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Sample records for nitrite-based corrosion inhibitor

  1. Assessment of high performance concrete containing fly ash and calcium nitrite based corrosion inhibitor as a mean to prevent the corrosion of reinforcing steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes-García, P; Jiménez-Quero, V; López-Calvo, H

    2015-01-01

    This research analyses the effectiveness of the water-to-cement ratio (w/c), fly ash and a calcium nitrite based corrosion inhibitor to prevent the corrosion of reinforcing steel embedded in high performance concrete. The interactive effect between the inhibitor and fly ash was evaluated because the occurrence of a negative effect when both ingredients are added together in a concrete mixture has been reported. All the concrete mixtures studied in this investigation had 8.2% of silica fume. Twenty seven prismatic concrete specimens were fabricated with dimensions of 55 × 230 × 300 mm each containing two steel rods embedded for the purpose of corrosion monitoring. The specimens were exposed to a simulated marine environment with two daily cycles of wetting and drying for one year. To evaluate the deterioration of the specimens corrosion potentials and linear polarization resistance tests were carried out. The results indicate that the use of a low w/c, the addition of fly ash and the addition of the corrosion inhibitor contributed to the reduction of the corrosion of steel in the concrete specimens. The results further suggest that the combination of fly ash and corrosion inhibitor does not promote the deterioration of the concrete matrix

  2. Effect of Nitrite Inhibitor on the Macrocell Corrosion Behavior of Reinforcing Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglu Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nitrite ions on the macrocell corrosion behavior of reinforcing steel embedded in cement mortar was investigated by comparing and analyzing the macrocell corrosion current, macrocell polarization ratios, and slopes of anodic and cathodic steels. Based on the experimental results, the relationship between macrocell potential difference and macrocell current density was analyzed, and the mechanism of macrocell corrosion affected by nitrite ions was proposed. The results indicated that nitrite ions had significant impact on the macrocell polarization ratios of cathode and anode. The presence of nitrite could reduce the macrocell current by decreasing the macrocell potential difference and increasing the macrocell polarization resistance of the anode.

  3. The Corrosion Inhibition Characteristics of Sodium Nitrite Using an On-line Corrosion Rate Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Mal-Yong; Kang, Dae-Jin; Moon, Jeon-Soo

    2015-01-01

    An on-line corrosion rate measurement system was developed using a personal computer, a data acquisition board and program, and a 2-electrode corrosion probe. Reliability of the developed system was confirmed with through comparison test. With this system, the effect of sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ) as a corrosion inhibitor were studied on iron and aluminum brass that were immersed in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. Corrosion rate was measured based on the linear polarization resistance method. The corrosion rates of aluminum brass and iron in 1% NaCl solutions were measured to be 0.290 mm per year (mmpy) and 0.2134 mmpy, respectively. With the addition of 200 ppm of NO 2 - , the corrosion rates decreased to 0.0470 mmpy and 0.0254 mmpy. The addition of NO 2 - caused a decrease in corrosion rates of both aluminum brass and iron, yet the NO 2 - acted as a more effective corrosion inhibitor for iron. than aluminum brass

  4. New Mechanism on Synergistic Effect of Nitrite and Triethanolamine Addition on the Corrosion of Ductile Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. T. Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, we compared the different inhibition mechanisms of organic inhibitor with that of anodic inhibitor. When triethanolamine or nitrite was added separately to tap water for inhibiting the corrosion of ductile cast iron, large amounts of inhibitor were needed. This is because the corrosion inhibitors had to overcome the galvanic corrosion that occurs between graphite and matrix. In this work, we investigated the corrosion of ductile cast iron in tap water with/without inhibitors. The corrosion rate was measured using chemical immersion test and electrochemical methods, including anodic polarization test. The inhibited surface was analyzed using EPMA and XPS. Test solutions were analyzed by performing FT-IR measurement. When triethanolamine and nitrite coexisted in tap water, synergistic effect built up, and the inhibition effect was ca. 30 times more effective than witnessed with single addition. This work focused on the synergistic effect brought about by nitrite and triethanolamine and its novel mechanism was also proposed.

  5. Additives as corrosion inhibitors in reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venegas, Ricardo; Vera, Rosa; Carvajal, Ana Maria; Villarroel, Maria; Vera, Enrique; Ortiz, Cesar

    2008-01-01

    This work studies the behavior of two additives as inhibitors of corrosion in reinforced concrete. The presence of Microsilica, a physical inhibitor, in the mixture decreases pore size in structures and improves compression. Calcium Nitrite, a chemical inhibitor, is an oxidizing agent and allows a more homogenous film to form over the steel that becomes more resistant to attacks from aggressive ions like anion chloride and others. Three pairs of concrete test pieces were used without additives and with additives with a/c ration of 0.55. The samples were exposed to an accelerated attack of chlorides, submerging them in a 4.27 M solution of NaCl for 24 hours and then drying them at room temperature for another 24 hours, completing a cycle every 48 hours. The tests were carried out at 1 cycle and 5 cycles of partial moistening and drying. The steel corrosion was evaluated with corrosion potential measurements. Conductivity, pH, chlorides and sulfate profiles were defined depending on the depth of the concrete. The composition of the corrosion products was determined using X-ray diffraction and the morphology of the film by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that for 1 test cycle, the corrosion potential of the steel in the sample with calcium nitrite was -54mV, which was a higher value than that measured in the sample with microsilica (-217.3mV) and without an additive (-159.1mV), corroborating its inhibitory power. The content of the free chlorides in the sample with micros ice allows greater capillary suction by adding high amounts of chloride to the structure (2.6% on the outside up to 2.20% near the steel); while the test pieces with calcium nitrite and without an additive had concentrations lower than 2% in all the evaluated points. After five cycles of exposing the samples to the saline solution the behavior is inverted. The measures of conductivity agreed with the previous results. Meanwhile, the pH of the solutions obtained from the powder from the

  6. Corrosion Protection Of Mild Steel In Sea Water Using Chemical Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araoyinbo, Alaba O.; Salleh, Mohd Arif Anuar Mohd; Zulerwan Jusof, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    The effect of sodium nitrite as a corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in sea water (i.e ASTM standard prepared sea water and sea water obtained from a local river) was investigated, using the weight loss technique. Different amount of sodium nitrite were prepared (i.e 2 % to 10 %) in the inhibition of the mild steel corrosion in sea water exposed to irradiation condition from sunlight exposure. The cut samples of mild steel were exposed to these corrosive media and the corresponding weight loss subsequently obtained was recorded at intervals of 1 to 4 weeks. It was observed that corrosion rate increases with the time of exposure to the corrosive medium exposed to sunlight and that sodium nitrite that was used at the chemical inhibitor was able to retard the corrosion rate of mild steel if the appropriate concentration is applied. The results obtained from the weight loss analysis shows that the optimum percentage of sodium nitrate in sea water that gives the optimum corrosion inhibition of mild steel is 4 %.

  7. Evaluation of the potential of additives as corrosion inhibitors of CA-50 carbon steel used as reinforcement in concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennucci, Marina Martins

    2006-01-01

    In this work, various compounds were tested to evaluate their potential capability for their use as corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel reinforcement in concretes. The additives tested were sodium benzoate, polyethylene glycol, hexamethylenetetramine, benzotriazole and yttrium carbonate. Initially, exploratory tests were carried out to select the ones to be used as corrosion inhibitors, based on the inhibit ion efficiency determined from electrochemical tests, specifically polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. These tests were carried out in a solution composed of 0.01 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and 0.05 N potassium hydroxide (KOH) to simulate the composition of the solution inside the pores in concretes. The additive that presented the most promising potential to be used as corrosion inhibitor was benzotriazole (BTA). After the elimination of some compounds and selection of the additive with higher corrosion inhibit ion efficiency in the test medium, the effect of its concentration on the corrosion inhibition efficiency was evaluated. Sodium nitrite solutions with the same concentrations as those solutions with BTA were tested for comparison reasons. Sodium nitrite is a well established corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel reinforcement in concretes but it has been related to toxic effects. The BTA was associated to higher corrosion inhibition efficiencies than that of sodium nitrite in similar concentrations. A blackish adherent film was formed on the steel surface exposed to BTA solutions during long periods of immersion in the alkaline medium. The results suggest that BTA is a potential candidate for substitution of nitrites as corrosion inhibitor of reinforcements in concrete. (author)

  8. Improvement of Corrosion Inhibitors of Primary and Secondary Closed Cooling Water System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Seon; Kim, K. M.; Kim, K. H.

    2010-08-01

    In nuclear power plants, the Closed Cooling Water (CCW) system provide cooling to both safety-related and non-safety-related heat exchange equipment. Various chemicals are used to mitigate corrosion, fouling, and microbiological growth in the CCW systems. In nuclear plants, these inhibitors have included chromates, nitrites, molybdates, hydrazine, and silicate. In the case of the CCW of some domestic nuclear power plants, there is during the overhaul period, a saturation of ion exchange resin caused by an inhibitor which has high conductivity for an increase in radiation exposure and radioactive waste. The objective of this study is to evaluate the corrosion behavior of structural materials with various corrosion inhibitors. In the present study, more than 50 ppm hydrazine concentration is needed to reduce the corrosion rate of carbon steel to satisfy the CCW operational guidelines. However, if hydrazine is continuously injected into the CCW system, the critical concentration of hydrazine will be lower. Hydrazine might be an alternative corrosion inhibitor for nitrite in the CCW system of nuclear power plant

  9. Effect of Calcium Nitrate and Sodium Nitrite on the Rebar Corrosion of Medium Carbon Steel in Seawater and Cassava Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Adamu, M; Umoru, LE; Ige, OO

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors are regularly used as one of the principal prevention and control techniques in reinforcement corrosion. Hence this study investigates the effect of calcium nitrate and sodium nitrite inhibitors on the rebar corrosion of medium carbon steel in seawater and cassava fluid with a view to determining inhibitive potentials of the different inhibitors in the two media. Gravimetric and voltametric techniques were employed in this study and a total of forty-five corrosion coupons of differ...

  10. Risk Based Corrosion Studies at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.

    2010-01-01

    TYPE I and II (ASTM 285-B) - Experienced stress corrosion cracking (SCC), 2 have been closed; 22 scheduled for closure by 2017, and No active leak sites today. TYPE III (ASTM A516-70 and A537 Class I) - Post-fabrication relief of weld residual stresses, Improved resistance to SCC and brittle fracture, No leakage history, and Receives new waste. The objectives are to utilize statistical methods to reduce conservatism in current chemistry control program; and express nitrite inhibitor limits in terms of pitting risk on waste tank steel. Conclusions are: (1) A statistically designed experimental study has been undertaken to improve the effectiveness of the minimum nitrite concentrations to inhibit pitting corrosion; (2) Mixture/amount model supports that pitting depends on the ratio of aggressive to inhibitive anions, as well as the concentration of each species; (3) Secondary aggressive species, Cl - and SO 4 2- , significantly effect the corrosion response; and (4) Results support the reduction of the chemistry control nitrite inhibitor concentrations in the regime of 0.8-1.0 M nitrate.

  11. Some observations on phosphate based corrosion inhibitors in preventing carbon steel corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anupkumar, B.; Satpathy, K.K.

    2000-01-01

    Among the various types of phosphonic acid based inhibitors assayed, namely HEDP, ATMP and a commercial corrosion inhibitor (code named Betz), it was found that Betz has the maximum amount of organic phosphate followed by HEDP and ATMP. The corrosion rate studies show that Betz gives the highest inhibition efficiency followed by HEDP and ATMP. This shows that organic phosphate plays a significant role in corrosion protection. However, it was observed that due to synergestic effect, HEDP in the presence of Zn 2+ gave a better corrosion protection than Betz. The results are discussed in the light of available literature. (author)

  12. Emerging Corrosion Inhibitors for Interfacial Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Taghavikish

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is a deterioration of a metal due to reaction with environment. The use of corrosion inhibitors is one of the most effective ways of protecting metal surfaces against corrosion. Their effectiveness is related to the chemical composition, their molecular structures and affinities for adsorption on the metal surface. This review focuses on the potential of ionic liquid, polyionic liquid (PIL and graphene as promising corrosion inhibitors in emerging coatings due to their remarkable properties and various embedment or fabrication strategies. The review begins with a precise description of the synthesis, characterization and structure-property-performance relationship of such inhibitors for anti-corrosion coatings. It establishes a platform for the formation of new generation of PIL based coatings and shows that PIL corrosion inhibitors with various heteroatoms in different form can be employed for corrosion protection with higher barrier properties and protection of metal surface. However, such study is still in its infancy and there is significant scope to further develop new structures of PIL based corrosion inhibitors and coatings and study their behaviour in protection of metals. Besides, it is identified that the combination of ionic liquid, PIL and graphene could possibly contribute to the development of the ultimate corrosion inhibitor based coating.

  13. Evaluation of the potential of additives as corrosion inhibitors of CA-50 carbon steel used as reinforcement in concretes; Avaliacao da potencialidade de aditivos como inibidores de corrosao do aco carbono CA-50 usado como armadura de estruturas de concreto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennucci, Marina Martins

    2006-07-01

    In this work, various compounds were tested to evaluate their potential capability for their use as corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel reinforcement in concretes. The additives tested were sodium benzoate, polyethylene glycol, hexamethylenetetramine, benzotriazole and yttrium carbonate. Initially, exploratory tests were carried out to select the ones to be used as corrosion inhibitors, based on the inhibit ion efficiency determined from electrochemical tests, specifically polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. These tests were carried out in a solution composed of 0.01 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and 0.05 N potassium hydroxide (KOH) to simulate the composition of the solution inside the pores in concretes. The additive that presented the most promising potential to be used as corrosion inhibitor was benzotriazole (BTA). After the elimination of some compounds and selection of the additive with higher corrosion inhibit ion efficiency in the test medium, the effect of its concentration on the corrosion inhibition efficiency was evaluated. Sodium nitrite solutions with the same concentrations as those solutions with BTA were tested for comparison reasons. Sodium nitrite is a well established corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel reinforcement in concretes but it has been related to toxic effects. The BTA was associated to higher corrosion inhibition efficiencies than that of sodium nitrite in similar concentrations. A blackish adherent film was formed on the steel surface exposed to BTA solutions during long periods of immersion in the alkaline medium. The results suggest that BTA is a potential candidate for substitution of nitrites as corrosion inhibitor of reinforcements in concrete. (author)

  14. Effect of Ethanolamines on Corrosion Inhibition of Ductile Cast Iron in Nitrite Containing Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. T.; Kim, Y. S.; Chang, H. Y.; Lim, B. T.; Park, H. B.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, synergistic corrosion inhibition effect of nitrite and 3 kinds of ethanolamines on ductile cast iron using chemical and electrochemical methods was evaluated. This work attempts to clarify the synergistic effect of nitrite and ethanolamines. The effects of single addition of TEA, DEA, and MEA, and mixed addition of nitrite plus TEA, DEA or MEA on the corrosion inhibition of ductile cast iron in a tap water were evaluated. A huge amount of single addition of ethanolamine was needed. However, the synergistic effect by mixed addition was observed regardless of the combination of nitrite and triethanolamines, but their effects increased in a series of MEA + nitrite > DEA + nitrite > TEA + nitrite. This tendency of synergistic effect was attributed to the film properties and polar effect; TEA addition couldn't form the film showing high film resistance and semiconductive properties, but DEA or MEA could build the film having relatively high film resistance and n-type semiconductive properties. Moreover, it can be explained that this behaviour was closely related to electron attractive group within the ethanolamines, and thus corrosion inhibition power depends upon the number of the electron attractive group of MEA, DEA, and TEA.

  15. Effect of Ethanolamines on Corrosion Inhibition of Ductile Cast Iron in Nitrite Containing Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. T.; Kim, Y. S. [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chang, H. Y.; Lim, B. T.; Park, H. B. [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In this work, synergistic corrosion inhibition effect of nitrite and 3 kinds of ethanolamines on ductile cast iron using chemical and electrochemical methods was evaluated. This work attempts to clarify the synergistic effect of nitrite and ethanolamines. The effects of single addition of TEA, DEA, and MEA, and mixed addition of nitrite plus TEA, DEA or MEA on the corrosion inhibition of ductile cast iron in a tap water were evaluated. A huge amount of single addition of ethanolamine was needed. However, the synergistic effect by mixed addition was observed regardless of the combination of nitrite and triethanolamines, but their effects increased in a series of MEA + nitrite > DEA + nitrite > TEA + nitrite. This tendency of synergistic effect was attributed to the film properties and polar effect; TEA addition couldn't form the film showing high film resistance and semiconductive properties, but DEA or MEA could build the film having relatively high film resistance and n-type semiconductive properties. Moreover, it can be explained that this behaviour was closely related to electron attractive group within the ethanolamines, and thus corrosion inhibition power depends upon the number of the electron attractive group of MEA, DEA, and TEA.

  16. Evaluation of Encapsulated Inhibitor for Autonomous Corrosion Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsey, M. N.; Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Calle, L. M.; Pearman, B. P.; Zhang, X.

    2015-01-01

    This work concerns the development of smart coating technologies based on microencapsulation for the autonomous control of corrosion. Microencapsulation allows the incorporation of corrosion inhibitors into coating which provides protection through corrosion-controlled release of these inhibitors.One critical aspect of a corrosion protective smart coating is the selection of corrosion inhibitor for encapsulation and comparison of the inhibitor function before and after encapsulation. For this purpose, a systematic approach is being used to evaluate free and encapsulated corrosion inhibitors by salt immersion. Visual, optical microscope, and Scanning Electron Microscope (with low-angle backscatter electron detector) are used to evaluate these inhibitors. It has been found that the combination of different characterization tools provide an effective method for evaluation of early stage localized corrosion and the effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors.

  17. Stress Corrosion Cracking of an Austenitic Stainless Steel in Nitrite-Containing Chloride Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Singh Raman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the susceptibility of 316L stainless steel to stress corrosion cracking (SCC in a nitrite-containing chloride solution. Slow strain rate testing (SSRT in 30 wt. % MgCl2 solution established SCC susceptibility, as evidenced by post-SSRT fractography. Addition of nitrite to the chloride solution, which is reported to have inhibitive influence on corrosion of stainless steels, was found to increase SCC susceptibility. The susceptibility was also found to increase with nitrite concentration. This behaviour is explained on the basis of the passivation and pitting characteristics of 316L steel in chloride solution.

  18. Corrosion Inhibiting Mechanism of Nitrite Ion on the Passivation of Carbon Steel and Ductile Cast Iron for Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. T. Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While NaNO2 addition can greatly inhibit the corrosion of carbon steel and ductile cast iron, in order to improve the similar corrosion resistance, ca. 100 times more NaNO2 addition is needed for ductile cast iron compared to carbon steel. A corrosion and inhibition mechanism is proposed whereby NO2- ion is added to oxidize. The NO2- ion can be reduced to nitrogen compounds and these compounds may be absorbed on the surface of graphite. Therefore, since nitrite ion needs to oxidize the surface of matrix and needs to passivate the galvanic corroded area and since it is absorbed on the surface of graphite, a greater amount of corrosion inhibitor needs to be added to ductile cast iron compared to carbon steel. The passive film of carbon steel and ductile cast iron, formed by NaNO2 addition showed N-type semiconductive properties and its resistance, is increased; the passive current density is thus decreased and the corrosion rate is then lowered. In addition, the film is mainly composed of iron oxide due to the oxidation by NO2- ion; however, regardless of the alloys, nitrogen compounds (not nitrite were detected at the outermost surface but were not incorporated in the inner oxide.

  19. Evaluation of Nitrate and Nitrite Reduction Kinetics Related to Liquid-Air-Interface Corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoji; Gui, F.; Cong, Hongbo; Brossia, C.S.; Frankel, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Liquid-air interface (LAI) corrosion has been a concern for causing leaks in the carbon steel tanks used for holding high-level radioactive liquid waste. To assist in understanding the mechanism of LAI corrosion, the kinetics of nitrate and nitrite reduction reactions were investigated electrochemically. Cyclic voltammetry and cathodic polarization measurements indicated that the nitrite reduction reaction exhibited faster kinetics than the nitrate reduction reaction at higher cathodic overpotential. However, the primary reduction reaction at the open circuit potential under aerated conditions was the oxygen reduction reaction. The reduction of residual oxygen was also the dominant cathodic reaction at open circuit potential in deaerated conditions. Moreover, the kinetics of oxygen reduction on steel electrodes were significantly influenced by the sample immersion conditions (partial vs. full) for aerated liquid nuclear waste simulants, but not for deaerated conditions. Lastly, the gaseous products formed during LAI corrosion were analyzed using the gas detector tube method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and found to contain NH 3 , NO 2 and NO. However, the results suggested that these products were caused by the local acidification generated by the hydrolysis of cations after LAI corrosion underwent extensive propagation, instead of being directly reduced in alkaline conditions. Thus, the results in this work showed that the kinetics of nitrate and nitrite reduction could not generate a salt concentration cell in the meniscus region to cause LAI corrosion

  20. Pipeline corrosion prevention by pH stabilization or corrosion inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyborg, Rolf [Institute for Energy Technology, Oslo (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    In many offshore oil and gas projects the pipeline costs are a considerable part of the investment and can become prohibitively high if the corrosivity of the fluid necessitates the use of corrosion resistant alloys instead of carbon steel. Development of more robust and reliable methods for internal corrosion control can increase the application range of carbon steel and therefore have a large economic impact. Corrosion control of carbon steel pipelines has traditionally often been managed by the use of corrosion inhibitors. The pH stabilization technique has been successfully used for corrosion control of several large wet gas pipelines in the last years. This method has advantages over film forming corrosion inhibitors when no or little formation water is produced. The use of corrosion inhibitors in multiphase pipelines implies several challenges which are not fully accounted for in traditional corrosion inhibitor testing procedures. Specialized test procedures have been developed to take account for the presence of emulsions dispersions and sand and clay particles in corrosion inhibitor testing. (author)

  1. Protection of Steel Corrosion in Concrete Members by the Combination of Galvanic Anode and Nitrite Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minobu Aoyama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloride induced-corrosion of steel bars in concrete can make cracks and exfoliation in near-surface regions in reinforced concrete structures. In this paper, we described the basic concept and practice of steel bars corrosion protection method by the combination of galvanic anode (zinc wire and the penetration of nitrite ions from mortar layers containing a large amount of lithium nitrite.

  2. The validation of corrosion inhibitors for ancillary cooling systems at Sizewell B PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, S.J.; Garnsey, R.; Lawson, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    Sizewell B has several low temperature ancillary cooling circuits for removing low grade heat. One of the principal circuits is the Component Cooling Water System (CCWS) primarily constructed from carbon steel pipework but also containing stainless steel, titanium, copper and cupronickel components. Linked to the CCWS is another carbon steel system namely the Reserve Ultimate Heat Sink (RUHS) a system unique to Sizewell B providing an independent heat removal capability for the CCWS as a safety back-up. Both systems utilize demineralized water with the addition of an inhibitor to prevent corrosion. The vendor recommended inhibitor namely potassium chromate is highly toxic to marine life and initial discussions with the regulatory authorities indicated that it would be extremely difficult to obtain a discharge consent to cover leakage or potential system purges and dumps associated with maintenance operations. Thus an alternative was sought. Sodium nitrite (anhydrous NaN0 2 )/borax (Na 2 B 4 0 7 1OH 2 0) inhibitor solutions have been used for many years in the power industry for preservation of carbon steel plant and several proprietary formulations are based on this mixture. There has been extensive test work in the UK on this inhibitor for secondary side boiler storage on gas reactors and therefore it was considered a prime candidate for use at Sizewell B. Starting in 1985 a programme of work sponsored by Nuclear Electric plc has been completed by NNC Ltd to compare nitrite/borax with other suitable inhibitors and validate its use for Sizewell B. (authors). 5 figs., 1 tab

  3. Electrochemical study of galvanic corrosion inhibitors in water-based and ethylene glycol-based heat transfer circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netter, Pierre

    1981-01-01

    This research thesis reports the search for and the efficiency assessment of mixes of inhibitors for coolant circuits of motor cars. After a discussion of the general properties of water-alcohol solvents (chemical properties, acid-base equilibriums) and of parameters affecting corrosion in coolant circuits, the author proposes an overview of the main inhibitors which are used to protect these circuits against corrosion, and discusses their action mechanism and efficiency. The different methods used to study the corrosion of these circuits are described, and the advantages and drawbacks of test methods are commented. The second part proposes a synthesis of the different corrosion electromechanical mechanisms which may occur with respect to the used metallic materials and to possible galvanic couplings. The next part describes the experimental installations. The last part focuses on the different protections obtained with the different used inhibitor class in terms of results obtained by gravimetric tests and visual examination of samples, current-voltage curves in hydrodynamic regime, and galvanic corrosion tests performed in laboratory or in situ in motor cars [fr

  4. Phytochemicals as Green Corrosion Inhibitors in Various Corrosive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an intensive effort underway to develop new plant origin corrosion inhibitors for metal subjected to various environmental conditions. These efforts have been motivated by the desire to replace toxic inhibitors used for mitigation of corrosion of various metals and alloys in aqueous solutions. Plants represent a class ...

  5. Characterization of Encapsulated Corrosion Inhibitors for Environmentally Friendly Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, B. P.; Calle, L. M.; Zhang, X.; Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Johnsey, M. N.; Montgomery, E. L.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Surma, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center's Corrosion Technology Lab at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, U.S.A. has been developing multifunctional smart coatings based on the microencapsulation of environmentally friendly corrosion indicators, inhibitors and self-healing agents. This allows the incorporation of autonomous corrosion control functionalities, such as corrosion detection and inhibition as well as the self-healing of mechanical damage, into coatings. This paper presents technical details on the characterization of inhibitor-containing particles and their corrosion inhibitive effects using electrochemical and mass loss methods. Three organic environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated in organic microparticles that are compatible with desired coatings. The release of the inhibitors from the microparticles in basic solution was studied. Fast release, for immediate corrosion protection, as well as long-term release for continued protection, was observed. The inhibition efficacy of the inhibitors, incorporated directly and in microparticles, on carbon steel was evaluated. Polarization curves and mass loss measurements showed that, in the case of 2MBT, its corrosion inhibition effectiveness was greater when it was delivered from microparticles.

  6. Quantum chemical studies on the some inorganic corrosion inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayin, Koray; Karakaş, Duran

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Some quantum chemical parameters are important to determine inhibition efficiency. •Quantum chemical calculations were performed on six inorganic inhibitors. •Five experimental reports were used to explain the theoretical results. •Atomic charges and %contributions were used to determine the atom at protonation process. •For inorganic inhibitors, the best method and basis set were investigated. -- Abstract: Some quantum chemical parameters were calculated by using Hartree–Fock (HF) approximation, Density Functional Theory (DFT/B3LYP) and Møller Plesset perturbation theory (MP3) methods at LANL2DZ, LANL2MB and SDD levels in gas phase and water for dichromate (Cr 2 O 7 2- ), chromate (CrO 4 2- ), tungstate (WO 4 2- ), molybdate (MoO 4 2- ), nitrite (NO 2 - ) and nitrate (NO 3 - ) which are used as inorganic corrosion inhibitors. All theoretical results and experimental inhibition efficiencies of inhibitors were subjected to correlation analyses. In a summary, MP3/SDD level in water was found as the best level. In this level, the inhibition efficiency ranking was found as CrO 4 2- >WO 4 2- >MoO 4 2- >Cr 2 O 7 2- >NO 2 - ≈NO 3 -

  7. Corrosion Inhibition of the Galvanic Couple Copper-Carbon Steel in Reverse Osmosis Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Carrillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the electrochemical behaviour of corrosion inhibition of the copper-carbon steel galvanic couple (Cu-CS, exposed to reverse osmosis water (RO used for rinsing of heat exchangers for heavy duty machinery, during manufacture. Molybdate and nitrite salts were utilized to evaluate the inhibition behaviour under galvanic couple conditions. Cu-CS couple was used as working electrodes to measure open circuit potential (OCP, potentiodynamic polarization (PP, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The surface conditions were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The most effective concentration ratio between molybdate and nitrite corrosion inhibitors was determined. The morphological study indicated molybdate deposition on the anodic sites of the galvanic couple. The design of molybdate-based corrosion inhibitor developed in the present work should be applied to control galvanic corrosion of the Cu-CS couple during cleaning in the manufacture of heat exchangers.

  8. Acid corrosion inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, N G

    1964-04-28

    An acid corrosion inhibitor is prepared by a 2-stage vacuum evaporation of effluents obtained from the ammonia columns of the coking oven plant. The effluent, leaving a scrubber in which the phenols are removed at a temperature of 98$C, passes through a quartz filter and flows into a heated chamber in which it is used for preheating a solution circulating through a vacuum unit, maintaining the temperature of the solution at 55$ to 60$C. The effluent enters a large tank in which it is boiled at 55$ to 60$C under 635 to 640 mm Hg pressure. Double evaporation of this solution yields a very effective acid corrosion inhibitor. Its corrosion-preventing effect is 97.9% compared with 90.1% for thiourea and 88.5% for urotropin under identical conditions.

  9. Nitrite and nitroso compounds can serve as specific catalase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Vladimir Yu; Osipov, Anatoly N

    2017-03-01

    We present evidence that nitrite and nitrosothiols, nitrosoamines and non-heme dinitrosyl iron complexes can reversibly inhibit catalase with equal effectiveness. Catalase activity was evaluated by the permanganatometric and calorimetric assays. This inhibition is not the result of chemical transformations of these compounds to a single inhibitor, as well as it is not the result of NO release from these substances (as NO traps have no effect on the extent of inhibition). It was found that chloride and bromide in concentration above 80 mM and thiocyanate in concentration above 20 μM enhance catalase inhibition by nitrite and the nitroso compounds more than 100 times. The inhibition degree in this case is comparable with that induced by azide. We propose that the direct catalase inhibitor is a positively charged NO-group. This group acquires a positive charge in the active center of enzyme by interaction of nitrite or nitroso compounds with some enzyme groups. Halides and thiocyanate protect the NO + group from hydration and thus increase its inhibition effect. It is probable that a comparatively low chloride concentration in many cells is the main factor to protect catalase from inhibition by nitrite and nitroso compounds.

  10. Corrosion Inhibition of AISI/SAE Steel in a Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatai Olufemi ARAMIDE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Sodium nitrite as a corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in sea water wasinvestigated, using the conventional weight loss method. Differentpercentages of sodium nitrite were used from 0% to 10% in sea water.Samples of mild steel were exposed to these corrosive media and the weightloss was calculated at intervals of 120 hours, 168 hours, 208 hours, 256 hours,304 hours and 352 hours. It was observed that corrosion rate increases withtime of exposure to the corrosive medium (inhibited or non-inhibited and thatsodium nitrite can be used to retards the corrosion rate of mild steel if theappropriate concentration is used in sea water. It was concluded that theoptimum percentage of sodium nitrate in sea water that gives the optimumcorrosion inhibition of mild steel is 4%.

  11. Corrosion inhibitors. Manufacture and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranney, M.W.

    1976-01-01

    Detailed information is presented relating to corrosion inhibitors. Areas covered include: cooling water, boilers and water supply plants; oil well and refinery operations; fuel and lubricant additives for automotive use; hydraulic fluids and machine tool lubes; grease compositions; metal surface treatments and coatings; and general processes for corrosion inhibitors

  12. Predicting the Performance of Organic Corrosion Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Winkler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The withdrawal of effective but toxic corrosion inhibitors has provided an impetus for the discovery of new, benign organic compounds to fill that role. Concurrently, developments in the high-throughput synthesis of organic compounds, the establishment of large libraries of available chemicals, accelerated corrosion inhibition testing technologies, and the increased capability of machine learning methods have made discovery of new corrosion inhibitors much faster and cheaper than it used to be. We summarize these technical developments in the corrosion inhibition field and describe how data-driven machine learning methods can generate models linking molecular properties to corrosion inhibition that can be used to predict the performance of materials not yet synthesized or tested. We briefly summarize the literature on quantitative structure–property relationships models of small organic molecule corrosion inhibitors. The success of these models provides a paradigm for rapid discovery of novel, effective corrosion inhibitors for a range of metals and alloys in diverse environments.

  13. Mechanism of pitting corrosion prevention by nitrite in carbon steel exposed to dilute salt solutions. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapp, P.E.; Zee, J. van.

    1998-01-01

    'The overall goal of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the role of nitrite in preventing the breakdown of protective oxide(s) on carbon steel and the onset of pitting. Pitting corrosion of carbon steel exposed to dilute alkaline salt solutions can be induced by nitrate, sulfate, and chloride ions and is prevented by sufficient concentration of nitrite. A significant example of this material/electrolyte system is the storage and processing of DOE''s high-level radioactive liquid waste in carbon steel tanks. Added nitrite in the waste has a considerable downstream impact on the immobilization of the waste in a stable glass form. Waste tank integrity and glass production efficiency may benefit from the fundamental understanding of nitrite''s role in preventing pitting. This report summarizes progress after approximately six months of effort in this three-year EMSP project. Initial experimental and theoretical work has focused on the electrochemical behavior of carbon steel in simplified non-radioactive solutions that simulate complex dilute radioactive waste solutions. These solutions contain corrosion-inducing species such as nitrate and chloride and the corrosion-inhibiting nitrite at moderately alkaline pHs. The electrochemical behavior of interest here is that of the open-circuit potential of the steel specimen at equilibrium in the experimental electrolyte and the measures of the steel''s passivity and passivity breakdown.'

  14. Recent Natural Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Chigondo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, reduction of corrosion has been managed by various methods including cathodic protection, process control, reduction of the metal impurity content, and application of surface treatment techniques, as well as incorporation of suitable alloys. However, the use of corrosion inhibitors has proven to be the easiest and cheapest method for corrosion protection and prevention in acidic media. These inhibitors slow down the corrosion rate and thus prevent monetary losses due to metallic corrosion on industrial vessels, equipment, or surfaces. Inorganic and organic inhibitors are toxic and costly and thus recent focus has been turned to develop environmentally benign methods for corrosion retardation. Many researchers have recently focused on corrosion prevention methods using green inhibitors for mild steel in acidic solutions to mimic industrial processes. This paper provides an overview of types of corrosion, corrosion process, and mainly recent work done on the application of natural plant extracts as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel.

  15. Corrosion protection with eco-friendly inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    Corrosion occurs as a result of the interaction of a metal with its environment. The extent of corrosion depends on the type of metal, the existing conditions in the environment and the type of aggressive ions present in the medium. For example, CO3-2 and NO-3 produce an insoluble deposit on the surface of iron, resulting in the isolation of metal and consequent decrease of corrosion. On the other hand, halide ions are adsorbed selectively on the metal surface and prevent formation of the oxide phase on the metal surface, resulting in continuous corrosion. Iron, aluminum and their alloys are widely used, both domestically and industrially. Linear alkylbenzene and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate are commonly used as detergents. They have also been found together in waste water. It is claimed that these chemicals act as inhibitors for stainless steel and aluminum. Release of toxic gases as a result of corrosion in pipelines may lead in certain cases to air pollution and possible health hazards. Therefore, there are two ways to look at the relationship between corrosion and pollution: (i) corrosion of metals and alloys due to environmental pollution and (ii) environmental pollution as a result of corrosion protection. This paper encompasses the two scenarios and possible remedies for various cases, using 'green' inhibitors obtained either from plant extracts or from pharmaceutical compounds. In the present study, the effect of piperacillin sodium as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel was investigated using a weight-loss method as well as a three-electrode dc electrochemical technique. It was found that the corrosion rate decreased as the concentration of the inhibitor increased up to 9×10-4 M 93% efficiency was exhibited at this concentration.

  16. Metal corrosion inhibitors and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasts, H.; Svarce, J.; Berge, B.

    1999-01-01

    The use of metal corrosion inhibitors in water is one of the cheapest method to protect metals against corrosion. However, the used inhibitors can come to surface water in the course of time and can become as source of environmental pollution. It is important to co-ordinate amount of substances in the elaborated inhibitors not only with demands for metal protection, but also with demands for quality of surface water and drinking water according to normative statements: 3.5 mg/l (as PO 4 ) for hexametaphosphate, tripolyphosphate and phosphonate; 40 mg/l (as SiO 2 for silicate, up to 1 mg/l for CU 2+ ; up to 5 mg/l for Zn 2+ ; up to 1 mg/l for B; up to 0.5 mg/l for Mo 2+ . The examples of the elaborated inhibitors are given. Many organic substances can be used as corrosion inhibitors, but there is shortage of standard methods for their analysis in water in Latvia. Removing of salt's deposits from boilers needs elaboration of a separate normative statement for dispersing waste water which content chloride at high concentration and heavy metals. (authors)

  17. The Synergistic Effect of Iodide and Sodium Nitrite on the Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Bicarbonate–Chloride Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaius Debi Eyu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of potassium iodide (KI and sodium nitrite (NaNO2 inhibitor on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in chloride bicarbonate solution has been studied using electrochemical techniques. Potentiodynamic polarisation data suggest that, when used in combination, KI and NaNO2 function together to inhibit reactions at both the anode and the cathode, but predominantly anodic. KI/NO2− concentration ratios varied from 2:1 to 2:5; inhibition efficiency was optimized for a ratio of 1:1. The surface morphology and corrosion products were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffractometry (XRD. The latter shows that the addition of I− to NO2 facilitates the formation of a passivating oxide (γ-Fe2O3 as compared to NO2− alone, decreasing the rate of metal dissolution observed in electrochemical testing. The synergistic effect of KI/NO2− inhibition was enhanced under the dynamic conditions associated with testing in a rotating disc electrode.

  18. Research on A3 steel corrosion behavior of basic magnesium sulfate cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Sainan; Wu, Chengyou; Yu, Hongfa; Jiang, Ningshan; Zhang, Wuyu

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, Tafel polarization technique is used to study the corrosion behavior of A3 steel basic magnesium sulfate, and then analyzing the ratio of raw materials cement, nitrites rust inhibitor and wet-dry cycle of basic magnesium sulfate corrosion of reinforced influence, and the steel corrosion behavior of basic magnesium sulfate compared with magnesium oxychloride cement and Portland cement. The results show that: the higher MgO/MgSO4 mole ratio will reduce the corrosion rate of steel; Too high and too low H2O/MgSO4 mole ratio may speed up the reinforcement corrosion effect; Adding a small amount of nitrite rust and corrosion inhibitor, not only can obviously reduce the alkali type magnesium sulfate in the early hydration of cement steel bar corrosion rate, but also can significantly reduce dry-wet circulation under the action of alkali type magnesium sulfate cement corrosion of reinforcement effect. Basic magnesium sulfate cement has excellent ability to protect reinforced, its long-term corrosion of reinforcement effect and was equal to that of Portland cement. Basic magnesium sulfate corrosion of reinforced is far below the level in the MOC in the case.

  19. Novel environment friendly corrosion inhibitor pigments based on naturally occurring clay minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, S.; McMurray, H.N.; Worsley, D.A. [University of Wales, Swansea (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Powell, S.M. [University of Wales, Swansea (United Kingdom). Engineering Doktorate Centre

    2001-12-01

    Novel, ceramic, corrosion inhibitor pigments consisting of cerium (III) and calcium (II) cation exchanged bentonites have been shown to provide effective cut-edge corrosion resistance in organic coated galvanised steel. The bentonite pigments were prepared from a naturally occurring (Wyoming) bentonite with a cation-exchange-capacity of 0.7 milli-equivalents per gram. Cation exchange was carried out by repeated washing with aqueous solutions of cerium (III) chloride and calcium (II) chloride to produce bentonites containing 31500 ppm exchangeable cerium (III) and 13500 ppm exchangeable calcium (II) respectively. The resulting bentonite pigments were dispersed in a polyester-resin based primer paint system to give a pigment volume concentration of 19%. For comparison, two similar primer systems were prepared containing a commercial calcium (II) exchanged silica pigment Shieldex: 60 000 ppm calcium (II) and a strontium chromate dispersion, both with a 19% pigment volume concentration. All three primer systems were applied (5 {mu}m) to the zinc surface of galvanised 0.7 mm gauge sheet steel and overcoated with an architectural polyester topcoat (18 {mu}m). The performance of the inhibitor pigments was compared by measuring the rate of corrosion-driven organic coating delamination from the cut edge of samples during 1000 h of salt-spray testing. The calcium (II) bentonite pigment exhibited an anti-delamination performance similar to that of strontium chromate but superior to that of Shieldex. However, the cerium (III) bentonite pigment was superior in performance to both strontium chromate and Shieldex. Thus, the bentonite pigments represent promising, environmentally friendly, ion-exchange corrosion inhibitors which exhibit good anti-delamination performance by comparison with current commercial systems. (orig.)

  20. Synergistic Effect of Molybdate and Monoethanolamine on Corrosion Inhibition of Ductile Cast Iron in Tap Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. T.; Kim, Y. S. [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chang, H. Y.; Lim, B. T.; Park, H. B. [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    A synergistic effect was observed in the combination of nitrite and ethanolamines. Ethanolamine is one of the representative organic corrosion inhibitors and can be categorized as adsorption type. However, nitrosamines can form when amines mix with sodium nitrite. Since nitrosamine is a carcinogen, the co-addition of nitrite and ethanolamine will be not practical, and thus, a non-toxic combination of inhibitors shall be needed. In order to maximize the effect of monoethanolamine, we focused on the addition of molybdate. Molybdate has been used to alternate the addition of chromate, but it showed insufficient oxidizing power relative to corrosion inhibitors. This work evaluated the synergistic effect of the co-addition of molybdate and monoethanolamine, and its corrosion mechanism was elucidated. A high concentration of molybdate or monoethanolamine was needed to inhibit the corrosion of ductile cast iron in tap water, but in the case of the co-addition of molybdate and monoethanolamine, a synergistic effect was observed. This synergistic effect could be attributed to the molybdate that partly oxidizes the metallic surface and the monoethanolamine that is simultaneously adsorbed on the graphite surface. This adsorbed layer then acts as the barrier layer that mitigates galvanic corrosion between the graphite and the matrix.

  1. Effect of flow on corrosion in catenary risers and its corrosion inhibitor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Pedro Altoe; Magalhaes, Alvaro Augusto Oliveira; Silva, Jussara de Mello [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kang, Cheolho; More, Parimal P. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Oslo (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    In oil and gas production, multiphase flow is often encountered and a range of different flow patterns can be experienced in pipelines. The flow regime transition and flow characteristics can be changed with the change of pipeline topography, which affects the corrosion and the performance of corrosion inhibitor in these multiphase pipelines. This paper outlines on the effect of inclination on the flow characteristics and their subsequent effect on corrosion rates. Also, this paper presents on the performance of three candidate corrosion inhibitors under severe slugging conditions at low water cut. For the simulation of offshore flow lines and risers, the experiments were carried out in a 44 m long, 10 cm diameter, three different pipeline inclinations of 0, 3 and 45 degrees. Light condensate oil with a viscosity of 2.5 cP at room temperature was used and water cut was 20%. The results indicated that the baseline corrosion rate in 45 degrees showed higher than other inclinations. Each corrosion inhibitor showed a different inhibitor performance. (author)

  2. Release Properties and Electrochemical Characterization of Encapsulated Corrosion Inhibitors for Environmentally Friendly Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, B. P.; Calle, L. M.; Zhang, X.; Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Johnsey, M. N.; Montgomery, E. L.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Surma, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center's Corrosion Technology Lab at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, U.S.A. has been developing multifunctional smart coatings based on the microencapsulation of environmentally friendly corrosion indicators, inhibitors and self-healing agents. This allows for the incorporation of autonomous corrosion control functionalities, such as corrosion detection and inhibition as well as the self-healing of mechanical damage, into coatings. This paper presents technical details on the characterization of inhibitor-containing particles and their corrosion inhibitive effects using electrochemical and mass loss methods. Three organic environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated in organic microparticles that are compatible with desired coatings. The total inhibitor content and the release of one of the inhibitors from the microparticles in basic solution was measured. Particles with inhibitor contents of up 60 wt% were synthesized. Fast release, for immediate corrosion protection, as well as long-term release for continued protection, was observed. The inhibition efficacy of the inhibitors, both as the pure materials and in microparticles, on carbon steel was evaluated. Polarization curves and mass loss measurements showed that, in the case of 2MBT, its corrosion inhibition effectiveness was greater when it was delivered from microparticles.

  3. Inhibiting properties and adsorption of an amine based fatty acid corrosion inhibitor on carbon steel in aqueous carbon dioxide solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchweishaija, Joseph

    1997-12-31

    Carbon dioxide corrosion is a major corrosion problem in oil and gas production systems and many organic inhibitors have been tested and used to protect the substrate from corrosion. This thesis studies the mechanism of interaction of the inhibitor molecule with the metallic substrate and how this affects the dissolution rate of the metal. The performance of a commercial amine based fatty acid corrosion inhibitor has been investigated using rotating cylinder electrodes and carbon steel electrodes in CO{sub 2} saturated formation water in the temperature range between 35 to 80{sup o}C. The corrosion process was monitored by electrochemical impedance measurements, and at the end of each experiment full polarization curves were recorded. When the inhibitor was applied on noncorroded electrodes, high inhibitor performance, over 99.7%, was observed independent of temperature. On precorroded electrodes inhibitor performance was found to depend on temperature and time of precorrosion. Above 60{sup o}C, the inhibitor performance decreased with increasing time of precorrosion, presumably because of the formation of a corrosion film of either iron carbonate or a combination of iron carbonate and iron carbide which prevent the inhibitor from reaching the surface. The inhibitor protection efficiency was assumed to be associated with the degree of inhibitor coverage at the material surface, and adsorption isotherms have been calculated in the concentration range between 0.1 ppm and 100 ppm. A Langmuir isotherm was found to give the best fit. The inhibitor performance on a 2 days precorroded rotating electrode was investigated at different solution pH ranging between 4.5 and 6.5 at 35{sup o}C. 130 refs., 80 figs., 22 tabs.

  4. Nontoxic corrosion inhibitors for N80 steel in hydrochloric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yadav

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the protective ability of 1-(2-aminoethyl-2-oleylimidazoline (AEOI and 1-(2-oleylamidoethyl-2-oleylimidazoline (OAEOI as corrosion inhibitors for N80 steel in 15% hydrochloric acid, which may find application as eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors in acidizing processes in petroleum industry. Different concentrations of synthesized inhibitors AEOI and OAEOI were added to the test solution (15% HCl and the corrosion inhibition of N80 steel in hydrochloric acid medium containing inhibitors was tested by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and AC impedance measurements. Influence of temperature (298–323 K on the inhibition behavior was studied. Surface studies were performed by using FTIR spectra and SEM. Both the inhibitors, AEOI and OAEOI at 150 ppm concentration show maximum efficiency 90.26% and 96.23%, respectively at 298 K in 15% HCl solution. Both the inhibitors act as mixed corrosion inhibitors. The adsorption of the corrosion inhibitors at the surface of N80 steel is the root cause of corrosion inhibition.

  5. PLANTS AS A SOURCE OF GREEN CORROSION INHIBITORS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Acacia senegal) exhibit good inhibition characteristics to corrosion on mild steel under fresh water medium and the ... as corrosion inhibitors for metals in various corrosive media ..... alloy corrosion in chloride solution", J. Appl. Electrochem.

  6. Density functional theory (DFT) as a powerful tool for designing new organic corrosion inhibitors. Part 1: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obot, I.B.; Macdonald, D.D.; Gasem, Z.M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of computational chemistry as a tool in the design and development of organic corrosion inhibitors has been greatly enhanced by the development of density functional theory (DFT). Whereas, traditionally, corrosion scientists have identified new corrosion inhibitor molecules either by incrementally changing the structures of existing inhibitors or by testing hundreds of compounds in the laboratory, these experimental means are often very expensive and time-consuming. Thus, ongoing hardware and software advances have opened the door for powerful use of theoretical chemistry in corrosion inhibition research at a reduced cost. DFT has enabled corrosion scientist to accurately predict the inhibition efficacies of organic corrosion inhibitors based on electronic/molecular properties and reactivity indices. This review summarizes the main features of DFT, giving a brief background to selected DFT-based chemical reactivity concepts, calculations and their applications to organic corrosion inhibitor design. The paper also reviews the principles upon which modern corrosion science is based with emphasis on corrosion in the oil and gas industry and with the goal of identifying important issues in the design of new, more effective inhibitors in this field. The impact of this review is to illustrate the enormous power of DFT and to identify shortcomings in past work, including the assumption that inhibitors only interact with bare metal surfaces.

  7. Effect of Wall Shear Stress on Corrosion Inhibitor Film Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto Maya, Christian M.

    In oil and gas production, internal corrosion of pipelines causes the highest incidence of recurring failures. Ensuring the integrity of ageing pipeline infrastructure is an increasingly important requirement. One of the most widely applied methods to reduce internal corrosion rates is the continuous injection of chemicals in very small quantities, called corrosion inhibitors. These chemical substances form thin films at the pipeline internal surface that reduce the magnitude of the cathodic and/or anodic reactions. However, the efficacy of such corrosion inhibitor films can be reduced by different factors such as multiphase flow, due to enhanced shear stress and mass transfer effects, loss of inhibitor due to adsorption on other interfaces such as solid particles, bubbles and droplets entrained by the bulk phase, and due to chemical interaction with other incompatible substances present in the stream. The first part of the present project investigated the electrochemical behavior of two organic corrosion inhibitors (a TOFA/DETA imidazolinium, and an alkylbenzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride), with and without an inorganic salt (sodium thiosulfate), and the resulting enhancement. The second part of the work explored the performance of corrosion inhibitor under multiphase (gas/liquid, solid/liquid) flow. The effect of gas/liquid multiphase flow was investigated using small and large scale apparatus. The small scale tests were conducted using a glass cell and a submersed jet impingement attachment with three different hydrodynamic patterns (water jet, CO 2 bubbles impact, and water vapor cavitation). The large scale experiments were conducted applying different flow loops (hilly terrain and standing slug systems). Measurements of weight loss, linear polarization resistance (LPR), and adsorption mass (using an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance, EQCM) were used to quantify the effect of wall shear stress on the performance and integrity of corrosion inhibitor

  8. Super-Hydrophobic Green Corrosion Inhibitor On Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, H.; Ismail, A.; Ahmad, S.; Soon, C. F.

    2017-06-01

    There are many examples of organic coatings used for corrosion protection. In particular, hydrophobic and super-hydrophobic coatings are shown to give good protection because of their enhanced ability to slow down transport of water and ions through the coating. The purpose of this research is to develop water repellent coating to avoid direct contact between metal and environment corrosive and mitigate corrosion attack at pipeline system. This water repellent characteristic on super-hydrophobic coating was coated by electrodeposition method. Wettability of carbon steel with super-hydrophobic coating (cerium chloride and myristic acid) and oxidized surface was investigated through contact angle and inhibitor performance test. The inhibitor performance was studied in 25% tannin acid corrosion test at 30°C and 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl). The water contact angle test was determined by placing a 4-μL water droplet of distilled water. It shows that the wettability of contact angle super-hydrophobic with an angle of 151.60° at zero minute can be classified as super-hydrophobic characteristic. By added tannin acid as inhibitor the corrosion protection on carbon steel becomes more consistent. This reveals that the ability of the coating to withstand with the corrosion attack in the seawater at different period of immersions. The results elucidate that the weight loss increased as the time of exposure increased. However, the corrosion rates for uncoated carbon steel is high compared to coated carbon steel. As a conclusion, from both samples it can be seen that the coated carbon steel has less corrosion rated compared to uncoated carbon steel and addition of inhibitor to the seawater provides more protection to resist corrosion attack on carbon steel.

  9. Laboratory study of reinforcement protection with corrosion inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, D.; Mihalache, M.; Mogosan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Concrete is a durable material and its performance as part of the containment function in NPPs has been good. However, experience shows that degradation of the reinforced concrete structures caused by the corrosion of the reinforcing steel represents more than 80% of all damages in the world. Much effort has been made to develop a corrosion inhibition process to prolong the life of existing structures and minimize corrosion damages in new structures. Migrating Corrosion Inhibitor technology was developed to protect the embedded steel rebar/concrete structure. These inhibitors can be incorporated as an admixture or can be surface impregnated on existing concrete structures. The effectiveness of two inhibitors (ethanolamine and diethanolamine) mixed in the reinforced concrete was evaluated by gravimetric measurements. The corrosion behavior of the steel rebar and the inhibiting effects of the amino alcohol chemistry in an aggressive environment were monitored using electrochemical measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations. (authors)

  10. Benzotriazole (BTA), A Promising Corrosion Inhibitor for WC-Co Hardmetal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, B.; Stoessel-Sittig, C.; Koetz, R.; Hochstrasser-Kurz, S. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland); Virtanen, S. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland); Jaeggi, Ch. [University of Bern (Switzerland); Eichenberger, N. [University of Bern (Switzerland); Szoecs, E. [University of Bern (Switzerland); Siegenthaler, H. [University of Bern (Switzerland); Ziegler, P. [AGIE SA (Switzerland); Beltrami, I. [AGIE SA (Switzerland)

    2004-03-01

    Wire Electro-Discharge Machining (W-EDM) of tungsten carbide with Co-binder may lead to corrosion and discolouration at the surface. The corrosion behaviour of WC-Co based hardmetal was investigated in different aqueous solutions (acidic, neutral, and alkaline solutions). At open-circuit potential WC-Co based hardmetals show rather high dissolution rates in all types of electrolyte. An efficient corrosion inhibitor (benzotriazole, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}N{sub 3}) could be found for a borate buffer solution, pH = 8.4. (author)

  11. Water-base acrylic terpolymer as a corrosion inhibitor for SAE1018 in simulated sour petroleum solution in stagnant and hydrodynamic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakili Azghandi, M.; Davoodi, A.; Farzi, G.A.; Kosari, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosion inhibition of a water-base copolymer, ATP, was studied. ► Efficiency more than 90% was obtained with 0.8 mmol/L ATP in 2000 rpm. ► ATP obeys Langmuir isotherm in static and hydrodynamic conditions. ► With the presence of ATP, OM images showed a decrease in surface attack. - Abstract: The effect of static and hydrodynamic conditions (0–2000 rpm) on corrosion inhibition of a water-base acrylic terpolymer (ATP), methyl methacrylate/butyl acrylate/acrylic acid, for SAE1018 steel in simulated sour petroleum corrosive solution (NACE 1D196) were investigated by AC/DC electrochemical tests. Increase in rotation speed accelerates the corrosion rate; however the corrosion inhibitor efficiency increases. This was attributed to the enhanced mass transport of inhibitor molecules to the metal surface. OM examinations also demonstrate that in presence of ATP, a decrease in corrosion attacks is observed. Thermodynamic calculations also showed that ATP obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm and adsorbs chemically into the surface.

  12. Effect of Nitrite Ions on Steel Corrosion Induced by Chloride or Sulfate Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglu Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of nitrite concentration on the corrosion of steel immersed in three simulated pH environments containing chloride ions or sulfate ions has been investigated by comparing and analyzing the change of half-cell potential, the change of threshold level of Cl- or SO42-, the change of threshold level of NO2-/Cl- or NO2-/SO42- mole ratio, and the changes of anodic/cathodic polarization curves and Stern-Geary constant B. The corrosivity of chloride ions against sulfate ions also has been discussed in pH 12.6, pH 10.3, and pH 8.1 environments containing 0, 0.053, and 0.2 mol/L NO2, respectively.

  13. In-situ nitrite analysis in high level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Prather, W.S.; Livingston, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site produces special nuclear materials used in the defense of the United States. Most of the processes at SRS are primarily chemical separations and purifications. In-situ chemical analyses help improve the safety, efficiency and quality of these operations. One area where in situ fiberoptic spectroscopy can have a great impact is the management of high level radioactive waste. High level radioactive waste at SRS is stored in more than 50 large waste tanks. The waste exists as a slurry of nitrate salts and metal hydroxides at pH's higher than 10. Sodium Nitrite is added to the tanks as a corrosion inhibitor. In-situ fiberoptic probes are being developed to measure the nitrate, nitrite and hydroxide concentrations in both liquid and solid fractions. Nitrite levels can be measured between 0.01M and 1M in a 1mm pathlength optical cell

  14. Corrosion Inhibitor of Carbon Steel from Onion Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Samsudin Asep

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon steels composed by two main elements, they are iron (Fe and carbon (C elements which widely used in industrial because of its resistance and more affordable than stainless steel, but their weakness is they have low corrosion resistance. One way to modify carbon steel is by coating them with antioxidant compounds that can delay, slow down, and prevent lipid oxidation process, which obtained from onion peel extract. Several studies on corrosion inhibitors have been performed. However, the efficiency was not reach the optimum. This study aims to examine the effect of onion peel extract concentration on the efficiency of corrosion inhibitor and characterization of the green corrosion inhibitor from onion peel extract. This research method begins by extracting onion peel to 200 ml solvent which we use aquadest and methanol and mixed with 5 grams of crushed onion peel, then let them be extracted for 60 minutes with room temperature. Once it was filtered and the solution obtained, followed by evaporating process with rotary evaporator to decrease the content of solvent. The product is ready to be used as a green corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel in 1 mol/L HCl. While the analysis used is HPLC qualitative analysis, and electroplatting process. The impedance is measured at a frequency of 100 kHz to 4 mHz with an AC current of 10mV. Inhibitor concentrations are vary between 2 ml and 4 ml of onion peel extract. Electroplatting is done within 30 minutes with 10 minutes each checking time. Furthermore, quantitative analysis was done for the analysis of corrosion rate and weight loss. Based on HPLC analysis, it is known that the extract of onion peel contains 1mg/L of quercetin, which is belong to flavonoid group as green inhibitor. While electroplatting process, aquadest solvent having average efficiency of 99,57% for 2 ml of extract, and 99,60% for 4 ml of extract. Methanol solvent having average efficiency of 99,52% for 2 ml of extract and 99

  15. Polyaspartic acid as a green corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, R. [Department of Chemistry, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Department of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Gu, N.; Li, C. [Department of Chemistry, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China)

    2011-04-15

    The inhibitor effect of the environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitor polyaspartic acid (PASP) on the corrosion of carbon steel in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Polarization curve results clearly reveal the fact that PASP is a good anode-type inhibitor. EIS results confirm its corrosion inhibition ability. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing PASP concentration, and the maximum inhibition efficiency was 80.33% at 10 C. SEM reveals that a protective film forms on the surface of the inhibited sample. The adsorption of this inhibitor is found to follow the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. A mechanism is proposed to explain the inhibitory action of the corrosion inhibitor. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Using high throughput experimental data and in silico models to discover alternatives to toxic chromate corrosion inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, D.A.; Breedon, M.; White, P.; Hughes, A.E.; Sapper, E.D.; Cole, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We screened a large library of organic compounds as replacements for toxic chromates. • High throughput automated corrosion testing was used to assess inhibitor performance. • Robust, predictive machine learning models of corrosion inhibition were developed. • Models indicated molecular features contributing to performance of organic inhibitors. • We also showed that quantum chemistry descriptors do not correlate with performance. - Abstract: Restrictions on the use of toxic chromate-based corrosion inhibitors have created important issues for the aerospace and other industries. Benign alternatives that offer similar or superior performance are needed. We used high throughput experiments to assess 100 small organic molecules as potential inhibitors of corrosion in aerospace aluminium alloys AA2024 and AA7075. We generated robust, predictive, quantitative computational models of inhibitor efficiency at two pH values using these data. The models identified molecular features of inhibitor molecules that had the greatest impact on corrosion inhibition. Models can be used to discover better corrosion inhibitors by screening libraries of organic compounds for candidates with high corrosion inhibition.

  17. Characterization of Encapsulated Corrosion Inhibitors Containing Microparticles for Environmentally Friendly Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Benjamin Pieter; Calle, Luz M.

    2015-01-01

    This poster presents the results obtained from experiments designed to evaluate the release properties, as well as the corrosion inhibition effectiveness, of several encapsulated corrosion inhibitors. Microencapsulation has been used in the development of environmentally friendly multifunctional smart coatings. This technique enables the incorporation of autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition and self-healing functionalities into many commercially available coating systems. Select environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated in organic and inorganic pH-sensitive microparticles and their release in basic solutions was studied. The release rate results showed that the encapsulation can be tailored from fast, for immediate corrosion protection, to slow, which will provide continued long-term corrosion protection. The incorporation of several corrosion inhibitor release profiles into a coating provides effective corrosion protection properties. To investigate the corrosion inhibition efficiency of the encapsulated inhibitors, electrochemical techniques were used to obtain corrosion potential, polarization curve and polarization resistance data. These measurements were performed using the free as well as the encapsulated inhibitors singly or in combinations. Results from these electrochemical tests will be compared to those obtained from weight loss and other accelerated corrosion experiments.

  18. Experimental and theoretical studies of benzoxazines corrosion inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Kadhim

    Full Text Available 2-Methyl-4H-benzo[d][1,3]oxazin-4-one (BZ1 and 3-amino-2-methylquinazolin-4(3H-one (BZ2 were evaluated for their corrosion inhibition properties on mild steel (MS in hydrochloric acid solution by weight loss technique and scanning electron microscopy. Results show the inhibition efficiency values depend on the amount of nitrogen in the inhibitor, the inhibitor concentration and the inhibitor molecular weight with maximum inhibition efficiency of 89% and 65% for BZ2 and BZ1 at highest concentration of the compounds. Keywords: Methylquinazoline, Benzoxazines, Corrosion, Inhibitors

  19. Nontoxic corrosion inhibitors for N80 steel in hydrochloric acid

    OpenAIRE

    M. Yadav; Debasis Behera; Usha Sharma

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the protective ability of 1-(2-aminoethyl)-2-oleylimidazoline (AEOI) and 1-(2-oleylamidoethyl)-2-oleylimidazoline (OAEOI) as corrosion inhibitors for N80 steel in 15% hydrochloric acid, which may find application as eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors in acidizing processes in petroleum industry. Different concentrations of synthesized inhibitors AEOI and OAEOI were added to the test solution (15% HCl) and the corrosion inhibition of N80 steel in hydroch...

  20. Fatty Amides from Crude Rice Bran Oil as Green Corrosion Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Reyes-Dorantes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high oil content, this research proposes the use of an agroindustrial byproduct (rice bran as a sustainable option for the synthesis of corrosion inhibitors. From the crude rice bran oil, the synthesis of fatty amide-type corrosion inhibitors was carried out. The corrosion inhibitory capacity of the fatty amides was evaluated on an API X-70 steel using electrochemical techniques such as real-time corrosion monitoring and potentiodynamic polarization curves. As a corrosive medium, a CO2-saturated solution (3.5% NaCl was used at three temperatures (30, 50, and 70°C and different concentrations of inhibitor (0, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 ppm. The results demonstrate that the sustainable use of agroindustrial byproducts is a good alternative to the synthesis of environmentally friendly inhibitors with high corrosion inhibition efficiencies.

  1. Evaluation of corrosion inhibitors for high temperature decontamination applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyaseelan, V.S.; Rufus, A.L.; Velmurugan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Normally, chemical decontamination of coolant systems of nuclear power reactors is carried out at temperatures less than 90 °C. At these temperatures, though magnetite dissolves effectively, the rate of dissolution of chromium and nickel containing oxides formed over stainless steel and other non-carbon steel coolant system surfaces is not that appreciable. A high temperature dissolution process using 5 mM NTA at 160 °C developed earlier by us was very effective in dissolving the oxides such as ferrites and chromites. However, the corrosion of structural materials such as carbon steel (CS) and stainless steel (SS) also increased beyond the acceptable limits at elevated temperatures. Hence, the control of base metal corrosion during the high temperature decontamination process is very important. In view of this, it was felt essential to investigate and develop a suitable inhibitor to reduce the corrosion that can take place on coolant structural material surfaces during the high temperature decontamination applications with weak organic acids. Three commercial inhibitors viz., Philmplus 5K655, Prosel PC 2116 and Ferroqest were evaluated at ambient and at 160 °C temperature in NTA formulation. Preliminary evaluation of these corrosion inhibitors carried out using electrochemical techniques showed maximum corrosion inhibition efficiency for Philmplus. Hence, it was used for high temperature applications. A concentration of 500 ppm was found to be optimum at 160 °C and at this concentration it showed an inhibition efficiency of 62% for CS. High temperature dissolution of oxides such as Fe 3 O 4 and NiFe 2 O 4 , which are relevant to nuclear reactors, was also carried out and the rate of dissolution observed was less in the presence of Philmplus. Studies were also carried out to evaluate hydrazine as a corrosion inhibitor for high temperature applications. The results revealed that for CS inhibition efficiency of hydrazine is comparable to that of Philmplus, while

  2. benzoic acid Schiff base and evaluation as corrosion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    acid Schiff base and evaluation as corrosion inhibitor of steel in 2.0 M H2SO4. *. 1. ECHEM .... adopted for this experiment was in accordance with .... Table 4: Kinetic data for mild steel corrosion in 2M H2SO4 containing SBDAB from weight loss measurement. inhibitor .... and anti-bacterial activity of Schiff base derived.

  3. Antifungal drugs as corrosion inhibitors for aluminium in 0.1 M HCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obot, I.B. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Uyo, Uyo (Nigeria)], E-mail: proffoime@yahoo.com; Obi-Egbedi, N.O. [Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Umoren, S.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Uyo, Uyo (Nigeria)

    2009-08-15

    The inhibitive capabilities of Clotrimazole (CTM) and Fluconazole (FLC), two antifungal drugs, on the electrochemical corrosion of aluminium in 0.1 M HCl solution has been studied using weight loss measurements at 30 and 50 deg. C. The results indicate that both compound act as inhibitors in the acidic corrodent. At constant acid concentration, the inhibition efficiency (%I) increased with increase in the concentration of the inhibitors. Increase in temperature increased the corrosion rate in the absence and presence of the inhibitors but decreased the inhibition efficiency. CTM and FLC adsorbed on the surface of aluminium according to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model at all the concentrations and temperatures studied. Phenomenon of physical adsorption is proposed from the activation parameter obtained. Thermodynamic parameters reveal that the adsorption process is spontaneous. The reactivity of these compounds was analyzed through theoretical calculations based on AM1 semi-empirical method to explain the different efficiencies of these compounds as corrosion inhibitors. CTM was found to be a better inhibitor than FLC.

  4. The application of neutron reflectometry and atomic force microscopy in the study of corrosion inhibitor films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Douglas; Blom, Annabelle; Bailey, Stuart; Nelson, Andrew; Schulz, Jamie; De Marco, Roland; Kinsella, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Corrosion inhibitor molecules function by adsorbing to a steel surface and thus prevent oxidation of the metal. The interfacial structures formed by a range of corrosion inhibitor molecules have been investigated by in situ measurements based on atomic force microscopy and neutron reflectometry. Inhibitors investigated include molecules cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC), dodecyl pyridinium chloride (DPC), 1-hydroxyethyl-2-oleic imidazoline (OHEI) and cetyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (CDMBAC). This has shown that the inhibitor molecules adsorb onto a surface in micellar structures. Corrosion measurements confirmed that maximum inhibition efficiency coincides with the solution critical micelle concentration

  5. Ginger extract as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidrusli, A.; Suryanto; Mahmood, M.

    2018-01-01

    Ginger extract as corrosion inhibitor from natural resources was studied to prevent corrosion of mild steel in acid media. Ginger rhizome was extracted to produce green corrosion inhibitor (G-1) while ginger powder bought at supermarket was also extract to form green corrosion inhibitor (G-2). Effectiveness of inhibitor in preventing corrosion process of mild steel was studied in 1.0 M of hydrochloric acid. The experiment of weight loss method and polarization technique were conducted to measure corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency of mild steel in solution containing 1.0 M of hydrochloric acid with various concentration of inhibitor at room temperature. The results showed that, the rate of corrosion dropped from 8.09 mmpy in solution containing no inhibitor to 0.72 mmpy in solution containing 150g/l inhibitor while inhibition efficiency up to 91% was obtained. The polarization curve in polarization experiments shows that the inhibition efficiency is 86% with high concentration of inhibitor. The adsorption of ginger extract on the surface of mild steel was observed by using optical microscope and the characterization analysis was done by using pH measurement method. When high concentration of green inhibitor in the acid solution is used, the pH at the surface of steel is increasing.

  6. Dissolution properties of cerium dibutylphosphate corrosion inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soestbergen, van M.; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion inhibitor cerium dibutylphosphate, Ce(dbp)3, prevents corrosion by cerium and dbp deposition at the alkaline cathode and acidic anode respectively. The pH dependent Ce(dbp)3 solubility seems to play an essential role in the inhibition degree. We found that Ce(dbp)3 scarcely dissolves

  7. The efficiency of a corrosion inhibitor on steel in a simulated concrete environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartner, Nina; Kosec, Tadeja, E-mail: tadeja.kosec@zag.si; Legat, Andraž

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to characterize the efficiency of a corrosion inhibitor on steel in a simulated concrete pore solution. Laboratory measurements were performed at various chloride and inhibitor concentrations in order to simulate different applications of the inhibitor when used for the protection or rehabilitation of steel reinforcement in concrete. Two electrochemical techniques, i.e. potentiodynamic polarization scans and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, were used for this study. The exposed surfaces of the steel specimens were subsequently investigated by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the inhibitor can efficiently retard the corrosion of steel in a simulated concrete pore solution at concentrations of the inhibitor >2.0% and of chlorides <0.3% at a pH 10.5. On the other hand, when these conditions are not fulfilled, localized corrosion was observed. The results of the Raman and SEM/EDS analysis showed various morphologies of corrosion products and different types of corrosion attack depending on the pH of the pore solution, and the applied concentrations of the chlorides and the inhibitor. - Highlights: • Electrochemical studies performed at various Cl{sup −} and inhibitor concentrations. • Exposed steel surfaces investigated by Raman spectroscopy and SEM. • Cl{sup −}/inhibitor ratio is important parameter for the inhibitor's efficiency. • The corrosion can re-occur if the concentration of the inhibitor is reduced. • Different corrosion behaviour and oxides in the presence of inhibitor and/or Cl{sup −}.

  8. Natural compounds as corrosion inhibitors for highly cycled systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quraishi, M.A.; Farooqi, I.H.; Saini, P.A. [Corrosion Research Lab., Aligarh (India)

    1999-11-01

    Strict environmental legislations have led to the development of green inhibitors in recent years. In continuation of the authors` research work on development of green inhibitors, they have investigated the aqueous extracts of three plants namely: Azadirachta indica, Punica Granatum and Momordica charantia as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 3% NaCl using weight loss and electrochemical methods. All the investigated compounds exhibited excellent corrosion inhibition properties comparable to that of HEDP. Azadirachta showed better scale inhibition effect than HEDP.

  9. Corrosion of steels in saline mediums with CO2, efficiency of inhibitors as a function of the degree of pre-corrosion and microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paolinelli, LD; Perez, T; Simison, S.N

    2004-01-01

    Despite the big influence of the microstructure and chemical composition of plain carbon steels and low alloy steels on corrosion in saline mediums with CO 2 , the results found in the literature are contradictory. An aspect that is less studied is the effect of these variables on the formation and characteristics of the films as products of corrosion and on the efficiency of the inhibitors used in oil production. Previous works have shown that the efficiency of the inhibitors is affected by the microstructure and that this effect depends on the inhibitor's molecular structure. This work aims to further define the relationship between the films of corrosion products, the steel microstructure and the efficiency of the inhibitors. A plain carbon steel was studied with two different microstructures in a 5% NaCl deoxygenated solution at 40 o C, pH 6, saturated with CO 2 under laminar flow conditions. The efficiency of an imidazoline-based commercial inhibitor commonly used in oil production was characterized. The inhibitor was added after different periods of pre-corrosion: 24, 48 and 72 hours. The characteristics of the surface films were analyzed by SEM. Electrochemical tests were carried out (electrochemical impedance, resistance to lineal polarization every 24 h.) and the corrosion potentials were also recorded. The results show that the properties of the surface films and the inhibitor's efficiency depend on the microstructure with higher values for the quenched and tempered samples than for the annealed samples. While the inhibitor's efficiency diminishes in all cases along with the degree of pre-corrosion, the amount of this decrease is different for each microstructural condition (CW)

  10. Natural Corrosion Inhibitors for Steel Reinforcement in Concrete — a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Pandian Bothi; Ghoreishiamiri, Seyedmojtaba; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    Reinforced concrete is one of the widely used construction materials for bridges, buildings, platforms and tunnels. Though reinforced concrete is capable of withstanding a large range of severe environments including marine, industrial and alpine conditions, there are still a large number of failures in concrete structures for many reasons. Either carbonation or chloride attack is the main culprit which is due to depassivation of reinforced steel and subsequently leads to rapid steel corrosion. Among many corrosion prevention measures, application of corrosion inhibitors play a vital role in metal protection. Numerous range of corrosion inhibitors were reported for concrete protection that were also used commercially in industries. This review summarizes the application of natural products as corrosion inhibitors for concrete protection and also scrutinizes various factors influencing its applicability.

  11. Potassium sorbate-A new aqueous copper corrosion inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelev, Esta; Starosvetsky, David; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the novel nature of 2,4-hexadienoic acid potassium salt (potassium sorbate (KCH 3 CH=CHCH=CHCO 2 )) as an effective copper aqueous corrosion inhibitor. The influence of pH and potassium sorbate concentration on copper corrosion in aerated sulfate and chloride solutions is reported. Degree of copper protection was found to increase with an increase in potassium sorbate concentration; an optimum concentration of this inhibitor in sulfate solutions was found to be 10 g/L. Copper is highly resistant to corrosion attacks by chloride ions in the presence of potassium sorbate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies suggest that copper protection is achieved via the formation of a mixed layer of cuprous oxide, cupric hydroxide and copper(II)-sorbate at the metal surface

  12. Mechanism of Pitting Corrosion Prevention by Nitrite in Carbon Steel Exposed to Dilute Salt Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapp, Philip E.; Zee, John W. van

    2002-01-01

    The research has developed a broad fundamental understanding of the inhibition action of nitrite ions in preventing nitrate pitting corrosion of carbon steel tanks containing high-level radioactive waste. This fundamental understanding can be applied to specific situations during waste removal for permanent disposition and waste tank closure to ensure that the tanks are maintained safely. The results of the research provide the insight necessary to develop solutions that prevent further degradation

  13. Study on the Effects of Corrosion Inhibitor According to the Functional Groups for Cu Chemical Mechanical Polishing in Neutral Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Jae Jeong [Institute of Chemical Process, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    As the aluminum (Al) metallization process was replaced with copper (Cu), the damascene process was introduced, which required the planarization step to eliminate over-deposited Cu with Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) process. In this study, the verification of the corrosion inhibitors, one of the Cu CMP slurry components, was conducted to find out the tendency regarding the carboxyl and amino functional group in neutral environment. Through the results of etch rate, removal rate, and chemical ability of corrosion inhibitors based on 1H-1,2,4-triazole as the base corrosion inhibitor, while the amine functional group presents high Cu etching ability, carboxyl functional group shows lower Cu etching ability than base-corrosion inhibitor which means that it increases passivation effect by making strong passivation layer. It implies that the corrosion inhibitor with amine functional group was proper to apply for 1st Cu CMP slurry owing to the high etch rate and with carboxyl functional group was favorable for the 2nd Cu CMP slurry due to the high Cu removal rate/dissolution rate ratio.

  14. Development of Bio-Based Paint by using Methyl Esters from Palm Oil for Corrosion Inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohibah Musa; Miradatul Najwa Muhd Rodhi; Najmiddin Yaakob; Ku Halim Ku Hamid; Juferi Idris

    2013-01-01

    Paint is used as a means of protection to prevent surfaces from being corroded over time. This research is focused on the development of a Bio-based paint made from palm oil methyl ester (POME) which originated from crude palm oil (CPO). New formulation paint has been developed to protect the pipeline from corrosion thus reducing the cost of the operation. Bio-based paint is made up of four components which are solvent, binder, additives, and pigment. The solvent in the bio-based paint is POME. The additives used are wetting and dispersing agent. The pigment used in the bio-based paint is TiO 2 . The formulation was developed by using a constant amount of additives and binder but varying the amount of POME at 10 ml, 15 ml, 20 ml, 25 ml and 30 ml with addition of water. The Standard Testing Methods for measuring the corrosion rate (ASTM G5-94(2011)) was carried out for each sample. In conclusion, it is proven that in the making of bio-based paint formulation for better corrosion inhibitor; the best amount of binder, additives and de-foam that should be used is 20 ml, 10 ml and 10 ml, respectively. (author)

  15. Performance investigation of low-toxic organic corrosion inhibitors in amine treating unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veawab, A.; Tanthapanichakoon, W.

    2003-01-01

    Amine treating unit is constantly subject to severe corrosion problems leading to extra expenditure and operational limitations. Heavy-metal vanadium compounds are extensively used as corrosion inhibitors to suppress the severe corrosion to an acceptable level. In recent years, the fact that these vanadium compounds are inherently toxic and can potentially pose adverse impacts on the human health and the environment has brought about environmental awareness that causes their uses costly due to the difficulty in waste disposal. To respond to the environmental concern and reduce cost of waste disposal as well as prepare for more stringent regulations for chemical uses, the development of low-toxic corrosion inhibitors is necessary. This work therefore focuses on an investigation of inhibition performance of a number of organic and inorganic compounds that have relatively low toxicity in comparison with conventional inhibitors. The performance evaluation was carried out through corrosion experiments using carbon steel specimens. The experiments were done in 3 and 5 kmol/m 3 monoethanolamine (MEA) solution saturated with CO 2 at 80 o C. It was found that several tested compounds have potential to be effective low-toxic corrosion inhibitors. The promising compounds provide reasonable and in some cases comparable protection performance to the conventional inhibitor. (author)

  16. Effect of Schiff's Bases as Corrosion Inhibitors on Mild Steel in Sulphuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Upadhyay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass loss and thermometric methods have been used to study the corrosion inhibitory effect of synthesised Schiff's bases viz. N-(furfurilidine – 4- methoxy aniline (SB1, N-(furfurilidine – 4- methylaniline (SB2, N-(salicylidine – 4- methoxy aniline (SB3, N-(cinnamalidine – 4 –methoxy aniline (SB4 and N-(cinnamalidine - 2-methylaniline (SB5 on mild steel in sulphuric acid solutions. Results show that both methods have good agreement with each other and inhibition efficiency depends upon the concentration of inhibitor as well as that of acid. Maximum inhibition efficiency is shown at highest concentration of Schiff's bases at the highest strength of acid.

  17. Characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel in acidic medium with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide as corrosion inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, N., E-mail: tnava@imp.mx; Likhanova, N. V. [Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Olivares-Xometl, O. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica (Mexico); Flores, E. A. [Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Lijanova, I. V. [CIITEC, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel SAE 1018 after 2 months exposure in aqueous sulfuric acid with and without corrosion inhibitor N-octadecylpyridinium bromide has been carried out by means of transmission {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The major constituent of the rust formed in this environment without corrosion inhibitor is goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH). The samples with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide contain rozenite and large amounts of melanterite in the corrosion layers.

  18. Corrosion control of carbon steel using inhibitor of banana peel extract in acid diluted solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komalasari; Utami, S. P.; Fermi, M. I.; Aziz, Y.; Irianti, R. S.

    2018-04-01

    Issues of corrosion happened in pipes, it was used as fluid transportation in the chemical industry. Corrosion cannot be preventing, however it could be controlled or blocked. Inhibitor addition is one of the method to control the corrosion inside the pipe. Corrosion inhibitors consisted of inorganic and organic compound inhibitors. Organic inhibitor is composed from synthetic and natural material. This study focused to evaluate the inhibition’s efficiency from banana peel to carbon steel in different concentration of inhibitor and immersing time in acid solution variation. The research employed inhibitor concentration of 0 gram/liter, 2 gram/liter, 4 gram/liter and 6 gram/liter, immersed time of carbon steel for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 hours. It was immersed in chloride acid solution of 0.5 M and 1.5 M. Carbon Steel AISI 4041 was used as specimen steel. Results were analyzed using corrosion rate evaluation for each specimens and inhibitor efficiencies determination. It was found that the specimen without inhibitor yielded fast corrosion rate in long immersing time and high concentration of HCl. However, the specimens with inhibitor gave lowest corrosion rate which was 78.59% for 6 gram/litre and 10 hours in 0.5 M HCl.

  19. Corrosion inhibitor development for slightly sour environments with oxygen intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylde, J.; Wang, H.; Li, J. [Clariant Oil Services North America, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reported on a study that examined the effect of oxygen on the inhibition of carbon steel in slightly sour corrosion, and the initiation and propagation of localized attack. Oxygen can enter sour water injection systems through the vapor space in storage tanks and process system. Oxygen aggravates the corrosion attack by participating in the cathodic reaction under full or partial diffusion control. Laboratory testing results were reported in this presentation along with the development of corrosion inhibitors for such a slightly sour system. Bubble testing cells were used with continuous H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixture gas sparging and occasional oxygen intrusion of 2 to 4 hours during a week long test. Linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements and weight loss corrosion coupons were used to quantify the corrosion attack. The findings were presented in terms of the magnitude of localized attacks at different oxygen concentrations and intrusion periods, with and without the presence of corrosion inhibitors. tabs., figs.

  20. The corrosion behaviour of galvanized steel in cooling tower water containing a biocide and a corrosion inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnoş, Bihter; Ilhan-Sungur, Esra; Çotuk, Ayşın; Güngör, Nihal Doğruöz; Cansever, Nurhan

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of galvanized steel in cooling tower water containing a biocide and a corrosion inhibitor was investigated over a 10-month period in a hotel. Planktonic and sessile numbers of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and heterotrophic bacteria were monitored. The corrosion rate was determined by the weight loss method. The corrosion products were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. A mineralized, heterogeneous biofilm was observed on the coupons. Although a biocide and a corrosion inhibitor were regularly added to the cooling water, the results showed that microorganisms, such as SRB in the mixed species biofilm, caused corrosion of galvanized steel. It was observed that Zn layers on the test coupons were completely depleted after 3 months. The Fe concentrations in the biofilm showed significant correlations with the weight loss and carbohydrate concentration (respectively, p < 0.01 and p < 0.01).

  1. Safe corrosion inhibitor for treating cooling water on heat power engineering plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, L. A.; Khasanova, D. I.; Mukhutdinova, E. R.; Safin, D. Kh.; Sharifullin, I. G.

    2017-08-01

    Heat power engineering (HPE) consumes significant volumes of water. There are, therefore, problems associated with corrosion, biological fouling, salt deposits, and sludge formation on functional surfaces of heat power equipment. One of the effective ways to solve these problems is the use of inhibitory protection. The development of new Russian import-substituting environmentally friendly inhibitors is very relevant. This work describes experimental results on the OPC-800 inhibitor (TU 2415-092-00206 457-2013), which was produced at Karpov Chemical Plant and designed to remove mineral deposits, scale, and biological fouling from the surfaces of water-rotation node systems on HPE objects. This reagent is successfully used as an effective corrosion inhibitor in the water recycling systems of Tatarstan petrochemical enterprises. To save fresh make-up water, the circulating system is operated in a no-blow mode, which is characterized by high evaporation and salt content coefficients. It was experimentally found that corrosion rate upon treatment of recycled water with the OPC-800 inhibitor is 0.08-0.10 mm/year. HPE mainly uses inhibitors based on oxyethylidene diphosphonic (OEDPA) and nitrilotrimethylphosphonic (NTMPA) acids. The comparative characteristic of inhibition efficiency for OPC-800 and OEDF-Zn-U2 is given. The results obtained indicate that OPC-800 can be used as an inhibitor for treatment of cooling water in HPE plants. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the features of water rotation of a thermal power plant.

  2. An interesting and efficient green corrosion inhibitor for aluminium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An interesting and efficient green corrosion inhibitor for aluminium from extracts of ... Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2014) > ... possible applications in metal surface anodizing and surface coating in industries. Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Aluminium, Hydrochloric acid, Langmuir isotherm, Plant extracts, Corrosion inhibition ...

  3. Sodium phthalamates as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, Eugenio A.; Olivares, Octavio; Likhanova, Natalya V.; Dominguez-Aguilar, Marco A.; Nava, Noel; Guzman-Lucero, Diego; Corrales, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → N-Alkyl-sodium phthalamates as corrosion inhibitors for industry in acidic medium. → Compounds behaved as mixed type inhibitors and followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. → Efficiencies were proportional to aliphatic chain length and inhibitor concentration. → Iron complexes and chelates with phthalamates contributed to carbon steel protection. - Abstract: Three compounds of N-alkyl-sodium phthalamates were synthesized and tested as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in 0.5 M aqueous hydrochloric acid. Tests showed that inhibitor efficiencies were related to aliphatic chain length and dependent on concentration. N-1-n-tetradecyl-sodium phthalamate displayed moderate efficiency against uniform corrosion, 42-86% at 25 deg. C and 25-60% at 40 o C. Tests indicated that compounds behave as mixed type inhibitors where molecular adsorption on steel followed Langmuir isotherm, whereas thermodynamic suggested that a physisorption process occurred. XPS analysis confirmed film formation on surface, where Fe +2 complexes and Fe +2 chelates with phthalamates prevented steel from further corrosion.

  4. Multiscale numerical modeling of Ce3+-inhibitor release from novel corrosion protection coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenado, Carlos; Wittmar, Matthias; Veith, Michael; Strauss, Daniel J; Rosero-Navarro, Nataly C; Aparicio, Mario; Durán, Alicia; Castro, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    A novel hybrid sol–gel coating has recently been introduced as an alternative to high toxic chromate-based corrosion protection systems. In this paper, we propose a multiscale computational model to estimate the amount and time scale of inhibitor release of the active corrosion protection coating. Moreover, we study the release rate under the influence of parameters such as porosity and viscosity, which have recently been implicated in the stability of the coating. Numerical simulations obtained with the model predicted experimental release tests and recent findings on the compromise between inhibitor concentration and the stability of the coating

  5. Tannin bark Melalauca cajuputi powell (gelam) as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talib, Nur Atiqah Abu; Zakaria, Sarani; Hua, Chia Chin; Othman, Norinsan Kamil [School of Applied Physic, Faculty Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Tannin was extracted from gelam bark and used to produce corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Tannin was extracted from gelam bark using 70% aqueous acetone for 6 hour. Tannin powder was characterization using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse chemical component in tannin and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) for tannin physical structure. The tannin effect on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel has been investigated in 1Mol HCl solution for 6 hour followed ASTM. The weight loss method were applied to study the mild steel corrosion behavior in the present and absend of different concentration of tannin (250, 300, 350)ppm. Tannin act good inhibitor as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium. Surface morphology of carbon steel with and without inhibitor was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Corrosion evaluation of cooling-water treatments for gas centrifuge facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, C.R.; Meredith, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of six different types of weighted metal coupons was evaluated at 29 0 C (84 0 F) in flowing water containing nitrite-borate-silicate corrosion inhibitors. The question for evaluation was whether it would be more advantageous: (1) to drain the treated cooling water from the centrifuge machine and to expose them to moisture-laden air over an assumed shop downtime and repair perid of 1 month; or (2) to let the treated cooling water remain stagnant in the machines during this downtime. The moisture-laden-air exposure was more detrimental

  7. Astrakhan-Mangyshlak water main (pipeline): corrosion state of the inner surface, and methods for its corrosion protection. Part III. The effects of KW2353 inhibitor. Part IV. Microbiological corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reformatskaya, I.I.; Ashcheulova, I.I.; Barinova, M.A.; Kostin, D.V.; Prutchenko, S.G.; Ivleva, G.A.; Taubaldiev, T.S.; Murinov, K.S.; Tastanov, K.Kh.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of the KW2353 corrosion inhibitor, applied on the Astrakhan-Mangyshlak water main (pipeline) since 1997, on the corrosion processes, occurring on the 17G1S steel surface, is considered. The properties of the surface sediments are also considered. The role of the microbiological processes in the corrosion behavior of the water main (pipeline) inner surface is studied. It is shown, that application of the polyphosphate-type inhibitors, including the KW2353 one, for the anticorrosive protection of the inner surface of the extended water main (pipelines) is inadmissible: at the temperature of ∼20 deg C this corrosion inhibitor facilitates the development of the local corrosion processes on the water main (pipeline) inner surface. At the temperature of ∼8 deg C the above inhibitor discontinues to effect the corrosive stability of the 17G1S steel. The optimal way of the anticorrosive protection of the steel equipment, contacting with the water media, is the increase in the oxygen content therein [ru

  8. On the use of triazines as inhibitors of steel corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizaya, O.I.; Andrushko, A.P.

    2004-01-01

    A possibility of using substandard pesticides as a raw materials for synthesis of a set of triazines and also using them as a inhibitors of acidic corrosion of steel 20, as well as additions to epoxy powder coatings is considered. It is shown that triazines studied are inhibitors of acidic corrosion of steel 20. 2,4-di(ethylamino)-6-phenylhydrazono-1,3,5-triazine (In 4) has a maximum inhibiting effect among the studied compounds [ru

  9. Protective effect of KhOSP-10 inhibitor during corrosion, hydrogenadsorption and corrosion cracking of a steel in sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindyuk, A K; Svist, E I; Savitskaya, O P; Goyan, E B; Gopanenko, A N [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Lvov. Fiziko-Mekhanicheskij Inst.

    1975-01-01

    The protective propeties of inhibitor KhOSP-10 in the time of corrosion and corrosive cracking of steel 40Kh are higher then those of inhibitors KPI-1, KI-1, I-I-V etc. Its ability to reduce steel hydrogenation is the same as in the case of KPI-1 inhibitor i.e. below that of KI-1. HCl additives enhance the efficiency of inhibitors KPI-1, KI-1, I-1-V etc. up to the protective ability of KhOSP-10. Kinetics of the electrode processes was estimated from polarization curves.

  10. Antibacterial drugs as corrosion inhibitors for bronze surfaces in acidic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotaru, Ileana [Department of Chemical Engineering, “Babes-Bolyai” University, 11 Arany-Janos St., 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Varvara, Simona, E-mail: svarvara@uab.ro [Department of Exact Sciences and Engineering, “1 Decembrie 1918” University, 11-13 Nicolae Iorga St., 510009 Alba Iulia (Romania); Gaina, Luiza [Department of Chemical Engineering, “Babes-Bolyai” University, 11 Arany-Janos St., 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Muresan, Liana Maria, E-mail: limur@chem.ubbcluj.ro [Department of Chemical Engineering, “Babes-Bolyai” University, 11 Arany-Janos St., 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2014-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • All four investigated antibacterial drugs act as corrosion inhibitors for bronze surface. • In the presence of antibiotics, a 3RC electric circuit simulates the corrosion system. • The electrochemical results indicate as best inhibitors Doxy, followed by Strepto. • HOMO–LUMO energy gap increases in the order: Doxy > Strepto > Cipro > Amoxi. • The thin protective film on bronze is reinforced by the presence of the antibiotics. - Abstract: The present study is aiming to investigate the effect of four antibiotics (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline and streptomycin,) belonging to different classes of antibacterial drugs on bronze corrosion in a solution simulating an acid rain (pH 4). Due to their ability to form protective films on the metal surface, the tested antibiotics act as corrosion inhibitors for bronze. The antibiotics were tested at various concentrations in order to determine the optimal concentration range for the best corrosion inhibiting effect. In evaluating the inhibition efficiency, polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, SEM and XPS measurements were used. Moreover, a correlation between the inhibition efficiency of some antibacterial drugs and certain molecular parameters was determined by quantum chemical computations. Parameters like energies E{sub HOMO} and E{sub LUMO} and HOMO–LUMO energy gap were used for correlation with the corrosion data.

  11. Antibacterial drugs as corrosion inhibitors for bronze surfaces in acidic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, Ileana; Varvara, Simona; Gaina, Luiza; Muresan, Liana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • All four investigated antibacterial drugs act as corrosion inhibitors for bronze surface. • In the presence of antibiotics, a 3RC electric circuit simulates the corrosion system. • The electrochemical results indicate as best inhibitors Doxy, followed by Strepto. • HOMO–LUMO energy gap increases in the order: Doxy > Strepto > Cipro > Amoxi. • The thin protective film on bronze is reinforced by the presence of the antibiotics. - Abstract: The present study is aiming to investigate the effect of four antibiotics (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline and streptomycin,) belonging to different classes of antibacterial drugs on bronze corrosion in a solution simulating an acid rain (pH 4). Due to their ability to form protective films on the metal surface, the tested antibiotics act as corrosion inhibitors for bronze. The antibiotics were tested at various concentrations in order to determine the optimal concentration range for the best corrosion inhibiting effect. In evaluating the inhibition efficiency, polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, SEM and XPS measurements were used. Moreover, a correlation between the inhibition efficiency of some antibacterial drugs and certain molecular parameters was determined by quantum chemical computations. Parameters like energies E HOMO and E LUMO and HOMO–LUMO energy gap were used for correlation with the corrosion data

  12. Study on tea leaves extract as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, A. B.; Suryanto; Haider, F. I.

    2018-01-01

    Corrosion inhibitor from extraction of plant has been considered as the most preferable and most chosen technique to prevent corrosion of metal in acidic medium because of the environmental friendly factor. In this study, black tea leaves extraction was tested as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 0.1M of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with the absence and presence of corrosion inhibitor. The efficiency and effectiveness of black tea as corrosion inhibitor was tested by using corrosion weight loss measurement experiment was carried out with varies parameters which with different concentration of black tea extract solution. The extraction of black tea solution was done by using aqueous solvent method. The FT-IR result shows that black tea extract containing compounds such as catechin, caffeine and tannins that act as anti-corrosive reagents and responsible to enhance the effectiveness of black tea extract as corrosion inhibitor by forming the hydrophobic thin film through absorption process. As a result of weight loss measurement, it shows that loss in weight of mild steel reduces as the concentration of inhibitor increases. The surface analysis was done on the mild steel samples by using SEM.

  13. Effect of Inhibitors on Weld Corrosion under Sweet Conditions Using Flow Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Alawadhi; Abdulkareem Aloraier; Suraj Joshi; Jalal Alsarraf

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the effectiveness and electrochemical behavior of typical oilfield corrosion inhibitors with previous oilfield corrosion inhibitors under the same electrochemical techniques to control preferential weld corrosion of X65 pipeline steel in artificial seawater saturated with carbon dioxide at a pressure of one bar. A secondary aim is to investigate the conditions under which current reversal takes place. A flow channel apparatus was used in the laboratory to s...

  14. Evaluation of mechanically treated cerium (IV) oxides as corrosion inhibitors for galvanized steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deflorian, F., E-mail: flavio.deflorian@ing.unitn.it [Department of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technology, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento (Italy); Fedel, M.; Rossi, S. [Department of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technology, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento (Italy); Kamarchik, P. [PPG Industries, Coatings Innovation Center, 4325 Rosanna Drive, Allison Park, PA 15101 (United States)

    2011-09-30

    The use of cerium salts as corrosion inhibitors for hot dip galvanized steel has been object of a numerous studies in the last few years. The role of cerium ions as corrosion inhibitors was proved: cerium is able to block the cathodic sites of the metal, forming insoluble hydroxides and oxides on the zinc surface. This fact leads to a dramatic decrease of the cathodic current densities and, therefore, to a reduction the overall corrosion processes. On the other hand, the potential of cerium oxides as corrosion inhibitors was also proposed. However, the real effectiveness of this kind of anticorrosive pigments has not been clarified yet. In this work cerium (IV) oxides are considered as corrosion inhibitors for galvanized steel. The corrosion inhibition mechanism of mechanically treated (milled) CeO{sub 2} alone and in combination with milled SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was investigated. For this purpose milled CeO{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} milled together and milled SiO{sub 2} particles were studied as corrosion inhibitors in water solution. Therefore, the different mechanically treated particles were dispersed in 0.1 M NaCl solution to test their effectiveness as corrosion inhibitors for galvanized steel. The galvanized steel was immersed in the different solutions and the corrosion inhibition efficiency of the different particles was measured by means of electrochemical techniques. For this purpose, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were carried out, monitoring the evolution of the corrosion processes occurring at the metal surface with the immersion time in the solution. The effect of the different pigments was also investigated by carrying out anodic and cathodic polarization measurements. The polarization curves were acquired under conditions of varied pH. The experimental measurements suggest that the mechanical treatment performed on the SiO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2} particles promote the formation of an effective corrosion pigment

  15. Adsorption and performance of the 2-mercaptobenzimidazole as a carbon steel corrosion inhibitor in EDTA solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderón, J.A.; Vásquez, F.A.; Carreño, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a thermodynamic analysis of the adsorption and anti-corrosion performance of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (2-MBI) on carbon steel in EDTA-Na2 solutions. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface was studied as a function of the concentration of the inhibiting species and the temperature of the system. The corrosion inhibition efficiency was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and mass loss tests. The results show that the adsorption of the inhibitor onto the metal surface behaves according to the Langmuir model, following an endothermic process. The inhibitor is chemically adsorbed onto the carbon steel surface. The efficiency of corrosion inhibition was above 93%, which was confirmed by both mass loss tests and the electrochemical impedance technique. The good performance of the corrosion inhibitor was maintained up to 24 h after the inhibitor was added to the corrosive EDTA-Na2 solutions. When the ratio of the volume of solution/exposed area was reduced, a decrease in the area covered by the inhibitor was observed. The best cost/benefit ratio for the corrosion protection of carbon steel was obtained when the number of moles of the inhibitor per surface area was maintained at 2.68 mmol cm"−"2. - Highlights: • Adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface is confirmed by thermodynamic data. • Adsorption of the inhibitor onto the metal behaves according to the Langmuir model. • Endothermic adsorption process indicates that the inhibitor is chemically adsorbed. • The efficiency of corrosion inhibition was above 93%. • The good performance of the corrosion inhibitor was maintained up to 24 h.

  16. Adsorption and performance of the 2-mercaptobenzimidazole as a carbon steel corrosion inhibitor in EDTA solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderón, J.A., E-mail: andres.calderon@udea.edu.co [Centro de Investigación, Innovación y Desarrollo de Materiales –CIDEMAT, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Vásquez, F.A. [Centro de Investigación, Innovación y Desarrollo de Materiales –CIDEMAT, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Carreño, J.A. [Laboratório de H2S, CO2 e Corrosividade, Instituto Nacional De Tecnologia (INT), Av. Venezuela, 82 – Térreo, Anexo 01, Sala 101A, Saúde, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a thermodynamic analysis of the adsorption and anti-corrosion performance of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (2-MBI) on carbon steel in EDTA-Na2 solutions. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface was studied as a function of the concentration of the inhibiting species and the temperature of the system. The corrosion inhibition efficiency was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and mass loss tests. The results show that the adsorption of the inhibitor onto the metal surface behaves according to the Langmuir model, following an endothermic process. The inhibitor is chemically adsorbed onto the carbon steel surface. The efficiency of corrosion inhibition was above 93%, which was confirmed by both mass loss tests and the electrochemical impedance technique. The good performance of the corrosion inhibitor was maintained up to 24 h after the inhibitor was added to the corrosive EDTA-Na2 solutions. When the ratio of the volume of solution/exposed area was reduced, a decrease in the area covered by the inhibitor was observed. The best cost/benefit ratio for the corrosion protection of carbon steel was obtained when the number of moles of the inhibitor per surface area was maintained at 2.68 mmol cm{sup −2}. - Highlights: • Adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface is confirmed by thermodynamic data. • Adsorption of the inhibitor onto the metal behaves according to the Langmuir model. • Endothermic adsorption process indicates that the inhibitor is chemically adsorbed. • The efficiency of corrosion inhibition was above 93%. • The good performance of the corrosion inhibitor was maintained up to 24 h.

  17. Development of new corrosion inhibitor tested on mild steel supported by electrochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habeeb, Hussein Jwad; Luaibi, Hasan Mohammed; Dakhil, Rifaat Mohammed; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Gaaz, Tayser Sumer

    2018-03-01

    Mild steel is a metal which is commonly used in industrials and manufacturing of equipment for most industries round the world. It is cheaper cost compared with the other metals and its durable, hard and easy-to-wear physical properties make it a major choice in the manufacture of equipment parts. The main problem through the uses of mild steel in industry is its resistance against corrosion, especially in acidic solutions. This case led to raise the cost of maintenance of equipment that used mild steel and as a result increased costs for the company. Organic corrosive inhibitors that also act as green chemicals, 4-hydroxybenzylideneaminomethyl-5-ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol have been synthesized. This inhibitor is tested as corrosion inhibitor on a mild steel sample MS in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution (HCl) using electrochemical measurements test includes PD (Potentiodynamic), EIS (Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy), OCP (Open circuit potential) and EFM (electrochemical frequency modulation). The obtained results indicate that 4-hydroxybenzylideneaminomethyl-5-ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel sample in HCl solution with efficiency above 90%. Changes in the impedance parameters postulated adsorption on the mild steel specimens' surfaces of, which it going to the formation of protective coating layer. It also shows that 4-hydroxybenzylideneaminomethyl-5-ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol corrosion inhibitors are effective in helping to reduce and slow down the corrosion process that occurs on mild steel surface in hydrochloric acid solution. Increase of corrosion inhibitor concentration provides a protective layer of mild steel. However, this protective layer becomes weak when the temperature of the solution increases.

  18. Development of new corrosion inhibitor tested on mild steel supported by electrochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Jwad Habeeb

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mild steel is a metal which is commonly used in industrials and manufacturing of equipment for most industries round the world. It is cheaper cost compared with the other metals and its durable, hard and easy-to-wear physical properties make it a major choice in the manufacture of equipment parts. The main problem through the uses of mild steel in industry is its resistance against corrosion, especially in acidic solutions. This case led to raise the cost of maintenance of equipment that used mild steel and as a result increased costs for the company. Organic corrosive inhibitors that also act as green chemicals, 4-hydroxybenzylideneaminomethyl-5-ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol have been synthesized. This inhibitor is tested as corrosion inhibitor on a mild steel sample MS in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution (HCl using electrochemical measurements test includes PD (Potentiodynamic, EIS (Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, OCP (Open circuit potential and EFM (electrochemical frequency modulation. The obtained results indicate that 4-hydroxybenzylideneaminomethyl-5-ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel sample in HCl solution with efficiency above 90%. Changes in the impedance parameters postulated adsorption on the mild steel specimens' surfaces of, which it going to the formation of protective coating layer. It also shows that 4-hydroxybenzylideneaminomethyl-5-ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol corrosion inhibitors are effective in helping to reduce and slow down the corrosion process that occurs on mild steel surface in hydrochloric acid solution. Increase of corrosion inhibitor concentration provides a protective layer of mild steel. However, this protective layer becomes weak when the temperature of the solution increases. Keywords: Hydroxybenzylideneaminomethy, Potentiodynamic, Electrochemical frequency modulation, Impedance

  19. Synergistic Inhibition of Carbon Steel Corrosion by Inhibitor-Blends in Chloride-Containing Simulated Cooling Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaban, Abdul; Felhosi, Ilona [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Vastag, Gyongyi [University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2017-06-15

    The objective of this work was to develop efficient synergistic inhibitor combinations comprising sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) and an inhibitor-blend code named (SN-50), keeping in view of their application in industrial cooling water systems. The electrochemical characteristics of the carbon steel working electrode in simulated cooling water (SCW), without and with the addition of different combinations of the inhibitors, were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), open circuit potential (OCP). The electrode surface changes were followed by visual characterization methods. It was demonstrated in this study that all the combinations of the inhibitors exhibited synergistic benefit and higher inhibition efficiencies than did either of the individual inhibitors. The addition of SN-50 inhibitor to the SCW shifted the OCP to more anodic values and increased the polarization resistance (R{sub p}) values of carbon steel at all applied concentrations. The higher the applied sodium nitrite concentration (in the protection concentration range), the higher the obtained R{sub p} values and the inhibition efficiency improved by increasing the inhibitor concentration.

  20. Studies on plant extracts as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in air saturated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Daud; Abdul Razak Daud; Zainal Abidin Sidi

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness in inhibiting corrosion by garlic, soya bean, and tobacco extracts and their combinations in air saturated water at ambient temperature were studied by using electrochemical corrosion test. The range of inhibitor concentration studied was from 0.1 to 1.0 g/l. The variations of corrosion potential and corrosion current density was recorded and the results showed that the extracts have inhibitive properties in the corrosion of mild stee. The effectiveness of the inhibitors is in the following order: extract mixture > tobacco > garlic > soya bean extracts. (author)

  1. The use of morinda citrifolia as a green corrosion inhibitor for low carbon steel in 3.5% NaCl solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumastuti, Rahayu; Pramana, Rakhmad Indra; Soedarsono, Johny W.

    2017-03-01

    The effect and mechanism of green corrosion inhibitor of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) toward low carbon steel material has been researched. The general background is to develop the cheap and eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor based on components taken from tropical plants that grow +in Indonesia. This research aims to determine the effectiveness of the use of the extracts of noni as green corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel material in aggressive environment. The medium applied for this experiment is 3.5% natrium chloride solution. The variation of the concentration and immersion time duration has been applied as the experimental parameters. All the work was done at room temperature. The corrosion rate was measured by electrochemical polarization method with CMS 600-Gamry instruments and weight loss. The adsorption of inhibitor into the metal surface, which induced bonding formation after immersion was observed by using FTIR method. Inhibition mechanism was observed by polarization curves and fitted by the Langmuir adsorption models. The experimental results show that the higher concentration of inhibitor increasing the inhibition effect. The optimum inhibition is obtained at 3 ppm noni fruit extract, after immersion for about 288 hours. The corrosion rates obtained was 1.385 mpy, with the inhibitor efficiency of 76.92%. The monolayer film is formed coating the surface material as a result of mixed type corrosion inhibitor behavior of Noni. It can be concluded that this green inhibitor is effective to be used for low carbon steel material.

  2. Corrosion prevention of iron with novel organic inhibitor of hydroxamic acid and UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Huihua; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Qian, Pu; Xia Zhengbin; Ishikawa, Ikuo; Suzuki, Toshishige M.

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion prevention by self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of monomer and polymer inhibitor on iron covered with air-formed oxide films was investigated by cyclic voltammetry in borate buffer solution. Anti-corrosion efficiency of the SAM-coated Fe electrodes depends on UV irradiation duration on Fe electrodes prior to coating and inhibitor concentration to form SAM. The 1-h UV-irradiated Fe electrodes coated with SAM exhibits the most effective corrosion resistance despite the anti-corrosion efficiency of air-formed films on Fe was linearly increased with UV irradiation. The addition of monomer in polymer solution improves the stability and corrosion resistance of SAM

  3. Corrosion-Activated Micro-Containers for Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, J. W.; Zhang, X.; Johnsey, M. N.; Pearman, B. P.; Jolley, S. T.; Calle, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    This work concerns the development of environmentally friendly encapsulation technology, specifically designed to incorporate corrosion indicators, inhibitors, and self-healing agents into a coating, in such a way that the delivery of the indicators and inhibitors is triggered by the corrosion process, and the delivery of self-healing agents is triggered by mechanical damage to the coating. Encapsulation of the active corrosion control ingredients allows the incorporation of desired autonomous corrosion control functions such as: early corrosion detection, hidden corrosion detection, corrosion inhibition, and self-healing of mechanical damage into a coating. The technology offers the versatility needed to include one or several corrosion control functions into the same coating.The development of the encapsulation technology has progressed from the initial proof-of-concept work, in which a corrosion indicator was encapsulated into an oil-core (hydrophobic) microcapsule and shown to be delivered autonomously, under simulated corrosion conditions, to a sophisticated portfolio of micro carriers (organic, inorganic, and hybrid) that can be used to deliver a wide range of active corrosion ingredients at a rate that can be adjusted to offer immediate as well as long-term corrosion control. The micro carriers have been incorporated into different coating formulas to test and optimize the autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing functions of the coatings. This paper provides an overview of progress made to date and highlights recent technical developments, such as improved corrosion detection sensitivity, inhibitor test results in various types of coatings, and highly effective self-healing coatings based on green chemistry. The NASA Kennedy Space Centers Corrosion Technology Lab at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, U.S.A. has been developing multifunctional smart coatings based on the microencapsulation of environmentally friendly corrosion

  4. Furfuryl alcohol as corrosion inhibitor for N80 steel in hydrochloric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishwanatham, S.; Haldar, N.

    2008-01-01

    The ability of furfuryl alcohol (FA) as corrosion inhibitor in controlling corrosion of N80 steel in 15% hydrochloric acid has been investigated. It is found that the percentage inhibition of FA increases almost linearly with its concentration (in the range 10 mM-80 mM) and attains about 91% at 80 mM. FA shows significant inhibition at higher temperatures also (∼82% at 60 deg. C;∼74% at 110 deg. C with 80 mM concentration). FA undergoes acid catalyzed polymerization under the experimental conditions to give polyfurfuryl alcohols (PFA) as evidenced by FTIR and NMR spectral data. Thermodynamic parameters for the corrosion of steel in presence and absence of the inhibitor have been calculated. The inhibitive action may be attributed to adsorption of inhibitor molecules on the active sites of the metal surface following Temkin adsorption isotherm. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicate that FA acts as mixed type inhibitor. A plausible mechanism for the mode of inhibition has been proposed

  5. The Effect of Adding Corrosion Inhibitors into an Electroless Nickel Plating Bath for Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong; Su, Yongyao; Liu, Hongdong; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Xin; Shao, Zhongcai

    2016-10-01

    In this work, corrosion inhibitors were added into an electroless nickel plating bath to realize nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coating deposition on magnesium alloy directly. The performance of five corrosion inhibitors was evaluated by inhibition efficiency. The results showed that only ammonium hydrogen fluoride (NH4HF2) and ammonium molybdate ((NH4)2MoO4) could be used as corrosion inhibitors for magnesium alloy in the bath. Moreover, compounding NH4HF2 and (NH4)2MoO4, the optimal concentrations were both at 1.5 ~ 2%. The deposition process of Ni-P coating was observed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It showed corrosion inhibitors inhibited undesired dissolution of magnesium substrate during the electroless plating process. In addition, SEM observation indicated that the corrosion inhibition reaction and the Ni2+ replacement reaction were competitive at the initial deposition time. Both electrochemical analysis and thermal shock test revealed that the Ni-P coating exhibited excellent corrosion resistance and adhesion properties in protecting the magnesium alloy.

  6. On the protective effect of KhOSP-10 inhibitor during corrosion, hydrogenadsorption and corrosion cracking of a steel in sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mindyuk, A.K.; Svist, E.I.; Savitskaya, O.P.; Goyan, E.B.; Gopanenko, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    The protective propeties of inhibitor KhOSP-10 in the time of corrosion and corrosive cracking of steel 40Kh are higher then those of inhibitors KPI-1, KI-1, I-I-V etc. Its ability to reduce steel hydrogenation is the same as in the case of KPI-1 inhibitor i.e. below that of KI-1. HCl additives enhance the efficiency of inhibitors KPI-1, KI-1, I-1-V etc. up to the protective ability of KhOSP-10. Kinetics of the electrode processes was estimated from polarization curves

  7. Hanford Double Shell Waste Tank Corrosion Studies - Final Report FY2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, R. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-01

    During FY15, SRNL performed corrosion testing that supported Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) with their double shell tank (DST) integrity program. The testing investigated six concerns including, 1) the possibility of corrosion of the exterior of the secondary tank wall; 2) the effect of ammonia on vapor space corrosion (VSC) above waste simulants; 3) the determination of the minimum required nitrite and hydroxide concentrations that prevent pitting in concentrated nitrate solutions (i.e., waste buffering); 4) the susceptibility to liquid air interface (LAI) corrosion at proposed stress corrosion cracking (SCC) inhibitor concentrations; 5) the susceptibility of carbon steel to pitting in dilute solutions that contain significant quantities of chloride and sulfate; and 6) the effect of different heats of A537 carbon steel on the corrosion response. For task 1, 2, and 4, the effect of heat treating and/ or welding of the materials was also investigated.

  8. Inhibitors for the corrosion of reactive metals: titanium and zirconium and their alloys in acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.A.; Chatainier, G.; Dabosi, F.

    1981-01-01

    The search for effective corrosion inhibitors for titanium and zirconium in acid media is growing because of the considerable increase in the use of these materials in chemical process equipment. It still remains limited, as appears from this review, because of the exceptionally high corrosion resistance of the metals. Titanium has received the greater attention. Its corrosion rate can be lowered by introduction in the medium of multivalent ions, inorganic and organic oxidants. Care should be taken to hold the concentration at a level exceeding some critical value, otherwise the corrosion rate increases. Complexing organic agents do not show such hazardous behaviour. The very rapid corrosion of titanium and zirconium in fluoride media may be lessened by complexing the fluoride ions. Though rarely encountered, localized corrosion may be avoided by using inhibitors. In some cases good corrosion inhibitors for titanium are dissolution accelerators for zirconium. (author)

  9. Use of Extracted Green Inhibitors as a Friendly Choice in Corrosion Protection of Low Alloy Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jano, A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of corrosion impact on environment is an important step in environmental protection. Use of environmentally friendly corrosion protection methods is very important. It is smart to choose cheap and safe to handle compounds as corrosion inhibitors. The use of green inhibitors (extracted inexpensively, from the seed endosperm of some Leguminosae plants, and investigation of their efficiency in corrosion protection is the aim of this study. As green inhibitor one kind of polysaccharides (galactomannan from locust bean gum (also known as carob gum, carob bean gum extracted from the seed of carob tree is used. Corrosion protection efficiency of these extracted green inhibitors was tested for carbon steel marked as: steel 39, steel 44, and iron B 500 (usually applied as reinforcing bars to concrete. Sulfuric acid solution in the presence of chloride ions was used as corrosion media. The composition of corrosion acid media used was 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 and 10-3 mol L-1 Cl- (in the form of NaCl. Electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization methods were used for inhibitor efficiency testing.

  10. Synthesis of Dipeptide Benzoylalanylglycine Methyl Ester and Corrosion Inhibitor Evaluation by Tafel Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurrahman, J.; Wahyuningrum, D.; Achmad, S.; Bundjali, B.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the major problems in petroleum mining and processing industry. The pipelines used to transport crude oil from reservoir to the processing installation were made from carbon steel that is susceptible towards corrosion. One of the best methods to prevent corrosion that occurred at the inner parts of carbon steel pipelines is to use organic corrosion inhibitor. One of the potent organic corrosion inhibitors is amino acids derivatives. In this study, dipeptide compound namely benzoylalanylglycine methyl ester and benzoylalanylglycine have been synthesized. The structure elucidation of the products was performed by IR, MS and NMR spectroscopy. The determination of corrosion inhibition activity utilized the Tafel method. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of glycine methyl ester, benzoyl alanine, dipeptide benzoylalanylglycine methyl ester and dipeptide benzoylalanylglycine were 63.34 %, 35.86 %, 68.40 % and 27.72 %, respectively. These results showed that the formation of dipeptide benzoylalanylglycine methyl ester, derived from carboxylic protected glycine and amine protected alanine, increased the corrosion inhibition activity due to the loss of acidity center in the structure of glycine and L-alanine that would induce the corrosive environment towards carbon steel. (author)

  11. Corrosion inhibitors for neutral aqueous media based on the products on sugar cane processing. 1.Furfural derivatives as inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledovskikh, V.M.; Kamekho Khinnebra, Kh.Kh.

    1993-01-01

    A series of carboxy-, nitrogen- and nitroderivaties of furfural - the main product of sugar cane processing (furancasboxylic acid, 5-nitrofurancarboxylic acid and its salts, furfurine, furfurylamine) was studied as inhibitors of iron and copper, corrosion in aqueous-salt media. Nitrofuroates of sodium and ammonium, which decelerate anode process, intensity cathode one and provide the stable passive state, are considered to be the most effective

  12. Discovery of Fungal Denitrification Inhibitors by Targeting Copper Nitrite Reductase from Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Masaki; Kumar, Ashutosh; Muddassar, Muhammad; Matsuyama, Akihisa; Yoshida, Minoru; Zhang, Kam Y J

    2017-02-27

    The efficient application of nitrogenous fertilizers is urgently required, as their excessive and inefficient use is causing substantial economic loss and environmental pollution. A significant amount of applied nitrogen in agricultural soils is lost as nitrous oxide (N 2 O) in the environment due to the microbial denitrification process. The widely distributed fungus Fusarium oxysporum is a major denitrifier in agricultural soils and its denitrification activity could be targeted to reduce nitrogen loss in the form of N 2 O from agricultural soils. Here, we report the discovery of first small molecule inhibitors of copper nitrite reductase (NirK) from F. oxysporum, which is a key enzyme in the fungal denitrification process. The inhibitors were discovered by a hierarchical in silico screening approach consisting of pharmacophore modeling and molecular docking. In vitro evaluation of F. oxysporum NirK activity revealed several pyrimidone and triazinone based compounds with potency in the low micromolar range. Some of these compounds suppressed the fungal denitrification in vivo as well. The compounds reported here could be used as starting points for the development of nitrogenous fertilizer supplements and coatings as a means to prevent nitrogen loss by targeting fungal denitrification.

  13. Electrochemical techniques for practical evaluation of corrosion inhibitor effectiveness. Performance of cerium nitrate as corrosion inhibitor for AA2024T3 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosero-Navarro, N.C.; Curioni, M.; Bingham, R.; Duran, A.; Aparicio, M.; Cottis, R.A.; Thompson, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a split-cell technique and image-assisted electrochemical noise analysis, which provide minimal perturbation of the freely corroding system and good time resolution, are proposed as a tool for simultaneous investigation of the corrosion inhibition mechanism and assessment of performance. The results obtained are compared with results from traditional electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, disclosing the advantages of these techniques in the evaluation of inhibitor performance. Specific attention is also given to the investigation of corrosion inhibition by cerium nitrate.

  14. Corrosion inhibitors for aluminium in hydrochloric acid. Vanilline on aluminium 2S, 57S and 65S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, M.N.

    1972-12-01

    So far, the only aldehyde reported in literature for the inhibition of the corrosion of aluminum in hydrochloric acid, is furfuraldehyde. This study reports vanilline as a corrosion inhibitor for aluminum alloys 2S, 57S, and 65S. These specifications for the alloys are listed. The influence of inhibitor concentration and time on inhibitor efficiency is given in tabular data and illustrated graphically. The corrosion of aluminum alloys 2S, 57S, and 65S increases with time and hydrochloric acid concentration. Polarization measurements indicate that the corrosion of aluminum alloys in hydrochloric acid is cathodically controlled. The behavior of vanilline as a corrosion inhibitor is very interesting. In 2.0N solution of hydrochloric acid, vanilline affords nearly complete protection (97 to 99%) to all the 3 aluminum alloys investigated up to 60 min. However, in 1.0N solutions of hydrochloric acid, the corrosion of aluminum 2S is severely accelerated by vanilline.

  15. Corrosion of X65 Pipeline Steel Under Deposit and Effect of Corrosion Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Yun-ze

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the deposit on the electrochemical parameters of X65 pipeline steel in oxygen contained sodium chloride solution was studied by EIS and PDS methods. The galvanic corrosion behavior under deposit and effect of different concentration of corrosion inhibitor PBTCA were studied by electrical resistance (ER method combined with ZRA. The results show that the corrosion potential of X65 steel shifts negatively as SiO2 covering its surface and the corrosion rate becomes lower. When the galvanic couple specimen with deposit is electrically connected with the specimen without deposit, anodic polarization occurs on X65 steel under deposit and the galvanic current density decreases from 120μA/cm2 to 50μA/cm2 and keeps stable. As 5×10-5, 8×10-5 and 3×10-4 PBTCA were introduced into the solution, the galvanic current density reaches the highest 1300μA/cm2 and then decreases to 610μA/cm2 keeping stable around 610μA/cm2, corrosion rate of X65 steel under deposit reaches 6.11mm/a. PBTCA accelerates the corrosion of X65 steel under deposit in oxygen contained solution. Through the investigation on the surface of the specimens, serious local corrosion occurs on the X65 steel surface under deposit.

  16. Pullulan as a potent green inhibitor for corrosion mitigation of aluminum composite: Electrochemical and surface studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B P, Charitha; Rao, Padmalatha

    2018-06-01

    This work emphasizes the corrosion inhibition ability of pullulan, an environmentally benign fungal polysaccharide on acid corrosion of 6061Aluminum-15% (v) SiC (P) composite material (Al-CM). The electrochemical measurements such as potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies were carried out for the corrosion inhibition studies. Conditions were optimized to obtain maximum inhibition efficiency, by performing the experiment at varying concentrations of inhibitor, in the temperature range of 308K- 323K. Surface morphology studies were done to reaffirm the adsorption of inhibitor on the surface of composite material. Pullulan acted as mixed type of inhibitor with a maximum efficiency of 89% at 303K for the addition of 1.0 gL -1 of inhibitor. Evaluation of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters revealed that inhibitor underwent physical adsorption onto the surface of Al-CM and obeyed Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The surface characterization like SEM-EDX, AFM confirmed the adsorption of pullulan molecule. Pullulan can be considered as effective, eco friendly green inhibitor for the corrosion control of Al-CM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrochemical studies of novel corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Al-Amiery

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical performance of a novel organic corrosion inhibitor 6-(4-hydroxyphenyl-3-mercapto-7,8-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazine [HT3], for mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid is evaluated by potentiodynamic curves. The experimental results show that the investigated inhibitor [HT3], which can effectively retard the corrosion process that occurs to mild steel with a hydrochloric acid solution by providing a protective coating for the mild steel that, can be weakened by increasing the temperature. Furthermore, the inhibition efficiency of [HT3] increased with increasing the concentrations of the inhibitors and decreased with increasing temperature. Keywords: Corrosion, Inhibitor, Mild steel, Potentiodynamic polarization, HT3, NMR, FT-IR

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MICROBIAL INHIBITOR TO CONTROL INTERNAL PIPELINE CORROSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill W. Bogan; Brigid M. Lamb; Gemma Husmillo; Kristine Lowe; J. Robert Paterek; John J. Kilbane II

    2004-12-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Various chemicals that inhibit the growth and/or the metabolism of corrosion-associated microbes such as sulfate reducing bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, and methanogenic bacteria were evaluated to determine their ability to inhibit corrosion in experiments utilizing pure and mixed bacterial cultures, and planktonic cultures as well as mature biofilms. Planktonic cultures are easier to inhibit than mature biofilms but several compounds were shown to be effective in decreasing the amount of metal corrosion. Of the compounds tested hexane extracts of Capsicum pepper plants and molybdate were the most effective inhibitors of sulfate reducing bacteria, bismuth nitrate was the most effective inhibitor of nitrate reducing bacteria, and 4-((pyridine-2-yl)methylamino)benzoic acid (PMBA) was the most effective inhibitor of methanogenic bacteria. All of these compounds were demonstrated to minimize corrosion due to MIC, at least in some circumstances. The results obtained in this project are consistent with the hypothesis that any compound that disrupts the metabolism of any of the major microbial groups present in corrosion-associated biofilms shows promise in limiting the amount/rate of corrosion. This approach of controlling MIC by controlling the metabolism of biofilms is more environmentally benign than the current approach involving the use of potent biocides, and warrants further investigation.

  19. Inhibition properties of self-assembled corrosion inhibitor talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline for mild steel corrosion in chloride solution saturated with carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jevremović, Ivana; Singer, Marc; Nešić, Srđan; Mišković-Stanković, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Corrosion inhibitor talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline effectively protects mild steel from CO 2 corrosion. •Quartz crystal microbalance measurements were used to the investigate kinetics of corrosion inhibitor adsorption. •Adsorption of talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline can be described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm. -- Abstract: The inhibition effect of talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline (TOFA/DETA imidazoline) on corrosion of mild steel in chloride solutions saturated with CO 2 was investigated by weight loss measurements (WL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Adsorption mechanism and kinetics of self-assembled (TOFA/DETA imidazoline) monolayers formation on gold were studied using the quartz crystal microbalance measurements (QCM). WL and AFM results demonstrated that TOFA/DETA imidazoline can effectively protect mild steel surface from corrosion. QCM measurements shown that the adsorption of TOFA/DETA imidazoline onto gold follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm and further investigation of the adsorption process will be carried out on a corroding metal surface

  20. Benzimidazole and its derivatives as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 1M HCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljourani, J.; Raeissi, K.; Golozar, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the inhibition ability of benzimidazole and its derivatives against the corrosion of mild steel in 1M HCl solution was studied. The change of impedance parameters observed by variation of inhibitors concentration within the range of 50-250 ppm was an indication of their adsorption. The thermodynamic adsorption parameters proposed that these inhibitors retard both cathodic and anodic processes through physical adsorption and blocking the active corrosion sites. The adsorption of these compounds obeyed the Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. The inhibition efficiency was increased with inhibitor concentration in the order of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole > 2-methylbenzimidazole > benzimidazole, which is in accordance with the variation of apparent activation energy of corrosion.

  1. Green chemistry applied to corrosion and scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, D.; Rakshpal, R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Numerous breakthroughs in environmental protection and pollution prevention have been realized in recent years by both industry and academia through the application of green chemistry principles. Green chemistry, or pollution prevention at the molecular level, is chemistry designed to reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous materials associated with the manufacture and application of chemicals. The application of the green chemistry principles to the areas of corrosion and scale inhibitors has resulted in the reduction/elimination of many of the more toxic inhibitors and the development of newer, more environmentally friendly ones.

  2. Eco-Friendly Inhibitors for Copper Corrosion in Nitric Acid: Experimental and Theoretical Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savita; Mourya, Punita; Chaubey, Namrata; Singh, V. K.; Singh, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    The inhibitive performance of Vitex negundo, Adhatoda vasica, and Saraka asoka leaf extracts on corrosion of copper in 3M HNO3 solution was investigated using gravimetric, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic techniques. Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicated that these extracts act as efficient and predominantly cathodic mixed inhibitor. Thermodynamic parameters revealed that the adsorption of these inhibitors on copper surface was spontaneous, controlled by physiochemical processes and occurred according to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. AFM examination of copper surface confirmed that the inhibitor prevented corrosion by forming protective layer on its surface. The correlation between inhibitive effect and molecular structure was ascertained by density functional theory data.

  3. Determination of the Optimum Conditions in Evaluation of Kiwi Juice as Green Corrosion Inhibitor of Steel in Hydrochloric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Hamid Rasheed

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion protection of low carbon steel in 2.5 M HCl solution by kiwi juice was studied at different temperatures and immersion times by weight loss technique. To study the determination of the optimum conditions from statistical design in evaluation of a corrosion inhibitor, three variables, were considered as the most dominant variables. These variables are: temperature, inhibitor concentration (extracted kiwi juice and immersion time at static conditions. These three variables are manipulated through the experimental work using central composite rotatable Box – Wilson Experimental Design (BWED where second order polynomial model was proposed to correlate the studied variables with the corrosion rate of low carbon steel alloy to estimate the coefficients by nonlinear regression analysis method based on Rosenbrock and Quasi-Newton estimation method in as few experiments as possible to determinate of the optimum conditions of the proposed polynomial adopted via STATISTICA software. The parametric study on corrosion inhibition process using response surface methodology (RSM is presented in this paper. The study shows that the immersion time and temperature of corroding medium had shown negative dependence of great significance in increase the corrosion rate while the other studied variable (i.e. inhibitor concentration had shown large positive dependence in reduce the corrosion rate of low carbon steel alloy. Optimum conditions for achieving the minimum corrosion rate are obtained from optimizing the above correlation and are found as follow: 42.86 °C temperature of corroding medium, 29.29 cm3/L inhibitor concentration and 2.65 h immersion time. In these circumstances, the value of inhibition efficiency obtained was 96.09 %. It could be concluded that Box-Wilson experimental design was adequately applicable in the optimization of process variables and that kiwi juice sufficiently inhibited the corrosion for low carbon steel at the

  4. Microencapsulation Technology for Corrosion Mitigation by Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrow, Jerry; Li, Wenyan; Jolley, Scott; Calle, Luz M.

    2011-01-01

    A multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion is being developed based on micro-encapsulation technology. Corrosion indicators as well as corrosion inhibitors have been incorporated into microcapsules, blended into several paint systems, and tested for corrosion detection and protection effectiveness. This paper summarizes the development, optimization, and testing of microcapsules specifically designed to be incorporated into a smart coating that will deliver corrosion inhibitors to mitigate corrosion autonomously. Key words: smart coating, corrosion inhibition, microencapsulation, microcapsule, pH sensitive microcapsule, corrosion inhibitor, corrosion protection pain

  5. Caprylate Salts Based on Amines as Volatile Corrosion Inhibitors for Metallic Zinc: Theoretical and Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Marco A. G.; Teixeira, Deiver A.; Azevedo, David L.; Feliciano, Gustavo T.; Benedetti, Assis V.; Fugivara, Cecílio S.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of volatile corrosion inhibitors (VCI), caprylate salt derivatives from amines, with zinc metallic surfaces is assessed by density functional theory (DFT) computer simulations, electrochemical impedance (EIS) measurements and humid chamber tests. The results obtained by the different methods were compared, and linear correlations were obtained between theoretical and experimental data. The correlations between experimental and theoretical results showed that the molecular size is the determining factor in the inhibition efficiency. The models used and experimental results indicated that dicyclohexylamine caprylate is the most efficient inhibitor. PMID:28620602

  6. Effect of caffeine inhibitor in corrosion rate and microstructure of KS01 carbon steel and AISI 1045 at media sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulistioso Giat S; Setyo Purwanto; Deswita; Ari Handayani; Berta Vidyananda

    2013-01-01

    Many synthetic materials are good inhibitors for the prevention of corrosion . Many inhibitors are toxic, because of the influence of these toxic properties, recently use organic materials as corrosion inhibitors, that are not hazardous and environmentally friendly. In this study caffeine compounds used as corrosion inhibitors. This compound could be used as corrosion inhibitor because of the existence of their chemical groups that containing free electron pair, that is nitrogen. Corrosion rate testing conducted in sea water medium taken from the Northern region of Indramayu with variations of the concentration of caffeine 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 ppm to determine the optimum concentration of caffeine in corrosion rate of carbon steel AISI 1045 and KS01 that a widely used on the cooling system in the industry. Corrosion rate of KS-01 steel before used in inhibitor media is 25,07 mpy that less than corrosion rate of carbon steel AISI 1045, is 45,82 mpy . The results of this study indicate that caffeine is able to inhibit the corrosion rate of both of samples with optimum efficiency KS01 for 64.38%, and AISI 1045 of 66.63%. The optimum concentration of caffeine to inhibited AISI 1045 is 150 ppm and for KS01 is 100 ppm,. Beside that analysis of microstructure for both samples have done, for media before and after inhibitor addition. (author)

  7. Investigation of thermally sensitised stainless steels as analogues for spent AGR fuel cladding to test a corrosion inhibitor for intergranular stress corrosion cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillock, Guy O. H.; Hands, Brian J.; Majchrowski, Tom P.; Hambley, David I.

    2018-01-01

    A small proportion of irradiated Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) fuel cladding can be susceptible to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) when stored in pond water containing low chloride concentrations, but corrosion is known to be prevented by an inhibitor at the storage temperatures that have applied so far. It may be necessary in the future to increase the storage temperature by up to ∼20 °C and to demonstrate the impact of higher temperatures for safety case purposes. Accordingly, corrosion testing is needed to establish the effect of temperature increases on the efficacy of the inhibitor. This paper presents the results of studies carried out on thermally sensitised 304 and 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steels, investigating their grain boundary compositions and their IGSCC behaviour over a range of test temperatures (30-60 °C) and chloride concentrations (0.3-10 mg/L). Monitoring of crack initiation and propagation is presented along with preliminary results as to the effect of the corrosion inhibitor. 304 stainless steel aged for 72 h at 600 °C provided a close match to the known pond storage corrosion behaviour of spent AGR fuel cladding.

  8. Contradictory effect of chromate inhibitor on corrosive wear of aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhmurskii, V.I.; Zin, I.M.; Vynar, V.A.; Bily, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Corrosive wear of aluminium alloy in inhibited artificial acid rain was studied. → Tribometer with linear reciprocating ball-on-flat geometry was used.→ Corrosion potential, polarization current and friction coefficient were measured. → Chromate decreases corrosion of aluminium alloy under wear conditions. → Chromate in general accelerates corrosive wear of the alloy in acid rain. - Abstract: The corrosive wear of D16T aluminium alloy in artificial acid rain was studied. A special tribometer with the linear reciprocating ball-on-flat geometry was used. The setup allows to measure simultaneously an open circuit potential, to carry out potentiostatic and potentiodynamic polarization studies of the alloy corrosion and to record the friction coefficient. It was established that the addition of strontium chromate inhibitor to the working environment decreases an electrochemical corrosion of the aluminium alloy under wear conditions, but in general accelerates its destruction due to insufficient wear resistance of a formed surface film.

  9. Adsorption behavior of caffeine as a green corrosion inhibitor for copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Fernando Sílvio de; Giacomelli, Cristiano; Gonçalves, Reinaldo Simões; Spinelli, Almir

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical and impedance experiments were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of copper in aerated 0.1 mol L −1 H 2 SO 4 solutions in the presence of three xanthine derivatives with similar chemical structures. The corrosion rate of copper was found to increase in the presence of theophylline and theobromine and decrease in the presence of caffeine. The adsorption and inhibitory effect of caffeine on copper surfaces in aerated 0.1 mol L −1 H 2 SO 4 solutions were then investigated in detail by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and fluorescence experiments. The data obtained indicate that caffeine behaves as a cathodic-type inhibitor adsorbing onto the copper surface according to the Temkin isotherm, with the negative ∆G° ads value of − 31.1 kJ mol −1 signifying a spontaneous adsorption process. The corrosion inhibition efficiency increased with caffeine concentration in the range of 1.0–10.0 mmol L −1 . Furthermore, the EIS results obtained at the open-circuit potential and surface analysis (SEM, EDS and fluorescence) clearly demonstrated the adsorption of the organic compound onto the copper electrode. The contact angle measurements revealed the formation of a hydrophobic protective film. This film covers up to 72% of the total active surface, acts as a protective barrier and prevents interaction between the metal, water and oxygen molecules. - Highlights: ► We have investigated the adsorption and corrosion inhibition of caffeine on copper surfaces. ► Caffeine behaves as a cathodic-type inhibitor. ► Caffeine adsorbs onto copper surface according to Temkin isotherm. ► There exists the formation of a hydrophobic film that acts as a protective barrier. ► This corrosion inhibitor covers up to 72% of the total active surface of copper.

  10. Effect of fluid flow, pH and tobacco extracts concentration as organic inhibitors to corrosion characteristics of AISI 1045 steel in 3.5% NaCl environment containing CO2 gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Budi Agung; Pratiwi, Vania Mitha; Ahmadi, Nafi'ul Fikri

    2018-04-01

    Corrosion become major problem in most industries. In the oil and gas company, corrosion occurs because of reaction between steel and chemical species inside crude oil. Crude oil or nature gas provide corrosive species, such as CO2, O2, H2S and so on. Fluid containing CO2 gas causes CO2 corrosion which attack steel as well as other corrosion phenomena. This CO2 corrosion commonly called as sweet environment and produce FeCO3 as corrosion products. Fluid flow factor in pipelines during the oil and gas transportation might increase the rate of corrosion itself. Inhibitor commonly use used as corrosion protection because its simplicity in usage. Nowadays, organic inhibitor become main issue in corrosion protection because of biodegradable, low cost, and environmental friendly. This research tried to use tobacco leaf extract as organic inhibitor to control corrosion in CO2 environment. The electrolyte solution used was 3.5% NaCl at pH 4 and pH 7. Weight loss test results showed that the lowest corrosion rate was reach at 132.5 ppm inhibitor, pH 7 and rotational speed of 150 rpm with corrosion rate of 0.091 mm/y. While at pH 4, the lowest corrosion rate was found at rotational speed of 150 rpm with inhibitor concentration of 265 ppm and corrosion rate of 0.327 mm/y. FTIR results indicate the presence of nicotine functional groups on the steel surface. However, based on corrosion rate, it is believed that corrosion occurs, and FeCO3 was soluble in electrolyte. Tobacco leaf extract inhibitors worked by a physisorption mechanism, where tobacco inhibitors formed thin layer on the steel surface.

  11. Effects of chitosan inhibitor on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Se-fei; Wen, Ying; Yi, Pan; Xiao, Kui; Dong, Chao-fang

    2017-11-01

    The effects of chitosan inhibitor on the corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel were studied by electrochemical measurements, immersion tests, and stereology microscopy. The influences of immersion time, temperature, and chitosan concentration on the corrosion inhibition performance of chitosan were investigated. The optimum parameters of water-soluble chitosan on the corrosion inhibition performance of 2205 duplex stainless steel were also determined. The water-soluble chitosan showed excellent corrosion inhibition performance on the 2205 duplex stainless steel. Polarization curves demonstrated that chitosan acted as a mixed-type inhibitor. When the stainless steel specimen was immersed in the 0.2 g/L chitosan solution for 4 h, a dense and uniform adsorption film covered the sample surface and the inhibition efficiency (IE) reached its maximum value. Moreover, temperature was found to strongly influence the corrosion inhibition of chitosan; the inhibition efficiency gradually decreased with increasing temperature. The 2205 duplex stainless steel specimen immersed in 0.4 g/L water-soluble chitosan at 30°C displayed the best corrosion inhibition among the investigated specimens. Moreover, chitosan decreased the corrosion rate of the 2205 duplex stainless steel in an FeCl3 solution.

  12. Serum concentrations of nitrite and malondialdehyde as markers of oxidative stress in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Juracy Petrola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic myeloid leukemia is a neoplasm characterized by clonal expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells resulting from the (9:22(q34,11 translocation. The tyrosine kinase abl fusion protein,the initial leukemogenic event in chronic myeloid leukemia, is constitutively activated thus inducing the production of reactive oxygen species. Of particular relevance is the fact that an increase in reactive oxygen species can facilitate genomic instability and may contribute to disease progression. OBJETIVE: To evaluate oxidative stress by determining the levels of malondialdehyde and nitrite in chronic myeloid leukemia patients under treatment with 1st and 2nd generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors monitored at a referral hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed of 64 male and female adults. Patients were stratified according to treatment. The levels of malondialdehyde and nitrite were determined by spectrophotometry. Statistical differences between groups were observed using the Student t-test and Fisher's exact test. The results are expressed as mean ± standard error of mean. The significance level was set for a p-value < 0.05 in all analyses. RESULTS: The results show significantly higher mean concentrations of nitrite and malondialdehyde in chronic myeloid leukemia patients using second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors compared to patients on imatinib. Conclusion: It follows that chronic myeloid leukemia patients present higher oxidative activity and that the increases in oxidative damage markers can indicate resistance to 1st generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  13. The Sensitivity Of Carbon Steels' Susceptibility To Localized Corrosion To The pH Of Nitrate Based Nuclear Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomer, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    The Hanford tank reservation contains approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war weapons production, which is stored in 177 underground storage tanks. The tanks will be in use until waste processing operations are completed. The wastes tend to be high pH (over 10) and nitrate based. Under these alkaline conditions carbon steels tend to be passive and undergo relatively slow uniform corrosion. However, the presence of nitrate and other aggressive species, can lead to pitting and stress corrosion cracking. This work is a continuation of previous work that investigated the propensity of steels to suffer pitting and stress corrosion cracking in various waste simulants. The focus of this work is an investigation of the sensitivity of the steels' pitting and stress corrosion cracking susceptibility tosimulant pH. Previous work demonstrated that wastes that are high in aggressive nitrate and low in inhibitory nitrite are susceptible to localized corrosion. However, the previous work involved wastes with pH 12 or higher. The current work involves wastes with lower pH of 10 or 11. It is expected that at these lower pHs that a higher nitrite-to-nitrate ratio will be necessary to ensure tank integrity. This experimental work involved both electrochemical testing, and slow strain rate testing at either the free corrosion potential or under anodic polarization. The results of the current work will be discussed, and compared to work previously presented.

  14. Polyaspartic acid as a corrosion inhibitor for WE43 magnesium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Lihui Yang; Yantao Li; Bei Qian; Baorong Hou

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition behavior of polyaspartic acid (PASP) as an environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor for WE43 magnesium alloy was investigated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution by means for EIS measurement, potentiodynamic polarization curve, and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that PASP can inhibit the corrosion of WE43 magnesium alloy. The maximum inhibition efficiency is achieved when PASP concentration is 400 ppm in this study.

  15. Some aromatic hydrazone derivatives as inhibitors for the corrosion of C-steel in phosphoric acid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Abd El-Aziz S; Al-Sarawy, Ahmed A; Radwan, Mohamed S

    2006-01-01

    The effect of furfural benzoylhydrazone and its derivatives (I-VII) as corrosion inhibitors for C-steel in 1M phosphoric acid solution has been studied by weight-loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques. A significant decrease in the corrosion rate of C-steel was observed in the presence of the investigated inhibitors. This study revealed that, the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing the inhibitor concentration, and the addition of iodide ions enhances it to a considerable extent. The effect of temperature on the inhibition efficiency of these compounds was studied using weight-loss method. Activation energy (E(a)*) and other thermodynamic parameters for the corrosion process were calculated and discussed. The galvanostatic polarization data indicated that, the inhibitors were of mixed-type, but the cathode is more polarized than the anode. The adsorption of these compounds on C-steel surface has been found to obey Frumkin's adsorption isotherm. The mechanism of inhibition was discussed in the light of the chemical structure of the undertaken inhibitors.

  16. Study of Plant Cordia Dichotoma as Green Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Different Acid Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Khandelwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition of mild steel using extracts of Cordia dichotoma in different acid media was investigated by mass loss and thermometric methods. The experiments were carried out at 299±0.2 K in presence of different concentrations of dry fruit, leaves and stem extracts of Cordia dichotoma. The results reveal that the alcoholic extracts of Cordia dichotoma is a better corrosion inhibitor than that of toxic chemicals. The fruit extract is more potent than leaves and stem extracts to inhibit the corrosion rate. The study seeks to investigate the possibility of using extracts of Cordia dichotoma as a green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel.

  17. Comparative Investigations on the Stress Corrosion Behavior of α -Al Bronze and α Brass in Sodium Nitrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashour, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    The stress corrosion behavior of α- Aluminum bronze (copper [Cu] -7% Al) (UNS C 61400) has been investigated as compared to α- brass under slow strain in sodium nitrite solutions under open - circuit and different anodic potentials. While α- brass was quite susceptible to SCC, α- Al bronze was found to be resistant to SCC. The ratios of time to failure in solution to that in air and of maximum stress in solution to that in air decreased sharply with increase of anodic potential for α-brass but remained virtually constant for α- Al bronze. The mode of failure was predominantly ductile for α- Al bronze under various conditions. The stress corrosion cracking of α - brass has been shown to be promoted by relatively concentrated Na N O 2 and high anodic potentials. Previous explanations for the change of the mode of failure from intergranular at open circuit potential (OCP) to transgranular cracking under anodic potential were confirmed. The bronzes resistance to SCC was attributed to the presence of Al 2 O 3 on the alloy surface. 10 Figs

  18. Interaction of inhibitors with corrosion scale formed on N80 steel in CO{sub 2}-saturated NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, D. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei Key Laboratory of Materials Chemistry and Service Failure, Wuhan (China); School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmacy, Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan (China); Qiu, Y.B.; Guo, X.P. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei Key Laboratory of Materials Chemistry and Service Failure, Wuhan (China); Tomoe, Y.; Bando, K. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation, The Former Japan National Oil Corporation, Hamada, Mihama-ku, Chiba-City, Chiba (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    The performance of the selected inhibitors, including thioglycolic acid (TGA), diethylenetriamine (DETA), and naphthene acid imidazolines (IM), on the bare surface of N80 steel and its scaled surface pre-corroded in CO{sub 2}-saturated 1%NaCl solution was investigated by weight-loss method, electrochemical measurements using rotating cylinder electrode and surface analytical methods (SEM, XRD, and EPMA). The results indicate that there is a remarkable difference in inhibition efficiency of inhibitors on the N80 steel with and without pre-corrosion scale. The synergistic effect between inhibitors and corrosion scale not only depends on the size of inhibitor molecules, but also depends on the interaction of the inhibitor with the corrosion scale. It shows that IM and DETA have a good positive synergistic effect with the corrosion scale formed on N80 steel, although DETA has no inhibition efficiency for bare N80 steel, which can easily enter into the apertures of the corrosion scale, and block the active sites on the metal surface and the diffusion routeways of the reactant so as to depress the corrosion of the substrate metal. While TGA shows excellent inhibition efficiency on bare N80 steel, but it has an antagonistic effect with the corrosion scale although it has a small molecular weight as well as DETA, because TGA can dissolve corrosion scale and break its integrality and protectiveness performance. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Polyaspartic acid as a corrosion inhibitor for WE43 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition behavior of polyaspartic acid (PASP as an environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor for WE43 magnesium alloy was investigated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution by means for EIS measurement, potentiodynamic polarization curve, and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that PASP can inhibit the corrosion of WE43 magnesium alloy. The maximum inhibition efficiency is achieved when PASP concentration is 400 ppm in this study.

  20. Xanthium strumarium leaves extracts as a friendly corrosion inhibitor of low carbon steel in hydrochloric acid: Kinetics and mathematical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anees A. Khadom

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion inhibition of low carbon steel in 1 M HCl was investigated in absence and presence of Xanthium strumarium leaves (XSL extracts as a friendly corrosion inhibitor. The effect of temperature and inhibitor concentration was studied using weight loss method. The result obtained shown that Xanthium strumarium leaves extracts act as an inhibitor for low carbon steel in HCl and reduces the corrosion rate. The inhibition efficiency was found to increases with increase in inhibitor concentration and temperature. Higher inhibition efficiency was 94.82% at higher level of inhibitor concentration and temperature. The adsorption of Xanthium strumarium leaves extracts was found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The values of the free energy of adsorption was more than −20 kJ/mol, which is indicative of mixed mode of physical and chemical adsorption. Keywords: Corrosion, Green inhibitor, Natural extracts, Low carbon steel, Acid, Adsorption

  1. Synthesis and characterization of a novel organic corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Othman Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterization of a novel organic corrosion inhibitor (4-(3-mercapto-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazin-6-ylphenol, for mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl has been successfully reported for the first time. The inhibitor evaluated as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M of Hydrochloric acid solution using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM measurement techniques. Changes in the impedance parameters suggested an adsorption of the inhibitor onto the mild steel surface, leading to the formation of protective films. The results show that the inhibition efficiencies increased with increasing the concentrations of the inhibitors and decreased with increasing temperature. The maximum inhibition efficiency up to 67% at the maximum concentration 0.5 mM. This shows that those inhibitors are effective in helping to reduce and slowing down the corrosion process that occurs to mild steel with a hydrochloric acid solution by providing an organic inhibitor for the mild steel that can be weakened by increasing the temperature. The adsorption process of the synthesized organic inhibitor depends on its electronic characteristics in addition to steric effects and the nature of metal surface, temperature degree and the varying degrees of surface-site activity. The synthesized inhibitor molecules were absorbed by metal surface and follow Langmuir isotherms. Keywords: Corrosion, Inhibitor, Mild steel, EIS spectroscopy

  2. The use of Euphorbia falcata extract as eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Bribri, A.; Tabyaoui, M.; Tabyaoui, B.; El Attari, H.; Bentiss, F.

    2013-01-01

    Euphorbia falcata L. extract (EFE) was investigated as eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel in 1 M HCl using gravimetric, ac impedance, polarization and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The experimental results show that EFE is good corrosion inhibitor and the protection efficiency is increased with the EEF concentration. The results obtained from weight loss and ac impedance studies were in reasonable agreement. Impedance experimental data revealed a frequency distribution of the capacitance, simulated as constant phase element. Polarization curves indicated that EFE is a mixed inhibitor. The corrosion inhibition was assumed to occur via adsorption of EFE molecules on the metal surface. The adsorption of the E. falcata extract was well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated ΔG ads o value showed that the corrosion inhibition of the carbon steel in 1 M HCl is mainly controlled by a physisorption process. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • EFE is a good eco-friendly inhibitor for the corrosion of carbon steel in 1 M HCl. • EFE acts as mixed-type inhibitor in 1 M HCl medium. • Weight loss, ac impedance and polarization methods are in reasonable agreement. • The adsorption of EFE is well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm

  3. Adsorption behavior of caffeine as a green corrosion inhibitor for copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Fernando Silvio de [Grupo de Estudos de Processos Eletroquimicos e Eletroanaliticos, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Giacomelli, Cristiano [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima 1000, 97119-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Goncalves, Reinaldo Simoes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Spinelli, Almir, E-mail: almir.spinelli@ufsc.br [Grupo de Estudos de Processos Eletroquimicos e Eletroanaliticos, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-12-01

    Electrochemical and impedance experiments were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of copper in aerated 0.1 mol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions in the presence of three xanthine derivatives with similar chemical structures. The corrosion rate of copper was found to increase in the presence of theophylline and theobromine and decrease in the presence of caffeine. The adsorption and inhibitory effect of caffeine on copper surfaces in aerated 0.1 mol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions were then investigated in detail by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and fluorescence experiments. The data obtained indicate that caffeine behaves as a cathodic-type inhibitor adsorbing onto the copper surface according to the Temkin isotherm, with the negative Increment G Degree-Sign {sub ads} value of - 31.1 kJ mol{sup -1} signifying a spontaneous adsorption process. The corrosion inhibition efficiency increased with caffeine concentration in the range of 1.0-10.0 mmol L{sup -1}. Furthermore, the EIS results obtained at the open-circuit potential and surface analysis (SEM, EDS and fluorescence) clearly demonstrated the adsorption of the organic compound onto the copper electrode. The contact angle measurements revealed the formation of a hydrophobic protective film. This film covers up to 72% of the total active surface, acts as a protective barrier and prevents interaction between the metal, water and oxygen molecules. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have investigated the adsorption and corrosion inhibition of caffeine on copper surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Caffeine behaves as a cathodic-type inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Caffeine adsorbs onto copper surface according to Temkin isotherm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There exists the formation of a hydrophobic film that acts as a

  4. Organic compounds as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in acidic media: correlation between inhibition efficiency and chemical structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, Elizandra C.S.; Chrisman, Erika C.A.N. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2009-12-19

    The use of inhibitors for mild steels corrosion control which are in contact with aggressive environment is an accepted practice in acid treatment of oil-wells. Organic compounds have been studied to evaluate their corrosion inhibition potential. Film-forming corrosion inhibitors, commonly used to protect oil-field equipment, can be absorbed on the steel surface to give structurally ordered layers. Therefore, the electrons should act as an important role for this adsorption. Studies reveal that organic compounds show significant inhibition efficiency. For this purpose, their molecules should contain N, O and S heteroatoms in various functional groups, long hydrocarbon linear or branched radical and anion and cation active components. However, most of these compounds are not only expensive but also toxic to living beings. According to the 'Green Chemistry' rules, corrosion inhibitors based on organic compounds should be cheap, with low toxicity and have high inhibition efficiency. In this study, the effects of some organic compounds with different groups such as amide, ether, phenyldiamine, anime and aminophenol on the corrosion behavior of mild steel in acidic media have been investigated. The experimental data were obtained by gravimetric measurements. The results show that these compounds reveal a promising corrosion inhibition where phenyldiamine is the most efficient. The effect of molecular structure on the corrosion inhibition efficiency was investigated by semi-empirical quantum chemical calculations. The electronic properties such as highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels, and LUMO-HOMO energy gap orbital density were calculated. The relations between the inhibition efficiency and some quantum parameters are discussed and correlations are proposed. The highest values for the HOMO densities were found in the vicinity nitrogen atom, indicating that it is the most probable adsorption center

  5. Synthesis and Application of Phenyl Nitrone Derivatives as Acidic and Microbial Corrosion Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrone has drawn great attention due to its wide applications as a 1,3-dipole in heterocyclic compounds synthesis and the bioactivities. With the special structure, nitrone can also be used as ligand in inorganic chemistry. Based on the current research, the nitrones are anticipated to be effective inhibitors against acidic and microbial corrosion. The aim of this work is to investigate the inhibitory action of nitrones. In this work, a series of phenyl nitrone derivatives (PN was synthesized and used as acidic and microbial corrosion inhibitors. The results indicate that several compounds show moderate to high inhibition efficiency (IE in 3% HCl. Accompanied with HMTA or BOZ, the IEs greatly increase, and the highest efficiency of 98.5% was obtained by using PN4 + BOZ. Investigation of the antibacterial activity against oilfield microorganism shows that the nitrone derivatives can inhibit SRB, IB, and TGB with moderate to high efficiency under 1,000 mg/L, which makes them potential to be used as bifunctional oilfield chemicals.

  6. The effect of functionalized polycarboxylate structures as corrosion inhibitors in a simulated concrete pore solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazayel, A. S.; Khorasani, M.; Sarabi, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the effects of polycarboxylate derivatives with different comonomers and functional groups on the control or reduction of corrosion in steel specimens were evaluated through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic analysis. A highly alkaline contaminated concrete pore solution (CPS) containing chlorides was used to simulate the pitting corrosion, and according to the results, the mechanism of inhibitive action was determined. Both the inhibition efficiency and pitting corrosion inhibition of methacrylate-copolymers were in the order of poly methacrylate-co acrylamide > poly methacrylate-co-2-acrylamido-2 methylpropane sulfonic acid > poly methacrylate-co-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. In addition, the corrosion potential of steel specimens in all studied concentrations of NaCl with different concentrations of polymethacrylate-co acrylamide (as the best inhibitor in this study) in saturated Ca(OH)2 solution showed almost an identical trend. Polymethacrylic acid-co-acrylamide showed a 92.35% inhibitor efficiency in the saturated Ca(OH)2 solution containing 1.8 wt.% chlorides and could effectively reduce the corrosion rate. Even at 3.5 wt.% of NaCl, this inhibitor could remarkably reduce the destructive effect of chloride ion attacks on the steel surface and passive film. The inhibition effect of these polymeric inhibitors seemed to be due to the formation of a barrier layer on the metal surface, approved by the well-known adsorption mechanism of organic molecules at the metal/solution interface. The results of SEM, EDS and AFM investigations were also in agreement with the outcomes of electrochemical studies.

  7. Bio-testing integral toxicity of corrosion inhibitors, biocides and oil hydrocarbons in oil-and gas-processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugunov, V.A.; Kholodenko, V.P.; Irkhina, I.A.; Fomchenkov, V.M.; Novikov, I.A. [State Research Center for Applied Microbiology, Obolensk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In recent years bioassays have been widely used for assessing levels of contamination of the environment. This is due to the fact that test-organisms provide a general response to toxicants present in samples. Based on microorganisms as test objects, it is possible to develop cheap, sensitive and rapid assays to identify environmental xenobiotics and toxicants. The objective of the research was to develop different microbiological assays for assessing integral toxicity of water environments polluted with corrosion inhibitors, biocides and hydrocarbons in oil- and gas-processing industry. Bio-luminescent, electro-orientational, osmo-optic and microorganism reducing activity assays were used for express evaluation of integral toxicity. They are found to determine promptly integral toxicity of water environments containing various pollutants (oil, oil products, corrosion inhibitors, biocides). Results conclude that the assays may be used for analyzing integral toxicity of water polluted with hydrocarbons, as well as for monitoring of water changes as a result of biodegradation of pollutants by microorganisms and their associations. Using a kit of different assays, it is also possible to evaluate ecological safety of biocides, corrosion inhibitors, and their compositions. Bioassays used as a kit are more effective than each assay individually, allowing one to get complete characterization of a reaction of bacterial test organisms to different environments. (authors)

  8. Corrosion probe. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    Over 253 million liters of high-level waste (HLW) generated from plutonium production is stored in mild steel tanks at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Corrosion monitoring of double-shell storage tanks (DSTs) is currently performed at Hanford using a combination of process knowledge and tank waste sampling and analysis. Available technologies for corrosion monitoring have progressed to a point where it is feasible to monitor and control corrosion by on-line monitoring of the corrosion process and direct addition of corrosion inhibitors. The electrochemical noise (EN) technique deploys EN-based corrosion monitoring probes into storage tanks. This system is specifically designed to measure corrosion rates and detect changes in waste chemistry that trigger the onset of pitting and cracking. These on-line probes can determine whether additional corrosion inhibitor is required and, if so, provide information on an effective end point to the corrosion inhibitor addition procedure. This report describes the technology, its performance, its application, costs, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned

  9. Inhibitor selection for internal corrosion control of pipelines. 1: Laboratory methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavinasam, S.; Revie, R.W.; Attard, M. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Materials Technology Lab.; Demoz, A.; Sun, H.; Donini, J.C.; Michaelian, K. [CANMET, Devon, Alberta (Canada). Western Research Centre

    1999-11-01

    Various laboratory methodologies to evaluate corrosion inhibitors are reviewed. Two new methodologies, high-temperature, high-pressure jet impingement (HTHPJI) and high-temperature, high-pressure rotating electrode (HTHPRE), are presented. Flow patterns and hydrodynamic parameters of rotating cage are presented.

  10. Corrosion inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ashry, El Sayed H.; El Nemr, Ahmed; Esawy, Sami A.; Ragab, Safaa

    2006-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition efficiencies of some triazole, oxadiazole and thiadiazole derivatives for steel in presence of acidic medium have been studied by using AM1, PM3, MINDO/3 and MNDO semi-empirical SCF molecular orbital methods. Geometric structures, total negative charge on the molecule (TNC), highest occupied molecular energy level (E HOMO ), lowest unoccupied molecular energy level (E LUMO ), core-core repulsion (CCR), dipole moment (μ) and linear solvation energy terms, molecular volume (V i ) and dipolar-polarization (π *), were correlated to corrosion inhibition efficiency. Four equations were proposed to calculate corrosion inhibition efficiency. The agreement with the experimental data was found to be satisfactory; the standard deviations between the calculated and experimental results ranged between ±0.03 and ±4.18. The inhibition efficiency was closely related to orbital energies (E HOMO and E LUMO ) and μ. The correlation between quantum parameters and experimental inhibition efficiency has been validated by single point calculations for the semi-empirical AM1 structures using B3LYP/6-31G** as a higher level of theory. The proposed equations were applied to predict the corrosion inhibition efficiency of some related structures to select molecules of possible activity from a presumable library of compounds

  11. A Revisit to the Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum in Aqueous Alkaline Solutions by Water-Soluble Alginates and Pectates as Anionic Polyelectrolyte Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refat Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of aluminum (Al in alkaline media in presence of some natural polymer inhibitors has been reinvestigated. The inhibition action of the tested inhibitors was found to obey both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms models. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing the inhibitors concentration and decrease with increasing the temperature, suggesting physical adsorption mechanism. Factors such as the concentration and geometrical structure of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive medium, and temperature affecting the corrosion rates were examined. The kinetic parameters were evaluated, and a suitable corrosion mechanism consistent with the kinetic results obtained is suggested and discussed.

  12. Corrosion/96 conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Topics covered by this conference include: cathodic protection in natural waters; cleaning and repassivation of building HVAC systems; worldwide opportunities in flue gas desulfurization; advancements in materials technology for use in oil and gas service; fossil fuel combustion and conversion; technology of corrosion inhibitors; computers in corrosion control--modeling and information processing; recent experiences and advances of austenitic alloys; managing corrosion with plastics; corrosion measurement technology; corrosion inhibitors for concrete; refining industry; advances in corrosion control for rail and tank trailer equipment; CO 2 corrosion--mechanisms and control; microbiologically influenced corrosion; corrosion in nuclear systems; role of corrosion in boiler failures; effects of water reuse on monitoring and control technology in cooling water applications; methods and mechanisms of scale and deposit control; corrosion detection in petroleum production lines; underground corrosion control; environmental cracking--relating laboratory results and field behavior; corrosion control in reinforced concrete structures; corrosion and its control in aerospace and military hardware; injection and process addition facilities; progress reports on the results of reinspection of deaerators inspected or repaired per RP0590 criteria; near 100% volume solids coating technology and application methods; materials performance in high temperature environments containing halides; impact of toxicity studies on use of corrosion/scale inhibitors; mineral scale deposit control in oilfield related operations; corrosion in gas treating; marine corrosion; cold climate corrosion; corrosion in the pulp and paper industry; gaseous chlorine alternatives in cooling water systems; practical applications of ozone in recirculating cooling water systems; and water reuse in industry. Over 400 papers from this conference have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  13. Synthesis and characterization of a novel organic corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohammed H. Othman; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Al-Majedy, Yasmin K.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Gaaz, Tayser Sumer

    2018-03-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a novel organic corrosion inhibitor (4-(3-mercapto-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazin-6-yl)phenol), for mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) has been successfully reported for the first time. The inhibitor evaluated as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M of Hydrochloric acid solution using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) measurement techniques. Changes in the impedance parameters suggested an adsorption of the inhibitor onto the mild steel surface, leading to the formation of protective films. The results show that the inhibition efficiencies increased with increasing the concentrations of the inhibitors and decreased with increasing temperature. The maximum inhibition efficiency up to 67% at the maximum concentration 0.5 mM. This shows that those inhibitors are effective in helping to reduce and slowing down the corrosion process that occurs to mild steel with a hydrochloric acid solution by providing an organic inhibitor for the mild steel that can be weakened by increasing the temperature. The adsorption process of the synthesized organic inhibitor depends on its electronic characteristics in addition to steric effects and the nature of metal surface, temperature degree and the varying degrees of surface-site activity. The synthesized inhibitor molecules were absorbed by metal surface and follow Langmuir isotherms.

  14. Evaluation of corrosion products formed by sulfidation as inhibitors of the naphthenic corrosion of AISI-316 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria-Cala, J. A.; Montañez, N. D.; Laverde Cataño, D.; Y Peña Ballesteros, D.; Mejía, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Naphthenic acids present in oil from most regions worldwide currently stand as the main responsible for the naphthenic corrosion problems, affecting the oil-refining industry. The phenomenon of sulfidation, accompanying corrosion processes brought about by naphthenic acids in high-temperature refining plant applications, takes place when the combination of sulfidic acid (H2S) with Fe forms layers of iron sulphide (FeS) on the material surface, layers with the potential to protect the material from attack by other corrosive species like naphthenic acids. This work assessed corrosion products formed by sulfidation as inhibitors of naphthenic corrosion rate in AISI-316 steel exposed to processing conditions of simulated crude oil in a dynamic autoclave. Calculation of the sulfidation and naphthenic corrosion rates were determined by gravimetry. The surfaces of the AISI-316 gravimetric coupons exposed to acid systems; were characterized morphologically by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) combined with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). One of the results obtained was the determination of an inhibiting effect of corrosion products at 250 and 300°C, where lower corrosion rate levels were detected. For the temperature of 350°C, naphthenic corrosion rates increased due to deposition of naphthenic acids on the areas where corrosion products formed by sulfidation have lower homogeneity and stability on the surface, thus accelerating the destruction of AISI-316 steel. The above provides an initial contribution to oil industry in search of new alternatives to corrosion control by the attack of naphthenic acids, from the formation of FeS layers on exposed materials in the processing of heavy crude oils with high sulphur content.

  15. Studies on corrosion inhibitors for the cooling water system at the Heavy Water Project, Kota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, B.P.; Mehta, C.T.; Abubacker, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Heavy Water Project at Kota uses the water from the Rana Pratap Sagar Lake as coolant in the open recirculation system. In order to find suitable corrosion inhibitors for the above system, a series of laboratory experiments on corrosion inhibitors were carried out using the constructional materials of the cooling water system and a number of proprietary formulations and the results are tabulated. From the data thus generated through various laboratory experiments, the most useful ones have been recommended for application in practice. (author)

  16. Solid Obtained by Electrocoagulation of Vinasse, new Inhibitor for Acid Corrosion of Brass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ojeda-Armaignac

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of research related to obtaining a corrosion inhibitor from vinasse, whose basic advantages is the possibility of using an industrial waste from distilleries ethyl alcohol as raw material in the production of a solid corrosion inhibitor of national production by electrocoagulation, which implies import substitution and cost reductions. The inhibitory action of the solids obtained by electrocoagulation of vinasse was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization techniques and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the efficiencies of inhibition against the brass into the electrolyte solution were very good, behaving as an efficient inhibitor in acid medium. Inhibition efficiency increases with increasing concentration. The maximum inhibition efficiency was of 93,43 % for the concentration of 2 mg / L of vinasse. Thermodynamic parameters were obtained at the study temperature. It was found that the adsorption of inhibitor molecules on the surface of brass obey the Langmuir isotherm, and the values of adsorción free energy of - 23.06 kJ mol-1 show the spontaneity of adsorption and indicate that the inhibitor is strongly adsorbed on the surface of brass, study of potentiodynamic polarization curves confirmed that it is a mixed type inhibitor, with an anode predominance and there is a predominant mechanism of physical adsorption combined with a chemisorption.

  17. Study of New Thiazole Based Pyridine Derivatives as Potential Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel: Theoretical and Experimental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Chaitra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new thiazole based pyridine derivatives 5-(4-methoxy-phenyl-thiazole-2-carboxylic acid pyridin-2-ylmethylene-hydrazide (2-MTPH, 5-(4-methoxy-phenyl-thiazole-2-carboxylic acid pyridin-3-ylmethylene-hydrazide (3-MTPH, and 5-(4-methoxy-phenyl-thiazole-2-carboxylic acid pyridin-4-ylmethylene-hydrazide (4-MTPH were synthesized and characterized. Corrosion inhibition performance of the prepared compounds on mild steel in 0.5 M HCl was studied using gravimetric, potentiodynamic polarisation, and electrochemical impedance techniques. Inhibition efficiency has direct relation with concentration and inverse relation with temperature. Thermodynamic parameters for dissolution and adsorption process were evaluated. Polarisation study reveals that compounds act as both anodic and cathodic inhibitors with emphasis on the former. Impedance study shows that decrease in charge transfer resistance is responsible for effective protection of steel surface by inhibitors. The film formed on the mild steel was investigated using FTIR, SEM, and EDX spectroscopy. Quantum chemical parameters like EHOMO, ELUMO, ΔE, hardness, softness, and ionisation potential were calculated. Higher value of EHOMO and lower value of ΔE indicate the better inhibition efficiency of the compounds. Lower ionisation potential of inhibitors indicates higher reactivity and lower chemical stability.

  18. Characterisation by Impedance Spectroscopy and Capacitance-Voltage of an EMIS Sensor Functionalized by Catalase for Nitrite Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZAZOUA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Impedance spectroscopy and capacitance-voltage (C-V methods are a rapidly developing electrochemical technique for the characterization of biomaterial–functionalized electrodes and biocatalytic transformations on the electrodes surface, and specifically for the transduction of biosensing events at electrodes. Such techniques have been used in our work as a tool for the characterization of a new nitrite biosensor for environmental applications based on the immobilization of catalase on insulator-semiconductor (IS systems (p-Si/SiO2/Si3N4. The principle of the developed biosensor includes the following: Catalase catalyzed the breakdown of H2O2 into H2O and O2. Nitrite was selected as an inhibitor of catalase. Under optimal conditions, i.e. buffer capacity corresponding to 3 mM phosphate buffer, the catalase enzyme insulator semiconductor sensors shows a high sensitivity to nitrite detection. In both cases, the responses of these biosensors based on nitrite additions are good with the detection limit around 10-11 M. It is expected that such an original and promising concept of inhibitor-based biosensors based on reactivation by inhibitive effects, will be useful for the development of environmental smart biosensors based on the integration of ENFET with the corresponding instrumentation in the same silicon chip.

  19. Yttrium 3-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-propenoate used as inhibitor against copper alloy corrosion in 0.1 M NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Nguyen Dang; Thang, Vo Quoc; Hoai, Nguyen To; Hien, Pham Van

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Yttrium 3-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-propenoate has been studied as an effective corrosion inhibitor for copper. • A high inhibition performance is attributed to the forming protective inhibiting deposits. • Yttrium 3-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-propenoate mitigates corrosion by promoting random distribution of minor anodes. - Abstract: Yttrium 3-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-propenoate has been studied as an effective corrosion inhibitor for copper alloy in 0.1 M chloride solution. The results show that the surface of copper alloy coupons exposed to solutions containing 0.45 mM yttrium 3-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-propenoate had no signs of corrosion attack due to protective film formation, whereas the surface of copper alloy coupons exposed to non-inhibitor and lower concentrations of yttrium 3-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-propenoate containing solutions were severely corroded. A high inhibition performance is attributed to the forming protective inhibiting deposits that slow down the electrochemical corrosion reactions and mitigate corrosion by promoting random distribution of minor anodes.

  20. The influence of Desulfovibrio vulgaris on the efficiency of imidazoline as a corrosion inhibitor on low-carbon steel in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Carlos A. [Facultad de Quimica UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: gorc74@yahoo.com; Rodriguez-Gomez, Francisco J.; Genesca-Llongueras, Joan [Facultad de Quimica UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-12-01

    The action of Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Dv) during a corrosion process has been reported in literature, but the influence of imidazoline in the formation of biofilms is not clear, as well as the effect of bacteria on the efficiency of the corrosion inhibitors. The aim of this work is to determine the behavior of bacteria in the presence of imidazoline. Therefore, the growth of Dv, isolated and characterized from a morphological point of view, was monitored during 21 days, during which synthetic seawater was used as the culture medium, according to the ASTM D665-98 standard. Electrochemical noise (EN) was employed to establish the corrosion type generated by the microorganism on an AISI 1018 steel cylinder. The attack was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In order to evaluate the efficiency of the corrosion inhibitor, Tafel extrapolation was used; the optimum concentration of the inhibitor was used in the presence of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In general, two forms of corrosion were observed: localized corrosion (in the LAG phase) and mixed corrosion (in the LOG phase)

  1. The influence of Desulfovibrio vulgaris on the efficiency of imidazoline as a corrosion inhibitor on low-carbon steel in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Carlos A.; Rodriguez-Gomez, Francisco J.; Genesca-Llongueras, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The action of Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Dv) during a corrosion process has been reported in literature, but the influence of imidazoline in the formation of biofilms is not clear, as well as the effect of bacteria on the efficiency of the corrosion inhibitors. The aim of this work is to determine the behavior of bacteria in the presence of imidazoline. Therefore, the growth of Dv, isolated and characterized from a morphological point of view, was monitored during 21 days, during which synthetic seawater was used as the culture medium, according to the ASTM D665-98 standard. Electrochemical noise (EN) was employed to establish the corrosion type generated by the microorganism on an AISI 1018 steel cylinder. The attack was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In order to evaluate the efficiency of the corrosion inhibitor, Tafel extrapolation was used; the optimum concentration of the inhibitor was used in the presence of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In general, two forms of corrosion were observed: localized corrosion (in the LAG phase) and mixed corrosion (in the LOG phase)

  2. Benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxybenzoyl hydrazone derivatives as inhibitors of the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, A S; Gouda, M M; El-Rahman, S I

    2000-05-01

    The effect of benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxybenzoyl hydrazone derivatives on the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid has been investigated using thermometric and polarization techniques. The inhibitive efficiency ranking of these compounds from both techniques was found to be: 2>3>1>4. The inhibitors acted as mixed-type inhibitors but the cathode is more polarized. The relative inhibitive efficiency of these compounds has been explained on the basis of structure of the inhibitors and their mode of interaction at the surface. Results show that these additives are adsorbed on an aluminium surface according to the Langmuir isotherm. Polarization measurements indicated that the rate of corrosion of aluminium rapidly increases with temperature over the range 30-55 degrees C both in the absence and in the presence of inhibitors. Some thermodynamic data of the adsorption process are calculated and discussed.

  3. Evolution of the corrosion process of AA 2024-T3 in an alkaline NaCl solution with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate and lanthanum chloride inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Biner; Wang, Yishan; Zuo, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Inhibition effect of LaCl 3 and SDBS for AA 2024 in NaCl solution (pH 10) was studied. • At the beginning the active polarization behavior of the alloy changed to passivation. • The passive behavior gradually disappeared with time and pitting happened at S-phases. • The compounded inhibitors showed good inhibition but cannot totally inhibit pitting. • The adsorption of SDBS played the key role for inhibition to the corrosion process. - Abstract: The evolution of the corrosion process of AA 2024-T3 in 0.58 g L −1 NaCl solution (pH 10) with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) and lanthanum chloride inhibitors was studied with electrochemical and surface analysis methods. With the addition of the compounded LaCl 3 and SDBS inhibitors, in the early stage the polarization behavior of AA 2024-T3 changed from active corrosion to passivation, and both the general corrosion and pitting corrosion were inhibited. However, with the immersion time extended, the passive behavior gradually disappeared and pitting happened at the Cu-rich phases. After 24 h immersion, the compounded inhibitors still showed good inhibition for general corrosion, but the polarization curve again presented the characteristic similar to active polarization. The compounded inhibitors also inhibited the pitting corrosion to some extent. The acting mechanism of the inhibitors SDBS and La 3 Cl on the corrosion process of AA 2024-T3 in the test solution was discussed.

  4. Screening and Quantification of Aliphatic Primary Alkyl Corrosion Inhibitor Amines in Water Samples by Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jjunju, Fred P M; Maher, Simon; Damon, Deidre E; Barrett, Richard M; Syed, S U; Heeren, Ron M A; Taylor, Stephen; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K

    2016-01-19

    Direct analysis and identification of long chain aliphatic primary diamine Duomeen O (n-oleyl-1,3-diaminopropane), corrosion inhibitor in raw water samples taken from a large medium pressure water tube boiler plant water samples at low LODs (corrosion inhibitors in an industrial water boiler plant and other related samples in the water treatment industry. This approach was applied for the analysis of three complex water samples including feedwater, condensate water, and boiler water, all collected from large medium pressure (MP) water tube boiler plants, known to be dosed with varying amounts of polyamine and amine corrosion inhibitor components. Polyamine chemistry is widely used for example in large high pressure (HP) boilers operating in municipal waste and recycling facilities to prevent corrosion of metals. The samples used in this study are from such a facility in Coventry waste treatment facility, U.K., which has 3 × 40 tonne/hour boilers operating at 17.5 bar.

  5. Corrosion resistance of API 5L grade B steel with taro leaf (Colocasia esculenta) addition as corrosion inhibitor in HCl 0.1 M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Yulinda; Priyotomo, Gadang

    2018-05-01

    Taro leaf (Colocasia esculenta) has the potential to be used as a corrosion inhibitor because it has a substance called polyphenol that binds to the hydroxyl group and essential amino acids. Taro leaf extract is taken by maceration method. In this study, the specimen was steel API 5L grade B that would measured the corosivity in 0.1 M HCl solution + taro leaf extract with a specific concentration (in ppm). Tests conducted by FTIR method taro leaves, potentiodynamic polarization (Tafel) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Based on the results revealed that there is a phenolic group in taro leaves, which has polyphenol content 0.053 % (mg/100 mg). The optimum composition of taro leaf extract is 4000 ppm which generate corrosion rate value of 30.22 mpy and efficiency inhibitor performance of 72.7 %. In this study, the Kads value of taro leaf extract ranged from 0.885 to greater than Kads value of ginger extract in hydrochloric acid solution. The high Kads values indicate a more efficient process of adsorption and better value of inhibition efficiency.

  6. Baphia nitida Leaves Extract as a Green Corrosion Inhibitor for the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acidic Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Njoku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibiting effect of Baphia nitida (BN leaves extract on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M H2SO4 and 2 M HCl was studied at different temperatures using gasometric and weight loss techniques. The results showed that the leaves extract is a good inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in both acid media and better performances were obtained in 2 M HCl solutions. Inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration and decreasing temperature. The addition of halides to the extract enhanced the inhibition efficiency due to synergistic effect which improved adsorption of cationic species present in the extract and was in the order KCl < KBr < KI suggesting possible role of radii of the halide ions. Thermodynamic parameters determined showed that the adsorption of BN on the metal surface is an exothermic and spontaneous process and that the adsorption was via a physisorption mechanism.

  7. Active corrosion protection performance of an epoxy coating applied on the mild steel modified with an eco-friendly sol-gel film impregnated with green corrosion inhibitor loaded nanocontainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, M.; Shahrabi, T.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2018-05-01

    In this study the corrosion resistance, active protection, and cathodic disbonding performance of an epoxy coating were improved through surface modification of steel by a hybrid sol-gel system filled with green corrosion inhibitors loaded nanocontainer as intermediate layer on mild steel substrate. The green inhibitor loaded nanocontainers (GIN) were used to induce active inhibition performance in the protective coating system. The corrosion protection performance of the coated panels was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), salt spray, and cathodic disbonding tests. It was observed that the corrosion inhibition performance of the coated mild steel panels was significantly improved by utilization of active multilayer coating system. The inhibitor release from nanocontainers at the epoxy-silane film/steel interface resulted in the anodic and cathodic reactions restriction, leading to the lower coating delamination from the substrate and corrosion products progress. Also, the active inhibition performance of the coating system was approved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis on the panels with artificial defects. The inhibitive agents were released to the scratch region and blocked the active sites on the metal surface.

  8. Application of calculated NMR parameters, aromaticity indices and wavefunction properties for evaluation of corrosion inhibition efficiency of pyrazine inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Hadi; Manzetti, Sergio; Dargahi, Maryam; Roonasi, Payman; Khalilnia, Zahra

    2018-01-01

    In light of the importance of developing novel corrosion inhibitors, a series of quantum chemical calculations were carried out to evaluate 15N chemical shielding CS tensors as well as aromaticity indexes including NICS, HOMA, FLU, and PDI of three pyrazine derivatives, 2-methylpyrazine (MP), 2-aminopyrazine (AP) and 2-amino-5-bromopyrazine (ABP). The NICS parameters have been shown in previous studies to be paramount to the prediction of anti-corrosion properties, and have been combined here with HOMA, FLU and PDI and detailed wavefunction analysis to determine the effects from bromination and methylation on pyrazine. The results show that the electron density around the nitrogens, represented by CS tensors, can be good indicators of anti-corrosion efficiency. Additionally, the NICS, FLU and PDI, as aromaticity indicators of molecule, are well correlated with experimental corrosion inhibition efficiencies of the studied inhibitors. Bader sampling and detailed wavefunction analysis shows that the major effects from bromination on the pyrazine derivatives affect the Laplacian of the electron density of the ring, delocalizing the aromatic electrons of the carbon atoms into lone pairs and increasing polarization of the Laplacian values. This feature is well agreement with empirical studies, which show that ABP is the most efficient anti-corrosion compound followed by AP and MP, a property which can be attributed and predicted by derivation of the Laplacian of the electron density of the ring nuclei. This study shows the importance of devising DFT methods for development of new corrosion inhibitors, and the strength of electronic and nuclear analysis, and depicts most importantly how corrosion inhibitors composed of aromatic moieties may be modified to increase anti-corrosive properties.

  9. Curcuminoid Compounds Isolated from Curcuma domestica Val. as Corrosion Inhibitor Towards Carbon Steel in 1 % NaCl Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandias, D.; Bundjali, B.; Wahyuningrum, D.

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel in 1 % NaCl solution by curcuminoids has been studied at 27 degree Celsius using weight loss and electrochemical method. The determination of corrosion inhibition efficiency (% eff) utilising weight loss method at the concentration of 80 ppm showed the best result of 78.70 % for third isolated fraction. Further determination utilising Tafel method showed the following results: raw pure extract of curcuminoid gave 89.88 % at 50 ppm; the first isolated fraction gave 46.50 % at 80 ppm; the second isolated fraction gave 44.83 % at 30 ppm; and the third isolated fraction gave 92.44 % at 70 ppm. Based on the analysis of Tafel extrapolation curve, the raw pure extract and the third fraction of curcuminoid acted as anodic inhibitor, whereas the first and the second fraction performed as cathodic inhibitors. The evaluations of synergism parameter (S θ ) indicate that the enhancement in inhibition efficiency towards raw pure extract was caused by the presence of second and third fractions as cathodic and anodic inhibitors. The contribution of steric hindrance of methoxy groups in curcuminoid structure causes the decrease in curcuminoid activity to be adsorbed on the electrode (carbon steel) surface. (author)

  10. Evaluation of some phenothiazine derivatives as corrosion inhibitors for bronze in weakly acidic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostan, Roxana; Varvara, Simona; Găină, Luiza; Mureşan, Liana Maria

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phenothiazine derivatives are efficient inhibitors for bronze corrosion. ► Potentiodynamic polarization and EIS were used to elucidate inhibition mechanism. ► Adsorption of phenothiazine derivatives on bronze surface obeys Langmuir isotherm. ► A correlation between energy gaps and inhibition efficiencies values was obtained. - Abstract: Four phenothiazine derivatives have been tested as inhibitors for bronze corrosion in a solution containing Na 2 SO 4 and NaHCO 3 (pH 5). Electrochemical investigations (potentiodynamic polarisation and impedance measurements) revealed that all phenothiazine derivatives exert a protective effect against bronze corrosion and, in some cases their inhibition efficiency exceeds 90% at concentration level as low as 75 μM. An adherent layer of organic molecules chemisorbed on bronze surface is responsible for the protective effect of the investigated compounds. Adsorption of phenothiazine derivatives on bronze obeys Langmuir isotherm. Correlation between quantum chemical calculations and inhibition efficiency of the investigated compounds was discussed using DFT method.

  11. Opuntia ficus-indica Extract as Green Corrosion Inhibitor for Carbon Steel in 1 M HCl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Flores-De los Ríos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Opuntia ficus-indica (Nopal as green corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution has been investigated by using weight loss tests, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR analysis were performed. The inhibitor concentrations used ranged from 0 to 300 ppm at 25, 40, and 60°C. Results indicated the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing extract concentration and decreases with the temperature, and the inhibitor acted as a cathodic-type inhibitor which is physically absorbed onto the steel surface. In fact, the adsorption of the inhibitor on the steel surface follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, indicating monolayer adsorption. The presence of heteroatoms such as C, N, and O and OH groups were responsible for the corrosion inhibition.

  12. A Multifunctional Smart Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion is a destructive process that often causes failure in metallic components and structures. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on micro-encapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of other existing microcapsules designs, the corrosion controlled release function that allows the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand only when and where needed. Corrosion indicators as well as corrosion inhibitors have been incorporated into microcapsules, blended into several paint systems, and tested for corrosion detection and protection efficacy. This

  13. Electrochemical evaluation of antibacterial drugs as environment-friendly inhibitors for corrosion of carbon steel in HCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golestani, Gh.; Shahidi, M., E-mail: shahidi1965@gmail.com; Ghazanfari, D.

    2014-07-01

    The effect of penicillin G, ampicillin and amoxicillin drugs on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel (ASTM 1015) in 1.0 mol L⁻¹ hydrochloric acid solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical noise (EN) techniques. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration. The effect of temperature on the rate of corrosion in the absence and presence of these drugs was also studied. Some thermodynamic parameters were computed from the effect of temperature on corrosion and inhibition processes. Adsorption of these inhibitors was found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. There was a case of mixed mode of adsorption here but while penicillin was adsorbed mainly through chemisorption, two other drugs were adsorbed mainly through physisorption. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements indicated that the inhibitors were of mixed type. In addition, this paper suggests that the electrochemical noise (EN) technique under open circuit conditions as the truly noninvasive electrochemical method can be employed for the quantitative evaluation of corrosion inhibition. This was done by using the standard deviation of partial signal (SDPS) for calculation of the amount of noise charges at the particular interval of frequency, thereby obtaining the inhibition efficiency (IE) of an inhibitor. These IE values showed a reasonable agreement with those obtained from potentiodynamic polarization and EIS measurements.

  14. Electrochemical evaluation of antibacterial drugs as environment-friendly inhibitors for corrosion of carbon steel in HCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golestani, Gh.; Shahidi, M.; Ghazanfari, D.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of penicillin G, ampicillin and amoxicillin drugs on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel (ASTM 1015) in 1.0 mol L −1 hydrochloric acid solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical noise (EN) techniques. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration. The effect of temperature on the rate of corrosion in the absence and presence of these drugs was also studied. Some thermodynamic parameters were computed from the effect of temperature on corrosion and inhibition processes. Adsorption of these inhibitors was found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. There was a case of mixed mode of adsorption here but while penicillin was adsorbed mainly through chemisorption, two other drugs were adsorbed mainly through physisorption. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements indicated that the inhibitors were of mixed type. In addition, this paper suggests that the electrochemical noise (EN) technique under open circuit conditions as the truly noninvasive electrochemical method can be employed for the quantitative evaluation of corrosion inhibition. This was done by using the standard deviation of partial signal (SDPS) for calculation of the amount of noise charges at the particular interval of frequency, thereby obtaining the inhibition efficiency (IE) of an inhibitor. These IE values showed a reasonable agreement with those obtained from potentiodynamic polarization and EIS measurements.

  15. Gallic acid as a corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel in chemical decontamination formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keny, S.J.; Kumbhar, A.G.; Thinaharan, C.; Venkateswaran, G.

    2008-01-01

    Gallic acid (GA) was found to provide corrosion inhibition to carbon steel (CS) at 4.25 mM concentration. Inherent stability to radiation degradation as compared to other reductant and coupled with its anionic nature with respect to removal using ion exchange column makes it suitable for using as both reductant as well as corrosion inhibitor in dilute decontamination formulations operating in the regenerative mode. A formulation containing CA (1.4 mM), EDTA/NTA (1.4 mM), AA (1.0-2.0 mM) and GA (4.25 mM) was found to be more efficient in dissolving hematite and providing 31% corrosion inhibition (passivation) to the CS

  16. Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in Sulfuric Acid Solution by New Schiff Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Al-Amiery

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of Schiff base derived from 4-aminoantipyrine, namely 2-(1,5-dimethyl-4-(2-methylbenzylideneamino-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H-ylidene hydrazinecarbothioamide as a corrosion inhibitor on mild steel in 1.0 M H2SO4 was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, potentiodynamic polarization (PD and electrochemical frequently modulation (EFM in addition to the adsorption isotherm, corrosion kinetic parameters and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results showed that this inhibitor behaved as a good corrosion inhibitor, even at low concentration, with a mean efficiency of 93% and, also, a reduction of the inhibition efficiency as the solution temperature increases. A polarization technique and EIS were tested for different concentrations and different temperatures to reveal that this compound is adsorbed on the mild steel, therefore blocking the active sites, and the adsorption follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The excellent inhibition effectiveness of 2-(1,5-dimethyl-4-(2-methylbenzylideneamino-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H-ylidenehydrazinecarbothioamide was also verified by scanning electron microscope (SEM.

  17. Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in Sulfuric Acid Solution by New Schiff Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Kadihum, Abdulhadi; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; How, Chong K.; Junaedi, Sutiana

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of Schiff base derived from 4-aminoantipyrine, namely 2-(1,5-dimethyl-4-(2-methylbenzylidene)amino)-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H)-ylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide as a corrosion inhibitor on mild steel in 1.0 M H2SO4 was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization (PD) and electrochemical frequently modulation (EFM) in addition to the adsorption isotherm, corrosion kinetic parameters and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that this inhibitor behaved as a good corrosion inhibitor, even at low concentration, with a mean efficiency of 93% and, also, a reduction of the inhibition efficiency as the solution temperature increases. A polarization technique and EIS were tested for different concentrations and different temperatures to reveal that this compound is adsorbed on the mild steel, therefore blocking the active sites, and the adsorption follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The excellent inhibition effectiveness of 2-(1,5-dimethyl-4-(2-methylbenzylidene)amino)-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H)-ylidene)hydrazinecarbothioamide was also verified by scanning electron microscope (SEM). PMID:28788488

  18. Kinetics of Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum in Acidic Media by Water-Soluble Natural Polymeric Pectates as Anionic Polyelectrolyte Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Refat M; Zaafarany, Ishaq A

    2013-06-17

    Corrosion inhibition of aluminum (Al) in hydrochloric acid by anionic polyeletrolyte pectates (PEC) as a water-soluble natural polymer polysaccharide has been studied using both gasometric and weight loss techniques. The results drawn from these two techniques are comparable and exhibit negligible differences. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration and decrease with increasing temperature. The inhibition action of PEC on Al metal surface was found to obey the Freundlich isotherm. Factors such as the concentration and geometrical structure of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive medium, and temperature affecting the corrosion rates were examined. The kinetic parameters were evaluated and a suitable corrosion mechanism consistent with the kinetic results is discussed in the paper.

  19. Benzotriazole as an inhibitor of brass corrosion in chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosec, Tadeja; Milosev, Ingrid; Pihlar, Boris

    2007-01-01

    The current research explores the formation of protective layers on copper, zinc and copper-zinc (Cu-10Zn and Cu-40Zn) alloys in chloride solution containing benzotriazole (BTAH), by use of electrochemical techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrochemical reactions and surface products formed at the open circuit potential and as a function of the potential range are discussed. The addition of benzotriazole to aerated, near neutral 0.5 M NaCl solution affects the dissolution of copper, zinc, Cu-10Zn and Cu-40Zn alloys. The research also compares the inhibition efficiency and Gibbs adsorption energies of the investigated process. Benzotriazole, generally known as an inhibitor of copper corrosion is also shown to be an efficient inhibitor for copper-zinc alloys and zinc metal. The surface layer formed on alloys in BTAH-inhibited solution comprised both oxide and polymer components, namely Cu 2 O and ZnO oxides, and Cu(I)-BTA and Zn(II)-BTA polymers. The formation of this mixed copper-zinc oxide polymer surface film provides an effective barrier against corrosion of both metal components in chloride solution

  20. Evaluation of self-healing ability in protective coatings modified with combinations of layered double hydroxides and cerium molibdate nanocontainers filled with corrosion inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montemor, M.F.; Snihirova, D.V.; Taryba, M.G.; Lamaka, S.V.; Kartsonakis, I.A.; Balaskas, A.C.; Kordas, G.C.; Tedim, J.; Kuznetsova, A.; Zheludkevich, M.L.; Ferreira, M.G.S.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a strong demand on the search of thinner, but more effective organic coatings for corrosion protection of metallic substrates, like galvanised steel, used in the automotive industry. In order to guarantee effective corrosion protection of these coatings, and because chromate-based pigments cannot be used, one of the most attractive strategies consists on the modification of the organic matrix with nano-additives filled with corrosion inhibitors, which can be released to the active sites. In this work, two different nano-additives are explored as potential self-healing materials for the development of active protective coatings. These additives are layered double hydroxides and cerium molybdate hollow nanospheres loaded with mercaptobenzothiazole, as a corrosion inhibitor. These additives were added to epoxy primers, individually, or combining the two nanoadditives in the same layer. The electrochemical behaviour and the potential of self-healing ability were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning vibrating electrode technique and scanning ion-selective electrode technique. The results reveal that both types of nanocontainers can provide effective corrosion inhibition on artificial induced defects, at different stages of the degradation process. Moreover, the results also show that there is a synergistic effect concerning corrosion inhibition and self-healing potential when a mixture of the two nanocontainers is used. The mechanism of self healing is presented and discussed in terms of effect of organic inhibitor and role of the nanocontainers, including effect of cerium ions released from cerium molibdate nanoparticles.

  1. Initiation and inhibition of pitting corrosion on reinforcing steel under natural corrosion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El Wanees, S., E-mail: s_wanees@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Tabuk (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519 (Egypt); Bahgat Radwan, A. [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha 2713 (Qatar); Alsharif, M.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Tabuk (Saudi Arabia); Abd El Haleem, S.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519 (Egypt)

    2017-04-01

    Initiation and inhibition of pitting corrosion on reinforcing steel in saturated, naturally aerated Ca(OH){sub 2} solutions, under natural corrosion conditions, are followed through measurements of corrosion current, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and SEM investigation. Induction period for pit initiation and limiting corrosion current for pit propagation are found to depend on aggressive salt anion and cation-types, as well as, concentration. Ammonium chlorides and sulfates are more corrosive than the corresponding sodium salts. Benzotriazole and two of its derivatives are found to be good inhibitors for pitting corrosion of reinforcing steel. Adsorption of these compounds follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic functions ΔE{sup ∗}, ΔH{sup ∗} and ΔS{sup ∗} for pitting corrosion processes in the absence and presence of inhibitor are calculated and discussed. - Highlights: • Cl{sup −} and SO{sub 4} {sup 2-} induce pitting corrosion on passive reinforcing steel. • Initiation and propagation of pitting depend on cation and anion types. • Inhibition is based on adsorption according to Langmuir isotherm.

  2. Investigation on the Effect of Green Inhibitors for Corrosion Protection of Mild Steel in 1 M NaOH Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premjith Jayakumar Ramakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline corrosion is one of the main issues faced by the industries. The main chemicals abundantly used in industries are NaOH, H3PO4, HCl, and H2SO4. Corrosion control of metals has technical, economical, environmental, and aesthetical importance. The use of inhibitors is one of the best options to protect metals and alloys against corrosion. The corrosion protection of mild steel in 1 M NaOH solution by mix of Henna/Zeolite powder was studied at different temperatures by weight loss technique. Adsorption, activation, and statistical studies were addressed in this work. Adsorption studies showed that inhibitor adsorbed on metal surface according to Langmuir isotherm. Surface studies were performed by using UV-spectra and SEM. The adsorption of inhibitor on the steel surface was found to obey Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. The inhibition efficiency increased with increasing concentration of the inhibitor in NaOH medium. Inhibition mechanism is deduced from the concentration and temperature dependence of the inhibition efficiency, Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm, SEM, and UV spectroscopic results.

  3. Role of xanthine oxidoreductase in the anti-thrombotic effects of nitrite in rats in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramkowski, K; Leszczynska, A; Przyborowski, K; Kaminski, T; Rykaczewska, U; Sitek, B; Zakrzewska, A; Proniewski, B; Smolenski, R T; Chabielska, E; Buczko, W; Chlopicki, S

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying nitrite-induced effects on thrombosis and hemostasis in vivo are not clear. The goal of the work described here was to investigate the role of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in the anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic activities of nitrite in rats in vivo. Arterial thrombosis was induced electrically in rats with renovascular hypertension by partial ligation of the left renal artery. Sodium nitrite (NaNO2, 0.17 mmol/kg twice daily for 3 days, p.o) was administered with or without one of the XOR-inhibitors: allopurinol (ALLO) and febuxostat (FEB) (100 and 5 mg/kg, p.o., for 3 days). Nitrite treatment (0.17 mmol/kg), which was associated with a significant increase in NOHb, nitrite/nitrate plasma concentration, resulted in a substantial decrease in thrombus weight (TW) (0.48 ± 0.03 mg vs. vehicle [VEH] 0.88 ± 0.08 mg, p < 0.001) without a significant hypotensive effect. The anti-thrombotic effect of nitrite was partially reversed by FEB (TW = 0.63 ± 0.06 mg, p < 0.05 vs. nitrites), but not by ALLO (TW = 0.43 ± 0.02 mg). In turn, profound anti-platelet effect of nitrite measured ex vivo using collagen-induced whole-blood platelet aggregation (70.5 ± 7.1% vs. VEH 100 ± 4.5%, p < 0.05) and dynamic thromboxaneB2 generation was fully reversed by both XOR-inhibitors. In addition, nitrite decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentration (0.47 ± 0.13 ng/ml vs. VEH 0.62 ± 0.04 ng/ml, p < 0.05) and FEB/ALLO reversed this effect. In vitro the anti-platelet effect of nitrite (1 mM) was reversed by FEB (0.1 mM) under hypoxia (0.5%O2) and normoxia (20%O2). Nitrite treatment had no effect on coagulation parameters. In conclusion, the nitrite-induced anti-platelet effect in rats in vivo is mediated by XOR, but XOR does not fully account for the anti-thrombotic effects of nitrite.

  4. Acute, Sub-lethal Cyanide Poisoning in Mice is Ameliorated by Nitrite Alone: Complications Arising from Concomitant Administration of Nitrite and Thiosulfate as an Antidotal Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambal, Leah K.; Swanson, Megan R.; Yuan, Quan; Weitz, Andrew C.; Li, Hui-Hua; Pitt, Bruce R.; Pearce, Linda L.; Peterson, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Sodium nitrite alone is shown to ameliorate sub-lethal cyanide toxicity in mice when given from ~1 hour before until 20 minutes after the toxic dose as demonstrated by the recovery of righting ability. An optimum dose (12 mg/kg) was determined to significantly relieve cyanide toxicity (5.0 mg/kg) when administered to mice intraperitoneally. Nitrite so administered was shown to rapidly produce NO in the bloodsteam as judged by the dose dependent appearance of EPR signals attributable to nitrosylhemoglobin and methemoglobin. It is argued that antagonism of cyanide inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by NO is the crucial antidotal activity rather than the methemoglobin-forming action of nitrite. Concomitant addition of sodium thiosulfate to nitrite-treated blood resulted in the detection of sulfidomethemoblobin by EPR spectroscopy. Sulfide is a product of thiosulfate hydrolysis and, like cyanide, is known to be a potent inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase; the effects of the two inhibitors being essentially additive under standard assay conditions, rather than dominated by either one. The findings afford a plausible explanation for an observed detrimental effect in mice associated with the use of the standard nitrite-thiosulfate combination therapy at sub-lethal levels of cyanide intoxication. PMID:21534623

  5. Control of stress corrosion cracking in storage tanks containing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrejcin, R.S.; Rideout, S.P.; Donovan, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Stress corrosion of carbon steel storage tanks containing alkaline nitrate radioactive waste, at the Savannah River Plant is controlled by specification of limits on waste composition and temperature. Cases of cracking have been observed in the primary steel shell of tanks designed and built before 1960 that were attributed to a combination of high residual stresses from fabrication welding and aggressiveness of fresh wastes from the reactor fuel reprocessing plants. The fresh wastes have the highest concentration of nitrate, which has been shown to be the cracking agent. Also as the waste solutions age and are reduced in volume by evaporation of water, nitrite and hydroxide ions become more concentrated and inhibit stress corrosion. Thus, by providing a heel of aged evaporated waste in tanks that receive fresh waste, concentrations of the inhibitor ions are maintained within specified ranges to protect against nitrate cracking. Tanks designed and built since 1960 have been made of steels with greater resistance to stress corrosion; these tanks have also been heat treated after fabrication to relieve residual stresses from construction operations. Temperature limits are also specified to protect against stress corrosion at elevated temperatures

  6. Propolis as a green corrosion inhibitor for bronze in weakly acidic solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvara, Simona; Bostan, Roxana; Bobis, Otilia; Găină, Luiza; Popa, Florin; Mena, Vicente; Souto, Ricardo M.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, the inhibitive action of natural propolis on bronze corrosion in a weakly acidic solution containing Na2SO4 and NaHCO3 at pH 5 was evaluated using multiscale electrochemical techniques, namely potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning vibrating electrode technique measurements. The major constituents of propolis were identified by HPLC. Surface characterization was performed by SEM-EDX and AFM analysis. Experiments were performed as a function of the propolis concentration and immersion time in the corrosive electrolyte. The obtained results showed that propolis presents good anticorrosive properties on bronze, acting as a mixed-type inhibitor, but its protective effectiveness is time-dependent. The highest inhibiting efficiency of 98.9% was obtained in the presence of 100 ppm propolis, after about 12 h of exposure to inhibitor-containing electrolyte through the stabilization of Cu2O on the bronze surface. The inhibitive properties of propolis on bronze corrosion are likely due to the adsorption of its main constituents (flavonoids and phenolic compounds), through the oxygen atoms in their functional groups and aromatic rings, which have been evidenced by FT-IR spectra. The adsorption of propolis on bronze was found to follow Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  7. Utilization of Tahongai stem bark (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) extract as corrosion inhibitor on API 5L steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizky, Yoel; Novita, Eli; Rinda, Shaimah; Sulistijono, Triana, Yunita

    2018-04-01

    Tahongai (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) is one of herbal plant cultivated in Kalimantan. Tahongai stem bark extract (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) is known containing antioxidant to prevent cancer cell growing, therefore it is expected to become a good organic corrosion inhibitor. Tests conducted in this study were: DPPH to prove the content of antioxidant compounds in Tahongai woods (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) from which IC50 number is found to be 153.78 µg/mL, indicating intermediate power, Fourier Transform Infrared Specroscopy (FTIR) to determine the functional groups and compounds in Tahongai stem bark extract (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) and suspected that flavonoid compound contained in extract, Open Circuit Potential (OCP) to obtain corrosion rate data and found that the slowest corrosion occurred on 400 ppm (30 days) with corrosion rate 8,74 × 10-4 mm/year. The most efficient inhibitor found in 400 ppm (30 days) with 92,063%.

  8. A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott t.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of existing microcapsulation designs, the corrosion controlled release function that triggers the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand, only when and where needed. Microencapsulation of self-healing agents for autonomous repair of mechanical damage to the coating is also being pursued. Corrosion indicators, corrosion inhibitors, as well as self-healing agents, have been encapsulated and dispersed into several paint systems to test the corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing properties of the coating. Key words: Corrosion, coating, autonomous corrosion control, corrosion indication, corrosion inhibition, self-healing coating, smart coating, multifunctional coating, microencapsulation.

  9. Application of a cosmetic additive as an eco-friendly inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in HCl solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Liu Li; Mo, Shi; Lei, Jing Lei; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2016-07-15

    The use of the cosmetic ingredient cocamidopropylamine oxide (CAO) to inhibit the corrosion of steel in 0.5mol/LHCl is investigated. Electrochemical and weight loss methods were used to evaluate the inhibiting effect of CAO and the influences of inhibitor concentration and temperature were determined. It was found that CAO acted as a mix-type inhibitor and was adsorbed chemically onto the steel in HCl solution, and the maximum inhibition efficiency was found at critical micelle concentration (CMC) of CAO in tested corrosive media. Moreover, it was speculated that relationships of the two adsorption sites of the inhibitor and steel surface were different. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinetics of Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum in Acidic Media by Water-Soluble Natural Polymeric Pectates as Anionic Polyelectrolyte Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refat M. Hassan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion inhibition of aluminum (Al in hydrochloric acid by anionic polyeletrolyte pectates (PEC as a water-soluble natural polymer polysaccharide has been studied using both gasometric and weight loss techniques. The results drawn from these two techniques are comparable and exhibit negligible differences. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration and decrease with increasing temperature. The inhibition action of PEC on Al metal surface was found to obey the Freundlich isotherm. Factors such as the concentration and geometrical structure of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive medium, and temperature affecting the corrosion rates were examined. The kinetic parameters were evaluated and a suitable corrosion mechanism consistent with the kinetic results is discussed in the paper.

  11. Wet-gas transport in the Mediterranean Sea. Selection of a combined kinetic hydrate/corrosion inhibitor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zettlitzer, M. [RWE Dea AG, Wietze (Germany); Rozengard, N.; Koeckritz, V. [Technical Univ. Freiberg (Germany); Malt, E. [RWE Dea AG (Egypt)

    2007-09-13

    Raw gas will be collected on a platform in the centre of the field. Due to volume and weight constraints, condensing fluids will not be separated from the gas on the platform so that the raw gas will be transported in three-phase mode (gas, water, and condensate) via a 33 km long pipeline to a gas treatment plant. Under the calculated pipeline pressure of about 100 barg, hydrate formation is - according to the outcome of thermodynamic simulations - to be expected at temperatures of 19 C and below while the pipeline may cool down to about 15 C in winter conditions. Due to logistical, environmental and economic reasons, RWE Dea decided to inhibit hydrate formation with kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHI). As the gas also contains carbon dioxide, certain corrosivity was forecasted and addition of a corrosion inhibitor turned out to be necessary. Laboratory tests were carried out to confirm the feasibility of the concept and to define the required dosage of KHI. Service companies were contacted and several kinetic hydrate and corrosion inhibitors were screened. Experiments with the different chemicals were performed at the University of Freiberg in a high-pressure cell at the pipeline pressure of 100 barg. Hydrate formation was detected by continuous pressure registration during temperature changes and by observation through a glass window. In order to preselect the chemicals, first tests were performed with pure methane. These tests also served for calibration of the equipment with literature data and especially as an indication for the minimum chemical concentration required. A second test series was performed with synthetic gas in a composition close to that of the field gas under consideration in order to verify the results obtained with methane. Finally, the optimum kinetic hydrate inhibitor was identified as well as the required dosage concentration. Compatibility of KHI and corrosion inhibitor was experimentally proven. A further set of kinetic inhibitor tests with

  12. Electrochemical detection of nitrite based on the polythionine/carbon nanotube modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Chunyan; Chen, Jinzhuo; Nie, Zhou; Yang, Minghui; Si, Shihui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, thionine was electro-polymerized onto the surface of carbon nanotube (CNT)-modified glassy carbon (GC) to fabricate the polythionine (PTH)/CNT/GC electrode. It was found that the electro-reduction current of nitrite was enhanced greatly at the PTH/CNT/GC electrode. It may be demonstrated that PTH was used as a mediator for electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite, and CNTs as an excellent nanomaterial can improve the electron transfer between the electrode and nitrite. Therefore, based on the synergic effect of PTH and CNTs, the PTH/CNT/GC electrode was employed to detect nitrite, and the high sensitivity of 5.81 μA mM −1 , and the detection limit of 1.4 × 10 −6 M were obtained. Besides, the modified electrode showed an inherent stability, fast response time, and good anti-interference ability. These suggested that the PTH/CNT/GC electrode was favorable and reliable for the detection of nitrite. - Highlights: ► Polythionine (PTH) was used as a mediator for electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite. ► Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) improve electron transfer between the electrode and nitrite. ► The PTH/CNT/glassy carbon electrode showed excellent nitrite detection performance.

  13. Development of an Alternative Corrosion Inhibitor for the Storage of Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standring, P.N.; Hands, B.J.; Morgan, S.; Brooks, A.

    2015-01-01

    Sellafield Lt. currently stores AGR fuel in sodium hyrodxide dosed pool water to pH 11.5 to prevent susceptible AGR fuel from failing due to inter-granular attack. The exception to the above storage practice is Thorp Receipt and Storage (TR&S) where an AGR reprocessing buffer is stored in demineralised water as the expected storage durations were short term (up to 5 years). With the extended shut-down of Thorp, storage durations have increased and this has prompted a re-evaluation of the AGR storage regime in TR&S. The use of sodium hydroxide is not feasible due to a compatibility issue with aluminum components used in LWR storage furniture. The implementation process adopted by Sellafield Ltd in developing an alternative corrosion inhibitor for spent AGR fuel is outlined. The two stranded approach evaluates the impact of candidate corrosion inhibitors on fuel integrity and on plant and processes. The development studies in support of the fuel integrity strand are reported. Candidate inhibitors were first evaluated inactively in terms of their ability to arrest propagating corrosion, radiation stability, compatibility with aluminium and environmental impact. Sodium Nitrate was concluded to be the most promising inhibitor. Sodium nitrate was subsequently tested with active AGR brace material. These studies involved the use of bespoke test equipment and techniques. The studies demonstrated that propagating corrosion could be arrested using 10 ppm nitrate and showed that the resultant nitrate film required relatively high chloride concentrations to break it down over the study duration of 60 days. The development studies to date have provided the confidence that sodium nitrate has the potential to be an effective inhibitor for AGR fuel. The final phase of the fuel integrity strand involves a Lead Container Study using whole AGR pins. A staged approach is being adopted in the study programme where proceeding to a more onerous study is not progressed until positive

  14. Two pyrazine derivatives as inhibitors of the cold rolled steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Shuduan, E-mail: dengshuduan@163.co [Faculty of Wood Science and Decoration Technology, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224 (China); Li Xianghong; Fu Hui [Department of Fundamental Courses, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: Two pyrazine derivatives of 2-aminopyrazine (AP) and 2-amino-5-bromopyrazine (ABP) are good inhibitors for the corrosion of steel in 1.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition efficiency follows the order: ABP > AP. The substitution Br of ABP is the additional centre of adsorption and increases the electron density of pyrazine ring, which can facilitate its adsorption on the metal surface. For either ABP or AP, the adsorption obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Both ABP and AP act as mixed-type inhibitors. - Abstract: The inhibition effect of two pyrazine derivatives of 2-aminopyrazine (AP) and 2-amino-5-bromopyrazine (ABP) on the corrosion of cold rolled steel (CRS) in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) was studied by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The results show that both AP and ABP are good inhibitors, and inhibition efficiency follows the order: ABP > AP. The adsorption of each inhibitor on CRS surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Potentiodynamic polarization curves show that two pyrazine derivatives act as mixed-type inhibitors. EIS spectra exhibit one capacitive loop and confirm the inhibitive ability.

  15. Two pyrazine derivatives as inhibitors of the cold rolled steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Shuduan; Li Xianghong; Fu Hui

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Two pyrazine derivatives of 2-aminopyrazine (AP) and 2-amino-5-bromopyrazine (ABP) are good inhibitors for the corrosion of steel in 1.0 M HCl solution. → The inhibition efficiency follows the order: ABP > AP. The substitution Br of ABP is the additional centre of adsorption and increases the electron density of pyrazine ring, which can facilitate its adsorption on the metal surface. → For either ABP or AP, the adsorption obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. → Both ABP and AP act as mixed-type inhibitors. - Abstract: The inhibition effect of two pyrazine derivatives of 2-aminopyrazine (AP) and 2-amino-5-bromopyrazine (ABP) on the corrosion of cold rolled steel (CRS) in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) was studied by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The results show that both AP and ABP are good inhibitors, and inhibition efficiency follows the order: ABP > AP. The adsorption of each inhibitor on CRS surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Potentiodynamic polarization curves show that two pyrazine derivatives act as mixed-type inhibitors. EIS spectra exhibit one capacitive loop and confirm the inhibitive ability.

  16. Di-n-butylamine as an inhibitor for the corrosion of aluminium alloys in hydrochloric acid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unni, V K.V.; Rama Char, T L

    1965-01-01

    Di-n-butylamine is a satisfactory inhibitor for the corrosion of aluminum-manganese alloy in hydrochloric acid solutions. Polarization studies indicate that the anode polarization is negligible, whereas the cathode polarization is appreciable and is increased by the inhibitor. The Tafel plot holds good in this case. The dissolution of the metal is electrochemical in character; the corrosion process appears to be under cathodic control. The efficiency increases with time, the effect being quite significant up to about 3 hr. It increases with increases in concentration of the inhibitor up to a certain value beyond which it is constant. The values increase with acid concentration up to 1.25 N., and remain practically unchanged thereafter. An acid concentration of 1.25 N. and an inhibitor concentration of 0.5 g per liter of nitrogen can be regarded as the optimum from the viewpoint of efficiency, the value being in the range 57-84%. The efficiency of the inhibitor for the aluminum-manganese alloy is about the same order as for pure aluminum. (10 refs.)

  17. Corrosion of metallic materials. Dry corrosion, aqueous corrosion and corrosion by liquid metal, methods of protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helie, Max

    2015-01-01

    This book is based on a course on materials given in an engineering school. The author first gives an overview of metallurgy issues: metallic materials (pure metals, metallic alloys), defects of crystal lattices (point defects, linear defects or dislocations), equilibrium diagrams, steels and cast, thermal processing of steels, stainless steels, aluminium and its alloys, copper and its alloys. The second part addresses the properties and characterization of surfaces and interfaces: singularity of a metal surface, surface energy of a metal, energy of grain boundaries, adsorption at a material surface, metal-electrolyte interface, surface oxide-electrolyte interface, techniques of surface analysis. The third chapter addresses the electrochemical aspects of corrosion: description of the corrosion phenomenon, free enthalpy of a compound and free enthalpy of a reaction, case of dry corrosion (thermodynamic aspect, Ellingham diagram, oxidation mechanisms, experimental study, macroscopic modelling), case of aqueous corrosion (electrochemical thermodynamics and kinetics, experimental determination of corrosion rate). The fourth part addresses the different forms of aqueous corrosion: generalized corrosion (atmospheric corrosion, mechanisms and tests), localized corrosion (galvanic, pitting, cracking, intergranular, erosion and cavitation), particular cases of stress cracking (stress corrosion, fatigue-corrosion, embrittlement by hydrogen), and bi-corrosion (of non alloyed steels, of stainless steels, and of aluminium and copper alloys). The sixth chapter addresses the struggle and the protection against aqueous corrosion: methods of prevention, scope of use of main alloys, geometry-based protection of pieces, use of corrosion inhibitors, use of organic or metallic coatings, electrochemical protection. The last chapter proposes an overview of corrosion types in industrial practices: in the automotive industry, in the oil industry, in the aircraft industry, and in the

  18. Semiempirical Theoretical Studies of 1,3-Benzodioxole Derivatives as Corrosion Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omnia A. A. El-Shamy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of 1,3-benzodioxole derivatives as corrosion inhibitors is theoretically studied using quantum chemical calculation and Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR. Different semiempirical methods (AM1, PM3, MNDO, MINDO/3, and INDO are applied in order to determine the relationship between molecular structure and their corrosion protection efficiencies. Different quantum parameters are obtained as the energy of highest occupied molecular orbital EHOMO, the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital ELUMO, energy gap ΔEg, dipole moment μ, and Mulliken charge on the atom. QSAR approach is applied to elucidate some important parameters as the hydrophobicity (Log P, surface area (S.A, polarization (P, and hydration energy (EHyd.

  19. Prevention of stress corrosion cracking in nuclear waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrejcin, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    At the Savannah River Plant, stress corrosion of carbon steel storage tanks containing alkaline nitrate radioactive waste is prevented by stress relief and specification of limits on waste composition and temperature. Actual cases of cracking have occurred in the primary steel shell of tanks designed and built before 1960 and were attributed to a combination of high residual stresses from fabrication welding and aggressiveness of fresh wastes from the reactor fuel reprocessing plants. The fresh wastes have the highest concentration of nitrate, which has been shown to be the cracking agent. Also, as the waste solutions age and are reduced in volume by evaporation of water, nitrite and hydroxide ions become more concentrated and inhibit stress corrosion. Thus, by providing a heel of aged evaporated waste in tanks that receive fresh wastes, concentrations of the inhibitor ions are maintained within specific ranges to protect against nitrate cracking. The concentration and temperature range limits to prevent cracking were determined by a series of statistically designed experiments

  20. Marjoram Extract as Corrosion Inhibitor for Dissolution of Zinc in 1.0 M HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sobhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, water marjoram (Origanum marjorana L. extract was evaluated as corrosion inhibitor for zinc in 1.0 M HCl solution. The polarization measurements showed that this inhibitor is acting as mixed inhibitors for both anodic and cathodic reactions. The results showed that the inhibition efficiency was increased by increasing the inhibitor doses and reached the maximum at 500 ppm. The adsorption of marjoram extract on zinc surface was found to obey Langmuir type isotherm. The efficiency obtained from the impedance measurements was in good agreement with those obtained from the gravimetrical, thermometric, and polarization techniques which prove the validity of these tolls in the measurements of the tested inhibitor.

  1. Study of caffeine as corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel in chloride solution containing hydrogen sulfide using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solehudin, Agus; Berman, Ega Taqwali; Nurdin, Isdiriayani

    2015-09-01

    The corrosion behaviour of steel surface in the absence and presence of caffeine in 3.5% NaCl solution containing dissolved H2S gas is studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental results of carbon steel corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution containing 500 mg/l H2S at different caffeine concentrations showed that corrosion rate of carbon steel decreases with increasing of caffeine concentrations from 0 to 0,1 mmol/l. Whereas, the corrosion rate increase with increasing of caffeine concentrations from 1 to 10 mmol/l. It is clear that no inhibition efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentration. The optimum value of inhibition efficiency was 90% at a caffeine concentration of 0.1 mmol/l. This suggests that caffeine's performance as a corrosion inhibitor is more effective at a concentration of 0.1 mmol/l.

  2. Fluvoxamine-based corrosion inhibitors for J55 steel in aggressive oil and gas well treatment fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Ituen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluvoxamine (FLU, a non-toxic compound was investigated as an alternative anti-corrosive additive for inhibition of J55 steel corrosion in acidic oil well treatment fluids. The aggressive fluid was simulated using 15% and 1 M HCl. Corrosion of the steel was monitored by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS, Potentiodynamic Polarization (PDP, Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR, Electrochemical Frequency Modulation (EFM and Weight Loss (WL techniques. UV–Vis spectroscopy provided evidence of formation of a complex surface film due to adsorption of FLU on the J55 steel surface. The adsorption process was both physical and chemical in mechanism as best approximated by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption was also spontaneous and exothermic in the direction of increase in entropy of the bulk phase. Maximum inhibition efficiency was obtained with 1.0 μM FLU and decreased from 91.5% to 78.0% when concentration of HCl was increased from 1 M to 15% at 30 °C. Effectiveness of FLU declined with an increase in temperature and improved with an increase in concentration of FLU. Blending of FLU with some intensifiers improved the efficiency from 68% and 40% to 88% and 72% in 1 M and 15% HCl respectively at 90 °C. EIS measurement reveals that the corrosion process was controlled by charge transfer process. PDP measurements showed that FLU acts as a mixed type inhibitor. Inhibition efficiency values obtained from the different techniques were comparable. SEM micrographs of J55 steel surface indicate good surface protection of FLU. Theoretical calculations were performed using Material Studio Acceryls 7.0 to relate electronic properties of FLU with its structure.

  3. Task-specific ionic liquid as a new green inhibitor of mild steel corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowsari, E., E-mail: kowsarie@aut.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, No. 424, Hafez Avenue, 1591634311 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Payami, M. [Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, No. 424, Hafez Avenue, 1591634311 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amini, R.; Ramezanzadeh, B. [Department of Surface Coating and Corrosion, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Javanbakht, M. [Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, No. 424, Hafez Avenue, 1591634311 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    The corrosion inhibition effects of an imidazolium-based task specific ionic liquid (TSIL) were investigated on a low carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution. Samples were exposed to 1 M HCl solution without and with different concentrations of TSIL. Weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarization test, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle measurements were utilized to investigate the inhibition effects of TSIL. The results obtained from the polarization studies revealed that both the anodic and cathodic branches slopes affected in the presence of TSIL. It was shown that TSIL behaved as a mixed type inhibitor with a dominant effect on the anodic reaction rate depression. It was shown that the increase in polarization resistance and the decrease in corrosion current density were more pronounced using 100 mg/L of TSIL after 2 h immersion time. It was also shown that the adsorption of TSIL followed a Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  4. Assessment of multi-phase movements in a gas-gathering pipeline and the relevance to on-line, real-time corrosion monitoring and inhibitor injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.A.; Asperger, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the time required for aqueous fluid to travel 100 miles (160 km) from an offshore platform in the Gulf of Mexico to landfill. If this time is short, the corrosivity of the water at landfall may be used as the basis for setting the offshore corrosion inhibitor injection rates. But, for this particular system, the traveling time was found to be long, greater than 65 days. Therefore, the corrosivity as measured on-shore can not be used for online, real-time adjustments of the offshore, corrosion inhibitor chemical pumps.

  5. Effect of Corrosion Inhibitors on In Situ Leak Repair by Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate in Potable Water Pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Devine, Christina L; Edwards, Marc A

    2017-08-01

    Corrosion inhibitors can affect calcium carbonate precipitation and associated in situ and in-service water distribution pipeline leak repair via clogging. Clogging of 150 μm diameter leak holes represented by glass capillary tubes, in recirculating solutions that are supersaturated with calcite (Ω calcite = 13), demonstrated that Zn, orthophosphate, tripolyphosphate, and hexametaphosphate corrosion/scaling inhibitors hinder clogging but natural organic matter (NOM) has relatively little impact. Critical concentrations of phosphates that could inhibit leak repair over the short-term in one water tested were: tripolyphophate (0.05 mg/L as P) water systems.

  6. Study of benzotriazole as corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel in chloride solution containing hydrogen sulfide using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solehudin, Agus, E-mail: asolehudin@upi.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering Education, Indonesia University of Education (UPI), Bandung, West Java (Indonesia); Nurdin, Isdiriayani [Department of Chemical Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, West Java (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Corrosion and inhibition studies on API 5LX65 carbon steel in chloride solution containing various concentrations of benzotriazole has been conducted at temperature of 70°C using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Corroded carbon steel surface with and without inhibitor have been observed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The objectives of this research are to study the performance of benzotriazole as corrosion inhibitors. The experimental results of carbon steel corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution containing 500 mg/l H{sub 2}S at different BTAH concentrations showed that corrosion rate of carbon steel decreases with increasing of BTAH concentrations from 0 to 10 mmol/l. The inhibition efficiency of BTAH was found to be affected by its concentration. The optimum efficiency obtained of BTAH is 93% at concentration of 5 mmol/l. The result of XRD and EDS analysis reveal the iron sulfide (FeS) formation on corroded carbon steel surface without inhibitor. The EDS spectrum show the Nitrogen (N) bond on carbon steel surface inhibited by BTAH.

  7. Cefuroxime axetil: A commercially available drug as corrosion inhibitor for aluminum in hydrochloric acid solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ameh, Paul O.; Sani, Umar M.

    2016-01-01

    Cefuroxime axetil (CA) a prodrug was tested as corrosion inhibitor for aluminum in hydrochloric acid solution using thermometric, gasometric weight loss and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. Results obtained showed that this compound has a good inhibiting properties for aluminum corrosion in acidic medium, with inhibition efficiencies values reaching 89.87 % at 0.5 g / L . It was also found out that the results from weight loss method are highly consistent with those obtained by ...

  8. Nitrite uptake by nitrogen-depleted wheat seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, W A; Johnson, R E; Volk, R J

    1974-01-01

    Intact, 14-day-old nitrogen-depleted wheat (Triticum vulgare cv. Blueboy) seedlings were exposed to solutions of 0.5 mM KNO/sub 2/, 0.05 mM CaSO/sub 4/ and 1 mM sodium 2-(N-morpholino)-ethanesulfonate, pH 6.1. Nitrite uptake was determined from depletion of the ambient solution or from incorporation of /sup 15/N in the tissue. An initial nitrite uptake shoulder was followed by a relatively slow uptake rate which subsequently increased to a substantially greater rate. This accelerated phase was maintained through 24 h. Nitrite accumulated to a slight extent in the root tissues during the first few hours but declined to low values when the accelerated rate was fully developed, indicating an increase in nitrite reductase activity paralleling the increase in nitrite uptake capacity. About 50% of the nitrogen absorbed as nitrite was translocated to the shoots by 9 to 12 h. Development of the accelerated nitrite uptake rate was restricted in excised roots, in intact plants kept in darkness, by 400 ..mu..g puromycin ml/sup -1/ and by 1 mM L-ethionine. When puromycin and L-ethionine were added after the accelerated phase had been initiated, their effects were not as detrimental as when they were added at first exposure to KNO/sub 2/. The two inhibitors restricted translocation more than uptake. The data indicate an involvement of protein synthesis and a requirement for movement of a substance from shoots to roots for maximal development of the accelerated nitrite uptake phase. A requirement for protein synthesis in the transport of soluble organic nitrogen from roots to shoots is also suggested.

  9. Electrochemical Biosensor for Nitrite Based on Polyacrylic-Graphene Composite Film with Covalently Immobilized Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Zaidatul Akhmar Raja Jamaluddin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A new biosensor for the analysis of nitrite in food was developed based on hemoglobin (Hb covalently immobilized on the succinimide functionalized poly(n-butyl acrylate-graphene [poly(nBA-rGO] composite film deposited on a carbon-paste screen-printed electrode (SPE. The immobilized Hb on the poly(nBA-rGO conducting matrix exhibited electrocatalytic ability for the reduction of nitrite with significant enhancement in the reduction peak at −0.6 V versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Thus, direct determination of nitrite can be achieved by monitoring the cathodic peak current signal of the proposed polyacrylic-graphene hybrid film-based voltammetric nitrite biosensor. The nitrite biosensor exhibited a reproducible dynamic linear response range from 0.05–5 mg L−1 nitrite and a detection limit of 0.03 mg L−1. No significant interference was observed by potential interfering ions such as Ca2+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, and NO3− ions. Analysis of nitrite in both raw and processed edible bird’s nest (EBN samples demonstrated recovery of close to 100%. The covalent immobilization of Hb on poly(nBA-rGO composite film has improved the performance of the electrochemical nitrite biosensor in terms of broader detection range, lower detection limit, and prolonged biosensor stability.

  10. Effect of inorganic inhibitors on the corrosion behavior of 1018 carbon steel in the LiBr + ethylene glycol + H2O mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samiento-Bustos, E.; Rodriguez, J.G. Gonzalez; Uruchurtu, J.; Dominguez-Patino, G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of inorganic inhibitors on the corrosion behavior of 1018 carbon steel in the mixture LiBr (55%) + ethylene glycol + H 2 O at room temperature has been evaluated. Used inhibitors included LiNO 3 (Lithium Nitrate), Li 2 MoO 4 (Lithium Molybdate) and Li 2 CrO 4 (Lithium Chromate) at concentrations of 5, 20 and 50 ppm. Electrochemical techniques included potentiodynamic polarization curves, electrochemical noise resistance (EN) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Additionally, adsorption isotherms were calculated. The results obtained showed that both, the corrosion rate and the passive current density decreased with inhibitors, and, in general terms, inhibitors efficiency increased with inhibitor concentration, except in the case of Li 2 CrO 4, where the highest efficiency was obtained with 20 ppm of inhibitor. Pitting potential with 5 ppm of inhibitor, regardless its chemical composition, was more active than in absence of inhibitor, increased at 20 ppm, especially with Li 2 CrO 4 , and remained unaltered with 50 ppm. EN measurements showed that at 5 ppm of inhibitor, the number of film rupture/repassivation events was higher than that obtained at 20 or 50 ppm. Adsorption isotherms suggested a different adsorption mechanism for each inhibitor, whereas EIS results suggested that the corrosion process when nitrates were added was under charge transfer control, but in the case of molybdates or chromates was under diffusion control

  11. Kinetics of corrosion inhibition of aluminum in acidic media by water-soluble natural polymeric chondroitin-4-sulfate as anionic polyelectrolyte inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Refat M; Ibrahim, Samia M; Takagi, Hideo D; Sayed, Suzan A

    2018-07-15

    Corrosion inhibition of aluminum (Al) in hydrochloric acid by anionic polyelectrolyte chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS) polysaccharide has been studied using both gasometrical and weight-loss techniques. The results drawn from these two techniques are comparable and exhibit negligible differences. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing the inhibitor concentration and decreased with increasing temperature. The inhibition action of CS on Al metal surface was found to obey both of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The factors affecting the corrosion rates such as the concentration and geometrical structure of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive medium, and the temperature were examined. The kinetic parameters were evaluated and a suitable corrosion mechanism consistent with the results obtained is discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Efficiency and corrosion rate analysis of organic inhibitor utilization from bawang dayak leaves (EleutherineamericanaMerr.) on API 5L steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Shaimah Rinda; Sari, Eli Novita; Rizky, Yoel; Sulistijono, Triana, Yunita

    2018-05-01

    This research studied the inhibition of corrosion by bawang dayak leaves extract (EleutherineamericanaMerr.) on API 5L steel in brine water environment (3.5% NaCl). The inhibitor was extracted using maceration process from bawang dayak leaves that was cultivated in Paser District, East Kalimantan. The test of antioxidant activity showed that bawang dayak leaves extract is a very powerful antioxidant with IC50 value of 27.30204. The results from FTIR test show the presence of electronegative atoms and double bonds of the alkenes groups that provide the potential of the extract as a corrosion inhibitor. Efficiency of inhibition reached up to 93.158% for the addition of inhibitor with 300 ppm concentration and 20 days of immersion time. This inhibitory behavior is also supported by polarization measurements where the lowest corrosion rate of 0.00128 mm/year is obtained at the same concentration and immersion time.

  13. Corrosion and corrosion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, A.S.; Totlani, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    Corrosion has always been associated with structures, plants, installations and equipment exposed to aggressive environments. It effects economy, safety and product reliability. Monitoring of component corrosion has thus become an essential requirement for the plant health and safety. Protection methods such as appropriate coatings, cathodic protection and use of inhibitors have become essential design parameters. High temperature corrosion, especially hot corrosion, is still a difficult concept to accommodate in corrosion allowance; there is a lack of harmonized system of performance testing of materials at high temperatures. In order to discuss and deliberate on these aspects, National Association for Corrosion Engineers International organised a National Conference on Corrosion and its Control in Bombay during November 28-30, 1995. This volume contains papers presented at the symposium. Paper relevant to INIS is indexed separately. refs., figs., tabs

  14. Recent Developments on Autonomous Corrosion Protection Through Encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Calle, L. M.; Gillis, M.; Blanton, M.; Hanna, J.; Rawlins, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper concerns recent progress in the development of a multifunctional smart coating, based on microencapsulation, for the autonomous detection and control of corrosion. Microencapsulation has been validated and optimized to incorporate desired corrosion control functionalities, such as early corrosion detection and inhibition, through corrosion-initiated release of corrosion indicators and inhibitors, as well as self-healing agent release triggered by mechanical damage. While proof-of-concept results have been previously reported, more recent research and development efforts have concentrated on improving coating compatibility and synthesis procedure scalability, with a targeted goal of obtaining easily dispersible pigment-grade type microencapsulated materials. The recent progress has resulted in the development of pH-sensitive microparticles as a corrosion-triggered delivery system for corrosion indicators and inhibitors. The synthesis and early corrosion indication results obtained with coating formulations that incorporate these microparticles are reported. The early corrosion indicating results were obtained with color changing and with fluorescent indicators.

  15. Electrochemical Study on Newly Synthesized Chlorocurcumin as an Inhibitor for Mild Steel Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Al-Amiery

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new curcumin derivative, i.e., (1E,4Z,6E-5-chloro-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one (chlorocurcumin, was prepared starting with the natural compound curcumin. The newly synthesized compound was characterized by elemental analysis and spectral studies (IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 M HCl by chlorocurcumin has been studied using potentiodynamic polarization (PDP measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The inhibition efficiency increases with the concentration of the inhibitor but decreases with increases in temperature. The potentiodynamic polarization reveals that chlorocurcumin is a mixed-type inhibitor. The kinetic parameters for mild steel corrosion were determined and discussed.

  16. Electrochemical Study on Newly Synthesized Chlorocurcumin as an Inhibitor for Mild Steel Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Musa, Ahmed Y.; Li, Cheong Jiun

    2013-01-01

    A new curcumin derivative, i.e., (1E,4Z,6E)-5-chloro-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one (chlorocurcumin), was prepared starting with the natural compound curcumin. The newly synthesized compound was characterized by elemental analysis and spectral studies (IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR). The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 M HCl by chlorocurcumin has been studied using potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The inhibition efficiency increases with the concentration of the inhibitor but decreases with increases in temperature. The potentiodynamic polarization reveals that chlorocurcumin is a mixed-type inhibitor. The kinetic parameters for mild steel corrosion were determined and discussed. PMID:28788402

  17. Studies on the effect of a newly synthesized Schiff base compound from phenazone and vanillin on the corrosion of steel in 2M HCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emreguel, Kaan C.; Hayvali, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    The inhibiting action of a Schiff base 4-[(4-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-benzylidene)-amino]-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2 -dihydro-pyrazol-3-one (phv), derived from 4-amino-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-pyrazol-3-one (phz) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzaldehyde (vn), towards the corrosion behavior of steel in 2M HCl solution has been studied using weight loss, polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Although vn and phz were found to retard the corrosion rate of steel, the compound synthesized from vn and phz was seen to retard the corrosion rate even more. At constant temperature, the corrosion rate decreases with increasing inhibitor concentration. However, at any inhibitor concentration the increase in temperature leads to an increase in the corrosion rate of steel. The activations energies, ΔE a , as well as other thermodynamic parameters (ΔG ads 0 , ΔH ads 0 ) for the inhibitor process were calculated. The inhibitor efficiencies calculated from all the applied methods were in agreement and were found to be in the order: phv>phz>vn

  18. Holographic interferometry as electrochemical emission spectroscopy of carbon steel in seawater with low concentration of RA-41 corrosion inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, K.; Al-Muhana, K.; Habib, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the present investigation, holographic interferometry was utilized for the first time to determine the rate change of the number of the fringe evolutions during the corrosion test of carbon steel in blank seawater and with seawater with different concentrations of a corrosion inhibitor. In other words, the anodic dissolution behaviors (corrosion) of the carbon steel were determined simultaneously by holographic interferometry, an electromagnetic method, and by the electrochemical impedance (EI) spectroscopy, an electronic method. So, the abrupt rate change of the number of the fringe evolutions during corrosion test (EI) spectroscopy, of the carbon steel is called electrochemical emission spectroscopy. The corrosion process of the steel samples was carried out in blank seawater and seawater with different concentrations, 5-20 ppm, of RA-41 corrosion inhibitor using the EI spectroscopy method, at room temperature. The electrochemical emission spectra of the carbon steel in different solutions represent a detailed picture of the rate change of the anodic dissolution of the steel throughout the corrosion processes. Furthermore, the optical interferometry data of the carbon steel were compared to the data, which were obtained from the EI spectroscopy. Consequently, holographic interferometric is found very useful for monitoring the anodic dissolution behaviors of metals, in which the number of the fringe evolutions of the steel samples can be determined in situ. (Author)

  19. Mangrove tannins and their flavanoid monomers as alternative steel corrosion inhibitors in acidic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahim, Afidah A. [School of Chemical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)]. E-mail: afidah@usm.my; Rocca, E. [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Mineral, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy I BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy (France); Steinmetz, J. [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Mineral, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy I BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy (France); Kassim, M.J. [School of Chemical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Adnan, R. [School of Chemical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Sani Ibrahim, M. [School of Chemical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2007-02-15

    The inhibitive behaviour on steel of flavanoid monomers that constitute mangrove tannins namely catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and epicatechingallate was investigated in an aerated HCl solution via electrochemical methods. The monomers were found to be mainly cathodic inhibitors and the inhibition efficiency was dependent on concentration. To explain the adsorptive behaviour of the molecules on the steel surface, a semiempirical approach involving quantum chemical calculations using HyperChem 6.0 was undertaken. The HOMO electronic density of the molecule was used to explain the inhibiting mechanism. The most probable adsorption centers were found in the vicinity of the phenolic groups. In a second part, the use of mangrove tannin, extracted from the mangrove barks as steel corrosion inhibitors in acidic media was investigated and its inhibitive efficiency was compared with that of commercial mimosa, quebracho and chestnut tannins. The inhibitive performance of mangrove tannins was comparable to the other tannins investigated, indicating their potential in corrosion protection.

  20. Mangrove tannins and their flavanoid monomers as alternative steel corrosion inhibitors in acidic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, Afidah A.; Rocca, E.; Steinmetz, J.; Kassim, M.J.; Adnan, R.; Sani Ibrahim, M.

    2007-01-01

    The inhibitive behaviour on steel of flavanoid monomers that constitute mangrove tannins namely catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and epicatechingallate was investigated in an aerated HCl solution via electrochemical methods. The monomers were found to be mainly cathodic inhibitors and the inhibition efficiency was dependent on concentration. To explain the adsorptive behaviour of the molecules on the steel surface, a semiempirical approach involving quantum chemical calculations using HyperChem 6.0 was undertaken. The HOMO electronic density of the molecule was used to explain the inhibiting mechanism. The most probable adsorption centers were found in the vicinity of the phenolic groups. In a second part, the use of mangrove tannin, extracted from the mangrove barks as steel corrosion inhibitors in acidic media was investigated and its inhibitive efficiency was compared with that of commercial mimosa, quebracho and chestnut tannins. The inhibitive performance of mangrove tannins was comparable to the other tannins investigated, indicating their potential in corrosion protection

  1. Experimental and quantum chemical studies on two triazole derivatives as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in acid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.; Tian, H.; Hou, B. [Key Laboratory of Corrosion Science, Shandong, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao (China); Hu, L.; Tao, Z. [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2011-11-15

    Two triazole derivatives [1-phenyl-2-(5-(1,2,4) triazol-1-ylmethyl-(1,3,4) oxadizaol-2-ylsulphanyl)-ethanone (PTOE) and 2-(4-tert-butyl-benzylsulphanyl)-5-(1,2,4) triazol-1-ylmethyl-(1,3,4) oxadiazole (TBTO)] were synthesized as new corrosion inhibitors for the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solutions. The inhibiting efficiency of the different inhibitors was evaluated by means of weight loss and electrochemical techniques such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization curves. The electrochemical investigation results indicate that these compounds act as mixed-type inhibitors retarding the anodic and cathodic corrosion reactions and do not change the mechanism of either hydrogen evolution reaction or mild steel dissolution. The studied compounds followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the thermodynamic parameters were determined and discussed. The effect of molecular structure on the inhibition efficiency has been investigated with ab initio calculations. The electronic properties such as highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level, dipole moment ({mu}) and molecular orbital densities were calculated. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Study of Zinc bis-(Dipalmithyl Dithiophosphate Activity as Anti-Corrosion Additive-Fatty Acid Based Through Potentiodynamic Polarization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komar Sutriah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Zinc bis-(dipalmithyl dithiophosphate (ZDTP16 is one product variant of zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDTP-fatty acid based having function as corrosion inhibitor. By using 3% of effective dose for the application, its effectiveness of ZDTP16 corrosion inhibition will achieve 97% and it will be able to decrease Cu metal corrosion rate from 0.152 to 0.004 mm per year. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameter verification indicates the decreasing of spontaneity and corrosion rate by existence of ZDTP16 inhibitor. Gibbs free energy transition corrosion of Cu metal in electrolyte medium is measured in corrosion simulator increased from +85.22 to +91.77 kJ mol-1, while its activation energy increased from +16.66 to +33.68 kJ mol-1. Morphology observation of Cu metal substrate surface using SEM-EDX shows that the adsorption of ZDTP16 at substrate surface is able to protect surface from corrosion indicated by the existence of Zn, P, S, and C constituents representing composer atoms of ZDTP16, and the decreasing of Cl- corrosive constituent at substrate surface.

  3. Environmentally Friendly Coating Technology for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.; Jolley, Scott T.; Pearman, Benjamin P.; Zhang, Xuejun; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Gillis, Mathew; Blanton, Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    This work concerns the development of environmentally friendly encapsulation technology, specifically designed to incorporate corrosion indicators, inhibitors, and self-healing agents into a coating, in such a way that the delivery of the indicators and inhibitors is triggered by the corrosion process, and the delivery of self-healing agents is triggered by mechanical damage to the coating. Encapsulation of the active corrosion control ingredients allows the incorporation of desired autonomous corrosion control functions such as: early corrosion detection, hidden corrosion detection, corrosion inhibition, and self-healing of mechanical damage into a coating. The technology offers the versatility needed to include one or several corrosion control functions into the same coating.The development of the encapsulation technology has progressed from the initial proof-of-concept work, in which a corrosion indicator was encapsulated into an oil-core (hydrophobic) microcapsule and shown to be delivered autonomously, under simulated corrosion conditions, to a sophisticated portfolio of micro carriers (organic, inorganic, and hybrid) that can be used to deliver a wide range of active corrosion ingredients at a rate that can be adjusted to offer immediate as well as long-term corrosion control. The micro carriers have been incorporated into different coating formulas to test and optimize the autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing functions of the coatings. This paper provides an overview of progress made to date and highlights recent technical developments, such as improved corrosion detection sensitivity, inhibitor test results in various types of coatings, and highly effective self-healing coatings based on green chemistry.

  4. Boletus edulis Nitrite Reductase Reduces Nitrite Content of Pickles and Mitigates Intoxication in Nitrite-intoxicated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Tian, Guoting; Feng, Shanshan; Wong, Jack Ho; Zhao, Yongchang; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-10-08

    Pickles are popular in China and exhibits health-promoting effects. However, nitrite produced during fermentation adversely affects health due to formation of methemoglobin and conversion to carcinogenic nitrosamine. Fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus edulis were capable of inhibiting nitrite production during pickle fermentation. A 90-kDa nitrite reductase (NiR), demonstrating peptide sequence homology to fungal nitrite reductase, was isolated from B. edulis fruiting bodies. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme was 45 °C and 6.8, respectively. B. edulis NiR was capable of prolonging the lifespan of nitrite-intoxicated mice, indicating that it had the action of an antidote. The enzyme could also eliminate nitrite from blood after intragastric administration of sodium nitrite, and after packaging into capsule, this nitrite-eliminating activity could persist for at least 120 minutes thus avoiding immediate gastric degradation. B. edulis NiR represents the first nitrite reductase purified from mushrooms and may facilitate subsequent applications.

  5. Moessbauer and ESCA investigations on the formation of oxidic iron phases in aqueous solution under the influence of organic corrosion inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guetlich, P.; Meisel, W.; Mohs, E.

    1982-01-01

    Corrosions layers on steel grown in water of well defined hardness and chloride concentration were studied by Moessbauer and ESCA spectroscopy with particular emphasis on the influence of added organic inhibitors. Relatively thick layers were found with an unexpectedly small iron content (as FeOOH). The layers contain a remarkable amount of constituent ions from the solution and fragments of the inhibitors. The latter seem to be decomposed by the corrosive medium. It is assumed that the whole organic molecule determines the kind of transportation of the inhibitor to the iron metal, but that the inhibition itself is due to functional groups only. (orig.) [de

  6. Study of a Triazole Derivative as Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Phosphoric Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition by a triazole derivative (PAMT on mild steel in phosphoric acid (H3PO4 solution has been investigated by weight loss and polarization methods. The experimental results reveal that the compound has a significant inhibiting effect on the corrosion of steel in H3PO4 solution. It also shows good corrosion inhibition at higher concentration of H3PO4. Potentiodynamic polarization studies have shown that the compound acts as a mixed-type inhibitor retarding the anodic and cathodic corrosion reactions with predominant effect on the cathodic reaction. The values of inhibition efficiency obtained from weight loss and polarization measurements are in good agreement. The adsorption of this compound is found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Some kinetic and thermodynamic parameters such as apparent activation energy, frequency factor, and adsorption free energy have been calculated and discussed.

  7. Inhibitor for the Corrosion of Mild Steel in H 2 SO 4 | Patel | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An extract of Terminalia chebula fruits was investigated as a corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 by means of conventional mass loss, electrochemical polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The mass loss results showed that the extract of Terminalia chebula is ...

  8. Portable electrochemical system using screen-printed electrodes for monitoring corrosion inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squissato, André L; Silva, Weberson P; Del Claro, Augusto T S; Rocha, Diego P; Dornellas, Rafael M; Richter, Eduardo M; Foster, Christopher W; Banks, Craig E; Munoz, Rodrigo A A

    2017-11-01

    This work presents a portable electrochemical system for the continuous monitoring of corrosion inhibitors in a wide range of matrices including ethanol, seawater and mineral oil following simple dilution of the samples. Proof-of-concept is demonstrated for the sensing of 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,5-thiadiazole (DMCT), an important corrosion inhibitor. Disposable screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGEs) associated with a portable batch-injection cell are proposed for the amperometric determination of DMCT following sample dilution with electrolyte (95% v/v ethanol + 5% v/v 0.1molL -1 H 2 SO 4 solution). This electrolyte was compatible with all samples and the organic-resistant SPGE could be used continuously for more than 200 injections (100µL injected at 193µLs -1 ) free from effects of adsorption of DMCT, which have a great affinity for metallic surfaces, and dissolution of the other reported SPGE inks which has hampered prior research efforts. Fast (180h -1 ) and precise responses (RSD < 3% n = 10) with a detection limit of 0.3µmolL -1 was obtained. The accuracy of the proposed method was attested through recovery tests (93-106%) and the reasonable agreement of results of DMCT concentrations in samples analyzed by both proposed and spectrophotometric (comparative) methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF INHIBITORS OF METAL CORROSION IN AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENTS WITH VARYING SALINITY

    OpenAIRE

    Носачова, Юлія Вікторівна; Макаренко, Ірина Миколаївна; Шаблій, Тетяна Олександрівна

    2015-01-01

    EFFECTIVENESS OF INHIBITORS OF METAL CORROSION IN AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENTS WITH VARYING SALINITYThe main reason for the growing problem of water quality in Ukraine is the increase of anthropogenic impacts on water resources caused by intense chemical, biological and radiation contamination of existing and potential sources for industrial and communal water supply. Especially polluted rivers in Donbass and Krivbas area, that turned into collectors of saline wastewater. Especially hard environment...

  10. Sucrose fatty esters from underutilized seed oil of Terminalia catappa as potential steel corrosion inhibitor in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Adewuyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of metals is a common problem which requires definite attention. In response to this, the oil was extracted from the seed of Terminalia catappa and used to synthesize sucrose fatty esters via simple reaction mechanism which was considered eco-friendly and sustainable. The corrosion inhibition capacity of sucrose fatty esters for mild steel in 1 M HCl was studied using the weight loss method. It was shown that sucrose fatty ester inhibited corrosion process of mild steel and obeyed Langmuir isotherm. Corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency of sucrose fatty esters were found to reduce with increase of immersion time. The study presented sucrose fatty ester as a promising inhibitor of mild steel corrosion in acidic medium.

  11. Lithium salts as leachable corrosion inhibitors and potential replacement for hexavalent chromium in organic coatings for the protection of aluminum alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P; Liu, Y; Terryn, H.A.; Mol, J.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium salts are being investigated as leachable corrosion inhibitor and potential replacement for hexavalent chromium in organic coatings. Model coatings loaded with lithium carbonate or lithium oxalate demonstrated active corrosion inhibition and the formation of a protective layer in a

  12. Nitrogen removal and electricity production at a double-chamber microbial fuel cell with cathode nitrite denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yangyang; Zhao, Jianqiang; Wang, Sha; Zhao, Huimin; Ding, Xiaoqian; Gao, Kun

    2017-12-01

    Double-chamber microbial fuel cell was applied to investigate the performance of the electricity production and nitrite denitrification through feeding nitrite into the cathode. Factors influencing denitrification performance and power production, such as external resistance, influent nitrite concentration and Nitrite Oxygen Bacteria inhibitors, were studied. The results show that when the concentration of nitrite nitrogen and external resistance were 100 mg L -1 and 10 Ω, respectively, the nitrite denitrification reached the best state. The NaN 3 can inhibit nitrite oxidation effectively; meanwhile, the nitrite denitrification with N 2 O as the final products was largely improved. The [Formula: see text] was reduced to [Formula: see text], causing the cathode denitrification coulombic efficiency to exceed 100%. In chemoautotrophic bio-nitrification, microorganisms may utilize H 2 O to oxidize nitrite under anaerobic conditions. Proteobacteria might play a major role in the process of denitrification in MFC.

  13. Excessive nitrite affects zebrafish valvulogenesis through yielding too much NO signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Li

    Full Text Available Sodium nitrite, a common food additive, exists widely not only in the environment but also in our body. Excessive nitrite causes toxicological effects on human health; however, whether it affects vertebrate heart valve development remains unknown. In vertebrates, developmental defects of cardiac valves usually lead to congenital heart disease. To understand the toxic effects of nitrite on valvulogenesis, we exposed zebrafish embryos with different concentrations of sodium nitrite. Our results showed that sodium nitrite caused developmental defects of zebrafish heart dose dependently. It affected zebrafish heart development starting from 36 hpf (hour post fertilization when heart initiates looping process. Comprehensive analysis on the embryos at 24 hpf and 48 hpf showed that excessive nitrite did not affect blood circulation, vascular network, myocardium and endocardium development. But development of endocardial cells in atrioventricular canal (AVC of the embryos at 48 hpf was disrupted by too much nitrite, leading to defective formation of primitive valve leaflets at 76 hpf. Consistently, excessive nitrite diminished expressions of valve progenitor markers including bmp4, has2, vcana and notch1b at 48 hpf. Furthermore, 3', 5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP, downstream of nitric oxide (NO signaling, was increased its level significantly in the embryos exposed with excessive nitrite and microinjection of soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ (1H-[1], [2], [4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one, an antagonist of NO signaling, into nitrite-exposed embryos could partly rescue the cardiac valve malformation. Taken together, our results show that excessive nitrite affects early valve leaflet formation by producing too much NO signaling.

  14. Effect of inorganic inhibitors on the corrosion behavior of 1018 carbon steel in the LiBr + ethylene glycol + H{sub 2}O mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samiento-Bustos, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos. Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, CP 62210, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Rodriguez, J.G. Gonzalez [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos. Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, CP 62210, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)], E-mail: ggonzalez@uaem.mx; Uruchurtu, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos. Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, CP 62210, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Dominguez-Patino, G. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos. Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, CP 62210, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); U.A.E.M. Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas e Ingenieria, Av. Universidad 1001, 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Salinas-Bravo, V.M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Materiales y Proceso Quimicos, Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, CP 62490, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2008-08-15

    The effect of inorganic inhibitors on the corrosion behavior of 1018 carbon steel in the mixture LiBr (55%) + ethylene glycol + H{sub 2}O at room temperature has been evaluated. Used inhibitors included LiNO{sub 3} (Lithium Nitrate), Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} (Lithium Molybdate) and Li{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} (Lithium Chromate) at concentrations of 5, 20 and 50 ppm. Electrochemical techniques included potentiodynamic polarization curves, electrochemical noise resistance (EN) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Additionally, adsorption isotherms were calculated. The results obtained showed that both, the corrosion rate and the passive current density decreased with inhibitors, and, in general terms, inhibitors efficiency increased with inhibitor concentration, except in the case of Li{sub 2}CrO{sub 4,} where the highest efficiency was obtained with 20 ppm of inhibitor. Pitting potential with 5 ppm of inhibitor, regardless its chemical composition, was more active than in absence of inhibitor, increased at 20 ppm, especially with Li{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}, and remained unaltered with 50 ppm. EN measurements showed that at 5 ppm of inhibitor, the number of film rupture/repassivation events was higher than that obtained at 20 or 50 ppm. Adsorption isotherms suggested a different adsorption mechanism for each inhibitor, whereas EIS results suggested that the corrosion process when nitrates were added was under charge transfer control, but in the case of molybdates or chromates was under diffusion control.

  15. Effect of some pyrimidinic Schiff bases on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashassi-Sorkhabi, H.; Shaabani, B.; Seifzadeh, D.

    2005-01-01

    The efficiency of benzylidene-pyrimidin-2-yl-amine (A) (4-methyl-benzylidene)-pyrimidine-2-yl-amine (B) and (4-chloro-benzylidene)-pyrimidine-2-yl-amine, as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 1 M HCl have been determined by weight loss measurements and electrochemical polarization method. The results showed that these inhibitors revealed a good corrosion inhibition even at very low concentrations. Polarization curves indicate that all compounds are mixed type inhibitors. The effect of various parameters such as temperature and inhibitor concentration on the efficiency of the inhibitors has been studied. Activation energies of corrosion reaction in the presence and absence of inhibitors have been calculated. The adsorption of used compounds on the steel surface obeys Langmuir's isotherm. It appears that an efficient inhibition is characterized by a relatively greater decrease in free energy of adsorption. Significant correlations are obtained between inhibition efficiency and quantum chemical parameters using quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method

  16. 2-Butyne-1,4-diol as a novel corrosion inhibitor for API X65 steel pipeline in carbonate/bicarbonate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi Meresht, E.; Shahrabi Farahani, T.; Neshati, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosion of API 5L X65 is effectively reduced by the addition of the inhibitor. ► The techniques include weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, EIS and AFM. ► 2-Butyne-1,4-diol acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. ► The adsorption of 2-butyne-1,4-diol obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. - Abstract: The inhibition effects of 2-butyne-1,4-diol on the corrosion susceptibility of grade API 5L X65 steel pipeline in 2 M Na 2 CO 3 /1 M NaHCO 3 solution were studied by electrochemical techniques and weight loss measurements. The results indicated that this inhibitor was a mixed-type inhibitor, with a maximum percentage inhibition efficiency of approximately 92% in the presence of 5 mM inhibitor. Atomic force microscopy revealed that a protective film was formed on the surface of the inhibited sample. The adsorption of the inhibitor was found to conform to the Langmuir isotherm with the standard adsorption free energy of −21.08 kJ mol −1 .

  17. Investigation of some green compounds as corrosion and scale inhibitors for cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quraishi, M.A.; Farooqi, I.H.; Saini, P.A. (Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India))

    1999-05-01

    The performance of an open-recirculating cooling system, an important component in most industries, is affected by corrosion and scale formation. Numerous additives have been used in the past for the control of corrosion and scale formation. Effects of the naturally occurring compounds azadirachta indica (leaves), punica granatum (shell), and momordica charantia (fruits), on corrosion of mild steel in 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) were assessed using weight loss, electrochemical polarization, and impedance techniques. Extracts of the compounds exhibited excellent inhibition efficiencies comparable to that of hydroxyethylidine diphosphonic acid (HEDP), the most preferred cooling water inhibitor. The compounds were found effective under static and flowing conditions. Extracts were quite effective in retarding formation of scales, and the maximum antiscaling efficiency was exhibited by the extract of azadirachta indica (98%). The blowdown of the cooling system possessed color and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Concentrations of these parameters were reduced by an adsorption process using activated carbon as an adsorbent.

  18. Study of Plant Cordia Dichotoma as Green Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Different Acid Media

    OpenAIRE

    R. Khandelwal; S. K. Arora; S. P. Mathur

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition of mild steel using extracts of Cordia dichotoma in different acid media was investigated by mass loss and thermometric methods. The experiments were carried out at 299±0.2 K in presence of different concentrations of dry fruit, leaves and stem extracts of Cordia dichotoma. The results reveal that the alcoholic extracts of Cordia dichotoma is a better corrosion inhibitor than that of toxic chemicals. The fruit extract is more potent than leaves and stem extracts to in...

  19. A Novel Schiff Base of 3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-(2Hpyran-2-one and 2,2'-(ethylenedioxydiethylamine as Potential Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Acidic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonnie N. Asegbeloyin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition activity of a newly synthesized Schiff base (SB from 3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-(2H-pyran-2-one and 2,2'-(ethylenedioxydiethylamine was investigated on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M HCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic techniques. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis and Raman spectroscopic techniques were used to study the chemical interactions between SB and mild steel surface. SB was found to be a relatively good inhibitor of mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl. The inhibition efficiency increases with increase in concentration of SB. The inhibition activity of SB was ascribed to its adsorption onto mild steel surface, through physisorption and chemisorption, and described by the Langmuir adsorption model. Quantum chemical calculations indicated the presence of atomic sites with potential nucleophilic and electrophilic characteristics with which SB can establish electronic interactions with the charged mild steel surface.

  20. Corrosion/94 conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The approximately 500 papers from this conference are divided into the following sections: Rail transit systems--stray current corrosion problems and control; Total quality in the coatings industry; Deterioration mechanisms of alloys at high temperatures--prevention and remediation; Research needs and new developments in oxygen scavengers; Computers in corrosion control--knowledge based system; Corrosion and corrosivity sensors; Corrosion and corrosion control of steel reinforced concrete structures; Microbiologically influenced corrosion; Practical applications in mitigating CO 2 corrosion; Mineral scale deposit control in oilfield-related operations; Corrosion of materials in nuclear systems; Testing nonmetallics for life prediction; Refinery industry corrosion; Underground corrosion control; Mechanisms and applications of deposit and scale control additives; Corrosion in power transmission and distribution systems; Corrosion inhibitor testing and field application in oil and gas systems; Decontamination technology; Ozone in cooling water applications, testing, and mechanisms; Corrosion of water and sewage treatment, collection, and distribution systems; Environmental cracking of materials; Metallurgy of oil and gas field equipment; Corrosion measurement technology; Duplex stainless steels in the chemical process industries; Corrosion in the pulp and paper industry; Advances in cooling water treatment; Marine corrosion; Performance of materials in environments applicable to fossil energy systems; Environmental degradation of and methods of protection for military and aerospace materials; Rail equipment corrosion; Cathodic protection in natural waters; Characterization of air pollution control system environments; and Deposit-related problems in industrial boilers. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  1. Ceria nanoparticles vis-à-vis cerium nitrate as corrosion inhibitors for silica-alumina hybrid sol-gel coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmi, R.V. [Surface Engineering Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research – National Aerospace Laboratories, HAL Airport Road, Kodihalli, Bengaluru 560017 (India); Aruna, S.T., E-mail: staruna194@gmail.com [Surface Engineering Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research – National Aerospace Laboratories, HAL Airport Road, Kodihalli, Bengaluru 560017 (India); Sampath, S. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560012 (India)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Corrosion protection efficiency comparison of ceria nanoparticles and cerium nitrate. • Silica-alumina hybrid coating exhibited good barrier protection. • Detailed XPS study confirm the hybrid structure and presence of Ce species in coating. • Loss of cerium ions not prevalent in ceria doped coating unlike that of cerium nitrate. • Ceria increased the coating integrity, corrosion inhibition and barrier protection. - Abstract: The present work provides a comparative study on the corrosion protection efficiency of defect free sol-gel hybrid coating containing ceria nanoparticles and cerium nitrate ions as corrosion inhibitors. Less explored organically modified alumina-silica hybrid sol-gel coatings are synthesized from 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and aluminium-tri-sec-butoxide. The microemulsion derived nanoparticles and the hybrid coatings are characterized and compared with coatings containing cerium nitrate. Corrosion inhibiting capability is assessed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Scanning Kelvin probe measurements are also conducted on the coatings for identifying the apparent corrosion prone regions. Detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis is carried out to comprehend the bonding and corrosion protection rendered by the hybrid coatings.

  2. Electro-oxidation nitrite based on copper calcined layered double hydroxide and gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Lin; Meng Xiaomeng; Xu Minrong; Shang Kun [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China); Ai Shiyun, E-mail: ashy@sdau.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China); Liu Yinping [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: > A nitrite sensor fabricated based on copper calcined layered double hydroxides and gold nanoparticles modified electrode. > This sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation to nitrite. > This nitrite sensor exhibited very good analytical performance with low cost, convenient preparation and rapid detection. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel nitrite sensor was constructed based on electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a copper calcined layered double hydroxide (Cu-CLDH) modified glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical experiments showed that AuNPs/CLDH composite film exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation activity with nitrite due to the synergistic effect of the Cu-CLDH with AuNPs. The fabricated sensor exhibited excellent performance for nitrite detection within a wide concentration interval of 1-191 {mu}M and with a detection limit of 0.5 {mu}M. The superior electrocatalytic response to nitrite was mainly attributed to the large surface area, minimized diffusion resistance, and enhanced electron transfer of the Cu-CLDH and AuNPs composition film. This platform offers a novel route for nitrite sensing with wide analytical applications and will supply the practical applications for a variety of simple, robust, and easy-to-manufacture analytical approaches in the future.

  3. Electro-oxidation nitrite based on copper calcined layered double hydroxide and gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Lin; Meng Xiaomeng; Xu Minrong; Shang Kun; Ai Shiyun; Liu Yinping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A nitrite sensor fabricated based on copper calcined layered double hydroxides and gold nanoparticles modified electrode. → This sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation to nitrite. → This nitrite sensor exhibited very good analytical performance with low cost, convenient preparation and rapid detection. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel nitrite sensor was constructed based on electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a copper calcined layered double hydroxide (Cu-CLDH) modified glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical experiments showed that AuNPs/CLDH composite film exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation activity with nitrite due to the synergistic effect of the Cu-CLDH with AuNPs. The fabricated sensor exhibited excellent performance for nitrite detection within a wide concentration interval of 1-191 μM and with a detection limit of 0.5 μM. The superior electrocatalytic response to nitrite was mainly attributed to the large surface area, minimized diffusion resistance, and enhanced electron transfer of the Cu-CLDH and AuNPs composition film. This platform offers a novel route for nitrite sensing with wide analytical applications and will supply the practical applications for a variety of simple, robust, and easy-to-manufacture analytical approaches in the future.

  4. A STUDY OF CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOOMER, K.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Hanford reservation Tank Farms in Washington State has 177 underground storage tanks that contain approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war plutonium production. These tanks will continue to store waste until it is treated and disposed. These nuclear wastes were converted to highly alkaline pH wastes to protect the carbon steel storage tanks from corrosion. However, the carbon steel is still susceptible to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The waste chemistry varies from tank to tank, and contains various combinations of hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, chloride, carbonate, aluminate and other species. The effect of each of these species and any synergistic effects on localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel have been investigated with electrochemical polarization, slow strain rate, and crack growth rate testing. The effect of solution chemistry, pH, temperature and applied potential are all considered and their role in the corrosion behavior will be discussed

  5. Evaluation of some non-toxic thiadiazole derivatives as bronze corrosion inhibitors in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varvara, Simona; Muresan, Liana Maria; Rahmouni, Kamal; Takenouti, Hisasi

    2008-01-01

    The inhibiting effect of four innoxious thiadiazole derivatives (2-mercapto-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MAT), 2-mercapto-5-acetylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MAcAT), 2-mercapto-5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MMeT) and 2-mercapto-5-phenylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MPhAT)) on bronze corrosion in an aerated solution of 0.2 g L -1 Na 2 SO 4 + 0.2 g L -1 NaHCO 3 at pH 5 was studied by potentiodynamic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The corrosion parameters determined from the polarisation curves indicate that the addition of the investigated thiadiazole derivatives decreases both cathodic and anodic current densities, due to an inhibition of the corrosion process, through the adsorption of thiadiazoles on the bronze surface. The inhibiting effect of the investigated organic compounds appears to be more pronounced on the anodic process than on the cathodic one and, except for the case MPhAT, it is enhanced by the increases of the inhibitors' concentration. The adsorption of the thiadiazole derivatives on bronze was confirmed by the presence of the nitrogen atoms in the EDX spectra of the bronze exposed to inhibitor-containing solutions. The magnitude of polarisation resistance values and, consequently, the inhibition efficiencies are influenced by the molecular structure of thiadiazole derivatives. The strongest inhibition was noticed in the presence of compounds with phenyl amino- or amino-functionalities in their molecules. The maximum protection efficiencies were obtained by addition of: 5 mM MAT (95.9%), 1 mM MAcAT (95.7%), 5 mM MMeT (92.6%) and 0.1 mM MPhAT (97%). EIS measurements also revealed that the inhibitor effectiveness of the optimal concentrations of thiadiazole is time-dependent

  6. Evaluation of some non-toxic thiadiazole derivatives as bronze corrosion inhibitors in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varvara, Simona [Department of Topography, ' 1 Decembrie 1918' University, 11-13 Nicolae Iorga Street, 510009 Alba Iulia (Romania); Muresan, Liana Maria [Department of Physical Chemistry, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, 11 Arany-Janos Street, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)], E-mail: limur@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Rahmouni, Kamal; Takenouti, Hisasi [UPMC LISE - UPR 15 of the CNRS, ' Pierre and Marie Curie' University, Paris (France)

    2008-09-15

    The inhibiting effect of four innoxious thiadiazole derivatives (2-mercapto-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MAT), 2-mercapto-5-acetylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MAcAT), 2-mercapto-5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MMeT) and 2-mercapto-5-phenylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MPhAT)) on bronze corrosion in an aerated solution of 0.2 g L{sup -1} Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0.2 g L{sup -1} NaHCO{sub 3} at pH 5 was studied by potentiodynamic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The corrosion parameters determined from the polarisation curves indicate that the addition of the investigated thiadiazole derivatives decreases both cathodic and anodic current densities, due to an inhibition of the corrosion process, through the adsorption of thiadiazoles on the bronze surface. The inhibiting effect of the investigated organic compounds appears to be more pronounced on the anodic process than on the cathodic one and, except for the case MPhAT, it is enhanced by the increases of the inhibitors' concentration. The adsorption of the thiadiazole derivatives on bronze was confirmed by the presence of the nitrogen atoms in the EDX spectra of the bronze exposed to inhibitor-containing solutions. The magnitude of polarisation resistance values and, consequently, the inhibition efficiencies are influenced by the molecular structure of thiadiazole derivatives. The strongest inhibition was noticed in the presence of compounds with phenyl amino- or amino-functionalities in their molecules. The maximum protection efficiencies were obtained by addition of: 5 mM MAT (95.9%), 1 mM MAcAT (95.7%), 5 mM MMeT (92.6%) and 0.1 mM MPhAT (97%). EIS measurements also revealed that the inhibitor effectiveness of the optimal concentrations of thiadiazole is time-dependent.

  7. Dependence of nitrite oxidation on nitrite and oxygen in low-oxygen seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Ji, Qixing; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B.

    2017-08-01

    Nitrite oxidation is an essential step in transformations of fixed nitrogen. The physiology of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) implies that the rates of nitrite oxidation should be controlled by concentration of their substrate, nitrite, and the terminal electron acceptor, oxygen. The sensitivities of nitrite oxidation to oxygen and nitrite concentrations were investigated using 15N tracer incubations in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific. Nitrite stimulated nitrite oxidation under low in situ nitrite conditions, following Michaelis-Menten kinetics, indicating that nitrite was the limiting substrate. The nitrite half-saturation constant (Ks = 0.254 ± 0.161 μM) was 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than in cultivated NOB, indicating higher affinity of marine NOB for nitrite. The highest rates of nitrite oxidation were measured in the oxygen depleted zone (ODZ), and were partially inhibited by additions of oxygen. This oxygen sensitivity suggests that ODZ specialist NOB, adapted to low-oxygen conditions, are responsible for apparently anaerobic nitrite oxidation.

  8. Alkaloids extract of Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. seeds used as novel eco-friendly inhibitor for carbon steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution: Electrochemical and surface studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hamdani, Naoual; Fdil, Rabiaa [Laboratoire de Chimie Bioorganique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); Tourabi, Mustapha [Laboratoire de Catalyse et de Corrosion des Matériaux (LCCM), Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); Jama, Charafeddine [UMET-PSI, CNRS UMR 8207, ENSCL, Université Lille 1, CS 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Bentiss, Fouad, E-mail: fbentiss@enscl.fr [Laboratoire de Catalyse et de Corrosion des Matériaux (LCCM), Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); UMET-PSI, CNRS UMR 8207, ENSCL, Université Lille 1, CS 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • AERS is good eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M HCl. • AERS acts as mixed-type inhibitor in 1 M HCl medium. • AERS adsorption is well described by Langmuir isotherm. • Surface analyses were used to explain the AERS mechanism of carbon steel corrosion inhibition. - Abstract: Current research efforts now focus on the development of non-toxic, inexpensive and environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors as alternatives to different organic and non-organic compounds. In this field, alkaloids extract of Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. seeds (AERS) was tested for the first time as corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M HCl medium using electrochemical and surface characterization techniques. The obtained results showed that this plant extract's acts as an efficient corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M HCl and an inhibition efficiency of 94.4% was reached with 400 mg/L of AERS at 30 °C. Ac impedance experimental data revealed a frequency distribution of the capacitance, simulated as constant phase element. Impedance results demonstrated that the addition of the AERS in the corrosive solution decreases the charge capacitance and simultaneously increases the function of the charge/discharge of the interface, facilitating the formation of an adsorbed layer over the steel surface. Polarization curves indicated that AERS is a mixed inhibitor. Adsorption of such alkaloid extract on the steel surface obeyed to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that the inhibition of steel corrosion in normal hydrochloric solution by AERS is mainly controlled by a physisorption process and the inhibitive layer is composed of an iron oxide/hydroxide mixture where AERS molecules are incorporated.

  9. Substituted sodium phenylanthranylates as inhibitors of corrosion in chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.I.; Fialkov, Yu.A.; Popova, L.I.; Ehndel' man, E.S.; Kuznetsova, I.G. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Fizicheskoj Khimii)

    The efficiency of corrosion protection of armco iron, zinc (Ts-O) aluminium (AB 000) and its alloys (.D16 and AMG6) with sodium phenylanthranylate derivatives in chloride buffer solutions (pH 7.4-8.08) are investigated. It has been ascertained that the introduction of sodium phenylanthranylate into phenyl radical in m- and p-position relative to the amino group of electron-seeking substitutes improves protective properties of an inhibitor. The inhibiting effect of phenylanthranylates and its dependence on electron structure enchances in zinc-aluminium-iron series and decreases in case of transition from pure aluminium to its alloys.

  10. Substituted sodium phenylanthranylates as inhibitors of corrosion in chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.I.; Fialkov, Yu.A.; Popova, L.I.; Ehndel'man, E.S.; Kuznetsova, I.G.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of corrosion protoction of armco iron, zinc (Ts-O) aluminium (AB 000) and its alloys (.D16 and AMG6) with sodium phenylanthranylate derivatives in clloride buffer solutions (pH 7.4-8.08) are investigated. It has been ascertained that the introduction of sodium phenylantiranylate into phenyl radical in m- and p-position relative to the amino group of electron-seeking substitutes improves protective properties of an inhibitor. The inhibiting effect of phenylanthranylates and its dependence on electron structure enchances in zinc-aluminium-iron series and decreases in case of transition from pure aluminium to its alloys

  11. Aluminum surface corrosion and the mechanism of inhibitors using pH and metal ion selective imaging fiber bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szunerits, Sabine; Walt, David R

    2002-02-15

    The localized corrosion behavior of a galvanic aluminum copper couple was investigated by in situ fluorescence imaging with a fiber-optic imaging sensor. Three different, but complementary methods were used for visualizing remote corrosion sites, mapping the topography of the metal surface, and measuring local chemical concentrations of H+, OH-, and Al3+. The first method is based on a pH-sensitive imaging fiber, where the fluorescent dye SNAFL was covalently attached to the fiber's distal end. Fluorescence images were acquired as a function of time at different areas of the galvanic couple. In a second method, the fluorescent dye morin was immobilized on the fiber-optic imaging sensor, which allowed the in situ localization of corrosion processes on pure aluminum to be visualized over time by monitoring the release of Al3+. The development of fluorescence on the aluminum surface defined the areas associated with the anodic dissolution of aluminum. We also investigated the inhibition of corrosion of pure aluminum by CeCl3 and 8-hydroxyquinoline. The decrease in current, the decrease in the number of active sites on the aluminum surface, and the faster surface passivation are all consistent indications that cerium chloride and 8-hydroxyquinoline inhibit corrosion effectively. From the number and extent of corrosion sites and the release of aluminum ions monitored with the fiber, it was shown that 8-hydroxyquinoline is a more effective inhibitor than cerium chloride.

  12. Sensitive paper-based analytical device for fast colorimetric detection of nitrite with smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Xiu; Song, Yi-Zhen; Fang, Fang; Wu, Zhi-Yong

    2018-04-01

    On-site rapid monitoring of nitrite as an assessment indicator of the environment, food, and physiological systems has drawn extensive attention. Here, electrokinetic stacking (ES) was combined with colorimetric reaction on a paper-based device (PAD) to achieve colorless nitrite detection with smartphone. In this paper, nitrite was stacked on the paper fluidic channel as a narrow band by electrokinetic stacking. Then, Griess reagent was introduced to visualize the stacking band. Under optimal conditions, the sensitivity of nitrite was 160-fold increased within 5 min. A linear response in the range of 0.075 to 1.0 μg mL -1 (R 2  = 0.99) and a limit of detection (LOD) of 73 ng mL -1 (0.86 μM) were obtained. The LOD was 10 times lower than the reported PAD, and close to that achieved by a desktop spectrophotometer. The applicability was demonstrated by nitrite detection from saliva and water with good selectivity, adding 100 times more concentrated co-ions. High recovery (91.0~108.7%) and reasonable intra-day and inter-day reproducibility (RSD work shows that the sensitivity of colorless analyte detection-based colorimetric reaction can be effectively enhanced by integration of ES on a PAD. Graphical abstract Schematic of the experimental setups (left) and the corresponding images (right) of the actual portable device.

  13. Nitrate decreases xanthine oxidoreductase-mediated nitrite reductase activity and attenuates vascular and blood pressure responses to nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damacena-Angelis, Célio; Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Pinheiro, Lucas C; Crevelin, Eduardo J; Portella, Rafael L; Moraes, Luiz Alberto B; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2017-08-01

    Nitrite and nitrate restore deficient endogenous nitric oxide (NO) production as they are converted back to NO, and therefore complement the classic enzymatic NO synthesis. Circulating nitrate and nitrite must cross membrane barriers to produce their effects and increased nitrate concentrations may attenuate the nitrite influx into cells, decreasing NO generation from nitrite. Moreover, xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) mediates NO formation from nitrite and nitrate. However, no study has examined whether nitrate attenuates XOR-mediated NO generation from nitrite. We hypothesized that nitrate attenuates the vascular and blood pressure responses to nitrite either by interfering with nitrite influx into vascular tissue, or by competing with nitrite for XOR, thus inhibiting XOR-mediated NO generation. We used two independent vascular function assays in rats (aortic ring preparations and isolated mesenteric arterial bed perfusion) to examine the effects of sodium nitrate on the concentration-dependent responses to sodium nitrite. Both assays showed that nitrate attenuated the vascular responses to nitrite. Conversely, the aortic responses to the NO donor DETANONOate were not affected by sodium nitrate. Further confirming these results, we found that nitrate attenuated the acute blood pressure lowering effects of increasing doses of nitrite infused intravenously in freely moving rats. The possibility that nitrate could compete with nitrite and decrease nitrite influx into cells was tested by measuring the accumulation of nitrogen-15-labeled nitrite ( 15 N-nitrite) by aortic rings using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Nitrate exerted no effect on aortic accumulation of 15 N-nitrite. Next, we used chemiluminescence-based NO detection to examine whether nitrate attenuates XOR-mediated nitrite reductase activity. Nitrate significantly shifted the Michaelis Menten saturation curve to the right, with a 3-fold increase in the

  14. The repair and protection of reinforced concrete with migrating corrosion inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, D.

    2016-01-01

    The concrete is a very durable construction material and his use is based on the principle that concrete is an ideal environment for steel if properly proportioned and placed. In general, reinforced concrete has proved to be successful in terms of both structural performance and durability. However, there are instances of premature failure of reinforced concrete components due to corrosion of the reinforcement. Experience has shown that there are certain portions of exposed concrete structures more vulnerable than others. Methodology for concrete repair it addresses to suggestions of the types of repair methods and materials and a detailed description of the uses, limitations, materials, and procedures for Repair of Concrete. At same the time the methodology presents recommendation on materials, methods of mixing, application, curing and precautions to be exercised during placement. This work presents guidelines for managing reinforced concrete components and specifies the repair strategy with inhibitors incorporating. (authors)

  15. Detection of nitrite based on fluorescent carbon dots by the hydrothermal method with folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haitao; Ding, Liyun; Zhang, Bingyu; Huang, Jun

    2018-05-01

    A fluorescent carbon dots probe for the detection of aqueous nitrite was fabricated by a one-pot hydrothermal method, and the transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer, UV-Vis absorption spectrometer and fluorescence spectrophotometer were used to study the property of carbon dots. The fluorescent property of carbon dots influenced by the concentration of aqueous nitrite was studied. The interaction between the electron-donating functional groups and the electron-accepting nitrous acid could account for the quenching effect on carbon dots by adding aqueous nitrite. The products of the hydrolysis of aqueous nitrite performed a stronger quenching effect at lower pH. The relationship between the relative fluorescence intensity of carbon dots and the concentration of nitrite was described by the Stern-Volmer equation (I0/I - 1 = 0.046[Q]) with a fine linearity (R2 = 0.99). The carbon dots-based probe provides a convenient method for the detection of nitrite concentration.

  16. Amperometric detection of nitrite based on Dawson-type vanodotungstophosphate and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Di; Ma, Huiyuan; Chen, Yanyan; Pang, Haijun; Yu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A composite film has been constructed by vanodotungstophosphate α 2 -K 7 P 2 VW 17 O 62 ·18H 2 O (P 2 W 17 V) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using the layer-by-layer self-assembly method. The incorporation of CNTs and P 2 W 17 V into the composite film endowed the modified electrode fast electron transfer rate and high electrocatalytic activity of toward nitrite oxidation. This nitrite sensor shows broad linear range, low detection limit, and high sensitivity and stability. Also it did not show any interference with other potential interfering species, and was successfully employed for determination of nitrite in real samples. -- Highlights: •A composite film was constructed by a vanodotungstophosphate and carbon nanotubes. •The composite film showed fast electron transfer rate and high electrocatalytic activity of toward nitrite oxidation. •The proposed sensor can amperometricially detect nitrite with high sensitivity and selectivity. -- Abstract: A nitrite sensor based on Dawson vanodotungstophosphates α 2 -K 7 P 2 VW 17 O 62 ·18H 2 O (P 2 W 17 V) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was prepared by electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. The sensor {PEI/PSS/[PDDA/P 2 W 17 V-CNTs] n } was characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). The electron transfer and sensing ability of this sensor were explored using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) technology. The results show that the incorporation of CNTs and P 2 W 17 V into the composite film endowed the modified electrode with fast transfer rate and high electrocatalytic activity towards oxidation of nitrite. This nitrite sensor with 10 bilayers has a broad linear range of 5 × 10 −8 to 2.13 × 10 −3 M, a low detection limit of 0.0367 μM (S N −1 = 3), a high sensitivity of 0.35 mA mM −1 NO 2 − , an excellent anti-interference property in the

  17. Development of Novel Corrosion Techniques for a Green Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaki Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect of air pollution, brown clouds and greenhouse gasses is deleterious to human health and industrial products. The use of toxic inhibitors, chemicals in water treatment plants, and anti-fouling agents in desalination plants has contributed to the greenhouse effect. Conventional anti-corrosion techniques such as paints, coatings, inhibitor treatments, and cathodic protection paid no regard to greenhouse effect. Work on eco-friendly anti-corrosion techniques is scanty and largely proprietary. The use of nano-TiO2 particles introduced in alkyds and polyurethane-based coatings showed a higher corrosion resistance compared to conventional TiO2 coatings with significant photocatalytic activity to kill bacteria. The use of UV radiations for photo-inhibition of stainless steel in chloride solution can replace toxic inhibitors. Corrosion inhibition has also been achieved by using natural materials such as polymers instead of toxic chemical inhibitors, without adverse environmental impact. TiO2 films exposed to UV radiation have shown the capability to protect the steel without sacrificing the film. Self-healing materials with encapsulated nanoparticles in paints and coatings have shown to heal the defects caused by corrosion. These innovative techniques provide a direction to the corrosion scientists, engineers, and environmentalists who are concerned about the increasing contamination of the planet and maintaining a green environment.

  18. 2-Butyne-1,4-diol as a novel corrosion inhibitor for API X65 steel pipeline in carbonate/bicarbonate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi Meresht, E. [Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, 1411713114, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahrabi Farahani, T., E-mail: tshahrabi34@modares.ac.ir [Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, 1411713114, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neshati, J. [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, RIPI, 1485733111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Corrosion of API 5L X65 is effectively reduced by the addition of the inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The techniques include weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, EIS and AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2-Butyne-1,4-diol acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption of 2-butyne-1,4-diol obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. - Abstract: The inhibition effects of 2-butyne-1,4-diol on the corrosion susceptibility of grade API 5L X65 steel pipeline in 2 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/1 M NaHCO{sub 3} solution were studied by electrochemical techniques and weight loss measurements. The results indicated that this inhibitor was a mixed-type inhibitor, with a maximum percentage inhibition efficiency of approximately 92% in the presence of 5 mM inhibitor. Atomic force microscopy revealed that a protective film was formed on the surface of the inhibited sample. The adsorption of the inhibitor was found to conform to the Langmuir isotherm with the standard adsorption free energy of -21.08 kJ mol{sup -1}.

  19. Corrosion studies on PREPP waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, J.M.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1984-05-01

    Deformation or Failure Test and Accelerated Corrosion Test procedures were conducted to investigate the effect of formulation variables on the corrosion of oversize waste in Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) concrete waste forms. The Deformation or Failure Test did not indicate substantial waste form swelling from corrosion. The presence or absence of corrosion inhibitor was the most significant factor relative to measured half-cell potentials identified in the Accelerated Corrosion Test. However, corrosion inhibitor was determined to be only marginally beneficial. While this study produced no evidence that corrosion is of sufficient magnitude to produce serious degradation of PREPP waste forms, the need for corrosion rate testing is suggested. 11 references, 4 figures, 8 tables

  20. Study of low cost eco-friendly compounds as corrosion inhibitors for cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooqi, I H; Hussain, A; Saini, P A [AMU, Aligarh (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Quraishi, M A [AMU, Aligarh (India). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    1999-07-01

    Attempts are made to utilize the aqueous extracts of natural compounds, namely cordia latifolia and curcumin, as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in cooling systems, and their inhibition efficiencies are compared with that of Hydroxyethylidene 1-1 diphosphonic acid (HEDP). HEDP is also blended with aqueous extracts of natural compounds so as to improve their inhibition efficiency. The blowdown of the cooling system is also analysed for environmental factors. (author)

  1. Study on improvement of durability for reinforced concrete by surface-painting migrating corrosion inhibitor and engineering application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ning; WANG, Zixiao; LIU, Zhiyong; Zhou, Jiyuan; Zheng, Duo

    2017-01-01

    The corrosion currents of steel bar in concrete with three W/B and four chloride contents after surface-painting two migrating corrosion inhibitors (PCI-2015 and MCI-A) 14d to 150d in atmospheric condition were measured. The results showed that the corrosion current density (I corr) of steel bar reduced to 0.1 μA.cm-2 from the initial highest 3.833 μA.cm-2 (W/B=0.65, NaCl-1%) after surface-painting PCI-2015 14 d, and the I corr was still lower than 0.1 μA.cm-2 until 150d. The compressive strength and chloride migration coefficient of concrete specimens were tested. The possible reasons of the mechanisms of durability improvement for reinforced concrete by applying PCI-2015 inhibitor were PCI-2015 may be reacted with calcium hydroxide in cement concrete and lots of inhibitor particles may be adsorbed on the active sites first and then a stable protective layer may be formed. The I corr of steel bars in a hydraulic aqueduct concrete structure after painting PCI-2015, MCI-A (the United States) and MCI-B (Europe) during 6 months was monitored by Gecor 8 tester. The results showed that the average values of I corr of steel bars after painting the PCI-2015 150d fulfilled the specification requirements in “Design code for concrete structure strengthening (E.3) ”(GB 50367-2013).

  2. Recent Developments on Microencapsulation for Autonomous Corrosion Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Jolley, Scott T.; Surma, Jan M.; Pearman, Benjamin P.; Zhang, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    This work concerns recent progress in the development of a multifunctional smart coating based on microencapsulation for the autonomous control of corrosion. Microencapsulation allows the incorporation of desired corrosion control functionalities, such as early corrosion detection and inhibition through corrosion controlled release of corrosion indicators and inhibitors, as well as self-healing agent release when mechanical damage occurs.While proof-of-concept results have been reported previously, more recent efforts have been concentrated in technical developments to improve coating compatibility, synthesis procedure scalability, as well as fine tuning the release property of encapsulated active agents.

  3. Mitochondria recycle nitrite back to the bioregulator nitric monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohl, H.; Staniek, K.; Sobhian, B.; Bahrami, S.; Redl, H.; Kozlov, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    Nitric monoxide (NO) exerts a great variety of physiological functions. L-Arginine supplies amino groups which are transformed to NO in various NO-synthase-active isoenzyme complexes. NO-synthesis is stimulated under various conditions increasing the tissue of stable NO-metabolites. The major oxidation product found is nitrite. Elevated nitrite levels were reported to exist in a variety of diseases including HIV, reperfusion injury and hypovolemic shock. Denitrifying bacteria such as Paracoccus denitrificans have a membrane bound set of cytochromes (cyt cd 1 , cyt bc) which were shown to be involved in nitrite reduction activities. Mammalian mitochondria have similar cytochromes which form part of the respiratory chain. Like in bacteria quinols are used as reductants of these types of cytochromes. The observation of one-e - divergence from this redox-couple to external dioxygen made us to study whether this site of the respiratory chain may also recycle nitrite back to its bioactive form NO. Thus, the aim of the present study was therefore to confirm the existence of a reductive pathway which reestablishes the existence of the bioregulator NO from its main metabolite NO 2 - . Our results show that respiring mitochondria readily reduce added nitrite to NO which was made visible by nitrosylation of deoxyhemoglobin. The adduct gives characteristic triplet-ESR-signals. Using inhibitors of the respiratory chain for chemical sequestration of respiratory segments we were able to identify the site where nitrite is reduced. The results confirm the ubiquinone/cyt bc 1 couple as the reductant site where nitrite is recycled. The high affinity of NO to the heme-iron of cytochrome oxidase will result in an impairment of mitochondrial energy-production. ''Nitrite tolerance'' of angina pectoris patients using NO-donors may be explained in that way. (author)

  4. Investigation of SiO{sub 2}:Na{sub 2}O ratio as a corrosion inhibitor for metal alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamad, N.; Othman, N. K. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Jalar, A. [Institute of Micro Engineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The silicate is one of the potential compounds used as a corrosion inhibitor for metal alloys. The mixture between silica and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) succeeded to produce the silicate product. The formulation of a silicate product normally variable depended by the different ratio of SiO{sub 2}:Na{sub 2}O. This research utilized the agriculture waste product of paddy using its rice husk. In this study, the amorphous silica content in rice husk ash was used after rice husk burnt in a muffle furnace at a certain temperature. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was done to determine the existence of amorphous phase of silica in the rice husk ash. There are several studies that recognized rice husk as an alternative source that obtained high silica content. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis was carried out to clarify the percentage amount of Si and O elements, which referred the silica compound in rice husk ash. The preparation of sodium silicate formulation were differ based on the SiO{sub 2}:Na{sub 2}O ratio (SiO{sub 2}:Na{sub 2}O ratio = 1.00, 2.00 and 3.00). These silicate based corrosion inhibitors were tested on several testing samples, which were copper (99.9%), aluminum alloy (AA 6061) and carbon steel (SAE 1045). The purpose of this study is to determine the appropriate SiO{sub 2}:Na{sub 2}O ratio and understand how this SiO{sub 2}:Na{sub 2}O ratio can affect the corrosion rate of each metal alloys immersed in acidic medium. In order to investigate this study, weight loss test was conducted in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) for 24 hours at room temperature.

  5. Determination of nitrite ion at schiff's base derivative of chitosan modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhongliang; Zhang Jianmei; Liu Shujuan; Peng Daofeng

    2007-01-01

    Chitosan react with salicyclaldehyde by schiff's base reaction in water, a polymer product S-CTS can be prepared. Glassy carbon electrode was modified with S-CTS by drop-coating method. Then, its electrocatalysis effect on the reduction of nitrite by the films of S-CTS was investigated. Experimental results showed that S-CTS modified electrode could reduce the oxidation overpotential of nitrite in pH4.5 B-R buffer solution, the peak current of reduction was proportional to the concentration of nitrite and a good linear relation from 0.20 to 81 mg/kg (r=0.9899) with a detection limit of 2.8 x 10 -7 mol/L was obtained. The methods have been applied to determining nitrite in some samples, satisfactory results were obtained. (authors)

  6. Fine structure characterization of zero-valent iron nanoparticles for decontamination of nitrites and nitrates in wastewater and groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-Song Lin et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of the present study were to investigate the chemical reduction of nitrate or nitrite species by zero-valent iron nanoparticle (ZVIN in aqueous solution and related reaction kinetics or mechanisms using fine structure characterization. This work also exemplifies the utilization of field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE–SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and x-ray diffraction (XRD to reveal the speciation and possible reaction pathway in a very complex adsorption and redox reaction process. Experimentally, ZVIN of this study was prepared by sodium borohydride reduction method at room temperature and ambient pressure. The morphology of as-synthesized ZVIN shows that the nearly ball and ultrafine particles ranged of 20–50 nm were observed with FE–SEM or TEM analysis. The kinetic model of nitrites or nitrates reductive reaction by ZVIN is proposed as a pseudo first-order kinetic equation. The nitrite and nitrate removal efficiencies using ZVIN were found 65–83% and 51–68%, respectively, based on three different initial concentrations. Based on the XRD pattern analyses, it is found that the quantitative relationship between nitrite and Fe(III or Fe(II is similar to the one between nitrate and Fe(III in the ZVIN study. The possible reason is due to the faster nitrite reduction by ZVIN. In fact, the occurrence of the relative faster nitrite reductive reaction suggested that the passivation of the ZVIN have a significant contribution to iron corrosion. The extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS or x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES spectra show that the nitrites or nitrates reduce to N2 or NH3 while oxidizing the ZVIN to Fe2O3 or Fe3O4 electrochemically. It is also very clear that decontamination of nitrate or nitrite species in groundwater via the in-situ remediation with a ZVIN permeable reactive barrier would be environmentally attractive.

  7. SERS and DFT study of copper surfaces coated with corrosion inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Muniz-Miranda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Azole derivatives are common inhibitors of copper corrosion due to the chemical adsorption occurring on the metal surface that gives rise to a protective film. In particular, 1,2,4-triazole performs comparable to benzotriazole, which is much more widely used, but is by no means an environmentally friendly agent. In this study, we have analyzed the adsorption of 1,2,4-triazole on copper by taking advantage of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS effect, which highlights the vibrational features of organic ligand monolayers adhering to rough surfaces of some metals such as gold, silver and copper. To ensure the necessary SERS activation, a roughening procedure was implemented on the copper substrates, resulting in nanoscale surface structures, as evidenced by microscopic investigation. To obtain sufficient information on the molecule–metal interaction and the formation of an anticorrosive thin film, the SERS spectra were interpreted with the aid of theoretical calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT approach.

  8. Adsorption and Corrosion Inhibition Studies of Some Selected Dyes as Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Acidic Medium: Gravimetric, Electrochemical, Quantum Chemical Studies and Synergistic Effect with Iodide Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabo Peme

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition properties of some organic dyes, namely Sunset Yellow (SS, Amaranth (AM, Allura Red (AR, Tartrazine (TZ and Fast Green (FG, for mild steel corrosion in 0.5 M HCl solution, were investigated using gravimetric, potentiodynamic polarization techniques and quantum chemical calculations. The results showed that the studied dyes are good corrosion inhibitors with enhanced inhibition efficiencies. The inhibition efficiency of all the studied dyes increases with increase in concentration, and decreases with increase in temperature. The results showed that the inhibition efficiency of the dyes increases in the presence of KI due to synergistic interactions of the dye molecules with iodide (I− ions. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that the studied dyes are mixed-type inhibitors both in the absence and presence of KI. The adsorption of the studied dyes on mild steel surface, with and without KI, obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and involves physical adsorption mechanism. Quantum chemical calculations revealed that the most likely sites in the dye molecules for interactions with mild steel are the S, O, and N heteroatoms.

  9. Adsorption and Corrosion Inhibition Studies of Some Selected Dyes as Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Acidic Medium: Gravimetric, Electrochemical, Quantum Chemical Studies and Synergistic Effect with Iodide Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peme, Thabo; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O; Bahadur, Indra; Adekunle, Abolanle S; Kabanda, Mwadham M; Ebenso, Eno E

    2015-09-02

    The corrosion inhibition properties of some organic dyes, namely Sunset Yellow (SS), Amaranth (AM), Allura Red (AR), Tartrazine (TZ) and Fast Green (FG), for mild steel corrosion in 0.5 M HCl solution, were investigated using gravimetric, potentiodynamic polarization techniques and quantum chemical calculations. The results showed that the studied dyes are good corrosion inhibitors with enhanced inhibition efficiencies. The inhibition efficiency of all the studied dyes increases with increase in concentration, and decreases with increase in temperature. The results showed that the inhibition efficiency of the dyes increases in the presence of KI due to synergistic interactions of the dye molecules with iodide (I(-)) ions. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that the studied dyes are mixed-type inhibitors both in the absence and presence of KI. The adsorption of the studied dyes on mild steel surface, with and without KI, obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and involves physical adsorption mechanism. Quantum chemical calculations revealed that the most likely sites in the dye molecules for interactions with mild steel are the S, O, and N heteroatoms.

  10. The use and control of nitrate and nitrite for the processing of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honikel, Karl-Otto

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are used for the purpose of curing meat products. In most countries the use of both substances, usually added as potassium or sodium salts, is limited. Either the ingoing or the residual amounts are regulated by laws. The effective substance is nitrite acting primarily as an inhibitor for some microorganisms. Nitrite added to a batter of meat is partially oxidized to nitrate by sequestering oxygen - thus it acts as an antioxidant - a part of nitrite is bound to myoglobin, forming the heat stable NO-myoglobin, a part is bound to proteins or other substances in meat. Nitrate may be reduced to nitrite in raw meat products by microorganisms. As oxidation and reduction may occur the concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate in a product has to be controlled and measured especially if the residual amounts are regulated. This sum of both compounds is important for the human body. Intake of nitrate with food leads to its absorption over the digestive tract into the blood. In the oral cavity nitrate appears again where it is reduced to nitrite. With the saliva the nitrite is mixed with food, having the same effect as nitrite in a batter (inhibiting growth of some pathogenic microorganisms) and swallowed. In the stomach nitrite can eventually form carcinogenic nitrosamines in the acidic environment.

  11. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations and metabolism in breast milk, infant formula, and parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jesica A; Ninnis, Janet R; Hopper, Andrew O; Ibrahim, Yomna; Merritt, T Allen; Wan, Kim-Wah; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2014-09-01

    Dietary nitrate and nitrite are sources of gastric NO, which modulates blood flow, mucus production, and microbial flora. However, the intake and importance of these anions in infants is largely unknown. Nitrate and nitrite levels were measured in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants, infant formulas, and parenteral nutrition. Nitrite metabolism in breast milk was measured after freeze-thawing, at different temperatures, varying oxygen tensions, and after inhibition of potential nitrite-metabolizing enzymes. Nitrite concentrations averaged 0.07 ± 0.01 μM in milk of mothers of preterm infants, less than that of term infants (0.13 ± 0.02 μM) (P milk. Concentrations in parenteral nutrition were equivalent to or lower than those of breast milk. Freeze-thawing decreased nitrite concentration ~64%, falling with a half-life of 32 minutes at 37°C. The disappearance of nitrite was oxygen-dependent and prevented by ferricyanide and 3 inhibitors of lactoperoxidase. Nitrite concentrations in breast milk decrease with storage and freeze-thawing, a decline likely mediated by lactoperoxidase. Compared to adults, infants ingest relatively little nitrite and nitrate, which may be of importance in the modulation of blood flow and the bacterial flora of the infant GI tract, especially given the protective effects of swallowed nitrite. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  12. Binary Mixtures of Nonyl Phenol with Alkyl Substituted Anilines as Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Acidic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Shukla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the evaluation of the corrosion inhibition effectiveness of the two binary mixtures of nonyl phenol (NPH with 2, 4 dimethyl aniline (DMA and 2 ethyl aniline (EA at different concentration ratios (from 1:7 to 7:1 for mild steel in H2SO4 (pH=1 solution by weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization method. Corrosion inhibition ability of the compounds has been tested at different exposure periods (6 h to 24 h and at different temperatures (303 K to 333 K. The binary mixture of NPH and EA (at 7:1 concentration ratio has afforded maximum inhibition (IE% 93.5% at 6 h exposure period and at room temperature. The adsorption of both the inhibitors is found to accord with Temkin adsorption isotherm. Potentiodynamic polarization study reveals that the tested inhibitors are mixed type inhibitor and preferentially act on cathodic areas. Electrochemical impedance study suggests formation of an inhibition layer by the adsorption of the inhibitors on the metal surface. An adsorption model of the inhibitor molecules on the metal surface has been proposed after immersion test in the inhibited acid showed characteristic shift of N-H and O-H bond frequencies towards lower side compared to that of the respective pure samples which indicated the donation of electron pair through N and O atom of the inhibitor molecule in the surface adsorption phenomena. SEM study has revealed formation of semi globular inhibitor products on the metal surface. The comparisons of the protection efficiencies of these compounds according to their relative electron density on the adsorption centre and projected molecular area of the inhibitor molecules have been made.

  13. Electrochemical evaluation of sodium metabisulfite as environmentally friendly inhibitor for corrosion of aluminum alloy 6061 in a chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaid, B., E-mail: zaidbachir@yahoo.com [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Maddache, N.; Saidi, D. [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Souami, N. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger CRNA, 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger (Algeria); Bacha, N. [Département de Mécanique, Université SAAD Dahleb, Blida (Algeria); Si Ahmed, A. [Im2np, UMR 7334 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • Sodium metabisulfite acts as cathodic-type inhibitor. • The polarization resistance increases with the inhibitor concentration. • The pit nucleation rate decreases with increasing inhibitor concentration. • The current rise linked to pit propagation drops as inhibitor content increases. • The reactions involved in the inhibition actions are pointed out. - Abstract: Inhibition properties of sodium metabisulfite (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5}) on pitting corrosion of 6061 aluminum alloy, in 5 × 10{sup −2} M NaCl solution of pH near 7.2 at 298 K, are characterized using open circuit potential, polarization resistance, cyclic and chrono-amperometric polarization measurements. In addition, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectrons are employed. Sodium metabisulfite, which is well compatible with environmental requirements, seems to act as a cathodic-type corrosion inhibitor. The passivation range and the polarization resistance increase with Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentration. The inhibition effects are also reflected through the substantial reduction of both the rate of pit nucleation and the current rise characterizing the pit propagation progress. The SEM–EDS and XPS analyses reveal the formation of a passive film, which contains sulfur atoms.

  14. Blue tetrazolium as a novel corrosion inhibitor for cold rolled steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianghong; Deng Shuduan; Fu Hui

    2010-01-01

    The inhibition effect of blue tetrazolium (BT) on the corrosion of cold rolled steel (CRS) in 1.0 M HCl solution at 20 o C was investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. The results show that BT is a very good inhibitor, and the adsorption of BT on CRS surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Polarization curves reveal that BT acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. EIS spectra exhibit one capacitive loop and confirm the inhibitive ability. The inhibition action of BT is also evidenced by SEM images.

  15. Alkanediyl-α, ω-bis (dimethyl cetylammonium bromide gemini surfactants as novel corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in formic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mobin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Gemini surfactants, butanediyl 1,4-bis(dimethyl cetylammonium bromide, pentanediyl 1,5 - bis (dimethyl cetylammonium bromide and hexanediyl 1,6 - bis (dimethyl cetylammonium bromide from Alkanediyl-α, ω-bis (dimethyl cetylammonium bromide series were synthesized in laboratory and were characterized by using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy. The surfactants were tested as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 20% formic acid. The influence of surfactants on mild steel corrosion inhibition was investigated by measuring the corrosion rate of mild steel in their absence and presence by weight loss measurements, solvent analysis of iron ions into the test solution and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The surface morphology of the corroded steel samples in presence and absence of surfactants was evaluated by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The synthesized gemini surfactants performed as excellent corrosion inhibitor, the inhibition efficiency (IE being in the range of 76.66-97.41%. The IE of surfactants is slightly affected by the spacer length. The IE increased with increase in surfactant concentration and temperature. The adsorption of gemini surfactants on the steel surface was found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The results of the potentiodynamic polarization studies are consistent with the results of weight loss studies.

  16. The effect of inhibitor sodium nitrate on pitting corrosion of dissimilar material weldment joint of stainless steel AISI 304 and mild steel SS 400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilca, B. R., E-mail: bangkithilca@yahoo.com; Triyono, E-mail: triyonomesin@uns.ac.id [Mechanical Engineering Department, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    This study experimentally evaluated the effect of Sodium Nitrate inhibitor (NaNO{sub 3}) of 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% on NaCl 3.5% toward pitting corrosion of dissimilar metal welding joint between stainless steel AISI 304 and mild steel SS 400. Electrochemical corrosion was tested using potentiodynamic polarization. Further the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) conducted to analyze the specimen. Chemical composition analysis used Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS). The highest efficiency of sodium nitrate for ER 308 attained 63.8% and 64.89%for ER 309L. The specimen surface which observed through SEM showed decrease of pitting corrosion respectively with the addition of sodium nitrate content as inhibitor.

  17. A novel imidazoline derivative as corrosion inhibitor for P110 carbon steel in hydrochloric acid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel imidazoline derivative, 2-methyl-4-phenyl-1-tosyl-4, 5-dihydro-1H-imidazole (IMI, was prepared and investigated as corrosion inhibitor for P110 carbon steel in 1.0 M HCl solution by weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS tests. The inhibition efficiency increased with the rising concentration of IMI inhibitor. The test results and fitting data indicated that the IMI behaved as a mixed-type inhibitor and obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was carried out to investigate the surface of carbon steel specimens, showing great protection from aggressive solution. Finally, inhibition mechanism of IMI on metal surface was further discussed.

  18. Corrosion behavior of corrosion resistant alloys in stimulation acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheldi, Tiziana [ENI E and P Division, 20097 San Donato Milanese Milano (Italy); Piccolo, Eugenio Lo; Scoppio, Lucrezia [Centro Sviluppo Materiali, via Castel Romano 100, 00128 Rome (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    In the oil and gas industry, selection of CRAs for downhole tubulars is generally based on resistance to corrosive species in the production environment containing CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, chloride and in some case elemental sulphur. However, there are non-production environments to which these materials must also be resistant for either short term or prolonged duration; these environments include stimulation acids, brine and completion fluids. This paper reports the main results of a laboratory study performed to evaluate the corrosion and stress corrosion behaviour to the acidizing treatments of the most used CRAs for production tubing and casing. Laboratory tests were performed to simulate both 'active' and 'spent' acids operative phases, selecting various environmental conditions. The selected steel pipes were a low alloyed steel, martensitic, super-martensitic, duplex 22 Cr, superduplex 25 Cr and super-austenitic stainless steels (25 Cr 35 Ni). Results obtained in the 'active' acid environments over the temperature range of 100-140 deg. C, showed that the blend acids with HCl at high concentration and HCl + HF represented too much severe conditions, where preventing high general corrosion and heavy localised corrosion by inhibition package becomes very difficult, especially for duplex steel pipe, where, in some case, the specimens were completely dissolved into the solution. On the contrary, all steels pipes were successfully protected by inhibitor when organic acid solution (HCOOH + CH{sub 3}COOH) were used. Furthermore, different effectiveness on corrosion protection was showed by the tested inhibitors packages: e.g. in the 90% HCl at 12% + 10 CH{sub 3}COOH acid blend. In 'spent' acid environments, all steel pipes showed to be less susceptible to the localised and general corrosion attack. Moreover, no Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking (SSC) was observed. Only one super-austenitic stainless steel U-bend specimen showed

  19. Synergistic Effect on Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Ginger Affinale Extract in Controlling Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acid Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Ananth Kumar; Arumugam, Sankar; Mallaiya, Kumaravel; Subramaniam, Rameshkumar

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition nature of Ginger affinale extract for the corrosion of mild steel in 0.5N H 2 SO 4 was investigated using weight loss, electrochemical impedance and potentiodynamic polarization methods. The results revealed that Ginger affinale extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor in 0.5N H 2 SO 4 medium. The inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in inhibitor concentration. The inhibition could be attributed to the adsorption of the inhibitor on the steel surface

  20. Inhibition of pH fronts in corrosion cells due to the formation of cerium hydroxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soestbergen, M. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of cerium-based corrosion inhibitors on the pH front between the alkaline cathode and acidic anode in corrosion cells has been studied. The cerium component of these inhibitors can affect the pH front since it precipitates in an alkaline environment as cerium hydroxide, which is important

  1. Application of electrochemical frequency modulation for monitoring corrosion and corrosion inhibition of iron by some indole derivatives in molar hydrochloric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaled, K.F.

    2008-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition effect of four indole derivatives, namely indole (IND), benzotriazole (BTA), benzothiazole (BSA) and benzoimidazole (BIA), have been used as possible corrosion inhibitors for pure iron in 1 M HCl. In this study, electrochemical frequency modulation, EFM was used as an effective method for corrosion rate determination in corrosion inhibition studies. By using EFM measurements, corrosion current density was determined without prior knowledge of Tafel slopes. Corrosion rates obtained using EFM, were compared to that obtained from other chemical and electrochemical techniques. The results obtained from EFM, EIS, Tafel and weight loss measurements were in good agreement. Tafel polarization measurements show that indole derivatives are cathodic-type inhibitors. Molecular simulation studies were applied to optimize the adsorption structures of indole derivatives. The inhibitor/iron/solvent interfaces were simulated and the adsorption energies of these inhibitors were calculated. Quantum chemical calculations have been performed and several quantum chemical indices were calculated and correlated with the corresponding inhibition efficiencies

  2. Undoped Polyaniline/Surfactant Complex for the Corrosion Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lo-Min; Levon, Kalle

    1998-01-01

    Due to the strict regulations on the usage of heavy metals as the additives in the coating industries, the search for effective organic corrosion inhibitors in replace of those metal additives has become essential. Electrically conducting polymers have been shown to be effective for corrosion prevention but the poor solubility of these intractable polymers has been a problem. We have explored a polyaniline/4-dodecylphenol complex (PANi/DDPh) to improve the dissolution and it has been shown to be an effective organic corrosion inhibitor. With the surfactant, DDPh, PANi could be diluted into the coatings and the properties of the coatings were affected. Emeraldine base (EB) form of PANi was also found to be oxidized by the hardener. The oxidized form of polyaniline provides improved corrosion protection of metals than that of emeraldine base since the value of the standard electrode potential for the oxidized form of PANi is higher than that of EB. Additionally, the surfactant improves the wet adhesion property between the coating and the metal surface.

  3. Dietary nitrates, nitrites, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Norman G

    2011-12-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO(3)), nitrite (NO(2)), and arginine can serve as sources for production of NO(x) (a diverse group of metabolites including nitric oxide, nitrosothiols, and nitroalkenes) via ultraviolet light exposure to skin, mammalian nitrate/nitrite reductases in tissues, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, respectively. NO(x) are responsible for the hypotensive, antiplatelet, and cytoprotective effects of dietary nitrates and nitrites. Current regulatory limits on nitrate intakes, based on concerns regarding potential risk of carcinogenicity and methemoglobinemia, are exceeded by normal daily intakes of single foods, such as soya milk and spinach, as well as by some recommended dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. This review includes a call for regulatory bodies to consider all available data on the beneficial physiologic roles of nitrate and nitrite in order to derive rational bases for dietary recommendations.

  4. The microwave assisted synthesis of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide as potential corrosion inhibitor toward carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution saturated with carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasasa, Norman Vincent A., E-mail: npasasa@gmail.com; Bundjali, Bunbun; Wahyuningrum, Deana [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, Jawa Barat (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Injection of corrosion inhibitor into the fluid current of oil and gas pipelines is an effective way to mitigate corrosion rate on the inner-surface parts of pipelines, especially carbon steel pipelines. In this research, two alkylimidazolium ionic liquids, 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (IL1) and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (IL2) have been synthesized and studied as a potential corrosion inhibitor towards carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution saturated with carbon dioxide. IL1 and IL2 were synthesized using microwave assisted organic synthesis (MAOS) method. Mass Spectrometry analysis of IL1 and IL2 showed molecular mass [M-H+] peak at 223.2166 and 251.2484, respectively. The FTIR,{sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR spectra confirmed that IL1 and IL2 were successfully synthesized. Corrosion inhibition activity of IL1 and IL2 were determined using weight loss method. The results showed that IL1 and IL2 have the potential as good corrosion inhibitors with corrosion inhibition efficiency of IL1 and IL2 are 96.00% at 100 ppm (343 K) and 95.60% at 50 ppm (343 K), respectively. The increase in the concentration of IL1 and IL2 tends to improve their corrosion inhibition activities. Analysis of the data obtained from the weight loss method shows that the adsorption of IL1 and IL2 on carbon steel is classified into chemisorption which obeys Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm.

  5. Synergistic Effect on Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Ginger Affinale Extract in Controlling Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acid Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Ananth Kumar; Arumugam, Sankar [Kandaswami Kandar' s College, Namakkal (India); Mallaiya, Kumaravel; Subramaniam, Rameshkumar [PSG College of Technology Peelamedu, Coimbatore (India)

    2013-12-15

    The corrosion inhibition nature of Ginger affinale extract for the corrosion of mild steel in 0.5N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was investigated using weight loss, electrochemical impedance and potentiodynamic polarization methods. The results revealed that Ginger affinale extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor in 0.5N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} medium. The inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in inhibitor concentration. The inhibition could be attributed to the adsorption of the inhibitor on the steel surface.

  6. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bodo

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  7. Green Alternatives to Nitrates and Nitrites in Meat-based Products-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassara, Fatma; Kouassi, Anne Patricia; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Belkacemi, Khaled

    2016-10-02

    Several food additives are added in food for their preservation to maintain the freshness of food (antioxidants) or to slow down or stop the growth of microorganisms (preservative agents). Nitrites and nitrates are used as preservative agents in meat. Nitrites give a smoked taste, a pinkish color in the meat and protect the consumers against the risk of bacterial deterioration. Their addition is however very limited as, in high dose, it can have risks on human health and the environment. Nitrites may also combine with secondary or tertiary amines to form N-nitroso derivatives. Certain N-nitroso compounds have been shown to produce cancers in a wide range of laboratory animals. Thus, alternatives of nitrates and nitrites are the object of numerous research studies. Alternatives, such as the addition of vitamins, fruits, chemicals products, natural products containing nitrite or spices, which have similar properties of nitrites, are in evaluation. In fact, spices are considered to have several organoleptic and anti-microbial properties which would be interesting to study. Several spices and combinations of spices are being progressively evaluated. This review discusses the sources of nitrites and nitrates, their use as additives in food products, their physicochemical properties, their negatives effects and the use of alternatives of nitrites and nitrates in preserving meat products.

  8. Investigation of cooling coil corrosion in storage tanks for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrejcin, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    The high frequency of cooling coil leaks observed in high-heat waste storage tanks soon after sludge removal operations is attributed to pitting, according to laboratory corrosion studies. Experiments show that the most likely series of events leading to coil leakage is (1) excessive dilution of basic nitrite in the supernate, (2) initiation of attack in crevices due to oxygen depletion cells, and (3) acceleration of the attack by sulfate dissolved from the sludge. When sludge was slurried with water, the interstitial liquid was diluted. Nitrite, the anodic inhibitor that prevented attack on coils and tanks in normal operation when its concentration was 0.5 to 3.0M, could accelerate attack when diluted to 10 -4 to 10 -3 M. Attack was presumably initiated at oxygen depletion cells. The presence of sulfate, leached from the sludge, produced a conductive solution that could produce high current densities at the corroding steel surface. The proposed series of events leading to coil leakage agrees with the observations previously made on one leaking coil removed from Tank 2F after sludge removal in 1967. Examination revealed pitting that had originated on the outside of the coils. This pitting was attributed to oxygen depletion cells in coil crevices. To prevent recurrence of pitting attack on cooling coils during future sludge removal operations, the sludge should be slurried (1) with waste diluted less than one hundredfold with water, or (2) with a 500-ppm nitrite-H 2 O solution at pH 12. Either method should preclude pitting damage to the coils

  9. Electrochemical Studies of Monoterpenic Thiosemicarbazones as Corrosion Inhibitor for Steel in 1 M HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Idouhli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the inhibitory effect of some Monoterpenic Thiosemicarbazones on steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution. The potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used. The Monoterpenic Thiosemicarbazones have inhibited significantly the dissolution of steel. The inhibition efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration and also with the increase in temperature (293–323 K. Furthermore, the results obtained revealed that the adsorption of inhibitor on steel surface obeys Langmuir adsorption model and the thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy and activation energy were determined. The scanning electron microscopy combined with dispersive X-ray spectroscopy examinations were used to see the shape of the surface morphology and to determine the elemental composition. Scanning electron microscope (SEM images show that the surface damage decreases when the inhibitor is added. The quantum chemical calculations using density functional theory (DFT were performed in order to provide some insights into the electronic density distribution as well as the nature of inhibitor-steel interaction.

  10. Nitrite, nitrite alternatives, and the control of Clostridium botulinum in cured meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, M D; Smoot, L A

    1982-01-01

    Historically, nitrite has been a component of meat-curing additives for several centuries. In recent years the safety of nitrite as an additive in cured meats has been questioned mainly because of the possible formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines. Nitrite has many important functions in meat curing including its role in color development, flavor, antioxidant properties, and antimicrobial activity. The inhibition of Clostridium botulinum growth and toxin production is an especially important antimicrobial property of nitrite. This review discusses the effects of processing, curing ingredients (especially nitrite), and storage of cured meats in relation to the control of C. botulinum. If nitrite is eliminated from cured meats or the level of usage decreased, then alternatives for the antibotulinal function of nitrite need to be considered. Several potential alternatives including sorbates, parabens, and biological acidulants are discussed.

  11. Polarized Neutron Reflectometry of Nickel Corrosion Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mary H; Welbourn, Rebecca J L; Zarbakhsh, Ali; Gutfreund, Philipp; Clarke, Stuart M

    2015-06-30

    Polarized neutron reflectometry has been used to investigate the detailed adsorption behavior and corrosion inhibition mechanism of two surfactants on a nickel surface under acidic conditions. Both the corrosion of the nickel surface and the structure of the adsorbed surfactant layer could be monitored in situ by the use of different solvent contrasts. Layer thicknesses and roughnesses were evaluated over a range of pH values, showing distinctly the superior corrosion inhibition of one negatively charged surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) compared to a positively charged example (dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide) due to its stronger binding interaction with the surface. It was found that adequate corrosion inhibition occurs at significantly less than full surface coverage.

  12. Green inhibitors. Rare Earth based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aballe, A.; Bethencourt, M.; Botana, F.J.; Perez, J.; Rodriguez, M.A.; Marcos, M.

    1997-01-01

    Lanthanum, Cerium and Samarium chlorides have been investigated as uniform and pitting corrosion inhibitors of AISI 434 and AISI 304 stainless steels and AA 5083 Al-Mg alloy in 3.5% Na Cl aerated aqueous solutions. Their inhibitor power was evaluated by using electrochemical techniques such as Linear and Cyclic Polarisation. In each case, the highest protection degree was found in the solution dropped with 500 ppm of CeCl 3 . Similar results were obtained for additions of 500 ppm of LaCl 3 . Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy allowed us to confirm the cathodic nature of the inhibition process. (Author) 27 refs

  13. Stress corrosion inhibitors for type 18-10 stainless steels with low carbon content in hot and concentrated solutions of MgCl2. Study of some inorganic iodides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinard, J.-L.

    1974-01-01

    Stress corrosion inhibitors for type Z2CN18-10 austenitic stainless steels with low carbon content in a solution of Cl 2 Mg at 105 deg C were investigated. It was established that iodides are the most adequate corrosion inhibitors because they react simultaneously upon the three main components of the alloy (Fe, Ni, Cr). A difference of behavior between I 2 Mg and the other iodides was observed (in electrochemistry and in simple stress corrosion experiments) and the influence of the metallic cation associated to I - was studied. The formation of the superficial film and the phenomena liable to occur at the interface film-corrosive solution were examined: film growth in MgCl 2 ; influence of certain substances added to the solution. A mechanism of inhibition by I - is suggested. It is similar to the mechanism proposed by BERGEN for the stress corrosion cracking by Cl - [fr

  14. Effects of combined organic and inorganic corrosion inhibitors on the nanostructure cerium based conversion coating performance on AZ31 magnesium alloy: Morphological and corrosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saei, E.; Ramezanzadeh, B.; Amini, R.; Kalajahi, M. Salami

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Cn-Mn-polyvinyl alcohol conversion coating led to more uniform and crack free film deposition. •The corrosion resistance of Ce film was noticeably improved by using combination of polyvinyl alchol and Mn2+ cations. •A synergistic effect between polyvinyl alchol-Mn2+ resulted in Ce film with enhanced morphology and corrosion resistance. -- Abstract: Magnesium (Mg) AZ31 samples were chemically treated by a series of room temperature nanostructure cerium based conversion coatings containing Mn(NO 3 ) 2 ·4H 2 O, Co(NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The microstructure and corrosion protection properties of different samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Results demonstrated that the AZ31 Mg alloy sample treated by Ce-Mn-PVA showed the highest corrosion resistance. A denser Ce film with lower crack was precipitated on the sample treated by Ce-Mn-PVA conversion coating.

  15. Reactivity of polyester aliphatic amine surfactants as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in formation water (deep well water)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsabagh, A.M.; Migahed, M.A.; Awad, Hayam S.

    2006-01-01

    Effect of different concentrations, 40-200 ppm, of various polyester aliphatic amine surfactants on inhibition of the corrosion of carbon steel in the formation water (deep well water) was investigated. These surfactants exhibit different levels of inhibition particularly at high concentration (200 ppm). Inhibition efficiencies in the range 86-96% were determined by weight loss method. Comparable results were obtained from electrochemical measurements using Tafel extrapolation and polarisation resistance methods. It was shown that all the investigated surfactants act primarily as anodic inhibitors; however, they also affect the rate and mechanism of the cathodic reaction. These compounds function via adsorption on reactive sites on the corroding surface reducing the corrosion rate of the metal. It was revealed that the adsorption of these surfactants obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The inhibition effectiveness increases with the length of the aliphatic hydrocarbon chain, being a maximum in the presence of surfactant IV (∼96% efficiency). The corrosion inhibition feature of this compound is attributed to the presence of a long hydrocarbon chain that ensures large surface coverage as well as the presence of multiple active centers for adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy, SEM, has been applied to identify the surface morphology of carbon steel alloy in the absence and presence of the inhibitor molecules

  16. Reactivity of polyester aliphatic amine surfactants as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in formation water (deep well water)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsabagh, A.M. [Department of Petroleum Applications, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), Ahmed El-Zomor Street 1, Nasr City, Cairo 11727 (Egypt); Migahed, M.A. [Department of Petroleum Applications, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), Ahmed El-Zomor Street 1, Nasr City, Cairo 11727 (Egypt)]. E-mail: mohamedatiyya707@hotmail.com; Awad, Hayam S. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Girls for Science, Art and Education, Ain Shams University, Asmaa Fahmi Street, Helliopolis, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-04-15

    Effect of different concentrations, 40-200 ppm, of various polyester aliphatic amine surfactants on inhibition of the corrosion of carbon steel in the formation water (deep well water) was investigated. These surfactants exhibit different levels of inhibition particularly at high concentration (200 ppm). Inhibition efficiencies in the range 86-96% were determined by weight loss method. Comparable results were obtained from electrochemical measurements using Tafel extrapolation and polarisation resistance methods. It was shown that all the investigated surfactants act primarily as anodic inhibitors; however, they also affect the rate and mechanism of the cathodic reaction. These compounds function via adsorption on reactive sites on the corroding surface reducing the corrosion rate of the metal. It was revealed that the adsorption of these surfactants obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The inhibition effectiveness increases with the length of the aliphatic hydrocarbon chain, being a maximum in the presence of surfactant IV ({approx}96% efficiency). The corrosion inhibition feature of this compound is attributed to the presence of a long hydrocarbon chain that ensures large surface coverage as well as the presence of multiple active centers for adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy, SEM, has been applied to identify the surface morphology of carbon steel alloy in the absence and presence of the inhibitor molecules.

  17. Electrochemical and surface studies of some Porphines as corrosion inhibitor for J55 steel in sweet corrosion environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ambrish, E-mail: ambrish.16752@ipu.co.in [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation (Southwest Petroleum University), Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Department of Chemistry, LFTS, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144402 (India); Lin, Yuanhua, E-mail: yhlin28@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation (Southwest Petroleum University), Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Ansari, K.R.; Quraishi, M.A. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, U.P. (India); Ebenso, Eno. E. [Department of Chemistry, School of Mathematical & Physical Sciences, North-West University(Mafikeng Campus), Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735 (South Africa); Chen, Songsong; Liu, Wanying [CNPC Key Lab for Tubular Goods Engineering (Southwest Petroleum University), Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: Corrosion inhibition of J55 steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution saturated with CO2 by the three Porphines 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine (P1), 5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine (P2), 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-21H,23H-porphine (P3), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), contact angle measurement, scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). - Highlights: • J55 steel protection in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO2 by Porphines. • Weight loss and impedance results are in good agreement. • The adsorption of Porphines obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. • Scanning electrochemical microscopy is used to discuss the insulated and conductive surface. • Examination of surface morphology by AFM. - Abstract: Corrosion inhibition of J55 steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution saturated with CO{sub 2} by the three Porphines 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine (P1), 5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine (P2), 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-21H,23H-porphine (P3), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Contact angle measurement, scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Adsorption of such Porphines on the J55 steel surface obeyed to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), SECM, and Contact angle results confirm the formation of inhibitor film on J55 steel surface thereby mitigating corrosion.

  18. Electrochemical and surface studies of some Porphines as corrosion inhibitor for J55 steel in sweet corrosion environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ambrish; Lin, Yuanhua; Ansari, K.R.; Quraishi, M.A.; Ebenso, Eno. E.; Chen, Songsong; Liu, Wanying

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Corrosion inhibition of J55 steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution saturated with CO2 by the three Porphines 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine (P1), 5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine (P2), 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-21H,23H-porphine (P3), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), contact angle measurement, scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). - Highlights: • J55 steel protection in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO2 by Porphines. • Weight loss and impedance results are in good agreement. • The adsorption of Porphines obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. • Scanning electrochemical microscopy is used to discuss the insulated and conductive surface. • Examination of surface morphology by AFM. - Abstract: Corrosion inhibition of J55 steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution saturated with CO_2 by the three Porphines 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine (P1), 5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine (P2), 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-21H,23H-porphine (P3), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Contact angle measurement, scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Adsorption of such Porphines on the J55 steel surface obeyed to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), SECM, and Contact angle results confirm the formation of inhibitor film on J55 steel surface thereby mitigating corrosion.

  19. Plastics for corrosion inhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Goldade, Victor A; Makarevich, Anna V; Kestelman, Vladimir N

    2005-01-01

    The development of polymer composites containing inhibitors of metal corrosion is an important endeavour in modern materials science and technology. Corrosion inhibitors can be located in a polymer matrix in the solid, liquid or gaseous phase. This book details the thermodynamic principles for selecting these components, their compatibility and their effectiveness. The various mechanisms of metal protection – barrier, inhibiting and electromechanical – are considered, as are the conflicting requirements placed on the structure of the combined material. Two main classes of inhibited materials (structural and films/coatings) are described in detail. Examples are given of structural plastics used in friction units subjected to mechano-chemical wear and of polymer films/coatings for protecting metal objects against corrosion.

  20. Corrosion performance of some titanium-based hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, B.; Broszeit, E.; Aromaa, J.; Ronkainen, H.; Hannula, S.P.; Leyland, A.; Matthews, A.

    1991-01-01

    Tools and machine parts which could benefit from wear-resistant titanium-based hard films are often subject to corrosive environments. Physically vapour-deposited coatings frequently exhibit porosity and even small defects, which can cause rapid local corrosion of the substrate material; there is therefore a requirement for dense and chemically inert coatings. This paper presents corrosion data for titanium-based hard coatings such as TiN, (Ti, Al)N, Ti(B, N) and TiB 2 and also for multilayered structures where additional aluminium-based insulating surface layers (AlN and Al 2 O 3 ) were deposited. The corrosion resistance and porosity of the films were analysed by electrochemical techniques. The degree of metallic bonding can play a significant role in influencing the corrosion resistance of refractory transition-metal-based ceramic coatings. Here we demonstrate that, under potentiodynamic corrosion test conditions, resistance to corrosive attack was relatively poor for TiB 2 , better for (Ti, Al)N and Ti(B, N) and best for TiN. It is also shown that applying the additional protective aluminium-based insulating surface layers on the coating can further improve corrosion resistance. (orig.)

  1. Non toxic biodegradable cationic gemini surfactants as novel corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium and synergistic effect of sodium salicylate: Experimental and theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobin, Mohammad, E-mail: drmmobin@hotmail.com; Aslam, Ruby; Aslam, Jeenat

    2017-04-15

    Two biodegradable, non toxic cationic gemini surfactants having ester linkage in the spacer namely, C{sub m}H{sub 2m+1}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}N{sup +}(CH{sub 2}COOCH{sub 2}){sub 2}N{sup +}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}C{sub m}H{sub 2m+1}.2Cl{sup -} (m-E2-m, m = 12, 14), were synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, FT-IR and {sup 1}H-NMR. The corrosion inhibition performance of synthesized compounds separately and in combination with sodium salicylate (SS), along with the nature and stability of inhibitive film, for mild steel (MS) in 1 M HCl solution at 30–60 °C was evaluated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, EIS, UV–visible spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM/EDAX, TGA and quantum chemical calculations. Results of the studies confirm m-E2-m as effective corrosion inhibitor for MS in HCl; the inhibition effect being synergistically strengthened in presence of SS. The synthesized compounds act as mixed type inhibitor and adsorb on MS surface in accordance with Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Experimentally measured inhibition efficiencies are correlated with the molecular parameters obtained using PM6 semi-empirical method. Empirical results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. - Graphical abstract: (a) Optimized geometry of studied inhibitors by PM6 method with (b) HOMO and (c) LUMO orbital occupation. - Highlights: • Environment friendly gemini surfactants were studied as corrosion inhibitor for MS. • Studied compounds act as good inhibitor for MS corrosion in 1 M HCl at 30–60 °C. • η of inhibitors is synergistically increased in presence of sodium salicylate. • The synthesized cationic gemini surfactants act as mixed-type inhibitor. • Experimentally obtained results are in good agreement with theoretical results.

  2. Vapor Space Corrosion Testing Simulating The Environment Of Hanford Double Shell Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Gray, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcia-Diaz, B. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murphy, T. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hicks, K. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-30

    As part of an integrated program to better understand corrosion in the high level waste tanks, Hanford has been investigating corrosion at the liquid/air interface (LAI) and at higher areas in the tank vapor space. This current research evaluated localized corrosion in the vapor space over Hanford double shell tank simulants to assess the impact of ammonia and new minimum nitrite concentration limits, which are part of the broader corrosion chemistry limits. The findings from this study showed that the presence of ammonia gas (550 ppm) in the vapor space is sufficient to reduce corrosion over the short-term (i.e. four months) for a Hanford waste chemistry (SY102 High Nitrate). These findings are in agreement with previous studies at both Hanford and SRS which showed ammonia gas in the vapor space to be inhibitive. The presence of ammonia in electrochemical test solution, however, was insufficient to inhibit against pitting corrosion. The effect of the ammonia appears to be a function of the waste chemistry and may have more significant effects in waste with low nitrite concentrations. Since high levels of ammonia were found beneficial in previous studies, additional testing is recommended to assess the necessary minimum concentration for protection of carbon steel. The new minimum R value of 0.15 was found to be insufficient to prevent pitting corrosion in the vapor space. The pitting that occurred, however, did not progress over the four-month test. Pits appeared to stop growing, which would indicate that pitting might not progress through wall.

  3. Inhibition effect of phosphorus-based chemicals on corrosion of carbon steel in secondary-treated municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhanhui; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Geng, Jinju; Ding, Lili

    2013-01-01

    Secondary-treated municipal wastewater (MWW) could supply a viable alternative water resource for cooling water systems. Inorganic salts in the concentrated cooling water pose a great challenge to corrosion control chemicals. In this study, the inhibition effect of 1-hydroxy ethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP), trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) and 2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid (PBTCA) on corrosion of carbon steel in secondary-treated MWW was investigated by the means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The inhibition effect increased with increasing concentration of inhibitors. The corrosion rates of carbon steel were 1.5, 0.8, 0.2 and 0.5 mm a(-1) for blank, HEDP, ATMP and PBTCA samples at 50 mg L(-1), respectively. The phosphorus-based chemicals could adsorb onto the surface of the carbon steel electrode, form a coat of protective film and then protect the carbon steel from corrosion in the test solution.

  4. Monitoring corrosion and corrosion control of iron in HCl by non-ionic surfactants of the TRITON-X series - Part II. Temperature effect, activation energies and thermodynamics of adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Mohammed A.; Ahmed, M.A.; Arida, H.A.; Arslan, Taner; Saracoglu, Murat; Kandemirli, Fatma

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → TX-305 exhibits inhibiting properties for iron corrosion more than TX-165 and TX 100. → Inhibition efficiency increases with temperature, suggesting chemical adsorption. → The three tested surfactants act as mixed-type inhibitors with cathodic predominance. → Validation of corrosion rates measured by Tafel extrapolation method is confirmed. - Abstract: The inhibition characteristics of non-ionic surfactants of the TRITON-X series, namely TRITON-X-100 (TX-100), TRITON-X-165 (TX-165) and TRITON-X-305 (TX-305), on the corrosion of iron was studied in 1.0 M HCl solutions as a function of inhibitor concentration (0.005-0.075 g L -1 ) and solution temperature (278-338 K). Measurements were conducted based on Tafel extrapolation method. Electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM), a non-destructive corrosion measurement technique that can directly give values of corrosion current without prior knowledge of Tafel constants, is also presented. Experimental corrosion rates determined by the Tafel extrapolation method were compared with corrosion rates obtained by the EFM technique and an independent method of chemical analysis. The chemical method of confirmation of the corrosion rates involved determination of the dissolved cation, using ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry). The aim was to confirm validation of corrosion rates measured by the Tafel extrapolation method. Results obtained showed that, in all cases, the inhibition efficiency increased with increase in temperature, suggesting that chemical adsorption occurs. The adsorptive behaviour of the three surfactants followed Temkin-type isotherm. The standard free energies of adsorption decreased with temperature, reflecting better inhibition performance. These findings confirm chemisorption of the tested inhibitors. Thermodynamic activation functions of the dissolution process were also calculated as a function of each inhibitor concentration. All the results

  5. Preparation of Some Eco-friendly Corrosion Inhibitors Having Antibacterial Activity from Sea Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mohamed H M; El-Hady, Mohamed F; Shehata, Hassan A H; Hegazy, Mohammad A; Hefni, Hassan H H

    2013-03-01

    Chitosan is one of the important biopolymers and it is extracted from exoskeletons of crustaceans in sea food waste. It is a suitable eco-friendly carbon steel corrosion inhibitor in acid media; the deacetylation degree of prepared chitosan is more than 85.16 %, and the molecular weight average is 109 kDa. Chitosan was modified to 2-N,N-diethylbenzene ammonium chloride N-oxoethyl chitosan (compound I), and 12-ammonium chloride N-oxododecan chitosan (compound II) as soluble water derivatives. The corrosion inhibition efficiency for carbon steel of compound (I) in 1 M HCl at varying temperature is higher than for chitosan and compound (II). However, the antibacterial activity of chitosan for Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans is higher than for its derivatives, and the minimum inhibition concentration and minimum bacterial concentration of chitosan and its derivatives were carried out with the same strain.

  6. 硫代氨基咪唑啉盐缓蚀剂的合成及性能研究%Research on the synthesis and performances of thiocarbamates imidazoline salts corrosion inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨根全; 李志元

    2017-01-01

    To solve the problem of comparatively poor compatibility of cationic imidazoline corrosion inhibitor and anionic scale inhibitor appeared in the gas-oil field,imidazoline has been synthesized,by using organic acid and triethylenetetramine as reaction raw materials.The water soluble anionic corrosion inhibitor can be obtained under the following conditions:n (imidazoline) ∶ n (CS2) ∶ n (NaOH) =1 ∶ 1 ∶ 1,ethanol as solvent,temperature 60 ℃,and reaction time 2 hours.The corrosion capacity of the corrosion inhibitor and its compatibility with scale inhibitor are investigated.The research results show that when the mass concentration of the dosed corrosion inhibitor is 50 mg/L,salt content 25%,pressure 0.5 MPa in corrosion media,and within 24 hours,the corrosion inhibiting rate of A3 carbon steel is higher than 92%.It has good compatibility with the anionic scale inhibitor.%针对油气田阳离子型咪唑啉类缓蚀剂与阴离子型阻垢剂配伍性较差的问题,以有机酸和三乙烯四胺为反应原料合成了咪唑啉,在n(咪唑啉)∶n(CS2)∶n(NaOH)为1∶1∶1、乙醇为溶剂、温度为60℃条件下反应2h,得到水溶性的阴离子缓蚀剂,并考察了该缓蚀剂的缓蚀性能及其与阻垢剂的配伍性.研究结果表明,在含盐25%、温度60℃、压力为0.5 MPa的腐蚀介质中,该缓蚀剂加药质量浓度为50 mg/L时,24 h内对A3碳钢的缓蚀率>92%,与阴离子阻垢剂的配伍性良好.

  7. Steel corrosion in radioactive waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carranza, Ricardo M.; Giordano, Celia M.; Saenz, E.; Weier, Dennis R.

    2004-01-01

    A collaborative study is being conducted by CNEA and USDOE (Department of Energy of the United States of America) to investigate the effects of tank waste chemistry on radioactive waste storage tank corrosion. Radioactive waste is stored in underground storage tanks that contain a combination of salts, consisting primarily of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite and sodium hydroxide. The USDOE, Office of River Protection at the Hanford Site, has identified a need to conduct a laboratory study to better understand the effects of radioactive waste chemistry on the corrosion of waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The USDOE science need (RL-WT079-S Double-Shell Tanks Corrosion Chemistry) called for a multi year effort to identify waste chemistries and temperatures within the double-shell tank (DST) operating limits for corrosion control and operating temperature range that may not provide the expected corrosion protection and to evaluate future operations for the conditions outside the existing corrosion database. Assessment of corrosion damage using simulated (non-radioactive) waste is being made of the double-shell tank wall carbon steel alloy. Evaluation of the influence of exposure time, and electrolyte composition and/or concentration is being also conducted. (author) [es

  8. Nitrite sensing composite systems based on a core-shell emissive-superamagnetic structure: Construction, characterization and sensing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Liu, Liang; Zha, Jianhua; Yuan, Ningyi

    2017-04-01

    Two recyclable nitrite sensing composite samples were designed and constructed through a core-shell structure, with Fe3O4 nanoparticles as core, silica molecular sieve MCM-41 as shell and two rhodamine derivatives as chemosensors, respectively. These samples and their structure were identified with their electron microscopy images, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, magnetic response, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analysis. Their nitrite sensing behavior was discussed based on emission intensity quenching, their limit of detection was found as low as 1.2 μM. Further analysis suggested a static sensing mechanism between nitrite and chemosensors through an additive reaction between NO+ and chemosensors. After finishing their nitrite sensing, these composite samples and their emission could be recycled and recovered by sulphamic acid.

  9. The use of odd random phase electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study lithium-based corrosion inhibition by active protective coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeusen, M.; Visser, P.; Fernández Macía, L.; Hubin, A.; Terryn, H.A.; Mol, J.M.C.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the study of the time-dependent behaviour of lithium carbonate based inhibitor technology for the active corrosion protection of aluminium alloy 2024-T3 is presented. Odd random phase electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (ORP-EIS) is selected as the electrochemical tool to study

  10. Experimental and computational studies of naphthyridine derivatives as corrosion inhibitor for N80 steel in 15% hydrochloric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, K. R.; Quraishi, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    The inhibition effect of three naphthyridine derivatives namely 2-amino-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carbonitrile (ANC-1), 2-amino-4-(4-methylphenyl)-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carbonitrile (ANC-2) and 2-amino-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carbonitrile (ANC-3) as corrosion inhibitors for N80 steel in 15% HCl by using gravimetric, electrochemical techniques (EIS and potentiodynamic polarization), SEM, EDX and quantum chemical calculation. The order of inhibition efficiency is ANC-1>ANC-2>ANC-3. Potentiodynamic polarization reveals that these inhibitors are mixed type with predominant cathodic control. Studied inhibitors obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The quantum calculation is in good agreement with experimental results.

  11. STRENGTH AND DURABILITY STUDIES ON SODIUM NITRITE INHIBITOR IN ORDINARY AND HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavan, V.; Jeyasehar, C. Antony

    2013-01-01

    Deterioration of concrete occurs due to physical actions, chemical reactions and electro chemical reactions at steel / concrete interface causing reinforcement corrosion. Among these, reinforcement corrosion is one of the most important causes of deterioration. Reinforcement corrosion induced by chlorides is one of the most frequent causes of corrosion of steel and 40 percent of steel corrodes due to chloride attack. To delay the corrosion process many techniques such as increasing the concre...

  12. A combinatorial matrix of rare earth chloride mixtures as corrosion inhibitors of AA2024-T3: Optimisation using potentiodynamic polarisation and EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muster, T.H.; Sullivan, H.; Lau, D.; Alexander, D.L.J.; Sherman, N.; Garcia, S.J.; Harvey, T.G.; Markley, T.A.; Hughes, A.E.; Corrigan, P.A.; Glenn, A.M.; White, P.A.; Hardin, S.G.; Mardel, J.; Mol, J.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    A combinatorial matrix of four rare earth chlorides has been evaluated for the corrosion inhibition of aluminium alloy AA2024-T3 in aqueous solution. Two electrochemical techniques, potentiodynamic polarisation (PP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), were used to evaluate AA2024-T3 corrosion in 0.1 M NaCl with the addition of 10 −3 M of rare earth chloride mixtures at time periods up to 18 h. PP experiments showed rare earth inhibition of up to 98% within the first hour and thereafter corrosion rates were steadily decreased. The open-circuit potential (OCP) of AA2024-T3 decreased as a function of time for all solutions indicating predominantly cathodic inhibition. However, differing trends in the OCP were observed during PP and EIS experiments and are discussed in terms of likely time-dependent mechanisms. A comparative study of optimisation models indicated the best mixture at 10 −3 M total inhibitor concentration was predicted to be 72% cerium (Ce) and 28% (praseodymium (Pr)/lanthanum (La)) ions. As the amount of Ce is decreased from this level the corrosion inhibition is predicted to decrease also, regardless of what other rare earths (La, Pr and Nd) are added alone or in combination. Individually, La, Pr and Nd show varying levels of corrosion inhibition activity, all of which are inferior to that of Ce. If Ce is absent entirely, then a mixture of approximately 50% Pr and 50% Nd is predicted to be preferred. This is one of the first applications of combinatorial design for the optimisation of corrosion inhibitor mixtures.

  13. Effects of Organic Corrosion Inhibitor and Chloride Ion Concentration on Steel Depassivation and Repassivation in Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zixiao; YU Lei; LIU Zhiyong; SONG Ning

    2015-01-01

    Effect of an organic corrosion inhibitor (OCI) named PCI-2014 added in chloride solution on the critical chlo-ride concentration of mild steel depassivation and the critical OCI concentrations for repairing the steel in different chlo-ride solution were investigated. The results show that the critical chloride concentration increases exponentially with raises of PCI-2014 concentration in the solution. Within a certain chloride ion concentration range, the critical PCI-2014 concentration for repairing the corroded steel is also increases exponentially with enhancement of chloride content in the solution. Atomic force microscopy images display the molecular particles of inhibitor are adsorbed on the steel surface and formed a protective layer. Analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the chloride ions at the surface of steel are displaced by atoms or molecules of the inhibitor in chloride condition.

  14. In-Plant Corrosion Study of Steels in Distillery Effluent Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Chhotu; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, A. K.

    2015-05-01

    The present study deals with corrosion and performance of steels observed in an effluent treatment plant (ETP) of a distillery. For this purpose, the metal coupons were exposed in primary (untreated effluent) and secondary tank (anaerobic treatment effluent) of the ETP. The extent of attack has been correlated with the composition of the effluent with the help of laboratory immersion and electrochemical tests. Untreated distillery effluent found to be more corrosive than the anaerobic-treated effluents and is assigned due to chloride, phosphate, calcium, nitrate, and nitrite ions, which enhances corrosivity at acidic pH. Mild steel showed highest uniform and localized corrosion followed by stainless steels 304L and 316L and lowest in case of duplex 2205.

  15. Cassava starch graft copolymers an eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor for steel in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xianghong; Deng, Shuduan [Southwest Forestry University, Kunming (China)

    2015-11-15

    Cassava starch graft copolymer (CSGC) was prepared by grafting acryl amide (AA) onto cassava starch (CS). The inhibition effect of CSGC on the corrosion of cold rolled steel (CRS) in 1.0M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution was first studied by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) methods. The results show that CSGC is a good inhibitor, and inhibition efficiency of CSGC is higher than that of CS or AA. The adsorption of CSGC on steel surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. CSGC is a mixed-type inhibitor at 20 .deg. C, while mainly a cathodic inhibitor at 50 .deg. C.

  16. Corrosion Inhibition of Copper-nickel Alloy: Experimental and Theoretical Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khadom, Anees A. [Univ. of Daiyla, Baquba (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yaro, Aprael S. [Univ. of Baghdad, Aljadreaa (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Musa, Ahmed Y.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H. [UniversitiKebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia)

    2012-08-15

    The corrosion inhibition of copper-nickel alloy by Ethylenediamine (EDA) and Diethylenetriamine (DETA) in 1.5M HCl has been investigated by weight loss technique at different temperatures. Maximum value of inhibitor efficiency was 75% at 35 .deg. C and 0.2 M inhibitor concentration EDA, while the lower value was 4% at 35 .deg. C and 0.01 M inhibitor concentration DETA. Two mathematical models were used to represent the corrosion rate data, second order polynomial model and exponential model respectively. Nonlinear regression analysis showed that the first model was better than the second model with high correlation coefficient. The reactivity of studied inhibitors was analyzed through theoretical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). The results showed that the reactive sites were located on the nitrogen (N1, N2 and N4) atoms.

  17. Corrosion Inhibition of High Speed Steel by Biopolymer HPMC Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chen Shi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition characteristics of the derivatives of biopolymer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS film are investigated. Based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements and potentiodynamic polarization, the corrosion inhibition performance of high speed steel coated with HPMC derivatives is evaluated. The Nyquist plot and Tafel polarization demonstrate promising anti-corrosion performance of HPMC and HPMCP. With increasing film thickness, both materials reveal improvement in corrosion inhibition. Moreover, because of a hydrophobic surface and lower moisture content, HPMCP shows better anti-corrosion performance than HPMCAS. The study is of certain importance for designing green corrosion inhibitors of high speed steel surfaces by the use of biopolymer derivatives.

  18. Corrosion behaviour of cladded nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, W.; Ruczinski, D.; Nolde, M.; Blum, J.

    1995-01-01

    As a consequence of the high cost of nickel base alloys their use as surface layers is convenient. In this paper the properties of SA-as well as RES-cladded NiMo 16Cr16Ti and NiCr21Mo14W being produced in single and multi-layer technique are compared and discussed with respect to their corrosion behaviour. Decisive criteria describing the qualities of the claddings are the mass loss, the susceptibility against intergranular corrosion and the pitting corrosion resistance. The results prove that RES cladding is the most suitable technique to produce corrosion resistant nickel base coatings. The corrosion behaviour of a two-layer RES deposition shows a better resistance against pitting than a three layer SAW cladding. 7 refs

  19. Auxiliary equipment cooling circuit in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Ko.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the propagation of bacterias that transform NO 2 into NO 3 in auxiliary equipment coolants using corrosion inhibitors of nitrite type in BWR type reactors. Method: In auxiliary equipments coolant systems, water quality is controlled by using purified water as supplement water and nitrite such as Na 2 NO 2 as the corrosion inhibitors. However, in the circumstance where dissolved oxygen is present, bacteria propagate to oxidize NO 2 into NO 3 . Thus, NO 2 at 200 ppm is reduced to 20 ppm. In view of the above, a surge tank supplied from water supplement line is connected in series and a deaeration device is disposed thereto. Since the presence of dissolved oxygen causes the bacteria to propagate it is desired that the dissolved oxygen density in the supplement water is less than 5 ppm. Deaeration and pressure reduction in the surge tank can remove the dissolved oxygen, prevent NO 3 increase and also prevent stress corrosion cracks in the system pipeways. (Horiuchi, T.)

  20. Corrosion Inhibition in the Secondary Cooling System of ETRR-2, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.H.; Gad, M.M.A.; Abdel-Karim, R.; Abdel-Salam, O.F.

    2003-01-01

    The second Egyptian research reactor (ETRR-2) is a light water type of 22 MW thermal power. Proper cooling water treatment is necessary to set the water chemical characteristics within a specified window to avoid or minimize corrosion problems, scale formation, fouling, and microbiological contamination. Selection of a proper and economic corrosion inhibitor is of great importance. This selection depends, among other factors, on the availability as well as cost. The corrosion behaviour of water of ETRR-2 site and its inhibition by different inhibitors was studied in a special test rig designed for this purpose. Sodium salts of polyphosphate, phosphate, molybdate, and tungstate were used to treat and qualify the cooling water. Results showed that the corrosion resistance of the test material depends on both type and concentration of the applied inhibitor. Using 30-ppm tungstate, molybdate, and phosphate (as anodic inhibitors) reduced the corrosion rate, and inhibitor efficiencies of about 97% 86%, and 68% were achieved respectively. Accordingly, sodium tungstate could be ranked as the best anodic inhibitor used followed by molybdate. Sodium phosphate could be ranked as the least efficient one. Adding the same concentration of sodium polyphosphate (as a cathodic inhibitor) yields almost the same inhibition efficiency as tungstate type. However, at higher concentration(40 ppm), an inhibition efficiency of 100% was obtained, Which corresponds to almost zero-corrosion rate

  1. Theoretical studies of three triazole derivatives as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in acidic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Lei; Zhu, Shanhong; Zhang, Shengtao; He, Qiao; Li, Weihua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three triazole derivatives as corrosion inhibitors were theoretically investigated. • Quantum chemical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations were performed. • Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) approach has been used. • Theoretical conclusions are validated by the consistency with experimental findings. - Abstract: Corrosion inhibitive performance of 4-chloro-acetophenone-O-1′-(1′.3′.4′-triazolyl)-metheneoxime (CATM), 4-fluoro-acetophenone-O-1′-(1′.3′.4′-triazolyl)-metheneoxime (FATM), and 3,4-dichloro-acetophenone-O-1′-(1′.3′.4′-triazolyl)-metheneoxime (DATM) during the acidic corrosion of mild steel surface was investigated using density functional theory (DFT). Quantum chemical parameters such as the highest occupied molecular orbital energy (E HOMO ), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (E LUMO ), energy gap (ΔE), Mulliken charges, hardness (ξ), dipole moment (μ), and the fraction of electrons transferred (ΔN), were calculated. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) approach has been used, and a composite index of above-mentioned descriptors was performed to characterize the inhibition performance of the studied molecules. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulation studies were applied to search for the best configurational space of iron/triazole derivative system

  2. Nitrite survival and nitrous oxide production of denitrifying phosphorus removal sludges in long-term nitrite/nitrate-fed sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yayi; Zhou, Shuai; Ye, Liu; Wang, Hong; Stephenson, Tom; Jiang, Xuxin

    2014-12-15

    Nitrite-based phosphorus (P) removal could be useful for innovative biological P removal systems where energy and carbon savings are a priority. However, using nitrite for denitrification may cause nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation and emissions. A denitrifying nitrite-fed P removal system [Formula: see text] was successfully set up in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and was run for 210 days. The maximum pulse addition of nitrite to [Formula: see text] was 11 mg NO2(-)-N/L in the bulk, and a total of 34 mg NO2(-)-N/L of nitrite was added over three additions. Fluorescent in situ hybridization results indicated that the P-accumulating organisms (PAOs) abundance was 75 ± 1.1% in [Formula: see text] , approximately 13.6% higher than that in a parallel P removal SBR using nitrate [Formula: see text] . Type II Accumulibacter (PAOII) (unable to use nitrate as an electron acceptor) was the main PAOs species in [Formula: see text] , contributing 72% to total PAOs. Compared with [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] biomass had enhanced nitrite/free nitrous acid (FNA) endurance, as demonstrated by its higher nitrite denitrification and P uptake rates. N2O accumulated temporarily in [Formula: see text] after each pulse of nitrite. Peak N2O concentrations in the bulk for [Formula: see text] were generally 6-11 times higher than that in [Formula: see text] ; these accumulations were rapidly denitrified to nitrogen gases. N2O concentration increased rapidly in nitrate-cultivated biomass when 5 or 10 mg NO2(-)-N/L per pulse was added. Whereas, N2O accumulation did not occur in nitrite-cultivated biomass until up to 30 mg NO2(-)-N/L per pulse was added. Long-term acclimation to nitrite and pulse addition of nitrite in [Formula: see text] reduced the risk of nitrite accumulation, and mitigated N2O accumulation and emissions from denitrifying P removal by nitrite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrochemical evaluation of under-deposit corrosion and its inhibition using the wire beam electrode method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan Yongjun, E-mail: yj.tan@curtin.edu.a [Western Australian Corrosion Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth (Australia); Fwu, Young; Bhardwaj, Kriti [Western Australian Corrosion Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: A new experiment method for evaluating under-deposit corrosion and its inhibitors. Under-deposit corrosion did not occur in a CO{sub 2} saturated pure brine solution. Inhibitor imidazoline addition and O{sub 2} contamination initiated under-deposit corrosion. Inhibitor imidazoline reduced general corrosion but enhanced localised corrosion. - Abstract: A new experimental method has been applied to evaluate under-deposit corrosion and its inhibition by means of an electrochemically integrated multi-electrode array, namely the wire beam electrode (WBE). Maps showing galvanic current and corrosion potential distributions were measured from a WBE surface that was partially covered by sand. Under-deposit corrosion did not occur during the exposure of the WBE to carbon dioxide saturated brine under ambient temperature. The introduction of corrosion inhibitor imidazoline and oxygen into the brine was found to significantly affect the patterns and rates of corrosion, leading to the initiation of under-deposit corrosion over the WBE.

  4. Fluorometric determination of nitrite with 4-hydroxycoumarin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, T.; Arai, Y.; Takitani, S.

    1986-12-01

    A simple, sensitive, and reproducible fluorometric method for determination of nitrite has been developed. This method is based on the nitrosation of 4-hydroxycoumarin in acidic medium and subsequent reduction to 3-amino-4-hydroxy-coumarin, which is fluorescent in alkaline medium. The fluorescence intensity is proportional to the nitrite concentration in the range of 3 ng/mL to 1 ..mu..g/mL in the sample solution, with a relative standard deviation of 0.5% (50 ng/mL). The method has been applied to the determination of nitrite in saliva.

  5. Electrochemical and quantum chemical studies of some indole derivatives as corrosion inhibitors for C38 steel in molar hydrochloric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrini, M.; Robert, F.; Vezin, H.; Roos, C.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study of 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (norharmane) and 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (harmane) as inhibitors for C38 steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution at 25 o C was carried out. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques were applied to study the metal corrosion behavior in the absence and presence of different concentrations of these inhibitors. The OCP as a function of time were also established. Cathodic and anodic polarization curves show that norharmane and harmane are a mixed-type inhibitors. Adsorption of indole derivatives on the C38 steel surface, in 1 M HCl solution, follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The ΔG ads o values were calculated and discussed. The potential of zero charge (PZC) of the C38 steel in inhibited solution was studied by the EIS method, and a mechanism for the adsorption process was proposed. Raman spectroscopy confirmed that indole molecules strongly adsorbed onto the steel surface. The electronic properties of indole derivates, obtained using the AM1 semi-empirical quantum chemical approach, were correlated with their experimental efficiencies using the linear resistance model (LR).

  6. Image-based corrosion recognition for ship steel structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yucong; Yang, Yang; Yao, Yuan; Li, Shengyuan; Zhao, Xuefeng

    2018-03-01

    Ship structures are subjected to corrosion inevitably in service. Existed image-based methods are influenced by the noises in images because they recognize corrosion by extracting features. In this paper, a novel method of image-based corrosion recognition for ship steel structures is proposed. The method utilizes convolutional neural networks (CNN) and will not be affected by noises in images. A CNN used to recognize corrosion was designed through fine-turning an existing CNN architecture and trained by datasets built using lots of images. Combining the trained CNN classifier with a sliding window technique, the corrosion zone in an image can be recognized.

  7. Rail base corrosion and cracking prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Rail base corrosion combined with fatigue or damage can significantly reduce rail life. Studies were done to examine the relative contribution of damage, corrosion, and fatigue on rail life. The combined effects can be separated into constituent fact...

  8. New Coumarin Derivative as an Eco-Friendly Inhibitor of Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Al-Amiery

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The anticorrosion ability of a synthesized coumarin, namely 2-(coumarin-4-yloxyacetohydrazide (EFCI, for mild steel (MS in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution has been studied using a weight loss method. The effect of temperature on the corrosion rate was investigated, and some thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The results indicated that inhibition efficiencies were enhanced with an increase in concentration of inhibitor and decreased with a rise in temperature. The IE value reaches 94.7% at the highest used concentration of the new eco-friendly inhibitor. The adsorption of inhibitor on MS surface was found to obey a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was performed on inhibited and uninhibited mild steel samples to characterize the surface. The Density Function theory (DFT was employed for quantum-chemical calculations such as EHOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital energy, ELUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy and μ (dipole moment, and the obtained results were found to be consistent with the experimental findings. The synthesized inhibitor was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopic studies.

  9. Outcompeting nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in single-stage nitrogen removal in sewage treatment plants: a model-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Julio; Lotti, Tommaso; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Picioreanu, Cristian; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2014-12-01

    This model-based study investigated the mechanisms and operational window for efficient repression of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in an autotrophic nitrogen removal process. The operation of a continuous single-stage granular sludge process was simulated for nitrogen removal from pretreated sewage at 10 °C. The effects of the residual ammonium concentration were explicitly analyzed with the model. Competition for oxygen between ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and NOB was found to be essential for NOB repression even when the suppression of nitrite oxidation is assisted by nitrite reduction by anammox (AMX). The nitrite half-saturation coefficient of NOB and AMX proved non-sensitive for the model output. The maximum specific growth rate of AMX bacteria proved a sensitive process parameter, because higher rates would provide a competitive advantage for AMX. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Corrosion Finishing/Coating Systems for DoD Metallic Substrates Based on Non-Chromate Inhibitors and UV Curable, Zero VOC Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    decrease the effective deposition rate of CeCCs by slowing the nucleation process, improving coating quality and corrosion resistance. Investigations on...Release, October 1, 2004. 3. “ Electrodeposition of Cerium Based Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Aluminum Alloys”, J. O. Stoffer, T.J. O’Keefe, S...Chloride Environments”, Materials Letters, 61 (17), 3378 (2007). B. Technical Reports 1. Philip Jones, May 2007, MS Thesis , Impact of Processing

  11. Influence of biofilm formation on corrosion and scaling in geothermal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleyböcker, Anne; Lerm, Stephanie; Monika, Kasina; Tobias, Lienen; Florian, Eichinger; Andrea, Seibt; Markus, Wolfgramm; Hilke, Würdemann

    2017-04-01

    Process failures may occur due to corrosion and scaling processes in open loop geothermal systems. Especially after heat extraction, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) contribute to corrosion processes due to a more favorable temperature for their growth. In biofilms containing FeS scales, corrosion processes are enhanced. Furthermore, scales can lead to reduced pipe profiles, to a diminished heat transfer and a decrease in the wellbore injectivity. Inhibitors are frequently applied to minimize scaling in technical systems. A prerequisite for the application of inhibitors in geothermal plants located in the Molasse basin is their degradability under reservoir conditions, e. g. in a reduced environment. In order to determine the effects of scale-inhibitors on the subsurface and microbial processes, laboratory experiments were performed focusing on the microbial inhibitor degradation. First results indicate that the inhibitor degradation under anaerobic conditions is possible. Besides the inhibitor application also other techniques are investigated to economically reduce corrosion and scaling in geothermal plants. In a mobile bypass system, the influence of biofilm formation on corrosion and scaling was investigated. The bypass system was tested at a geothermal heat store in the North German Basin. The plant is operated with highly saline fluid (salinity 130 g/L) and known to be affected by SRB. The SRB contributed to corrosion damages especially at the pump in the well on the cold side. Heat shocks were successfully used in the bypass system to reduce biofilm formation as well as corrosion and scaling processes.

  12. New 1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione derivatives as efficient organic inhibitors of carbon steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid medium: Electrochemical, XPS and DFT studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrouk, A.; Hammouti, B.; Lakhlifi, T.; Traisnel, M.; Vezin, H.; Bentiss, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 1H-pyrrole derivatives act as good corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in 1 M HCl. • Adsorption of the inhibitors on carbon steel surface obeys Langmuir’s isotherm. • XPS showed that the inhibitors are chemisorbed on the metal surface. • Quantum chemical parameters were correlated with experimental results. - Abstract: New 1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione derivatives, namely 1-phenyl-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (PPD) and 1-(4-methylphenyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (MPPD) were synthesised and their inhibitive action against the corrosion of carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution were investigated at 308 K by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The results showed that the investigated 1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione derivatives are good corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in 1 M HCl medium, their inhibition efficiency increased with inhibitor concentration, and MPPD is slightly more effective than PPD. Potentiostatic polarization study showed that PPD and MPPD are mixed-type inhibitors in 1 M HCl. Impedance experimental data revealed a frequency distribution of the capacitance, simulated as constant phase element. The results obtained from electrochemical and weight loss studies were in reasonable agreement. The adsorption of MPPD and PPD on steel surface obeyed Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic data and XPS analysis clearly indicated that the adsorption mechanism of 1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione derivatives on carbon steel surface in 1 M HCl solution is mainly controlled by a chemisorption process. Quantum chemical calculations using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) were performed on 1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione derivatives to determine the relationship between molecular structures and their inhibition efficiencies

  13. Corrosion behaviour of austenitic stainless steel, nickel-base alloy and its weldments in aqueous LiBr solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasco-Tamarit, E.; Igual-Munoz, A.; Garcia Anton, J.; Garcia-Garcia, D. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear. E.T.S.I.Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, P.O. Box 22012 E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    With the advances in materials production new alloys have been developed, such as High- Alloy Austenitic Stainless Steels and Nickel-base alloys, with high corrosion resistance. These new alloys are finding applications in Lithium Bromide absorption refrigeration systems, because LiBr is a corrosive medium which can cause serious corrosion problems, in spite of its favourable properties as absorbent. The objective of the present work was to study the corrosion resistance of a highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel (UNS N08031) used as base metal, a Nickel-base alloy (UNS N06059) used as its corresponding filler metal, and the weld metal obtained by the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) procedure. The materials have been tested in different LiBr solutions (400 g/l, 700 g/l, 850 g/l and a commercial 850 g/l LiBr heavy brine containing Lithium Chromate as corrosion inhibitor), at 25 deg. C. Open Circuit Potential tests and potentiodynamic anodic polarization curves have been carried out to obtain information about the general electrochemical behaviour of the materials. The polarization curves of all the alloys tested were typical of passivable materials. Pitting corrosion susceptibility has been evaluated by means of cyclic potentiodynamic curves, which provide parameters to analyse re-passivation properties. The galvanic corrosion generated by the electrical contact between the welded and the base material has been estimated from the polarization diagrams according to the Mixed Potential Method. Samples have been etched to study the microstructure by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results demonstrate that the pitting resistance of all these materials increases as the LiBr concentration decreases. In general, the presence of chromate tended to shift the pitting potential to more positive values than those obtained in the 850 g/l LiBr solution. (authors)

  14. Electrochemical study of corrosion inhibition of stainless steel in phosphoric medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hnini, K.; Chtaini, A. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Bio Corrosion, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Beni-Mellal (Morocco); Khouili, M.; Elbouadili, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Analytique, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Beni-Mellal (Morocco)

    2004-07-01

    The corrosion of metals represents a terrible waste of both natural resources and money, the failure of some stainless steel resulting from pitting corrosion is some times considered a technological problem, consequently, much effort has been expended in attempting to understand and overcome the corrosion therefore, many stainless steel/ environment combinations have been studied. The use of heterocyclic compounds as inhibitors is one of the most practical methods for protection against corrosion in acidic media. In continuation of our work on development of macrocyclic compounds as corrosion inhibitors we report in our study the corrosion inhibiting behaviour of organic compound Methoxy-2-Allyl-4 Phenol (MAP) containing coordinating and conjugation groups, at three forms (natural, polymerized and chemically treated) on the corrosion of stainless steel in phosphoric acid. This study focused on the comparison for corrosion inhibition proprieties of these different applications using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and SEM. The specimen was evaluated to determine change in his corrosion potential and resistance polarization; These MAP products have exhibited corrosion inhibition by maintaining a high resistance polarization (low corrosion rate) in each application. These results reveal that this compound is efficient inhibitor in all forms; the most inhibition efficiency is obtained with polymerized form. To further evaluate the test data, the steel surfaces were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, SEM observations of surface treated concrete confirmed presence of inhibitor on the steel surfaces. (authors)

  15. Silica-Based Sol-Gel Coating on Magnesium Alloy with Green Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Upadhyay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performances of several natural organic inhibitors were investigated in a sol-gel system (applied on the magnesium alloy Mg AZ31B substrate. The inhibitors were quinaldic acid (QDA, betaine (BET, dopamine hydrochloride (DOP, and diazolidinyl urea (DZU. Thin, uniform, and defect-free sol-gel coatings were prepared with and without organic inhibitors, and applied on the Mg AZ31B substrate. SEM and EDX were performed to analyze the coating surface properties, the adhesion to the substrate, and the thickness. Electrochemical measurements, including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and anodic potentiodynamic polarization scan (PDS, were performed on the coated samples to characterize the coatings’ protective properties. Also, hydrogen evolution measurement—an easy method to measure magnesium corrosion—was performed in order to characterize the efficiency of coating protection on the magnesium substrate. Moreover, scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET measurements were performed to examine the efficiency of the coatings loaded with inhibitors in preventing and containing corrosion events in defect areas. From the testing results it was observed that the formulated sol-gel coatings provided a good barrier to the substrate, affording some protection even without the presence of inhibitors. Finally, when the inhibitors’ performances were compared, the QDA-doped sol-gel was able to contain the corrosion event at the defect.

  16. Electrochemical investigation of gold nanoparticles incorporated zinc based metal-organic framework for selective recognition of nitrite and nitrobenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Dharmendra Kumar; Ganesan, Vellaichamy; Sonkar, Piyush Kumar; Gupta, Rupali; Rastogi, Pankaj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles incorporated zinc based metal-organic framework is synthesized. • It electro-catalyzes nitrite oxidation and nitrobenzene reduction. • Nitrite and nitrobenzene is determined with high sensitivity. • Hydrodynamic voltammetry studies of nitrite oxidation and nitrobenzene reduction are reported. - Abstract: An electrochemical sensing platform which comprises gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) incorporated zinc based metal-organic framework (MOF-5) is developed for the sensitive determination of nitrite and nitrobenzene. MOF-5 and Au NPs incorporated MOF-5 (Au-MOF-5) are synthesized and characterized by UV-vis absorption, powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis and elemental mapping, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Oxidation of nitrite is effectively electrocatalyzed at Au-MOF-5 with significant increase in oxidation current (41 and 38% in comparison with bare glassy carbon (GC) and MOF-5 coated GC (GC/MOF-5) electrodes, respectively) and with considerable decrease in the oxidation potential (0. 17 and 0.25 V in comparison with bare GC and GC/MOF-5 electrodes, respectively). The electrocatalytic reduction of nitrobenzene at GC/Au-MOF-5 is confirmed by an appreciable increase in the reduction current (79 and 36% in comparison with bare GC and GC/MOF-5 electrodes, respectively) and a small shift in the reduction potential (20 mV in comparison with GC/MOF-5). The detection limit is calculated as 1.0 μM with a sensitivity of 0.23 μAμM"−"1 cm"−"2 for nitrite and 15.3 μM with a sensitivity of 0.43 μAμM"−"1cm"−"2 for nitrobenzene determinations. The Au-MOF-5 based electrochemical sensing platform shows high stability and selectivity even in the presence of several interferences (including phenols, inorganic ions and biologically important molecules) with a broad calibration range. Certain kinetic parameters of nitrite oxidation and

  17. Electrochemical probing of high-level radioactive waste tanks containing washed sludge and precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Congdon, J.W.; Oblath, S.B.

    1986-12-01

    At the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant, corrosion of carbon steel storage tanks containing alkaline, high-level radioactive waste is controlled by specification of limits on waste composition and temperature. Processes for the preparation of waste for final disposal will result in waste with low corrosion inhibitor concentrations and, in some cases, high aromatic organic concentrations, neither of which are characteristic of previous operations. Laboratory tests, conducted to determine minimum corrosion inhibitor levels indicated pitting of carbon steel near the waterline for proposed storage conditions. In situ electrochemical measurements of full-scale radioactive process demonstrations have been conducted to assess the validity of laboratory tests. Probes included pH, Eh (potential relative to a standard hydrogen electrode), tank potential, and alloy coupons. In situ results are compared to those of the laboratory tests, with particular regard given to simulated solution composition. Transition metal hydroxide sludge contains strong passivating species for carbon steel. Washed precipitate contains organic species that lower solution pH and tend to reduce passivating films, requiring higher inhibitor concentrations than the 0.01 molar nitrite required for reactor fuel reprocessing wastes. Periodic agitation, to keep the organic phase suspended, or cathodic protection are possible alternatives to higher nitrite inhibitor concentrations

  18. Stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue crack growth monitoring in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senadheera, T.; Shipilov, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (including stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue) is one of the major causes for materials failure in a wide variety of industries. It is extremely important to understand the mechanism(s) of environmentally assisted crack propagation in structural materials so as to choose correctly from among the various possibilities-alloying elements, heat treatment of steels, parameters of cathodic protection, and inhibitors-to prevent in-service failures due to stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue. An important step towards understanding the mechanism of environmentally assisted crack propagation is designing a testing machine for crack growth monitoring and that simultaneously provides measurement of electrochemical parameters. In the present paper, a direct current (DC) potential drop method for monitoring crack propagation in metals and a testing machine that uses this method and allows for measuring electrochemical parameters during stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue crack growth are described. (author)

  19. INHIBITION OF CORROSION OF ZINC IN (HNO3 + HCl) ACID ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-01

    May 1, 2015 ... corrosion inhibitor for zinc in phosphoric acid. Vashi et al.[8-9] studied the corrosion inhibition of zinc in (HNO3 + H2SO4) and (HNO3 + H3PO4) binary acid mixture by aniline. In the present work, the role of aniline as inhibitor for corrosion of zinc in (HNO3 + HCl) binary acid mixture has been reported. 2.

  20. The jet impingement cell: A valuable device for investigating CO{sub 2} corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsella, Brian; John, Douglas; Bailey, Stuart; De Marco, Roland [Western Australian Corrosion Research Group, School of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth WA, 6845 (Australia)

    2004-07-01

    The jet impingement cell (JIC) is a valuable technique for the investigation of carbon dioxide corrosion of steel and its inhibition under high flow conditions or high wall shear stress. Despite the use of the JIC in corrosion testing laboratories not a great deal has been published on the design and calibration of these cells. In the evaluation of corrosion inhibitors, the type of corrosion and relative performance of the inhibitors depends on the metallurgy of the steel used to manufacture electrodes and measure the corrosion rate. This paper covers aspects of cell design and the determination of mass transfer and wall shear stress at electrodes used in the cell. The performance of different generic type corrosion inhibitors and their affect on the type of corrosion (i.e, uniform, pitting and crevice corrosion) is shown and discussed. (authors)

  1. Novel dispersed magnetite core-shell nanogel polymers as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in acidic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta, Ayman M.; El-Azabawy, Olfat E.; Ismail, H.S.; Hegazy, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → Through a one-step thermal reaction, magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized, and self-assembled mixed films of modified cross-linked ionic polymer magnetite nanoparticles were prepared on iron surface. → The size distribution and shape of magnetite nanoparticles were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). → The corrosion inhibition efficiency of carbon steel in 1 M HCl by the synthesized Fe 3 O 4 nanogel polymers has been studied using potentiodynamic polarization and EIS. → Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements were applied to study the morphology of the carbon steel surface. - Abstract: Novel core-shell preparing poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid) (PAMPS) and copolymers with acrylic acid (AA) or acrylamide (AM) magnetic nanogels with controllable particle size produced via free aqueous polymerization at room temperature have been developed for the first time. The crosslinking polymerization was carried out in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker, N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) and potassium peroxydisulfate (KPS) as redox initiator system. The structure and morphology of the magnetic nanogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM). The effectiveness of the synthesized compounds as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in 1 M HCl was investigated by various electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed enhancement in inhibition efficiencies with increasing the inhibitor concentrations and temperatures. The results showed the nanogel particles act as mixed inhibitors. Adsorption of nanogel particles was found to fit the Langmuir isotherm and was chemisorption.

  2. Exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria as corrosion inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova-Ivanova, Tsveteslava; Ivanov, Radoslav

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial EPSs (exopolysaccharides) are believed to play an important role in the environment by promoting survival strategies such as bacterial attachment to surfaces and nutrient trapping, which facilitate processes of biofilm formation and development. These microbial biofilms have been implicated in corrosion of metals, bacterial attachment to prosthetic devices, fouling of heat exchange surfaces, toxicant immobilization, and fouling of ship hulls. In this paper, data on EPS production and the effect of EPS on corrosion of steel produced by Lactobacillus sp. are presented and discussed. Lactobacillus delbrueckii K27, Lactobacillus delbrueckii B8, Lactobacillus delbrueckii KO43, Lactobacillus delbrueckii K3, Lactobacillus delbrueckii K15 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii K17 was obtained from Collection of Department of General and Applied Microbiology, Sofia University. It was tested for its ability to produce exopolysaccharides when cultivated in a media containing 10% sucrose, 10% lacose and 10% maltose. The study of the corrosive stability of steel samples was conducted on the gravimetrique method. The rate of corrosion, the degree of protection, and coefficient of protection have been calculated. The structure of layer over steel plates was analysed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) JSM 5510. It could be underlined that 10% sucrose, 10% lactose and 10% maltose in the media stimulated the process of protection of corrosion.

  3. Corrosion resistance of Fe-based amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botta, W.J.; Berger, J.E.; Kiminami, C.S.; Roche, V.; Nogueira, R.P.; Bolfarini, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: ► We report corrosion properties of Fe-based amorphous alloys in different media. ► The Cr-containing alloys had corrosion resistance close to that of Pt in all media. ► The wide range of electrochemical stability is relevant in many industrial domains. -- Abstract: Fe-based amorphous alloys can be designed to present an attractive combination of properties with high corrosion resistance and high mechanical strength. Such properties are clearly adequate for their technological use as coatings, for example, in steel pipes. In this work, we studied the corrosion properties of amorphous ribbons of the following Fe-based compositions: Fe 66 B 30 Nb 4 , [(Fe 0.6 Co 0.4 ) 0.75 B 0.2 Si 0.05 ] 96 Nb 4 , [(Fe 0.7 Co 0.3 ) 0.75 B 0.2 Si 0.05 ] 96 Nb 4 , Fe 56 Cr 23 Ni 5.7 B 16 , Fe 53 Cr 22 Ni 5.6 B 19 and Fe 50 Cr 22 Ni 5.4 B 23 . The ribbons were obtained by rapid solidification using the melt-spinning process, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and optical (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion properties were evaluated by corrosion potential survey and potentiodynamic polarization. The Cr containing alloys, that is the FeCrNiB type of alloys, showed the best corrosion resistance properties with the formation of a stable passive film that ensured a very large passivation plateau

  4. Dietary Nitrite: from menace to marvel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan S. Bryan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of nitrite are now indisputable when administered in a clinical setting for specific diseases. Currently, most published reports identify the production of nitric oxide (NO as the mechanism of action for nitrite. Basic science, in addition to clinical studies, demonstrate that nitrite and/or nitrate cannot restore NO homeostasis as an endothelium independent source of NO that may be a redundant system for endogenous NO production. Nitrate must first be reduced to nitrite by oral commensal bacteria; nitrite can then be further reduced to NO along the physiological oxygen gradient. But despite decades of rigorous research on sodium nitrate’s safety and efficacy as a curing agent, sodium nitrite is still regarded by many as a toxic undesirable food additive. However, research within the biomedical science community has revealed enormous therapeutic benefits of nitrite which are being developed as novel therapies for conditions associated with nitric oxide insufficiency. Thus, this review will highlight the fundamental biochemistry of nitrite in human physiology and provide evidence that nitrite be considered an essential nutrient. Foods or diets enriched with nitrite can have profound positive health benefits.

  5. Nanocontainer-based corrosion sensing coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, F; Tedim, J; Bastos, A C; Ferreira, M G S; Zheludkevich, M L

    2013-01-01

    The present paper reports on the development of new sensing active coating on the basis of nanocontainers containing pH-indicating agent. The coating is able to detect active corrosion processes on different metallic substrates. The corrosion detection functionality based on the local colour change in active cathodic zones results from the interaction of hydroxide ions with phenolphthalein encapsulated in mesoporous nanocontainers which function as sensing nanoreactors. The mesoporous silica nanocontainers are synthesized and loaded with pH indicator phenolphthalein in a one-stage process. The resulting system is mesoporous, which together with bulkiness of the indicator molecules limits their leaching. At the same time, penetration of water molecules and ions inside the container is still possible, allowing encapsulated phenolphthalein to be sensitive to the pH in the surrounding environment and outperforming systems when an indicator is directly dispersed in the coating layer. The performed tests demonstrate the pH sensitivity of the developed nanocontainers being dispersed in aqueous solutions. The corrosion sensing functionality of the protective coatings with nanocontainers are proven for aluminium- and magnesium-based metallic substrates. As a result, the developed nanocontainers show high potential to be used in a new generation of active protective coatings with corrosion-sensing coatings. (paper)

  6. A Localised Corrosion Cell for Industrial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Jansen, P.

    2003-01-01

    The LOCORR-CELL™ developed by FORCE TECHNOLOGY is an electrochemical cell for industrial applications estimating localised corrosion. The cell is constructed in a carbon steel casing for direct mounting into the system. It is based on an oxygen concentration element reflecting the interaction...... between the environment formed under a deposit or in a crevice. The essential feature of the method is that it reflects the influence of oxygen content, conductivity and temperature as well as the influence of corrosion inhibitors, MIC and other effects that have an effect on localised corrosion under...... deposits and in crevices. The measuring principle in the cell is based on measurements of the galvanic current flow between the steel anode covered by a porous glass frit and the surrounding steel casing. The current is measured by a zero-resistance circuit-instrument and the activity can be presented...

  7. Emerging surface characterization techniques for carbon steel corrosion: a critical brief review

    OpenAIRE

    Dwivedi, D.; Lepkova, K.; Becker, T.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon steel is a preferred construction material in many industrial and domestic applications, including oil and gas pipelines, where corrosion mitigation using film-forming corrosion inhibitor formulations is a widely accepted method. This review identifies surface analytical techniques that are considered suitable for analysis of thin films at metallic substrates, but are yet to be applied to analysis of carbon steel surfaces in corrosive media or treated with corrosion inhibitors. The rev...

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of new long alkyl side chain acetamide, isoxazolidine and isoxazoline derivatives as corrosion inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, A.; Cetin, M.

    2008-01-01

    2-(Alkylsulfanyl)-N-(pyridin-2-yl) acetamide derivatives were synthesized via amidation reaction of acyl chlorides bearing S atom in the long chain with 2-aminopyridine. Derivatives of isoxazolidine and isoxazoline were synthesized through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions with three different long chain alkenes containing O or S as hetero atoms and C,N-diphenyl nitrone or benzonitrile-N-oxide, respectively. Synthesized compounds were characterized with their FT-IR, 1 H NMR spectra and then their physical properties and corrosion prevention efficiencies were investigated. All compounds were tested with steel coupons in acidic medium by gravimetric method, and also some of them were tested with steel stripe in paraffin based mineral oil medium via standard method. Acidic test was done with a medium concentration of 2 M HCl for 20 h at room temperature. Mineral oil was used and the test in this medium was done at 60 deg. C constant temperature but varying time from 42 to 63 h. The best inhibition was generally obtained at 50 ppm inhibitor concentration in the acidic medium. All tested inhibitors except two of them in oil medium also showed promising inhibition efficiencies

  9. Inhibiting pitting corrosion in carbon steel exposed to dilute radioactive waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapp, P.E.; Hobbs, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    Dilute caustic high-level radioactive waste slurries can induce pitting corrosion in carbon steel. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests were conducted in simulated and actual waste solutions to determine minimum concentrations of sodium nitrate which inhibit pitting in ASTM A537 class 1 steel exposed to these solutions. Susceptibility to pitting was assessed through microscopic inspection of specimens and inspection of polarization scans. Long-term coupon immersion tests were conducted to verify the nitrite concentrations established by the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests. The minimum effective nitrite concentration is expressed as a function of the waste nitrate concentration and temperature

  10. Exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria as corrosion inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatova-Ivanova Tsveteslava

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial EPSs (exopolysaccharides are believed to play an important role in the environment by promoting survival strategies such as bacterial attachment to surfaces and nutrient trapping, which facilitate processes of biofilm formation and development. These microbial biofilms have been implicated in corrosion of metals, bacterial attachment to prosthetic devices, fouling of heat exchange surfaces, toxicant immobilization, and fouling of ship hulls. In this paper, data on EPS production and the effect of EPS on corrosion of steel produced by Lactobacillus sp. are presented and discussed. Lactobacillus delbrueckii K27, Lactobacillus delbrueckii B8, Lactobacillus delbrueckii KO43, Lactobacillus delbrueckii K3, Lactobacillus delbrueckii K15 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii K17 was obtained from Collection of Department of General and Applied Microbiology, Sofia University. It was tested for its ability to produce exopolysaccharides when cultivated in a media containing 10% sucrose, 10% lacose and 10% maltose. The study of the corrosive stability of steel samples was conducted on the gravimetrique method. The rate of corrosion, the degree of protection, and coefficient of protection have been calculated. The structure of layer over steel plates was analysed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy JSM 5510. It could be underlined that 10% sucrose, 10% lactose and 10% maltose in the media stimulated the process of protection of corrosion.

  11. Isolation of nitrite-degrading strains from Douchi and their application to degrade high nitrite in Jiangshui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xing; Liu, Bianfang; Gao, Lina; Zhou, Yuan; Shan, Yuanyuan; Lü, Xin

    2018-06-01

    Excessive nitrite in food is potentially harmful to human health because of its carcinogenic effects caused by nitroso-dervivatives. Douchi, which widely distributed throughout the country, is a traditional solid fermented soybean food with low nitrite content. In this study, bacterias which can degrade nitrite were isolated from Douchi and identified according to 16S rDNA sequence. Acinetobacter guillouiae, Acinetobacter bereziniae, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus tequilensis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus aryabhattai and Bacillus methylotrophicus were selected. It was shown that all strains have nitrite degradation capability, in which 99.41 % nitrite can be degraded by Bacillus subtilis NDS1. The enzyme activities of these strains were determined at 24 h and 48 h, which corresponded to their nitrite degradation rates. The strains were firstly tried to inoculate in Jiangshui, which is a kind of traditional fermented vegetable in northwest China and often has high nitrite content. It was found that Bacillus subtilis NDS1, Bacillus tequilensis NDS3, Acinetobacter bereziniae NDS4, Bacillus subtilis NDS6, Bacillus subtilis NDS12 can degrade nitrite in Jiangshui more quickly, among which Acinetobacter bereziniae NDS4 degraded almost all nitrite in 48 h while it took 180 h for control. These results indicated that the selected strains have potential to become nitrite degradition agent in food. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruña, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    carried out taking into account all direct and indirect sources of nitrite from the human diet, including carry-over of nitrite in animal-based products such as milk, eggs and meat products. Human exposure was then compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrite of 0-0.07 mg/kg b.w. per day. Overall, the low levels of nitrite in fresh animal products represented only 2.9% of the total daily dietary exposure and thus were not considered to raise concerns for human health. It is concluded that the potential health risk to animals from the consumption of feed or to man from eating fresh animal products containing nitrite, is very low.

  13. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Bordajandi, Luisa R.; Cottrill, Bruce; Peteghem, Carlos van; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-01-01

    carried out taking into account all direct and indirect sources of nitrite from the human diet, including carry-over of nitrite in animal-based products such as milk, eggs and meat products. Human exposure was then compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrite of 0-0.07 mg/kg b.w. per day. Overall, the low levels of nitrite in fresh animal products represented only 2.9% of the total daily dietary exposure and thus were not considered to raise concerns for human health. It is concluded that the potential health risk to animals from the consumption of feed or to man from eating fresh animal products containing nitrite, is very low

  14. Corrosion and anticorrosion. Industrial practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, G.; Mazille, H.

    2002-01-01

    This book comprises 14 chapters written with the collaboration of about 50 French experts of corrosion. It is complementary to another volume entitled 'corrosion of metals and alloys' and published by the same editor. This volume comprises two parts: part 1 presents the basic notions of corrosion phenomena, the properties of surfaces, the electrochemical properties of corrosion etc.. Part 2 describes the most frequent forms of corrosion encountered in industrial environments and corresponding to specific problems of protection: marine environment, atmospheric corrosion, galvanic corrosion, tribo-corrosion, stress corrosion etc.. The first 8 chapters (part 1) treat of the corrosion problems encountered in different industries and processes: oil and gas production, chemical industry, phosphoric acid industry, PWR-type power plants, corrosion of automobile vehicles, civil engineering and buildings, corrosion of biomaterials, non-destructive testing for the monitoring of corrosion. The other chapters (part 2) deal with anticorrosion and protective coatings and means: choice of materials, coatings and surface treatments, thick organic coatings and enamels, paints, corrosion inhibitors and cathodic protection. (J.S.)

  15. Flow-induced corrosion behavior of absorbable magnesium-based stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Giridharan, Venkataraman; Shanov, Vesselin; Xu, Zhigang; Collins, Boyce; White, Leon; Jang, Yongseok; Sankar, Jagannathan; Huang, Nan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study corrosion behavior of magnesium (Mg) alloys (MgZnCa plates and AZ31 stents) under varied fluid flow conditions representative of the vascular environment. Experiments revealed that fluid hydrodynamics, fluid flow velocity and shear stress play essential roles in the corrosion behavior of absorbable magnesium-based stent devices. Flow-induced shear stress (FISS) accelerates the overall corrosion (including localized, uniform, pitting and erosion corrosions) due to the increased mass transfer and mechanical force. FISS increased the average uniform corrosion rate, the localized corrosion coverage ratios and depths and the removal rate of corrosion products inside the corrosion pits. For MgZnCa plates, an increase of FISS results in an increased pitting factor but saturates at an FISS of ∼0.15Pa. For AZ31 stents, the volume loss ratio (31%) at 0.056Pa was nearly twice that (17%) at 0Pa before and after corrosion. Flow direction has a significant impact on corrosion behavior as more severe pitting and erosion corrosion was observed on the back ends of the MgZnCa plates, and the corrosion product layer facing the flow direction peeled off from the AZ31 stent struts. This study demonstrates that flow-induced corrosion needs be understood so that Mg-based stents in vascular environments can be effectively designed. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pitting corrosion of copper in aqueous solutions containing phosphonic acid as an inhibitor. Hosuhon san wo inhibita toshite fukumu suiyoekichu ni okeru do no koshiku ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y. (Muroran Univ., Hokkaido (Japan). Graduate School); Seri, O.; Tagashira, K. (Muroran Univ., Hokkaido (Japan)); Nagata, K. (Sumitomo Light Metal Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Technical Research Lab.)

    1993-09-15

    Phosphonic acid-based inhibitors that are poured into cooling water for copper-tube circulation systems for open heat-accumulators were studied on their influence on pitting corrosion of copper. Amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) dissolved into distilled water to 50 ppm was used for the immersion corrosion test. The corrosion-proof effect of additives such as ZnSO4, benzotriazole (BTA) was tested too. 0.5 mm thick phosphate-treated copper plates with a hole of 5 mm in diameter were used as test specimens. Pitting corrosion on the copper plate occurred when ATMP, BTA and ZnSO4 coexisted. It was proved that SO4 [sup 2-] is essential since Na2SO4 in stead of ZnSO4 induced also corrosion. The pitting took place when 0.6 ppm or more of SO4 [sup 2-] was present in a BTA-added ATMP solution. It was observed that the pitting is prone to occur with increase of SO4 [sup 2-] and the number of pitting increases. The following relationship is established when pitting corrosion occurs; E[sub b] [le] E[sub corr], where the former is a potential value at which current density shows a steep increase and the latter is an average value of spontaneous electrode potential showing a plateau. 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  17. THE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF NITRITES WITH N,N-DIETHYLANILINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Pogrebnyak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A new spectrophotometric method for nitrite determination was proposed. The method is based on the measurement of absorbance of the N,N-diethylaniline nitrosation product at 475 nm in the hydrochloric acid medium. The optimum concentrations and the influence of various conditions on the determination sensitivity have been determined. The detection limit (blank + 3s for nitrite is 0.98 mg∙L–1 where sis the standard deviation of blank estimation. The linearity range of the calibration graph was over 1.0–100 mg∙L–1 of  nitrite (sr≤ 0.029, n = 8. The metrological characteristics of the procedure were checked by means of method of additives on the control samples and natural waters. The relative error did not exceed 0.06 for nitrite determination on the control samples. The effect of foreign ions in nitrite determination of 1,0∙10−3 mol∙L–1 has been studied. The proposed procedure is simple  and suitable for nitrite determination in various objects.

  18. FY05 HPCRM Annual Report: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Iron-Based Amorphous Metal Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Choi, J; Haslam, J; Day, S; Yang, N; Headley, T; Lucadamo, G; Yio, J; Chames, J; Gardea, A; Clift, M; Blue, G; Peters, W; Rivard, J; Harper, D; Swank, D; Bayles, R; Lemieux, E; Brown, R; Wolejsza, T; Aprigliano, L; Branagan, D; Marshall, M; Meacham, B; Aprigliano, L; Branagan, D; Marshall, M; Meacham, B; Lavernia, E; Schoenung, J; Ajdelsztajn, L; Dannenberg, J; Graeve, O; Lewandowski, J; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Boudreau, J

    2007-09-20

    New corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals have been identified from published data or developed through combinatorial synthesis, and tested to determine their relative corrosion resistance. Many of these materials can be applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. Two compositions have corrosion resistance superior to wrought nickel-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022) in some very aggressive environments, including concentrated calcium-chloride brines at elevated temperature. Two Fe-based amorphous metal formulations have been found that appear to have corrosion resistance comparable to, or better than that of Ni-based Alloy C-22, based on breakdown potential and corrosion rate. Both Cr and Mo provide corrosion resistance, B enables glass formation, and Y lowers critical cooling rate (CCR). SAM1651 has yttrium added, and has a nominal critical cooling rate of only 80 Kelvin per second, while SAM2X7 (similar to SAM2X5) has no yttrium, and a relatively high critical cooling rate of 610 Kelvin per second. Both amorphous metal formulations have strengths and weaknesses. SAM1651 (yttrium added) has a low critical cooling rate (CCR), which enables it to be rendered as a completely amorphous thermal spray coating. Unfortunately, it is relatively difficult to atomize, with powders being irregular in shape. This causes the powder to be difficult to pneumatically convey during thermal spray deposition. Gas atomized SAM1651 powder has required cryogenic milling to eliminate irregularities that make flow difficult. SAM2X5 (no yttrium) has a high critical cooling rate, which has caused problems associated with devitrification. SAM2X5 can be gas atomized to produce spherical powders of SAM2X5, which enable more facile thermal spray deposition. The reference material, nickel-based Alloy C-22, is an outstanding corrosion-resistant engineering material. Even so, crevice corrosion has been observed with C-22 in hot sodium chloride environments without buffer

  19. FY05 HPCRM Annual Report: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Iron-Based Amorphous Metal Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J; Choi, J; Haslam, J; Day, S; Yang, N; Headley, T; Lucadamo, G; Yio, J; Chames, J; Gardea, A; Clift, M; Blue, G; Peters, W; Rivard, J; Harper, D; Swank, D; Bayles, R; Lemieux, E; Brown, R; Wolejsza, T; Aprigliano, L; Branagan, D; Marshall, M; Meacham, B; Aprigliano, L; Branagan, D; Marshall, M; Meacham, B; Lavernia, E; Schoenung, J; Ajdelsztajn, L; Dannenberg, J; Graeve, O; Lewandowski, J; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Boudreau, J

    2007-01-01

    New corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals have been identified from published data or developed through combinatorial synthesis, and tested to determine their relative corrosion resistance. Many of these materials can be applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. Two compositions have corrosion resistance superior to wrought nickel-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022) in some very aggressive environments, including concentrated calcium-chloride brines at elevated temperature. Two Fe-based amorphous metal formulations have been found that appear to have corrosion resistance comparable to, or better than that of Ni-based Alloy C-22, based on breakdown potential and corrosion rate. Both Cr and Mo provide corrosion resistance, B enables glass formation, and Y lowers critical cooling rate (CCR). SAM1651 has yttrium added, and has a nominal critical cooling rate of only 80 Kelvin per second, while SAM2X7 (similar to SAM2X5) has no yttrium, and a relatively high critical cooling rate of 610 Kelvin per second. Both amorphous metal formulations have strengths and weaknesses. SAM1651 (yttrium added) has a low critical cooling rate (CCR), which enables it to be rendered as a completely amorphous thermal spray coating. Unfortunately, it is relatively difficult to atomize, with powders being irregular in shape. This causes the powder to be difficult to pneumatically convey during thermal spray deposition. Gas atomized SAM1651 powder has required cryogenic milling to eliminate irregularities that make flow difficult. SAM2X5 (no yttrium) has a high critical cooling rate, which has caused problems associated with devitrification. SAM2X5 can be gas atomized to produce spherical powders of SAM2X5, which enable more facile thermal spray deposition. The reference material, nickel-based Alloy C-22, is an outstanding corrosion-resistant engineering material. Even so, crevice corrosion has been observed with C-22 in hot sodium chloride environments without buffer

  20. Carbon steel corrosion prevention during chemical cleaning of steam generator secondary side components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulger, M.; Lucan, D.; Velciu, L.

    2009-01-01

    During operation of a nuclear power plant, many contaminants, such as solid particles or dissolved species are formed in the secondary circuit, go into steam generator and deposit as scales on heat transfer tubing, support plate or as sludge on tube sheet. By accumulation of these impurities, heat transfer is reduced and the integrity of the steam generator tubing is influenced. Chemical cleaning is a qualified, efficient measure to improve steam generator corrosion performance. The corrosion mechanism can be counteracted by the chemical cleaning of the deposits on the tube sheet and the scales on the heat transfer tubing. The major component of the scales is magnetite, which can be dissolved using an organic chelating agent (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA) in combination with a complexing agent such as citric acid in an alkaline reducing environment. As the secondary side of SG is a conglomerate of alloys it is necessary to choose an optimal chemical cleaning solution for an efficient cleaning properties and at the same time with capability of corrosion prevention of carbon steel components during the process. The paper presents laboratory tests initiated to confirm the ability of this process to clean the SG components. The experiments followed two paths: - first, carbon steel samples have been autoclavized in specific secondary circuit solutions of steam generator to simulate the deposits constituted during operation of this equipment; - secondly, autoclavized samples have been cleaned with a solvent composed of EDTA citric acid, hydrazine of pH = 5 and temperature of 85 deg. C. Before chemical cleaning, the oxide films were characterized by surface analysis techniques including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Applied to dissolve corrosion products formed in a steam generator, the solvents based on chelating agents are aggressive toward carbon steels and corrosion inhibitors are

  1. A study of the inhibition of iron corrosion in HCl solutions by some amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Mohammed A.; Khaled, K.F.; Mohsen, Q.; Arida, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    The performance of three selected amino acids, namely alanine (Ala), cysteine (Cys) and S-methyl cysteine (S-MCys) as safe corrosion inhibitors for iron in aerated stagnant 1.0 M HCl solutions was evaluated by Tafel polarization and impedance measurements. Results indicate that Ala acts mainly as a cathodic inhibitor, while Cys and S-MCys function as mixed-type inhibitors. Cys, which contains a mercapto group in its molecular structure, was the most effective among the inhibitors tested, while Ala was less effective than S-MCys. The low inhibition efficiency recorded for S-MCys compared with that of Cys was attributed to steric effects caused by the substituent methyl on the mercapto group. Electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) technique and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), were also applied to make accurate determination of corrosion rates. Validation of the Tafel extrapolation method for measuring corrosion rates was tested. Rates of corrosion rates (in μm y -1 ) obtained from Tafel extrapolation method are in good agreement with those measured using EFM and ICP methods. Some theoretical studies, including molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT), were also employed to establish the correlation between the structure (molecular and electronic) of the three tested inhibitors and the inhibition efficiency. Adsorption via hydrogen bonding was discussed here based on some theoretical studies. Experimental and theoretical results were in good agreement.

  2. Herbs as new type of green inhibitors for acidic corrosion of steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamis, E. [Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, Alexandria University, P.O. Box 426 Ibrahimia Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); AlAndis, N. [College of Science, Chemistry Department, King Saud University (Saudi Arabia)

    2002-09-01

    Corrosion inhibition of steel in sulphuric acid by six different herb plants has been studied using a.c and d.c electrochemical techniques. The environmentally friendly investigated compounds are namely: thyme, coriander, hibiscus, anis, black cumin and Garden cress. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been successfully used to evaluate the performance of these compounds. The ac measurements showed that the dissolution process is activation controlled. Bode and theta diagrams show only one time constant ({tau}). Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicate that the studied compounds are mixed-type inhibitors. The order of increasing inhibition efficiency was correlated with the change of the constituent active materials of the compounds. Thyme, which contains the powerful antiseptic thymol as the active ingredient, offers excellent protection for steel surface. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Inhibition of Corrosion of Carbon Steel in 3.5% NaCl Solution by Myrmecodia Pendans Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atria Pradityana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitor is a substance that is added to the corrosive media to inhibit corrosion rate. Organic inhibitors are preferred to inorganic ones since they are environmentally friendly. One of the organic compounds which is rarely reported as a corrosion inhibitor is Myrmecodia Pendans. The organic compounds can be adsorbed on the metal surface and block the active surface to reduce the rate of corrosion. In this study, the used pipe was carbon steel API 5L Grade B with 3.5% NaCl solution as the corrosion medium. The objective of this research was to analyze the inhibition mechanism Myrmecodia Pendans towards carbon steel in a corrosion medium. Concentration variations of extract Myrmecodia Pendans were 0–500 ppm. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR was used for chemical characterization of Myrmecodia Pendans. Polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS were used to measure the corrosion rate and behaviour. From the electrochemical measurements, it was found that the addition of 400 mg/L inhibitor gave the highest inhibition efficiency. Myrmecodia Pendans acted as a corrosion inhibitor by forming a thin layer on the metal surface.

  4. Environmentally safe corrosion inhibition of Mg-Al-Zn alloy in chloride free neutral solutions by amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helal, N.H. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Fayoum (Egypt); Badawy, W.A., E-mail: wbadawy@cu.edu.eg [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 12 613 Giza (Egypt)

    2011-07-30

    Highlights: > Phenyl alanine at a concentration of 2 x 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3} gives 93% corrosion inhibition efficiency for the corrosion of the Mg-Al-Zn alloy. > The corrosion inhibition process is based on the adsorption of the amino acid molecules on the active sites of the alloy surface by physical adsorption mechanism. > The adsorption free energy was 15.72 kJ mol{sup -1}. - Abstract: The corrosion inhibition of Mg-Al-Zn alloy was investigated in stagnant naturally aerated chloride free neutral solutions using amino acids as environmentally safe corrosion inhibitors. The corrosion rate was calculated in the absence and presence of the corrosion inhibitor using the polarization technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The experimental impedance data were fitted to theoretical data according to a proposed electronic circuit model to explain the behavior of the alloy/electrolyte interface under different conditions. The corrosion inhibition process was found to depend on the adsorption of the amino acid molecules on the metal surface. Phenyl alanine has shown remarkably high corrosion inhibition efficiency up to 93% at a concentration of 2 x 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3}. The corrosion inhibition efficiency was found to depend on the concentration of the amino acid and its structure. The mechanism of the corrosion inhibition process was discussed and different adsorption isotherms were investigated. The free energy of the adsorption process was calculated for the adsorption of different amino acids on the Mg-Al-Zn alloy and the obtained values reveal a physical adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the alloy surface.

  5. Spectrophotometric determination of nitrite based on its catalytic effect on the reaction of nuclear fast red and potassium bromate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN ZAVVAR MOUSAVI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A highly selective and sensitive catalytic spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of nitrite in water samples. The method is based on its catalytic effect on the nuclear fast red–potassium bromate redox reaction in acidic medium. The reaction was followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the change in the absorbance at 518 nm of nuclear fast red 5 min after initiation of the reaction. In this study, the experimental parameters were optimized and the effects of other cations and anions on the determination of nitrite were examined. The calibration graph was linear in the range 2.0–45 µg mL-1 of nitrite. The relative standard deviations for the determination of 15 and 30 µg mL-1 of nitrite were 3.1 and 1.75 %, respectively (n = 8. The detection limit calculated from three times the standard deviation of the blank 3Sb was 0.7 µg mL-1. The method was successfully applied to the determination of nitrite in spiked tap, natural and wastewater samples.

  6. Nicotinic acid as a nontoxic corrosion inhibitor for hot dipped Zn and Zn-Al alloy coatings on steels in diluted hydrochloric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju Hong [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li Yan [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)], E-mail: yanlee@ms.qdio.ac.cn

    2007-11-15

    The inhibition effect of nicotinic acid for corrosion of hot dipped Zn and Zn-Al alloy coatings in diluted hydrochloric acid was investigated using quantum chemistry analysis, weight loss test, electrochemical measurement, and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) analysis. Quantum chemistry calculation results showed that nicotinic acid possessed planar structure with a number of active centers, and the populations of the Mulliken charge, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) were found mainly focused around oxygen and nitrogen atoms, and the cyclic of the benzene as well. The results of weight loss test and electrochemical measurement indicated that inhibition efficiency (IE%) increased with inhibitor concentration, and the highest inhibition efficiency was up to 96.7%. The corrosion inhibition of these coatings was discussed in terms of blocking the electrode reaction by adsorption of the molecules at the active centers on the electrode surface. It was found that the adsorption of nicotinic acid on coating surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm with single molecular layer, and nicotinic acid adsorbed on the coating surface probably by chemisorption. Nicotinic acid, therefore, can act as a good nontoxic corrosion inhibitor for hot dipped Zn and Zn-Al alloy coatings in diluted hydrochloric acid solution.

  7. Corrosion '98: 53. annual conference and exposition, proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    This conference was divided into the following sections: Corrosion in Gas Treating; Problems and Solutions in Commercial Building Water Systems; Green Corrosion/Scale Inhibitors; Atmospheric Corrosion; AIRPOL Update/98; Rubber Lining--Answers to Many Problems; Interference Problems; Environmental Assisted Cracking: Fundamental Research and Industrial Applications; Corrosion in Nuclear Systems; New Developments in Scale and Deposit Control; Corrosion and Corrosion Protection in the Transportation Industries; What's All the Noise About--Electrochemical That Is; Refining Industry Corrosion; Corrosion Problems in Military Hardware: Case Histories, Fixes and Lessons Learned; Cathodic Protection Test Methods and Instrumentation for Underground and On-grade Pipelines and Tanks; Recent Developments in Volatile Corrosion Inhibitors; Corrosion in Supercritical Fluids; Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion; Advances in Understanding and Controlling CO 2 Corrosion; Managing Corrosion with Plastics; Material Developments for Use in Exploration and Production Environments; Corrosion in Cold Regions; The Effect of Downsizing and Outsourcing on Cooling System Monitoring and Control Practices; New Developments in Mechanical and Chemical Industrial Cleaning; Mineral Scale Deposit Control in Oilfield Related Operations; Biocides in Cooling Water; Corrosion and Corrosion Control of Reinforced Concrete Structures; Materials Performance for Fossil Energy Conversion Systems; Marine corrosion; Thermal Spray--Coating and Corrosion Control; Flow Effects on Corrosion in Oil and Gas Production; Corrosion Measurement Technologies; Internal Pipeline Monitoring--Corrosion Monitoring, Intelligent Pigging and Leak Detection; Cathodic Protection in Natural Waters; Corrosion in Radioactive Liquid Waste Systems; On-line Hydrogen Permeation Monitoring Equipment and Techniques, State of the Art; Water Reuse and Recovery; Performance of Materials in High Temperature Environments; Advances in Motor

  8. Time-dependent depletion of nitrite in pork/beef and chicken meat products and its effect on nitrite intake estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Leonardo; Darnerud, Per Ola; Toldrá, Fidel; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The food additive nitrite (E249, E250) is commonly used in meat curing as a food preservation method. Because of potential negative health effects of nitrite, its use is strictly regulated. In an earlier study we have shown that the calculated intake of nitrite in children can exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) when conversion from dietary nitrate to nitrite is included. This study examined time-dependent changes in nitrite levels in four Swedish meat products frequently eaten by children: pork/beef sausage, liver paté and two types of chicken sausage, and how the production process, storage and also boiling (e.g., simmering in salted water) and frying affect the initial added nitrite level. The results showed a steep decrease in nitrite level between the point of addition to the product and the first sampling of the product 24 h later. After this time, residual nitrite levels continued to decrease, but much more slowly, until the recommended use-by date. Interestingly, this continuing decrease in nitrite was much smaller in the chicken products than in the pork/beef products. In a pilot study on pork/beef sausage, we found no effects of boiling on residual nitrite levels, but frying decreased nitrite levels by 50%. In scenarios of time-dependent depletion of nitrite using the data obtained for sausages to represent all cured meat products and including conversion from dietary nitrate, calculated nitrite intake in 4-year-old children generally exceeded the ADI. Moreover, the actual intake of nitrite from cured meat is dependent on the type of meat source, with a higher residual nitrite levels in chicken products compared with pork/beef products. This may result in increased nitrite exposure among consumers shifting their consumption pattern of processed meats from red to white meat products. PMID:26743589

  9. Low Toxicity Corrosion Inhibitors for Smart Coatings, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is located near one of the most corrosive natural environments in the world. Corrosion of KSC ground assets is exacerbated by the...

  10. Carbon dots based dual-emission silica nanoparticles as ratiometric fluorescent probe for nitrite determination in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Guoqiang; Wang, Yule; Zhang, Heng; Fan, Huanhuan; Fan, Lu; He, Lijun; Jiang, Xiuming; Zhao, Wenjie

    2018-09-15

    In this work, a simple and effective strategy for designing a ratiometric fluorescent nanosensor was described. A carbon dots (CDs) based dual-emission nanosensor for nitrite was prepared by coating the CDs on to dye-doped silica nanoparticles. Dual-emission silica nanoparticles fluorescence was quenched in sulfuric acid using potassium bromate (KBrO 3 ). The nitrite present catalyzed the KBrO 3 oxidation, resulting in ratiometric fluorescence response of the dual-emission silica nanoparticles. Several important parameters affecting the performance of the nanosensor were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the limit of detection was 1.0 ng mL -1 and the linear range 10-160 ng mL -1 . Furthermore, the sensor was suitable for nitrite determination in different food samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of salt precipitation, corrosion and corrosion fatigue of steel in neutral environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlovskij, V.Ya.; Slobodyan, Z.V.; Soprunyuk, N.G.; Ivanov, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Processes of salt precipitation, corrosion under dynamic and static conditions, are studied as well as corrosion fatigue of 20 and 40Kh steels in neutral aqueous media without and with the addition of compounds of several classes. The solution of calcium bicarbonate with the initial concentration [Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 ]=1.3 g/l and 3% NaCl solution in distilled water are used for investigation. The effectiveness index of salt precipitation inhibitor is determined by the change in the rate of calcium bicarbonate transformation into carbonate. The combination of results obtained permits to make the conclusion that tripolyphosphate and pyrophosphoric acid are rather perspective inhibitors of complex effect with low protective concentrations

  12. Pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion of an advanced chromium-based stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, M.

    1999-01-01

    Alloy 33 is a (wt. %) 33 Cr-32Fe-31Ni-1.6Mo-0.6CU-0.4N austenitic stainless steel combining high yield strength of min. 380 N/mm 2 (55 KSI) with high resistance to local corrosion and superior resistance to stress corrosion cracking. Ranking the material according to its PRE (pitting resistance equivalent) value, the new alloy fits in between the advanced 6% Mo superaustenitics and the nickel-base Alloy 625 but due to the balanced chemical composition the alloy shows a lot less sensitivity to segregation in the base material as well as in welded structures. It is recommended to weld the material with matching filler. The critical pitting temperature of such joints in the 10% FeCl 3 · 6H 2 O solution is reduced by only 10 C in comparison to the base material. Corrosion tests in artificial seawater (20 g/l Cl - ) with additions of chloride up to 37 g/l as well as in a NaCl-CaCl 2 , solution with 62 g/l Cl - --revealed that the critical pitting temperature does not differentiate from the 6% Mo austenitic steel Alloy 926. With respect to crevice corrosion the depassivation pH value has been determined in 1 M NaCl solution according to Crolet and again there was no difference between Alloy 33 and Alloy 926. SCC tests performed on Alloy 33 in the solution annealed condition as well as after heavy cold work up to R PO,2 ∼ 1,100--1,200 N/mm 2 (160--174 KSI) indicate the high resistance to stress corrosion cracking in hot sodium chloride solutions

  13. Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel in HCl Solution by Some Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrish Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The strict environmental legislations and increasing ecological awareness among scientists have led to the development of “green” alternatives to mitigate corrosion. In the present work, literature on green corrosion inhibitors has been reviewed, and the salient features of our work on green corrosion inhibitors have been highlighted. Among the studied leaves, extract Andrographis paniculata showed better inhibition performance (98% than the other leaves extract. Strychnos nuxvomica showed better inhibition (98% than the other seed extracts. Moringa oleifera is reflected as a good corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in 1 M HCl with 98% inhibition efficiency among the studied fruits extract. Bacopa monnieri showed its maximum inhibition performance to be 95% at 600 ppm among the investigated stem extracts. All the reported plant extracts were found to inhibit the corrosion of mild steel in acid media.

  14. Evaluation of nitrite contamination in baby foods and infant formulas marketed in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkekoglu, Pinar; Baydar, Terken

    2009-05-01

    Nitrites are responsible for methemoglobinemia, to which infants younger than 6 months are thought to be the most susceptible population. This study aimed to detect whether there was any nitrite contamination in infant formulas and baby foods marketed in Turkey and to estimate possible toxicological risks in this sensitive physiological period. For this purpose, the samples were randomly collected and divided into four groups: milk-based, cereal-based, vegetable-based, and fruit-based. An easy and reliable spectrophotometric method was used by modifying the Griess method. The average nitrite contamination was found to be 204.07+/-65.80 microg/g in 42 samples, with 1,073 microg/g maximum. According to the results, baby and infant formulas include various nitrite levels; nitrite contamination might come from several sources during manufacturing, and so extreme attention must be given throughout the manufacturing process of food for infants.

  15. Microbiological Corrosion in Low Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Medina–Custodio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Microbiologically Induced Corrosion affects several industries, such as oil industry where it is estimated that 20% to 30% pipes failures are related with microorganism . The chemical reactions generate ions transfer, this validate the use of electrochemical techniques for its analysis. Coupons submerged in a nutritional medium with presence and absence of three different microorganisms during two periods, 48 hours and 28 days we restudied. Polarization resistance (Rp and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS techniques we re applied to determine the corrosivity of the systems. The results show a greater corrosive effect of abiotic system, this indicates a microorganisms protection effect to the metal, opposite to the first hypothesis. This result was ratified observing surfaces coupons by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM technique. A possible mechanism based on Evans – Tafel graph is proposed to explain inhibitor microorganism effect.

  16. Smart Coatings for Corrosion Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Li, Wendy; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. It is essential to detect corrosion when it occurs, and preferably at its early stage, so that action can be taken to avoid structural damage or loss of function. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it.

  17. Stable-isotope dilution GC-MS approach for nitrite quantification in human whole blood, erythrocytes, and plasma using pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization: nitrite distribution in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Modun, Darko; Heusser, Karsten; Tank, Jens; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Mitschke, Anja; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2011-05-15

    Previously, we reported on the usefulness of pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFB-Br) for the simultaneous derivatization and quantitative determination of nitrite and nitrate in various biological fluids by GC-MS using their (15)N-labelled analogues as internal standards. As nitrite may be distributed unevenly in plasma and blood cells, its quantification in whole blood rather than in plasma or serum may be the most appropriate approach to determine nitrite concentration in the circulation. So far, GC-MS methods based on PFB-Br derivatization failed to measure nitrite in whole blood and erythrocytes because of rapid nitrite loss by oxidation and other unknown reactions during derivatization. The present article reports optimized and validated procedures for sample preparation and nitrite derivatization which allow for reliable quantification of nitrite in human whole blood and erythrocytes. Essential measures for stabilizing nitrite in these samples include sample cooling (0-4°C), hemoglobin (Hb) removal by precipitation with acetone and short derivatization of the Hb-free supernatant (5 min, 50°C). Potassium ferricyanide (K(3)Fe(CN)(6)) is useful in preventing Hb-caused nitrite loss, however, this chemical is not absolutely required in the present method. Our results show that accurate GC-MS quantification of nitrite as PFB derivative is feasible virtually in every biological matrix with similar accuracy and precision. In EDTA-anticoagulated venous blood of 10 healthy young volunteers, endogenous nitrite concentration was measured to be 486±280 nM in whole blood, 672±496 nM in plasma (C(P)), and 620±350 nM in erythrocytes (C(E)). The C(E)-to-C(P) ratio was 0.993±0.188 indicating almost even distribution of endogenous nitrite between plasma and erythrocytes. By contrast, the major fraction of nitrite added to whole blood remained in plasma. The present GC-MS method is useful to investigate distribution and metabolism of endogenous and exogenous nitrite in blood

  18. Inhibitive effect by Psidium guajava leaf extract on the corrosion of Al-Si-Mg (SSM-HPDC alloy in simulated seawater environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdulwahab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of Psidium guajava leaf extract as corrosion inhibitor for Al-Si- Mg (SSM-HPDC alloy in 3.5%wt NaCl solution using the gravimetric based-mass loss and potentiodynamic polarization techniques was investigated. The gravimetric based mass loss test was carried out at different inhibitor concentration, time and temperature ranges of 0.1-0.5%v/v, 1-5 hrs and 30-70oC, respectively, the results revealed that Psidium guajava leaf extract in 3.5%wt NaCl solution-aluminium environment decreased the corrosion rate at various concentrations considered. Inhibition efficiency (IE as high as 63.17% at 0.5% v/v Psidium guajava leaf extract addition using the gravimetric method was demonstrated in 3.5%wt NaCl solution. The IE of 90.48% was obtained at 0.5%v/v using the potentiodynamic polarization method. The additions of Psidium guajava leaf extract as corrosion inhibitor in the solution indicate higher potential value, IE and polarization resistance with decrease in current density. The two methods used for assessment of the aluminium alloy corrosion behaviour were in agreement and mixed-type corrosion exists which obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  19. The use of a Phosphate-Based Migrating Corrosion Inhibitor to Repair Reinforced Concrete Elements Contaminated by Chlorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittarelli, Francesca; Mobili, Alessandra; Bellezze, Tiziano

    2017-08-01

    The use of sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP) was experimented as migrator inhibiting treatment against corrosion of reinforced concrete elements induced by chlorides. The results show that sodium monofluorophosphate, applied by surface impregnation, is able to slow down reinforcement corrosion only for reinforcing steel bars with concrete cover not thicker than 1 cm. This limitation is most probably due to the difficulty, with the type of application adopted, in making MFP to reach concentrations high enough to inhibit the corrosive process at greater depths from the impregnation surface.

  20. The water soluble composite poly(vinylpyrrolidone–methylaniline: A new class of corrosion inhibitors of mild steel in hydrochloric acid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Karthikaiselvi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years poly methyl aniline has been reported as one of the efficient corrosion inhibitors of mild steel in acidic media. In view of the major limitation of the insolubility of polymethyl aniline PMA, we propose to convert PMA into a water soluble composite using supporting polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone to get higher solubility and corrosion inhibition efficiency. The water soluble composite poly(vinylpyrrolidone-methyl aniline was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization and its inhibitive effect on mild steel in 1 M HCl has been investigated using weight loss and electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic polarization studies and impedance spectroscopy. SEM and EDX analyses are carried out to establish a protective film formation on the metal surface.

  1. Understanding the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel and copper in sulphuric acid medium by amino acids using electrochemical techniques allied to molecular modelling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonça, Glaydson L.F.; Costa, Stefane N.; Freire, Valder N.; Casciano, Paulo N.S.; Correia, Adriana N.; Lima-Neto, Pedro de

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Corrosion inhibition of carbon steel and of copper by the amino acids was studied. • Inhibition efficiencies were experimentally achieved by electrochemical impedance. • DFT and Monte Carlo methods allowed correlating molecular properties with inhibition efficiency. • The corrosion inhibition followed the electron donation the electron-back donations process. - Abstract: Six amino acids were evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel and copper in 0.5 mol L"−"1 H_2SO_4 solution by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance techniques allied to Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Monte Carlo computations The corrosion inhibitor rankings were: Arg > Gln > Asn > Met > Cys > Ser, for copper, and Met > Cys > Ser > Arg > Gln > Asn, for carbon steel. The DFT approach failed to explain the corrosion inhibition rating based on the HOMO and LUMO energies of the isolated amino acid molecules, while the simpler classical Monte Carlo approach, performed considering the interaction energies between the corrosion inhibitor and the metallic substrate, was successful.

  2. Intermittent Aeration Suppresses Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacteria in Membrane-Aerated Biofilms: A Model-Based Explanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Yunjie; Domingo Felez, Carlos; Plósz, Benedek G.

    2017-01-01

    . On the basis of dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate profiles within the biofilm and in the bulk, a 1-dimensional nitrifying biofilm model was developed and calibrated. The model was utilized to explore the potential mechanisms of NOB suppression associated with intermittent aeration...... nitritation, strategies to suppress nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) are needed, which are ideally grounded on an understanding of underlying mechanisms. In this study, a nitrifying MABR was operated under intermittent aeration. During eight months of operation, AOB dominated, while NOB were suppressed...... during intermittent aeration was mostly explained by periodic inhibition caused by free ammonia due to periodic transient pH upshifts. Dissolved oxygen limitation did not govern NOB suppression. Different intermittent aeration strategies were then evaluated for nitritation success in intermittently...

  3. Corrosion/95 conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The papers in this conference represent the latest technological advances in corrosion control and prevention. The following subject areas are covered: cathodic protection in natural waters; materials for fossil fuel combustion and conversion systems; modern problems in atmospheric corrosion; innovative ideas for controlling the decaying infrastructure; deposits and their effects on corrosion in industry; volatile high temperature and non aqueous corrosion inhibitors; corrosion of light-weight and precoated metals for automotive application; refining industry corrosion; corrosion in pulp and paper industry; arctic/cold weather corrosion; materials selection for waste incinerators and associated equipment; corrosion measurement technology; environmental cracking of materials; advancing technology in the coating industry; corrosion in gas treating; green inhibition; recent advances in corrosion control of rail equipment; velocity effects and erosion corrosion in oil and gas production; marine corrosion; corrosion of materials in nuclear systems; underground corrosion control; corrosion in potable and industrial water systems in buildings and its impact on environmental compliance; deposit related boiler tube failures; boiler systems monitoring and control; recent developments and experiences in reactive metals; microbiologically influenced corrosion; corrosion and corrosion control for steel reinforced concrete; international symposium on the use of 12 and 13 Cr stainless steels in oil and gas production environments; subsea corrosion /erosion monitoring in production facilities; fiberglass reinforced pipe and tubulars in oilfield service; corrosion control technology in power transmission and distribution; mechanisms and methods of scale and deposit control; closing the loop -- results oriented cooling system monitoring and control; and minimization of aqueous discharge

  4. Comparison of Oxidation Kinetics of Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacteria: Nitrite Availability as a Key Factor in Niche Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowka, Boris; Daims, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Nitrification has an immense impact on nitrogen cycling in natural ecosystems and in wastewater treatment plants. Mathematical models function as tools to capture the complexity of these biological systems, but kinetic parameters especially of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) are lacking because of a limited number of pure cultures until recently. In this study, we compared the nitrite oxidation kinetics of six pure cultures and one enrichment culture representing three genera of NOB (Nitrobacter, Nitrospira, Nitrotoga). With half-saturation constants (Km) between 9 and 27 μM nitrite, Nitrospira bacteria are adapted to live under significant substrate limitation. Nitrobacter showed a wide range of lower substrate affinities, with Km values between 49 and 544 μM nitrite. However, the advantage of Nitrobacter emerged under excess nitrite supply, sustaining high maximum specific activities (Vmax) of 64 to 164 μmol nitrite/mg protein/h, contrary to the lower activities of Nitrospira of 18 to 48 μmol nitrite/mg protein/h. The Vmax (26 μmol nitrite/mg protein/h) and Km (58 μM nitrite) of “Candidatus Nitrotoga arctica” measured at a low temperature of 17°C suggest that Nitrotoga can advantageously compete with other NOB, especially in cold habitats. The kinetic parameters determined represent improved basis values for nitrifying models and will support predictions of community structure and nitrification rates in natural and engineered ecosystems. PMID:25398863

  5. Corrosion inhibition by inorganic cationic inhibitors on the high strength alumunium alloy, 2024-T3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilukuri, Anusha

    The toxicity and carcinogenic nature of chromates has led to the investigation of environmentally friendly compounds that offer good corrosion resistance to AA 2024-T3. Among the candidate inhibitors are rare earth metal cationic (REM) and zinc compounds, which have received much of attention over the past two decades. A comparative study on the corrosion inhibition caused by rare earth metal cations, Ce3+, Pr3+, La3+ and Zn2+ cations on the alloy was done. Cathodic polarization showed that these inhibitor ions suppress the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to varying extents with Zn2+ providing the best inhibition. Pr3+ exhibited windows of concentration (100-300 ppm) in which the corrosion rate is minimum; similar to the Ce3+ cation. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies showed that the mechanism of inhibition of the Pr3+ ion is also similar to that of the Ce3+ ion. Potentiodynamic polarization experiments after 30 min immersion time showed greatest suppression of oxygen reduction reaction in neutral chloride solutions (pH 7), which reached a maximum at a Zn2+ ion concentration of 5 mM. Anodic polarization experiments after 30 min immersion time, showed no anodic inhibition by the inhibitor in any concentration (0.1 mM - 10 mM) and at any pH. However, anodic polarization of samples immersed after longer immersion times (upto 4 days) in mildly acidic Zn2+ (pH 4) solutions showed significant reduction in anodic kinetics indicating that zinc also acts as a “slow anodic inhibitor”. In contrast to the polarization experiments, coupons exposed to inhibited acidic solutions at pH 4 showed complete suppression of dissolution of Al2CuMg particles compared to zinc-free solutions in the SEM studies. Samples exposed in pH 4 Zn2+-bearing solution exhibited highest polarization resistance which was also observed to increase with time. In deaerated solutions, the inhibition by Zn2+ at pH 4 is not observed as strongly. The ability to make the interfacial electrolyte

  6. EIS study on corrosion and scale processes and their inhibition in cooling system media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Cruz, J.; Cabrera-Sierra, R.; Pech-Canul, M.A.; Gonzalez, I.

    2006-01-01

    A study of the carbon steel/cooling water interface was carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). EIS spectra reveal that a layer of corrosion and scale products forms naturally and evolves with the immersion time modifying the carbon steel/cooling water interface and giving rise to corrosion and scale processes. In addition, the nature of the layer formed on the metal was found to depend on the inhibitor used. It was established that the corrosion inhibitor (hydroxyphosphonoacetic acid (HPA)) chelates with Ca(II) ion generating a layer with resistive properties that provides good protection against corrosion. In contrast, the scale inhibitor (1-hydroxy-ethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP)) is incorporated into the calcium carbonate crystals at the surface, modifying the structure and diminishing scale formation in the surface; this additive additionally inhibited corrosion. These observations were supported by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and corroborate previous studies performed by other techniques on HPA and HEDP. Finally, a synergistic effect was observed between these inhibitors that provides good protection to steel against corrosion and scaling in cooling media

  7. EIS study on corrosion and scale processes and their inhibition in cooling system media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Cruz, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Departamento de Quimica, Apdo. Postal 55-534, 09340 Mexico, DF (Mexico) and Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Coordinacion de Ingenieria Molecular, Competencia de Quimica Aplicada, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, CP 07730, DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: jmarin@imp.mx; Cabrera-Sierra, R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Departamento de Quimica, Apdo. Postal 55-534, 09340 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas (ESIQIE-IPN), Departamento de Metalurgia, UPALM Zacatenco AP 75-874, CP 07338, DF (Mexico); Pech-Canul, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios, Avanzados del IPN, AP 73 Cordemex, CP 97310, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Gonzalez, I. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Departamento de Quimica, Apdo. Postal 55-534, 09340 Mexico, DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: igm@xanum.uam.mx

    2006-01-20

    A study of the carbon steel/cooling water interface was carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). EIS spectra reveal that a layer of corrosion and scale products forms naturally and evolves with the immersion time modifying the carbon steel/cooling water interface and giving rise to corrosion and scale processes. In addition, the nature of the layer formed on the metal was found to depend on the inhibitor used. It was established that the corrosion inhibitor (hydroxyphosphonoacetic acid (HPA)) chelates with Ca(II) ion generating a layer with resistive properties that provides good protection against corrosion. In contrast, the scale inhibitor (1-hydroxy-ethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP)) is incorporated into the calcium carbonate crystals at the surface, modifying the structure and diminishing scale formation in the surface; this additive additionally inhibited corrosion. These observations were supported by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and corroborate previous studies performed by other techniques on HPA and HEDP. Finally, a synergistic effect was observed between these inhibitors that provides good protection to steel against corrosion and scaling in cooling media.

  8. The stress caused by nitrite with titanium dioxide nanoparticles under UVA irradiation in human keratinocyte cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Min; Huang, Yi; Li, Hai-Ling; Gao, Zhong-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nitrite increased photo-toxicity of nano-TiO 2 on human keratinocyte cells in a dose-dependant manner. ► Morphological study suggested the cell death may be mediated by apoptosis inducing factor. ► Protein nitration was generated in the cells, and the most abundant nitrated protein was identified as cystatin-A. ► Tyr35 was the most likely site to be nitrated in cystatin-A. -- Abstract: Our previous work found that in the presence of nitrite, titanium dioxide nanoparticles can cause protein tyrosine nitration under UVA irradiation in vivo. In this paper, the human keratinocyte cells was used as a skin cell model to further study the photo-toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles when nitrite was present. The results showed that nitrite increased the photo-toxicity of titanium dioxide in a dose-dependant manner, and generated protein tyrosine nitration in keratinocyte cells. Morphological study of keratinocyte cells suggested a specific apoptosis mediated by apoptosis inducing factor. It was also found the main target nitrated in cells was cystatin-A, which expressed abundantly in cytoplasm and functioned as a cysteine protease inhibitor. The stress induced by titanium dioxide with nitrite under UVA irradiation in human keratinocyte cells appeared to trigger the apoptosis inducing factor mediated cell death and lose the inhibition of active caspase by cystatin-A. We conclude that nitrite can bring new damage and stress to human keratinocyte cells with titanium dioxide nanoparticles under UVA irradiation.

  9. Amperometric Carbon Fiber Nitrite Microsensor for In Situ Biofilm Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    A highly selective needle type solid state amperometric nitrite microsensor based on direct nitrite oxidation on carbon fiber was developed using a simplified fabrication method. The microsensor’s tip diameter was approximately 7 µm, providing a high spatial resolution of at lea...

  10. Influence of increasing phosphate/silikate contents on the pitting and general corrosion of galvanized steel tubing and the corrosion of copper in warm water mixed installation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehreke, J.; Stichel, W.

    1989-01-01

    In hot tap water (65 0 C) the influence of a mixture of phosphate/silicate inhibitor on the general, the pitting and the galvanic corrosion of galvanized steel tubes and the general corrosion of copper in mixed installations of both metals was investigated. Increasing concentration of inhibitors descreases the general corrosion rate of galvanized steel and copper. A worth mentioning reduction of pitting and galvanic corrosion of steel could be reached only with high concentrations of 5 mg/l P 2 O 5 and 30 mg/l SiO 2 . Galvannealed tubes are much more sensitive to pitting corrosion than galvanized ones. Referring to this they could not be inhibited. (orig.) [de

  11. Experimental Study of Leaching and Penetration of Nitrite ions in Nitrite-type Repair Materials on the Surface of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumi Inoue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the leaching properties of nitrite ions in nitrite-type repair materials exposed to rainfall. Repaired concrete specimens were prepared for leaching tests using a lithium nitrite solution, and the amounts of leaching and penetration of nitrite ions were measured under simulated rainfall. The results demonstrated that the amount of leaching could be controlled by using polymer cement paste and mortar surface coatings containing lithium nitrite solution, and by using polymer cement mortar surface coatings following direct lithium nitrite solution coatings. Furthermore, the amount of nitrite ion leaching in all cases was lower than the discharge standard value established by the water pollution control law.

  12. Corrosion inhibitors 26. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, L.; Pliefke, E.

    1981-01-01

    The analysis of the protective coating produced during the corrosion of copper in the presence of 2-aminopyrimidine (2-AP) is consistent with the composition [Cu 1 + -2-AP-Cl]sub(n). The individual units form a three-dimensional macro-structure via chloride bridging and hydrogen bonding. The assignment of the structure was supported by NMR, IR, UV and magnetic susceptibility measurements and an X-ray investigation using the Debye-Scherrer powder method. The thermal behaviour of the coating was studied by mass-spectral and DTA (differential thermal analysis) methods. Radiochemical experiments were carried out using active copper samples (i.e. containing 64 Cu), or using added 64 CuCl and 64 CuCl 2 in the corrosion of non-active copper both in the presence and absence of added 2-AP. The results elucidate the exchange reactions at the copper surface between dissolved and metallic components. The equilibrium between Cu 2 + and metallic copper on the one hand and 2 Cu 1 + ions on the other is central to the problem, as is also the dissociation of the [Cu 1 + -2-AP-Cl]sub(n) complex. The concepts here developed were confirmed by studies of the autoxidation of CuCl and CuO in the presence and absence of 2-AP. (orig.)

  13. Potential for erosion corrosion of SRS high level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapp, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    SRS high-level radioactive waste tanks will not experience erosion corrosion to any significant degree during slurry pump operations. Erosion corrosion in carbon steel structures at reported pump discharge velocities is dominated by electrochemical (corrosion) processes. Interruption of those processes, as by the addition of corrosion inhibitors, sharply reduces the rate of metal loss from erosion corrosion. The well-inhibited SRS waste tanks have a near-zero general corrosion rate, and therefore will be essentially immune to erosion corrosion. The experimental data on carbon steel erosion corrosion most relevant to SRS operations was obtained at the Hanford Site on simulated Purex waste. A metal loss rate of 2.4 mils per year was measured at a temperature of 102 C and a slurry velocity comparable to calculated SRS slurry velocities on ground specimens of the same carbon steel used in SRS waste tanks. Based on these data and the much lower expected temperatures, the metal loss rate of SRS tanks under waste removal and processing conditions should be insignificant, i.e. less than 1 mil per year

  14. Electrochemical noise based corrosion monitoring: FY 2001 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDGAR, C.

    2001-01-01

    Underground storage tanks made of mild steel are used to contain radioactive waste generated by plutonium production at the Hanford Site. Corrosion of the walls of these tanks is a major issue. Corrosion monitoring and control are currently provided at the Hanford Site through a waste chemistry sampling and analysis program. In this process, tank waste is sampled, analyzed and compared to a selection of laboratory exposures of coupons in simulated waste. Tank wall corrosion is inferred by matching measured tank chemistries to the results of the laboratory simulant testing. This method is expensive, time consuming, and does not yield real-time data. Corrosion can be monitored through coupon exposure studies and a variety of electrochemical techniques. A small number of these techniques have been tried at Hanford and elsewhere within the DOE complex to determine the corrosivity of nuclear waste stored in underground tanks [1]. Coupon exposure programs, linear polarization resistance (LPR), and electrical resistance techniques have all been tried with limited degrees of success. These techniques are most effective for monitoring uniform corrosion, but are not well suited for early detection of localized forms of corrosion such as pitting and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Pitting and SCC have been identified as the most likely modes of corrosion failure for Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST'S) [2-3]. Over the last 20 years, a new corrosion monitoring system has shown promise in detecting localized corrosion and measuring uniform corrosion rates in process industries [4-20]. The system measures electrochemical noise (EN) generated by corrosion. The term EN is used to describe low frequency fluctuations in current and voltage associated with corrosion. In their most basic form, EN-based corrosion monitoring systems monitor and record fluctuations in current and voltage over time from electrodes immersed in an environment of interest. Laboratory studies and field

  15. A New Green Ionic Liquid-Based Corrosion Inhibitor for Steel in Acidic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Atta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the use of new hydrophobic ionic liquid derivatives, namely octadecylammonium tosylate (ODA-TS and oleylammonium tosylate (OA-TS for corrosion protection of steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution. Their chemical structures were determined from NMR analyses. The surface activity characteristics of the prepared ODA-TS and OA-TS were evaluated from conductance, surface tension and contact angle measurements. The data indicate the presence of a double bond in the chemical structure of OA-TS modified its surface activity parameters. Potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM, Energy dispersive X-rays (EDX analysis and contact angle measurements were utilized to investigate the corrosion protection performance of ODA-TS and OA-TS on steel in acidic solution. The OA-TS and ODA-TS compounds showed good protection performance in acidic chloride solution due to formation of an inhibitive film on the steel surface.

  16. Biosensor for laboratory and lander-based analysis of benthicnitrate plus nitrite distribution in marine environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, N. P.; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr

    2009-01-01

    We present a psychotropic bacteria–based biosensor that can be used in low–temperature seawater for the analysis of nitrate + nitrite (NOx –). The sensor can be used to resolve concentrations below 1 µmol L–1 at low temperature (

  17. 2-Mercaptopyrimidine as an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of cold rolled steel in HNO_3 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xianghong; Deng, Shuduan; Lin, Tong; Xie, Xiaoguang; Du, Guanben

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • MP acts an effective inhibitor in HNO_3, but other pyrimidine derivatives are poor. • MP is a mixed inhibitor, while mainly retards anodic reaction. • EIS exhibit depressed capacitive loops whose diameters are increased with MP. • The most active adsorption site is S atom for any MP molecular form. • The adsorptive order is thiol-MP < thione-MP < p-thiol-MP < p-thione-MP. - Abstract: The inhibition effect of five pyrimidine derivatives (2-chloropyrimidine, 2-hydroxypyrimidine, 2-bromopyrimidine, 2-aminopyrimidine, 2-mercaptopyrimidine) on the corrosion of cold rolled steel (CRS) in 0.1 M HNO_3 solution was comparatively examined. 2-Mercaptopyrimidine (MP) was found to be an effective inhibitor with the inhibition efficiency as high as 99.1% at a low concentration 0.50 mM. But other four pyrimidine derivatives exhibited poor inhibitive ability. The addition of MP caused both anodic and cathodic curves to low current densities, and was found to significantly strengthen the impedance. Quantum chemical calculation and molecular dynamic simulation were performed to theoretically investigate the adsorption mechanism.

  18. Nitrite-dependent vasodilation is facilitated by hypoxia and is independent of known NO-generating nitrite reductase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fago, Angela; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Fago, Angela

    2007-01-01

    is largely intrinsic to the vessel and that under hypoxia physiological nitrite concentrations are sufficient to induce NO-mediated vasodilation independently of the nitrite reductase activities investigated here. Possible reaction mechanisms for nitrite vasoactivity, including formation of S...

  19. Corrosion mitigation of J55 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution by a macrocyclic inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ambrish [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation (Southwest Petroleum University), Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Department of Chemistry, LFTS, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144402 (India); Lin, Yuanhua, E-mail: yhlin28@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation (Southwest Petroleum University), Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Obot, I.B. [Centre of Research Excellence in Corrosion, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Ebenso, Eno E. [Department of Chemistry, School of Mathematical & Physical Sciences, North-West University (Mafikeng Campus), Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735 (South Africa); Material Science Innovation & Modelling (MaSIM) Focus Area, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North-West University (Mafikeng Campus), Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735 (South Africa); Ansari, K.R.; Quraishi, M.A. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: SECM studies revealed decrease of steady current in the presence of inhibitor while it increased for 3.5% NaCl solution that acted as the conductor. - Highlights: • J55 steel protection in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO{sub 2} by HPT. • Potentiodynamic polarization curves reveal that the actions of HPT are mixed type. • The adsorption of HPT obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. • Scanning electrochemical microscopy is used to discuss the insulated and conductive surface. - Abstract: 1,2,4,7,9,10-Hexaazacyclo-pentadeca-10,15-dien-3,5,6,8-tetraone (HPT) a macrocyclic compound has been studied using electrochemical methods and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) techniques. The R{sub ct} values increased and C{sub dl} values decreased with the increase in concentration of the inhibitor. The corrosion inhibition of J55 steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution saturated with CO{sub 2} by polarization studies revealed that HPT acted as a mixed type inhibitor. The adsorption of HPT on the J55 steel surface obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters (K{sub ads}, ΔG°{sub ads}) were also computed and discussed.

  20. Corrosion mitigation of J55 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution by a macrocyclic inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ambrish; Lin, Yuanhua; Obot, I.B.; Ebenso, Eno E.; Ansari, K.R.; Quraishi, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: SECM studies revealed decrease of steady current in the presence of inhibitor while it increased for 3.5% NaCl solution that acted as the conductor. - Highlights: • J55 steel protection in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO 2 by HPT. • Potentiodynamic polarization curves reveal that the actions of HPT are mixed type. • The adsorption of HPT obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. • Scanning electrochemical microscopy is used to discuss the insulated and conductive surface. - Abstract: 1,2,4,7,9,10-Hexaazacyclo-pentadeca-10,15-dien-3,5,6,8-tetraone (HPT) a macrocyclic compound has been studied using electrochemical methods and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) techniques. The R ct values increased and C dl values decreased with the increase in concentration of the inhibitor. The corrosion inhibition of J55 steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution saturated with CO 2 by polarization studies revealed that HPT acted as a mixed type inhibitor. The adsorption of HPT on the J55 steel surface obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters (K ads , ΔG° ads ) were also computed and discussed.

  1. Gossipium hirsutum L. extract as green corrosion inhibitor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inhibitive effect of Gossipium hirsutum L. leaves extract on the acid corrosion of aluminum in 1 M HCl solution was studied by weight loss technique. The extract at optimum concentration inhibited the corrosion of aluminum, with about 92% inhibition efficiency and the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing ...

  2. Nitrite disrupts multiple physiological functions in aquatic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo

    2003-01-01

    be inhibited, while changes in ammonia and urea levels and excretion rates reflect an influence of nitrite on nitrogen metabolism. Detoxification of nitrite occurs via endogenous oxidation to nitrate, and elimination of nitrite takes place both via gills and urine. The susceptibility to nitrite varies between...... nitrite-induced vasodilation (possibly via nitric oxide generated from nitrite) that is countered by increased cardiac pumping to re-establish blood pressure. Nitrite can form and/or mimic nitric oxide and thereby interfere with processes regulated by this local hormone. Steroid hormone synthesis may...

  3. Spectrofluorometric and Molecular Modeling Studies on Binding of Nitrite Ion with Bovine Hemoglobin: Effect of Nitrite Ion on Amino Acid Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrakian, T.; Bagheri, H.; Afkhami, A.

    2015-05-01

    The interaction between nitrite ion and bovine hemoglobin was investigated by a spectrofluorometric technique. The experimental results indicated that the interaction causes a static quenching of the fluorescence of bovine hemoglobin, that the binding reaction is spontaneous, and that H-bonding interactions play a major role in binding of this ion to bovine hemoglobin. The formation constant for this interaction was calculated. Based on Förster's theory of nonradiative energy transfer, the binding distance between this ion and bovine hemoglobin was determined. Furthermore, the interaction of nitrite ion with tyrosine and tryptophan was investigated with synchronous fluorescence. There was no significant shift of the maximum emission wavelength with interactions of the mentioned ion with bovine hemoglobin, which implies that interaction of nitrite ion with bovine hemoglobin does not affect the microenvironment around the tryptophan and tyrosine residues. Furthermore, the effect of nitrite ion on amino acid residues of bovine hemoglobin was studied by a molecular docking technique.

  4. Benzimidazole as corrosion inhibitor for heat treated 6061 Al- SiCp composite in acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacko, Melby; Nayak, Jagannath

    2015-01-01

    6061 Al-SiCpcomposite was solutionizedat 350 °C for 30 minutes and water quenched. It was then underaged at 140 °C (T6 treatment). The aging behaviour of the composite was studied using Rockwell B hardness measurement. Corrosion behaviour of the underaged sample was studied in different concentrations of acetic acid and at different temperatures. Benzimidazole at different concentrations was used for the inhibition studies. Inhibition efficiency of benzimidazole was calculated for different experimental conditions. Thermodynamic parameters were found out which suggested benzimidazole is an efficient inhibitor and it adsorbed on to the surface of composite by mixed adsorption where chemisorption is predominant. (paper)

  5. Rail Base Corrosion and Cracking Prevention: Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-09

    EWI was engaged by the Federal Railroad Administration to research rail treatments to prevent rail base corrosion in corrosive environments. A coating system was selected in Phase 1 and recommended for field trials. In Phase 2, four railroads sponsor...

  6. Passive films and corrosion protection due to phosphonic acid inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.L.; Liu, Q. (Nanjing Univ. (China)); Li, Y.; Wang, Z.W. (Nanjing Inst. of Chemical Tech. (China))

    1993-04-01

    For protecting mild steel from corrosion, aminotrimethylidenephosphonic acid (ATMP) was more effective than 1-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonic acid (HEDP), N.N-dimethylidenediphosphonic acid (EEDP), and ethylenediaminetetramethylidenephosphonic acid (EDTMP). A 20-min treatment in 1.0 mol/l of ATMP with a pH 0.23 at 45 C formed an anti-corrosive complex film that was composed of 48.4% O, 28.6% P, 7.0% Fe, 4.3% N, and 11.7% C, based on x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. From differences in binding energies of Fe, N, and O, in the shift of C-N and P-O vibration, in the reflection FTIR spectra, and in the change of P-OH and Fe-N vibration before and after film formation, it was deduced that N and O in ATMP were coordinated with Fe[sub 2+] in the film.

  7. Corrosion Inhibition of Q235A Steel in Acid Medium Using Isatin Derivatives: A Qsar Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo M Al-Fakih; Madzlan Aziz; Abdo M Al-Fakih; Abdallah, H.H.; Hasmerya Maarof; Rosmahaida Jamaludin; Bishir Usman

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) study was performed on 10 isatin derivatives which were reportedly used as corrosion inhibitors. Dragon software was used to calculate the molecular descriptors. Partial least square (PLS) method was used to run the regression analysis between the descriptors and the corrosion inhibition efficiencies (IE) of the inhibitors. A predictive QSAR model was developed with a correlation coefficient (r 2 cal ) of 0.9676. The model validity was assessed through internal and external validation. The results show that cross-validation regression coefficient (r 2 cv ) and prediction regression coefficient (r 2 pred ) are 0.8163 and 0.9189, respectively. The model was used to predict the IE for ten isatin derivatives. The results confirm a good stability and predictive ability of the model. Dragon-based descriptors provide a very good description of the corrosion inhibition properties of the inhibitors. The results of the QSAR study were found to be consistent with the experimental data. (author)

  8. Development of Novel Corrosion Techniques for a Green Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Zaki; Patel, Faheemuddin

    2012-01-01

    The synergistic effect of air pollution, brown clouds and greenhouse gasses is deleterious to human health and industrial products. The use of toxic inhibitors, chemicals in water treatment plants, and anti-fouling agents in desalination plants has contributed to the greenhouse effect. Conventional anti-corrosion techniques such as paints, coatings, inhibitor treatments, and cathodic protection paid no regard to greenhouse effect. Work on eco-friendly anti-corrosion techniques is scanty and l...

  9. EXTRACT OF COMBRETUM MICRANTHUM AS CORROSION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... methanol extract CM is a good adsorption inhibitor for the corrosion of Al-Si-Mg in 3.5wt% NaCl solution. Tafel polarization analysis indicates that the studied plant extract is a mixed ..... (2008). [2] Shreir, L. L., Jarman, R. A. and Burstein, G. T.. Corrosion ... [6] Maqsood Ahmad Malik, Mohammad Ali Hashim,.

  10. Treatment screening for internal corrosion control of PETROBRAS oil pipelines; Selecao de tratamento para controle da corrosao interna de oleodutos da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia de Azevedo; Muller, Eduardo Gullo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Antunes, Warlley Ligorio; Shioya, Nilce Hiromi; Salvador, Angelica Dias [PETROBRAS, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios da Bacia de Campos

    2005-07-01

    The use of corrosion inhibitors is spread out in oil and gas industry and is the most common methodology to control pipeline internal corrosion. However, their effectiveness depends on the pipeline material, inhibitor composition, flow type and scale characteristics. When a pipeline has heavy scale deposits, thick bacterial biofilm, or oxygen contamination, the corrosion control via filmic inhibitors is not effective. So, the only way to control internal corrosion of an oil pipeline is to primary identifies the corrosive agent and the main corrosion mechanism. The monitoring of the inhibitor efficiency and the determination of minimal residual concentration to prevent corrosion, are also fundamental. In this paper, is presented the criteria used to identify the main corrosion mechanism of oil pipelines, the treatment proposed in each case and the techniques employed in real time corrosion monitoring. (author)

  11. Corrosion Control in the Aerospace Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. It is essential to detect corrosion when it occurs, and preferably at its early stage, so that action can be taken to avoid structural damage or loss of function. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it..

  12. Corrosion by liquid lead and lead-bismuth: experimental results review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinsuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Liquid metal technologies for liquid lead and lead-bismuth alloy are under wide investigation and development for advanced nuclear energy systems and waste transmutation systems. Material corrosion is one of the main issues studied a lot recently in the development of the liquid metal technology. This study reviews corrosion by liquid lead and lead bismuth, including the corrosion mechanisms, corrosion inhibitor and the formation of the protective oxide layer. The available experimental data are analyzed by using a corrosion model in which the oxidation and scale removal are coupled. Based on the model, long-term behaviors of steels in liquid lead and lead-bismuth are predictable. This report provides information for the selection of structural materials for typical nuclear reactor coolant systems when selecting liquid lead or lead bismuth as heat transfer media.

  13. ARM-microcontroller based portable nitrite electrochemical analyzer using cytochrome c reductase biofunctionalized onto screen printed carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santharaman, Paulraj; Venkatesh, Krishna Arun; Vairamani, Kanagavel; Benjamin, Alby Robson; Sethy, Niroj K; Bhargava, Kalpana; Karunakaran, Chandran

    2017-04-15

    Nitrite (NO 2 - ) supplementation limits hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and activates the alternate NO pathway which may partially account for the nitrite-mediated cardioprotection. So, sensitive and selective biosensors with point-of-care devices need to be explored to detect the physiological nitrite level due to its important role in human pathophysiology. In this work, cytochrome c reductase (CcR) biofunctionalized self assembled monolayer (SAM) functionalized on gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposite onto the screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was investigated as a biosensor for the detection of nitrite based on its electrochemical and catalytic properties. CcR was covalently coupled with SAM layers on GNPs by using EDC and NHS. Direct electrochemical response of CcR biofunctionalized electrodes showed a couple of well-defined and nearly reversible cyclic voltammetric peaks at -0.34 and -0.45 vs. Ag/AgCl. Under optimal conditions, the biosensor could be used for the determination of NO 2 - with a linear range from 0.1-1600µm and a detection limit of 60nM with a sensitivity of 0.172µAµM -1 cm -2 . Further, we have designed and developed a novel and cost effective portable electrochemical analyzer for the measurement of NO 2 - in hypoxia induced H9c2 cardiac cells using ARM microcontroller. The results obtained here using the developed portable electrochemical nitrite analyzer were also compared with the standard cyclic voltammetry instrument and found in agreement with each other. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Corrosion and Protection of Metal in the Seawater Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiangyu; Gao, Lili; Cui, Zhendong; Yin, Jianhua

    2018-01-01

    Seawater desalination develops rapid for it can solve water scarcity efficiently. However, corrosion problem in the seawater desalination system is more serious than that in normal water. So, it is important to pay attention to the corrosion and protection of metal in seawater desalination. The corrosion characteristics and corrosion types of metal in the seawater desalination system are introduced in this paper; In addition, corrosion protect methods and main influencing factors are stated, the latest new technologies about anti-corrosion with quantum energy assisted and magnetic inhibitor are presented.

  15. Radiation preservation of low nitrite bacon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.

    1988-01-01

    Sodium nitrite, a key ingredient of the mix used to cure bacon and other meats, promotes and fixes bacon's characteristic pink color, inhibits lipid peroxidation and prevents growth of micro-organisms, particularly Clostridium botulinum spores. Unfortunately, nitrite leads to the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines in bacon. This has led to a search for alternatives to the use of nitrite. Irradiation with reduced level of nitrite is a promising alternative. Radurization of bacon containing 20 to 40 mg/kg of nitrite in evacuated packages, irradiated and stored at 4 0 C, gives a product with good organoleptic qualities and extended shelf life of > 90 days, as opposed to ∼ 30 days for the conventionally treated bacon. Radappertization of bacon containing 20 mg/kg of nitrite at a dose of about 30 kGy, irradiated at temperature of -20 0 or lower in evacuated packages, results in a product that is shelf stable at room temperature for months to years. It has organoleptic qualities comparable to commercial bacon in terms of color, flavor, odor and texture. Irradiation also reduces the nitrite and preformed nitrosamines present in bacon. Various aspects of preservation of bacon are reviewed in this report with emphasis on radiation processing. (author)

  16. Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium in Acid Media By Citrullus Colocynthis Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkiran Chauhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of corrosion of aluminium in acid solution by methanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis plant has been studied using mass loss and thermometric measurements. It has been found that the plant extract act as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminium in all concentrations of sulphuric and hydrochloric acid solution. The inhibition action depends on the concentration of acid and inhibitor. Results for mass loss and thermometric measurement indicate that inhibition efficiency increase with increasing inhibitor concentration. The inhibition action of the plant extract is discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It has been observed that the adsorption of the extract on aluminium surface is a spontaneous process. The plant extract provides a good protection to aluminium against corrosion.

  17. Microencapsulation Technologies for Corrosion Protective Coating Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry; Jolley, Scott; Calle, Luz; Pearman, Benjamin; Zhang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation technologies for functional smart Coatings for autonomous corrosion control have been a research area of strong emphasis during the last decade. This work concerns the development of pH sensitive micro-containers (microparticles and microcapsules) for autonomous corrosion control. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in the field of microencapsulation for corrosion control applications, as well as the technical details of the pH sensitive microcontainer approach, such as selection criteria for corrosion indicators and corrosion inhibitors; the development and optimization of encapsulation methods; function evaluation before and after incorporation of the microcontainers into coatings; and further optimization to improve coating compatibility and performance.

  18. Investigation with slow traction conditions of the stress corrosion of carbon steels in alkaline media. Role of passivating inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miroud, Lakhdar

    1991-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (S.C.C.) sensitivity of carbon steels in basic media, such as carbonates, is well known. A constant strain-rate test have allowed to observe two steels (A42 [E26] and XC38) behaviour in such conditions at pH 9. The S.C.C. potentials susceptibility range has been found. Inter and Trans-granular cracking have been revealed and measured with micrographic methods. A crack growth rate has been studied as a function of strain rate: an experimental rate has been compared to calculated values from methods which have proposed previously, and methods which have been elaborated in this work. These last permit a best approach of cracking in our case. The chromates use, as inhibitor ions, has permit to decrease the corrosive attack and to cancel the crack growth rate. (author) [fr

  19. Stress corrosion crack tip microstructure in nickel-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shei, S.A.; Yang, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    Stress corrosion cracking behavior of several nickel-base alloys in high temperature caustic environments has been evaluated. The crack tip and fracture surfaces were examined using Auger/ESCA and Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) to determine the near crack tip microstructure and microchemistry. Results showed formation of chromium-rich oxides at or near the crack tip and nickel-rich de-alloying layers away from the crack tip. The stress corrosion resistance of different nickel-base alloys in caustic may be explained by the preferential oxidation and dissolution of different alloying elements at the crack tip. Alloy 600 (UNS N06600) shows good general corrosion and intergranular attack resistance in caustic because of its high nickel content. Thermally treated Alloy 690 (UNS N06690) and Alloy 600 provide good stress corrosion cracking resistance because of high chromium contents along grain boundaries. Alloy 625 (UNS N06625) does not show as good stress corrosion cracking resistance as Alloy 690 or Alloy 600 because of its high molybdenum content

  20. Molecular dynamics and quantum chemical calculation studies on 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazide as corrosion inhibitor in 2.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musa, Ahmed Y., E-mail: ahmed.musa@ymail.com [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Takriff, Mohd Sobri [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} This work deals with a study of chemical additives for corrosion inhibition of mild steel in acidic conditions. {yields} The effects of the additive 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazide (DTS) on mild steel were studied by means of electrochemical techniques. {yields} Quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamic model were performed to characterize the inhibition mechanism. {yields} The calculations provided information that helps in the analysis/interpretation of the experimental work. - Abstract: The inhibition of mild steel corrosion in a 2.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution by 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazide (DTS) was studied at 30 deg. C using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Quantum chemical parameters were calculated for DTS using PM3-SCF method. The molecular dynamic method was performed to simulate the adsorption of the DTS molecules on Fe surface. Results showed that DTS performed excellent as inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in a 2.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution and indicated that the inhibition efficiencies increase with the concentration of inhibitor. Theoretical results indicated that DTS could adsorb on the mild steel surface firmly through heteroatoms.

  1. Corrosion inhibition of brass by aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, K. K.; Sheshadri, B. S; Ahmed, M. F.

    2005-01-01

    Aliphatic amines hexylamine (HCA), octylamine (OCA) and decylamine (DCA) have been used as corrosion inhibitors for (70/30) brass in 0.I M HCIO 4 . The inhibitor efficiency (%P) calculated using weight loss, Tafel extrapolation, linear polarization and impedance methods was found to be in the order DCA> OCA> HCA. These adsorb on brass surface following bockris-swinkels' isotherm. DCA, OCA and HCA displaced 4, 3 and 2 molecules of water from interface respectively. Displacement of water molecules brought a great reorganization of double layer at the interface. These amines during corrosion form complexes with dissolved zinc and copper ions.(Author)

  2. Controlled Release from Core-Shell Nanoporous Silica Particles for Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingmao Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium (Ce corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated into hexagonally ordered nanoporous silica particles via single-step aerosol-assisted self-assembly. The core/shell structured particles are effective for corrosion inhibition of aluminum alloy AA2024-T3. Numerical simulation proved that the core-shell nanostructure delays the release process. The effective diffusion coefficient elucidated from release data for monodisperse particles in water was 1.0×10−14 m2s for Ce3+ compared to 2.5×10−13 m2s for NaCl. The pore size, pore surface chemistry, and the inhibitor solubility are crucial factors for the application. Microporous hydrophobic particles encapsulating a less soluble corrosion inhibitor are desirable for long-term corrosion inhibition.

  3. Inhibiting Effect of Nicotinic Acid Hydrazide on Corrosion of Aluminum and Mild Steel in Acidic Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, J. Ishwara [Mangalore Univ., Karnataka (India); Alva, Vijaya D. P. [Shree Devi Institute of Technology, Karnataka (India)

    2014-02-15

    The corrosion behavior of aluminum and mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium was studied using a nicotinic acid hydrazide as inhibitor by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique and gravimetric methods. The effects of inhibitor concentration and temperature were investigated. The experimental results suggested, nicotinic acid hydrazide is a good corrosion inhibitor for both aluminum and mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium and the inhibition efficiency increased with increase in the inhibitor concentration. The polarization studies revealed that nicotinic acid hydrazide exhibits mixed type of inhibition. The inhibition was assumed to occur via adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the aluminum and mild steel surface and inhibits corrosion by blocking the reaction sites on the surface of aluminum.

  4. Inhibiting Effect of Nicotinic Acid Hydrazide on Corrosion of Aluminum and Mild Steel in Acidic Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, J. Ishwara; Alva, Vijaya D. P.

    2014-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of aluminum and mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium was studied using a nicotinic acid hydrazide as inhibitor by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique and gravimetric methods. The effects of inhibitor concentration and temperature were investigated. The experimental results suggested, nicotinic acid hydrazide is a good corrosion inhibitor for both aluminum and mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium and the inhibition efficiency increased with increase in the inhibitor concentration. The polarization studies revealed that nicotinic acid hydrazide exhibits mixed type of inhibition. The inhibition was assumed to occur via adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the aluminum and mild steel surface and inhibits corrosion by blocking the reaction sites on the surface of aluminum

  5. Controlled Release from Core-Shell Nano porous Silica Particles for Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Rathod, Sh.; Shah, P.; Brinker, C.J.; Jiang, X.; Jiang, Y.; Liu, N.; Xu, H.; Brinker, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cerium (Ce) corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated into hexagonally ordered nanoporous silica particles via single-step aerosol-assisted self-assembly. The core/shell structured particles are effective for corrosion inhibition of aluminum alloy AA2024-T3. Numerical simulation proved that the core-shell nanostructure delays the release process. The effective diffusion coefficient elucidated from release data for monodisperse particles in water was 1.0x10-14 m 2 s for Ce 3+ compared to 2.5x10-13 m 2 s for NaCl. The pore size, pore surface chemistry, and the inhibitor solubility are crucial factors for the application. Microporous hydrophobic particles encapsulating a less soluble corrosion inhibitor are desirable for long-term corrosion inhibition.

  6. Highly corrosion resistant zirconium based alloy for reactor structural material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yoichi.

    1996-01-01

    The alloy of the present invention is a zirconium based alloy comprising tin (Sn), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe) in zirconium (Zr). The amount of silicon (Si) as an impurity is not more than 60ppm. It is preferred that Sn is from 0.9 to 1.5wt%, that of Cr is from 0.05 to 0.15wt%, and (Fe + Ni) is from 0.17 to 0.5wt%. If not less than 0.12wt% of Fe is added, resistance against nodular corrosion is improved. The upper limit of Fe is preferably 0.40wt% from a view point of uniform suppression for the corrosion. The nodular corrosion can be suppressed by reducing the amount of Si-rich deposition product in the zirconium based alloy. Accordingly, a highly corrosion resistant zirconium based alloy improved for the corrosion resistance of zircaloy-2 and usable for a fuel cladding tube of a BWR type reactor can be obtained. (I.N.)

  7. The effect of borate and phosphate inhibitors on corrosion rate material SS321 and incoloy 800 in chloride containing solution by using potentiodynamic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Febriyanto; Sriyono; Satmoko, Ari

    1998-01-01

    Determination of corrosion rate of steam generator materials (SS 321 and incoloy 800) in chloride containing solution using potentiodynamic method from CMS 100. NaCl 1%, 3% and 5% solution using is used as tested solution. A tested material is grounded by grinding paper on grade 400 600, 800 and 1000, then polished by METADI 1/4 microns paste to get homogeneity. Furthermore, the tested materials is mounted by epoxide resin, so only the surface which contacts to tested solution is open. From the result obtained that borate and phosphate inhibitor can reduce corrosion rate and aggressiveness of chloride ion

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MICROBIAL INHIBITOR TO CONTROL INTERNAL PIPELINE CORROSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill W. Bogan; Brigid M. Lamb; John J. Kilbane II

    2004-10-30

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Previous testing indicated that the growth, and the metal corrosion caused by pure cultures of sulfate reducing bacteria were inhibited by hexane extracts of some pepper plants. This quarter tests were performed to determine if chemical compounds other than pepper extracts could inhibit the growth of corrosion-associated microbes and to determine if pepper extracts and other compounds can inhibit corrosion when mature biofilms are present. Several chemical compounds were shown to be capable of inhibiting the growth of corrosion-associated microorganisms, and all of these compounds limited the amount of corrosion caused by mature biofilms to a similar extent. It is difficult to control corrosion caused by mature biofilms, but any compound that disrupts the metabolism of any of the major microbial groups present in corrosion-associated biofilms shows promise in limiting the amount/rate of corrosion.

  9. Control of Microbiologically Induced Corrosion in Petroleum Industry Using Various Preventive Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, A.E.; Abdelaal, N.M.; Gebreil, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Various inhibitive strategies were used to control Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The traditional treatment of SRB by biocides was compared with other treatments such as exposure to microwaves, ultraviolet, gamma radiation separately and addition of either nitrate or nitrite. Six commercial biocides were tested for SRB control. Champion- A was found to be the most efficient biocides. Addition of nitrate to SRB growth medium did not inhibit the growth at 10 m M/l whereas addition of 6 m M/L nitrite completely inhibited the growth. On the other hand, physical treatments achieved satisfactory results. the lethal doses required for complete inhibition of the growth on using microwave, ultraviolet and gamma radiations were found to be at (50 second, 4 hours and 0.9 KGy) respectively. On studying the effect of the lethal and sublethal doses of different treatment on the growth and sulfide production rates of SRB, it was found that the lethal doses of all studied treatments except nitrate treatment achieved complete inhibition. Also the corrosion aspects and elemental analysis of metal coupons surfaces at such doses showed a clear variation in distribution and composition of the corrosion products adhered to their surfaces.

  10. DFT theoretical study of 7-R-3methylquinoxalin-2(1H)-thiones (R=H; CH3; Cl) as corrosion inhibitors in hydrochloric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Adnani, Z.; Mcharfi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A theoretical study of three quinoxaline derivatives. ► We try to explain their experimental mild steel corrosion inhibition efficiencies. ► The solvent effect was also depicted using the PCM model. ► Most of the global reactivity descriptors agree well with the experimental results. ► The results show that the sulphur atom is probably the main adsorption site. - Abstract: Quantum chemical approach at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory, was used to calculate some structural and electronic properties of three quinoxaline derivatives, recently reported as mild steel corrosion inhibitors in acidic media, to ascertain the correlation between their experimental inhibitive efficiencies and some of the computed parameters. The results of most of the global reactivity descriptors show that the experimental and theoretical studies agree well and confirm that Me-Q=S is a better inhibitor than Q=S and Cl-Q=S, respectively. In addition, the local reactivity, analyzed through Fukui functions, show that the sulphur atom will be the main adsorption site.

  11. Corrosion control when using secondary treated municipal wastewater as alternative makeup water for cooling tower systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Chowdhury, Indranil; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2010-12-01

    Secondary treated municipal wastewater is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water, especially in arid regions. Laboratory and field testing was conducted in this study to evaluate the corrosiveness of secondary treated municipal wastewater for various metals and metal alloys in cooling systems. Different corrosion control strategies were evaluated based on varied chemical treatment. Orthophosphate, which is abundant in secondary treated municipal wastewater, contributed to more than 80% precipitative removal of phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors. Tolyltriazole worked effectively to reduce corrosion of copper (greater than 95% inhibition effectiveness). The corrosion rate of mild steel in the presence of free chlorine 1 mg/L (as Cl2) was approximately 50% higher than in the presence of monochloramine 1 mg/L (as Cl2), indicating that monochloramine is a less corrosive biocide than free chlorine. The scaling layers observed on the metal alloys contributed to corrosion inhibition, which could be seen by comparing the mild steel 21-day average corrosion rate with the last 5-day average corrosion rate, the latter being approximately 50% lower than the former.

  12. Corrosion control. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this text is to train engineers and technologists not just to understand corrosion but to control it. Materials selection, coatings, chemical inhibitors, cathodic and anodic protection, and equipment design are covered in separate chapters. High-temperature oxidation is discussed in the final two chapters ne on oxidation theory and one on controlling oxidation by alloying and with coatings. This book treats corrosion and high-temperature oxidation separately. Corrosion is divided into three groups: (1) chemical dissolution including uniform attack, (2) electrochemical corrosion from either metallurgical or environmental cells, and (3) stress-assisted corrosion. Corrosion is logically grouped according to mechanisms rather than arbitrarily separated into different types of corrosion as if they were unrelated. For those university students and industry personnel who approach corrosion theory very hesitantly, this text will present the electrochemical reactions responsible for corrosion summed up in only five simple half-cell reactions. When these are combined on a polarization diagram, which is also explained in detail, the electrochemical processes become obvious. For those who want a text stripped bare of electrochemical theory, several noted sections can be omitted without loss of continuity. However, the author has presented the material in such a manner that these sections are not beyond the abilities of any high school graduate who is interested in technology

  13. Effect of Rice Straw Extract and Alkali Lignin on the Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiahtul Zulkafli; Norinsan Kamil Othman; Irman Abdul Rahman; Azman Jalar

    2014-01-01

    A paddy residue based corrosion inhibitor was prepared by treating finely powdered rice straw with aqueous ethanol under acid catalyst (0.01 M H 2 SO 4 ). Commercial alkali lignin was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich. Prior to the corrosion test, the extraction yield and alkali lignin was characterized via FTIR to determine the functional group. The effect of paddy residue extract and commercial alkali lignin on the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in 1 M HCl was investigated through the weight loss method, potentiodynamic polarization technique and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the extract and alkali lignin at different immersion times (3 h, 24 h and 42 h) was evaluated. The results show that the paddy waste extract exhibited lesser weight loss of carbon steel in the acidic medium in comparison to the commercial alkali lignin, suggesting that the paddy residue extract is more effective than the commercial alkali lignin in terms of its corrosion inhibition properties. The results obtained proves that the extract from paddy residue could serve as an effective inhibitor for carbon steel in acidic mediums. (author)

  14. Corrosion of iron-base alloys by lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selle, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    A review of corrosion mechanisms operating in lithium-iron-base alloy systems is presented along with data obtained with thermal-convection loops of niobium-stabilized 2 1 / 4 percent Cr-1 percent Mo steel and types 304L and 321 stainless steels. A corrosion rate of 2.3 μm/year (0.09 mil/year) was obtained on the 2 1 / 4 percent Cr-1 percent Mo steel at 600 0 C. Considerably more mass transport of alloying constituents and a maximum corrosion rate of about 14 μm/year (0.55 mil/year) was obtained with the austenitic stainless steels. Results of metallography, x-ray fluorescence analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and weight-change data are presented and discussed

  15. The use of water-soluble hydrazones as inhibitors for the corrosion of C-steel in acidic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, M.N.H.; El-Far, A.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, ET-35516 Mansoura (Egypt); El-Shafei, A.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, ET-35516 Mansoura (Egypt)], E-mail: ashafei@mans.edu.eg

    2007-09-15

    Inhibition efficiency of some water-soluble hydrazones for C-steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid has been tested by weight loss, polarisation measurements and open circuit technique. The inhibition effect was attributed to the adsorption of the additives on the C-steel surface as supported by adsorption measurements at Pt electrode using cyclic voltammetry. Electrochemical measurements indicated that all the additives behave as cathodic-type inhibitors. The data obtained fit well to both the Temkin adsorption isotherm and the kinetic-thermodynamic model. The inhibition behaviour and its order were explained with the help of the proposed skeletal representation.

  16. The use of water-soluble hydrazones as inhibitors for the corrosion of C-steel in acidic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, M.N.H.; El-Far, A.A.; El-Shafei, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Inhibition efficiency of some water-soluble hydrazones for C-steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid has been tested by weight loss, polarisation measurements and open circuit technique. The inhibition effect was attributed to the adsorption of the additives on the C-steel surface as supported by adsorption measurements at Pt electrode using cyclic voltammetry. Electrochemical measurements indicated that all the additives behave as cathodic-type inhibitors. The data obtained fit well to both the Temkin adsorption isotherm and the kinetic-thermodynamic model. The inhibition behaviour and its order were explained with the help of the proposed skeletal representation

  17. Cerium-loaded algae exoskeletons for active corrosion protection of coated AA2024-T3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denissen, Paul J.; Garcia, Santiago J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Nanoporous diatom algae exoskeletons allow for local inhibitor loading. •Cerium loaded exoskeletons show diffusion controlled release from coatings. •In-situ opto-electrochemical analysis allows for accurate corrosion evaluation. •Raman spectroscopy allows for precise identification of Ce at IMs in a scribe. •High levels of protection were obtained with the Ce-diatom coatings. -- Abstract: The use of micron sized nanoporous diatom algae exoskeletons for inhibitor storage and sustained corrosion protection of coated aluminium structures upon damage is presented. In this concept the algae exoskeleton allows local inhibitor loading, limits the interaction between the cerium and the epoxy/amine coating and allows for diffusion-controlled release of the inhibitor when needed. The inhibitor release and corrosion protection by loaded exoskeletons was evaluated by UV/Vis spectrometry, a home-built optical-electrochemical setup, and Raman spectroscopy. Although this concept has been proven for a cerium-epoxy-aluminium alloy system the main underlying principle can be extrapolated to other inhibitor-coating-metal systems.

  18. Effect of Dry Red Grape Pomace as a Nitrite Substitute on the Microbiological and Physicochemical Properties and Residual Nitrite of Dry-cured Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Riazi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite have been traditionally used for inhibition of Clostridium botulinum and also as an agent to stabilize the color of meat products; however, usage of these additives at high levels could lead to toxicity and cancer originating from the formation of nitrosamines. Nowadays, application of natural preservatives in order to reduce the nitrite content in meat products is increasing. Thus, we used dry red grape pomace (DRGP as a natural alternative to sodium nitrite. Materials and Methods: The effect of two levels of DRGP (1 and 2% on the proximate composition, microbial counts, pH values and residual nitrite level of the samples formulated with two levels of sodium nitrite (30 and 60 mg/kg, as well as the comparison of these sausages with the blank (nitrite-free  and control (full nitrite added samples on the 1rst, 10th, 20th and 30th days of storage at 3-5 °C were evaluated. Results: The results showed that all chemical compositions were in the ranges reported by other researchers, and nitrite was very effective in preventing the microbial growth. Also about 50 % of the ingoing nitrite could be analyzed in the samples after processing. Moreover, the residual nitrite level declined both during the storage of sausage and after the addition of DRGP. Conclusions: The use of DRGP in combination with nitrite for sausages was more effective in keeping the quality and safety of the refrigerated consumer products as indicated by the lower nitrite levels, microbial count and similar composition as compared to the samples treated with nitrite and without nitrite. Keywords: Dry red grape pomace (DRGP, Sausage, Nitrite, Microbial count

  19. ac impedance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory studies of 3,5-bis(n-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazoles as efficient corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel surface in hydrochloric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outirite, Moha; Lagrenee, Michel; Lebrini, Mounim [Unite de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UMR-CNRS 8181, ENSCL, B.P. 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Traisnel, Michel; Jama, Charafeddine [Laboratoire des Procedes d' Elaboration des Revetements Fonctionnels, PERF UMR-CNRS 8008, ENSCL, B.P. 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Vezin, Herve [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Macromoleculaire, UMR-CNRS 8009, USTL Bat C4, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Bentiss, Fouad, E-mail: fbentiss@enscl.f [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination et d' Analytique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco)

    2010-02-01

    The corrosion inhibition properties of a new class of oxadiazole derivatives, namely 3,5-bis(n-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazoles (n-DPOX) for C38 carbon steel corrosion in 1 M HCl medium were analysed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). An adequate structural model of the interface was used and the values of the corresponding parameters were calculated and discussed. The experimental results showed that these compounds are excellent inhibitors for the C38 steel corrosion in acid solution and that the protection efficiency increased with increasing the inhibitors concentration. Electrochemical impedance data demonstrate that the addition of the n-DPOX derivatives in the corrosive solution decreases the charge capacitance and simultaneously increases the function of the charge/discharge of the interface, facilitating the formation of an adsorbed layer over the steel surface. Adsorption of these inhibitors on the steel surface obeys to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the thermodynamic data of adsorption showed that inhibition of steel corrosion in normal hydrochloric solution by n-DPOX is due to the formation of a chemisorbed film on the steel surface. Quantum chemical calculations using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) and the Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) approach were performed on n-DPOX derivatives to determine the relationship between molecular structure and their inhibition efficiencies. The results of the quantum chemical calculations and experimental inhibition efficiency were subjected to correlation analysis and indicate that their inhibition effect is closely related to E{sub HOMO}, E{sub LUMO}, and dipole moment (mu).

  20. Determination of Nitrite in Whole Blood by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection and a Case of Nitrite Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hui; Zhuo, Xiangyi; Shen, Baohua; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min

    2016-01-01

    Although nitrite is widely used in meat processing, it is a major toxicity hazard to children and is responsible for the blue-baby syndrome. A simple and effective method to determine nitrite in whole blood has been devised using ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection. The blood sample was deproteinized by adding acetonitrile and purified with mini-cartridges to remove hydrophobic compounds, chloride ions, and metal ions. An aliquot of the filtrate was injected onto the ion chromatography. The retention time for nitrite was 13.8 min and the detection limit of nitrite in whole blood was 0.4 μmol/L. The calibration curve was linear (r(2) = 0.9999) over the concentration working range. The blood nitrite concentration of a victim who attempted suicide by ingesting sodium nitrite powder was determined using the present method. The basal levels for nitrite in human blood was determined with 7.1 ± 0.9 μmol/L (n = 12). © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Studies on the impact, detection, and control of microbiology influenced corrosion related to pitting failures in the Russian oil and gas industry. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, D.

    2006-09-30

    effect of carbon steel. More than three times decrease of corrosion rate on steel surface was observed after lignosulfonate electropolymerization, exceeding protective effect of standard commercially available corrosion inhibitor. Solikamsky lignin could be a promising candidate as a base for the development of the future green corrosion inhibitor. A protective effect of isothiazolones in compositions with other biocides and inhibitors was investigated. Additionally to high biocidal properties, combination of kathon 893 and copper sulfate may also produce a strong anticorrosion effect depending on concentrations of the biocides. Based on its joint biocidal and anticorrosion properties, this combination can be recommended for protection of pipelines against carbon dioxide-induced corrosion. By means of linear polarization resistance test, corrosion properties of biocides of different classes were studied. Isothiazolones can be recommended for treating oil-processing waters in Tatarstan to curb carbon dioxide - induced corrosion. A laboratory research on evaluation of the efficiency of biocides, inhibitors and penetrants by biological and physical-and-chemical methods has been carried out. It was shown that action of corrosion inhibitors and biocides strongly depends on character of their interaction with mineral substances available in waters on oil-exploration sites. It was found that one of approaches to designing environmentally safe ('green') antimicrobial formulations may be the use of synergetic combinations, which allow one to significantly decrease concentrations of biocides. It was shown that the efficacy of biocides and inhibitors depends on physicochemical characteristics of the environment. Anticorrosion and antimicrobial effects of biocides and inhibitors depended in much on the type of medium and aeration regimen. Effects of different biocides, corrosion inhibitors. penetrants and their combinations on the biofilm were investigated. It has been

  2. Role of nitrite in the photochemical formation of radicals in the snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Hans-Werner; Kleffmann, Jörg; Villena, Guillermo; Wiesen, Peter; King, Martin; France, James; Anastasio, Cort; Staebler, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical reactions in snow can have an important impact on the composition of the atmosphere over snow-covered areas as well as on the composition of the snow itself. One of the major photochemical processes is the photolysis of nitrate leading to the formation of volatile nitrogen compounds. We report nitrite concentrations determined together with nitrate and hydrogen peroxide in surface snow collected at the coastal site of Barrow, Alaska. The results demonstrate that nitrite likely plays a significant role as a precursor for reactive hydroxyl radicals as well as volatile nitrogen oxides in the snow. Pollution events leading to high concentrations of nitrous acid in the atmosphere contributed to an observed increase in nitrite in the surface snow layer during nighttime. Observed daytime nitrite concentrations are much higher than values predicted from steady-state concentrations based on photolysis of nitrate and nitrite indicating that we do not fully understand the production of nitrite and nitrous acid in snow. The discrepancy between observed and expected nitrite concentrations is probably due to a combination of factors, including an incomplete understanding of the reactive environment and chemical processes in snow, and a lack of consideration of the vertical structure of snow.

  3. Ampicillin potentials as Corrosion Inhibitor: fukui function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental study was carried out using gravimetric and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy methods of monitoring corrosion while the computational study was carried out using quantum chemical approach via Hyperchem program suit. The results obtained showed that various concentrations of ampicillin ...

  4. Synthetic sea water - An improved stress corrosion test medium for aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    A major problem in evaluating the stress corrosion cracking resistance of aluminum alloys by alternate immersion in 3.5 percent salt (NaCl) water is excessive pitting corrosion. Several methods were examined to eliminate this problem and to find an improved accelerated test medium. These included the addition of chromate inhibitors, surface treatment of specimens, and immersion in synthetic sea water. The results indicate that alternate immersion in synthetic sea water is a very promising stress corrosion test medium. Neither chromate inhibitors nor surface treatment (anodize and alodine) of the aluminum specimens improved the performance of alternate immersion in 3.5 percent salt water sufficiently to be classified as an effective stress corrosion test method.

  5. Corrosion Screening of EV31A Magnesium and Other Magnesium Alloys using Laboratory-Based Accelerated Corrosion and Electro-Chemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Spray. Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention 2008, 8 (2), 164–175. 34. Aluminium Alloy 5083, Plate and Sheet; SAE-AMS-QQ-A-250/6S; SAE...Corrosion Screening of EV31A Magnesium and Other Magnesium Alloys Using Laboratory-Based Accelerated Corrosion and Electro-chemical Methods...Magnesium and Other Magnesium Alloys Using Laboratory-Based Accelerated Corrosion and Electro-chemical Methods Brian E. Placzankis, Joseph P

  6. Inhibition of Weld Corrosion in Flowing Brines Containing Carbon Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Alawadhi, Khaled

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effectiveness of a typical oilfield corrosion inhibitor, which is considered to be a green inhibitor (non toxic to the environment) in controlling internal corrosion of welded X65 pipeline steel in brines saturated with carbon dioxide at one bar pressure, under dynamic flowing conditions, over a range of temperatures. Several experimental configurations were used ranging from a simple flat plate design to a novel rotating cylinder electrode, to all...

  7. The enhancing power of iodide on corrosion prevention of mild steel in the presence of a synthetic-soluble Schiff-base: Electrochemical and surface analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashgari, Mohsen; Arshadi, Mohammad-Reza; Miandari, Somaieh

    2010-01-01

    The inhibitory action of N,N'-1,3-propylen-bis(3-methoxysalicylidenimine) {PMSI} on mild steel corrosion in sulfuric acid medium was investigated through electrochemical methods and evaluations based on infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron micrographs. The studies revealed that the molecule is a good mixed-type inhibitor (mostly anodic), acts as a multi-dentate ligand and repels the corrosive agents by hydrophobic forces. Its adsorption on metal surface has a physicochemical nature and obeys the Langmuir isotherm. At a critical (optimum) concentration, an anomalous inhibitory behavior was observed and interpreted at microscopic level by means of desorption/adsorption process and horizontal ↔vertical hypothesis. The addition of iodide into acid moreover causes a synergistic influence, a substantial enhancement on inhibitory performance. Finally, using isolated inhibitor calculations at B3LYP/6-31G + (d,p) level of theory, the equilibrium geometry of PMSI was determined and the energy required for hindrance avoidance was predicted.

  8. Bioelectrode-based approach for enhancing nitrate and nitrite removal and electricity generation from eutrophic lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    Nitrate and nitrite contamination of surface waters (e.g. lakes) has become a severe environmental and health problem, especially in developing countries. The recent demonstration of nitrate reduction at the cathode of microbial fuel cell (MFC) provides an opportunity to develop a new technology...... from nitrate- and nitrite-rich synthetic lake waters at initial concentration of 10 mg-N/L. Along with the electricity production a total nitrogen removal of 62% and 77% was accomplished, for nitrate and nitrite, respectively. The nitrogen removal was almost 4 times higher under close-circuit condition...... with biocathode, compared to either the open-circuit operation or with abiotic cathode. The mass balance on nitrogen indicates that most of the removed nitrate and nitrite (84.7±0.1% and 81.8±0.1%, respectively) was reduced to nitrogen gas. The nitrogen removal and power generation was limited by the dissolved...

  9. Protecting solar collector systems from corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The main cause of the reduced life of a solar heating system is corrosion of the exterior parts and the internal components. This report outlines ways of reducing the cost of solar heating by reducing the corrosion in solar heating systems, and hence increasing the system's service life. Mechanisms for corrosion are discussed: these include galvanic corrosion and crevice corrosion. Means of minimizing corrosion at the design stage are then described. Such methods, when designing the solar collector, involve ensuring proper drainage of exterior water; eliminating situations where moisture, dirt and pollutants may collect; preventing condensation inside the collector; using proper gaskets and sealants at appropriate places; and selecting optimum materials and coatings. Interior corrosion can be minimized at the design stage by choosing a good heat transfer fluid and corrosion inhibitor, in the case of systems where liquids are used; ensuring a low enough flow rate to avoid erosion; designing the system to avoid crevices; and avoiding situations where galvanic corrosion could occur. Other procedures are given for minimizing corrosion in the construction and operation of solar heating systems. 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Surface films and corrosion of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilden, J.; Laitinen, T.; Maekelae, K.; Saario, T.; Bojinov, M.

    1999-03-01

    In Sweden and Finland the spent nuclear fuel is planned to be encapsulated in cast iron canisters that have an outer shield made of copper. The copper shield is responsible for the corrosion protection of the canister construction. General corrosion of the copper is not expected to be the limiting factor in the waste repository environment when estimating the life-time of the canister construction. However, different forms of localised corrosion, i.e. pitting, stress corrosion cracking, or environmentally assisted creep fracture may cause premature failure of the copper shield. Of the probable constituents in the groundwater, nitrites, chlorides, sulphides and carbonates have been suggested to promote localised corrosion of copper. The main assumption made in planning this research program is that the surface films forming on copper in the repository environment largely determine the susceptibility of copper to the different forms of localised corrosion. The availability of reactants, which also may become corrosion rate limiting, is investigated in several other research programs. This research program consists of a set of successive projects targeted at characterising the properties of surface films on copper in repository environment containing different detrimental anions. A further aim was to assess the significance of the anion-induced changes in the stability of the oxide films with regard to localised corrosion of copper. This report summarises the results from a series of investigations on properties of surface films forming on copper in water of pH = 8.9 at temperature of 80 deg C and pressure of 2 MPa. The main results gained so far in this research program are as follows: The surface films forming on copper in the thermodynamic stability region of monovalent copper at 80 deg C consist of a bulk part (about 1 mm thick) which is a good ionic and electronic conductor, and an outer, interfacial layer (0.001 - 0.005 mm thick) which shows p-type semiconductor

  11. Some aspects of the role of inhibitors in the corrosion of copper in tap water as observed by cyclic voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, H.; Burstein, G.T.; Rodriguez, B.B.; Kawaley, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The presence of Fernox ® inhibits both the anodic and cathodic reactions of copper in tap water, with the anodic reaction more heavily supressed. • Fernox ® is more inhibitive than the individual components, BTA or TEA, and also more inhibitive than a mixture of the two. • BTA is the dominant inhibitive component of Fernox ® . TEA also inhibits the reaction, but less effectively. • The inhibitors show the same degree of inhibition and the same mechanism of inhibition in hard and soft tap water. • A mechanism of inhibition is proposed whereby the inhibitor forms a film on the surface, which is reactive: surface polymerization of the reactive inhibitor is proposed. - Abstract: Cyclic voltammetric examination of the corrosion and inhibition of copper in hard and soft tap-waters in the presence of a commercial inhibitor containing benzotriazole (BTA) and triethanolamine (TEA), or its separate components, is presented. The anodic and cathodic reactions are both strongly inhibited, although the anodic reaction more so. BTA is by far the dominant inhibiting component. The inhibitor forms a polymerized reactive adsorbed surface film. Inhibition of the cathodic reaction (oxygen reduction) is not due to electron resistivity of the inhibitor, but rather, by heavily reduced surface coverage of adsorbed oxygen over a wide range of oxygen reduction overpotential.

  12. Prediction of Corrosion of Advanced Materials and Fabricated Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Anderko; G. Engelhardt; M.M. Lencka (OLI Systems Inc.); M.A. Jakab; G. Tormoen; N. Sridhar (Southwest Research Institute)

    2007-09-29

    alloys, stainless steels and copper-nickel alloys and (2) the effects of heat treatment on localized corrosion. Excellent agreement with experimental data has been obtained for alloys in various environments, including acids, bases, oxidizing species, inorganic inhibitors, etc. Further, a probabilistic model has been established for predicting the long-term damage due to localized corrosion on the basis of short-term inspection results. This methodology is applicable to pitting, crevice corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue. Finally, a comprehensive model has been developed for predicting sensitization of Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo-W-N alloys and its effect on localized corrosion. As a vehicle for the commercialization of this technology, OLI Systems has developed the Corrosion Analyzer, a software tool that is already used by many companies in the chemical process industry. In process design, the Corrosion Analyzer provides the industry with (1) reliable prediction of the tendency of base alloys for localized corrosion as a function of environmental conditions and (2) understanding of how to select alloys for corrosive environments. In process operations, the software will help to predict the remaining useful life of equipment based on limited input data. Thus, users will also be able to identify process changes, corrosion inhibition strategies, and other control options before costly shutdowns, energy waste, and environmental releases occur. With the Corrosion Analyzer, various corrosion mitigation measures can be realistically tested in a virtual laboratory.

  13. In situ analysis of corrosion inhibitors using a portable mass spectrometer with paper spray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jjunju, Fred P M; Li, Anyin; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham; Wei, Pu; Li, Linfan; Ouyang, Zheng; Roqan, Iman S; Cooks, R Graham

    2013-07-07

    Paper spray (PS) ambient ionization is implemented using a portable mass spectrometer and applied to the detection of alkyl quaternary ammonium salts in a complex oil matrix. These salts are commonly used as active components in the formulation of corrosion inhibitors. They were identified in oil and confirmed by their fragmentation patterns recorded using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The cations of alkyl and benzyl-substituted quaternary ammonium salts showed characteristic neutral losses of CnH2n (n carbon number of the longest chain) and C7H8, respectively. Individual quaternary ammonium compounds were detected at low concentrations (oil samples without prior sample preparation or pre-concentration was also demonstrated using a home-built miniature mass spectrometer at levels below 1 ng μL(-1).

  14. High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials: Iron-Based Amorphous-Metal Thermal-Spray Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J C; Haslam, J J; Wong, F; Ji, X; Day, S D; Branagan, D J; Marshall, M C; Meacham, B E; Buffa, E J; Blue, C A; Rivard, J K; Beardsley, M B; Weaver, D T; Aprigliano, L F; Kohler, L; Bayles, R; Lemieux, E J; Wolejsza, T M; Martin, F J; Yang, N; Lucadamo, G; Perepezko, J H; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Heuer, A H; Ernst, F; Michal, G M; Kahn, H; Lavernia, E J

    2004-01-01

    The multi-institutional High Performance Corrosion Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Team is cosponsored by the Defense Advanced Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Science Office (DSO) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and has developed new corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals that can be applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. Two compositions have corrosion resistance superior to wrought nickel-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022) in very aggressive environments, including concentrated calcium-chloride brines at elevated temperature. Corrosion costs the Department of Defense billions of dollars every year, with an immense quantity of material in various structures undergoing corrosion. For example, in addition to fluid and seawater piping, ballast tanks, and propulsions systems, approximately 345 million square feet of structure aboard naval ships and crafts require costly corrosion control measures. The use of advanced corrosion-resistant materials to prevent the continuous degradation of this massive surface area would be extremely beneficial. The Fe-based corrosion-resistant, amorphous-metal coatings under development may prove of importance for applications on ships. Such coatings could be used as an ''integral drip shield'' on spent fuel containers, as well as protective coatings that could be applied over welds, thereby preventing exposure to environments that might cause stress corrosion cracking. In the future, such new high-performance iron-based materials could be substituted for more-expensive nickel-based alloys, thereby enabling a reduction in the $58-billion life cycle cost for the long-term storage of the Nation's spent nuclear fuel by tens of percent

  15. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The category of chemical substances which are nitrites of the alkali metals (Group IA in the...

  16. Enhanced corrosion resistance of stainless steel type 316 in sulphuric acid solution using eco-friendly waste product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanni, O.; Popoola, A. P. I.; Fayomi, O. S. I.

    2018-06-01

    Literature has shown that different organic compounds are effective corrosion inhibitors for metal in acidic environments. Such compounds usually contain oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur and function through adsorption on the metal surface, thereby creating a barrier for corrosion attack. Unfortunately, these organic compounds are toxic, scarce and expensive. Therefore, plants, natural product and natural oils have been posed as cheap, environmentally acceptable, abundant, readily available and effective molecules having low environmental impact. The corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steel Type 316 in the presence of eco-friendly waste product was studied using weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization techniques in 0.5 M H2SO4. The corrosion rate and corrosion potential of the steel was significantly altered by the studied inhibitor. Results show that increase in concentration of the inhibitor hinders the formation of the passive film. Experimental observation shows that its pitting potential depends on the concentration of the inhibitor in the acid solution due to adsorption of anions at the metal film interface. The presence of egg shell powder had a strong influence on the corrosion resistance of stainless steel Type 316 with highest inhibition efficiency of 94.74% from weight loss analysis, this is as a result of electrochemical action and inhibition of the steel by the ionized molecules of the inhibiting compound which influenced the mechanism of the redox reactions responsible for corrosion and surface deterioration. Inhibitor adsorption fits the Langmuir isotherm model. The two methods employed for the corrosion assessment were in good agreement.

  17. Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium in Acid Media By Citrullus Colocynthis Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Rajkiran; Garg, Urvija; Tak, R. K.

    2011-01-01

    Inhibition of corrosion of aluminium in acid solution by methanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis plant has been studied using mass loss and thermometric measurements. It has been found that the plant extract act as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminium in all concentrations of sulphuric and hydrochloric acid solution. The inhibition action depends on the concentration of acid and inhibitor. Results for mass loss and thermometric measurement indicate that inhibition efficiency increase wi...

  18. Corrosion of carbon steel in saturated high-level waste salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, B.J.; Parish, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    High level waste stored as crystallized salts is to be removed from carbon steel tanks by water dissolution. Dissolution of the saltcake must be performed in a manner which will not impact the integrity of the tank. Corrosion testing was performed to determine the amount of corrosion inhibitor that must be added to the dissolution water in order to ensure that the salt solution formed would not induce corrosion degradation of the tank materials. The corrosion testing performed included controlled potential slow strain rate, coupon immersion, and potentiodynamic polarization tests. These tests were utilized to investigate the susceptibility of the cooling coil material to stress corrosion cracking in the anticipated environments. No evidence of SCC was observed in any of the tests. Based on these results, the recommended corrosion requirements were that the temperature of the salt solution be less than 50 degrees C and that the minimum hydroxide concentration be 0.4 molar. It was also recommended that the hydroxide concentration not stay below 0.4 molar for longer than 45 days

  19. Corrosion control in electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrett, B.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that corrosion of components in power plants costs the US electric power utility industry billions of dollars each year. Through the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) research and development, several approaches have been developed to reduce these huge costs. They include improved materials selection procedures, coatings, cathodic protection, inhibitors, removal of aggressive species from the environment, and on-line corrosion monitoring. In addition, as part of an on-going technology transfer effort, EPRI is developing databases and expert systems that will help utilities obtain corrosion information and guide them in materials selection and failure analysis

  20. In situ synthesis, electrochemical and quantum chemical analysis of an amino acid-derived ionic liquid inhibitor for corrosion protection of mild steel in 1M HCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowsari, E.; Arman, S.Y.; Shahini, M.H.; Zandi, H.; Ehsani, A.; Naderi, R.; PourghasemiHanza, A.; Mehdipour, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemical analysis of effectiveness of an amino acid-derived ionic liquid inhibitor. • Quantum chemical analysis of effectiveness of an amino acid-derived ionic liquid inhibitor. • Finding correlation between electrochemical analysis and quantum chemical analysis. - Abstract: In this study, an amino acid-derived ionic liquid inhibitor, namely tetra-n-butyl ammonium methioninate, was synthesized and the role this inhibitor for corrosion protection of mild steel exposed to 1.0 M HCl was investigated using electrochemical, quantum and surface analysis. By taking advantage of potentiodynamic polarization, the inhibitory action of tetra-n-butyl ammonium methioninate was found to be mainly mixed-type with dominant anodic inhibition. The effectiveness of the inhibitor was also indicated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Moreover, to provide further insight into the mechanism of inhibition, electrochemical noise (EN) and quantum chemical calculations of the inhibitor were performed.

  1. Enhanced Activity and Selectivity of Carbon Nanofiber Supported Pd Catalysts for Nitrite Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Shuai, Danmeng; Choe, Jong Kwon; Shapley, John R.; Werth, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    Pd-based catalyst treatment represents an emerging technology that shows promise to remove nitrate and nitrite from drinking water. In this work we use vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (CNF) supports in order to explore the effects of Pd nanoparticle size and interior versus exterior loading on nitrite reduction activity and selectivity (i.e., dinitrogen over ammonia production). Results show that nitrite reduction activity increases by 3.1-fold and selectivity decreases by 8.0-fold, with decreasing Pd nanoparticle size from 1.4 to 9.6 nm. Both activity and selectivity are not significantly influenced by Pd interior versus exterior CNF loading. Consequently, turnover frequencies (TOFs) among all CNF catalysts are similar, suggesting nitrite reduction is not sensitive to Pd location on CNFs nor Pd structure. CNF-based catalysts compare favorably to conventional Pd catalysts (i.e., Pd on activated carbon or alumina) with respect to nitrite reduction activity and selectivity, and they maintain activity over multiple reduction cycles. Hence, our results suggest new insights that an optimum Pd nanoparticle size on CNFs balances faster kinetics with lower ammonia production, that catalysts can be tailored at the nanoscale to improve catalytic performance for nitrite, and that CNFs hold promise as highly effective catalyst supports in drinking water treatment. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. Enhanced Activity and Selectivity of Carbon Nanofiber Supported Pd Catalysts for Nitrite Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Shuai, Danmeng

    2012-03-06

    Pd-based catalyst treatment represents an emerging technology that shows promise to remove nitrate and nitrite from drinking water. In this work we use vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (CNF) supports in order to explore the effects of Pd nanoparticle size and interior versus exterior loading on nitrite reduction activity and selectivity (i.e., dinitrogen over ammonia production). Results show that nitrite reduction activity increases by 3.1-fold and selectivity decreases by 8.0-fold, with decreasing Pd nanoparticle size from 1.4 to 9.6 nm. Both activity and selectivity are not significantly influenced by Pd interior versus exterior CNF loading. Consequently, turnover frequencies (TOFs) among all CNF catalysts are similar, suggesting nitrite reduction is not sensitive to Pd location on CNFs nor Pd structure. CNF-based catalysts compare favorably to conventional Pd catalysts (i.e., Pd on activated carbon or alumina) with respect to nitrite reduction activity and selectivity, and they maintain activity over multiple reduction cycles. Hence, our results suggest new insights that an optimum Pd nanoparticle size on CNFs balances faster kinetics with lower ammonia production, that catalysts can be tailored at the nanoscale to improve catalytic performance for nitrite, and that CNFs hold promise as highly effective catalyst supports in drinking water treatment. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. Effect of the kinetics of ammonium and nitrite oxidation on nitritation success or failure for different biofilm reactor geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lackner, Susanne; Smets, Barth F.

    2012-01-01

    was on the influence of key biokinetic parameters (maximum specific growth rates, oxygen and nitrogen affinity constants of AOB (ammonium oxidizing bacteria) and NOB (nitrite oxidizing bacteria)) and their ratios on nitritation efficiency in these geometries. This exhaustive simulation study revealed that nitritation...... strongly depends on the chosen kinetic parameters of AOB and NOB. The maximum specific growth rates (μmax,AOB and μmax,NOB) had the strongest impact on nitritation efficiency (NE). In comparison, the counter-diffusion geometry yielded more parameter combinations (27.5%) that resulted in high NE than the co...

  4. Substituted benzotriazoles as inhibitors of copper corrosion in borate buffer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonkina, M. O.; Andreeva, N. P.; Kuznetsov, Yu. I.; Timashev, S. F.

    2017-08-01

    The adsorption of substituted 1,2,3-benzotriazoles (R-BTAs) onto copper is measured via ellipsometry in a pure borate buffer (pH 7.4) and satisfactorily described by Temkin's isotherm. The adsorption free energy (-Δ G a 0 ) values of these azoles are determined. The (-Δ G a 0 ) values are found to rise as their hydrophobicity, characterized by the logarithm of the partition coefficient of a substituted BTA in a model octanol-water system (log P), grows. The minimum concentration sufficient for the spontaneous passivation of copper ( C min) and a shift in the potential of local copper depassivation with chlorides ( E pt) after an azole is added to the solution (i.e., Δ E = E pt in - E pt backgr characterizing the ability of its adsorption to stabilize passivation) are determined in the same solution containing a corrosion additive (0.01M NaCl) for each azole under study. Both criteria of the passivating properties of azoles (log C min and Δ E) are shown to correlate linearly with log P, testifying to the role played by surface activity of this family of organic inhibitors in protecting copper in an aqueous solution.

  5. Corrosion control of vanadium in aqueous solutions by amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Rabiee, M.M.; Helal, N.H.; El-Hafez, Gh.M. Abd; Badawy, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of vanadium in amino acid free and amino acid containing aqueous solutions of different pH was studied using open-circuit potential measurements, polarization techniques and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The corrosion current density, i corr , the corrosion potential, E corr and the corrosion resistance, R corr , were calculated. A group of amino acids, namely, glycine, alanine, valine, histidine, glutamic and cysteine has been investigated as environmentally safe inhibitors. The effect of Cl - on the corrosion inhibition efficiency especially in acid solutions was investigated. In neutral and basic solutions, the presence of amino acids increases the corrosion resistance of the metal. The electrochemical behavior of V before and after the corrosion inhibition process has shown that some amino acids like glutamic acid and histidine have promising corrosion inhibition efficiency at low concentration (≅25 mM). The inhibition efficiency (η) was found to depend on the structure of the amino acid and the constituents of the corrosive medium. The corrosion inhibition process is based on the adsorption of the amino acid molecules on the metal surface and the adsorption process follows the Freundlich isotherm. The adsorption free energy for valine on V in acidic solutions was found to be -9.4 kJ/mol which reveals strong physical adsorption of the amino acid molecules on the vanadium surface

  6. Task 20 - Prevention of Chloride Corrosion in High-Temperature Waste Treatment Systems (Corrosives Removals from Vitrification Slurries)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timpe, R.C.; Aulich, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    GTS Duratek is working with BNFL Incorporated on a US Department of Energy (DOE) contract to develop a facility to treat and immobilize radioactive waste at the Hanford site in southeast Washington. Development of the 10-ton/day Hanford facility will be based on findings from work at Duratek's 3.3-ton/day pilot plant in Columbia, Maryland, which is in the final stage of construction and scheduled for shakedown testing in early 1999. In prior work with the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Duratek has found that slurrying is the most efficient way to introduce low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes into vitrification melters. However, many of the Hanford tank wastes to be vitrified contain species (primarily chloride and sulfate) that are corrosive to the vitrifier or the downstream air pollution control equipment, especially under the elevated temperature conditions existent in these components. Removal of these corrosives presents a significant challenge because most tank wastes contain high (up to 10-molar) concentrations of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) along with significant levels of nitrate, nitrite, and other anions, which render standard ion-exchange, membrane filtration, and other separation technologies relatively ineffective. In Task 20, the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) will work with Duratek to develop and optimize a vitrification pretreatment process for consistent, quantitative removal of chloride and sulfate prior to vitrifier injection

  7. Long-term progress prediction for the carbon steel corrosion in diluted artificial seawater with and without zinc / sodium carbonate mixed phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Kazumi; Ishioka, Shinichi; Iwanami, Masaru; Kaneko, Tetsuji; Tanaka, Norihiko; Kawaharada, Yoshiyuki; Yokoyama, Yutaka; Umehara, Ryuji; Kato, Chiaki; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Fukaya, Yuichi; Kumaga, Katsuhiko

    2017-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (1F) were damaged by an unprecedented severe accident in the great east Japan earthquake on 11th, March, 2011, and seawater and fresh water were injected as an emergency countermeasure for the core cooling. The primary containment vessels (PCVs), made of carbon steel, were exposed to seawater and fresh water, and have had the possibility of corrosion. The PCVs of 1F are the most important equipment for the core cooling and removal of the fuel debris, the structural integrity of the PCV must be maintained until decommissioning. Therefore, evaluation of PCV carbon steel corrosion behavior is important, as well as evaluation of corrosion inhibitors as one of the corrosion protection methods. In this study, long-term immersion corrosion tests for up to 10000 hours were performed in diluted artificial seawater simulating 1F with and without zinc / sodium carbonate mixed phosphate. Based on the long-term immersion corrosion test results, diagnosis method of the reduction in plate thickness of the nuclear vessel was examined. The validity of the existing corrosion progress models following parabolic rate law was confirmed. The corrosion progress models were also applicable to the corrosion inhibited condition adding zinc / sodium carbonate mixed phosphate. It was found that the corrosion rate of carbon steel drastically fell down by adding this corrosion inhibitor. (author)

  8. Use of nitrite inhalants ("poppers") among American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Schlenger, William E; Ringwalt, Chris L

    2005-07-01

    We examined the patterns and correlates of nitrite inhalant use among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Study data were drawn from the 2000 and 2001 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. Logistic regression was used to identify the characteristics associated with nitrite inhalant use. Among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, 1.5% reported any lifetime use of nitrite inhalants. The prevalence of lifetime nitrite inhalant use increased to 12% and 14% among adolescents who were dependent on alcohol and any drug in the past year, respectively. Many nitrite inhalant users used at least three other types of inhalants (68%) and also met the criteria for alcohol (33%) and drug (35%) abuse or dependence. Increased odds of nitrite inhalant use were associated with residing in nonmetropolitan areas, recent utilization of mental health services, delinquent behaviors, past year alcohol and drug abuse and dependence, and multi-drug use. Adolescents who had used nitrite inhalants at least once in their lifetime tend to engage in delinquent activities and report co-occurring multiple drug abuse and mental health problems in the past year.

  9. Chemical cleaning, decontamination and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadiyar, H.S.; Das Chintamani; Gaonkar, K.B.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical cleaning of process equipments and pipings in chemical/petrochemical industries is necessitated for improving operation, for preventing premature failures and for avoiding contamination. In developing a chemical formulation for cleaning equipments, the important aspects to be considered include (i) effective removal of corrosion products and scales, (ii) minimum corrosion of the base metal, (iii) easy to handle chemicals and (iv) economic viability. As on date, a wide variety of chemical formulations are available, many of them are either proprietory or patented. For evolving an effective formulation, knowledge of the oxides of various metals and alloys on the one hand and acid concentration, complexing agents and inhibitors to be incorporated on the other, is quite essential. Organic acids like citric acid, acetic acid and formic acid are more popular ones, often used with EDTA for effective removal of corrosion products from ferrous components. The report enumerates some of the concepts in developing effective formulations for chemical cleaning of carbon steel components and further, makes an attempt to suggest simple formulations to be developed for chemical decontamination. (author). 6 refs., 3 fi gs., 4 tabs

  10. Food sources of nitrates and nitrites: the physiologic context for potential health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Norman G; Tang, Yaoping; Bryan, Nathan S

    2009-07-01

    The presence of nitrates and nitrites in food is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer and, in infants, methemoglobinemia. Despite the physiologic roles for nitrate and nitrite in vascular and immune function, consideration of food sources of nitrates and nitrites as healthful dietary components has received little attention. Approximately 80% of dietary nitrates are derived from vegetable consumption; sources of nitrites include vegetables, fruit, and processed meats. Nitrites are produced endogenously through the oxidation of nitric oxide and through a reduction of nitrate by commensal bacteria in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract. As such, the dietary provision of nitrates and nitrites from vegetables and fruit may contribute to the blood pressure-lowering effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. We quantified nitrate and nitrite concentrations by HPLC in a convenience sample of foods. Incorporating these values into 2 hypothetical dietary patterns that emphasize high-nitrate or low-nitrate vegetable and fruit choices based on the DASH diet, we found that nitrate concentrations in these 2 patterns vary from 174 to 1222 mg. The hypothetical high-nitrate DASH diet pattern exceeds the World Health Organization's Acceptable Daily Intake for nitrate by 550% for a 60-kg adult. These data call into question the rationale for recommendations to limit nitrate and nitrite consumption from plant foods; a comprehensive reevaluation of the health effects of food sources of nitrates and nitrites is appropriate. The strength of the evidence linking the consumption of nitrate- and nitrite-containing plant foods to beneficial health effects supports the consideration of these compounds as nutrients.

  11. Mutagenesis breeding research of Lactobacillus brevis of nitrite reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Zeli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of nitrite in food became one of the focus of food safety issues,the use of biotechnology methods degrading nitrite became hotspot.The primitive strain was Lactobacillus brevis C2,preserved in our laboratory,had the ability to degrade nitrite,through composite mutagenesis of 15 W,254 nm,20 cm ultraviolet mutagenesis (UV for 120 s and 0.8% diethyl sulfate(DES in 37℃ mutation for 40 min,after screening,we successfully obtained high efficient strain of nitrite degradation,named UV6-DS2,relative to the starting strain,under the condition of 400 mg/L nitrite,after 12 h degradation,nitrite degradation rate increased from 92.8% to 97.8%,to explore its application in food was able to effectively reduce concentration of nitrite in food.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and nitrite ion sensing performance of reclaimable composite samples through a core-shell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao; Yuqing, Zhao; Cui, Jiantao; Zheng, Qian; Bo, Wang

    2018-02-01

    The following paper reported and discussed a nitrite ion optical sensing platform based on a core-shell structure, using superamagnetic nanoparticles as the core, a silica molecular sieve MCM-41 as the shell and two rhodamine derivatives as probe, respectively. This superamagnetic core made this sensing platform reclaimable after finishing nitrite ion sensing procedure. This sensing platform was carefully characterized by means of electron microscopy images, porous structure analysis, magnetic response, IR spectra and thermal stability analysis. Detailed analysis suggested that the emission of these composite samples was quenchable by nitrite ion, showing emission turn off effect. A static sensing mechanism based on an additive reaction between chemosensors and nitrite ion was proposed. These composite samples followed Demas quenching equation against different nitrite ion concentrations. Limit of detection value was obtained as low as 0.4 μM. It was found that, after being quenched by nitrite ion, these composite samples could be reclaimed and recovered by sulphamic acid, confirming their recyclability.

  13. Fundamental studies of aluminum corrosion in acidic and basic environments: Theoretical predictions and experimental observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashgari, Mohsen; Malek, Ali M.

    2010-01-01

    Using quantum electrochemical approaches based on density functional theory and cluster/polarized continuum model, we investigated the corrosion behavior of aluminum in HCl and NaOH media containing phenol inhibitor. In this regard, we determined the geometry and electronic structure of the species at metal/solution interface. The investigations revealed that the interaction energies of hydroxide corrosive agents with aluminum surface should be more negative than those of chloride ones. The inhibitor adsorption in acid is more likely to have a physical nature while it appears as though to be chemical in basic media. To verify these predictions, using Tafel plots, we studied the phenomena from experimental viewpoint. The studies confirmed that the rate of corrosion in alkaline solution is substantially greater than in HCl media. Moreover, phenol is a potential-molecule having mixed-type inhibition mechanism. The relationship between inhibitory action and molecular parameters was discussed and the activity in alkaline media was also theoretically anticipated. This prediction was in accord with experiment.

  14. Indeno-1-one [2,3-b]quinoxaline as an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obot, I.B.; Obi-Egbedi, N.O.

    2010-01-01

    Indeno-1-one [2,3-b] quinoxaline (INQUI), synthesized in our laboratory, was tested as inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel in 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 using gravimetric method at 30 o C. The inhibitor (INQUI) showed about 81% inhibition efficiency (E (%)) at an optimum concentration of 10 x 10 -6 M. The inhibition efficiency increases with increase in inhibitor concentration but decreases with increase in immersion time. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild steel in the acid solution was found to accord with Temkin's adsorption isotherm. The calculated value of the free energy for the adsorption process, ΔG ads , reveals a strong chemisorbed bond between the inhibitor and mild steel surface and a spontaneous adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild steel surface. Density functional theory (DFT) proves that INQUI molecule is adsorbed on the mild steel surface by the most negatively charged nitrogen and oxygen atoms.

  15. Design of second generation Hanford tank corrosion monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgemon, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Hanford Site has 177 underground waste tanks that stor