses and existence of sensitization in the structure. A constant tensile stress has been applied to sensitized specimens types 304, 316L, 304LN, 304NH, and 316NH stainless steels. Microstructure investigation revealed various degrees of stress corrosion cracking. SCC was severe in type 304, moderate in types 316L and 304LN, and very slight in types 304NH and 316NH. The electrochemical polarization curves showed an obvious second current peak for the sensitized alloys which indicated the existence of second phase in the structure and the presence of intergranular stress corrosion cracking. EPR test provided a rapid and efficient nondestructive testing method for showing passivity, degree of sensitization and determining IGSCC for stainless steels in seawater. A significant conclusion was obtained that austenitic stainless steels of high nitrogen content corrode at a much slower rate increase pitting resistance and offer an excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking in seawater.

  10. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer rates and ratios of base and topdressing on wheat yield,soil nitrate content and nitrogen balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer is one of the most important measures that increases grain yield and improves grain quality in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production.Presently,there is a large number of investigations (experiments) in the field on different nitrogen fertilizer application regimes.However,there still exists a serious problem of low nitrogen use efficiency,especially in winter wheat high yield conditions:unsuitable nitrogen fertilizer,which often leads to lower yield and large accumulation of nitrate in the soil,bringing a potential risk to the environment.In order to explore the optimal regime of nitrogen fertilizer application suitable for environment and economy,a field experiment on the different rate and ratio of base and topdressing of nitrogen fertilizer at the different growth periods of winter wheat was conducted.The field experiment was undertaken from the fall of 2003 to the summer of 2004 in the village of Zhongcun in Longkou city,in the Shandong Province of China.The field experiment with three repeats for each treatment was designed in a split-plot.The major plot was applied with urea at a nitrogen fertilizer rate of three levels,namely,0 kg·hm-2 (CK),168 kg·hm-2 (A),and 240 kg·hm-2 (B).In the sub-plot,the ratios of base and topdressing nitrogen fertilizer at the different development periods of wheat were 1/2:1/2 (A1 and B1),1/3:2/3 (A2 and B2) and 0:1 (A3 and B3).Treatment B1 was under a regime used now in the local region.It was found that the amount of N accumulation in plants had no significant difference between treatments applied with nitrogen fertilizer.The grain yield and grain protein content were all elevated remarkably by applying nitrogen fertilizer compared with those of treatment CK.There was no significant difference in the grain yield and grain protein content between A2 and B2 and B3.However,when compared with those of B2 and B3,in A2 there was an increase in nitrogen use efficiency and residual soil

  11. Yield and Nicotine Content of Flue-Cured Tobacco as Affected by Soil Nitrogen Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Xiao-Tang; CHAO Feng-Chun; LI Chun-Jian; JIANG Rong-Feng; P.CHRISTIE; ZHANG Fu-Suo

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) supply is the most important factor affecting yield and quality of flue-cured tobacco (FCT).A field experiment and an in situ incubation method were used to study the effects of soil N mineralization in the later stages of growth on yield and nicotine content of FCT in Fenggang and Jiusha,Guizhou Province.The yield and market value of FCT at Fenggang were much lower than those at Jinsha.However,the nicotine content of middle and upper leaves was much higher at Fenggang than at Jiusha when the same rate of fertilizer N was applied,which might be due to a higher N supply capacity at the Fenggang site.At later stages of growth (7-16 weeks after transplanting),the soil net N mineralization at Fenggang (56 kg N ha-1) was almost double that at Jiusha (30 kg N ha-1).While soil NHa-N and NO3-N were almost exhausted by the plants or leached 5 weeks after transplanting,the N taken up at the later growth stages at Fenggang were mainly derived from soil N mineralization,which contributed to a high nicotine content in the upper leaves.The order of soil N contribution to N buildup in different leaves was:upper leaves > middle leaves > lower leaves.Thus,soil N mineralization at late growth stages was an important factor affecting N accumulation and therefore the nicotine content in the upper leaves.

  12. Observations on carbon and nitrogen content of suspended matter in aheadwater stream in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.R. Peart; GUAN Dong-sheng

    2004-01-01

    The total carbon(C) and total nitrogen(N) content of suspended matter in a small undisturbed headwater drainage basin in the New Territories of Hong Kong has been monitored. Mean C and N contents were 12.85 % and 0.99% respectively for 132 samples. Samples collected under stableflow conditions had mean C and N contents of 12.81% and 1.06% respectively. Stormflow samples had mean C and N values of 12.86% and 0.97% respectively,which were very similar to the levels observed under stableflow conditions. The mean C:N ratios of 12.47 and 13.39for stableflow and stormflow also reveal little difference according to hydrologic conditions. When all the data is considered little difference is observed in C and N according to the season. However, in winter there is a significant difference in C and N content between stable and stormflow samples. When C and N are plotted against water level the scattergraphs suggested that as stage increases the percentage of C and N in the suspended matter declines.Scattergraphs of C and N against suspended sediment concentration reveal a negative association. Comparison has been made between fresh leaf C, N and C/N ratio for trees and shrubs and the suspended matter. Fresh leaves do not appear to contribute significantly to suspended matter. The C/N ratio of suspended matter would also seem to exclude woody material and algae as sources of suspended matter.

  13. Prediction of Fecal Nitrogen and Fecal Phosphorus Content for Lactating Dairy Cows in Large-scale Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QU Qing-bo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate efficient and sustainable manure management and reduce potential pollution, it's necessary for precise prediction of fecal nutrient content. The aim of this study is to build prediction models of fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content by the factors of dietary nutrient composition, days in milk, milk yield and body weight of Chinese Holstein lactating dairy cows. 20 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 60 feces samples were collected from lactating dairy cows from 7 large-scale dairy farms in Tianjin City; The fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content were analyzed. The whole data set was divided into training data set and testing data set. The training data set, including 14 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 48 feces samples, was used to develop prediction models. The relationship between fecal nitrogen or phosphorus content and dietary nutrient composition was illustrated by means of correlation and regression analysis using SAS software. The results showed that fecal nitrogen(FN content was highly positively correlated with organic matter intake(OMI and crude fat intake(CFi, and correlation coefficients were 0. 836 and 0. 705, respectively. Negative correlation coefficient was found between fecal phosphorus(FP content and body weight(BW, and the correlation coefficient was -0.525. Among different approaches to develop prediction models, the results indicated that determination coefficients of multiple linear regression equations were higher than those of simple linear regression equations. Specially, fecal nitrogen content was excellently predicted by milk yield(MY, days in milk(DIM, organic matter intake(OMI and nitrogen intake(NI, and the model was as follows:y=0.43+0.29×MY+0.02×DIM+0.92×OMI-13.01×NI (R2=0.96. Accordingly, the highest determination coefficient of prediction equation of FP content was 0.62, when body weight(BW, phosphorus intake(PI and nitrogen intake(NI were combined as predictors. The prediction

  14. Effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on micronutrient content in grain maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Maňásek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-year small-plot field experiment with the grain maize hybrid KWS 2376 was conducted on heavy soil with a low supply of available nutrients incl. potassium (K at Otrokovice, Czech Republic, during 2010–2011. The experiment included 4 treatments: unfertilized control; nitrogen (N fertilisation with urea (120 kg N/ha alone or combined with two forms of K fertiliser (potassium chloride (KCl or potassium sulphate (K2SO4; 125 kg K2O/ha. Biomass samples for determination of Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe were taken as the whole aboveground biomass in the DC 32 (first node stage, the ear-leaf in the DC 61 (flowering stage and grain during the harvest.Between the two years the content of micronutrients in the individual treatments varied irregularly. In DC 32 and DC 61 the order of the content of micronutrients was as follows: Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu. The Fe content was significantly the highest in the unfertilised control and the Mn content after the application of N + K2SO4 in both samplings. In the grain the order was as follows: Zn > Fe > Mn > Cu (mg/kg DM: at the following contents: Zn: 19.20–23.19; Fe: 15.12–19.87; Mn: 0.85–3.60; Cu: 0.19–1.34. We can recommend fertilisation of maize with urea and with both potassium mineral fertilisers without any negative effects on the content of the micronutrients in the maize biomass.

  15. Assessment of Tri- and Hexavalent Chromium Phytotoxicity on Oats (Avena sativa L.) Biomass and Content of Nitrogen Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszkowski, Mirosław; Radziemska, Maja

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of soil contamination with tri- and hexavalent chromium and soil application of compost, zeolite, and CaO on the mass of oats and content of nitrogen compounds in different organs of oats. The oats mass and content of nitrogen compounds in the crop depended on the type and dose of chromium and alleviating substances incorporated to soil. In the series without neutralizing substances, Cr(VI), unlike Cr(III), had a negative effect on the growth and development of oats. The highest doses of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) stimulated the accumulation of total nitrogen but depressed the content of N-NO3(-) in most of organs of oats. Among the substances added to soil in order to alleviate the negative impact of Cr (VI) on the mass of plants, compost had a particularly beneficial effect on the growth and development of oats. The application of compost, zeolite, and CaO to soil had a stronger effect on the content of nitrogen compounds in grain and straw than in roots. Soil enrichment with either of the above substances usually raised the content of nitrogen compounds in oats grain and straw, but decreased it in roots.

  16. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2007-03-13

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  17. Response of growth, protein and fatty acid content of Desmodesmus cuneatus to the repletion and depletion of nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    mehdi naderi farsani; saeed meshkiniy; Ramin manaffar; zahra Asal pishe

    2015-01-01

      Introduction : Biomass and biochemical composition content (particular fatty acid profile, protein, Pigment) play an important role in commercial scale production of microorganisms. Nitrogen concentration is the most effective factor in biochemical composition and growth rate changes.   Materials and method s: The unicellular fresh water microalgae, Desmodesmus cuneatus ( Scenedesmaceae , Chlorophyta), was grown on BM medium under various concentration of nitrogen at 25°C and pH 7.0in a per...

  18. Durum Wheat Roots Adapt to Salinity Remodeling the Cellular Content of Nitrogen Metabolites and Sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Maria Grazia; Ciarmiello, Loredana F.; Woodrow, Pasqualina; Maximova, Eugenia; Fuggi, Amodio; Carillo, Petronia

    2017-01-01

    Plants are currently experiencing increasing salinity problems due to irrigation with brackish water. Moreover, in fields, roots can grow in soils which show spatial variation in water content and salt concentration, also because of the type of irrigation. Salinity impairs crop growth and productivity by inhibiting many physiological and metabolic processes, in particular nitrate uptake, translocation, and assimilation. Salinity determines an increase of sap osmolality from about 305 mOsmol kg−1 in control roots to about 530 mOsmol kg−1 in roots under salinity. Root cells adapt to salinity by sequestering sodium in the vacuole, as a cheap osmoticum, and showing a rearrangement of few nitrogen-containing metabolites and sucrose in the cytosol, both for osmotic adjustment and oxidative stress protection, thus providing plant viability even at low nitrate levels. Mainly glycine betaine and sucrose at low nitrate concentration, and glycine betaine, asparagine and proline at high nitrate levels can be assumed responsible for the osmotic adjustment of the cytosol, the assimilation of the excess of ammonium and the scavenging of ROS under salinity. High nitrate plants with half of the root system under salinity accumulate proline and glutamine in both control and salt stressed split roots, revealing that osmotic adjustment is not a regional effect in plants. The expression level and enzymatic activities of asparagine synthetase and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, as well as other enzymatic activities of nitrogen and carbon metabolism, are analyzed. PMID:28119716

  19. Determination of the total nitrogen content of hard, semihard, and processed cheese by the Kjeldahl method: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Joanna M; Barbano, David M; Fleming, J Richard

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this collaborative study was to determine interlaboratory performance statistics for a modified and optimized version of AOAC Method 920.123 for the determination of the total nitrogen content of hard, semihard, and processed cheese by Kjeldahl analysis. Details included addressing the issues of material homogeneity, test portion size (1 g), quantitative transfer (weighing on to filter paper), ensuring system suitability (nitrogen recoveries), and using AOAC Method 991.20 as the basis for nitrogen analysis. Fifteen laboratories tested 18 pairs of blind duplicate cheese materials with a crude protein content between 18 and 36%. Materials represented hard, semihard, and processed commercial cheeses with a wide range of composition. Statistical performance parameters expressed as crude protein (nitrogen x 6.38), g/100 g, with invalid and outlier data removed were mean = 26.461, repeatability standard deviation (Sr) 0.111, reproducibility standard deviation (S(R)) = 0.153, repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) = 0.42%, reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR) = 0.58%, repeatability (r) = 0.312, and reproducibility (R) = 0.428. The interlaboratory study results were acceptable and comparable to those for the milk Kjeldahl nitrogen method on a relative nitrogen basis. The Study Directors recommend that this modified method for the determination of total nitrogen in hard, semihard, and processed cheese by Kjeldahl analysis be adopted First Action as an improved method to replace Method 920.123.

  20. Measurement and analysis of soil nitrogen and organic matter content using near-infrared spectroscopy techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yong; SONG Hai-yan; PEREIRA Annia García; G(O)MEZ Antihus Hemández

    2005-01-01

    Near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy is as a rapid, convenient and simple nondestructive technique useful for quantifying several soil properties. This method was used to estimate nitrogen (N) and organic matter (OM) content in a soil of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou County. A total of 125 soil samples were taken from the field. Ninety-five samples spectra were used during the calibration and cross validation stage. Thirty samples spectra were used to predict N and OM concentration. NIR spectra of these samples were correlated using partial least square regression. The regression coefficients between measured and predicted values of N and OM was 0.92 and 0.93, and SEP (standard error of prediction) were 3.28 and 0.06, respectively, which showed that NIR method had potential to accurately predict these constituents in this soil. The results showed that NIR spectroscopy could be a good tool for precision farming application.

  1. Effect of nitrogen on growth, nutrient assimilation, essential oil content, yield and quality attributes in Zingiber officinale Rosc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minu Singh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple randomized pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different concentrations of nitrogen (N on growth, biochemical, quality and yield attributes of Zingiber officinale Rosc. a medicinally important spice plant. Plants were supplied with five levels of basal nitrogen viz. 0 (Control, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg N per ha. The performance of the crop was adjudged in terms of various parameters viz. plant height, number of leaves, fresh and dry weights of shoot and rhizome, total chlorophyll content, leaf and rhizome NPK content, rhizome carbohydrate and protein content, and analysed at 120 and 180 days after planting (DAP. The data revealed that nitrogen application significantly stimulated most of the studied attributes. Of the five N concentrations, 120 kg N per ha soil proved optimum for most of the parameters studied as compared to the control at both crop stages.

  2. Response of growth, protein and fatty acid content of Desmodesmus cuneatus to the repletion and depletion of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi naderi farsani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : Biomass and biochemical composition content (particular fatty acid profile, protein, Pigment play an important role in commercial scale production of microorganisms. Nitrogen concentration is the most effective factor in biochemical composition and growth rate changes.   Materials and method s: The unicellular fresh water microalgae, Desmodesmus cuneatus ( Scenedesmaceae , Chlorophyta, was grown on BM medium under various concentration of nitrogen at 25°C and pH 7.0in a period of 12 days . Daily cell counting was done using Neubauer haemocytometer to determine the growth rate, cell density and exponential time. The grown cells were harvested in the stationary phase to determine fatty acid and protein content.   Results : The maximum growth rate ( 0.35 ± 0.09 day−1 and cell density ( 36.00 ± 1.01 ×105 cell.ml-1 was achieved in 2.5 mM of nitrogen concentration . The maximum level of PUFA, was 25.31 % of the total fatty acids under N-sufficient conditions (5 mM nitrogen compared to 17.01 % under N-free. The maximum precentage of protein content ( 36.81 % was found at 5 mM nitrogen content and minimum ( 11.14 % was seen at nitrogen free medium . Discussion and conclusion : The results showed that control of nutrients plays an important role in microalgae culture. Any increase or decrease, depending on the type of nutrient, causes metabolic changes as well as changes in physiology and the nutritional value of microalgae. The nitrogen concentration of 2.5 mM may be more beneficial than other concentrations, as cell number is sustained in exponential phase longer.

  3. Influence of welding parameters on nitrogen content in welding metal of 32Mn-7Cr-1Mo-0.3N austenitic steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Rui-dong; QIU Liang; WANG Cun-yu; WANG Qing-feng; ZHENG Yang-zeng

    2005-01-01

    The transfer behavior of nitrogen into the welding metal during gas tungsten arc welding process of 32Mn-7Cr-1Mo-0.3N steel was investigated. The effects of gas tungsten arc welding process variables, such as the volume fraction of nitrogen in shielding gas, arc holding time and arc current on the nitrogen content in the welding metal were also evaluated. The results show that the volume fraction of nitrogen in gas mixture plays a major role in controlling the nitrogen content in the welding metal. It seems that there exhibits a maximum nitrogen content depending on the arc current and arc holding time. The optimum volume fraction of nitrogen in shielding gas is 4% or so. The role of gas tungsten arc welding processing parameters in controlling the transfer of nitrogen is further confirmed by the experimental results of gas tungsten arc welding process with feeding metal.

  4. Auxiliary units for refining of high nitrogen content oils: Premium II refinery case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolato, Paolo Contim; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    PETROBRAS is constantly investing on its refining park in order to increase the production of clean and stable fuels and to be capable to process heavier oils with high contaminants content. Sulfur and nitrogen are the main heteroatoms present in petroleum. They are responsible for some undesirable fuels properties like corrosivity and instability, and also emit pollutants when burnt. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are designed to remove these contaminants and adjust other fuel properties, generating, as byproduct, sour gases and sour water streams rich in H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}, which are usually sent to Sour Water Treatment Units and Sulfur Recovery Units. The regeneration of the amine used for the light streams treatment, as fuel gas and LPG, also generates sour gas streams that must be also sent to Sulfur Recovery Units. As the ammonia content in the sour streams increases, some design parameters must be adjusted to avoid increasing the Refinery emissions. Sulfur Recovery Units must provide proper NH3 destruction. Sour Water Treatment must have a proper segregation between H{sub 2}S and ammonia streams, whenever desirable. Amine Regeneration Systems must have an efficient procedure to avoid the ammonia concentration in the amine solution. This paper presents some solutions usually applied to the Petroleum Industry and analyses some aspects related to Premium II Refinery Project and how its design will help the Brazilian refining park to meet future environmental regulation and market demands. (author)

  5. Effects of Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels and Native Soil Properties on Rice Grain Fe, Zn and Protein Contents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. CHANDEL; S. BANERJEE; S. SEE; R. MEENA; D. J. SHARMA; S. B. VERULKAR

    2010-01-01

    Deposition of protein and metal ions (Fe, Zn) in rice grains is a complex polygenic trait showing considerable environmental effect. To analyze the effect of nitrogen application levels and native soil properties on rice grain protein, iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) contents, 32 rice genotypes were grown at three different locations each under 80 and 120 kg/hm2 nitrogen fertilizer applications. In treatments with nitrogen fertilizer application, the brown rice grain protein content (GPC) increased significantly (1.1% to 7.0%) under higher nitrogen fertilizer application (120 kg/hm2) whereas grain Fe/Zn contents showed non-significant effect of nitrogen application level, thus suggesting that the rate of uptake and translocation of macro-elements does not influence the uptake and translocation of micro-elements. The pH, organic matter content and inherent Fe/Zn levels of native soil showed significant effects on grain Fe and Zn contents of all the rice genotypes. Grain Zn content of almost all the tested rice genotypes was found to increase at Location III having loamy soil texture, neutral pH value (pH 6.83) and higher organic matter content than the other two locations (Locations I and II), indicating significant influence of native soil properties on brown rice grain Zn content while grain Fe content showed significant genotype × environment interaction effect. Genotypic difference was found to be the most significant factor to affect grain Fe/Zn contents in all the tested rice genotypes, indicating that although native soil properties influence phyto-availability of micronutrients and consequently influencing absorption, translocation and grain deposition of Fe/Zn ions, yet genetic makeup of a plant determines its response to varied soil conditions and other external factors. Two indica rice genotypes R-RF-31 (27.62 μg/g grain Zn content and 7.80% GPC) and R1033-968-2-1 (30.05 μg/g grain Zn content and 8.47% GPC) were identified as high grain Zn and moderate GPC

  6. A facile approach towards increasing the nitrogen-content in nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes via halogenated catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombaka, L. M.; Ndungu, P. G.; Omondi, B.; McGettrick, J. D.; Davies, M. L.; Nyamori, V. O.

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) have been synthesized at 850 °C via a CVD deposition technique by use of three ferrocenyl derivative catalysts, i.e. para-CN, -CF3 and -Cl substituted-phenyl rings. The synthesized catalysts have been characterized by NMR, IR, HR-MS and XRD. The XRD analysis of the para-CF3 catalyst indicates that steric factors influence the X-ray structure of 1,1‧-ferrocenylphenyldiacrylonitriles. Acetonitrile or pyridine was used as carbon and nitrogen sources to yield mixtures of N-CNTs and carbon spheres (CS). The N-CNTs obtained from the para-CF3 catalysts, in pyridine, have the highest nitrogen-doping level, show a helical morphology and are less thermally stable compared with those synthesized by use of the para-CN and -Cl as catalyst. This suggests that fluorine heteroatoms enhance nitrogen-doping in N-CNTs and formation of helical-N-CNTs (H-N-CNTs). The para-CF3 and para-Cl catalysts in acetonitrile yielded iron-filled N-CNTs, indicating that halogens promote encapsulation of iron into the cavity of N-CNT. The use of acetonitrile, as carbon and nitrogen source, with the para-CN and -Cl as catalysts also yielded a mixture of N-CNTs and carbon nanofibres (CNFs), with less abundance of CNFs in the products obtained using para-Cl catalysts. However, para-CF3 catalyst in acetonitrile gave N-CNTs as the only shaped carbon nanomaterials.

  7. Effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on the Content and Yield of DNJ of Mulberry Leaves in Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang LIU; Hao YIN; Wanhong TONG; Gaiqun HUANG; Li WANG; Ling WEI; Jichuan ZHENG; Xiaorong SHUAI; 无

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to scientifically improve the 1-deoxynojimycin (DNJ) yield of mulberry leaves in spring. [Method] "3414" experimental design was adopted to investigate the effects of different fertilizer application rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the DNJ content in mulberry leaves. The regression relationship was further simulated with DNJ yield as the objective function and fertil- izer application rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as the regulatory factors. [Result] The results showed that nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium all have great effects on the DNJ content in mulberry leaves at different parts of mulberry tree (Morus alba); the DNJ content in mulberry leaves increases with the increasing single-factor fertilizer application rate and reaches the maximum under N2P2K2 level; different fertilizer application rates and combinations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium can significantly affect the DNJ content in mulberry leaves; according to the simulated fertilizer effect function, the optimal economic yield of total DNJ in mul- berry leaves was 23.23 kg/hm^2, the recommended fertilization indicators were 286.11 kg/hm^2 N, 95.22 kg/hm^2 P2O5 and 159.62 kg/hm^2 K20. [Conclusion] After confirmation in productive practice, this optimal fertilization program can provide reference for the construction of mulberry plantation with high yield and high quality of DNJ.

  8. Productivity, Oil Content, and Oil Composition of Sweet Basil as a Function of Nitrogen and Sulfur Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) were believed to be important nutrient management tools for the production of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. 'German') with desirable oil content and composition and also acceptable herbage yields. A multi-location research study was initiated to evaluate the effect of...

  9. Genotypic and environmental effects on cottonseed oil, nitrogen, and gossypol contents in eighteen years Regional High Quality tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of environmental influence on seed traits is critical for genetic improvement of seed quality in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The objective of this study was to analyze the relative contribution of environment and genotype (G) for seed oil, nitrogen (N), and gossypol content...

  10. Effect of nitrogen content on methane production by the marine algae gracilaria tikvahiae and ulva species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habig, C.; De Busk, T.A.; Ryther, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The rhodophyte Gracilaria tikvahiae and the chlorophyte Ulva species were grown under three different nitrogen enrichment regimes producing plants of each species with three different concentrations of tissue nitrogen. Each was then digested in batch-mode fermentation experiments. Both biogas and methane production were initially greater in Ulva but persisted longer in Gracilaria, resulting in similar performances for the two species over the entire time course of the experiment. Low-nitrogen Gracilaria contained more volatile solids and produced more biogas and methane per unit dry weight than did higher nitrogen plants, but about the same gas production per unit volatile solids. However, low nitrogen Ulva consistently out-performed the high nitrogen plants in gas production per unit volatile solids, total volatile solids reduction, and bioconversion efficiency. These results, in contrast with those found in higher plants, probably reflect the low fiber, high soluble carbohydrate levels of nitrogen-deficient seaweeds in general and of Ulva in particular.

  11. Effects of nitrogen and hydrogen in argon shielding gas on bead profile, delta-ferrite and nitrogen contents of the pulsed GTAW welds of AISI 316L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viyanit, Ekkarut [National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC), Pathaumthani (Thailand). Failure Analysis and Surface Technology Lab; Hartung, Fritz; Lothongkum, Gobboon [Chulalongkom University, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering,; Phakpeetinan, Panyasak; Chianpairot, Amnuysak

    2016-08-01

    The general effects of 1, 2, 3 and 4 vol.-% nitrogen and 1, 5 and 10 vol.-% hydrogen in argon shielding gas on weld bead profile (depth/width ratio: D/W) and the δ-ferrite content of AISI 316L pulsed GTAW welds were investigated. The limits for imperfections for the quality levels of welds were based on ISO 5817 B. The plates with a thickness of 6 mm were welded at the flat position and the bead on plate. Increasing hydrogen content in argon shielding gas increases the D/W ratio. Excessive hydrogen addition to argon shielding gas will result in incompletely filled groove and excessive penetration of weld. Increasing welding speed decreases the weld-metal volume and the D/W ratios. Nitrogen addition to argon shielding gas has no effect on the D/W ratio. The addition of a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen to argon shielding gas on the D/W ratio does not show any interaction between them. An effect on the D/W ratio can be exclusively observed as a function of hydrogen content. Increasing hydrogen content in argon shielding gas increases the δ-ferrite content of weld metal. Increasing either nitrogen content in shielding gas or welding speed decreases the δ-ferrite content of weld metal. The nitrogen addition increases the weld metal nitrogen content, however, the hydrogen addition leads to a decrease of weld metal nitrogen content.

  12. High nitrogen supply and carbohydrate content reduce fungal endophyte and alkaloid concentration in Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Parsons, Anthony J; Bassett, Shalome; Christensen, Michael J; Hume, David E; Johnson, Linda J; Johnson, Richard D; Simpson, Wayne R; Stacke, Christina; Voisey, Christine R; Xue, Hong; Newman, Jonathan A

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between cool-season grasses and fungal endophytes is widely regarded as mutualistic, but there is growing uncertainty about whether changes in resource supply and environment benefit both organisms to a similar extent. Here, we infected two perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) cultivars (AberDove, Fennema) that differ in carbohydrate content with three strains of Neotyphodium lolii (AR1, AR37, common strain) that differ intrinsically in alkaloid profile. We grew endophyte-free and infected plants under high and low nitrogen (N) supply and used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to estimate endophyte concentrations in harvested leaf tissues. Endophyte concentration was reduced by 40% under high N supply, and by 50% in the higher sugar cultivar. These two effects were additive (together resulting in 75% reduction). Alkaloid production was also reduced under both increased N supply and high sugar cultivar, and for three of the four alkaloids quantified, concentrations were linearly related to endophyte concentration. The results stress the need for wider quantification of fungal endophytes in the grassland-foliar endophyte context, and have implications for how introducing new cultivars, novel endophytes or increasing N inputs affect the role of endophytes in grassland ecosystems.

  13. Analyzing the performance of fluorescence parameters in the monitoring of leaf nitrogen content of paddy rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Gong, Wei; Shi, Shuo; Du, Lin; Sun, Jia; Song, Shalei; Chen, Biwu; Zhang, Zhenbing

    2016-06-01

    Leaf nitrogen content (LNC) is a significant factor which can be utilized to monitor the status of paddy rice and it requires a reliable approach for fast and precise quantification. This investigation aims to quantitatively analyze the correlation between fluorescence parameters and LNC based on laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology. The fluorescence parameters exhibited a consistent positive linear correlation with LNC in different growing years (2014 and 2015) and different rice cultivars. The R2 of the models varied from 0.6978 to 0.9045. Support vector machine (SVM) was then utilized to verify the feasibility of the fluorescence parameters for monitoring LNC. Comparison of the fluorescence parameters indicated that F740 is the most sensitive (the R2 of linear regression analysis of the between predicted and measured values changed from 0.8475 to 0.9226, and REs ranged from 3.52% to 4.83%) to the changes in LNC among all fluorescence parameters. Experimental results demonstrated that fluorescence parameters based on LIF technology combined with SVM is a potential method for realizing real-time, non-destructive monitoring of paddy rice LNC, which can provide guidance for the decision-making of farmers in their N fertilization strategies.

  14. Relative chlorophyll contents in the evaluation of the nutritional status of nitrogen from xaraes palisade grass and determination of critical nitrogen sufficiency index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Paulo Ramos Costa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional status of xaraes palisade grass with SPAD chlorophyll meter and the critical nitrogen sufficiency index (cNSI in the dry and rainy seasons were assessed. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four treatments (50, 100, 200 and 400 kg N ha-1, three replicates and two seasons: dry and rainy. All variables had a high nonlinear relationship with their predictors (p < 0.001. Total nitrogen (TN reached a plateau at doses 262.0 and 514.8 kg of N ha-1 and the concentration of TN in the plant was 1.88 and 1.93% respectively during the rainy and dry season. Relative chlorophyll content (RCC reached a plateau at 46.05 and 53.65 SPAD units in the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. The production of dry matter (DM showed maximum response to nitrogen fertilization at 209.5 and 229.1 kg N ha-1 during the rainy and dry season respectively. The nitrogen sufficiency index (NSI reached the plateau at 0.85 and 0.99 in the rainy and dry season respectively. All variables showed high linear correlation (r = 0.71 to 0.99. The xaraés palisade grass’s cNSI is 0.85 and the chlorophyll meter may be used as a nutritional N management tool for the grass.

  15. [Effects of nitrogen application on soil greenhouse gas fluxes in Eucalyptus plantations with different soil organic carbon content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui-Da; Zhang, Kai; Su, Dan; Lu, Fei; Wan, Wu-Xing; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Zheng, Hua

    2014-10-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilization or nitrogen deposition on soil greenhouse gases fluxes has been well studied, while little has been piloted about the effects of nitrogen application on soil greenhouse gas fluxes and its discrepancy with different soil organic carbon content. In our study, we conducted field control experiment in a young Eucalyptus plantation in Southeast China. We compared the effects of 4 levels of nitrogen fertilization (Control: 0 kg · hm(-2); Low N: 84.2 kg · hm(-2); Medium N: 166.8 kg · hm(-2); High N: 333.7 kg · hm(-2)) on soil GHGs fluxes from 2 sites (LC and HC) with significantly different soil organic carbon (SOC) content (P Fertilization had significant priming effect on CO2 and N2O emission fluxes. One month after fertilization, both CO2 and N2O had the flux peak and decreased gradually, and the difference among the treatments disappeared at the end of the growing season. However, fertilization had no significant effect on CH4 oxidation between the 2 sites. (2) Fertilization and SOC were two crucial factors that had significant effects on CO2 and N2O emission. Fertilization had a significant positive effect on CO2 and N2O emission fluxes (P 0.05). The CO2 and N2O emission fluxes were significantly higher in HC than those in LC (P Fertilization and SOC had great interactive effect on CO2 and N2O emission (P fertilization on soil GHGs fluxes were not only in connection with the intensify of nitrogen, but also closely tied to the SOC content. When we assess the effects of nitrogen on soil GHGs fluxes, the difference induced by SOC should not be ignored.

  16. Evaluation of Leaf Total Nitrogen Content for Nitrogen Management in a Malaysian Paddy Field by Using Soil Plant Analysis Development Chlorophyll Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gholizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Laboratory plant testing is usually time-consuming and high-costing. Hence, plant nutrient variability must be measured rapidly and the information made known to the farmers before the new season starts. Site-specific crop management, well-established in some developed countries, is now being considered in other places such as Malaysia. Approach: The application of site-specific management principles and techniques to diverse crops and small-scale farming systems in Malaysia will present new challenges. Describing within-field variability in typical Malaysian production settings is a fundamental first step toward determining the size of management zones and the inter-relationships between limiting factors, for establishment of site-specific management strategies. Results: Measurements of rice SPAD readings and nitrogen content were obtained in a Malaysian rice paddy field. SPAD reading data was manually collected on 80DAT and measured using a Minolta SPAD 502. Leaf samples were collected at 60 points at the same time to compare results from sampling with SPAD reading values. Samples nitrogen content was analyzed in a laboratory. Analysis of variance, variogram and kriging were conducted to determine the variability of the measured parameters and also their relationship. SPAD reading and nitrogen content maps were created on the interpretation of the data was investigated. Conclusion/Recommendations: Finally the research indicated that SPAD readings are closely related to leaf N content which means the potential for technology of precision farming to understand and control variation in Malaysian production fields and also SPAD chlorophyll meter ability to monitor the N status of rice and recommend the amount of N fertilization. Additional research is needed to confirm the results with data from other fields and crops.

  17. Development of High Strength Steel Designed for Carbonitriding with High Nitrogen Content to Be Used for Automatic Transmission Gears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youichi Watanabe

    2004-01-01

    To downsize and lighten automatic transmission components, the gears installed must be strengthened in terms of pitting endurance and/or wear resistance. The most important metallurgical factor affecting fractures is well known to be resistance to softening when steel is tempered at approximately 573 K. Carbonitriding with a high anount of nitrogen is a very effective production technique because nitrogen increases the resistance during tempering. However, structural anomalies begin to appear in the surface layer when the nitrogen content exceeds 0.6 mass% in the chromium steel generally used. To address this, we have developed new high-strength chromium steel with an optimized chemical composition that effectively inhibits anomalies even when carbonitriding with a nitrogen content of more than 0.6 mass%.We performed a drivetrain durability test on an automatic transmission component designed to have excellent contact fatigue strength and a tooth root bending impact and fatigue strength. We found that the developed steel that was carbonitrided with a content of about 0.9 mass%, and then shot peened hard, has a pitting life of roughly 4.5 times that of conventionally manufactured steel.

  18. Effect of nitrogen content on methane production by the marine algae Gracilaria tikvahiae and Ulva sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habig, C.; DeBusk, T.A.; Ryther, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The rhodophyte Gracilaria tikvahiae and the chlorophyte Ulva sp. were grown under three different concentrations of tissue nitrogen. Each was then digested in batch-mode fermentation experiments. Both biogas and methane production were initially greater in Ulva but persisted longer in Gracilaria, resulting in similar performances for the two species over the entire time course of the experiment. Low-nitrogen Gracilaria contained more volatile solids and produced more biogas and methane per unit dry weight than did higher nitrogen plants, but about the same gas production per unit volatile solids. However, low nitrogen Ulva consistently out-performed the high nitrogen plants in gas production per unit volatile solids, total volatile solids, total volatile solids reduction, and bioconversion efficiency. These results, in contrast with those found in higher plants, probably reflect the low fiber, high soluble carbohydrate levels of nitrogen-deficient seaweeds in general and of Ulva in particular. 18 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  19. High host-plant nitrogen content: a prerequisite for the evolution of ant-caterpillar mutualism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellissier, L; Rasmann, S; Litsios, G; Fiedler, K; Dubuis, A; Pottier, J; Guisan, A

    2012-08-01

    The amount of nitrogen required to complete an insect's life cycle may vary greatly among species that have evolved distinct life history traits. Myrmecophilous caterpillars in the Lycaenidae family produce nitrogen-rich exudates from their dorsal glands to attract ants for protection, and this phenomenon has been postulated to shape the caterpillar's host-plant choice. Accordingly, it was postulated that evolution towards myrmecophily in Lycaenidae is correlated with the utilization of nitrogen-rich host plants. Although our results were consistent with the evolutionary shifts towards high-nutrient host plants serving as exaptation for the evolution of myrmecophily in lycaenids, the selection of nitrogen-rich host plants was not confined to lycaenids. Butterfly species in the nonmyrmecophilous family Pieridae also preferred nitrogen-rich host plants. Thus, we conclude that nitrogen is an overall important component in the caterpillar diet, independent of the level of myrmecophily, as nitrogen can enhance the overall insect fitness and survival. However, when nitrogen can be obtained through alternative means, as in socially parasitic lycaenid species feeding on ant brood, the selective pressure for maintaining the use of nutrient-rich host plants is relaxed, enabling the colonization of nitrogen-poor host plants.

  20. Effects of chromium(III and VI) on spring barley and maize biomass yield and content of nitrogenous compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszkowski, Mirosław; Radziemska, Maja

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) determine the effects of trivalent Cr(III) or hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) soil contamination on biomass yield and nitrogenous compound content of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as the main crop and subsequently maize (Zea mays L.) grown successively, and (2) examine whether the neutralizing additives applied (compost, zeolite, and calcium oxide) may be effective in reducing adverse impact of chromium (Cr) on crops. Spring barley yield was markedly decreased by Cr compounds, particularly Cr(VI). In contrast, maize yield was significantly increased by Cr(VI). Hexavalent Cr exerted a greater effect than the Cr(III) form on nitrogen levels in spring barley. Chromium significantly increased ammonia nitrogen content in maize. The accumulation of NO(3)(-)-N in plants treated with Cr(VI) was lower than in controls. The application of compost, zeolite, and calcium oxide onto the soil increased yield of maize only in pots containing Cr(III). Neutralizing additives exerted a positive, increased effect on the N-total content of maize but not spring barley, which was apparent with calcium oxide. Accumulation of NH(4)(+)-N in maize in pots with Cr(VI) was increased by all additives applied. The content of nitrate nitrogen in spring barley was predominantly affected by addition of compost and calcium oxide into the soil, producing a significant rise in NO(3)(-)-N content. Chromium, especially Cr(VI), used at doses of 100 and 150 mg/kg soil exerted adverse effects in treated plants, particularly spring barley.

  1. Effect of chronic exposure to nitrogen dioxide on collagen content in lung and skin of guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdz, M.; Kucharz, E.; Szyja, J.

    1977-06-01

    The influence of nitrogen dioxide on the connective tissue of guinea pigs was studied after 180 days (8 hours per day) of exposure at a concentration of 2 mg/m/sup 3/. The long-term exposure induced a decrease of total collagen content in lung tissue, and an increase in skin as well as an increase of collagen catabolite levels in blood serum and urine. The increase of soluble fractions of collagen and the decrease of insoluble ones was found in skin of the exposed animals. Morphological studies showed nitrogen dioxide-induced emphysema and damage in bronchioli of the lungs and some degenerative skin changes. The results obtained suggest the inhibition of collagen maturation and/or activation of its catabolism as the main mechanism of nitrogen dioxide-induced connective tissue damage.

  2. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizers on the Growth and Nitrate Content of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development; however, due to environmental pollution, high nitrate concentrations accumulate in the edible parts of these leafy vegetables, particularly if excessive nitrogen fertilizer has been applied. Consuming these crops can harm human health; thus, developing a suitable strategy for the agricultural application of nitrogen fertilizer is important. Organic, inorganic, and liquid fertilizers were utilized in this study to investigate their effect on nitrate concentrations and lettuce growth. The results of this pot experiment show that the total nitrogen concentration in soil and the nitrate concentration in lettuce increased as the amount of nitrogen fertilizer increased. If the recommended amount of inorganic fertilizer (200 kg·N·ha−1 is used as a standard of comparison, lettuce augmented with organic fertilizers (200 kg·N·ha−1 have significantly longer and wider leaves, higher shoot, and lower concentrations of nitrate.

  3. Effects of nitrogen fertilizers on the growth and nitrate content of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Wei; Sung, Yu; Chen, Bo-Ching; Lai, Hung-Yu

    2014-04-22

    Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development; however, due to environmental pollution, high nitrate concentrations accumulate in the edible parts of these leafy vegetables, particularly if excessive nitrogen fertilizer has been applied. Consuming these crops can harm human health; thus, developing a suitable strategy for the agricultural application of nitrogen fertilizer is important. Organic, inorganic, and liquid fertilizers were utilized in this study to investigate their effect on nitrate concentrations and lettuce growth. The results of this pot experiment show that the total nitrogen concentration in soil and the nitrate concentration in lettuce increased as the amount of nitrogen fertilizer increased. If the recommended amount of inorganic fertilizer (200 kg·N·ha⁻¹) is used as a standard of comparison, lettuce augmented with organic fertilizers (200 kg·N·ha⁻¹) have significantly longer and wider leaves, higher shoot, and lower concentrations of nitrate.

  4. Precipitation of aluminum nitride in a high strength maraging steel with low nitrogen content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, G., E-mail: guillaume.jeanmaire@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine, 54011 Nancy Cedex (France); Aubert and Duval, BP1, 63770 Les Ancizes (France); Dehmas, M.; Redjaïmia, A. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine, 54011 Nancy Cedex (France); Puech, S. [Aubert and Duval, BP1, 63770 Les Ancizes (France); Fribourg, G. [Snecma Gennevilliers, 171 Boulevard de Valmy-BP 31, 92702 Colombes (France)

    2014-12-15

    In the present work, aluminum nitride (AlN) precipitation was investigated in a X23NiCoCrMoAl13-6-3 maraging steel with low nitrogen content (wt.% N = 5.5 ppm). A reliable and robust automatic method by scanning electron microscopy observations coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was developed for the quantification of AlN precipitates. The first stage was to identify the solvus temperature and to develop a heat treatment able to dissolve the AlN precipitates. The experimental determination of equilibrium conditions and solvus temperature show good agreement with ThermoCalc® simulation. Then, from this AlN-free state, the cooling rate, isothermal holding time and temperature were the subject of an intensive investigation in the austenite region of this maraging steel. In spite of the high temperatures used during heat treatments, the growth kinetic of the largest AlN precipitates (> 1 μm) is slow. The cooling rate has a major effect on the size and the number density of AlN due to a higher driving force for nucleation at low temperatures. At last, quenching prior to isothermal annealing at high temperatures leads to fine and dense AlN precipitation, resulting from the martensite to austenite transformation. Experimental results will be discussed and compared with kinetic data obtained with the mobility database MobFe2 implemented in Dictra® software. - Highlights: • Slow dissolution kinetic of AlN precipitates due to both their large size and small chemical driving force • Significant effects of cooling rate prior isothermal heat treatment, holding time and temperature on AlN precipitation • Size of AlN precipitates can be reduced by quenching prior isothermal holding. • Fine precipitation of AlN related to the α → γ transformation.

  5. [Estimating total nitrogen content in wetland vegetation based on measured reflectance spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Wang, Yi-hong; Sun, Yong-hua; Miao, Qian

    2012-02-01

    More and more urban wetlands have been supplied with reclaimed water. And monitoring the growth condition of large-area wetland vegetation is playing a very important role in wetland restoration and reconstruction. Recently, remote sensing technology has become an important tool for vegetation growth monitoring. The South Wetland in the Olympic Park, a typical wetland using reused water, was selected as the research area. The leaf reflectance spectra and were acquired for the main wetland plants reed (Phragmites australis) and cattail (Typha angustifolia) with an ASD FieldSpec 3 spectrometer (350 2 500 nm). The total nitrogen (TN) content of leaf samples was determined by Kjeldahl method subsequently. The research established univariate models involving simple ratio spectral index (SR) model and normalized difference spectral index (ND) model, as well as multivariate models including stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) model and partial least squares regression (PLSR) model. Moreover, the accuracy of all the models was tested through cross-validated coefficient of determination (R2(CV)) and cross-validated root mean square error (RMSE(CV)). The results showed that (1) comparing different types of wetland plants, the accuracy of all established prediction models using Phragmites australis reflectance spectra was higher than that using Typha angustifolia reflectance spectra. (2) compared with univariate techniques, multivariate regressions improved the estimation of TN concentration in leaves. (3) among the various investigated models, the accuracy of PLSR model was the highest (R2(CV) = 0.80, RMSE(CV) = 0.24). PLSR provided the most useful explorative tool for unraveling the relationship between spectral reflectance and TN consistence of leaves. The result would not only provide a scientific basis for remote sensing retrieval of biochemical variables of wetland vegetation, but also provide a strong scientific basis for the monitoring and management of urban

  6. Life cycle assessment of microalgae-based aviation fuel: Influence of lipid content with specific productivity and nitrogen nutrient effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fang; Zhao, Jing; A, Lusi; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the life cycle assessments of low-N and normal culture conditions for a balance between the lipid content and specific productivity. In order to achieve the potential contribution of lipid content to the life cycle assessment, this study established relationships between lipid content (nitrogen effect) and specific productivity based on three microalgae strains including Chlorella, Isochrysis and Nannochloropsis. For microalgae-based aviation fuel, the effects of the lipid content on fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are similar. The fossil fuel consumption (0.32-0.68MJ·MJ(-1)MBAF) and GHG emissions (17.23-51.04gCO2e·MJ(-1)MBAF) increase (59.70-192.22%) with the increased lipid content. The total energy input decreases (2.13-3.08MJ·MJ(-1)MBAF, 14.91-27.95%) with the increased lipid content. The LCA indicators increased (0-47.10%) with the decreased nitrogen recovery efficiency (75-50%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional differences in the allometry of the water, carbon and nitrogen content of gelatinous organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Molina-Ramírez, Axayacatl

    2015-05-19

    We have supplemented available, concurrent measurements of fresh weight (W, g) and body carbon (C, g) (46 individuals, 14 species) and nitrogen (N, g) (11 individuals, 9 species) of marine gelatinous animals with data obtained during the global ocean MALASPINA 2010 Expedition (totalling 267 individuals and 33 species for the W versus C data; totalling 232 individuals and 31 species for the N versus C data). We then used those data to test the allometric properties of the W versus C and N versus C relationships. Overall, gelatinous organisms contain 1.13 ± 1.57% of C (by weight, mean ± SD) in their bodies and show a C:N of 4.56 ± 2.46, respectively, although estimations can be improved by using separate conversion coefficients for the carnivores and the filter feeders. Reduced major axis regression indicates that W increases isometrically with C in the carnivores (cnidarians and ctenophores), implying that their water content can be described by a single conversion coefficient of 173.78 gW(g C)-1, or a C content of 1.17 ± 1.90% by weight, although there is much variability due to the existence of carbon-dense species. In contrast, W increases more rapidly than C in the filter feeders (salps and doliolids), according to a power relationship W = 446.68C1.54. This exponent is not significantly different from 1.2, which is consistent with the idea that the watery bodies of gelatinous animals represent an evolutionary response towards increasing food capture surfaces, i.e. a bottom-up rather than a top-down mechanism. Thus, the available evidence negates a bottom-up mechanism in the carnivores, but supports it in the filter feeders. Last, N increases isometrically with C in both carnivores and filter feeders with C:N ratios of 3.89 ± 1.34 and 4.38 ± 1.21, respectively. These values are similar to those of compact, non-gelatinous organisms and reflect a predominantly herbivorous diet in the filter feeders, which is confirmed by a difference of one trophic level

  8. Amino acid content in red wines obtained from grapevine nitrogen foliar treatments: consumption during the alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Portu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is an important element for grapevine and winemaking which affects the development of the plant and yeast, and therefore it is important for wine quality. The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar application to vineyard of proline, phenylalanine and urea and two commercial nitrogen fertilizers, without and with amino acids in their formulation, on the wine amino acid content and their consumption during the alcoholic fermentation. The results showed that these treatments did not affect the amino acid composition in wines. The differences observed for certain amino acids were so small that the concentration of total amino acids was not significantly different among wines. Moreover, it was observed that the higher the content of amino acids in the medium, the greater their consumption during the alcoholic fermentation.

  9. Biomass, chlorophyll and nitrogen content of leaves of two chili pepper varieties (Capsicum annum in different fertilization treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUTARNO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Suharja, Sutarno. 2009. Biomass, chlorophyll and nitrogen content of leaves of two chili pepper varieties (Capsicum annum in different fertilization treatments. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 9-16. This study aims to determine the influence of various fertilization treatments on biomass, chlorophyll and nitrogen content of leaves from two varieties of chili, Sakti (large chili and Fantastic (curly chili. The study was conducted in the village of Gatak, Karangnongko sub-district, Klaten District, Central Java in September 2006 to March 2007. The study used a complete block design with two factorial of chili varieties and fertilizer treatment. Fertilization treatments includes no fertilizer (control (P1; manure 2 kg/plant (P2, manure (1 kg/plant + chemical fertilizer (ZA, SP-36, KCl = 2: 1: 1 + NPK (P3; and manure (1 kg/plant + chemical fertilizer (SP-36: KCl = 1:1 + liquid organic fertilizer (P4. Chlorophyll content was measured refers to Harborne (1987, whereas leaf nitrogen concentration was measured with Kjeldahl method. Data were analyzed using ANOVA followed by DMRT. The results showed that on the Fantastic chili fertilizer treatment affected the biomass and chlorophyll a, but gave no effect on chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and leaf nitrogen. On the curly chili fertilizer treatment effected plant fresh weight, chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll, but gave no effect on dry weight, fresh fruit weight, chlorophyll b and leaf nitrogen. It is, therefore, recommended to use the formulation of manure + chemical fertilizer (SP-36: KCl = 1: 1 + liquid organic fertilizer in the cultivation of chili.Key words: biomass, chlorophyll, leaf nitrogen, chili, Capsicum annum, fertilizing.Abstrak. Suharja, Sutarno. 2009. Biomassa, kandungan klorofil dan nitrogen daun dua varietas cabai (Capsicum annum pada berbagai perlakuan pemupukan. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 9-16. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh berbagai perlakuan pemupukan terhadap biomassa

  10. A Sustainable Route from Biomass Byproduct Okara to High Content Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Sheets for Efficient Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhou; Qian, Tao; Wang, Mengfan; Shen, Xiaowei; Xu, Na; Sun, Zhouzhou; Yan, Chenglin

    2016-01-20

    A sustainable route from the biomass byproduct okara as a natural nitrogen fertilizer to high-content N-doped carbon sheets is demonstrated. The as-prepared unique structure exhibits high specific capacity (292 mAh g(-1) ) and extremely long cycle life (exceeding 2000 cycles). A full battery is devised for the practical use of materials with a flexible/wearable LED screen.

  11. Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of 316LN Stainless Steel Alloyed with Varying Nitrogen Content. Part I: Cyclic Deformation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Reddy, G. V.; Sandhya, R.; Sankaran, S.; Mathew, M. D.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the influence of cyclic strain amplitude on the evolution of cyclic stress-strain response and the associated cyclic deformation mechanisms in 316LN stainless steel with varying nitrogen content (0.07 to 0.22 wt pct) is reported in the temperature range 773 K to 873 K (500 °C to 600 °C). Two mechanisms, namely dynamic strain aging and secondary cyclic hardening, are found to strongly influence the cyclic stress response. Deformation substructures associated with both the mechanisms showed planar mode of deformation. These mechanisms are observed to be operative over certain combinations of temperature and strain amplitude. For strain amplitudes >0.6 pct, wavy or mixed mode of deformation is noticed to suppress both the mechanisms. Cyclic stress-strain curves revealed both single and dual-slope behavior depending on the test temperature. Increase in nitrogen content is found to increase the tendency toward planar mode of deformation, while increase in strain amplitude leads to transition from planar slip bands to dislocation cell/wall structure formation, irrespective of the nitrogen content in 316LN stainless steel.

  12. Nitrogen, potassium and plant growth retardant effects on oil content and quality of cotton seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkassas, A. R.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this field experiment was to investigate the effect of nitrogen, potassium and a plant growth retardant (PGR on seed yield and protein and oil content of an Egyptian cotton cultivar (Gossypium barbadense Giza 86. Treatments consisted of: soil application of N (95 and 143 kg N ha-1 in the form ammonium nitrate, foliar application of potassium (0, 319, 638 or 957 g K ha-1 as potassium sulfate and foliar application of mepiquat chloride (MC (0 and 48 + 24 g active ingredient ha-1 on seed, protein and oil yields and oil properties of Egyptian cotton cultivar “Giza 86” (Gossypium barbadense. After applying the higher N-rate, foliar application of potassium and plant growth retardant MC significantly increased seed yield and the content of seed protein and oil, seed oil refractive index, unsaponifiable matter and total unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and linoleic. In contrast, oil acid and saponification value as well as total saturated fatty acids were decreased by foliar application of potassium and MC. The seed oil content was decreased with soil application of N.El objetivo de los experimentos de campo fue investigar el efecto del nitrogeno, potasio y retardantes del crecimiento de plantas sobre el contenido en proteínas y aceite de una semilla de algodón cultivada en Egipto (Gossypium barbadense Giza 86. Los tratamientos consistieron en la aplicación en suelo de N (95 and 143 kg N ha-1 en forma de nitrato amónico, aplicación foliar de K (0, 319, 638 or 957 g K ha-1 como sulfato potásico y aplicación foliar de cloruro de m mepiquat (MC (0 and 48 + 24 g de ingrediente activo ha-1 sobre un cultivar de algodón «Giza 86» (Gossypium barbadense. La aplicación de la cantidad más elevada de N, unida a la aplicación de potasio y del retardador MC, aumentó significativamente el rendimiento en semilla, así como el contenido en proteinas y en aceite. Respecto al aceite, aumentó el índice de refracción, la fracci

  13. Nitrogen Contents on Tribological Properties of Magnetron Sputtered SiCN Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIETUNSUN; Y.Q.FU; J.WEI; H.J.DU

    2004-01-01

    Silicon carbonitride (SiCN) coatings were deposited on silicon and tungsten carbide substrates by co-sputtering silicon and carbon in argon and nitrogen mixture atmosphere using magnetron-sputtering system. The effect of the N2 concentration, RF substrate bias voltage and target current on film deposition rate, roughness, adhesion, mechanical and tribological properties of coatings were investigated. The deposition rate was found to increase with the increasing nitrogen concentration. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that high nitrogen concentration in the nitrogen-argon gas mixture enhanced the incorporation of C and N but reduced the incorporation of Si. SiCN coatings have good tribological properties at a N2 concentration of approximately 60%.

  14. Nitrogen Contents on Tribological Properties of Magnetron Sputtered SiCN Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIETUN SUN; Y.Q. FU; J. WEI; H. J. DU

    2004-01-01

    Silicon carbonitride (SiCN) coatings were deposited on silicon and tungsten carbide substrates by co-sputtering silicon and carbon in argon and nitrogen mixture atmosphere using magnetron-sputtering system. The effect of the N2concentration, RF substrate bias voltage and target current on film deposition rate, roughness, adhesion, mechanical and tribological properties of coatings were investigated. The deposition rate was found to increase with the increasing nitrogen concentration. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that high nitrogen concentration in the nitrogen-argon gas mixture enhanced the incorporation of C and N but reduced the incorporation of Si. SiCN coatings have good tribological properties at a N2 concentration of approximately 60%.

  15. [Prediction of total nitrogen and alkali hydrolysable nitrogen content in loess using hyperspectral data based on correlation analysis and partial least squares regression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu-ying; Wang, Li; Chang, Qing-rui; Wang, Xiao-xing; Shang, Yan

    2015-07-01

    Wuqi County of Shaanxi Province, where the vegetation recovering measures have been carried out for years, was taken as the study area. A total of 100 loess samples from 24 different profiles were collected. Total nitrogen (TN) and alkali hydrolysable nitrogen (AHN) contents of the soil samples were analyzed, and the soil samples were scanned in the visible/near-infrared (VNIR) region of 350-2500 nm in the laboratory. The calibration models were developed between TN and AHN contents and VNIR values based on correlation analysis (CA) and partial least squares regression (PLS). Independent samples validated the calibration models. The results indicated that the optimum model for predicting TN of loess was established by using first derivative of reflectance. The best model for predicting AHN of loess was established by using normal derivative spectra. The optimum TN model could effectively predict TN in loess from 0 to 40 cm, but the optimum AHN model could only roughly predict AHN at the same depth. This study provided a good method for rapidly predicting TN of loess where vegetation recovering measures have been adopted, but prediction of AHN needs to be further studied.

  16. [Effects of high temperature on Bt protein content and nitrogen metabolic physiology in boll wall of Bt cotton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Abidallah, Eltayib H M A; Hua, Ming-ming; Heng, Li; Lyu, Chun-hua; Chen, De-hua

    2015-10-01

    Bt cotton cultivar Sikang 1 (a conventional cultivar) and Sikang 3 (a hybrid cultivar) from China, and 99B (a conventional cultivar) and Daiza 1 (a hybrid cultivar) from USA were selected as experimental materials, the ball wall Bt protein content and nitrogen metabolic physiology were investigated under different high temperature levels at peak boll stage. The results showed that the Bt protein content of boll wall decreased with the increasing temperature. Compared with the control (32 °C, the boll wall Bt protein content decreased significantly when the temperature was above 38 °C for the conventional cultivars and above 40 °C for the hybrid cultivars. The Bt protein contents of cultivar Sikang 1 and 99B decreased by 53.0% and 69.5% respectively with the temperature at 38 °C, and that of cultivar Sikang 3 and Daiza 1 decreased by 64.8% and 54.1% respectively with the temperature at 40 °C. Greater reductions in the boll wall soluble protein contents and GPT activities, larger increments for the boll wall free amino acid contents and proteinsase activities were also observed when the boll wall Bt protein content was significantly reduced. Therefore, high temperature resulted in the reduction of Bt protein synthesis and increase of the insecticidal protein degradation in the boll wall significantly, which caused the reductions in boll wall Bt protein content and insect resistance.

  17. Dynamics of the nitrogen content in aboveground phytomass on the turf after fertilization of different forms of fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter HRIC

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to find out dynamics of the nitrogen (N content in aboveground phytomass on the turf after fertilization of different forms of fertilizers under non–irrigated conditions. The experiment was carried out in warm and dry conditions in the area of Nitra (Slovak Republic. There were included 7 treatments: 1. Without fertilization, 2. Saltpetre with dolomite, Superphosphate, Potassium salt, 3. Turf fertilizer 15–3–8 (+ 3MgO + 0.8Fe + 18S, 4. Slow release fertilizer SRF NPK 14–5–14 (+ 4CaO + 4MgO + 7S, 5. Controlled release fertilizer Duslocote NPK (S 13-9-18 (+ 6S, 6. Organic fertilizer Condit (5-1-1 and 7. Organic fertilizer Veget (3-2-1. In the begging of the seasons fertilizing by controlled release fertilizer Duslocote NPK (S 13-9-18 (+ 6S had a slow onset of action. The opposite trend had use of organic fertilizer Condit (5-1-1 on nitrogen content in aboveground turf phytomass. The nitrogen concentration was statistically higher in variants fertilized with inorganic fertilizer and organic fertilizer Condit (5-1-1 (33,727 mg*kg-1 – 36,737 mg*kg-1 as a non-fertilized turf (28,446 mg*kg-1. Higher nitrogen content in aboveground phytomass was after application of organic fertilizer Condit (5-1-1 into the turf in comparison with fertilization inorganic fertilizers.

  18. [Effects of soil fertility and nitrogen application rate on nitrogen absorption and translocation, grain yield, and grain protein content of wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuefu; Yu, Zhenwen; Li, Xiangxia; Yu, Songlie

    2003-11-01

    The results of this study showed that nitrogen application improved the nitrogen uptake by wheat, especially during its late growth stage. Although a higher nitrogen application rate could increase the amount of absorbed nitrogen, an excess of nitrogen would remain in vegetative organs at the stage after flowering, owing to the low translocation rate of nitrogen from these organs to the grain, and hence, the nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen harvest index were decreased. Compared with that on high fertility soil, the ratio of nitrogen absorbed from fertilizer to total absorbed nitrogen was higher when the wheat was grown on low fertility soil. On high fertility soil, wheat plant absorbed more nitrogen from top-dressed fertilizer than from basis fertilizer, and top-dressed fertilizer contributed more nitrogen to the grain. It was reversed on low fertility soil.

  19. [Estimating total nitrogen content in reclaimed water based on hyperspectral reflectance information from emergent plants: a case study of Mencheng Lake Wetland Park in Beijing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Gong, Zhao-ning; Zhao, Wen-ji

    2014-12-01

    Hyperspectral reflectance information is a crucial method to detect total nitrogen content in plant leaves, meanwhile, vegetation nitrogen content has a strong relationship with nitrogen in water. Taking Mencheng Lake Wetland Park supplied with reclaimed water as study area, the vegetation hyperspectral data (Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia), and the content of total nitrogen in water were detected to investigate the feasibility of estimating total nitrogen content in reclaimed water based on hyperspectral reflectance information from emergent plants. We established simple linear regression model, stepwise multiple linear regression model and partial least square regression model based on four hyperspectral indices (spectral indices, normalized difference indices, trilateral parameters, absorption feature parameters), respectively. The accuracy of these models was coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE). The results showed that stepwise multiple linear regression model and partial least square regression model predicted more accurately than simple linear regression model, and the accuracy of prediction models based on P. australis reflectance spectra was higher than those on T. angustifolia. Partial least square regression model was the most useful explorative tool for unraveling the relationship between spectral reflectance of P. australis and total nitrogen content in water with R2 of 0.854 and RMSE of 0.647. 500-700 nm was the best band range for detecting water total nitrogen content. The reflectance ratio of green peak and red valley could be effectively predicted by the absorption feature parameters.

  20. [Transformation characteristics of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur during thermal hydrolysis pretreatment of sludge with high solid content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Yang; Han, Yun; Cheng, Yao; Peng, Dang-Cong; Li, Yu-You

    2015-03-01

    The transformation characteristics of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur in dewatering sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were investigated after thermal hydrolysis pretreatment at 165 degress C for 50 min. The results showed that the hydrolysis efficiency of VSS could reach as high as 43.35%, 54.36% of protein and 65.12% of carbohydrate were transferred to dissolved organics, respectively, and the main component of dissolved organic matter in hydrolysate was dissolved protein (52.18% ), 54.23% of insoluble organic nitrogen was turned into dissolved nitrogen and 22.13% of dissolved nitrogen in hydrolysate was converted to ammonia. The transformation rate of insoluble phosphorus was 30.52%. Dissolved phosphorus was mostly transformed to phosphate (79.84%) as phosphorus-accumulating bacteria cells were crushed. 50.03% of insoluble organic sulfur was hydrolyzed, and little change was detected in sulfide (0.50%). The analysis results of the organic compounds transformation are valuable for treatment of the thermal hydrolysis pretreated sludge with high solid content.

  1. Study of the effects of proline, phenylalanine, and urea foliar application to Tempranillo vineyards on grape amino acid content. Comparison with commercial nitrogen fertilisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde-Cerdán, T; López, R; Portu, J; González-Arenzana, L; López-Alfaro, I; Santamaría, P

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar application of different nitrogen sources on grape amino acid content. The nitrogen sources applied to Tempranillo grapevines were proline, phenylalanine, urea, and two commercial nitrogen fertilisers, both without and with amino acids in their formulations. All treatments were applied at veraison and one week later. Proline treatment did not affect the must nitrogen composition. However, phenylalanine and urea foliar application enhanced the plants' synthesis of most of the amino acids, producing similar effects. In addition, the spray of commercial nitrogen fertilisers over leaves also induced a rise in grape amino acid concentrations regardless of the presence or absence of amino acids in their formulation. The most effective treatments were phenylalanine and urea followed by nitrogen fertilisers. This finding is of oenological interest for improved must nitrogen composition, ensuring better fermentation kinetics and most likely enhancing wine quality.

  2. Breast milk composition in Ethiopian and Swedish mothers. II. Lactose, nitrogen, and protein contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, B; Forsum, E; Gebre-Medhin, M; Hambraeus, L

    1976-10-01

    Breast milk from underprivileged and privileged Ethiopian mothers was collected at different stages of lactation and analyzed for total nitrogen, nonprotein nitrogen, lactose, and individual milk proteins (lactoferrin, alpha-lactalbumin, serum albumin, IgG and IgM). These values and the milk volume of one meal were compared to corresponding results from well-nourished Swedish mothers. No significant differences between the levels of these constituents or the milk volumes were found between the two groups of Ethiopian mothers. When comparison was made between breast milk from these two Ethiopian groups and the Swedish group, the former two showed significantly higher values for the iron-binding protein lactoferrin.

  3. One-Step Synthesis of Microporous Carbon Monoliths Derived from Biomass with High Nitrogen Doping Content for Highly Selective CO2 Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhen; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Lv, Hong; Li, Bing; Wu, Haobin; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Cunman

    2016-08-01

    The one-step synthesis method of nitrogen doped microporous carbon monoliths derived from biomass with high-efficiency is developed using a novel ammonia (NH3)-assisted activation process, where NH3 serves as both activating agent and nitrogen source. Both pore forming and nitrogen doping simultaneously proceed during the process, obviously superior to conventional chemical activation. The as-prepared nitrogen-doped active carbons exhibit rich micropores with high surface area and high nitrogen content. Synergetic effects of its high surface area, microporous structure and high nitrogen content, especially rich nitrogen-containing groups for effective CO2 capture (i.e., phenyl amine and pyridine-nitrogen) lead to superior CO2/N2 selectivity up to 82, which is the highest among known nanoporous carbons. In addition, the resulting nitrogen-doped active carbons can be easily regenerated under mild conditions. Considering the outstanding CO2 capture performance, low production cost, simple synthesis procedure and easy scalability, the resulting nitrogen-doped microporous carbon monoliths are promising candidates for selective capture of CO2 in industrial applications.

  4. One-Step Synthesis of Microporous Carbon Monoliths Derived from Biomass with High Nitrogen Doping Content for Highly Selective CO2 Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhen; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Lv, Hong; Li, Bing; Wu, Haobin; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Cunman

    2016-01-01

    The one-step synthesis method of nitrogen doped microporous carbon monoliths derived from biomass with high-efficiency is developed using a novel ammonia (NH3)-assisted activation process, where NH3 serves as both activating agent and nitrogen source. Both pore forming and nitrogen doping simultaneously proceed during the process, obviously superior to conventional chemical activation. The as-prepared nitrogen-doped active carbons exhibit rich micropores with high surface area and high nitrogen content. Synergetic effects of its high surface area, microporous structure and high nitrogen content, especially rich nitrogen-containing groups for effective CO2 capture (i.e., phenyl amine and pyridine-nitrogen) lead to superior CO2/N2 selectivity up to 82, which is the highest among known nanoporous carbons. In addition, the resulting nitrogen-doped active carbons can be easily regenerated under mild conditions. Considering the outstanding CO2 capture performance, low production cost, simple synthesis procedure and easy scalability, the resulting nitrogen-doped microporous carbon monoliths are promising candidates for selective capture of CO2 in industrial applications. PMID:27488268

  5. One-Step Synthesis of Microporous Carbon Monoliths Derived from Biomass with High Nitrogen Doping Content for Highly Selective CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhen; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Lv, Hong; Li, Bing; Wu, Haobin; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Cunman

    2016-08-04

    The one-step synthesis method of nitrogen doped microporous carbon monoliths derived from biomass with high-efficiency is developed using a novel ammonia (NH3)-assisted activation process, where NH3 serves as both activating agent and nitrogen source. Both pore forming and nitrogen doping simultaneously proceed during the process, obviously superior to conventional chemical activation. The as-prepared nitrogen-doped active carbons exhibit rich micropores with high surface area and high nitrogen content. Synergetic effects of its high surface area, microporous structure and high nitrogen content, especially rich nitrogen-containing groups for effective CO2 capture (i.e., phenyl amine and pyridine-nitrogen) lead to superior CO2/N2 selectivity up to 82, which is the highest among known nanoporous carbons. In addition, the resulting nitrogen-doped active carbons can be easily regenerated under mild conditions. Considering the outstanding CO2 capture performance, low production cost, simple synthesis procedure and easy scalability, the resulting nitrogen-doped microporous carbon monoliths are promising candidates for selective capture of CO2 in industrial applications.

  6. Comparison of the soil carbon and nitrogen contents of Quercus cerris and Fraxinus excelsior in the Mersin-Gulnar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Yesilbudak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soil samples were taken from a depth of 0-10 cm under the Quercus cerris and Fraxinus excelsior at an altitude of 1300-1500 m from the Kullin site at Gulnar-Mersin and were compared for their pH, CaCO3, nitrogen (N %, and carbon (C % contents. Balanced soils in natural forest ecosystems are known to be very rich in carbon content which increases with latitude and altitude and that the C/N ratio varies greatly between the soils of different plant species. We determined the values of the C/N rates in Q. cerris and F. excelsior soils of the Gulnar Gezende forest for the first time at this altitude. Material and Methods: A pH meter and Scheibler calcimeter were used to determine the soil pH and lime contents respectively. Percentage C was determined using the Anne method and the N% with the Kjeldahl method. Results: There was no difference in the pH values and nitrogen percentage contents between the two soils. Q. cerris soil was found to have medium levels of CaCO3, while the level of CaCO3 in F. excelsior soils was low. The C/N rates and carbon contents were higher in Q. cerris soil than F. excelsior soil (P<0.05. Conclusions: The higher carbon content of Q. cerris soil can be explained by higher amounts of organic matter compared with F. excelsior, which might depend on factors such as microclimate and their specific characteristics.

  7. County-based estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus content of animal manure in the United States for 1982, 1987, and 1992.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains county estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus content of animal wastes produced annually for the years 1982, 1987, and 1992. The estimates are...

  8. Nitrogen fertilization effects on pasture photosynthesis, respiration, and ecosystem carbon content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some studies have shown that increasing nitrogen (N) fertility can increase soil carbon (C) sequestration, whereas others suggest that N fertilization has no effect on sequestration. Increasing N fertilization typically increases annual photosynthetic C uptake (gross primary productivity or GPP) and...

  9. The effect of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization on the yield and content of sulforaphane and nitrates in cauliflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Čekey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field experiment with cauliflower, we investigated the effect of four different variants of nitrogen and suplhur fertilization on quantity and quality of cauliflower in the term of sulforaphane content and nitrate accumulation. The influence of fertilization was statistically significant between control variant and fertilization variants and in both experimental years within all parameters of cauliflower yield. The highest yield of cauliflower was reached at the variant 4 when it was fertilized on the level of nutrients N:S = 250:60 kg.ha−1. The increase of yield against control variant represented value 26.6%. The applied fertilization positively affected on the accumulation sulforaphane in the cauliflower. Its highest content was determined at the variant 4 (N:S = 250:60 kg.ha−1. In comparison with control variant, the sulforaphane content was increased about 18.4%. On the other side, applied nutrition resulted in increased accumulation of nitrates in the cauliflower. The most increase of nitrate content, compared to the control variant, was also ascertained at the variant 4 (about 31.4%.The gathered data point towards to the possibility and way how we could effect on the increased accumulation of sulforaphane in cauliflower florets. This sphere of fertilization effect on the sulforaphane content is not sufficiently explored well. Our aim is to continue in this research subject and to find way how to cultivate vegetables with higher content of health-promoting compounds.

  10. Impact of the addition of different plant residues on carbon-nitrogen content and nitrogen mineralization-immobilization turnover in a soil incubated under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Tahir, M. M.; Sabir, N.; Khurshid, M.

    2014-10-01

    Application of plant residues as soil amendment may represent a valuable recycling strategy that affects on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, soil properties improvement and plant growth promotion. The amount and rate of nutrient release from plant residues depend on their quality characteristics and biochemical composition. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 120 days under controlled conditions (25 °C and 58% water filled pore space (WFPS)) to quantify initial biochemical composition and N mineralization of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues i.e. the roots, shoots and leaves of Glycine max, Trifolium repens, Zea mays, Poplus euramericana, Rubinia pseudoacacia and Elagnus umbellate incorporated into the soil at the rate of 200 mg residue N kg-1 soil. The diverse plant residues showed wide variation in total N, carbon, lignin, polyphenols and C/N ratio with higher polyphenol content in the leaves and higher lignin content in the roots. The shoot of G. max and the shoot and root of T. repens displayed continuous mineralization by releasing a maximum of 109.8, 74.8 and 72.5 mg N kg-1 and representing a 55, 37 and 36% of added N being released from these resources. The roots of G. max and Z. mays and the shoot of Z. mays showed continuous negative values throughout the incubation showing net immobilization. After an initial immobilization, leaves of P. euramericana, R. pseudoacacia and E. umbellate exhibited net mineralization by releasing a maximum of 31.8, 63.1 and 65.1 mg N kg-1, respectively and representing a 16, 32 and 33% of added N being released. Nitrogen mineralization from all the treatments was positively correlated with the initial residue N contents (r = 0.89; p ≤ 0.01), and negatively correlated with lignin content (r = -0.84; p ≤ 0.01), C/N ratio (r = -0.69; p ≤ 0.05), lignin/N ratio (r = -0.68; p ≤ 0.05), polyphenol/N ratio (r = -0.73; p ≤ 0.05) and ligin + polyphenol/N ratio (r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05) indicating

  11. [Change characteristics of rice yield and soil organic matter and nitrogen contents under various long-term fertilization regimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Gao, Ju-Sheng; Zhang, Yang-Zhu; Qin, Dao-Zhu; Xu, Ming-Gang

    2013-07-01

    A long-term (1982-2010) field experiment was conducted in the Red Soil Experiment Station of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Qiyang County of Hunan Province, South-central China to investigate the dynamic changes of rice yield and soil organic matter (OM) and nitrogen contents under different fertilization treatments. The treatments included NPK, NPKM (M: manure), NPM, NKM, PKM, M, and CK. Fertilization increased the soil OM, total N, and alkaline-hydrolysable N contents and the rice yield. In treatment NPKM, the rice yield across the 28 years maintained at the highest level; while in treatment NPK, the yield showed a decreasing trend, being lower than that in other fertilization treatments. In the treatments applied with manure only or in combining with chemical fertilizers, the soil OM content increased rapidly in the first 16 years, and then fluctuated around a constant level (29.42-39.32 g x kg(-1)). In the treatments of chemical fertilization, the soil OM content only had a quicker increase in the first 8 years, and then fluctuated within a relatively stable range. Fertilization with manure increased the soil OM significantly, as compared to fertilization with chemical fertilizers only. The soil total N content in all fertilization treatments showed a rapid increase in the first 8 years, and the increment was the highest in treatment NPKM. The soil alkaline-hydrolysable N content in all fertilization treatments had a slower increase in the first 12 years, with an average annual increment of 0.66-2.25 mg x kg(-1) x a(-1). In 1994-1998, the soil alkaline-hydrolysable N content in fertilization treatments had a quicker increase, with an average annual increment of 6.45-32.45 mg x kg(-1) x a(-1); but after 1998, the soil alkaline-hydrolysable N content had a slight decrease. It was concluded that organic fertilization was the key measure to stably improve the physical and chemical properties and the productivity of red paddy soils by increasing their

  12. Cloning, crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of XC1258, a CN-hydrolase superfamily protein from Xanthomonas campestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Ying-Der; Chin, Ko-Hsin [Institute of Biochemistry, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 40227,Taiwan (China); Shr, Hui-Lin [Institute of Biological Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei,Taiwan (China); Core Facility for Protein Crystallography, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei,Taiwan (China); Gao, Fei Philip [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Lyu, Ping-Chiang [Department of Life Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu,Taiwan (China); Wang, Andrew H.-J. [Institute of Biological Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei,Taiwan (China); Core Facility for Protein Crystallography, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei,Taiwan (China); Chou, Shan-Ho, E-mail: shchou@nchu.edu.tw [Institute of Biochemistry, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 40227,Taiwan (China)

    2006-10-01

    A CN-hydrolase superfamily protein from the plant pathogen X. campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. CN-hydrolase superfamily proteins are involved in a wide variety of non-peptide carbon–nitrogen hydrolysis reactions, producing some important natural products such as auxin, biotin, precursors of antibiotics etc. These reactions all involve attack on a cyano or carbonyl carbon by a conserved novel catalytic triad Glu-Lys-Cys through a thiol acylenzyme intermediate. However, classification into the CN-hydrolase superfamily based on sequence similarity alone is not straightforward and further structural data are necessary to improve this categorization. Here, the cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of XC1258, a CN-hydrolase superfamily protein from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris (Xcc), are reported. The SeMet-substituted XC1258 crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.73 Å. They are orthorhombic and belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 143.8, b = 154.63, c = 51.3 Å, respectively.

  13. Commercial Application of the Second Generation RHT Catalysts for Hydroprocessing the Residue with Low Sulfur and High Nitrogen Contents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Zhicai; Zhao Xinqiang; Liu Tao; Dai Lishun; Nie Hong

    2014-01-01

    The RHT technology and the second generation RHT catalysts were applied in design of an 1.7Mt/a VRDS unit at the SINOPEC Changling Branch Co. The commercial application result demonstrated that the RHT catalysts showed good activity and stability in processing low-sulfur and high-nitrogen residue. The ifrst long period run of unit for processing high Fe and high Ca content residue was achieved. The reasons for excessive pressure drop of R-101 were ascribed to Fe and Ca deposition as well as coke formation.

  14. Dynamics of the nitrogen content in aboveground phytomass on the turf after fertilization of different forms of fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    HRIC, Peter; Ján JANČOVIČ; Peter KOVÁR; Ľuboš VOZÁR

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to find out dynamics of the nitrogen (N) content in aboveground phytomass on the turf after fertilization of different forms of fertilizers under non–irrigated conditions. The experiment was carried out in warm and dry conditions in the area of Nitra (Slovak Republic). There were included 7 treatments: 1. Without fertilization, 2. Saltpetre with dolomite, Superphosphate, Potassium salt, 3. Turf fertilizer 15–3–8 (+ 3MgO + 0.8Fe + 18S), 4. Slow release fertilizer...

  15. Effects of carbon dioxide and nitrogen fertilization on phenolic content in Poa annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martijn Bezemer T; Hefin Jones T; E Newington J

    2000-11-01

    Different but partially overlapping hypotheses have been developed to predict the allocation of phenolics in elevated atmospheric CO(2). The carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis predicts increased allocation to phenolics due to reduced relative availability of nitrogen. The growth-differentiation balance hypothesis states that allocation will depend on source and sink strength, while the protein competition model predicts that allocation will remain unchanged. We grew Poa annua at two CO(2) concentrations in soils of three different nutrient levels. Although plant-tissue nitrogen levels were reduced in high CO(2) and photosynthetic rate increased, phenolic concentration and biomass allocation remained unchanged. We discuss these data in the context of the three models' predictions of phenolic allocation in conditions of elevated CO(2).

  16. Phytoplankton growth rate and nitrogen content: Implications for feeding and fecundity in a herbivorous copepod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    at a concentration of 1.5 ppm. Over more than 2 orders of magnitude increase in algal growth rate, the ingested cell volume increased by less than a factor of 2, ingested carbon remained constant whereas ingested nitrogen as well as rate of egg production increased by a factor of ca 6. Variation in ingested cell......Observations of natural feeding and egg-production rates of planktonic copepods have revealed distinct responses, independent of phytoplankton biomass, to oceanographic processes that fertilize the photic layer. Are such responses caused by changes in phytoplankton growth rate, influencing feeding...... behaviour, and/or by changes in the chemical composition of the phytoplankton, influencing fecundity? The diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, grown in continuous cultures at different dilution rates and different nitrogen concentrations in the growth medium, was offered to the copepod Acartia tonsa...

  17. The changes of the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L. due to nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Hrabovská

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 96 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE Cultivar is one of the most important internal factors affecting polyphenol concentration in the plants. However, influence of the grown locality, climate conditions and way of cultivation belong to important external factors. In our experiment the influence of different nitrogen doses (0 - 40 - 80 - 120 - 160 - 240 kg N.ha-1 applied in the form of Vermikompost on the total polyphenol content and derived total antioxidant activity in cv. Sorento were investigated. While in the 1st - 5th variants the determined polyphenol content in dry mater of potato tubers decreased from 399.2 to 70.40 mg.kg-1, in the 6th variant that was twice higher in comparison to the 5th variants (135.6 mg.kg-1. The statistically significant differences in values of total polyphenol content between variants (polynomial function of 2nd degree were confirmed. The study also confirmed a strong statistical correlation between the content of polyphenols and the content of antioxidant activity has been confirmed (sign. F: 3.24E-10. The highest value of antioxidant activity was observed in the first variant. From the first to the fifth variant (7.62 - 4.84%, the value of antioxidant activity was decreasing and in the sixth variant this value increased to 6.31%.

  18. Using hyperspectral remote sensing data for retrieving canopy chlorophyll and nitrogen content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Kooistra, L.

    2012-01-01

    Plant stress is often expressed as a reduction in amount of biomass or leaf area index (LAI). In addition, stress may affect the plant pigment system, influencing the photosynthetic capacity of plants. Chlorophyll content is the main driver for this primary production. The chlorophyll content is

  19. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli gains a competitive advantage by using ethanolamine as a nitrogen source in the bovine intestinal content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Yolande; Girardeau, J P; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Lyan, Bernard; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Harel, Josée; Martin, Christine

    2011-02-01

    The bovine gastrointestinal tract is the main reservoir for enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) responsible for food-borne infections. Characterization of nutrients that promote the carriage of these pathogens by the ruminant would help to develop ecological strategies to reduce their survival in the bovine gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we show for the first time that free ethanolamine (EA) constitutes a nitrogen source for the O157:H7 EHEC strain EDL933 in the bovine intestinal content because of induction of the eut (ethanolamine utilization) gene cluster. In contrast, the eut gene cluster is absent in the genome of most species constituting the mammalian gut microbiota. Furthermore, the eutB gene (encoding a subunit of the enzyme that catalyses the release of ammonia from EA) is poorly expressed in non-pathogenic E. coli. Accordingly, EA is consumed by EHEC but is poorly metabolized by endogenous microbiota of the bovine small intestine, including commensal E. coli. Interestingly, the capacity to utilize EA as a nitrogen source confers a growth advantage to E. coli O157:H7 when the bacteria enter the stationary growth phase. These data demonstrate that EHEC strains take advantage of a nitrogen source that is not consumed by the resident microbiota, and suggest that EA represents an ecological niche favouring EHEC persistence in the bovine intestine.

  20. Effect of sulfur and nitrogen fertilization on the content of nutritionally relevant carotenoids in spinach ( Spinacia oleracea ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Constance; Arrigoni, Eva; Neuweiler, Reto; Baumgartner, Daniel; Nyström, Laura; Hurrell, Richard F

    2012-06-13

    Spinach is an important dietary source of lutein and β-carotene. Their synthesis is closely linked to chlorophyll synthesis and dependent upon an adequate supply of sulfur and nitrogen. Soils may become sulfur-deficient during winter because microorganisms convert atmospheric SO2 less efficiently to sulfate. The influence of sulfur and nitrogen fertilization on the carotenoid and chlorophyll contents of spinach grown in summer or winter was investigated. Carotenoid and chlorophyll levels were positively correlated. Lutein and β-carotene were 25% higher in summer than in winter. Winter levels were increased by 35-40% by sulfur fertilization in one location but not in the other, with the impact depending upon soil type, growing location, and atmospheric conditions. Carotenoids were little or not affected by nitrogen addition in winter or sulfur addition in summer. It is concluded that sulfur fertilization of spinach in winter may modestly increase carotenoids but high carotenoid levels are best assured with carotenoid-rich cultivars grown in summer.

  1. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen content of density fractions and effect of meadow degradation to soil carbon and nitrogen of fractions in alpine Kobresia meadow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This research was conducted on the non-disturbed native alpine Kobresia meadow(YF) and the severely degraded meadow(SDL) of Dari County of Qinghai Province.By a density fractionation approach,each soil sample was divided into two fractions:light fraction(LF) and heavy fraction(HF).The obtained fractions were analyzed for organic carbon(OC) and nitrogen(N) concentrations.The results showed:(1) the OC concentration in HF and LF was 3.84% and 28.63% respectively while the nitrogen concentration in HF and LF was 0.362% and 1.192% respectively in 0-10 cm depth.C:N ratio was 10.6 in HF and 23.8 in LF respectively.(2) As far as the ratio of OC in given fraction to that in gross sample was concerned,dominance of OC in HF was obvious in the whole soil profile.OC in HF increased from 78.95% to 90.33%,while OC in LF decreased from 21.05% to 9.68% with depths.(3) Soil total OC amounted to 47.47 in YF while 17.63 g.kg-1 in SDL,in which the OC content in HF decreased from 37.31 to 16.01 g.kg-1 while OC content in LF decreased from 10.01 to 1.62 g.kg-1.In other words,results of OC and N content show meadow degradation led to the loss of 57% OC in HF and 84% OC in LF from originally native ecosystem on alpine meadow.In addition,meadow degradation led to the loss of 43% N in HF and 79% N in LF from originally native ecosystem on alpine meadow.(4) The main reason for loss of C and N in LF during meadow degradation was not attributed to the decrease of OC and N concentration in LF and LF,but to the decrease in LF dry weight.Loss of N was far lower than loss of C in HF.This may suggest that there is difference in protection mode of C and N in HF.

  2. Control of nitrogen content in boron-added medium carbon steel%中碳含硼钢氮含量的控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭其春; 童志博; 陈立鹏; 杨柳; 彭明耀; 周春泉; 陈建新

    2013-01-01

    采用氧氮分析仪分析湖南华菱涟源钢铁集团有限公司中碳含硼钢A36-LB在生产各工序中氮含量的变化,研究其吸氮原因.结果表明,转炉终点碳含量控制不稳定是造成该厂钢中氮含量波动的主要因素;虽然转炉终点碳含量高可以降低钢中的氮含量,但同时也会导致钢中磷含量增高;在LF精炼整个过程中钢水增氮约11×10-6,增氮较多,其中原材料增氮并不是主要原因,主要原因是电弧加热过程增氮较为严重;连铸工艺段增氮较少,保护浇铸较好.%With oxygen and nitrogen analyzer, the change in nitrogen content in boron-added medium carbon steel produced by Valin Lianyuan Iron and Steel Corporation Limited in each stage of the process was analyzed and so was the nitrogen absorption mechanism. The results show that the insta-ble carbon content at BOF endpoint is the main factor for nitrogen content fluctuation. Though high carbon content at BOF endpoint may reduce the nitrogen content, it may lead to rephosphoration in BOF. Liquid steel nitrogen increase reaches 11×10-6 in LF refining process, which is rather significant. Yet the raw materials are not the main cause of nitrogen increase. Nitrogen increase mainly takes place during arc heating process. Nitrogen increase is comparatively small in CC process, which indicates protective casting is preferable.

  3. A Mathematical Model of Neutral Lipid Content in terms of Initial Nitrogen Concentration and Validation in Coelastrum sp. HA-1 and Application in Chlorella sorokiniana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Chenfeng; Hu, Zhipeng

    2017-01-01

    Microalgae are considered to be a potential major biomass feedstock for biofuel due to their high lipid content. However, no correlation equations as a function of initial nitrogen concentration for lipid accumulation have been developed for simplicity to predict lipid production and optimize the lipid production process. In this study, a lipid accumulation model was developed with simple parameters based on the assumption protein synthesis shift to lipid synthesis by a linear function of nitrogen quota. The model predictions fitted well for the growth, lipid content, and nitrogen consumption of Coelastrum sp. HA-1 under various initial nitrogen concentrations. Then the model was applied successfully in Chlorella sorokiniana to predict the lipid content with different light intensities. The quantitative relationship between initial nitrogen concentrations and the final lipid content with sensitivity analysis of the model were also discussed. Based on the model results, the conversion efficiency from protein synthesis to lipid synthesis is higher and higher in microalgae metabolism process as nitrogen decreases; however, the carbohydrate composition content remains basically unchanged neither in HA-1 nor in C. sorokiniana.

  4. A Mathematical Model of Neutral Lipid Content in terms of Initial Nitrogen Concentration and Validation in Coelastrum sp. HA-1 and Application in Chlorella sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Chenfeng; Hu, Zhipeng; Hou, Yuyong

    2017-01-01

    Microalgae are considered to be a potential major biomass feedstock for biofuel due to their high lipid content. However, no correlation equations as a function of initial nitrogen concentration for lipid accumulation have been developed for simplicity to predict lipid production and optimize the lipid production process. In this study, a lipid accumulation model was developed with simple parameters based on the assumption protein synthesis shift to lipid synthesis by a linear function of nitrogen quota. The model predictions fitted well for the growth, lipid content, and nitrogen consumption of Coelastrum sp. HA-1 under various initial nitrogen concentrations. Then the model was applied successfully in Chlorella sorokiniana to predict the lipid content with different light intensities. The quantitative relationship between initial nitrogen concentrations and the final lipid content with sensitivity analysis of the model were also discussed. Based on the model results, the conversion efficiency from protein synthesis to lipid synthesis is higher and higher in microalgae metabolism process as nitrogen decreases; however, the carbohydrate composition content remains basically unchanged neither in HA-1 nor in C. sorokiniana.

  5. A Mathematical Model of Neutral Lipid Content in terms of Initial Nitrogen Concentration and Validation in Coelastrum sp. HA-1 and Application in Chlorella sorokiniana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are considered to be a potential major biomass feedstock for biofuel due to their high lipid content. However, no correlation equations as a function of initial nitrogen concentration for lipid accumulation have been developed for simplicity to predict lipid production and optimize the lipid production process. In this study, a lipid accumulation model was developed with simple parameters based on the assumption protein synthesis shift to lipid synthesis by a linear function of nitrogen quota. The model predictions fitted well for the growth, lipid content, and nitrogen consumption of Coelastrum sp. HA-1 under various initial nitrogen concentrations. Then the model was applied successfully in Chlorella sorokiniana to predict the lipid content with different light intensities. The quantitative relationship between initial nitrogen concentrations and the final lipid content with sensitivity analysis of the model were also discussed. Based on the model results, the conversion efficiency from protein synthesis to lipid synthesis is higher and higher in microalgae metabolism process as nitrogen decreases; however, the carbohydrate composition content remains basically unchanged neither in HA-1 nor in C. sorokiniana.

  6. Covalent Triazine-Based Frameworks with Ultramicropores and High Nitrogen Contents for Highly Selective CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keke; Huang, Hongliang; Liu, Dahuan; Wang, Chang; Li, Jinping; Zhong, Chongli

    2016-05-03

    Porous organic frameworks (POFs) are a class of porous materials composed of organic precursors linked by covalent bonds. The objective of this work is to develop POFs with both ultramicropores and high nitrogen contents for CO2 capture. Specifically, two covalent triazine-based frameworks (CTFs) with ultramicropores (pores of width capture CO2 due to ultramicroporous nature. Especially, CTF-FUM-350 has the highest nitrogen content (27.64%) and thus the highest CO2 adsorption capacity (57.2 cc/g at 298 K) and selectivities for CO2 over N2 and CH4 (102.4 and 20.5 at 298 K, respectively) among all CTF-FUM and CTF-DCN. More impressively, as far as we know, the CO2/CH4 selectivity is larger than that of all reported CTFs and ranks in top 10 among all reported POFs. Dynamic breakthrough curves indicate that both CTFs could indeed separate gas mixtures of CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 completely.

  7. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N) Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Shanmei; Gan Lu

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG) algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV) combined with auto scale(AS), the partial l...

  8. Plant yield and nitrogen content of a digitgrass in response to azospirillum inoculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schank, S.C.; Weier, K.L.; MacRae, I.C.

    1981-02-01

    Two Australian soils, a vertisol (pH 6.8, 0.299% N) and a sandy yellow podzol (pH 6.2, 0.042% N), were used with digitgrass, Digitaria sp. X46-2 (PI 421785), in a growth room experiment. Comparisons were made between plants inoculated with live and autoclaved bacterial suspensions of Australian and Brazilian isolates of Azospirillum brasilense. Seedlings were inoculated on days 10 and 35. Acetylene-reducing activity was measured five times during the experiment. Dry matter yields of the digitgrass on the podzol (low N) inoculated with liver bacteria were 23% higher than those of the controls. On the vertisol (high N), yield increases from inoculation with live bacteria were 8.5%. The higher-yielding plants had significantly lower precent nitrogen, but when total nitrogen of the tops was calculated, the inoculated plants had a higher total N than did the controls (P = 0.04). Acetylene-reducing activity was variable in the experiment, ranging from 0.5 to 11.9 mu mol of C2H2 core -1 day -1. Live bacterial treatment induced a proliferation of roots, possible earlier maturity, higher percent dry matter, and a higher total N in the tops. (Refs. 21).

  9. The effect of nitrogen limitation on acetyl-CoA carboxylase expression and fatty acid content in Chromera velia and Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerlimann, Roger; Steinig, Eike J; Loxton, Heather; Zenger, Kyall R; Jerry, Dean R; Heimann, Kirsten

    2014-06-15

    Lipids from microalgae have become a valuable product with applications ranging from biofuels to human nutrition. While changes in fatty acid (FA) content and composition under nitrogen limitation are well documented, the involved molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) is a key enzyme in the FA synthesis and elongation pathway. Plastidial and cytosolic ACCases provide malonyl-CoA for de novo FA synthesis in the plastid and FA elongation in the endoplasmic reticulum, respectively. The present study aimed at investigating the expression of plastidial and cytosolic ACCase in Chromera velia and Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO) and their impact on FA content and elongation level when grown under nitrogen-deplete conditions. In C. velia, plastidial ACCase was significantly upregulated during nitrogen starvation and with culture age, strongly correlating with increased FA content. Conversely, plastidial ACCase of I. aff. galbana was not differentially expressed in nitrogen-deplete cultures, but upregulated during the logarithmic phase of nitrogen-replete cultures. In contrast to plastidial ACCase, the cytosolic ACCase of C. velia was downregulated with culture age and nitrogen-starvation, strongly correlating with an increase in medium-chain FAs. In conclusion, the expression of plastidial and cytosolic ACCase changed with growth phase and nutrient status in a species-specific manner and nitrogen limitation did not always result in FA accumulation.

  10. Carbon and nitrogen in Danish forest soils - Contents and distribution determined by soil order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, Henrik; Callesen, Ingeborg; Vesterdal, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and widespread deposition of N to terrestrial ecosystems has increased the focus on soil C and N pools. The aim of this study was to estimate the size and distribution of organic C and N pools in well-drained Danish forest soils. We examined 140 forest...... soil profiles from pedological surveys of Danish forest soils. We calculated total C and N pools in organic layers and mineral soils to a depth of 1 m. The profiles represent variations in texture (sandy to loamy), and soil order (USDA soil taxonomy Spodosols, Alfisols, Entisols,,and Inceptisols......)) and least in Spodosols (0.51 kg m(-2)). The main contributor to the high C content in Spodosols is the spodic horizons containing illuvial humus, and thick organic horizons. Carbon and N concentrations decreased with soil depth. Soil clay content was negatively correlated to C content and positively...

  11. Wavelength Selection of Hyperspectral LIDAR Based on Feature Weighting for Estimation of Leaf Nitrogen Content in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lin; Shi, Shuo; Gong, Wei; Yang, Jian; Sun, Jia; Mao, Feiyue

    2016-06-01

    Hyperspectral LiDAR (HSL) is a novel tool in the field of active remote sensing, which has been widely used in many domains because of its advantageous ability of spectrum-gained. Especially in the precise monitoring of nitrogen in green plants, the HSL plays a dispensable role. The exiting HSL system used for nitrogen status monitoring has a multi-channel detector, which can improve the spectral resolution and receiving range, but maybe result in data redundancy, difficulty in system integration and high cost as well. Thus, it is necessary and urgent to pick out the nitrogen-sensitive feature wavelengths among the spectral range. The present study, aiming at solving this problem, assigns a feature weighting to each centre wavelength of HSL system by using matrix coefficient analysis and divergence threshold. The feature weighting is a criterion to amend the centre wavelength of the detector to accommodate different purpose, especially the estimation of leaf nitrogen content (LNC) in rice. By this way, the wavelengths high-correlated to the LNC can be ranked in a descending order, which are used to estimate rice LNC sequentially. In this paper, a HSL system which works based on a wide spectrum emission and a 32-channel detector is conducted to collect the reflectance spectra of rice leaf. These spectra collected by HSL cover a range of 538 nm - 910 nm with a resolution of 12 nm. These 32 wavelengths are strong absorbed by chlorophyll in green plant among this range. The relationship between the rice LNC and reflectance-based spectra is modeled using partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVMs) based on calibration and validation datasets respectively. The results indicate that I) wavelength selection method of HSL based on feature weighting is effective to choose the nitrogen-sensitive wavelengths, which can also be co-adapted with the hardware of HSL system friendly. II) The chosen wavelength has a high correlation with rice LNC which can be

  12. Growth and characterization of BCN nanotubes with high boron and nitrogen content

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guo Zhang; Zhiye Liu; Lianping Zhang; Liqiang Jing; Keying Shi

    2013-09-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes doped with boron and nitrogen (BCNTs) have been synthesized by chemical vapour deposition at temperatures ranging from 800°C to 950°C. Their morphological and structural features have been studied by transmission electron microscope, which reveal that BCNTs have bamboo-like structure. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated that the atomic ratio of B, C and N of BCNTs is about 1:4:1, when temperature is 850°C. Electrooxidation performance of the BCNTs for NO at the modified electrodes was investigated. The results of cyclic voltammograms and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of BCNT-modified electrodes indicated that the activity of NO electrooxidation on 850°C-modified electrodes is much stronger than others and the charge transfer resistance of NO electroxidation BCNT-modified electrode is the least. By this means, BCNT-modified electrodes showed excellent electrode materials for NO detection and other potential applications.

  13. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Shanmei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV combined with auto scale(AS, the partial least square regression (PLSR model was established using the full spectral range, which had the best prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9124, Rp2 of 0.8816, RMSECV of 1.5889, and RMSEP of 1.7719, respectively. After the optimum wavelengths which is closely related to the TVB-N content of beef samples was obtained using the competitive adaptive re-weighted (CARS algorithm, a new PLSR model was established using the optimum wavelengths, which had outstanding prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9235, Rp2 of 0.9241, RMSECV of 1.4881, and RMSEP of 1.4882, respectively.The study showed that HSI is a powerful technique to predict the TVB-N content in beef by a nondestructive way.

  14. Interactions of Nitrogen Source and Rate and Weed Removal Timing Relative to Nitrogen Content in Corn and Weeds and Corn Grain Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alexandra M; Everman, Wesley J; Jordan, David L; Heiniger, Ronnie W; Smyth, T Jot

    2017-01-01

    Adequate fertility combined with effective weed management is important in maximizing corn (Zea mays L.) grain yield. Corn uptake of nitrogen (N) is dependent upon many factors including weed species and density and the rate and formulation of applied N fertilizer. Understanding interactions among corn, applied N, and weeds is important in developing management strategies. Field studies were conducted in North Carolina to compare corn and weed responses to urea ammonium nitrate (UAN), sulfur-coated urea (SCU), and composted poultry litter (CPL) when a mixture of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) and large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.) was removed with herbicides at heights of 8 or 16 cm. These respective removal timings corresponded with 22 and 28 days after corn planting or V2 and V3 stages of growth, respectively. Differences in N content in above-ground biomass of corn were noted early in the season due to weed interference but did not translate into differences in corn grain yield. Interactions of N source and N rate were noted for corn grain yield but these factors did not interact with timing of weed control. These results underscore that timely implementation of control tactics regardless of N fertility management is important to protect corn grain yield.

  15. Interactions of Nitrogen Source and Rate and Weed Removal Timing Relative to Nitrogen Content in Corn and Weeds and Corn Grain Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M. Knight

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate fertility combined with effective weed management is important in maximizing corn (Zea mays L. grain yield. Corn uptake of nitrogen (N is dependent upon many factors including weed species and density and the rate and formulation of applied N fertilizer. Understanding interactions among corn, applied N, and weeds is important in developing management strategies. Field studies were conducted in North Carolina to compare corn and weed responses to urea ammonium nitrate (UAN, sulfur-coated urea (SCU, and composted poultry litter (CPL when a mixture of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats. and large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L. was removed with herbicides at heights of 8 or 16 cm. These respective removal timings corresponded with 22 and 28 days after corn planting or V2 and V3 stages of growth, respectively. Differences in N content in above-ground biomass of corn were noted early in the season due to weed interference but did not translate into differences in corn grain yield. Interactions of N source and N rate were noted for corn grain yield but these factors did not interact with timing of weed control. These results underscore that timely implementation of control tactics regardless of N fertility management is important to protect corn grain yield.

  16. Onsite and online FT-NIR spectroscopy for the estimation of total nitrogen and moisture content in poultry manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, E; Castaldelli, G; Ferrari, G; Marchetti, M G; Pedrini, P; Aschonitis, V G

    2015-01-01

    The nitrogen and moisture of manure are highly variable parameters and depend on animal type, husbandry techniques, environmental conditions and storage time. The precision in manure dose estimation for crops fertilization depends on the total nitrogen and moisture content just before its incorporation in the field. The aim of the study is to develop a Fourier Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy method to determine the total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN%) and moisture (M%) of different types of poultry manure prior to land application. Samples covering a wide range of poultry types and different husbandry conditions were obtained from farms of North-Eastern Italy in order to develop the method. The method was calibrated (R(2) = 0.94 for TKN%, R(2) = 0.99 for M%) and validated (R(2) = 0.82 for TKN%, R(2) = 0.95 for M%) in the laboratory. An external validation was also performed in situ with independent samples, of similar origin to the previous data set, which were collected just before application in the field. Spectra acquisitions for these samples were carried out using the same instrumentation which was placed in a special vehicle for monitoring campaigns. The results showed satisfactory prediction accuracy (R(2) = 0.82 for TKN%, R(2) = 0.93 for M%). Finally, an additional analysis was performed to discriminate the different types of poultry effluents. The TKN and M measurements in the disposal areas indicated that current agronomic practices lead to more than double poultry manure oversupply. The proposed FT-NIR methodology aims to improve the current fertilization management and environmental protection by providing fast and precise estimations of poultry manure doses prior to land application.

  17. Effect of nitrogen content on the degradation mechanisms of thin Ta-Si-N diffusion barriers for Cu metallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, R. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: rhuebner@uamail.albany.edu; Hecker, M. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Mattern, N. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Hoffmann, V. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Wetzig, K. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Heuer, H. [Dresden University of Technology, Semiconductor and Microsystems Technology Laboratory, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Wenzel, Ch. [Dresden University of Technology, Semiconductor and Microsystems Technology Laboratory, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Engelmann, H.-J. [AMD Saxony LLC and Co. KG, Materials Analysis Department, D-01330 Dresden (Germany); Gehre, D. [AMD Saxony LLC and Co. KG, Materials Analysis Department, D-01330 Dresden (Germany); Zschech, E. [AMD Saxony LLC and Co. KG, Materials Analysis Department, D-01330 Dresden (Germany)

    2006-04-03

    The effect of the nitrogen content on the thermal stability and degradation mechanisms of Ta-Si-N diffusion barriers was studied using methods that prove Cu interdiffusion. On the one hand, glancing angle X-ray diffraction was applied to detect Cu{sub 3}Si formation after annealing of Cu/Ta-Si-N/Si layer stacks. On the other hand, a combined secondary ion mass spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis of Ta-Si-N/Cu/Ta-Si-N/SiO{sub 2}/Si samples was performed. For a detailed investigation of the microstructure evolution, the crystallization behavior of both Cu-capped and uncapped Ta-Si-N/Si samples was analyzed using X-ray diffraction. In the case of an uncapped Ta{sub 73}Si{sub 27} film, Si interdiffusion from the substrate precedes the layer crystallization. The substrate influence on the crystallization process decreases with increasing N content x {sub N} of the Ta-Si-N layer. Using Cu/Ta-Si-N/Si samples, a critical temperature for Cu silicide formation was determined. This temperature increases with increasing N content of the Ta-Si-N barrier. In the case of Ta-Si-N films with x {sub N} > 25 at.%, Cu interdiffusion into the substrate occurs before a significant barrier crystallization is observed. For Ta-Si-N layers with x {sub N} {<=} 25 at.%, no indications for Cu diffusion before crystalline phase formation were detected.

  18. Long-term multifactorial climate change impacts on mesofaunal biomass and nitrogen content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergård, Mette; Dyrnum, Kristine; Michelsen, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration accompanied by temperature increases and altered precipitation patterns calls for assessment of long-term effects of these climatic changes on soil organisms that are essential for ecosystem functioning. In a long-term, full-factorial climate change...... microbial N content and enchytraeid biomass. The biomass of all mesofaunal groups was reduced by spring drought, especially when combined with warming. Enchytraeid and especially collembolan biomass suffered greater drought declines than mite biomasses. We conclude that under long-term elevated CO2 exposure...... field experiment, with factors elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, warming and prolonged summer drought, we assessed the responses of Collembola, oribatid and mesostigmatic mites and enchytraeid worms after 8 years of treatment. Both the biomasses and N content of oribatid and mesostigmatic mites...

  19. Synthesis and photocatalytic property of N-doped TiO 2 nanorods and nanotubes with high nitrogen content

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z.; He, H. Y.

    2011-11-01

    Nano N-doped TiO2 nanotubes were fabricated by hydrothermally treating N-doped TiO2 nanorods in a 8 M NaOH solution at 110 °C for 20 h. The N-doped TiO2 nanorods were synthesized by a solvothermal process with precursor solution containing titanium sulfate, urea, and dichloroethane. The N-doped TiO2 nanorods and nanotubes were characterized with X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The nitrogen contents of the N-doped TiO2 nanorods and nanotubes were reached to high values of 36.9 at.% and 25.7 at.%, respectively. The nitrogen doping narrowed the band gap of the N-doped TiO2 nanorods and nanotubes and introduced indirect band gap to the powders, which respectively extended the absorption edge to visible light and infrared region. The nanotubes showed larger specific surface area and greater degradation efficiency to methyl orange than the nanorods.

  20. Effect of dietary fiber and crude protein content in feed on nitrogen retention in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrás, P; Nitrayová, S; Brestenský, M; Heger, J

    2012-12-01

    Eight gilts (29.9 ± 1.7 kg initial BW) were used to evaluate effects of dietary (crude) fiber on N excretion via feces and urine at 2 levels of dietary CP. Pigs were fed 4 dietary treatments according to a double 4 × 4 Latin square. Treatments were low (14%) CP and low (3.25%) (crude) fiber (LPAA), low CP and high (4.46%) fiber (LPAABP), high (18.8%) CP and low fiber (HP), and high CP and high fiber (HPBP). Diets were based on soybean (Glycine max) meal, wheat (Triticum aestivum), and maize (Zea mays) and were supplemented with crystalline AA. High fiber diets contained 15% dried beet (Beta vulgaris) pulp. Pigs were housed in metabolic cages and fed 2 equal meals at 0700 and 1700 h at a daily rate of 90 g/kg BW(0.75). Water was offered ad libitum. Each experimental period consisted of a 6-d adaptation followed by a 4-d collection of feces and urine (bladder catheters). Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Differences between means (P fiber (HP vs. HPBR). With added fiber, urinary N excretion (g/d) was reduced (P fiber diets irrespective of dietary CP content. Dietary fiber level did not affect DMI. Fecal DM excretion (g/d) was higher (P fiber content than in pigs fed diets with high CP and low fiber content. In conclusion, beet pulp fiber added to diets increased fecal N and reduced urinary N and in diets with higher CP content increased overall N retention.

  1. Effects of Nitrogen Nutrition and Salinity Stress on 1000-Grain Weight, Mucilage Content and Nutrient Uptake in Psyllium (Plantago ovata F.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heidari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of salinity stress and three nitrogen fertilizers on some traits of psyllium (Plantago ovata plants, a factorial experiment, as completely randomized design with three replications, was carried out at University of Zabol, in 2010. Salinity at three levels (0, 100 and 200 mM sodium chloride was the main plot and three forms of nitrogen source (nitrate from calcium nitrate, ammonium from ammonium sulfate, and ammonium + nitrate (50: 50 were the sub-plot. Seeds were sown in pots containing clean sand. After germination, plants nutrition was by application of Hoagland solution, which was prepared according to the nitrogen treatments. Salinity stress was started at 2-leaf stage. Results showed that salinity significantly affected 1000-grain weight, spike length, mucilage content of grains, and swelling index of psyllium grains. By increasing salinity level, the spike length and 1000-grain weight were decreased 21.5% and 27.3%, respectively. Among the four mentioned traits, interaction of salinity and nitrogen treatment significantly affected only the spike length. Maximum spike length was obtained in non-saline treatment and ammonium fertilizer. Salinity stress increased the sodium and chlorine ions and decreased the potassium content in shoots. Nitrogen source and interaction between salinity and nitrogen significantly affected the content of these elements in plants. The highest concentration of sodium and potassium was obtained in 200 mM sodium chloride and non-saline treatments (control, respectively, along with application of ammonium fertilizer.

  2. Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes Using Injection-Vertical Chemical Vapor Deposition: Effects of Synthesis Parameters on the Nitrogen Content

    OpenAIRE

    Abdouelilah Hachimi; Belabbes Merzougui; Abbas Hakeem; Tahar Laoui; Swain, Greg M.; Qiaowan Chang; Minhua Shao; Muataz Ali Atieh

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped CNTs (N-CNTs) were synthesized using an injection-vertical chemical vapor deposition (IV-CVD) reactor. This type of reactor is quite useful for the continuous mass production of CNTs. In this work, the optimum deposition conditions for maximizing the incorporation of nitrogen were identified. Ferrocene served as the source of the Fe catalyst and was dissolved in acetonitrile, which served as both the hydrocarbon and nitrogen sources. Different concentrations of ferrocene in ace...

  3. Nitrogen content, {sup 15}N natural abundance and biomass of the two pleurocarpous mosses Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Scleropodium purum (Hedw.) Limpr. in relation to atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solga, A. [Nees-Institute for Biodiversity of Plants, University of Bonn, Meckenheimer Allee 170, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)]. E-mail: a.solga@uni-bonn.de; Burkhardt, J. [Institute of Plant Nutrition, University of Bonn, Karlrobert-Kreiten-Strasse 13, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Zechmeister, H.G. [Institute of Ecology and Conservation Biology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1091 Vienna (Austria); Frahm, J.-P. [Nees-Institute for Biodiversity of Plants, University of Bonn, Meckenheimer Allee 170, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The suitability of the two pleurocarpous mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Scleropodium purum for assessing spatial variation in nitrogen deposition was investigated. Sampling was carried out at eight sites in the western part of Germany with bulk deposition rates ranging between 6.5 and 18.5 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. In addition to the effect of deposition on the nitrogen content of the two species, its influence on {sup 15}N natural abundance ({delta}{sup 15}N values) and on productivity was examined. Annual increases of the mosses were used for all analyses. Significant relationships between bulk N deposition and nitrogen content were obtained for both species; {delta}{sup 15}N-values reflected the ratio of NH{sub 4}-N to NO{sub 3}-N in deposition. A negative effect of nitrogen input on productivity, i.e. decreasing biomass per area with increasing N deposition due to a reduction of stem density, was particularly evident with P. schreberi. Monitoring of N deposition by means of mosses is considered an important supplement to existing monitoring programs. It makes possible an improved spatial resolution, and thus those areas that receive high loads of nitrogen are more easily discernible. - Mosses are useful as monitors of nitrogen deposition.

  4. Effect of soil contamination with fluorine on the yield and content of nitrogen forms in the biomass of crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostek, Radosław; Ciećko, Zdzisław

    2017-02-13

    The research was based on a pot experiment, in which the response of eight species of crops to soil contamination with fluorine was investigated. In parallel, some inactivating substances were tested in terms of their potential use for the neutralization of the harmful influence of fluorine on plants. The response of crops to soil contamination with fluorine was assessed according to the volume of biomass produced by aerial organs and roots as well as their content of N-total, N-protein, and N-NO3(-). The following crops were tested: maize, yellow lupine, winter oilseed rape, spring triticale, narrow-leaf lupine, black radish, phacelia, and lucerne. In most cases, soil pollution with fluorine stimulated the volume of biomass produced by the plants. The exceptions included grain and straw of spring triticale, maize roots, and aerial parts of lucerne, where the volume of harvested biomass was smaller in treatments with fluorine-polluted soil. Among the eight plant species, lucerne was most sensitive to the pollution despite smaller doses of fluorine in treatments with this plant. The other species were more tolerant to elevated concentrations of fluorine in soil. In most of the tested plants, the analyzed organs contained more total nitrogen, especially aerial organs and roots of black radish, grain and straw of spring triticale, and aerial biomass of lucerne. A decrease in the total nitrogen content due to soil contamination with fluorine was detected only in the aerial mass of yellow lupine. With respect to protein nitrogen, its increase in response to fluorine as a soil pollutant was found in grain of spring triticale and roots of black radish, whereas the aerial biomass of winter oilseed rape contained less of this nutrient. Among the analyzed neutralizing substances, lime most effectively alleviated the negative effect of soil pollution with fluorine. The second most effective substance was loam, while charcoal was the least effective in this respect. Our

  5. Parametric investigation on the effect of nitrogen to reduce SF6 content in spark gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Avinash; Khaidir, Nur; Ishak, Sanuri; Ghani, Basri Abdul; Chakrabarty, Chandan; Permal, Navitharshaani; Ahmad, Harizan

    2017-03-01

    Almost all the MV and HV switchgears used by power utilities for interrupting faults are Sulphur Hexaflouride SF6 gas circuit breakers as this gas has the best dielectric properties to quench the onset of an arc in the event of fault. However due to strong dissociating properties of this gas when in contact with air that can release fluorine into the atmosphere, the Kyoto protocol has mandated to reduce the usage of SF6 in the future. SF6 is a greenhouse gas and it's about 3000 more severe than CO2. And that's the reason for replacing this gas. A close match in the quenching properties to SF6 that is now being intensively researched is nitrogen N2. This gas is considered to be an inert gas, and its release into the atmosphere has no harmful effects (except for asphyxiation - which can be easily handled with awareness). As the need for a replacement of SF6 becomes critical in the near future, the urgency to find the right gas is immediate. Hence the proposed work in this paper is to make a comprehensive parametric investigation of N2 gas in vacuum spark-gap. The spark-gap is chosen due to flexibility in changing the gap distance and easily be housed in vacuum. The parameters to be investigated are pure N2 and N2/ SF6 mix. The settling-time of the electrical break-down voltage and current are measured using voltage probe and Pearson probe. This time is paramount as it determines the speed of breaking the circuit. A faster breaking time ensures the safety of other HV equipment in the circuit. A comparative study between the various parameters will be conducted to obtain the best recipe (gas mix and gap distance) that gives the shortest settling time the breakdown using N2/ SF6/Mixture gas was successfully conducted and a Paschen curve has been established.

  6. Rice Crop Field Monitoring System with Radio Controlled Helicopter Based Near Infrared Cameras Through Nitrogen Content Estimation and Its Distribution Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice crop field monitoring system with radio controlled helicopter based near infrared cameras is proposed together with nitrogen content estimation method for monitoring its distribution in the field in concern. Through experiments at the Saga Prefectural Agricultural Research Institute: SPARI, it is found that the proposed system works well for monitoring nitrogen content in the rice crop which indicates quality of the rice crop and its distribution in the field in concern. Therefore, it becomes available to maintain the rice crop fields in terms of quality control.

  7. Variations of Microbial Communities and the Contents and Isotopic Compositions of Total Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen in Soil Samples during Their Preservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Qianye; LI Yumei; WANG Guo'an; QIAO Yuhui; LIU Tung-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Semi-sealed preservation of soil samples at difierent moisture of 4%and 23%,respectively, was simulated to observe the variations of soil microbiaI communities and determine the contents and isotopic compositions of the total organic carbon and total nitrogen on the 7th and 30th day, respectively.The results show that during preservation,the quantity of microbial communities tended to increase first and then decrease,with a wider variation range at higher moisture(23%).At the moisture content of 23%,the microbial communities became more active on the 7th day.but less after 30 days,and their activity Was stable with little fluctuation at the moisture content of 4%.However. there were no significant changes in the contents and isotopic compositions of the total organic carbon and total nitrogen.During preservation.the responses of soil microbes to the environment are more sensitive to changes in the total nitrogen and organic carbon contents.It is thus suggested that the variations of microbial communities have not exerted remarkable impacts on the isotope compositions of the total nitrogen and total organic carbon.

  8. Effect of different fertilizers on nitrogen isotope composition and nitrate content of Brassica campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuwei; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Zhiheng; Chen, Tianjin; Yang, Guiling; Wang, Qiang

    2012-02-15

    The effect of different fertilizers on the δ(15)N value, nitrate concentration, and nitrate reductase activity of Brassica campestris and the δ(15)N value of soil has been investigated through a pot experiment. The δ(15)N mean value of B. campestris at the seedling stage observed in the composted chicken treatment (+8.65‰) was higher than that of chemical fertilizer treatment (+5.73‰), compost-chemical fertilizer (+7.53‰), and control check treatment (+7.86‰). There were significantly different δ(15)N values (p fertilizer treatment. The similar results were also found at the middle stage and the terminal stage. The variation of δ(15)N value in soil for different treatments was smaller than that of B. campestris, which was +6.71-+8.12‰, +6.83-+8.24‰, and +6.85-8.4‰, respectively, at seedling stage, middle stage, and terminal stage. With the growth of B. campestris, the nitrate content decreased in all treatments, and the nitrate reductase activity in B. campestris increased except for the CK. Results suggested that the δ(15)N values of B. campestris and soil were more effected by the fertilizer than by the dose level, and the δ(15)N value analysis could be used as a tool to discriminate the B. campestris cultivated with composted manure or chemical fertilizer.

  9. Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of 316LN Stainless Steel Alloyed with Varying Nitrogen Content. Part II: Fatigue Life and Fracture Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Reddy, G. V.; Sandhya, R.; Sankaran, S.; Mathew, M. D.

    2014-10-01

    Influence of nitrogen content on low cycle fatigue life and fracture behavior of 316LN stainless steel (SS) alloyed with 0.07 to 0.22 wt pct nitrogen is presented in this paper over a range of total strain amplitudes ( ±0.25 to 1.0 pct) in the temperature range from 773 K to 873 K (500 °C to 600 °C). The combined effect of nitrogen and strain amplitude on fatigue life is observed to be complex i.e., fatigue life either decreases/increases with increase in nitrogen content or saturates/peaks at 0.14 wt pct N depending on strain amplitude and temperature. Coffin-Manson plots (CMPs) revealed both single-slope and dual-slope strain-life curves depending on the test temperature and nitrogen content. 316LN SS containing 0.07 and 0.22 wt pct N showed nearly single-slope CMP at all test temperatures, while 316LN SS with 0.11 and 0.14 wt pct N exhibited marked dual-slope behavior at 773 K (500 °C) that changes to single-slope behavior at 873 K (600 °C). The changes in slope of CMP are found to be in good correlation with deformation substructural changes.

  10. Top-dressing nitrogen fertilizer rate contributes to decrease culm physical strength by reducing structural carbohydrate content in japonica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wu-jun; WANG Shao-hua; WU Long-mei; DING Yan-feng; WENG Fei; WU Xiao-ran; LI Gang-hua; LIU Zheng-hui; TANG She; DING Cheng-qiang

    2016-01-01

    Lodging is an important factor limiting rice yield and quality by bending or breaking stem injaponica rice (Oryza sativaL.) production. The objectives of this study were to determine the mechanism of lodging resistance injaponica rice as affected by carbohydrate components, especialy its related arrangement in culm tissue and response to top-dressing nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Field experiments were conducted in Danyang County, Jiangsu Province, China, by using twojaponica rice vari-eties Wuyunjing 23 (lodging-resistance variety) and W3668 (lodging-susceptible variety) with three top-dressing N fertilizer rates (0, 135 and 270 kg N ha–1) in 2013 and 2014. Lodging related physical parameters, morphological characteristics and stem carbohydrate components were investigated at 30 d after ful heading stage. Results showed that with increasing N fertilizer rates, the lodging rate and lodging index increased rapidly primarily due to signiifcant reduction of breaking strength in twojaponica rice varieties. Correlation analysis revealed that breaking strength was signiifcantly and positively correlated with bending stress, but negatively correlated with section modulus, except for signiifcant correlation at W3668 in 2014. Higher stem plumpness status and structural carbohydrate contents signiifcantly enhanced stem stiffness, despite of lower non-structural carbohydrate. With higher N fertilizer rate, the culm wal thickness was almost identical, and culm diameter increased slightly. The structural carbohydrates, especialy for lignin content in culm, reduced signiifcantly under high N rate. Further histochemical staining analysis revealed that high N treatments decreased the lignin deposition rapidly in the sclerenchyma cels of mechanical tissue, large vascular bundle and smal vascular bundle region, which were consistent with reduction of bending stress, especialy for W3668 and thus, resulted in poor stem strength and higher lodging index. These results suggested that

  11. Using a Chlorophyll Meter to Evaluate the Nitrogen Leaf Content in Flue-Cured Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Contillo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In flue-cured tobacco N fertilizer is commonly applied during pre-planting, and very often applied again later as a growth-starter. It is generally held that the efficiency of N-fertilizer use can be improved by evaluating the leaf Nstatus after transplanting and until flowering stage. N use efficiency in this context does not refer merely to the yield but also to the quality, in the meanwhile minimizing the negative effects on the environment. To investigate these aspects, we evaluated the capacity of a Minolta model SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter to estimate the N-status in flue-cured tobacco. The aims was to verify if a relationship exists between SPAD readings and leaf N content, and if a single leaf, in a well defined stalk position, could represent the nitrogen content of the whole plant. During the years 1995 and 1996, a pot experiment was conducted using two flue-cured tobacco varieties. SPAD values, total chlorophyll, total N contents and leaf area were measured throughout the growing season, on each odd leaf stalk position. SPAD values were well-correlated with both total chlorophyll and total N leaf concentration, and the regression coefficients were higher when relationships were calculated on a leaf-area basis. For both relationships, SPAD-total chlorophyll and SPAD-total N, the best fittings were obtained with quadratic equations. One leaf stalk position alone is able to monitor the N-status of the whole plant during the first six weeks after transplanting, without distinction of year and variety effects. The SPAD measurement of one leaf per plant, throughout the vegetative growing season, is therefore a valid tool to test the N-status of the crop in a period when a required N supply is still effective.

  12. Comparison of near infrared reflectance analysis of fecal fat, nitrogen and water with conventional methods, and fecal energy content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Neucker, A; Bijleveld, CMA; Wolthers, BG; Swaaneburg, JCJM; Kester, ADM; van Kreel, B; Forget, PP

    Objectives: To evaluate Near-Infrared Analysis (NIRA) method for determining fecal fat, water and nitrogen. Design and methods: The results of fecal fat, water and nitrogen by NIRA were compared with results of van de Kamer and Acid Steatocrit (AS), Dumas and vacuum drying methods for fat, nitrogen

  13. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on yield, N content, and nitrogen ifxation of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass grown alone or in mixture in greenhouse pots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kai-yun; LI Xiang-lin; HE Feng; ZHANG Ying-jun; WAN Li-qiang; David B Hannaway; WANG Dong; QIN Yan; Gamal M A Fadul

    2015-01-01

    Planting grass and legume mixtures on improved grasslands has the potential advantage of realizing both higher yields and lower environmental pol ution by optimizing the balance between applied N fertilizer and the natural process of legume biological nitrogen ifxation. However, the optimal level of N fertilization for grass-legume mixtures, to obtain the highest yield, quality, and contribution of N2 ifxation, varies with species. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the temporal dynamics of N2 ifxation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) grown alone and in mixture with smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) in response to the addition of fertilizer N. Three levels of N (0, 75, and 150 kg ha–1) were examined using 15N-labeled urea to evaluate N2 ifxation via the 15N isotope dilution method. Treatments were designated N0 (0.001 g per pot), N75 (1.07 g per pot) and N150 (2.14 g per pot). Alfalfa grown alone did not beneift from the addition of fertilizer N;dry matter was not signiifcantly increased. In contrast, dry weight and N content of smooth bromegrass grown alone was increased signiifcantly by N application. When grown as a mixture, smooth bromegrass biomass was increased signiifcantly by N application, resulted in a decrease in alfalfa biomass. In addition, individual alfalfa plant dry weight (shoots+roots) was signiifcantly lower in the mixture than when grown alone at al N levels. Smooth bromegrass shoot and root dry weight were signiifcantly higher when grown with alfalfa than when grown alone, regardless of N application level. When grown alone, alfalfa’s N2 ifxation was reduced with N fertilization (R2=0.9376, P=0.0057). When grown in a mixture with smooth bromegrass, with 75 kg ha–1 of N fertilizer, the percentage of atmospheric N2 ifxation contribution to total N in alfalfa (%Ndfa) had a maximum of 84.07 and 83.05%in the 2nd and 3rd harvests, respectively. Total 3-harvest%Ndfa was higher when alfalfa was grown in a mixture than when

  14. 低合金钢冶炼过程增氮行为分析%Behavior Analysis of Nitrogen Content Increasing in Low Alloy Steel Smelting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 范植金; 丁礼权

    2014-01-01

    为提高中厚板系列低合金钢氮含量控制水平,从热力学、动力学角度全面分析冶炼过程增氮行为,并结合相关试验对影响钢液增氮的因素进行分析。结果表明,氮在钢液中的溶解度与温度、氮分压以及合金成分有关;气泡—钢液面上的吸附化学反应为限制性环节;当钢液中w(O)≥0.04%或w(S)≥0.06%,钢液吸氮基本停止;当转炉全程底吹氮强度不超过0.025 m3/(min·t)时,转炉终点氮含量可控制在10×10-6以内。%In order to improve the level of nitrogen content control of low alloy steel, the paper analyzed the behavior of nitrogen content increasing from the perspective of thermodynamics and kinetics, and illustrated the factors with related experiment. The results show that, the nitrogen solubility in liquid steel relate to temperature, nitrogen partial pressure and alloy composition;bubbles-liquid steel surface chemical reaction is restrictive link; when w(O) ≥0.04% or w(S) ≥0.06% , the increasing nitrogen process of liquid steel stopped; when the whole strength of bottom blowing nitrogen of BOF is no more than 0.025 m3/(min·t), nitrogen content of converter can be controlled within 10×10-6.

  15. Effects of Cycocel on Morphological Traits, Nitrogen and Potassium Content of Basil Plants under Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rezaei Estakhroeih

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Basil (Ocimum basilicum is an annual plant which belongs to the Lamiaceae family. It used as a drug, spice and fresh vegetable. Drought stress is one of the important limiting factors of plant growth. Water stress has significant effects on morphological and biochemical characteristics of purple Basil. As the soil water content decreases, the plant height, stem diameter, number and area of leaves, leaf area index (LAI, herb yield and leaf chlorophyll contents (a,b and total chlorophyll decrease, as well. However, the amounts of anthocyanin and proline increase. Cycocel (CCC which chemically called chlormequat chloride is an alkylating agent and a quaternary ammonium salt.. Cycocel is used as plant growth regulator. Application of Cycocel increases the number of siliques/ plant, seed yield and dry matter produced of oilseed rape. Cycocel application decreases the plant height and increases the yield level and protein percentage of seed in faba bean. This research was performed to investigate the effect of Cycocel on morphological characteristics, the percentage of nitrogen and potassium of basil plants under drought stress conditions Materials and Methods This research has been conducted in the research station of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman with 56o 58' E longitude, 30o 15' N latitude, and 1753.8 altitudes. According to the regional information from 1952 to 2005, the average temperature was 17.1 o C, the average rainfall was 154.1 mm, the average annual relative humidity is 32%, and the climate of Kerman according to De Martonne method is semiarid. A split plot experiment based on RCBD with three replications was employed. Three levels of irrigation, including 50 (severe stress (I3, 75 (mild stress (I2 and 100 (full irrigation (I1 percent of crop water requirement were assigned to the main plots while five levels of Cycocel application (zero (control, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 milligrams per litre were assigned to the sub

  16. [Sediment content and nitrogen and phosphorus load characteristics of surface runoff on bamboo forest slopes: a simulation test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ping; Fu, Xing-Tao; Wu, Xi-Yuan

    2012-04-01

    To understand the load characteristics and related mechanisms of surface runoff on two management types of bamboo forests (bamboo timber forest and bamboo shoot forest) slopes (gradient 20 degrees) in Zhejiang Province, this study measured the runoff volume, sediment yield, its total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations of runoff under six artificial simulated rainfall intensity (31.8-114.0 mm x h(-1)). In bamboo timber forest, the total runoff volume and runoff coefficient were higher, but the runoff sediment content and the total sediment yield were far lower, as compared with those in bamboo shoot forest. The runoff TN concentration in bamboo shoot forest decreased with increasing rainfall intensity. Under the same rainfall intensity, the runoff TN concentration in bamboo shoot forest was 5-6 times of that in bamboo timber forest. The runoff TP concentration was higher in bamboo timber forest than in bamboo shoot forest, but the TP loss from the sediment runoff in bamboo shoot forest was hundreds times of that in bamboo timber forest. During the processes of the TN and TP losses from the sediment runoff, the TN and TP concentrations at the prophase of runoff yield played a cardinal role, while the runoff volume and sediment yield at the anaphase played a decisive role.

  17. Optimization of solid content, carbon/nitrogen ratio and food/inoculum ratio for biogas production from food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaser-Celik, Filiz; Azgin, Sukru Taner; Yildiz, Yalcin Sevki

    2016-12-01

    Biogas production from food waste has been used as an efficient waste treatment option for years. The methane yields from decomposition of waste are, however, highly variable under different operating conditions. In this study, a statistical experimental design method (Taguchi OA9) was implemented to investigate the effects of simultaneous variations of three parameters on methane production. The parameters investigated were solid content (SC), carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) and food/inoculum ratio (F/I). Two sets of experiments were conducted with nine anaerobic reactors operating under different conditions. Optimum conditions were determined using statistical analysis, such as analysis of variance (ANOVA). A confirmation experiment was carried out at optimum conditions to investigate the validity of the results. Statistical analysis showed that SC was the most important parameter for methane production with a 45% contribution, followed by F/I ratio with a 35% contribution. The optimum methane yield of 151 l kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) was achieved after 24 days of digestion when SC was 4%, C/N was 28 and F/I were 0.3. The confirmation experiment provided a methane yield of 167 l kg(-1) VS after 24 days. The analysis showed biogas production from food waste may be increased by optimization of operating conditions.

  18. Magnetization enhancement due to incorporation of non-magnetic nitrogen content in (Co{sub 84}Zr{sub 16})N{sub x} nano-composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jitendra, E-mail: jitendra@ceeri.ernet.in; Akhtar, Jamil [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, New Delhi 110001 (India); Shukla, Rishabh; Bagri, Anita; Dhaka, Rajendra S. [Novel Materials and Interface Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2016-01-15

    We report the magnetic, electronic, and structural properties of nano-composite (Co{sub 84}Zr{sub 16})N{sub x} or CZN films prepared by reactive co-sputter deposition method. As-deposited CZN films have shown enhancement in magnetization (M{sub s}) with incorporation of nitrogen content, which is related to the evolution of nano-composite phase. X-ray diffraction study has confirmed poly-crystalline growth of CZN films with fcc(331) and fcc(422) phases. High-resolution transmission electron microscope study reveals that CZN films are composed of ordered and crystalline ferromagnetic Co nano-clusters, which are embedded in the nano-composite matrix. Photoemission measurements show the change in the intensity near the Fermi level most likely due to defects and shift in the core-levels binding energy with nitrogen concentration. Raman spectroscopy data show an increase in the intensity of the Raman lines with nitrogen concentration upto 20%. However, the intensity is significantly lower for 30% sample. This indicates that less nitrogen or defect states are being substituted into the lattice above 20% and is consistent with the observed magnetic behavior. Our studies indicate that defects induced due to the incorporation of non-magnetic nitrogen content play a key role to enhance the magnetization.

  19. Magnetization enhancement due to incorporation of non-magnetic nitrogen content in (Co84Zr16Nx nano-composite films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the magnetic, electronic, and structural properties of nano-composite (Co84Zr16Nx or CZN films prepared by reactive co-sputter deposition method. As-deposited CZN films have shown enhancement in magnetization (Ms with incorporation of nitrogen content, which is related to the evolution of nano-composite phase. X-ray diffraction study has confirmed poly-crystalline growth of CZN films with fcc(331 and fcc(422 phases. High-resolution transmission electron microscope study reveals that CZN films are composed of ordered and crystalline ferromagnetic Co nano-clusters, which are embedded in the nano-composite matrix. Photoemission measurements show the change in the intensity near the Fermi level most likely due to defects and shift in the core-levels binding energy with nitrogen concentration. Raman spectroscopy data show an increase in the intensity of the Raman lines with nitrogen concentration upto 20%. However, the intensity is significantly lower for 30% sample. This indicates that less nitrogen or defect states are being substituted into the lattice above 20% and is consistent with the observed magnetic behavior. Our studies indicate that defects induced due to the incorporation of non-magnetic nitrogen content play a key role to enhance the magnetization.

  20. Fed-batch cultivation of baker's yeast followed by nitrogen or carbon starvation: effects on fermentative capacity and content of trehalose and glycogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Olsson, Lisbeth; Rønnow, B.

    2002-01-01

    An industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (DGI 342) was cultivated in fed-batch cultivations at a specific growth rate of 0.2 h(-1). The yeast was then exposed to carbon or nitrogen starvation for up to 8 h, to study the effect of starvation on fermentative capacity and content of protein...... of the yeast cells, and the fermentative capacity per gram dry-weight decreased by 40%. The protein content in the carbon-starved yeast increased as a result of starvation due to the fact that the content of glycogen was reduced. The fermentative capacity per gram dry-weight was, however, unaltered....

  1. Growth and content of Spirulina platensis biomass chlorophyll cultivated at different values of light intensity and temperature using different nitrogen sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Dalva Godoy Danesi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of light intensity and temperature in S. platensis cultivation with potassium nitrate or urea as nitrogen source were investigated, as well as the biomass chlorophyll contents of this cyanobacteria, through the Response Surface Methodology. Experiments were performed at temperatures from 25 to 34.5ºC and light intensities from 15 to 69 µmol photons m-2 s-1, in mineral medium. In cultivations with both sources of nitrogen, KNO3 and urea, statistic evaluation through multiple regression, no interactions of such independent variables were detected in the results of the dependent variables maximum cell concentration, chlorophyll biomass contents, cell and chlorophyll productivities, as well as in the nitrogen-cell conversion factor. In cultivation performed with both sources of nitrogen, it was possible to obtain satisfactory adjustments to relate the dependent variables to the independent variables. The best results were achieved at temperature of 30ºC, at light intensity of 60 µmol photons m-2s-1, for cell growth, with cell productivity of approximately 95 mg L-1 d-1 in cultivations with urea. For the chlorophyll biomass content, the most adequate light intensity was 24 µmol photons m-2 s-1.

  2. [Hyper spectral estimation method for soil alkali hydrolysable nitrogen content based on discrete wavelet transform and genetic algorithm in combining with partial least squares DWT-GA-PLS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Li, Xi-Can; Wang, Xiang-Feng; Li, Yu-Ling

    2013-11-01

    Taking the Qihe County in Shandong Province of East China as the study area, soil samples were collected from the field, and based on the hyperspectral reflectance measurement of the soil samples and the transformation with the first deviation, the spectra were denoised and compressed by discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the variables for the soil alkali hydrolysable nitrogen quantitative estimation models were selected by genetic algorithms (GA), and the estimation models for the soil alkali hydrolysable nitrogen content were built by using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The discrete wavelet transform and genetic algorithm in combining with partial least squares (DWT-GA-PLS) could not only compress the spectrum variables and reduce the model variables, but also improve the quantitative estimation accuracy of soil alkali hydrolysable nitrogen content. Based on the 1-2 levels low frequency coefficients of discrete wavelet transform, and under the condition of large scale decrement of spectrum variables, the calibration models could achieve the higher or the same prediction accuracy as the soil full spectra. The model based on the second level low frequency coefficients had the highest precision, with the model predicting R2 being 0.85, the RMSE being 8.11 mg x kg(-1), and RPD being 2.53, indicating the effectiveness of DWT-GA-PLS method in estimating soil alkali hydrolysable nitrogen content.

  3. Growth and Content of Spirulina Platensis Biomass Chlorophyll Cultivated at Different Values of Light Intensity and Temperature Using Different Nitrogen Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy Danesi, Eliane Dalva; Oliveira Rangel-Yagui, Carlota; Sato, Sunao; Monteiro de Carvalho, João Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The effects of light intensity and temperature in S. platensis cultivation with potassium nitrate or urea as nitrogen source were investigated, as well as the biomass chlorophyll contents of this cyanobacteria, through the Response Surface Methodology. Experiments were performed at temperatures from 25 to 34.5ºC and light intensities from 15 to 69 µmol photons m−2 s−1, in mineral medium. In cultivations with both sources of nitrogen, KNO3 and urea, statistic evaluation through multiple regression, no interactions of such independent variables were detected in the results of the dependent variables maximum cell concentration, chlorophyll biomass contents, cell and chlorophyll productivities, as well as in the nitrogen-cell conversion factor. In cultivation performed with both sources of nitrogen, it was possible to obtain satisfactory adjustments to relate the dependent variables to the independent variables. The best results were achieved at temperature of 30ºC, at light intensity of 60 µmol photons m−2s−1, for cell growth, with cell productivity of approximately 95 mg L−1 d−1 in cultivations with urea. For the chlorophyll biomass content, the most adequate light intensity was 24 µmol photons m−2 s−1. PMID:24031643

  4. Nitrogen fractions and mineral content in different lupin species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, and Lupinus luteus). Changes induced by the alpha-galactoside extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porres, Jesus M; Aranda, Pilar; López-Jurado, María; Urbano, Gloria

    2007-09-05

    The protein and mineral composition of different varieties of three different lupin species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, and Lupinus luteus) and the effect of alpha-galactoside removal by means of a hydroalcoholic extraction process on such composition were studied in relationship to nutrient distribution among the different anatomical parts of the seed (embryo, cotyledon, and seed coat). The extent of processing-derived protein insolubilization was assessed by both chemical and electrophoretic techniques and related to the amount of nitrogen soluble in H(2)O, NaCl, ethanol, NaOH, and sodium dodecyl sulfate/beta-mercaptoethanol (SDS/BME). The alpha-galactoside extraction process caused a significant increase in the amount of total and insoluble nitrogen and decreased the amount of soluble protein nitrogen, without affecting the content of soluble nonprotein nitrogen. alpha-Galactoside extraction was not effective at decreasing the levels of Mn present in lupins, and processing caused an increase in the content of this mineral in all of the species studied with the exception of L. albus var. multolupa. In general, the effect of processing on mineral content varied with the different lupin species, and mineral losses were lower in L. luteus.

  5. Use of radial basis function networks and near-infrared spectroscopy for the determination of total nitrogen content in soils from Sao Paulo State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidêncio, Paulo H; Poppi, Ronei J; de Andrade, João C; de Abreu, Mônica F

    2008-07-01

    Total nitrogen has been determined by using a model developed between the conventional chemical measurements and diffuse reflectance spectra in the near-infrared region. Samples (244) from different types of soils with total nitrogen contents ranging from 0.20 to 13.60% (m/m) were modeled by partial least-squares regression (PLS), multi-layer perceptron feed-forward networks (MLP) and radial basis function networks (RBFN). The RBFN model produced a better square error of prediction (SEP) of 0.048 and R(2) = 0.93 in a procedure that is simpler, faster and less dependent on the initial conditions.

  6. 加氢汽油中总氮含量的测定%Determination of total nitrogen content in hydrogenated gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仵春祺; 鲁卫平; 张爱民; 张锡娅

    2015-01-01

    介绍了化学发光法测定石油中总氮的原理,结合实际经验,讨论加氢汽油中总氮含量的测定条件及操作技巧。采用化学发光定氮法测定加氢汽油中总氮含量的方法分析简单、快速、准确。%This paper described the principle of determination of total nitrogen in petroleum by chemi-luminescence,discussed the determination conditions of total nitrogen content in hydrogenated gasoline and operation skills.

  7. Effects of VA Mycorrhiza on Content of Nitrogen and Nitrogenous Matter of Amur Cork Tree%丛枝菌根对黄檗氮素及含氮物质含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方杰; 范继红

    2012-01-01

    [目的]为了研究丛枝菌根对黄檗叶片氮素及含氮代谢物质含量的影响.[方法]通过盆栽试验,用摩西球囊霉、幼套球囊霉、地表球囊霉、透光球囊霉4种丛枝菌根真菌接种黄檗一年生实生苗.[结果]黄檗幼苗形成丛枝菌根后,黄檗叶片氮素含量增加,接种摩西球囊霉的苗木叶片氮素含量比对照提高了1.28 ~1.60倍,植物体内硝酸还原酶的活性增强,可溶性蛋白含量、植物体内吲哚乙酸的含量增加.[结论]丛枝菌根能够增强黄檗氮素代谢能力,促进氮素吸收及含氮物质合成代谢,有利于黄檗生长发育.%[Objective] The research aimed to explore the effects of VA mycorrhiza on the content of nitrogen and nitrogenous matter of amur cork trees(Phellodendron amurense Rupr. ). [Method] The annual seedlings were inoculated with four arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi through potted experiments. [Result] VA mycorrhiza obviously increased the content of nitrogen and nitrogenous matter. The nitrogen content of the leaves increased significantly through infection by VA mycorrhizal fungi. With the inoculating with G. Mosseae, the nitrogen content of seedlings increased by 1.28 to 1. 60 times. VA mycorrhiza also enhanced the activity of nitric acid reductase of the plants, and the content of soluble protein and the proportion of the indole acetic acid. [ Conclusion ] VA mycorrhiza can enhance the metabolic ability of amur cork trees and the photosynthesis characteristics, and promote the growth of the whole plant.

  8. Unimolecular decomposition of tetrazine-N-oxide based high nitrogen content energetic materials from excited electronic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Guo, Y. Q.; Bernstein, E. R.

    2009-11-01

    Unimolecular excited electronic state decomposition of novel high nitrogen content energetic molecules, such as 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine)-mixed N-oxides (DAATO3.5), 3-amino-6-chloro-1,2,4,5-tetrazine-2,4-dioxide (ACTO), and 3,6-diamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine-1,4-dioxde (DATO), is investigated. Although these molecules are based on N-oxides of a tetrazine aromatic heterocyclic ring, their decomposition behavior distinctly differs from that of bare tetrazine, in which N2 and HCN are produced as decomposition products through a concerted dissociation mechanism. NO is observed to be an initial decomposition product from all tetrazine-N-oxide based molecules from their low lying excited electronic states. The NO product from DAATO3.5 and ACTO is rotationally cold (20 K) and vibrationally hot (1200 K), while the NO product from DATO is rotationally hot (50 K) and vibrationally cold [only the (0-0) vibronic transition of NO is observed]. DAATO3.5 and ACTO primarily differ from DATO with regard to molecular structure, by the relative position of oxygen atom attachment to the tetrazine ring. Therefore, the relative position of oxygen in tetrazine-N-oxides is proposed to play an important role in their energetic behavior. N2O is ruled out as an intermediate precursor of the NO product observed from all three molecules. Theoretical calculations at CASMP2/CASSCF level of theory predict a ring contraction mechanism for generation of the initial NO product from these molecules. The ring contraction occurs through an (S1/S0)CI conical intersection.

  9. Combined effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium fertilizers on the contents of glucosinolates in rocket salad (Eruca sativa Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jin-Hyuk; Kim, Silbia; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Chung, Doug Young; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2017-02-01

    Nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) are the most limiting factors in crop production. N often affects the amino acid composition of protein and in turn its nutritional quality. In Brassica plants, abundant supply of N fertilizer decreases the relative proportion of glucosinolates (GSLs), thus reducing the biological and medical values of the vegetables. Hence effort was made to evaluate the influence of different proportions of nutrient solutions containing N-P-K on the GSL profiles of rocket salad (Eruca sativa Mill.). Fifteen desulpho-(DS) GSLs were isolated and identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis. Rocket salad plants supplied with lesser amount of N, P or higher concentrations of K showed a typical improvement in total GSL contents. In contrast, total GSL levels were less at higher N supply. Furthermore, with N concentrations above 5 mM and K concentrations less than 2.5 mM, the GSL amounts were on average 13.51 and 13.75 μmol/g dry weight (DW), respectively. Aliphatic GSLs predominated in all concentrations of NPK while indolyl GSLs made up marginally less amount of the total compositions. Five and 2 mM N and P possessed much higher levels of several types of aliphatic GSLs than other concentrations, including glucoerucin, glucoraphanin and dimeric 4-mercaptobutyl GSL. From this perspective, it is contended that supply of less N results in enhancing the metabolic pathway for the synthesis of GSLs in rocket salad.

  10. Combined effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium fertilizers on the contents of glucosinolates in rocket salad (Eruca sativa Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyuk Chun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N, phosphorous (P and potassium (K are the most limiting factors in crop production. N often affects the amino acid composition of protein and in turn its nutritional quality. In Brassica plants, abundant supply of N fertilizer decreases the relative proportion of glucosinolates (GSLs, thus reducing the biological and medical values of the vegetables. Hence effort was made to evaluate the influence of different proportions of nutrient solutions containing N–P–K on the GSL profiles of rocket salad (Eruca sativa Mill.. Fifteen desulpho-(DS GSLs were isolated and identified using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC/MS analysis. Rocket salad plants supplied with lesser amount of N, P or higher concentrations of K showed a typical improvement in total GSL contents. In contrast, total GSL levels were less at higher N supply. Furthermore, with N concentrations above 5 mM and K concentrations less than 2.5 mM, the GSL amounts were on average 13.51 and 13.75 μmol/g dry weight (DW, respectively. Aliphatic GSLs predominated in all concentrations of NPK while indolyl GSLs made up marginally less amount of the total compositions. Five and 2 mM N and P possessed much higher levels of several types of aliphatic GSLs than other concentrations, including glucoerucin, glucoraphanin and dimeric 4-mercaptobutyl GSL. From this perspective, it is contended that supply of less N results in enhancing the metabolic pathway for the synthesis of GSLs in rocket salad.

  11. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  12. Masting in Fagus crenata and its influence on the nitrogen content and dry mass of winter buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin; Kabeya, Daisuke; Iio, Atsuhiro; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2008-08-01

    In Fagus, full-mast seeding years are invariably followed by at least one non-mast year. Both flower and leaf primordia develop during the summer within the same winter buds. Flower bud initiation occurs when the N content of developing seeds is increasing rapidly. We hypothesized that competition for nitrogen (N) between developing seeds and buds limits flower primordium formation in mast years and, hence, limits seed production in years following mast years. We tested this hypothesis in three Fagus crenata Blume forests at elevations of 550, 900 and 1500 m. Bud N concentration (N con), amount of N per bud (N bud) and dry mass per bud (DM) were compared between a mast year (2005) and the following non-mast year (2006), and between winter buds containing both leaf and flower primoridia (BF), which were formed during the non-mast year, and winter buds containing leaf primordia only (BL), which were formed in both mast and non-mast years. In addition, leaf numbers per shoot corresponding to the analyzed buds were counted, and the effect of masting on litter production was analyzed by quantifying the amounts of litter that fell in the years 2004 to 2007. The dry mass and N content of BF formed in 2006 by trees at both 550 and 1500 m were 2.1-3.4-fold higher than the corresponding amounts in BL, although the numbers of leaves per current-year shoot in 2007 that developed from the two bud types in the same individuals did not differ significantly. These results indicate that more N and carbohydrate are expended in producing BF than in producing BL. The amount of litter from reproductive organs produced in the mast year was similar to the amount of leaf litter at 900 and 1500 m, but three times as much at 550 m. Leaf numbers per shoot were significantly lower at all elevations in the mast year than in the non-mast years (and the amount of leaf litter at 550 and 1500 m tended to be lower in the mast year than in the non-mast years. In conclusion, preferential allocation

  13. The effect of light and nitrogen availability on the caffeine, theophylline and allantoin contents in the leaves of Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo F. Pompelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most abundant and important purine alkaloid derived from several important crop, such as coffee, tea, cocoa, guarana, and other plants. In tea and coffee plants, caffeine is predominantly produced in the young buds of leaves and in immature fruits. The effect of light-stimulating caffeine biosynthesis is uncertain, but our results clearly show that light, independent of N-availability, increases caffeine (26%, allantoin (47%, and theophylline (8% content in plants compared with those grown in a shaded (50% solar irradiation environment. Caffeine is the major low-molecular-weight nitrogenous compound in coffee plants, and at times, it functions as a chemical defense for new bud leaves. Therefore, the primary question that remains is whether caffeine can serve as a nitrogen source for other metabolic pathways. If so, plants grown under a low nitrogen concentration should promote caffeine degradation, with the consequent use of nitrogen atoms (e.g., in NH3 for the construction of other nitrogen compounds that are used for the plant’s metabolism. Our results provide strong evidence that caffeine is degraded into allantoin at low rates in N-deficient plants but not in N-enriched ones. By contrast, this degradation may represent a significant N-source in N-deficient plants.

  14. Performance evaluation of the UV/H2O2 process on selected nitrogenous organic compounds: reductions of organic contents vs. corresponding C-, N-DBPs formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huei-Wen; Chen, Chia-Yang; Wang, Gen-Shuh

    2011-10-01

    The presence of various organic contaminants in water sources is of concern due to their direct threats to human health and potential to react with disinfectants to form carcinogenic byproducts including trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids and nitrosamines in finished water. This study applied both medium-pressure and low-pressure ultraviolet light coupled with hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) to evaluate its efficacy for degradation of selected nitrogenous organic compounds and corresponding disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation. Six organic compounds were chosen as target precursors based on their nitrogen contents and molecular structures. The results showed that higher oxidation capacity resulted in better reduction of organic matters and DBP formation potentials (DBPFPs). However, insufficient contact time and oxidant doses could lead to a rise of DBPFPs in the early stages of UV/H2O2 reactions. A greater percentage removal was achieved for organic carbon than organic nitrogen after UV/H2O2 treatment, especially for compounds with complicated structure such as diltiazem. During the UV/H2O2 treatment, the intermediate products include tertiary amine, dimethyl amine (DMA) or DMA-like structures, which are N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors after chlorination or chloramination. Furthermore, it was observed that using dissolved organic nitrogen and DMA to predict NDMAFP could lead to biased conclusions because of the complex nature of nitrogenous matters in aqueous environments.

  15. Over-expression of a tobacco nitrate reductase gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. increases seed protein content and weight without augmenting nitrogen supplying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qiang Zhao

    Full Text Available Heavy nitrogen (N application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, "Nongda146" and "Jimai6358", by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed, respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying.

  16. Interactive effects of nitrogen and light on growth rates and RUBISCO content of small and large centric diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Campbell, Douglas A

    2017-01-01

    Among marine phytoplankton groups, diatoms span the widest range of cell size, with resulting effects upon their nitrogen uptake, photosynthesis and growth responses to light. We grew two strains of marine centric diatoms differing by ~4 orders of magnitude in cell biovolume in high (enriched artificial seawater with ~500 µmol L(-1) µmol L(-1) NO3(-)) and lower-nitrogen (enriched artificial seawater with Nitrogen and total protein per cell decreased with increasing growth light in both species when grown under the lower-nitrogen media. Cells growing under lower-nitrogen media increased their cellular allocation to RUBISCO and their rate of electron transport away from PSII, for the smaller diatom under low growth light and for the larger diatom across the range of growth lights. The smaller coastal diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana is able to exploit high nitrogen in growth media by up-regulating growth rate, but the same high-nitrogen growth media inhibits growth of the larger diatom species.

  17. Development of FT-NIR Models for the Simultaneous Estimation of Chlorophyll and Nitrogen Content in Fresh Apple (Malus Domestica Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural practices determine the level of food production and, to great extent, the state of the global environment. During the last decades, the indiscriminate recourse to fertilizers as well as the nitrogen losses from land application have been recognized as serious issues of modern agriculture, globally contributing to nitrate pollution. The development of a reliable Near-Infra-Red Spectroscopy (NIRS-based method, for the simultaneous monitoring of nitrogen and chlorophyll in fresh apple (Malus domestica leaves, was investigated on a set of 133 samples, with the aim of estimating the nutritional and physiological status of trees, in real time, cheaply and non-destructively. By means of a FT (Fourier Transform-NIR instrument, Partial Least Squares (PLS regression models were developed, spanning a concentration range of 0.577%–0.817% for the total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN content (R2 = 0.983; SEC = 0.012; SEP = 0.028, and of 1.534–2.372 mg/g for the total chlorophyll content (R2 = 0.941; SEC = 0.132; SEP = 0.162. Chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b contents were also evaluated (R2 = 0.913; SEC = 0.076; SEP = 0.101 and R2 = 0.899; SEC = 0.059; SEP = 0.101, respectively. All calibration models were validated by means of 47 independent samples. The NIR approach allows a rapid evaluation of the nitrogen and chlorophyll contents, and may represent a useful tool for determining nutritional and physiological status of plants, in order to allow a correction of nutrition programs during the season.

  18. Non-biased prediction of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen with vis-NIR spectroscopy, as affected by soil moisture content and texture

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang, Boyan Y.; Mouazen, Abdul Mounem

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of moisture content (MC) and texture on the prediction of soil organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (TN) with visible and near infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy under laboratory and on-line measurement conditions. An AgroSpec spectrophotometer was used to develop calibration models of OC and TN using laboratory scanned spectra of fresh and processed soil samples collected from five fields on Silsoe Farm, UK. A previously developed on-line vis-...

  19. A new method for the determination of the nitrogen content of nitrocellulose based on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alinat, Elodie, E-mail: elodie.alinat@chimie-paristech.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech, Laboratory of Physicochemistry of Electrolytes, Colloids and Analytical Sciences (PECSA), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Central Laboratory of Police Prefecture (LCPP), 39 bis rue de Dantzig, 75015 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7195 PECSA, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Delaunay, Nathalie, E-mail: nathalie.delaunay@espci.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech, Laboratory of Physicochemistry of Electrolytes, Colloids and Analytical Sciences (PECSA), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7195 PECSA, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Archer, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.archer@interieur.gouv.fr [Central Laboratory of Police Prefecture (LCPP), 39 bis rue de Dantzig, 75015 Paris (France); Mallet, Jean-Maurice, E-mail: jean-maurice.mallet@es.fr [École Normale Supérieure-PSL Research University, Département de Chimie, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7203 LBM, F-75005 Paris (France); Gareil, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.gareil@chimie-paristech.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech, Laboratory of Physicochemistry of Electrolytes, Colloids and Analytical Sciences (PECSA), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7195 PECSA, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • New insights into the nitrocellulose alkaline denitration mechanism. • Linear correlation for molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions and nitrogen content. • Capillary electrophoresis monitoring of nitrite and nitrate ions. • Applications to explosive and non-explosive nitrocellulose-containing samples. • Improved performances (including safety) over classical methods. - Abstract: A new method was proposed to determine the nitrogen content of nitrocelluloses (NCs). It is based on the finding of a linear relationship between the nitrogen content and the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis. Capillary electrophoresis was used to monitor the concentration of nitrite and nitrate ions. The influences of hydrolysis time and molar mass of NC on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions were investigated, and new insights into the understanding of the alkaline denitration mechanism of NCs, underlying this analytical strategy is provided. The method was then tested successfully with various explosive and non-explosive NC-containing samples such as various daily products and smokeless gunpowders. Inherently to its principle exploiting a concentration ratio, this method shows very good repeatability in the determination of nitrogen content in real samples with relative standard deviation (n = 3) inferior to 1.5%, and also provides very significant advantages with respect to sample extraction, analysis time (1 h for alkaline hydrolysis, 3 min for electrophoretic separation), which was about 5 times shorter than for the classical Devarda's method, currently used in industry, and safety conditions (no need for preliminary drying NC samples, mild hydrolysis conditions with 1 M sodium hydroxide for 1 h at 60 °C)

  20. Differential Effects of Legume Species on the Recovery of Soil Microbial Communities, and Carbon and Nitrogen Contents, in Abandoned Fields of the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin Hua; Jiao, Shu Mei; Gao, Rong Qing; Bardgett, Richard D.

    2012-12-01

    Plant-soil interactions are known to influence a wide range of ecosystem-level functions. Moreover, the recovery of these functions is of importance for the successful restoration of soils that have been degraded through intensive and/or inappropriate land use. Here, we assessed the effect of planting treatments commonly used to accelerate rates of grassland restoration, namely introduction of different legume species Medicago sativa, Astragalus adsurgens, Melilotus suaveolens, on the recovery of soil microbial communities and carbon and nitrogen contents in abandoned fields of the Loess Plateau, China. The results showed effects were species-specific, and either positive, neutral or negative depending on the measure and time-scale. All legumes increased basal respiration and metabolic quotient and had a positive effect on activity and functional diversity of the soil microbial community, measured using Biolog EcoPlate. However, soil under Astragalus adsurgens had the highest activity and functional diversity relative to the other treatments. Soil carbon and nitrogen content and microbial biomass were effectively restored in 3-5 years by introducing Medicago sativa and Astragalus adsurgens into early abandoned fields. Soil carbon and nitrogen content were retarded in 3-5 years and microbial biomass was retarded in the fifth year by introducing Melilotus suaveolens. Overall, the restoration practices of planting legumes can significantly affect soil carbon and nitrogen contents, and the biomass, activity, and functional diversity of soil microbial community. Therefore, we propose certain legume species could be used to accelerate ecological restoration of degraded soils, hence assist in the protection and preservation of the environment.

  1. Amino Acid Profiles, Total Nitrogen Contents, and Computed-Protein Efficiency Ratios of Manihot esculenta Root and Dioscorea rotundata Tuber Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Chidoka Chikezie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous roots of cassava and yam are major sources of dietary carbohydrate to human, alternative sources of energy in livestock feeds, and sources of starch in small-scale industries. Investigations on amino acid profiles, total nitrogen contents, and computed-protein efficiency ratios (C-PER of tuberous root peels of Manihot esculenta Crantz and Dioscorea rotundata Poir. were carried out. Amino acid analysis was carried out using ion-exchange chromatography methods. Total nitrogen content was measured using the micro-Kjeldahl methods. The C-PER was calculated using regression equation. The concentrations of amino acids detected in the cassava peels ranged from 0.54 to 6.54 g/100 g protein, whereas those of yam peels were between 0.37 and 6.25 g/100 g protein. The total amino acid concentration of the cassava peels was not significantly (p>0.05 higher than that of the yam peels. Essential amino acid scores showed that Phe + Tyr and Met + Cys were the most abundant and limiting amino acids, respectively, in cassava and yam peels. The percentage nitrogen content and C-PER of the cassava peels were significantly (p<0.05 higher than those of the yam peels. The cassava and yam peels were not sources of good quality proteins. Therefore, the use of cassava or yam peels as livestock feeds should be supplemented with other sources rich in good quality proteins.

  2. Determination of the carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen contents of alanine and their uncertainties using the certified reference material L-alanine (NMIJ CRM 6011-a).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Nobuyasu; Sato, Ayako; Yamazaki, Taichi; Numata, Masahiko; Takatsu, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN) contents of alanine and their uncertainties were estimated using a CHN analyzer and the certified reference material (CRM) L-alanine. The CHN contents and their uncertainties, as measured using the single-point calibration method, were 40.36 ± 0.20% for C, 7.86 ± 0.13% for H, and 15.66 ± 0.09% for N; the results obtained using the bracket calibration method were also comparable. The method described in this study is reasonable, convenient, and meets the general requirement of having uncertainties ≤ 0.4%.

  3. Comparison of near infrared reflectance analysis of fecal fat, nitrogen and water with conventional methods, and fecal energy content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neucker, Anita Van den; Bijleveld, Charles M A; Wolthers, Bert G; Swaaneburg, Joost C J M; Kester, Arnold D M; Kreel, Bernard van; Forget, Pierre Philippe

    2002-02-01

    To evaluate Near-Infrared Analysis (NIRA) method for determining fecal fat, water and nitrogen. The results of fecal fat, water and nitrogen by NIRA were compared with results of van de Kamer and Acid Steatocrit (AS), Dumas and vacuum drying methods for fat, nitrogen and water respectively. Results of fat determining methods were also compared with total fecal energy as obtained by bomb calorimeter. NIRA results correlated significantly (p fat (r = 0.84 and r = 0.88 for van de Kamer and AS respectively) and water (r = 0.91). The limits of agreement for nitrogen and fat results were too wide for the methods to be used interchangeably. The fecal fat results correlated significantly (p fecal energy results. NIRA may be valuable for monitoring malabsorption but the diagnostic value remains to be determined.

  4. RESEARCH INTO THE USE OF DIETARY NITROGEN BY GROWING AND FATTENING STEERS IN RELATION TO DIET FORMULATION AND ENERGY CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. VOICU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were done on the use of the dietary nitrogen by fattening steers between 300-450 kg using the method of in vivo nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance. Alfalfa and corn-based diets were used, in different forms of preservation and with different ratio of the bulk forage to the concentrate feeds; diet digestibility expressed as organic matter and protein varied between 72-76% and between 66- 75% respectively; the best performance produced by the corn silage diets were observed in diet 2 (with ammonia, while the best results produced by the alfalfa diets was noticed in diet 5 (haylage; nitrogen balance showed the highest values of the retained nitrogen in the alfalfa half-hay diet, the alfalfa hay diet having lower values.

  5. Influence of salinity and nitrogen content on production of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) by Skeletonema costatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guipeng; LI Chengxuan; SUN Juan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of changing salinity and nitrogen limitation on dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentrations were investigated in batch cultures of coastal diatom Skeletonema costatum, an ecologically important species. Changes in salinity from 20-32caused no measurable variation in cell growth or culture yield, but increased intracellular DMSP per cell by 30%. Nitrogen limitation caused up to a two-fold increase in total DMSP per cell and up to a three-fold increase in DMS per cell. These changes in DMSP and DMS per cell in the Skeletonema costatum cultures with nitrogen limitation and changing salinity were primarily attributed to the physiological functions of DMSP as an osmolyte and an antioxidant. The data obtained in this study indicated that nitrogen limitation and salinity may play an important role in climate feedback mechanisms involving biologically derived DMS.

  6. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on the Content of Nitrogen and Nitrogenous Matter in Amur Corktree Seedlings%丛枝菌根对黄檗氮素及含氮物质含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范继红; 高琼; 邹原东

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究丛枝菌根对黄檗氮素及含氮物质含量的影响。[方法]通过盆栽试验,用丛枝菌根真菌接种黄檗一年生实生苗,研究丛枝菌根对黄檗(Phellodendron amurense Rupr.)氮素及含氮物质含量的影响。[结果]黄檗幼苗形成丛枝菌根后,增加了叶片氮素含量,接种G.mosseae的苗木叶片氮素含量比对照提高了1.28~1.60倍,光合能力增强。接种丛枝菌根菌后,显著提高了黄檗叶绿素含量及叶绿素a和b的比值,增强了黄檗光合作用的能力,叶绿素a含量提高了25%以上;同时,增加了植物体内吲哚乙酸的含量,增加比例在1.65~2.41倍之间;增强植物体内硝酸还原酶的活性,增加了可溶性蛋白含量,增加比例在1.67~2.49倍之间,增强了植物氮素代谢能力,促进植物生长,增强植物的次生代谢能力。[结论]该研究结果为丛枝菌根真菌在黄檗上的应用提供了理论依据。%[Objective] This study aimed to explore the effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza on the content of nitrogen and nitrogenous matter in amur corktree(Phellodendron amurense Rupr.)seedlings. [Method] The annual seedlings of Phellodendron amurense Rupr. were inoculated with four arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi in a pot experiment to study the influences of arbuscular mycorrhiza on the content of nitrogen and nitrogenous matter in Phellodendron amurense Rupr. [Result] After inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi, the Phellodendron amurense Rupr. seedlings developed arbuscular mycorrhiza, leading to an enhancement of photosynthetic capacity. The leaf nitrogen content of those inoculated with Glomus mosseae increased to 1.28- 1.60 times as compared with the control. The chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/b ratio were also raised, with an increase over 25% of chlorophyll a content. In addition, IAA content in plants increased to 1.65-2.41 times; and nitrate reductase activity was also

  7. Application of a colorimetric method to the determination of the protein content of commercial foods, mixed human diets and nitrogen losses in infantile diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioccia, A M; Gonzalez, E; Perez, M; Mora, J A; Romer, H; Molina, E; Hevia, P

    1995-02-01

    Recently we reported on the application of a method for protein determination which measures nitrogen in Kjeldahl digests colorimetrically. This procedure has the advantage of eliminating the distillation and titration steps of the Kjeldahl method and it is ideal for nutritional studies, since many samples can be run in a single day. Accordingly, the purpose of the present report was to extend the application of this method to the determination of the protein content of commercially available foods such as dairy products, dry cereals or cereal based products and legumes and also to evaluate this method in the determination of the protein content of the mixtures of cooked foods served during lunch at the cafeteria of the Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas. In both cases the results of the colorimetric nitrogen agreed very well with those obtained by the macro Kjeldahl, indicating that the colorimetric method may be used in monitoring the protein content of commercial foods and in evaluating the protein offered in institutional food services. Finally, to further demonstrate the value of this method in clinical trials, we used it to monitor the daily nitrogen intake and nitrogen losses in 43 male young children with acute diarrhoea, and 15 with persistent diarrhoea fed liquid formulae, and showed that protein digestibility and retention were higher in persistent than in acute diarrhoea. The severity of acute diarrhoea affected negatively (r = -0.62) the percentage of protein absorbed, whereas the protein absorbed (r = 0.70) and retained (r = 0.55) correlated positively with protein consumption.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  9. The effect of irrigation, soil cultivation system and nitrogen fertilizer on the vitality and content of selected sugars in Vicia faba seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurasiak-Popowska, D.; Szukala, J.; Gulewicz, K.

    2009-07-01

    In this study the influence of sprinkler irrigation, various soil cultivation systems (conventional, reduced tillage, zero tillage system) and the level (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N ha{sup -}1) of nitrogen (N) fertilization on the vitality and content of selected sugars in faba bean seeds (Vicia faba L.) of the cultivar Nadwislanski was examined. Sprinkler irrigation of faba bean improved seed energy and germination in all three years of the study (1999-2001) - on average germination energy by 8.8% and total germination by 3.2%-. Germination of faba bean seed under conventional tillage in the drier years was significantly higher than in the zero tillage system. In the wetter year, seed from both simplified systems produced seeds with higher germination than in traditional conventional tillage. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer affected germination energy, but had no effect on faba bean germination. Sprinkler irrigation and N fertilization had no effect on the content of the sugars studied in the faba bean seed. However, the stachyose content of faba bean seeds from conventional tilled plants was significantly higher than in seed of zero tilled plants (0.78 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm), and the galactose content of seed from zero tilled plants was significantly higher than in the other two cultivation systems - 0.34 and 0.28 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm in seeds from conventional and reduced tillage system, respectively. Additional key words: agronomic treatment, faba bean seeds, RFOs sugars. (Author) 24 refs.

  10. Removing organic and nitrogen content from a highly saline municipal wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate by UV/H2O2-BAC treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Shovana; Fan, Linhua; Roddick, Felicity A

    2015-10-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate (ROC) streams generated from RO-based municipal wastewater reclamation processes pose potential health and environmental risks on their disposal to confined water bodies such as bays. A UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process followed by a biological activated carbon (BAC) treatment was evaluated at lab-scale for the removal of organic and nutrient content from a highly saline ROC (TDS 16 g L(-1), EC 23.5 mS cm(-1)) for its safe disposal to the receiving environment. Over the 230-day operation of the UV/H2O2-BAC process, the colour and UV absorbance (254 nm) of the ROC were reduced to well below those of the influent to the reclamation process. The concentrations of DOC and total nitrogen (TN) were reduced by approximately 60% at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 60 min. The reduction in ammonia nitrogen by the BAC remained high under all conditions tested (>90%). Further investigation confirmed that the presence of residual peroxide in the UV/H2O2 treated ROC was beneficial for DOC removal, but markedly inhibited the activities of the nitrifying bacteria (i.e., nitrite oxidising bacteria) in the BAC system and hence compromised total nitrogen removal. This work demonstrated that the BAC treatment could be acclimated to the very high salinity environment, and could be used as a robust method for the removal of organic matter and nitrogen from the pre-oxidised ROC under optimised conditions.

  11. Changes in free amino acid content and activities of amination and transamination enzymes in yeasts grown on different inorganic nitrogen sources, including hydroxylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkrans, B; Tunblad-Johansson, I

    1981-01-01

    This study concerns inter- and intraspecific differences between yeasts at assimilation of different nitrogen sources. Alterations in the content of free amino acids in cells and media as well as in the related enzyme activities during growth were studied. The hydroxylamine (HA)-tolerant Endomycopsis lipolytica was examined and compared with the nitrate-reducing Cryptococcus albidus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, requiring fully reduced nitrogen for growth. Special attention was paid to alanine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid, the amino acids closely related to the Krebs cycle keto acids. The amino acids were analyzed as their n-propyl N-acetyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The composition of the amino acid pool was similar for the three yeasts. Glutamic acid was predominant; in early log-phase cells of E. lipolytica contents of 200-234 micromol . g(-1) dry weight were found. A positive correlation between the specific growth rate and the size of the amino acid pool was observed. The assimilation of ammonia was mediated by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). The NADP-GDH was the dominating enzyme in all three yeasts showing the highest specific activity in Cr. albidus grown on nitrate (6980 nmol . (min(-1)).(mg protein(-1)). Glutamine synthetase (GS) displayed a high specific activity in S. cerevisiae, which also had a high amount of glutamine. The assimilation of HA did not differ greatly from the assimilation of ammonium in E. lipolytica. The existing differences could rather be explained as provoked by the concentration of available nitrogen.

  12. Water, organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus contents in sediment of a large-scale mariculture area in the Zhelin Bay of eastern Guangdong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Qiaoxiang; LIN Junda; SHANG Xu; LI Jin; HUANG Changjiang

    2008-01-01

    The Zhelin Bay is one of the most important bays for large-scale maricuhure in Guangdong Province,China.Owing to the increas-ing human population and the expanding marieuhure in the last two decades,the ecological environment has greatly changed with frequent harmful algal blooms.A monthly survey of water content,organic matter ( TOM ),and various forms of nitrogen and phosphorous in sediment from July 2002 to July 2003 in the bay was conducted.The results showed that the water content was cor-related significantly with TOM and various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus and can be used as proxy for quick and rough estimate of these factors in the future surveys.TOM was also correlated significantly with various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus,indica-ting that it was one of the key factors affecting the concentrations and distributions of nitrogen and phosphorus in the investigated waters. Average total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TkN) Content was( 1113.1±382.5 )μg/g and average total phosphorus (TP) content was(567.2 ± 223.3)μg/g, and both were much higher than those of similar estuaries in China and elsewhere. Average nitrogen and phosphorus tended to be higher inside than outside the bay,higher at aquaculture than non-aquacuhure areas,and higher at fish-cage culture than oyster culture areas,suggesting that large-scale mariculture inside the bay played an important role in the eutrophication of the Zhelin Bay.Various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were higher during the warm season (July--September),which was due to the increased decomposition and concentration of organic matter resulted from the fast growth and high mortality of the cultured species.Compared with July 2002,TkN and TP contents were much higher in July 2003,in consonance with the eut~'ophication of the Zhelin Bay.Because exchangeable phosphorus ( Ex-P),iron-bounded phos-phorus (Fe-P) and organic phosphorus (OP) combined accounted for 34.3% of the TP and authigenie phosphorus (Au-P) ac

  13. Enzyme Complex Added to Broiler Diets: Effects on Performance, Metabolizable Energy Content, and Nitrogen and Phosphorus Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GBS Pessôa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two trials were performed to evaluate the effects of an enzyme complex (EC on broiler performance, metabolizable energy, and phosphorus and nitrogen balance. In the first trial, 960 one-day-old male Cobb broilers were randomly distributed in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (three nutritional levels and the inclusion or not of EC, totaling six treatments with eight replicates of 20 birds per pen, and reared until 42 days of age. The control diet was formulated to meet the broilers' nutritional requirements. The other diets contained reduced available phosphorus (P, metabolizable energy, and amino acid levels, considering 100% and 150% of the EC nutritional matrix. The inclusion of the EC (200 g/ton resulted in better broiler performance, improving weight gain in 4% and feed conversion ratio in 3% (p< 0.05. In the second trial, 240 male broilers were randomly distributed into the same treatments with eight replicates of five birds per cage. The method of total excreta collection was used. There was an interaction (p< 0.05 between diets and EC for P intake, nitrogen (N intake, and N retention. The EC supplementation improved nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy values in 2.02% (p< 0.05. Significant effects were observed on phosphorus and nitrogen balance (p< 0.05. Phosphorus retention improved in 10.26%, nitrogen retention increased in 5.3%, while nitrogen excretion decreased in 3.3%. Based on the results of the present study, we recommend the addition of 200 g/t of the enzyme complex to broiler diets, considering nutrient reduction based on 100% of the EC nutritional matrix.

  14. Low-Temperature Nitriding of Deformed Austenitic Stainless Steels with Various Nitrogen Contents Obtained by Prior High-Temperature Solution Nitriding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoli, Federico; Winther, Grethe; Christiansen, Thomas L.; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2016-08-01

    In the past decades, high nitrogen steels (HNS) have been regarded as substitutes for conventional austenitic stainless steels because of their superior mechanical and corrosion properties. However, the main limitation to their wider application is their expensive production process. As an alternative, high-temperature solution nitriding has been applied to produce HNS from three commercially available stainless steel grades (AISI 304L, AISI 316, and EN 1.4369). The nitrogen content in each steel alloy is varied and its influence on the mechanical properties and the stability of the austenite investigated. Both hardness and yield stress increase and the alloys remain ductile. In addition, strain-induced transformation of austenite to martensite is suppressed, which is beneficial for subsequent low-temperature nitriding of the surface of deformed alloys. The combination of high- and low-temperature nitriding results in improved properties of both bulk and surface.

  15. 化学发光法测定油品氮含量的研究%Study on Chemiluminescence Method for the Determination of Nitrogen Content of Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晶丽

    2012-01-01

    Using chemiluminescence method for the determination of nitrogen content in oil products,mainly inspects the quality measurement of appropriate sample size in oil,nitrogen is converted to NO the best conditions and measurement precision,improve the correctness and practicability of the method.%用化学发光法测定油品中的氮含量,主要考察了用质量法测量比较合适的进样量、油品中氮转化为NO的最佳条件及测量的精密度,提高了该方法的准确性和实用性。

  16. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  17. Evaluation of vegetation indices (VI) for their sensitivity to corn biomass and chlorophyll content changes associated with nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of canopy sensors for nitrogen (N) management in corn production in the Southeast US requires first the identification of the relationship between field-measured crop status and sensor-measured canopy spectral reflectance, therefore reflectance values can be used to estimate in-season y...

  18. The effects of nitrogen uptake before and after heading on grain protein content and the occurrence of basal- and back-white grains in rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Tsukaguchi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chalky rice (Oryza sativa L. grains are induced by high temperature during the grain-filling period. Plant nitrogen status also affects the occurrence of basal- and back-white grains (BBWG. The objective of this study was to elucidate the relations between nitrogen availability per spikelet during the grain-filling period (NGF and each of the percentage of BBWG and grain protein content (GPC. We further compared the effect of the components of NGF determined before heading (NBH and after heading (NAH on BBWG and GPC. We grew the rice cultivar ‘Koshihikari’ in pots in 2012 and 2013, and top-dressed nitrogen at the panicle formation and heading stages, under two (2012 or three (2013 temperature regimes during the grain-filling period. GPC was explained well by NGF, but BBWG was not. BBWG was best explained in a multiple-regression equation by mean air temperature after heading and by NBH and NAH. The partial correlation coefficients for NBH were 1.6 and 3.0 times those for NAH in 2012 and 2013, respectively. On the other hand, in a multiple-regression equation for GPC, the partial correlation coefficients for NBH were 0.91 and 0.71 times those for NAH in 2012 and 2013, respectively. These results suggest that rice grains are most sensitive to plant nitrogen status before heading for BBWG but after heading for GPC, and that there is an optimal timing for nitrogen top-dressing that would maximize the reduction in BBWG per unit increment of GPC.

  19. The Effect of Irrigation and Nitrogen on Growth Attributes and Chlorophyll Content of Garlic in Line Source Sprinkler Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rahim motalebifard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With 12 million tons production per year, garlic is the fourth important crop in world. In addition to its medical value, it has been used in food industry. The Hamedan province with 1900 ha cultivation area and 38 percent of production is one of the most important garlic area productions in Iran. Few studies on water use and management of garlic exist in the world. Garlic is very sensitive to water deficit especially in tubers initiation and ripening periods. The current research was done because of scarce research on garlic production under water deficit condition in Iran and importance of plant nutrition and nutrients especially nitrogen on garlic production under stressful conditions. Nitrogen is necessary and important element for increasing the yield and quality of garlic. Application of nitrogen increases the growth trend of garlic such as number of leaves, leaf length and plant body. Reports have shown that garlic has high nitrogen requirement, particularly in the early stages of growth. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted for evaluating the combined effects of nitrogen and irrigation on the yield and quality of garlic (Allium sativumL.. The study was performed as a split-block based on randomized complete blocks design with factors of irrigation at four levels (0-3(normal irrigation, 3-6 (slight water deficit, 6-9 (moderate water deficit and 9-12 (sever water deficit meters distance from main line source sprinkler system, nitrogen at four levels (0, 50,100 and 150 kg nitrogen per ha using three replications and line source sprinkler irrigation system. The total water of irrigation levels was measured by boxes that were fixed in meddle of each plot. The statistical analysis of results were performed using themethod described by Hanks (1980. The chlorophyll index was measured using the chlorophyll meter 502 (Minolta, Spain. The chlorophyll a and bwas measured by the method described by Arnon (1946 and Gross (1991

  20. 用偏光显微镜检测硝化棉的含氮量%Determination of the Nitrogen Content in Nitrocellulose Using Polarized Light Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏鹏飞; 陈智群; 王景荣; 邵自强; 张皋; 李文杰; 王明

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for determination of the nitrogen content in nitrocellulose was established using a polarized light microscope. Senarmont method was used to determine the average optical path difference. The results show that the relationship(w= -0. 046 6λ+ 12. 388) between the nitrogen content and the optical path difference was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0. 999 3 when the range of the nitrogen content in nitrocellulose were 11.0%-13.8%. Certified nitrocellulose reference materials were used to evaluate the method and the results show that the recoveries ranged from 99.7 % to 100.2 % with the relative standard deviations falling between 0.15% and 0.20%. The method is simple , accurate and environment-friendly.%建立了偏光显微镜测定硝化棉含氮量的新方法.采用色那蒙法测定了平均光程差.结果表明,当硝化棉含氮量为11.0%~13.8%时,光程差与含氮量线性相关,线性回归方程为ω=-0.0466λ+12.388,线性相关系数R=0.9993.用硝化棉标准物质对新方法检测结果进行了验证,回收率为99.7%~100.2%,变异系数为0.15%~0.20%.新方法操作简单,结果准确,环境友好.

  1. Carbon and nitrogen contents in particle-size fractions of topsoil along a 3000 km aridity gradient in grasslands of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Guang; Sistla, Seeta A.; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Lü, Xiao-Tao; Han, Xing-Guo

    2016-06-01

    Climate factors such as aridity significantly influence soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks in terrestrial ecosystems. Further, soil texture plays an important role in driving changes of soil C and N contents at regional scale. However, it remains uncertain whether such changes resulted from the variation of different soil particle-size factions and/or the C and N concentrations in those fractions. We examined the distribution of total C and N in both bulk soil and different soil particle-size fractions, including sand (53-2000 µm), silt (2-53 µm), and clay (century.

  2. Reclamation with blue-green algae: changes in nucleic acids, protein and nitrogen content of algae exposed to solid waste of a chlor-alkali factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, B.B.; Nanda, D.R.; Misra, B.N.

    1985-01-01

    During an attempt at the possible reclamation of solid waste from a chlor-alkali factory by blue-green algae, the effects of the solid waste on biochemical variables were studied. DNA, RNA, protein, and algal nitrogen content of the algal material showed a significant decrease with increase in time and also solid waste concentration. An increase in RNA/DNA ratio and a decrease in protein/RNA ratio were also observed. Algae accumulated appreciable amounts of mercury from the waste, showing dependence on both concentration and time. Significant correlations were obtained between mercury uptake and concentrations of the waste and between different combinations of algae and mercury uptake.

  3. Comparison of carbon and nitrogen content of infected and uninfected snails, Succinea ovalis, and the trematode Leucochloridium variae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burky, A J; Hornbach, D J

    1979-06-01

    In June, 6.7% of adult Succinea ovalis collected near Urbana, Ohio, were infected with the trematode, Leucochloridium variae. The effects of parasitism were assessed as total organic carbon (equivalent to calorific values) and as total nitrogen. The parasite represents 23.8% of total (parasite + snail tissue) dry tissue weight, 21.4% of total carbon and 19.8% of total nitrogen of infected snails. The higher C : N ratio for parasite tissue indicates a higher proportion of nonproteinaceous compounds (e.g., fats and/or carbohydrates) as compared to host tissue. There is less snail tissue in parasited S. ovalis. The C : N ratios for parasitized and nonparasitized snail tissue suggest identical percentage compositions of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.

  4. Analyzer for measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration by ozone content reduction in gas using solid state chemiluminescent sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.; Isaev, L. N.

    2014-05-01

    Role of nitrogen oxide in ambient air is described and analyzed. New method of nitrogen oxide concentration measurement in gas phase is suggested based on ozone concentration measurement with titration by nitrogen oxide. Research of chemiluminescent sensor composition is carried out on experimental stand. The sensor produced on the base of solid state non-activated chemiluminescent composition is applied as ozone sensor. Composition is put on the surface of polymer matrix with developed surface. Sensor compositions includes gallic acid with addition of rodamine-6G. Model of interaction process between sensor composition and ozone has been developed, main products appeared during reaction are identified. The product determining the speed of luminescense appearance is found. This product belongs to quinone class. Then new structure of chemiluminescent composition was suggested, with absence of activation period and with high stability of operation. Experimental model of gas analyzer was constructed and operation algorithm was developed. It was demonstrated that developed NO measuring instrument would be applied for monitoring purposes of ambient air. This work was partially financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 074-U01

  5. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity and soil available phosphorus content in subtropical forests in Dinghushan Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Zeng, Shu-cai; Huang, Wen-juan

    2011-03-01

    An in situ field experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated nitrogen (N) deposition on soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity (APA) and soil available phosphorous (AP) content in Pinus massoniana forest (PF), coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (MF), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF) in Dinghushan Mountain. In PF and MF, three treatments were installed, i.e., CK (0 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)), low N (50 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)), and medium N (100 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)); in MEBF, four treatments were installed, i.e., CK, low N, medium N, and high N (150 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)). The soil APA and soil AP content decreased with soil depth. The soil APA was the highest in MEBF, while the AP content had no significant difference in the three forests. The effects of N addition on soil APA differed with forest types. In MEBF, the APA was the highest (19.52 micromol x g(-1) x h(-1)) in low N treatment; while in PF and MF, the APA was the highest (12.74 and 11.02 micromol x g(-1) x h(-1), respectively) in medium N treatment. In the three forests, soil AP content was the highest in low N treatment, but had no significant differences among the N treatments. There was a significant positive correlation between soil APA and soil AP content.

  6. Nitrogen starvation strategies and photobioreactor design for enhancing lipid content and lipid production of a newly isolated microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31: implications for biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Kuei-Ling; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-11-01

    Microalgae are recognized for serving as a sustainable source for biodiesel production. This study investigated the effect of nitrogen starvation strategies and photobioreactor design on the performance of lipid production and of CO(2) fixation of an indigenous microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31. Comparison of single-stage and two-stage nitrogen starvation strategies shows that single-stage cultivation on basal medium with low initial nitrogen source concentration (i.e., 0.313 g/L KNO(3)) was the most effective approach to enhance microalgal lipid production, attaining a lipid productivity of 78 mg/L/d and a lipid content of 55.9%. The lipid productivity of C. vulgaris ESP-31 was further upgraded to 132.4 mg/L/d when it was grown in a vertical tubular photobioreactor with a high surface to volume ratio of 109.3 m(2)/m(3) . The high lipid productivity was also accompanied by fixation of 6.36 g CO(2) during the 10-day photoautotrophic growth with a CO(2) fixation rate of 430 mg/L/d. Analysis of fatty acid composition of the microalgal lipid indicates that over 65% of fatty acids in the microalgal lipid are saturated [i.e., palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0)] and monounsaturated [i.e., oleic acid (C18:1)]. This lipid quality is suitable for biodiesel production.

  7. Validation Through Simulations of a Cn2 Profiler for the ESO/VLT Adaptive Optics Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Rissmann, A; Kolb, J; Louarn, M Le; Madec, P -Y; Neichel, B

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) project envisages transforming one of the VLT units into an adaptive telescope and providing its ESO (European Southern Observatory) second generation instruments with turbulence corrected wavefronts. For MUSE and HAWK-I this correction will be achieved through the GALACSI and GRAAL AO modules working in conjunction with a 1170 actuators Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and the new Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF). Multiple wavefront sensors will enable GLAO and LTAO capabilities, whose performance can greatly benefit from a knowledge about the stratification of the turbulence in the atmosphere. This work, totally based on end-to-end simulations, describes the validation tests conducted on a Cn2 profiler adapted for the AOF specifications. Because an absolute profile calibration is strongly dependent on a reliable knowledge of turbulence parameters r0 and L0, the tests presented here refer only to normalized output profiles. Uncertainties in the input parameters inherent t...

  8. Spatial and seasonal variability of temperature responses of biochemical photosynthesis parameters and leaf nitrogen content within a Pinus densiflora crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin; Kawasaki, Tatsuro; Nakano, Takashi; Chiba, Yukihiro

    2004-07-01

    We measured seasonal variation in area-based nitrogen concentration (N), maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) and maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax) in 1-year-old needles along four first-order branches within a Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. crown, and analyzed their relationships to growth irradiance and temperature. Each leaf light environment was expressed as a ratio of the monthly mean of daily integrated photosynthetically active irradiance (Iint) for the particular needle to Iint above the canopy (Irel). Needle N decreased in the upper crown during the development of new needles, whereas it remained fairly constant in the lower crown, reflecting differences between upper and lower crown needles in their contribution to the nitrogen of new needles. Gradients of N within the crown were correlated with Irel in all seasons (r2 = 0.40-0.78). Seasonal variation in N was weakly correlated with mean daily air minimum temperatures. Both Vcmax and Jmax showed seasonal variation in all first-order branches, and decreased to their lowest values in winter. The gradients of Vcmax and Jmax within the crown were not correlated with Irel in some seasons, but were correlated with changes in N in most months (r2 = 0.33-0.75), except in the winter. Furthermore, the regression slope of the relationship between N and Vcmax and the temperature response of Vcmax and Jmax exhibited seasonal variation.

  9. 高有效氮可降低泥炭藓泥炭中的多酚含量%High Nitrogen Availability Reduces Polyphenol Content in Sphagnum Peat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luca Bragazza; Chris Freeman; 谷晓楠(译); 葛佳丽(译)

    2014-01-01

    泥炭藓是雨养泥炭沼泽中的优势植物和主要造炭植物。多酚类化合物通常被视为是一种植物防御性化合物的次生代谢产物。泥炭藓含有独特的多酚,可抑制微生物活性,减缓泥炭残体分解。在自然生态系统中生物活性氮不断增加的背景下,泥炭藓残体成为检测大气氮沉降对泥炭残体多酚含量潜在影响的理想基质。本研究选择长期大气氮沉降梯度上的11处欧洲雨养泥炭地,测试了泥炭藓泥炭样本的总氮含量和可溶性多酚浓度。试验结果表明,由于外源性有效氮的增加,导致泥炭藓残体中氮浓度持续增长,残体中多酚含量降低。这种负相关关系与有关泥炭藓中多酚与蛋白质生物合成争夺相同前体的报道相一致。由于有效氮的抑制分解作用,导致多酚含量下降,加快泥炭残体的分解,因此长期氮富集所导致的泥炭藓残体化学特征变化将对全球碳平衡产生重要影响。%Peat mosses of the genus Sphagnum constitute the bulk of living and dead biomass in bogs. Polyphenols are a wide group of secondary metabolites that are often regarded as plant defensive compounds. These plants contain pe-culiar polyphenols which hamper litter peat decomposition through their inhibitory activity on microbial breakdown. In the light of the increasing availability of biologically active nitrogen in natural ecosystems, litter derived from Sphag-num mosses is an ideal substrate to test the potential effects of increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition on polyphenol content in litter peat. To this aim,we measured total nitrogen and soluble polyphenol concentration in Sphagnum litter peat collected in 11 European bogs under a chronic gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Our results demonstrate that increasing nitrogen concentration in Sphagnum litter, as a consequence of increased exogenous nitrogen availabil-ity, is accompanied by a decreasing

  10. [Responses of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi yield and root baicalin content to the fertilization rates of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xian-Yan; Xu, Fu-Li; Wang, Wei-Ling; Wang, Jing; Huang, Shu-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Hu

    2012-08-01

    A field experiment with three-factor (N, P, and K) and quadratic saturation D-optimal design was conducted to evaluate the effects of the fertilization rates of N, P, and K on the yield and root baicalin content of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi at harvesting time. A ternary quadratic polynomial mathematical model was built, in which, the N, P, and K fertilization rates were independent variables, and the yield and root baicalin content were the target functions. Through the analysis of the model, the optimum fertilization pattern was obtained. The results showed that the fertilization rates of N and P had significant effects on the yield of S. baicalensis. Under low fertilization level, the yield increased with increasing N and P fertilization rates; after exceeding definite fertilization range, no obvious effects were observed. N, P, and K fertilization all had significant effects on the root baicalin content. With increasing fertilization rates of N and K, the root baicalin content rates decreased after an initial increase. Under low fertilization level, the root baicalin content increased with increasing P fertilization rate first, and kept stable then. There existed interactive effects between the fertilization rates of N and P, N and K, and P and K on the yield and root baicalin content of S. baicalensis. Under our experimental conditions, the optimum fertilization model for obtaining over 4000 kg x hm(-2) of S. baicalensis yield and > 14% of root baicalin content was 90.5-104.7 kg x hm(-2) of N, 163.9-199.9 kg x hm(-2) of P2O5, and 84.1-140.8 kg x hm(-2) of K2O, with an N:P2O5:K2O ratio of approximately 1:1.86:1.15.

  11. Effect of CO2 enrichment on the glucosinolate contents under different nitrogen levels in bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-xiao LA; Ping FANG; Yi-bo TENG; Ya-juan LI; Xian-yong LIN

    2009-01-01

    The effects of CO2 enrichment on the growth and glucosinolate (GS) concentrations in the bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassioa alboglabra L.) treated with three nitrogen (N) concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mmol/L) were investigated. Height,stem thickness, and dry weights of the total aerial parts, bolting stems, and roots, as well as the root to shoot ratio, significantly increased as CO2 concentration was elevated from 350 to 800 μl/L at each N concentration. In the edible part of the bolting stem,11 individual GSs were identified, including 7 aliphatic and 4 indolyl GSs. GS concentration was affected by the elevated CO2 concentration, N concentration, and CO2×N interaction. At 5 and 10 mmol N/L, the concentrations of aliphatic GSs and total GSs significantly increased, whereas those of indolyl GSs were not affected, by elevated atmospheric CO2. However, at 20 mmol N/L,elevated CO2 had no significant effects on the concentrations of total GSs and total indolyl GSs, but the concentrations of total aliphatic GSs significantly increased. Moreover, the bolting stem carbon (C) content increased, whereas the N and sulfur (S) contents decreased under elevated CO2 concentration in the three N treatments, resulting in changes in the C/N and N/S ratios.Also the C/N ratio is not a reliable predictor of change of GS concentration, while the changes in N and S contents and the N/S ratio at the elevated CO2 concentration may influence the GS concentration in Chinese kale bolting stems. The results demonstrate that high nitrogen supply is beneficial for the growth of Chinese kale, but not for the GS concentration in bolting stems, under elevated CO2 condition.

  12. Effect of CO2 enrichment on the glucosinolate contents under different nitrogen levels in bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Gui-xiao; Fang, Ping; Teng, Yi-bo; Li, Ya-juan; Lin, Xian-yong

    2009-06-01

    The effects of CO(2) enrichment on the growth and glucosinolate (GS) concentrations in the bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.) treated with three nitrogen (N) concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mmol/L) were investigated. Height, stem thickness, and dry weights of the total aerial parts, bolting stems, and roots, as well as the root to shoot ratio, significantly increased as CO(2) concentration was elevated from 350 to 800 microl/L at each N concentration. In the edible part of the bolting stem, 11 individual GSs were identified, including 7 aliphatic and 4 indolyl GSs. GS concentration was affected by the elevated CO(2) concentration, N concentration, and CO(2)xN interaction. At 5 and 10 mmol N/L, the concentrations of aliphatic GSs and total GSs significantly increased, whereas those of indolyl GSs were not affected, by elevated atmospheric CO(2). However, at 20 mmol N/L, elevated CO(2) had no significant effects on the concentrations of total GSs and total indolyl GSs, but the concentrations of total aliphatic GSs significantly increased. Moreover, the bolting stem carbon (C) content increased, whereas the N and sulfur (S) contents decreased under elevated CO(2) concentration in the three N treatments, resulting in changes in the C/N and N/S ratios. Also the C/N ratio is not a reliable predictor of change of GS concentration, while the changes in N and S contents and the N/S ratio at the elevated CO(2) concentration may influence the GS concentration in Chinese kale bolting stems. The results demonstrate that high nitrogen supply is beneficial for the growth of Chinese kale, but not for the GS concentration in bolting stems, under elevated CO(2) condition.

  13. Determination of representative nitrogen contents for the activity calculation of core components with respect to the C-14 activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Philipp [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany); Huettner, Frank [Vattenfall Europe Nuclear, Hamburg (Germany); Phlippen, Peter-Wilhelm [WTI GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    For the final repository Konrad during operating and decommissioning phase, ten radionuclides and two radionuclide groups are restricted regarding their maximum storable activity quantities. One of the ten relevant radionuclides is C-14. The determination of the C-14 activities within activation calculations is currently performed with conservative assumptions. With the results of the presented analysis a method for a realistic determination of representative C-14 contents of irradiated steels is available now. The relevant N-14 contents as a source for the C-14 amount are lower than previously estimated.

  14. Variability of mineral nitrogen contents in soil as affected by meat and bone meal used as fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Stępień

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of alternative sources of organic matter have been discovered, such as producís made of waste materials and recycled into composts or as meal of meat and bone. Meat and bone meal, a by-product of the meat industry, is rich in N and P and hence it can be a viable alternative to mineral fertilizers. This study determined the direct effect of different doses of meat and bone meal (MBM used as fertilizer on the content of mineral N in soil. The effect of MBM fertilizer applied at rates of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 t ha-1 was compared with no fertilization. The experiment was conducted in the years 2007-2009 at the research station in Balcyny, Poland. MBM was applied every year for 3 yr, with the following crop sequence: 2007 winter wheat (T. aestivum, 2008 winter rape (Brassica rapa L. subsp. oleífera (DC. Metzg., and 2009 spring wheat. Determination of mineral N (NO3--N and NH4+-N were taken from the 0-30 cm layer, each year, during the full plant vegetation. The study found that changes in the mineral N content in soil depended on the dose of MBM and the crop species in a sequence. Each 0.5 t of MBM above 1.0 t ha-1 increased the mineral N content by an average of 4 mg. MBM applied every year at 2.0 and 2.5 t ha-1 produced a 2.33- and 2.56-fold increase in the mineral N content compared to unfertilized soil. The rate of release of NO3--N was found to be the highest at those sites in all the years of study, while that of NH4+-N was highest during the first 2 yr of study. The levels of NO3--N lay within the range of very low fertility. A strong correlation was found between NO3--N and NH4+-N content in soil and the N content in winter and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grain and in winter rapeseed (Brassica rapa L. subsp. oleífera (DC. Metzg. The NO3--N and NH4+-N compounds released from MBM were a good source of N for the plants.

  15. Nitrogen metabolism enzymes, soluble protein and free proline content in soybean genotypes and their F1 hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kereši Sanja T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activity, as well as free proline and soluble protein content were measured in eight soybean parent genotypes and six F1 hybrids. The aim of this study was to determine variability and the mode of inheritance for these parameters, and point out the genotypes of interest for future breeding programs. Analysed genotypes and their F1 hybrids expressed significant differences in activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase enzymes, as well as in soluble proteins and free proline contents. Since mode of inheritance for all investigated traits was in most cases dominance or heterosis, it can be concluded that these parameters are under control of dominant genes. The obtained results suggest that genotypes with favorable traits, such as variety Linda, line 1511, and F1 hybrids (Linda x LN92-7369 and (Balkan x BL-8, could be of interest as a good starting material for further breeding programs.

  16. Development of a technique using MCNPX code for determination of nitrogen content of explosive materials using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasrabadi, M.N., E-mail: mnnasrabadi@ast.ui.ac.ir [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bakhshi, F.; Jalali, M.; Mohammadi, A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-11

    Nuclear-based explosive detection methods can detect explosives by identifying their elemental components, especially nitrogen. Thermal neutron capture reactions have been used for detecting prompt gamma 10.8 MeV following radioactive neutron capture by {sup 14}N nuclei. We aimed to study the feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) along with improved nuclear equipment to detect and identify explosives, illicit substances or landmines. A {sup 252}Cf radio-isotopic source was embedded in a cylinder made of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and the cylinder was then placed in another cylindrical container filled with water. Measurements were performed on high nitrogen content compounds such as melamine (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}N{sub 6}). Melamine powder in a HDPE bottle was placed underneath the vessel containing water and the neutron source. Gamma rays were detected using two NaI(Tl) crystals. The results were simulated with MCNP4c code calculations. The theoretical calculations and experimental measurements were in good agreement indicating that this method can be used for detection of explosives and illicit drugs.

  17. Effect of fluorescence characteristics and different algorithms on the estimation of leaf nitrogen content based on laser-induced fluorescence lidar in paddy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Sun, Jia; Du, Lin; Chen, Biwu; Zhang, Zhenbing; Shi, Shuo; Gong, Wei

    2017-02-20

    Paddy rice is one of the most significant food sources and an important part of the ecosystem. Thus, accurate monitoring of paddy rice growth is highly necessary. Leaf nitrogen content (LNC) serves as a crucial indicator of growth status of paddy rice and determines the dose of nitrogen (N) fertilizer to be used. This study aims to compare the predictive ability of the fluorescence spectra excited by different excitation wavelengths (EWs) combined with traditional multivariate analysis algorithms, such as principal component analysis (PCA), back-propagation neural network (BPNN), and support vector machine (SVM), for estimating paddy rice LNC from the leaf level with three different fluorescence characteristics as input variables. Then, six estimation models were proposed. Compared with the five other models, PCA-BPNN was the most suitable model for the estimation of LNC by improving R2 and reducing RMSE and RE. For 355, 460 and 556 nm EWs, R2 was 0.89, 0.80 and 0.88, respectively. Experimental results demonstrated that the fluorescence spectra excited by 355 and 556 nm EWs were superior to those excited by 460 nm for the estimation of LNC with different models. BPNN algorithm combined with PCA may provide a helpful exploratory and predictive tool for fluorescence spectra excited by appropriate EW based on practical application requirements for monitoring the N status of crops.

  18. Effect of zinc on acute pulmonary edema and changes of essential metal contents produced by nitrogen dioxide exposure to mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Y.; Mimura, S.; Sakai, K.; Yamane, Y. (Chiba Univ., Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences); Ito, M. (Chiba Prefectural Government, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-01-10

    This is a report on the protective effect of zinc (Zn) pretreatment of mice against lung edema caused by high-level, short-term NO{sub 2} exposure. There were significant increases of Fe content at 15ppm NO{sub 2}, Ca at 25ppm NO{sub 2}, Ca and Cu at 35ppm NO{sub 2}, and Ca and Zn at 40 and 50ppm NO{sub 2}. Zn pretreatment inhibited significantly the augmentation of Fe at 15ppm NO{sub 2}, that of Cu at 35ppm NO{sub 2}, and that of Ca at 25 to 50ppm NO{sub 2} exposure. The Ca content in serum at 25 to 50ppm NO{sub 2} exposure showed a significant decrease, and the decrease was significantly suppressed by Zn pretreatment. The ratio of Ca content in serum to that in lung was also decreased significantly at 25 to 50ppm NO{sub 2} exposure, and the decrease of the ratio was significantly suppressed by Zn pretreatment. Zn seems to depress the influx of serum Ca to lung caused by NO{sub 2} exposure. 26 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Influence of Rhizobia Inoculation on Biomass Gain and Tissue Nitrogen Content of Leucaena leucocephala Seedlings under Drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pereyra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anticipated increases in the frequency of heat waves and drought spells may have negative effects on the ability of leguminous trees to fix nitrogen (N. In seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala inoculated with Mesorhizobium loti or Rhizobium tropici, we investigated how the developmental stage and a short drought influenced overall biomass and the accumulation of carbon and N in plant tissues. In early developmental stages, the number of nodules and nodule biomass were correlated with total plant biomass and δ15N, and nodules and roots contributed 33%–35% of the seedling total N. Seedlings associated with R. tropici fixed more N and exhibited higher overall biomass compared with M. loti seedlings. Four and a half months after inoculation (140 days after inoculation, DAI, a short (15-day drought inhibited seedling growth and caused a decline in total plant N, with the smallest decline in R. tropici seedlings. After 15 days of drought, i.e., 155 DAI, the nodules had accumulated proline, but the total amino acid concentration did not change. Our results indicate that N-fixation is independent of seedlings growth. In addition, R. tropici is a better choice than M. loti as a symbiont for Leucaena seedlings for forest restoration and agroforestry applications under increasingly drier conditions.

  20. 不同纯氮用量对烤烟生长和产质量的影响%Influence of Different Pure Nitrogen Content on the Quality of Flue-Cured Tobacco Growth and Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁文

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the pure nitrogen consumption in different nitrogen content field on flue-cured tobacco 85. [Method] Drain 85 varieties tested respectively grown in available nitrogen different plot. Test of the single factor randomized was designed, the growth period, and agronomic characters and economic characters, tobacco leaf chemical constituents were observed. [ Result] Through reasonable of nitrogen fertilizer, the growth and development of tobacco plant were promoted and agricultural and economic characters were im proved, excessive amounts of nitrogen fertilizer, led to reduce the nicotine content in tobacco leaves and sugar content in phloem, ratio of sug ar and nicotin disordered. [ Conclusion ] In the available nitrogen content of soils with high, pure nitrogen 97.5 - 127.5 kg/hm2 improved the quality and total output value of the tobacco plant, when pure nitrogen content reached 157.5 km/hm2,tobacco production value reduced. In available nitrogen content of the soils with low , 127.5 kg/hm2 pure nitrogen, tobacco economic benefit increased.%[目的]研究云烟85在速效氮含量不同的田块的纯氮用量.[方法]将供试品种云烟85分别种植在速效氮不同的地块.采用单因素随机区组设计,对生育期、农艺性状、经济性状、烟叶化学成分进行观察测定.[结果]适量施用氮肥,促进烟株生长发育,改善烟株农艺和经济性状;过量施用氮肥,导致烟叶烟碱含量降低,还原糖含量降低,糖碱比失调.[结论]在速效氮含量高的土壤上,施用纯氮97.5~127.5 kg/hm2,烟叶总量和产值趋于稳定,当纯氮用量达到157.5 kg/hm2时,烟叶产值降低.在速效氮含量低的土壤上施用纯氮127.5 kg/hm2,烟叶增产效果明显.

  1. Total N content and δ15N signatures in moss tissue for indicating varying atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Guizhou Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Linglu; Xiao, Huayun; Guan, Hui; Zhang, Zhongyi; Xu, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Unsurprisingly, the amount of reactive nitrogen circulating annually on land has been doubled because of increasing anthropogenic activities. Exceedingly large amounts of reactive nitrogen (Nr) are likely to disrupt N dynamics and negatively impact the environment and human health. Guizhou Province, a major energy-producing province in southwest China, is suffering from serious long-term acid deposition. However, little work has been done to quantify the levels of atmospheric N deposition in this province, in which some ecologically vulnerable areas have resulted from rocky desertification. In this study, tissue N contents and δ15N signatures in 109 epilithic mosses were analyzed by the ordinary kriging (OK) interpolation technique to determine atmospheric N deposition. Moss N content (1.36-2.65%) showed a significant decrease from west to east, indicating that the spatial variance of TN deposition was the same as that of moss N content, with an average of 27.74 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Moss δ15N ranged from -5.89‰ to -0.72‰ and showed an opposite spatial variance compared with moss N contents. Negative δ15N indicated that the main sources for N deposition were urban sewage and agricultural NH3. According to Moss δ15N values, it could be concluded that NH4+-N and NO3--N were the main components of wet deposition, accounting for 52% and 44% of TN, respectively. The deposition fluxes were 14.49 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and 12.16 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Although the emission flux of NO3--N far exceeded that of NH4+-N, the amount of NH4+-N deposited on land was larger than that of NO3--N. N deposition in 99.6% of the province exceeded the critical load for terrestrial ecosystems. High N deposition is the main environmental problem facing Guizhou Province, and recommendations regarding regulatory strategies for mitigating atmospheric N pollution are urgently needed.

  2. Impact of the addition of different plant residues on nitrogen mineralization-immobilization turnover and carbon content of a soil incubated under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleeem Abbasi, M.; Tahir, M. Mahmood; Sabir, N.; Khurshid, M.

    2015-02-01

    Application of plant residues as soil amendment may represent a valuable recycling strategy that affects carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in soil-plant systems. The amount and rate of nutrient release from plant residues depend on their quality characteristics and biochemical composition. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 120 days under controlled conditions (25 °C and 58% water-filled pore space) to quantify initial biochemical composition and N mineralization of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues, i.e., the roots, shoots and leaves of Glycine max, Trifolium repens, Zea mays, Populus euramericana, Robinia pseudoacacia and Elaeagnus umbellata, incorporated into the soil at the rate of 200 mg residue N kg-1 soil. The diverse plant residues showed a wide variation in total N, C, lignin, polyphenols and C / N ratio with higher polyphenol content in the leaves and higher lignin content in the roots. The shoot of Glycine max and the shoot and root of Trifolium repens displayed continuous mineralization by releasing a maximum of 109.8, 74.8 and 72.5 mg N kg-1 and representing a 55, 37 and 36% recovery of N that had been released from these added resources. The roots of Glycine max and Zea mays and the shoot of Zea mays showed continuous negative values throughout the incubation. After an initial immobilization, leaves of Populus euramericana, Robinia pseudoacacia and Elaeagnus umbellata exhibited net mineralization by releasing a maximum of 31.8, 63.1 and 65.1 mg N kg-1, respectively, and representing a 16, 32 and 33% N recovery, respectively. Nitrogen mineralization from all the treatments was positively correlated with the initial residue N contents (r = 0.89; p ≤ 0.01) and negatively correlated with lignin content (r = -0.84; p ≤ 0.01), C / N ratio (r = -0.69; p ≤ 0.05), lignin / N ratio (r = -0.68; p ≤ 0.05), polyphenol / N ratio (r = -0.73; p ≤ 0.05) and (lignin + polyphenol) : N ratio (r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05) indicating a

  3. SiNx Coatings Deposited by Reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Process Parameters Influencing the Nitrogen Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susann; Hänninen, Tuomas; Goyenola, Cecilia; Wissting, Jonas; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Goebbels, Nico; Tobler, Markus; Högberg, Hans

    2016-08-10

    Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (rHiPIMS) was used to deposit silicon nitride (SiNx) coatings for biomedical applications. The SiNx growth and plasma characterization were conducted in an industrial coater, using Si targets and N2 as reactive gas. The effects of different N2-to-Ar flow ratios between 0 and 0.3, pulse frequencies, target power settings, and substrate temperatures on the discharge and the N content of SiNx coatings were investigated. Plasma ion mass spectrometry shows high amounts of ionized isotopes during the initial part of the pulse for discharges with low N2-to-Ar flow ratios of <0.16, while signals from ionized molecules rise with the N2-to-Ar flow ratio at the pulse end and during pulse-off times. Langmuir probe measurements show electron temperatures of 2-3 eV for nonreactive discharges and 5.0-6.6 eV for discharges in transition mode. The SiNx coatings were characterized with respect to their composition, chemical bond structure, density, and mechanical properties by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity, X-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation, respectively. The SiNx deposition processes and coating properties are mainly influenced by the N2-to-Ar flow ratio and thus by the N content in the SiNx films and to a lower extent by the HiPIMS frequencies and power settings as well as substrate temperatures. Increasing N2-to-Ar flow ratios lead to decreasing growth rates, while the N content, coating densities, residual stresses, and the hardness increase. These experimental findings were corroborated by density functional theory calculations of precursor species present during rHiPIMS.

  4. 全自动凯氏定氮仪测定化肥中的含氮量%Determination of Nitrogen Content of Fertilizer by Automatic Kjeldahl Apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑贤光; 辛若竹

    2014-01-01

    The method for the determination of nitrogen content in fertilizer by automatic Kjeldahl apparatus was established. Sample which total nitrogen ranged from 0.03 to 0.3 g was digested in microwave, alkali-distilled in the automatic Kjeldahl apparatus. Boric acid was used as receiving solution, and 0.15-0.20 mol/L hydrochloric acid standard solution was used for automatic titration. The recoveries of the method was in the range of 99.0%-101.5%, the relative standard deviation was less than 1.0%(n=6). Results detected by the method were compared with those deteced by GB/T 8527-2010 method. It was indicated that there was no significant difference between the two methods. The accuracy,precision of automatic Kjeldahl apparatus method were better than the standard method. The automatic Kjeldahl apparatus method costs less reagent, short time, and it can meet the rapid detection requirement of nitrogen content in fertilizer in mass work for laboratory.%建立全自动凯氏定氮仪检测化肥中氮含量的分析方法。称取总氮量在0.03~0.3 g范围的样品,经消解仪消解及全自动凯氏定氮仪碱化蒸馏,以硼酸为接收液,用0.15~0.20 mol/L的盐酸标准溶液进行自动滴定。该方法加标回收率为99.0%~101.5%,测定结果的相对标准偏差小于1.0%(n=6)。与国标GB/T 8527-2010法测定结果无显著性差异,全自动凯式定氮仪法的准确度、精密度均优于国标方法,而且所用试剂少、分析时间短,满足实验室快速检测大批量化肥中含氮量的需要。

  5. Sulfate-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation as a potential treatment method for high nitrogen-content wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikmann, Ergo; Zekker, Ivar; Tomingas, Martin; Tenno, Taavo; Menert, Anne; Loorits, Liis; Tenno, Toomas

    2012-07-01

    After sulfate-reducing ammonium oxidation (SRAO) was first assumed in 2001, several works have been published describing this process in laboratory-scale bioreactors or occurring in the nature. In this paper, the SRAO process was performed using reject water as a substrate for microorganisms and a source of NH(4) (+), with SO(4) (2-) being added as an electron acceptor. At a moderate temperature of 20°C in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) sulfate reduction along with ammonium oxidation were established. In an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR) the SRAO process took place at 36°C. Average volumetric TN removal rates of 0.03 kg-N/m³/day in the MBBR and 0.04 kg-N/m³/day in the UASBR were achieved, with long-term moderate average removal efficiencies, respectively. Uncultured bacteria clone P4 and uncultured planctomycete clone Amx-PAn30 were detected from the biofilm of the MBBR, from sludge of the UASBR uncultured Verrucomicrobiales bacterium clone De2102 and Uncultured bacterium clone ATB-KS-1929 were found also. The stoichiometrical ratio of NH(4) (+) removal was significantly higher than could be expected from the extent of SO(4) (2-) reduction. This phenomenon can primarily be attributed to complex interactions between nitrogen and sulfur compounds and organic matter present in the wastewater. The high NH(4) (+) removal ratio can be attributed to sulfur-utilizing denitrification/denitritation providing the evidence that SRAO is occurring independently and is not a result of sulfate reduction and anammox. HCO(3) (-) concentrations exceeding 1,000 mg/l were found to have an inhibiting effect on the SRAO process. Small amounts of hydrazine were naturally present in the reaction medium, indicating occurrence of the anammox process. Injections of anammox intermediates, hydrazine and hydroxylamine, had a positive effect on SRAO process performance, particularly in the case of the UASBR.

  6. Influence of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Endophyte Infection on Ecophysiological Parameters and Mineral Element Content of Perennial Ryegrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-Zhi Ren; Yu-Bao Gao; Wei Wang; Jin-Long Wang; Nian-Xi Zhao

    2009-01-01

    An expedment was designed to determine the effect of the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium lolii on the growth, physiological parameters and mineral element content of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perennel L.), when growing at two N supply levels. Endophyfe infection had a significant positive effect on both shoot and root growth of ryegrass, but this difference was only significant in the high N supply treatment. At high N supply, endophyte-infected (EI) plants accumulated more soluble sugar in the sheath and the root than endophyte-free (EF) plants. Endophyte infection affected mineral element concentrations In the root more than in the shoot. We found a significant effect of endophyte infection on B, Mn and Mg in the root, but significant effect was only found on B in the shoot. EI plants tended to accumulate less B in the shoot at both N levels, but accumulated more B, Mn and Mg in the root at low N levels. The difference of growth parameters in different periods was significant. The content of soluble sugar and crude protein in the sheath were also dependent on the growth stages of both EI and EF plants.

  7. Influence of nitrogen fertilizer and endophyte infection on ecophysiological parameters and mineral element content of perennial ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, An-Zhi; Gao, Yu-Bao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jin-Long; Zhao, Nian-Xi

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was designed to determine the effect of the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium lolii on the growth, physiological parameters and mineral element content of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perennel L.), when growing at two N supply levels. Endophyte infection had a significant positive effect on both shoot and root growth of ryegrass, but this difference was only significant in the high N supply treatment. At high N supply, endophyte-infected (EI) plants accumulated more soluble sugar in the sheath and the root than endophyte-free (EF) plants. Endophyte infection affected mineral element concentrations in the root more than in the shoot. We found a significant effect of endophyte infection on B, Mn and Mg in the root, but significant effect was only found on B in the shoot. EI plants tended to accumulate less B in the shoot at both N levels, but accumulated more B, Mn and Mg in the root at low N levels. The difference of growth parameters in different periods was significant. The content of soluble sugar and crude protein in the sheath were also dependent on the growth stages of both EI and EF plants.

  8. Effects of storage time and straw content of cattle slurry on the mineralization of nitrogen and carbon in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.

    1998-01-01

    to a sandy and a sandy loam soil. After 1 week, the preceding storage period (0-20 weeks) and temperature (5 degrees C or 15 degrees C) had no significant effect on the net release of inorganic N from the slurry in soil. Thus, the increased NH4+ content in the slurry after storage was followed by increased...... net N immobilization in soil. Additional straw in the slurry caused increased net N immobilization only in the sandy loam soil. Following anaerobic storage, 8-14% of slurry C was released in gaseous form, and the net mineralization of slurry C after 12 weeks in soil amounted to 54-63%. The extra net...

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids control productions of superoxide and nitrogen oxide and insulin content in INS-1E cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciano, M F; Leonelli, M; Curi, R; R Carpinelli, A

    2016-12-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have multiple effects in peripheral tissues and pancreatic beta cell function. Dietary depletion of omega-3 fatty acids is associated with pancreatic islet dysfunction and insulin resistance in rats. Herein, the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on pancreatic beta cell redox state and function were investigated. INS-1E insulin-secreting cells were incubated with EPA and DHA in combination with palmitic acid, and productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and insulin were measured. The involvement of the NADPH oxidase complex in ROS production and expression of the antioxidant enzymes was also investigated. After incubation for 1 or 48 h, productions of superoxide (by hydroethidine method), nitric oxide (by 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate-DAF-2DA assay), insulin (by radioimmunoassay), and expressions (by western blot analysis) of glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1) and gp91(PHOX) were measured. EPA and DHA reduced superoxide production after 1-h incubation. After 48 h, palmitic acid reduced superoxide production that was normalized by EPA treatment. Palmitic acid increased NO production that was reverted by EPA and DHA. Palmitic acid increased insulin secretion after 48 h, whereas both omega-3 fatty acids increased intracellular insulin content. EPA and DHA enhanced GPx-1 expression as well as gp91(PHOX) glycosylated form. In conclusion, EPA and DHA increased intracellular insulin content and antioxidant enzymatic defense capacity and decreased pro-oxidant generating activities that are associated with maintenance of pancreatic beta cell redox state in response to palmitic acid.

  10. Increased protein content of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria under water deficit conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui S; Carvalho, Patrícia; Marques, Guilhermina; Ferreira, Luís; Nunes, Mafalda; Rocha, Inês; Ma, Ying; Carvalho, Maria F; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2017-10-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a widely cropped pulse and an important source of proteins for humans. In Mediterranean regions it is predicted that drought will reduce soil moisture and become a major issue in agricultural practice. Nitrogen (N)-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have the potential to improve plant growth and drought tolerance. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of N-fixing bacteria and AM fungi on the growth, grain yield and protein content of chickpea under water deficit. Plants inoculated with Mesorhizobium mediterraneum or Rhizophagus irregularis without water deficit and inoculated with M. mediterraneum under moderate water deficit had significant increases in biomass. Inoculation with microbial symbionts brought no benefits to chickpea under severe water deficit. However, under moderate water deficit grain crude protein was increased by 13%, 17% and 22% in plants inoculated with M. mediterraneum, R. irregularis and M. mediterraneum + R. irregularis, respectively. Inoculation with N-fixing bacteria and AM fungi has the potential to benefit agricultural production of chickpea under water deficit conditions and to contribute to increased grain protein content. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Effects of Irrigation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Input Levels on Soil NO3 (-)-N Content and Vertical Distribution in Greenhouse Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiukang; Xing, Yingying

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the interactions between irrigation and fertilizer treatments on soil NO3 (-)-N content and vertical distribution under drip fertigation in greenhouse tomatoes. Randomized block design with three replications and the treatments consisting of three levels of irrigation and three levels of N fertilizer were used. Three irrigation levels were W1 (100%  ET0), W2 (75%  ET0), and W3 (50%  ET0) and fertilizer levels were F1 (N240-P2O5120-K2O150 kg hm(-2)), F2 (N180-P2O590-K2O112.5 kg hm(-2)), and F3 (N120-P2O560-K2O75 kg hm(-2)). The result demonstrates that dynamics of soil NO3 (-)-N and its response to drip fertigation and levels of N moved toward the fore soil moist, and the average soil NO3 (-)-N content with W3 treatment was 1.23 times higher than that of the W1 treatment in 0-60 cm at 43 days after transplanting. The negative correlation between N use efficiency and levels of fertilizer N and the N recovery efficiency was increased with increases of N fertilizer application. The fertilizer nitrogen rate greatly significantly influenced soil NO3 (-)-N content. Avoiding N leaching through controlled matching N fertilizer application and controlled irrigation to tomato N demand is the key to maintain crop yield and improve N use efficiency.

  12. Changes in leaf area, nitrogen content and canopy photosynthesis in soybean exposed to an ozone concentration gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Shimpei; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2016-08-01

    Influences of ozone (O3) on light-saturated rates of photosynthesis in crop leaves have been well documented. To increase our understanding of O3 effects on individual- or stand level productivity, a mechanistic understanding of factors determining canopy photosynthesis is necessary. We used a canopy model to scale photosynthesis from leaf to canopy, and analyzed the importance of canopy structural and leaf ecophysiological characteristics in determining canopy photosynthesis in soybean stands exposed to 9 concentrations of [O3] (37-116 ppb; 9-h mean). Light intensity and N content peaked in upper canopy layers, and sharply decreased through the lower canopy. Plant leaf area decreased with increasing [O3] allowing for greater light intensity to reach lower canopy levels. At the leaf level, light-saturated photosynthesis decreased and dark respiration increased with increasing [O3]. These data were used to calculate daily net canopy photosynthesis (Pc). Pc decreased with increasing [O3] with an average decrease of 10% for an increase in [O3] of 10 ppb, and which was similar to changes in above-ground dry mass production of the stands. Absolute daily net photosynthesis of lower layers was very low and thus the decrease in photosynthesis in the lower canopy caused by elevated [O3] had only minor significance for total canopy photosynthesis. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the decrease in Pc was associated with changes in leaf ecophysiology but not with decrease in leaf area. The soybean stands were very crowded, the leaves were highly mutually shaded, and sufficient light for positive carbon balance did not penetrate to lower canopy leaves, even under elevated [O3].

  13. 氧对焊缝金属吸氮机制的影响%EFFECT OF OXYGEN CONTENT ON NITROGEN ABSORPTIVE MECHANISM IN WELD FOR FLUX-CORED WIRE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯灵芝; 张智; 张文钺

    2001-01-01

    By measuring the content of oxygen and nitrogen in welds of six kinds of self-shielded flux-cored wires,the effect of oxygen on nitrogen content in weld is studied and the different absorptive mechanisms of nitrogen at a low oxygen level([O] lower than 0.02%) and a high oxygen level ([O] higher than 0.03%) have been disco ve red.The results indicate that the content of nitrogen in weld can be made lowest by modifying the composition of flux and controlling the content of oxygen to the range of 0.02%~0.03%.%通过测定6种焊缝中的氮、氧含量,研究了氧对焊缝金属吸氮量的影响,发现液态金属在低氧([O]<0.02%)和高氧([O]>0.03%)条件下不同的吸氮机制,并且提出通过调整药芯成分,将焊缝氧含量控制在0.02%~0.03%范围内,可使焊缝吸氮量最低.

  14. VD过程钢液氮含量控制工艺研究与实践%Research and practice on control of nitrogen contents during VD process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向东; 吴令

    2012-01-01

    对某厂230tVD处理过程的氮含量控制进行了研究。分别从真空度、底吹强度、真空处理时间等工艺参数及硫、氧等钢液成分对VD脱氮的影响进行了分析。分析表明:降低钢液初始氮含量,严格控制钢中的硫、氧含量,增强底吹强度,延长高真空保持时间对生产低氮钢有利;对VD破真空后钢液增氮的原因进行了分析,并提出:适当改变破真空操作制度、调整软吹流量,可以减少钢液增氮。%The process of nitrogen content controlling in VD is studied in this paper and the impact of parameters such as vacuum, bottom blown flux, vacuum processing time etc. and chemical compositions such as sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen in liquid steel on denitrification is analyzed separately. The analysis indicates that such a few processing measures as reduction of the initial nitrogen content, strictly control of the sulfur and oxygen contents during VD process, enhancement in the strength of bottom blowing, extension of the holding time of vacuum pressure are favorable for production of the low nitrogen steel. The reason for increase of nitrogen contents after vacuum break is ana- lyzed and in the end its pointed out that the nitrogen pick up in the liquid steel can be re- duced by appropriately changing the vacuum break operating schedule, and readjusting the soft blowing rate.

  15. IMPACT OF SALINITY AND SODICITY ON BIOMASS, TOTAL NITROGEN, NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY, LEAF AREA, AND CHLOROPHYLL CONTENTS IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. GUFRAN KHAN*, SHIMELIS*, G., ALEMU, H.* AND KEBENU, F**

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Salinity and sodicity are major constraint in increasing crop production at global level. Millions of the hectares of the land are too saline to produce economic yield.  In Ethiopia, 11 million ha of land is salt affected, about half of these soils are saline and remaining half are saline - sodic and sodic soil. As most of the arable land and quality water resources have already been exploited, the use of saline or urban/industrial waste water may be a viable alternative for further agro production. In view of such perspectives, an investigation was conducted to examine the effect of salinity (NaCl and sodicity (Na2CO3 on  biomass, total nitrogen, nitrate reductase activity, leaf area, and chlorophyll contents in Maize (Zea mays L. plants. The appropriate amount of NaCl and Na2CO3  was  dissolved in distilled water for appraisal of artificial  salinity and sodicity levels ( 0 , 4, 8,  and 12  and  mScm-1 in soil medium. Plants were also supplied with potassium (0 and 5mM KNO3 as remedial treatment. Maize plants were analyzed for germination, early growth, biomass, total nitrogen, Nitrate reductase activity, Leaf area, and chlorophyll contents as grown under different ECe levels of salinity and sodicity. The extent of salinity and sodicity effects was compared on the basis of different parameters. It was observed that plants showed substantial reduction in all parameters due to imposition of salinity and sodicity in root medium and it was more so due to sodicity. However, the use of additional potassium brought about an enhancement in these parameters.  It is suggested that plants may be raised in saline soil and saline water however; the extent of success depends upon salinity and sodicity levels, remedial treatments and plant species. The outcome of the present work may contribute towards viable utilization of saline soil and water for enhancing agro production of suitable crops, a desired goal to achieve food security.

  16. Estimation of Symbiotically Fixed Nitrogen in Soybean Depending on Nitrogen Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Objectives of investigations were to determine optimal nitrogen rates for the highest soybean seed yield, compare reaction of nodulating and nonodulating soybean varieties to nitrogen fertilization and estimate the amounts of symbiotically fixed nitrogen depending on nitrogen rates. Estimation of the amounts of symbiotically fixed nitrogen was done using the nitrogen contents in soil before and after the vegetation and nitrogen contents in whole plants of nodulating and nonodulating varieties...

  17. 凯氏定氮法测定土鳖虫多肽片的总氮量%Determination of Total Nitrogen Content in Woodlouse Polypeptide Tablets by Kjeldahl Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗美兰; 丁志军; 廖银根; 甘慧群

    2013-01-01

    目的:建立土鳖虫多肽片的总氮量的测定方法并制订该制剂含氮量的限度.方法:采用凯氏定氮法.将供试品消化(420℃,60 min)、蒸馏后,用硫酸滴定液滴定,测定土鳖虫多肽片的总氮量.结果:平均回收率为98.89% (RSD=0.78%),重复性试验RSD为0.88%;3批样品总氮量均值为5.09%.结论:建立的方法结果可靠、重复性好,可作为该制剂的质量控制方法;拟定该制剂每片含总氮量不得少于17.12 mg.%OBJECTIVE:To establish the method for determination of total nitrogen content in Woodlouse polypeptide tablets and to develop the limit of nitrogen content in the preparation.METHODS:After digesting the samples (420 ℃,60 min) and distilling,Kjeldahl method was used to determine total nitrogen content in Woodlouse polypeptide tablets.RESULTS:The mean recovery was 98.89% (RSD=0.78%),and RSD of repeatability test was 0.88% ; average total nitrogen content of 3 batches of samples was 5.09 %.CONCLUSIONS:The method is reliable and reproducible,and can be used for the quality control of Woodlouse polypeptide tablets.Toal nitrogen content per tablet is no less than 17.12 mg.

  18. Spatial structure and relationships of nitrogen balance index and protein content of grain in winter wheat%冬小麦氮平衡指数与籽粒蛋白质含量空间结构及关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋森楠; 宋晓宇; 陈立平; 杨贵军; 崔贝; 金秀良; 谭昌伟; 郭文善

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is one of three major food crops in China, not only it is a source of calories, but also an important source of protein. With the improvement of people’s living standards, the demand for high-quality food products also rose rapidly. However, the number of high-quality wheat was far from being able to meet domestic demand with largely dependence on foreign imports. The development of large-scale production of high-quality wheat became the trend of China’s wheat production. Grain protein content was an important quality character in wheat, which was closely related to nitrogen absorption, transport and assimilation. Many studies showed that the status of leaf nitrogen content had significant correlation with grain protein content, thus rapid nitrogen diagnosis had great significance for guiding crop production. Multiplex is the latest hand-held optical fluorescence sensor introduced to the non-destructive measurement of various parameter representatives of plant nitrogen status. This instrument generates fluorescence in the plant tissues using light sources (LED) generating four wavelengths:UV_A (375 nm, UV);blue (450 nm, B);green (530 nm, G);and red (630 nm, R). The present research focused on the winter wheat of the National Experimental Station for Precision Agriculture of China. Based on griding sampling, nitrogen balance index (NBI) was conducted with Multiplex 3 from jointing stage to middle and late filling stages. The spatial structure between winter wheat stress fluorescent parameter nitrogen balance index (NBI) and grain protein content were analyzed using geostatistical methods, and their semivariogram was developed. Correlation coefficient was chosen as the indicator to reflect the intimate level of linear correlation between nitrogen balance index (NBI) and grain protein content. The method of contour lines of indicator value used in this article was to analyze the relationships between grain protein content and combined nitrogen balance index

  19. 施氮量和时期运筹对超级杂交稻植株氮含量与籽粒产量的影响研究%Effect of Nitrogen Application Amount and Stage Management on Nitrogen Content in Plant and Grain Yield of Super Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石丽红; 纪雄辉; 李永华; 朱校奇; 李洪顺; 彭华; 刘昭兵

    2011-01-01

    以当前长江中下游稻区具有代表性的高产超级稻品种Y两优1号为材料,采用不同施N量与施N时期分配的田间试验,研究施N对超级稻植株N含量与籽粒产量的影响,从而明确超级稻高产的穗肥N施用量和比例.结果表明:随着施N量的增加,超级稻茎叶和籽粒N含量均呈线性升高,而且施N量对生殖生长阶段茎叶N含量的影响更为显著;与总施N量相比,穗肥N对生殖生长阶段各时期茎叶N含量的影响斜率要高1.88、1.02、1.86和2.28倍,而对成熟期籽粒N含量的影响斜率要高3.59倍.分蘖盛期至抽穗期的茎叶N含量与籽粒产量呈显著线性相关,而成熟期茎叶和籽粒N均与籽粒产量表现为二次抛物线关系;通过模拟方程和不同施N比例处理的叶片外观特征均推算出超级杂交稻达到最高产量的穗肥N用量为59.0 kg/hm2,占总施肥量32.8%.对4个时期施N比例进一步分析表明,各处理籽粒产量与由方程计算的最高产量接近,10-50-25-15处理的籽粒产量要高1.7%,说明合理分配部分N作为粒肥更有利于提高超级杂交稻产量.超级杂交稻合理穗肥(和粒肥)N有利于优化成熟期茎叶和籽粒N含量,从而构建超级稻最大库容量,使其达到最高产量水平.%Two field experiments, I.e., nitrogen-fertilizer amount and ratio in different growth stages, were conducted by using current representative super hybrid rice--No1 Y Liangyou at the middle and down reach of Yangtze River. The dynamics of stem-leaf nitrogen content affected by nitrogen-fertilizer amount and fertilization stage, relationship between nitrogen application and plant nitrogen content, plant nitrogen content and grain yield were studied to understand the amount and ratio of spike nitrogen. The results showed that the nitrogen content in stem-leaf over the whole growth season, especially in generative growth stage were linearly raised as nitrogen-fertilizer amount increased; Compared

  20. 不同氮素形态及配比对薄荷精油含量和品质的影响%Effects of different nitrogen forms and ratio on the content and the quality of peppermint essential oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟娟; 王羽梅; 潘春香; 肖艳辉; 何金明

    2016-01-01

    The experiment imitate cultivated by deep flow technique to study the effects of nitrate and ammoni-um nitrogen different proportions of peppermint essential oil content and quality. The results showed that dif-ferent nitrogen forms have little effect on essential oils of peppermint, but with the proportion of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen declined, the content of essential oil decreased and then increased, the highest content of essential oil under the T1 treatment, essential oil content of T3 treatment was minimum; the relative content of limonene oil components gradually increased, between 39.42%–44.15%; the relative content of carvone de-creased gradually, between 36.91%–40.78%; total nitrogen and protein increased, the ratio of carbon and nitro-gen decreased. So, the production can be increased by increasing the amount of nitrate nitrogen application to increase the content of the peppermint essential oil, applying fertilizer to regulate the relative content of essen-tial oils to the composition and physiological characteristics.%实验模仿深液流栽培技术,研究了硝态氮和铵态氮不同配比对薄荷精油含量和品质的影响。结果表明,不同氮素形态配比对薄荷精油成分影响不大,但随着硝态氮和铵态氮的比例下降,精油含量呈先降低后上升的趋势,其中, T1处理下的精油含量最高, T3处理下的精油含量最小;精油组成成分中柠檬烯的相对含量逐渐增加,为39.42%~44.15%;香芹酮的相对含量逐渐下降,为36.91%~40.78%;全氮、蛋白质的含量增加,碳氮比减小。因此,生产上可以通过增加硝态氮的施用量来增加薄荷的精油含量,通过施肥调节精油各成分相对含量和生理特性。

  1. The effect of nitrogen nutrition on growth and on plant hormones content in Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L. seedlings grown under light of different intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Michniewicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pine seedlings were cultivated in the Ingested nutrient solution containing N as NH4Cl at concentrations of 0 and 500 ppm, under a 16-hr day, at a light intensity of 1500 and 500 lx and temperature ± 20°C. Measurements of seedlings and determination of plant hormones were performed 8 weeks after sowing. It was found that more intensive light stimulated initiation of needles and lateral roots as well as elongation of needles and roots, and increased the fresh weight and dry matter of these organs. Growth stimulation of needles was correlated with an increase in free gibberellins, cytokinins, an ABA-like inhibitor and with a decrease in auxins and water content of tissues. A similar effect of light on plant hormones (except ABA was also observed in roots. The level of this inhibitor depended on N nutrition. Nitrogen bad a similar effect as light on the growth and initiation of needles and lateral roots. However, it strongly inhibited elongation of roots and increased the water content of the tissues. In needles N increased the level of GAs and auxins, under both light variants, as well as the level of cytokinins, under more intensive light. It decreased the amount of ABA-like inhibitor. In roots the effect of N nutrition on the level of plant hormones depended upon the light intensity. Under light of low intensity N decreased the level of GAs and ABA, increased the level of auxins and had nonsignificant influence on the level of cytokinins. Under more intensive light it had no effect on the GAs and auxin levels and increased the level of cytoikinins and the ABA-like inhibitor.

  2. Influences of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon and Nitrogen sources on Growth, Total Lipid Content and Calorific Value of Freshwater Oleaginous Microalga Ankistrodesmus falcatus (Corda Ralfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Talukdar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel potentiality of a native Indian strain of the freshwater oleaginous microalgae A.falcatus was studied owing to its inherently high lipid content. Influences of media constituents, pH and nitrogen sources on growth (µ, total lipid (TL content and calorific value (CV were compared in batch culture. Bold basal medium was superior (µ = 0.498 d-1, TL = 43.6% and CV = 23.6 kJ/g than BG11 (µ = 0.385 d-1, TL = 38.5% and CV = 19.3 kJ/g. Medium pH (≈ 7.0 and NaHCO3 (30 mg/L, were found suitable for optimum growth at light intensity 35 µmol/m2/s, temperature 25 ± 2 0C and 16 hrs light and 8 hrs dark diurnal cycles. NO3- instead of NH4+ was preferred in the range KNO3 > NaNO3 > NH4NO3 > Urea, for maximal biomass and lipid production. Maximum biomass, TL and CV (80 mg/L DCW and 42.4% and 20.6 kJ/g respectively were determined in medium containing KNO3 (17.6 mM. A close correlation between increase in TL and CV was observed (r2 = 0.994. With further augmentations of TL and improved biomass yield the native microalga strain could be a potent candidate for biofuel production.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.61.3.1423

  3. Fine Mapping of Carbon Assimilation Rate 8, a Quantitative Trait Locus for Flag Leaf Nitrogen Content, Stomatal Conductance and Photosynthesis in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Shunsuke; Yoshikawa, Kazuaki; Yamanouchi, Utako; Tanabata, Takanari; Sun, Jian; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Yamamoto, Toshio; Sage, Rowan F.; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Yonemaru, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the rate of leaf photosynthesis is one important approach for increasing grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa). Exploiting the natural variation in CO2 assimilation rate (A) between rice cultivars using quantitative genetics is one promising means to identify genes contributing to higher photosynthesis. In this study, we determined precise location of Carbon Assimilation Rate 8 (CAR8) by crossing a high-yielding indica cultivar with a Japanese commercial cultivar. Fine mapping suggested that CAR8 encodes a putative Heme Activator Protein 3 (OsHAP3) subunit of a CCAAT-box-binding transcription factor called OsHAP3H. Sequencing analysis revealed that the indica allele of CAR8 has a 1-bp deletion at 322 bp from the start codon, resulting in a truncated protein of 125 amino acids. In addition, CAR8 is identical to DTH8/Ghd8/LHD1, which was reported to control rice flowering date. The increase of A is largely due to an increase of RuBP regeneration rate via increased leaf nitrogen content, and partially explained by reduced stomatal limitation via increased stomatal conductance relative to A. This allele also increases hydraulic conductivity, which would promote higher stomatal conductance. This indicates that CAR8 affects multiple physiological aspects relating to photosynthesis. The detailed analysis of molecular functions of CAR8 would help to understand the association between photosynthesis and flowering and demonstrate specific genetic mechanisms that can be exploited to improve photosynthesis in rice and potentially other crops. PMID:28197156

  4. Varietal Difference in Leaf Nitrogen Content and Leaf Area and Their Effects to Ripening Rate During Mature Period of japonica Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Employing the pot experiment of the complete random block design with 6 replications,four varieties of japonica rice (Fujisaka 5,Honenwase,Akitakomachi and Taichung 65) were used to study the varietal differ- ences in leaf nitrogen content (LNC) and leaf area during mature period,their relation and effects to the ripen ing rate. The results showed that(1) thee were varietal differences in LNC at the heading stage and the LNC decrease rate during the matue period,the high LNC at the heading stage was related to the rapid LNC de- crease. (2) There were two phases of the leaf area changing process during the mature period,first was the stable,and second was the decreased phase. There was varietal difference in the critical time of phase 1 and phase 2. The hign leaf area in the phase 1 was in relation to the rapid leaf area decrease in the phase 2. It was not found that there was relation between the leaf quality and quantity. (3)It wa unfavorable to the ripening rate for the high leaf area at the heading stage and the rapid decrease of the leaf area during the mature peri- od. (4)It was put forward that the super high yield rice variety should possess the not very high leaf area and high LNC at the heading stage,slow senescence in the leaf area during the mature period.

  5. Varietal Difference in Leaf Nitrogen Content and Leaf Area and Their Effects to Ripening Rate During Mature Period of japonica Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiRong-tian; KojimaNobuyoshi; 等

    1999-01-01

    Employing the pot experiment of the complete random block design with 6 replications,four varieties of japonica rice (Fujisaka 5,Honenwase,Akitakomachi and Taichung 65) were used to study the varietal differences in leaf nitrogen content (LNC) and leaf area during mature period,their relation and effects to the ripening rate.The results showed that (1) thee were varietal differences in LNC at the heading stage and the LNC decrease rate during the matur period,the high LNC at the heading stage was related to the rapid LNC decrease.(2) There were two phases of the leaf area changing process during the mature period,first was the stable,and second was the decreased phase.There was varietal difference in the critical time of phase 1 and phase 2.The hign leaf area in the phase 1 was in relation to the rapid leaf area decrease in the phase 2.It was not found that there was relation between the leaf quality and quantity.(2)It wa unfavorable to the ripening rate for the high leaf area at the heading stage and the rapid decrease of the leaf area during the mature period.(4)It was put forward that the super high yield rice variety should possess the not very high leaf area and high LNC at the heading stage,slow senescence in the leaf area during the mature period.

  6. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  7. Variação do teor de nitrogênio em ramos produtivos de caquizeiro Change the content of nitrogen in productive branches of persimmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinval Xavier de Aguiar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta do caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki L. à adubação nitrogenada. O experimento foi conduzido em um pomar comercial no município de Faxinal, Estado do Paraná, nas coordenadas geográficas S 23º 57' 35'', W51º 13'34'', altitude de 999 metros. A cultivar estudada foi "Giombo". Utilizou-se de 9 tratamentos, sendo uma testemunha sem aplicação de nitrogênio (N, e os demais resultante das épocas de aplicação de N (Maturação fisiológica dos frutos, início de poda, final de florescimento e em 15-12-06, combinadas com duas doses de N (80 e 160 kg/ha. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados e 4 repetições. A parcela experimental foi constituída de 3 plantas, sendo a planta central usada para avaliação. A cada quarenta e cinco dias após o início da adubação, foram retirados aleatoriamente de cada tratamento oito ramos produtivos em diferentes pontos da planta. Na folha, os tratamentos IP e MF apresentaram os maiores teores de N na primavera e no verão, e uma diminuição significativa na fase final do ciclo antes da senescência e queda.Na folha e no ramo, todos os tratamentos resultaram em teor de N semelhante no final do ciclo.A época de aplicação, início de poda, foi a época que demonstrou menor variação de N, independentemente da dose.The objective was to evaluate the change in content of nitrogen in productive branches of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. to nitrogen fertilization. The experiment was conducted in a commercial orchard in the municipality of Faxinal, state of Paraná, in geographical coordinates S 23 º 57 '35'', W51 ° 13'34'', altitude of 999 meters. The cultivar studied was "Giombo. 9 was used treatments, and a control without application of nitrogen (N, and the remainder resulting from the application in time of physiological maturity of fruits, pruning the top, end of flowering and 15/12/06 and combined with two doses of N (80 and 160 kg / ha

  8. Effects of Nitrogen Sources on Volatile Compounds Content in Grape Wine%氮源对葡萄酒中挥发性化合物含量的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新节; 姜凯凯; 孙玉霞; 张将; 王霄倩

    2016-01-01

    The content of amino acid and yeast assimilable nitrogen in grape juice (Cabernet Sauvignon grape from four different village vine-yards (Adong, Hongpo, Dongshui, Bucun) in Deqin, Yunnan) was measured. In addition, the content of volatile compounds in grape wine pro-duced by these grape juice was determined. And the relations between the content of yeast assimilable nitrogen in grape juice and the content of volatile compounds in wine were analyzed. The results suggested that, isobutyl alcohol in wine was associated with valine content in grape juice, hexyl acetate and ethyl acetate in wine were associated with toserine content in grape juice, total esters content in wine was associated with total amino acids content in grape juice;hexanol, benzyl alcohol, phenethyl acetate, hexanoic acid and octanoic acid in wine were positive-ly correlated to the content of yeast assimilable nitrogen, and isobutanol and diethyl ester butanedioic were negatively correlated to the content of yeast assimilable nitrogen in grape juice.%选取云南省德钦县阿东、红坡、东水和布村4个村庄葡萄园的赤霞珠葡萄,测定葡萄汁中氨基酸和酵母可同化氮含量,并对所酿葡萄酒中挥发性化合物含量进行测定,分析葡萄汁中酵母可同化氮含量与葡萄酒中挥发性化合物含量之间的关系。结果表明,葡萄酒中异丁醇与葡萄汁中缬氨酸含量相关,葡萄酒中乙酸己酯和乙酸乙酯与葡萄酒中丝氨酸含量相关,葡萄酒中总酯与葡萄汁中总氨基酸含量相关;葡萄酒中正己醇和苯甲醇、乙酸苯乙酯、己酸和辛酸与葡萄汁中的酵母可同化氮含量呈正相关,而异丁醇和丁二酸二乙酯与葡萄汁中的酵母可同化氮含量呈负相关。

  9. 矿区复垦地土壤碳氮含量变化特征%Variation of Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Contents in the Reclamation of Coal Mine Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美英; 高永; 汪季; 金永昌; 龚萍

    2013-01-01

    为阐明矿区复垦对土壤碳氮含量的影响,以神府东胜矿区马家塔露天矿区复垦地为研究对象,比较了复垦区与原状土壤有机质、全氮、碱解氮含量以及碳氮比变化,同时分析了有机质和氮之间的相关性.结果表明:(1)复垦区表层(0-20 cm)土壤有机质含量显著高于下层(20-40 cm),且有机质分布不均衡.和原状土壤相比,复垦地土壤的有机质含量显著增加,C/N比减小.(2)复垦土壤的全氮和碱解氮含量显著高于原状土壤,碱解氮含量表层显著高于下层,说明复垦后氮素的供应潜力提高.(3)相关分析表明,有机质和全氮之间、有机质与碱解氮之间以及全氮与碱解氮之间均存在显著的线性正相关关系.该研究结果对于评估复垦效应,指导复垦的实践具有重要作用.%In order to address the effect of reclamation on soil organic carbon and nitrogen contents, the variation of organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen and the ratios of C/N in soil at Shengfudongsheng reclamation of coal mine area were investigated. Furthermore, the correlation between organic matter and nitrogen was analyzed. The results showed that: (1) soil organic matter content in 20-40 cm layer was lower than that in 0-20 cm layer, indicating that the distribution of soil organic matter was not balanced. Soil organic matter content in reclamation area significantly increased and C/N decreased compared to the original soil, which was of great benefit to the accumulation of available nitrogen; (2) total nitrogen and available nitrogen in reclamation area were significantly higher than that of none reclaimed soil. Soil available nitrogen in 20-40 cm layer was significantly lower than that of 0-20 cm soil layer in reclamation area. Potential of nitrogen supplying was greatly improved after reclamation; (3) a significantly positive linear correlation was observed among soil organic matter, total nitrogen content and available nitrogen

  10. Determination of Nitrogen Content in Foodstuffs by Dumas Combustion Method%杜马斯燃烧法测定食品中总氮含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪娇; 陈晨; 曾玉龙; 黄伟

    2012-01-01

    以各类食品为试验材料,分析了各种参数对杜马斯燃烧法测定含氮量结果的影响,并比对了杜马斯法和凯氏法的测定结果。结果表明,当通氧量为110~200 mL/min,反应炉温度设定900℃以上,样品量在100~150 mg时,测定结果理想。大部分食品样品杜马斯和凯氏法无显著性差别。但杜马斯法结果RSD较凯氏法稍大。另改进前处理方法,杜马斯法还可以用于测定液体食品中的氮含量,结果准确。%This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different parameter on the result of nitrogen content determinited by Dumas combustion method,based on the different kind of foodstuffs.The results showed that the satisfied result was obstained when the flow of O2 was 110~200 mL/min,furnace temperature was above 900 ℃,and the sample mass was between 100-150mg.To most of foodstuffs,there was no significent difference on the Dumas combustion method and Kjeldahl method,expect the RSD was higher by Dumas method.And exect result was obstined on liqid foodstuffs by Dumas method,by improved dealing method.

  11. Measurement of Nitrogen Content in Nitrocellulose of Gunpowder by Runger’s Method%龙格氮量计法测定火药中硝化棉含氮量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永士; 张彬; 魏晗

    2016-01-01

    Energy from the gunpowder has a direct relationship with the nitrogen content of nitrocellulose. Nitrocellulose is one of the main sources of energy in the powder. With the continuous decomposition of gunpowder in the process of storage, the nitrogen content of nitrocellulose reduces gradually, the energy declines, the mechanical strength reduces, and the ballistic performance deteriorates. So it is very important to measure nitrogen content in nitrocellulose of gunpowder by Runger’s method.%火药能量的大小与硝化棉含氮量的高低有着直接关系。硝化棉是火药中的主要能量来源之一。由于火药在贮存过程中的不断分解,使硝化棉含氮量逐渐减少,能量下降,机械强度降低和弹道性能变坏,用龙格氮量计法测定库存火药中硝化棉的含氮量具有重要意义。

  12. Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil available nitrogen forms and their contents in typical temperate forest stands.%模拟氮沉降对温带典型森林土壤有效氮形态和含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立新; 段文标

    2011-01-01

    通过室内模拟氮沉降试验,研究了氮沉降对温带典型森林土壤有效氮的影响.结果表明:试验期间,与对照相比,经过氮沉降处理的土壤铵态氮、硝态氮和有效氮均呈增长的趋势,增加的程度取决于森林类型、土层、氮处理类型和氮处理的持续时间.氮沉降对不同林型土壤有效氮形态和含量的影响不同,氮沉降对混交林的影响弱于阔叶林,强于针叶人工纯林;土壤A层对氮沉降的敏感程度大于土壤B层;铵态氮形态沉降对土壤铵态氮含量的影响比对土壤硝态氮含量的影响大,而硝态氮形态沉降对土壤硝态氮含量的影响比对土壤铵态氮含量的影响大,混合形态的氮沉降对二者均有促进作用,且增加幅度更高;氮沉降对土壤有效氮的影响存在累加效应.%An indoor experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on the soil available N in typical temperate forest stands. During the experiment period, nitrogen deposition increased the soil NH4+-N, NO3- -N, and available N contents, as compared with the control, but the increments differed with stand types, soil layers, nitrogen treatment types, and treatment duration. Mixed forest soil had weaker responses in its available N contents to the nitrogen deposition than broad-leaved forest soil but stronger responses than artificially pure coniferous forest soil, and soil A horizon was more sensitive to nitrogen deposition than soil B horizon. Ammonium nitrogen deposition had larger effects on soil NH4+-N content, nitrate nitrogen deposition had larger effects on soil NO3- -N content, while mixed ammonium and nitrate nitrogen deposition increased the contents of both soil NH4+-N and soil NO3- -N, and the increments were higher than those of ammonium nitrogen deposition and nitrate nitrogen deposition, suggesting the additive effects of the mixed ammonium and nitrate nitrogen deposition on the forest soil available N.

  13. EFFECTS OF NITROGEN ON PHENOLIC ACID AND PROTEIN CONTENT IN BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L. ) GRAIN%氮素对大麦籽粒中酚酸和蛋白质含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祥军; 齐军仓; 贾力群; 王倩; 王琴; 马建峰; 王仙; 曹连莆

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the necessary nutrient elements for crop growth. The primary and secondary metabolisms of plant are regulated by nitrogen nutrient levels. As important secondary metabolites, phenolic acids play significant roles in plant resistances, and potentially contribute to barley qualities. However, little is known concerning effects of nitrogen on barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ) phenolic acids. In the present study, two barley cultivars were used, and seven nitrogen concentration treatments (0,412.5, 825.0, 1237.5, 1650, 3300, and 4950mg/L, respectively) under in vitro spike culture were conducted to investigate the effects of nitrogen on phenolic acid and protein contents in barley grain. Results showed that the development of barley grain was inhibited under high nitrogen levels (3300 ~ 4950mg/L), and grain weight decreasing significantly was as the response. Total hydroxybenzoic acid content (THBA), total hydroxycinnamic acid content (THCA), total phenolic acid content (TPA) and THBA/THCA ratio were all significantly affected by nitrogen concentration, cultivar and the interaction between nitrogen concentration and cultivar. Four indexes above were all significantly positively correlated with nitrogen concentration. Except for hordein content ( HC ), the protein indexes of crude protein content (CPC), salt-soluble protein content (SSPC), and glutelin content (GC) were all significantly affected by nitrogen concentration, moreover, SSPC and GC were significantly affected by cultivar and the interaction between nitrogen concentration and cultivar. Excluding HC and GC in the four indexes, CPC and SSPC were significantly positive-correlated with nitrogen concentration. The results also indicated that phenolic acid contents (including THBA, THCA, and TPA) in barley grain increased cooperated with CPC and SSPC when the nitrogen nutrient level went up.%采用穗培养技术在7个氮素(NH4NO3为氮源)浓度水平(N1:0mg/L;N2:412.5 mg/L;N3:825.0mg/L;N4

  14. Effect of nitrogen concentrations on growth and protein content of heterotrophic microalgae%氮浓度对异养小球藻生长及蛋白质含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴锐; 王文睿; 张永奎; 张鹏; 谢通慧; 梁斌

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the problem of low protein content of heterotrophic Chlorella vulgaris,the effects of nitrogen concentrations on growth and protein content of Chlorella vulgaris were studied.The regulations of nitrogen concentrations in different phases on the growth and protein content of Chlorella vulgaris were also studied .The results showed that protein content of Chlorella vulgaris was increased from 26.1% to 37.4% with the increase of initial nitrogen concentration from 12 to 15mmol/L.The control strategy was that firstly let Chlorella vulgaris grow under low nitrogen concentration to its exponential phase,and then transfered it to high nitrogen concentration.So we could obtaine both high biomass 3.04g/L and high protein content of 53.8% ,which reaches the protein level of Chlorella vulgaris in autotrophic culture.%为了提高异养小球藻蛋白质含量低的问题,研究了异养小球藻生长及蛋白质含量和氮浓度的关系,探究了分阶段调控氮浓度对异养小球藻生长及蛋白质含量的影响。结果表明,氮浓度在3~15mmol/L范围内,小球藻生物量及蛋白质含量随氮浓度增加而增加,生物量从0.91g/L提高到了3.02g/L,蛋白质含量从26.1%提高到了37.4%。分阶段培养小球藻,首先在低氮条件下培养至指数期前期,然后转移至高氮浓度下培养,生物量达3.04g/L,且蛋白质含量提高至53.8%,与自养培养条件下蛋白质含量相当。

  15. Effects of Nitrogen-free Solutions on Vitamin C Content in Lettuce Grown Hydroponically%断氮处理对水培生菜维生素C累积的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文科; 杨其长

    2011-01-01

    通过温室水培试验,研究了3种断氮处理对生菜各部位叶片维生素C含量的影响.结果表明,与全营养液相比,3种断氮处理可显著提高生菜展开叶叶片中的维生素C的含量,断氮处理2d时效果已很明显,8d时维生素C增持效果依然显著.除第4天无氮营养液和蒸馏水处理增加了老叶维生素C含量外,在其他取样时间3种无氮营养液处理对生菜老叶中维生素C含量无显著影响.基于可操作性和成本,建议清水(取代蒸馏水)和氯化钾溶液作为无氮处理液用于采前提高无土栽培叶菜维生素含量.%A glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate the impacts of three kinds of nitrogen-free hydroponic solutions on vitamin C contents in expanded leaves and old leaves during eight-day treatment period. The results showed that three nitrogen-free hydroponic solutions could increase vitamin C content in expanded leaf blades at all four sampling times (two-day samples to eight-day samples) compared with the full nutrient solution treatment. The efficacies of vitamin C content improvement of three nitrogen-free solution treatments were still effective for eight days under the experimental conditions. However, nitrogen disruption treatment did not improve the vitamin C content in old leaves except at four days later after treatments of nitrogen-bee nutrient solution and distilled water. Based on the practical feasibility and cost, tap water (replacing distilled water), KG solution were promised to use for improving vitamin C content before harvest.

  16. Effects of Grafting on Tobacco Key Enzyme Activities of Nitrogen Metabolism and the Contents of Chlorophyll%嫁接对烤烟氮代谢关键酶活性及叶绿素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅芳; 杨铁钊; 刘剑君; 张小全; 张广普; 武云杰; 刘中威; 李洪臣

    2012-01-01

    Using Jin Xing 6007 as rootstock and Nong Da 202 as scion, grafted plants were made to compare the differences in dry leaf weight, some key enzyme activities of nitrogen metabolism (nitrate reductase,glutamine synthetase)and the contents of chlorophyll between grafted and non-grafted tobacco seedlings grown in pot with the different amount of nitrogen. The results showed that nitrate reductase activities, glutamine synthetase activities and the contents of chlorophyll in leaves of grafted seedlings were significantly higher than those of non-grafted seedlings under two different amount of nitrogen. Nitrate reductase activities, glutamine synthetase activities and the contents of chlorophyll of grafted and non-grafted plants were decreasing with the decreasing nitrogen level, they were also decreasing when tobacco leaves were turning to mature. The speed of decreasing in grafted seedlings was slower than that in non-grafted seedlings. These results indicated that higher nitrate reductase activities, glutamine synthetase activities and the contents of chlorophyll might be resulted from the stronger nitrogen efficiency in grafted tobacco seedlings.%以金星6007为砧木,农大202为接穗,比较盆栽试验下不同施氮水平对烤烟嫁接苗和接穗自根苗的烟叶干质量、氮代谢关键酶(硝酸还原酶和谷氨酰胺合成酶)活性和叶绿素含量的影响.结果表明,烟叶干质量、硝酸还原酶活性、谷氨酰胺合成酶活性和叶绿素含量在两种氮水平下均为嫁接苗大于自根苗,且差异极显著.随着施氮量的降低和生育期的推进,嫁接苗和自根苗氮代谢关键酶活性和叶绿素含量都下降,但降幅不同,嫁接苗的降幅较低.以上结果说明,低氮水平下较高的硝酸还原酶活性、谷氨酰胺合成酶活性和叶绿素含量与烤烟嫁接苗的氮效率增强有关.

  17. Effect of High-Entropy Components of Nitride Layers on Nitrogen Content and Hardness of (TiN-Cu/(AlNbTiMoVCrN Vacuum-Arc Multilayer Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.М. Beresnev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated research of links in the “content-structure-properties” chain in structural engineering of (TiN-Cu/(AlNbTiMoVCrN multilayer coatings was carried out with application of elemental and X-ray diffraction analysis as well as microhardness testing. It has been found that formation of the second layer based on a high-entropy alloy even with a relatively small content of components (below 1 wt % leads to formation of a solid solution FCC lattice phase. Compared to TiN-Cu singlelayer coatings, the multilayer coating based on a (TiN-Cu/(AlNbTiMoVCrN system has an increased nitrogen content and an enhanced hardness of up to 24.5 GPa.

  18. Comparison of Kjeldahl and Dumas combustion methods for determination of nitrogen content in animal manures%杜马斯燃烧法与凯氏法测定畜禽粪便中氮含量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈秀丽; 杨增玲; 薛俊杰; 杨旸

    2012-01-01

    为了比较杜马斯燃烧法与凯氏法测定畜禽粪便氮含量结果的异同,以取自中国不同地区的5种畜禽粪便和磺胺嘧啶标准物为试验材料,分别采用凯氏法和杜马斯燃烧法测定各种畜禽粪便的氮含量,并对上述2种氮含量测定结果进行比较分析.结果表明:5类畜禽粪便凯氏氮的质量分数范围为0.51%~3.19%,杜马斯燃烧氮的质量分数范围为0.51%~3.35%,2种方法测定值之间不存在显著性差异,变异系数CV均小于5%.畜禽粪便样品凯氏法与杜马斯燃烧法的测定结果呈显著性相关(R2=0.987,p<0.05),拟合直线的斜率与1以及截距与0之间均不存在显著性差异.因此,杜马斯燃烧法可以代替凯氏法测定蛋鸡、肉鸡、猪、奶牛和肉牛粪便中的氮含量.%In order to compare the determination features nitrogen content in animal manures by Dumas combustion method and Kjeldahl methods, five kinds of manures and one reference compound were analyzed for nitrogen concentrations using Kjeldahl and Dumas combustion procedures respectively. Statistical analysis was performed on Kjeldahl nitrogen and Dumas nitrogen values. The results showed that the Kjeldahl nitrogen content of animal manures ranged from 0.51% to 3.19% and the Dumas combustion nitrogen content ranged from 0.51% to 3.35%, there was no significant difference in the nitrogen mean values measured by the two methods, and the coefficient of variation of two methods were all below 5%. The nitrogen determined results from the all-samples population rendered a simple linear correlation (R2=0.987, p<0.05) between the two methods. All the Kjeldahl values as a function of Dumas values was close to 1:1 line. It was concluded that the Dumas combustion procedure is capable of replacing the Kjeldahl procedure for nitrogen analysis of animal manures in laboratory.

  19. Regressive Analysis on Leaf Nitrogen Content and Near Infrared Reflectance and Its Application for Agricultural Farm Monitoring with Helicopter Mounted Near Infrared Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Method for evaluation of nitrogen richness of tealeaves with near infrared reflectance is proposed. Also tea farm monitoring with helicopter mounted near infrared camera is proposed. Through experiments and regressive analysis, it is found that the proposed method and monitoring system is validated.

  20. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOIL TEMPERATURE AND PLANT GROWTH STAGE ON NITROGEN UPTAKE AND AMINO ACID CONTENT OF APPLE NURSERY STOCK DURING EARLY SPRING GROWTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the spring, nitrogen (N) uptake by apple roots is known to be delayed about three weeks after bud break. We used one-year-old 'Fuji' (Malus domestica Borkh) on M26 bare-root apple trees to determine whether timing of N uptake in the spring is dependant solely on the growth st...

  1. Synthesis of high Al content Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N ternary films by pulsed laser co-ablation of GaAs and Al targets assisted by nitrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hua; You, Qinghu [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Hu, Zhigao; Guo, Shuang [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Yang, Xu; Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Jiada, E-mail: jdwu@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films were synthesized by co-ablation of an Al target and a GaAs target. • Nitrogen plasma was used to assist the synthesis of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N ternary films. • The Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films are slightly rich in N with an Al content above 0.6. • The Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films are hexagonal wurtzite in crystal structure. • The Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films have an absorption edge of 260 nm and a band gap of 4.7 eV. - Abstract: We present the synthesis of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N ternary films by pulsed laser co-ablation of a polycrystalline GaAs target and a metallic Al target in the environment of nitrogen plasma which provides nitrogen for the films and assists the formation of nitride films. Field emission scanning electron microscopy exposes the smooth surface appearance and dense film structure. X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman scattering spectroscopy reveal the hexagonal wurtzite structure. Optical characterization shows high optical transmittance with an absorption edge of about 260 nm and a band gap of 4.7 eV. Compositional analysis gives the Al content of about 0.6. The structure and optical properties of the Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films are compared with those of binary GaN and AlN films synthesized by ablating GaAs or Al target with the same nitrogen plasma assistance.

  2. Protein Nitrogen Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The protein content of foods can be determined by numerous methods. The Kjeldahl method and the nitrogen combustion (Dumas) method for protein analysis are based on nitrogen determination. Both methods are official for the purposes of nutrition labeling of foods. While the Kjeldahl method has been used widely for over a hundred years, the recent availability of automated instrumentation for the Dumas method in many cases is replacing use of the Kjeldahl method.

  3. Controlled Release Urea as a Nitrogen Source for Spring Wheat in Western Canada: Yield, Grain N Content, and N Use Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz Haderlein; T.L. Jensen; Dowbenko, R.E.; A.D. Blaylock

    2001-01-01

    Controlled release nitrogen (N) fertilizers have been commonly used in horticultural applications such as turf grasses and container-grown woody perennials. Agrium, a major N manufacturer in North and South America, is developing a low-cost controlled release urea (CRU) product for use in field crops such as grain corn, canola, wheat, and other small grain cereals. From 1998 to 2000, 11 field trials were conducted across western Canada to determine if seed-placed CRU could maintain crop yield...

  4. Effects of Impurities Content (Oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen) on Microstructure and Phase Transformation Temperatures of Near Equiatomic TiNi Shape Memory Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Olier, P.; Barcelo, F.; Bechade, J.; Brachet, J; Lefevre, E.; Guenin, G.

    1997-01-01

    Investigation of precipitation is performed on several near equiatomic TiNi alloys elaborated by arc melting or by powder metallurgy (combustion synthesis mode). These alloys contain various amount of impurities (oxygen, carbon , nitrogen). We show that such impurities result in both oxides (Ti4Ni2Ox, with x ≤ 1) and carbonitrides (TiCxN1-x, with ≤ 1) precipitation. X-ray diffraction measurements are performed on residues of electrochemical extraction to determine the structure and the lattic...

  5. Controlled Release Urea as a Nitrogen Source for Spring Wheat in Western Canada: Yield, Grain N Content, and N Use Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz Haderlein; Jensen, T. L.; Dowbenko, R.E.; A.D. Blaylock

    2001-01-01

    Controlled release nitrogen (N) fertilizers have been commonly used in horticultural applications such as turf grasses and container-grown woody perennials. Agrium, a major N manufacturer in North and South America, is developing a low-cost controlled release urea (CRU) product for use in field crops such as grain corn, canola, wheat, and other small grain cereals. From 1998 to 2000, 11 field trials were conducted across western Canada to determine if seed-placed CRU could maintain crop yield...

  6. Metal-Organic Coordination Polymer to Prepare Density Controllable and High Nitrogen-Doped Content Carbon/Graphene for High Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinwei; Zhong, Wenbin; Zou, Yubo; Xiong, Changlun; Yang, Wantai

    2017-01-11

    Design and preparation of carbon-based electrode material with high nitrogen-doping ratio and appropriate density attract much interest for supercapacitors in practical application. Herein, three porous carbon/graphene (NCGCu, NCGFe, and NCGZn) with high doping ratio of nitrogen have been prepared via directly pyrolysis of graphene oxide (GO)/metal-organic coordination polymer (MOCP) composites, which were formed by reacting 4,4'-bipyridine (BPD) with CuCl2, FeCl3, and ZnCl2, respectively. As-prepared NCGCu, NCGFe and NCGZn showed high nitrogen doping ratio of 10.68, 12.99, and 11.21 at. %; and high density of 1.52, 0.84, and 1.15 g cm(-3), respectively. When as-prepared samples were used as supercapacitor electrodes, NCGCu, NCGFe and NCGZn exhibited high gravimetric specific capacitances of 369, 298.5, 309.5 F g(-1), corresponding to high volumetric specific capacitances of 560.9, 250.7, 355.9 F cm(-3) at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1), as well as good cycling stability, nearly 100% of the capacitance retained after 1000 cycles even at a large current density of 10 A g(-1). It is expected that the provided novel strategy can be used to develop electrode materials in high performance energy conversion/storage devices.

  7. 探讨液氮洗原料气中氮气含量的高限值%DISCUSSION ON UPPER-LIMIT VALUE OF N2-CONTENT IN FEED-GAS FOR LIQUID-NITROGEN WASH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高峰; 尹俊杰

    2012-01-01

    应用Aspen Plus流程模拟软件,采用RK-Aspen热力学模型,完成对原液氮洗工艺流程的模拟,并与原设计值相比较,从而验证所选模型的合理性。然后运用此模型对多组工况进行模拟分析,得出液氮洗工艺原料气中氮气含量的高限值。%A simulation of original liquid-nitrogen wash process in a chemical enterprise with Aspen Plus software and RK-Aspen thermodynamic model has been completed and through the comparison with the designed value to verify the rationality of the model so selected. Afterwards, the model is applied to proceed simulation analysis at several groups of work condition and the upper-limit value of nitrogen content in feed gas for liquid nitrogen wash is resulted in.

  8. Effects of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on water use efficiency, stomatal conductance, leaf nitrogen content and morphological characteristics of Spiraea pubesoens in a warm-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lan; ZHANG Shouren

    2007-01-01

    Spiraeapubescens,a common shrub in the warm temperate deciduous forest zone which is distributed in the Dongling Mountain area of Beijing,was exposed to ambient and enhanced ultraviolet-B(UV-B,280-320 nm)radiation by artificially supplying a daily dose of 9.4 kJ/m2 for three growing seasons,a level that simulated a 17% depletion in stratospheric ozone.The objective of this study was to explore the effects of long-term UV-B enhancement on stomatal conductance,leaf tissue δ13C,leaf water content,and leaf area.Particular attention was paid to the effects of UV-B radiation on water use efficiency(WUE)and leaf total nitrogen content.Enhanced UV-B radiation significantly reduced leaf area (50.1%)but increased leaf total nitrogen content(102%).These changes were associated with a decrease in stomatal conductance(16.1%)and intercellular CO2 concentration/air CO2 concentration(C/Ca)(4.0%),and an increase in leaf tissue δ13C(20.5%),leaf water content(3.1%),specific leaf weight(SLW)(5.2%)and WUE(4.1%).The effects of UV-B on the plant were greatly affected by the water content of the deep soil(30-40 cm).During the dry season,differences in the stomatat conductance δ13C,and WUE between the control and UV-B treated shrubs were very small;whereas,differences became much greater when soil water stress disappeared.Furthermore,the effects of UV-B became much less significant as the treatment period progressed over the three growing seasons.Correlation analysis showed that enhanced UV-B radiation decreased the strength of the correlation between soil water content and leaf water content, δ13C,Ci/Ca,stomatal conductance,with the exception of WUE that had a significant correlation coefficient with soil water content.These results suggest that WUE would become more sensitive to soil water variation due to UV-B radiation.Based on this experiment,it was found that enhanced UV-B radiation had much more significant effects on morphological traits and growth of S.pubescens than hydro

  9. 不同施氮量协同打顶后同量调亏对烤烟中性致香物质含量及评吸质量的影响%Effects of different nitrogen levels and equal nitrogen deficiency after topping on neutral aroma constituents contents and smoking quality in flue-cured tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏菲; 史宏志; 杨军杰; 钱华; 周海燕; 穆文静; 刘国顺

    2012-01-01

    采用盆栽试验,研究了打顶前不同氮素营养水平协同打顶后同量调亏对烤烟NC 297的中性致香物质含量及评吸质量的影响.结果表明,中部叶中,高氮N1(5.250 g·盆-1)的类胡萝卜素类、苯丙氨酸类、棕色化产物类、新植二烯及中性致香物质总量均高于其他处理;上部叶中,随着施氮量增加,类胡萝卜素类、苯丙氨酸类、棕色化产物类、新植二烯及中性致香物质总量表现出先增后降的趋势,在高氮N2(4.375 g·盆-1)水平达到最大值.上部叶的茄酮含量变异较大,其含量分布为37.65~74.08 μg·g-1,且随着施氮量的增加,其含量下降显著.中部叶评吸结果以高氮N1(5.250 g·盆-1)得分最高,上部叶以高氮N2得分最高.综合来看,打顶前丰富的氮素营养协同打顶后调亏处理N2(4.375 g·盆-1),有利于烟叶优良品质的形成.%Pot experiment was conducted to study the influence of different nitrogen levels before topping and equal nitrogen deficiency after topping on neutral aroma constituents contents and smoking quality. The results showed that; the contents of aroma products degraded from carotenoid, phenylala-nine, aroma products of browning reaction, neophytadiene and the total contents of neutral aroma constituents in Nl (5.250 g · pot-1 ) were the highest in the middle leaves. While they increased first then decreased with the increasing nitrogen level in the upper leaves, and in the N2 (4. 375 g · pot -1) nitrogen level they reached their maximum value. The variation of solanene content was greater in upper leaves, and its content significantly decreased with the increasing nitrogen level ranging from 37.65 ~74.08 μg · g-1. Smoking quality was the highest in Nl (5. 250 g · pot-1) in the middle leaves, while it was the highest in N2 (4.375 g· pot-1) in upper leaves. In conclusion, abundance nitrogen level before topping and then regulated deficit nitrogen after topping treatment N2 (4. 375 g

  10. 氮肥减施对蔬菜硝酸盐含量及品质的影响研究%Effect of Nitrogen Reducing Application on Nitrate Content in Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐平; 廖鸿昕; 刘煜; 李先; 刘德林; 邵赛

    2011-01-01

    以叶类蔬菜为研究对象,探讨氮肥减施对蔬菜的硝酸盐积累及品质的影响.结果表明:在减少20%的化学氮肥基础上,通过增施有机肥、配施微量元素、施用硝化抑制剂和脲酶抑制剂等农艺技术措施町降低蔬菜硝酸盐含量2.93%~22.05%,亚硝酸盐含量9.09%~53.17%;蔬菜硝酸盐积累过程中夏季蔬菜积累高峰早于冬季蔬菜,蔬菜后期硝酸盐含量比生长旺期有明显的降低;在同等氮肥条件下,施用有机肥、配施微量元素、硝化抑制剂和脲酶抑制剂等农艺措施能提高蔬菜Vc含量,且蔬菜中的叶绿素SPAD值没有明显变化;减施氮肥会使蔬菜产量下降,但配施微量元素后不会减少蔬菜生产的经济效益.%Using leaf vegetables as the research object to study the effects of nitrogen reducing application on nitrate accumulation and quality of vegetables. The results showed that on the basis of reducing 20% chemical nitrogen fertilizer, the nitrate content and nitrite content in vegetables were reduced by 3.49%~23.84% and 9.09%~53.17% respectively through applying some agronomic measures, such as increasing application of organic manure, combined application of trace elements, application of nitrification inhibitors and in urinary inhibitors; the nitrate accumulation peak of summer vegetables was earlier than that of winter vegetables, the nitrate content of vegetables in the late period was obvious less than that in the rapid growth period; under the same nitrogen content condition, the agronomic measures that application of organic manure, nitrification inhibitors and in urinary inhibitors, combined application of trace elements can increase the Vc content in vegetables, and the chlorophyll SPAD values in vegetables had no obvious change.

  11. 湿沉降氮对2种禾本科植物中氮含量的影响%Effects of Atmosphere Deposition on Nitrogen Content of Two Poaceae Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林菲; 史锟

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] It was to study nitrogen use efficiency under the condition of deposition of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), further revealing the difference in gene variation.[Method] A pot experiment was conducted under 3 treatments of rainwater, ammonium-N (aN) and nitrate-N (nN).[Result] In the treatments of aN and nN, the biomass and N contents in plants were obviously higher than those in rainwater treatment, while the largest biomass(36.116 g) was observed in nN treatment. The absorption to aN was best to perennial ryegrass while nN to barley. According to the differential analysis of N content, treatments of both aN and nN was nitrogen superfluous, which led to release excessive N to the atmosphere, and the rainwater treatment and the control were N deficient, the largest N absorption from atmosphere was 0.698 g in rainwater treatment.[Conclusion] Average N use efficiency contributed by atmosphere N deposition ranged from 1.321%-6.116%, while the control of barley had the highest of 6.116%.

  12. Aplicação foliar de nitrogênio em videira: avaliação do teor na folha e das reservas nitrogenadas e de carboidratos nas gemas dos ramos do ano Nitrogen foliar spraying in grapevine: content in leaves and reserve of nitrogen and carboihydrates in shoots buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available No Rio Grande do Sul (RS, as aplicações foliares de nitrogênio, quando necessárias, têm sido usadas para complementar a adubação via solo. Entretanto, carece-se de informações dos efeitos da freqüência e da quantidade de N aplicado sobre a sua dinâmica na folha e de reservas nitrogenadas e de carboidratos nas partes perenes da videira, que compõem o objetivo deste trabalho. O trabalho foi conduzido em um vinhedo da cultivar Chenin Blanc, safra 2004/05, na Embrapa Uva e Vinho, em Bento Gonçalves (RS, sobre um Neossolo Litólico. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma, duas e três aplicações foliares de 0 (água; 1,11; 2,23; 3,31 e 4,41g de N planta-1. Após cada aplicação de nitrogênio, foram coletadas folhas inteiras (limbo+pecíolo no terço médio dos ramos do ano, no interior e exterior dos diferentes lados da planta, secas, moídas e preparadas para a análise de N total. Na última época de coleta de folhas, foram coletados três ramos do ano em cada planta, retiradas seis gemas em cada ramo, as quais foram submetidas à análise de amido, carboidratos solúveis totais, carboidratos redutores, aminoácidos totais e proteínas totais. As aplicações foliares de N aumentaram o teor do nutriente na folha inteira, de forma destacada, nas épocas de coletas próximas às aplicações; entretanto, essas aplicações diminuíram os teores de amido e carboidratos solúveis totais nas gemas dos ramos do ano e não afetaram os teores de carboidratos redutores e os totais de aminoácidos e proteínas.Leaf nitrogen application is used in grapevines in Southern Brazil as complement to soil fertilization. On the other hand, there is no information about its affects on nitrogen content in the leaves and nitrogen and carbohydrates reserves in the perennial parts. The experiment was carried out in 2004/2005, with the objective to evaluate the effect of nitrogen foliar spraying on leaves and nitrogen and carbohydrates reserves in shoots buds

  13. Richness, biomass, and nutrient content of a wetland macrophyte community affect soil nitrogen cycling in a diversity-ecosystem functioning experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, Alicia R.; Ahn, Changwoo; Noe, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The development of soil nitrogen (N) cycling in created wetlands promotes the maturation of multiple biogeochemical cycles necessary for ecosystem functioning. This development proceeds from gradual changes in soil physicochemical properties and influential characteristics of the plant community, such as competitive behavior, phenology, productivity, and nutrient composition. In the context of a 2-year diversity experiment in freshwater mesocosms (0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 richness levels), we assessed the direct and indirect impacts of three plant community characteristics – species richness, total biomass, and tissue N concentration – on three processes in the soil N cycle – soil net ammonification, net nitrification, and denitrification potentials. Species richness had a positive effect on net ammonification potential (NAP) through higher redox potentials and likely faster microbial respiration. All NAP rates were negative, however, due to immobilization and high rates of ammonium removal. Net nitrification was inhibited at higher species richness without mediation from the measured soil properties. Higher species richness also inhibited denitrification potential through increased redox potential and decreased nitrification. Both lower biomass and/or higher tissue ratios of carbon to nitrogen, characteristics indicative of the two annual plants, were shown to have stimulatory effects on all three soil N processes. The two mediating physicochemical links between the young macrophyte community and microbial N processes were soil redox potential and temperature. Our results suggest that early-successional annual plant communities play an important role in the development of ecosystem N multifunctionality in newly created wetland soils.

  14. Effect of salinity and different nitrogen sources on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and indole alkaloid content in Catharanthus roseus seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Neelam; Gupta, Ajay K

    2006-01-01

    The activities of antioxidant enzymes viz. glutathione reductase, GR; superoxide dismutase, SOD; peroxidase, POD; catalase, CAT and glutathione-S-transferase, GST and alkaloid accumulation were investigated in leaf pairs (apical, middle, basal) and in roots of Catharanthus roseus seedlings under the conditions of different nitrogen sources (20 mM KNO(3) and 2 mM NH(4)Cl) and salinity, in the absence (non-saline control) and in the presence of 100 mM NaCl in the nutrient solution. Salinity caused a reduction in plant biomass. The biomass production of ammonium-fed plants was lower than that of nitrate-fed plants. The antioxidant enzymes exhibited higher activity in saline-treated plants. Changes in antioxidant enzyme activity caused by different nitrogen sources differed in all leaf pairs, as well as in roots of C. roseus. Ammonium-fed plants showed higher CAT, GR and GST activity in leaf pairs as well as in roots, while POD and SOD activity were higher in nitrate-fed plants. Higher peroxidase activity concomitant with the increased accumulation of alkaloid was found in all leaf pairs, as well as in roots of C. roseus of NO(3)(-) fed plants as compared to NH(4)(+) fed plants.

  15. Use of laboratory anaerobic digesters to simulate the increase of treatment rate in full-scale high nitrogen content sewage sludge and co-digestion biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampio, Elina; Ervasti, Satu; Paavola, Teija; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of increasing feedstock treatment rate on the performance of full-scale anaerobic digestion using laboratory-scale reactors with digestate and feedstock from full-scale digesters. The studied nitrogen-containing feedstocks were i) a mixture of industrial by-products and pig slurry, and ii) municipal sewage sludge, which digestion was studied at 41 and 52°C, respectively. This study showed the successful reduction of hydraulic retention times from 25 and 20days to around 15days, which increased organic loading rates from 2 to 3.5kg volatile solids (VS)/m(3)d and 4 to 6kgVS/m(3)d. As a result, the optimum retention time in terms of methane production and VS removal was 10-15% lower than the initial in the full-scale digesters. Accumulation of acids during start-up of the co-digestion reactor was suggested to be connected to the high ammonium nitrogen concentration and intermediate temperature of 41°C.

  16. 氮磷含量对微生物修复油污土壤的影响%Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Contents on the Oil Degradation Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙万虹; 陈丽华; 徐红伟

    2015-01-01

    以甘肃西峰市油田附近土壤中的土著微生物为菌源,富集培养、筛选分离得到5种菌属的降解石油菌。通过向油污土壤中添加尿素、磷酸氢二铵的现场试验,历时63 d。研究了氮、磷含量在由5种菌制得的混合菌剂对油污的降解中的影响。结果表明,人为增加土壤中氮、磷元素对混合微生物菌剂修复油污土壤具有显著促进效果。在含油量1.5%和3%的污染土壤中,氮、磷元素的变化表现为两个阶段,前28 d氮、磷含量迅速减少,后35 d氮、磷含量变化表现出波动性,且在浓度为3%的污染土壤中,微生物菌剂的修复效果更为明显,最大降油率达到52.5%。利用GC-MS测定分析混合菌剂对石油主要成分藿烷的降解程度和演化规律的研究表明,混合菌剂对油污土壤中霍烷类化合物的降解均在80%以上,降解率较高,其中最高的是芒柄花根烷,达到86.3%.%Five oil-degradation bacterial strains were cultured, isolated and screened from soil at Xifeng Oilfield of Gansu Province, northwestern China. On-site experiments by adding different levels of urea and ammonium dibasic phosphate to oil-contaminated soil lasted 63 d, the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus contents on the oil degradation rate by mixed bacterial agent from 5 strains were investigated. The results reveal that nitrogen and phosphorus contents in oil-contaminated soil of Xifeng Oilfield are in low level, and it is not conducive for bioremediation;however, artificially adding a certain amount of nitrogen and phosphorus for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil with mixed bacterial agent have significant promoting effects. The changes of nitrogen and phosphorus show two stages in the 63 d microbial remediation process for 1. 5% and 3% oil-contaminated soil:the contents of nitrogen and phosphorus decrease rapidly in the first stage(0-28 d);while they fluctuate after 35 d. The microbial remediation effect

  17. Control of ion content and nitrogen species using a mixed chemistry plasma for GaN grown at extremely high growth rates >9 μm/h by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunning, Brendan P.; Clinton, Evan A.; Merola, Joseph J.; Doolittle, W. Alan, E-mail: alan.doolittle@ece.gatech.edu [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Bresnahan, Rich C. [Veeco Instruments, St. Paul, Minnesota 55127 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Utilizing a modified nitrogen plasma source, plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) has been used to achieve higher growth rates in GaN. A higher conductance aperture plate, combined with higher nitrogen flow and added pumping capacity, resulted in dramatically increased growth rates up to 8.4 μm/h using 34 sccm of N{sub 2} while still maintaining acceptably low operating pressure. It was further discovered that argon could be added to the plasma gas to enhance growth rates up to 9.8 μm/h, which was achieved using 20 sccm of N{sub 2} and 7.7 sccm Ar flows at 600 W radio frequency power, for which the standard deviation of thickness was just 2% over a full 2 in. diameter wafer. A remote Langmuir style probe employing the flux gauge was used to indirectly measure the relative ion content in the plasma. The use of argon dilution at low plasma pressures resulted in a dramatic reduction of the plasma ion current by more than half, while high plasma pressures suppressed ion content regardless of plasma gas chemistry. Moreover, different trends are apparent for the molecular and atomic nitrogen species generated by varying pressure and nitrogen composition in the plasma. Argon dilution resulted in nearly an order of magnitude achievable growth rate range from 1 μm/h to nearly 10 μm/h. Even for films grown at more than 6 μm/h, the surface morphology remained smooth showing clear atomic steps with root mean square roughness less than 1 nm. Due to the low vapor pressure of Si, Ge was explored as an alternative n-type dopant for high growth rate applications. Electron concentrations from 2.2 × 10{sup 16} to 3.8 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} were achieved in GaN using Ge doping, and unintentionally doped GaN films exhibited low background electron concentrations of just 1–2 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3}. The highest growth rates resulted in macroscopic surface features due to Ga cell spitting, which is an engineering challenge still to be

  18. 定向发酵饼肥对烤烟各器官氮含量及氮分配的影响研究%Studies on Effects of Nitrogen Content and Nitrogen Allocation in Flue-cured Tobacco Organs Under Fermented Soybean Cake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟蕾; 曾庆武; 张吉立; 王鹏

    2012-01-01

    以研究定向发酵饼肥对烤烟各器官氮含量及分配的影响规律为目的,用以判断发酵饼肥供氮能力强弱.以‘龙江911’为试材,采用田间小区试验设计,3个处理分别为纯施无机化肥、50%发酵饼肥与50%无机化肥混合施用、100%施用发酵饼肥,所有处理氮磷钾施用量分别为52.50 kg/hm2、52.50 kg/hm2、105.00 kg/hm2,3次重复,研究根系、茎、叶片内氮含量和分配的变化.结果表明:根系含氮量随着生育期延后而降低,施用饼肥处理氮含量与对照相差0.02%~0.05%,无显著差异;茎内氮含量饼肥处理与对照相差0.01%~0.05%,各处理之间无显著差异;下部叶饼肥处理与对照相差0.08%~0.26%,各处理之间无显著差异;中部叶饼肥处理与对照相差0.03%~0.18%,各处理之间无显著差异;上部叶施用发酵饼肥处理含氮量显著低于对照;施用发酵饼肥处理不会改变烤烟各器官内氮分配的比例.综合分析认为,定向发酵饼肥供氮能力可以达到与无机肥相似的效果,施用比例可以达到50%~100%.%To study the law of nitrogen content and nitrogen allocation in flue-cured tobacco organs under fermented soybean cake and to determine the nitrogen supply strength of the fermented soybean cake. The tests used 'Longjiang 911' as test materials and with random block design, three treatments were applied for the pure inorganic fertilizer, 50% of the fermented soybean cake and 50% inorganic fertilizer application, 100% use fermented soybean cake, all treatment NPK fertilizer were 52.50 kg/hm2, 52.50 kg/hm2, 105.00 kg/hm2, repeated 3 times. The results showed that: root nitrogen content decreases with the growth period of delay, compared with the control, the fermented soybean cake treatment nitrogen content difference of the control was 0.02%-0.05% and no significant difference; stem nitrogen content within the fermented soybean cake treatment difference of the

  19. Effects of tillage on contents of organic carbon, nitrogen, water-stable aggregates and light fraction for four different long-term trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruschkewitsch, R.; Geisseler, D.; Koch, H.-J.; Ludwig, B.

    2012-04-01

    Despite increasing interest in tillage techniques as a factor affecting organic carbon (Corg) dynamics and stabilization mechanisms little is known about the underlying processes. Our objectives were (i) to quantify the impact of different tillage treatments on the amount and distribution of of labile Corg pools, on the water-stable macro-aggregate (>250 µm) contents and on organic carbon (Corg) storage and (ii) to quantify the ability of soils under different tillage treatments, light fraction (LF) inputs and clay contents in macro-aggregate formation. Therefore four long-term tillage trials on loess soil in Germany with regular conventional tillage (CT, to 30 cm), mulch tillage (MT, to 10 cm), and no-tillage (NT) treatments. Samples were taken in 0-5 cm, 5-25 cm and 25-40 cm depth after 18-25 years of different tillage treatments and investigated on free and occluded LF (fLF and oLF, respectively) and on macro-aggregate contents. Furthermore an incubation experiment for the quantifcation of macro-aggregate formation was conducted. Macro-aggregates in soils from CT and NT treatments (0-5 and 5-25 cm soil depth) were destroyed and different amounts of light fraction (LF) and clay were applied. The four long-term tillage trials, differing in texture and climatic conditions, revealed consistent results in Corg storage among each other. Based on the equivalent soil mass approach (CT: 0-40, MT: 0-38, NT: 0-36 cm) the Corg stocks in the sampled profile were significantly higher for the MT treatment than for the CT and NT treatments. Significantly lower Corg, fLF, oLF, and macro-aggregate contents for the soils under CT treatment in comparison with the soils under NT and MT treatments were restricted on the top 5 cm. The correlation of the macro-aggregate content against the fLF and oLF contents suggested that the macro-aggregate content is influenced to a lesser extent directly by the physical impact of the different tillage treatments but by the contents of available

  20. Factors influencing flower bud formation on the pear tree cultivar 'Doyenne du Comice'. III. Saccharides, nitrogen compounds and some mineral elements contents in pear leaves and shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszka Jaumień

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Long shoots inhibited in growth by treatment with chlormequate contained more reducing sugars in mid July than did the control ones growing vigorously. Storage starch accumulation was earlier in the former shoots than in he control ones, and they also contained more nitrogen compounds, especially protein, and significantly more calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc then the controls. Comparison of long shoots with growth partly inhibited by the action of chlormequate, on which flower buds form in the subapical part, and of spurs on which an apical flower bud forms, with the long shoots of control vigorously growing trees where flower buds do not form, indicates that initiation of flowering in the pear tree is associated with a high level of storage compounds, both organic and inorganic, in the stem.

  1. Nitrogen split dose fertilization, plant age and frost effects on phytochemical content and sensory properties of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenbaek, Marie; Jensen, Sidsel; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Kidmose, Ulla; Kristensen, Hanne L

    2016-04-15

    We investigated how concentrations of sensory relevant compounds: glucosinolates (GLSs), flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and sugars in kale responded to split dose and reduced nitrogen (N) fertilization, plant age and controlled frost exposure. In addition, frost effects on sensory properties combined with N supply were assessed. Seventeen week old kale plants showed decreased aliphatic GLSs at split dose N fertilization; whereas reduced N increased aliphatic and total GLSs. Ontogenetic effects were demonstrated for all compounds: sugars, aliphatic and total GLSs increased throughout plant development, whereas kaempferol and total flavonoid glycosides showed higher concentrations in 13 week old plants. Controlled frost exposure altered sugar composition slightly, but not GLSs or flavonoid glycosides. Reduced N supply resulted in less bitterness, astringency and pungent aroma, whereas frost exposure mainly influenced aroma and texture. N treatment explained most of the sensory variation. Producers should not rely on frost only to obtain altered sensory properties.

  2. Effects of carbon content and chromium segregation on creep rupture properties of low carbon and medium nitrogen type 316 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Takanori; Fujita, Nobuhiro; Kimura, Hidetaka [Nippon Steel Corp., Futtsu, Chiba (Japan). Steel Research Labs.; Komatsu, Hajime; Kotoh, Hiroyuki; Kaguchi, Hitoshi

    1997-05-01

    The creep rupture properties of type 316 stainless steels containing 0.005-0.022%C and 0.07%N have been investigated at 550degC and 600degC from the aspect of the grain boundary carbide precipitation which was changed with carbon content and chromium segregation. A small amount of carbide precipitated on grain boundaries during creep, because the solubility limit of the carbide is less than 0.005%. The creep rupture ductility of this steel increased with the reduction of carbon content from 0.010% to 0.005% while it decreased with increasing carbon content from 0.010% to 0.020%. Since the amount of grain boundary carbide decreased with reducing carbon content, the increase in ductility was due to the suppression of grain boundary embrittlement caused by the carbide. The creep rupture ductility of this steel was also improved by reducing chromium segregation. This behavior was attributed to the change in carbide morphology from concentrated type to dispersed one, which reduced the grain boundary embrittlement. (author)

  3. Effects of chromium and nitrogen content on the microstructures and mechanical properties of as-cast Co-Cr-Mo alloys for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Keita; Suyalatu; Takaichi, Atsushi; Nomura, Naoyuki; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Doi, Hisashi; Kurosu, Shingo; Chiba, Akihiko; Igarashi, Yoshimasa; Hanawa, Takao

    2012-07-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast Co-(20-33)Cr-5Mo-N alloys were investigated to develop ductile Co-Cr-Mo alloys without Ni addition for dental applications that satisfy the requirements of the type 5 criteria in ISO 22674. The effects of the Cr and N contents on the microstructure and mechanical properties are discussed. The microstructures were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and electron back-scattered diffraction pattern analysis. The mechanical properties were evaluated using tensile testing. The proof strength and elongation of N-containing 33Cr satisfied the type 5 criteria in ISO 22674. ε-phase with striations was formed in the N-free (20-29)Cr alloys, while there was slight formation of ε-phase in the N-containing (20-29)Cr alloys, which disappeared in N-containing 33Cr. The lattice parameter of the γ-phase increased with increasing Cr content (i.e. N content) in the N-containing alloys, although the lattice parameter remained almost the same in the N-free alloys because of the small atomic radius difference between Co and Cr. Compositional analyses by EDS and XRD revealed that in the N-containing alloys Cr and Mo were concentrated in the cell boundary, which became enriched in N, stabilizing the γ-phase. The mechanical properties of the N-free alloys were independent of the Cr content and showed low strength and limited elongation. Strain-induced martensite was formed in all the N-free alloys after tensile testing. On the other hand, the proof strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation of the N-containing alloys increased with increasing Cr content (i.e. N content). Since formation of ε-phase after tensile testing was confirmed in the N-containing alloys the deformation mechanism may change from strain-induced martensite transformation to another form, such as twinning or dislocation slip, as the N content increases. Thus the N

  4. The dependence of the discharge of nitrous oxide by ordinary chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia from the content of humus, nitrogen and enzymatic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avksentev, Alexey; Negrobova, Elena; Kramareva, Tatiana; Moiseeva, Evgenya

    2016-04-01

    The dependence of the discharge of nitrous oxide by ordinary chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia from the content of humus, nitrogen and enzymatic activity Alexey Avksentev, Elena Negrobova, Tatiana Kramareva, Evgenya Moiseeva 394000 Voronezh, Universitetskaya square, 1 Voronezh State University Nitrous oxide is emitted by soil as a result of microbiological processes, ranks third in the list of aggressive greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide and methane. Nitrous oxide is formed during nitrification and denitrification of ammonia that enters the soil during microbial decomposition of complex organic compounds. Denitrification can be direct and indirect. In the microbiological process of recovery of nitrates involved of the organic substance. In aerobic conditions microorganisms denitrificator behave like normal saprotrophs and oxidize organic matter in the act of breathing oxygen. Thus, they operate at different times two enzyme systems: the electron transport chain with an oxygen acceptor in aerobic and restoration of nitrates under anaerobic conditions. Investigation of the emission of nitrous oxide by ordinary Chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region showed that it depends on the type of cenosis and the content of available forms of nitrogen. Natural ecosystems emit nitrous oxide more than the soil of arable land. The dependence of the emission of nitrous oxide from the humus content shows positive trend, but the aggregation of data, significant differences are not detected. Research shows that nitrous oxide emissions are seasonal. So the autumn season is characterized by nitrous oxide emissions than spring. Enzymatic processes are an important link in the biological cycle of elements and, consequently, participate in the process of decomposition of organic matter, nitrification and other processes. Analysis of the data on enzyme activity of ordinary Chernozem and the intensity of emission of N20 shows a clear relationship between

  5. Effects of different nitrogen and water treatments on phytic acid contents and protein components in rice grain%氮素和水分处理对稻米植酸含量和蛋白组分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张其芳; 刘奎刚; 苏达; 王复标; 程方民

    2012-01-01

    以直立密穗型粳稻品种"秀水110"和弯曲散穗型粳稻品种"春江15"为材料,对不同氮素水平处理和水分管理方式下稻米植酸含量和蛋白组分的影响及其互作效应进行了研究。结果表明,旱作栽培处理会导致水稻籽粒中植酸含量上升,而施氮处理对籽粒植酸含量的影响效应与水稻的水分管理方式有关,在常规水作条件下,高氮处理(N3)的籽粒植酸含量有所提高,但在旱作栽培方式下,中氮(N2)和低氮处理(N1,不施N)的籽粒植酸含量却略高于高氮处理(N3),氮素水平与水分管理方式间的互作效应明显;水稻籽粒植酸含量与粗蛋白总量、4种蛋白组分(清蛋白、球蛋白、醇溶蛋白和谷蛋白)及有关产量性状指标(有效穗数、每穗粒数、千粒重和结实率)在不同水肥处理间的相关性不显著,但氮肥用量过高不仅会导致水稻的产量水平下降,而且也不利于稻米营养品质的改良;水肥处理对水稻籽粒植酸含量、蛋白总量和4种蛋白组分穗内粒位分布也存在一定影响,着生在稻穗下部的弱势粒,其稻米植酸含量高于稻穗上部或中部的强势粒,因此改善弱势粒灌浆的水肥管理措施将有利于稻米植酸含量的降低。%Two rice genotypes (Xiushui 110 and Chunjiang 15 ) were used to analyze the influence of nitrogen treatments, water management methods and their interaction on grain phytic acid content and protein components by a field experiments of two water treatments, including traditional irrigated cultivation (C1) and dried stress cultivation (C2) with 3 level nitrogen fertilizers (N1, 0 kg/ha; N2, 100 kg/ha; N3, 200 kg/ha) for each water treatment. The results showed that C2 treatment (dried stress cultivation) had relatively higher phytic acid content in rice grain, while the effect of nitrogen treatments on grain phytic acid were water management-dependent, with slight

  6. Comparison and semiconductor properties of nitrogen doped carbon thin films grown by different techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alibart, F.; Drouhin, O. Durand [Laboratoire e Physique de la Matiere Condensee, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80000 Amiens (France); Benlahsen, M. [Laboratoire e Physique de la Matiere Condensee, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80000 Amiens (France)], E-mail: mohamed.benlahsen@sc.u-picardie.fr; Muhl, S.; Rodil, S. Elizabeth [Instituo de Investigationes en Materials, Universidad National Autonomia de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Camps, E.; Escobar-Alarcon, L. [Instituo National de Investigationes Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Mexico, D.F. 11801 (Mexico)

    2008-06-30

    Amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN{sub x}) thin films have been synthesised by three different deposition techniques in an Ar/N{sub 2} gas mixture and have been deposited by varying the percentage of nitrogen gas in the mixture (i.e. the N{sub 2}/Ar + N{sub 2} ratio) from 0 to 10%. The variation of the electrical conductivity and the gap values of the deposited films versus the N{sub 2}/Ar + N{sub 2} ratio were investigated in relation with their local microstructure. Film composition was analysed using Raman spectroscopy and optical transmission experiments. The observed variation of electrical conductivity and optical properties are attributed to the changes in the atomic bonding structures, which were induced by N incorporation, increasing both the sp{sup 2} carbon content and their relative disorder. The low N content samples seem to be an interesting material to produce films with interesting properties for optoelectronic applications considering the facility to control the gas composition as a key parameter.

  7. Changes in Organic, Inorganic contents, Carbon Nitrogen ratio in decomposing Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata leaves on tidal mudf lats in Hajambro creek, Indus delta, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Farooqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf decomposition of Avicennia marina (Forskal Vierh in Denkschr and Rhizophora mucronata (Poiret was studied in situ using litterbag s in Hajambro creek, Indus delta. A single exponential model was presented, which best described the rate of decomposition for both the species. The rate of decomposition was species specific, A. marina leaves decomposed slower than the R. mucronata (p<0.001. The time in days required for 50% loss of the initial dry mass (t1/2 was 49.55 days for the A. marina and 44.43 days in case of R. mucronata. The organic content in the leaves was high initially but decresed gradually during decomposition, which is negatively correlated with inorganic contents. This study will help in the management and conservation of mangrove ecosystem of Hajambro creek, Indus delta, Pakistan.

  8. Evaluation of the Measurement Uncertainty for the Determination of Nitrogen Content in the Fertilizer by Kjeldahl Apparatus%定氮仪测定化肥中总氮含量不确定度评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国雄; 林兴发; 魏苗; 黎薇薇

    2011-01-01

    对使用凯氏定氮仪测定肥料中总氮含量方法进行不确定度评定,分析该测定方法中不确定度的来源,通过数字模型对各不确定度分量进行评定,并给出了结果的报告形式。%The uncertainty of measurement for the determination of nitrogen content in the fertilizer by Kjeldahl apparatus was evaluated in the paper.The determination of the sources of uncertainty for the method was analyzed.Through the digital model of the uncertainty components were assessed,and gives the results of the report form.

  9. Repeatability and reproducibility of determination of the nitrogen content of fishmeal by the combustion (Dumas) method and comparison with the Kjeldahl method: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric L; Bimbo, Anthony P; Barlow, Stuart M; Sheridan, Berni

    2007-01-01

    Ten fishmeal samples (hidden duplicates of 4 meals plus 2 high-protein meals as a Youden pair), tryptophan, and nicotinic acid were analyzed by 18 laboratories using the Dumas method. Thirteen of the laboratories also analyzed the same 12 samples using their current Kjeldahl method. Recoveries (+/-SR) of tryptophan and nicotinic acid were 99.3+/-1.04 and 98.8+/-2.11% by Dumas and 97.1+/-3.03 and 74.6+/-26.76% by Kjeldahl. The Dumas method gave significantly greater values (P Kjeldahl method. For fishmeals, Kjeldahl N = 0.989 of Dumas N (P Kjeldahl. For fishmeals, the relative standard deviations for repeatability and reproducibility were for Dumas 1.48 and 2.01% and Kjeldahl 1.62 and 2.37%, respectively. A single analysis conducted in 2 laboratories should not differ by more than 5.63% of the mean value when measured by Dumas or by more than 6.64% by Kjeldahl. It is concluded that with fishmeal, Dumas gives a more reliable measure of organic nitrogen than Kjeldahl, and, therefore, Dumas should be the method of choice.

  10. Controlled Release Urea as a Nitrogen Source for Spring Wheat in Western Canada: Yield, Grain N Content, and N Use Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenz Haderlein

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled release nitrogen (N fertilizers have been commonly used in horticultural applications such as turf grasses and container-grown woody perennials. Agrium, a major N manufacturer in North and South America, is developing a low-cost controlled release urea (CRU product for use in field crops such as grain corn, canola, wheat, and other small grain cereals. From 1998 to 2000, 11 field trials were conducted across western Canada to determine if seed-placed CRU could maintain crop yields and increase grain N and N use efficiency when compared to the practice of side-banding of urea N fertilizer. CRU was designed to release timely and adequate, but not excessive, amounts of N to the crop. Crop uptake of N from seed-placed CRU was sufficient to provide yields similar to those of side-banded urea N. Grain N concentrations of the CRU treatments were higher, on average, than those from side-banded urea, resulting in 4.2% higher N use efficiency across the entire N application range from 25 to 100 kg ha-1. Higher levels of removal of N in grain from CRU compared to side-banded urea can result in less residual N remaining in the soil, and limit the possibility of N losses due to denitrification and leaching.

  11. Retrieving canopy leaf total nitrogen content of winter wheat by continuous wavelet transform%小波法反演条锈病胁迫下冬小麦冠层叶片全氮含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何汝艳; 乔小军; 蒋金豹; 郭会敏

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to monitor the nitrogen nutrition status of winter wheat under stripe rust stress by hyperspectral remote sensing. The experiment was carried out at Beijing Xiaotangshan Precision Agriculture Experimental Base, China (40°10.6′N, 116°16.3′E). The cultivar of winter wheat was Jingdong 8 which was very susceptible to stripe rust. Canopy spectral reflectance data of winter wheat was collected by an ASD Fieldspec FR spectroradiometer and the disease index (DI) was measured through counting the number of wheat leaf under stripe rust stress artificially in the field. Leaf total nitrogen (LTN) content of winter wheat used to calculate DI was measured in the laboratory. The relationship between DI of stripe rust and LTN content of winter wheat was analyzed. The canopy spectra were processed by the method of continuous wavelet transform (CWT) on 10 scales, therefore, a series of wavelet coefficients were obtained in this way. The correlation coefficients between wavelet coefficients and LTN content were calculated, and then, the wavelet coefficients, which had strong correlation with LTN content, were chosen. Several hyperspectral indices were also selected according to previous research results, namely SR (simple ratio index), PRI (photochemical reflectance index), NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index), OSAVI (optimized soil-adjusted vegetation index), SIPI (Structure insensitive pigment index), LIC1 (lichtenthaler index 1), LIC2 (lichtenthaler index 2), LIC3 (lichtenthaler index 3), TVI (triangular vegetation index) and MTVI2 (modified triangular vegetation index 2), which had high correlations with LTN content. Both wavelet coefficients and hyperspectral indices were used as independent variables of models to retrieve LTN content of winter wheat, and support vector machine (SVM) regression method was used to establish the estimation models. The above estimation models of different types of variables were made a comparison. Cross

  12. Nitrogen Forms in Humic Substances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUOSU-NENG; WENQI-XIAO

    1992-01-01

    In this paper,the nitrogen forms in newly-formed humic substances,including humic acid (HA),fulvic acid (FA) and humic acid in humin (HAI),were studied by using the 15N CP-MAS NMR technique in combination with chemical approaches.Results show that the majority of nitrogen in HA,FA and HAI was in the amide form with some presented as aliphatic and/ or aromatic amines and some as pyrrole type nitrogen,although the contents of nonhydrolyzable nitrogen in them differed greatly from each other (15-55%).

  13. 氮肥运筹对云烟87不同叶位总糖和还原糖含量的影响%Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Total Sugar Content and Reduced Sugar Content of Different Leaf Position of Yunyan 87

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯永新; 徐增汉; 肖振杰; 谢昌盛; 刘大双; 向永光; 曹安全; 王昊; 帅红; 朱英华

    2015-01-01

    A nitrogen fertilizer experiment was conducted to measure total sugar content and reduced sugar con-tent in different tobacco leaves in order to explore the impact of nitrogen fertilizer on the above mentioned parame-ters in different leaf position.The results showed that total sugar content and reduced sugar content in A treatment and B treatment were increased firstly and then decreased with the drop of leaf position.The total sugar content and reduced sugar content in A treatment and B treatment were increased significantly from leaf to cutters and those were decreased significantly from cutters to fly.The difference of two sugars between A treatment and B treatment was reduced firstly and then raised with the drop of leaf position.The difference of two sugars in upper leaf was highest,followed by lower leaf,and cutters was lowest.The total sugar content,reduced sugar content and difference of two sugars in A treatment most leaves position were higher than B treatment.So the conclusion was that total sug-ar,reduced sugar and difference of two sugars of different leaf position were lower under 112.5 kg/ha nitrogen fer-tilizer treatment than that of 97.5 kg/ha nitrogen fertilizer treatment.%为了探明氮肥施用量对烤烟不同叶位烟叶糖含量的影响,采用2个氮肥处理,对不同叶位烟叶的总糖含量和还原糖进行测定。结果表明,A(97.5 kg/hm 2)、B(112.5 kg/hm 2)2个处理的总糖和还原糖含量都随着叶位降低呈现先升高后降低的趋势;从上二棚到腰叶,2个处理总糖和还原糖含量随着叶位的降低而显著升高,之后随着叶位的降低而显著降低。 A、B 2个处理的两糖差则随着叶位降低先降低后升高,以上部叶最高,下部叶次之,中部叶最低。A 处理不同叶位的总糖、还原糖含量和两糖差多高于 B 处理相同叶位的。由此可见,施氮量的增加在一定程度上降低了不同叶位烟叶总糖、还原糖含量和减小了两糖差。

  14. Uso de Enzimas de Tipo Ureasa en el Tratamiento de Aguas Residuales con Alto Contenido en Nitrógeno Orgánico Use of Urease Type Enzimes for the Treatment of Wastewater with a High Organic Nitrogen Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Pérez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, algunas cepas de bacterias generadoras de enzimas de tipo ureasa, fueron utilizadas en el tratamiento de efluentes industriales contaminados con urea provenientes de un complejo petroquímico. Para el estudio, se realizó la caracterización del efluente líquido industrial, para conocer el nivel de nitrógeno orgánico presente, se identificaron las cepas generadoras de enzimas tipo ureasa y se establecieron las condiciones de laboratorio para desarrollar la cepa bacteriana. Los resultados demuestran la factibilidad de degradación del nitrógeno orgánico mediante el uso de las Klebsiella pneumoniae y Proteus mirabilis, al hidrolizar la urea para producir amoniaco y agua. Se determinó que la bacteria Proteus mirabilis asegura conversiones del nitrógeno orgánico superiores a 90 %. Del estudio cinético con la bacteria Proteus mirabilis se tiene que la reacción de biodegradación es de primer orden con constante de velocidad de 0,4185 h-1 a 37 oC.Some bacterial stock of the urease enzymes producer family were used, with the purpose of treating an industrial wastewater with urea content coming from a industrial urea complex, to reduce the organic nitrogen content to ammonia. To accomplish this objectives, a characterization of the wastewater was done, to identifies the organic nitrogen concentration present in the wastewater, the bacteria source generating the urease enzyme for the waste treatment were identified, and the conditions for the growth of the bacteria were established in the lab. The results show that it is possible the biodegradation using the urease enzymes kind, like Klebsiella Pneumoniae and Proteus Mirabilis, hydrolyzing the urea to ammonia and water. The Proteus Mirabilis was able to degrade the organic nitrogen with a conversion higher than 90%. From the kinetic study, the biodegradation reaction is a first order reaction with a constant kinetics rate of 0,4195 h-1 at 37 ºC.

  15. Sediment source detection by stable isotope analysis, carbon and nitrogen content and CSSI in a small river of the Swiss Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    SchindlerWildhaber, Yael; Alewell, Christine; Birkholz, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Suspended sediment (SS) and organic matter in rivers can harm the fauna by affecting health and fitness of free swimming fish and by causing siltation of the riverbed. The temporal and spatial dynamics of sediment, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) during the brown trout spawning season in a small river of the Swiss Plateau were assessed and C isotopes as well as the C/N atomic ratio were used to distinguish autochthonous and allochthonous sources of organic matter in SS loads. The visual basic program IsoSource with 13Ctot and 15N as input isotopes was used to quantify the temporal and spatial sources of SS. We determined compound specific stable carbon isotopes (CSSI) in fatty acids of possible sediment source areas to the stream in addition and compared them to SS from selected high flow and low flow events. Organic matter concentrations in the infiltrated and suspended sediment were highest during low flow periods with small sediment loads and lowest during high flow periods with high sediment loads. Peak values in nitrate and dissolved organic C were measured during high flow and high rainfall, probably due to leaching from pasture and arable land. The organic matter was of allochthonous sources as indicated by the C/N atomic ratio and δ13Corg. Organic matter in SS increased from up- to downstream due to an increase in sediment delivery from pasture and arable land downstream of the river. While the major sources of SS are pasture and arable land during base flow conditions, SS from forest soils increased during heavy rain events and warmer winter periods most likely due to snow melt which triggered erosion. Preliminary results of CSSI analysis of sediment source areas and comparison to SS of selected events indicate that differences in d13C values of individual fatty acids are too small to differentiate unambiguously between sediment sources.

  16. Effects of Organic and Waste-Derived Fertilizers on Yield, Nitrogen and Glucosinolate Contents, and Sensory Quality of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øvsthus, Ingunn; Breland, Tor Arvid; Hagen, Sidsel Fiskaa; Brandt, Kirsten; Wold, Anne-Berit; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Seljåsen, Randi

    2015-12-23

    Organic vegetable production attempts to pursue multiple goals concerning influence on environment, production resources, and human health. In areas with limited availability of animal manure, there is a need for considering various off-farm nutrient resources for such production. Different organic and waste-derived fertilizer materials were used for broccoli production at two latitudes (58° and 67°) in Norway during two years. The fertilizer materials were applied at two rates of total N (80 and 170 kg ha(-1)) and compared with mineral fertilizer (170 kg ha(-1)) and no fertilizer. Broccoli yield was strongly influenced by fertilizer materials (algae meal < unfertilized control < sheep manure < extruded shrimp shell < anaerobically digested food waste < mineral fertilizer). Yield, but not glucosinolate content, was linearly correlated with estimated potentially plant-available N. However, extruded shrimp shell and mineral NPK fertilizer gave higher glucosinolate contents than sheep manure and no fertilizer. Sensory attributes were less affected by fertilizer material and plant-available N.

  17. 杜马斯法与凯氏法测定珍禽肌肉氮含量的比较研究%Comparison Between Kjeldahl and Dumas Methods for Determination of Nitrogen Content in the Muscle of Rare Birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀莲; 赵卉; 刘操; 王峰; 李红; 肖家美

    2014-01-01

    This article aimed to examine the nitrogen content of 40 N-containing samples ,include the muscle of guinea fowls ,royal chicken , pheasants and 4 standard reference materials ,determined by Kjeldahl and Dumas methods ,respectively .Meanwhile based on a thorough analysis of error source and a detailed comparison of the results of these two methods ,a quick and no polluted method which can determine the nitrogen contentwas suggested .The results showed that no significant differences were found in the quantitative results .With the Kjeldahl determination , the average coefficient of variation was 0.887% and the maximum of variance coefficient was 1.925% ,less than 5% .The average coefficient of variation was 0.483% and the maximum of variance coefficient was 1.218% ,less than 5% ,which produced with the Dumas method .The nitrogen content obtained from the samples with Dumas method was higher than those with Kjeldahl method .The ratio of measured results which obtained by means of above two methods was 0.985 ± 0.0165 .It was concluded that Dumas method can be used as a regular method for deter-mination of nitrogen contents in the muscle of rare birds .%选取珍珠鸡、贵妃鸡、雉鸡及标准物共40个样品,分别采用凯氏法和杜马斯法测定各样本中的氮含量,分析误差来源,比较这2种方法测定结果的差异性,以确立一种快速无污染的氮测定方法。结果显示,在40个样品的测定值间并无明显差异。凯氏法的测定值平均变异系数(CV )为0.887%,最高值1.925%<5%。杜马斯法测定值平均变异系数(CV )为0.483%,最高值1.218%<5%。凯氏法大部分测定值略低于杜马斯法测定值,2种方法测定值比值为K/D=0.985±0.0165。根据数据统计结果,杜马斯法可以作为珍禽肌肉氮测定的常规检测方法。

  18. Total nitrogen content estimation models of summer maize leaves using hyperspectral remote sensing%夏玉米叶片全氮含量高光谱遥感估算模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰峰; 李军; 赵刚峰; Naveed Tahir; 贺佳

    2012-01-01

    Based on the treatments of five nitrogen fertilizer application amounts and two cultivars of summer maize, crop canopy spectral reflectance and total nitrogen content of maize leaves were measured at the jointing stage, huge bellbottom stage, tasseling stage, silking stage and milk stage. The canopy spectral reflectance in 470, 550, 620 and 720 nm wavelength of hyperspectral remote sensing were chosen to establish liner and nonlinear regression relationship between leaf total nitrogen content and canopy spectral parameters for each cuhivar, which includes original spectral reflectance, first order differential transform, and part of hyperspectral characteristic parameters ( i. e. spectrum position, area, characteristic parameters of vegetation index). Three models with high coefficients and F values of each cultivar at each growth stage were chosen to verify root mean square error and relative error with the second year data of spectral reflectance and total nitrogen content of two cultivars separately. The smallest root mean square error and relative error models were taken as the best models. The results show that: at the jointing stage, huge bellbottom stage, tasseling stage, silking stage and milk stage of maize, spectrum parameter for the best fitting regression relationship with leaf total nitrogen content was R720, DR720, SDb, DR550 and DR550, respectively. And the best model to estimate total nitrogen content of maize leaf based on above best spectrum parameter of hyperspectral remote sensing in five growth stages was Y = 5. 129e-2.317x, y = 3. 421 - 10. OlOx - 477802.331x3, Y =4.070 -2.304x -52.177x2, Y = -0.468 -0.5281nx and Y = -2.390 -0.7931nx, respectively.%在5种不同施氮量和2种夏玉米品种处理下,分别在玉米拔节期、大喇叭口期、抽雄期、吐丝期、乳熟期测定了玉米冠层高光谱反射率及其对应叶片的全氮含量。选取了470、550、620和720 nm 4个代表性光谱波段,分品种对叶片全氮

  19. An Investigation on Physiological Characteristics of Tow Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Cultivars and Soil Moisture Content as Affected by Straw Management and Nitrogen Rates under Dryland Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sadeghi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In most southern parts of Iran, crop residues have been traditionally burned or removed; that is often criticized for soil organic and nutrient losses, reducing soil microbial activity and increasing CO2 emission. A 2-years field study was conducted at the College of Agricultural, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran to evaluate the effects of different barley residue and N rates on some physiological indices and soil moisture contents of two dryland barley cultivars. The experiment was conducted as strip split plot with four replications. Vertical plots included two dryland common barley cultivars (Afzal and Reyhan, horizontal plots were three crop residue rates (0, 750 and 1500 kg ha-1 and sub plots were three N rates (0, 40, and 80 kg N ha-1. The results showed that when the crop residues were applied, N rates should be increased accordingly. Increasing N rates (from 0 to 80 kg N ha-1 accompanied by residue application increased leaf area index in both cultivars. When the crop residues were completely applied, but N rates were not appropriated with crop residue application, LAI decreased in both cultivars. The lowest LAI (1.14 was obtained from 1500 kg ha-1crop residue and 0 kg N ha-1 in both cultivars. The highest (1196g/m2 and the lowest (595g/m2 dry matter yield was obtained from 80 kg N ha-1 and % 100 crop residue and from 0 kg N ha-1 and 1500 kg ha-1 crop residue in both cultivars, respectively. Application of 1500 kg ha-1 crop residues and 80 kg N ha-1 significantly increased soil moisture contents and LAI.

  20. Relationships between Canopy Temperature, Leaf Chlorophyll Content and Grain Yield in Wheat Genotypes under Different Nitrogen Levels and Post-Anthesis Heat Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a Modhej

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the canopy, spike and flag leaf temperature in wheat genotypes under optimum and post-anthesis heat stress conditions and canopy relationships with some morphological and physiological characters, two separate field experiments were conducted in delayed and optimum sowing dates in Ahvaz, Iran in 2007-2008. The experimental site had a moderate winter and dry, hot summer. Plants with delayed sowing date experienced heat stress post-anthesis. Each split-polt experiment had a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The N application rates were (50, 100, and 150 KgNha-1 assigned in the main-plots. Sub-plots consisted of six bread and durum wheat genotypes. Temperature of canopy, spikes and flag leaf were measured in two growth stages (anthesis and milk stage using a hand-held infrared thermometer. Results indicated that, organs temperature was affected by genotypeenvironment. Although, organs temperature increased as the N rate decreased, the effect of N treatments on organs temperature was not significant. In post-anthesis heat stress conditions, the genotypes that had higher flag leaf and canopy temperature due to higher growth stage duration (such as Star and D-84-5, lower ability in leaf rolling (such as Showa and D-84-5 and higher leaf width (such as Star and D-84-5, had higher chlorophyll reduction under post-anthesis heat stress conditions. Keywords: Wheat, Post-anthesis heat stress, Canopy temperature, Chlorophyll content

  1. 氮胁迫对雨生红球藻色素积累与抗氧化系统的影响%Effects of Nitrate-Nitrogen Stress on Pigment Content and Antioxidant Systems in Haematococcus pluvialis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑾; 王铭; 李涛; 李爱芬; 张成武

    2011-01-01

    选用雨生红球藻CG-06为试验藻株,以BBM为基础培养基,分别设置了0、13.7、27.5、41.2 mg·L-1四个硝态氮浓度梯度,分析并探讨在不同硝态氮浓度条件下雨生红球藻生长、生理特性、细胞内主要色素含量的变化以及抗氧化酶活性.结果表明:细胞中色素的积累量和积累速率与初始硝态氮浓度成反比,与抗氧化酶活性呈负相关.缺氮时,培养到第3天的藻细胞中虾青素含量达到4.95μg·mg-1,而对照组在培养到第9天的细胞中才开始产生虾青素,而且在整个培养周期内细胞中的虾青素最大含量仅为4.17 μg·mg-1.酶活测定结果显示,虾青素含量较高的红色细胞中,超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)的活性明显高于绿色细胞,且GSH-Px活性最高.研究表明,雨生红球藻可能有两种过氧化防御机制,绿色细胞阶段以抗氧化酶作用为主,在培养后期启动虾青素保护机制,两种机制具有协同作用.%The effects of different nitrate-nitrogen concentrations on the growth, physiological characteristics,pigment contents and antioxidant enzyme activities were investigated in Haematococcus pluvialis CG-06 grown in BBM media with four series of nitrate-nitrogen concentrations (0, 13.7, 27.5, 41.2 mg·L-1). The results showed that the accumulation amount and rate of the pigments and the antioxidant enzyme activities in H.pluvialis CG-06 had negative correlation with the initial nitrate-nitrogen concentrations. The astaxanthin accumulation amount in H. pluvialis cells grown in nitrogen-free BBM medium could be up to 4.95 μg·mg-1 on the 3rd day, however, the H. pluvialis cells grown in normal BBM medium (control group) started to accumulate astaxanthin only on the 9th day, and its maximum astaxanthin content was 4.17 μg·mg-1 during the whole growth period. The determination of antioxidant enzyme activities indicated that superoxide dismutase (SOD

  2. Physiological responses of two tropical weeds to shade: II. Leaf gas exchange and nitrogen content Respostas fisiológicas de duas plantas invasoras tropicais ao sombreamento: II. Troca gasosa e conteúdo de nitrogênio foliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr Bernardino Dias-Filho

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schultz (Convolvulaceae and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich Vahl. (Verbenaceae, two weeds found in pastures and crop areas in the Brazilian Amazonia, Brazil, were grown in controlled environment cabinets under high (800-1000 µmol m-² s-¹ and low (200-350 µmol m-² s-¹ light regimes during a 40-day period. The objective was to determine the effect of shade on photosynthetic features and leaf nitrogen content of I. asarifolia and S. cayennensis. High-irradiance grown I. asarifolia leaves had significantly higher dark respiration and light saturated rates of photosynthesis than low-irradiance leaves. No significant differences for these traits, between treatments, were observed in S. cayennensis. Low-irradiance leaves of both species displayed higher CO2 assimilation rates under low irradiance. High-irradiance grown leaves of both species had less nitrogen per unit of weight. Low-irradiance S. cayennensis had more nitrogen per unit of leaf area than high-irradiance plants; however, I. asarifolia showed no consistent pattern for this variable through time. For S. cayennensis, leaf nitrogen content and CO2 assimilation were inversely correlated to the amount of biomass allocated to developing reproductive structures. These results are discussed in relation to their ecological and weed management implications.Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schultz (Convolvulaceae e Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich Vahl. (Verbenaceae, duas plantas invasoras encontradas em pastagens e áreas agrícolas da Amazônia brasileira, foram cultivadas durante 40 dias, em câmaras de crescimento sob alto (800-1000 µmol m-² s-¹ e baixo (200-350 µmol m-² s-¹ regime de luz. O objetivo foi estudar o efeito do sombreamento nas características fotossintéticas e no teor de nitrogênio de I. asarifolia e S. cayennensis. As folhas de I. asarifolia cultivadas sob regime de luz alta apresentaram valores de respiração no escuro e taxa m

  3. Effect of Plant Essential Oil on the Distribution of Urea-Nitrogen in Rumen Contents%植物精油对尿素氮在瘤胃内容物中分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵圣国; 王加启; 卜登攀; 周凌云; 孙鹏

    2012-01-01

    [目的]揭示尿素氮在奶牛瘤胃内容物中的分布特点,阐明精油对尿素氮分布和瘤胃发酵的影响.[方法]在含瘤胃液和15N尿素的发酵瓶中,加入终浓度为300mg·L-1大蒜精油、茶树精油和尤加利精油,发酵后检测微生物中15N的丰度和瘤胃发酵指标,并利用DGGE刻画细菌群落变化.[结果]随着发酵时间的增加,瘤胃液中的尿素氮逐渐降低,而瘤胃固相和液相微生物中的尿素氮逐渐升高,发酵24h三者中的尿素氮基本持平.发酵24h时,与空白对照组相比,大蒜精油处理组瘤胃固相和液相微生物尿素氮丰度分别降低了22.60%和18.75%,发酵液pH和氨氮浓度分别降低了3.02%和17.80%,异丁酸和乙酸/丙酸值有所升高.茶树精油和尤加利精油则显著降低了发酵液pH(P<0.05),提高了异丁酸和乙酸/丙酸值.DGGE图谱显示,发酵24h时,3种植物精油可改变瘤胃细菌的群落结构.[结论]瘤胃尿素氮逐渐由瘤胃液向微生物中富集,大蒜精油可减缓尿素氮富集速度,改变细菌群落的组成,抑制氨氮生成.%[Objective] The objective of the experiment is to reveal the distribution of urea-nitrogen in rumen contents and the effect of essential oil on the distribution. [Method] Garlic oil, tea tree oil and eucalyptus oils were added into serum bottles containing rumen fluid and 15N-urea. The abundance of 15N and rumen fermentation were detected after incubation. The bacterial population was studied by DGGE. [ Result] Urea nitrogen in rumen fluid decreased and that in the microbes associated with rumen solid and liquid phases increased following the incubation time, and then had the similar level at 24 h. Compared to the control, urea nitrogen abundance in the microbes associated with rumen solid and liquid phases treated with garlic oil increased by 22.60% and 18.75%, pH and ammonia nitrogen decreased by 3.02% and 17.80%, respectively. The proportion of isobutyric acid and acetic acid

  4. Effect of Nitrification Condition and Cellulose Prereatment on Nitrogen Content and Its Distribution Uniformity of Nitrocellulose%硝化工艺及原料的预处理对硝化棉含氮量及其分布均匀性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文後; 邵自强; 左洋; 李永红; 冯蕾; 王飞後

    2011-01-01

    采用硝化棉(NC)含氮量及其分布均匀性测试仪,考察了硝化系数、精制棉的膨润预处理和超声预处理三因素对硝化棉含氮量及氮量分布均匀性的影响规律.结果表明,NC的含氮量随硝化系数的增大而增大.当硝化系数分别为40、50和80时,NC含氮量分布值Dε较小,当硝化系数为20或100时,Dε值均显著增大;采用硫脲和尿素水溶液预处理精制棉,对NC的含氮量没有影响,但可使NC的氮量分布变窄;随着精制棉超声处理时间的延长,NC的含氮量逐渐增大.当超声波处理时间分别为10和30 min时,NC的含氮量分布明显变宽,NC的相对分子质量降低.当处理时间为60 min时,NC的氮量分布与未处理前相比略微变窄,NC的相对分子质量略有增大.%The effect of three factors involving nitrification coefficient, swelling and ultrosonic pretreatment of cellulose on the nitrogen content and its distribution uniformity of nitrocellulose were investigated by a testing instrument for nitrogen content and distribution uniformity of NC. The results show that the nitrogen content of NC increased with increasing nitrification coefficient; the nitrogen distribution value Dε were low when the nitrification coefficient was 40,50 and 80, while it significantly increased at 20 or 100; Swelling pretreatment of cotton cellulose via thiou-rea and urea aqueous solution did not affect the nitrogen content of NC, but it can narrow NC's nitrogen distribution; prolonging the ultrasonic treatment time of cotton cellulose within the studing scale resulted in an increase of nitrogen content of NC. The nitrogen distribution of NC became significantly wider and the moleculor weight decreased after 10min or 30 min ultrasonic treatment, while the nitrogen distribution became slightly narrower comparing with that of untreatment when ultrasonic treatment time prolonged to 60min, and the molecular weight increased slightly.

  5. Análisis del contenido en nitrógeno y proteínas de leche materna, día vs noche Nitrogen and protein content analysis of human milk, diurnality vs nocturnality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Sánchez López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La leche materna es un fluido que va variando tanto durante la lactancia como durante las 24h del día. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar el efecto del día y la noche en el contenido de nitrógeno y proteínas en leche humana de tipo: calostro, transición y madura. Para ello se recogieron durante los meses de enero de 2008 a diciembre de 2008 muestras de leche materna de mujeres sanas de la Comunidad de Extremadura (España, con menos de dos meses de lactancia. Dividimos las muestras en tres grupos en función del tipo de leche: grupo de calostro (1-5 días postparto, grupo de transición (6-15 días postparto y grupo de leche madura (> 15 días postparto. Todas las muestras se almacenaron congeladas a -80º C. Consideramos período de noche al comprendido entre las 20:00-08:00 horas y período diurno al comprendido entre las 08:00-20:00 horas. El análisis de las muestras de leche materna estuvo basado en el método Kjeldahl. El contenido proteico fue calculado partiendo del nitrógeno total x 6,25. El estudio estadístico fue descriptivo (media ± desviación estándar e inferencial (test T-Student. El valor medio de nitrógeno total y contenido proteico de cada grupo fue el siguiente: Nitrógeno total de los grupos de calostro, transición y madura fue 0,30 ± 0,06 g/dL (periodo nocturno, 0,29 ± 0,05 g/dL (periodo diurno; 0,26 ± 0,04 g/dL (periodo nocturno, 0,25 ± 0,04 g/dL (periodo diurno; 0,22 ± 0,05 g/dL (periodo nocturno, 0,20 ± 0,04 g/dL (periodo diurno respectivamente, produciéndose en este grupo variación estadística (P Breast milk is changing with the progression of lactation and during a 24-h period. To determine the effect of diurnality or nocturnality on total nitrogen and protein content of the breast milk. We collected human milk samples from health mothers living throughout Community of Extremadura (Spain from January 2008 to December 2008 with less than two months of lactation. We divided the samples in three groups

  6. 同域培养下大肠杆菌氮、磷含量的进化趋异研究%Evolutionary divergence of nitrogen and phosphorus content in Escherichia coli strains under sympatric evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琳; 倪川; 张全国; 张大勇

    2016-01-01

    Observations on many animal taxa in nature suggest that sympatric species show greater divergence in resource utilization traits. This character divergence was thought to be the most possible consequence of selection driven by resource competition.Recently,however,some theoretical studies indicate that competition for essential resources would lead to character convergence.A few experimental studies employing microbial model systems were designed to examine the influence of resource competition on diversification,but the focus was on substitute resources in short term. In this study, we paired nine Escherichia coli strains with different evolutionary history into five selection groups,wherein two certain strains could co-exist ecologically in each group.Sympatric evolution was initiated in six replicate lines for each ancestral pair under a chemically defined environment which was both nitrogen and phosphorus limited.For all the ancestral and derivative strains,nitrogen and phosphorus contents were measured and their evolutionary divergence was assessed after evolution of 1 100 generations.Nitrogen content for derived strains ranged from 13.1%~14.2%,while their phosphorus content varied from 1.70%~1.95%.Patterns of both elemental change and evolutionary divergence varied among the five groups.We assumed that evolutionary dynamics of bacteria alone might generate many mutations and shape unique characters;the interaction between ecological and evolutionary dynamics complicated the results.To understand the forces behind these observations,more researches are needed on a much finer scale.%利用9株具有不同进化背景的大肠杆菌构成5个短期可竞争共存的祖先配对,在限制氮、磷资源的环境下,对5个进化组下6个重复家系进行了约1100世代的选择实验,考察了这些细菌在进化前后菌体氮、磷质量分数w的变化,并评估了这些性状的趋异程度.研究发现:后代细菌w (氮)的变动范围在13

  7. Nitrogen and energy metabolism of sows during several reproductive cycles in relation to nitrogen intake.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, H.

    1994-01-01

    By feeding the same diet during pregnancy and lactation sows are fed above the nitrogen requirement during pregnancy due to the relatively high nitrogen requirement during lactation. For feeding closer to the requirements at least two diets are needed: one diet with a low nitrogen content during pre

  8. Nitrogen and energy metabolism of sows during several reproductive cycles in relation to nitrogen intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, H.

    1994-01-01

    By feeding the same diet during pregnancy and lactation sows are fed above the nitrogen requirement during pregnancy due to the relatively high nitrogen requirement during lactation. For feeding closer to the requirements at least two diets are needed: one diet with a low nitrogen content

  9. Influence of different kind of peats on some physic-chemical properties, biochemical activity, the content of different forms of nitrogen and fractions of humic substances of The Great Vasyugan Mire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inisheva, L. I.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    Mires, or peatlands belong to the wetlands ecosystems where carbon is bounded in primary production and deposited as peat in water saturated, anoxic conditions. In those conditions, the rate of the supply of new organic matter has exceeded that the decomposition, resulting in carbon accumulation. Place of sampling belongs to an oligotrophic landscapes of the river Klyuch basin in spurs of Vasyugan mire. The catchment represents reference system for Bokchar swampy area (political district of Tomsk region). Landscape profile crosses main kinds of swampy biogeocoenosis (BGC) toward the mire center: paludal tall mixed forest, pine undershrub Sphagnum (high riam, trans-accumulative part of a profile, P2), pine-undershrub Sphagnum (low riam, transit part, P3), sedge-moss swamp (eluvial part, P5). The latter represents an eluvial part of a slope of watershed massif where it is accomplished discharge of excess, surface, soil-mire waters. The depth of peat deposit of sedge-moss swamp reaches 2,5m. To the depth of 0,6m there is a layer of Sphagnum raised bog peat, then it is a mesotrophic Scheuchzeria Sphagnum layer and at the bottom there is a thick layer of low-mire horsetail peat. The samples of peats were taken from two places (P2 and P3), both from the depth 0-75 cm of the great Vasyugan Mire. These materials represent (P2) Sphagnum fuscum peat (ash content ranged from 10.8 to 15.1%), but samples P3 belong to low-moor sedge peat (ash content ranged from 4.5-4.8%). The differences in water level, redox potential, pH, degree of degradation, bulk density, number of microorganisms, activity of enzymes, different kinds of nitrogen and humic substances were studied in two different peat soils characterized by different type of peat. In general in P2 the redox potential changed from 858 to /-140/ mV, higher activity of xanthine oxidase and peroxidase, different kinds of microorganisms (ammonifing bacteria and cellulose decomposing microorganisms) and different kinds of

  10. Changes in Nitrogen Status of Soybean Under Influence of Symbiotically Fixed and Bound Nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    GADIMOV, A.G.; SAFARALIEV, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The contribution of different nitrogen sources (nitrate 15 N-NO 3 and symbiotic N-N 2 ) to the nitrogen status of soybean in ontogenesis was studied. Nitrate was assimilated effectively during the vegetative growth, whereas later on the nitrogen-fixation by root nodules became the basic source of nitrogen. The applying of a low dose of nitrate (22.2 mg N/plant) increased the total nitrogen content in the plant and did not depress the nitrogen fixation. Distribution of the symbiotic and nitrat...

  11. Synthesis, structure and characterization of neutral coordination polymers of 5,5'-bistetrazole with copper(ii), zinc(ii) and cadmium(ii): a new route to reconcile oxygen balance and nitrogen content of high-energy MOFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sitong; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Li; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Tonglai

    2016-11-14

    Hydrothermal reactions of Cu(ii)/Zn(ii)/Cd(ii) with 5,5'-bistetrazole (H2BT) lead to three new energetic coordination polymers: [CuBT(H2O)]n (1), [ZnBT(H2O)2]n (2), and [CdBT(H2O)2]n (3). These crystal structures were determined by single X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 forms regular and compact 3-D frameworks and compounds 2-3 are 1-D chain structures. These compounds show prominent thermostability (Tdec = 349.1 °C for 1, 334.8 °C for 2, and 394.2 °C for 3) investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Sensitivities towards impact and friction were measured. Compound 1 is sensitive to both impact and friction (100% explosion under the test conditions), while compounds 2-3 are sensitive to neither (0% explosion under the test conditions). The heats of detonation (ΔHdet) of 1-3 were calculated based on density functional theory (DFT). Compound 1 possesses the highest calculated ΔHdet (26.7267 kJ g(-1)) among the reported energetic MOFs. Moreover, compared with the reported energetic MOFs, compound 1 also has a good balance of high nitrogen content (51.46%) and high oxygen balance (-36.76%) as well as a very high crystal density of 2.505 g cm(-3).

  12. Effect of biochar on mineral nitrogen content in soils with different pH values%生物质炭对不同pH值土壤矿质氮含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗煜; 赵小蓉; 李贵桐; 赵立欣; 孟海波; 林启美

    2014-01-01

    concentration. The causes for high fertility of these soils are multiple, but the source of the large amounts of organic matter and their high nutrient retention has been attributed to the extraordinarily high proportions of black carbon. Besides, the high available nitrogen (N) is from both direct nutrient addition by the biochar and greater nutrient retention. It is also reported biochar can influence soil N concentrations via affecting soil process, such as N transformation. However, it remains largely unknown how biochar affect N transformations.In this study, biochars were produced at 350°C (BC350) and 700°C (BC700) by using Miscanthus giganteus, and applied with and without ryegrass into soils with low (pH=3.8) and high pH values (pH=7.6) incubated for 180 days. Our results showed that the addition of biochar to soils had an average increase of total N content of 22% and 17%, respectively in acid and alkaline soils. Biochars had obvious effect on NH4+-N in acid soil. After 87 days of incubation, NH4+-N was declined to very low concentration. BC350 had a slight increase of NO3--N in acid soil. Compared with BC350, soils with BC700 significantly (p0.05) was observed in treatments with and without ryegrass, neither between day 87 and 180, suggesting mineralization was largely occurred at the early incubation time in the soil with biochar added. The effects of biochar on the form and content of soil mineral nitrogen were closely related to the biochar’s abilities including ammonium adsorption, enhancing soil pH value, enhancing ammonia volatilization, and microbial biomass nitrogen formation. In the practical application, using biochar as coating materials in producing the slow-release fertilizer to improve nitrogen use efficiency seems to be very promised, and more research is needed in this area in the near future.

  13. Variation Dynamics of Total Nitrogen and Nicotine of Burley Tobacco at Various Growing Stages under Different Nitrogen Nutrition Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the variation dynamics of total nitrogen and nicotine of burtey tobacco at various growing stages under different ni- trogen nutrition levels to provide reference for optimizing fertilization technologies for burley tobacco. [Method] Fresh burley tobacco leaves were collected at various growing stages and dried to measure the content of total nitrogen, protein and nico- tine by using INTEGRAL automated chemical analyzer and analyze the correlation with nitrogen application level. [Result] Regardless of the nitrogen application level, the content of total nitrogen and protein showed a downward trend since root ex- tending stage and reached the minimum at mature stage; the content of nicotine showed an upward trend since early vigorous growing stage and increased to the maximum at mature stage; the content of total nitrogen, protein and nicotine all in- creased after air curing; the content of total nitrogen, protein and nicotine showed positive correlation with nitrogen application level, while total nitrogen/nicotine was negatively correlated. The results indicate that nitrogen level is closely related to the total nitrogen and nicotine of burley tobacco at growing period and post-air curing, rational application of nitrogen is an important measure to regulate the content of total nitrogen and nicotine of tobacco. [Conclusion] This study provides scientific ba- sis for rational fertilization of burley tobacco.

  14. Effect of High Temperature Stress on Bt Insecticidal Protein Content and Nitrogen Metabolism of Square in Bt Cotton%高温胁迫对Bt棉蕾中杀虫蛋白含量及氮代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衡丽; 李亚兵; 胡大鹏; 王桂霞; 吕春花; 张祥; 陈源; 陈德华

    2016-01-01

    four days, and significant reduced after seven days with the reduction of 11.32% for SK-3 and 14.18% for SK-1. Under the treat-ment conditions the soluble protein contents, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities reduced, but the free amino acid contents, protease activities increased. There existed significant negative correlation of insecticidal protein content with free amino acid contents, and protease activities; and significantly positive correlation of insecticidal protein content with soluble pro-tein contents, and GPT activities under high temperature stresses. Therefore, the reduced synthesis and the enhanced degradation for protein in the square under the high temperature condition resulted in the decrease of soluble protein content, including Bt insecticidal protein content. The larger reductions of the square Bt insecticidal protein content and nitrogen metabolic strength were detected in cultivar SK-1 as confound with cultivar SK-3 under the high temperature treatments.

  15. 15N Isotope Techniques for Estimating Effects of Urea-N Fertilizer Application Rate on Yieids and Nutrient Contents of Pakchoi Cabbage and Asparagus Lettuce and Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Yu-Iin; ZHENG Sheng-xian; RONG Xiang-min; LIU Qiang; FAN Mei-rong

    2010-01-01

    A pot experiment combined with15 N isotope techniques was conducted to evaluate effects of the varying rates of urea.N fertilizer application on yields,quailty,and nitrogen use efficiency(NUE)of pakchoi cabbage(Brassica chinensis L.)and asparagus lettuce(Lactuca saiva L.).15 N-labbled urea(5.35 15 N atom%)was added to pots with 6.5kg soil of 0.14,0.18,0.21,0.25,and 0.29 g N/kg soil.and applied in two splits:60 percenl as basel dressing in the mixture and 40 percent as toodressing.The fresh yields of two vegetable species increased with the increasing input of urea-N,but there was a significant quadratic relationship between the dose of urea-N fertilizer application and the fresh yields.Whan the dosage of urea-N fertilizer reached a certain value,nitrate readily accumulated in the two kinds of plants due to the decrease in NR activity;furthermore,there was a linear nagative correlation between nitrate content and NR activity.With the increasing input of urea-N.ascorbic acid and soluble sugar initially increased,declined after a while,and crude fiber rapidly decreased too.Total absorbed N(TAN).N derived from fertilizer(Ndff),and N derived from soil(Ndfs)increased,and the ratio of Ndff and TAN also increased.but the ratio of Ndfs and TAN as well as NUE of urea-N fertilizer decreased with the increasing input of urea-N.These results suggested that the increasing application of labeled N fertilizer led lo the increase in unlabeled N(namely,Ndfs)presumably due to"added nitrogen interaction"(ANI),the decease in NUE of urea-N fertilizer may be due to excess fertilization beyond the levels of plant requirements and the ANI.and the decrease jn the two vege table yields with the increasing addition of urea-N possibly because the excess accumulation of nitrate reached a toxic level.

  16. 氮磷配施对青冈、苦槠幼苗生物量分配及叶片养分含量的影响%Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer on Biomass Allocation and Leaf Nutrient Content of Cyclobalanopsis glauca and Castanopsis sclerophylla Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹意婷; 白尚斌; 程艳艳; 王楠; 周沁萍; 潘丽思; 黄梦迪

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the influence of nitrogen and phosphorus on the growth of the evergreen broad leaved tree species,the effects of different amount of nitrogen and phosphorus application on leaf nutrient content, root,stem and leaf biomass of Cyclobalanopsis glauca and Castanopsis sclerophylla were studied with pot experiment. Results showed that both nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer could increase leaf nitrogen content of the two species. Phosphorus fertilizer increased the phosphorus content in the leaves,while a high concentration of nitrogen fertilizer reduced phosphorus content.Low concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer might slow the decline of leaf phosphorus content of Cyclobalanopsis glauca seedlings.Nitrogen and phosphorus promoted leaf carbon content of Cyclobalanopsis glauca seedlings increasing,but had no significant effects on that of Castanopsis sclerophylla seed-ling.For Cyclobalanopsis glauca,the biomass allocation in a descending order was root,leaf and branch,after nitro-gen application,and the order was root,branch and leaf after phosphorus application,while for Castanopsis sclero-phylla seedlings,the orders both were root,branch and leaf after nitrogen and phosphorus application.Cyclobalanop-sis glauca and Castanopsis sclerophylla seedling were sensitized to nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer,so,suitable ni-trogen and phosphate fertilizer would benefit their growth.%为了解 N、P 配施对常绿阔叶树生长的影响,采用盆栽试验,研究不同氮磷施量对青冈、苦槠幼苗叶片养分含量及幼苗根、茎、叶生物量的影响。结果表明:施氮、施磷均能增加两树种幼苗叶片的氮含量;施磷能增加幼苗叶片磷含量,而高浓度施氮会降低叶片磷含量;低浓度施氮及施磷均可减缓青冈生长过程中叶片磷含量的下降;施氮、磷对青冈幼苗叶片碳含量表现出促进作用,而对苦槠幼苗叶片碳含量没有显著影响。施氮后青

  17. Remote sensing estimation of winter wheat leaf nitrogen content based on GF-1 satellite data%基于GF-1卫星数据的冬小麦叶片氮含量遥感估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李粉玲; 常庆瑞; 申健; 王力

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is a major element for plant growth and yield formation in agronomic crops. Crop nitrogen content estimation by remote sensing technique has been being a topic research in remote sensing monitoring of agricultural parameters. Hyper-spectral remote sensing with wealth of spectral information has been widely used in crop physiological and biochemical information extraction. It provides theoretical basis for estimating crop biochemical parameters based on multi-spectral satellite data. In terms of multi-spectral satellite remote sensing, spectral reflectances and spectral indices are effective ways to establish estimation models of biochemical parameters, but which bands and spectral indices are more effective and reliable for leaf nitrogen concentration monitoring in winter wheat is still debatable. In this article, ground-based canopy spectral reflectance and leaf nitrogen content (LNC) of winter wheat were measured from field and plot experiments including varied nitrogen fertilization levels and winter wheat varieties across the whole growth stages. Multi-spectral broadband reflectance was simulated by using the measured hyper-spectral reflectance and spectral response functions of multi-spectral camera of GF-1 satellite with a spatial resolution of 8 m, and then, they were used for the establishment of spectral index (SI). Eight spectral indices significantly correlated with LNC at the 0.01 probability level were used to construct the LNC estimation models in a linear, quadratic polynomial and exponential regression model respectively. Considering the influence factors in evaluating the efficiency of the SI–LNC model, i.e., the stability of the SI to other perturbing factors, the sensitivity of the SI to a unit change of LNC, and the dynamic range of the SI, the improved sensitivity index was proposed based on the NE andTVIindex models. The optimal LNC estimation model was given according to the sensitivity and accuracy analysis, and the model was used

  18. Tissue Nitrogen and Fructan Translocation in Bread Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU You-liang; L.O'Brien; ZHONG Gai-rong

    2002-01-01

    Translocation of previously accumulated nitrogen and carbohydrates from vegetative tissue of the wheat plant is a major assimilate source for grain filling. This study was conducted to examine genotype differences in nitrogen and fructan translocation and their relationships to grain yield and protein content. Effects indicated that significant genotype differences existed for nitrogen accumulation at anthesis and fructan at milk stage and their translocation. Two high protein genotypes, Cunningham and PST90-19, accumulated more nitrogen before anthesis and had greater nitrogen translocation, but lower post-anthesis nitrogen uptake,than two low protein genotypes, SUN109A and TM56. Among plant parts, leaves were the major storage for tissue nitrogen and provided the overwhelming proportion of the total nitrogen translocation, whereas for fructan accumulation and translocation it was the stems. The two high protein genotypes had a higher percentage of their grain nitrogen derived from nitrogen translocation, while for the two low protein ones, it was from postanthesis nitrogen uptake and assimilation. Increasing nitrogen application increased nitrogen accumulation and translocation, but decreased fructan accumulation and translocation. High grain protein content was associated with high nitrogen translocation from leaves, stems and the total plant, while high grain yield was related to high fructan translocation from stems and the total plant. Fructan translocation was negatively correlated to grain protein content. Nitrogen and fructan translocation were not correlated with each other.

  19. Production of Nitrogen-Bearing Stainless Steel by Injecting Nitrogen Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-yuan; LI Jing-she; ZHANG Li-feng; YANG Shu-feng

    2011-01-01

    To replace nickel-based stainless steel, a nitrogen-bearing stainless steel was produced to lower the production cost stemming from the shortage of nickel recourses. Thermodynamic model to calculate the saturated nitrogen content in the stainless steel was developed and the model was validated by experimental measurements performed with a high temperature induction furnace. Nitrogen gas under constant pressure was injected into the molten steel with a top lance. Thus, the nitrogen was transferred to the molten stainless steel. The effects of chemical composition, temperature, superficial active elements and nitrogen flow rate on the transfer of nitrogen to the steel were investigated and discussed. The results showed that the dissolution rate of nitrogen in the molten steel increases with a higher temperature and larger nitrogen flow rate but decreases significantly with an increase in the content of surface- active elements. Alloying elements such as chromium and manganese having a negative interaction coefficient can increase the dissolution of nitrogen in the molten steel. It was also proposed that the primary factor affecting the final saturated nitrogen content is temperature rather than the dissolved oxygen content.

  20. Nitrogen tank

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Wanted The technical file about the pressure vessel RP-270 It concerns the Nitrogen tank, 60m3, 22 bars, built in 1979, and installed at Point-2 for the former L3 experiment. If you are in possession of this file, or have any files about an equivalent tank (probably between registered No. RP-260 and -272), please contact Marc Tavlet, the ALICE Glimos.

  1. Nitrogen tank

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Wanted The technical file about the pressure vessel RP-270 It concerns the Nitrogen tank, 60m3, 22 bars, built in 1979, and installed at Point-2 for the former L3 experiment. If you are in possession of this file, or have any files about an equivalent tank (probably between registered No. RP-260 and -272), please contact Marc Tavlet, the ALICE Glimos.

  2. Produção de biomassa e teores de carbono, hidrogênio, nitrogênio e proteína em microalgas Production of biomass and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and protein contents in microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Ohse

    2009-09-01

    , nitrogen and rate protein growth of nine marine microalgae species (Nannochloropsis oculata, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Isochrysis galbana, Tetraselmis suecica, Tetraselmis chuii, Chaetoceros muelleri, Thalassiosira fluviatilis and Isochrysis sp. and one freshwater species (Chlorella vulgaris under stationary autotrophy conditions. Erlenmeyers flasks with 800mL medium culture were exposed to constant light intensity and air flow, photon flux density of about 150µmol m-2 s-1 and 25±2°C temperature were used in the experiment The delineating experiment was carried out in a randomized block over time with three replicates. The species C. vulgaris and T. suecica are less productive. When the aim is the alimentary supplementation, the species C. vulgaris and T. Chuii are considered interesting, since it presents high contents of C, N, H and protein. The species N. Oculata, T. pseudonana and C. vulgaris present high contents of C, demonstrating high capacity of carbon setting.

  3. Effects of acupuncture on contents of nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen monoxide synthase in the hippocampus of obese rats%针刺对肥胖大鼠海马组织一氧化氮含量和一氧化氮合酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志诚; 孙凤岷; 袁锦虹; 徐炳国; 马燕; 姜军作; 衣运玲

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The abnormality of the content of nitrogen monoxide (NO)and activity of nitrogen monoxide synthase(NOS) may be an important factor of obesity. It has been known that the mechanisms of acupuncture treating obesity are related to nervous and neurohumoral regulation. What is the regulating effect of acupuncture on NO content and NOS activity in hippocampal tissues?OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of acupuncture on the content of NO and NOS, and further investigate central nervous functional mechanism of reducing weight by acupuncture.DESIGN: Self-controlled and mutual controlled experiment.SETTING: Acupuncture Institute of Second Clinical Medical College, Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Department of Reproduction Medicine, Nanjing College for Population Programmed Management.PARTICIPANTS: This experiment was carried out in the Acupuncture Institute of Second Clinical Medical College; One-month old male SD rats just in allactation, weighing 50 -70 g were provided by the Animal Experiment Center of General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command[Certification No. SYXK(Su) 2002-0017], and the animals were in the clean grade (Certification No. Su Animal Quality 970101 ).INTERVENTIONS: Rats fed with ordinary diet were in the normal group.Experimental obese rats models were randomly divided as control group and acupuncture group, 6 in each. Rats in the acupuncture group were given acupuncture treatment for 14 days, and rats in the normal and control groups were put into rat fixation-machine for 15 minutes, lasting for 14 days. Body mass, body lipid and contents of NO and NOS in hippocampal tissues in obese rats before and after acupuncture were observed with nervous biochemical technology.Effect of acupuncture on NO and NOS contents in hippocampal tissue of and Lee's index in hippocampal tissue of obese rats.RESULTS: The body mass[ (458.33 ± 7.43)g], Lee' s index (302.23± 4. 11 ) and body fat content of obesity were all significantly

  4. Determination of total nitrogen content, pH, density, refractive index, and brix in Thai fish sauces and their classification by near-infrared spectroscopy with searching combination moving window partial least squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritthiruangdej, Pitiporn; Kasemsumran, Sumaporn; Suwonsichon, Thongchai; Haruthaithanasan, Vichai; Thanapase, Warunee; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) transflectance spectra in the region of 1100-2500 nm were measured for 100 Thai fish sauces. Quantitative analyses of total nitrogen (TN) content, pH, refractive index, density and brix in the Thai fish sauces and their qualitative analyses were carried out by multivariate analyses with the aid of wavelength interval selection method named searching combination moving window partial least squares (SCMWPLS). The optimized informative region for TN selected by SCMWPLS was the region of 2264-2428 nm. A PLS calibration model, which used this region, yielded the lowest root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.100% w/v for the PLS factor of 5. This prediction result is significantly better than those obtained by using the whole spectral region or informative regions selected by moving window partial least squares regression (MWPLSR). As for pH, density, refractive index and brix, the 1698-1722, and 2222-2258 nm regions, the 1358-1438 nm region, the 1774-1846, and 2078-2114 nm regions, and the 1322-1442, and 2000-2076 nm regions were selected by SCMWPLS as the optimized regions. The best prediction results were always obtained by use of the optimized regions selected by SCMWPLS. The lowest RMSEP for pH, density, refractive index and brix were 0.170, 0.007 g cm(-3), 0.0079 and 0.435 degrees Brix, respectively. Qualitative models were developed by using four supervised pattern recognitions, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), factor analysis-linear discriminant analysis (FA-LDA), soft independent modeling of class analog (SIMCA), and K neareat neighbors (KNN) for the optimized combination of informative regions of the NIR spectra of fish sauces to classify fish sauces into three groups based on TN. All the developed models can potentially classify the fish sauces with the correct classification rate of more than 82%, and the KNN classified model has the highest correct classification rate (95%). The present study has demonstrated that NIR

  5. Nitrogen distribution between aqueous fluids and silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Huang, Ruifang; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Keppler, Hans

    2015-02-01

    The partitioning of nitrogen between hydrous fluids and haplogranitic, basaltic, or albitic melts was studied at 1-15 kbar, 800-1200 °C, and oxygen fugacities (fO2) ranging from the Fe-FeO buffer to 3log units above the Ni-NiO buffer. The nitrogen contents in quenched glasses were analyzed either by electron microprobe or by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), whereas the nitrogen contents in fluids were determined by mass balance. The results show that the nitrogen content in silicate melt increases with increasing nitrogen content in the coexisting fluid at given temperature, pressure, and fO2. Raman spectra of the silicate glasses suggest that nitrogen species change from molecular N2 in oxidized silicate melt to molecular ammonia (NH3) or the ammonium ion (NH4+) in reduced silicate melt, and the normalized Raman band intensities of the nitrogen species linearly correlate with the measured nitrogen content in silicate melt. Elevated nitrogen contents in silicate melts are observed at reduced conditions and are attributed to the dissolution of NH3/NH4+. Measured fluid/melt partition coefficients for nitrogen (DNfluid/ melt) range from 60 for reduced haplogranitic melts to about 10 000 for oxidized basaltic melts, with fO2 and to a lesser extent melt composition being the most important parameters controlling the partitioning of nitrogen. Pressure appears to have only a minor effect on DNfluid/ melt in the range of conditions studied. Our data imply that degassing of nitrogen from both mid-ocean ridge basalts and arc magmas is very efficient, and predicted nitrogen abundances in volcanic gases match well with observations. Our data also confirm that nitrogen degassing at present magma production rates is insufficient to accumulate the atmosphere. Most of the nitrogen in the atmosphere must have degassed very early in Earth's history and degassing was probably enhanced by the oxidation of the mantle.

  6. Nitrogen loss during solar drying of biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, S A; Song, I; Artiola, J F; Choi, C Y

    2008-01-01

    Solar drying has been used extensively to dewater biosolids for ease of transportation and to a lesser degree to reduce pathogens prior to land application. The nitrogen in biosolids makes them a relatively inexpensive but valuable source of fertilizer. In this study, nitrogen loss from tilled and untilled biosolids was investigated during the solar drying process. Samples of aerobically and anaerobically digested biosolids during three solar drying experiments were analyzed for their nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) ions concentrations. Nitrogen losses varied depending on the solar drying season and tillage. Although not directly measured, the majority of nitrogen loss occurred through ammonia volatilization; organic nitrogen content (organic N) remained relatively stable for each sample, nitrate concentrations for the majority of samples remained below detectable levels and the decline of ammonium-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) generally followed the trend of moisture loss in the biosolids.

  7. High Nitrogen Austenitic Stainless Steels Manufactured by Nitrogen Gas Alloying and Adding Nitrided Ferroalloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua-bing; JIANG Zhou-hua; SHEN Ming-hui; YOU Xiang-mi

    2007-01-01

    A simple and feasible method for the production of high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels involves nitrogen gas alloying and adding nitrided ferroalloys under normal atmospheric conditions. Alloying by nitrogen gas bubbling in Fe-Cr-Mn-Mo series alloys was carried out in MoSi2 resistance furnace and air induction furnace under normal atmospheric conditions. The results showed that nitrogen alloying could be accelerated by increasing nitrogen gas flow rate, prolonging residence time of bubbles, increasing gas/molten steel interfaces, and decreasing the sulphur and oxygen contents in molten steel. Nitrogen content of 0.69% in 18Cr18Mn was obtained using air induction furnace by bubbling of nitrogen gas from porous plug. In addition, the nickel-free, high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels with sound and compact macrostructure had been produced in the laboratory using vacuum induction furnace and electroslag remelting furnace under nitrogen atmosphere by the addition of nitrided alloy with the maximum nitrogen content of 0.81 %. Pores were observed in the ingots obtained by melting and casting in vacuum induction furnace with the addition of nitrided ferroalloys and under nitrogen atmosphere. After electroslag remelting of the cast ingots, they were all sound and were free of pores. The yield of nitrogen increased with the decrease of melting rate in the ESR process. Due to electroslag remelting under nitrogen atmosphere and the consequential addition of aluminum as deoxidizer to the slag, the loss of manganese decreased obviously. There existed mainly irregular Al2O3 inclusions and MnS inclusions in ESR ingots, and the size of most of the inclusions was less than 5 μm. After homogenization of the hot rolled plate at 1 150 ℃× 1 h followed by water quenching, the microstructure consisted of homogeneous austenite.

  8. Effects of Nitrogen Rate and Planting Density on Yield and Its Components and Protein Content of Barley Variety Supi 6%施氮量和播种密度对苏啤6号产量、产量构成因素及其蛋白质含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧慧; 陈和; 陈健; 沈会权; 陶红; 陈晓静; 乔海龙

    2011-01-01

    以苏啤6号为材料,研究了不同施氮量和播种密度对其产量、产量构成因素及籽粒蛋白质含量的影响.结果表明:施氮量和播种密度对苏啤6号产量、产量构成因素、籽粒蛋白质含量有显著影响.本试验条件下,苏啤6号的适宜施氮量为210 kg/hm2,播种基本苗为300万/hm2.%With the barley variety Supi 6 as material, the effects of nitrogen rate and planting density on yield and yield components and protein content of barley were studied. The results showed that nitrogen appli cation rate and planting density could significantly influent the yield and its components and the protein content in grain of Supi 6. Under the experiment conditions and the optimal nitrogen rate was 210 kg/hm2 and the bas ic seedling number was 3 000 thousand per hectare.

  9. [Interactions of straw, nitrogen fertilizer and bacterivorous nematodes on soil labile carbon and nitrogen and greenhouse gas emissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng-Hao; Wang, Nan; Liu, Man-Qiang; Li, Fang-Hui; Zhu, Kang-Li; Li, Hui-Xin; Hu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    A 3 x 2 factorial design of microcosm experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of straw, nitrogen fertilizer and bacterivorous nematodes on soil microbial biomass carbon (C(mic)) and nitrogen (N(mic)), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON), mineral nitrogen (NH(4+)-N and NO(3-)-N), and greenhouse gas (CO2, N2O and CH4) emissions. Results showed that straw amendment remarkably increased the numbers of bacterivorous nematodes and the contents of Cmic and Nmic, but Cmic and Nmic decreased with the increasing dose of nitrogen fertilization. The effects of bacterivorous nematodes strongly depended on either straw or nitrogen fertilization. The interactions of straw, nitrogen fertilization and bacterivorous nematodes on soil DOC, DON and mineral nitrogen were strong. Straw and nitrogen fertilization increased DOC and mineral nitrogen contents, but their influences on DON depended on the bacterivorous nematodes. The DOC and mineral nitrogen were negatively and positively influenced by the bacterivorous nematodes, re- spectively. Straw significantly promoted CO2 and N2O emissions but inhibited CH4 emission, while interactions between nematodes and nitrogen fertilization on emissions of greenhouse gases were obvious. In the presence of straw, nematodes increased cumulative CO2 emissions with low nitrogen fertilization, but decreased CO2 and N2O emissions with high nitrogen fertilization on the 56th day after incubation. In summary, mechanical understanding the soil ecological process would inevitably needs to consider the roles of soil microfauna.

  10. The effect of Al content, substrate temperature and nitrogen flow rate on optical band gap and optical features of nanostructured TiAlN thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Reza; Parhizkar, Mojtaba; Bidadi, Hassan; Naghshara, Hamid; Hosseini, Seyd Reza; Jafari, Majid

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, TiAlN thin films were prepared by using a dual reactive magnetron sputtering system on fused quartz substrates kept at room temperature and 400 °C; keeping nitrogen flow at 0.51 and 2.78 sccm, various DC and RF powers and the effect of these factors have been studied on the optical properties of the layers. The optical properties including absorption and transmission were studied by a UV-Visible spectrophotometer in the wavelength region (200-1100) nm. By plotting ( αhν)2 and ( αhν)1/2 versus the photon energy hυ, the optical band gap was evaluated. Experimental results show that layers with high percentage of aluminum and nitrogen have higher gap with respect to layers having high titanium percentage. TiAlN thin films deposited with 2.78 sccm nitrogen flow rate possess optical direct band gap in the range of 3.8-5.1 eV and optical indirect band gap in the range of 1.1-3.4 eV. The variation of optical band gap of the films that deposited on the substrate with 400 °C and nitrogen flow rate of 2.78 sccm was different from other layers.

  11. The effect of light and nutrient availability on growth, nitrogen, and pigment contents of Saccharina latissima (Phaeophyceae) grown in outdoor tanks, under natural variation of sunlight and temperature, during autumn and early winter in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boderskov, Teis; Schmedes, Peter; Bruhn, Annette;

    2016-01-01

    Late summer harvest of cultivated Saccharina latissima, prior to seasonally determined negative length growth, is considered advantageous in North Atlantic waters to optimize biomass yields. We hypothesized that seasonal increase in tissue protein and pigments over autumn and early winter would...... bioremediation, and has an improved biomass quality in regards of increased concentrations of pigments and nitrogen rich compounds....

  12. Experimental Study on Treatment of Poultry Manure with High Nitrogen Content by Anaerobic-Aerobic Co-treatment%高含氮养殖污水厌氧-好氧组合处理实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清; 胡启春; 祝其丽; 何明雄; 潘科

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic-aerobic co-treatment of diluted poultry manure was done in the batch anaerobic reactors and aerobic shaking bottles based on SBR concept to especially study efficiency of aerobic-post-treatment influenced by anaerobic pre-digestion with different HRT, the reason of removal of COD, NH4+-N, TN and TP was discussed. HRT of experimental anaerobic digestion was 3,6,9,12,15 and 18 days, and cycle time of aerobic process was 12 h. Time of post-treatment experiment was 30 days. Experimental results showed that poultry manure and sewage could be treated by anaerobic digestion with renewable energy benefit. For meeting the requirement both for maximum biogas production in anaerobic digestion period and digested effluent feasible treated in post aerobic-treatment period, HRT of anaerobic digestion should be less than 6days, while BOD5/COD and C/N index of effluent could just suit the requirement of post-treatment. Comparison between data with poultry manure and others with pig and caw manure indicated that the longer the HRT of anaerobic digestion, the worse of result of aerobic post-treatment. For farm wastewater with high nitrogen content, HRT of anaerobic digestion as pre-treatment period should be comparably less.%采用批次厌氧消化和实验模拟SBR法处理低浓度蛋鸡粪污水,侧重研究厌氧消化时间对好氧后处理效果的影响,同时讨论了对COD、NH4+-N、TN和TP去除原因.厌氧消化的时问分别为3d,6d,9d,12 d,15d,18 d,好氧后处理的工艺周期为12 h.好氧阶段持续时间为30 d.结果表明,鸡粪等高含氮养殖污水能够采用厌氧消化处理和资源化利用.如果要兼顾最大产沼气化与沼液可生化性之间的最适要求,厌氧消化时间不宜超过6d,此时沼液的BOD5/COD和C/N比值勉强能够适应好氧后处理条件需要.比较本实验采用蛋鸡养殖污水与采用猪场和奶牛场污水做的类似实验结果分析发现:在厌氧-好氧组合处理模式中,厌氧消化时

  13. Estimation and Visualization of Nitrogen Content in Citrus Canopy Based on Two Band Vegetation Index (TBVI)%基于双波段植被指数(TBVI)的柑橘冠层含氮量预测及可视化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巧男; 叶旭君; 李金梦; 肖宇钊; 何勇

    2015-01-01

    氮素(nitrogen,N)是果树生长发育的必需重要元素,及时准确地无损检测果树的氮素水平对果实增产、合理施肥以及减少环境污染等具有重要意义。研究了基于高光谱成像技术进行柑橘冠层含氮量预测及可视化的可行性。实验采用高光谱成像光谱仪 ImSpector V10E(Spectral imaging Ltd.,Oulu,Finland)分别采集柑橘叶片实验室样本和野外整个植株冠层的高光谱图像。利用 ENVI 软件提取每个叶片样本感兴趣区域(ROI)的平均光谱数据作为整个样本的光谱数据进行分析,同时采用杜马斯燃烧法快速定氮仪(Ele-mentar Analytical,Germany)测定叶片样本的含氮量。通过简单相关分析和双波段植被指数(TBVI)的获取,建立基于光谱数据的含氮量预测模型。计算表明,基于811和856 nm 的双波段植被指数(TBVI)能够建立最佳的柑橘叶片含氮量预测模型(R 2=0.6071)。在此基础上,计算上述 TBVI 的冠层图像,把基于该 TBVI 的含氮量预测模型导入到 TBVI 图像中计算生成冠层含氮量的预测分布图。图中直观地显示柑橘嫩叶、中叶、老叶的含氮水平从高到低分布,实现了冠层含氮量的可视化。结果表明,利用高光谱成像技术可以实现柑橘冠层氮素水平的检测和诊断,这为实施基于每颗果树信息的变量施肥技术提供了参考信息。%Nitrogen is a necessary and important element for the growth and development of fruit orchards.Timely,accurate and nondestructive monitoring of nitrogen status in fruit orchards would help maintain the fruit quality and efficient production of the orchard,and mitigate the pollution of water resources caused by excessive nitrogen fertilization.This study investigated the ca-pability of hyperspectral imagery for estimating and visualizing the nitrogen content in citrus canopy.Hyperspectral images were obtained for leaf samples in

  14. [Effects of water deficit and nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat growth and nitrogen uptake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, You-Ling; Zhang, Fu-Cang; Li, Kai-Feng

    2009-10-01

    Winter wheat plants were cultured in vitro tubes to study their growth and nitrogen uptake under effects of water deficit at different growth stages and nitrogen fertilization. Water deficit at any growth stages could obviously affect the plant height, leaf area, dry matter accumulation, and nitrogen uptake. Jointing stage was the most sensitive stage of winter wheat growth to water deficit, followed by flowering stage, grain-filling stage, and seedling stages. Rewatering after the water deficit at seedling stage had a significant compensation effect on winter wheat growth, and definite compensation effect was observed on the biomass accumulation and nitrogen absorption when rewatering was made after the water deficit at flowering stage. Under the same nitrogen fertilization levels, the nitrogen accumulation in root with water deficit at seedling, jointing, flowering, and grain-filling stages was reduced by 25.82%, 55.68%, 46.14%, and 16.34%, and the nitrogen accumulation in aboveground part was reduced by 33.37%, 51.71%, 27.01%, and 2.60%, respectively, compared with no water deficit. Under the same water deficit stages, the nitrogen content and accumulation of winter wheat decreased with decreasing nitrogen fertilization level, i. e., 0.3 g N x kg(-1) FM > 0.2 g N x kg(-1) FM > 0.1 g N x kg(-1) FM. Nitrogen fertilization had obvious regulation effect on winter wheat plant growth, dry matter accumulation, and nitrogen uptake under water stress.

  15. Effects of Decreasing Controlled- release Fertilizer Application Rate on Yield and Quality of Potato, and Soil Nitrate Nitrogen Content%控释肥减量施用对马铃薯产量、品质及土壤硝态氮含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董亮; 张玉凤; 刘苹; 于淑芳; 杨力; 杨鹏

    2012-01-01

    The effects of decreasing the application rate of controlled - release coated urea on the yield and quality of potato, and soil nitrate nitrogen content were studied through field experiments. The results indicated that the controlled - release fertilizer treatment increased the first grade rate of potato tube as compared with the traditional fertilization, enhanced potato yield by 8. 00% -25.59% , and the best yield - increasing effect was obtained in the treatment of applying 100% controlled - release fertilizer. Decreasing the application rate of controlled - release fertilizer improved potato quality, increased the utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizer by 10.53% ~22.69% , and the utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizer was the highest in the treatment of decreasing 40% nitrogen of controlled - release fertilizer. The controlled - release fertilizer treatment reduced soil nitrate nitrogen accumulation in each soil layer, and decreasing 30% ~ 40% nitrogen of controlled - release fertilizer achieved the least soil nitrate nitrogen accumulation.%通过田间试验,研究了包膜尿素减量化施用对马铃薯产量、品质及土壤硝态氮含量的影响.结果表明,与习惯施肥处理相比,花用控释肥可以提高马铃薯的一级品率,并且能较好地保证马铃薯产量,马铃薯产量增加8.00%~25.59%,以100%控释肥增产效果最好.马铃薯品质方面,减氮控释肥处理能提高马铃薯品质.施用控释肥可以提高氮肥利用率10.53%~22.69%,其中,以减氮40%控释肥的氮肥利用率最高.在马铃薯土壤硝态氮含量方面,施用控释肥能降低硝态氮在各个土层的累积,其中减氮30%~40%控释肥处理土壤硝态氮的累积量最低.

  16. Interrelationships between Grain Nitrogen Content and other Indicators of Nitrogen Accumulation and Utilization Efficiency in Wheat Plants Relaciones entre el Contenido de Nitrógeno del Grano y otros Indicadores de Acumulación y Eficiencia de Utilización de Nitrógeno en Plantas de Trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Nikolic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The topic of N wheat nutrition was prevalent during the last decades of the 20th century for many reasons such as energy crises, profitability of small grain production, and ecosystem protection and preservation. The objective of this study was to determine the interrelationships between wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grain N content and other indicators of N nutrition efficiency to better understand the N nutrition process in wheat plants. The experiment included 30 wheat cultivars and experimental lines from Serbia. Plant samples of each genotype were taken at anthesis and maturity. The following parameters related to N accumulation and translocation within the wheat plant were calculated: N content (at anthesis, grain, straw, and total at maturity, N harvest index (NHI, N reutilization (N reU, and N lost (- or gained (N post-anthesis. Our results showed that N content in the aboveground part of the plant expressed very strong direct positive effects on N yield (phenotypic coefficient 3.78** to 9.34** and genotypic coefficient 1.43** to 2.32**, while its indirect effects varied. The influence of independent variables on grain N content has been changing from year to year in a negative way. Total N accumulation (N total had the highest negative direct effect in the first year of the study (phenotypic coefficient -2.11**, N total in the second (phenotypic coefficient -2.78**, and N reutilization in the third (phenotypic coefficient -8.49**. Genotypic coefficients indicate that the most frequent strong direct negative effect was N reutilization (-0.47** and -0.99** in the first 2 yr of research, respectively. Nitrogen reutilization and its current assimilation are very important and related to grain N supply processes. Their interaction leads to the conclusion that forming N yield is a very complex mechanism and, as a result, grain yield and quality. The abovementioned parameters could be considered as important criteria in wheat breeding to improve

  17. Spectral measurements at different spatial scales in potato: relating leaf, plant and canopy nitrogen status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Booij, R.

    2004-01-01

    Chlorophyll contents in vegetation depend on soil nitrogen availability and on crop nitrogen uptake, which are important management factors in arable farming. Crop nitrogen uptake is important, as nitrogen is needed for chlorophyll formation, which is important for photosynthesis, i.e. the conversio

  18. Spectral measurements at different spatial scales in potato: relating leaf, plant and canopy nitrogen status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Booij, R.

    2004-01-01

    Chlorophyll contents in vegetation depend on soil nitrogen availability and on crop nitrogen uptake, which are important management factors in arable farming. Crop nitrogen uptake is important, as nitrogen is needed for chlorophyll formation, which is important for photosynthesis, i.e. the conversio

  19. Nitrogen fixation, denitrification, and ecosystem nitrogen pools in relation to vegetation development in the Subarctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Jonasson, Sven Evert; Michelsen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    measurements of temperature, light, and soil moisture. Nitrogen fixation rate was high with seasonal input estimated at 1.1 g N m2 on frostheaved sorted circles, which was higher than the total plant N content and exceeded estimated annual plant N uptake several-fold but was lower than the microbial N content......Nitrogen (N) fixation, denitrification, and ecosystem pools of nitrogen were measured in three subarctic ecosystem types differing in soil frost-heaving activity and vegetation cover. N2-fixation was measured by the acetylene reduction assay and converted to absolute N ecosystem input by estimates...... of conversion factors between acetylene reduction and 15N incorporation. One aim was to relate nitrogen fluxes and nitrogen pools to the mosaic of ecosystem types of different stability common in areas of soil frost movements. A second aim was to identify abiotic controls on N2-fixation by simultaneous...

  20. Influencia da adubação nitrogenada e idade de corte sobre os teores de proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro de três cultivares de capim-elefante (Influence of nitrogen fertilization and age of cutting on the crude protein and neutral detergent fiber contents of three elephant-grass varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Avelar Magalhães

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoEste trabalho foi realizado para avaliar os efeitos de três doses denitrogênio (150, 300 e 450 kg de N/ha e cinco idades de corte (28, 35, 42, 56 e 84 dias sobre os teores de proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN do capim-elefante cvs. Napier, Pioneiro e Roxo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em parcelas subsubdivididas e quatro repetições. As gramíneas foram plantadas em covas, em área irrigada por aspersão fixa de baixa vazão. O corte de uniformização foi realizado 93 dias após o plantio, e em seguida foram aplicados os níveis de nitrogênio, usando-se uréia. Foi observado que a cv. Roxo apresentou o maior teor médio de PB, enquanto a Napier apresentou o menor teor. Os maiores teores de PB foram obtidos através da utilização de 450 e 300 kg de N/ha. A análise de regressão indicou linearidade negativa dos efeitos da idade sobre os teores de PB da planta. Os teores de FDN foram crescentes em função da idade de corte. A análise de variância nãodetectou diferenças significativas entre as cultivares testadas e nem nos níveis de nitrogênio aplicados sobre os teores de FDN.SummaryThis experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of three nitrogen levels (150; 300 and 450 kg of N/ha and five cutting ages (28, 35, 42, 56 and 84 days on the crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF contents of the elephant-grass vars. Napier, Pioneiro and Roxo. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with treatments arranged as a split-split-plot and four repetitions. The grassy varieties were established in hollows, in area irrigated for fixed aspersion of low outflow. The uniformization cut was carried through 93 days after the plantation, and after that the nitrogen levels had been applied, using themselves urea. TheCP content had been gotten from the nitrogen determination, for the method of Kjeldahl (N x 6.25. It was observed that the var. Roxo presented the highest CP

  1. Nitrogen-dependent calcineurin activation in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Celia; Galindo, Luis R; Siverio, José M

    2013-04-01

    Non-preferred nitrogen sources, unlike preferred ones, raised total cell Ca(2+) content and expression of ENA1, a very well-known calcineurin-regulated gene. This indicates calcineurin activation is regulated by nitrogen source. Nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) and nitrate induction mechanisms, both regulating nitrate assimilation in Hansenula polymorpha, are controlled by calcineurin. Concerning NCR, lack of calcineurin (cnb1 mutant) decreased nitrate-assimilation gene expression, levels of the transcription factor Gat1 and growth in several nitrogen sources. We found that the role of calcineurin in NCR was mediated by Crz1 via Gat1. Regarding nitrate induction, calcineurin also affects the levels of transcription factors Gat2 and Yna2 involved in this process. We conclude that Ca(2+) and calcineurin play a central role in nitrogen signalling and assimilation. Thus, the nitrogen source modulates Ca(2+) content and calcineurin activation. Calcineurin in turn regulates nitrogen assimilation genes.

  2. Effects of Nitrogenous Fertilizer on Pungency of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The response of pungency of hot pepper fruits nitrogenous fertilizer on was invesigated. The results indicated that nitrogenous fertilizer had a significant effect on the capsaicin content of hot pepper fruits at 35 and 42 days after flowering;capsaicin content gradually decreased, while peroxidase activity increased with nitrogenous fertilizer increasing.

  3. Nitrogen and phosphorus limitation in a coastal barrier salt marsh : the implications for vegetation succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnen, HJ; Bakker, JP

    1999-01-01

    1 A factorial fertilizer experiment was conducted in a 15-year-old coastal barrier salt marsh with a low soil nitrogen content, and in an older 100-year-old marsh with a higher nitrogen content. Plots were fertilized at high and low marsh elevations in both marshes. Nitrogen and phosphorus were appl

  4. [Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen application on cotton biomass, nitrogen utilization and soil urease activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ning; Yin, Fei-hu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Zhi-jian; Liu, Yu; Shi, Lei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a semi-open-top artificial climate chamber was used to study the effect of CO2 enrichment (360 and 540 µmol · mol(-1)) and nitrogen addition (0, 150, 300 and 450 kg · hm(-2)) on cotton dry matter accumulation and distribution, nitrogen absorption and soil urease activity. The results showed that the dry matter accumulation of bud, stem, leaf and the whole plant increased significantly in the higher CO2 concentration treatment irrespective of nitrogen level. The dry matter of all the detected parts of plant with 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen addition was significantly higher than those with the other nitrogen levels irrespective of CO2 concentration, indicating reasonable nitrogen fertilization could significantly improve cotton dry matter accumulation. Elevated CO2 concentration had significant impact on the nitrogen absorption contents of cotton bud and stem. Compared to those under CO2 concentration of 360 µmol · mol(-1), the nitrogen contents of bud and stem both increased significantly under CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content of cotton bud in the treatment of 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen was the highest among the four nitrogen fertilizer treatments. While the nitrogen contents of cotton stem in the treatments of 150 kg · hm(-2) and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels were higher than those in the treatment of 0 kg · hm(-2) and 450 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels. The nitrogen content of cotton leaf was significantly influenced by the in- teraction of CO2 elevation and N addition as the nitrogen content of leaf increased in the treatments of 0, 150 and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels under the CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content in cotton root was significantly increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer level under elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment. Overall, the cotton nitrogen absorption content under the elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment was higher than that

  5. Effects of Soil Nitrogen Content on Tree Diversity in Xishuangbanna Tropical Seasonal Rain Forest%西双版纳热带季节雨林土壤氮含量对乔木树种多样性的影响∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋彩云; 徐武美; 李巧明

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition and human activities may enhance the nitrogen input into ecosystems,in ̄crease content of nitrogen in soil and reduce biodiversity due to promoting the growth of dominant species and decrea ̄sing spatial heterogeneity of environment. To study the relationship between the content of nitrogen in soil and tree diversity in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rainforest,we randomly setted 14 plots with each of 1 ha, investigated the tree species richness,total soil nitrogen ( TN), biomass of the foundation species ( Parashorea chinensis) and the whole trees of each plot. Our study showed increasing content of total soil nitrogen will promote growth of domi ̄nant species,decrease niches for species coexistence and reduce tree diversity due to competitive exclusion. The study indicated that reducing anthropogenic nitrogen supply to ecosystems would play a vital role for protecting tree diversity in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rainforest.%大气氮沉降或人类活动导致生态系统氮输入增加,可能会提高土壤氮含量水平,促进优势种的生长和减少环境异质性,从而使物种共存的生态位减少,群落物种多样性降低。为研究土壤氮含量的增加对森林群落乔木树种多样性的影响,本研究在西双版纳热带季节雨林随机设置了14个1 ha的样方,对各样方土壤总氮( TN)含量、乔木树种丰富度以及西双版纳热带季节雨林20 ha动态监测样地中各样方乔木树种及建群种望天树( Parashorea chinensis)生物量进行了调查。结果表明:土壤氮含量与乔木树种丰富度具有显著负相关而与群落及建群种望天树生物量具有显著正相关。我们推测其机制可能是:土壤氮含量增加促进了建群种望天树等的生长及群落生物量的积累,减少树种共存的生态位,由于竞争排斥等原因而导致群落树种丰富度降低。因此,减少生态系统人为氮输入,对于保

  6. Nitrogen Content,Response to Nitrogen Fertilization and N2 O Emission of Soil at Tea Plantations%茶园土壤氮含量、施氮效应及其 N2O 排放的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 陈玉真; 尤志明; 吴志丹; 江福英; 张文锦

    2014-01-01

    氮素是茶树生长和发育的必需营养元素之一,供应状况直接影响茶叶的产量与品质。本文在总结了茶园土壤氮含量的基础上,综述了氮肥对茶叶产量、品质及 N2O 排放的影响,主要包括:随着化学氮肥的大量施用,茶园土壤氮素含量明显增加;合理的施氮量能显著提高茶叶产量并改善其品质,不足或过量均会抑制茶树产量和品质;茶树为喜铵作物,施用铵态氮肥有利于茶树品质的形成;成龄茶园施 N 量200.0~350kg·hm-2, N∶P∶K 配比2∶1∶1为宜,同时配施适量有机肥;施用氮肥显著促进茶园土壤 N2O 的排放。结合茶叶氮素需求特征,提出今后进一步加强氮素利用的技术对策。%Nitrogen is one of the essential nutrients for tea growth?and?development.Its supply directly affects teayield and quality.This article reviews and analyzes the current status of the nitrogen in soil at tea plantations inChina,the effects of the amount,forms and ratio in NPK fertilizers of nitrogen on tea plants,as well as the N2 Oemission mechanism and associated factors.Chemical nitrogen fertilizer has a significant effect on the total nitrogencontent in the soil at tea plantations.Appropriate application of nitrogen could remarkably improve tea yield andnutrition quality.But,excessive applications,either too high or too low a nitrogen level,could stunt the growth.Nitrogen fertilizers,such as ammonium and ammonium-nitrogen,normally benefit the tea quality.It is generallyconsidered adequate for tea fertilization at the rate of N 200.0-3 50 kg·hm-2 ,and a N∶P∶K ratio of 2 ∶1 ∶1 .Since nitrogen fertilization can significantly increase N2 O emission,its application directly affects the air quality.Consequently,in order to maximize nitrogen fertilization efficiency while minimize air pollution to the environment,appropriate managerial strategies must be implemented.

  7. Estimating Total Nitrogen Content in Wetland Vegetation Based on Measured Reflectance Spectra%基于地面实测光谱的湿地植物全氮含量估算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘克; 赵文吉; 郭逍宇; 王翊虹; 孙永华; 苗茜

    2012-01-01

    More and more urban wetlands have been supplied with reclaimed water. And monitoring the growth condition of large-area wetland vegetation is playing a very important role in wetland restoration and reconstructioa Recently, remote sensing technology has become an important tool for vegetation growth monitoring. The South Wetland in the Olympic Park, a typical wetland using reused water, was selected as the research area. The leaf reflectance spectra and were acquired for the main wetland plants reed (Phragmites australis) and cattail (Typha angustifolia) with an ASD FieldSpec 3 spectrometer (350~ 2 500 nm). The total nitrogen (TN) content of leaf samples was determined by Kjeldahl method subsequently. The research established univariate models involving simple ratio spectral index (SR) model and normalized difference spectral index (ND) model, as well as multivariate models including stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) model and partial least squares regression (PLSR) model. Moreover, the accuracy of all the models was tested through cross-validated coefficient of determination (Rcv) and cross-validated root mean square error (RMSEcv). The results showed that (1) comparing different types of wetland plants, the accuracy of all established prediction models using Phragmites australis reflectance spectra was higher than that u-sing Typha angustifolia reflectance spectra. (2) compared with univariate techniques, multivariate regressions improved the estimation of TN concentration in leaves. (3) among the various investigated models, the accuracy of PLSR model was the highest (Rcv = 0. 80, RMSEcv = 0. 24). PLSR provided the most useful explorative tool for unraveling the relationship between spectral reflectance and TN consistence of leaves. The result would not only provide a scientific basis for remote sensing retrieval of biochemical variables of wetland vegetation, but also provide a strong scientific basis for the monitoring and management of urban wetlands

  8. Teores de nitrogênio em fôlhas de cafeeiro, em relação à adubação química: I - Latossolo Roxo transição para Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo orto Effects of fertilization on the nitrogen content of the coffee leaves: I - Latosolic B "Terra roxa" and ortho Red-yellow Latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Romano Gallo

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available Resultados de análises foliares obtidos durante cinco anos em ensaio de adubação química nitrogenada em café, cultivar Mundo Nôvo, instalado em Latossolo Roxo transição para Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo orto, revelaram, para amostras colhidas no verão, teores médios de 2,8% a 3% de nitrogênio total como indicativos de uma nutrição adequada. Produções elevadas de frutos estiveram associadas com teores da ordem de 500 ppm de nitrogênio nítrico nas fôlhas. A análise de fôlhas para ambas as formas de nitrogênio mostrou que a aplicação do adubo nitrogenado em pelo menos três parcelas, no período que vai de outubro a março, parece importante para prevenir a deficiência.Nitrogen is highly demanded by coffee (Coffea arabica L. plants, and previous survey, made by foliar analysis, indicated that most of them, grown in São Paulo State, suffer nitrogen deficiency. A study was made to observe the variation of the total and nitric nitrogen, as judged by foliar chemical analysis, in relation to the type, amount and the timing of the application of several different nitrogen fertilizers (Nitrocálcio, nitrate of soda from Chile, ammonium sulphate, and urea. The experiment, a factorial of 4x4x4, was installed in a mixture of Latosolic B "Terra Roxa" and Ortho Red-Yellow Latosol at Experimental Center of Campinas, SP. The amount of the fertilizer used was 45, 90, 135 and 180 g N/plant, subdivided in 1 to 4 applications throughout the year. P2O5 (120 g and K(20 (180 g were uniformly applied to all plants. Leaf samples were collected at 45 days intervals between October and March, and another at July, from 1964 to 1969. The results of the analysis indicated that: (a sampling during summer (January-March is better to evaluate nitrogen deficiency in coffee; (b total nitrogen content of 2.8-3% (and about 500 ppm of nitric N was correlated to a production of more than 2,500 kg/ha of treated beans; (c the subdivision of the fertilizers applied

  9. Controlled dissolution of colossal quantities of nitrogen in stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    The solubility of nitrogen in austenitic stainless steel was investigated thermogravimetrically by equilibrating thin foils of AISI 304 and AISI 316 in ammonia/hydrogen gas mixtures. Controlled dissolution of colossal amounts of nitrogen under metastable equilibrium conditions was realized......, with nitrogen contents as high as corresponding to an occupancy of yN = 0.61 of the interstitial sublattice, i.e. about 38 at.% N. Associated with the dissolution of these unprecedented nitrogen contents in an austenitic matrix a reversible volume expansion of the austenite lattice occurred for yN > 0...

  10. Controle genético do teor proteico nos grãos e de caracteres agronômicos em milho cultivado com diferentes níveis de adubação nitrogenada Genetic control of grain protein content and of agronomic traits in maize cultivated at different levels of nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luíce Gomes Bueno

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o controle genético do teor de proteína em grãos e caracteres agronômicos milho (Zea mays cultivado com diferentes níveis de adubação nitrogenada. Foram avaliados nove genitores de milho e seus híbridos, em dialelo completo, com dois níveis de adubação nitrogenada. Os caracteres avaliados foram: índice relativo de clorofila, altura de plantas, altura de espigas, produção de espigas, produção de grãos, coloração de grãos, massa de cem grãos, densidade de grãos, teor de nitrogênio nas folhas e teor de proteína nos grãos. A elevação da adubação nitrogenada promoveu aumento nos caracteres índice relativo de clorofila, altura de espigas e teor de proteínas nos grãos. Apenas a variável produção de grãos apresentou controle genético distinto nos diferentes níveis de nitrogênio. A análise dialélica mostrou significância dos efeitos dos genótipos sobre todos os caracteres, com exceção da produção de espigas e de grãos, e foi possível observar significância da heterose na maioria das variáveis. Para o teor de proteínas nos grãos, não houve significância da capacidade específica de combinação, e a capacidade geral de combinação dos genótipos teve efeito mais importante na manifestação desse caráter.The objective of this work was to determine the genetic control grain protein content and of the agronomic traits of corn (Zea mays at different levels of nitrogen fertilization. Nine parent populations and their hybrids were evaluated in a complete diallel mating design, with two levels of nitrogen fertilization. The variables evaluated were: relative chlorophyll index, plant height, ear height, ear production, grain yield, grain color, mass of 100 grains, density of grains, nitrogen content in the leaves and grain protein content. Increasing levels of nitrogen fertilization increased the relative chlorophyll index, ear height and grain protein content

  11. Comparison of increased arachidonic acid content in Myrmecia incisa cultured during the course of nitrogen or phosphorus starvation%氮饥饿与磷饥饿促使缺刻缘绿藻花生四烯酸含量增加的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童牧; 于水燕; 欧阳珑玲; 周志刚

    2011-01-01

    The growth rate and biomass,contents of arachidonic acid(AA) and other fatty acids in Myrmecia incisa Reisigl H4301, a freshwater green microalga rich in AA, were comparatively studied while cultured between nitrogen and phosphorus starvation under different light intensities. It was found that either nitrogen or phosphorus starvation could cause a reduced growth rate of this microalga as well as a resultant biomass.If grown under a lower light intensity [ 60 μmol photons/( m2 · s) ], the lowest average growth rate [ 0.025 g/( d · L) ] of this microalga resulted from phosphorus starvation, which was nearly half of the growth rate while grown in a complete BG-11 medium. Both of nitrogen and phosphorus starvation could increase the contents of total fatty acids and AA,however, when this alga was exposed to low light intensity the positive effect of phosphorus starvation was limited. High light intensity [ 200 μmol photons/( m2 · s ) ] was not beneficial to the synthesis and accumulation of AA no matter how this microalga was cultured in the complete or nitrogen-free or phosphorus-free media. The AA content gradually increased accompanying with a decrease of linoleic acid content during the starvation. However, the oleic acid percentage also gradually increased which limited more significantly the accumulation of AA in this microalga grown under phosphorus starvation than nitrogen one. Based on the composition changes of every species of fatty acids, the main synthesis metabolic pathway of AA suggested that it proceeded from linoleic acid to γ-linolenic acid and then to 20:3ω6 under nitrogen or phosphate starvation,and that the Δ6 desaturase was a rate-limiting enzyme. The step in which ω3 desaturase played was down regulated by nitrogen or phosphorus starvation, thus ensuring the synthesis and accumulation of AA positively. Nitrogen starvation blocked the protein synthesis, and phosphorus starvation caused the disorders of nucleic acid, carbohydrate and

  12. Electro-catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLarnon, C.R.

    1989-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides have been linked to a broad range of air pollution problems including acid rain and the atmospheric production of photochemical ozone. Over twenty million tons of nitrogen oxides are emitted into the atmosphere each year as a result of the high temperature combustion of fossil fuels. Efforts to control nitrogen oxides emissions have lagged because of the generally low discharge concentrations of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust and because nitrogen oxides are more difficult to remove due to their lower reactivity. No catalyst has yet been found that will achieve significant reduction of nitrogen oxides in an oxidizing environment. Oxygen in the exhaust stream competes with nitrogen oxides for the active catalyst sites. Also, the dissociated oxygen atoms produced by decomposition of nitrogen oxides deactivate the surface of the catalyst. Externally applied electric fields have been used to control oxygen adsorption on metal and semi-conductor surfaces. In this investigation, a stream containing nitric oxide has been subjected to intense electric fields in the presence of catalyst materials including steel, stainless steel, and gold plated stainless steel wools and glass wool. The electric fields have been generated using DC, AC and rectified AC potentials in the range of 0--20 KV. The effect of parameters such as inlet nitric oxide concentration, oxygen and water content, gas residence time and temperature have also been studied.

  13. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) roots

    KAUST Repository

    Garcias Bonet, Neus

    2016-03-09

    Biological nitrogen fixation by diazotrophic bacteria in seagrass rhizosphere and leaf epiphytic community is an important source of nitrogen required for plant growth. However, the presence of endophytic diazotrophs remains unclear in seagrass tissues. Here, we assess the presence, diversity and taxonomy of nitrogen-fixing bacteria within surface-sterilized roots of Posidonia oceanica. Moreover, we analyze the nitrogen isotopic signature of seagrass tissues in order to notice atmospheric nitrogen fixation. We detected nitrogen-fixing bacteria by nifH gene amplification in 13 out of the 78 roots sampled, corresponding to 9 locations out of 26 meadows. We detected two different types of bacterial nifH sequences associated with P. oceanica roots, which were closely related to sequences previously isolated from the rhizosphere of a salt marsh cord grass and a putative anaerobe. Nitrogen content of seagrass tissues showed low isotopic signatures in all the sampled meadows, pointing out the atmospheric origin of the assimilated nitrogen by seagrasses. However, this was not related with the presence of endophytic nitrogen fixers, suggesting the nitrogen fixation occurring in rhizosphere and in the epiphytic community could be an important source of nitrogen for P. oceanica. The low diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria reported here suggests species-specific relationships between diazotrophs and P. oceanica, revealing possible symbiotic interactions that could play a major role in nitrogen acquisition by seagrasses in oligotrophic environments where they form lush meadows.

  14. Effects of No-Tillage and Rice-Seedling Casting with Rice Straw Returning on Content of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium of Soil Profiles%稻草还田免耕抛秧对土壤剖面氮、磷、钾含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄景; 顾明华; 徐世宏; 杨为芳; 江立庚

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of this study was to understand the effects of no-tillage and rice-seedling casting with rice straw returning on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of paddy soil profile. [Method] Contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of paddy soil profile soil of conventional tillage of rice-seedling casting and no-tillage of rice-seedling casting experiments that lasted two and seven years were investigated. [Result] Contents of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, alkaline-hydrolysable nitrogen and rapidly available phosphorus in 0-4(5) cm soil layer of no-tillage treatments were higher than those of conventional tillage. Contents of total potassium in 0-4(5) cm soil layer of no-tillage with rice straw returning treatment were significantly higher than those of common conventional tillage. Contents of rapidly available potassium in 0-4(5) cm soil layer of no-tillage with rice straw returning treatment were lower than that of conventional tillage with rice straw returning, but significantly higher than that of common conventional tillage. Contents of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, alkaline-hydrolysable nitrogen and rapidly available phosphorus in 5-20 cm soil layer of no-tillage treatments were lower than those of conventional tillage. Content of rapidly available potassium in Aa layer (cultivation layer) of common no-tillage treatment was lower than those of conventional tillage. Contents of alkaline-hydrolysable nitrogen and rapidly available potassium in Ap layer (plow pan), W layer (waterlogged layer) and C layer (parent material layer) were higher than those of conventional tillage. [Conclusion] The effects of no-tillage of rice-seedling casting with of rice straw returning on coordinate soil nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are superior to that of common no-tillage of rice-seedling casting, and no-tillage of rice-seedling casting with rice straw returning is advantageous to the improvement and development of soil

  15. Pengembangan Sistem Aquisisi Data Kadar Nitrogen Tanah Berbasis Sensor Infra Merah Sebagai Pedoman Penentuan Dosis Pemupukan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Roni Angkat; I Wayan Astika; Lenny Saulia

    2011-01-01

    Site specific nitrogen fertilizing needs an accurate map of soil nitrogen content. The use of sensors operated upon the soil is a promising method since the accurate soil sampling methods are costly and time consuming. The objectives of this research are to determine the relation between soil nitrogen level and near infrared spectrum using artificial neural network (ANN) and to develop soil nitrogen content data acquisition system for static dan dynamic measurement. The results showed that t...

  16. Nitrogen responses and nitrogen management in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.

    2009-01-01

    Innumerable experiments have been carried out to establish the yield response of potato to the rate of nitrogen (N) supply. Given the continuing change in production level of potato and because of the need to maximise the nutrient use efficiency and to reduce losses of harmful nitrogenous compounds

  17. Effect of Different Application Rate of Nitrogen Fertilizer Under Straw Return on Maize Yield and Inorganic Nitrogen Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influences of different nitrogen fertilizer rate on maize production, nitrogen use efficiency and soil nitrate nitrogen at straw return farmland for two years. The results showed that maize production increased with the increment of nitrogen fertilizer. The maize production was the highest at 216 kg·hm -2(N216of nitrogen use and began to decrease when the amount of nitrogen use was beyond 216 kg· hm -2. There were significant interannual differences on maize production in the same treatment. The maize production in 2010 increased 0.69%~4.75% compared with that in 2009. Nitrogen use efficiency, nitrogen agronomic efficiency and nitrogen harvest index improved with the year of straw return. The highest nitrate nitrogen accumulation was found in the treatment of 240 kg· hm -2(N240in 0~100 cm soil layer. Soil nitrate content increased with the depth of soil. This may potentially increased the risk of nitrate pollution on shallow groundwater. Compared with N240, the nitrate nitrogen accumulation of N168(168 kg·hm -2 , N192(192 kg·hm -2 and N216(216 kg·hm -2 were equally reduced by respectively 39.87%, 35.84% and 29.38% in 0~100 cm soil layer. Considering the maize production, nitrogen use efficiency and ecological environmental benefits, the optimum amount of nitrogen use should be 200 kg·hm -2.

  18. Leaf life span and nitrogen content in semideciduous forest tree species (Croton priscus and Hymenaea courbaril Duração da vida da folha e conteúdo de nitrogênio em espécies arbóreas (Croton priscus e Hymenaea courbaril de floresta semidecídua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Baptista Haddad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to deciduous species, evergreen plants have lower leaf nutrient contents and higher leaf life span, important mechanisms for nutrient economy, allowing the colonization of low fertility soils. Strategies to conserve nitrogen in two semideciduous tropical forest tree species, with different leaf life spans were analyzed. The hypothesis was the fact that the two species would present different nitrogen conservation mechanisms in relation to chemical (total nitrogen, protein, chlorophyll, and proteolytic activity, functional (leaf life span, N-use efficiency, and N-resorption efficiency, morphological (specific leaf mass leaf characteristics, and total nitrogen in the soil. Hymenaea courbaril L. presented lower nitrogen compounds in leaves, longer leaf life span, higher N-use efficiency, and higher specific leaf mass, while absorbing proportionally less nitrogen from the soil than Croton priscus Croizat. These characteristics can contribute for a better nitrogen economy strategy of H. courbaril. No relationship was found between leaf life span and N resorption efficiency, nor between leaf life span, protease activity and nitrogen mobilization. The electrophoretic profiles of proteolytic enzymes in young leaves of the two species presented more bands with enzymatic activity than other kinds of leaves.Comparadas a espécies decíduas, as sempre-verdes têm menos nutrientes nas folhas, que também são mais longevas. Estes mecanismos são importantes para economia de nutrientes, e permitem a colonização de solos com baixa fertilidade. Foram analisadas estratégias de conservação de nitrogênio em duas espécies de floresta semidecídua, que aparentemente apresentavam longevidades foliares diferentes. Para isto foram comparados mecanismos químicos (concentrações de nitrogênio total, de proteína e clorofila e atividade proteolítica, funcionais (duração de vida das folhas, eficiência do uso de nitrogênio e eficiência de

  19. Estimativa do teor de fenilalanina em sopas desidratadas instantâneas: importância do nitrogênio de origem não-protéica Estimation of phenylalanine (Phe contents in dehydrated soups: significance of non-protein nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Passos Guimarães

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A análise direta de fenilalanina (Phe em alimentos com reduzidos teores protéicos destinados a pacientes fenilcetonúricos é difícil, demorada e de alto custo. Emprega-se, geralmente, método indireto baseado na análise do teor protéico bruto, considerando que proteínas naturais contêm ao redor de 4% de Phe. Neste trabalho estimou-se a concentração de Phe em 22 amostras de sopas desidratadas instantâneas, considerando-se os teores de N total, N protéico e não-protéico e de glutamato monossódico (GMS, que foram analisados independentemente. A concentração de proteína bruta (N total multiplicado por fator de conversão adequado variou entre 6,1 e 21,5 g/100 g amostra, apresentando similaridade com os valores protéicos apresentados nos rótulos das sopas. Os teores protéicos reais foram reduzidos e a concentração de Phe calculada a partir desses dados variou entre 51 e 652 mg/100 g amostra. A concentração de GMS nessas amostras foi considerável, sendo que o N proveniente desse realçador de sabor contribuiu com 2,5 a 47,7% do N total. Concluiu-se que, devido à elevada participação de GMS na formulação das sopas, a estimativa de Phe deve ser precedida de extração prévia de substâncias nitrogenadas não protéicas, para evitar superestimação da proteína e, por conseqüência, dos teores de Phe. As sopas desidratadas com os menores teores de Phe podem representar uma diversificação no cardápio para fenilcetonúricos.The direct analysis of phenylalanine (Phe in food with low protein content is difficult, time consuming and expensive. In general, more convenient indirect methods based on raw protein contents have been used, considering that natural proteins contain about 4% of Phe. In this paper the Phe contents of 22 commercial dehydrated soups were estimated taking into account the contents of total N, protein N and non-protein nitrogen as well as the contents of monosodium glutamate (GMS which were analyzed

  20. Variation in foliar nitrogen and albedo in response to nitrogen fertilization and elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklein, Haley F; Ollinger, Scott V; Martin, Mary E; Hollinger, David Y; Lepine, Lucie C; Day, Michelle C; Bartlett, Megan K; Richardson, Andrew D; Norby, Richard J

    2012-08-01

    Foliar nitrogen has been shown to be positively correlated with midsummer canopy albedo and canopy near infrared (NIR) reflectance over a broad range of plant functional types (e.g., forests, grasslands, and agricultural lands). To date, the mechanism(s) driving the nitrogen–albedo relationship have not been established, and it is unknown whether factors affecting nitrogen availability will also influence albedo. To address these questions, we examined variation in foliar nitrogen in relation to leaf spectral properties, leaf mass per unit area, and leaf water content for three deciduous species subjected to either nitrogen (Harvard Forest, MA, and Oak Ridge, TN) or CO(2) fertilization (Oak Ridge, TN). At Oak Ridge, we also obtained canopy reflectance data from the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) to examine whether canopy-level spectral responses were consistent with leaf-level results. At the leaf level, results showed no differences in reflectance or transmittance between CO(2) or nitrogen treatments, despite significant changes in foliar nitrogen. Contrary to our expectations, there was a significant, but negative, relationship between foliar nitrogen and leaf albedo, a relationship that held for both full spectrum leaf albedo as well as leaf albedo in the NIR region alone. In contrast, remote sensing data indicated an increase in canopy NIR reflectance with nitrogen fertilization. Collectively, these results suggest that altered nitrogen availability can affect canopy albedo, albeit by mechanisms that involve canopy-level processes rather than changes in leaf-level reflectance.

  1. The effect of light and nutrient availability on growth, nitrogen and pigment contents of Saccharina latissima (Phaeophyceae) grown in outdoor tanks, under natural variation of sunlight and temperature, during autumn and early winter in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boderskov, Teis; Schmedes, Peter Søndergaard; Bruhn, Annette;

    2016-01-01

    Late summer harvest of cultivated Saccharina latissima, prior to seasonally determined negative length growth, is considered advantageous in North Atlantic waters to optimize biomass yields. We hypothesized that seasonal increase in tissue protein and pigments over autumn and early winter would...... counterbalance the loss of biomass, and increase the absolute harvestable amount of protein and pigments. The hypothesis was tested in a land-based, factorial-designed, pilot-scale experiment using whole algae individuals exposed to naturally relevant high or low availability of nutrients and light....... The experiment was conducted during fall/early winter in Grenaa, Denmark, in outdoor tanks, exposed to ambient light and temperature variations. With high nutrient availability, the absolute harvestable amounts of nitrogen, fucoxanthin, and chlorophyll a increased by 50.1–60.1, 21.7–53.7, and 47...

  2. Monoxenic production of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae using culture media containing agave juice (aguamiel) from Mexican maguey-pulquero (Agave spp). Effects of the contents of nitrogen, carbohydrates and fat on infective juvenile production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-López, Marco-Antonio; Sanjuan-Galindo, René; Rodríguez-Hernández, Adriana-Inés; Chavarría-Hernández, Norberto

    2005-07-01

    The production of infective juvenile stages (IJ) of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae in the presence of its symbiotic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophilus was carried out in orbitally agitated bottles. Four complex culture media (M1-M4) were used, containing from 8% to 28% (by vol.) agave juice (aguamiel) from Mexican maguey-pulquero (Agave spp) as the main carbohydrate source. After 20 days of fermentation, a maximum viable IJ concentration of 249,000 IJ/ml and an initial nematode population multiplication factor of x620 were achieved when medium M4 was used (aguamiel concentration in this medium was 28% by vol.). M4 medium contained (w/v): 0.3% total nitrogen, 3.2% total carbohydrates and 3.0% total fat. According to the results obtained, total carbohydrates concentration appeared to be of great importance in obtaining high IJ concentrations.

  3. 土壤添加亚砷酸钠对大豆生长和植株氮、磷、钾含量的影响%Effects of arsenic addition in soil on soybean growth and the content of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium in soybean plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兰芳; 彭小兰; 裴艳艳; 陈瑞雪

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic(As) is toxic to plants and animals.A soil pot experiment with the arsenic addition levels of 0,5.0,10.0,30.0,50.0,100.0 mg · kg^-1 was conducted to investigate the effects of soil arsenic addition on soybean growth and the content of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium.The results showed that when soil arsenic addition was at a level of 50 mg · kg^-1,soybean demonstrated a series of toxic symptoms with crimple and dark green leaves,withered leaf edge,dwarfing plant and delayed maturation.The plant heights of soybean decreased with increase of soil arsenic supplement and there was significant negative,exponential correlation between the soil arsenic additions and plant heights of soybean.Soil arsenic addition of 100 mg · kg^-1 caused 41.5% decrease in plant height,43.4% in total biomass and 56.1% in the yield of soybean grain.The ratio of root biomass to that of aerial parts and of biomass of leaf and stem to that of aerial parts increased,while the ratio of grain biomass to that of leaf and stem,aerial parts and total biomass was decreased.These results suggested that high soil arsenic addition suppressed the growth of aerial parts and grain.Soil arsenic pollution had significant effects on the content of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium in soybean.When soil arsenic addition was 100 mg · kg^-1,compared to control(no arsenic addition),soybean nitrogen and phosphorus content in grains,roots and leaves and stems,potassium content in leaves and stems and in roots increased significantly,but the potassium content in grains decreased significantly,while the ratio of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium content in soybean grains to that in leaves and stems and to that in roots decreased significantly.This implied that arsenic stress suppressed the translocation of the nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium in leaves and stems to grains.In summary,over 50.0 mg · kg^-1 soil arsenic addition could be toxic to soybean growth,but soybean could adapt to the arsenic

  4. Marine nitrogen cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    ://www.eoearth.org/article/Marine_nitrogen_cycle equatorial Pacific and the Southern Ocean where low concentration of a micronutrient (iron) appears to limit photosynthesis. In areas characterized by low dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentration in surface waters, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON...

  5. 基于光谱指数波段优化算法的小麦玉米冠层含氮量估测%Study on the Estimation of Nitrogen Content in Wheat and Maize Canopy Based on Band Optimization of Spectral Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 李斐; 胡云才; Mistele Bodo; U rs Schmidhalter

    2016-01-01

    作物关键生育时期冠层氮素含量的实时监测对于优化氮肥用量和减少环境风险具有重要的意义。为了寻求预测不同作物氮素含量的最佳光谱参数,实现作物氮素无损营养诊断。本研究通过2008年—2011年在德国慕尼黑弗莱辛和河北曲周的不同氮量的小麦玉米田间试验,采用高光谱仪获取小麦玉米冠层的反射光谱,利用光谱理论模型进行光谱指数波段的优化,从而抽取不同冠层结构条件下的小麦玉米氮素营养敏感波段。结果表明与传统的基于红光的光谱指数相比,优化光谱指数显著提高了小麦玉米冠层氮素含量的预测能力,克服了传统的基于红光光谱指数的饱和问题。优化光谱指数的波段结合随着作物品种及其冠层结构的变化而变化,其优化波段范围主要集中在红边(730~760 nm )和红边向近红外的过渡区域(760~880 nm )。优化结果显示玉米最佳光谱指数为 Rλ766/Rλ738-1,小麦最佳光谱指数为 Rλ796/Rλ760-1,玉米小麦相结合优化后的最佳光谱指数为 Rλ876/Rλ730-1。结果进一步验证了优化光谱指数估测的不同作物含氮量的预测值与实测值相关性最高,且验证偏差最小,证实了优化后的光谱特征参数可对不同作物氮素丰缺状况进行快速、准确、无损估测。试验结果也为设计作物冠层氮素传感器和更好的利用现有基于卫星的传感器实施区域上的作物氮素营养监测提供了理论基础。%Nitrogen fertilizer plays a crucial role in keeping food production in pace with population grow th .However ,the excee‐ding application of nitrogen fertilizer causes environmental risks .Timely and accurate quantification of canopy nitrogen content in crops is important for the rational application of nitrogen fertilizer and reduction environmental risks .The current research aimed to remotely estimate canopy nitrogen

  6. Effects of Nitrogen Application Levels on Ammonia Volatilization and Nitrogen Utilization during Rice Growing Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhong-cheng; XU Ke; WEI Hai-yan; DAi Qi-gen; YE Shi-chao; WU Fu-guan; JIA Yu-shu; CHEN Jing-dou; XU Lu-sheng; ZHANG Hong-cheng; HUO Zhong-yang

    2012-01-01

    We conducted field trials of rice grown in sandy soil and clay soil to determine the effects of nitrogen application levels on the concentration of NH4+-N in surface water,loss of ammonia through volatilization from paddy fields,rice production,nitrogen-use efficiency,and nitrogen content in the soil profile.The concentration of NH4+-N in surface water and the amount of ammonia lost through volatilization increased with increasing nitrogen application level,and peaked at 1-3 d after nitrogen application.Less ammonia was lost via volatilization from clay soil than from sandy soil.The amounts of ammonia lost via volatilization after nitrogen application differed depending on the stage when it was applied,from the highest loss to the lowest:N application to promote tillering > the first N topdrossing to promote panicle initiation (applied at the last 4-leaf stage) > basal fertilizer > the second N topdressing to promote panicle initiation (applied at the last 2-leaf stage).The total loss of ammonia via volatilization from clay soil was 10.49-87.06 kg/hm2,equivalent to 10.92%-21.76% of the nitrogen applied.The total loss of ammonia via volatilization from sandy soil was 11.32-102.43 kg/hm2,equivalent to 11.32%-25.61% of the nitrogen applied.The amount of ammonia lost via volatilization and the concentration of NH4+-N in surface water peaked simultaneously after nitrogen application; both showed maxima at the tillering stage with the ratio between them ranging from 23.76% to 33.65%.With the increase in nitrogen application level,rice production and nitrogen accumulation in plants increased,but nitrogen-use efficiency decreased.Rice production and nitrogen accumulation in plants were slightly higher in clay soil than in sandy soil.In the soil,the nitrogen content was the lowest at a depth of 40-50 cm.In any sbecific soil layer,the soil nitrogen content increased with increasing nitrogen application level,and the soil nitrogen content was higher in clay

  7. The impact of nitrogen deposition on acid grasslands in the Atlantic region of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Carly J; Duprè, Cecilia; Dorland, Edu; Gaudnik, Cassandre; Gowing, David J G; Bleeker, Albert; Diekmann, Martin; Alard, Didier; Bobbink, Roland; Fowler, David; Corcket, Emmanuel; Mountford, J Owen; Vandvik, Vigdis; Aarrestad, Per Arild; Muller, Serge; Dise, Nancy B

    2011-10-01

    A survey of 153 acid grasslands from the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe indicates that chronic nitrogen deposition is changing plant species composition and soil and plant-tissue chemistry. Across the deposition gradient (2-44 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) grass richness as a proportion of total species richness increased whereas forb richness decreased. Soil C:N ratio increased, but soil extractable nitrate and ammonium concentrations did not show any relationship with nitrogen deposition. The above-ground tissue nitrogen contents of three plant species were examined: Agrostis capillaris (grass), Galium saxatile (forb) and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus (bryophyte). The tissue nitrogen content of neither vascular plant species showed any relationship with nitrogen deposition, but there was a weak positive relationship between R. squarrosus nitrogen content and nitrogen deposition. None of the species showed strong relationships between above-ground tissue N:P or C:N and nitrogen deposition, indicating that they are not good indicators of deposition rate.

  8. Grain-size related nitrogen distribution in southern Yellow Sea surface sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Forty-eight surface sediments of the southern Yellow Sea are separated into three grain-size fractions. Four forms of extractable nitrogen (nitrogen in ion-exchangeable form (Nie), nitrogen in weak-acid extractable form (Nwa), nitrogen in strong-alkali extractable form (Nsa) and nitrogen in strong-oxidant form (Nso)) are obtained by the sequential extraction. The results show that the contents and the distributions of the extractable nitrogen in the southern Yellow Sea surface sediments are closely related to sediment grain size. The distributions of Nie, Nso and total nitrogen (TN) present positive correlations with fine particles content, while Nwa and Nsa does not have such correlation. The net contents of all the forms of nitrogen increase with sediment grain size finer.

  9. Socioeconomic driving factors of nitrogen load from food consumption and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Fei, Jinling; Hayashi, Yoshitsugu; Yasunari, Tetsuzo

    2014-09-01

    To diagnose environmental nitrogen (N) load from food consumption and to suggest preventive measures, this study identified relationships between nitrogen load from food consumption and driving factors by examining six representative countries and regions for the period 1970-2009 as an example. The logarithmic mean Divisia index technique was used to disassemble nitrogen load growth into four driving factors: population, economic activity, food intensity of the economy, and nitrogen content of food. In all study areas, increased economic activity was the main factor driving nitrogen load increase. The positive effect of population growth was relatively small but not negligible and changes in food intensity had a decreasing effect on nitrogen load. Changes in nitrogen content of food varied between areas. Broad strategies to reduce and mitigate nitrogen loading and decouple nitrogen load from economic growth in both developed and developing countries are suggested.

  10. Characterization of nitrogen species incorporated into graphite using low energy nitrogen ion sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Hisao; Kondo, Takahiro; Sakurai, Masataka; Guo, Donghui; Nakamura, Junji; Niwa, Hideharu; Miyawaki, Jun; Kawai, Maki; Oshima, Masaharu; Harada, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    The electronic structures of nitrogen species incorporated into highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), prepared by low energy (200 eV) nitrogen ion sputtering and subsequent annealing at 1000 K, were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), angle-dependent X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and Raman spectroscopy. An additional peak was observed at higher binding energy of 401.9 eV than 400.9 eV for graphitic1 N (graphitic N in the basal plane) in N 1s XPS, where graphitic2 N (graphitic N in the zigzag edge and/or vacancy sites) has been theoretically expected to appear. N 1s XPS showed that graphitic1 N and graphitic2 N were preferably incorporated under low nitrogen content doping conditions (8 × 10(13) ions cm(-2)), while pyridinic N and graphitic1 N were dominantly observed under high nitrogen content doping conditions. In addition, angle-dependent N 1s XAS showed that the graphitic N and pyridinic N atoms were incorporated into the basal plane of HOPG and thus were highly oriented. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy revealed that low energy sputtering resulted in almost no fraction of the disturbed graphite surface layers under the lowest nitrogen doping condition. The suitable nitrogen doping condition was discovered for realizing the well-controlled nitrogen doped HOPG. The electrochemical properties for the oxygen reduction reaction of these samples in acidic solution were examined and discussed.

  11. Effects of Nitrogen Forms on Carbon and Nitrogen Accumulation in Tomato Seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Ti-da; SONG Shi-wei; CHI Ming-han; HUANG Dan-feng; K Iwasaki

    2008-01-01

    Utilization of organic nitrogen (N) is an important aspect of plant N assimilation and has potential application in sustainable agriculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the plant growth, C and N accumulation in leaves and roots of tomato seedlings in response to inorganic (NH4+-N, NO3--N) and organic nitrogen (Gly-N). Different forms of nitrogen (NH4+-N, NO3--N, Gly-N) were supplied to two tomato cultivars (Shenfen 918 and Huying 932) using a hydroponics system. The plant dry biomass, chlorophyll content, root activity, total carbon and nitrogen content in roots and leaves, and total N absorption, etc. were assayed during the cultivation. Our results showed that no significant differences in plant height, dry biomass, and total N content were found within the first 16 d among three treatments; however, significant differences in treatments on 24 d and 32 d were observed, and the order was NO3--N > GIy-N > NH4+-N. Significant differences were also observed between the two tomato cultivars. Chlorophyll contents in the two cultivars were significantly increased by the GIy-N treatment, and root activity showed a significant decrease in NH4+-N treatment. Tomato leaf total carbon content was slightly affected by different N forms; however, total carbon in root and total nitrogen in root and leaf were promoted significantly by inorganic and organic N. Among the applied N forms, the increasing effects of the NH4+-N treatment were larger than that of the Gly-N. In a word, different N resources resulted in different physiological effects in tomatoes. Organic nitrogen (e.g., Gly-N) can be a proper resource of plant N nutrition. Tomatoes of different genotypes had different responses under organic nitrogen (e.g., Gly-N) supplies.

  12. 国内外药典右旋糖酐40原料药含氮量测定方法的比较%Comparison of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia method and abroad pharmacopoeia methods in determining total nitrogen content of dextran 40

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雨轩; 王发; 王嫦鹤; 刘海静

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the methods for determining the total nitrogen content of dextran 40 raw materials in Chinese Pharmacopoeia and abroad pharmacopoeia. Method The nitrogen content in 11 batch dextran 40 raw materials were analyzed by u-sing the methods of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 version) ,the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP-32) , the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP XV I.British Pharmacopoeia ( BP 2010) and European Pharmacopoeia ( EP 6. 0 ), respectively. Results The results showed that the Nessler's colorimetric method of Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the Kjeldahl method of foreign pharmacopoeia were consistent. Conclusion The Nessler's colorimetric method is easy and simple as a limit test,and has some practical value. The Kjeldahl method is more complicated,but the quantitative results are accurate.%目的 比较国内外药典中右旋糖酐40原料药含氮量测定的方法.方法 分别采用(2010年版)、(USP-32)、(JPⅩⅤ)、(BP 2010)和(EP 6.0)中右旋糖酐40原料药项下含氮物质的测定方法,对11批右旋糖酐40原料的含氮量进行分析.结果 实验结果表明,所采用的纳氏比色法与国外药典所采用的的凯氏定氮法测定结果基本一致.结论 纳氏比色法操作方法简单,作为限度检查时具有一定的实用价值;凯氏定氮法操作虽比较复杂,但定量测定结果更准确.

  13. Discrimination between extraneous nitrogen input and interior nitrogen release in lakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO; Huayun; LIU; Congqiang

    2004-01-01

    In this study the authors determined the nitrogen isotopes of nitrate and the carbon and nitrogen contents of water samples from the Hongfeng Lake and inflowing streams, and, on this basis, discriminated the extraneous nitrogen input and the interior nitrogen release (organic matter decomposition) in the lake. The results showed that the amount of extraneous nitrogen input into the Hongfeng Lake increases and the interior nitrogen release from the lake is intensified in winter and spring. Nitrogen mixing is relatively obvious at the catchments between the lake inlet and inflowing streams, while organic matter decomposition (nitrification) is most intense in the middle and lower reaches of the lake. In winter and spring the organic matter decomposition takes place mainly at the middle level of the water column in the middle and lower reaches of the lake, which has a bearing on the abundance of degraded organic matter at this water level. This part of degraded organic matter contains a considerable proportion of hydrogenous nitrogen in the lake.

  14. Effects of Mg on C and N Metabolism of Soybean at Different Nitrogen Supplying Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Man; LIU Yuanying; PENG Xianlong; ZHANG Wenzhao

    2006-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of magnesium on carbon and nitrogen metabolism of soybean at different nitrogen supplying levels. The results showed that the effects of magnesium at low nitrogen rate on N content, soluble protein, soluble sugar contents were not alike at different growth stage, although nodule dry weights raised, the yield and protein content of seeds decreased, however, the oil content was improved.The application of magnesium at medium and high nitrogen supplying levels promoted the uptake of N effectively,increased the soluble protein and soluble sugar contents, but the nodule dry weights of application magnesium at medium nitrogen supplying level decreased and the yield increased only a little despite the improved quality.Application of magnesium at high nitrogen supplying level raised nodule dry weights and soybean yield significantly, the quality of seeds was also improved.

  15. 转Bt水稻对土壤可溶性有机碳氮及微生物学性质的影响%Effects of transgenic Bt rice on soil dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen contents and microbiological properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李修强; 陈法军; 刘满强; 胡锋

    2012-01-01

    A two-year field experiment (2009 and 2010) was conducted to evaluate the effects of three transgenic Bt rice lines ( KMD, HH1, and BtSY63 ) and their non-fit lines ( XSD, MH63 , and SY63 ) on soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC ) and nitrogen ( DON) and microbiological properties. All the measured indices changed significantly with sampling time. Comparing with their corresponding non-Bt lines, the test transgenic Bt lines had little effects on the soil DOC, DON, and microbial biomass nitrogen ( MBN). The transgenic Bt lines had significant effects on the soil microbial biomass carbon ( MBC ) , basal respiration ( BR) , and microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) in certain periods of time in the first year, but no effects in the second year. Among the soils planted with the three non-Bt rice lines, no difference was observed in the DOC, DON, and microbiological properties, whereas in the soil planted with BtSY63, the MBC and BR were significantly higher, but the qCO2was significantly lower, as compared with those in the soils planted with KMD and HH1. In sum, two years' planting transgenic Bt rice had little effects on the soil DOC, DON, and microbiological properties, but the differences of soil microbiological properties induced by the planting of different transgenic Bt rice lines were larger than those induced by the planting of different non-Bt lines, implying that long term monitoring would help to reveal the effects of transgenic Bt rice on the structure and function of soil ecosystem.%研究了3种转Bt水稻[克螟稻(KMD)、华恢1号(HH1)和Bt汕优63(BtSY63)]及对应亲本在2年大田条件下对土壤可溶性有机碳(DOC)和可溶性有机氮(DON)及微生物学性质的影响.结果表明:测定指标均随采样时间发生显著变化.与对应亲本相比,转Bt水稻对土壤DOC、DON和微生物生物量氮(MBN)的影响不显著,而对土壤微生物生物量碳(MBC)、基础呼吸(BR)和微生物代谢熵(qCO2)的影响在大田种植第1

  16. Influência do Fósforo, Micorriza e Nitrogênio no Conteúdo de Minerais de Brachiaria brizantha e Arachis pintoi Consorciados Effect of Phosphorus, Mycorrhizal and Nitrogen on Mineral Content of Brachiaria brizantha - Arachis pintoi Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ívina Paula Almeida dos Santos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do fósforo (P, fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA's e nitrogênio (N no acúmulo de minerais na MS da parte aérea de braquiária MG-4 (Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 e amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo consorciados, em solo de baixa fertilidade. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, num esquema fatorial 5x2x2, sendo cinco doses de P (25, 50, 75, 100 e 200 mg de P/kg de solo, dois tratamentos de inoculação do solo (inoculado e não com o FMA Glomus etunicatum e dois tratamentos de N (com e sem N em cobertura, com quatro repetições. Foi realizado o corte da parte aérea das plantas aos 60 dias após a germinação para a determinação das quantidades acumuladas de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S na MS da parte aérea. As adubações fosfatada e, principalmente, a nitrogenada provocaram aumento no conteúdo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S na braquiária MG-4, não se verificando tal aumento com a micorrização. No amendoim forrageiro, observou-se redução destes minerais com a aplicação de N, ao passo que a micorrização resultou em aumento dos mesmos. Por outro lado, a adubação fosfatada provocou pequeno aumento no acúmulo de minerais na MS da parte aérea do amendoim forrageiro.This experiment was carried out in a greenhouse condition to study the effect of phosphorus, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen on mineral accumulation in braquiaria MG-4 (Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 above ground forage DM and peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo mixture, in soil of low fertility. The experimental design was a completely randomized in a 5x2x2 factorial arrangement, with five P rates (25, 50, 75, 100 and 200 mg/kg of soil, two inoculations (inoculated and no inoculated and two levels of N (with and without N, with four replicates. The harvest of the above ground parts of plants was at 60 days after seed germination to determine

  17. Impacts of limestone and nitrogen top dressing application on the potassium content in the soil profile and marandu-grass leaf concentration Impactos da aplicação de calcário e nitrogênio em cobertura no teor de potássio no perfil do solo e na concentração foliar do capim-marandu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Balieiro Neto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of nitrogen doses (0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 kg ha-1 year-1, with or without dolomitic lime covering application, on the potassium (K soil content at depths varying form 0 to 5, 5 to 10, and 10 to 20 cm, and the potassium concentration in the plant. The experiment was carried out in a rhodic ferralsol with a slightly rolling relief, in a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement, in a complete randomized block design, with four replications. Nitrogenated fertilization caused a linear increase in the potassium concentration in the plant and also in the mineral content in the 0-5 cm soil layer. An effect of competitive inhibition occurred between the potassium and calcium absorption, and potassium and magnesium absorption. Although a significant fraction of potassium returned to the soil surface layer through the forage residue due to the increase in dry matter production caused by nitrogenated fertilization, the increase in the potassium concentration in the plant due to the doses of nitrogen demonstrated the importance of considering the potassium supply to the plant, when the forage mass is intensified through nitrogenated fertilization.Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200, 300 e 400 kg/ha.ano, com ou sem aplicação de calcário dolomítico em cobertura, sobre o teor de potássio (K do solo nas profundidades de 0 a 5; 5 a 10; e 10 a 20 cm e a concentração de potássio na planta. O experimento foi realizado em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico de relevo suavemente ondulado, disposto em esquema fatorial 5 × 2, em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. A adubação nitrogenada promoveu aumento linear na concentração de potássio na planta e no teor desse mineral na camada de 0 a 5 cm do solo. Ocorreu efeito de inibição competitiva entre a absorção de potássio e cálcio e entre potássio e magnésio. Embora uma fração significativa de potássio retorne

  18. Grain yield and kernel crude protein content increases of maize hybrids with late nitrogen side-dressing Rendimento e teor de proteína bruta nos grãos de híbridos de milho com adubação nitrogenada de cobertura tardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Regis Ferreira da Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Physiological changes incorporated into current maize hybrids suggest the occurrence of modifications in the nitrogen uptake dynamics, improving plant ability to uptake N during grain filling. This may justify late N side-dressing whenever environmental constraints prevent adequate nitrogen supply during crops vegetative development. This study evaluates effects of nitrogen fertilization at booting and silking on grain yield and kernel crude protein contents of commercial maize hybrids. Two experiments were set up in Eldorado do Sul, RS, during the 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 growing seasons. In 2001/2002, treatments were composed of two hybrids (Agroceres 303 and Pioneer 32R21, three nitrogen rates applied during maize vegetative development (30, 80 and 130 kg ha-1 and three nitrogen rates applied at silking (0, 50 and 100 kg ha-1. In 2002/2003, four hybrids (Agroceres 303, Pioneer 32R21, Dekalb 215 and Syngenta Penta and four nitrogen rates side-dressed at booting (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg.ha-1 were assessed. There were significant increments in grain yield and kernel crude protein content with nitrogen fertilization at booting and silking. Grain yield response to late N side-dressing differed among cultivars. The impact of nitrogen fertilization at silking was higher at the smallest rate of N during the plant vegetative development. Enhancements in grain yield with late N side-dressing resulted from increases in grain weight. Modern hybrids can uptake nitrogen during silking, contradicting the hypothesis that late N side-dressing is not efficient to improve maize grain yield.Alterações morfo-fisiológicas introduzidas nos híbridos modernos de milho sugerem mudanças na dinâmica de absorção do nitrogênio, aumentando a habilidade da planta de absorvê-lo durante o enchimento de grãos. Isto pode justificar a utilização de coberturas nitrogenadas tardias sempre que restrições climáticas impedirem o suprimento adequado de nitrogênio durante

  19. Disponibilidade hídrica relacionada ao conteúdo de nitrogênio e à produtividade da alfafa (Medicago sativa L. Water availability on yield and nitrogen contents of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladecir Salles de Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    resultado do aumento da transpiração.Variation in the abundance of 13C and biological nitrogen fixation in legume plants such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. can be used in cultivar selection programs allowing a better understanding of the physiological processes related to water use, photosynthesis and biological nitrogen fixation and their interdependence. This would supply data for selection programs for the improvement of dry matter yield (DM, water use efficiency (WUE and biomass quality. Thus evaluation of the plant under contrasting conditions becomes necessary, therefore in this study, the plants were evaluated under rainfall and irrigated conditions in lysimeters. In this study, 12 and 6 alfalfa cultivars was evaluated respectively in two experiments installed in lysimeters by split-plot statistical design under constant irrigation and regime of rains. The results showed the existence of a complex interdependence between the agronomic characteristics of the alfalfa cultivars. Under controlled conditions the alfalfa responded positively to irrigation, in relation to both quantitative and qualitative characteristics. The cultivars Crioula Chilena and Crioula Brasileira showed the best results. In the first evaluation (after 6 months correlations between carbon isotopic discrimination (CID, biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, dry matter yield (DM and water use efficiency (WUE were not significant. In the second evaluation (after 1 year, under irrigated conditions CID was negatively correlated with DM (-0.92**, WUE (-0.94** and BNF (-0.79*. BNF was positively correlated with DM (0.93** and WUE (0.87*. Under non-irrigated conditions correlation between these parameters was not significant. There exists a tendency for a positive correlation between DM and CID in studies with C3 plants that can be altered when water is limiting, root development is limited or when contrasting cultivars are used. If a positive correlation is maintained, the possibility of increasing the

  20. 水分对微水溶性胶结包膜肥料氮素释放的影响及其生物学效果研究%Effect of water content on nitrogen release and biological effect of slightly-water-soluble felted and coated fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖强; 王甲辰; 左强; 张琳; 刘宝存; 赵同科; 邹国元

    2009-01-01

    采用水基成膜法研制出低成本、易降解的微水溶性胶结包膜缓释肥料.应用性能测试、不同田间持水量下土壤培养及小白菜盆栽试验研究了其养分释放规律与生物学效应,试验表明:微水溶性包膜材料致密、整体厚薄较均一,其吸水性、透水性能优良,且具一定的生物降解性能.在田间持水量50%、60%、70%条件下,微水溶性胶结包膜缓释肥料土壤铵态氮含量变化与水分呈正相关关系,24 d后硝态氮含量呈高于尿素处理趋势.在田间持水量50%、60%、70%三种水分条件下,微水溶性胶结包膜肥料处理油菜产量均高于尿素处理,在70%田间持水量下达到了显著差异(P<0.05);微水溶性胶结包膜肥料处理增加了Vc含量,但没有显著增加油菜含氮量、硝酸盐含量和叶绿素含量.%Slightly-water-soluble felted and coated fertilizer with low cost and easy degradation was developed using a way of water as solvent and coated material. Applying experiments of performance test, indoor soil training test under different field capacity and spring rape pot, a study was made on nutrient release and biological effect of water-soluble felted and coated fertilizer. The results showed that this kind of water-soluble coated material was characterized as its compact contexture, uniform thickness, fine performance of water absorption and permeability and certain degree of biodegradability. Under 50 % , 60 % and 70 % field capacity, ammonium nitrogen content in soil with water soluble felted and coated fertilizer was in positive correlation to water content, and nitrate nitrogen content after 24 d was more than that with urea treatment. The output of spring rape with water-soluble felted and coated fertilizer treatment was higher than that with urea treatment under the condition of 50% , 60% and 70% field capacity, and the difference was significant under 70% field capacity ( P < 0.05) . Compared to urea treatment, water

  1. Toward a mechanistic modeling of nitrogen limitation on vegetation dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chonggang [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fisher, Rosie [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Wilson, Cathy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cai, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); McDowell, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is a dominant regulator of vegetation dynamics, net primary production, and terrestrial carbon cycles; however, most ecosystem models use a rather simplistic relationship between leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity. Such an approach does not consider how patterns of nitrogen allocation may change with differences in light intensity, growing-season temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration. To account for this known variability in nitrogen-photosynthesis relationships, we develop a mechanistic nitrogen allocation model based on a trade-off of nitrogen allocated between growth and storage, and an optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The developed model is able to predict the acclimation of photosynthetic capacity to changes in CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and radiation when evaluated against published data of V{sub c,max} (maximum carboxylation rate) and J{sub max} (maximum electron transport rate). A sensitivity analysis of the model for herbaceous plants, deciduous and evergreen trees implies that elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations lead to lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation but higher allocation to storage. Higher growing-season temperatures cause lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation, due to higher nitrogen requirements for light capture pigments and for storage. Lower levels of radiation have a much stronger effect on allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation for herbaceous plants than for trees, resulting from higher nitrogen requirements for light capture for herbaceous plants. As far as we know, this is the first model of complete nitrogen allocation that simultaneously considers nitrogen allocation to light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, respiration and storage, and the responses of each to altered environmental conditions. We expect this model could potentially improve our confidence in simulations of carbon-nitrogen interactions

  2. Toward a mechanistic modeling of nitrogen limitation on vegetation dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonggang Xu

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is a dominant regulator of vegetation dynamics, net primary production, and terrestrial carbon cycles; however, most ecosystem models use a rather simplistic relationship between leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity. Such an approach does not consider how patterns of nitrogen allocation may change with differences in light intensity, growing-season temperature and CO(2 concentration. To account for this known variability in nitrogen-photosynthesis relationships, we develop a mechanistic nitrogen allocation model based on a trade-off of nitrogen allocated between growth and storage, and an optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The developed model is able to predict the acclimation of photosynthetic capacity to changes in CO(2 concentration, temperature, and radiation when evaluated against published data of V(c,max (maximum carboxylation rate and J(max (maximum electron transport rate. A sensitivity analysis of the model for herbaceous plants, deciduous and evergreen trees implies that elevated CO(2 concentrations lead to lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation but higher allocation to storage. Higher growing-season temperatures cause lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation, due to higher nitrogen requirements for light capture pigments and for storage. Lower levels of radiation have a much stronger effect on allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation for herbaceous plants than for trees, resulting from higher nitrogen requirements for light capture for herbaceous plants. As far as we know, this is the first model of complete nitrogen allocation that simultaneously considers nitrogen allocation to light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, respiration and storage, and the responses of each to altered environmental conditions. We expect this model could potentially improve our confidence in simulations of carbon-nitrogen interactions and the

  3. Recent Nitrogen Deposition In Poland Monitored With The Moss Pleurozium Schreberi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapusta Paweł

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, atmospheric deposition of nitrogen was determined for Poland by moss biomonitoring. Nitrogen content was measured in the moss Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid. Mitt. sampled in 2010 from 320 sites evenly distributed throughout the country. Mosses (green parts contained an average 1.56% nitrogen. The result places Poland among the European countries most polluted by airborne nitrogen. The highest nitrogen concentrations were found in mosses from the central and southern parts of the country, and the lowest in samples from some eastern and northern regions. Multiple regression showed that this variability was due mostly to nitrogen emissions from agricultural and industrial areas (moss nitrogen was positively associated with the consumption of mineral nitrogen fertilizers and the magnitude of particulate pollution. Some details of the spatial variability of the nitrogen data indicate that local and regional point sources of pollution (e.g., chemical plants played an important role in shaping the nitrogen deposition pattern

  4. Albert Behnke: nitrogen narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Casey A; Grover, David H

    2014-02-01

    As early as 1826, divers diving to great depths noted that descent often resulted in a phenomenon of intoxication and euphoria. In 1935, Albert Behnke discovered nitrogen as the cause of this clinical syndrome, a condition now known as nitrogen narcosis. Nitrogen narcosis consists of the development of euphoria, a false sense of security, and impaired judgment upon underwater descent using compressed air below 3-4 atmospheres (99 to 132 feet). At greater depths, symptoms can progress to loss of consciousness. The syndrome remains relatively unchanged in modern diving when compressed air is used. Behnke's use of non-nitrogen-containing gas mixtures subsequent to his discovery during the 1939 rescue of the wrecked submarine USS Squalus pioneered the use of non-nitrogen-containing gas mixtures, which are used by modern divers when working at great depth to avoid the effects of nitrogen narcosis.

  5. Distribution of Leaf Color and Nitrogen Nutrition Diagnosis in Rice Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-hua; CAO Wei-xing; WANG Qiang-sheng; DING Yan-feng; HUANG Pi-sheng; LING Qi-hong

    2002-01-01

    Greenness and nitrogen content of each leaf on main stem of different japonica and indica ricevarieties under different nitrogen levels were investigated. Results showed that the fourth leaf from the top ex-hibited active changes with the change of plant nitrogen status. When the plant nitrogen content was low, itscolor and nitrogen content were obviously lower than those of the three top leaves. With the increase of plantnitrogen content, the color and nitrogen content of the fourth leaf increased quickly, and the differences ofcolor and nitrogen content between the fourth leaf and the three top leaves decreased. So, the fourth leaf wasan ideal indication of plant nutrition status. In addition, color difference between the fourth and the third leaffrom the top was highly related to the plant nitrogen content regardless of the variety and development stage.Therefore, color difference between the fourth and the third leaf could be widely used for diagnosis of plantnutrition. Results also indicated that the minimized color difference between the fourth and the third leaf at the criticaleffective tillering, the emergence of the second leaf from the top, and the heading was the symbol of high yield. Plantnitrogen content of 27 g kg-1 DW for japonica rice and 25 g kg-1 DW for indica were the critical nitrogen concentrations.

  6. Diagnóstico do estado nutricional de N em porta-enxertos de citros, utilizando-se de teores foliares de clorofila Diagnostic of nitrogen nutritional level in citrus rootstocks using foliar chlorophyll content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTÔNIO DECARLOS NETO

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar os teores foliares de clorofila total (a+b em porta-enxertos de citros cultivados em tubetes, como índices no diagnóstico do estado nutricional de N, de acordo com adição das doses de N (0; 400; 800; 1.600; 3.200 e 4.800 mg/dm³ de N no substrato. Os teores foliares de clorofila total apresentaram alta correlação positiva com a altura, diâmetro do caule, massa da matéria seca da parte aérea e raízes, área foliar e teor de N-NO3 da parte aérea dos porta-enxertos, indicando a possibilidade de serem utilizados como índices para o diagnóstico de N em porta-enxertos cultivados em tubetes. Aos 120 dias após a semeadura, os teores foliares máximos de clorofila total dos porta-enxertos 'Tangelo-Orlando', 'Cravo', 'Volkameriano', 'Cleópatra' e 'Sunki' ocorreram quando foram aplicadas as doses 1.461; 2.386; 2.494 1.444; e 2.284 mg/dm³ de N no substrato, respectivamente. Os teores foliares adequados de clorofila total do porta-enxerto 'Tangelo-Orlando' devem estar compreendidos na faixa de 1,80 a 3,00 mg de clorofila total/dm² de folha, aos 120 dias após a semeadura. Para o limoeiro-'Cravo' esta faixa deve ser de 2,46 a 3,94 mg de clorofila total/dm² de folha, sendo que, para o limoeiro-'Volkameriano', esta faixa deve ser de 2,27 a 4,23 mg de clorofila total/dm² de folha. Para a tangerineira 'Cleópatra', a faixa adequada dos teores foliares de clorofila total deve ser de 3,29 a 4,00 mg de clorofila total/dm² de folha, sendo que, para a tangerineira-'Sunki', esta faixa deve ser de 1,80 a 3,16 mg de clorofila total/dm² de folha.The objective of this work was to evaluate chlorophyll content (a+b on 'Cravo', 'Cleópatra', 'Sunki', 'Volkameriano' and 'Tângelo Orlando' rootstocks in tubes using as indicator on diagnosis by increasing N doses (0; 400; 800; 1,600; 3,200; 4,800 mg N/dm³ of substrate. The chlorophylls content presented righ positive correlation to height, diameter, aerial portion and

  7. Effects of Vegetation Modified Mode on the Soil Nitrogen and Phosphorus Content Characteristics at Ecotone between Dry Valley and Motone Forest%干旱河谷-山地森林交错带植被调控模式对土壤氮、磷强度及库的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彬; 罗承德; 杨万勤; 张健; 白景文; 袁喆; 刘牧; 鞠佳伶

    2011-01-01

    to the deposition of nitrogen and phosphorus. The mode(Robinia pseudoacacia + Populus bolleana + Poa pratensis ) can significant increased the accumulation of nitrogen than other modes. The content of total nitrogen (7.33±0.38 g/kg) in the mode (Robinia pseudoacacia+ Salix cupularis + Poa pratensis) showed higher than other modes. But, the mode (Robinia pseudoacacia+ Cupressus chengiana + Poa pratensis) did not observed positive efficiency to soil nitrogen and phosphorus. Therefore, Populus bolleana can be the best modified arbor, Robinia pseudoacacia is still the high shrub and Salix cupularis is the following shrub species. Medicago sativa is the best undergrown plant. The modified mode that conbine these modified species(i. e. , Populus bolleana, Salix cupularis, Robinia pseudoacacia, Medicago sativa) might be obtain good ecological benefit in the soil environment of EDM.

  8. High-nitrogen explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, D. (Darren); Hiskey, M. A. (Michael A.); Kramer, J. F. (John F.); Bishop, R. L. (Robert L.); Harry, H. H. (Herbert H.); Son, S. F. (Steven F.); Sullivan, G. K. (Gregg K.)

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAz

  9. NITROGEN REMOVAL FROM NATURAL GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.A. Lokhandwala; M.B. Ringer; T.T. Su; Z. He; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans; A. Morisato; K. Amo; A. DaCosta; R.W. Baker; R. Olsen; H. Hassani; T. Rathkamp

    1999-12-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process for the denitrogenation of natural gas. Large proven reserves in the Lower-48 states cannot be produced because of the presence of nitrogen. To exploit these reserves, cost-effective, simple technology able to reduce the nitrogen content of the gas to 4-5% is required. Technology applicable to treatment of small gas streams (below 10 MMscfd) is particularly needed. In this project membranes that selectively permeate methane and reject nitrogen in the gas were developed. Preliminary calculations show that a membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 3 to 5 is required to make the process economically viable. A number of polymer materials likely to have the required selectivities were evaluated as composite membranes. Polyacetylenes such as poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) [PTMSP] and poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP] had high selectivities and fluxes, but membranes prepared from these polymers were not stable, showing decreasing flux and selectivity during tests lasting only a few hours. Parel, a poly(propylene oxide allyl glycidyl ether) had a selectivity of 3 at ambient temperatures and 4 or more at temperatures of {minus}20 C. However, Parel is no longer commercially available, and we were unable to find an equivalent material in the time available. Therefore, most of our experimental work focused on silicone rubber membranes, which have a selectivity of 2.5 at ambient temperatures, increasing to 3-4 at low temperatures. Silicone rubber composite membranes were evaluated in bench-scale module tests and with commercial-scale, 4-inch-diameter modules in a small pilot plant. Over six days of continuous operation at a feed gas temperature of {minus}5 to {minus}10 C, the membrane maintained a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 3.3. Based on the pilot plant performance data, an analysis of the economic potential of the process was prepared. We conclude that a stand-alone membrane process is the lowest

  10. 光照和氮源对朱砂根愈伤组织生长及岩白菜素含量的影响%Effect of light and nitrogen source on the growth of callus and the content of bergenin in Ardisia crenata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何雪娇; 赖钟雄

    2012-01-01

    通过调节光照条件及培养基中铵态氮与硝态氮的比例来研究光照和氮源对朱砂根愈伤组织生长及岩白菜素含量的影响.结果表明,遮光和强白光都有利于朱砂根愈伤组织的生长,不同光照度和光质对愈伤组织的生长形态和褐化程度有一定的影响.愈伤组织中的岩白菜素含量随着光照度的不断增强而减少,当光照度为100 lx(遮光状态)时,岩白菜素含量达到最高,为0.0169%.光质对岩白菜素含量影响程度的大小为:绿光>蓝光>白光>红光,绿光下的岩白菜素含量最高,为0.0235%.培养基中的KNO3有利于愈伤组织生长,NH4NO3有利于岩白菜素的合成.当KNO3含量加倍但无NH4NO3时,愈伤组织的增殖系数会增大;当KNO3含量为3800 mg·L-1时,愈伤组织的增殖系数达到最大值,为19.9614;当培养基中仅有NH4NO3时,随着含量的增加愈伤组织的生长量和岩白菜素的含量都随之减少;当NH4NO3含量为1650 mg · L-1时,岩白菜素含量达到最高,为0.0125%.%This experiment researches into the effect of light and nitrogen source on the growth of callus and the content of bergenin in Ardisia crenata Sims by adjusting the proportion of ammonium and nitrate nitrogen in culture medium. The results showed that shading and strong white light were beneficial to the growth of the callus, light intensity and light type had certain effect on the growthform and degree of browning of the callus. The content of bergenin reduced with the increasing of light intensity . When the light intensity was 100 lx (shading) , the content of bergenin in the callus was highest(0.0169% ). The influence degree of light type on the content of bergenin was in the following order; green, blue, white, red. Under green light, the content of bergenin in the callus was highest(0.0235% ). The KNO3 was beneficial to the growth of the callus, and NH4NO3 was beneficial to the synthesis of bergenin. Under the condition of

  11. Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts vegetation of dry, coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remke, E.; Brouwer, E.; Kooijman, A.; Blindow, I.; Esselink, H.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea have received small amounts of atmospheric nitrogen and are rather pristine ecosystems in this respect. In 19 investigated dune sites the atmospheric wet nitrogen deposition is 3-8 kg N ha−1 yr−1. The nitrogen content of Cladonia portentosa appeared to be a suitab

  12. The influence of casein and urea as nitrogen sources on in vitro equine caecal fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, A.S.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Martin-Rosset, W.; Cotovio, M.; Silva, F.; Bennett, R.N.; Cone, J.W.; Bessa, R.J.B.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    To access the fermentative response of equine caecal microbial population to nitrogen availability, an in vitro study was conducted using caecal contents provided with adequate energy sources and nitrogen as limiting nutrient. Two nitrogen (N) sources were provided, protein (casein) and non-protein

  13. Effects of twice-ambient carbon dioxide and nitrogen amendment on biomass, nutrient contents and carbon costs of Norway spruce seedlings as influenced by mycorrhization with Piloderma croceum and Tomentellopsis submollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigt, Rosemarie Barbara; Raidl, Stefan; Verma, Rita; Rodenkirchen, Hermann; Göttlein, Axel; Agerer, Reinhard

    2011-07-01

    Elevated tropospheric CO(2) concentrations may increase plant carbon fixation. In ectomycorrhizal trees, a considerable portion of the synthesized carbohydrates can be used to support the mutualistic fungal root partner which in turn can benefit the tree by increased nutrient supply. In this study, Norway spruce seedlings were inoculated with either Piloderma croceum (medium distance "fringe" exploration type) or Tomentellopsis submollis (medium distance "smooth" exploration type). We studied the impact of either species regarding fungal biomass production, seedling biomass, nutrient status and nutrient use efficiency in rhizotrons under ambient and twice-ambient CO(2) concentrations. A subset was amended with ammonium nitrate to prevent nitrogen imbalances expected under growth promotion by elevated CO(2). The two fungal species exhibited considerably different influences on growth, biomass allocation as well as nutrient uptake of spruce seedlings. P. croceum increased nutrient supply and promoted plant growth more strongly than T. submollis despite considerably higher carbon costs. In contrast, seedlings with T. submollis showed higher nutrient use efficiency, i.e. produced plant biomass per received unit of nutrient, particularly for P, K and Mg, thereby promoting shoot growth and reducing the root/shoot ratio. Under the given low soil nutrient availability, P. croceum proved to be a more favourable fungal partner for seedling development than T. submollis. Additionally, plant internal allocation of nutrients was differently influenced by the two ECM fungal species, particularly evident for P in shoots and for Ca in roots. Despite slightly increased ECM length and biomass production, neither of the two species had increased its capacity of nutrient uptake in proportion to the rise of CO(2). This lead to imbalances in nutritional status with reduced nutrient concentrations, particularly in seedlings with P. croceum. The beneficial effect of P. croceum thus

  14. Study of nitrogen doping behavior in diamond film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming-ji; YANG Bao-he; SUN Da-zhi; JIN Zeng-sun

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped diamond films have been synthesized by EA-CVD (electron assisted chemical vapor deposition) technique.The quality and nitrogen impurity states of the diamond films are characterized by SEM, raman spectroscopy, XPS and EPRspectroscopy, respectively. The results show that the morphology changes from well-defined facets to cauliflower-like structures,the content of amorphous carbon increases and the quality drops with increasing the nitrogen flow rate. Furthermore, in thefilms, it can be observed that nitrogen impurity exists in the forms of Ns0, [N-V]0 and [N-V]-1. The contents of [N-V]0 and[N-V]-1 are lower when the nitrogen flow rate is relatively high, and the concentration of Ns0 varies from 15 ppm to 483 ppm.

  15. Source and Control of Nitrogen for X70 Pipeline Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min WANG; Yan-ping BAO

    2016-01-01

    The effects of some key factors on nitrogen absorption during the smelting process of X70 pipeline steel were studied,and the source of nitrogen pick-up was analyzed to find the bottleneck for nitrogen control.A series of measures were put forward to decrease the nitrogen pick-up.The results indicated that an exponential relationship existed between the nitrogen absorption index and the free oxygen in molten steel.Nitrogen absorption index could decrease below 0·3 when free oxygen in molten steel was above 100×10-6 after tapping.For low sulfur killed steel, the nitrogen absorption ratio and sulfur content satisfied a linear relationship with a slope of -0·007.Low free-oxy-gen and sulfur were beneficial to the deep desulfurization during vacuum treatment.The contradiction of high desul-furization ratio and low nitrogen pick-up during LF process could be resolved by skimming oxidizing slag after tap-ping and making new high basicity top slag.After optimization,the average content of nitrogen in final product de-creased from 46×10-6 to 35×10-6 .

  16. Investigation of nitrogenous compound formation in biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimura, D.M.; Masutani, S.M.; Kinoshita, C.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Gasification of high nitrogen content biomass can produce large quantities of nitrogenous compounds that pose potential risks to the environment and human health, and can compromise the performance of related energy conversion processes. Few studies of nitrogenous compound formation in gasification have been reported and little is known about the evolution of fuel-bound nitrogen from biomass fuels. To address these deficiencies, Leucaena, a nitrogen-fixing tree and possible energy crop with 2-3% nitrogen content, was gasified in a bench-scale, indirectly-heated, fluidized bed gasifier to determine the effects of operating conditions on nitrogeneous compound formation. Gas chromatography, and ion-selective electrode and chemiluminescence analyzers were used to measure concentrations of major gas species (e.g., CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}), NH{sub 3}, HCN, NO{sub x}, and nitrogeneous tar species as functions of gasifier temperature (700{degrees}C to 900{degrees}C), equivalence ration (0.2 to 0.4), and residence time (2.3 to 6.7 s). Nitrogeneous compounds were inventoried, and fundamental conclusions, based on the findings of these tests, are proposed.

  17. Effects of Bacteria-feeding Nematodes on Growth of Strawberry Seedlings, Soil Enzyme Activities and Mineral Nitrogen Content in Continuous Cropping System%接种食细菌线虫对连作草莓幼苗生长及其根际土壤酶活性和矿质氮含量影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贺勤; 张林林; 刘奇志; 张航; 白鹏华; 栾小兵

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study how soil bacteria-feeding nematodes impact strawberry seedling growth, soil enzyme activity and mineral nitrogen content in continuous cropping system. Treatments were designed as no inoculation (CK), inoculated with 2 individuals nematodes/g soil (A) and 8 individuals nematodes/g soil (B). The results showed that bacteria-feeding nematodes significantly increased the length and fresh weight of shoot or root, root activity and SOD activity of strawberry seedlings. The increment range was 13.35%-14.60%, 14.17%-26.07%, 25.61%-46.32%, 31.20%-68.98%, 9.09%-13.41% and 6.12%-13.03%, respectively. Bacteria-feeding nematodes significantly decreased MDA content, the decrement range was 17.78% to 22.8%. Bacteria-feeding nematodes significantly enhanced activities of urease, sucrase and the content of soil mineral nitrogen, the increment range was 9.14%-13.48%, 9.06%-11.92% and 6.95%-9.46%, respectively. In conclusion, inoculation of bacteria-feeding nematodes could stimulate strawberry seedling growth, increase soil enzyme activities and mineral nitrogen content in continuous cropping system.%通过温室盆栽试验,探讨接种食细菌线虫对连作草莓幼苗生长、土壤酶活性和矿质氮含量的影响。试验设不接种食细菌线虫(CK)、接种食细菌线虫2条/克土(A)和接种食细菌线虫8条/克土(B)3个处理。结果表明,与对照相比食细菌线虫能够使连作草莓植株的株高、根长、地上部和地下部鲜重、根系活力和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性显著增加13.35%~14.60%、14.17%~26.07%、25.61%~46.32%、31.20%~68.98%、9.09%~13.41%和6.12%~13.03%,使根系丙二醛(MDA)含量显著降低17.78%~22.8%;使连作草莓根际土壤脲酶、蔗糖酶活性和矿质氮含量显著增加9.14%~13.48%、9.06%~11.92%和6.95%~9.46%;接种量为2条/克土处理的影响作用大于接种量为8条/克土的处理。总之,接种食细

  18. 水稻籽粒蛋白质含量选择对杂交后代蛋白质含量及氮代谢关键酶活性的影响%Effects of Grain Protein Content Selection on Protein Content and Key Enzymes Activities for Nitrogen Metabolism in Rice Hybrid Progenies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄星; 李晓光; 刘洪亮; 徐美兰; 张丰转; 张忠臣; 金正勋

    2009-01-01

    The japonica parents (Tong 769 and Xixuan 1) and their hybrid progenies, significantly differed in protein content in grains, were investigated to reveal the activities of protease in leaves and glutamine synthetase in grains and the dynamic alteration of soluble protein content in grains during grain filling. The results showed that the protein content in rice of the parents was near to each other, however, hybrid progenies with different contents of protein in grains and higher or lower activities of protease in leaves and glutamine synthetase in grains were acquired by consecutively directed selection of the grain protein content in their hybrid progenies. Moreover, the enzyme activity and protein content in grains exceled their parents during grain filling. The content of protein in rice and the activitiy of protease in leaves were positively related, and the content of soluble protein and activity of glutamine synthetase in grains were negatively related to some extent.%以籽粒蛋白质含量有显著差异的杂交后代及亲本为材料,分析了灌浆成熟过程中叶片蛋白水解酶和籽粒谷氨酰胺合成酶活性以及籽粒可溶性蛋白质含量的变化动态.结果表明,在籽粒蛋白质含量相近的亲本衍生的杂交后代中,通过籽粒蛋白质含量的连续定向选择不仅可以获得籽粒蛋白质含量和叶片蛋白水解酶活性及籽粒谷氨酰胺合成酶活性明显变高或变低的杂种后代,而且可获得蛋白质含量和酶活性超亲的后代;稻米蛋白质含量与灌浆过程中的叶片蛋白水解酶活性呈正相关, 籽粒可溶性蛋白质含量与籽粒谷氨酰胺合成酶活性呈显著负相关.

  19. High Nitrogen Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    Kiev, 1993. 7. High Nitrogen Steels, edited by M. Kikuchi and Y. Mishima , Vol. 36, No. 7, Iron and Steel Institute of Japan Inernational, Tokyo...the Corrosion of Iron and Steels,” High Nitrogen Steels, edited by M. Kikuchi and Y. Mishima , Vol. 36, No. 7, Iron and Steel Institute of Japan

  20. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for communications about resource use efficiency and for measures to increase the use efficiency of nutrients in relation to food production. This holds especially for nitrogen. Nitrogen (N) is essential for life and a main nutrient element. It is needed in relatively large quantitie

  1. Nitrogen trading tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrogen cycle is impacted by human activities, including those that increase the use of nitrogen in agricultural systems, and this impact can be seen in effects such as increased nitrate (NO3) levels in groundwater or surface water resources, increased concentration of nitrous oxide (N2O) in th...

  2. Effect of Different Ratios of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Schisandrin Content in Schisandra sphenanthera in Shangluo%不同氮磷钾配比对商洛华中五味子有效成分五味子乙素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何军; 张晓虎; 李小燕

    2011-01-01

    By the orthogonal design with three factors and four levels, the field fertilizer efficiency test was carried out in high dam Schisandra sphenanthera base in Shanyang in 2009. The results indicated that the influence of different ratios of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the content of active constituent schisandrin in Schisandra sphenanthera appeared obvious difference, and the influence of different nutrient elements on schisandrin content showed the following order; K >N > P. The combined utilization of N and K fertilizer got the highest schisandrin content in the test site, and the optimum application rate of N and K,0 was 240 kg/hm2 and 160 kg/hm2 respectively.%采用三因素四水平正交试验设计,于2009年在山阳高坝华中五味子基地进行了肥效田间试验.结果表明:不同氮磷钾配比对华中五味子乙素含量影响差异显著;各营养元素对五味子乙素含量影响依次为K>N>P;在本试验区条件下保证最佳华中五味子有效成分的施肥量以氮、钾元素配合施用效果好,果实中五味子乙素含量高,最佳肥料用量:N用量240 kg/hm2,K2O用量160 kg/hm2.

  3. 不同形态氮素对大豆硝酸还原酶和谷氨酰胺合成酶活性及蛋白质含量的影响%Effect of different nitrogens on activities of nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, and seed protein contents in soybean cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡润芳; 张广庆; 滕振勇; 林国强

    2012-01-01

    利用硝态氮(NO3--N)、铵态氮(NH4+-N)和混合态氮对3个栽培大豆品种花荚期植株进行诱导处理,研究不同形态氮素对功能叶片硝酸还原酶(NR)、谷氨酰胺合成酶(GS)活性以及籽粒蛋白质含量的影响.结果表明,NH4+-N增加3个大豆品种功能叶片NR活性效果最好,其次是混合态氮,NO3--N效果较差;三种形态的氮素均能明显提高3个大豆品种功能叶片GS活性;在三种形态氮素诱导下,3个大豆品种的籽粒蛋白质含量均有不同程度的提高,且与其功能叶片NR和GS活性呈显著正相关(r=0.520*和0.550*);追施氮素对低蛋白大豆品种功能叶片NR、GS活性和籽粒蛋白质含量具有较好的促进作用.可以把大豆花荚期叶片NR和GS的活性作为高蛋白品种选育的参考指标之一.%Effects of different nitrogens (NO3-N, NH4+-N, Nov-NH4+) on nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities of functional leaves, and seed protein contents of three soybean cultivars during flowering-poding phase were investigated. The results indicated that NR activities of functional leaves in three soybean genotypes treated by three kinds of nitrogens were enhanced, NH4+-N was the best, the second was Nov-NH,*, and the third was NO3-N. All three different nitrogen treatments could remarkably increase GS activities of functional leaves of three soybean cultivars. The seed protein content showed a very significantly positive correlation with the functional leaf NR activity and GS activity (r=0.520* and 0.550*). There is better promotion of nitrogen topdressing to activities of NR and GS in functional leaves and cotents of protein in seeds of the lower-protein soybean cultivar. Hence, it is suggested that high NR and GS activity in soybean functional leaves should be one of the bio-chemical index for selecting soybean germplasm with high protein.

  4. Content Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rossi, George Bedinelli; Serralvo, Francisco Antonio; João, Belmiro Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach...

  5. Nitrogen Lewis Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogoreltsev, Alla; Tulchinsky, Yuri; Fridman, Natalia; Gandelman, Mark

    2017-03-22

    Being a major conception of chemistry, Lewis acids have found countless applications throughout chemical enterprise. Although many chemical elements can serve as the central atom of Lewis acids, nitrogen is usually associated with Lewis bases. Here, we report on the first example of robust and modifiable Lewis acids centered on the nitrogen atom, which provide stable and well-characterized adducts with various Lewis bases. On the basis of the reactivity of nitrogen Lewis acids, we prepared, for the first time, cyclic triazanes, a class of cyclic organic compounds sequentially bearing three all-saturated nitrogen atoms (N-N-N motif). Reactivity abilities of these N-Lewis acids were explained by theoretical calculations. Properties and future applications of nitrogen Lewis acids are intriguing.

  6. Content Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    LE, DUC

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the new trend in today’s marketing world: content marketing. It has been employed by many companies and organizations in the world and has been proven success even when it is still a fairly new topic. Five carefully selected theories of content marketing proposed by experts in the field has been collected, compared and displayed as originally and scientifically as possible in this thesis. The chosen theories provide a diversified perspectives of...

  7. The Role of Nitrogen and Sulfur Interaction in Maize Quality(Zea mays L. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Rui-zhi; DONG Shu-ting; HU Chang-hao; WANG Kong-jun

    2003-01-01

    Two hybrids of maize with different responses to sulfur were used in the pool experiment. Theeffects of nitrogen and sulfur on the grain quality of maize were evaluated. The results indicated that grainquality changed with the nutrition supply. The contents of proteins, amino acids, soluble sugar, crude fat,But the effects of nitrogen and sulfur were not the same. Nitrogen increased starch content of the grain, but Sdecreased the content. Both N and S enhanced the proportion of amylopectin in starch. Sulfur nutrition signif-icantly improved the grain quality of maize when a large amount of nitrogen was used together. Both hybridshad similar response to N and S treatments.

  8. Modelling the ecosystem effects of nitrogen deposition: Model of Ecosystem Retention and Loss of Inorganic Nitrogen (MERLIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Cosby

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A catchment-scale mass-balance model of linked carbon and nitrogen cycling in ecosystems has been developed for simulating leaching losses of inorganic nitrogen. The model (MERLIN considers linked biotic and abiotic processes affecting the cycling and storage of nitrogen. The model is aggregated in space and time and contains compartments intended to be observable and/or interpretable at the plot or catchment scale. The structure of the model includes the inorganic soil, a plant compartment and two soil organic compartments. Fluxes in and out of the ecosystem and between compar