WorldWideScience

Sample records for nitrogen atom energy

  1. Nitrogen Atom Energy Distributions in a Hollow-cathode Planar Sputtering Magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzic, D.N.; Goeckner, M.J.; Cohen, S.A.; Wang, Zhehui

    1999-01-01

    Energy distributions of N atoms in a hollow-cathode planar sputtering magnetron were obtained by use of optical emission spectroscopy. A characteristic line, N I 8216.3 , well-separated from molecular nitrogen emission bands, was identified. Jansson's nonlinear spectral deconvolution method, refined by minimization of χ w ampersand sup2; , was used to obtain the optimal deconvolved spectra. These showed nitrogen atom energies from 1 eV to beyond 500 eV. Based on comparisons with VFTRIM results, we propose that the energetic N atoms are generated from N 2 + ions after these ions are accelerated through the sheath and dissociatively reflect from the cathode

  2. Energy transfers between N_2(A"3Σ) nitrogen metastable molecules and oxygen atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza, Antonio Rogerio

    1985-01-01

    This research thesis aims at determining reaction coefficients for energy transfers between nitrogen in its metastable status and oxygen atoms and molecules, the variation of these coefficients with respect to temperature (mainly in the 200-400 K range), products formed and more particularly branching rates of O("1S) oxygen and of NO_2. Reaction coefficients are experimentally determined by using the technique of post-discharge in flow. The experimental set-up is described and the study of the best operating conditions is reported. In the next part, the author reports the study of the energy transfer between nitrogen in its metastable status N_2(A) and oxygen molecules. Reaction coefficients are determined for the first three vibrational levels. The author then reports the study of the transfer of N_2(A) molecules on oxygen atoms in their fundamental status. Reactions coefficients and their variations are determined for the three first vibrational levels. The author describes the dissociation method and the method of detection of atomic oxygen. A kinetic model is proposed for the analysis of formed products during a post-discharge in flow, and the branching rate for the formation of O("1S) oxygen between 190 and 365 K is determined. The author finally discusses publications on the role of these reactions in the interpretation of some atmospheric phenomena

  3. Strategy for designing stable and powerful nitrogen-rich high-energy materials by introducing boron atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Jie; Chi, Wei-Jie; Li, Quan-Song; Li, Ze-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    One of the most important aims in the development of high-energy materials is to improve their stability and thus ensure that they are safe to manufacture and transport. In this work, we theoretically investigated open-chain N 4 B 2 isomers using density functional theory in order to find the best way of stabilizing nitrogen-rich molecules. The results show that the boron atoms in these isomers are aligned linearly with their neighboring atoms, which facilitates close packing in the crystals of these materials. Upon comparing the energies of nine N 4 B 2 isomers, we found that the structure with alternating N and B atoms had the lowest energy. Structures with more than one nitrogen atom between two boron atoms had higher energies. The energy of N 4 B 2 increases by about 50 kcal/mol each time it is rearranged to include an extra nitrogen atom between the two boron atoms. More importantly, our results also show that boron atoms stabilize nitrogen-rich molecules more efficiently than carbon atoms do. Also, the combustion of any isomer of N 4 B 2 releases more heat than the corresponding isomer of N 4 C 2 does under well-oxygenated conditions. Our study suggests that the three most stable N 4 B 2 isomers (BN13, BN24, and BN34) are good candidates for high-energy molecules, and it outlines a new strategy for designing stable boron-containing high-energy materials. Graphical abstract The structural characteristics, thermodynamic stabilities, and exothermic properties of nitrogen-rich N 4 B 2 isomers were investigated by means of density functional theory.

  4. Adsorption Energies of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Oxygen Atoms on the Low-temperature Amorphous Water Ice: A Systematic Estimation from Quantum Chemistry Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Nakatani, Naoki; Furuya, Kenji; Hama, Tetsuya

    2018-03-01

    We propose a new simple computational model to estimate the adsorption energies of atoms and molecules to low-temperature amorphous water ice, and we present the adsorption energies of carbon (3 P), nitrogen (4 S), and oxygen (3 P) atoms based on quantum chemistry calculations. The adsorption energies were estimated to be 14,100 ± 420 K for carbon, 400 ± 30 K for nitrogen, and 1440 ± 160 K for oxygen. The adsorption energy of oxygen is consistent with experimentally reported values. We found that the binding of a nitrogen atom is purely physisorption, while that of a carbon atom is chemisorption, in which a chemical bond to an O atom of a water molecule is formed. That of an oxygen atom has a dual character, with both physisorption and chemisorption. The chemisorption of atomic carbon also implies the possibility of further chemical reactions to produce molecules bearing a C–O bond, though this may hinder the formation of methane on water ice via sequential hydrogenation of carbon atoms. These properties would have a large impact on the chemical evolution of carbon species in interstellar environments. We also investigated the effects of newly calculated adsorption energies on the chemical compositions of cold dense molecular clouds with the aid of gas-ice astrochemical simulations. We found that abundances of major nitrogen-bearing molecules, such as N2 and NH3, are significantly altered by applying the calculated adsorption energy, because nitrogen atoms can thermally diffuse on surfaces, even at 10 K.

  5. Atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanna, R.

    1978-01-01

    Development of nuclear science in India, particularly the research and development work at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay, is described. Among the wide range of materials developed for specific functions under rigorous conditions are nuclear pure grade uranium, zirconium and beryllium, and conventional materials like aluminium, carbon steel and stainless steels. Radioisotopes are produced and used for tracer studies in various fields. Various types of nuclear gauges and nuclear instruments are produced. Radiations have been used to develop new high yielding groundnut mutants with large kernals. The sterile male technique for pest control and radiosterilization technique to process potatoes, onions and marine foods for storage are ready for exploitation. Processes and equipment have been developed for production of electrolytic hydrogen, electrothermal phosphorus and desalinated water. Indigenously manufactured components and materials are now being used for the nuclear energy programme. Indian nuclear power programme strategy is to build heavy water reactors and to utilise their byproduct plutonium and depleted uranium to feed fast breeder reactors which will produce more fissile material than burnt. Finally a special mention has been made of the manpower development programme of the BARC. BARC has established a training school in 1957 giving advanced training in physics, chemistry and various branches of engineering and metallurgy

  6. Atomic Energy Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This act provides for the establishment of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The board is responsible for the control and supervision of the development, application and use of atomic energy. The board is also considered necessary to enable Canada to participate effectively in measures of international control of atomic energy

  7. Atomic Energy Authority Bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.N.; Stoddart, D.L.; Sinclair, R.M.; Ezra, D.

    1985-01-01

    The House, in Committee, discussed the following matters in relation to the Atomic Energy Authority Bill; financing; trading; personnel conditions of employment; public relations; organization; research programmes; fuels; energy sources; information dissemination. (U.K.)

  8. Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackman, N.S.; Gummer, W.K.

    1982-02-01

    This paper has been prepared to provide an overview of the responsibilities and activities of the Atomic Energy Control Board. It is designed to address questions that are often asked concerning the establishment of the Atomic Energy Control Board, its enabling legislation, licensing and compliance activities, federal-provincial relationships, international obligations, and communications with the public

  9. Atomic energy for progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The film discusses the functions and activities of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. Shown are the applications of atomic energy in research, agriculture, engineering, industry and medicine, as well as the construction of the research reactor and its inauguration by President Marcos

  10. Atomic Energy Control Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is the consolidated text of the Atomic Energy Control Regulations of 17 March 1960, with amendments to 27 August 1992. The Regulations cover the licensing of nuclear facilities, radiation sources, including uranium mining, radiation protection questions, etc. (NEA)

  11. Atomic Energy Act 1946

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1946-01-01

    This Act provides for the development of atomic energy in the United Kingdom and for its control. It details the duties and powers of the competent Minister, in particular his powers to obtain information on and to inspect materials, plant and processes, to control production and use of atomic energy and publication of information thereon. Also specified is the power to search for and work minerals and to acquire property. (NEA) [fr

  12. The Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doern, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    This study describes and assesses the regulatory and administrative processes and procedures of the Atomic Energy Control Board, the AECB. The Atomic Energy Control Act authorized the AECB to control atomic energy materials and equipment in the national interest and to participate in measures for the international control of atomic energy. The AECB is authorized to make regulations to control atomic energy materials and equipment and to make grants in support of atomic energy research. (author)

  13. Energetic Metastable Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms in the Terrestrial Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, Vasili; Dalgarno, A.

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes our research performed under NASA Grant NAG5-11857. The three-year grant have been supported by the Geospace Sciences SR&T program. We have investigated the energetic metastable oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the terrestrial stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere. Hot atoms in the atmosphere are produced by solar radiation, the solar wind and various ionic reactions. Nascent hot atoms arise in ground and excited electronic states, and their translational energies are larger by two - three orders of magnitude than the thermal energies of the ambient gas. The relaxation kinetics of hot atoms determines the rate of atmospheric heating, the intensities of aeronomic reactions, and the rate of atom escape from the planet. Modeling of the non-Maxwellian energy distributions of metastable oxygen and nitrogen atoms have been focused on the determination of their impact on the energetics and chemistry of the terrestrial atmosphere between 25 and 250 km . At this altitudes, we have calculated the energy distribution functions of metastable O and N atoms and computed non-equilibrium rates of important aeronomic reactions, such as destruction of the water molecules by O(1D) atoms and production of highly excited nitric oxide molecules. In the upper atmosphere, the metastable O(lD) and N(2D) play important role in formation of the upward atomic fluxes. We have computed the upward fluxes of the metastable and ground state oxygen atoms in the upper atmosphere above 250 km. The accurate distributions of the metastable atoms have been evaluated for the day and night-time conditions.

  14. FAO and atomic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-07-15

    During the past six years FAO has become more engaged in work concerned with atomic energy. In 1957 it established an Atomic Energy Branch. The new forces and new tools which have become available for use in the fight against poverty, disease and malnutrition can be of the greatest assistance in FAO's work in nearly all phases of the production, storage and distribution of food and other agricultural products. The Organization promotes their use to improve the standards of feeding, clothing and housing throughout the world. Another side of work related to atomic energy is concerned with combating contamination from the use of atomic energy for power production and other purposes. This raises considerable problems for food and agriculture, so that FAO also has a responsibility for assisting Governments in safeguarding their food and food-producing resources from contamination. FAO is essentially concerned with fostering wider knowledge of the many contributions that atomic science can make to agriculture, forestry, fisheries and nutrition. It is also concerned in assisting governments to establish sound programmes for applying atomic science in food and agriculture. One way of spreading such knowledge is through the publication of documents and reports

  15. FAO and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    During the past six years FAO has become more engaged in work concerned with atomic energy. In 1957 it established an Atomic Energy Branch. The new forces and new tools which have become available for use in the fight against poverty, disease and malnutrition can be of the greatest assistance in FAO's work in nearly all phases of the production, storage and distribution of food and other agricultural products. The Organization promotes their use to improve the standards of feeding, clothing and housing throughout the world. Another side of work related to atomic energy is concerned with combating contamination from the use of atomic energy for power production and other purposes. This raises considerable problems for food and agriculture, so that FAO also has a responsibility for assisting Governments in safeguarding their food and food-producing resources from contamination. FAO is essentially concerned with fostering wider knowledge of the many contributions that atomic science can make to agriculture, forestry, fisheries and nutrition. It is also concerned in assisting governments to establish sound programmes for applying atomic science in food and agriculture. One way of spreading such knowledge is through the publication of documents and reports

  16. US Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This is a new volume follows in the series supplementing the volumes 11 and 12 published in 1965 and 1966, updating the collection of Federal Acts and Executive Orders of the President of the United States of America relating to atomic energy legislation. Since the publication of volumes 11 and 12, the US Atomic Energy Act of 1954 alone has been amended 25 times, mainly as a consequence of by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act, both of 1978. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 is supplemented by a selection of the most important Federal Acts, Executive Orders of the President and Resolutions of the Congress. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. UNESCO and atomic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-01-15

    Atomic energy has been of particular concern to UNESCO virtually since the founding of this United Nations agency with the mission of promoting the advancement of science along with education and culture. UNESCO has been involved in the scientific aspects of nuclear physics - notably prior to the creation of the International Atomic Energy Agency - but it has also focussed its attention upon the educational and cultural problems of the atomic age. UNESCO's sphere of action was laid down by its 1954 General Conference which authorized its Director-General to extend full co-operation to the United Nations in atomic energy matters, with special reference to 'the urgent study of technical questions such as those involved in the effects of radioactivity on life in general, and to the dissemination of objective information concerning all aspects of the peaceful utilization of atomic energy; to study, and if necessary, to propose measures of international scope to facilitate the use of radioisotopes in research and industry'. UNESCO's first action under this resolution was to call a meeting of a committee of experts from twelve nations to study the establishment of a system of standards and regulations for the preparation, distribution, transport and utilization of radioactive isotopes and tracer molecules

  18. Interplay of Nitrogen-Atom Inversion and Conformational Inversion in Enantiomerization of 1H-1-Benzazepines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramig, Keith; Subramaniam, Gopal; Karimi, Sasan; Szalda, David J; Ko, Allen; Lam, Aaron; Li, Jeffrey; Coaderaj, Ani; Cavdar, Leyla; Bogdan, Lukasz; Kwon, Kitae; Greer, Edyta M

    2016-04-15

    A series of 2,4-disubstituted 1H-1-benzazepines, 2a-d, 4, and 6, were studied, varying both the substituents at C2 and C4 and at the nitrogen atom. The conformational inversion (ring-flip) and nitrogen-atom inversion (N-inversion) energetics were studied by variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy and computations. The steric bulk of the nitrogen-atom substituent was found to affect both the conformation of the azepine ring and the geometry around the nitrogen atom. Also affected were the Gibbs free energy barriers for the ring-flip and the N-inversion. When the nitrogen-atom substituent was alkyl, as in 2a-c, the geometry of the nitrogen atom was nearly planar and the azepine ring was highly puckered; the result was a relatively high-energy barrier to ring-flip and a low barrier to N-inversion. Conversely, when the nitrogen-atom substituent was a hydrogen atom, as in 2d, 4, and 6, the nitrogen atom was significantly pyramidalized and the azepine ring was less puckered; the result here was a relatively high energy barrier to N-inversion and a low barrier to ring-flip. In these N-unsubstituted compounds, it was found computationally that the lowest-energy stereodynamic process was ring-flip coupled with N-inversion, as N-inversion alone had a much higher energy barrier.

  19. Accelerators for atomic energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Tokushi

    1999-01-01

    The research and educational activities accomplished using accelerators for atomic energy research were studied. The studied items are research subjects, facility operation, the number of master theses and doctor theses on atomic energy research using accelerators and the future role of accelerators in atomic energy research. The strategy for promotion of the accelerator facility for atomic energy research is discussed. (author)

  20. Atomic energy and you

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The film discusses the peaceful applications of atomic energy in agriculture, engineering, industry and medicine. Shows exploration, prospecting and mining of uraninum ores at Larap, Camarines Norte and the study of geographical conditions of the site for the proposed Nuclear Power Plant in Bataan

  1. Energy flux of hot atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wotzak, G.P.; Kostin, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    The process in which hot atoms collide with thermal atoms of a gas, transfer kinetic energy to them, and produce additional hot atoms is investigated. A stochastic method is used to obtain numerical results for the spatial and time dependent energy flux of hot atoms in a gas. The results indicate that in hot atom systems a front followed by an intense energy flux of hot atoms may develop

  2. Meteorology and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The science of meteorology is useful in providing information that will be of assistance in the choice of favorable plant locations and in the evaluation of significant relations between meteorology and the design, construction, and operation of plant and facilities, especially those from which radioactive or toxic products could be released to the atmosphere. Under a continuing contract with the Atomic Energy Commission, the Weather Bureau has carried out this study. Some of the meteorological techniques that are available are summarized, and their applications to the possible atmospheric pollution deriving from the use of atomic energy are described. Methods and suggestions for the collection, analysis, and use of meteorological data are presented. Separate abstracts are included of 12 chapters in this publication for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  3. Deviation from normal Boltzmann distribution of high-lying energy levels of iron atom excited by Okamoto-cavity microwave-induced plasmas using pure nitrogen and nitrogen–oxygen gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes several interesting excitation phenomena occurring in a microwave-induced plasma (MIP) excited with Okamoto-cavity, especially when a small amount of oxygen was mixed with nitrogen matrix in the composition of the plasma gas. An ion-to-atom ratio of iron, which was estimated from the intensity ratio of ion to atomic lines having almost the same excitation energy, was reduced by adding oxygen gas to the nitrogen MIP, eventually contributing to an enhancement in the emission intensities of the atomic lines. Furthermore, Boltzmann plots for iron atomic lines were observed in a wide range of the excitation energy from 3.4 to 6.9 eV, indicating that plots of the atomic lines having lower excitation energies (3.4 to 4.8 eV) were well fitted on a straight line while those having more than 5.5 eV deviated upwards from the linear relationship. This overpopulation would result from any other excitation process in addition to the thermal excitation that principally determines the Boltzmann distribution. A Penning-type collision with excited species of nitrogen molecules probably explains this additional excitation mechanism, in which the resulting iron ions recombine with captured electrons, followed by cascade de-excitations between closely-spaced excited levels just below the ionization limit. As a result, these high-lying levels might be more populated than the low-lying levels of iron atom. The ionization of iron would be caused less actively in the nitrogen–oxygen plasma than in a pure nitrogen plasma, because excited species of nitrogen molecule, which can provide the ionization energy in a collision with iron atom, are consumed through collisions with oxygen molecules to cause their dissociation. It was also observed that the overpopulation occurred to a lesser extent when oxygen gas was added to the nitrogen plasma. The reason for this was also attributed to decreased number density of the excited nitrogen species due to collisions with oxygen

  4. Atomic Energy Commission Act, 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    Promulgated in 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission Act (204) established and vested in the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission the sole responsibility for all matters relating to the peaceful uses of atomic energy in the country. Embodied in the Act are provisions relating to the powers, duties, rights and liabilities of the Commission. (EAA)

  5. The Atomic energy basic law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The law aims to secure future energy resources, push forward progress of science and advancement of industry for welfare of the mankind and higher standard of national life by helping research, development and utilization of atomic power. Research, development and utilization of atomic power shall be limited to the peaceful purpose with emphasis laid on safety and carried on independently under democratic administration. Basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: atomic power; nuclear fuel material; nuclear raw material; reactor and radiation. The Atomic Energy Commission and the Atomic Energy Safety Commission shall be set up at the Prime Minister's Office deliberately to realize national policy of research, development and utilization of atomic power and manage democratic administration for atomic energy. The Atomic Energy Commission shall plan, consider and decide matters concerning research, development and utilization of atomic energy. The Atomic Energy Safety Commission shall plan, consider and decide issues particularly concerning safety securing among such matters. The Atomic Energy Research Institute shall be founded under the governmental supervision to perform research, experiment and other necessary affairs for development of atomic energy. The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation shall be established likewise to develop fast breeding reactor, advanced thermal reactor and nuclear fuel materials. Development of radioactive minerals, control of nuclear fuel materials and reactors and measures for patent and invention concerning atomic energy, etc. are stipulated respectively. (Okada, K.)

  6. WMO and atomic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-09-15

    The growing interest of WMO in atomic energy was reflected in the decision of the Executive Committee in 1956 to establish a panel of experts to study the meteorological aspects of the nuclear energy. One of the major achievements of the panel, which has held two meetings since its inception, has been the preparation of a technical note treating fully the various meteorological problems resulting from the applications of the peaceful uses of atomic energy. Over the past four years, steady progress has also been made both in adapting nuclear techniques to meteorological uses and in providing advice and assistance. Much time and thought are now being devoted to the study of large-scale air mass movements, turbulent diffusion and the other meteorological processes on which the transport and gradual fall-out of radioactive debris depend. The safe location of nuclear plants and the disposal of radioactive waste are related problems in which WMO has also taken a very active interest. Another aspect of the help which WMO as an organization can provide is to help for the collection and analysis of radioactive material in the biosphere. Advances in nuclear physics have also opened up great possibilities for the use of radioactive isotopes in making meteorological and hydrometeorological measurements

  7. Atomic energy and food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-07-01

    International activities aimed at improving, increasing and conserving food supplies are fostered in special ways by the Joint Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture established by the Agency and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. An examination of the processes by which food is produced and of the skills arising from nuclear techniques which are being applied is made here by Maurice Fried and Bjorn Sigurbjornsson. They are the Director and Deputy Director of the Joint Division, which is an integral part of both the Agriculture Department of FAO and of the Agency's Department of Research and Isotopes. (author)

  8. Interference effects on the photoionization cross sections between two neighbouring atoms: nitrogen as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian-Hua, Wu; Jian-Min, Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Interference effects on the photoionization cross sections between two neighbouring atoms are considered based on the coherent scattering of the ionized electrons by the two nuclei when their separation is less than or comparable to the de Broglie wave length of the ionized electrons. As an example, the single atomic nitrogen ionization cross section and the total cross sections of two nitrogen atoms with coherently added photoionization amplitudes are calculated from the threshold to about 60 Å (1 Å = 0.1 nm) of the photon energy. The photoionization cross sections of atomic nitrogen are obtained by using the close-coupling R-matrix method. In the calculation 19 states are included. The ionization energy of the atomic nitrogen and the photoionization cross sections agree well with the experimental results. Based on the R-matrix results of atomic nitrogen, the interference effects between two neighbouring nitrogen atoms are obtained. It is shown that the interference effects are considerable when electrons are ionized just above the threshold, even for the separations between the two atoms are larger than two times of the bond length of N 2 molecules. Therefore, in hot and dense samples, effects caused by the coherent interference between the neighbours are expected to be observable for the total photoionization cross sections. (atomic and molecular physics)

  9. Atomic energy review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The ATOMIC ENERGY REVIEW (AER), a periodical started in 1963 in accordance with the recommendation made by the Scientific Advisory Committee, is now preparing for its tenth year of publication. The journal appears quarterly (ca 900 pages/year) and occasionally has special issues and supplements. From 1963 to 1971 AER developed into an important international high-standard scientific journal which keeps scientists in Member States informed on progress in various fields of nuclear energy. The Agency's specific role of helping 'developing countries to further their science and education' is reflected in the publication policy of the journal. The subject scope of AER, which was determined at the journal's inception, is very broad. It covers topics in experimental and theoretical physics, nuclear electronics and equipment, physics and technology of reactors and reactor materials and fuels, radio-chemistry, and industrial, medical and other uses of radioisotopes. In other words, almost any subject related to the peaceful application of nuclear energy can qualify for inclusion. Specifically, at any particular time the selection criteria for topics are influenced by the Agency's current programme and interests. AER carries comprehensive review articles, critical state-of-the-art and current awareness surveys, and reports on the important meetings organized or sponsored by the Agency. The following four subsections gradually became necessary to do justice to this variety of material: 'Reviews' proper, 'Current Research and Development', 'Special Item' and 'Conferences and Symposia'. Apart from the conference reports, one hundred and twenty-five reviews, almost all of which were published in English to make them accessible to a wide public, have so far been published

  10. ILO and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The work of the International Labour Organisation in the field of atomic energy has been concerned primarily with the protection of the worker against radiation; in this respect it developed the work carried out before the war on the occupational pathology of roentgen ray operators, radium and radioactive substances and uranium. In view of the extremely serious consequences to society and the individual that would result from a neglect of the essential precautions, the ILO has to adopt international standards setting out the essential precautions that should be observed in a work which may entail a radiation hazard. The 44th International Labour Conference, meeting in the summer of 1960, adopted a convention and recommendation on this subject. The Convention applies to all activities involving exposure of workers to ionizing radiations in the course of their work and provides that each Member of the ILO which ratifies it shall undertake to give effect to it by means of laws or regulations, codes of practice or other appropriate means. It further provides that the necessary steps taken at the national level to ensure effective protection should be progressively brought in line with the provisions of the Convention after its ratification

  11. Low energy atom-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    The semiclassical theory of atom-atom potential scattering and of low energy inelastic atom-atom scattering is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the origin and interpretation of rainbow structure, diffraction oscillations and exchange oscillations in the potential scattering differential cross-section, and to the glory structure and symmetry oscillations in the integral cross-section. Available methods for direct inversion of the cross-section data to recover the potential are reviewed in some detail. The theory of non-adiabatic transitions is introduced by a short discussion of interaction mechanisms and of diabetic and adiabatic representations. Analytical S matrix elements are presented for two state curve-crossing (Landau-Zener-Stuckelberg), Demkov and Nikitin models. The relation between Stuckelberg oscillations in the S matrix and in the differential cross-section is discussed in terms of interference between trajectories belonging to two different classical deflection functions. The energy dependences of the inelastic integral cross-section for curve-crossing and Demkov type transitions are also discussed. Finally the theory is reviewed in relation to a recent close-coupled study of fine structure transitions in F( 2 P) + Xe( 2 S) scattering

  12. The atomic energy basic law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The law establishes clearly the principles that Japan makes R and D, and utilizations of atomic energy only for the peaceful purposes. All the other laws and regulations concerning atomic energy are based on the law. The first chapter lays down the above mentioned objective of the law, and gives definitions of basic concepts and terms, such as atomic energy, nuclear fuel material, nuclear source material, nuclear reactor and radiation. The second chapter provides for the establishment of Atomic Energy Commission which conducts plannings and investigations, and also makes decisions concerning R and D, and utilizations of atomic energy. The third chapter stipulates for establishment of two government organizations which perform R and D of atomic energy developments including experiments and demonstrations of new types of reactors, namely, Atomic Energy Research Institute and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Chapters from 4th through 8th provide for the regulations on development and acquisition of the minerals containing nuclear source materials, controls on nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors, administrations of the patents and inventions concerning atomic energy, and also prevention of injuries due to radiations. The last 9th chapter requires the government and its appointee to compensate the interested third party for damages in relation to the exploitation of nuclear source materials. (Matsushima, A.)

  13. Atomic Energy Authority Act 1954

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1954-01-01

    This Act provides for the setting up of an Atomic Energy Authority for the United Kingdom. It also makes provision for the Authority's composition, powers, duties, rights and liabilities, and may amend, as a consequence of the establishment of the Authority and in connection therewith, the Atomic Energy Act, 1946, the Radioactive Substances Act 1948 and other relevant enactments. (NEA) [fr

  14. Electronic structure of graphene nanoribbons doped with nitrogen atoms: a theoretical insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A E; Fomine, S

    2015-04-28

    The electronic structure of graphene nanoribbons doped with a graphitic type of nitrogen atoms has been studied using B3LYP, B2PLYP and CAS methods. In all but one case the restricted B3LYP solutions were unstable and the CAS calculations provided evidence for the multiconfigurational nature of the ground state with contributions from two dominant configurations. The relative stability of the doped nanoribbons depends mostly on the mutual position of the dopant atoms and notably less on the position of nitrogen atoms within the nanoribbon. N-graphitic doping affects cationic states much more than anionic ones due the participation of the nitrogen atoms in the stabilization of the positive charge, resulting in a drop in ionization energies (IPs) for N-graphitic doped systems. Nitrogen atoms do not participate in the negative charge stabilization of anionic species and, therefore, the doping does not affect the electron affinities (EAs). The unrestricted B3LYP method is the method of choice for the calculation of IPs and EAs. Restricted B3LYP and B2PLYP produces unreliable results for both IPs and EAs while CAS strongly underestimates the electron affinities. This is also true for the reorganization energies where restricted B3LYP produces qualitatively incorrect results. Doping changes the reorganization energy of the nanoribbons; the hole reorganization energy is generally higher than the corresponding electron reorganization energy due to the participation of nitrogen atoms in the stabilization of the positive charge.

  15. Reactivity of amino acid anions with nitrogen and oxygen atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe-Chen; Li, Ya-Ke; He, Sheng-Gui; Bierbaum, Veronica M

    2018-02-14

    For many decades, astronomers have searched for biological molecules, including amino acids, in the interstellar medium; this endeavor is important for investigating the hypothesis of the origin of life from space. The space environment is complex and atomic species, such as nitrogen and oxygen atoms, are widely distributed. In this work, the reactions of eight typical deprotonated amino acids (glycine, alanine, cysteine, proline, aspartic acid, histidine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) with ground state nitrogen and oxygen atoms are studied by experiment and theory. These amino acid anions do not react with nitrogen atoms. However, the reactions of these ions with oxygen atoms show an intriguing variety of ionic products and the reaction rate constants are of the order of 10 -10 cm 3 s -1 . Density functional calculations provide detailed mechanisms of the reactions, and demonstrate that spin conversion is essential for some processes. Our study provides important data and insights for understanding the kinetic and dynamic behavior of amino acids in space environments.

  16. High-energy atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, Evgeny G

    2016-01-01

    This self-contained text introduces readers to the field of high-energy atomic physics - a new regime of photon-atom interactions in which the photon energies significantly exceed the atomic or molecular binding energies, and which opened up with the recent advent of new synchrotron sources. From a theoretical point of view, a small-parameter characteristic of the bound system emerged, making it possible to perform analytic perturbative calculations that can in turn serve as benchmarks for more powerful numerical computations. The first part of the book introduces readers to the foundations of this new regime and its theoretical treatment. In particular, the validity of the small-parameter perturbation expansion and of the lowest-order approximation is critically reviewed. The following chapters then apply these insights to various atomic processes, such as photoionization as a many-body problem, dominant mechanisms for the production of ions at higher energies, Compton scattering and ionization accompanied b...

  17. Climate saver atomic energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    According to the Schleswig-Holstein Land government nuclear power phaseout is compatible with measures designed to protect world climate. Only efforts aimed at quickly reducing energy demand by means of thermal insulation, energy conservation techniques, cogeneration systems and application of renewable energies are necessary. The Schleswig-Holstein energy concept is given as an example of making possible a worldwide carbon dioxide reduction. (DG) [de

  18. Recognizing nitrogen dopant atoms in graphene using atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Heijden, Nadine J.; Smith, Daniel; Calogero, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Doping graphene by heteroatoms such as nitrogen presents an attractive route to control the position of the Fermi level in the material. We prepared N-doped graphene on Cu(111) and Ir(111) surfaces via chemical vapor deposition of two different molecules. Using scanning tunneling microscopy image...

  19. Institute for Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Institute has in 1980 changed its name to 'Institutt for Energiteknikk' and this reflects a de facto change in programme emphasis in which a large part of the activity in 1979 was in energy systems analysis, energy technology and conservation, petroleum technology,etc. However previous projects in environmental and safety aspects of nuclear power, risk analysis and fundamental physics using neutron beams, have continued. Nuclear technology is now concentrated in the Halden Reactor Project, whose work is outlined. Isotope production based on the JEEP II reactor and irradiation there and in the Co-60 plant, and isotope applications in environmental and resource investigations continue as previously. Waste processing and safeguards are also carried out as national responsibilities. (JIW)

  20. Production mechanism of atomic nitrogen in atmospheric pressure pulsed corona discharge measured using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramoto, Yoshiyuki; Ono, Ryo; Oda, Tetsuji

    2012-01-01

    To study the production mechanism of atomic nitrogen, the temporal profile and spatial distribution of atomic nitrogen are measured in atmospheric pressure pulsed positive corona discharge using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence. The absolute atomic nitrogen density in the streamer filaments is estimated from decay rate of atomic nitrogen in N 2 discharge. The results indicate that the absolute atomic nitrogen density is approximately constant against discharge energy. When the discharge voltage is 21.5 kV, production yield of atomic nitrogen produced by an N 2 discharge pulse is estimated to be 2.9 - 9.8 × 10 13 atoms and the energy efficiency of atomic nitrogen production is estimated to be about 1.8 - 6.1 × 10 16 atoms/J. The energy efficiency of atomic nitrogen production in N 2 discharge is constant against the discharge energy, while that in N 2 /O 2 discharge increases with discharge energy. In the N 2 /O 2 discharge, two-step process of N 2 dissociation plays significant role for atomic nitrogen production.

  1. The RPA Atomization Energy Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Perdew, John P; Csonka, Gábor I

    2010-01-12

    There is current interest in the random phase approximation (RPA), a "fifth-rung" density functional for the exchange-correlation energy. RPA has full exact exchange and constructs the correlation with the help of the unoccupied Kohn-Sham orbitals. In many cases (uniform electron gas, jellium surface, and free atom), the correction to RPA is a short-ranged effect that is captured by a local spin density approximation (LSDA) or a generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Nonempirical density functionals for the correction to RPA were constructed earlier at the LSDA and GGA levels (RPA+), but they are constructed here at the fully nonlocal level (RPA++), using the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) of Langreth, Lundqvist, and collaborators. While they make important and helpful corrections to RPA total and ionization energies of free atoms, they correct the RPA atomization energies of molecules by only about 1 kcal/mol. Thus, it is puzzling that RPA atomization energies are, on average, about 10 kcal/mol lower than those of accurate values from experiment. We find here that a hybrid of 50% Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof GGA with 50% RPA+ yields atomization energies much more accurate than either one does alone. This suggests a solution to the puzzle: While the proper correction to RPA is short-ranged in some systems, its contribution to the correlation hole can spread out in a molecule with multiple atomic centers, canceling part of the spread of the exact exchange hole (more so than in RPA or RPA+), making the true exchange-correlation hole more localized than in RPA or RPA+. This effect is not captured even by the vdW-DF nonlocality, but it requires the different kind of full nonlocality present in a hybrid functional.

  2. Advanced technologies and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The expert committee on the research 'Application of advanced technologies to nuclear power' started the activities in fiscal year 1994 as one of the expert research committees of Atomic Energy Society of Japan. The objective of its foundation is to investigate the information on the advanced technologies related to atomic energy and to promote their practice. In this fiscal year, the advanced technologies in the fields of system and safety, materials and measurement were taken up. The second committee meeting was held in March, 1995. In this report, the contents of the lectures at the committee meeting and the symposium are compiled. The topics in the symposium were the meaning of advanced technologies, the advanced technologies and atomic energy, human factors and control and safety systems, robot technology and microtechnology, and functionally gradient materials. Lectures were given at two committee meetings on the development of atomic energy that has come to the turning point, the development of advanced technologies centering around ULSI, the present problems of structural fine ceramics and countermeasures of JFCC, the material analysis using laser plasma soft X-ray, and the fullerene research of advanced technology development in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. (K.I.)

  3. The Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Certain aspects of the Atomic Energy Control Board's relationships with Cabinet, the Minister, Government officials, The licensees and the public are analyzed. The way some of the relationships would have been modified by the Nuclear Control and Administration Act proposed in 1977 is examined. (L.L.)

  4. Thermal relaxation of molecular oxygen in collisions with nitrogen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrienko, Daniil A., E-mail: daniila@umich.edu; Boyd, Iain D. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, 1320 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 (United States)

    2016-07-07

    Investigation of O{sub 2}–N collisions is performed by means of the quasi-classical trajectory method on the two lowest ab initio potential energy surfaces at temperatures relevant to hypersonic flows. A complete set of bound–bound and bound–free transition rates is obtained for each precollisional rovibrational state. Special attention is paid to the vibrational and rotational relaxations of oxygen as a result of chemically non-reactive interaction with nitrogen atoms. The vibrational relaxation of oxygen partially occurs via the formation of an intermediate NO{sub 2} complex. The efficient energy randomization results in rapid vibrational relaxation at low temperatures, compared to other molecular systems with a purely repulsive potential. The vibrational relaxation time, computed by means of master equation studies, is nearly an order of magnitude lower than the relaxation time in N{sub 2}–O collisions. The rotational nonequilibrium starts to play a significant effect at translational temperatures above 8000 K. The present work provides convenient relations for the vibrational and rotational relaxation times as well as for the quasi-steady dissociation rate coefficient and thus fills a gap in data due to a lack of experimental measurements for this system.

  5. Direct visualization of atomically precise nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yanfang; Li, Geng; Lu, Jianchen; Du, Shixuan; Gao, Hong-Jun; Lin, Xiao; Berger, Reinhard; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    We have fabricated atomically precise nitrogen-doped chevron-type graphene nanoribbons by using the on-surface synthesis technique combined with the nitrogen substitution of the precursors. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy indicate that the well-defined nanoribbons tend to align with the neighbors side-by-side with a band gap of 1.02 eV, which is in good agreement with the density functional theory calculation result. The influence of the high precursor coverage on the quality of the nanoribbons is also studied. We find that graphene nanoribbons with sufficient aspect ratios can only be fabricated at sub-monolayer precursor coverage. This work provides a way to construct atomically precise nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons.

  6. Atomic energy laws in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, R.H.P.

    1980-01-01

    The regulations of German atomic energy laws are based in large on the fundamental law of the Federal Republic of Germany-the constitution. Atomgesetz of 1959, as amended on October 31, 1976, constitutes the core of atomic energy laws (Atomrecht), and is supplemented by orders (Verordnungen). The Federal Republic has the right to legislate Atomrecht, and the enforcement of such laws and orders is entrusted to each province. The peaceful uses of radioactive materials are stipulated by Atomgesetz and orders. Atomgesetz seeks two objects, first it is to enable the handling of radioactive substances for the acquisition of energy, medical treatment, food treatment and the harmless examination of things by radioactive materials, and secondly to ensure the protection from danger in the handling of such materials. The control of radioactive materials by the state including imports and exports, storage and possession, disposal and processing, etc., is established by the law to secure the protection from danger of atomic energy. The particular indemnification responsibility for the harm due to radiation is defined in Atomgesetz, and only the owners (Inhaber) of atomic energy facilities are liable for damage. The violation of the regulations on the transaction of radioactive materials is punished by fines up to 100,000 German marks of imprisonment of less than five years. Orders are established on roentgen ray, the protection from radiation, the treatment of foods by electron beam, gamma ray, roentgen ray or ultraviolet ray and the permission of medicines. The regulations of the EURATOM treaty have legality as Atomrecht. (Okada, K.)

  7. Atomic Energy (factories) rules: 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    These rules are made by the Central Government under the Factories Act, 1948 and extend to all factories engaged in carrying out the purposes of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962. The rules cover the requirements of inspecting staff, health aspects, personnel safety, personnel welfare, working hours, employment of young persons, special provisions in case of dangerous manufacturing processes or operations, supplemental rules for administrative aspects and special powers of competent authority. (M.G.B.)

  8. Utilization of an arc-heated jet for production of supersonic seeded beams of atomic nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Newton, K.R.; Herrmann, J.M.; Bernstein, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    Intense supersonic beams of atomic nitrogen (>10 17 atoms sr -1 sec -1 ) have been produced from the dissociation of N 2 in an Ar arc (at temperatures in excess of 6000 K) using the arc-heated nozzle beam source of Young, Rodgers, and Knuth. Experiments characterizing the N 2 dissociation and the translational energies of the N, N 2 , and Ar components in the beams are described. Evidence is presented for the formation of atomic C as well as C 2 and CH from the pyrolysis of CH 4 and C 2 H 4 in the Ar arc

  9. Adsorption configurations of two nitrogen atoms on graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, Babita; Jindal, V. K.; Dharamvir, Keya

    2014-01-01

    We present calculations for different possible configurations of two nitrogen adatoms on graphene using the code VASP, based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). Two N atoms adsorbed on the graphene sheet can share a bond in two ways. They take positions either just above two adjacent carbon atoms or they form a bridge across opposite bonds of a hexagon in the graphene sheet. Both these configurations result into structural distortion of the sheet. Another stable configuration involving two N atoms consists of an N 2 molecule which is physisorbed at a distance 3.69 Å on the graphene sheet. Two N atoms can also be adsorbed on alternate bridge sites of neighbouring hexagons of graphene. This configuration again leads to distortion of the sheet in perpendicular direction

  10. Atomic Energy Commission Act, 2000 (Act 588)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Act 588 of the Republic of Ghana entitled, Atomic Energy Commission Act, 2000, amends and consolidates the Atomic Energy Commission Act, 204 of 1963 relating to the establishment of the Atomic Energy Commission. Act 588 makes provision for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission to establish more institutes for the purpose of research in furtherance of its functions and also promote the commercialization of its research and development results. (E.A.A.)

  11. Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C.L. 308) seeks to amend the Atomic Energy Commission Act of 1963 (Act 204) so as to provide for the establishment of a Radiation Protection Board and other institutes under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The Law further repeats the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law of 1982 (P.N.D.C.L. 37). (EAA)

  12. Atomic Energy Authority Bill (Lords)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eadie, A.; Goodlad, A.; Fisher, M.; Griffiths, P.; Coombs, S.

    1986-01-30

    The discussions of one of the standing committees of the House of Lords on the Atomic Energy Authority Bill are reported verbatim. Clauses 6, 9 and new clauses 3, 2 and 4 were discussed. The amendments to the clauses were put and debated. The safety requirements of the nuclear industry and the money necessary for these are discussed. At the end of the debate on each clause (and amendments if any), the decision of the House as to its agreement or otherwise is recorded. It was agreed that the Bill, as amended by the committee, should be reported to the (full) House of Lords. The debate lasted 1 3/4 hours.

  13. Atomic Energy Research benchmark activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makai, M.

    1998-01-01

    The test problems utilized in the validation and verification process of computer programs in Atomic Energie Research are collected into one bunch. This is the first step towards issuing a volume in which tests for VVER are collected, along with reference solutions and a number of solutions. The benchmarks do not include the ZR-6 experiments because they have been published along with a number of comparisons in the Final reports of TIC. The present collection focuses on operational and mathematical benchmarks which cover almost the entire range of reaktor calculation. (Author)

  14. Atomic Energy Authority Act 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    This Act provides for the transfer of property, rights, liabilities and obligations of parts of the undertaking of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Autority, to two new Compagnies set up for this purpose: the Bristish Nuclear Fuels Limited, and the Radiochemical Centre Limited. Patents licences and registered designs owned by the Autority at the time of the transfer are not included therein. The Act also includes amendments to the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, notably as regards permits to operate granted to a body corporate. Finally, the Schedule to this Act lays down a certain number of provisions relating to security and the preservation of secrets. (NEA) [fr

  15. The State and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungk, R.

    1991-01-01

    Illustrous, eloquent, and yet easy to read for the interested layman, the book begins with alleged deplorable conditions at the reprocessing centra La Hague, portrays, amongst other things, the spying on and supervision of persons in the nuclear field and in research, the misuse of fissile material, and threats and blackmail as a consequence thereof, human error as a cause of accidents, and it concludes with a nonviolent new International against the state and atomic energy, against technological tyranny. Titles of chapters: The hard road; radiation feed; the gamblers; homo atomicus; the intimidated; the ''proliferators''; nuclear terrorists; those supervised; the smooth road. It remains an open question whether the book contributes to defusing the nuclear controversy - in the book almost an ideology - and to bringing the two sides closer together. (HP) [de

  16. Simulation of N-atom production in dielectric-barrier discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, Dmitry; Pancheshnyi, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    A plasma-chemical model of atomic nitrogen production in a Townsend dielectric-barrier discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure is presented. On the basis of the comparison with measured densities, a significant discrepancy between the calculated and the measured production rate of nitrogen atoms is observed and discussed. (paper)

  17. Design of atomic energy information network system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. T.; Lee, E. J.; Han, K. W.; Lee, H. C.; Chang, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    As the 21 st century is expected to induce a Knowledge based society, responding to this kind of change on our own initiative could be achieved by establishing networks among atomic energy agencies with the Atomic Energy Portal Site in a pivotal role. Thus, enabling the knowledge information from each agency to be easily shared and utilized. Furthermore, it can contribute to further researches by providing accumulated knowledge in the atomic energy, such as research output and past achievements, and by avoiding the repetition of researches on the same subjects. It could also provide remote educational data to researchers and industrial experts in atomic energy, as well as atomic energy information for general public consistently, so that we can promote our confidence in atomic energy

  18. Atomic Energy (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Act extends the power of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority to dispose of shares held by it in any company, and the power of the Secretary of State for Energy to dispose of shares held by him in companies engaged in activities in the field of atomic energy or radioactive substances. (NEA) [fr

  19. Changes of the electronic structure of the atoms of nitrogen in nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes under the influence of pulsed ion radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korusenko, P.M., E-mail: korusenko@obisp.oscsbras.ru [Omsk Scientific Centre, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Karl Marx Avenue, 15, Omsk 644024 (Russian Federation); Bolotov, V.V.; Nesov, S.N.; Povoroznyuk, S.N. [Omsk Scientific Centre, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Karl Marx Avenue, 15, Omsk 644024 (Russian Federation); Khailov, I.P. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Ave. 2a, Tomsk 634028 (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-01

    With the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) there have been investigated the changes of the chemical state of nitrogen atoms in the structure of nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CN{sub x}-MWCNTs) resulting from the impact of pulsed ion beam at various parameters of the beam (energy density, number of pulses). It has been established that irradiation with the pulsed ion beam leads to a reduction of the total amount of nitrogen in CN{sub x} nanotubes. It has been shown that a single pulse irradiation of ion beam at the energy densities of 0.5, 1, 1.5 J/cm{sup 2} leads to restructuring of the nitrogen from pyridinic and pyrrolic configuration to graphitic state. Complete removal of nitrogen (pyridinic, pyrrolic, graphitic) embedded in the structure of the walls of CN{sub x} nanotubes occurs at ten pulses and 1.5 J/cm{sup 2}.

  20. Energy levels of muonic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borie, E.; Rinker, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    The theory of muonic atoms is a complex and highly developed combination of nuclear physics, atomic physics, and quantum electrodynamics. Perhaps nowhere else in microscopic physics are such diverse branches so intimately intertwined and yet readily available for precise experimental verification or rejection. In the present review we summarize and discuss all of the most important components of muonic atom theory, and show in selected cases how this theory meets experimental measurements

  1. Atomic energy in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-06-15

    Most countries in Latin America, including all those on the mainland, are Members of the Agency. Interest in the possibilities of nuclear energy has led to considerable activity, much of it in direct collaboration with the IAEA. Member States in the region are: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela. Of these, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela are operating, and Mexico and Uruguay are constructing, research reactors, while Chile and Peru are studying proposals. Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Uruguay have all agreed to accept Agency safeguards for reactors. The possibility of future needs for nuclear power is under examination by several countries, in some cases being related to desalination of water. All atomic work in Latin America is devoted to peaceful uses, and note-worthy progress has been made with proposals for a treaty which would make the whole region a militarily de-nuclearized zone. It is proposed that when this comes into effect the Agency will be asked to apply the controls developed in its safeguards system, and to carry out the inspections necessary to establish that work in progress is solely for peaceful purposes

  2. Atomic energy in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Most countries in Latin America, including all those on the mainland, are Members of the Agency. Interest in the possibilities of nuclear energy has led to considerable activity, much of it in direct collaboration with the IAEA. Member States in the region are: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela. Of these, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela are operating, and Mexico and Uruguay are constructing, research reactors, while Chile and Peru are studying proposals. Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Uruguay have all agreed to accept Agency safeguards for reactors. The possibility of future needs for nuclear power is under examination by several countries, in some cases being related to desalination of water. All atomic work in Latin America is devoted to peaceful uses, and note-worthy progress has been made with proposals for a treaty which would make the whole region a militarily de-nuclearized zone. It is proposed that when this comes into effect the Agency will be asked to apply the controls developed in its safeguards system, and to carry out the inspections necessary to establish that work in progress is solely for peaceful purposes

  3. Atomic energy indemnification system in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Eiichi

    1980-01-01

    The Japanese legislation on the indemnification by atomic energy enterprisers for atomic energy damages, published in 1961 and enforced in 1962, includes the law concerning indemnification for atomic energy damages and the law concerning atomic energy damage indemnification contracts (hereafter referred to as ''the law concerning indemnification contracts''). While the Japanese laws are same as the foreign legislation in the provisions of the responsibility of atomic energy damages without the error of atomic energy enterprisers, exemption reasons are more important in this respect. When damages are due to exceptionally grave natural disasters or social disturbances, atomic energy enterprisers are exempted from the responsibility. Indemnification amounts are determined, but the Japanese laws do not limit then, different from the foreign regulations. The periods for demanding indemnification are not defined particularly in the law concerning indemnification contracts, and the general basic rules of the civil law are applied. As a result, the demand right terminates in 3 years after the injured persons find damage and offenders, and in 20 years since the unlawful act (Article 724, Civil law). The indemnification liability for atomic energy damages is focused on atomic energy enterprisers concerned in the same way as the foreign laws. The measures for assuring the execution of indemnification responsibility consist in principle of the firm conbination of the liability insurance contracts with private insurance companies and the indemnification contracts for atomic energy damages with the state. The damages of employes suffered in works are excluded from indemnification, which has been the main issue of discussion since the enactment of atomic energy laws. (Okada, K.)

  4. Vibrational, atomical and electronic relaxation in a nitrogen plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselin, P.; Dudeck, M.

    1994-07-01

    This is a simplified approach of the characterization of a plasma stationary flow in chemical and electronic disequilibrium conditions by Navier-Stokes equations. The INCA code (AMTEC, USA) is a three-dimensional monolithic calculation code. A computer program for a mono-dimensional evolution of the formed species concentrations in a nitrogen plasma, including conservative equations of vibrational and electronic energies in order to deduce the corresponding temperature profiles. (A.B.). 14 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs

  5. International Atomic Energy Agency and Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Rahim Mohd Nor

    1985-01-01

    A review on IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and its relation with Malaysia is given. This article also discusses the background history of IAEA, its organization and functions in the field of nuclear energy

  6. Electron Energy Deposition in Atomic Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-06

    Jackman , and A.E.S. Green, J. Chem. Phys. 65, 154 (1976). 10. R.H. Garvey, H.S. Porter, and A.E.S. Green, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4353 (1977). 11. R.B...Stolarski, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 34, 1703 (1972). 29. A.E.S. Green and T. Savada, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 34, 1719 (1972). 30. C.H. Jackman , R.1...S.E. Albuquerque, H 87106 Physics International, Inc. Attn: Dr. Brendan Godfrey 2700 Merced Street Dr. Thomas Hughes San Leandro, CA. 94577 Dr

  7. Atomic Energy Authority (Weapons Group) Act 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    This Act, which came into force on 6th March 1973 and modified Section 2 of the Atomic Energy Authority Act 1954 in respect of the Authority's power to do work on explosive nuclear devices, made provision for the transfer to the Secretary of State for Defence of the Weapons Group of the Atomic Energy Authority. (NEA) [fr

  8. Efficiencies for production of atomic nitrogen and oxygen by relativistic proton impact in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, H. S.; Jackman, C. H.; Green, A. E. S.

    1976-01-01

    Relativistic electron and proton impact cross sections are obtained and represented by analytic forms which span the energy range from threshold to 1 GeV. For ionization processes, the Massey-Mohr continuum generalized oscillator strength surface is parameterized. Parameters are determined by simultaneous fitting to (1) empirical data, (2) the Bethe sum rule, and (3) doubly differential cross sections for ionization. Branching ratios for dissociation and predissociation from important states of N2 and O2 are determined. The efficiency for the production of atomic nitrogen and oxygen by protons with kinetic energy less than 1 GeV is determined using these branching ratio and cross section assignments.

  9. Atomic Energy Law with ordinances. 9. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The revised edition of the text is due to a variety of major changes in, and amendments to, the German Atomic Energy Law. This book includes the current version of the Atomic Energy Law which has been changed several times, the 1982-version of the ordinace concerning procedures laid down in the Atomic Energy Law, the 1976 radiation protection ordinance together with recent amendments, the 1973 X-ray ordinance, the 1977 financial security ordinance laid down in the Atomic Energy Law, the 1981 ordinance concerning costs, the ordinance concerning performance in anticipation of ultimate disposal. The book is a compilation of the basic Atomic Energy Law which is needed mostly for imminent practical requirements. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. Atomic Energy Act 1953-1966

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Act 1953-1966 establishes the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and lays down its powers, duties, rules of procedure and financing. The members of the Commission are appointed by the Governor-General. It is responsible, inter alia, for all activities covering uranium research, mining and trading as well as for atomic energy development and nuclear plant construction and operation. Its duties also include training of scientific research workers and collection and dissemination of information on atomic energy. For purposes of security, the Act further-more prescribes sanctions in relation to unauthorised acquisition or communication of information on this subject. Finally, the Act repeals the Atomic Energy (Control of Materials) Act 1946 and 1952. (NEA) [fr

  11. The production and escape of nitrogen atoms on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Updated rate coefficients and a revised ionosphere-thermosphere model are used to compute the production rates and densities of odd nitrogen species in the Martian atmosphere. Computed density profiles for N(4S), N(2D), N(2P), and NO are presented. The model NO densities are found to be about a factor of 2-3 less than those measured by the Viking 1 mass spectrometer. Revised values for the escape rates of N atoms from dissociative recombination and ionospheric reactions are also computed. Dissociative recombination is found to be comparable in importance to photodissociation at low solar activity, but it is still the most important escape mechanism for N-14 at high solar activity.

  12. Atomic energy levels and Grotrian diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkin, Stanley

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Energy Levels and Grotrian Diagrams, Volume I: Hydrogen I - Phosphorus XV presents diagrams of various elements that show their energy level and electronic transitions. The book covers the first 15 elements according to their atomic number. The text will be of great use to researchers and practitioners of fields such as astrophysics that requires pictorial representation of the energy levels and electronic transitions of elements.

  13. The relation between the production efficiency of nitrogen atoms and the electrical characteristics of a dielectric barrier discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, F.J.J.; Yang, R.; van de Sanden, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    In a nitrogen plasma jet, atomic nitrogen is the longest lived radical species and, through recombination, gives rise to highly reactive excited nitrogen species. In this paper, the atomic nitrogen concentration in the effluent of a nitrogen-fed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is determined by

  14. Intergovernmental organisation activities: European Atomic Energy Community, International Atomic Energy Agency, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    European Atomic Energy Community: Proposed legislative instruments, Adopted legislative instruments, Non-legislative instruments, Other activities (meetings). International Atomic Energy Agency: IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: The Russian Federation to join the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency; Participation by the regulatory authorities of India and the United Arab Emirates in the Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP); NEA International Workshop on Crisis Communication, 9-10 May 2012; International School of Nuclear Law: 2013; Next NEA International Nuclear Law Essentials Course

  15. Nitrogen Atom Transfer From High Valent Iron Nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michael D. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Smith, Jeremy M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2015-10-14

    This report describes the synthesis and reactions of high valent iron nitrides. Organonitrogen compounds such as aziridines are useful species for organic synthesis, but there are few efficient methods for their synthesis. Using iron nitrides to catalytically access these species may allow for their synthesis in an energy-and atom-efficient manner. We have developed a new ligand framework to achieve these goals as well as providing a method for inducing previously unknown reactivity.

  16. A History of the Atomic Energy Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Alice L.

    1983-07-01

    This pamphlet traces the history of the US Atomic Energy Commission's twenty-eight year stewardship of the Nation's nuclear energy program, from the signing of the Atomic Energy Act on August 1, 1946 to the signing of the Energy Reorganization Act on October 11, 1974. The Commission's early concentration on the military atom produced sophisticated nuclear weapons for the Nation's defense and made possible the creation of a fleet of nuclear submarines and surface ships. Extensive research in the nuclear sciences resulted in the widespread application of nuclear technology for scientific, medical and industrial purposes, while the passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 made possible the development of a nuclear industry, and enabled the United States to share the new technology with other nations.

  17. History of the Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, A.L.

    1983-07-01

    This pamphlet traces the history of the US Atomic Energy Commission's twenty-eight year stewardship of the Nation's nuclear energy program, from the signing of the Atomic Energy Act on August 1, 1946 to the signing of the Energy Reorganization Act on October 11, 1974. The Commission's early concentration on the military atom produced sophisticated nuclear weapons for the Nation's defense and made possible the creation of a fleet of nuclear submarines and surface ships. Extensive research in the nuclear sciences resulted in the widespread application of nuclear technology for scientific, medical and industrial purposes, while the passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 made possible the development of a nuclear industry, and enabled the United States to share the new technology with other nations

  18. History of the Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, A.L.

    1982-08-01

    This pamphlet traces the history of the Atomic Energy Commission's twenty-eight year stewardship of the Nation's nuclear energy program, from the signing of the Atomic Energy Act on August 1, 1946, to the signing of the Energy Reorganization Act on October 11, 1974. The Commission's early concentration on the military atom produced sophisticated nuclear weapons for the Nation's defense and made possible the creation of a fleet of nuclear submarines and surface ships. Extensive research in the nuclear sciences resulted in the widespread application of nuclear technology for scientific, medical and industrial purposes, while the passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 made possible the development of a nuclear industry, and enabled the United States to share the new technology with other nations

  19. Atomic Energy Amendment Act 1978, No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Act amends certain Sections of the Atomic Energy Act 1953. The principal modifications concern the definitions of atomic energy, prescribed substances, the provision and supply of uranium in relation to the functions of the Atomic Energy Commission, compliance with the agreement with the IAEA on the application of safeguards under the Non-Proliferation Treaty as well as with any agreement with any other international organization or another country. The Act also amends the 1953 Act in respect of the control of prescribed substances and repeals the section concerning jurisdiction of courts. (NEA) [fr

  20. Transfer of energy in an atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemin, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    In most cases the nucleus does not interact with the electron cloud because its energy range is far higher, but in some rare cases electrons from the electron cloud and the nucleus may exchange energy: an electron may de-excite by transferring a part of its energy to the nucleus that becomes itself excited (nuclear excitation by electronic transfer or NEET), conversely electrons can receive energy from the nucleus (bound internal conversion or BIC). For the first time both energy transfers have been observed: a BIC process on a tellurium-125 atom by a French team and a NEET process on a gold-197 atom by a Japanese team. (A.C.)

  1. Establishment of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    A goal of the 21. century is for society to pursue 'sustainable economic development and prosperous life by recycling resources', thus rejecting 'development based on the waste of resources'. For Japan, which has limited energy resources, it is important to secure safe, inexpensive, environmentally friendly energy resources having long-term availability. To contribute to long-term energy security and solve global environmental issues, and to create advanced competitive science and technology, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was established by integrating the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) in October 2005. JAEA is endeavoring to establish nuclear fuel cycles, to contribute to social improvement through hydrogen production initiated by atomic energy, and to pursue research and development of thermonuclear fusion and quantum beam technology. This paper reviews the main R and D activities of JAEA. The structure of the paper is the following: 1. Introduction; 2. Japan Atomic Energy Agency; 3. Efforts to Commercialize the Fast Reactor Cycle; 4. Monju Progress; 5. Geological Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste R and D; 6. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor System R and D; 7. Fusion Research and Development; 8. LWR Spent Fuel Reprocessing Technology; 9. Quantum Beam Technologies; 10. Nuclear Safety Research and Regulatory Applications; 11. Basic Science and Engineering Research; 12. Contribution to the Enhanced International Nonproliferation Regimes; 13. Conclusions. To summarize, JAEA will promote the above R and D activities, addressing the following commitments: - On problems that atomic energy faces, we shall extend technical assistance in response to the government and the industrial sectors. - We shall produce technical options to attain political goals to secure medium to long-term stable energy supplies and to solve global environmental issues. - With the high potentials of atomic

  2. Why? The nuclear and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwangwoong

    2009-01-01

    This book is a science comic book for students in elementary school, which contains energy and life such as our body and energy, animal and energy, plant and energy, kinetic energy, potential energy and the principle of the conservation of energy in the first part. The second part explains fossil fuel like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Next it deals with electric power, nuclear energy such as atom and molecule, nuclear fusion and energy for future like solar cell and black hole power plant.

  3. Why? The nuclear and atomic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwangwoong

    2009-01-15

    This book is a science comic book for students in elementary school, which contains energy and life such as our body and energy, animal and energy, plant and energy, kinetic energy, potential energy and the principle of the conservation of energy in the first part. The second part explains fossil fuel like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Next it deals with electric power, nuclear energy such as atom and molecule, nuclear fusion and energy for future like solar cell and black hole power plant.

  4. Atomic energy control board. History backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) is a regulatory agency set up by the Government of Canada under the Atomic Energy Control Act of 1946 to assist the Government in its efforts to make provision for the control and supervision of the development, application and use of atomic energy and to enable Canada to participate effectively in measures of international control of atomic energy. It is also responsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. An overview is presented of the AECB's evolution in chronological form, its major current activities, and some of the challenges expected in the next decade

  5. White paper on atomic energy in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    Since the publication of its last White Paper on Atomic Energy in 2004, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan (AEC) summarized trends covering all aspects of nuclear energy over the period up to December 2005. This paper is comprised of a main document and supplementary materials. In the first chapter of the main document, the first section summarized the changes on research, development and utilization of nuclear energy in 50 years from establishment of the Atomic Energy Basic Law. The second section summarized that nuclear energy utilization (energy utilization and radiation utilization) for contributing to the welfare of humanity and the improvement of the standard of living of the people, and the appropriate direction in the future and the recognitions to become its background of nuclear policies that indicated in 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy' (AEC decided at October 2005), concerning fundamental activities, R and D activities and international activities that essential for the realization of nuclear energy utilization. The second chapter summarized recent trends of national and private activities on research, development and utilization of nuclear energy, covering the topics 'Nuclear Energy Policy in Japan', 'Strengthening Fundamental Activities on Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy', 'Steady Promotion of Nuclear Energy Utilization', Promotion of Nuclear Energy Research and Development', Promotion of International Activity', 'Various Evaluation on Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. The supplementary materials include lists of AEC decisions, nuclear energy budgets, year-by-year data tables, and other such similar materials. (J.P.N.)

  6. Atomic energy today: An urgent dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronado, G.

    1997-01-01

    This article compiles the trajectory of the nuclear energy, in different countries of the world, since 1939. It also makes reference to the nuclear accidents that have happened in the past. It contains information of other applications of the nuclear energy, such as: the atomic industry of energetic production and alternatives to the nuclear energy [es

  7. Electricity supply without atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaum, U.; Duering, K.; Moenig, W.; Mueller, M.; Pohlmann, M.; Wagner, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Alongside their bill for the immediate closure of all atomic power stations in the F.R.G. (Drs. 10/1913 of the German Bundestag), the parliamentary Greens handed over a study, presented in October 1984, to the F- and T-Committee of the Bundestag for debate. This paper analyses the hypotheses and statements of these discussions. A summary is attached in the appendix. (orig.) [de

  8. The Future of Atomic Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, E.

    1946-05-27

    There is definitely a technical possibility that atomic power may gradually develop into one of the principal sources of useful power. If this expectation will prove correct, great advantages can be expected to come from the fact that the weight of the fuel is almost negligible. This feature may be particularly valuable for making power available to regions of difficult access and far from deposits of coal. It also may prove a great asset in mobile power units for example in a power plant for ship propulsion. On the negative side there are some technical limitations to be applicability of atomic power of which perhaps the most serious is the impossibility of constructing light power units; also there will be some peculiar difficulties in operating atomic plants, as for example the necessity of handling highly radioactive substances which will necessitate, at least for some considerable period, the use of specially skilled personnel for the operation. But the chief obstacle in the way of developing atomic power will be the difficulty of organizing a large scale industrial development in an internationally safe way. This presents actually problems much more difficult to solve than any of the technical developments that are necessary, It will require an unusual amount of statesmanship to balance properly the necessity of allaying the international suspicion that arises from withholding technical secrets against the obvious danger of dumping the details of the procedures for an extremely dangerous new method of warfare on a world that may not yet be prepared to renounce war. Furthermore, the proper balance should be found in the relatively short time that will elapse before the 'secrets' will naturally become open knowledge by rediscovery on part of the scientists and engineers of other countries.

  9. On the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklund, S [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1963-07-15

    The main concepts motivating the decision to establish an international agency for peaceful uses of atomic energy are presented in the paper. They consists of: 1) co-ordination in the fields of safety field, legal liability and safeguards; 2) ensuring that scientific and technical data are made freely accessible on a worldwide scale and 3) assisting the developing countries in benefiting from this new science and technology and use the atomic energy for economic and social development

  10. Externalities of energy and atomic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    Energy technology ensures not only energy supply but also has great impacts on society and environments. Economical value and effect evaluation alone doesn't mean appropriate so the evaluation of 'externalities' should be appreciated. In order to assess atomic power in this context, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan set up a research committee on 'externalities of energy and atomic power' from April 2002 to March 2006, whose activities were described in this report. In addition to environmental effects and environmental externalities, four areas were newly studied as follows: (1) biological effects of low dose rate exposure and externalities, (2) externalities as social/economical effects including stable supply and security, (3) energy technologies evaluation and (4) social choice and decision-making. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Report of Atomic Energy Group of Advisory Committee for Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The report consists of two chapters. Chapter 1 addresses the present status and future trends in the field of atomic energy. The present conditions of atomic energy development and social background behind them are described first. Features of atomic energy is discussed in relation to its technique-intensive aspect, stability of supply, stability of price, environmental load, and handling of radioactive materials. The relations of these features with energy policies are then discussed, focusing on basic political principles, optimum combination of various energy sources, and the role to be played by atomic energy. This chapter then deals with future trends in atomic energy development efforts and major problems remaining to be solved. Future supply and demand of energy and electric power are discussed. Problems related with atomic energy development are described focusing on some severe conditions depressing the development activities, and measures to be taken immediately. Chapter 2 describes important issues and measures to be taken in the future towards atomic energy development. Discussion is made on safety measures, back-end measures, promotion of location activities, and publicity. (N.K.)

  12. Atomic state and characterization of nitrogen at the SiC/SiO2 interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.; Garfunkel, E. L.; Zhu, X.; Lee, H. D.; Xu, C.; Shubeita, S. M.; Gustafsson, T.; Ahyi, A. C.; Sharma, Y.; Williams, J. R.; Lu, W.; Ceesay, S.; Tuttle, B. R.; Pantelides, S. T.; Wan, A.; Feldman, L. C.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the concentration, chemical bonding, and etching behavior of N at the SiC(0001)/SiO 2 interface using photoemission, ion scattering, and computational modeling. For standard NO processing of a SiC MOSFET, a sub-monolayer of nitrogen is found in a thin inter-layer between the substrate and the gate oxide (SiO 2 ). Photoemission shows one main nitrogen related core-level peak with two broad, higher energy satellites. Comparison to theory indicates that the main peak is assigned to nitrogen bound with three silicon neighbors, with second nearest neighbors including carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms. Surprisingly, N remains at the surface after the oxide was completely etched by a buffered HF solution. This is in striking contrast to the behavior of Si(100) undergoing the same etching process. We conclude that N is bound directly to the substrate SiC, or incorporated within the first layers of SiC, as opposed to bonding within the oxide network. These observations provide insights into the chemistry and function of N as an interface passivating additive in SiC MOSFETs

  13. The Mean Excitation Energy of Atomic Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Stephan; Oddershede, Jens; Sabin, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A method for calculation of the mean excitation energies of atomic ions is presented, making the calculation of the energy deposition of fast ions to plasmas, warm, dense matter, and complex biological systems possible. Results are reported to all ions of helium, lithium, carbon, neon, aluminum...

  14. The Harnessed Atom: Nuclear Energy & Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    This document is part of a nuclear energy curriculum designed for grades six through eight. The complete kit includes a written text, review exercises, activities for the students, and a teachers guide. The 19 lessons in the curriculum are divided into four units including: (1) "Energy and Electricity"; (2) "Understanding Atoms and Radiation"; (3)…

  15. Atomic Energy Authority Act 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Under this Act the UKAEA is given power to borrow so that it can finance its capital expenditure programme, and will undertake a debt to the Secretary of State for Energy representing its assets. Power is given for the Government to guarantee such borrowing. The UKAEA has been organised financially on the basis of a trading fund. The Act came into force on 1 April 1986. (NEA) [fr

  16. Soil and fertilizer nitrogen. Review study with particular reference to plant nutrition and environmental protection sponsored by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winteringham, F P.W.

    1984-01-01

    As a result of the intensified practices and effectively diminishing land resources per capita, increasing weights of both native soil- and added fertilizer-nitrogen will be lost to agriculture and its products, and will find their way into the environment. Soil-nitrogen levels and contingent productivity can nevertheless be maintained in the face of these losses on the basis of improved soil-N management. In some local situations nitrate levels in water for drinking purposes are likely to continue rising. In some cases agriculture and clearance practices are only one of several sources. In others they are clearly mainly responsible. In developing countries these losses represent those of a relatively increasingly costly input. This is due to the fact that industrial fertilizer nitrogen production is a particularly high energy-consuming process. In the more advanced industrialized countries they represent an addition to the problems and costs of environmental quality and health protection. The programmes, information and data reviewed here suggest that these problems can be contained by improved and extended soil and water management in agriculture on the basis of existing technology. In particular there appears to be enormous scope for the better exploitation of existing legumes both as non-legume crop alternatives or as biofertilizers which also possess more desirable C:N ratios than chemical fertilizer.

  17. Ozone depletion, greenhouse effect and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adzersen, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    After describing the causes and effects of ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect, the author discusses the alternative offered by the nuclear industry. In his opinion, a worldwide energy strategy of risk minimisation will not be possible unless efficient energy use is introduced immediately, efficiently and on a reliable basis. Atomic energy is not viewed as an acceptable means of preventing the threatening climate change. (DG) [de

  18. Atomic Energy Authority Bill (Lords) - second reading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In the debate in the House of Commons on the second reading of the Atomic Energy Bill, the objective of which is to put the finances of the Authority on to a trading fund basis, the discussion included the following: proposed changes in method of financing the Authority; safety; underlying research; customer relations; accountability; personnel; public relations; radioactive waste management; energy research; parliamentary scrutiny; energy policy; nuclear power; fast reactors; fusion research; government policy. (U.K.)

  19. Production of excited nitrogen atoms and ions by electron impact on nitrogen molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rall, D.L.A.; Anderson, L.W.; Lin, C.C.; Sharpton, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    Emission lines of the N atoms and N ions are produced by electron-beam dissociative excitation of N 2 molecules. The ns→3 /sub p/ (n=5 to 9), np→3s (n=3 to 7), nd→3 /sub p/ (n=4 to 8), nf→3d (n=4,5) transitions of N and the 3 /sub p/ →3s, 3d→3p, 4s→3p, 4p→3d, 4f→3d transitions of N + have been observed and optical emission cross sections at various incident electron energies have been measured. The energy dependence of the cross sections of the N emission lines is similar to that of the N + lines at high incident electron energies, but the low-energy behaviors are quite different. These features are explained by the mechanisms involved in the production of the excited N atoms and N + ions. Absolute optical emission cross sections for the N and N + lines are presented

  20. Review and prospects of Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartkopf, G.

    1983-01-01

    At the 7th German Symposium on Atomic Energy Law which took place on March 16th, 1983 in Goettingen the Undersecretary of State of the Federal Ministery of the Interior, Dr. Guenter Hartkopf, delivered the opening speech. The speech deals with the conditions set by constitutional law and ethics, improvement of nuclear liability, guide line for incident response, participation of the public in licensing procedures under atomic energy law, necessary measures to prevent damage, the concept of waste management. Also in future the safety of the citizens has absolute priority. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. White paper on atomic energy in 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In Japan, there are currently 21 nuclear power plants in operation with a total capacity of 15,000MW. Under the present situation of the so-called second energy crisis, the role of nuclear power is assuming increasingly more importance. The white paper is presented covering the one year period from October 1978; statistics, however, are for fiscal 1978. Contents are the following: part I general ''world nuclear power situation, advances in nuclear energy, the outlook for 1980s''; part II the status of nuclear power ''nuclear power generation, nuclear power safety, nuclear fuel cycle, international activities, safeguards, development of power reactors, nuclear fusion/nuclear powered ship/high-temperature gas cooled reactor, radiation utilization, basic research, nuclear power industry''; part III references (organization/plans of Atomic Energy Commission etc., atomic energy budgets, nuclear energy statistics, etc.). (J.P.N.)

  2. The energy crisis and Bonn's atomic energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaus, K.; Heimbrecht, J.

    1979-01-01

    What are the background and causes of the energy crisis. In whose interest and on whose back is energy policy made in our country. Will the lights go out without nuclear power. Which are the real goals and dangers of Bonn's atomic energy programme. Is coal a real alternative to nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany. What possibilities and requirements are there for a national and democratic energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany. Which are the central problems of the protest movement against the government's atomic energy programme. These questions, which are still in the centre of political discussion, are investigated by the authors. (orig.) [de

  3. Reactions of Ground State Nitrogen Atoms N(4S) with Astrochemically-Relevant Molecules on Interstellar Dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krim, Lahouari; Nourry, Sendres

    2015-06-01

    In the last few years, ambitious programs were launched to probe the interstellar medium always more accurately. One of the major challenges of these missions remains the detection of prebiotic compounds and the understanding of reaction pathways leading to their formation. These complex heterogeneous reactions mainly occur on icy dust grains, and their studies require the coupling of laboratory experiments mimicking the extreme conditions of extreme cold and dilute media. For that purpose, we have developed an original experimental approach that combine the study of heterogeneous reactions (by exposing neutral molecules adsorbed on ice to non-energetic radicals H, OH, N...) and a neon matrix isolation study at very low temperatures, which is of paramount importance to isolate and characterize highly reactive reaction intermediates. Such experimental approach has already provided answers to many questions raised about some astrochemically-relevant reactions occurring in the ground state on the surface of dust grain ices in dense molecular clouds. The aim of this new present work is to show the implication of ground state atomic nitrogen on hydrogen atom abstraction reactions from some astrochemically-relevant species, at very low temperatures (3K-20K), without providing any external energy. Under cryogenic temperatures and with high barrier heights, such reactions involving N(4S) nitrogen atoms should not occur spontaneously and require an initiating energy. However, the detection of some radicals species as byproducts, in our solid samples left in the dark for hours at 10K, proves that hydrogen abstraction reactions involving ground state N(4S) nitrogen atoms may occur in solid phase at cryogenic temperatures. Our results show the efficiency of radical species formation stemming from non-energetic N-atoms and astrochemically-relevant molecules. We will then discuss how such reactions, involving nitrogen atoms in their ground states, might be the first key step

  4. Golden mean energy equals highest atomic electron orbital energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, Leonard J. [Interdisciplinary Research Club, P.O. Box 371, Monroeville, PA 15146 (United States)], E-mail: LJMalinowski@gmail.com

    2009-12-15

    The golden mean numerical value {phi} = 0.5({radical}5 - 1) has been given a physical manifestation through E infinity theory. This short paper relates the golden mean energy 0.618034 MeV to atomic electron orbitals.

  5. Golden mean energy equals highest atomic electron orbital energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, Leonard J.

    2009-01-01

    The golden mean numerical value φ = 0.5(√5 - 1) has been given a physical manifestation through E infinity theory. This short paper relates the golden mean energy 0.618034 MeV to atomic electron orbitals.

  6. Scattering of Hyperthermal Nitrogen Atoms from the Ag(111) Surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ueta, H.; Gleeson, M. A.; Kleyn, A. W.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements on scattering of hyperthermal N atoms from the Ag(111) Surface at temperatures of 500, 600, and 730 K are presented. The scattered atoms have a two-component angular distribution. One of the N components is very broad. In contrast, scattered Ar atoms exhibit only a sharp,

  7. Atomic Energy Act and ordinances. 8. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The new issue of the text contains the Atomic Energy Act (AtG) in its new wording of the announcement of 31 Oct 76, the new wording of the ordinances put in effect in 1977: Atomic procedure ordinance (AtVfV), radiation protection ordinance (SSU), and atomic financial security ordinance (AtDeckV); furthermore the x-ray ordinance (RoeV) of 1978 in its wording which has been changed by the radiation protection ordinance. Also printed are the cost ordinance (AtKostV) of 1971, the food irradiation ordinance (LebensmBestrV) in the wording of 1975 and the medicine ordinance (ArzneimV) in the wording of 1971. An addition was made by adding to the liability laws the Paris agreement (PUE) on the liability towards third persons in the field of nuclear energy in the wording of the announcement of 5 Feb 76. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Ab Initio Assessment of the Bonding in Disulfonates Containing Divalent Nitrogen and Phosphorus Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vinca Bonde; Berg, Rolf W.; Shim, Irene

    2017-01-01

    The iminodisulfonate, [N(SO3)2]3–, and phosphinodisulfonate, [P(SO3)2]3–, ions have been investigated by performing ab initio MP2/6-311+G**calculations. The nitrogen and phosphorus atoms as part of the ions are shown to be divalent with a negative charge and two lone pairs on the nitrogen...

  9. Danish Atomic Energy Commission 1974/75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-11-01

    Activities of the Danish Atomic Energy Commission and the Risoe eesearch Establishment for the period April1, 1974 to March 31, 1975 are summarized. The operations of the various facilities at the Research Establishment are revised. Operating staff levels and financial data are tabulated, a selected list of staff publications is given, and the design data on research facilities are presented. (B.P.)

  10. Philippine Atomic Energy Commission: Annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication gives the highlights of the research and development projects of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission in agriculture and food, nuclear fuels and power system technology, medicine, public health and nutrition, environmental surveillance, supportive basic research, social response to nuclear technology, nuclear licensing and safeguards, supportive technology and international and local linkages including manpower development. (ELC)

  11. The International Atomic Energy Agency's safeguards system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, W.

    2000-01-01

    A system of international safeguards has been established to provide assurance that nuclear materials in civilian use are not diverted from their peaceful purpose. The safeguards system is administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency/Department of Safeguards and devolves from treaties and other international agreements. Inspectors from the Agency verify reports from States about nuclear facilities by audits, observation, and measurements. (author)

  12. Ghana Atomic Energy Commission: Annual Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report covers the activities and research progams of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission for the year 2001. The research programs and associated publications have been grouped under the three main institutes of the Commission namely National Nuclear Research Institute, Radiation Protection Institute and Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultre Research Institute.

  13. Ghana Atomic Energy Commission: Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report covers the activities and research progams of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission for the year 2001. The research programs and associated publications have been grouped under the three main institutes of the Commission namely National Nuclear Research Institute, Radiation Protection Institute and Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultre Research Institute

  14. International Atomic Energy Agency. Highlights of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1991-09-01

    This document provides a brief, well-illustrated summary of the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in the months up to September 1991. Especially mentioned are the programmes to enhance the safety of nuclear power, from the study of nuclear reactors to assessing the radiological consequences of reactor accidents, and the areas of non-proliferation and safeguards

  15. International Atomic Energy Agency: Highlights of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, A.

    1992-09-01

    This document provides a brief, well-illustrated summary of the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in the months up to September 1992. Especially mentioned are the programmes to enhance the safety of nuclear power, from the study of nuclear reactors to assessing the radiological consequences of reactor accidents, and the areas of non-proliferation and safeguards

  16. Institute of Atomic Energy - Annual Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2000-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1999. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well

  17. Institute of Atomic Energy - Annual Report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    1999-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute in 1998. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well

  18. Atomic Energy Act with ordinances. 16. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, E.

    1992-01-01

    The convenient edition contains the entire body of German atomic energy and radiation protection laws in their updated version as of June 1992. Thus it also takes the amendments of the Atomic Energy Act (Article 22 Paragraph 1 Sentence 1 and Paragraph 3 as well as Article 46 Paragraph 3 Atomic Energy Act) into account on the basis of the Law on the Establishment of a Federal Export Office from February 28, 1992 (Code of Federal Laws I, pp. 376 ff). As a result of this law, which became effective as of April 1, 1992, within the scope of business of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs, a federal export office was established which was endowed with the status of a federal agency. This office is in charge of administrative and supervisory tasks on the federal level. Within the framework of the atomic energy law this agency is in charge of export and import permits as well as the supervision of the export and import of nuclear fuel and other radioactive materials. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Energy dissipation in multifrequency atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Pukhova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The instantaneous displacement, velocity and acceleration of a cantilever tip impacting onto a graphite surface are reconstructed. The total dissipated energy and the dissipated energy per cycle of each excited flexural mode during the tip interaction is retrieved. The tip dynamics evolution is studied by wavelet analysis techniques that have general relevance for multi-mode atomic force microscopy, in a regime where few cantilever oscillation cycles characterize the tip–sample interaction.

  20. Viet Nam National Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Vietnam National Atomic Energy Commission (VINATOM) is a governmental body in charge of organizing and coordinating activities related to use of nuclear energy for peaceful purpose. VINATOM in structure consists of the Nuclear Research Institute (Dalat), the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (Hanoi), the Institute for Technology of Radioactive and Rare Elements (Hanoi), and the Centre for Nuclear Technique Application (Ho Chi Minh City). This catalogue introduces profiles of nuclear R and D activities under management by VINATOM. (N.H.A)

  1. Philippine Atomic Energy Commission: Annual report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    This publication enumerates the research and development activities of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission with priorities geared towards achieving the economic and social upliftment of the Filipinos in the field of agriculture, energy, industry, health and environment. Highlights are summaries of investigations and studies of great importance in crop improvement, animal production, nuclear fuels, nutrition research, not to mention its supportive technology, technical services, nuclear information and public acceptance, and nuclear manpower development. (RTD)

  2. First-principles study on the interaction of nitrogen atom with α–uranium: From surface adsorption to bulk diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Qiulei; Deng, Huiqiu; Xiao, Shifang; Li, Xiaofan; Hu, Wangyu; Ao, Bingyun; Chen, Piheng

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies of nitriding on uranium surfaces show that the modified layers provide considerable protection against air corrosion. The bimodal distribution of nitrogen is affected by both its implantation and diffusion, and the diffusion of nitrogen during implantation is also governed by vacancy trapping. In the present paper, nitrogen adsorption, absorption, diffusion, and vacancy trapping on the surface of and in the bulk of α–uranium are studied with a first-principles density functional theory approach and the climbing image nudged elastic band method. The calculated results indicate that, regardless of the nitrogen coverage, a nitrogen atom prefers to reside at the hollow1 site and octahedral (Oct) site on and below the surface, respectively. The lowest energy barriers for on-surface and penetration diffusion occur at a coverage of 1/2 monolayer. A nitrogen atom prefers to occupy the Oct site in bulk α–uranium. High energy barriers are observed during the diffusion between neighboring Oct sites. A vacancy can capture its nearby interstitial nitrogen atom with a low energy barrier, providing a significant attractive nitrogen-vacancy interaction at the trapping center site. This study provides a reference for understanding the nitriding process on uranium surfaces

  3. Effects of N2O and O2 addition to nitrogen Townsend dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure on the absolute ground-state atomic nitrogen density

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami

    2012-11-27

    Absolute ground-state density of nitrogen atoms N (2p3 4S3/2) in non-equilibrium Townsend dielectric barrier discharges (TDBDs) at atmospheric pressure sustained in N2/N2O and N2/O2 gas mixtures has been measured using Two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) spectroscopy. The quantitative measurements have been obtained by TALIF calibration using krypton as a reference gas. We previously reported that the maximum of N (2p3 4S3/2) atom density is around 3 × 1014 cm-3 in pure nitrogen TDBD, and that this maximum depends strongly on the mean energy dissipated in the gas. In the two gas mixtures studied here, results show that the absolute N (2p3 4S3/2) density is strongly affected by the N2O and O2 addition. Indeed, the density still increases exponentially with the energy dissipated in the gas but an increase in N2O and O2 amounts (a few hundreds of ppm) leads to a decrease in nitrogen atom density. No discrepancy in the order of magnitude of N (2p3 4S3/2) density is observed when comparing results obtained in N2/N2O and N2/O2 mixtures. Compared with pure nitrogen, for an energy of ∼90 mJ cm-3, the maximum of N (2p3 4S3/2) density drops by a factor of 3 when 100 ppm of N2O and O2 are added and it reduces by a factor of 5 for 200 ppm, to reach values close to our TALIF detection sensitivity for 400 ppm (1 × 1013 cm -3 at atmospheric pressure). © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Probing dark energy with atom interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrage, Clare; Copeland, Edmund J.; Hinds, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    Theories of dark energy require a screening mechanism to explain why the associated scalar fields do not mediate observable long range fifth forces. The archetype of this is the chameleon field. Here we show that individual atoms are too small to screen the chameleon field inside a large high-vacuum chamber, and therefore can detect the field with high sensitivity. We derive new limits on the chameleon parameters from existing experiments, and show that most of the remaining chameleon parameter space is readily accessible using atom interferometry

  5. Probing dark energy with atom interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, Clare; Copeland, Edmund J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Hinds, E.A., E-mail: Clare.Burrage@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: Edmund.Copeland@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: Ed.Hinds@imperial.ac.uk [Centre for Cold Matter, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    Theories of dark energy require a screening mechanism to explain why the associated scalar fields do not mediate observable long range fifth forces. The archetype of this is the chameleon field. Here we show that individual atoms are too small to screen the chameleon field inside a large high-vacuum chamber, and therefore can detect the field with high sensitivity. We derive new limits on the chameleon parameters from existing experiments, and show that most of the remaining chameleon parameter space is readily accessible using atom interferometry.

  6. Rovibrational coupling in molecular nitrogen at high temperature: An atomic-level study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini, Paolo, E-mail: vale0142@umn.edu; Norman, Paul, E-mail: norma198@umn.edu; Zhang, Chonglin, E-mail: zhang993@umn.edu; Schwartzentruber, Thomas E., E-mail: schwart@aem.umn.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, College of Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    This article contains an atomic-level numerical investigation of rovibrational relaxation in molecular nitrogen at high temperature (>4000 K), neglecting dissociation. We conduct our study with the use of pure Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Classical Trajectory Calculations (CTC) Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC), verified to produce statistically identical results at the conditions of interest here. MD and CTC DSMC solely rely on the specification of a potential energy surface: in this work, the site-site Ling-Rigby potential. Additionally, dissociation is prevented by modeling the N–N bond either as a harmonic or an anharmonic spring. The selected molecular model was shown to (i) recover the shear viscosity (obtained from equilibrium pure MD Green-Kubo calculations) of molecular nitrogen over a wide range of temperatures, up to dissociation; (ii) predict well the near-equilibrium rotational relaxation behavior of N{sub 2}; (iii) reproduce vibrational relaxation times in excellent accordance with the Millikan-White correlation and previous semi-classical trajectory calculations in the low temperature range, i.e., between 4000 K and 10 000 K. By simulating isothermal relaxations in a periodic box, we found that the traditional two-temperature model assumptions become invalid at high temperatures (>10 000 K), due to a significant coupling between rotational and vibrational modes for bound states. This led us to add a modification to both the Jeans and the Landau-Teller equations to include a coupling term, essentially described by an additional relaxation time for internal energy equilibration. The degree of anharmonicity of the N{sub 2} bond determines the strength of the rovibrational coupling. Although neglecting N{sub 2} dissociation only provides a partial description of a nitrogen system at very high temperatures, high-energy trends for bound-bound transitions are essential to understand nonequilibrium gas flows, with possible implications on rovibration

  7. Rovibrational coupling in molecular nitrogen at high temperature: An atomic-level study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, Paolo; Norman, Paul; Zhang, Chonglin; Schwartzentruber, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    This article contains an atomic-level numerical investigation of rovibrational relaxation in molecular nitrogen at high temperature (>4000 K), neglecting dissociation. We conduct our study with the use of pure Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Classical Trajectory Calculations (CTC) Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC), verified to produce statistically identical results at the conditions of interest here. MD and CTC DSMC solely rely on the specification of a potential energy surface: in this work, the site-site Ling-Rigby potential. Additionally, dissociation is prevented by modeling the N–N bond either as a harmonic or an anharmonic spring. The selected molecular model was shown to (i) recover the shear viscosity (obtained from equilibrium pure MD Green-Kubo calculations) of molecular nitrogen over a wide range of temperatures, up to dissociation; (ii) predict well the near-equilibrium rotational relaxation behavior of N 2 ; (iii) reproduce vibrational relaxation times in excellent accordance with the Millikan-White correlation and previous semi-classical trajectory calculations in the low temperature range, i.e., between 4000 K and 10 000 K. By simulating isothermal relaxations in a periodic box, we found that the traditional two-temperature model assumptions become invalid at high temperatures (>10 000 K), due to a significant coupling between rotational and vibrational modes for bound states. This led us to add a modification to both the Jeans and the Landau-Teller equations to include a coupling term, essentially described by an additional relaxation time for internal energy equilibration. The degree of anharmonicity of the N 2 bond determines the strength of the rovibrational coupling. Although neglecting N 2 dissociation only provides a partial description of a nitrogen system at very high temperatures, high-energy trends for bound-bound transitions are essential to understand nonequilibrium gas flows, with possible implications on rovibration

  8. German Atomic Energy Act turns fifty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2009-01-01

    The German Atomic Energy Act entered into force on January 1, 1960. It turns fifty at the beginning of 2010. Is this a reason to celebrate or rather the opposite? Lawyers, in principle, can view old pieces of legislation from 2 perspectives: On the one hand, aged laws are treated in a spirit of veneration and are celebrated as proven. On the other hand, an anniversary of this kind can be a welcome reason for demands to abolish or, at least, fundamentally renew that law. Over the past half century, the German Atomic Energy Act went through stormy and varied phases both of a legal and a political character. Its 50 th anniversary is likely to spark off very conflicting evaluations as well. A review of legal history shows that the German or, rather, the Federal German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) was not a first-of-its-kind piece of legislation but stemmed from the 1957 EURATOM Treaty, in a way representing a latecomer of that treaty. The Atomic Energy Act experienced a number of important developments throughout its history: - In 1975, compulsory licensing of fuel element factories was introduced. - The back end of the fuel cycle, especially final storage, were incorporated in the Atomic Energy Act comprehensively first in 1976. - In 1985, legislators decided in favor of unlimited nuclear liability. - In 1994 and 1998, only some innovations in special items were introduced under the headings of environmental impact assessment and suitability for repository storage because the controversy about nuclear power did not permit a fundamental alignment towards a more comprehensive modern safety law. - The decision to opt out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power in 2002 drew the final line so far of decisions about directions of nuclear law in a major amendment. In parallel, the decisions by the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Administrative Court in the late 1970s and, above all, the 1980s provided important assistance which has remained valid to this day. What is

  9. Interactions between nitrogen molecules and barium atoms on Ru (0001) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xinxin; Mi Yiming; Xu Hongxia; Wang Lili; Ren Li; Tao Xiangming; Tan Mingqiu

    2011-01-01

    We had performed first principles calculations on interactions between nitrogen molecules and barium atoms on Ru (0001) surface using density function theory methods. It was shown that effects of barium atoms weakened the bond strength of nitrogen molecules. The bond length of nitrogen molecule increases from 0.113 nm on Ru (001)-N 2 to 0.120 nm on Ru (001)-N 2 /Ba surface. While stretch vibrational frequency of nitrogen molecule decreased from 2222 cm -1 and charge transfer toward nitrogen molecule increased from 0.3 e to 1.1 e. Charge was mainly translated from 6 s orbitals of barium atoms to 4 d orbitals of substrate, which enhanced the hybridization between 4 d and 2 π orbitals and increased the dipole moment of 5 σ and d π orbitals of nitrogen molecule. The molecular dipole moment of nitrogen molecule was increased by -0.136 e Anstrom. It was suggested that barium had some characters to be an electronic promoter on the process of activating nitrogen molecules on Ru (0001) surface. (authors)

  10. Atomic nitrogen encapsulated in fullerenes: realization of a chemical Faraday cage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lips, K.

    2000-01-01

    Fullerenes, C 60 and C 70 , are ideal containers for atomic nitrogen. We will show by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments that nitrogen in C 60 keeps its atomic ground state configuration and resides in the center of the cage. This is the first time that atomic nitrogen is stabilized at ambient conditions. The inert shell of the fullerene protects the highly reactive nitrogen from undergoing chemical reactions with the surroundings. The fullerene cage is the chemical analogue of the Faraday cage in case of electrical fields, i.e. it shields off the chemical reactivity. As for the free nitrogen atom, the spins of the three p-electrons of nitrogen in C 60 are parallel (S = 3/2) and the atom has spherical symmetry. Due to the center position of nitrogen in C 60 , extremely sharp EPR lines are observed. This reflects the absence of a strong host-guest interaction and shows that the individuality of nitrogen in the fullerenes is preserved. Further evidence for the almost interaction-free suspension of nitrogen in the fullerene cages is provided by g-factor measurements. These investigations show that magnetic shielding of the host molecules can account for the observed differences between N rate at C 60 and N rate at C 70 . The fullerene cage can be chemically modified without destroying the endohedral complex. The chemical modifications change the symmetry of the molecule which is observed through an additional fine structure in the EPR spectrum. Influences of the modifications on the stability of N rate at C 60 will be discussed. (orig.)

  11. Nuclear energy and the responsibilities of the Atomic Energy Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Villiers, J.W.L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses nuclear energy and the responsibilities of the previous Atomic Energy Board, (now the Atomic Energy Corporation) of South Africa in this respect. The paper starts by giving a brief introduction to the Atomic Energy Board, its organization and its functions. Research is undertaken in various fields such as the exploitation of nuclear fuels, radiobiology, radioisotopes, etc. Certain activities of the Board was also more directly related to Koeberg. The paper covers four of these areas, namely the early studies of the feasibility of introducing nuclear power in South Africa; the services involving the Board's special expertise in certain areas which Escom makes use of; the regulatory function and the preparation for handling and disposal of radioactive waste

  12. QED effects on individual atomic orbital energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozioł, Karol; Aucar, Gustavo A.

    2018-04-01

    Several issues, concerning QED corrections, that are important in precise atomic calculations are presented. The leading QED corrections, self-energy and vacuum polarization, to the orbital energy for selected atoms with 30 ≤ Z ≤ 118 have been calculated. The sum of QED and Breit contributions to the orbital energy is analyzed. It has been found that for ns subshells the Breit and QED contributions are of comparative size, but for np and nd subshells the Breit contribution takes a major part of the QED+Breit sum. It has also, been found that the Breit to leading QED contributions ratio for ns subshells is almost independent of Z. The Z-dependence of QED and Breit+QED contributions per subshell is shown. The fitting coefficients may be used to estimate QED effects on inner molecular orbitals. We present results of our calculations for QED contributions to orbital energy of valence ns-subshell for group 1 and 11 atoms and discuss about the reliability of these numbers by comparing them with experimental first ionization potential data.

  13. White paper on atomic energy in 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The nuclear power generation in Japan attained the scale of 21 plants with 15 million kW capacity, and its proportion in electric power supply exceeded 13%. Now it is indispensable for various economic activities and national life, and it is expected that its role as the substitute energy for petroleum will grow more and more in future. The Atomic Energy Commission took up preponderantly the promotion of nuclear power generation and the related measures in view of such situation when the trend in the development and utilization of atomic energy in Japan is reviewed in this white paper. When nuclear power generation is promoted, efforts are exerted on the improvement of safety, and it is necessary to tackle with all might the subjects such as the settlement of LWRs more firmly, the development of new reactors, the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle, and the countermove to complex international situation, while giving consideration to the development of independent technologies. It is most important to obtain national consensus when atomic energy is developed and utilized, as seen in the difficulty of locating nuclear power stations. In this annual report, the events for about one year from October, 1979, are described. Also the related data and documents are shown. (Kako, I.)

  14. The law for the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Act for Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been promulgated anew. Contents are the following : general rules, officials, advisors and personnel, duties, financial affairs and accounts, supervision, miscellaneous rules, penal provisions, and additional rules. (In the additional rules, the merger into JAERI of Japan Nuclear Ship Research and Development Agency is treated.) Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute conducts research etc. for the development of atomic energy comprehensively and efficiently, thereby contributing to the promotion of atomic energy research, development and utilization, according to the Atomic Energy Fundamental Act. Duties are atomic energy basic and application research, reactor relation, training of the personnel, RIs relation, etc. (Mori, K.)

  15. Responsibility for atomic energy damages and indemnification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, the overall regulations on civil responsibility for the damages by nuclear fission or the effect of radiation of radioactive materials were established for the first time in the law concerning peaceful use and protection from danger of atomic energy (hereafter referred to as Atomgesetz) in 1959. Responsibility without error was adopted by German legislators. The liability of the owners of atomic energy facilities (Article 25) was distinguished from that of the possessors of radioactive materials (Article 26) under the law. Facility responsibility (Anlagenhaftung) was limited to 500 million German marks at the maximum. Facility owners had the obligation to offer monetary security of 80 million German marks at the maximum by insurances, etc. When disasters exceeded the amount, the owners were exempted by the state up to the maximum 500 million German marks. The Federal Republic adopted the Paris Agreement in 1975 by a law, and the domestic adjustment of Atomgesetz to the European treaty on atomic energy responsibility was made through the third revision of the Gesetz. According to Article 25-1 of Atomgesetz, the regulations of Paris Agreement are first applied to the owners of atomic energy facilities (operators), and as supplement, Articles 25 to 40 of Atomgesetz are applied. The maximum liability amount is 1,000 million German marks. The demand right of indemnification expires in 3 years after demanders find or are bound to find damages and offenders, and terminates in 30 years regardless of whether the former finds the latter or not. Brussels nuclear ship agreement is applied to nuclear ship owners in Germany (Article 25a, Atomgesetz). (Okada, K.)

  16. Ionization of atoms by high energy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Ioffe, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Photoionization of atoms by high energy photons is considered. It is emphasized that in this frequency region the cross section and other characteristics of the process are strongly effected by electron shell polarization and rearrangement effects, including that due to inner vacancy Auger decay. In the effects of nuclear structure could be important and noticeable, i.e. of virtual or real excitation of the nucleus degrees of freedom and of the Quantum Electrodynamics vacuum. Ionization accompanied by secondary photon emission (Compton ionization) is analyzed in the considered domain of energies

  17. A novel microalgal system for energy production with nitrogen cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minowa, T.; Sawayama, S. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    A microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, could grow in the recovered solution from the low temperature catalytic gasification of itself, by which methane rich fuel gas was obtained. All nitrogen in the microalga was converted to ammonia during the gasification, and the recovered solution, in which ammonia was dissolved, could be used as nitrogen nutrient. The result of the energy evaluation indicated that the novel microalgal system for energy production with nitrogen cycling could be created. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. White paper on atomic energy in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    Since the publication of its last White Paper on Nuclear Energy in 2003, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan (AEC) summarized trends covering all aspects of nuclear energy over the period up to December 2004. This paper is comprised of a main document and supplementary materials. The first chapter of the main document summarizes the current activities toward national and international understanding and trust promotion of nuclear energy divided along the topics of 'Restoring trust', 'Structuring trust toward new enterprise implementation', 'Establishment of understanding and trust of international society', 'AEC's activities toward creation of new Long-Term Program', and 'Establishment of future understanding and trust. 'The second chapter summarized recent trends of national and private activities based on the Long-Term Program created in November 2000, covering the topics 'Nuclear Energy Policy in Japan', 'Harmony between People, Society and Nuclear Energy', 'Nuclear Power Generation and the Nuclear Fuel Cycle', 'Diversified Development of Nuclear Science and Technology', 'Utilization of Radiation Contributing to People's Lives', 'Harmony between International Society and Nuclear Energy', and 'Foundation to Promote Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. The supplementary materials include lists of AEC decisions, nuclear energy budgets, year-by-year data tables, and other such similar materials. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Proposed general amendments to the atomic energy control regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Canada's Atomic Energy Control Act defines the powers and responsibilities of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). Among these is to make regulations to control the development, application and use of atomic energy. In these proposed general amendments to the Atomic Energy Control Regulations substantial changes are proposed in the designation of the authority of AECB staff, exemptions from licensing, international safeguards, duties of licensees and atomic radiation workers, security of information, and provision for hearings. The scope of the control of atomic energy has been redefined as relating to matters of health, safety, security, international safeguards, and the protection of the environment

  20. Atomic energy law in Indonesia Perundang-undangan tenaga atom di Indonesia/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poernomo, Moendi.

    1980-01-01

    Levels of the development of the National Atomic Energy Agency of Indonesia covering the reorganization and the president's decree concerning the agency since 1958 are presented. The National Atomic Energy Agency BATAN is responsible for application of radioactive materials over the country and the protection of the general public against radioactive hazards. BATAN's missions are embodied with the atomic energy law. (SMN)

  1. Basic law of atomic energy for pacific uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    This law comprehend information about the pacific uses of atomic energy. Likewise it creates the Commission of Atomic Energy and stipulates: it s organization and functions, regulations and licensures, responsibilities, income and patrimony. (SGB)

  2. Locations of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon atoms in vanadium determined by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraga, K.; Onozuka, T.; Hirabayashi, M.

    1977-01-01

    The occupation sites of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon atoms dissolved interstitially in vanadium have been determined by means of neutron diffraction with use of single crystals of VOsub(0.032), VNsub(0.013) and VCsub(0.006). It is revealed that the interstitial atoms occupy, randomly, the octahedral sites in the b.c.c. host lattice of the three crystals. Neutron diffraction is advantageous for the present purpose, since the coherent scattering amplitudes of the solute atoms are much larger than that of the vanadium atom. (Auth.)

  3. Atomic resonances above the total ionization energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doolen, G.

    1975-01-01

    A rigorous result obtained using the theory associated with dilatation analytic potentials is that by performing a complex coordinate rotation, r/subj/ → r/subj/e/subi//sup theta/, on a Hamiltonian whose potential involves only pairwise Coulombic interactions, one can show that when theta = π/2, no complex eigenvalues (resonances) appear whose energies have a real part greater than the total ionization energy of the atomic system. This appears to conflict with experimental results of Walton, Peart, and Dolder, who find resonance behavior above the total ionization energy of the H -- system and also the theoretical stabilization results of Taylor and Thomas for the same system. A possible resolution of this apparent conflict is discussed and a calculation to check its validity is proposed

  4. 4H-SiC surface energy tuning by nitrogen up-take

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitthan, E., E-mail: eduardo.pitthan@ufrgs.br [Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); PGMICRO, UFRGS, 91509-900, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Amarasinghe, V.P. [Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Xu, C.; Gustafsson, T. [Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Stedile, F.C. [PGMICRO, UFRGS, 91509-900, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Química, UFRGS, 91509-900, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Feldman, L.C. [Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Wettability modification of 4H-SiC as a function of nitrogen adsorption is reported. • SiC surface energy was significantly reduced as nitrogen was incorporated. • Modifications obtained were proved to be inert to etching and stable against time. • Variable control of SiC surface provides new opportunities for biomedical applications. - Abstract: Surface energy modification and surface wettability of 4H silicon carbide (0001) as a function of nitrogen adsorption is reported. The surface wettability is shown to go from primarily hydrophilic to hydrophobic and the surface energy was significantly reduced with increasing nitrogen incorporation. These changes are investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The surface energy was quantitatively determined by the Fowkes model and interpreted primarily in terms of the variation of the surface chemistry with nitrogen coverage. Variable control of SiC surface energies with a simple and controllable atomic additive such as nitrogen that is inert to etching, stable against time, and also effective in electrical passivation, can provide new opportunities for SiC biomedical applications, where surface wetting plays an important role in the interaction with the biological interfaces.

  5. Report to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woznicka, U.

    1986-07-01

    The results of research done under the International Atomic Energy Agency Contract no 4121/RB: 'Measurement of the thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross-section on small samples' at the Institut of Nuclear Physics during the period from July 1, 1985 to June 30, 1986 are presented. The research was based on the Plexiglass thermal neutron diffusion parameters and on the method of preparation of the rock samples for the measurements according to the INP method. Three rock samples delivered by the IAEA: Ottawa Sand, Royer Dolomite and Dunite Sand have been measured. (author)

  6. 1992 developments in Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manger, R.

    1993-01-01

    The draft legislation amending the German Atomic Energy Act existing since the autumn of 1992 clearly focuses of the back end of the fuel cycle. Spent fuel and waste management is to be opened up, privatized, and paid for. Opening spent fuel and waste management supplement the former priority given to the utilization of radioactive residues by an equivalent option, i.e. the orderly disposal of such waste which, at present, is permitted only under very limited conditions. The draft still needs to be harmonized with other ministries. (orig.) [de

  7. Low-energy positron and electron scattering from nitrogen dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiari, Luca; Brunger, M J; Zecca, Antonio; García, Gustavo; Blanco, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Total cross section (TCS) measurements for positron scattering from nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) are presented in the energy range 0.2–40 eV. The TCS, the elastic integral and differential cross sections, and the integral cross section accounting of all the inelastic processes (including positronium formation) have also been computed using the independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) for incident energies from 1 to 1000 eV. A qualitative level of agreement is found between the present TCS experiment and theory at the common energies. As no previous measurements or calculations for positron–NO 2  scattering exist in the literature, we also computed the TCS for electron collisions with NO 2  employing the IAM-SCAR method. A comparison of those results to the present positron cross sections and the earlier electron-impact data and calculations is provided. To investigate the role that chemical substitution plays in positron scattering phenomena, we also compare the present positron–NO 2  data with the TCSs measured at the University of Trento for positron scattering from N 2 O and CO 2 . (paper)

  8. Atomic energy wants new personality. An essay of education and personality in atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takuma, Masao

    2004-01-01

    New personality in atomic energy consists of personification of independence, democracy and publication. They are able to create new technologies and new plants with safety and maintenance. The technical experts and all the parties concerned have to explain the situation and the conditions of atomic energy in order to justify the people's trust in them. Only good personality with morals can obtain the confidence of the nation. It is important for new technical experts and all the parties concerned to receive an education related to sociality. (S.Y.)

  9. The industrial development of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowarski, L.

    1955-01-01

    Countries with large stock of fissile material and producing large quantity of nuclear pure 235 U and 239 Pu are able to allocate part of the stock to non military research. For countries with low stock of fissile material, all the stock is allocated to military research. An economical and technical solution has to be find to dedicate a part of fissile material to non military research and develop the atomic energy industry. It stated the industrial and economical problems and in particular the choice between the use of enriched fuel with high refining cost or depleted fuel with low production cost. It discusses of four possible utilizations of the natural resources: reactors functioning with pure fissile material ( 235 U or 239 Pu) or concentrated material ( 235 U mixed with small quantities of 238 U after an incomplete isotopic separation), breeder reactors functioning with enriched material mixed with 238 U or Thorium placed in an appropriate spatial distribution to allow neutrons beam to activate 238 U or Thorium with the regeneration of fissile material in 239 Pu, reactors using natural uranium or low enriched uranium can also produce Plutonium with less efficiency than breeder reactors and the last solution being the use of natural uranium with the only scope of energy production and no production of secondary fissile material. The first class using pure fissile material has a low energy efficiency and is used only by large fissile material stock countries to accumulate energy in small size fuel for nuclear engines researches for submarines and warships. The advantage of the second class of reactors, breeder reactors, is that they produce energy and plutonium. Two type of breeder reactor are considered: breeder reactor using pure fissile material and 238 U or breeder reactor using the promising mixture of pure fissile material and Thorium. Different projects are in phase of development in United States, England and Scotland. The third class of reactor using

  10. Constitutional relevance of atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettow, S.

    1980-01-01

    In a decision publicized on December 20, 1979 the German Federal Constitutional Court rejected a claim of unconstitutionality in connection with the licensing procedure of the Muelheim-Kaerlich Nuclear Power Station currently under construction. This constitutes confirmation, by the 1st Department of the Court, of a decision in 1978 by the 2nd Department about the Kalkar fast breeder power plant, in which the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy had been found to be constitutional. However, the new decision by the Federal Constitutional Court particularly emphasizes the constitutional relevance of the rules of procedure under the Atomic Energy Act and their function with respect to the protection of civil rights. (orig.) [de

  11. Ninth German symposium on atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, R.; Birkhofer, A.

    1991-01-01

    The symposium dealt with the forthcoming amendment to the Atomic Energy Law. There was an introductory presentation of the plans of the Federal Government for the amendment the aims attached to the amendment as seen by the Social Democratic Party and the revival of the nuclear option. The topics of the five work sessions were: questions concerning constitutional law - Laender administration on behalf of the Federal Government - subordinate legislation in the system of energy law; legislation on liability; financial security financing of decommissioning; licensing, supervision, retrofitting; waste disposal, ultimate waste disposal, fuel cycle. All lectures held in the work sessions and the reports on the discussions following them are included. Finally the amendment project was considered from the technological point of view and a resume was drawn. All 22 lectures have been seperately prepared for retrieval from the database. (HSCH) [de

  12. Nuclear energy: salvaging the atomic age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The history of atomic power is reviewed from the first chain reaction in Chicago in 1942 to the worst-to-date accident at the Three Mile Island power plant in March, 1979. While media coverage during the Three Mile Island incident made the public aware of some reactor hardware and radiation hazards, Weinberg suggests that an acceptable nuclear future should have six characteristics: increased physical isolation of reactors, further technical improvements, separation of generation and distribution, professionalization of the nuclear cadre, heightened security, and public education about the hazards of radiation. Weinberg feels the question of low-level radiation effects to be critical to public acceptance of nuclear energy. Since the effects (if any) are so rarely seen because exposures are so small, the issue may be beyond the ability of science to decipher. Weinberg again explains his reference to nuclear energy as a Faustian Bargain: ''...nuclear energy, that miraculous and quite unsuspected source of energy, demands an unprecedented degree of expertise, attention to detail, and social stability. In return, man has, in the breeder reactor, an inexhaustible energy source.''

  13. India's atomic energy programme - Past and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethna, H.N.

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of the development of the atomic energy program in India, beginning with the work of individual scientists in the period before Indian independence in 1948 and continuing through the establishment in 1954 of the Department of Atomic Energy on up to the present. It was recognized at an early stage of development that the most important task for the introduction of nuclear technology in India was to establish a cadre of scientists and engineers and to generate interactions among various scientific disciplines and, at an appropriate stage, to translate the interaction into concrete projects. Effort is made to rely on indigenous resources with the goal of making the country as self-sufficient as possible in the nuclear field. The technology developed in the nuclear program is shown to be transferable to numerous fields. The availability of adequate investment capital, as a consequence of competition from the other developing programs, is recognized as a possible constraint on the nuclear program

  14. Atomic energy for the peace and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, L.

    2000-06-01

    This document is a poster of the Commission of Atomic Energy of Costa Rica. In it some uses of atomic energy in Costa Rica, are mentioned. Some of them are: the technical cooperation, which has permitted to develop and to fortify the production and control of radio pharmaceuticals in the nuclear services of medicine. The diagnoses and medical processing, to acquire new equipment and to consolidate the maintenance and service of nuclear instrumentation. By means of technical of induced mutations, they have developed agricultural resistant varieties to the environmental conditions. Control of ripeness, genetic improvement of seeds, resistance to the illnesses and efficiency of the agronomic performance. The isotopic techniques of traces have great importance to evaluate the hydric resources, and their risk of contamination with toxic metals and pesticides. Nuclear techniques have been used to obtain information and to deepen in their knowledge. A laboratory of radiology control was established in the Technological Institute of Costa Rica, to give service to the industrial installations. To access the information of this field, the Nuclear Center of Information can be consulted, in the University of Costa Rica. (author) [es

  15. Project of Atomic Energy Technology Record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, K. C.; Ko, Y. C.; Kwon, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    Project of the Atomic Energy Technology Record is the project that summarizes and records whole process, from the background to the performance, of each category in all fields of nuclear science technology which have been researched and developed at KAERI. This project includes development of Data And Documents Advanced at KAERI. This project includes development of Data And Documents Advanced Management System(DADAMS) to collect, organize and preserve various records occurred in each research and development process. In addition, it means the whole records related to nuclear science technology for the past, present and future. This report summarizes research contents and results of 'Project of Atomic Energy Technology Record'. Section 2 summarizes the theoretical background, the current status of records management in KAERI and the overview of this project. And Section 3 to 6 summarize contents and results performed in this project. Section 3 is about the process of sectoral technology record, Section 4 summarizes the process of Information Strategy Master Plan(ISMP), Section 5 summarizes the development of Data And Documents Advanced Management System(DADAMS) and Section 6 summarizes the process of collecting, organizing and digitalizing of records

  16. Does the number of nitrogen atoms have an influence on the conducting properties of diphenylazines? A DFT insight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moral, Monica; Granadino-Roldan, Jose Manuel; Garzon, Andres; Garcia, Gregorio; Fernandez-Gomez, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Planarity and aromaticity increase when increasing the number of N atoms. → HOMO → LUMO excitation energy decreases when increasing the number of N atoms. → AEA increases stepwise with the number of N atoms up to 1.51 eV for Ph 2 Tz. → Ph 2 Tz becomes the best candidate of the series in terms of electron injection. → Ph 2 T N3 seems to be the best candidate in terms of electron transport. - Abstract: The present study reports on the variation of some structural and electronic properties related to the electron conductivity for the series of diphenylazines represented by the formula Ph-(C 2+n N 4-n H n )-Ph, n = 0 - 4. Properties such as planarity, aromaticity, HOMO → LUMO excitation energy, electron affinity, LUMO level energy, reorganization energy and electron coupling between neighboring molecules in the crystal were analyzed from a theoretical perspective as a function of the number of nitrogen atoms in the molecular structure. As a result, the planarity, aromaticity and electron affinity increase with the number of N atoms in the central ring while the HOMO → LUMO excitation energy and LUMO levels diminish. It is worth noting that up to n = 3, the frontier orbitals appear delocalized throughout the whole system while for n = 4 the localized character of the LUMO might explain the increase in the reorganization energy and thus the higher difficulty to delocalize the excess of negative charge. Electron coupling between neighboring molecules was also estimated on the basis of the energy splitting in dimer method and the reported crystal structures for some of the studied molecules. Accordingly, the highest |t 12 | value was obtained for Ph 2 T N3 (0.06 eV) while Ph 2 Tz should be the most advantageous candidate of the series in terms of electron injection.

  17. Amendment of Atomic Energy Basic Law and the development of Atomic Energy Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Kenji

    1978-01-01

    This article explains the key points of the major development of Atomic Energy Administration recently made by amendments of Atomic Energy Basic Law and other two relating laws. These amendments passed through the Diet and were enacted on 7th, June, 1978. The aim of them is focussed on reinforcement and rearrangement of safety controls on nuclear reactors. Previously, although the approval of the installation plan with basic designs of a nuclear reactor has been done by Prime Minister, further approvals of detailed designs and process of construction works, as well as inspections before and after operation have been conducted by each responsible minister, respectively. That is, those controls for power reactors have been within jurisdiction of minister of Trade and Industry, and for nuclear ships' reactors minister of Transportation has been responsible. Under the new system, above mentioned ministers continue to exercise almost same controls over reactors within their jurisdiction respectively, however the new laws have established so-called ''double check'' principle in that: when each responsible minister approves the installation, detailed designs and further stages of construction and operation of the reactor, he should hear and pay a great regard for opinions of Atomic Energy Commission and Atomic Energy Safety Commission. The latter is newly established organization which has similar status and authority to the former. (J.P.N.)

  18. Preferential incorporation of substitutional nitrogen near the atomic step edges in diluted nitride alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornet, C.; Nguyen Thanh, T.; Almosni, S.; Rohel, T.; Kuyyalil, J.; Rambaud, A.; Letoublon, A.; Bertru, N.; Durand, O.; Le Corre, A. [Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, INSA Rennes, France and CNRS, UMR 6082 Foton, 20 avenue des Buttes de Coeesmes, 35708 Rennes (France); Quinci, T. [Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, INSA Rennes, France and CNRS, UMR 6082 Foton, 20 avenue des Buttes de Coeesmes, 35708 Rennes (France); CEA LCP, INES, Savoie Technolac, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

    2012-12-17

    We have investigated the influence of the surface roughness on nitrogen incorporation during the molecular beam epitaxy of diluted nitrides, independently of the other growth parameters. GaPN/GaP layers grown simultaneously on surfaces displaying different roughnesses reveal a large difference in nitrogen incorporation despite the same growth temperature and growth rate. The same difference is found on quasi-lattice-matched GaAsPN demonstrating that the phenomenon is not related to any strain-induced mechanisms. The tendency is clearly confirmed when varying the growth conditions. As a direct consequence, the incorporation of substitutional nitrogen near the atomic step edges is found to be 6.7 times more probable than the in-plane nitrogen incorporation. The formation of N-N{sub i} clusters and their stability on the surface is discussed.

  19. The way that Ibaraki Prefecture has tackled atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hirokatsu; Hirai, Yasuo; Tsuji, Tadashi.

    1996-01-01

    First, the development of the district centering around Tokai Village is mentioned, where at present Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Japan Atomic Power Co. and others are located. Ibaraki Prefecture investigated the effects that atomic energy facilities exerted economically and socially to the district. As to the social environment investigation related to atomic energy facilities, its purpose, the objects of investigation, the contents and the method of investigation are reported. As to the progress of the development and utilization of atomic energy in Ibaraki Prefecture, 23 establishments are located in the district. Also there are 16 power reactors and research reactors, one fuel reprocessing plant, 4 nuclear fuel fabrication facilities, 86 nuclear fuel using facilities and 28 radioisotope using facilities. Their situations are reported. As to the atomic energy administration of Ibaraki Prefecture, the safety administration and the countermeasures for surrounding areas are explained. The effects exerted to the society and the economy of the district are reported. The results of the investigation of the conscience concerning atomic energy of residents are shown about energy and atomic energy, atomic energy administration, and the relation of atomic energy facilities with the district. (K.I.)

  20. Why atomic energy affects Civil Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knieper, R.

    1980-01-01

    Based on the decision of July 20, 1979 by the Amtsgericht Stuttgart, which dismissed the complaint filed by the Technische Werke der Stadt Stuttgart (public utility) against electricity boycotters as being unfounded for the time being, the author states that a political function is due to Civil Law. The concrete question is whether political considerations have surpassed the limits of laws and interpretations bound by the basic rights. The relationship between a customer depending on power supply and the supply monopolist exceeds contractual relationship by far since it is a social relationship: it is inescapably embraced by the customer's dependence on power supply and by the customer being subject to research work. Atomic energy is being introduced into law of contract by means of dogmatic crutches - breach of additional obligation under a contract. However, in Civil Law, there are a great number of such means enabling solutions to be corrected which seem to be inadequate. (HSCH) [de

  1. Atomic Energy Control Board vocabulary - preliminary edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolet, D.

    1995-09-01

    This preliminary edition was prepared at the Board's request to help it establish a standardized terminology. It was produced by scanning the 99 French and English documents listed at the end of this Vocabulary. The documents include legislation concerning atomic energy and the transportation of radioactive materials, as well as the Board's publications, such as the Consultative Documents, Regulatory Documents and Notices. The terms included from the following areas are: radiation protection, reactor technology, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive material packaging and transportation, radioactive waste management, uranium mines, and medical and industrial applications of radioelements. Also included are the titles of publications and the names of organizations and units. The vocabulary contains 2,589 concepts, sometimes accompanied by definitions, contexts or usage examples. Where terms have been standardized by the Canadian Committee for the Standardization of Nuclear Terminology, this has been indicated. Where possible, we have verified the terms using the TERMIUM, the Government of Canada Linguistic Data Bank. (author)

  2. Admissibility of appeals in atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengeling, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    Using two decisions made by the Federal Court of Administration on the Whyl reactor on July 17, 1980, and on the Stade reactor on December 22, 1980, which he considers as having at least an orientation effect, the author examines the admissibility of appeals filed according to the Atomic Energy Law. For substantiating the appeal, he discusses rules of law that protect third parties and the complainant's obligation to substantiate the appeal. In view of the preclusion of objectives, he differentiates between 'forfeiture' preclusion and 'validity' preclusion. In his view, the above-mentioned decisions produce effects that are to the benefit of the constitutional state and the necessary further development of economy and technology. (HSCH) [de

  3. The China Institute of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Mingwu

    2001-01-01

    The China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), established in 1950, carries out multidisciplinary research in nuclear science, technology and engineering. It has three research reactors and ten low energy accelerators. The focus of its nuclear energy related R and D is on reactor engineering and technology. In the area of nuclear techniques for applications, R and D is carried out on accelerators, isotope production, nuclear electronics and utilization of radioisotopes and radiation. There is also a strong programme in basic nuclear physics and radiochemistry. New major facilities under construction in CIAE include China Advanced Research Reactor (flux 8x10 14 n/cm 2 /sec) and China Experimental Fast Reactor. China has been successfully using the products of its R and D for a variety of applications in medicine, industry, materials science etc. A dynamic research programme is tuned to attract young talent to CIEA and there is good collaboration with the Beijing University. CIEA has been an active participant of RCA programmes of the IAEA and has been a resource for many developing countries. The management expects the Institute to be a leading multidisciplinary institute in the field of nuclear science, technology and engineering. (author)

  4. Israel Atomic Energy Commission 1997 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The 1997 Annual Report is published in a special year for Israel, marking the 50th anniversary of its independece and statehood. From its inception, and the election of a distinguished scientist as its first president, Israel has regarded science and technology as a central pillar for future AEC development and a lever for improved quality of life of its people. The Israel Atomic Energy Commission, which will be celebrating its own anniversary in a few years, has made a modest but significant contribution to the establishment and growth of the technological infrastructure of the country. The first article in this Annual Report focuses attention on yet another aspect of our continuing investigation of the basic properties of technologically interesting and important materials, presented in our 1994 and 1996 Annual Reports. The current entry describes an application of the nuclear Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation technique to the study of the structure and properties of metal-hydrogen compounds, of potential interest within the framework of future, environmentally attractive hydrogen-burning energy systems, and in fusion power reactors. The second article also relates to some basic aspects of nuclear fusion. A theoretical study of the behavior and properties of laser-generated hot plasmas resulted in the proposal of a new confinement scheme, in which a plasma generated by circularly polarized laser light is confined in a miniature magnetic bottle created by magnetic fields induced in the plasma by the same light. The paper discusses the conditions under which such confinement and ensuing energy gain may be achieved. Measurements of actual axial magnetic fields generated in plasma by intense circularly polarized laser light are also reported. The third report describes one of our ongoing efforts to improve and streamline the techniques and procedures used in medical applications of radioisotopes. Replacement of the customary )311 solutions for

  5. Israel Atomic Energy Commission 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The 1997 Annual Report is published in a special year for Israel, marking the 50th anniversary of its independece and statehood. From its inception, and the election of a distinguished scientist as its first president, Israel has regarded science and technology as a central pillar for future AEC development and a lever for improved quality of life of its people. The Israel Atomic Energy Commission, which will be celebrating its own anniversary in a few years, has made a modest but significant contribution to the establishment and growth of the technological infrastructure of the country. The first article in this Annual Report focuses attention on yet another aspect of our continuing investigation of the basic properties of technologically interesting and important materials, presented in our 1994 and 1996 Annual Reports. The current entry describes an application of the nuclear Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation technique to the study of the structure and properties of metal-hydrogen compounds, of potential interest within the framework of future, environmentally attractive hydrogen-burning energy systems, and in fusion power reactors. The second article also relates to some basic aspects of nuclear fusion. A theoretical study of the behavior and properties of laser-generated hot plasmas resulted in the proposal of a new confinement scheme, in which a plasma generated by circularly polarized laser light is confined in a miniature magnetic bottle created by magnetic fields induced in the plasma by the same light. The paper discusses the conditions under which such confinement and ensuing energy gain may be achieved. Measurements of actual axial magnetic fields generated in plasma by intense circularly polarized laser light are also reported. The third report describes one of our ongoing efforts to improve and streamline the techniques and procedures used in medical applications of radioisotopes. Replacement of the customary 311 solutions for

  6. Atomic energy policy in fiscal year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurada, Michio

    1985-01-01

    The international demand and supply of petroleum advance in relaxed condition at present, but tend to get stringent in long term. Nuclear power is the most promising substitute energy for petroleum, and in Japan, 28 nuclear power plants with 20.56 million kW output are in operation, generating 20.4% of the total generated power in 1983. According to the perspective of long term power supply, the installed capacity of nuclear power plants will reach 62 million kW and 27% of the total installed capacity by 2000. It is important to positively deal with the industrialization of nuclear fuel cycle, the upgrading of nuclear power generation, the development of the reactors of new types and so on, preparing for the age that nuclear power generation will become the center of power supply. The atomic energy policy of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry in fiscal year 1985 is reflected to the budget, financial investment and funding and other measures based on the above viewpoint. The outline of the budget and financial investment and funding for fiscal year 1985 is explained. The points are the promotion of industrialization of nuclear fuel cycle, the promotion of nuclear power generation and the promotion of understanding and cooperation of nation on the location of electric power sources. (Kako, I.)

  7. Israel Atomic Energy Commission 1996 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Selecting the research efforts to be highlighted in the Israel Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report from the large body and broad spectrum of ongoing work is not an easy task. The extensive bibliography of published results attached to the report attests to the scope of this difficulty. Of the many worthwhile projects, four were chosen to represent best the current trends in the continuing R and D program at the research centers of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission. One of these trends is the growing cooperation with private industry, in an attempt to gear our R and D programs to respond to market demands. Another feature, noted already several years ago, is the extensive collaboration of our scientists and engineers with colleagues at other institutions, in Israel and abroad. some of the work reported is part of evolving international industrial cooperation projects, illustrating both these trends. Following a trend common to many nuclear research centers around the world, a substantial part of our research effort is non-nuclear in nature. This is illustrated in the first article, which deals with advances in the application of non-linear optics in diverse fields of science and technology. These include state-of-the-art solid-state lasers, rapid modulation of light signals, development and generation of tunable sources of coherent light, optical data storage and the microscopic probing of biological and inorganic samples. The present work reports on a range of R and D, from the fundamentals of non-linear optical materials to proof-of-principle demonstrations of non-linear subwavelength resolution microscopy, to fabrication of prototype commercial tunable laser systems The second report considers the microstrain characteristics in some alloys using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The research utilizes XRD line broadening effects to study the characteristics of alloys from especially prepared surfaces. These characteristics include the homogeneity of alloying

  8. Israel Atomic Energy Commission 1996 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Selecting the research efforts to be highlighted in the Israel Atomic Energy Commission`s Annual Report from the large body and broad spectrum of ongoing work is not an easy task. The extensive bibliography of published results attached to the report attests to the scope of this difficulty. Of the many worthwhile projects, four were chosen to represent best the current trends in the continuing R and D program at the research centers of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission. One of these trends is the growing cooperation with private industry, in an attempt to gear our R and D programs to respond to market demands. Another feature, noted already several years ago, is the extensive collaboration of our scientists and engineers with colleagues at other institutions, in Israel and abroad. some of the work reported is part of evolving international industrial cooperation projects, illustrating both these trends. Following a trend common to many nuclear research centers around the world, a substantial part of our research effort is non-nuclear in nature. This is illustrated in the first article, which deals with advances in the application of non-linear optics in diverse fields of science and technology. These include state-of-the-art solid-state lasers, rapid modulation of light signals, development and generation of tunable sources of coherent light, optical data storage and the microscopic probing of biological and inorganic samples. The present work reports on a range of R and D, from the fundamentals of non-linear optical materials to proof-of-principle demonstrations of non-linear subwavelength resolution microscopy, to fabrication of prototype commercial tunable laser systems The second report considers the microstrain characteristics in some alloys using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The research utilizes XRD line broadening effects to study the characteristics of alloys from especially prepared surfaces. These characteristics include the homogeneity of alloying

  9. Atomic Energy Control Act, c A.19, s.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Revised Statutes of Canada 1985 entered into force on 12 December 1988, revoking the previous Atomic Energy Control Act and replacing it with a new version. The new Act (Chapter A-16 of the Revised Statutes) updates the previous text and makes some linguistic corrections. The Atomic Energy Control Act establishes the Atomic Energy Control Board and sets out its duties and powers which include, in particular, the making of regulations for developing, controlling and licensing the production, application and use of atomic energy [fr

  10. Young students's opinion about atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, Belen; Martin, Hugo R.

    2006-01-01

    The present research work was performed in answer to a requirement that the CNEA-RC made to students of the Public and Institutional Relations Degree of the UES21, as a part of activities carried out in the framework of the Academic Cooperation Agreement between both institutions. In this case the students had to attend the Professional Practical course during the first semester of 2006, which included a short period in some company or organization. The Degree of Knowledge and the Opinion of the students from the Cycle of Specialization of the Province of Cordoba Educational System (ages between 15 and 17 years old), on the activities that are made in the site of CNEA-RC and DIOXITEK SA at Alta Cordoba neighborhood in Cordoba city has been analyzed. The same aspects were analyzed for Dioxitek's activities (equipment, raw materials, risk performance, etc.). Although the activities made at CNEA-RC involved during 2005/6 about 4000 students, due to the short time available for the practical part only the data of two schools located near the facilities were processed. Three aspects of the space conformed between the public and the general opinion were analyzed: the customs, the stereotypes and the attitudes of the people. These aspects were taken as the characteristics to describe to the opinions, their direction and intensity. The analysis was based on an exploratory investigation of type, characterized by its flexibility. The field work was of quantitative character. The surveys were structured with closed questions (categories of answers delimited previously on which the students must answer). For its design we used diverse sources of intelligence, such as pages of Internet, pamphlets, magazines, annual balances of the organizations, etc. The main results were the following: 1) The greater percentage of students declared to have little information on Atomic Energy. Only 4% declared to have abundant knowledge on the subject. 2) A 38% of the students indicated that

  11. Determination of Atomic Data Pertinent to the Fusion Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reader, J.

    2013-01-01

    We summarize progress that has been made on the determination of atomic data pertinent to the fusion energy program. Work is reported on the identification of spectral lines of impurity ions, spectroscopic data assessment and compilations, expansion and upgrade of the NIST atomic databases, collision and spectroscopy experiments with highly charged ions on EBIT, and atomic structure calculations and modeling of plasma spectra

  12. International Atomic Energy Agency activities in decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisenweaver, D W.; )

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been addressing the safety and technical issues of decommissioning for over 20 years, but their focus has been primarily on planning. Up to know, the activities have been on an ad hoc basis and sometimes, important issues have been missed. A new Action Plan on the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities has recently been approved by the Agency's board of Governors which will focus the Agency's efforts and ensure that our Member States' concerns are addressed. The new initiatives associated with this Action Plan will help ensure that decommissioning activities in the future are performed in a safe and coherent manner. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been preparing safety and technical documents concerning decommissioning since the mid-1980's. There have been over 30 documents prepared that provide safety requirements, guidance and supporting technical information. Many of these documents are over 10 years old and need updating. The main focus in the past has been on planning for decommissioning. During the past five years, a set of Safety Standards have been prepared and issued to provide safety requirements and guidance to Member States. However, decommissioning was never a real priority with the Agency, but was something that had to be addressed. To illustrate this point, the first requirements documents on decommissioning were issued as part of a Safety Requirements [1] on pre-disposal management of radioactive waste. It was felt that decommissioning did not deserve its own document because it was just part of the normal waste management process. The focus was mostly on waste management. The Agency has assisted Member States with the planning process for decommissioning. Most of these activities have been focused on nuclear power plants and research reactors. Now, support for the decommissioning of other types of facilities is being requested. The Agency is currently providing technical

  13. Does the number of nitrogen atoms have an influence on the conducting properties of diphenylazines? A DFT insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Mónica; Granadino-Roldán, José Manuel; Garzón, Andrés; García, Gregorio; Fernández-Gómez, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports on the variation of some structural and electronic properties related to the electron conductivity for the series of diphenylazines represented by the formula Ph sbnd (C 2+nN 4-nH n) sbnd Ph, n = 0 - 4. Properties such as planarity, aromaticity, HOMO → LUMO excitation energy, electron affinity, LUMO level energy, reorganization energy and electron coupling between neighboring molecules in the crystal were analyzed from a theoretical perspective as a function of the number of nitrogen atoms in the molecular structure. As a result, the planarity, aromaticity and electron affinity increase with the number of N atoms in the central ring while the HOMO → LUMO excitation energy and LUMO levels diminish. It is worth noting that up to n = 3, the frontier orbitals appear delocalized throughout the whole system while for n = 4 the localized character of the LUMO might explain the increase in the reorganization energy and thus the higher difficulty to delocalize the excess of negative charge. Electron coupling between neighboring molecules was also estimated on the basis of the energy splitting in dimer method and the reported crystal structures for some of the studied molecules. Accordingly, the highest | t12| value was obtained for Ph 2T N3 (0.06 eV) while Ph 2Tz should be the most advantageous candidate of the series in terms of electron injection.

  14. ENERGY RELAXATION OF HELIUM ATOMS IN ASTROPHYSICAL GASES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewkow, N. R.; Kharchenko, V.; Zhang, P.

    2012-01-01

    We report accurate parameters describing energy relaxation of He atoms in atomic gases, important for astrophysics and atmospheric science. Collisional energy exchange between helium atoms and atomic constituents of the interstellar gas, heliosphere, and upper planetary atmosphere has been investigated. Energy transfer rates, number of collisions required for thermalization, energy distributions of recoil atoms, and other major parameters of energy relaxation for fast He atoms in thermal H, He, and O gases have been computed in a broad interval of energies from 10 meV to 10 keV. This energy interval is important for astrophysical applications involving the energy deposition of energetic atoms and ions into atmospheres of planets and exoplanets, atmospheric evolution, and analysis of non-equilibrium processes in the interstellar gas and heliosphere. Angular- and energy-dependent cross sections, required for an accurate description of the momentum-energy transfer, are obtained using ab initio interaction potentials and quantum mechanical calculations for scattering processes. Calculation methods used include partial wave analysis for collisional energies below 2 keV and the eikonal approximation at energies higher than 100 eV, keeping a significant energy region of overlap, 0.1-2 keV, between these two methods for their mutual verification. The partial wave method and the eikonal approximation excellently match results obtained with each other as well as experimental data, providing reliable cross sections in the astrophysically important interval of energies from 10 meV to 10 keV. Analytical formulae, interpolating obtained energy- and angular-dependent cross sections, are presented to simplify potential applications of the reported database. Thermalization of fast He atoms in the interstellar gas and energy relaxation of hot He and O atoms in the upper atmosphere of Mars are considered as illustrative examples of potential applications of the new database.

  15. Atomic Energy Control Board vocabulary - preliminary edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolet, D [Public Works and Government Services Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Terminology and Documentation Directorate

    1995-09-01

    This preliminary edition was prepared at the Board`s request to help it establish a standardized terminology. It was produced by scanning the 99 French and English documents listed at the end of this Vocabulary. The documents include legislation concerning atomic energy and the transportation of radioactive materials, as well as the Board`s publications, such as the Consultative Documents, Regulatory Documents and Notices. The terms included from the following areas are: radiation protection, reactor technology, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive material packaging and transportation, radioactive waste management, uranium mines, and medical and industrial applications of radioelements. Also included are the titles of publications and the names of organizations and units. The vocabulary contains 2,589 concepts, sometimes accompanied by definitions, contexts or usage examples. Where terms have been standardized by the Canadian Committee for the Standardization of Nuclear Terminology, this has been indicated. Where possible, we have verified the terms using the TERMIUM, the Government of Canada Linguistic Data Bank. (author).

  16. Pilot project of atomic energy technology record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, K. C.; Kim, Y. I.; Kim, Y. G.

    2011-12-01

    Project of the Atomic Energy Technology Record is the project that summarizes and records in each category as a whole summary from the background to the performance at all fields of nuclear science technology which researched and developed at KAERI. This project includes Data and Document Management System(DDMS) that will be the system to collect, organize and preserve various records occurred in each research and development process. To achieve these goals, many problems should be solved to establish technology records process, such as issues about investigation status of technology records in KAERI, understanding and collection records, set-up project system and selection target field, definition standards and range of target records. This is a research report on the arrangement of research contents and results about pilot project which records whole nuclear technology researched and developed at KAERI in each category. Section 2 summarizes the overview of this pilot project and the current status of technology records in domestic and overseas, and from Section 3 to Section 6 summarize contents and results which performed in this project. Section 3 summarizes making TOC(Table of Content) and technology records, Section 4 summarizes sectoral templates, Section 5 summarizes writing detailed plan of technology records, and Section 6 summarizes Standard Document Numbering System(SDNS). Conclusions of this report are described in Section 7

  17. The atomic weight and isotopic composition of nitrogen and their variation in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two stable isotopes of nitrogen exist in nature, 14 N and 15 N. The less abundant isotope, 15 N, was discovered in 1929 by Naude, who studied the band spectra of nitric oxide, NO. However, the main source of a standard for this element is the air in the atmosphere, which is made up of approximately 78% N 2 . Reviewed in this paper is the measurements of the isotopic composition in air and its variation around the world. Also investigated is the variation of the isotopic composition in the various compounds or sources of nitrogen compared to the value in air. Data on the atomic weight and non-terrestrial data for nitrogen is also reviewed

  18. Solar and Geothermal Energy: New Competition for the Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Luther J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes new emphasis on research into solar and geothermal energy resources by governmental action and recent legislation and the decreased emphasis on atomic power in supplementing current energy shortages. (BR)

  19. Books on Atomic Energy for Adults and Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1969-01-01

    This booklet contains two lists of atomic energy books, one for students and one for adults. The student list has grade annotations. The lists are not all-inclusive but comprise selected basic books on atomic energy and closely related subjects.

  20. On promotion of base technologies of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In the long term plan of atomic energy development and utilization decided in June, 1987 by the Atomic Energy Commission, it was recognized that hereafter, the opening-up of the new potential that atomic energy possesses should be aimed at, and the policy was shown so that the research and development hereafter place emphasis on the creative and innovative region which causes large technical innovation, by which the spreading effect to general science and technology can be expected, and the development of the base technologies that connect the basic research and project development is promoted. The trend of atomic energy development so far, the change of the situation surrounding atomic energy, the direction of technical development of atomic energy hereafter and the base technologies are discussed. The concept of the technical development of materilas, artificial intelligence, lasers, and the evaluation and reduction of radiation risks used for atomic energy is described. As the development plan of atomic energy base technologies, the subjects of technical development, the future image of technical development, the efficient promotion of the development and so on are shown. (Kato, I.)

  1. The law for the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The law establishes the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in accordance with the Basic Act on Atomic Energy as a government corporation for the purpose of promoting R and D and utilizations of atomic energy (first chapter). The second chapter concerns the directors, advisers and personnel of the institute, namely a chairman of the board of directors, a vice-chairman, directors not more than seven persons, and auditors not more than two persons. The chairman represents and supervises the intitute, whom the prime minister appoints with the agreement of Atomic Energy Commission. The vice-chairman and other directors are nominated by the chairman with the approval of the prime minister, while the auditors are appointed by the prime minister with the advice of the Atomic Energy Commission. Their terms of office are 4 years for directors and 2 years for auditors. The third chapter defines the scope of activities of the institute as follows: basic and applied researches on atomic energy; design, construction and operation of nuclear reactors; training of researchers and technicians; and import, production and distribution of radioisotopes. Those activities should be done in accordance with the basic development and utilization plans of atomic energy established by the prime minister with the determination of Atomic Energy Commission. The fourth chapter provides for the finance and accounting of the institute, and the fifth chapter requires the supervision of the institute by the prime minister. (Matsushima, A.)

  2. N2 Dissociation In The Mesosphere Due To Secondary Electrons During A Solar Proton Event: The Effect On Atomic Nitrogen and Nitric Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verronen, P. T.; Shematovich, V. I.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Turunen, E.; Ulich, Th.

    Solar proton events have an effect on the middle atmospheric odd nitrogen chem- istry. During a solar proton event high energy protons enter Earth's middle atmosphere where they ionize ambient gas. Ionization leads to production of atomic nitrogen, and further to production of nitric oxide, through ion chemistry. In addition, ionization processes produce secondary electrons that, if possessing 9.76 eV or more energy, dissociate N2 providing an additional source of atomic nitrogen. We have calculated mesospheric N2 dissociation rate due to secondary electrons dur- ing a solar proton event. Further, we have studied the effect on atomic nitrogen and nitric oxide at altitudes between 50 and 90 km. It was found that N2 is efficiently dis- sociated in the lower mesosphere by secondary electrons, with rates up to 103 cm-3 s-1 at 50 km. Thus, secondary electrons significantly add to odd nitrogen produc- tion. As a result of N2 dissociation, atomic nitrogen is greatly enhanced in both N(4S) and N(2D) states by 259% and 1220% maximum increases at 50 km, respectively. This further leads to a maximum increase of 16.5% in NO concentration at 61 km via chemical reactions. In our study a Monte Carlo model was used to calculate the total ionization rate and secondary electrons flux due to precipitating protons. These where then used as input to a detailed ion and neutral chemistry model and a steady-state solution was calcu- lated for two cases: With and without N2 dissociation due to secondary electrons.

  3. Eleventh Arab Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Arab conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy is an important station where Arab researchers and scientists meet to present the results of their scientific and applied research activities, to exchange views, experiences and knowledge and to strengthen the bonds of cooperation among them. Under this framework, the Arab Atomic Energy Agency organized the eleventh Arab conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy in cooperation with the Ministry of Science and Communications of the Republic of Sudan and the Sudan Atomic Energy Commission in Khartoum city during the period of 23-27 December 2012. The sessions of the conference included scientific papers, in addition to specialized lectures on topics of particular importance in the field of peaceful applications of atomic energy followed by panel discussions.

  4. The atomic and electronic structure of nitrogen- and boron-doped phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhvalov, Danil W

    2015-10-28

    First principles modeling of nitrogen- and boron-doped phosphorene demonstrates the tendency toward the formation of highly ordered structures. Nitrogen doping leads to the formation of -N-P-P-P-N- lines. Further transformation into -P-N-P-N- lines across the chains of phosphorene occurs with increasing band gap and increasing nitrogen concentration, which coincides with the decreasing chemical activity of N-doped phosphorene. In contrast to the case of nitrogen, boron atoms prefer to form -B-B- pairs with the further formation of -P-P-B-B-P-P- patterns along the phosphorene chains. The low concentration of boron dopants converts the phosphorene from a semiconductor into a semimetal with the simultaneous enhancement of its chemical activity. Co-doping of phosphorene by both boron and nitrogen starts from the formation of -B-N- pairs, which provides flat bands and further transformation of these pairs into hexagonal BN lines and ribbons across the phosphorene chains.

  5. Positronium-alkali atom scattering at medium energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Ajoy; Basu, Arindam; Sarkar, Nirmal K; Sinha, Prabal K

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the scattering of orthopositronium (o-Ps) atom off different atomic alkali targets (Na to Cs) at low and medium energies (up to 120 eV). Projectile-elastic and target-elastic close-coupling models have been employed to investigate the systems in addition to the static-exchange model. Elastic, excitation and total cross sections have been reported for all four systems. The magnitude of the alkali excitation cross section increases with increasing atomic number of the target atom while the position of the peak value shifts towards lower incident energies. The magnitudes of the Ps excitation and ionization cross sections increase steadily with atomic number with no change in the peak position. The reported results show regular behaviour with increasing atomic number of the target atom. Scattering parameters for the Ps-Rb and Ps-Cs systems are being reported for the first time

  6. Atomic energy and science disclosure in Cordoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Hugo R.

    2011-01-01

    In September 2009, considering the existing interest in public communication of scientific activities that are developed locally, a group of researchers and communicators from Córdoba, decided to form the Network of Outreach of Córdoba. Its stated objectives of the Constitutive Act are presented in this paper along with the main activities undertaken to date and plans for the future. Since that time, the Management of Institutional Relations of the CNEA in Córdoba became involved in public circulation of scientific knowledge, in what has proven to be a framework that ensures an adequate level of debate to present nuclear national activities. This will involve collaborative efforts with professional institutions involved in research, teaching and communicating science. The main objective was to encourage the transfer of knowledge to optimize available resources, improving the methodological approaches and generating creative products tailored to regional needs, in order to promote the democratization of science and nuclear technology. This paper consists of two parts. On the one hand describes the activities of the Network during the year 2011 shows results with particular emphasis on topics related to atomic energy, and secondly, shows the desirability of promoting such activities in the CNEA. Among the main actions considered, highlighting the institutional participation in the official Ministry of Science and Technology Fair participation in Science and Technology Provincial Cordoba 2011, issue of the radio program 'Green Light: Science and technology everyday life' by National Technological University Radio and a network of forty provincial stations, and active participation in the Course of Specialization in Public Communication of Science and Scientific Journalism, organized by the School of Information Sciences and the Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Astronomy, National University of Cordoba, among others. (author) [es

  7. Annual report 2003[International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three 'pillars' of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report, starting on page 9, generally follows the programme structure as it applied in 2003. The introductory chapter, seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. Additional information on specific issues can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review and Technical Co-operation Report. This material is also available on the Agency's WorldAtom web site (http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2003/). All sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to Technology are: Nuclear Power; Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Material Technologies; Analysis for Sustainable Energy Development; Nuclear Science; Food and Agriculture; Human Health; Water Resources; Protection of the Marine and Terrestrial Environments; Physical and Chemical Applications. Topics related to safety discussed in this report are: Safety of Nuclear Installations; Radiation Safety; Management of Radioactive Waste; Security of Material. Topics related to Verification are Safeguards and Verification in Iraq Pursuant to UNSC Resolutions. A separate chapter is devoted to Management of Technical Cooperation for Development.

  8. Effect of inelastic energy losses on development of atom-atom collision cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinyuk, V.V.; Remizovich, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of influence of inelastic energy losses (ionization braking) of particles on the development of atom-atom collision cascades in infinite medium was studied theoretically. Main attention was paid to study of angular and energy distributions of primary ions and cascade atoms in the presence of braking. Analytical calculations were made in the assumption that single scattering of particles occurs by solid balls law, while the value of electron braking ability of a medium is determined by the Lindhard formula. It is shown that account of braking (directly when solving the Boltzmann transport equation) changes in principle the previously obtained angular and energy spectra of ions and cascade atoms. Moreover, it is the braking that is the determining factor responsible for anisotropy of angular distributions of low-energy primary ions and cascade atoms [ru

  9. On promotion of base technologies of atomic energy. Aiming at breakthrough in atomic energy technologies in 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    In the long term plan of atomic energy development and utilization decided in June, 1987 by the Atomic Energy Commission, it was recognized that hereafter, the opening-up of the new potential that atomic energy possesses should be aimed at, and the policy was shown so that the research and development hereafter place emphasis on the creative and innovative region which causes large technical innovation, by which the spreading effect to general science and technology can be expected, and the development of the base technologies that connect the basic research and project development is promoted. The trend of atomic energy development so far, the change of the situation surrounding atomic energy, the direction of technical development of atomic energy hereafter and the base technologies are discussed. The concept of the technical development of materilas, artificial intelligence, lasers, and the evaluation and reduction of radiation risks used for atomic energy is described. As the development plan of atomic energy base technologies, the subjects of technical development, the future image of technical development, the efficient promotion of the development and so on are shown. (Kato, I.).

  10. Long term plan of atomic energy development and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The atomic energy utilization and development in Japan have progressed remarkably, and already nuclear power generation has borne an important part in electric power supply, while radiation has been utilized in the fields of industry, agriculture, medicine and so on. Now, atomic energy is indispensable for national life and industrial activity. The former long term plan was decided in September, 1978, and the new long term plan should be established since the situation has changed largely. The energy substituting for petroleum has been demanded, and the expectation to nuclear power generation has heightened because it enables stable and economical power supply. The independently developed technology related to atomic energy must be put in practical use. The peaceful utilization of atomic energy must be promoted, while contributing to the nuclear non-proliferation policy. The Atomic Energy Commission of Japan decided the new long term plan to clearly show the outline of the important measures related to atomic energy development and utilization in 10 years hereafter, and the method of its promotion. The basic concept of atomic energy development and utilization, the long term prospect and the concept on the promotion, the method of promoting the development and utilization, and the problems of funds, engineers and location are described. (kako, I.)

  11. Radial behavior of the average local ionization energies of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politzer, P.; Murray, J.S.; Grice, M.E.; Brinck, T.; Ranganathan, S.

    1991-01-01

    The radial behavior of the average local ionization energy bar I(r) has been investigated for the atoms He--Kr, using ab initio Hartree--Fock atomic wave functions. bar I(r) is found to decrease in a stepwise manner with the inflection points serving effectively to define boundaries between electronic shells. There is a good inverse correlation between polarizability and the ionization energy in the outermost region of the atom, suggesting that bar I(r) may be a meaningful measure of local polarizabilities in atoms and molecules

  12. Present status and future perspective of development of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takuma, Masao

    1990-01-01

    The last year was the 50th year from the discovery of the nuclear fission of uranium in 1939. The utilization of atomic energy made the unfortunate start as atomic bombs, but after the 'Atoms for Peace' declaration of President Eisenhauer, it has become to contribute to the development of mankind as nuclear power generation and radiation utilization. In Japan, the Atomic Energy Act was instituted in 1955, and the utilization of atomic energy has been eagerly promoted. As to nuclear power generation, as of the end of June, 1989, 423 power plants were in operation in the world, which generated 333 million kW, equivalent to 17 % of the total generated electric power. The nuclear power plants under construction and at planning stage were 199 with 190 million kW capacity, in this way, the development is advanced actively. At present in Japan, 38 nuclear power plants are in operation, generating 29.46 million kW, which has reached 30 % of the total generated electric power. The social environment surrounding atomic energy and the basic way of thinking on atomic energy development are discussed. The demand and supply of electric power in 21st century and atomic energy, and the policy of electric power companies to cope with it are explained. (K.I.)

  13. Theoretical Investigation on Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Doped with Nitrogen, Pyridine-Like Nitrogen Defects, and Transition Metal Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mananghaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the inherent difficulty in synthesizing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs with uniform chirality and well-defined electronic properties through the introduction of dopants, topological defects, and intercalation of metals. Depending on the desired application, one can modify the electronic and magnetic properties of SWCNTs through an appropriate introduction of imperfections. This scheme broadens the application areas of SWCNTs. Under this motivation, we present our ongoing investigations of the following models: (i (10, 0 and (5, 5 SWCNT doped with nitrogen (CNxNT, (ii (10, 0 and (5, 5 SWCNT with pyridine-like defects (3NV-CNxNT, (iii (10, 0 SWCNT with porphyrine-like defects (4ND-CNxNT. Models (ii and (iii were chemically functionalized with 14 transition metals (TMs: Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pd, Ag, Pt and Au. Using the spin-unrestricted density functional theory (DFT, stable configurations, deformations, formation and binding energies, the effects of the doping concentration of nitrogen, pyridine-like and porphyrine-like defects on the electronic properties were all examined. Results reveal that the electronic properties of SWCNTs show strong dependence on the concentration and configuration of nitrogen impurities, its defects, and the TMs adsorbed.

  14. Course of atomic energy safety during ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission started in the autumn of 1978 as the result of reexamining the system of atomic energy safety regulation in order to deal with the national criticism against the promotion of atomic energy that arose after the radiation leak accident on the nuclear ship 'Mutsu' 1974. For the development of atomic energy, it is indispensable to obtain the understanding and trust of nation on the safety of atomic energy as clearly shown in the Atomic Energy Act and in the background of founding and the policy of hte Nuclear Safety Commission. The Nuclear Safety Commission has carried out the safety examination for the permission of installing nuclear facilities, the decision of guidelines for the examination, the holding of public hearing, the promotion of safety research and so on. In this book, the reform of the system of atomic energy safety regulation, the countermeasures after TMI accident, the public hearing and others taking root, the further heightening of reliability of LMRs, efforts for operation managment and environment safety, the substantiating of the research on atomic energy safety, the diversification of the objects of safety regulation, the treatment and disposal of radioactive waste, the countermeasures after the chernobyl-4 accident and the positive promotion of international cooperation are described. (Kako, I.)

  15. Application of atomic energy in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The main part of this annual report consists of short notes reporting the progress made in the various research projects, viz. dosimetry, radiation and mutagenic effects in plants in light of mutation breeding as well as related technical subjects, food preservation by irradiation, radiogenetic effects on unwanted insects, self-incompatibility studies in higher plants, nitrogen in soil-plant studies, behaviour of radioactive and conventional contaminants in soils and plants, and nuclear methods in the recycling of liquid wastes

  16. Corrosion behavior of low energy, high temperature nitrogen ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Corrosion behavior of low energy, high temperature nitrogen ion-implanted AISI 304 stainless steel. M GHORANNEVISS1, A SHOKOUHY1,∗, M M LARIJANI1,2,. S H HAJI HOSSEINI 1, M YARI1, A ANVARI4, M GHOLIPUR SHAHRAKI1,3,. A H SARI1 and M R HANTEHZADEH1. 1Plasma Physics Research Center, Science ...

  17. Studies on growth, nitrogen and energy metabolism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorbek, G; Chwalibog, André; Eggum, B O

    1982-01-01

    Feed intake, growth, nitrogen retention and energy metabolism were measured in 12 male Wistar rats fed ad lib. for 14 weeks with non-purified diets. The feed intake increased rapidly in 4 weeks time from 16 g/d to 25 g/d, and then it was constant in the following 10 weeks. In relation to metabolic...

  18. Recoil saturation of the self-energy in atomic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, J.R.; Ritchie, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Within the framework of the general self-energy problem for the interaction of a projectile with a many-body system, we consider the dispersion force between two atoms or between a charge and an atom. Since the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is not made, this is a useful approach for exhibiting non-adiabatic effects. We find compact expressions in terms of matrix elements of operators in the atomic displacement which are not limited by multipole expansions. 7 refs

  19. Kinetic-energy density functional: Atoms and shell structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, P.; Alvarellos, J.E.; Chacon, E.

    1996-01-01

    We present a nonlocal kinetic-energy functional which includes an anisotropic average of the density through a symmetrization procedure. This functional allows a better description of the nonlocal effects of the electron system. The main consequence of the symmetrization is the appearance of a clear shell structure in the atomic density profiles, obtained after the minimization of the total energy. Although previous results with some of the nonlocal kinetic functionals have given incipient structures for heavy atoms, only our functional shows a clear shell structure for most of the atoms. The atomic total energies have a good agreement with the exact calculations. Discussion of the chemical potential and the first ionization potential in atoms is included. The functional is also extended to spin-polarized systems. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. Is atomic energy different from a nucleus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Young

    1995-07-01

    This book describes of two faces of nuclear energy : the secret of a nuclear, the history of nuclear energy : the scientists with a nuclear, the nuclear energy generation : the third disapprobation, a nuclear weapon : Choice of fear, the Korean peninsula and a nuclear and nuclear energy and utilization in peace. It consists of 31 questions and the answers of the questions about nuclear energy and nucleus.

  1. Streaming current of a rotary atomizer for energy harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Trieu; de Boer, Hans L.; Tran, T.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Zengerle, R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the experimental results of an energy conversion system based on a rotary atomizer and the streaming current phenomenon. The advantage of using a rotary atomizer instead of a channel or membrane micropore as in conventional pressure-driven approached is that the centrifugal force exerted

  2. Quantum yield and translational energy of hydrogen atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    erage kinetic energy of H atoms calculated from Doppler profiles was found to be ET(lab) = (50 ± 3) kJ/mol. The ... in this wavelength range H atoms are produced by ... tral hydrogen. 1,9 ... a spectral window of molecular oxygen, solar radia-.

  3. Present problems with atomic energy laws and regulations. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemel, W.

    1993-01-01

    The report includes two speeches held by the author on the 3rd Japanese-German Atomic Law Symposion in Tokio on 5-7 Oct. 1992. The titles are: 1) Recent developments in the German Laws and regulations ruling atomic energy; 2) Legal aspects of stopping and eliminating nuclear plants in Germany. Both speeches were translated into Japanese. (HP) [de

  4. White paper on atomic energy in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    This white paper explains the state of nuclear energy from June 19, 1998, to September, 2003. It consists of text and material. The text contains two chapters, of which the first chapter includes nuclear power plant, recovery of reliance, nuclear fuel cycle, development of research, international trend and evaluation of policy, and the second chapter nuclear energy administration of Japan, consensus of citizen and nuclear energy, nuclear power plant and nuclear fuel cycle, various kinds of development of nuclear energy technologies, radiation use for national life, consensus of international society and nuclear energy and propulsive basis of research, development and use of nuclear energy. Material collects determination of committee, budget on nuclear energy and chronological tables. This paper contains only the fundamental items related to the nuclear energy policy except nuclear energy safety. (S.Y.)

  5. Electron-atom scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, A.E.; Walters, H.R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The problems of intermediate energy scattering are approached from the low and high energy ends. At low intermediate energies difficulties associated with the use of pseudostates and correlation terms are discussed, special consideration being given to nonphysical pseudoresonances. Perturbation methods appropriate to high intermediate energies are described and attempts to extend these high energy approximations down to low intermediate energies are studied. It is shown how the importance of electron exchange effects develops with decreasing energy. The problem of assessing the 'effective completeness' of pseudostate sets at intermediate energies is mentioned and an instructive analysis of a 2p pseudostate approximation to elastic e - -H scattering is given. It is suggested that at low energies the Pauli Exclusion Principle can act to hide short range defects in pseudostate approximations. (author)

  6. Energy dependence of the ionization of highly excited atoms by collisions with excited atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, T.; Nakai, Y.; Nakamura, H.

    1979-01-01

    Approximate analytical expressions are derived for the ionization cross sections in the high- and low-collision-energy limits using the improved impulse approximation based on the assumption that the electron-atom inelastic-scattering amplitude is a function only of the momentum transfer. Both cases of simultaneous excitation and de-excitation of one of the atoms are discussed. The formulas are applied to the collisions between two excited hydrogen atoms and are found very useful for estimating the cross sections in the wide range of collisions energies

  7. Neck of public acceptance of atomic energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, Soichiro.

    1978-01-01

    Discussion is lacking concerning the public acceptance of atomic energy in Japan. In case of the atomic powered ship Mutsu, an opponent says that the ship carries an atomic bomb, but a member of a support group says that the ship emits soft radiation like a hot spring. This is an example of discussion, and most of discussions are made under the political interest, instead of on the scientific base. In Japan, preparatory negotiations are required in advance to the decision making meeting in most cases. Therefore, most of substantial discussions are not public. Engineers in the nuclear industry can hardly express their opinion concerning the development of atomic energy. Most of the data for discussions are not original, but foreign data. Reasons for the development of atomic energy change case by case. It is necessary to consider that people will decide their opinion according to whether the responsible person is reliable or not. Some people oppose to atomic energy to find a new sense of value. Now, all people are requested to think and discuss the problem of atomic energy calmly. (Kato, T.)

  8. Atomic Energy Amendment Act 1987 - No 5 of 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Act modifies substantially the Atomic Energy Act 1953 as already amended. It repeals almost all of the existing Atomic Energy Act, including the provisions establishing the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and the security provisions. A new authority is created under separate legislation to replace the Commission: the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization. The only parts of the Act which remain are the sections covering the authorization of the Ranger Project and the Commonwealth title to uranium in the Northern Territory; and the requirement for reporting of discoveries of prescribed substances (uranium, thorium, i.e. any substance which may be used for production of atomic energy) and information on their production. Certain definitions have also been kept. (NEA) [fr

  9. Managing public perceptions about atomic energy in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, Ravi; Malhotra, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Homi Jehangir Bhabha, in his presidential address at the first International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy in Geneva in August 1955 had said 'Acquisition by man of the knowledge of how to release and use atomic energy must be recognized as the third epoch of human history'. Indeed during the last six decades, Atomic Energy has touched practically all aspects of human life and has registered its presence in almost every part of the globe. In India too, the Department of Atomic Energy set up in 1954, has been successfully pursuing a programme with a mandate to generate electricity, produce radioisotopes and develop radiation technologies with application in the areas of healthcare, food security, industry, water management, environment, R and D etc. Besides, DAE is also engaged in developing advanced technologies such as lasers, accelerator, robotics, fast computing and biosciences

  10. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1987-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1988 covers: Research Company; CANDU Operations; Radiochemical Company; Medical Products Division; The Future; Financial Sections; Board of Directors and Officers; and AECL locations

  11. Atomic Energy Authority Act, No. 19 of 1969

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Act to provide for the establishment of an Atomic Energy Authority and an advisory committee to advise such authority, to specify the power, duties, rights and functions of such authority, and to provide for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto

  12. Ghana Atomic Energy Commission : at a glance. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    The brochure provides a brief history of the establishment and functions of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. It also provides information on the structure, facilities and activities of existing research institutes and centres

  13. Annual Report 2002 of the Institute of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy described the results of the research works carried out at the Institute in 2002 year. The Report contains the information on technical and research studies developed by all Institute Departments and Laboratories

  14. The future of atomic energy; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermi, E.

    1946-01-01

    There is definitely a technical possibility that atomic power may gradually develop into one of the principal sources of useful power. If this expectation will prove correct, great advantages can be expected to come from the fact that the weight of the fuel is almost negligible. This feature may be particularly valuable for making power available to regions of difficult access and far from deposits of coal. It also may prove a great asset in mobile power units for example in a power plant for ship propulsion. On the negative side there are some technical limitations to be applicability of atomic power of which perhaps the most serious is the impossibility of constructing light power units; also there will be some peculiar difficulties in operating atomic plants, as for example the necessity of handling highly radioactive substances which will necessitate, at least for some considerable period, the use of specially skilled personnel for the operation. But the chief obstacle in the way of developing atomic power will be the difficulty of organizing a large scale industrial development in an internationally safe way. This presents actually problems much more difficult to solve than any of the technical developments that are necessary, It will require an unusual amount of statesmanship to balance properly the necessity of allaying the international suspicion that arises from withholding technical secrets against the obvious danger of dumping the details of the procedures for an extremely dangerous new method of warfare on a world that may not yet be prepared to renounce war. Furthermore, the proper balance should be found in the relatively short time that will elapse before the 'secrets' will naturally become open knowledge by rediscovery on part of the scientists and engineers of other countries

  15. About connection between atomic and hydrogen energy power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeeva, M.Zh.; Vecher, A.A.; Pan'kov, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    Possible interaction between atomic and hydrogen energy power has been discussed. The analysis of the result held shows that the electrical energy produced by the atomic reactor during the of-load hours can be involved into the process of obtaining hydrogen by electrolysis. In order to optimize the transportation and storage of hydrogen it is proposed to convert it into ammonia. The direct uses of ammonia as a fuel into the internal combustion engine and fuel cells are examined. (authors)

  16. Atom-surface interaction: Zero-point energy formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranjape, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction energy between an atom and a surface formed by a polar medium is derived with use of a new approach based on the zero-point energy formalism. It is shown that the energy depends on the separation Z between the atom and the surface. With increasing Z, the energy decreases according to 1/Z 3 , while with decreasing Z the energy saturates to a finite value. It is also shown that the energy is affected by the velocity of the atom, but this correction is small. Our result for large Z is consistent with the work of Manson and Ritchie [Phys. Rev. B 29, 1084 (1984)], who follow a more traditional approach to the problem

  17. Mesonic atom production in high-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakai, M.; Bando, H.; Sano, M.

    1987-08-01

    The production probability of π-mesonic atom in high-energy nuclear collisions is estimated by a coalescence model. The production cross section is calculated for p + Ne and Ne + Ne systems at 2.1 GeV/A and 5.0 GeV/A beam energy. It is shown that nuclear fragments with larger charge numbers have the advantage in the formation of π-mesonic atoms. The cross section is proportional to Z 3 and of the order of magnitude of 1 ∼ 10 μb in all the above cases. The production cross sections of K-mesonic atoms are also estimated. (author)

  18. Glossary of scientific and technical terms in atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In order to facilitate the task of Arabic speaking scientists in the field of nuclear energy, the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria assigned a committee constituted of leading physicists and chemists at Damascus University, the aim of the commission was to include the Arabic equivalent of the terms cited in English, French, Russian and Spanish in the glossary published by the United Nations, 1958 ''Atomic Energy Glossary of Technical Terms.'' The result of the committee's work was this glossary containing approximately 6000 terms in the field of nuclear energy which are given in Arabic, English, French, Russian and Spanish

  19. Clean Nanotube Unzipping by Abrupt Thermal Expansion of Molecular Nitrogen: Graphene Nanoribbons with Atomically Smooth Edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Terrones, M. [Universidad Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Endo, M [Shinshu University; Munoz-Sandoval, Emilio [IPICyT; Kim, Y A [Shinshu University; Morelos-Bomez, Aaron [Shinshu University; Vega-Diaz, Sofia [Shinshu University

    2012-01-01

    We report a novel physicochemical route to produce highly crystalline nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons. The technique consists of an abrupt N2 gas expansion within the hollow core of nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNx-MWNTs) when exposed to a fast thermal shock. The multiwalled nanotube unzipping mechanism is rationalized using molecular dynamics and density functional theory simulations, which highlight the importance of open-ended nanotubes in promoting the efficient introduction of N2 molecules by capillary action within tubes and surface defects, thus triggering an efficient and atomically smooth unzipping. The so-produced nanoribbons could be few-layered (from graphene bilayer onward) and could exhibit both crystalline zigzag and armchair edges. In contrast to methods developed previously, our technique presents various advantages: (1) the tubes are not heavily oxidized; (2) the method yields sharp atomic edges within the resulting nanoribbons; (3) the technique could be scaled up for the bulk production of crystalline nanoribbons from available MWNT sources; and (4) this route could eventually be used to unzip other types of carbon nanotubes or intercalated layered materials such as BN, MoS2, WS2, etc.

  20. Application of atomic energy in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A state-of-the-art survey of current research is presented in the form of a series of short articles which includes X-ray dosimetry intercomparison (EULEP), testing of lyoluminescent materials for the 25-krad to 2.5-Mrad dose range, behaviour of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in soils and plants (also fallout), plant nutrition in relation to soils, Experimental Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System tests, nitrogen fixation, gene mutations and chromosome manipulation in both legumes and ornamental plants, incompatibility studies, radiation mutagenesis, crop protection by genetic control of insects, food sterilization and preservation by irradiation, and waste irradiation. An outline is given of the research plans for the coming four years and the international cooperation involved. A survey of the outward services, lectures, publications and conference participation is presented at the end. (Auth.)

  1. Establishment of 'Japan Atomic Energy Agency'. Its role and expectation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Toru; Itakura, Shuichiro; Shiozawa, Shusaku; Hino, Ryutaro; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Sakurada, Michio; Kimura, Itsuro; Kikuyama, Kaoru

    2005-01-01

    In October 2005, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was established as an independent administrative institution with the integration of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). JAEA is the only institute in Japan dedicated to comprehensive research and development in the field of nuclear energy. This paper put together a special article on its role and expectation. Firstly the essentials of comprehensive nuclear research and its future perspective were discussed mainly based on 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy' of the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. Eight articles were followed on specific items such as quantum beams utilization, hydrogen production with nuclear heat, neutron science and ITER project, and put stress on joint works and smooth transfer of related technology to the private sector. (T. Tanaka)

  2. Effects of N2O and O2 addition to nitrogen Townsend dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure on the absolute ground-state atomic nitrogen density

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Gherardi, Nicolas; Massines, Franç oise

    2012-01-01

    Absolute ground-state density of nitrogen atoms N (2p3 4S3/2) in non-equilibrium Townsend dielectric barrier discharges (TDBDs) at atmospheric pressure sustained in N2/N2O and N2/O2 gas mixtures has been measured using Two-photon absorption laser

  3. Carbon and nitrogen trade-offs in biomass energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucek, Lidija; Klemes, Jiri Jaromir [University of Pannonia, Centre for Process Integration and Intensification (CPI" 2), Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, Veszprem (Hungary); Kravanja, Zdravko [University of Maribor, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Maribor (Slovenia)

    2012-06-15

    This contribution provides an overview of carbon (CFs) and nitrogen footprints (NFs) concerning their measures and impacts on the ecosystem and human health. The adversarial relationship between them is illustrated by the three biomass energy production applications, which substitute fossil energy production applications: (i) domestic wood combustion where different fossil energy sources (natural gas, coal, and fuel oil) are supplemented, (ii) bioethanol production from corn grain via the dry-grind process, where petrol is supplemented, and (iii) rape methyl ester production from rape seed oil via catalytic trans-esterification, where diesel is supplemented. The life cycle assessment is applied to assess the CFs and NFs resulting from different energy production applications from 'cradle-to-grave' span. The results highlighted that all biomass-derived energy generations have lower CFs and higher NFs whilst, on the other hand, fossil energies have higher CFs and lower NFs. (orig.)

  4. The International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzutti, A.A.C.

    1980-01-01

    The origens, functions and objectives of the IAEA are analysed. The application of safeguards to avoid military uses of nuclear energy is discussed. In the final section the agrement between Brazil and Germany regarding IAEA safeguards, as well as the competence for executing the brazilian program are explained. It is, then, an informative study dealing with nuclear energy and its peaceful path, the creation of International Fuel Cycle Evaluation and nonproliferation [pt

  5. Atomic Energy Law and technical standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieweg, K.

    1982-01-01

    The dissertation given a representation of the origination of the Nuclear Technology Committee (KTA), its responsibilities and organization, and of the procedure of establishing and amending the KTA rules in terms of factural structure, and deals with the legal quality of the KTA and its legal organizational form. In addition, it describes the legal status of the KTA members, the legal quality of the KTA office and of the bodies participating in the establishment of rules. In conclusion, it deals with the legal quality of KTA rules and their legal significances within administrative and court procedures and proceedings bearing on atomic law. The author qualifies the KTA rules as simple administrative acts in the form of abstract-general anticipated expert's opinions. (HSCH) [de

  6. Effects of varying dietary zinc levels on energy and nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parameters determined were dry matter intake (DMI), energy utilization and nitrogen utilization. The mean±SE of Panicum maximum, Andropogon gayanus, Pennisetum purpureum, Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium, contained 31.2±5.0; 29.1± 3.0;34.6± 6.0; 45.0± 5.0 and 47.1± 4.0mg Zn/kg DM respectively.

  7. Present status and perspective of Japanese atomic energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Kenzo

    1990-01-01

    Already 35 years are going to elapse since atomic energy industry was founded in Japan, and the positive development has been carried out in the nuclear power generation mainly with light water reactors as the base energy, as the result, now both the result of electric power generation and the technology have reached the highest level in the world. These are due to the accumulation of efforts, the preponderant assignment of able men and the positive investment for the research and development of the atomic energy industry. However, since 1985, the slowdown of power reactor development, the practical use of new type power reactors such as fast breeder reactors and the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle such as uranium enrichment and fuel reprocessing have been the new situation to be dealt with. In order to properly and flexibly cope with such change of situation, the healthy development of the atomic energy industry so as to secure the market on a certain scale and develop the business with responsibility is indispensable. The outlay of electric power industry related to atomic energy, the development of atomic energy market and the sales of mining and manufacturing industries, the trend of research and development and personnel, and the perspective and subjects of hereafter are reported. (K.I.)

  8. The promotion and control functions of atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1998-01-01

    The question about the purpose of atomic energy law may sound superfluous in Germany, a country where a highly differential legal framework for the peaceful utilization of nuclear power has existed for nearly 40 years in the Basic Law, the Atomic Energy Act, and its ordinances, and a comprehensive body of case laws. Yet, it is justified in view of the declared intention of the German federal government to establish an environmental code into which atomic energy law, hitherto an independent branch of the law, would be integrated, and it is justified also in view of persistent complaints that the present rules and regulations stifled investment activities. A look into some codes of law may help answer the question. Already in 1959, the authors of the Atomic Energy Act outlined the purposes of the legislation in relatively clear terms in Section 1. Besides the two foreign policy aspects of security and loyalty under treaties, which do not concern us in this connection, the key purposes of atomic energy law are stated there as promotion and protection. The protection purpose, which implies the need to protect life, health, and property from the hazards of nuclear energy and harmful effects of ionizing radiation, ranks second in the Act. In accordance with the ruling in 1972 of the Federal Administrative Court, however, it should rank at the top. (orig.) [de

  9. Renewable energy carriers: Hydrogen or liquid air/nitrogen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongliang; Chen Haisheng; Zhang Xinjing; Tan Chunqing; Ding Yulong

    2010-01-01

    The world's energy demand is met mainly by the fossil fuels today. The use of such fuels, however, causes serious environmental issues, including global warming, ozone layer depletion and acid rains. A sustainable solution to the issues is to replace the fossil fuels with renewable ones. Implementing such a solution, however, requires overcoming a number of technological barriers including low energy density, intermittent supply and mobility of the renewable energy sources. A potential approach to overcoming these barriers is to use an appropriate energy carrier, which can store, transport and distribute energy. The work to be reported in this paper aims to assess and compare a chemical energy carrier, hydrogen, with a physical energy carrier, liquid air/nitrogen, and discuss potential applications of the physical carrier. The ocean energy is used as an example of the renewable energy sources in the work. The assessment and comparison are carried out in terms of the overall efficiency, including production, storage/transportation and energy extraction. The environmental impact, waste heat recovery and safety issues are also considered. It is found that the physical energy carrier may be a better alternative to the chemical energy carrier under some circumstances, particularly when there are waste heat sources.

  10. Surface modification of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite by reaction with atomic nitrogen at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Luning; Pejakovic, Dusan A.; Geng Baisong; Marschall, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Dry etching of {0 0 0 1} basal planes of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) using active nitridation by nitrogen atoms was investigated at low pressures and high temperatures. The etching process produces channels at grain boundaries and pits whose shapes depend on the reaction temperature. For temperatures below 600 deg. C, the majority of pits are nearly circular, with a small fraction of hexagonal pits with rounded edges. For temperatures above 600 deg. C, the pits are almost exclusively hexagonal with straight edges. The Raman spectra of samples etched at 1000 deg. C show the D mode near 1360 cm -1 , which is absent in pristine HOPG. For deep hexagonal pits that penetrate many graphene layers, neither the surface number density of pits nor the width of pit size distribution changes substantially with the nitridation time, suggesting that these pits are initiated at a fixed number of extended defects intersecting {0 0 0 1} planes. Shallow pits that penetrate 1-2 graphene layers have a wide size distribution, which suggests that these pits are initiated on pristine graphene surfaces from lattice vacancies continually formed by N atoms. A similar wide size distribution of shallow hexagonal pits is observed in an n-layer graphene sample after N-atom etching.

  11. The licensing procedure under Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronellenfitsch, M.

    1983-01-01

    This post-doctoral thesis of 1981 has been updated to include developments in this field up to the year 1983. The author discusses in detail all questions relating to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany, predominantly from the point of view of administrative law. He investigates nuclear energy and its contribution to electricity supplies with a view to other energy sources, renewable energy sources, alternative energy policies, nuclear fuel and the fuel cycle, development of the nuclear industry, nuclear power stations in operation, under construction, or in development. Following a survey of the nuclear controversy, both on the national and the international level, the author reviews the legal system and arising controversies in the Federal Republic of Germany, defining the purpose of this thesis to be the systematic analysis of the available legal instruments, in order to show structural deficiencies in the planning law relating to nuclear power stations, and thus reasons of ambiguities within the licensing procedure. The author studies the following terms and requirements: licensing requirements and licensability, the licensing method and scenario, the legal character of licences, their contents and effects within the stepwise procedure, and due publication. (HSCH) [de

  12. Energy-enhanced atomic layer deposition : offering more processing freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potts, S.E.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a popular deposition technique comprising two or more sequential, self-limiting surface reactions, which make up an ALD cycle. Energy-enhanced ALD is an evolution of traditional thermal ALD methods, whereby energy is supplied to a gas in situ in order to convert a

  13. Law on the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This is an amended and corrected edition of the Bulgarian atomic energy law. Its purpose is to promote nuclear energy peaceful applications, to regulate the use of radioactive substances and instrumentation, to provide protection against the radioactive hazards. The Law also determines the status of the Governmental Regulatory Body - the CUAEPP

  14. Energy eigenvalues of helium-like atoms in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashino, Tasuke; Nakazaki, Shinobu; Kato, Takako; Kashiwabara, Hiromichi.

    1987-04-01

    Calculations based on a variational method with wave functions including the correlation of electrons are carried out to obtain energy eigenvalues of Schroedinger's equation for helium-like atoms embedded in dense plasmas, taking the Debye-Hueckel approximation. Energy eigenvalues for the 1 1 S, 2 1 S, and 2 3 S states are obtained as a function of Debye screening length. (author)

  15. The 25th anniversary of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osztrovszki, Gy.

    1982-01-01

    The leader of the Hungarian delegation at the 26th General Assembly of the International Atomic Energy (IAEA) held in Vienna in September, 1982, on the occasion of the IAEA's 25th anniversary, presented a short review of the IAEA's activities during its existence, the Hungarian participation in them and Hungary's efforts in the peaceful uses of the nuclear energy. (A.L.)

  16. Positron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen at low energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of low energy ionization of atomic hydrogen has undergone a rapid ... Three distinct theories for describing low energy ionization can now .... clear evidence that the backward peak for ΘЅѕ = 180° is due to positron-nucleus scat-.

  17. Single atom identification by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovejoy, T. C.; Dellby, N.; Krivanek, O. L.; Ramasse, Q. M.; Falke, M.; Kaeppel, A.; Terborg, R.; Zan, R.

    2012-01-01

    Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, single, isolated impurity atoms of silicon and platinum in monolayer and multilayer graphene are identified. Simultaneously acquired electron energy loss spectra confirm the elemental identification. Contamination difficulties are overcome by employing near-UHV sample conditions. Signal intensities agree within a factor of two with standardless estimates.

  18. Study of the metastable singlet of molecular nitrogen and of oxygen atoms in discharges and post-discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magne, Lionel

    1991-01-01

    Whereas discharges in nitrogen, in oxygen and in their mixtures are used in many different industrial processes (surface treatment, nitridation, oxidation, and so on), in order to get a better knowledge on nitrogen electronic states, this research thesis reports the study of the metastable singlet state of molecular nitrogen, and of oxygen atoms in their fundamental state. The molecular metastable has been observed by far-UV optical emission spectroscopy, in the positive column of a continuous discharge and in time post-discharge. As far as continuous discharge is concerned, the author measured the vibrational distribution of this state. A kinetic model has been developed, and calculated vibrational distributions are in good agreement with measurements. The density of oxygen atoms in fundamental state in time post-discharge has been measured by far-UV absorption optical spectroscopy. The probability of atom re-association of glass walls is deduced from the obtained results [fr

  19. Department of Atomic Energy [India]: Annual report 1979-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The work of the research establishments, projects undertaken and public sector undertakings of the Department of Atomic Energy during the financial year 1979-80 is surveyed. The research and development activities of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Bombay, the Reactor Research Centre at Kalpakkam, the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research at Bombay, the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics at Calcutta and the Tata Memorial Centre at Bombay are described. An account of the progress of heavy water production plant projects, the Madras and Narora Atomic Power Projects, the MHD project and the 100 MW thermal research reactor R-5 Project at Trombay is given. Performance of the Tarapur and Rajasthan Atomic Power Stations, Nuclear Fuel Complex at Hyderabad, Atomic Minerals Division, ISOMED (the radiation sterilisation plant for medical products) at Bombay, the Indian Rare Earths Ltd., the Uranium Corporation of India Ltd., and the Electronics Corporation of India Ltd., Hyderabad is reported. (M.G.B.)

  20. Atomic Energy Commission reports. Volume 6. Opinions and decisions of the Atomic Energy Commission with selected orders, January 1, 1973 to December 31, 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Issuances of the Atomic Energy Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Boards, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, and the Board of Contract Appeals including the Contract Adjustment Board are presented. (U.S.)

  1. International nuclear low and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aouinet, Nejib

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to put points on the codification of international law of nuclear energy and its uses in military and peaceful in the first part. The second part was devoted for the imperfection of the law of international nuclear.

  2. The law for the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The institute is established under the atomic energy basic law to make effectively research of development of atomic energy in general and help to promote investigation, development and utilization of it. The institute is a legal person and has its main office in Tokyo. Its capital is the amount of yen 2,500 million plus contributions by persons other than the government. The government invests the said yen 2,500 million at the time of its establishment. The articles of the institute shall prescribe matters, such as: capital, contributions and assets; officer and meeting; business and its execution; accounting, etc. The officers are consisted of a chief director, a deputy chief director and less than 7 directors and less than 2 auditors. The chief director is appointed by the Prime Minister with the consent of the atomic energy commission. The term of the chief director, the deputy chief director and directors is 4 years and that of auditors is 2 years. Functions of the institute include basic and application research of atomic energy, planning, building and operation of reactors, training of researchers and engineers of atomic energy, etc. The budget, the business program and the financial project shall be prepared each business year and authorized by the Prime Minister. The institute is subject to the supervision of the Prime Minister. (Okada, K.)

  3. Van der Waals dispersion energy between atoms and nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boustimi, M; Loulou, M; Natto, S; Belafhal, A; Baudon, J

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we focus on the atom-surface interaction where the geometry of the surface is highly symmetric (i.e. sphere, cylinder and plane) and the atom is in ground state. We first present the main features of our model, based on the susceptibility tensors of the two partners in interaction, to determine a general expression of the dispersive energy of van der Waals interaction. Some results are given as applications of this model which addresses recent nanophysical problems, for example, when atoms are in the vicinity of metallic nanoshells, nanospheres or nanowires. (paper)

  4. Local electron mean energy profile of positive primary streamer discharge with pin-plate electrodes in oxygen—nitrogen mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sima Wen-Xia; Peng Qing-Jun; Yang Qing; Yuan Tao; Shi Jian

    2013-01-01

    Local electron mean energy (LEME) has a direct effect on the rates of collisional ionization of molecules and atoms by electrons. Electron-impact ionization plays an important role and is the main process for the production of charged particles in a primary streamer discharge. Detailed research on the LEME profile in a primary streamer discharge is extremely important for a comprehensive understanding of the local physical mechanism of a streamer. In this study, the LEME profile of the primary streamer discharge in oxygen-nitrogen mixtures with a pin-plate gap of 0.5 cm under an impulse voltage is investigated using a fluid model. The fluid model includes the electron mean energy density equation, as well as continuity equations for electrons and ions and Poisson's electric field equation. The study finds that, except in the initial stage of the primary streamer, the LEME in the primary streamer tip tends to increase as the oxygen-nitrogen mole ratio increases and the pressure decreases. When the primary streamer bridges the gap, the LEME in the primary streamer channel is smaller than the first ionization energies of oxygen and nitrogen. The LEME in the primary streamer channel then decreases as the oxygen-nitrogen mole ratio increases and the pressure increases. The LEME in the primary streamer tip is primarily dependent on the reduced electric field with mole ratios of oxygen-nitrogen given in the oxygen-nitrogen mixtures. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  5. Atomic force microscopy of surface topography of nitrogen plasma treated steel

    CERN Document Server

    Mahboubi, F

    2002-01-01

    Nitriding of steels, using plasma environments has been practiced for many years. A lot of efforts have been put on developing new methods, such as plasma immersion ion implantation (Pl sup 3) and radio frequency (RF) plasma nitriding, for mass transfer of nitrogen into the surface of the work piece. This article presents the results obtained from an in depth investigation of the surface morphology of the treated samples, carried out using an atomic force microscope. Samples from a microalloyed steel, were treated by both methods for 5 hours at different temperatures ranging from 350 to 550 sup d eg sup C in 75% N sub 2 -25% H sub 2 atmosphere. It has been found that the surface of the samples treated by PI sup 3 technique, although having more favorable properties, were rougher than the surfaces treated by RF plasma nitriding.

  6. Scientists speak of the peaceful use of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas Murillo, Otto; Rodriguez Solis, Marisel

    2010-01-01

    Experts from Argentina, Cuba, Mexico, Peru and Costa Rica have met in that last country, to offer the forum 'Peaceful uses of atomic energy: prospects for Costa Rica'. Specialists were invited by the Centro de Investigacion en Biologia Celular y Molecular (CIBCM) of the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR) and the Centro de Investigacion en Biotecnologia (CIB) of Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica. The forum has developed around the theme the usefulness of atomic energy for science, and importance for the development of the country. The peaceful use of atomic energy was explained by specialists in each country, specifically in the field of health, industry, agriculture, industrial equipment sterilization, medical products, body tissues and crops [es

  7. Status of Nuclear Activities of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Zakia [Planning and Development, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission - BAEC, Paramanu Bhaban, E 12/A, Agargoan, 01207 Shere Banglanagar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2008-07-01

    Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the national authority for acquisition, development and application of Nuclear Science and Technology and thus is playing the pioneering role for the development of the country's nuclear research programmes and thus helping to achieve the cherished goal of self-reliance through national efforts and international co-operation. Being firmly committed to the peaceful uses of Atomic Energy, programmes have been undertaken in Physical Sciences, Biological Sciences, Engineering and Nuclear Power Sector by Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission and some of the results have been transferred from laboratories to hospitals, agriculture, industries and environment for practical applications. In spite of some major constrains, presently BAEC's activities have increased many folds and keeping in view of the overall power crisis of the country efforts have also been given to establish Nuclear Power Plant in the country. (author)

  8. General engineering ethics and multiple stress of atomic energy engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko

    1999-01-01

    The factors, by which the modern engineering ethics has been profoundly affected, were classified to three categories, namely mental blow, the destruction of human function and environment damage. The role of atomic energy engineering in the ethic field has been shown in the first place. It is pointed out that it has brought about the mental blow by the elucidation of universal truth and discipline and the functional disorder by the power supply. However, the direct effect of radiation to the human kinds is only a part of the stresses comparing to the accumulation of the social stress which should be taken into account of by the possibility of disaster and the suspicion of the atomic energy politics. An increase in the multiple stresses as well as the restriction of criticism will place obstacles on the promotion of atomic energy. (author)

  9. General engineering ethics and multiple stress of atomic energy engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    The factors, by which the modern engineering ethics has been profoundly affected, were classified to three categories, namely mental blow, the destruction of human function and environment damage. The role of atomic energy engineering in the ethic field has been shown in the first place. It is pointed out that it has brought about the mental blow by the elucidation of universal truth and discipline and the functional disorder by the power supply. However, the direct effect of radiation to the human kinds is only a part of the stresses comparing to the accumulation of the social stress which should be taken into account of by the possibility of disaster and the suspicion of the atomic energy politics. An increase in the multiple stresses as well as the restriction of criticism will place obstacles on the promotion of atomic energy. (author)

  10. German atomic energy law in the international framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    1992-01-01

    The regional conference was devoted to the legal problems that ensue from German reunification against the background of the integration of German atomic energy law within international law. The elements of national atomic energy legislation required by international law and recent developments in international nuclear liability law were discussed from different perspectives. The particular problems of the application of the German Atomic Energy Act in the 5 new Laender (the territories of the former GDR) were presented and discussed, namely: The continued validity of old licences issued by the GDR; practical legal problems connected with the construction of nuclear power plants in the 5 new Laender; the legal issues connected with the final repository for radioactive wastes at Morsleben; and the new developments in radiation protection law following from the Unification Treaty and the new ICRP recommendations. All 14 lectures have been abstracted and indexed individually. (orig.) [de

  11. Philippine Atomic Energy Commission 1972 - 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This publication presents in a nutshell the organization, its facilities and equipment resources and its thrusts and accomplishments as contributions to the country's programs from 1972 to 1981. It enumerates its research and development program geared toward basic needs like food and agriculture, energy studies; industry and engineering, medicine, public health and nutrition, improvement of the human environment and other basic objective researches. Equally important besides its research and development program are its other functions on nuclear regulation and safety, technical extension services, nuclear public acceptance, nuclear manpower development, and its commitments in international affairs by means of bilateral agreements. (author)

  12. 1989 basic plan for atomic energy development and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A Basic Plan for Atomic Energy Development and Utilization has been established each year based on the guidelines set up by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, with the aim of promoting the development and utilization of atomic energy schematically and efficiently. The Basic Plan shows specific projects to achieve the objectives specified in the Long-Range Plan for Atomic Energy Development and Utilization. The Basic Plan specifies efforts to be made for overall strengthening of safety measures (safety policies, safety research, disaster prevention, etc.), promotion of nuclear power generation, establishment of the nuclear fuel cycle (securing of uranium, technology for uranium enrichment, reprocessing, etc.), development of new types of power reactors (fast breeder reactor, new types of converter reactors, plutonium fuel processing technology), promotion of leading projects (nuclear fusion, utilization of radiations, atomic powered ships, high-temperature engineering tests), promotion of basic technology development (basic research, training of scientists and engineers), voluntary and active international activities (international cooperation), and acquisition of understanding and cooperation of the general public. (N,K.)

  13. The situation of Chinese atomic energy and cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaki, Takao

    2003-01-01

    China will have 8.7 million kW atomic energy in 2005. Japan will complete with China in a sale war of international atomic energy and domestic power source. The position, development and situation of Chinese atomic energy and the future nuclear fuel cycle are reported. 5.4 million kW of 7 atomic power plants in China and 45.9 million kW of 53 plants in Japan are running. 3.3 million kW of 4 plants in China and 4 million kW of 4 plants in Japan are building. New type reactor, the fast breeder and high temperature gas-cooled reactor are developing. Radiation exposure to food, radiation therapy, Radio-pharmaceuticals, polymerization and treatment of sewage and smoke are carried out. The situation of atomic energy co-operation between China and Japan and other countries are stated. Japan has to change to advance mutual interests type co-operation with China. Construction of the nuclear community in Asia area and development of the international long big project are proposed. (S.Y.)

  14. Understanding Atomic Structure: Is There a More Direct and Compelling Connection between Atomic Line Spectra and the Quantization of an Atom's Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The "atoms first" philosophy, adopted by a growing number of General Chemistry textbook authors, places greater emphasis on atomic structure as a key to a deeper understanding of the field of chemistry. A pivotal concept needed to understand the behavior of atoms is the restriction of an atom's energy to specific allowed values. However,…

  15. The tenth Arab conference on peaceful uses of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This conference includes the paper presented at the tenth Arab conference of the peaceful uses of Nuclear Atomic Energy that is organized by AAEA (Arab Atomic Energy Agency) in cooperation with Iraqi Ministry of Science and Technology and Kurdistan government , held in Erbil (Iraq) from 12-16 December 2010. This conference consists of three volumes covering the following concepts: Analysis and Material Improvement, Soil fertility, Water Recourse Management, Nuclear Medicine and Biological Irradiation, Isotopes Production, Improvement of Plant and Animal Production, Decommissioning and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities, Radioactive Waste Management, Nuclear Safety and Security of Radiation Protection, Pest Control and Food Irradiation Processing

  16. The Atomic Energy Control Board's regulatory research and support program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    The purpose of the Regulatory Research and Support Program is to augment and extend the capability of the Atomic Energy Control Board's (AECB) regulatory program beyond the capability of in-house resources. The overall objective of the program is to produce pertinent and independent scientific and other knowledge and expertise that will assist the AECB in making correct, timely and credible decisions on regulating the development, application and use of atomic energy. The objectives are achieved through contracted research, development, studies, consultant and other kinds of projects administered by the Research and Radiation Protection Branch (RRB) of the AECB

  17. Legislation in Hungary. Implementation of the Act on Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szonyi, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The presentation gives a short overview of the history and development of the Hungarian nuclear regulatory regime. The new Act on Atomic Energy is a consequence of the significant internal and international changes. The main characteristic of the Act represent the new expectations and challenges of the nuclear community and the solid and reliable Hungarian legal solutions. The competences, duties and responsibilities of Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority and of the joining other relevant ministries and the complete regulatory framework guarantee the enforcement of the requirements set by the Act.(author)

  18. Annual report 2001[International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2001. The report outlines the IAEA activities in the following fields: nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management technology, comparative assessment for sustainable energy development; food and agriculture, human health, marine environment and water resources, applications of physical and chemical sciences, nuclear safety, radiation safety, radioactive waste safety, co-ordination of safety activities, safeguards, security of material, verification in Iraq pursuant to UNSC resolutions, management of technical co-operation for development, policy-making, management and support.

  19. Atoms for peace - the work of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daglish, J.

    1984-01-01

    The article deals with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which is situated in Vienna. The aims of the IAEA and its work are described. The safeguards system; promotional work; technical cooperation programme; and nuclear safety work concerned with basic safety standards for radiation protection; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  20. Negative atomic halogens incident on argon and molecular nitrogen: electron detachment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, G; Medina, A; Magalhaes, S D; Wolff, W; Barros, A L F de; Carrilho, P; Rocha, A B; Faria, N V de Castro

    2007-01-01

    During the last years we have measured total detachment cross sections of atomic and cluster anions colliding with gases in the velocity range of 0.2 to 1.8 a.u. In particular, we measured negative atomic halogens incident on argon and molecular nitrogen. These last data are for the first time analyzed using the simple semi-classical model that we have developed. For that purpose, the values of elastic plus inelastic cross sections for impact of free electrons on Ar and N 2 , the latter showing a shape resonance, convoluted with the anion's outermost electron momentum distribution yielded the overall shape of the anion cross sections. Inclusion of a velocity independent additive term, interpreted as an effective area of the collision region, led to accurate absolute cross section values. The high affinity of the halogens and the existence of a not well described resonance in the e-N 2 collision, are characteristics that may be used to delimit the scope and validity of the model

  1. The World Power Conference and atomic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-01-15

    The possibility that emerged after the last World War that useful power could be produced from nuclear fission led to optimistic estimates that nuclear power would prove to be the solution to the world's energy problems. The possible advantages of nuclear methods of power production compared with conventional means are discussed at the World Power Conference. The 1962 Conference with its theme 'The Changing Pattern of Power' will undoubtedly attract great interest in a world where the change-over from conventional to nuclear fuels for power production has started in some countries and is being actively examined in others. It is generally being realized that even though a country may possess indigenous supplies of uranium or thorium minerals, the building up of a nuclear industry i s a long and expensive process and the alternative of depending on countries more advanced in nuclear technology for the supply of materials, skill and know-how is costly in foreign exchange and international prestige. Many of the industrialized countries, still possessing supplies of conventional fuels, are preparing for the day when their reserves will become depleted and are embarking on training schemes to ensure a continuing supply of engineers and scientists skilled in nuclear arts

  2. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Along with an examination of the state of worldwide nuclear-related developments last year, the IAEA Annual Report 2014 provides a comprehensive look at the Agency’s activities over the course of the year. From coordinating 125 research projects to conducting 2114 nuclear verification inspections worldwide, the IAEA’s 2560 employees continued to work on a wide range of areas to meet the evolving needs of Member States. The Annual Report, published in August, will be discussed and endorsed at the IAEA’s General Conference in September. Serving 162 Member States, two more than the year before, the IAEA’s activities in 2014 focused on the following areas, in line with its mandate: • Nuclear Energy: The IAEA assisted Member States in the introduction of nuclear power programmes and in the efficient and safe use of nuclear energy, fostering innovation and building capability in energy planning, analysis, and nuclear information and knowledge management. • Nuclear Sciences and Applications: The IAEA continued to assist Member States in building, strengthening and maintaining capacities in the safe, peaceful and secure use of nuclear technology. • Nuclear Safety and Security: The IAEA and its Member States continued to strengthen nuclear safety worldwide, including through the implementation of the Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which had been endorsed by the General Conference in 2011 after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant earlier that year. The IAEA also supported States, upon request, in their efforts to achieve effective security wherever nuclear and other radioactive materials are in use. • Nuclear Verification: The IAEA implemented safeguards in 180 States and as at the end of every year, it drew conclusions for each State for which safeguards were applied. • Technical Cooperation: The IAEA assisted Member States in their efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and in preparation for the post-2015 Sustainable

  3. International Atomic Energy Agency annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three pillars of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2006-2007 (GC(49)/2). The introductory chapter seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2006 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is provided on the attached CD-ROM, and is also available on the Agency's web site at http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2006/. Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to technology are: nuclear power; nuclear fuel cycle and materials technologies; capacity building and nuclear knowledge maintenance for sustainable energy development; nuclear science; food and agriculture; human health; water resources; assessment and management of marine and terrestrial environments; radioisotope production and radiation technology; safety and security; incident and emergency preparedness and response; safety of nuclear installations; radiation and transport safety; management of radioactive waste; nuclear security

  4. Nitrogen doping in atomic layer deposition grown titanium dioxide films by using ammonium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeaeriaeinen, M.-L., E-mail: marja-leena.kaariainen@lut.fi; Cameron, D.C.

    2012-12-30

    Titanium dioxide films have been created by atomic layer deposition using titanium chloride as the metal source and a solution of ammonium hydroxide in water as oxidant. Ammonium hydroxide has been used as a source of nitrogen for doping and three thickness series have been deposited at 350 Degree-Sign C. A 15 nm anatase dominated film was found to possess the highest photocatalytic activity in all film series. Furthermore almost three times better photocatalytic activity was discovered in the doped series compared to undoped films. The doped films also had lower resistivity. The results from X-ray photoemission spectroscopy showed evidence for interstitial nitrogen in the titanium dioxide structure. Besides, there was a minor red shift observable in the thickest samples. In addition the film conductivity was discovered to increase with the feeding pressure of ammonium hydroxide in the oxidant precursor. This may indicate that nitrogen doping has caused the decrease in the resistivity and therefore has an impact as an enhanced photocatalytic activity. The hot probe test showed that all the anatase or anatase dominant films were p-type and all the rutile dominant films were n-type. The best photocatalytic activity was shown by anatase-dominant films containing a small amount of rutile. It may be that p-n-junctions are formed between p-type anatase and n-type rutile which cause carrier separation and slow down the recombination rate. The combination of nitrogen doping and p-n junction formation results in superior photocatalytic performance. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found all N-doped and undoped anatase dominating films p-type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found all N-doped and undoped rutile dominating films n-type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose that p-n junctions are formed in anatase-rutile mixture films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found that low level N-doping has increased TiO{sub 2} conductivity. Black

  5. Nitrogen atom transfer mediated by a new PN3P-pincer nickel core via a putative nitrido nickel intermediate

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Changguang

    2018-02-13

    A 2nd generation PN3P-pincer azido nickel complex (PN3P)Ni(N3) reacts with isocyanides to afford monosubstituted carbodiimides under irradiation, presumably via a transient nitrido intermediate. The resulting species can further generate unsymmetrical carboddimides and the PN3P nickel halide complex, accomplishing a synthetic cycle for a complete nitrogen atom transfer reaction.

  6. Synthesis of pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles and other fused imidazole derivatives with a bridgehead nitrogen atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begunov, Roman S.; Ryzvanovich, Galina A.

    2013-01-01

    Main methods for the synthesis of fused imidazole derivatives with a bridgehead nitrogen atom are systematically considered and summarized. The reaction mechanisms that underlie the methods for the synthesis of pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles and related compounds are described. Biological properties and mechanisms of the biological activity of fused azaheterocycles are discussed. The bibliography includes 152 references.

  7. Nitrogen atom transfer mediated by a new PN3P-pincer nickel core via a putative nitrido nickel intermediate

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Changguang; Wang, Xiufang; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2018-01-01

    A 2nd generation PN3P-pincer azido nickel complex (PN3P)Ni(N3) reacts with isocyanides to afford monosubstituted carbodiimides under irradiation, presumably via a transient nitrido intermediate. The resulting species can further generate unsymmetrical carboddimides and the PN3P nickel halide complex, accomplishing a synthetic cycle for a complete nitrogen atom transfer reaction.

  8. Multipolar electrostatics for proteins: atom-atom electrostatic energies in crambin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongna; Mills, Matthew J L; Popelier, Paul L A

    2014-02-15

    Accurate electrostatics necessitates the use of multipole moments centered on nuclei or extra point charges centered away from the nuclei. Here, we follow the former alternative and investigate the convergence behavior of atom-atom electrostatic interactions in the pilot protein crambin. Amino acids are cut out from a Protein Data Bank structure of crambin, as single amino acids, di, or tripeptides, and are then capped with a peptide bond at each side. The atoms in the amino acids are defined through Quantum Chemical Topology (QCT) as finite volume electron density fragments. Atom-atom electrostatic energies are computed by means of a multipole expansion with regular spherical harmonics, up to a total interaction rank of L = ℓA+ ℓB + 1 = 10. The minimum internuclear distance in the convergent region of all the 15 possible types of atom-atom interactions in crambin that were calculated based on single amino acids are close to the values calculated from di and tripeptides. Values obtained at B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ and MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ levels are only slightly larger than those calculated at HF/6-31G(d,p) level. This convergence behavior is transferable to the well-known amyloid beta polypeptide Aβ1-42. Moreover, for a selected central atom, the influence of its neighbors on its multipole moments is investigated, and how far away this influence can be ignored is also determined. Finally, the convergence behavior of AMBER becomes closer to that of QCT with increasing internuclear distance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1961. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - December 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1962-01-31

    The document represents the 1961 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. This year's report consists of four parts: Part One, The Atomic Energy Industry for 1961 and Related Activities; Part Two, Nuclear Power Programs for 1961; Part Three, Major Activities in Atomic Energy Programs; and Part Four, Regulatory Activities. Sixteen appendices are also included.

  10. The Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1959. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - December 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1960-01-31

    The document represents the first annual reporting versus semiannual reporting of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. The report consists of three parts: Part One, The Atomic Energy Industry in 1959 and Related Activities; Part Two, Major Activities in Atomic Energy Programs; and Part Three, Management of Radioactive Wastes. Nineteen appendices are also included.

  11. Positron scattering by atomic hydrogen at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, K.; Burke, P.G.; Walters, H.R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Results of an accurate calculation based upon the intermediate energy R-matrix theory are reported for elastic scattering of positrons by atomic hydrogen. T-matrix elements for both low and intermediate energy scattering are evaluated for the S e , P o , D e and F o partial wave symmetries. The low-energy elastic phaseshifts are found to be in good agreement with previous accurate variational calculations. Using an optical potential approach to include the effect of the higher partial waves, elastic and total cross sections are presented for energies ranging from near threshold to 3.7 Rydbergs. (author)

  12. Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an overview of the nitrogen chemical market as of July 2013, including the production of ammonia compounds. Industrial uses for ammonia include fertilizers, explosives, and plastics. Other topics include industrial capacity of U.S. ammonia producers CF Industries Holdings Inc., Koch Nitrogen Co., PCS Nitrogen, Inc., and Agrium Inc., the impact of natural gas prices on the nitrogen industry, and demand for corn crops for ethanol production.

  13. Environment. 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The catalogue lists all publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with the Environment issued during the period 1980-1993. The major subjects covered include: effect of agrochemical residues on soils and aquatic ecosystems, application of radioisotopes in conservation of the environment, siting of nuclear power plants, environmental isotope data and environmental contamination due to nuclear accidents

  14. Topical problems in the implementation of Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basse, H.

    1983-01-01

    The German Symposium on Atomic Energylaw, a discussion circle of law and various opinious in the field of nuclear energy, is 10 years old and has in the meanwhile become an institution. The 7th meeting again had an impressive scientific level as far as the speeches, and discussions were concerned. (orig.) [de

  15. Act to amend cost regulations of the Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Article 21 is replaced by articles 21 to 21b. According to this, fees or reimbursements for expenses for official acts (e.g. decisions, supervisory acts, safeguarding of nuclear fuels) as well as for the use of facilities according to article 9a, section 3, of the Atomic Energy Act (e.g. Laender facilities to collect nuclear waste). (HP) [de

  16. China institute of atomic energy annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Annual Report is a comprehensive review of achievements made by China Institute of Atomic Energy in 1991, which concerns nuclear physics (theories, experimentation), high power laser, mathematics, accelerators, reactor science and technology, radiochemistry, radiochemical engineering and analytical chemistry, isotopes, radiation protection and environmental protection

  17. China institute of atomic energy annual report (1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This Report is a comprehensive review of achievements made by China Institute of Atomic Energy in 1995, which concerns nuclear physics (theories, experimentation), evaluation and calculation of nuclear data, experimental technique and equipment, high power laser, electro-physics, reactor science and technology, radiochemistry, radiochemical engineering and analytical chemistry, isotopes, application of nuclear technique, radiation protection and environmental protection

  18. Scientists credit `Atoms for Peace' for progress on energy, security

    CERN Multimedia

    Jones, D

    2003-01-01

    "Fifty years after President Eisenhower unveiled his plan for developing peaceful uses for nuclear fission, the scientific advances spawned by his Atoms for Peace program have made possible major advances in energy and national security, a panel of physicists said last week" (1 page).

  19. The creation of the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzorati, Zulema del V.

    2000-01-01

    After a mention to the Argentine regulation of 1945 concerning the export of uranium ores and a short description of the 'Richter affair', the decree 10936 of 1950, that creates the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) , is analyzed. The activities of the CNEA between the years 1952 - 1955 are also outlined

  20. Radiation therapy. 1990-2001. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This catalog lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Radiation Therapy, and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 30 April 2001. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. These are noted in the catalogue

  1. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1986-87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1987 covers the followings subjects: report from the president; research company; CANDU operations; radiochemical company; the future; financial section and board of directors and officers

  2. A history of the Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, G.H.E.

    1980-07-01

    Topics covered include the pre-history of the AECB, its creation, early operations and evolution, its relations with nuclear research, the uranium industry, and the nuclear power industry, its involvement with transportation and safeguards, and some current problems. The focus is on the Atomic Energy Control Act and regulations derived from the act

  3. A Bibliography of Basic Books on Atomic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1974-01-01

    This booklet lists selected commercially published books for the general public on atomic energy and closely related subjects. Books for young readers have school grade annotations.This booklet contains an author index, a title index, and a list of publishers’ addresses.

  4. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, annual report, 1995-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The 1996 Annual Report of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) is published and submitted to the Honourable member of Parliament, Minister of Natural Resources. Included in this report are messages from Marketing and Commercial Operation, Product Development, i e.CANDU and Research Reactors, CANDU research, Waste Management, Environmental Management, Financial Review and also included are copies of the financial statements.

  5. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, annual report, 1995-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 Annual Report of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) is published and submitted to the Honourable member of Parliament, Minister of Natural Resources. Included in this report are messages from Marketing and Commercial Operation, Product Development, i e.CANDU and Research Reactors, CANDU research, Waste Management, Environmental Management, Financial Review and also included are copies of the financial statements

  6. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1985-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1986 covers the following subjects: report from the chairman and the president; research company; CANDU operations; radiochemical company; employee performance; nuclear Canada; Financial section; and board of directors and officers

  7. Environment. 1990-2001. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This catalog lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with the Environment, and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 30 April 2001. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. These are noted in the catalogue

  8. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications. Catalogue 1986-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued from 1986 up to the end of 1999 and still available. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered important have also been included. The catalogue is in CD-ROM format

  9. Annual Report 2003 of the Institute of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    Annual report of the Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk (PL), described the results of the research work carried out at the Institute in 2003 year. The report contains detailed information on technical and research studies developed by all Institute Departments and Laboratories

  10. Current trend of atomic energy development in Japan - 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M.; Yang, M. H.; Yun, S. W.

    1999-01-01

    The atomic energy power generation is recognized to be important to solve the problems of the competitive relations among the Asian developing countries due to the increasing dependency on the crude oil produced in the Middle East and the insecurity of transport route of the oil. The reorganization and inauguration of JNC(former PNC) has been carried out for the development of liquid metal reactor and related fuel cycle technology as the national development project to prevent the global green house effect and to continue the economic development. The construction of light water reactor, the utilization of plutonium in light water reactor and the enrichment and reprocessing of spent fuel of light water reactor are classified as proven technologies which will be covered by the industry. The government will lead to the environment favorable for introduction of the atomic energy and will monitor the situation. The specifics of atomic energy development project and the development system for the 21th century will be contained in the long term atomic energy development plan which will be completed by 2000 and the reorganization operation has been initiated. (author). 41 refs., 5 tabs., 30 figs

  11. Inelastic collisions of medium energy atomic elements. Qualitative model of energy losses during collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to the theoretical description of energy losses of atomic particle of medium energy during their interaction with the substance is proposed. The corner-stone of this approach is the supposition that all of the collision processes have inelastic nature during particle movement through the substance, while the calculation of the atomic particles braking is based on the law of their dispersion and the laws of energy and momentum conservation at the inelastic collisions. It is shown that inelastic atomic collision there are three dispersion zones for the only potential interaction with different laws, which characterize energy losses. The application conditions of this approach are determined [ru

  12. Multiloop atom interferometer measurements of chameleon dark energy in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiow, Sheng-wey; Yu, Nan

    2018-02-01

    Chameleon field is one of the promising candidates of dark energy scalar fields. As in all viable candidate field theories, a screening mechanism is implemented to be consistent with all existing tests of general relativity. The screening effect in the chameleon theory manifests its influence limited only to the thin outer layer of a bulk object, thus producing extra forces orders of magnitude weaker than that of the gravitational force of the bulk. For pointlike particles such as atoms, the depth of screening is larger than the size of the particle, such that the screening mechanism is ineffective and the chameleon force is fully expressed on the atomic test particles. Extra force measurements using atom interferometry are thus much more sensitive than bulk mass based measurements, and indeed have placed the most stringent constraints on the parameters characterizing chameleon field. In this paper, we present a conceptual measurement approach for chameleon force detection using atom interferometry in microgravity, in which multiloop atom interferometers exploit specially designed periodic modulation of chameleon fields. We show that major systematics of the dark energy force measurements, i.e., effects of gravitational forces and their gradients, can be suppressed below all hypothetical chameleon signals in the parameter space of interest.

  13. Tenth act amending the German atomic energy act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2009-01-01

    On January 14, 2009, the German federal government introduced into parliament the 10th Act Amending the Atomic Energy Act. In the first reading in the federal parliament, Federal Minister for the Environment Gabriel emphasized 2 main points: Intensified protection of nuclear facilities and of transports of radioactive substances against unauthorized interventions; transfer by law to the Federal Office for Radiological Protection (BfS) of decommissioning of the Asse mine. Reliability review: The amendment to Sec.12 b of the Atomic Energy Act is to meet the different safety and security conditions after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 in the United States and other terrorist activities afterwards (London, Madrid) also with respect to hazards arising to nuclear facilities and nuclear transports. The bill must be seen in conjunction with the Ordinance on Reliability Reviews under the Atomic Energy Act dated July 1, 1999 which covers reviews of reliability of persons holding special responsibilities. Asse II mine: The competence of the Federal Office for Radiological Protection is achieved by an amendment to Sec.23, Para.1, Number 2, Atomic Energy Act, in which the words ''and for the Asse II mine'' are added after the word ''waste.'' Further proceedings depend on the additional provision in a new Sec.57 b, Atomic Energy Act. Accordingly, the operation and decommissioning of the Asse II mine are subject to the regulations applicable to facilities of the federation pursuant to Sec.9a, Para.3. In this way, Asse II is given the same legal status as the federal waste management facilities. Moreover, it is stipulated that the mine is to be shut down immediately. (orig.)

  14. The No.I. Law (1980) on atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Law regulates all aspects of the use and application of nuclear energy. The four basic principles of the law are as follows: 1. Nuclear energy can be applied only for peaceful purposes, and this must be promoted by effective international cooperation. 2. The materials, equipment and establishments serving the application of nuclear energy are generally in social ownership. 3. Nuclear energy can be applied only with satisfactory safety precautions, and its uses are determined and regularly controlled by the state. 4. The compensation of the damages caused by nuclear energy applications is regulated by special rules. The enforcement of the law and the direction, control and development of the application of nuclear energy is the responsibility of the Council of Ministers. (R.J.)

  15. Atomic-orbital expansion model for describing ion-atom collisions at intermediate and low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.D.; Fritsch, W.

    1983-01-01

    In the description of inelastic processes in ion-atom collisions at moderate energies, the semiclassical close-coupling method is well established as the standard method. Ever since the pioneering work on H + + H in the early 60's, the standard procedure is to expand the electronic wavefunction in terms of molecular orbitals (MO) or atomic orbitals (AO) for describing collisions at, respectively, low or intermediate velocities. It has been recognized since early days that traveling orbitals are needed in the expansions in order to represent the asymptotic states in the collisions correctly. While the adoption of such traveling orbitals presents no conceptual difficulties for expansions using atomic orbitals, the situation for molecular orbitals is less clear. In recent years, various forms of traveling MO's have been proposed, but conflicting results for several well-studied systems have been reported

  16. Energy exchange in thermal energy atom-surface scattering: impulsive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, J.A.; Auerbach, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    Energy exchange in thermal energy atom surface collisions is studied using impulsive ('hard cube' and 'hard sphere') models. Both models reproduce the observed nearly linear relation between outgoing and incoming energies. In addition, the hard-sphere model accounts for the widths of the outcoming energy distributions. (Auth.)

  17. Development of a microlesson in teaching energy levels of atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Cherilyn A.; Buan, Amelia T.

    2018-01-01

    Energy levels of atoms is one of the difficult topics in understanding atomic structure of matter. It appears tobe abstract, theoretical and needs visual representation and images. Hence, in this study a microlesson in teaching the high school chemistry concept on the energy levels of atoms is developed and validated. The researchers utilized backward curriculum design in planning the microlesson to meet the standards of the science K-12 curriculum. The planning process of the microlesson involved a) Identifying the learning competencies in K-12 science curriculum b) write learning objectives c) planning of assessment tools d) making a storyboard e) designing the microlesson and validate and revise the microlesson. The microlesson made use of varied resources in the internet from which the students accessed and collected information about energy levels of atoms. Working in groups, the students synthesized the information on how and why fireworks produce various colors of light through a post card. Findings of the study showed that there was an increase of achievement in learning the content and the students were highly motivated to learn chemistry. Furthermore, the students perceived that the microlesson helped them to understand the chemistry concept through the use of appropriate multimedia activities.

  18. Utilization of atomic energy in Asia and nuclear nonproliferation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Makoto

    1995-01-01

    The economical growth in East Asia is conspicuous as it was called East Asian Miracle, and also the demand of energy increased rapidly. The end of Cold War created the condition for the further development in this district. Many countries advanced positively the plan of atomic energy utilization, and it can be said that the smooth progress of atomic energy utilization is the key for the continuous growth in this district in view of the restriction of petroleum resources and its price rise in future and the deterioration of global environment. The nuclear nonproliferation treaty (NPT) has accomplished large role, but also its limitation became clear. At present, there is not the local security system in Asia, but in order that the various countries in Asia make the utilization of atomic energy and the security compatible, it is useful to jointly develop safety technology, execute security measures and form the nuclear fuel cycle as Asia. Energy and environmental problems in Asia are reported. Threat is essentially intention and capability, and the regulation only by capability regardless of intention brings about unrealistic result. The limitation of the NPT is discussed. The international relation of interdependence deepends after Cold War, and the security in Asia after Cold War is considered. As the mechanism of forming the nuclear fuel cycle for whole Asia, it is desirable to realize ASIATOM by accumulating the results of possible cooperation. (K.I.)

  19. White paper on atomic energy in 1993. 1993 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In order to cope with the problem of how to secure the energy which is the base of mankind survival in the continuing increase of global population, the research and development of atomic energy and new energies, energy conservation and various other efforts have been carried out. But still the stable supply and securing of energy are important policy subjects. It is the policy of the new Hosokawa Cabinet to inherit important basic policies including energy policy. The nuclear power that generates about 30% of Japanese electric power is indispensable for stable energy supply, and its development and utilization are advanced steadily. The peaceful utilization of the plutonium produced in nuclear reactors by the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle must be advanced. For the purpose, the construction of Rokkasho fuel reprocessing plant and the development of the FBR 'Monju' are in progress. Also advance has been made in the fields of radiation cancer therapy and nuclear fusion. In this book, the general remarks on the circumstances surrounding atomic energy, nuclear power generation, the securing of safety and envrionment preservation, nuclear fuel cycle, the development of new power reactors and others are reported. The related materials are attached. (K.I.)

  20. Swiss association for atomic energy (SVA/ASPEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    A report of the general assembly of the Swiss association for atomic energy held on 4th June 1985. The president, Alain Colomb, called for a 'second electrification' of the country to free Switzerland from a dependence on petroleum. Nuclear energy is necessary to combat air pollution. An invited speaker, Manuel Poyatos of the 'Electricite de France', recounted the French experience of restructuring their electric production system; particular the increasing contribution of nuclear energy and the beneficial effects on the environment. (G.T.H.)

  1. Low energy collisions of spin-polarized metastable argon atoms with ground state argon atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillandier-Loize, T.; Perales, F.; Baudon, J.; Hamamda, M.; Bocvarski, V.; Ducloy, M.; Correia, F.; Fabre, N.; Dutier, G.

    2018-04-01

    The collision between a spin-polarized metastable argon atom in Ar* (3p54s, 3P2, M = +2) state slightly decelerated by the Zeeman slower-laser technique and a co-propagating thermal ground state argon atom Ar (3p6, 1S0), both merged from the same supersonic beam, but coming through adjacent slots of a rotating disk, is investigated at the center of mass energies ranging from 1 to 10 meV. The duration of the laser pulse synchronised with the disk allows the tuning of the relative velocity and thus the collision energy. At these sub-thermal energies, the ‘resonant metastability transfer’ signal is too small to be evidenced. The explored energy range requires using indiscernibility amplitudes for identical isotopes to have a correct interpretation of the experimental results. Nevertheless, excitation transfers are expected to increase significantly at much lower energies as suggested by previous theoretical predictions of potentials 2g(3P2) and 2u(3P2). Limits at ultra-low collisional energies of the order of 1 mK (0.086 μeV) or less, where gigantic elastic cross sections are expected, will also be discussed. The experimental method is versatile and could be applied using different isotopes of Argon like 36Ar combined with 40Ar, as well as other rare gases among which Krypton should be of great interest thanks to the available numerous isotopes present in a natural gas mixture.

  2. Nitrogen and energy metabolism of sows during several reproductive cycles in relation to nitrogen intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, H.

    1994-01-01

    By feeding the same diet during pregnancy and lactation sows are fed above the nitrogen requirement during pregnancy due to the relatively high nitrogen requirement during lactation. For feeding closer to the requirements at least two diets are needed: one diet with a low nitrogen content

  3. Atomic energy, environment and energy conservation in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Koko

    1990-01-01

    About 12 % of generated electric power is the nuclear power in Eastern European countries. Generally electric power is short in these countries, and as the countermeasures for environment, the promotion of nuclear power generation is considered. However, the public opinion opposing it is also strong. The situation in respective countries is briefly discussed. The prevention of warming of the earth and the reduction of carbon dioxide gas release are the largest environmental problems discussed in western countries, but in Eastern European countries, the far more primitive problem of the damage due to SO 2 is serious. Notwithstanding high sulfur brown coal is the main fuel, the installation of desulfurizing facilities has been neglected. The demand for the countermeasures to environmental pollution by people has become strong. The energy efficiency in Eastern European countries is poor, and it is one of the causes of environmental pollution. The industrial structure is centering around heavy industries which consume much energy, the energy loss arises due to the delay of equipment modernization, and the energy is cheap, so its saving is neglected. Energy conservation is important. (K.I.)

  4. Citizen awareness level of the peaceful uses of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfawairs, Kh.; Elammari, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to know the level of public awareness of different types of people, about the peaceful application of nuclear energy. A questionnaire about this subject was distributed randomly in different cities in Libya; the questionnaire was targeting males and females with different educational levels. From data obtained and which was analyzed statistically comparing the educational level with the level of awareness. It was found that the highest contribution was for those holding university degrees 43%. Data analysis showed that 50.5% of the total number do not know what is meant by the peaceful uses of atomic energy and this significantly related to the educational level at significance level ∝=0.01. Concerning the assessment of environmental awareness of the Libyan citizens, 83.3% said that it is weak and the relation is not signification. Concerning the best ways of making people more aware of atomic energy and its peaceful uses 63.9% said all possible means should be used and 21.3% said practical application is the best way, where 13.9% said that they don't know. About the uses of nuclear technology in different fields, the participants had different views. From this study it was concluded that a%. Warnaco programs concerning the peaceful uses of atomic energy should be intensified.(author)

  5. Low-energy positron interactions with atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surko, C M; Gribakin, G F; Buckman, S J

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a review of low-energy positron interactions with atoms and molecules. Processes of interest include elastic scattering, electronic and vibrational excitation, ionization, positronium formation and annihilation. An overview is presented of the currently available theoretical and experimental techniques to study these phenomena, including the use of trap-based positron beam sources to study collision processes with improved energy resolution. State-resolved measurements of electronic and vibrational excitation cross sections and measurement of annihilation rates in atoms and molecules as a function of incident positron energy are discussed. Where data are available, comparisons are made with analogous electron scattering cross sections. Resonance phenomena, common in electron scattering, appear to be less common in positron scattering. Possible exceptions include the sharp onsets of positron-impact electronic and vibrational excitation of selected molecules. Recent energy-resolved studies of positron annihilation in hydrocarbons containing more than a few carbon atoms provide direct evidence that vibrational Feshbach resonances underpin the anomalously large annihilation rates observed for many polyatomic species. We discuss open questions regarding this process in larger molecules, as well as positron annihilation in smaller molecules where the theoretical picture is less clear. (topical review)

  6. Atomic column resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duscher, G.; Pennycook, S.J.; Browning, N.D.

    1998-01-01

    Spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is rapidly developing into a unique and powerful tool to characterize internal interfaces. Because atomic column resolved Z-contrast imaging can be performed simultaneously with EELS in the scanning transmission electron microscope, this combination allows the atomic structure to be correlated with the electronic structure, and thus the local properties of interfaces or defects can be determined directly. However, the ability to characterize interfaces and defects at that level requires not only high spatial resolution but also the exact knowledge of the beam location, from where the spectrum is obtained. Here we discuss several examples progressing from cases where the limitation in spatial resolution is given by the microscopes or the nature of the sample, to one example of impurity atoms at a grain boundary, which show intensity and fine structure changes from atomic column to atomic column. Such data can be interpreted as changes in valence of the impurity, depending on its exact site in the boundary plane. Analysis ofthis nature is a valuable first step in understanding the microscopic structural, optical and electronic properties of materials. (orig.)

  7. Department of Atomic Energy: Annual report, 1983-84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The annual report of the Department of Atomic Energy for the financial year 1983-84 describes its activities under the headings: Nuclear Power, Research and Development, Public Sector Undertakings, and Other Activities. The report surveys: (1) the performance of nuclear power plants at Tarapur, Kota and Kalpakkam, heavy water plants, fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants, and waste management facilities, (2) the research and development activities of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Bombay and its constituent units at various locations in the country, Reactor Research Centre at Kalpakkam, the aided institutes, namely, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and Tata Memorial Centre, both at Bombay, and Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics at Calcutta, (3) performance of public sector undertakings: Indian Rare Earths Ltd., Uranium Corporation of India Ltd., and Electronics Corporation of India Ltd., (4) progress of nuclear power projects at Narora and Kakrapar, Orissa Sand Complex Project, MHD project at Tiruchirapalli, DHRUVA (formerly known as R-5) project at Bombay, Fast Breeder Test Reactor and 500 MW Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor projects at Kalpakkam, and heavy water projects at Thal-Vaishet and Manuguru, and (5) other activities including technology transfer; training; service to industry, agriculture and medicine in use of radioisotopes and radiation, export of radioisotopes, allied products and nuclear instruments; international relations; countrywide radiation safety programme, exploration of atomic minerals; information and publicity etc. An Atomic Energy Regulatory Board was established during the report year for the special purpose of carrying out regulatory and safety functions specified in the Atomic Energy Act of the Government of India. (M.G.B.)

  8. Department of Atomic Energy, annual report, 1980-81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The annual report of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India for the period of the fiscal year 1980-81 surveys the work of DAE, its various constituent units and aided institutions. The main thrust of the DAE's programme in the country is directed towards peaceful uses of atomic energy - primarily for generation of electric power and also for application of radioisotopes and radiation in medicine, agriculture, and industry. The research and development (R and D) activities of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) at Bombay, the major R and D establishment of DAE, in the fields of nuclear physics, solid state physics, chemistry and materials science, isotope and radiation applications, reactor technology and radioactive waste management are described in detail. The R and D activities of the Reactor Research Centre at Kalpakkam and the aided institutions such as the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and the Tata Memorial Centre, both at Bombay, and the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics at Calcutta are reviewed in brief. Progress of the MHD project, the heavy water plant projects, the thermal research reactor R-5 project at BARC and nuclear power plant projects at Narora and Kalpakkam is surveyed. Performance of industrial production units such as nuclear power stations at Tarapur and Kota, the Nuclear Fuel Complex at Hyderabad, Atomic Minerals Division, ISOMED - the radiation sterilisation plant for medical products, the Indian Rare Earths Ltd., the Electronics Corporation of India Ltd., and the Uranium Corporation of India Ltd., is reported. India's participation in the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency and collaboration with other countries are also mentioned. (M.G.B.)

  9. Research on nitrogen implantation energy dependence of the properties of SIMON materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, E.X.; Sun, J.Y.; Chen, J.; Chen, M.; Zhang, Zh.X.; Li, N.; Zhang, G.Q.; Wang, X.

    2006-01-01

    With different implantation energies, nitrogen ions were implanted into SIMOX wafers in our work. And then the wafers were subsequently annealed to form separated by implantation of oxygen and nitrogen (SIMON) wafers. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to observe the distribution of nitrogen and oxygen in the wafers. The result of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was suggested by the dandling bonds densities in the wafers changed with N ions implantation energies. SIMON-based SIS capacitors were made. The results of the C-V test confirmed that the energy of nitrogen implantation affects the properties of the wafers, and the optimum implantation energy was determined

  10. Training courses run by the Department of Atomic Energy, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), India, conducts a large number of courses covering a variety of fields, mainly concerned with nuclear energy and its applications. These courses are : (1) a comprehensive multidisciplinary course in nuclear sciences and engineering, (2) courses in safety aspects of: (a) the medical uses of radioisotopes, (b) research applications of ionising radiations, (c) the industrial applications of radiation sources, and (d) industrial radiography; (3) industrial radiographer's certification course, (4) course in hospital physics and radiological physics, (5) diploma course in radiation medicine, (6) courses in operation and maintenance of: (a) research reactors and facilities, (b) nuclear power reactors, and (7) course in exploration of atomic minerals. Detailed information on these courses, covering institutions of DAE conducting them, duration, academic requirements for admission to them, method of adimission, detailed syllabus, and general information such as fees, accommodation, stipend if any, etc. is given. (M.G.B.)

  11. Managing vital records in the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei, Mary Mavis

    2004-05-01

    Several vital records can be found within the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. Some of these records include confidential files on staff and general purpose files on staff, specialised subject files on IAEA, FAO, UN agencies etc, records on agreements from memorandum of understanding between the commission and other organisations, legislative instruments establishing the commission and its institutes and research publications. The study critically examined how these vital records at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission were managed with the view of identifying problems and to propose actions for improvement. The specific objectives of the study was to examine methods of storage, security measures put in place to manage vital records, committment of management and staff to these measures, quality of records staff and vital records policy. Recommendations have been provided to help in the efficient and effective management of records in the commission. (A.B.)

  12. Local energy equation for two-electron atoms and relation between kinetic energy and electron densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, N.H.

    2002-08-01

    In early work, Dawson and March [J. Chem. Phys. 81, 5850 (1984)] proposed a local energy method for treating both Hartree-Fock and correlated electron theory. Here, an exactly solvable model two-electron atom with pure harmonic interactions is treated in its ground state in the above context. A functional relation between the kinetic energy density t(r) at the origin r=0 and the electron density p(r) at the same point then emerges. The same approach is applied to the Hookean atom; in which the two electrons repel with Coulombic energy e 2 /r 12 , with r 12 the interelectronic separation, but are still harmonically confined. Again the kinetic energy density t(r) is the focal point, but now generalization away from r=0 is also effected. Finally, brief comments are added about He-like atomic ions in the limit of large atomic number. (author)

  13. Single atom spectroscopy: Decreased scattering delocalization at high energy losses, effects of atomic movement and X-ray fluorescence yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizei, Luiz H G; Iizumi, Yoko; Okazaki, Toshiya; Nakanishi, Ryo; Kitaura, Ryo; Shinohara, Hisanori; Suenaga, Kazu

    2016-01-01

    Single atom localization and identification is crucial in understanding effects which depend on the specific local environment of atoms. In advanced nanometer scale materials, the characteristics of individual atoms may play an important role. Here, we describe spectroscopic experiments (electron energy loss spectroscopy, EELS, and Energy Dispersed X-ray spectroscopy, EDX) using a low voltage transmission electron microscope designed towards single atom analysis. For EELS, we discuss the advantages of using lower primary electron energy (30 keV and 60 keV) and higher energy losses (above 800 eV). The effect of atomic movement is considered. Finally, we discuss the possibility of using atomically resolved EELS and EDX data to measure the fluorescence yield for X-ray emission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Single atom spectroscopy: Decreased scattering delocalization at high energy losses, effects of atomic movement and X-ray fluorescence yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tizei, Luiz H.G.; Iizumi, Yoko; Okazaki, Toshiya; Nakanishi, Ryo; Kitaura, Ryo; Shinohara, Hisanori; Suenaga, Kazu

    2016-01-01

    Single atom localization and identification is crucial in understanding effects which depend on the specific local environment of atoms. In advanced nanometer scale materials, the characteristics of individual atoms may play an important role. Here, we describe spectroscopic experiments (electron energy loss spectroscopy, EELS, and Energy Dispersed X-ray spectroscopy, EDX) using a low voltage transmission electron microscope designed towards single atom analysis. For EELS, we discuss the advantages of using lower primary electron energy (30 keV and 60 keV) and higher energy losses (above 800 eV). The effect of atomic movement is considered. Finally, we discuss the possibility of using atomically resolved EELS and EDX data to measure the fluorescence yield for X-ray emission.

  15. Environment, 1986-1997. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Environment and issued during the period of 1986-1997. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain papers in languages other than English, but all of these papers have abstracts in English

  16. Earth sciences. 1990-2001. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Earth Sciences and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 31 May 2001. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. This is noted as A for Arabic, C for Chinese, E for English, F for French, R for Russian and S for Spanish before the relevant ISBN number

  17. Radiation protection and atomic energy legislation in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation protection and atomic energy laws of the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden are presented in this report in their status of March 1, 1984. As a background to this legislation the Nordic co-operation is briefly reviewed and the common basis for the legal texts is given. Some historical remarks for the legislation of each country are included. (orig./HP)

  18. Analytical quality control services of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suschny, O.

    1986-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency provides quality control services to analytical laboratories. These services which include the provision of reference materials and the organisation of intercomparisons are rendered for the purpose of assisting laboratories in determining the accuracy of their analytical work. The following classes of materials are presently available: nuclear materials, environmental materials, animal and plant materials, materials for biomedical studies and materials of marine origin. (orig.) [de

  19. Safety Culture in Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamchik, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation (hereinafter “Rosatom”) current activity in safety culture enhancement. After the Chernobyl accident individual commitment to safety, organizational factors influencing on safety were put under more significant attention. Safety culture (hereinafter “SC”) should be considered like a resource to provide safety in nuclear facilities. The resource potential is in minimisation of breaches by development and existing that patterns of human performance and organizational behavior which form attitude to safety as an overriding.

  20. Draft of a Fourth Act amending the Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The bill comprises regulations concerning 1. the handling over and treatment of radioactive waste as well as its final storage under federal adminstration (article 87, section 3, sentence 1 Basic Law), 2. authorizations regarding the issuing of statuatory orders supplementing and extending sections 11 and 12 of the Atomic Energy Act, particulary in aim of the rationalization of licensing and the carrying-out of governmental supervision, 3. supplementing penal provisions. (LN) [de

  1. Supplementary plasma heating studies in the Atomic Energy Commission France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consoli, T.

    1976-01-01

    The research on supplementary heating of toroidal plasma made in France at the Atomic Energy Commission and in the European Community are described (with special reference to the J.E.T. project) in the frame of the national programs. A non exhaustive description of the world effort in this topic is also presented: (neutral injection heating, TTMP (transit time magnetic pumping) heating, electron and ion cyclotron resonance, and lower hybrid resonance heating)

  2. Atomic Energy Board, twenty first annual report, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following: nuclear materials, nuclear power, application of radioisotopes and radiation, health and safety, and fundamental studies undertaken in the fields of physics, chemistry, metallurgy, medicine and geology during 1977. The supporting activities of the computer services, engineering sevices, waste disposal plant, instrumentation section, research reactor and analytical services are given for 1977. The report contains a bibliography of publications published by staff members and bursars of the Atomic Energy Board during 1977

  3. High energy halogen atom reactions activated by nuclear transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rack, E.P.

    1990-05-01

    This program, which has been supported for twenty-four years by the Us Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, has produced significant advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of chemical activation by nuclear processes; the stereochemistry of radioactivity for solution of specific problems. This program was contributed to the training of approximately seventy scientists at various levels. This final report includes a review of the areas of research and chronological tabulation of the publications

  4. The Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) employee health study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Health Study formally began in April 1980. The purpose of the study is to determine the causes of death among a population of radiation workers and to compare this information with data available for the causes of death in the general population. The study population and the implementation are briefly discussed. The aim of the study is to determine the real occupational risk of being a radiation worker. 3 refs

  5. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited 2007 annual financial report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This is the annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2007 and summarizes the financial activities of AECL during the period 2006-2007. The highlights for this period include increase in consolidated commercial revenue by 40%, progress on the Cernavoda reactor, increased investment in the safety and performance of the CANDU fleet and a memorandum of understanding with Natural Resources Canada to govern implementation of a five-year waste management and decommissioning plan.

  6. Current radiation protection activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program of the Radiation Safety Section is described in this paper. The Section has two main components: (1) the development of consensus safety documentation and (2) the use of that documentation as the basis for assisting countries to deal safely with their applications of radiation and radioactivity. Main activities of the section are listed for each of these components. Activities include documentation, coordinated research programs, and assistance to developing countries. 14 tabs

  7. The international law and the pacific uses of the atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, A.; Gutierrez, I.; Vargas, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    Contains information about: fundamental aspects of atomic energy; International Atomic Energy Agency; pacific uses of nuclear energy at national and international level; regulation for some risky activities in the pacific uses of radioactive materials; United Nations system for the secure use of atomic energy with pacific purposes; nuclear accidents; responsibility as fundamental element of nuclear law. 207 refs

  8. Comparative study of low-energy neutral atom imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Scime, E.E.

    1994-01-01

    Low-energy neutral atom (LENA) imaging promise to be a revolutionary tool for global imaging of space plasmas. The technical challenges of LENA detection include separating them from the intense ambient UV without losing information about their incident trajectories, quantifying their trajectories, and obtaining high-sensitivity measurements. Two techniques that have been proposed for this purpose are based on fundamentally different atomic interaction mechanisms between LENAs and a solid; LENA transmission through an ultra thin foil and LENA reflection from a solid surface. Both of these methods provide LENA ionization (for subsequent removal from the UV by electrostatic deflection) and secondary electron emission (for time-of-flight start pulse generation and/or coincidence). They present a comparative study of the transmission and reflection techniques based on differences in atomic interactions with solids and surfaces. Transmission methods are shown to be superior for secondary electron emission rather than reflection methods. Furthermore, transmission methods are shown to be a sufficient for LENA imaging at LENA energies of approximately 1 keV to greater than 30 keV. A hybrid instrument using reflection from a low work function surface for LENA ionization and transmission for secondary electron emission is optimal for imaging of LENAs with energies less than approximately 1 keV

  9. World situation of atomic energy and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szili, G.

    1978-01-01

    At the International Conference organized by the IAEA in May 1976, several sections dealt with problems of the production of atomic energy and of the nuclear fuel cycle. However, the whole spectrum of these problems was discussed including problems of economic policy, politics and ethical problems, too. Reports were presented on trends of the development of atomic energy in developed and developing countries. Besides the systems of nuclear power plants and the trends of their development, the Conference attached prominent importance to the supply of nuclear fuels and to the fuel cycle, respectively. Owing to important factors, the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel was emphasized. The problem area of the treatment of radioactive wastes, the protection of workers in immediate contact and of environment against radiations, the possibilities of ensuring nuclear safety, the degrees of hazards and the methods of protection of fast breeder reactors and up-to-date equipments were discussed. In contrast to earlier conferences the complex problem of the correlation of atomic energy to public opinion played an important role, too. (P.J.)

  10. Plasma screening effects on the energies of hydrogen atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soylu, A.

    2012-01-01

    A more general exponential cosine screened Coulomb potential is used for the first time to investigate the screening effects on the hydrogen atom in plasmas. This potential is examined for four different cases that correspond to four different type potentials when the different parameters are used in the potential within the framework of the well-known asymptotic iteration method. By solving the corresponding the radial Schrödinger equation with the screened and exponential cosine screened Coulomb potentials and comparing the obtained energy eigenvalues with the results of other studies, the applicability of the method to this kind of plasma physics problem is shown. The energy values of more general exponential cosine screened Coulomb potential are presented for various parameters in the potential. One of the advantages of the present potential is that it exhibits stronger screening effect than that of the exponential cosine screened Coulomb potential and it is also reduced to screened Coulomb and exponential cosine screened Coulomb as well as Coulomb potentials for special values of parameters. The parameters in the potential would be useful to model screening effects which cause an increase or decrease in the energy values of hydrogen atom in both Debye and quantum plasmas and in this manner this potential would be useful for the investigations of the atomic structure and collisions in plasmas.

  11. Bibliography of electron and photon cross sections with atoms and molecules published in the 20th century. Nitrogen molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto

    2003-06-01

    A bibliography of original and review reports of experiments or theories of electron and photon cross sections and also electron swarm data are presented for atomic or molecular species with specified targets. These works covered 17 atoms and 51 molecules. The present bibliography is only for nitrogen molecule (N 2 ). About 2240 papers were compiled. A comprehensive author index is include. The bibliography covers the period 1906 through 2000 for N 2 . Finally, author's comments for N 2 electron collision cross section are given. (author)

  12. The origins of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, International Relations (France)

    1977-08-15

    On 23 October 1956 in New York, 81 member countries of the United Nations Organization or of its specialized agencies adopted the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency, which was to go into formal operation before the end of 1957. A major step towards world-wide control of nuclear energy thus came to be taken more than ten years after the idea of establishing such control had been launched - the first tentative efforts, from 1946 to 1948, having ended in failure. The account follows in an attempt to retrace this 'prehistory' of the IAEA.

  13. The origins of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1977-01-01

    On 23 October 1956 in New York, 81 member countries of the United Nations Organization or of its specialized agencies adopted the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency, which was to go into formal operation before the end of 1957. A major step towards world-wide control of nuclear energy thus came to be taken more than ten years after the idea of establishing such control had been launched - the first tentative efforts, from 1946 to 1948, having ended in failure. The account follows in an attempt to retrace this 'prehistory' of the IAEA

  14. Epp names new interim execs to head Atomic Energy Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Federal Energy Minister Jake Epp has named Mrs. Marnie Paiken as acting chairman and Bruce Howe as acting president of AECL (formerly Atomic Energy Canada Ltd.), the federal Crown corporation charged with the development and utilization of nuclear energy. Both appointments were made necessary by the resignations of Robert Ferchat as chairman and Stanley Hatcher as president, each citing deep differences in their respective approaches to the management of the corporation. Mrs. Paiken has been a member of AECL's board since 1985, and previously served as acting chairman from March 1989 to July 1990. Howe has been deputy minister of the federal energy department since 1988, a position he will retain while carrying out his duties as president of AECL. A search has begun to find permanent replacements

  15. Nitrogen-doped carbon aerogels for electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patrick; Montalvo, Elizabeth; Baumann, Theodore F.; Biener, Juergen; Merrill, Matthew; Reed, Eric W.; Worsley, Marcus A.

    2017-10-03

    Disclosed here is a method for making a nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel, comprising: preparing a reaction mixture comprising formaldehyde, at least one nitrogen-containing resorcinol analog, at least one catalyst, and at least one solvent; curing the reaction mixture to produce a wet gel; drying the wet gel to produce a dry gel; and thermally annealing the dry gel to produce the nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel. Also disclosed is a nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel obtained according to the method and a supercapacitor comprising the nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel.

  16. Low-energy neutral atom emission from the Earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, K.R.; Scime, E.E.; Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    Imaging of the terrestrial magnetosphere is possible through the detection of low-energy neutral atoms (LENAs) produced by charge exchange between magnetospheric plasma ions and neutral atoms of the Earth's geocorona. The authors present calculations of both hydrogen and oxygen line-of-sight LENA fluxes expected on orbit for various plasma regimes as predicted by the Rice University Magnetospheric Specification Model. To decrease the required computation time, they are in the process of adapting their code for massively parallel computers. The speed gains achieved from parallel algorithms are substantial, and they present results from computational runs on the Connection Machine CM-2 data parallel supercomputer. They also estimate expected image count rates and image quality based on realistic instrument geometric factors, energy passbands, neutral atom scattering in the instrument, and image accumulation intervals. The results indicate that LENA imaging instruments will need a geometric factor (G) on the order of 0.1 cm 2 sr eV/eV to be capable of imaging storm time ring currents, and a G of 1.0 cm 2 sr eV/eV in order to image the quiet time ring current fluxes, ion injections from the tail, and subsequent ion drifts toward the dayside magnetopause

  17. Conference report 11th German atomic energy law symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The 11 th German Atomic Energy Law Symposium organized by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) was held in Berlin on October 9 and 10, 2001. Approximately 250 participants from industry, politics, administration, science, and associations had accepted the invitation by BMU and discussed a variety of questions arising mainly out of the new nuclear energy policy of the federal government. In the introductory session, Federal Minister for the Environment Juergen Trittin sketched the framework of federal policy resulting from the criteria set forth by the federal government and the negotiations with the power utilities after the agreement on the future use of nuclear power had been signed. The following seven technical sessions dealt with basic constitutional matters as well as problems of public law and economic law stemming from the nuclear power policy of the federal government. Major points included the amendment to the Atomic Energy Act, interim storage, the redefined objectives of final storage, and problems relating to yardsticks by which to gauge safety, and problems of ensuring safety. Among other subjects, also the relationship between the federal government and the federal states in nuclear regulatory matters as well aspects of power economy and energy policy were debated. (orig.) [de

  18. Energy loading effects in the scaling of atomic xenon lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohwa, M.; Kushner, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The intrinsic power efficiency of the atomic xenon (5d → 6p) infrared (1.73--3.65 μm) laser is sensitive to the rate of pumping due to electron collision mixing of the laser levels. Long duration pumping at moderate power deposition may therefore result in higher energy efficiencies than pumping at higher powers. In this paper the authors examine the consequences of high energy deposition (100's J/1 atm) during long pumping pulses (100's μs) on the intrinsic power and energy efficiency and optimum power deposition of the atomic xenon laser. The dominant effect of high energy loading, gas heating, causes an increase in the electron density and therefore an increase in the electron collision mixing of the laser levels. The optimum power deposition for a given gas density therefore shifts to lower values with increasing gas temperature. For sufficiently long pumping pulses, nonuniform gas heating results in convection and rarification of highly pumped regions. The optimum power deposition therefore shifts to even lower values as the length of the pumping pulse increases. As a result, laser efficiency depends on the spatial distribution of power deposition as well as its magnitude

  19. Effects of high energy nitrogen implantation on stainless steel microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, H.; Mille, P.; Cornet, A.; Grob, J. J.; Stoquert, J. P.; Muller, D.

    1999-01-01

    Low energy ion implantation is known to improve chemical and mechanical surface properties of metals. This treatment is often used to enhance wear and corrosion resistance or mechanical life-time of fatigue test of stainless steel or titanium alloys. The aim of this work is to investigate these effects at higher energy, for which deeper (and still not well understood) modifications occur. High fluence (10 18 cm -2) 15N and 14N implantations at 1 MeV have been performed in the 316LL stainless steel and some specimen have been annealed in the 200-500°C temperature range. Nitrogen concentration distribution, structure, morphology and microhardness have been examined with Nuclear Resonance Analysis, Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction and Nanoindentation, respectively. Precipitates of steel and chromium nitride phases and a superficial martensitic transformation can be observed, leading to a significant increase of hardness. The best result is obtained after one hour annealing at 425°C, due to a larger and more homogeneous repartition of nitride species. In this case, a near surface accumulation is observed and explained in terms of diffusion and precipitation mechanisms.

  20. A New Instrument Design for Imaging Low Energy Neutral Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John W.; Collier, Michael R.; Chornay, Dennis; Rozmarynowski, Paul; Getty, Stephanie; Cooper, John F.; Smith, Billy

    2007-01-01

    The MidSTAR-2 satellite, to be built at the US Naval Academy as a follow-on to the successful MidSTAR-1 satellite (http://web.ew.usna.edu/midstar/), will launch in 2011 and carry three Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) experiments developed under Goddard's Internal Research and Development (IRAD) program. One of these GSFC instruments, the Miniature Imager for Neutral Ionospheric atoms and Magnetospheric Electrons (MINI-ME) builds on the heritage of the Goddard-developed Low-Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) imager launched on the IMAGE spacecraft in 2000. MINI-ME features a Venetian-blind conversion surface assembly that improves both light rejection and conversion efficiency in a smaller and lighter package than LENA making this an highly effective instrument for viewing solar wind charge exchange with terrestrial and planetary exospheres. We will describe the MINI-ME prototyping effort and its science targets.

  1. Theoretical treatment of electron capture and excitation in two-electron system ion-atom, atom-atom collisions at low to intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, M.

    1986-01-01

    A review of various theoretical treatments which have been used to study electron-capture and excitation processes in two-electron-system ion-atom, atom-atom collisions at low to intermediate energy is presented. Advantages as well as limitations associated with these theoretical models in application to practical many-electron ion-atom, atom-atom collisions are specifically pointed out. Although a rigorous theoretical study of many-electron systems has just begun so that reports of theoretical calculations are scarce to date in comparison to flourishing experimental activities, some theoretical results are of great interest and provide important information for understanding collision dynamics of the system which contains many electrons. Selected examples are given for electron capture in a multiply charged ion-He collision, ion-pair formation in an atom-atom collision and alignment and orientation in a Li + + He collision. (Auth.)

  2. Chemical reactivity of hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms at temperatures below 100 k

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgee, H. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The synthesis of unusual compounds by techniques employing cryogenic cooling to retard their very extreme reactivity was investigated. Examples of such species that were studied are diimide (N2H2), cyclobutadiene (C4H4), cyclopropanone (C3H4O), oxirene (C2H2O), and many others. Special purpose cryogenically cooled inlet arrangements were designed such that the analyses incurred no warm-up of the cold, and frequently explosively unstable, compounds. Controlled energy electron impact techniques were used to measure critical potentials and to develop the molecular energetics and thermodynamics of these molecules and to gain some insight into their kinetic characteristics as well. Three and four carbon strained ring molecules were studied. Several reactions of oxygen and hydrogen atoms with simple molecules of H, N, C, and O in hard quench configurations were studied. And the quench stabilization of BH3 was explored as a model system in cryochemistry.

  3. Elastic scattering of low-energy electrons with Sr atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, J.; Zhang, Z.; Wan, H.

    1990-01-01

    Static-exchange, plus correlation-polarization-potential calculations are performed for elastic low-energy electron scattering from Sr atoms while paying attention to the low-lying shape resonances. The correlation potential is calculated both with and without a scaling factor. A 2 D-shape resonance is produced at 1.0 eV with a parameter-free, and at 1.25 eV with a scaled, correlation potential. No 2 P-shape resonances are predicted, but evidence to support the existence of a stable negative ion Sr - in the 5s 2 5p electron configuration is given from the viewpoint of electron scattering. The bound energy of the extra electron in the negative ion is estimated by transforming the phase shift of the corresponding partial wave into the polarization quantum-defect number and extrapolating the number from positive to negative energies

  4. Atomic Oxygen Energy in Low Frequency Hyperthermal Plasma Ashers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K R.; Kneubel, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental and analytical analysis of the atomic oxygen erosion of pyrolytic graphite as well as Monte Carlo computational modeling of the erosion of Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) polyimide was performed to determine the hyperthermal energy of low frequency (30 to 35 kHz) plasma ashers operating on air. It was concluded that hyperthermal energies in the range of 0.3 to 0.9 eV are produced in the low frequency air plasmas which results in texturing similar to that in low Earth orbit (LEO). Monte Carlo computational modeling also indicated that such low energy directed ions are fully capable of producing the experimentally observed textured surfaces in low frequency plasmas.

  5. Fifth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress: Atomic Energy Development, 1947- 1948

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, David E.; Bacher, Robert F.; Pike, Sumner T.; Strauss, Lewis L.

    1949-01-01

    The document represents the fifth semiannual report to Congress, covering specifically the various developments in atomic energy since the inception of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1946. This fifth report represents an expansion of effort in all phases of atomic energy development and is prepared against a background of world affairs.

  6. Nuclear energy policy and atomic energy law. Issues and developmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Preuss, M.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear energy policy and the atomic energy law recurrently have been a focal point of interest and an issue of political debate in Germany. However, this time the political debate is gaining a new dimension in the wake of the general elections held in September 1998 and the resulting change of government. The contribution compares aspects of the history of atomic energy research and nuclear technology with the current political situation and assesses the impacts of announced changes in government policy and legislation. (orig./CB) [de

  7. Australian Atomic Energy Commission: A new energy research establishment at Lucas Heights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyal, A [Sydney Univ. (Australia). Dept. of Government and Public Administration

    1980-02-01

    A review of the role of the Atomic Energy Commission has recommended that the Lucas Heights establishment should engage in research on energy sources in general, rather than nuclear only as at present, and that certain of its present functions (regulatory and manufacturing) should be handled by other organisations.

  8. Innovation projects of atomic energy institute of national nuclear center RK in the area of peaceful use of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenzhin, E.; Tazhibayeva, I.; Vasiliyev, Y.; Kolodeshnikov, A.; Vurim, A.

    2010-01-01

    Institute of Atomic Energy of National Nuclear Center RK (IAE NNC RK) is located in Kurchatov. The city is situated at the border of former Semipalatinsk test site. The institute includes two reactor complexes - IGR and Baikal-1, which are rather distant from Kurchatov. Main activities of IAE NNC RK are: 1. Experimental researches of the nuclear power reactors safety; 2. Experimental researches of behavior of the structural materials for fusion and fission facilities under reactor irradiation; 3. Management of radioactive wastes; 4. Participation in the projects on decommissioning of the fast neutron reactor BN-350; 5. innovation projects: creation of first Kazakhstan's fusion reactor - tokamak KTM for materials; research and testing; development of new technologies (irradiated Be-recycling); development of new reactor technologies - project on creation of high temperature gas-cooled reactor KHTR. IAE NNC RK jointly with Japanese Atomic Energy Agency and with participation of Japanese Atomic Power Company is performing the activities on experimental substantiation of design of active core of prospective fast neutron reactor. Main goal of out-of-pile experiments at the EAGLE facility is obtaining of the information on fuel movement processes under conditions simulating the accident with melting of fast reactor core containing tube-design fuel assembly. Batch mixture is loaded into graphite crucible; then it is melded into electric melting furnace and poured into melt top trap. The outlet pipe is melted by the melt, which is poured into bottom melt trap through the pipe with sodium

  9. Terrestrial magnetospheric imaging: Numerical modeling of low energy neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, K.R.; Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Scime, E.E.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    Imaging of the terrestrial magnetosphere can be performed by detection of low energy neutral atoms (LENAs) that are produced by charge exchange between magnetospheric plasma ions and cold neutral atoms of the Earth's geocorona. As a result of recent instrumentation advances it is now feasible to make energy-resolved measurements of LENAs from less than I key to greater than 30 key. To model expected LENA fluxes at a spacecraft, we initially used a simplistic, spherically symmetric magnetospheric plasma model. 6 We now present improved calculations of both hydrogen and oxygen line-of-sight LENA fluxes expected on orbit for various plasma regimes as predicted by the Rice University Magnetospheric Specification Model. We also estimate expected image count rates based on realistic instrument geometric factors, energy passbands, and image accumulation intervals. The results indicate that presently proposed LENA instruments are capable of imaging of storm time ring current and potentially even quiet time ring current fluxes, and that phenomena such as ion injections from the tail and subsequent drifts toward the dayside magnetopause may also be deduced

  10. International Atomic Energy Agency. Highlights of activities. September 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1993-09-01

    This document describes the most important activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency during the period September 1992 - September 1993, in particular in the following areas: (i) nuclear power; (ii) nuclear fuel cycle; (iii) radioactive waste management; (iv) comparative assessment of energy sources; (v) IAEA laboratory activities; (vi) nuclear applications in the food industry and in agriculture; (vii) human health applications of nuclear techniques, especially in the treatment and prevention of diseases and in the analysis of health problems related to the environment; (viii) industry and earth sciences; (ix) physical and chemical sciences; (x) radiation protection; (xi) safety of nuclear installations; (xii) safeguards and non-proliferation activities; (xiii) activities in the area of public and technical information such as the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and other IAEA computerized databases and reference systems, the publication Nuclear Fusion, a monthly scientific journal of articles on thermonuclear fusion research and development, and the organization of meetings on atomic energy; and (xiv) a description of the Agency's technical assistance activities, including financial data

  11. Low energy atomic field bremsstrahlung from thin rare gas targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semaan, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    A relative measurement of the doubly-differential cross-section for electron atomic field bremsstrahling, differential in photon energy and angle is reported. Data for (d 2 sigma)/(dk dO/sub k/) have been taken for incident electron energies T ranging from 4 to 10 keV on target atoms of helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon at a photon emission angle of 90 0 . The X-rays, produced at 90 0 to the intersection of the crossed electron and gas beams, are detected by a Si(Li) detector, having a resolution of about 200 eV at 6 keV and 0.3 mil Be window. The theoretical angular distribution (d 2 sigma)/(dk dO/sub k/) has been deduced from the photon energy spectrum by the use of the shape function S(Z,T,k,T) defined by Tseng and Pratt as S(Z,T,k,T) = [(d 2 sigma)/(dk dO/sub k/)] / [(dsigma)/(dk)]. The values of S used were obtained by an interpolation of the benchmark data provided by Pratt et al. Agreement between our experiment and the theory is measured by how well the theoretical curve fits the data. The agreement appeared to be good

  12. Non-proliferation and the control of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1977-01-01

    The non-proliferation problem has never ceased to haunt and to influence those responsible for the development of atomic energy. During and after the Second World War, Anglo-American co-operation was reflected in restrictions on the exchange of enrichment and reprocessing know-how. Between 1945 and 1955, the Anglo-Saxon powers continued with the policy of secrecy and uranium monopoly decided on in 1943 at the Quebec summit conference. Starting in 1955, the failure of this policy led - at the suggestion of the United States of America - to a freer flow of information and to the creation of the International Atomic Energy Agency with its safeguards, which permitted widespread application of the policy of technical assistance subject to controls and widespread commerce in research and power reactors - mainly fuelled with enriched uranium and manufactured in the USA. There followed periods characterized by general legal blocks, with two unilateral renunciation treaties - the Partial Test Ban Treaty of 1963, covering non-underground tests, and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, of 1968, covering nuclear explosive devices and the entire fuel cycle. The Indian atomic explosion and the acceleration of nuclear programmes owing to the oil crisis prompted - in 1974 - efforts by supplier countries to limit the transfer of sensitive technology and the possession of plants capable of producing substances which could be used in the production of nuclear weapons; the USA has even proposed the curtailment of plutonium extraction and of breeder construction, although these are considered by many countries to be essential to the independence of their energy development programmes. This policy of reserving the sensitive stages of the fuel cycles to a few advanced countries and the questioning of existing nuclear agreements have created, in the relations between supplier and recipient countries, a regrettable intensification of the distrust which must be dispelled

  13. Recent developments at the atomic and molecular data unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.E.H.; )

    2002-01-01

    The Atomic and Molecular (A+M) Data Unit of the IAEA main purpose is to establish and maintain databases in support of nuclear fusion energy research. This encompasses a very large number of processes in atomic, molecular, and plasma - material interaction physics. Recent improvements and additions to these databases are presented. A prototype search engine, which searches five different sites for radiative data and two sites for electron impact excitation and ionization data is introduced. It is available at the IAEA, Weizmann Institute and GAPHYOR web sites. Data on erosion materials produced by the Co-ordinated research project (CRP) 'Plasma-interaction induced erosion of fusion reactor materials' was evaluated, fitted to physically realistic forms for angle and energy dependence and the resulting fits were added to the online electronic database. In a CRP on radiative power losses in plasmas, many lenghtly modelling calculations were carried out. In addition to providing the calculated radiated power, effective ionisation and recombination rate coefficients were derived. These data were stored along with the populations of the ion stages as well as the total radiation from each ion stage. Thus, it is possible to use these data to interpolate in temperature and electron density to obtain the radiated power at an arbitrary temperature and density. A preliminary version of a new interface to the bibliographic database at the A+M Data unit was developed, it allows the user to search by author and/or keyword. The resulting references are displayed along with a link to the home page of the journal where possible. A code for calculation electron impact excitation cross sections using the so-called 'average approximation' and a version of the Hartree-Fock atomic structure code were installed in the unit and can be run through an interface at the web page. (nevyjel)

  14. Safeguards and legal matters 1996. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This catalogue lists all currently valid sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Safeguards and Legal Matters. Most publications are published in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 16 x 24 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated

  15. Proceedings of the fifteenth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovszky, I.

    2005-11-01

    The present volume contains 59 papers, presented on the fifteenth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research, held in Znojmo, Czech Republic, 3-7 October 2005. The papers are presented in their original form, i. e. no corrections or modifications were carried out. The content of this volume is divided into thematic groups: Spectral and Core Calculation Methods, Core Design, Operation and Fuel Management, Core Monitoring, Surveillance and Testing, Neutron Kinetics and Reactor Dynamics Methods, Criticality Safety, Spent Fuel, and CFD Codes Application - according to the presentation sequence on the Symposium

  16. International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards: Challenge and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Leonard S.

    2017-11-01

    This article provides a critical review of the nuclear accounting and inspection system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), known as "IAEA safeguards." The article focuses on the multiple challenges the Agency confronts in verifying that all nuclear activities in the countries under its safeguards system are being pursued for exclusively peaceful purposes. The principal challenges noted are those posed by: undeclared facilities, the development of enrichment and reprocessing capabilities, illicit procurement activities, denial of inspector access, difficulties in verifying absence of weaponization activities, and difficulties in establishing that all nuclear-relevant activities in a state are peaceful. The article is in the form of annotated PowerPoint briefing slides.

  17. White paper on atomic energy, for 1974 and 1975. [Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-09-01

    Nearly 20 years have passed since the initiation of peaceful uses of atomic energy in Japan. Close to the end of this period, there occurred the so-called oil crisis, which emphasized the need for nuclear power development. Meanwhile, voices of the people in Japan are varied concerning nuclear power, as in siting of the power plants and the n.s. (nuclear ship) Mutsu. The paper describes the following: safety, environmental protection, nuclear power generation, nuclear fuel cycle, fission reactor and fusion reactor development, nuclear-powered ships, and radiation utilization.

  18. Annual activity report of Atomic Energy Organization of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    The second year activities of Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) was reported as follows: Activites of two R and D centres at Tehran, and one in Isfahan which is concentrated on technical and industrial problems of nuclear power plant; site selection from geographical, geological and environmental points of view; nuclear power construction in the vicinity of Bushehr; supply and quantity survey of nuclear fuel for the next 20 years and the activity program of AEOI on nuclear safety. This report also included nuclear information centre activities plus administrative organization and international relations activities

  19. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 2002-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This is the annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2003 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 2002-2003. It outlines the strategic objectives that include growing the market and market share, maximize return on resources, evolve the business structure to support business growth, grow knowledge assets, be a technology and knowledge-based innovative leader, leverage intellectual property to provide marketable products and services and establish nuclear power as a clean air and public policy solution.

  20. Proceedings of the eighth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovszky, I.

    1998-10-01

    These are the remaining 9 papers, presented on the eighth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research, held in Bystrice nad Perstejnem, Czech Republic, 21-25 September 1998. The papers are presented in their original form, i. e. no corrections or modifications were carried out. The content of this volume is divided into thematic groups: Spectral and Core Calculation Methods, Core Design, Operation and Fuel Management, Core Monitoring, Surveillance and Testing, Neutron Kinetics and reactor Dynamics Methods, Safety Issues and Analysis, Rod Drop Reactivity Measurements, Criticality safety, Spent Fuel and Decommissioning, - according to the presentation sequence on the Symposium

  1. Proceedings of the thirteenth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovszky, Istvan

    2003-11-01

    The present volume contains 58 papers, presented on the thirteenth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research, held in Dresden, Germany, 22-26 September 2003. The papers are presented in their original form, i. e. no corrections or modifications were carried out. The content of this volume is divided into thematic groups: Core Monitoring, Surveillance and Testing, Safety Issues, Spectral and Core Calculation Methods, Core Operation and Fuel Management, Spent Fuel Transmutations and Decommissioning, Neutron Kinetics and reactor Dynamics Methods, Poster Session - according to the presentation sequence on the Symposium

  2. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications. Catalogue 1986-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued from 1986 up to the end of 1999 and still available. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most Agency publications are issued in English, though some are also available in Chinese, French, Russian or Spanish. This is noted as C for Chinese, E for English, F for French, R for Russian and S for Spanish by the relevant ISBN number

  3. Proceedings of the twelfth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovszky, Istvan

    2002-11-01

    The present volume contains 45 papers, presented on the twelfth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research, held in Sunny Beach, Bulgaria, 22-28 September 2002. The papers are presented in their original form, i. e. no corrections or modifications were carried out. The content of this volume is divided into thematic groups: Core Monitoring, Surveillance and Testing, Safety Issues, Core Operation and Fuel Management, Spectral and Core Calculation Methods, Spent Fuel Transmutations and Decommissioning, Neutron Kinetics and reactor Dynamics Methods, Poster Session - according to the presentation sequence on the Symposium

  4. Earth sciences 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This catalogue lists sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Earth Sciences issued during the period 1969-1994. Most publications are published in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all these papers have abstracts in English. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 16 x 24 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated

  5. White paper on atomic energy, for 1974 and 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Nearly 20 years have passes since the initiation of peaceful uses of atomic energy in Japan. Close to the end of this period, there had occurred the so-called oil crisis, which emphasizes the keen need for nuclear power development. In the meanwhile, voices of the people in Japan are varied concerning the nuclear power, as in siting of the power plants and the n.s. (nuclear ship) Mutsu. The white paper describes the following: safety, environment preservation, nuclear power generation, nuclear fuel cycle, power reactor development and fusion reactor, nuclear-powered ship, radiation utilization, etc. (Mori, K.)

  6. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited 2008 annual financial report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This is the annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2008 and summarizes the financial activities of AECL during the period 2007-2008. The major highlights for this period include increase of consolidated revenue by 4%, significant progress on Liquid Waste Transfer and Storage (LWTS) and the Fuel Packaging and Storage (FPS) project, feasibility study of a new ACR-1000 plant in New Brunswick and a memorandum of understanding with CNSC for pre project design review of ACR-1000.

  7. Status of AMS at the China Institute of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shan; He Ming; Hu Yueming; Yuan Jian

    2007-01-01

    The first accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system in China was set up at the China Institute of Atomic Energy in 1989. In the following years, long-lived nuclides 10 Be, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 41 Ca, 79 Se and 129 I were measured in geology, environment and biology samples. The newly development of the AMS measurement and applications in recent years were introduced. The current projects include upgrading of AMS injection system for increasing mass resolution, new particle identification techniques for separation of isobars, development of the AMS measurement methods for 99 Tc, 93 Zr, 151 Sm and 182 Hf analyses, and applications in biology, environment and nuclear astrophysics. (authors)

  8. SOR/88-144, Atomic Energy Control Regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    These amendments dated 25 February 1988 mainly concern naturally-occurring radioactive prescribed substances (namely, uranium, thorium, radium, etc.). Any naturally-occurring radioactive material in a mineral or other material which has not been related to an activity associated with the development, application or use of atomic energy, is exempted from the scope of the Regulations. The Regulations will therefore not apply to such radioactive substances present in building materials or in minerals commonly used in industrial activities which are not associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. This exemption does not apply to such material in connection with import control and preparation for transport. (NEA)

  9. Proceedings of the eleventh Symposium of Atomic Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovszky, Istvan

    2001-12-01

    The present volume contains 57 papers, presented on the eleventh Symposium of Atomic Energy Research, held in Csopak, Hungary, 24-28 September 2001. The papers are presented in their original form, i. e. no corrections or modifications were carried out. The content of this volume is divided into thematic groups: Improvement of Neutron Physical Codes and Methods, Reactor Kinetics and Dynamics, Thermal-Hydraulics, Spent Fuel - Criticality Radiation, Fuel Behaviour, Spent Fuel Transmutation, Evaluation of Reactor Physical Measurements, Core Design-Core Calculations-according to the presentation sequence on the Symposium (Author)

  10. Cooperation in research in the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marka, Philippe.

    1977-01-01

    This work studies the legal instruments for cooperative research granted to Euratom under the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, and the conditions whereby concrete use was made of these instruments. This assessment of Euratom's efforts to launch a community nuclear industry is accompanied by an analysis of the respective roles of the bodies of the Community, the Council and the Commission, as well as of the circumstances which, according to the author, have led to a paralysis of this institution. (NEA) [fr

  11. Proceedings of the 16. Symposium of Atomic Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovszky, Istvan

    2006-10-01

    The present volume contains 56 papers, presented on the sixteenth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research, held in Bratislava, Slovakia, 25-29 September 2006. The papers are presented in their original form, i. e. no corrections or modifications were carried out. The content of this volume is divided into thematic groups: Spectral and Core Calculation, Core Operation Experiments and Code Validation, Fuel Management, Core Surveillance and Monitoring, Reactor Dynamics Thermal Hydraulics and Safety Analysis, Physical Problems of Spent Fuel Decommissioning, and Radwaste, Actinide Transmutation and Spent Fuel Disposal - according to the presentation sequence on the Symposium (Author)

  12. Proceedings of the twentieth symposium of atomic energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovszky, I.

    2010-10-01

    The present volume contains 69 papers, presented on the twentieth symposium of atomic energy research, held in Hanasaari, Espoo, Finland, 20-24 September 2010. The papers are presented in their original form, i. e. no corrections or modifications were carried out. The content of this volume is divided into thematic groups: Fuel Management, Spectral and Core Calculations, Core Surveillance and Monitoring, CFD Analysis, Reactor Dynamics Thermal Hydraulics and Safety Analysis, Physical Problems of Spent Fuel Decommissioning and Radwaste, Actinide Transmutation and Spent Fuel Disposal, Core Operation, Experiments and Code Validation - according to the presentation sequence on the Symposium. (Author)

  13. Air pollution aspects of the atomic energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Meteorology is important to the atomic energy industry for engineering and operational applications common to industry generally, but, in particular, it is important because of its usefulness when dealing with radioactivity in the atmosphere. Meteorology must be used in estimating environmental exposure risks if radioactivity is released through tall stacks and laboratory type vents as part of a routine waste disposal procedure or when it is necessary to consider accidental releases under a variety of circumstances. An outstanding use of meteorology is in the estimation of the spread of contaminants from a reactor disaster. The nature of radioactive materials and their sources are discussed. 7 figures

  14. The Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) employee health study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Werner, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary examination of records relating to past Chalk River employees provides some reassurance that large numbers of cancer deaths that might be related to occupational radiation exposure do not exist in the groups of employees studied to the end of 1982. The lack of reliable information on deaths of ex-employees who left AECL for other employment prevented the inclusion of this group in this preliminary study. This information will presumably be obtained during the course of the more comprehensive Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. employee health study. 6 refs

  15. Nuclear energy: fusion and fission - From the atomic nucleus to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    Matter is made up of atoms. In 1912, the English physicist Ernest Rutherford (who had shown that the atom had a nucleus), and the Danish physicist Niels Bohr developed a model in which the atom was made up of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons. In 1913, Rutherford discovered the proton, and in 1932, the English physicist Chadwick discovered the neutron. In 1938, Hahn and Strassmann discovered spontaneous fission and the French physicist Frederic Joliot-Curie, assisted by Lew Kowarski and Hans Von Halban, showed in 1939 that splitting uranium nuclei caused an intense release of heat. The discovery of the chain reaction would enable the exploitation of nuclear energy. 'It was the Second World War leaders who, by encouraging research for military purposes, contributed to the development of nuclear energy'. During the Second World War, from 1939 to 1945, studies of fission continued in the United States, with the participation of emigre physicists. The Manhattan project was launched, the aim of which was to provide the country with a nuclear weapon (used at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945). After the war ended, research into energy production by the nuclear fission reaction continued for civil purposes. CEA (the French Atomic Energy Commission) was set up in France in 1945 under the impetus of General de Gaulle. This public research body is responsible for giving France mastery of the atom in the research, health, energy, industrial, safety and defense sectors. (authors)

  16. Density functional calculations of hypothetical neutral hollow octahedral molecules with a 48-atom framework: Hydrides and oxides of boron, carbon, nitrogen, aluminum, and silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaViolette, Randall A. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2208 (United States); Benson, Michael T. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2208 (United States)

    2000-06-01

    We computed via first-principles density functional theory calculations (employing both the local density and generalized gradient approximations) the dimensions, bond lengths and angles, binding energy, and HOMO-LUMO gap of the following hypothetical neutral hollow octahedral molecules: B{sub 48}H{sub 24}, C{sub 48}H{sub 48}, C{sub 96}H{sub 80} (formed by bonding two C{sub 48}H{sub 48} molecules), N{sub 48}H{sub 24}, Al{sub 48}H{sub 24}, and Si{sub 48}H{sub 48}; B{sub 24}O{sub 24}, C{sub 24}O{sub 24}, N{sub 24}O{sub 24}, Al{sub 24}O{sub 24}, and Si{sub 24}O{sub 24}. Each molecule consists of a large hollow framework of six puckered eight-membered rings whose planes are either mutually perpendicular or parallel, so that each molecule possesses only eight- and nine-membered rings. The hydrides have their hydrogen atoms attached only to the two-atom bridging sites on the framework. The oxides have their oxygen atoms occupying exclusively the two-atom bridging sites of the framework alternating with the (B, C, N, Al, Si) atoms exclusively occupying the three-atom bridging sites. We also calculated the infrared spectra of the C{sub 48}H{sub 48} and the C{sub 24}O{sub 24} molecules. For the sake of comparison, we also examined the hypothetical octahedral C{sub 48} fullerene cuboctohedron (possessing four-, six-, and eight-membered rings) studied by Dunlap and Taylor. The molecules based on carbon would be the most stable; those based on nitrogen would be the least stable, if at all. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  17. Density functional calculations of hypothetical neutral hollow octahedral molecules with a 48-atom framework: Hydrides and oxides of boron, carbon, nitrogen, aluminum, and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaViolette, Randall A.; Benson, Michael T.

    2000-01-01

    We computed via first-principles density functional theory calculations (employing both the local density and generalized gradient approximations) the dimensions, bond lengths and angles, binding energy, and HOMO-LUMO gap of the following hypothetical neutral hollow octahedral molecules: B 48 H 24 , C 48 H 48 , C 96 H 80 (formed by bonding two C 48 H 48 molecules), N 48 H 24 , Al 48 H 24 , and Si 48 H 48 ; B 24 O 24 , C 24 O 24 , N 24 O 24 , Al 24 O 24 , and Si 24 O 24 . Each molecule consists of a large hollow framework of six puckered eight-membered rings whose planes are either mutually perpendicular or parallel, so that each molecule possesses only eight- and nine-membered rings. The hydrides have their hydrogen atoms attached only to the two-atom bridging sites on the framework. The oxides have their oxygen atoms occupying exclusively the two-atom bridging sites of the framework alternating with the (B, C, N, Al, Si) atoms exclusively occupying the three-atom bridging sites. We also calculated the infrared spectra of the C 48 H 48 and the C 24 O 24 molecules. For the sake of comparison, we also examined the hypothetical octahedral C 48 fullerene cuboctohedron (possessing four-, six-, and eight-membered rings) studied by Dunlap and Taylor. The molecules based on carbon would be the most stable; those based on nitrogen would be the least stable, if at all. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  18. Does the position of the electron-donating nitrogen atom in the ring system influence the efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell? A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Abul Kalam; Barik, Sunirmal; Das, Amitava; Ganguly, Bishwajit

    2016-06-01

    We have reported a number of new metal-free organic dyes (2-6) that have cyclic asymmetric benzotripyrrole derivatives as donor groups with peripheral nitrogen atoms in the ring, fluorine and thiophene groups as π-spacers, and a cyanoacrylic acid acceptor group. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were employed to examine the influence of the position of the donor nitrogen atom and π-conjugation on solar cell performance. The calculated electron-injection driving force (ΔG inject), electron-regeneration driving force (ΔG regen), light-harvesting efficiency (LHE), dipole moment (μ normal), and number of electrons transferred (∆q) indicate that dyes 3, 4, and 6 have significantly higher efficiencies than reference dye 1, which exhibits high efficiency. We also extended our comparison to some other reported dyes, 7-9, which have a donor nitrogen atom in the middle of the ring system. The computed results suggest that dye 6 possesses a higher incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) than reported dyes 7-9. Thus, the use of donor groups with peripheral nitrogen atoms appears to lead to more efficient dyes than those in which the nitrogen atom is present in the middle of the donor ring system. Graphical Abstract The locations of the nitrogen atoms in the donor groups in the designed dye molecules have an important influence on DSSC efficiency.

  19. Corrosion behaviour of low energy, high temperature nitrogen ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    primary ions were used and negative secondary ions were detected. A difference in the distribution of the CrN and the alleged N signal was observed and attributed to CrN acting as a diffusion barrier for nitrogen diffusion. It may be noted here that nitrogen does not form stable elemental negative ions [2] and is thus.

  20. The four decades of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute through pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    This reports the process and development of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute with a lot of photos. It is divided five parts, which includes the introduction of the purpose of publication, the quickening period of nuclear Atomic Energy during 1960s the period of building foundation on nuclear power during 1970s the period for technical independence for nuclear atomic energy during 1980s and maturity on technical independence for nuclear atomic energy during 1990s. It deals with the history of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute from 1959 to 1990.

  1. The uses of atomic energy for the economic and social development in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A report is given on the peaceful uses of atomic energy in the GDR. The following topics are discussed: (1) present state and prospects of the utilization of atomic energy in the GDR, (2) protection against the dangers from the use of atomic energy, (3) the GDR's share in international efforts to secure the peaceful uses and to further the development of atomic energy, and (4) conclusions for the enhancement of international cooperation in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. 2 tabs., 6 figs., and 23 color and 3 black-and-white plates are included

  2. Nitrogen cycling in an integrated biomass for energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, K.K.

    1986-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate N cycling in three components of an integrated biomass for energy system, i.e. water hyacinth production, anaerobic digestion in hyacinth biomass, and recycling of digester effluent and sludge. Plants assimilated 50 to 90% of added N in hyacinth production systems. Up to 28% of the total plant N was contained in hyacinth detritus. Nitrogen loading as plant detritus into hyacinth ponds was 92 to 148 kg N ha -1 yr -1 . Net mineralization of plant organic 15 N during anaerobic digestion was 35 and 70% for water hyacinth plants with low and high N content, respectively. Approximately 20% of the 15 N was recovered in the digested sludge while the remaining 15 N was recovered in the effluent. Water hyacinth growth in digester effluents was affected by electrical conductivity and 15 NH 4 + -N concentration. Addition of water hyacinth biomass to soil resulted in decomposition of 39 to 50% of added C for fresh plant biomass and 19 to 23% of added C for digested biomass sludge. Only 8% of added 15 N in digested sludges was mineralized to 15 NO 3 - -N despite differences in initial N content. In contrast, 3 and 33% of added 15 N in fresh biomass with low and high N content, respectively, was recovered as 15 NO 3 - -N. Total 15 N recovery after anaerobic digestion ranged from 70 to 100% of the initial plant biomass 15 N. Total N recovery by sludge and effluent recycling in the integrated biomass for energy system was 48 to 60% of the initial plant biomass 15 N

  3. Proposal for the International Atomic Energy Agency Training Course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Site has hosted similar activities, including both Hanford Summits I and II. The Hanford Summits were two-day televised events to discuss the commitment of the current Presidential administration to the environmental restoration of the Hanford Site. Public involvement and strategic issues established from Hanford Summit I include: Regulatory issues, training and education, economic development and partnership, and technology transfer. Hanford Summit II provided a summary of how Secretary of Energy O'Leary is proceeding on the above strategic issues. The DOE and Westinghouse School for Environmental Excellence frequently offers a six-week course for environmental professionals and workers. Approximately thirty to forty individuals attend the training course, which provides training in environmental regulation compliance. The Hanford Site has hosted two previous International Atomic Energy Agency training courses. The courses lasted two weeks and had approximately eight to ten participants. Nuclear Material Management and Neutron Monitoring were the courses hosted by the Hanford Site

  4. Public opinion on atomic energy after JCO accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Koichi; Miyamoto, Sosuke; Ishikawa, Masayori; Shimomura, Hideo; Hori, Hiromoto; Suzuki, Yasuko; Kamise, Yumiko

    2004-04-01

    JCO accident happened on September 30, 1999. This book deals with the public opinion of atomic energy after JCO accident in Japan and comparison with that of USA and France. The analysis of public opinion structure is also shown. The important chapter is the eighth chapter a n opinion survey after the accident , of which sampling areas consisted of three areas such as JCO accident area, the nuclear power plants and the general cities. The analytical results of data showed that the public opinion in Tokai-mura and Naka-machi, the JCO accident area, indicated moderate opinions. It is the interesting results were obtained that the moderate tendency of opinion was in order JCO accident area, the nuclear power plants and the general cities. People's attitude toward nuclear energy related to their social values. Abstract of JCO accident, JCO structure, the effects of accident on the environment and news stories about the accident are reported. (S.Y.)

  5. International human cooperation in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Koreyuki; Kaieda, Keisuke; Makuuchi, Keizo; Takada, Kazuo; Nomura, Masayuki

    1997-01-01

    Rearing of talented persons in the area of nuclear energy is one of the important works in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In this report, the present situations and future schedules of international human cooperation in this area wsere summarized. First, the recent activities of International Nuclear Technology Center were outlined in respect of international human cooperation. A study and training course which was started in cooperation with JICA and IAEA from the middle of eighties and the international nuclear safety seminar aiming at advancing the nuclear safety level of the world are now being put into practice. In addition, a study and training for rearing talented persons was started from 1996 to improve the nuclear safety level of the neighbouring countries. The activities of the nuclear research interchange system by Science and Technology Agency established in 1985 and Bilateral Co-operation Agreement from 1984 were explained and also various difficulties in the international cooperation were pointed out. (M.N.)

  6. Atomic energy-level and Grotrian diagrams. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashkin, S.; Stoner, J.O. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This is the fifth in a series of volumes that present diagrammatically the spectra of atoms and monatomic ions. All observed transitions and all known levels of manganese are included. All wavelengths are given in angstroms in vacuum below 2000 A, in air above 2000 A. Energies of levels are specified in wavenumbers (cm -1 ), kcm -1 (1 X 10 3 cm -1 ), or Mcm -1 (1 X 10 6 cm -1 ). For energies, all experimentally significant figures are included; for wavelengths, we usually include two decimal places (three for the shortest wavelengths). Descriptions of levels are based in most cases upon the largest percentage contributions of elementary coupling arrangements to the levels. In a few instances several different descriptions of the same levels are presented. (Auth.)

  7. ASTROPHYSICS. Atom-interferometry constraints on dark energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, P; Jaffe, M; Haslinger, P; Simmons, Q; Müller, H; Khoury, J

    2015-08-21

    If dark energy, which drives the accelerated expansion of the universe, consists of a light scalar field, it might be detectable as a "fifth force" between normal-matter objects, in potential conflict with precision tests of gravity. Chameleon fields and other theories with screening mechanisms, however, can evade these tests by suppressing the forces in regions of high density, such as the laboratory. Using a cesium matter-wave interferometer near a spherical mass in an ultrahigh-vacuum chamber, we reduced the screening mechanism by probing the field with individual atoms rather than with bulk matter. We thereby constrained a wide class of dark energy theories, including a range of chameleon and other theories that reproduce the observed cosmic acceleration. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Department of Atomic Energy [India]: Annual report 1978-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The research and development activities and achievements of the research organizations of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE, India), progress of various DAE projects underway and performance of nuclear power plants and other public sector underking of DAE have been reported. The report covers the financial year 1978-79. Some of the major achievements during the year have been: (1) development of a portable local vacuum electron beam welding machine, (2) commissioning of the Variable Energy Cyclotron, Calcutta for obtaining an external beam of 30 MeV alphas, (4) locating minute leaks by tracer techniques on the 140 km. Koyali-Viramgam Oil pipeline and (5) investigation by tracer technique of geological fault at the Lakya dam site of the Kudremukh Iron Ore Project in Karnataka. The R and D work of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay; Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam; Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay; Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta, Tata Memorial Centre and Cancer Research Centre both at Bombay is summarised. (M.G.B.)

  9. R and D policy of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berki, Tamas; Macsuga, Geza; Neubauer, Istvan

    2010-01-01

    The Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) is authorised by the prescriptions of the law on Atomic Energy to support research and development activities in those scientific and technical areas, which primarily contribute to performing the nuclear safety regulatory responsibility and improving effectiveness and efficiency of licensing, inspection and assessment activities. HAEA's Research and Development program is an essential one: it is run on significant financial resources and with the involvement of a wide range of Technical Support Organisations (TSO). Therefore appropriate priorities have to be applied and directions have to be followed when decisions are made on activities to be supported by the HAEA. These priorities and strategic directions for the R and D activities are defined in the Research and Development Policy of HAEA, which was lastly revised in 2008. The report introduces the summary evaluation and major results of R and D activities sponsored by the HAEA in the previous 2005-2008 cycle and the directions and general elements of the R and D Policy of the ongoing period 2009-2012. (author)

  10. Freedom or security - the unsolvable dilemma of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1989-01-01

    The threat of a non-peaceful use of atomic energy is not a fixed quantity. The hazard may increase depending on the social situation and the insentity of social crises emerging. In view of the damage potential involved with atomic energy, the principle of 'dynamic protection of civil rights' requires security measures to be intensified according to growing threat. The restrictions of freedom connected with enhanced security measures are to be felt already today. The pressure for security of nuclear installations or material creates a dilemma: any security step-up will be done at the expense of freedom, and conserving freedom will mean reducing security. The pressure for security which is achieved by the instruments of balancing the objects of legal protection and following the principle of reasonablenesse, will eventually lead to a de facto decline of the civil rights by way of a clandestine and gradual change of legal terms and definitions. We even then would be living in a constitutional state. But what will freedom then mean? The civil rights would still be incorporated in our Basic Law, but protection in practical life will have been decreased. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. Limited and unlimited liability in the German Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    1982-01-01

    The liability of operators of nuclear installations in the FRG is limited under current law to the sum of one thousand million DM (section 31 of the Atomic Energy law). Since about the autumn of 1979, the Federal Ministry of the Interior is making inquiries into the necessity and appropriateness of abandoning the provision on liability limitations, in order to improve the victims compensation. The legal problems involved in this decision are presented by the author, trying to answer the question of whether the current system of liability limitations should be maintained or abandoned by discussing this issue from the point of view of the legal functions ''justice'' and ''expedience'' of this provision. The manifold international interlacement of the atomic energy law does not allow this study to be restricted to the law of the FRG. A brief review of the development and current state of the international nuclear liability law is the basis of this study into the problems of a possible modification of the German nuclear liability provisions. The study is carried out with the purpose of elaborating model solutions. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Various high precision measurements of pressure in atomic energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Inoue, Akira; Hosoma, Takashi; Tanaka, Izumi; Gabane, Tsunemichi.

    1987-01-01

    As for the pressure measurement in atomic energy industry, it is mostly the measurement using differential pressure transmitters and pressure transmitters for process measurement with the general accuracy of measurement of 0.2 - 0.5 % FS/year. However, recently for the development of nuclear fusion reactors and the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle accompanying new atomic energy technology, there are the needs of the pressure measurement having higher accuracy of 0.01 % FS/year and high resolution, and quartz vibration type pressure sensors appeared. New high accuracy pressure measurement techniques were developed by the advance of data processing and the rationalization of data transmission. As the results, the measurement of the differential pressure of helium-lithium two-phase flow in the cooling system of nuclear fusion reactors, the high accuracy measuring system for the level of plutonium nitrate and other fuel substance in tanks in fuel reprocessing and conversion, the high accuracy measurement of atmospheric pressure and wind velocity in ducts, chimneys and tunnels in nuclear facilities and so on became feasible. The principle and the measured data of quartz vibration type pressure sensors are shown. (Kako, I.)

  13. The Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1960. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - December 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1961-01-31

    The document covers activities for the period January - December 1960. The report consists of two parts: Part One, The Atomic Energy Industry in 1960 and Related Activities; and Part Two, Major Activities in Atomic Energy Programs. Twenty-one appendices are also included.

  14. Fundamentals of low-energy neutral atom imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.; Funsten, H.O.; Gosling, J.T.; Moore, K.R.; Scime, E.E.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    Imaging of the space plasma environment via low-energy neutral atoms (LENAs) promises to revolutionize the way in which large-scale space plasma phenomena are viewed and understood. LENAs are produced by charge exchange between plasma ions (less than tens of kilo-electron-volts) and cold geocoronal neutrals; these LENAs radiate outward in all directions from their points of origin. Previously developed methods for imaging higher energy neutrals are not suitable for observing the majority of the terrestrial magnetosphere, which is comprised primarily of lower energy plasma populations. This paper briefly describes both the direct and indirect techniques that have been suggested for imaging LENAs to date. The authors then examine in more detail the most advanced of these techniques appropriate for magnetospheric imaging, indirect detection based on ionization of LENAs as they transit ultra thin foils. Such a LENA imager consists of four basic components: (1) a biased collimator to remove the ambient charged particles and set the azimuthal field of view; (2) an ultra thin foil, which ionizes a portion of the incident LENAs; (3) an electrostatic analyzer to reject UV light and set the energy passband; and (4) a coincidence position detector to measure converted LENAs while rejecting noise and penetrating radiation

  15. Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Alain; Villani, Cedric; Guthleben, Denis; Leduc, Michele; Brenner, Anastasios; Pouthas, Joel; Perrin, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Completed by recent contributions on various topics (atoms and the Brownian motion, the career of Jean Perrin, the evolution of atomic physics since Jean Perrin, relationship between scientific atomism and philosophical atomism), this book is a reprint of a book published at the beginning of the twentieth century in which the author addressed the relationship between atomic theory and chemistry (molecules, atoms, the Avogadro hypothesis, molecule structures, solutes, upper limits of molecular quantities), molecular agitation (molecule velocity, molecule rotation or vibration, molecular free range), the Brownian motion and emulsions (history and general features, statistical equilibrium of emulsions), the laws of the Brownian motion (Einstein's theory, experimental control), fluctuations (the theory of Smoluchowski), light and quanta (black body, extension of quantum theory), the electricity atom, the atom genesis and destruction (transmutations, atom counting)

  16. An atomic empire a technical history of the rise and fall of the British atomic energy programme

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, C N

    2013-01-01

    Britain was the first country to exploit atomic energy on a large scale, and at its peak in the mid-1960s, it had generated more electricity from nuclear power than the rest of the world combined.The civil atomic energy programme grew out of the military programme which produced plutonium for atomic weapons. In 1956, Calder Hall power station was opened by the Queen. The very next year, one of the early Windscale reactors caught fire and the world's first major nuclear accident occurred.The civil programme ran into further difficulty in the mid-1960s and as a consequence of procrastination in

  17. Fundamental plan of atomic energy development and utilization in fiscal year 1986 related to atomic energy safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission decided to report to the Prime Minister after having determined this matter by assuming the passage of the budget draft for fiscal year 1986 as the prerequisite. As the fundamental policy, in order to cope with the advance of atomic energy development and utilization, such as the promotion of nuclear power generation and the construction of a prototype FBR, a demonstration ATR, a reprocessing plant and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, it is required to perfect the measures for ensuring the safety of atomic energy. For this purpose, the perfecting of the function of Nuclear Safety Commission and the system for safety examination, inspection and operation management and supervision in Government organs, the improvement of the quality of operators, the safety regulation of radioactive waste treatment and disposal, and the perfecting of the laws related to the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel and nuclear reacters are carried out. The research on the engineering safety of LWRs, the reactors of new types and reprocessing facilities, the research on the prevention of radiation injuries and the research on the safety of radioactive wastes are advanced. The establishment of nuclear fuel cycle, and the research on reactor decommissioning, the development of new type reactors and nuclear fusion are promoted from the viewpoint of safety. (Kako, I.)

  18. Atomic energy in its repercussions on life and health. [In French

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-01-01

    The papers given at the July 1955 conference in Paris on the dangers of atomic energy and radiation are presented. The topics discussed include the dangers inherent in atomic equipment, the radioactive effects of atomic explosions, a review of the analyses made in Japan of the radioactive ash from the March 1954 Bikini explosions, long distance propagation and characteristics of the radioactive particles emitted in atomic explosions, eventual influences of atomic explosions on evolution, radioactivity in air and rain, radioactive clouds, meteorological effects of atomic explosions, a general review of the biological effects of ionizing radiation, medical problems posed by the immediate effects of atomic explosions, cataracts received from explosions or research in atomic energy, atomic radiation and aquatic life, biological danger from powders emitting ..beta.. rays, effect of weak doses of radiation, ionizing radiation and the gases in atomic industry, and therapy for radiolesions.

  19. The optimum energy harvest efficiency of nitrogen fixing hydrophyte: Azolla pinnata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennakone, K. (Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy (LK) Ruhuna Univ., Matara (LK). Dept. of Physics); Punchihewa, S.; Jayasuriya, A.C. (Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy (LK))

    1989-01-01

    Azolla is a nitrogen fixing hydrophyte that can be cultivated in absence of nitrogenous fertilizer. It is found that when biomass is continuously harvested from a culture of Azolla, solar energy can be converted at an optimum efficiency of 1.1%. (author).

  20. Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia was produced by 13 companies at 23 plants in 16 states during 2009. Sixty percent of all U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana. Oklahoma and Texas because of those states' large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock. In 2009, U.S. producers operated at about 83 percent of their rated capacity (excluding plants that were idle for the entire year). Five companies — Koch Nitrogen Co.; Terra Industries Inc.; CF Industries Inc.; PCS Nitrogen Inc. and Agrium Inc., in descending order — accounted for 80 percent of the total U.S. ammonia production capacity. U.S. production was estimated to be 7.7 Mt (8.5 million st) of nitrogen (N) content in 2009 compared with 7.85 Mt (8.65 million st) of N content in 2008. Apparent consumption was estimated to have decreased to 12.1 Mt (13.3 million st) of N, a 10-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was the world's fourth-ranked ammonia producer and consumer following China, India and Russia. Urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphates, nitric acid and ammonium sulfate were the major derivatives of ammonia in the United States, in descending order of importance.

  1. Energy dissipation unveils atomic displacement in the noncontact atomic force microscopy imaging of Si(111 )-(7 ×7 )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Toyoko; Inamura, Ryo; Kura, Daiki; Tomitori, Masahiko

    2018-03-01

    The kinetic energy of the oscillating cantilever of noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) at room temperature was considerably dissipated over regions between a Si adatom and its neighboring rest atom for Si(111 )-(7 ×7 ) in close proximity to a Si tip on the cantilever. However, nc-AFM topographic images showed no atomic features over those regions, which were the hollow sites of the (7 ×7 ). This energy dissipation likely originated from displacement of Si adatoms with respect to the tip over the hollow sites, leading to a lateral shift of the adatoms toward the rest atom. This interaction led to hysteresis over each cantilever oscillation cycle; when the tip was retracted, the Si adatom likely returned to its original position. To confirm the atomic processes involved in the force interactions through Si dangling bonds, the Si(111 )-(7 ×7 ) surface was partly terminated with atomic hydrogen (H) and examined by nc-AFM. When the Si adatoms and/or the rest atoms were terminated with H, the hollow sites were not bright (less dissipation) in images of the energy dissipation channels by nc-AFM. The hollow sites acted as metastable sites for Si adatoms in surface diffusion and atom manipulation; thus, the dissipation energy which is saturated on the tip likely corresponds to the difference in the potential energy between the hollow site and the Si adatom site. In this study, we demonstrated the ability of dissipation channels of nc-AFM to enable visualization of the dynamics of atoms and molecules on surfaces, which cannot be revealed by nc-AFM topographic images alone.

  2. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the production of cations containing C-N bonds in the reaction of benzene with atomic nitrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Stefano, Marco; Rosi, Marzio; Sgamellotti, Antonio; Ascenzi, Daniela; Bassi, Davide; Franceschi, Pietro; Tosi, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    In the last few years, astronomical spectra have revealed the presence of aromatic and polyaromatic molecules in extraterrestrial environments, near carbon stars, in molecular clouds and meteorites. Moreover, the recent observation of benzene in interstellar space has noticeably increased the interest in the entire class of molecules and in their chemical behavior. In this work, we have investigated the reaction between the benzene molecule and the atomic nitrogen cation and, in particular, the mechanisms by which the reactants are converted into cationic products containing at least one C-N bond, according to the general scheme C 6 H 6 +N + →H m C n N + +C x H y . We have measured the energy dependence of the cross section in a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. Relevant stationary points of the potential energy surface have been studied by using the density functional theory hybrid functional B3LYP with the 6-31G* basis set. Thermochemical calculations, and the comparison with experimental results, allow us to distinguish between exoergic and endoergic processes and to obtain a detailed description of the reaction mechanisms. We show that aromatic hydrocarbons may be converted into organic-nitrogen compounds via the insertion of N + into the benzene ring and the formation of C-N bonds from C-C ring reactants

  3. Studies on low energy ion-atom collisions by means of electron-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirosi Suzuki

    1991-01-01

    The typical results of studies on autoionization processes produced by low energy ion-atom collisions are given by means of the ejected electron spectroscopy, which have been performed by Atomic Physics Group of Sophia University

  4. Higher order corrections to energy levels of muonic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinker, G.A. Jr.; Steffen, R.M.

    1975-08-01

    In order to facilitate the analysis of muonic x-ray spectra, the results of numerical computations of all higher order quantum electrodynamical corrections to the energy levels of muonic atoms are presented in tabular and graphical form. These corrections include the vacuum polarization corrections caused by emission and reabsorption of virtual electron pairs to all orders, including ''double-bubble'' and ''cracked-egg'' diagrams. An estimate of the Delbruecke scattering-type correction is presented. The Lamb-shift (second- and fourth-order vertex) corrections have been calculated including the correction for the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. The relativistic nuclear motion (or recoil) correction as well as the correction caused by the screening of the atomic electrons is presented in graphs. For the sake of completeness a graph of the nuclear polarization as computed on the basis of Chen's approach has been included. All calculations were made with a two-parameter Fermi distribution of the nuclear charge density. 7 figures, 23 references

  5. Inevitability of atomic energy in India's power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanna, R.

    1977-01-01

    The case for atomic energy as the inevitable answer to the energy problem of India has been emphatically put up and supported with data. Hydroelectric power is costly to develop and moreover its potential is not enough to meet India's growing energy requirements. On the grounds of economics and safety, nuclear power has been shown to be superior to power from coal-based power plants. India's proved reserves of coal are 21 billion tonnes out of which 80% has ash content more than 20% and in order to reach only half of the present per capita energy consumption in Europe, the present output of 90 million tonnes/year of coal will have to be increased by a factor of 10, which in addition raises the problem of its transportation to the plant sites. Secondly, total energy from the available coal is estimated at 160 x 10 12 kwh, while that from known reserves of 52,000 tonnes of uranium is 7.2 x 10 12 kwh if used in thermal reactors and 208 x 10 12 kwh if used in fast reactors. Thorium with its known reserves of 320,000 tonnes would give another 1280 x 10 12 kwh. As for safety and ecology, it has been pointed out that : (1) in U.S., the number of coal miners dying of black cancer is 1000 per 10 12 kwh of electricity generated, whereas the fatality rate of uranium miners due to lung cancer is 20 per 10 12 kwh of electricity generated and (2) safety has been the primary concern in all aspects of nuclear technology - mining, fuel production, reactor operation and radioactive waste processing. It has also been explained how the fear of any terrorist getting possession of plutonium for spreading it into atmosphere or making a nuclear bomb is highly improbable, because at any point throughout the fuel cycle plutonium is under strict security surveillance and it is impossible to make a nuclear device without the back-up of powerful laboratory facilities. Finally, India's three stage atomic power programme is described in brief. (M.G.B.)

  6. Proceedings of the ninth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    The present volume contains 57 papers. Most of the papers were presented on the ninth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research, held in Demanovska Dolina, Slovakia, 4-6 October 1999. The rest of the papers (intended to be presented but not presented due to difficulties) is included based on the decision of the organizers. The papers are in their original form, i. e. no corrections or modifications were carried out. The content of this volume is divided into thematic groups: Spectral and Core Calculation Methods, Core Operation and Fuel Management, Core Monitoring, Surveillance and Testing, Safety Issues, Neutron Kinetics and Reactor Dynamics, Reactivity Evaluation, High Subcriticality, Critical Safety and Spent Fuel and Spent Fuel Transmutations - according to the presentation sequence on the Symposium. At the end of the volume an alphabetical author index is given.

  7. Proceedings of the ninth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    The present volume contains 57 papers. Most of the papers were presented on the ninth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research, held in Demanovska Dolina, Slovakia, 4-6 October 1999. The rest of the papers (intended to be presented but not presented due to difficulties) is included based on the decision of the organizers. The papers are in their original form, i. e. no corrections or modifications were carried out. The content of this volume is divided into thematic groups: Spectral and Core Calculation Methods, Core Operation and Fuel Management, Core Monitoring, Surveillance and Testing, Safety Issues, Neutron Kinetics and Reactor Dynamics, Reactivity Evaluation, High Subcriticality, Critical Safety and Spent Fuel and Spent Fuel Transmutations - according to the presentation sequence on the Symposium. At the end of the volume an alphabetical author index is given

  8. The International Atomic Energy Agency's program on decontamination and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feraday, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA) is developing an integrated information base that will systematically cover the technical, regulatory, radiation protection, planning, and economic aspects related to the decontamination and decommissioning (D/D) of nuclear facilities. The object of this program is to assist member states in developing the required expertise, equipment, and programs so that they can decommission their nuclear facilities in a safe, timely, and cost-effective manner. In addition to providing information, the IAEA encourages research and provides technical assistance in the form of expert missions, equipment design and procurement, etc., to assist member states in implementing their D/D programs. The technology contained in some recent IAEA reports is reviewed, including the decontamination, segmentation, and demolition of concrete and steel; the recycle/reuse of components from decommissioning; and the reduction of occupational exposures in D/D and the regulatory process in decommissioning. The IAEA's future program is briefly reviewed

  9. Proceedings of the eighth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovszky, I.

    1998-10-01

    The present volume contains 53 papers, presented on the eighth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research, held in Bystrice nad Perstejnem, Czech Republic, 21-25 September 1998. The papers are presented in their original form, i. e. no corrections or modifications were carried out. The content of this volume is divided into thematic groups: Spectral and Core Calculation Methods, Core Design, Operation and Fuel Management, Core Monitoring, Surveillance and Testing, Neutron Kinetics and reactor Dynamics Methods, Safety Issues and Analysis, Rod Drop Reactivity Measurements, Criticality safety, Spent Fuel and Decommissioning, - according to the presentation sequence on the Symposium. At the end of the volume a list of the participants and an alphabetical author index is given as well

  10. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2001 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 2000-2001. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with progress being reported in the construction of two CANDU 6 reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, the anticipated completion of Cernavoda unit 2, the completion of spent fuel storage at Cernavoda unit 1 in Romania, as well as the service business with New Brunswick Power, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Hydro Quebec in the refurbishment of operating, CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs discussions continue on funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for Materials Research (CNF) and progress on the Maple medical isotope reactor

  11. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2000, and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 1999-2000. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with the completion of the Wolsong unit 4 in the Republic of Korea, progress in the construction of two CANDU reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, as well as the service business with Ontario Power Generation in the rehabilitation and life extension of operating CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs there is on-going effort towards the next generation of reactor technologies for CANDU nuclear power plants, discussions continue on the funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for materials research (CNF) and progress being made on the Maple medical isotope reactor

  12. Atomic energy as an humane endeavor: Retrospective on its development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaborg, G.T.; Stahlkopf, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    This report is a speech delivered in Tokyo, Japan, by the author. It covers the historical aspects of atomic energy, from the pre-fission days until present. Such pioneer experiments conducted by O. Hahn, L. Meitner, and F. Strassmann to describe barium isotopes as the result of bombardment of uranium with neutrons are discussed. The author also discussed in detail the pre-war nuclear research at Berkeley, a leading center of nuclear research. Such important events as the synthesis and identification of cobalt-60, iodine-131, and technetium-99m are also discussed. The author discussed the nuclear power as a source of electricity and the perspective on the future of nuclear power. 32 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs

  13. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications. Catalogue 1980-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued from 1980 up to the end of 1995 an still available. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most Agency publications are issued in English, though some are also available in Chinese, French, Russian or Spanish. This is noted as C for Chinese, E for English, F for French, R for Russian and S For Spanish by the relevant ISBN number. Proceedings of conferences, symposia, seminars and panels, of experts contain papers in their original language (English, French, Russian or Spanish) with abstracts in English and in the original language.

  14. The Atomic Energy Control Board and the uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R.M.

    The Atomic Energy Control Board controls prescribed substances and nuclear facilities through a licensing system. It is only recently that this system has been applied to the uranium industry. There are four stages in the licensing procedure before a Mine-Mill Facility Operating Licence is issued: exploration requires an underground exploration permit; site approval is needed before the start of the development stage; development approval is required before the construction of the mill and waste management facilities and depends on the information in a preliminary safety report; the granting of a final operating licence occurs after the Board is satisfied with the final safety report, operating policies and principles, tailings management, and decommissioning plans. The Board has resource management policies designed to ensure that uranium reserves are available to meet Canada's needs. The administration of safeguards is also the Board's responsibility. (LL)

  15. Current trend of atomic energy development in Japan- I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Manne; Yang, M. H.; Yoon, S. W.; Choi, M. J.; Kim, S. M.; Choi, Y. M

    1998-01-01

    After hundreds of meeting including the round table meeting on the atomic energy development policy, their conclusions were as follows: 1. The competitive nuclear fuel cycle should be completed. 2. In order to achieve above objective, the development of fast breeder reactor must be continued, and the utilization of JOYO and MONJU, and the international cooperation are highly recommended. 3. The PNC should focus on the development of the fast breeder reactor and the related fuel cycle and the management of high level radioactive waste. PNC, which had been working on too many projects, must be reformed to a slim and more efficient organization. Although there was a regret that the proposals were prepared in a short time to meet the due date for the budget bill of 1988, the Japanese government will seriously consider their proposal and take several administrative measures such as the revision of the related laws for the realization of their proposals. (author).

  16. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1989-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In 1990, after a comprehensive industry review, the Canadian government announced that steps would be taken to revitalize the nuclear industry. Canada's nuclear utilities made a commitment to bear a large share of the cost of nuclear research and development. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) reported its first financial loss in twelve years, as anticipated at the start of the year. Four of the 20 CANDU reactors operating worldwide were in the top ten based on lifetime performance. By year-end one foreign and two domestic utilities had announced their intention to build more CANDU units. The federal government has agreed to stabilize AECL's research funding at 1989-90 levels ($31.5 million above levels planned in 1985), has authorized AECL to negotiate with New Brunswick to build Point Lepreau-2 as the prototype for the CANDU-3 reactor, and has allowed the restructuring of AECL so utility and private sector investors can become equity partners in AECL CANDU

  17. Optimal allocation of International Atomic Energy Agency inspection resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.

    1987-12-01

    The Safeguards Department of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts inspections to assure the peaceful use of a state's nuclear materials and facilities. Because of limited resources for conducting inspections, the careful disposition of inspection effort among these facilities is essential if the IAEA is to attain its safeguards goals. This report describes an optimization procedure for assigning an inspection effort to maximize attainment of IAEA goals. The procedure does not require quantitative estimates of safeguards effectiveness, material value, or facility importance. Instead, the optimization is based on qualitative, relative prioritizations of inspection activities and materials to be safeguarded. This allocation framework is applicable to an arbitrary group of facilities such as a state's fuel cycle, the facilities inspected by an operations division, or all of the facilities inspected by the IAEA

  18. Safeguards and legal matters 1994. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Safeguards and Legal Matters issued during the period 1970-1994. Most publications are published in English, through some are also available in French, Russian and Spanish. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. If publications are also available in other languages than English, this is noted as C for Chinese, F for French, R for Russian and S for Spanish by the relevant ISBN number. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 16 x 24 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated

  19. Atomic Physics in the Quest for Fusion Energy and ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    The urgent quest for new energy sources has led developed countries, representing over half of the world population, to collaborate on demonstrating the scientific and technological feasibility of magnetic fusion through the construction and operation of ITER. Data on high-Z ions will be important in this quest. Tungsten plasma facing components have the necessary low erosion rates and low tritium retention but the high radiative efficiency of tungsten ions leads to stringent restrictions on the concentration of tungsten ions in the burning plasma. The influx of tungsten to the burning plasma will need to be diagnosed, understood and stringently controlled. Expanded knowledge of the atomic physics of neutral and ionized tungsten will be important to monitor impurity influxes and derive tungsten concentrations. Also, inert gases such as argon and xenon will be used to dissipate the heat flux flowing to the divertor. This article will summarize the spectroscopic diagnostics planned for ITER and outline areas where additional data is needed.

  20. The role and structure of the Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, P.E.

    1981-04-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is responsible for the control and supervision of the application and use of nuclear materials and the operation of nuclear facilities to ensure that the health and safety of people are protected and that the nuclear materials and equipment are used only in accordance with the government non-proliferation policy. Requirements for control and supervision are made into regulations subject to approval by the Governor in Council. They are applied through a comprehensive licensing system. The interpretation and implementation of the regulations are contained in a series of regulatory documents published from time to time by the Board. The functional organization of staff that assist the Board for the administration, the assessment and issuance of licenses, compliance and inspection, as well as for the management of the regulatory research program is described. (author) [fr

  1. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications. Catalogue 1980-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued from 1980 up to the end of 1995 an still available. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most Agency publications are issued in English, though some are also available in Chinese, French, Russian or Spanish. This is noted as C for Chinese, E for English, F for French, R for Russian and S For Spanish by the relevant ISBN number. Proceedings of conferences, symposia, seminars and panels, of experts contain papers in their original language (English, French, Russian or Spanish) with abstracts in English and in the original language

  2. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2000, and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 1999-2000. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with the completion of the Wolsong unit 4 in the Republic of Korea, progress in the construction of two CANDU reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, as well as the service business with Ontario Power Generation in the rehabilitation and life extension of operating CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs there is on-going effort towards the next generation of reactor technologies for CANDU nuclear power plants, discussions continue on the funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for materials research (CNF) and progress being made on the Maple medical isotope reactor.

  3. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2001 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 2000-2001. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with progress being reported in the construction of two CANDU 6 reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, the anticipated completion of Cernavoda unit 2, the completion of spent fuel storage at Cernavoda unit 1 in Romania, as well as the service business with New Brunswick Power, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Hydro Quebec in the refurbishment of operating, CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs discussions continue on funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for Materials Research (CNF) and progress on the Maple medical isotope reactor.

  4. Atomic excitation and molecular dissociation by low energy electron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyland, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    In this work, momentum imaging experiments have been conducted for the electron impact excitation of metastable states in noble gases and for dissociative electron attachment (DEA) in polyatomic molecules. For the electron impact excitation study a new experimental technique has been developed which is able to measure the scattering angle distribution of the electrons by detection of the momentum transfer to the atoms. Momentum transfer images have been recorded for helium and neon at fixed electron impact energy close to the excitation threshold and good agreement with current R-matrix theory calculations was found. A new momentum imaging apparatus for negative ions has been built for the purpose of studying DEA in biologically relevant molecules. During this work, DEA was investigated in the molecules ammonia, water, formic acid, furan, pyridine and in two chlorofluorocarbons. Furthermore, the change of DEA resonance energies when molecules form clusters compared to monomers was investigated in ammonia and formic acid. The experimental results of most studied molecules could be compared to recent theoretical calculations and they support further development in the theoretical description of DEA. The new apparatus built in this work also delivered a superior momentum resolution compared to existing setups. This allows the momentum imaging of heavier fragments and fragments with lower kinetic energy.

  5. Annual activity report of Atomic Energy Organization of Iran 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Annual research activities of atomic energy organization of Iran AEOI is described for 1981. 1.Nuclear research centre acompolishment is devoted to nuclear physics radiochemistry, reactor operation, electronic and health physics. 2.The nuclear power plants activities are centered on the maintenance of the installed equipments of power plants sites and making use of these installation in the line of countrys needs. 3.Isfahan nuclear technology has reported it's goal and according to it planned a research program for reactor control systems, preparation of pure uranium oxide from yellow cake, installation and operation of equipments for fuel pellet production. 4.The exploration centre exploited a geologic survey for the potential uranium ores and despite of difficulties and deficiences rich deposits are identifed. 5.The radiation protection centre research is allocated to a)Measuring the environmental radioactivity, b)dosimetry, c)inspection and controlling the radioactivity, of the medical and industrial centers 6.The renewable energy sources described their studies on solar energy and biogas application in Iran and finally attributes of International affiars, staff services, budget and adminis trative departments are outlined

  6. Atomic excitation and molecular dissociation by low energy electron collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyland, Marvin

    2016-11-16

    In this work, momentum imaging experiments have been conducted for the electron impact excitation of metastable states in noble gases and for dissociative electron attachment (DEA) in polyatomic molecules. For the electron impact excitation study a new experimental technique has been developed which is able to measure the scattering angle distribution of the electrons by detection of the momentum transfer to the atoms. Momentum transfer images have been recorded for helium and neon at fixed electron impact energy close to the excitation threshold and good agreement with current R-matrix theory calculations was found. A new momentum imaging apparatus for negative ions has been built for the purpose of studying DEA in biologically relevant molecules. During this work, DEA was investigated in the molecules ammonia, water, formic acid, furan, pyridine and in two chlorofluorocarbons. Furthermore, the change of DEA resonance energies when molecules form clusters compared to monomers was investigated in ammonia and formic acid. The experimental results of most studied molecules could be compared to recent theoretical calculations and they support further development in the theoretical description of DEA. The new apparatus built in this work also delivered a superior momentum resolution compared to existing setups. This allows the momentum imaging of heavier fragments and fragments with lower kinetic energy.

  7. Investigation of nitrogen atom production in Ar/N2 and He/N2 surface wave plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabbal, M.; Kazopoulo, M.; Christidis, T.; Isber, S.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: There is presently great interest in nitrogen plasmas for surface coating processes. Such as the deposition of nitride thin films and surface treatment of materials. Indeed, nitrogen plasmas have been used to nitride the surface of ferrous and non-ferrous materials in order to improve their surface properties such as resistance to corrosion and hardness. Moreover, the design and development of nitrogen atom sources could be essential for the synthesis of gallium nitride (GaN), a wide band-gap semiconductor whose properties have revolutionized the microelectronics and optoelectronics industries. Correlations have been established between the density of active species in the process, namely atomic nitrogen (N) produced by the discharge and GaN film properties. Thus, it is of fundamental importance to investigate the N-atom production mechanisms in such discharges. N-atom production has been studied in pure N 2 surface-wave plasmas (SWP), as a function of operating parameters, namely gas pressure and electrical power. These studies indicate that the increase in the gas temperature (T g ) limits the N-atom production. One possible way of enhancing the N 2 dissociation rate ([N]/[N 2 ]) in the plasma could be the use of gas mixtures such as Ar/N 2 or He/N 2 . the aim of this paper is to characterize an Ar/N 2 and He/N 2 surface-wave discharge (SWD) by optical emission spectroscopy (OES), in order to determine the optimal plasma conditions in terms of [N]/[N 2 ]. The plasma is generated by a radio frequency (40.68 MHz) wave launcher. The effect of mixing N 2 with Ar and He on the production of N-atoms in the plasma was investigated at varying experimental conditions, such as operating pressure (4.5 and 7.5 Torr), electrical power (40 to 120 W), at a total gas flow of 250 sccm. It was found that [N]/[N 2 ] increases with the partial pressure of Ar in the mixture by a factor of about 8 at 120W. Such an enhancement is reduced at lower incident powers. On the

  8. Examination of employment in the atomic energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, J.G.

    1978-02-01

    This study, which focuses on the years 1968--1975, singles out important employment trends in the atomic energy field and develops causal explanations for these trends. The study also provides a descriptive profile of employment in the field. Employment in the atomic energy field has grown from 138,519 in 1963 to 197,466 in 1975, an annual rate of 3.0 percent. The deployment of scientists, engineers, and technicians in the government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) sector changed little from 1968 to 1975. Private sector deployment altered considerably, with a large increase. Within the scientist group, the GOCO sector employment by field has changed little from 1968 to 1975. Private sector scientists have seen considerable alteration of their employment. There has been little change in the employment shares of engineering fields in the GOCO sector for the 1968 to 1975 period. Private sector engineers have seen much greater change, with civil engineers increasing their share 6% to 11%. Of all GOCO technicians, physical science technicians have increased their employment share from 12% to 17%. Of all private sector technicians, draftsmen have increased their share from 29% to 37% and reactor operators from 4% to 7%. Total employment in the field is shifting toward smaller firms. Employment by region has changed considerably in the private sector from 1968 to 1975. GOCO regional employment has also changed. The percentage of scientists and engineers involved in research and development has declined from 68% in 1968 to 39% in 1975. Three private sector industrial segments--reactor design and manufacturing, nuclear facilities design and engineering, and operation and maintenance of reactors--have experienced tremendous growth from 1968 to 1975. 8 figures, 32 tables

  9. Differential cross sections for inelastic scattering of electrons on Kr and Xe atoms at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipovic, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Electron-impact excitation of the larger- number noble-gas atoms is a way of understanding excitation mechanisms in atomic collisional processes. Krypton and xenon have the largest atomic number of all the stable noble gases. Therefore, effects dependent on the size of a target atom, such as alignment and orientation of the atomic outer shell charge cloud after collisional excitation, are best observed by studying these atoms. Normalized, absolute differential cross sections (DCS's) for the lowest electronic states of Kr and Xe atoms, at intermediate energies, are the subject of this report

  10. Partition coefficients of methylated DNA bases obtained from free energy calculations with molecular electron density derived atomic charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, A; Riquelme, M; Vöhringer-Martinez, E

    2018-05-11

    Partition coefficients serve in various areas as pharmacology and environmental sciences to predict the hydrophobicity of different substances. Recently, they have also been used to address the accuracy of force fields for various organic compounds and specifically the methylated DNA bases. In this study, atomic charges were derived by different partitioning methods (Hirshfeld and Minimal Basis Iterative Stockholder) directly from the electron density obtained by electronic structure calculations in a vacuum, with an implicit solvation model or with explicit solvation taking the dynamics of the solute and the solvent into account. To test the ability of these charges to describe electrostatic interactions in force fields for condensed phases, the original atomic charges of the AMBER99 force field were replaced with the new atomic charges and combined with different solvent models to obtain the hydration and chloroform solvation free energies by molecular dynamics simulations. Chloroform-water partition coefficients derived from the obtained free energies were compared to experimental and previously reported values obtained with the GAFF or the AMBER-99 force field. The results show that good agreement with experimental data is obtained when the polarization of the electron density by the solvent has been taken into account, and when the energy needed to polarize the electron density of the solute has been considered in the transfer free energy. These results were further confirmed by hydration free energies of polar and aromatic amino acid side chain analogs. Comparison of the two partitioning methods, Hirshfeld-I and Minimal Basis Iterative Stockholder (MBIS), revealed some deficiencies in the Hirshfeld-I method related to the unstable isolated anionic nitrogen pro-atom used in the method. Hydration free energies and partitioning coefficients obtained with atomic charges from the MBIS partitioning method accounting for polarization by the implicit solvation model

  11. Inelastic collisions of atomic particles at mean energies. Pt.1. Qualitative model of energy losses during a collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    A new approach is proposed for description of the energy losses of mean-energy atomic particles during their interactions with atomic particles of solids. It is shown that all these interactions are inelastic ones and are determined by different scattering zones with different laws of energy loss dependences [ru

  12. Protocol Additional to the agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in France is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 22 September 1998. Pursuant to Article 16 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 30 April 2004, the date on which the Agency received written notification that the European Atomic Energy Community and France had met their respective internal requirements for entry into force

  13. Two atoms scattering at low and cold energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A modified static-exchange model is developed to study the collision of an atom with another atom. It includes the effect of long-range dipole–dipole van der Waals interaction between two atoms in addition to the exact effect of short-range force due to Coulomb exchange between two system electrons. Both these ...

  14. Change of Energy of the Cubic Subnanocluster of Iron Under Influence of Interstitial and Substitutional Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedolya, Anatoliy V; Bondarenko, Natalya V

    2016-12-01

    Energy change of an iron face-centred cubic subnanocluster was evaluated using molecular mechanics method depending on the position of a carbon interstitial atom and substitutional atoms of nickel. Calculations of all possible positions of impurity atoms show that the energy change of the system are discrete and at certain positions of the atoms are close to continuous.In terms of energy, when all impurity atoms are on the same edge of an atomic cluster, their positions are more advantageous. The presence of nickel atoms on the edge of a cubic cluster resulted in decrease of potential barrier for a carbon atom and decrease in energy in the whole cluster. A similar drift of a carbon atom from central octahedral interstitial site to the surface in the direction occurred under the influence of surface factors.Such configuration corresponds to decreasing symmetry and increasing the number of possible energy states of a subnanocluster, and it corresponds to the condition of spontaneous crystallization process in an isolated system.Taking into account accidental positions of the nickel atom in the iron cluster, such behaviour of the carbon atom can explain the mechanism of growth of a new phase and formation of new clusters in the presence of other kind of atoms because of surface influence.

  15. Hamaoka Atomic Energy Hall, Chubu Electric Power Co. , Inc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Y [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    1979-10-01

    Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station was constructed in the very large site of about 1.6 million m/sup 2/ surrounded by sand dunes and pine forests at the southern tip of Shizuoka Prefecture. Hamaoka Atomic Energy Hall was built on the right side of this power station. This hall had been planned as a part of the works commemorating the 20th anniversary of the founding of the company, and was opened in August, 1972. The building is of steel frame type, and has two floors of 1135 m/sup 2/ total area. The first floor comprises cinema room, power generation corner and open gallery, and the second floor comprises meeting room, native land corner and observation room. Moreover, there is observation platform on the roof. The purpose of the hall is coexistence and coprosperity with the regional residents, and 13 persons make explanations to visitors having reached to 1.9 million as of the end of June, 1979. It is incorporated in the sightseeing route centering around the Omaezaki lighthouse. The cinema hall accommodates 120 men, and the films concerning nuclear power generation and the construction of a nuclear power plant are shown. In the power generation corner, the explanation on nuclear power generation is made with models and panels. The third hall is being built now as energy corner, and it will be completed in autumn, 1979.

  16. Hamaoka Atomic Energy Hall, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Yukio

    1979-01-01

    Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station was constructed in the very large site of about 1.6 million m 2 surrounded by sand dunes and pine forests at the southern tip of Shizuoka Prefecture. Hamaoka Atomic Energy Hall was built on the right side of this power station. This hall had been planned as a part of the works commemorating the 20th anniversary of the founding of the company, and was opened in August, 1972. The building is of steel frame type, and has two floors of 1135 m 2 total area. The first floor comprises cinema room, power generation corner and open gallery, and the second floor comprises meeting room, native land corner and observation room. Moreover, there is observation platform on the roof. The purpose of the hall is coexistence and coprosperity with the regional residents, and 13 persons make explanations to visitors having reached to 1.9 million as of the end of June, 1979. It is incorporated in the sightseeing route centering around the Omaezaki lighthouse. The cinema hall accommodates 120 men, and the films concerning nuclear power generation and the construction of a nuclear power plant are shown. In the power generation corner, the explanation on nuclear power generation is made with models and panels. The third hall is being built now as energy corner, and it will be completed in autumn, 1979. (Kako, I.)

  17. Tree planting in deserts and utilization of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao; Minato, Akio; Hashizume, Kenichi; Handa, Norihiko.

    1991-01-01

    Global environment problems are discussed actively, concretely, those are the warming of the earth, the advance of desertification, the damage due to acid rain, the decrease of tropical forests, the pollution of sea, the depletion of ozone layer and so on. Most of these phenomena advance gradually. However, the advance of desertification is different from other phenomena in that the people in the areas concerned are deprived of their living space and even their lives are threatened at this moment. Desertification is advancing on global scale, and its rate is estimated to be 60,000 km 2 yearly. Especially the area where the advance is remarkable is the southern edge of Sahara Desert, which advances southward at 10-30 km in one year. Recently also in Japan, the interest in the prevention of desertification has become high, and the experiment on tree planting in a desert using a huge desert dome of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 'Desert Aquanet concept' of Shimizu Construction Co., Ltd., 'Sahara green belt project' of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry and so on were published. Water and energy for tree planting in deserts, utilization of atomic energy for seawater desalination and the technical fields to which Japan can contribute are reported. (K.I.)

  18. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Major nuclear research institutes in Japan are the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), National Research Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS), and the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN). In the 50s and 60s JAERI concentrated on the introduction of nuclear technology from overseas. Energy security issues led to the development of a strong nuclear power programme in the next two decades resulting in Japan having 50 light water cooled nuclear power plants in operation. Japan also worked on other reactor concepts. The current emphasis of JAERI is on advanced reactors and nuclear fusion. Its budget of 270 million US$ supports five research establishments. JAERI has strong collaboration with industry and university system on nuclear and other advanced research topics (neutron science, photon science). In many areas Japan has strong international links. JAERI has also been transferring know-how on radioisotope and radiation applications to the developing countries particularly through IAEA-RCA mechanisms. (author)

  19. Tree planting in deserts and utilization of atomic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Sadao; Minato, Akio [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Hashizume, Kenichi; Handa, Norihiko

    1991-06-01

    Global environment problems are discussed actively, concretely, those are the warming of the earth, the advance of desertification, the damage due to acid rain, the decrease of tropical forests, the pollution of sea, the depletion of ozone layer and so on. Most of these phenomena advance gradually. However, the advance of desertification is different from other phenomena in that the people in the areas concerned are deprived of their living space and even their lives are threatened at this moment. Desertification is advancing on global scale, and its rate is estimated to be 60,000 km{sup 2} yearly. Especially the area where the advance is remarkable is the southern edge of Sahara Desert, which advances southward at 10-30 km in one year. Recently also in Japan, the interest in the prevention of desertification has become high, and the experiment on tree planting in a desert using a huge desert dome of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 'Desert Aquanet concept' of Shimizu Construction Co., Ltd., 'Sahara green belt project' of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry and so on were published. Water and energy for tree planting in deserts, utilization of atomic energy for seawater desalination and the technical fields to which Japan can contribute are reported. (K.I.).

  20. Various issues associated with laws concerning atomic energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Tadao.

    1989-01-01

    It the report, the legislation and policymaking systems, particularly for high-level radioactive wastes, in Japan and the U.S. are compared. Major legislation that reflects the policies for atomic energy in the U.S. includes: National Environmental Policy Act (1960, Nixon Administration), Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (1980, Carter Administration), Reagan's statement in October 1981, Nuclear Waste Policy Act (1982, Reagan Administration), 1986 Revision of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, and 1987 Revision of Nuclear Waste Policy Act. According to the basic concept specified in the revised Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Department of Energy is required to establish the 'Mission Plan'. The 1988 Mission Plan describes details of the wastes, MRS and repository as covered by the above-mentioned basic concept. The 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act and its 1987 revision focus procedures for policymaking concerning the treatment and disposal of wastes. In particular, the Act specifies the time sequence of the processes down to the waste disposal together with material-related processes including the material selection at the disposal site, and also clarifies the rights and obligations of the persons and organizations having the legal responsibility. (N.K.)

  1. A study on the improvement of the legal system concerning Korean Atomic Energy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Il Un; Jung, Jong Hak; Kim, Jae Ho; Moon, Jong Wook; Kim, In Sub [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    Cause-effect analysis, adjustment, and generalization of the current atomic energy act are contents of this research. These are to be based on the legal theory. Analysis of the current atomic energy act from the viewpoint of constitutional law and administrative law. Review of the other domestic legal systems which have similar problems as the atomic energy act has. Inquiry about the operation of nuclear legal systems of foreign nations.

  2. A study on the improvement of the legal system concerning Korean Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Il Un; Jung, Jong Hak; Kim, Jae Ho; Moon, Jong Wook; Kim, In Sub

    1998-03-01

    Cause-effect analysis, adjustment, and generalization of the current atomic energy act are contents of this research. These are to be based on the legal theory. Analysis of the current atomic energy act from the viewpoint of constitutional law and administrative law. Review of the other domestic legal systems which have similar problems as the atomic energy act has. Inquiry about the operation of nuclear legal systems of foreign nations

  3. The new protection level of the atomic energy law; Das neue Schutzniveau des Atomgesetzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziehm, Cornelia [Deutsche Umwelthilfe e.V. (DUH), Berlin (Germany). Klimaschutz und Energiewende

    2011-07-01

    The atomic energy law is determining the normative basis for best possible danger prevention and hazard control in accordance with the actual state-of-the art of science and technology. This is not only essential for the legal licensing procedures but also for atomic energy authorities. With the introduction of paragraph 7d into the German atomic energy law in the frame of revision 12 essential protection requirements and retrofitting measures will be withdrawn from the danger prevention in the sense of the atomic energy law and thus the third party protection.

  4. Atomic Energy Act and Related Legislation. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This report presents information related to the Atomic Energy Act and related legislation. Sections are presented pertaining to legislative history and statutes, implementing regulations, and updates.

  5. Report on the atom what you should know about atomic energy

    CERN Document Server

    Dean, Gordon

    1954-01-01

    The American approach to the atom ; Uranium is where you find it ; the production line: ore to bombs ; the expanding programme ; the headaches ; the pay-off: weapons ; the military and the atoms ; power: the peaceful goals, first phase ; power: the peaceful goals, second goals ; radioisotopes: servants of man ; the quest for knowledge ; secrecy, security and spies ; the international atom ; behind the Iron Curtain ; the way ahead.

  6. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1960. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1960 - December 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1961-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1960 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1960.

  7. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1962. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1962 - December 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1963-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1962 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1962.

  8. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1959. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1959 - December 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1960-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1959 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1959.

  9. Atomic energy law after the opt-out. Alive and fascinating. Report about the 14th German atomic energy law symposium 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidinger, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Atomic energy law remains a living, fascinating subject matter. Nearly 200 participants were convinced of this impression at the 14 th German Atomic Energy Law Symposium held in Berlin on November 19-20, 2012. Under the scientific chairmanship of Professor Dr. Martin Burgi, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), after an interruption of 5 years, again organized a scientific conference about practice-related topics of atomic energy and radiation protection law. Atomic energy law once again proved to be a reference area for sophisticated issues of constitutional law and administrative law above and beyond its technical confines. The agenda of the 14 th German Atomic Energy Law Symposium featured a broad spectrum of topics ranging from backfitting of nuclear power plants to European atomic energy and radiation protection law, to challenges facing national legal systems in the execution of atomic energy law, to legal issues connected with decommissioning and waste management, and on to the topical subject of finding a repository site. The 14 th German Atomic Energy Law Symposium, on the whole, again demonstrated that an open discourse between science and practice is able to furnish important contributions to the implementation of laws in a balanced way rooted in practice. Especially the contributions dealing with the independence of public authorities and their organization, the doctrine of the reservation of functions of the executive branch, and planning by laws contain additional provisions able to influence the continued development of administrative law also above and beyond atomic energy law. The BMU also referred to a decision just heard from Brussels to the effect that a new European Safety Directive would be published as early as in 2013. As a consequence of the nuclear stress tests conducted EU-wide, the Directive is to lay down provisions about transparency

  10. High Energy Cutting and Stripping Utilizing Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Howard; Noah, Donald E.; Hayes, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    The Aerospace Industry has endeavored for decades to develop hybrid materials that withstand the rigors of mechanized flight both within our atmosphere and beyond. The development of these high performance materials has led to the need for environmentally friendly technologies for material re-work and removal. The NitroJet(TM) is a fluid jet technology that represents an evolution of the widely used, large-scale water jet fluid jet technology. It involves the amalgamation of fluid jet technology and cryogenics technology to create a new capability that is applicable where water jet or abrasive jet (water jet plus entrained abrasive) are not suitable or acceptable because of technical constraints such as process or materials compatibility, environmental concerns and aesthetic or legal requirements. The NitroJet(TM) uses ultra high-pressure nitrogen to cut materials, strip numerous types of coatings such as paint or powder coating, clean surfaces and profile metals. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is used as the feed stream and is pressurized in two stages. The first stage pressurizes sub cooled LN2 to an intermediate pressure of between 15,000 and 20,000 psi at which point the temperature of the LN2 is about -250 F. The discharge from this stage is then introduced as feed to a dual intensifier system, which boosts the pressure from 15,000 - 20,000 psi up to the maximum operating pressure of 55,000 psi. A temperature of about -220 F is achieved at which point the nitrogen is supercritical. In this condition the nitrogen cuts, strips and abrades much like ultra high-pressure water would but without any residual liquid to collect, remove or be contaminated. Once the nitrogen has performed its function it harmlessly flashes back into the atmosphere as pure nitrogen gas. The system uses heat exchangers to control and modify the temperature of the various intake and discharge nitrogen streams. Since the system is hydraulically operated, discharge pressures can be easily varied over

  11. Bibliography on atomic energy levels and spectra. Special pub., Jul 1971--Jun 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, L.

    1977-01-01

    This is the first supplement to the NBS Special Publication 363, 'Bibliography on Atomic Energy Levels and Spectra, July 1968 through June 1971,' and it covers the most recent literature from July 1971 through June 1975. It contains approximately 2150 references classified by subject for individual atoms and atomic ions. A number index identifies the references. An author index is included. References included contain data on energy levels, classified lines, wavelengths, Zeeman effect, Stark effect, hyperfine structure, isotope shift, ionization potentials, or theory which gives results for specific atoms or atomic ions

  12. The Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1962. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - December 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1963-01-31

    The document represents the 1962 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. This year's report opens with a section of Highlights of the Atomic Energy Programs of 1962, followed by five parts: Part One, Commission Activities; Part Two, Nuclear Reactor Programs; Part Three, Production and Weapons Programs; Part Four, Other Major Programs; and Part Five, The Regulatory Program. Sixteen appendices are also included.

  13. Atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auffray, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The atom through centuries, has been imagined, described, explored, then accelerated, combined...But what happens truly inside the atom? And what are mechanisms who allow its stability? Physicist and historian of sciences, Jean-Paul Auffray explains that these questions are to the heart of the modern physics and it brings them a new lighting. (N.C.)

  14. Modified source of a fast neutral atom beam with a controlled energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gostev, V.A.; Elakhovskij, D.V.; Khakhaev, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    A source of a metastable helium atom beam with a controlled energy based on a phenomenon of resonant ion neutralization on the surface of a solid body is described. The neutral particle energy control is carried out by changing ion velocities before their transformation into metastable atoms. The results of experiments with a modified construction of atomic beam source are stated. These experiments were conducted to find the possibilities to control velocities of atoms in a flow as well as to elucidate the peculiarities of operation of a collimator-converter of this construction. Dependences of a halfwidth of the ion velocity distribution function on the ion source parameters have been investigated. The possibility for particle energy control in a collimated flow of fast neutral. atoms has been experimentally shown, it is also shown that a mean value of atom energy in a beam coincides with a value of mean energy of ions from which atoms are produced by the resonant neutralization method; the construction of the source provides the possibility to realize the method of ''overtaking beams'' for neutral atoms and as a result of this to give a possibility for studying atom-atom collisions in a wide energy range at relatively high densities of flows

  15. The reorganisation of the French Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaize, G.

    1977-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has somewhat distinctive features when compared to other French public administrations. The Commission had been designed, when created in 1945, as a body very close to the Head of Government with, at the same time, great freedom of action; these two aspects demonstrated the importance accorded to its duties and the desire to assure its efficiency. The evolution of the Commission subsequently resulted in reducing these differences and strengthening the ministerial supervision as well as the role of the Administrator-General as compared with that of the High Commissioner. In the 1970s the Commission's structures developed in another direction, in view of the reorientation of its duties in the perspective of the development of the private nuclear sector and the increasing importance of nuclear safety questions. This reorganisation resulted in the creation of fairly autonomous operational units and a number of subsidiary bodies and specialised institutes. The outcome of this exercise has been to give the CEA a very diversified structure which is not as centralised as previously. (NEA) [fr

  16. Legal problems of waste treatment in German atomic energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffelhuber, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The execution of the strategies of waste treatment and disposal calls for the laws and regulations on the obligations of the owners of equipments and facilities and of the state for securing safety and the final elimination of radioactive wastes, which are defined mainly in Article 9 of Atomgesetz and Section 2 (Article 44 - 48) of the order on protection from radiation. The owners of equipments and facilities of atomic energy technology shall limit the emission of radiation to about 6% of internationally permissible values, avoid uncontrolled emission without fail, inspect emission and submit reports yearly to government offices. The owners have attention obligations to utilize harmlessly produced radioactive residues and the expanded or dismantled parts of radioactive equipments or to eliminate orderly such things as radioactive wastes, only when such utilization is unable technically or economically, or not adequate under the protection aims of Atomgesetz. The possessors of radioactive wastes shall deliver the wastes to the accumulation places of provinces for intermediate storage, to the facilities of the Federal Republic for securing safety or final storage, or the facilities authorized by government offices for the elimination of radioactive wastes. Provinces shall install the accumulation places for the intermediate storage of radioactive wastes produced in their territories, and the Federal Republic shall set up the facilities for securing safety and the final elimination of radioactive wastes (Article 9, Atomgesetz). (Okada, K.)

  17. Tritium handling experience at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suppiah, S.; McCrimmon, K.; Lalonde, S.; Ryland, D.; Boniface, H.; Muirhead, C.; Castillo, I. [Atomic Energy of Canad Limited - AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Canada has been a leader in tritium handling technologies as a result of the successful CANDU reactor technology used for power production. Over the last 50 to 60 years, capabilities have been established in tritium handling and tritium management in CANDU stations, tritium removal processes for heavy and light water, tritium measurement and monitoring, and understanding the effects of tritium on the environment. This paper outlines details of tritium-related work currently being carried out at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). It concerns the CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) process for detritiation, tritium-compatible electrolysers, tritium permeation studies, and tritium powered batteries. It is worth noting that AECL offers a Tritium Safe-Handling Course to national and international participants, the course is a mixture of classroom sessions and hands-on practical exercises. The expertise and facilities available at AECL is ready to address technological needs of nuclear fusion and next-generation nuclear fission reactors related to tritium handling and related issues.

  18. Optimal allocation of international atomic energy agency inspection resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    Each year the Department of Safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts inspections to confirm that nuclear materials and facilities are employed for peaceful purposes. Because of limited inspection resources, however, the IAEA cannot fully attain its safeguards goals either quantitatively as measured by the inspection effort negotiated in the facility attachments or qualitatively as measured by the IAEA criteria for evaluating attainment of safeguards goals. Under current IAEA procedures the allocation of inspection resources assigns essentially equal inspection effort to facilities of the same type. An alternative approach would incorporate consideration of all material categories and facilities to be assigned inspection resources when allocating effort to a particular facility. One such method for allocating inspection resources is based on the IAEA criteria. The criteria provide a framework for allocating inspection effort that includes a ranking of material types according to their safeguards importance, an implicit definition of inspection activities for each material and facility type, and criteria for judging the attainment of safeguards goals in terms of the quality and frequency of these inspection activities. This framework is applicable to resource allocation for an arbitrary group of facilities such as a state's fuel cycle, the facilities inspected by an operations division, or all of the facilities inspected by the IAEA

  19. Application of atomic energy in agriculture in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Kuan-Jen

    1980-01-01

    In 1957 China established the first research laboratory for the application of atomic energy in agriculture as part of her 1st twelve-year plan on the development of science and technology. The laboratory, where some 300 were trained as technical personnels specializing in radioisotopes and ionizing radiation, was followed by a number of local laboratories and agricultural universities also providing such training programs. At present more than 500 specialists are engaged in agricultural research with nuclear techniques and symposium are often held among them to exchange information. Their achievements include creation of new types of crop featuring improved yield or superior cold resistance by inducing mutation with nuclear techniques. Promising results have been also obtained in various fields such as growth stimulation, food preservation, insect control, fertilizers and environmental protection. One of future subjects is to make the best use of nuclear techniques in macro-agriculture which covers not only conventional agriculture but forestry, animal husbandry, fishery and processing of by-products of these activities. (Kitajima, A.)

  20. Ultralow temperature helium compressor for Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. started the development of an ultralow temperature helium compressor for helium liquefaction in 1984 jointly with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and has delivered the first practical machine to the Superconductive Magnet Laboratory of JAERI. For a large superconductive magnet to be used in the stable state for a fusion reactor, conventional superconductive materials (NbTi, NbTi 3 Sn, etc.) must be used, being cooled forcibly with supercritical helium. The supercritical helium which is compressed above the critical pressure of 228 kPa has a stable cooling effect since the thermal conductivity does not change due to the evaporation of liquid helium. In order to maintain the temperature of the supercritical helium below 4 K before it enters a magnet, a heat exchanger is used. The compressor that IHI has developed has the ability to reduce the vapor pressure of liquid helium from atmospheric pressure to 50.7 kPa, and can attain the temperature of 3.5 K. The specification of this single stage centrifugal compressor is: mass flow rate 25 - 64 g/s, speed 80,000 rpm, adiabatic efficiency 62 - 69 %. The structure and the performance are reported. (K.I.)

  1. Nuclear energy and non proliferation. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, J.; Rauf, T.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the prevention of the spread of nuclear weapons. The IAEA verifies States compliance with their non-proliferation commitments through the application of safeguards on their civilian nuclear programmes to ensure that they are being used solely for peaceful purposes. The IAEA safeguards have evolved in the course of five decades and have become an integral part of the international non-proliferation regime and the global security system. To continue to serve the international community, they need to continue to move with the times, especially in light of the renewed interest in nuclear energy. (Author)

  2. Atom probe tomography simulations and density functional theory calculations of bonding energies in Cu3Au

    KAUST Repository

    Boll, Torben; Zhu, Zhiyong; Al-Kassab, Talaat; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    In this article the Cu-Au binding energy in Cu3Au is determined by comparing experimental atom probe tomography (APT) results to simulations. The resulting bonding energy is supported by density functional theory calculations. The APT simulations

  3. Atom-Photon Coupling from Nitrogen-vacancy Centres Embedded in Tellurite Microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yinlan; Gibson, Brant C.; Lau, Desmond W. M.; Greentree, Andrew D.; Ji, Hong; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Johnson, Brett C.; Ohshima, Takeshi; Monro, Tanya M.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a technique for creating high quality tellurite microspheres with embedded nanodiamonds (NDs) containing nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres. This hybrid method allows fluorescence of the NVs in the NDs to be directly, rather than evanescently, coupled to the whispering gallery modes of the tellurite microspheres at room temperature. As a demonstration of its sensing potential, shifting of the resonance peaks is also demonstrated by coating a sphere surface with a liquid layer. This new approach is a robust way of creating cavities for use in quantum and sensing applications.

  4. Atomic effects of electrons and protons at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippler, R.

    1985-01-01

    Some aspects of electronic and atomic collisions are discussed. Impact ionization by electrons and protons, and electron bremsstrahlung processes are considered in some detail. Emphasis is also given to (uncorrelated and correlated) many-electron processes, which are of particular importance in collisions of highly-charged ions with atoms. 84 refs., 15 figs

  5. Relativistic total energy and chemical potential of heavy atoms and positive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.H.; Grout, P.J.; March, N.H.

    1984-01-01

    The relativistic Thomas-Fermi theory, with a finite nucleus, is used to study the variation of the chemical potential μ with atomic number Z and number of electrons N (N <= Z). The difference between the total energy of positive ions and that of the corresponding neutral atom has been obtained. The scaling predictions are confirmed by numerical calculations. The first principles calculation of the relativistic Thomas-Fermi total energy of neutral atoms is also studied. (author)

  6. Arrays of Synthetic Atoms: Nanocapacitor Batteries with Large Energy Density and Small Leak Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-28

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0169 TR-2017-0169 ARRAYS OF SYNTHETIC ATOMS: NANOCAPACITOR BATTERIES WITH LARGE ENERGY DENSITY AND SMALL LEAK...1-0247 Arrays of Synthetic Atoms: Nanocapacitor Batteries with Large Energy Density and Small Leak Currents 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...large dielectric strength to a nanoscale rechargeable battery . We fabricated arrays of one-, two- and three-dimensional synthetic atoms and comparison

  7. Low-energy-spread ion bunches from a trapped atomic gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, M.P.; Kruisbergen, van P.A.; Taban, G.; Geer, van der S.B.; Mutsaers, P.H.A.; Vredenbregt, E.J.D.; Luiten, O.J.

    2009-01-01

    We present time-of-flight measurements of the longitudinal energy spread of pulsed ultracold ion beams, produced by near-threshold ionization of rubidium atoms captured in a magneto-optical atom trap. Well-defined pulsed beams have been produced with energies of only 1 eV and a root-mean-square

  8. Danish Atomic Energy Commission Annual Report 1 April 1975 - 28 April 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-10-01

    Activities of the Danish Atomic Energy Commission and the Research Establishment Risoe for the period 1 April 1975 - 28 April 1976 are summarized. Financial data are tabulated, and a list of staff publications is given. This is the last report before the dissolution of the Danish Atomic Energy Commission. (B.P.)

  9. A calculation of internal kinetic energy and polarizability of compressed argon from the statistical atom model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldam, C.A. ten; Groot, S.R. de

    1952-01-01

    From Jensen's and Gombás' modification of the statistical Thomas-Fermi atom model, a theory for compressed atoms is developed by changing the boundary conditions. Internal kinetic energy and polarizability of argon are calculated as functions of pressure. At 1000 atm. an internal kinetic energy of

  10. Information by the Federal Minister of the Interior concerning Para. 7 of the Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The structural characteristics of Section 7 of the AtG (Atomic Energy Act) have been proved. The changings of the permission assumptions of Section 7 of the Atomic Energy Act by means of a substitution of the applied undefined legal terms cannot be aspired. The jurisdiction of the Federal Constitutional Court has confirmed this interpretation. (orig.) [de

  11. Estimating Atomic Contributions to Hydration and Binding Using Free Energy Perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Benedict W J; Huggins, David J

    2018-05-08

    We present a general method called atom-wise free energy perturbation (AFEP), which extends a conventional molecular dynamics free energy perturbation (FEP) simulation to give the contribution to a free energy change from each atom. AFEP is derived from an expansion of the Zwanzig equation used in the exponential averaging method by defining that the system total energy can be partitioned into contributions from each atom. A partitioning method is assumed and used to group terms in the expansion to correspond to individual atoms. AFEP is applied to six example free energy changes to demonstrate the method. Firstly, the hydration free energies of methane, methanol, methylamine, methanethiol, and caffeine in water. AFEP highlights the atoms in the molecules that interact favorably or unfavorably with water. Finally AFEP is applied to the binding free energy of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease to lopinavir, and AFEP reveals the contribution of each atom to the binding free energy, indicating candidate areas of the molecule to improve to produce a more strongly binding inhibitor. FEP gives a single value for the free energy change and is already a very useful method. AFEP gives a free energy change for each "part" of the system being simulated, where part can mean individual atoms, chemical groups, amino acids, or larger partitions depending on what the user is trying to measure. This method should have various applications in molecular dynamics studies of physical, chemical, or biochemical phenomena, specifically in the field of computational drug discovery.

  12. Summary of the law relating to atomic energy and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, D.F.; Ritchie, K.J.S.

    1982-04-01

    The law relating to atomic energy and radioactive substances in the United Kingdom is summarized under the following headings: the Common Law; legislation (Atomic Energy Act 1946; Radioactive Substances Acts 1948 and 1960; Electricity (Amendment) Act 1961; Nuclear Installations Act 1965 and 1969 (and subordinate legislation); Secretary of State for Trade and Industry Order 1970; Radiological Protection Act 1970 (as amended); Air Navigation (Restriction of Flying)(Atomic Energy Establishments) Regulations 1981; Nuclear Safeguards and Electricity (Finance) Act 1978; legislation relating to the UK Atomic Energy Authority); Regulations under the Factories Act 1961; Regulations relating to educational establishments; Regulations and Orders relating to food and medicines; Regulations, etc., affecting the transport of radioactive materials; Regulations under the Social Security Act 1975; control of import and export; the Euratom Treaty; important non-statutory Codes of Practice, etc.; international conventions, etc., relating to the peaceful use of atomic energy and radioactive substances, in which the United Kingdom is interested; foreign legislation. (U.K.)

  13. Correspondence between the President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran and the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The document includes 5 attachments: the letter of 9 April 1984 from the President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran to the Director General, the letter of 11 May 1984 from the Director General to the President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, the text of the telex of 27 May 1984 from the President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran to the Director General, the text of the telex of 28 May 1984 from the Director General to the President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran and the text of the telex from 30 May 1984 from the President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran to the Director General refering to ''Military attack on Iran's Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant''

  14. The International Atomic Energy Agency Nuclear Security Education Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRAUNEGGER-GUELICH, A.; RUKHLO, V.; GREGORIC, M.; COLGAN, P.

    2011-01-01

    The threat of nuclear terrorism has not diminished. In response to the concerns of States, an international nuclear security framework has emerged through the establishment of a number of legally binding and non-binding international instruments which obligates or commits States to carry out a number of actions to protect against nuclear terrorism. In this context, the need for human resource development programmes in nuclear security was underscored at several International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General Conferences and Board of Governors' Meetings. In the pursuit of this need, the IAEA provides a comprehensive nuclear security training programme to States on a regular basis, and has developed a concept that seeks to effectively pass ownership of nuclear security knowledge and skills to States through the establishment of a Nuclear Security Support Centre. In addition, the IAEA has developed a technical guidance titled IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 12 - Educational Programme in Nuclear Security that consists of a model of a Master of Science (M.Sc.) and assists educational institutions to provide nuclear security education. The article sets out IAEA efforts in the area of nuclear security training and education, including the assistance to States for establishing a Nuclear Security Support Centre. It underlines the objective and content of the IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 12, discusses different concepts on how to establish nuclear security at universities and, emphasizes on the IAEA efforts to assist educational and research institutions, and other stake holders to enhance global nuclear security by developing, sharing and promoting excellence in nuclear security education. (author)

  15. Long-term atomic energy research, development and utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This is the revised version of the last long-range program (June, 1972), and covers the measures and plans for promoting the research, development and utilization of nuclear power in some in some ten years ahead. The basic policy lines include the assurance of peaceful use of atomic energy, safety assurence and public support, independence and international cooperation and the planned implementation of nuclear research and development projects. The target scale of nuclear power development is estimated at 33 million kilowatts by fiscal 1985 and 60 million kilowatts by fiscal 1990, respectively. The improvement and standardization of light water reactors are to be further carried on till fiscal 1980 and after. Sodium-cooled reactors, which use the oxide fuel based on the mixture of plutonium and uranium, will be developed. A prototype reactor of about 300,000 kilowatt electric capacity will reach criticality in the second half of 1980's. The research and development of the advanced thermal reactors, for which plutonium and depleted uranium are used, will be encouraged. Multipurpose high-temperature gas-cooled reactors are also to be developed. The measures for establishing the nuclear fuel cycle including the procurement of natural and enriched uranium, the reprocessing of spent fuel, the use of plutonium and the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes are described. Nuclear fusion, nuclear ships, the use of radiation, safety studies, fundamental studies and the training of scientists and technicians are stipulated, respectively. The promotion of nuclear research and development projects is explained in detail. (Okada, K.)

  16. National Atomic Energy Commission. Decree No. 1540, August 30 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    One of the objectives of the reorganization process of Argentina's public sector was to transfer to the private sector some of the Nation's productive activities, including those concerning the nuclear field. As a consequence, by Decree No. 1540 of August 30, 1994, (B.O. 2-Dec-94), CNEA's functions were partially reorganized. According to Decree No. 1540, the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) maintained the missions and functions established by Decree-Law No. 22.498/56, with the exception of the regulation and surveillance of nuclear activities and the nuclear power generation activities. For the fulfillment of these activities, both the National Board of Nuclear Regulation (Ente Nacional Regulador Nuclear - ENREN) and Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. (NASA), were created. The National Board of Nuclear Regulation (ENREN), as an autarchical entity reporting to the Presidency of the Nation, shall be administered by a Board of Directors and shall be responsible for surveying and controlling all nuclear activities, shall suggest regulations and standards to ensure radiological and nuclear safety, personal protection, a controlled use of nuclear materials, licensing and surveillance of nuclear installations, and compliance with international safeguards. Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. (NASA) shall be organised as a corporation, reporting to the Ministry of Economy and Public Works and Services (Ministerio de Economia y Obras y Servicios Publicos) who will approve its statures. NASA shall take care of nuclear power generation at the Atucha I and Embalse nuclear power plants, as well as the construction, start-up and operation of the Atucha II nuclear power plant. As far as royalties are concerned, the Decree obliges Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. to pay CNEA for the performance of research and development activities, and to the ENREN an yearly regulatory tax per megawatt of installed nuclear power generation capacity. Also, Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. is declared

  17. Challenges of atomic energy regulation in Indian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajaj, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    Over the years, India has mastered all the stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, which include mining, processing and fabrication of nuclear fuel; design, construction, and operation of nuclear power reactors and research reactors; reprocessing of spent fuel and management of radioactive wastes. Ionising radiation is also used widely in medical, industrial and research areas. Since its inception, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was enforcing radiological safety in the country through in-house or ad-hoc committees, till a dedicated regulatory body (AERB) was set up 25 years ago. Today India is operating 19 nuclear power plants with different vintages (2 BWRs and 17 PHWRs) and another 8 (1 PFBR, 5 PHWRs and 2 PWRs) are in various stages of construction. Recently there are new evolutionary reactors (AHWRs) for which design has been completed and are on the threshold for consideration for construction. To match the rapid growth in the need for power India is also about to take up construction of large evolutionary PWRs of foreign design. This variety in the Indian nuclear power programme has come up due to a systematic evaluation and optimisation of the resources and technology available within the country. Added to this is the growing use of radiation in non-power applications. As the safety supervision of this huge programme is the responsibility of AERB, it faces various challenges, like, - Strategies for regulating wide variety of nuclear and radiation facilities with wide dispersal; - Meeting present day expectations with regard to nuclear and radiation safety and nuclear security; - The safety and security of large number of radioactive sources spread over such a vast country and of the associated import/export guidance; - Ensuring safety of old plants by periodic reviews and by prescribing adequate safety upgradation and ageing management programme; -Adaptation of the regulatory system and of regulations to new and foreign design nuclear technologies and

  18. Opinions and decisions of the Atomic Energy Commission with selected orders. Progress report, July 1, 1972--December 31, 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Issuances of the Atomic Energy Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and the Board of Contract Appeals during the period July through December 1972 are presented

  19. Enzyme-controlled nitrogen-atom transfer enables regiodivergent C-H amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyster, Todd K; Farwell, Christopher C; Buller, Andrew R; McIntosh, John A; Arnold, Frances H

    2014-11-05

    We recently demonstrated that variants of cytochrome P450BM3 (CYP102A1) catalyze the insertion of nitrogen species into benzylic C-H bonds to form new C-N bonds. An outstanding challenge in the field of C-H amination is catalyst-controlled regioselectivity. Here, we report two engineered variants of P450BM3 that provide divergent regioselectivity for C-H amination-one favoring amination of benzylic C-H bonds and the other favoring homo-benzylic C-H bonds. The two variants provide nearly identical kinetic isotope effect values (2.8-3.0), suggesting that C-H abstraction is rate-limiting. The 2.66-Å crystal structure of the most active enzyme suggests that the engineered active site can preorganize the substrate for reactivity. We hypothesize that the enzyme controls regioselectivity through localization of a single C-H bond close to the iron nitrenoid.

  20. Two atoms scattering at low and cold energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    terms exactly with exchange/antisymmetry between the system electrons. ... Figure 1a presents the picture of two atoms with nuclei A and B attached with electrons ..... Physical Chemistry Dept. of IACS, Kolkata, India, Private Communication.

  1. Collisions involving energy transfer between atoms with large angular moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovin, Yu.A.; Galitskij, V.M.

    1975-01-01

    Study is made of the collisions of excited and nonexcited atoms with a small resonance defect, assuming that the excited and ground states of each atom are bound via an allowed dipole transition and that intrinsic moments of states are great. In such an approximation the atomic interaction is defined by a dipole-dipole interaction operator. Equations for amplitudes are derived for two cases: (1) the first atom is in an excited state while the second is in the ground state and (2) the first atom is in the ground state while the second is in an excited state. The problem is solved in the approximation that the moments of the excited and ground states of each atom are equal. An expression for the excitation transfer cross section is written down. Analysis of this expression shows that the excitation transfer cross section at first increases with removal from the exact resonance and reaches resonance at lambda approximately 0.1 (lambda is a dimensionless parameter which is equal to the ratio of the resonance defect Δ to the interaction at spacings of the order of the Weisskopf radius). Only at lambda >0.16 does the cross section become smaller than the resonance one. This effect is due to the interaction Hamiltonian approximation adopted in the present study

  2. Energy transfer in Anabaena variabilis filaments adapted to nitrogen-depleted and nitrogen-enriched conditions studied by time-resolved fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Aya; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kondo, Akihiko; Akimoto, Seiji

    2017-09-01

    Nitrogen is among the most important nutritious elements for photosynthetic organisms such as plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. Therefore, nitrogen depletion severely compromises the growth, development, and photosynthesis of these organisms. To preserve their integrity under nitrogen-depleted conditions, filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria reduce atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia, and self-adapt by regulating their light-harvesting and excitation energy-transfer processes. To investigate the changes in the primary processes of photosynthesis, we measured the steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectra and time-resolved fluorescence spectra (TRFS) of whole filaments of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis at 77 K. The filaments were grown in standard and nitrogen-free media for 6 months. The TRFS were measured with a picosecond time-correlated single photon counting system. Despite the phycobilisome degradation, the energy-transfer paths within phycobilisome and from phycobilisome to both photosystems were maintained. However, the energy transfer from photosystem II to photosystem I was suppressed and a specific red chlorophyll band appeared under the nitrogen-depleted condition.

  3. Studies of energy levels and lifetimes in neutral and ionized light atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huldt, S.

    1980-05-01

    The spectrum of singly ionized Titanium has been analysed by photographic spectral recordings of the light from a hollow- cathod. 1240 classified lines in the region 1200 A - 11000 A and 202 term values are reported. Lifetimes of the 3p 5 5p levels in neutral Argon have been measured by the High-frequency-Deflection technique considering the trapping of radiation from the excited 3p 5 4s level. Energy levels and lifetimes of excited states have been studied with the beam-foil method for selected ions in the atomic number range 7 - 30. Influence of transition probabilities caused by hyper-fine interaction for low members of the Helium iso-electronic sequence i verified. The oscillator strength for the inter-combination transition ls 2 1S 0 -1s3p 3 p 1 is measured in Beryllium-like Nitrogen, Oxygen and Fluorine. Accurate determinations of lifetimes for some of the lowest excited levels in Si I - Si IV and Zn II are reported. A large fraction of circularly polarized light is seen in the 0 VI n=6-7 hydrogenic transition when a 4 MeV beam of oxygen was passed through a tilted carbon foil. (author)

  4. The place of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority in nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanalan, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA), established in 1982 by the Act no: 2690, is a governmental organization directly under the direct supervision of the Prime Minister. The objective of the establisment of TAEA is the peaceful utilization of atomic energy, regarding the national policy and the related plans and programs, for the benefits of State. The main duties of TAEA, as stated in related Act, can be summarized as: to determine and progress the basis of the national policy and the related plans and programs and to submit them to be approved by the Prime Minister; to execute and to support scientific, technical and administrative studies; to give approval, permission and license to the nuclear installations; to enlighten the public in nuclear matters; to establish research and educate the personnel in the nuclear field If Turkey would participate in a Nuclear Energy Program, especially, TAEA should perform its own duties properly and in this respect, as an Authority, we should have objectives that have to be determined as State Policy

  5. Alternate Funding Sources for the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Swarthout, Jordan M.

    2012-09-04

    Since 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked to ensure the safe and responsible promotion of nuclear technology throughout the world. The IAEA operates at the intersection of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty’s (NPT) fourth and third articles, which guarantee Parties to the Treaty the right to peaceful uses of nuclear technology, provided those activities are placed under safeguards verified by the IAEA. However, while the IAEA has enjoyed substantial success and prestige in the international community, there is a concern that its resources are being stretched to a point where it may no longer be possible to execute its multifaceted mission in its entirety. As noted by the Director General (DG) in 2008, demographics suggest that every aspect of the IAEA’s operations will be in higher demand due to increasing reliance on non-carbon-based energy and the concomitant nonproliferation, safety, and security risks that growth entails. In addition to these nuclear energy concerns, the demand for technical developmental assistance in the fields of food security, resource conservation, and human health is also predicted to increase as the rest of the world develops. Even with a 100% value-for-money rating by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and being described as an “extraordinary bargain” by the United Nations Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, real budget growth at the Agency has been limited to zero-real growth for a better part of the last two decades. Although the 2012 regular budget (RB) received a small increase for most programs, the 2013 RB has been set at zero-real growth. As a result, the IAEA has had to defer infrastructure investments, which has hindered its ability to provide the public goods its Members seek, decreased global security and development opportunities, and functionally transformed the IAEA into a charity, dependent on extrabudgetary (EB) contributions to sustain

  6. Summary of the law relating to atomic energy and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, D.F.; Ritchie, K.J.S.

    1983-01-01

    This summary is an updated version of a previous revision of the summary of the United Kingdom's legislation on atomic energy and reviews the main texts in that field. Reference is made to the regulations on atomic energy, nuclear installations, radioactive substances, transport of such substances, radiation protection etc. The Energy Act 1983 amends the third party liability provisions of the nuclear installations Act 1965 in particular by raising the limits of compensation for nuclear damage. (NEA) [fr

  7. The Russian Federation's Ministry of Atomic Energy: Programs and Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CM Johnson

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews select programs driving the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation's (Minatom) efforts to raise funds, comments on their potential viability, and highlights areas likely to be of particular concern for the US over the next three to five years. The paper's findings are: (1) Despite numerous cabinet displacements throughout the Yeltsin administration, Yevgeny Adamov was reappointed Minister on four occasions. With Boris Yeltsin's January 1, 2000 resignation, Adamov's long-term position as the head of the Ministry is more tenuous, but he will likely retain his position until at least the March 2000 elections. Acting President Vladimir Putin is unlikely to reorganize his cabinet prior to that date and there are no signs that Putin is dissatisfied with Adamov's leadership of Minatom. (2) Adamov's chief priorities are downsizing Minatom's defense sector, increasing the oversight of subsidiary bodies by the central bureaucracy and consolidating commercial elements of the Ministry within an umbrella organization called Atomprom. (3) Viktor Mikhaylov, Adamov's predecessor and critic of his reform efforts, has been relieved of his duties as First Deputy Minister. While he retains his positions as Chief of the Science Councils and Chief Scientist at Arzamas-16, his influence on Minatom's direction is greatly diminished. Adamov will likely continue his efforts to further marginalize Mikhaylov in the coming year. (4) Securing extra-budgetary sources of income continues to be the major factor guiding Minatom's international business dealings. The Ministry will continue to aggressively promote the sale of nuclear technology abroad, often to countries with questionable nonproliferation commitments. (5) Given the financial difficulties in Russia and Minatom's client states, however, few nuclear development programs will come to fruition for a number of years, if ever. Nevertheless, certain peaceful nuclear cooperation agreements should be carefully

  8. Waste management program at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, P.C.F.; Chan, N.; Hawrelluk, K. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Waste Management Program establishes requirements for waste management activities at AECL sites in Canada. It ensures that activities involving planning for, handling, processing, transporting, storage and long-term management of wastes are performed in a manner that protects the workers, the public, and the environment, and are in compliance with applicable regulatory and licence requirements. The program translates applicable legal requirements into program requirements appropriate for AECL, and assists AECL management in implementing those requirements. The Waste Management Program was formally established at AECL in 2007 as one of the nuclear programs. The activities conducted in the first two years (2007 - 09) were mainly focused on program development. Currently the program is executing the waste management improvement initiatives based on the Waste Management Program Improvement Plan. During the program implementation, close collaboration between the Waste Management Program and other departments resulted in improved waste management performance at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). This included increased segregation of the waste at the source, reduction in waste generation, improved labeling and identification of waste packages, improved recyclables collection and initiating recycling of selected hazardous wastes. In accordance with pollution prevention, the quantities and degree of hazard of wastes requiring long-term management shall be minimized, following the principles of Prevent, Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. The annual volume of solid waste generated is one of the key indicators for waste management performance. AECL has been successful in reduction of operational waste and diversion of materials for recycling at CRL. From 2007 to 2010, the annual volume of solid waste, including inactive and radioactive wastes, generated from routine operations at CRL decreased by 26%, and the annual amount of recyclables sent

  9. Waste management program at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, P.C.F.; Chan, N.; Hawrelluk, K.

    2011-01-01

    The Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Waste Management Program establishes requirements for waste management activities at AECL sites in Canada. It ensures that activities involving planning for, handling, processing, transporting, storage and long-term management of wastes are performed in a manner that protects the workers, the public, and the environment, and are in compliance with applicable regulatory and licence requirements. The program translates applicable legal requirements into program requirements appropriate for AECL, and assists AECL management in implementing those requirements. The Waste Management Program was formally established at AECL in 2007 as one of the nuclear programs. The activities conducted in the first two years (2007 - 09) were mainly focused on program development. Currently the program is executing the waste management improvement initiatives based on the Waste Management Program Improvement Plan. During the program implementation, close collaboration between the Waste Management Program and other departments resulted in improved waste management performance at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). This included increased segregation of the waste at the source, reduction in waste generation, improved labeling and identification of waste packages, improved recyclables collection and initiating recycling of selected hazardous wastes. In accordance with pollution prevention, the quantities and degree of hazard of wastes requiring long-term management shall be minimized, following the principles of Prevent, Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. The annual volume of solid waste generated is one of the key indicators for waste management performance. AECL has been successful in reduction of operational waste and diversion of materials for recycling at CRL. From 2007 to 2010, the annual volume of solid waste, including inactive and radioactive wastes, generated from routine operations at CRL decreased by 26%, and the annual amount of recyclables sent

  10. Annual report of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, for fiscal 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    At present, a half century has elapsed since the discovery of nuclear fission, and atomic energy has taken the position of basic energy already, accordingly the development and utilization of atomic energy is very important as the energy source which can supply energy for long term economically and stably. Along the long term plan of atomic energy development and utilization decided in 1987, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) advanced the research and development, thus it has borne the role as the nucleus general research institute in atomic energy fields. It has exerted efforts to obtain the understanding and trust of the nation on atomic energy, and has promoted the pioneering project research, such as safety research, high temperature engineering test and research, the research and development of nuclear fusion, the research on radiation utilization and the research and development of nuclear-powered ships. In the safety research, in order to contribute to the further rooting of LWRs and the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle, the research on the engineering safety of nuclear facilities and environmental safety has been advanced. The activities in respective research fields are summarized. Also the international cooperation with USA, FRG, China and others were carried out smoothly. (K.I.)

  11. Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, K.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.; Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Booth, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N 2 /O 2 (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 ± 0.7)×10 20 m −3 was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 ± 0.4)×10 19 m −3 at 0.1 vol. %

  12. The calculation of surface free energy based on embedded atom method for solid nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Wenhua; Hu Wangyu; Su Kalin; Liu Fusheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new solution for accurate prediction of surface free energy based on embedded atom method was proposed. ► The temperature dependent anisotropic surface energy of solid nickel was obtained. ► In isotropic environment, the approach does not change most predictions of bulk material properties. - Abstract: Accurate prediction of surface free energy of crystalline metals is a challenging task. The theory calculations based on embedded atom method potentials often underestimate surface free energy of metals. With an analytical charge density correction to the argument of the embedding energy of embedded atom method, an approach to improve the prediction for surface free energy is presented. This approach is applied to calculate the temperature dependent anisotropic surface energy of bulk nickel and surface energies of nickel nanoparticles, and the obtained results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

  13. Low-energy Scattering of Positronium by Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Hasi

    2007-01-01

    The survey reports theoretical studies involving positronium (Ps) - atom scattering. Investigations carried out in last few decades have been briefly reviewed in this article. A brief description of close-coupling approximation (CCA), the first-Born approximation (FBA) and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA) for Ps-Atom systems are made. The CCA codes of Ray et a1 [1-6] are reinvestigated using very fine mesh-points to search for resonances. The article advocates the need for an extended basis set & a systematic study using CCAs.

  14. Effects of the atomic environment on the electron binding energies in samarium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Inoyatov, A. K.; Kovalík, Alojz; Filosofov, D. V.; Ryšavý, Miloš; Vénos, Drahoslav; Yushkevich, Y. V.; Perevoshchikov, L. L.; Zhdanov, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 207, FEB (2016), s. 38-49 ISSN 0368-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP203/12/1896; GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Sm-149 * atomic environment * electron ginding energy * intermediate-valence state * chemical shift * natural atomic level width Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.661, year: 2016

  15. ''Further precaution'' in Atomic Energy Law? On unconstitutionality of paragraph 7d AtG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, Alexander; Hentschel, Anja

    2011-01-01

    On 1st January 2011 the new paragraph 7d of the Atomic Energy Act became operative with the 12th Modification Law according to the Atomic Energy Law. This new paragraph introduces a new category of the nuclear-legal prevention of damage. The contribution under consideration examines how this new regulation for further precautionary actions against risks is to be understood within the existing regulations for permission and retrofitting of nuclear power plants and within the acknowledged dogmatics of the Atomic Energy Act. In addition it is examined whether this understanding of the regulations agrees with the jurisdiction of the constitutional court according to the nuclear legal protection obligations.

  16. Virial-statistic method for calculation of atom and molecule energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, Yu.A.

    1977-01-01

    A virial-statistical method has been applied to the calculation of the atomization energies of the following molecules: Mo(CO) 6 , Cr(CO) 6 , Fe(CO) 5 , MnH(CO) 5 , CoH(CO) 4 , Ni(CO) 4 . The principles of this method are briefly presented. Calculation results are given for the individual contributions to the atomization energies together with the calculated and experimental atomization energies (D). For the Mo(CO) 6 complex Dsub(calc) = 1759 and Dsub(exp) = 1763 kcal/mole. Calculated and experimental combination heat values for carbonyl complexes are presented. These values are shown to be adequately consistent [ru

  17. Laser diagnostics of the energy spectrum of Rydberg states of the lithium-7 atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelener, B. B., E-mail: bobozel@mail.ru; Saakyan, S. A.; Sautenkov, V. A.; Manykin, E. A.; Zelener, B. V.; Fortov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The spectra of excited lithium-7 atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap are studied using a UV laser. The laser diagnostics of the energy of Rydberg atoms is developed based on measurements of the change in resonance fluorescence intensity of ultracold atoms as the exciting UV radiation frequency passes through the Rydberg transition frequency. The energies of various nS configurations are obtained in a broad range of the principal quantum number n from 38 to 165. The values of the quantum defect and ionization energy obtained in experiments and predicted theoretically are discussed.

  18. Third Semiannual Report to the Congress by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, February 2, 1948

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, David E.; Bacher, Robert F.; Pike, Sumner T.; Strauss, Lewis L.; Waymack, William W.

    1948-02-02

    The document includes the letter of submittal and the third semiannual report. These reports are called for pursuant to Section 17 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946. The letter of submittal was titled ''Letter from the Chairman and Members of the United States Atomic Energy Commission transmitting pursuant to law the third semiannual report of the Atomic Energy Commission''. It was authored by David E. Lilienthal, Chairman, and Robert F. Bacher, Sumner T. Pike, Lewis L. Strauss, and William W. Waymack of the AEC.

  19. Atomic Energy Control Regulations: interpretation of revisions relating to industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide assistance to those affected by section 18 to 18.23 of the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Regulations. Words, phrases, and concepts that are specific to these Regulations are explained herein. However, the corresponding sections of the Regulations should be examined to obtain the exact wording. Although sections 18 to 18.23 of the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Regulations apply to both neutron and gamma radiography, this guide has been written for only the latter. Persons engaged in neutron radiography should consult the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB)

  20. Energy distributions of atoms sputtered from alkali halides by 540 eV electrons, Ch.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overeijnder, H.; Szymonski, M.; Haring, A.; Vries, A.E. de

    1978-01-01

    The emission of halogen and alkali atoms, occurring under bombardment of alkali halides with electrons has been investigated. The electron energy was 540 eV and the temperature of the target was varied between room temperature and 400 0 C. The energy distribution of the emitted neutral particles was measured with a time of flight method. It was found that either diffusing interstitial halogen atoms or moving holes dominate the sputtering process above 200 0 C. Below 150 0 C alkali halides with lattice parameters s/d >= 0.33 show emission of non-thermal halogen atoms. s is the interionic space between two halogen ions in a direction and d is the diameter of a halogen atom. In general the energy distribution of the alkali and halogen atoms is thermal above 200 0 C, but not Maxwellian. (Auth.)