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Sample records for nitrite selectivity based

  1. Electrochemical investigation of gold nanoparticles incorporated zinc based metal-organic framework for selective recognition of nitrite and nitrobenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Dharmendra Kumar; Ganesan, Vellaichamy; Sonkar, Piyush Kumar; Gupta, Rupali; Rastogi, Pankaj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles incorporated zinc based metal-organic framework is synthesized. • It electro-catalyzes nitrite oxidation and nitrobenzene reduction. • Nitrite and nitrobenzene is determined with high sensitivity. • Hydrodynamic voltammetry studies of nitrite oxidation and nitrobenzene reduction are reported. - Abstract: An electrochemical sensing platform which comprises gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) incorporated zinc based metal-organic framework (MOF-5) is developed for the sensitive determination of nitrite and nitrobenzene. MOF-5 and Au NPs incorporated MOF-5 (Au-MOF-5) are synthesized and characterized by UV-vis absorption, powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis and elemental mapping, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Oxidation of nitrite is effectively electrocatalyzed at Au-MOF-5 with significant increase in oxidation current (41 and 38% in comparison with bare glassy carbon (GC) and MOF-5 coated GC (GC/MOF-5) electrodes, respectively) and with considerable decrease in the oxidation potential (0. 17 and 0.25 V in comparison with bare GC and GC/MOF-5 electrodes, respectively). The electrocatalytic reduction of nitrobenzene at GC/Au-MOF-5 is confirmed by an appreciable increase in the reduction current (79 and 36% in comparison with bare GC and GC/MOF-5 electrodes, respectively) and a small shift in the reduction potential (20 mV in comparison with GC/MOF-5). The detection limit is calculated as 1.0 μM with a sensitivity of 0.23 μAμM"−"1 cm"−"2 for nitrite and 15.3 μM with a sensitivity of 0.43 μAμM"−"1cm"−"2 for nitrobenzene determinations. The Au-MOF-5 based electrochemical sensing platform shows high stability and selectivity even in the presence of several interferences (including phenols, inorganic ions and biologically important molecules) with a broad calibration range. Certain kinetic parameters of nitrite oxidation and

  2. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Quantum Dots as Fluorescent Probes for Sensitive and Selective Detection of Nitrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibiao Feng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrites are the upstream precursors of the carcinogenic nitrosamines, which are widely found in the natural environment and many food products. It is important to develop a simple and sensitive sensor for detecting nitrites. In this work, a fluorescence probe based on nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs was developed for the sensitive and selective determination of nitrites. At pH 2, the fluorescence of N-CQDs can be selectively quenched by nitrite due to the fact N-nitroso compounds can be formed in the reaction of amide groups with nitrous acid, which results in fluorescence static quenching. Under optimal conditions, fluorescence intensity quenching upon addition of nitrite gives a satisfactory linear relationship covering the linear range of 0.2–20 μM, and the limit of detection (LOD is 40 nM. Moreover, this method has been successfully applied to the determination of nitrites in tap water, which indicates its great potential for monitoring of nitrites in environmental samples.

  3. Enhanced Activity and Selectivity of Carbon Nanofiber Supported Pd Catalysts for Nitrite Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Shuai, Danmeng; Choe, Jong Kwon; Shapley, John R.; Werth, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    Pd-based catalyst treatment represents an emerging technology that shows promise to remove nitrate and nitrite from drinking water. In this work we use vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (CNF) supports in order to explore the effects of Pd nanoparticle size and interior versus exterior loading on nitrite reduction activity and selectivity (i.e., dinitrogen over ammonia production). Results show that nitrite reduction activity increases by 3.1-fold and selectivity decreases by 8.0-fold, with decreasing Pd nanoparticle size from 1.4 to 9.6 nm. Both activity and selectivity are not significantly influenced by Pd interior versus exterior CNF loading. Consequently, turnover frequencies (TOFs) among all CNF catalysts are similar, suggesting nitrite reduction is not sensitive to Pd location on CNFs nor Pd structure. CNF-based catalysts compare favorably to conventional Pd catalysts (i.e., Pd on activated carbon or alumina) with respect to nitrite reduction activity and selectivity, and they maintain activity over multiple reduction cycles. Hence, our results suggest new insights that an optimum Pd nanoparticle size on CNFs balances faster kinetics with lower ammonia production, that catalysts can be tailored at the nanoscale to improve catalytic performance for nitrite, and that CNFs hold promise as highly effective catalyst supports in drinking water treatment. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. Enhanced Activity and Selectivity of Carbon Nanofiber Supported Pd Catalysts for Nitrite Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Shuai, Danmeng

    2012-03-06

    Pd-based catalyst treatment represents an emerging technology that shows promise to remove nitrate and nitrite from drinking water. In this work we use vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (CNF) supports in order to explore the effects of Pd nanoparticle size and interior versus exterior loading on nitrite reduction activity and selectivity (i.e., dinitrogen over ammonia production). Results show that nitrite reduction activity increases by 3.1-fold and selectivity decreases by 8.0-fold, with decreasing Pd nanoparticle size from 1.4 to 9.6 nm. Both activity and selectivity are not significantly influenced by Pd interior versus exterior CNF loading. Consequently, turnover frequencies (TOFs) among all CNF catalysts are similar, suggesting nitrite reduction is not sensitive to Pd location on CNFs nor Pd structure. CNF-based catalysts compare favorably to conventional Pd catalysts (i.e., Pd on activated carbon or alumina) with respect to nitrite reduction activity and selectivity, and they maintain activity over multiple reduction cycles. Hence, our results suggest new insights that an optimum Pd nanoparticle size on CNFs balances faster kinetics with lower ammonia production, that catalysts can be tailored at the nanoscale to improve catalytic performance for nitrite, and that CNFs hold promise as highly effective catalyst supports in drinking water treatment. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. A colorimetric nitrite detection system with excellent selectivity and high sensitivity based on Ag@Au nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianhua; Li, Yonglong; Zhang, Yujie; Dong, Chen; Shen, Zheyu; Wu, Aiguo

    2015-02-21

    Excessive uptake of NO2(-) is detrimental to human health, but the currently available methods used to sensitively detect this ion in the environment are cumbersome and expensive. In this study, we developed an improved NO2(-) detection system based on a redox etching strategy of CTAB-stabilized Ag-Au core-shell nanoparticles (Ag@AuNPs). The detection mechanism was verified by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM and XPS. The detection system produces a color change from purple to colorless in response to an increase of NO2(-) concentration. The selectivity of detection of NO2(-), both with the unaided eye and by measurement of UV-Vis spectra, is excellent in relation to other ions, including Cu(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cr(3+), Al(3+), Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Ca(2+), Ba(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(3+), Hg(2+), Ag(+), K(+), F(-), PO4(3-), C2O4(2-), SO3(2-), CO3(2-), SO4(2-), NO3(-) and CH3-COO(-) (Ac(-)). The limit of detection (LOD) for NO2(-) is 1.0 μM by eye and 0.1 μM by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The LOD by eye is lower than the lowest previously reported value (4.0 μM). There is a good linear relationship between A/A0 and the concentration of NO2(-) from 1.0 to 20.0 μM NO2(-), which permits a quantitative assay. The applicability of our detection system was also verified by analysis of NO2(-) in tap water and lake water. The results demonstrate that our Ag@AuNP-based detection system can be used for the rapid colorimetric detection of NO2(-) in complex environmental samples, with excellent selectivity and high sensitivity.

  6. Computer-assisted electrochemical fabrication of a highly selective and sensitive amperometric nitrite sensor based on surface decoration of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with CoNi bimetallic alloy nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Mohammad-Bagher; Jalalvand, Ali R; Goicoechea, Hector C

    2014-07-01

    For the first time, a novel, robust and very attractive statistical experimental design (ED) using minimum-run equireplicated resolution IV factorial design (Min-Run Res IV FD) coupled with face centered central composite design (FCCCD) and Derringer's desirability function (DF) was developed to fabricate a highly selective and sensitive amperometric nitrite sensor based on electrodeposition of CoNi bimetallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs) on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets. The modifications were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The CoNi bimetallic alloy NPs were characterized using digital image processing (DIP) for particle counting (density estimation) and average diameter measurement. Under the identified optimal conditions, the novel sensor detects nitrite in concentration ranges of 0.1-30.0 μM and 30.0-330.0 μM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.05 μM. This sensor selectively detects nitrite even in the presence of high concentration of common ions and biological interferents therefore, we found that the sensor is highly selective. The sensor also demonstrated an excellent operational stability and good antifouling properties. The proposed sensor was used to the determination of nitrite in several foodstuff and water samples. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Computer-assisted electrochemical fabrication of a highly selective and sensitive amperometric nitrite sensor based on surface decoration of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with CoNi bimetallic alloy nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholivand, Mohammad-Bagher; Jalalvand, Ali R.; Goicoechea, Hector C.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a novel, robust and very attractive statistical experimental design (ED) using minimum-run equireplicated resolution IV factorial design (Min-Run Res IV FD) coupled with face centered central composite design (FCCCD) and Derringer's desirability function (DF) was developed to fabricate a highly selective and sensitive amperometric nitrite sensor based on electrodeposition of CoNi bimetallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs) on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets. The modifications were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The CoNi bimetallic alloy NPs were characterized using digital image processing (DIP) for particle counting (density estimation) and average diameter measurement. Under the identified optimal conditions, the novel sensor detects nitrite in concentration ranges of 0.1–30.0 μM and 30.0–330.0 μM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.05 μM. This sensor selectively detects nitrite even in the presence of high concentration of common ions and biological interferents therefore, we found that the sensor is highly selective. The sensor also demonstrated an excellent operational stability and good antifouling properties. The proposed sensor was used to the determination of nitrite in several foodstuff and water samples. - Highlights: • Eight variables were screened by Min Run Res IV FD to identify the key variables. • Mathematical models for the two studied responses were developed by FCCCD. • By using DF the responses were optimized simultaneously. • The SEM image of the modified electrode was processed by digital image processing. • The sensor was successfully applied to determination of nitrite in real samples

  8. Computer-assisted electrochemical fabrication of a highly selective and sensitive amperometric nitrite sensor based on surface decoration of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with CoNi bimetallic alloy nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholivand, Mohammad-Bagher, E-mail: mbgholivand2013@gmail.com [Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah 671496734 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalalvand, Ali R. [Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah 671496734 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Laboratorio de Desarrollo Analítico y Quimiometría (LADAQ), Cátedra de Química Analítica I, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Ciudad Universitaria, CC 242 (S3000ZAA), Santa Fe (Argentina); Goicoechea, Hector C. [Laboratorio de Desarrollo Analítico y Quimiometría (LADAQ), Cátedra de Química Analítica I, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Ciudad Universitaria, CC 242 (S3000ZAA), Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2014-07-01

    For the first time, a novel, robust and very attractive statistical experimental design (ED) using minimum-run equireplicated resolution IV factorial design (Min-Run Res IV FD) coupled with face centered central composite design (FCCCD) and Derringer's desirability function (DF) was developed to fabricate a highly selective and sensitive amperometric nitrite sensor based on electrodeposition of CoNi bimetallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs) on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets. The modifications were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The CoNi bimetallic alloy NPs were characterized using digital image processing (DIP) for particle counting (density estimation) and average diameter measurement. Under the identified optimal conditions, the novel sensor detects nitrite in concentration ranges of 0.1–30.0 μM and 30.0–330.0 μM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.05 μM. This sensor selectively detects nitrite even in the presence of high concentration of common ions and biological interferents therefore, we found that the sensor is highly selective. The sensor also demonstrated an excellent operational stability and good antifouling properties. The proposed sensor was used to the determination of nitrite in several foodstuff and water samples. - Highlights: • Eight variables were screened by Min Run Res IV FD to identify the key variables. • Mathematical models for the two studied responses were developed by FCCCD. • By using DF the responses were optimized simultaneously. • The SEM image of the modified electrode was processed by digital image processing. • The sensor was successfully applied to determination of nitrite in real samples.

  9. Selective Reduction of Nitrite to Nitrogen with Carbon-Supported Pd-AOT Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Coronado, A. M.; Calvo, L.; Baeza, J.A.; Palomar, J.; Lefferts, L.; Rodriguez, J-C.; Gilarranz, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    The catalytic reduction of nitrite in water with hydrogen has been studied using a new strategy to control selectivity. The catalysts used are based on size-controlled Pd-AOT nanoparticles, synthesized via sodium bis[2-ethylhexyl] sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane reverse microemulsion, supported on

  10. A new electrochemical sensor for highly sensitive and selective detection of nitrite in food samples based on sonochemical synthesized Calcium Ferrite (CaFe2O4) clusters modified screen printed carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Paramasivam; Settu, Ramki; Chen, Shen-Ming; Chen, Tse-Wei; Sharmila, Ganapathi

    2018-08-15

    Herein, we report a novel, disposable electrochemical sensor for the detection of nitrite ions in food samples based on the sonochemical synthesized orthorhombic CaFe 2 O 4 (CFO) clusters modified screen printed electrode. As synthesized CFO clusters were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformer infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry (i-t). Under optimal condition, the CFO modified electrode displayed a rapid current response to nitrite, a linear response range from 0.016 to 1921 µM associated with a low detection limit 6.6 nM. The suggested sensor also showed the excellent sensitivity of 3.712 μA μM -1  cm -2 . Furthermore, a good reproducibility, long-term stability and excellent selectivity were also attained on the proposed sensor. In addition, the practical applicability of the sensor was investigated via meat samples, tap water and drinking water, and showed desirable recovery rate, representing its possibilities for practical application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sensitive paper-based analytical device for fast colorimetric detection of nitrite with smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Xiu; Song, Yi-Zhen; Fang, Fang; Wu, Zhi-Yong

    2018-04-01

    On-site rapid monitoring of nitrite as an assessment indicator of the environment, food, and physiological systems has drawn extensive attention. Here, electrokinetic stacking (ES) was combined with colorimetric reaction on a paper-based device (PAD) to achieve colorless nitrite detection with smartphone. In this paper, nitrite was stacked on the paper fluidic channel as a narrow band by electrokinetic stacking. Then, Griess reagent was introduced to visualize the stacking band. Under optimal conditions, the sensitivity of nitrite was 160-fold increased within 5 min. A linear response in the range of 0.075 to 1.0 μg mL -1 (R 2  = 0.99) and a limit of detection (LOD) of 73 ng mL -1 (0.86 μM) were obtained. The LOD was 10 times lower than the reported PAD, and close to that achieved by a desktop spectrophotometer. The applicability was demonstrated by nitrite detection from saliva and water with good selectivity, adding 100 times more concentrated co-ions. High recovery (91.0~108.7%) and reasonable intra-day and inter-day reproducibility (RSD work shows that the sensitivity of colorless analyte detection-based colorimetric reaction can be effectively enhanced by integration of ES on a PAD. Graphical abstract Schematic of the experimental setups (left) and the corresponding images (right) of the actual portable device.

  12. Rapid and simple preparation of rhodamine 6G loaded HY zeolite for highly selective nitrite detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viboonratanasri, Duangkamon; Pabchanda, Suwat; Prompinit, Panida

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a simple, rapid and relatively less toxic method for rhodamine 6G dye adsorption on hydrogen-form Y-type zeolite for highly selective nitrite detection was demonstrated. The adsorption behavior was described by Langmuir isotherm and the adsorption process reached the equilibrium promptly within a minute. The developed test papers characterized by fluorescence technique display high sensing performance with wide working range (0.04-20.0 mg L-1) and high selectivity. The test papers show good reproducibility with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 7% for five replicated determinations of 3 mg L-1 of nitrite. The nitrite concentration determined by using the test paper was in the same range as using ion chromatography within a 95% confidence level. The test papers offer advantages in terms of low cost and practical usage enabling them to be a promising candidate for nitrite sensor in environmental samples, food, and fertilizers.

  13. Amperometric detection of nitrite based on Dawson-type vanodotungstophosphate and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Di; Ma, Huiyuan; Chen, Yanyan; Pang, Haijun; Yu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A composite film has been constructed by vanodotungstophosphate α 2 -K 7 P 2 VW 17 O 62 ·18H 2 O (P 2 W 17 V) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using the layer-by-layer self-assembly method. The incorporation of CNTs and P 2 W 17 V into the composite film endowed the modified electrode fast electron transfer rate and high electrocatalytic activity of toward nitrite oxidation. This nitrite sensor shows broad linear range, low detection limit, and high sensitivity and stability. Also it did not show any interference with other potential interfering species, and was successfully employed for determination of nitrite in real samples. -- Highlights: •A composite film was constructed by a vanodotungstophosphate and carbon nanotubes. •The composite film showed fast electron transfer rate and high electrocatalytic activity of toward nitrite oxidation. •The proposed sensor can amperometricially detect nitrite with high sensitivity and selectivity. -- Abstract: A nitrite sensor based on Dawson vanodotungstophosphates α 2 -K 7 P 2 VW 17 O 62 ·18H 2 O (P 2 W 17 V) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was prepared by electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. The sensor {PEI/PSS/[PDDA/P 2 W 17 V-CNTs] n } was characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). The electron transfer and sensing ability of this sensor were explored using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) technology. The results show that the incorporation of CNTs and P 2 W 17 V into the composite film endowed the modified electrode with fast transfer rate and high electrocatalytic activity towards oxidation of nitrite. This nitrite sensor with 10 bilayers has a broad linear range of 5 × 10 −8 to 2.13 × 10 −3 M, a low detection limit of 0.0367 μM (S N −1 = 3), a high sensitivity of 0.35 mA mM −1 NO 2 − , an excellent anti-interference property in the

  14. Polymeric optical sensors for selective and sensitive nitrite detection using cobalt(III) corrole and rhodium(III) porphyrin as ionophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Si; Wo, Yaqi; Meyerhoff, Mark E., E-mail: mmeyerho@umich.edu

    2014-09-16

    Highlights: • We examine cobalt(III) corroles and rhodium(III) porphyrins as ionophores in polymeric films for optical sensors to detect nitrite. • Different types of proton chromoionophores are evaluated to optimize nitrite response. • Selectivity over lipophilic anions such as perchlorate and thiocyanate is observed. • Both ionophores yield optical sensors that are fully reversible. • The cobalt(III) corrole based sensor is employed to determine nitric oxide emission rates from NO donor doped polymers with good accuracy. - Abstract: Cobalt(III) 5,10,15-tris(4-tert-butylphenyl) corrole with a triphenylphosphine axial ligand and rhodium(III) 5,10,15,20-tetra(p-tert-butylphenyl) porphyrin are incorporated into plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) films to fabricate nitrite-selective bulk optodes via absorbance measurements. The resulting films yield sensitive, fast and fully reversible response toward nitrite with significantly enhanced nitrite selectivity over other anions including lipophilic anions such as thiocyanate and perchlorate. The selectivity patterns differ greatly from the Hofmeister series based on anion lipophilicity and are consistent with selectivity obtained with potentiometric sensors based on the same ionophores. The optical nitrite sensors are shown to be useful for detecting rates of emission of nitric oxide (NO) from NO releasing polymers containing S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine.

  15. Aqueous nitrite ion determination by selective reduction and gas phase nitric oxide chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, A. J.; Barkley, R. M.; Sievers, R. E.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    An improved method of flow injection analysis for aqueous nitrite ion exploits the sensitivity and selectivity of the nitric oxide (NO) chemilluminescence detector. Trace analysis of nitrite ion in a small sample (5-160 microL) is accomplished by conversion of nitrite ion to NO by aqueous iodide in acid. The resulting NO is transported to the gas phase through a semipermeable membrane and subsequently detected by monitoring the photoemission of the reaction between NO and ozone (O3). Chemiluminescence detection is selective for measurement of NO, and, since the detection occurs in the gas-phase, neither sample coloration nor turbidity interfere. The detection limit for a 100-microL sample is 0.04 ppb of nitrite ion. The precision at the 10 ppb level is 2% relative standard deviation, and 60-180 samples can be analyzed per hour. Samples of human saliva and food extracts were analyzed; the results from a standard colorimetric measurement are compared with those from the new chemiluminescence method in order to further validate the latter method. A high degree of selectivity is obtained due to the three discriminating steps in the process: (1) the nitrite ion to NO conversion conditions are virtually specific for nitrite ion, (2) only volatile products of the conversion will be swept to the gas phase (avoiding turbidity or color in spectrophotometric methods), and (3) the NO chemiluminescence detector selectively detects the emission from the NO + O3 reaction. The method is free of interferences, offers detection limits of low parts per billion of nitrite ion, and allows the analysis of up to 180 microL-sized samples per hour, with little sample preparation and no chromatographic separation. Much smaller samples can be analyzed by this method than in previously reported batch analysis methods, which typically require 5 mL or more of sample and often need chromatographic separations as well.

  16. Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite using ferricyanide; Application for its simple and selective determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojani, Reza; Raoof, Jahan-Bakhsh; Zarei, Ebrahim

    2006-01-01

    The electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite has been studied by ferricyanide at the surface of carbon paste electrode. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques were used to investigate the suitability of ferricyanide as a mediator for the electrocatalytic nitrite reduction in aqueous solution with various pH. Results showed that pH 0.00 is the most suitable for this purpose. In the optimum pH, the electrocatalytic ability about 700 mV can be seen and the homogeneous second-order rate constant (k s ) for nitrite coupled catalytically to ferricyanide was calculated 2.75 x 10 3 M -1 s -1 by Nicholson-Shain method. Also, electron transfer coefficients (α) for ferricyanide was determined by using various electrochemical approaches such as Tafel plot in the absence and presence of nitrite 0.556 and 0.760, respectively. The catalytic reduction peak current was linearly dependent on the nitrite concentration and the linearity range obtained was 5.00 x 10 -5 to 1.00 x 10 -3 M. Detection limit has been found to be 2.63 x 10 -5 M (2σ). This method has been applied as a selective, simple and precise method for determination of nitrite in real sample

  17. Aldehyde-Selective Wacker-Type Oxidation of Unbiased Alkenes Enabled by a Nitrite Co-Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Wickens, Zachary K.; Morandi, Bill; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Breaking the rules: Reversal of the high Markovnikov selectivity of Wacker-type oxidations was accomplished using a nitrite co-catalyst. Unbiased aliphatic alkenes can be oxidized with high yield and aldehyde selectivity, and several functional groups are tolerated. 18O-labeling experiments indicate that the aldehydic O atom is derived from the nitrite salt.

  18. Aldehyde-Selective Wacker-Type Oxidation of Unbiased Alkenes Enabled by a Nitrite Co-Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Wickens, Zachary K.

    2013-09-13

    Breaking the rules: Reversal of the high Markovnikov selectivity of Wacker-type oxidations was accomplished using a nitrite co-catalyst. Unbiased aliphatic alkenes can be oxidized with high yield and aldehyde selectivity, and several functional groups are tolerated. 18O-labeling experiments indicate that the aldehydic O atom is derived from the nitrite salt.

  19. Reaction mixtures formed by nitrite and selected sulfa-drugs showed mutagenicity in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Trossero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrite, which is present in preserved meat and can be produced in the oral cavity by reduction of nitrate taken from vegetables, could react in stomach with nitrosatable drugs, giving genotoxic-carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds (NOC. The mutagenicity of reaction mixtures formed by sodium nitrite and selected sulfa-drugs (sulfathiazole, HST; phtalylsulfathiazole, PhST; complex Co(II-sulfathiazole, Co(II-ST in acidic medium was evaluated using the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames test, with TA98 and TA 100 strains. The reactions were carried out at room temperature, with a mole ratio [nitrite]/[sulfa-drug] > 1. The three reaction mixtures showed mutagenic effects in the considered range.

  20. Nitrates and nitrites in selected vegetables purchased at supermarkets in Siedlce, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczuk, Jolanta; Wadas, Wanda; Głozak, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Vegetables constitute a vital part of the human diet, being the main source of minerals, vitamins, dietary fibre and phytochemicals. They however, also contain nitrates and nitrites, which adversely affect human health. To determine nitrate and nitrite content in selected vegetables purchased at supermarket chains in Siedlce and to assess their impact on consumer health. Vegetable samples were purchased from local supermarkets in Siedlce, town situated in the Mazovian province (Voivodeship) of Poland. These consisted of 116 samples of nine vegetables types including butterhead and iceberg lettuce, beetroot, white cabbage, carrot, cucumber, radish, tomato and potato collected between April and September 2011. Concentrations of nitrate and nitrite were determined by standard colorimetric methods used in Poland, with results expressed as mg per kg fresh weight of vegetables. Nitrate concentrations varied between 10 mg x kg(-1) to 4800 mg x kg(-1). The highest mean nitrate concentrations were found in radishes (2132 mgkg(-1)), butterhead lettuce (1725 mg x kg(-1)), beetroots (1306 mg x kg(-1)) and iceberg lettuce (890 mg x kg(-1)), whereas the lowest were found in cucumber (32 mg x kg(-1)) and tomato (35 mg x kg(-1)). Nitrite levels were also variable; the highest concentrations measured were in beetroot (mean 9.19 mg x kg(-1)) whilst much smaller amounts were present in carrot, cucumbers, iceberg lettuce, white cabbage, tomatoes and potatoes. The daily adult consumption of 100 g amounts of the studied vegetables were found not exceed the ADI for both nitrates and nitrites. Findings indicated the need for monitoring nitrate and nitrite content in radishes, butterhead lettuce and beetroot due to consumer health concerns.

  1. Electrochemical Biosensor for Nitrite Based on Polyacrylic-Graphene Composite Film with Covalently Immobilized Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Zaidatul Akhmar Raja Jamaluddin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A new biosensor for the analysis of nitrite in food was developed based on hemoglobin (Hb covalently immobilized on the succinimide functionalized poly(n-butyl acrylate-graphene [poly(nBA-rGO] composite film deposited on a carbon-paste screen-printed electrode (SPE. The immobilized Hb on the poly(nBA-rGO conducting matrix exhibited electrocatalytic ability for the reduction of nitrite with significant enhancement in the reduction peak at −0.6 V versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Thus, direct determination of nitrite can be achieved by monitoring the cathodic peak current signal of the proposed polyacrylic-graphene hybrid film-based voltammetric nitrite biosensor. The nitrite biosensor exhibited a reproducible dynamic linear response range from 0.05–5 mg L−1 nitrite and a detection limit of 0.03 mg L−1. No significant interference was observed by potential interfering ions such as Ca2+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, and NO3− ions. Analysis of nitrite in both raw and processed edible bird’s nest (EBN samples demonstrated recovery of close to 100%. The covalent immobilization of Hb on poly(nBA-rGO composite film has improved the performance of the electrochemical nitrite biosensor in terms of broader detection range, lower detection limit, and prolonged biosensor stability.

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of nitrite based on its catalytic effect on the reaction of nuclear fast red and potassium bromate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN ZAVVAR MOUSAVI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A highly selective and sensitive catalytic spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of nitrite in water samples. The method is based on its catalytic effect on the nuclear fast red–potassium bromate redox reaction in acidic medium. The reaction was followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the change in the absorbance at 518 nm of nuclear fast red 5 min after initiation of the reaction. In this study, the experimental parameters were optimized and the effects of other cations and anions on the determination of nitrite were examined. The calibration graph was linear in the range 2.0–45 µg mL-1 of nitrite. The relative standard deviations for the determination of 15 and 30 µg mL-1 of nitrite were 3.1 and 1.75 %, respectively (n = 8. The detection limit calculated from three times the standard deviation of the blank 3Sb was 0.7 µg mL-1. The method was successfully applied to the determination of nitrite in spiked tap, natural and wastewater samples.

  3. Electrochemical detection of nitrite based on the polythionine/carbon nanotube modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Chunyan; Chen, Jinzhuo; Nie, Zhou; Yang, Minghui; Si, Shihui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, thionine was electro-polymerized onto the surface of carbon nanotube (CNT)-modified glassy carbon (GC) to fabricate the polythionine (PTH)/CNT/GC electrode. It was found that the electro-reduction current of nitrite was enhanced greatly at the PTH/CNT/GC electrode. It may be demonstrated that PTH was used as a mediator for electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite, and CNTs as an excellent nanomaterial can improve the electron transfer between the electrode and nitrite. Therefore, based on the synergic effect of PTH and CNTs, the PTH/CNT/GC electrode was employed to detect nitrite, and the high sensitivity of 5.81 μA mM −1 , and the detection limit of 1.4 × 10 −6 M were obtained. Besides, the modified electrode showed an inherent stability, fast response time, and good anti-interference ability. These suggested that the PTH/CNT/GC electrode was favorable and reliable for the detection of nitrite. - Highlights: ► Polythionine (PTH) was used as a mediator for electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite. ► Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) improve electron transfer between the electrode and nitrite. ► The PTH/CNT/glassy carbon electrode showed excellent nitrite detection performance.

  4. Determination of nitrite ion at schiff's base derivative of chitosan modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhongliang; Zhang Jianmei; Liu Shujuan; Peng Daofeng

    2007-01-01

    Chitosan react with salicyclaldehyde by schiff's base reaction in water, a polymer product S-CTS can be prepared. Glassy carbon electrode was modified with S-CTS by drop-coating method. Then, its electrocatalysis effect on the reduction of nitrite by the films of S-CTS was investigated. Experimental results showed that S-CTS modified electrode could reduce the oxidation overpotential of nitrite in pH4.5 B-R buffer solution, the peak current of reduction was proportional to the concentration of nitrite and a good linear relation from 0.20 to 81 mg/kg (r=0.9899) with a detection limit of 2.8 x 10 -7 mol/L was obtained. The methods have been applied to determining nitrite in some samples, satisfactory results were obtained. (authors)

  5. Investigation on the photoreactions of nitrate and nitrite ions with selected azaarenes in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz; Bechmann; Mitzner

    1999-01-01

    The photoreactions of selected azaarenes with nitrate and nitrite ions were investigated under irradiation at lambda = 313 nm. The excitation of both anions leads to several photochemical reactions forming mainly hydroxyl radicals and nitrogen oxides. The purification capability of natural waters i.e. the oxidation of inorganic and organic substances results from the formation of hydroxyl radicals. Nitrated isomers of azaarenes were found among the main products of the investigated photoreactions. The nitrogen oxides were responsible for the production of nitrated derivatives which possess a high toxic potential. Their formation was explained by the parallel occurance of two mechanism, a molecular and a radical one. The molecular mechanism became more important with increasing ionisation potentials of the azaarenes. The spectrum of oxidized products corresponded to the one got in the photoreactions of azaarenes with hydrogen peroxide. The formation of several oxidation and nitration products of the pyridine ring with its low electron density was explained by the reaction of excited states of azaarenes. The photoreactions with nitrite ions only led to the formation of oxidized and nitrated products. Nitroso products were not formed. The reactivity of nitrogen monoxide is too low for its reaction with the azaarenes.

  6. Detection of nitrite based on fluorescent carbon dots by the hydrothermal method with folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haitao; Ding, Liyun; Zhang, Bingyu; Huang, Jun

    2018-05-01

    A fluorescent carbon dots probe for the detection of aqueous nitrite was fabricated by a one-pot hydrothermal method, and the transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer, UV-Vis absorption spectrometer and fluorescence spectrophotometer were used to study the property of carbon dots. The fluorescent property of carbon dots influenced by the concentration of aqueous nitrite was studied. The interaction between the electron-donating functional groups and the electron-accepting nitrous acid could account for the quenching effect on carbon dots by adding aqueous nitrite. The products of the hydrolysis of aqueous nitrite performed a stronger quenching effect at lower pH. The relationship between the relative fluorescence intensity of carbon dots and the concentration of nitrite was described by the Stern-Volmer equation (I0/I - 1 = 0.046[Q]) with a fine linearity (R2 = 0.99). The carbon dots-based probe provides a convenient method for the detection of nitrite concentration.

  7. Hemi-ordered nanoporous carbon electrode material for highly selective determination of nitrite in physiological and environmental systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shenghai; Wu, Hongmin; Wu, Ying; Shi, Hongyan; Feng, Xun; Jiang, Shang; Chen, Jian; Song, Wenbo, E-mail: wbsong@jlu.edu.cn

    2014-08-01

    Hemi-ordered nanoporous carbon (HONC) was obtained from a mesoporous silica template through a nano-replication method using furfuryl alcohol as the carbon source. The structure and morphology of HONC were characterized and analyzed in detail by X-ray diffraction, N{sub 2}-sorption, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. HONC was then demonstrated as active electrode material for selective determination of nitrite in either physiological or environmental system. Well separated oxidation peaks of ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid and nitrite were observed in physiological system, and simultaneous discrimination of catechol, hydroquinone, resorcinol and nitrite in environmental system was also accomplished. Distinctly improved performances for selective determination of nitrite (such as significantly fast and sensitive current response with especially high selectivity) coexisted with ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid in the physiological system, as well as with catechol, hydroquinone and resorcinol in the environmental system were achieved at HONC electrode material. The excellent discriminating ability and high selectivity for NO{sub 2}{sup −} determination were ascribed to the good electronic conductivity, unique hemi-ordered porous structure, large surface area and large number of edge plane defect sites contained on the surface of nanopore walls of HONC. Results in this work demonstrated that HONC is one of the promising catalytic electrode materials for nitrite sensor fabrication. - Highlights: • Hemi-ordered nanoporous carbon as an active electrode material • Good discriminating ability towards NO{sub 2}{sup −} from physiological or environmental system • Highly selective determination of nitrite with fast and sensitive current response.

  8. ARM-microcontroller based portable nitrite electrochemical analyzer using cytochrome c reductase biofunctionalized onto screen printed carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santharaman, Paulraj; Venkatesh, Krishna Arun; Vairamani, Kanagavel; Benjamin, Alby Robson; Sethy, Niroj K; Bhargava, Kalpana; Karunakaran, Chandran

    2017-04-15

    Nitrite (NO 2 - ) supplementation limits hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and activates the alternate NO pathway which may partially account for the nitrite-mediated cardioprotection. So, sensitive and selective biosensors with point-of-care devices need to be explored to detect the physiological nitrite level due to its important role in human pathophysiology. In this work, cytochrome c reductase (CcR) biofunctionalized self assembled monolayer (SAM) functionalized on gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposite onto the screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was investigated as a biosensor for the detection of nitrite based on its electrochemical and catalytic properties. CcR was covalently coupled with SAM layers on GNPs by using EDC and NHS. Direct electrochemical response of CcR biofunctionalized electrodes showed a couple of well-defined and nearly reversible cyclic voltammetric peaks at -0.34 and -0.45 vs. Ag/AgCl. Under optimal conditions, the biosensor could be used for the determination of NO 2 - with a linear range from 0.1-1600µm and a detection limit of 60nM with a sensitivity of 0.172µAµM -1 cm -2 . Further, we have designed and developed a novel and cost effective portable electrochemical analyzer for the measurement of NO 2 - in hypoxia induced H9c2 cardiac cells using ARM microcontroller. The results obtained here using the developed portable electrochemical nitrite analyzer were also compared with the standard cyclic voltammetry instrument and found in agreement with each other. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cooperative use of cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase and its redox partner cytochrome c552 to improve the selectivity of nitrite biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, A.S.; Jorge, S.R.; Silveira, C.M.; Moura, J.J.G.; Jubete, E.; Ochoteco, E.; Cabanero, G.; Grande, H.; Almeida, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a novel enzymatic biosensor for determination of nitrites constructed on an electrochemical transducing platform is proposed. The sensor is based on cytochrome-cd 1 (cyt-cd 1 ) nitrite reductase from Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus strain 617 as biological recognition element, and its putative physiological redox partner cytochrome-c 552 (cyt-c 552 ), as electron mediator. The proteins were co-immobilized using a photopolymerizable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) derivative, onto carbon paste screen printed electrodes (CPSPEs); the optimal modification conditions were 100 μM cyt-cd 1 /100 μM cyt-c 552 and 50% PVA, after a 48 h polymerization time. Electrochemical characterization of the mediator was carried out by cyclic voltammetry. The one-electron exchange between cyt-c 552 and the working electrode is a quasi-reversible process, without mass transport limitations. The formal potential of the mediator is 254 ± 2 mV vs NHE and the intermolecular electron transfer rate constant between cytochromes c 552 and cd 1 is 9.9 x 10 3 M -1 s -1 . The analytical parameters of the biosensor response to nitrite as assessed by amperometric measurements were: linear range from 10 to 200 μM; detection and quantification limits of 7 and 24 μM, respectively; sensitivity of 2.49 ± 0.08 A mol -1 cm 2 μM -1 . Catalytic profiles in the presence of possible interfering species were also investigated. The interference from competitive enzymatic reduction of dissolved oxygen could be overcome by tuning the cyclic voltammograms for faster sweep rates.

  10. Cooperative use of cytochrome cd{sub 1} nitrite reductase and its redox partner cytochrome c{sub 552} to improve the selectivity of nitrite biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, A.S.; Jorge, S.R.; Silveira, C.M.; Moura, J.J.G. [REQUIMTE - Dept. de Quimica, CQFB, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Jubete, E.; Ochoteco, E.; Cabanero, G.; Grande, H. [CIDETEC - Centro de Tecnologias Electroquimicas, Parque Tecnologico de San Sebastian, Po Miramon, 196, 20009 Donostia - San Sebastian (Spain); Almeida, M.G., E-mail: mga@dq.fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE - Dept. de Quimica, CQFB, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Escola Superior de Saude Egas Moniz, Monte de Caparica, 2829-511 Caparica (Portugal)

    2011-05-05

    In this work, a novel enzymatic biosensor for determination of nitrites constructed on an electrochemical transducing platform is proposed. The sensor is based on cytochrome-cd{sub 1} (cyt-cd{sub 1}) nitrite reductase from Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus strain 617 as biological recognition element, and its putative physiological redox partner cytochrome-c{sub 552} (cyt-c{sub 552}), as electron mediator. The proteins were co-immobilized using a photopolymerizable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) derivative, onto carbon paste screen printed electrodes (CPSPEs); the optimal modification conditions were 100 {mu}M cyt-cd{sub 1}/100 {mu}M cyt-c{sub 552} and 50% PVA, after a 48 h polymerization time. Electrochemical characterization of the mediator was carried out by cyclic voltammetry. The one-electron exchange between cyt-c{sub 552} and the working electrode is a quasi-reversible process, without mass transport limitations. The formal potential of the mediator is 254 {+-} 2 mV vs NHE and the intermolecular electron transfer rate constant between cytochromes c{sub 552} and cd{sub 1} is 9.9 x 10{sup 3} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The analytical parameters of the biosensor response to nitrite as assessed by amperometric measurements were: linear range from 10 to 200 {mu}M; detection and quantification limits of 7 and 24 {mu}M, respectively; sensitivity of 2.49 {+-} 0.08 A mol{sup -1} cm{sup 2} {mu}M{sup -1}. Catalytic profiles in the presence of possible interfering species were also investigated. The interference from competitive enzymatic reduction of dissolved oxygen could be overcome by tuning the cyclic voltammograms for faster sweep rates.

  11. Biosensor for laboratory and lander-based analysis of benthicnitrate plus nitrite distribution in marine environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, N. P.; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr

    2009-01-01

    We present a psychotropic bacteria–based biosensor that can be used in low–temperature seawater for the analysis of nitrate + nitrite (NOx –). The sensor can be used to resolve concentrations below 1 µmol L–1 at low temperature (

  12. Nitrite Biosensing via Selective Enzymes—A Long but Promising Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gabriela Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The last decades have witnessed a steady increase of the social and political awareness for the need of monitoring and controlling environmental and industrial processes. In the case of nitrite ion, due to its potential toxicity for human health, the European Union has recently implemented a number of rules to restrict its level in drinking waters and food products. Although several analytical protocols have been proposed for nitrite quantification, none of them enable a reliable and quick analysis of complex samples. An alternative approach relies on the construction of biosensing devices using stable enzymes, with both high activity and specificity for nitrite. In this paper we review the current state-of-the-art in the field of electrochemical and optical biosensors using nitrite reducing enzymes as biorecognition elements and discuss the opportunities and challenges in this emerging market.

  13. Electro-oxidation nitrite based on copper calcined layered double hydroxide and gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Lin; Meng Xiaomeng; Xu Minrong; Shang Kun [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China); Ai Shiyun, E-mail: ashy@sdau.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China); Liu Yinping [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: > A nitrite sensor fabricated based on copper calcined layered double hydroxides and gold nanoparticles modified electrode. > This sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation to nitrite. > This nitrite sensor exhibited very good analytical performance with low cost, convenient preparation and rapid detection. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel nitrite sensor was constructed based on electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a copper calcined layered double hydroxide (Cu-CLDH) modified glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical experiments showed that AuNPs/CLDH composite film exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation activity with nitrite due to the synergistic effect of the Cu-CLDH with AuNPs. The fabricated sensor exhibited excellent performance for nitrite detection within a wide concentration interval of 1-191 {mu}M and with a detection limit of 0.5 {mu}M. The superior electrocatalytic response to nitrite was mainly attributed to the large surface area, minimized diffusion resistance, and enhanced electron transfer of the Cu-CLDH and AuNPs composition film. This platform offers a novel route for nitrite sensing with wide analytical applications and will supply the practical applications for a variety of simple, robust, and easy-to-manufacture analytical approaches in the future.

  14. Electro-oxidation nitrite based on copper calcined layered double hydroxide and gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Lin; Meng Xiaomeng; Xu Minrong; Shang Kun; Ai Shiyun; Liu Yinping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A nitrite sensor fabricated based on copper calcined layered double hydroxides and gold nanoparticles modified electrode. → This sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation to nitrite. → This nitrite sensor exhibited very good analytical performance with low cost, convenient preparation and rapid detection. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel nitrite sensor was constructed based on electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a copper calcined layered double hydroxide (Cu-CLDH) modified glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical experiments showed that AuNPs/CLDH composite film exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation activity with nitrite due to the synergistic effect of the Cu-CLDH with AuNPs. The fabricated sensor exhibited excellent performance for nitrite detection within a wide concentration interval of 1-191 μM and with a detection limit of 0.5 μM. The superior electrocatalytic response to nitrite was mainly attributed to the large surface area, minimized diffusion resistance, and enhanced electron transfer of the Cu-CLDH and AuNPs composition film. This platform offers a novel route for nitrite sensing with wide analytical applications and will supply the practical applications for a variety of simple, robust, and easy-to-manufacture analytical approaches in the future.

  15. Maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamines and selected birth defects in offspring: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, John C; Brender, Jean D; Zheng, Qi; Sharkey, Joseph R; Vuong, Ann M; Shinde, Mayura U; Griesenbeck, John S; Suarez, Lucina; Langlois, Peter H; Canfield, Mark A; Romitti, Paul A; Weyer, Peter J

    2013-03-21

    Dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines can increase the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the stomach. Results from animal studies suggest that these compounds might be teratogenic. We examined the relationship between maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites (including plant and animal sources as separate groups), and nitrosamines and several types of birth defects in offspring. For this population-based case-control study, data from a 58-question food frequency questionnaire, adapted from the short Willett Food Frequency Questionnaire and administered as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), were used to estimate daily intake of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in a sample of 6544 mothers of infants with neural tube defects (NTD)s, oral clefts (OC)s, or limb deficiencies (LD)s and 6807 mothers of unaffected control infants. Total daily intake of these compounds was divided into quartiles based on the control mother distributions. Odds ratios (OR)s and 95% confidence intervals (CI)s were estimated using logistic regression; estimates were adjusted for maternal daily caloric intake, maternal race-ethnicity, education, dietary folate intake, high fat diet (>30% of calories from fat), and state of residence. While some unadjusted ORs for NTDS had 95% (CI)s that excluded the null value, none remained significant after adjustment for covariates, and the effect sizes were small (adjusted odds ratios [aOR]nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines.

  16. Amperometric Carbon Fiber Nitrite Microsensor for In Situ Biofilm Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    A highly selective needle type solid state amperometric nitrite microsensor based on direct nitrite oxidation on carbon fiber was developed using a simplified fabrication method. The microsensor’s tip diameter was approximately 7 µm, providing a high spatial resolution of at lea...

  17. Environmentally friendly synthesis of CeO2 nanoparticles for the catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde and selective detection of nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamizhdurai, P; Sakthinathan, Subramanian; Chen, Shen-Ming; Shanthi, K; Sivasanker, S; Sangeetha, P

    2017-04-13

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 NPs) are favorable in nanotechnology based on some remarkable properties. In this study, the crystalline CeO 2 NPs are successfully prepared by an efficient microwave combustion (MCM) and conventional route sol-gel (CRSGM) methods. The structural morphology of the as-prepared CeO 2 NPs was investigated by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. Moreover, the XRD pattern confirmed the formation of CeO 2 NPs as a face centered cubic structure. The magnetometer studies indicated the low saturation magnetization (23.96 emu/g) of CeO 2 NPs for weak paramagnetic and high saturation magnetization (32.13 emu/g) of CeO 2 NPs for super paramagnetic. After that, the oxidation effect of benzyl alcohol was investigated which reveals good conversion and selectivity. Besides, the CeO 2 NPs modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) used for the detection of nitrite with linear concentration range (0.02-1200 μM), low limit of detection (0.21 μM) and higher sensitivity (1.7238 μAμM -1 cm -2 ). However, the CeO 2 NPs modified electrode has the fast response, high sensitivity and good selectivity. In addition, the fabricated electrode is applied for the determination of nitrite in various water samples. Eventually, the CeO 2 NPs can be regarded as an effective way to enhance the catalytic activity towards the benzyl alcohol and nitrite.

  18. Nitrite sensing composite systems based on a core-shell emissive-superamagnetic structure: Construction, characterization and sensing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Liu, Liang; Zha, Jianhua; Yuan, Ningyi

    2017-04-01

    Two recyclable nitrite sensing composite samples were designed and constructed through a core-shell structure, with Fe3O4 nanoparticles as core, silica molecular sieve MCM-41 as shell and two rhodamine derivatives as chemosensors, respectively. These samples and their structure were identified with their electron microscopy images, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, magnetic response, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analysis. Their nitrite sensing behavior was discussed based on emission intensity quenching, their limit of detection was found as low as 1.2 μM. Further analysis suggested a static sensing mechanism between nitrite and chemosensors through an additive reaction between NO+ and chemosensors. After finishing their nitrite sensing, these composite samples and their emission could be recycled and recovered by sulphamic acid.

  19. Outcompeting nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in single-stage nitrogen removal in sewage treatment plants: a model-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Julio; Lotti, Tommaso; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Picioreanu, Cristian; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2014-12-01

    This model-based study investigated the mechanisms and operational window for efficient repression of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in an autotrophic nitrogen removal process. The operation of a continuous single-stage granular sludge process was simulated for nitrogen removal from pretreated sewage at 10 °C. The effects of the residual ammonium concentration were explicitly analyzed with the model. Competition for oxygen between ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and NOB was found to be essential for NOB repression even when the suppression of nitrite oxidation is assisted by nitrite reduction by anammox (AMX). The nitrite half-saturation coefficient of NOB and AMX proved non-sensitive for the model output. The maximum specific growth rate of AMX bacteria proved a sensitive process parameter, because higher rates would provide a competitive advantage for AMX. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nitrous Oxide Production in a Granule-based Partial Nitritation Reactor: A Model-based Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lai; Sun, Jing; Liu, Yiwen; Dai, Xiaohu; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2017-04-03

    Sustainable wastewater treatment has been attracting increasing attentions over the past decades. However, the production of nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a potent GHG, from the energy-efficient granule-based autotrophic nitrogen removal is largely unknown. This study applied a previously established N 2 O model, which incorporated two N 2 O production pathways by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) (AOB denitrification and the hydroxylamine (NH 2 OH) oxidation). The two-pathway model was used to describe N 2 O production from a granule-based partial nitritation (PN) reactor and provide insights into the N 2 O distribution inside granules. The model was evaluated by comparing simulation results with N 2 O monitoring profiles as well as isotopic measurement data from the PN reactor. The model demonstrated its good predictive ability against N 2 O dynamics and provided useful information about the shift of N 2 O production pathways inside granules for the first time. The simulation results indicated that the increase of oxygen concentration and granule size would significantly enhance N 2 O production. The results further revealed a linear relationship between N 2 O production and ammonia oxidation rate (AOR) (R 2  = 0.99) under the conditions of varying oxygen levels and granule diameters, suggesting that bulk oxygen and granule size may exert an indirect effect on N 2 O production by causing a change in AOR.

  1. Carbon dots based dual-emission silica nanoparticles as ratiometric fluorescent probe for nitrite determination in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Guoqiang; Wang, Yule; Zhang, Heng; Fan, Huanhuan; Fan, Lu; He, Lijun; Jiang, Xiuming; Zhao, Wenjie

    2018-09-15

    In this work, a simple and effective strategy for designing a ratiometric fluorescent nanosensor was described. A carbon dots (CDs) based dual-emission nanosensor for nitrite was prepared by coating the CDs on to dye-doped silica nanoparticles. Dual-emission silica nanoparticles fluorescence was quenched in sulfuric acid using potassium bromate (KBrO 3 ). The nitrite present catalyzed the KBrO 3 oxidation, resulting in ratiometric fluorescence response of the dual-emission silica nanoparticles. Several important parameters affecting the performance of the nanosensor were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the limit of detection was 1.0 ng mL -1 and the linear range 10-160 ng mL -1 . Furthermore, the sensor was suitable for nitrite determination in different food samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Green Alternatives to Nitrates and Nitrites in Meat-based Products-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassara, Fatma; Kouassi, Anne Patricia; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Belkacemi, Khaled

    2016-10-02

    Several food additives are added in food for their preservation to maintain the freshness of food (antioxidants) or to slow down or stop the growth of microorganisms (preservative agents). Nitrites and nitrates are used as preservative agents in meat. Nitrites give a smoked taste, a pinkish color in the meat and protect the consumers against the risk of bacterial deterioration. Their addition is however very limited as, in high dose, it can have risks on human health and the environment. Nitrites may also combine with secondary or tertiary amines to form N-nitroso derivatives. Certain N-nitroso compounds have been shown to produce cancers in a wide range of laboratory animals. Thus, alternatives of nitrates and nitrites are the object of numerous research studies. Alternatives, such as the addition of vitamins, fruits, chemicals products, natural products containing nitrite or spices, which have similar properties of nitrites, are in evaluation. In fact, spices are considered to have several organoleptic and anti-microbial properties which would be interesting to study. Several spices and combinations of spices are being progressively evaluated. This review discusses the sources of nitrites and nitrates, their use as additives in food products, their physicochemical properties, their negatives effects and the use of alternatives of nitrites and nitrates in preserving meat products.

  3. Bioelectrode-based approach for enhancing nitrate and nitrite removal and electricity generation from eutrophic lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    Nitrate and nitrite contamination of surface waters (e.g. lakes) has become a severe environmental and health problem, especially in developing countries. The recent demonstration of nitrate reduction at the cathode of microbial fuel cell (MFC) provides an opportunity to develop a new technology...... from nitrate- and nitrite-rich synthetic lake waters at initial concentration of 10 mg-N/L. Along with the electricity production a total nitrogen removal of 62% and 77% was accomplished, for nitrate and nitrite, respectively. The nitrogen removal was almost 4 times higher under close-circuit condition...... with biocathode, compared to either the open-circuit operation or with abiotic cathode. The mass balance on nitrogen indicates that most of the removed nitrate and nitrite (84.7±0.1% and 81.8±0.1%, respectively) was reduced to nitrogen gas. The nitrogen removal and power generation was limited by the dissolved...

  4. Nitrite electrochemical sensor based on prussian blue/single-walled carbon nanotubes modified pyrolytic graphite electrode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekunle, AS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrite, NO2- (in neutral), and NO (in acidic media) were used as analytical probe to investigate the electrocatalytic properties of Prussian blue nanoparticles (PB) modified edge plane pyrolytic graphite (EPPG) electrode. Results indicate...

  5. Construction of a zinc porphyrin-fullerene-derivative based nonenzymatic electrochemical sensor for sensitive sensing of hydrogen peroxide and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hai; Fan, Suhua; Jin, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Hong; Dai, Zong; Zou, Xiaoyong

    2014-07-01

    Enzymatic sensors possess high selectivity but suffer from some limitations such as instability, complicated modified procedure, and critical environmental factors, which stimulate the development of more sensitive and stable nonenzymatic electrochemical sensors. Herein, a novel nonenzymatic electrochemical sensor is proposed based on a new zinc porphyrin-fullerene (C60) derivative (ZnP-C60), which was designed and synthesized according to the conformational calculations and the electronic structures of two typical ZnP-C60 derivatives of para-ZnP-C60 (ZnP(p)-C60) and ortho-ZnP-C60 (ZnP(o)-C60). The two derivatives were first investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and ZnP(p)-C60 with a bent conformation was verified to possess a smaller energy gap and better electron-transport ability. Then ZnP(p)-C60 was entrapped in tetraoctylammonium bromide (TOAB) film and modified on glassy carbon electrode (TOAB/ZnP(p)-C60/GCE). The TOAB/ZnP(p)-C60/GCE showed four well-defined quasi-reversible redox couples with extremely fast direct electron transfer and excellent nonenzymatic sensing ability. The electrocatalytic reduction of H2O2 showed a wide linear range from 0.035 to 3.40 mM, with a high sensitivity of 215.6 μA mM(-1) and a limit of detection (LOD) as low as 0.81 μM. The electrocatalytic oxidation of nitrite showed a linear range from 2.0 μM to 0.164 mM, with a sensitivity of 249.9 μA mM(-1) and a LOD down to 1.44 μM. Moreover, the TOAB/ZnP(p)-C60/GCE showed excellent stability and reproducibility, and good testing recoveries for analysis of the nitrite levels of river water and rainwater. The ZnP(p)-C60 can be used as a novel material for the fabrication of nonenzymatic electrochemical sensors.

  6. Bioelectrode-based approach for enhancing nitrate and nitrite removal and electricity generation from eutrophic lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite contamination of surface waters (e.g. lakes) has become a severe environmental and health problem, especially in developing countries. The recent demonstration of nitrate reduction at the cathode of microbial fuel cell (MFC) provides an opportunity to develop a new technology ...

  7. MWCNT-cysteamine-Nafion modified gold electrode based on myoglobin for determination of hydrogen peroxide and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbay, Erhan; Şahin, Berika; Kıran, Müge; Akyilmaz, Erol

    2015-02-01

    In this work, a novel amperometric biosensor of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was developed based on the immobilization of myoglobin (Mb) on the surface of the multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) -Nafion-cysteamine (CA) modified gold electrode (Au) and its electrocatalytic activity was used for the determination of nitrite (NO2(-)). In the optimization studies, the best MWCNT and myoglobin amount were investigated. It was discovered at the experiments for the optimization of the working conditions that the buffer at this study as 50.0mM, pH7.0 phosphate buffer (PBS) and working temperature as 30°C for the H2O2 biosensor. It was determined at the characterization studies on the biosensor that linear results are obtained between the ranges of 0.1μM to 70.0μM for H2O2 concentration and 1-250μM for NO2(-). The reproducibility of the biosensor was determined both H2O2 and nitrite. From the experiments, average value, standard deviation (SD) and coefficients of variation (CV%) were calculated to be 10.02±0.43μM, and 4.29% for 10.0μM H2O2 (n=6) and 52.0±2.1μM, and 3.89% for 50.0μM nitrite (n=8), respectively. At the same time the sample was analyzed for NO2(-) in drinking and mineral waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Startup of a Partial Nitritation-Anammox MBBR and the Implementation of pH-Based Aeration Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Stephanie; Baumler, Rick; Rutherford, Bob; Thesing, Glenn; Zhao, Hong; Bott, Charles

    2017-06-01

      The single-stage deammonification moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is a process for treating high strength nitrogen waste streams. In this process, partial nitritation and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) occur simultaneously within a biofilm attached to plastic carriers. An existing tank at the James River Treatment Plant (76 ML/d) in Newport News, Virginia was modified to install a sidestream deammonification MBBR process. This was the second sidestream deammonification process in North America and the first MBBR type installation. After 4 months the process achieved greater than 85% ammonia removal at the design loading rate of 2.4 g /m2·d (256 kg /d) signaling the end of startup. Based on observations during startup and process optimization phases, a novel pH-based control system was developed that maximizes ammonium removal and results in stable aeration and effluent alkalinity.

  9. Intermittent Aeration Suppresses Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacteria in Membrane-Aerated Biofilms: A Model-Based Explanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Yunjie; Domingo Felez, Carlos; Plósz, Benedek G.

    2017-01-01

    . On the basis of dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate profiles within the biofilm and in the bulk, a 1-dimensional nitrifying biofilm model was developed and calibrated. The model was utilized to explore the potential mechanisms of NOB suppression associated with intermittent aeration...... nitritation, strategies to suppress nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) are needed, which are ideally grounded on an understanding of underlying mechanisms. In this study, a nitrifying MABR was operated under intermittent aeration. During eight months of operation, AOB dominated, while NOB were suppressed...... during intermittent aeration was mostly explained by periodic inhibition caused by free ammonia due to periodic transient pH upshifts. Dissolved oxygen limitation did not govern NOB suppression. Different intermittent aeration strategies were then evaluated for nitritation success in intermittently...

  10. A new method for the determination of the nitrogen content of nitrocellulose based on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alinat, Elodie; Delaunay, Nathalie; Archer, Xavier; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Gareil, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New insights into the nitrocellulose alkaline denitration mechanism. • Linear correlation for molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions and nitrogen content. • Capillary electrophoresis monitoring of nitrite and nitrate ions. • Applications to explosive and non-explosive nitrocellulose-containing samples. • Improved performances (including safety) over classical methods. - Abstract: A new method was proposed to determine the nitrogen content of nitrocelluloses (NCs). It is based on the finding of a linear relationship between the nitrogen content and the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis. Capillary electrophoresis was used to monitor the concentration of nitrite and nitrate ions. The influences of hydrolysis time and molar mass of NC on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions were investigated, and new insights into the understanding of the alkaline denitration mechanism of NCs, underlying this analytical strategy is provided. The method was then tested successfully with various explosive and non-explosive NC-containing samples such as various daily products and smokeless gunpowders. Inherently to its principle exploiting a concentration ratio, this method shows very good repeatability in the determination of nitrogen content in real samples with relative standard deviation (n = 3) inferior to 1.5%, and also provides very significant advantages with respect to sample extraction, analysis time (1 h for alkaline hydrolysis, 3 min for electrophoretic separation), which was about 5 times shorter than for the classical Devarda's method, currently used in industry, and safety conditions (no need for preliminary drying NC samples, mild hydrolysis conditions with 1 M sodium hydroxide for 1 h at 60 °C)

  11. A new method for the determination of the nitrogen content of nitrocellulose based on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alinat, Elodie, E-mail: elodie.alinat@chimie-paristech.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech, Laboratory of Physicochemistry of Electrolytes, Colloids and Analytical Sciences (PECSA), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Central Laboratory of Police Prefecture (LCPP), 39 bis rue de Dantzig, 75015 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7195 PECSA, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Delaunay, Nathalie, E-mail: nathalie.delaunay@espci.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech, Laboratory of Physicochemistry of Electrolytes, Colloids and Analytical Sciences (PECSA), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7195 PECSA, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Archer, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.archer@interieur.gouv.fr [Central Laboratory of Police Prefecture (LCPP), 39 bis rue de Dantzig, 75015 Paris (France); Mallet, Jean-Maurice, E-mail: jean-maurice.mallet@es.fr [École Normale Supérieure-PSL Research University, Département de Chimie, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7203 LBM, F-75005 Paris (France); Gareil, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.gareil@chimie-paristech.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech, Laboratory of Physicochemistry of Electrolytes, Colloids and Analytical Sciences (PECSA), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7195 PECSA, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LBM, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • New insights into the nitrocellulose alkaline denitration mechanism. • Linear correlation for molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions and nitrogen content. • Capillary electrophoresis monitoring of nitrite and nitrate ions. • Applications to explosive and non-explosive nitrocellulose-containing samples. • Improved performances (including safety) over classical methods. - Abstract: A new method was proposed to determine the nitrogen content of nitrocelluloses (NCs). It is based on the finding of a linear relationship between the nitrogen content and the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis. Capillary electrophoresis was used to monitor the concentration of nitrite and nitrate ions. The influences of hydrolysis time and molar mass of NC on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions were investigated, and new insights into the understanding of the alkaline denitration mechanism of NCs, underlying this analytical strategy is provided. The method was then tested successfully with various explosive and non-explosive NC-containing samples such as various daily products and smokeless gunpowders. Inherently to its principle exploiting a concentration ratio, this method shows very good repeatability in the determination of nitrogen content in real samples with relative standard deviation (n = 3) inferior to 1.5%, and also provides very significant advantages with respect to sample extraction, analysis time (1 h for alkaline hydrolysis, 3 min for electrophoretic separation), which was about 5 times shorter than for the classical Devarda's method, currently used in industry, and safety conditions (no need for preliminary drying NC samples, mild hydrolysis conditions with 1 M sodium hydroxide for 1 h at 60 °C)

  12. The acclimation of Chlorella to high-level nitrite for potential application in biological NOx removal from industrial flue gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianpei; Xu, Gang; Rong, Junfeng; Chen, Hui; He, Chenliu; Giordano, Mario; Wang, Qiang

    2016-05-20

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are the components of fossil flue gas that give rise to the greatest environmental concerns. This study evaluated the ability of the green algae Chlorella to acclimate to high level of NOx and the potential utilization of Chlorella strains in biological NOx removal (DeNOx) from industrial flue gases. Fifteen Chlorella strains were subject to high-level of nitrite (HN, 176.5 mmolL(-1) nitrite) to simulate exposure to high NOx. These strains were subsequently divided into four groups with respect to their ability to tolerate nitrite (excellent, good, fair, and poor). One strain from each group was selected to evaluate their photosynthetic response to HN condition, and the nitrite adaptability of the four Chlorella strains were further identified by using chlorophyll fluorescence. The outcome of our experiments shows that, although high concentrations of nitrite overall negatively affect growth and photosynthesis of Chlorella strains, the degree of nitrite tolerance is a strain-specific feature. Some Chlorella strains have an appreciably higher ability to acclimate to high-level of nitrite. Acclimation is achieved through a three-step process of restrict, acclimate, and thriving. Notably, Chlorella sp. C2 was found to have a high tolerance and to rapidly acclimate to high concentrations of nitrite; it is therefore a promising candidate for microalgae-based biological NOx removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Fluidic automation of nitrate and nitrite bioassays in whole blood by dissolvable-film based centrifugo-pneumatic actuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwankire, Charles E.; Chan, Di-Sien S.; Gaughran, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the full centrifugal microfluidic integration and automation of all liquid handling steps of a 7-step fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA) for quantifying nitrate and nitrite levels in whole blood within about 15 min. The assay protocol encompasses the extraction...

  14. Fluorometric determination of nitrite with 4-hydroxycoumarin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, T.; Arai, Y.; Takitani, S.

    1986-12-01

    A simple, sensitive, and reproducible fluorometric method for determination of nitrite has been developed. This method is based on the nitrosation of 4-hydroxycoumarin in acidic medium and subsequent reduction to 3-amino-4-hydroxy-coumarin, which is fluorescent in alkaline medium. The fluorescence intensity is proportional to the nitrite concentration in the range of 3 ng/mL to 1 ..mu..g/mL in the sample solution, with a relative standard deviation of 0.5% (50 ng/mL). The method has been applied to the determination of nitrite in saliva.

  15. Development of a selective and pH-independent method for the analysis of ultra trace amounts of nitrite in environmental water samples after dispersive magnetic solid phase extraction by spectrofluorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar Tarigh, Ghazale; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes an innovative and rapidly dispersive magnetic solid phase extraction spectrofluorimetry (DMSPE-FL) method for the analysis of trace amounts of nitrite in some environmental water samples. The method includes derivatization of aqueous nitrite with 2, 3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN), analysis of highly fluorescent 2, 3-naphthotriazole (NAT) derivative using spectrofluorimetry after DSPME. The novelty of our method is based on forming NAT that was independent with the pH-responsive and was adsorbed on MMWCNT by hydrophobic attractions in both acidic and basic media. The extraction efficiency of the sorbent was investigated by extraction of nitrite. The optimum extraction conditions for NO2(-) were obtained as of extraction time, 1.5 min; 10mg sorbent from 160 mL of the sample solution, and elution with 1 mL of acetone/KOH. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves were obtained in the range of 0.1-80 µg L(-1) (R(2)=0.999) and LOD (S/N=3) was obtained in 34 ng L(-1). Relative standard deviations (RSD) were 0.6 % (five replicates at 5 μg L(-1)). In addition, the feasibility of the method was demonstrated with extraction and determination of nitrite from some real samples containing tap, mineral, sea, rain, snow and ground waters, with the recovery in standard addition to real matrix of 94-102 % and RSDs of 1.8-10.6%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Isolation of nitrite-degrading strains from Douchi and their application to degrade high nitrite in Jiangshui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xing; Liu, Bianfang; Gao, Lina; Zhou, Yuan; Shan, Yuanyuan; Lü, Xin

    2018-06-01

    Excessive nitrite in food is potentially harmful to human health because of its carcinogenic effects caused by nitroso-dervivatives. Douchi, which widely distributed throughout the country, is a traditional solid fermented soybean food with low nitrite content. In this study, bacterias which can degrade nitrite were isolated from Douchi and identified according to 16S rDNA sequence. Acinetobacter guillouiae, Acinetobacter bereziniae, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus tequilensis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus aryabhattai and Bacillus methylotrophicus were selected. It was shown that all strains have nitrite degradation capability, in which 99.41 % nitrite can be degraded by Bacillus subtilis NDS1. The enzyme activities of these strains were determined at 24 h and 48 h, which corresponded to their nitrite degradation rates. The strains were firstly tried to inoculate in Jiangshui, which is a kind of traditional fermented vegetable in northwest China and often has high nitrite content. It was found that Bacillus subtilis NDS1, Bacillus tequilensis NDS3, Acinetobacter bereziniae NDS4, Bacillus subtilis NDS6, Bacillus subtilis NDS12 can degrade nitrite in Jiangshui more quickly, among which Acinetobacter bereziniae NDS4 degraded almost all nitrite in 48 h while it took 180 h for control. These results indicated that the selected strains have potential to become nitrite degradition agent in food. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary nitrates, nitrites, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Norman G

    2011-12-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO(3)), nitrite (NO(2)), and arginine can serve as sources for production of NO(x) (a diverse group of metabolites including nitric oxide, nitrosothiols, and nitroalkenes) via ultraviolet light exposure to skin, mammalian nitrate/nitrite reductases in tissues, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, respectively. NO(x) are responsible for the hypotensive, antiplatelet, and cytoprotective effects of dietary nitrates and nitrites. Current regulatory limits on nitrate intakes, based on concerns regarding potential risk of carcinogenicity and methemoglobinemia, are exceeded by normal daily intakes of single foods, such as soya milk and spinach, as well as by some recommended dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. This review includes a call for regulatory bodies to consider all available data on the beneficial physiologic roles of nitrate and nitrite in order to derive rational bases for dietary recommendations.

  18. Nitrate decreases xanthine oxidoreductase-mediated nitrite reductase activity and attenuates vascular and blood pressure responses to nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damacena-Angelis, Célio; Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Pinheiro, Lucas C; Crevelin, Eduardo J; Portella, Rafael L; Moraes, Luiz Alberto B; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2017-08-01

    Nitrite and nitrate restore deficient endogenous nitric oxide (NO) production as they are converted back to NO, and therefore complement the classic enzymatic NO synthesis. Circulating nitrate and nitrite must cross membrane barriers to produce their effects and increased nitrate concentrations may attenuate the nitrite influx into cells, decreasing NO generation from nitrite. Moreover, xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) mediates NO formation from nitrite and nitrate. However, no study has examined whether nitrate attenuates XOR-mediated NO generation from nitrite. We hypothesized that nitrate attenuates the vascular and blood pressure responses to nitrite either by interfering with nitrite influx into vascular tissue, or by competing with nitrite for XOR, thus inhibiting XOR-mediated NO generation. We used two independent vascular function assays in rats (aortic ring preparations and isolated mesenteric arterial bed perfusion) to examine the effects of sodium nitrate on the concentration-dependent responses to sodium nitrite. Both assays showed that nitrate attenuated the vascular responses to nitrite. Conversely, the aortic responses to the NO donor DETANONOate were not affected by sodium nitrate. Further confirming these results, we found that nitrate attenuated the acute blood pressure lowering effects of increasing doses of nitrite infused intravenously in freely moving rats. The possibility that nitrate could compete with nitrite and decrease nitrite influx into cells was tested by measuring the accumulation of nitrogen-15-labeled nitrite ( 15 N-nitrite) by aortic rings using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Nitrate exerted no effect on aortic accumulation of 15 N-nitrite. Next, we used chemiluminescence-based NO detection to examine whether nitrate attenuates XOR-mediated nitrite reductase activity. Nitrate significantly shifted the Michaelis Menten saturation curve to the right, with a 3-fold increase in the

  19. Inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica by nitrite and nitrate in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Giusti, M; de Vito, E

    1992-01-01

    The antimicrobial effects of sodium nitrite and sodium and potassium nitrate against Yersinia enterocolitica were investigated in solution and in treated pork meat. Potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate showed only feeble antimicrobial activity in cultures; no antimicrobial activity was detected with sodium nitrite. Conversely, all three salts displayed apparent antimicrobial activity in pork meat, possibly due to selective effects on competitive flora.

  20. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruña, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    carried out taking into account all direct and indirect sources of nitrite from the human diet, including carry-over of nitrite in animal-based products such as milk, eggs and meat products. Human exposure was then compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrite of 0-0.07 mg/kg b.w. per day. Overall, the low levels of nitrite in fresh animal products represented only 2.9% of the total daily dietary exposure and thus were not considered to raise concerns for human health. It is concluded that the potential health risk to animals from the consumption of feed or to man from eating fresh animal products containing nitrite, is very low.

  1. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Bordajandi, Luisa R.; Cottrill, Bruce; Peteghem, Carlos van; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-01-01

    carried out taking into account all direct and indirect sources of nitrite from the human diet, including carry-over of nitrite in animal-based products such as milk, eggs and meat products. Human exposure was then compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrite of 0-0.07 mg/kg b.w. per day. Overall, the low levels of nitrite in fresh animal products represented only 2.9% of the total daily dietary exposure and thus were not considered to raise concerns for human health. It is concluded that the potential health risk to animals from the consumption of feed or to man from eating fresh animal products containing nitrite, is very low

  2. Amperometric nitrite sensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and poly(toluidine blue)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Juan; Deng, Fei; He, Shuang; Deng, Dongli; Yuan, Yali; Zhang, Jinzhong

    2016-01-01

    An amperometric nitrite sensor modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and poly(toluidine blue) (PTB) on glassy carbon electrode was constructed. The surface morphology of the composite- modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and the electrochemical response behavior and electrocatalytic oxidation mechanism of nitrite were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The high surface-to-volume ratio of MWCNTs and PTB brings the electrochemical sensing unit and nitrite in full contact. This renders the electrochemical response extremely sensitive to nitrite. Under the optimal measurement conditions and a working voltage of 0.73 V (vs. SCE), a linear relationship is obtained between the oxidation peak current and nitrite concentration in the range of 39 nM–1.1 mM, and the limit of detection is lowered to 19 nM (at an S/N ratio of 3). The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of nitrite in greenhouse soils. (author)

  3. A new system for the spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of nitrite in environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian Tom

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A selective and rapid spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrite is presented. It is based on the reaction of nitrite with p-nitroaniline in acid medium to form diazonium ion, which is coupled with ethoxyethylenemaleic ester or ethylcyanoacetate in basic medium to form azo dyes, showing absorption maxima at 439 and 465 nm respectively. The method obeys Beer's law in the concentration range of 0.5-16 µg mL-1 of nitrite with ethoxyethylenemaleic ester and 0.2-18 µg mL-1 of nitrite with ethylcyanoacetate. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of p-nitroaniline-ethoxyethylenemaleic ester and p-nitroaniline-ethylcyanoacetate azo dyes are 5.04 X 10(4 L mol-1cm-1, 0.98 X 10-2 µg cm-2 and 1.21 X 10(4 L mol-1 cm-1, 0.98 X 10-2 µg cm-2 respectively. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters were evaluated. The method was successfully applied to the determination of nitrite in various water samples and soil samples.

  4. Mortality from different causes associated with meat, heme iron, nitrates, and nitrites in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study: population based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rashmi; Ward, Mary H; Graubard, Barry I; Inoue-Choi, Maki; Dawsey, Sanford M; Abnet, Christian C

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of different types of meat intake and meat associated compounds with overall and cause specific mortality. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Baseline dietary data of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (prospective cohort of the general population from six states and two metropolitan areas in the US) and 16 year follow-up data until 31 December 2011. Participants 536 969 AARP members aged 50-71 at baseline. Exposures Intake of total meat, processed and unprocessed red meat (beef, lamb, and pork) and white meat (poultry and fish), heme iron, and nitrate/nitrite from processed meat based on dietary questionnaire. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used with the lowest fifth of calorie adjusted intakes as reference categories. Main outcome measure Mortality from any cause during follow-up. Results An increased risk of all cause mortality (hazard ratio for highest versus lowest fifth 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.29) and death due to nine different causes associated with red meat intake was observed. Both processed and unprocessed red meat intakes were associated with all cause and cause specific mortality. Heme iron and processed meat nitrate/nitrite were independently associated with increased risk of all cause and cause specific mortality. Mediation models estimated that the increased mortality associated with processed red meat was influenced by nitrate intake (37.0-72.0%) and to a lesser degree by heme iron (20.9-24.1%). When the total meat intake was constant, the highest fifth of white meat intake was associated with a 25% reduction in risk of all cause mortality compared with the lowest intake level. Almost all causes of death showed an inverse association with white meat intake. Conclusions The results show increased risks of all cause mortality and death due to nine different causes associated with both processed and unprocessed red meat, accounted for, in part, by

  5. Modification of Screen Printed Carbon Electrode (SPCE with Fe3O4 for the Determination of Nitrite (NO2- in Squarewave Voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Marista Rosida

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrite is one of the food preservatives that the government permits, but on the use of over limits can cause endanger health, so it is necessary to control the content of nitrite in the food. Modification of electrodes on a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE with Fe3O4 has been successfully done for determination of nitrite. Modification of the electrode has been done by electrodeposition with cyclic voltammetry. Electrodeposition successfully performed with an electrolyte solution of FeCl3 in ethanol. Selection of the optimum drying temperature modified electrode obtained based on the respond of the solution of nitrite in Britton Robinson buffer pH 8. The result of the modification electrode used for the determination of nitrite with squarewave voltammetry method. Reaction between Fe3+ with nitrite a basis for determining nitric indirectly measured so that the peak current is the peak current of Fe3+ of about 0,55 V vs Ag/AgCl. The results showed nitrite measurements with this method has a detection limit of 1.3 x 10-8 M.

  6. Portable Nitric Oxide (NO) Generator Based on Electrochemical Reduction of Nitrite for Potential Applications in Inhaled NO Therapy and Cardiopulmonary Bypass Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yu; Zajda, Joanna; Brisbois, Elizabeth J; Ren, Hang; Toomasian, John M; Major, Terry C; Rojas-Pena, Alvaro; Carr, Benjamin; Johnson, Thomas; Haft, Jonathan W; Bartlett, Robert H; Hunt, Andrew P; Lehnert, Nicolai; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2017-11-06

    A new portable gas phase nitric oxide (NO) generator is described for potential applications in inhaled NO (INO) therapy and during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery. In this system, NO is produced at the surface of a large-area mesh working electrode by electrochemical reduction of nitrite ions in the presence of a soluble copper(II)-ligand electron transfer mediator complex. The NO generated is then transported into gas phase by either direct purging with nitrogen/air or via circulating the electrolyte/nitrite solution through a gas extraction silicone fiber-based membrane-dialyzer assembly. Gas phase NO concentrations can be tuned in the range of 5-1000 ppm (parts per million by volume for gaseous species), in proportion to a constant cathodic current applied between the working and counter electrodes. This new NO generation process has the advantages of rapid production times (5 min to steady-state), high Faraday NO production efficiency (ca. 93%), excellent stability, and very low cost when using air as the carrier gas for NO (in the membrane dialyzer configuration), enabling the development of potentially portable INO devices. In this initial work, the new system is examined for the effectiveness of gaseous NO to reduce the systemic inflammatory response (SIR) during CPB, where 500 ppm of NO added to the sweep gas of the oxygenator or to the cardiotomy suction air in a CPB system is shown to prevent activation of white blood cells (granulocytes and monocytes) during extracorporeal circulation with cardiotomy suction conducted with five pigs.

  7. Nitrite reduction mechanism on a Pd surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeyoung; Jung, Sungyoon; Bae, Sungjun; Lee, Woojin; Kim, Hyungjun

    2014-11-04

    Nitrate (NO3-) is one of the most harmful contaminants in the groundwater, and it causes various health problems. Bimetallic catalysts, usually palladium (Pd) coupled with secondary metallic catalyst, are found to properly treat nitrate-containing wastewaters; however, the selectivity toward N2 production over ammonia (NH3) production still requires further improvement. Because the N2 selectivity is determined at the nitrite (NO2-) reduction step on the Pd surface, which occurs after NO3- is decomposed into NO2- on the secondary metallic catalyst, we here performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experiments to investigate the NO2- reduction pathway on the Pd surface activated by hydrogen. Based on extensive DFT calculations on the relative energetics among ∼100 possible intermediates, we found that NO2- is easily reduced to NO* on the Pd surface, followed by either sequential hydrogenation steps to yield NH3 or a decomposition step to N* and O* (an adsorbate on Pd is denoted using an asterisk). Based on the calculated high migration barrier of N*, we further discussed that the direct combination of two N* to yield N2 is kinetically less favorable than the combination of a highly mobile H* with N* to yield NH3. Instead, the reduction of NO2- in the vicinity of the N* can yield N2O* that can be preferentially transformed into N2 via diverse reaction pathways. Our DFT results suggest that enhancing the likelihood of N* encountering NO2- in the solution phase before combination with surface H* is important for maximizing the N2 selectivity. This is further supported by our experiments on NO2- reduction by Pd/TiO2, showing that both a decreased H2 flow rate and an increased NO2- concentration increased the N2 selectivity (78.6-93.6% and 57.8-90.9%, respectively).

  8. Rapid visual and spectrophotometric nitrite detection by cyclometalated ruthenium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hoi-Shing; Lo, Ka-Wai; Yeung, Chi-Fung; Wong, Chun-Yuen

    2017-10-16

    Quantitative determination of nitrite ion (NO 2 - ) is of great importance in environmental and clinical investigations. A rapid visual and spectrophotometric assay for NO 2 - detection was developed based on a newly designed ruthenium complex, [Ru(npy)([9]aneS3)(CO)](ClO 4 ) (denoted as RuNPY; npy = 2-(1-naphthyl)pyridine, [9]aneS3 = 1,4,7-trithiacyclononane). This complex traps NO + produced in acidified NO 2 - solution, and yields observable color change within 1 min at room temperature. The assay features excellent dynamic range (1-840 μmol L -1 ) and high selectivity, and its limit of detection (0.39 μmol L -1 ) is also well below the guideline values for drinking water recommended by WHO and U.S. EPA. Practical use of this assay in tap water and human urine was successfully demonstrated. Overall, the rapidity and selectivity of this assay overcome the problems suffered by the commonly used modified Griess assays for nitrite determination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of high performance concrete containing fly ash and calcium nitrite based corrosion inhibitor as a mean to prevent the corrosion of reinforcing steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes-García, P; Jiménez-Quero, V; López-Calvo, H

    2015-01-01

    This research analyses the effectiveness of the water-to-cement ratio (w/c), fly ash and a calcium nitrite based corrosion inhibitor to prevent the corrosion of reinforcing steel embedded in high performance concrete. The interactive effect between the inhibitor and fly ash was evaluated because the occurrence of a negative effect when both ingredients are added together in a concrete mixture has been reported. All the concrete mixtures studied in this investigation had 8.2% of silica fume. Twenty seven prismatic concrete specimens were fabricated with dimensions of 55 × 230 × 300 mm each containing two steel rods embedded for the purpose of corrosion monitoring. The specimens were exposed to a simulated marine environment with two daily cycles of wetting and drying for one year. To evaluate the deterioration of the specimens corrosion potentials and linear polarization resistance tests were carried out. The results indicate that the use of a low w/c, the addition of fly ash and the addition of the corrosion inhibitor contributed to the reduction of the corrosion of steel in the concrete specimens. The results further suggest that the combination of fly ash and corrosion inhibitor does not promote the deterioration of the concrete matrix

  10. Mutagenicity of some alkyl nitrites used as recreational drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkel, V.C.; Cameron, T.P. (National Institute of Health, Bethesda (USA)); Rogers-Back, A.M.; Lawlor, T.E.; Harbell, J.W. (Microbiological Associates Inc., Rockville, MD (USA))

    1989-01-01

    When the AIDS epidemic was in its earliest stages, and prior to identification of HIV as the etiological factor, the use of volatile nitrites by the male homosexual community to enhance sexual activities appeared to have a significant role in this disease. Preliminary observations indicated that that portion of the male homosexual community which developed Kaposi's sarcoma were also heavy nitrite users. These nitrites had been demonstrated to be mutagenic in bacteria and thus it was postulated that they could be responsible for the appearance of the sarcoma. To evaluate further the genotoxic activity of these chemicals, six nitrites, including those most commonly used by homosexuals for sexual gratification, were selected for testing in the mouse lymphoma TK {plus minus} and Salmonell typhimurium mutagenicity assays. One chemical, n-amyl nitrite, was negative in the mouse lymphoma assay, while the other five chemicals, n-butyl, isobutyl, iso-amyl, sec-butyl, and n-propyl nitrite, were positive. All six compounds were positive in the Salmonella assay. The mutagenic and known toxic effects of these chemicals remain a concern because a large population of teenagers and young adults continue to abuse these substances.

  11. Fabrication of a Paper-Based Microfluidic Device to Readily Determine Nitrite Ion Concentration by Simple Colorimetric Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Lin, Zhiqiang; Wang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Paper-based microfluidic devices (µPAD) are a burgeoning platform of microfluidic analysis technology. The method described herein is for use in undergraduate and high school chemistry laboratories. A simple and convenient µPAD was fabricated by easy patterning of filter paper using a permanent marker pen. The usefulness of the device was…

  12. Characterisation by Impedance Spectroscopy and Capacitance-Voltage of an EMIS Sensor Functionalized by Catalase for Nitrite Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZAZOUA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Impedance spectroscopy and capacitance-voltage (C-V methods are a rapidly developing electrochemical technique for the characterization of biomaterial–functionalized electrodes and biocatalytic transformations on the electrodes surface, and specifically for the transduction of biosensing events at electrodes. Such techniques have been used in our work as a tool for the characterization of a new nitrite biosensor for environmental applications based on the immobilization of catalase on insulator-semiconductor (IS systems (p-Si/SiO2/Si3N4. The principle of the developed biosensor includes the following: Catalase catalyzed the breakdown of H2O2 into H2O and O2. Nitrite was selected as an inhibitor of catalase. Under optimal conditions, i.e. buffer capacity corresponding to 3 mM phosphate buffer, the catalase enzyme insulator semiconductor sensors shows a high sensitivity to nitrite detection. In both cases, the responses of these biosensors based on nitrite additions are good with the detection limit around 10-11 M. It is expected that such an original and promising concept of inhibitor-based biosensors based on reactivation by inhibitive effects, will be useful for the development of environmental smart biosensors based on the integration of ENFET with the corresponding instrumentation in the same silicon chip.

  13. Predicting the Responses of Soil Nitrite-Oxidizers to Multi-Factorial Global Change: A Trait-Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Roux, Xavier; Bouskill, Nicholas J.; Niboyet, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Soil microbial diversity is huge and a few grams of soil contain more bacterial taxa than there are bird species on Earth. This high diversity often makes predicting the responses of soil bacteria to environmental change intractable and restricts our capacity to predict the responses of soil...... functions to global change. Here, using a long-term field experiment in a California grassland, we studied the main and interactive effects of three global change factors (increased atmospheric CO2 concentration, precipitation and nitrogen addition, and all their factorial combinations, based on global...

  14. THE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF NITRITES WITH N,N-DIETHYLANILINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Pogrebnyak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A new spectrophotometric method for nitrite determination was proposed. The method is based on the measurement of absorbance of the N,N-diethylaniline nitrosation product at 475 nm in the hydrochloric acid medium. The optimum concentrations and the influence of various conditions on the determination sensitivity have been determined. The detection limit (blank + 3s for nitrite is 0.98 mg∙L–1 where sis the standard deviation of blank estimation. The linearity range of the calibration graph was over 1.0–100 mg∙L–1 of  nitrite (sr≤ 0.029, n = 8. The metrological characteristics of the procedure were checked by means of method of additives on the control samples and natural waters. The relative error did not exceed 0.06 for nitrite determination on the control samples. The effect of foreign ions in nitrite determination of 1,0∙10−3 mol∙L–1 has been studied. The proposed procedure is simple  and suitable for nitrite determination in various objects.

  15. A novel nitrite biosensor based on the direct electron transfer hemoglobin immobilized in the WO3 nanowires with high length–diameter ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hui; Duan, Congyue; Yang, Chenhui; Chen, Xianjin; Shen, Wanqiu; Zhu, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    WO 3 nanowires (WO 3 NWs) with high length–diameter ratio have been synthesized through a simple synthetic route without any additive and then used to immobilize hemoglobin (Hb) to fabricate a mediator-free biosensor. The morphology and structure of WO 3 NWs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Spectroscopic and electrochemical results revealed that WO 3 NWs are an excellent immobilization matrix with biocompatibility for redox protein, affording good protein bioactivity and stability. Meanwhile, due to unique morphology and property of the WO 3 nanowires, the direct electron transfer of Hb is facilitated and the prepared biosensors displayed good performance for the detection of nitrite with a wide linear range of 1 to 4200 μM, as well as an extremely low detection limit of 0.28 μM. The WO 3 nanowires with high length–diameter ratio could be a promising matrix for the fabrication of mediator-free biosensors, and may find wide potential applications in environmental analysis and biomedical detection. - Highlights: • The WO 3 NWs with high length–diameter ratio have been synthesized. • The WO 3 NWs were used to immobilize Hb to fabricate a mediator-free biosensor. • The biosensor displays a wide linear range of 1–4200 μM for nitrite. • The biosensor exhibits an extremely low detection limit of 0.28 μM for nitrite

  16. Development of estimates of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines for use with the short willet food frequency questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesenbeck, John S; Steck, Michelle D; Huber, John C; Sharkey, Joseph R; Rene, Antonio A; Brender, Jean D

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies have suggested that nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines have an etiologic role in adverse pregnancy outcomes and chronic diseases such as cancer. Although an extensive body of literature exists on estimates of these compounds in foods, the extant data varies in quality, quantified estimates, and relevance. Methods We developed estimates of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines for food items listed in the Short Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire (WFFQ) as adapted for use in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Multiple reference databases were searched for published literature reflecting nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamine values in foods. Relevant published literature was reviewed; only publications reporting results for items listed on the WFFQ were selected for inclusion. The references selected were prioritized according to relevance to the U.S. population. Results Based on our estimates, vegetable products contain the highest levels of nitrate, contributing as much as 189 mg/serving. Meat and bean products contain the highest levels of nitrites with values up to 1.84 mg/serving. Alcohol, meat and dairy products contain the highest values of nitrosamines with a maximum value of 0.531 μg/serving. The estimates of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines generated in this study are based on the published values currently available. Conclusion To our knowledge, these are the only estimates specifically designed for use with the adapted WFFQ and generated to represent food items available to the U.S. population. The estimates provided may be useful in other research studies, specifically in those exploring the relation between exposure to these compounds in foods and adverse health outcomes. PMID:19348679

  17. Development of estimates of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines for use with the short willet food frequency questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Antonio A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have suggested that nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines have an etiologic role in adverse pregnancy outcomes and chronic diseases such as cancer. Although an extensive body of literature exists on estimates of these compounds in foods, the extant data varies in quality, quantified estimates, and relevance. Methods We developed estimates of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines for food items listed in the Short Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire (WFFQ as adapted for use in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Multiple reference databases were searched for published literature reflecting nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamine values in foods. Relevant published literature was reviewed; only publications reporting results for items listed on the WFFQ were selected for inclusion. The references selected were prioritized according to relevance to the U.S. population. Results Based on our estimates, vegetable products contain the highest levels of nitrate, contributing as much as 189 mg/serving. Meat and bean products contain the highest levels of nitrites with values up to 1.84 mg/serving. Alcohol, meat and dairy products contain the highest values of nitrosamines with a maximum value of 0.531 μg/serving. The estimates of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines generated in this study are based on the published values currently available. Conclusion To our knowledge, these are the only estimates specifically designed for use with the adapted WFFQ and generated to represent food items available to the U.S. population. The estimates provided may be useful in other research studies, specifically in those exploring the relation between exposure to these compounds in foods and adverse health outcomes.

  18. Development of estimates of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines for use with the Short Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesenbeck, John S; Steck, Michelle D; Huber, John C; Sharkey, Joseph R; Rene, Antonio A; Brender, Jean D

    2009-04-06

    Studies have suggested that nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines have an etiologic role in adverse pregnancy outcomes and chronic diseases such as cancer. Although an extensive body of literature exists on estimates of these compounds in foods, the extant data varies in quality, quantified estimates, and relevance. We developed estimates of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines for food items listed in the Short Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire (WFFQ) as adapted for use in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Multiple reference databases were searched for published literature reflecting nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamine values in foods. Relevant published literature was reviewed; only publications reporting results for items listed on the WFFQ were selected for inclusion. The references selected were prioritized according to relevance to the U.S. population. Based on our estimates, vegetable products contain the highest levels of nitrate, contributing as much as 189 mg/serving. Meat and bean products contain the highest levels of nitrites with values up to 1.84 mg/serving. Alcohol, meat and dairy products contain the highest values of nitrosamines with a maximum value of 0.531 microg/serving. The estimates of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines generated in this study are based on the published values currently available. To our knowledge, these are the only estimates specifically designed for use with the adapted WFFQ and generated to represent food items available to the U.S. population. The estimates provided may be useful in other research studies, specifically in those exploring the relation between exposure to these compounds in foods and adverse health outcomes.

  19. DECREASING OF SODIUM NITRITE CONTENT IN COOKED SAUSAGES USING DENITRIFYING MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal-Prylypko L. V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study reduction of sodium nitrite in cooked sausages by adding of the optimized amount of denitrifying microorganisms to the bacterial preparation maintaining quality characteristics of the product. To develop biotechnology of boiled sausages «Naturel» we selected bacterial preparation based on nitrite-reducing strains of Staphylococcus carnosus and S. carnosus ssp.utilis. It was used generally accepted and special methods. The content of total pigments and nitrozopigments was determined by a method based on the extraction of meat pigments by aqueous acetone; color stability of final products was evaluated as the difference in optical density of nitroso pigment extracts before and after exposure (40 min of the sample under the light source; analytical processing of the experimental data was carried out using modern software; quantitative evaluation of color characteristics was performed in the RGB using a multifunctional device Epson Stylus TX400. Mathematical modeling was carried out on the basis of full factorial experiment such as 22, the optimization was performed by Box–Wilson. According to the study, using of the bacterial preparation based on nitrite-reducing strains of Staphylococcus carnosus and S. carnosus ssp. utilis in biotechnology of boiled sausages «Naturel» has a positive effect on the formation of the complex of required color characteristics of final products (for prototypes of sausages the index redness was 1. 61 times higher compared to the control. Degradation of sodium nitrite and formation of nitroso pigments were intensified that improved the stability of color during the storage (the index of color fastness of experimental cooked sausages was higher by 19%. The results of performed investigations illustrate the possibility of production of cooked sausages with a minimized content of synthetic food additives and ingredients.

  20. Respiration of Nitrate and Nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey A; Richardson, David J

    2008-09-01

    Nitrate reduction to ammonia via nitrite occurs widely as an anabolic process through which bacteria, archaea, and plants can assimilate nitrate into cellular biomass. Escherichia coli and related enteric bacteria can couple the eight-electron reduction of nitrate to ammonium to growth by coupling the nitrate and nitrite reductases involved to energy-conserving respiratory electron transport systems. In global terms, the respiratory reduction of nitrate to ammonium dominates nitrate and nitrite reduction in many electron-rich environments such as anoxic marine sediments and sulfide-rich thermal vents, the human gastrointestinal tract, and the bodies of warm-blooded animals. This review reviews the regulation and enzymology of this process in E. coli and, where relevant detail is available, also in Salmonella and draws comparisons with and implications for the process in other bacteria where it is pertinent to do so. Fatty acids may be present in high levels in many of the natural environments of E. coli and Salmonella in which oxygen is limited but nitrate is available to support respiration. In E. coli, nitrate reduction in the periplasm involves the products of two seven-gene operons, napFDAGHBC, encoding the periplasmic nitrate reductase, and nrfABCDEFG, encoding the periplasmic nitrite reductase. No bacterium has yet been shown to couple a periplasmic nitrate reductase solely to the cytoplasmic nitrite reductase NirB. The cytoplasmic pathway for nitrate reduction to ammonia is restricted almost exclusively to a few groups of facultative anaerobic bacteria that encounter high concentrations of environmental nitrate.

  1. Energetics and kinetics of ferrocyanide and nitrate/nitrite reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Burger, L.L.; Sell, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    During the 1950's, radiocesium scavenging at the Hanford site resulted in radioactive waste sludges containing ferrocyanide, nitrate, and nitrite. These waters are a concern since certain mixtures of ferrocyanide and nitrate and/or nitrite are known to explode when heated. The authors have used differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, isothermal calorimetry and gravimetry, and accelerating rate calorimetry to measure the thermal behavior, the reaction enthalpies, and selected kinetic parameters for reactions between sodium nickel ferrocyanide, the suspected ferrocyanide form in Hanford wastes, and nitrate and/or nitrite. These studies indicate that the oxidation proceeds via multiple steps, the initial reaction begins near 200 degrees C, the initial step has a high activation energy (>200 kJ/mole-K), succeeding reaction steps have activation energies ranging from 90 to 160 kJ/mole-K, and that the oxidation yields about 50% of the theoretical heat of reaction for the most energetic reaction

  2. Effect of Nitrite Inhibitor on the Macrocell Corrosion Behavior of Reinforcing Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglu Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nitrite ions on the macrocell corrosion behavior of reinforcing steel embedded in cement mortar was investigated by comparing and analyzing the macrocell corrosion current, macrocell polarization ratios, and slopes of anodic and cathodic steels. Based on the experimental results, the relationship between macrocell potential difference and macrocell current density was analyzed, and the mechanism of macrocell corrosion affected by nitrite ions was proposed. The results indicated that nitrite ions had significant impact on the macrocell polarization ratios of cathode and anode. The presence of nitrite could reduce the macrocell current by decreasing the macrocell potential difference and increasing the macrocell polarization resistance of the anode.

  3. A novel nitrite biosensor based on the direct electron transfer hemoglobin immobilized in the WO{sub 3} nanowires with high length–diameter ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui, E-mail: liuhui@sust.edu.cn; Duan, Congyue; Yang, Chenhui; Chen, Xianjin; Shen, Wanqiu; Zhu, Zhenfeng

    2015-08-01

    WO{sub 3} nanowires (WO{sub 3}NWs) with high length–diameter ratio have been synthesized through a simple synthetic route without any additive and then used to immobilize hemoglobin (Hb) to fabricate a mediator-free biosensor. The morphology and structure of WO{sub 3}NWs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Spectroscopic and electrochemical results revealed that WO{sub 3}NWs are an excellent immobilization matrix with biocompatibility for redox protein, affording good protein bioactivity and stability. Meanwhile, due to unique morphology and property of the WO{sub 3} nanowires, the direct electron transfer of Hb is facilitated and the prepared biosensors displayed good performance for the detection of nitrite with a wide linear range of 1 to 4200 μM, as well as an extremely low detection limit of 0.28 μM. The WO{sub 3} nanowires with high length–diameter ratio could be a promising matrix for the fabrication of mediator-free biosensors, and may find wide potential applications in environmental analysis and biomedical detection. - Highlights: • The WO{sub 3}NWs with high length–diameter ratio have been synthesized. • The WO{sub 3}NWs were used to immobilize Hb to fabricate a mediator-free biosensor. • The biosensor displays a wide linear range of 1–4200 μM for nitrite. • The biosensor exhibits an extremely low detection limit of 0.28 μM for nitrite.

  4. Can urinary nitrite results be used to conduct antimicrobial option for urinary tract infection in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahyar, Abolfazl; Ayazi, Parviz; Froozesh, Mahta; Daneshi-Kohan, Mohammad-Mahdi; Barikani, Ameneh

    2012-06-01

    This study was performed to determine the relationship between urinary nitrite results and bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs in urinary tract infection of children. In a cross-section study 119 children younger than 12 years with urinary tract infection were evaluated in Qazvin children's hospital. Patients were divided into negative and positive nitrite groups depending on urinary nitrite test result. Rates of antibiotic resistance in the two groups were compared. Sixty seven patients were in the negative nitrite group and 52 in the positive nitrite group. Resistance rates to ceftriaxone, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, gentamicin, amikacin, nalidixic acid, cephalothin and nitrofurantoin in the nitrite negative group were 7.5%, 31.3%, 50.7%, 11.9%, 9%, 3%, 14.9% and 11.9%, respectively. These values in the nitrite positive group were 21.2%, 28.8%, 63.5%, 7.7%, 5.8%, 1.9%, 9.6%, and 3.8%, respectively (P>0.05). This study showed that there is no correlation between urinary nitrite results and bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Therefore, it seems that physicians should not adjust antibiotic therapy for UTI based on nitrite results.

  5. De novo biofilm community assembly from tap water source communities favors Nitrotoga over Nitrospira under elevated nitrite surface loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Marta; Dechesne, Arnaud; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    -through biofilm system to continuous immigration from a tap water metacommunity while applying different nitrite surface loading rates. After 63 days of operation, we extracted biofilms and analyzed the community composition via Illumina MiSeq targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Previous studies have shown...... that Nitrospira is the dominant nitrite oxidizing genus in low nitrite environments. Hence, we postulated that by elevating the nitrite surface loading we would select for NOB with lower nitrite affinity than Nitrospira. We observed different dominant NOB species under different loading rates. While...... in the metacommunity, Nitrotoga and Nitrospira were found at near equal abundances, in the biofilm community, elevated nitrite loading strongly selected for Nitrotoga over Nitrospira. The biofilms were also significantly different in their alpha-diversity (pdiversity, and the evenness and richness...

  6. The effects of elevated environmental CO2 on nitrite uptake in the air-breathing clown knifefish, Chitala ornata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Thi Hong Gam; Jensen, Frank Bo; Do Thi Thanh Huong

    2018-01-01

    hypercapnia) and nitrite for 96 h. Blood was sampled to measure acid-base status, haemoglobin derivatives and plasma ions. Plasma nitrite increased for 48 h, but levels stayed below the exposure concentration, and subsequently decreased as a result of nitrite detoxification to nitrate. The total uptake......Nitrite and carbon dioxide are common environmental contaminants in the intensive aquaculture ponds used to farm clown knifefish (Chitala ornata) in the Mekong delta, Vietnam. Here we tested the hypothesis that hypercapnia reduces nitrite uptake across the gills, because pH regulation will reduce...... chloride uptake and hence nitrite uptake as the two ions compete for the same transport route via the branchial HCO3-/Cl- exchanger. Fish fitted with arterial catheters were exposed to normocapnic/normoxic water (control), nitrite (1 mM), hypercapnia (21 mmHg CO2), or combined hypercapnia (acclimated...

  7. Dependence of nitrite oxidation on nitrite and oxygen in low-oxygen seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Ji, Qixing; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B.

    2017-08-01

    Nitrite oxidation is an essential step in transformations of fixed nitrogen. The physiology of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) implies that the rates of nitrite oxidation should be controlled by concentration of their substrate, nitrite, and the terminal electron acceptor, oxygen. The sensitivities of nitrite oxidation to oxygen and nitrite concentrations were investigated using 15N tracer incubations in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific. Nitrite stimulated nitrite oxidation under low in situ nitrite conditions, following Michaelis-Menten kinetics, indicating that nitrite was the limiting substrate. The nitrite half-saturation constant (Ks = 0.254 ± 0.161 μM) was 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than in cultivated NOB, indicating higher affinity of marine NOB for nitrite. The highest rates of nitrite oxidation were measured in the oxygen depleted zone (ODZ), and were partially inhibited by additions of oxygen. This oxygen sensitivity suggests that ODZ specialist NOB, adapted to low-oxygen conditions, are responsible for apparently anaerobic nitrite oxidation.

  8. Evaluation of nitrite contamination in baby foods and infant formulas marketed in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkekoglu, Pinar; Baydar, Terken

    2009-05-01

    Nitrites are responsible for methemoglobinemia, to which infants younger than 6 months are thought to be the most susceptible population. This study aimed to detect whether there was any nitrite contamination in infant formulas and baby foods marketed in Turkey and to estimate possible toxicological risks in this sensitive physiological period. For this purpose, the samples were randomly collected and divided into four groups: milk-based, cereal-based, vegetable-based, and fruit-based. An easy and reliable spectrophotometric method was used by modifying the Griess method. The average nitrite contamination was found to be 204.07+/-65.80 microg/g in 42 samples, with 1,073 microg/g maximum. According to the results, baby and infant formulas include various nitrite levels; nitrite contamination might come from several sources during manufacturing, and so extreme attention must be given throughout the manufacturing process of food for infants.

  9. Nitrates and nitrites intoxications’ management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Trif

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study pointed out the major sources for clinical and subclinical intoxications with nitrates/nitrites (drinking water and nitrates containing fertilizers, circumstances that determine fertilizers to became sources of intoxication (excessive fertilization/consecutive high level of nitrates in fodders, free access of animals to the fertilizers, administration into the diet instead of natrium chloride, factors that determine high nitrates accumulation in fodders despite optimal fertilization (factors related to the plants, soil, clime, harvest methods, storage, agrotechnical measures, nitrates/nitrites toxicity (over 45 ppm nitrates in drinking water, over 0.5 g nitrate/100 g D.M fodder/diet, the factors that influence nitrates/nitrites toxicity ( species, age, rate of feeding, diet balance especially energetically, pathological effects and symptoms (irritation and congestions on digestive tract, resulting diarrhoea, transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin determining severe respiratory insufficiency, vascular collapse, low blood pressure inthe acute nitrates intoxication; hypotiroidism, hypovitaminosis A, reproductive disturbances(abortion, low rate of fertility, dead born offspring, diarrhoea and/or respiratory insufficiency in new born e.g. calves, immunosuppression, decrease of milk production in chronic intoxication. There were presented some suggestions concerning management practices to limit nitrate intoxication (analyze of nitrates/nitrites in water and fodders, good management of the situation of risk ,e .g. dilution of the diet with low nitrate content fodders, feeding with balanced diet in energy, protein, minerals and vitamins, accommodation to high nitrate level diet, avoid grazing one week after a frost period, avoid feeding chop green fodders stored a couple of days, monitoring of health status of animals fed with fodders containing nitrates at risk level, a.o..

  10. Stable-isotope dilution GC-MS approach for nitrite quantification in human whole blood, erythrocytes, and plasma using pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization: nitrite distribution in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Modun, Darko; Heusser, Karsten; Tank, Jens; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Mitschke, Anja; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2011-05-15

    Previously, we reported on the usefulness of pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFB-Br) for the simultaneous derivatization and quantitative determination of nitrite and nitrate in various biological fluids by GC-MS using their (15)N-labelled analogues as internal standards. As nitrite may be distributed unevenly in plasma and blood cells, its quantification in whole blood rather than in plasma or serum may be the most appropriate approach to determine nitrite concentration in the circulation. So far, GC-MS methods based on PFB-Br derivatization failed to measure nitrite in whole blood and erythrocytes because of rapid nitrite loss by oxidation and other unknown reactions during derivatization. The present article reports optimized and validated procedures for sample preparation and nitrite derivatization which allow for reliable quantification of nitrite in human whole blood and erythrocytes. Essential measures for stabilizing nitrite in these samples include sample cooling (0-4°C), hemoglobin (Hb) removal by precipitation with acetone and short derivatization of the Hb-free supernatant (5 min, 50°C). Potassium ferricyanide (K(3)Fe(CN)(6)) is useful in preventing Hb-caused nitrite loss, however, this chemical is not absolutely required in the present method. Our results show that accurate GC-MS quantification of nitrite as PFB derivative is feasible virtually in every biological matrix with similar accuracy and precision. In EDTA-anticoagulated venous blood of 10 healthy young volunteers, endogenous nitrite concentration was measured to be 486±280 nM in whole blood, 672±496 nM in plasma (C(P)), and 620±350 nM in erythrocytes (C(E)). The C(E)-to-C(P) ratio was 0.993±0.188 indicating almost even distribution of endogenous nitrite between plasma and erythrocytes. By contrast, the major fraction of nitrite added to whole blood remained in plasma. The present GC-MS method is useful to investigate distribution and metabolism of endogenous and exogenous nitrite in blood

  11. Dietary Nitrite: from menace to marvel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan S. Bryan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of nitrite are now indisputable when administered in a clinical setting for specific diseases. Currently, most published reports identify the production of nitric oxide (NO as the mechanism of action for nitrite. Basic science, in addition to clinical studies, demonstrate that nitrite and/or nitrate cannot restore NO homeostasis as an endothelium independent source of NO that may be a redundant system for endogenous NO production. Nitrate must first be reduced to nitrite by oral commensal bacteria; nitrite can then be further reduced to NO along the physiological oxygen gradient. But despite decades of rigorous research on sodium nitrate’s safety and efficacy as a curing agent, sodium nitrite is still regarded by many as a toxic undesirable food additive. However, research within the biomedical science community has revealed enormous therapeutic benefits of nitrite which are being developed as novel therapies for conditions associated with nitric oxide insufficiency. Thus, this review will highlight the fundamental biochemistry of nitrite in human physiology and provide evidence that nitrite be considered an essential nutrient. Foods or diets enriched with nitrite can have profound positive health benefits.

  12. Boletus edulis Nitrite Reductase Reduces Nitrite Content of Pickles and Mitigates Intoxication in Nitrite-intoxicated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Tian, Guoting; Feng, Shanshan; Wong, Jack Ho; Zhao, Yongchang; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-10-08

    Pickles are popular in China and exhibits health-promoting effects. However, nitrite produced during fermentation adversely affects health due to formation of methemoglobin and conversion to carcinogenic nitrosamine. Fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus edulis were capable of inhibiting nitrite production during pickle fermentation. A 90-kDa nitrite reductase (NiR), demonstrating peptide sequence homology to fungal nitrite reductase, was isolated from B. edulis fruiting bodies. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme was 45 °C and 6.8, respectively. B. edulis NiR was capable of prolonging the lifespan of nitrite-intoxicated mice, indicating that it had the action of an antidote. The enzyme could also eliminate nitrite from blood after intragastric administration of sodium nitrite, and after packaging into capsule, this nitrite-eliminating activity could persist for at least 120 minutes thus avoiding immediate gastric degradation. B. edulis NiR represents the first nitrite reductase purified from mushrooms and may facilitate subsequent applications.

  13. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure and varying concentrations of sodium nitrite from traditional and vegetable-based sources on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat (RTE) sliced ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kevin; Cannon, Jerry; Montoya, Damian; Dickson, James; Lonergan, Steven; Sebranek, Joseph

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect the source of added nitrite and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) had on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat (RTE) sliced ham. Use of 600MPa HHP for 3min resulted in an immediate 3.9-4.3log CFU/g reduction in L. monocytogenes numbers, while use of 400MPa HHP (3min) provided less than 1log CFU/g reduction. With the 600MPa HHP treatment, sliced ham with a conventional concentration of sodium nitrite (200ppm) was not different in L. monocytogenes growth from use with 50 or 100ppm of sodium nitrite in pre-converted celery powder. Instrumental color values as well as residual nitrite and residual nitrate concentrations for cured (sodium nitrite and nitrite from celery powder) and uncured ham formulations are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Polystyrene Based Silver Selective Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Agarwal

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Silver(I selective sensors have been fabricated from polystyrene matrix membranes containing macrocycle, Me6(14 diene.2HClO4 as ionophore. Best performance was exhibited by the membrane having a composition macrocycle : Polystyrene in the ratio 15:1. This membrane worked well over a wide concentration range 5.0×10-6–1.0×10-1M of Ag+ with a near-Nernstian slope of 53.0 ± 1.0 mV per decade of Ag+ activity. The response time of the sensor is <15 s and the membrane can be used over a period of four months with good reproducibility. The proposed electrode works well in a wide pH range 2.5-9.0 and demonstrates good discriminating power over a number of mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. The sensor has also been used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of silver(II ions against NaCl solution. The sensor can also be used in non-aqueous medium with no significant change in the value of slope or working concentration range for the estimation of Ag+ in solution having up to 25% (v/v nonaqueous fraction.

  15. Nitrite survival and nitrous oxide production of denitrifying phosphorus removal sludges in long-term nitrite/nitrate-fed sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yayi; Zhou, Shuai; Ye, Liu; Wang, Hong; Stephenson, Tom; Jiang, Xuxin

    2014-12-15

    Nitrite-based phosphorus (P) removal could be useful for innovative biological P removal systems where energy and carbon savings are a priority. However, using nitrite for denitrification may cause nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation and emissions. A denitrifying nitrite-fed P removal system [Formula: see text] was successfully set up in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and was run for 210 days. The maximum pulse addition of nitrite to [Formula: see text] was 11 mg NO2(-)-N/L in the bulk, and a total of 34 mg NO2(-)-N/L of nitrite was added over three additions. Fluorescent in situ hybridization results indicated that the P-accumulating organisms (PAOs) abundance was 75 ± 1.1% in [Formula: see text] , approximately 13.6% higher than that in a parallel P removal SBR using nitrate [Formula: see text] . Type II Accumulibacter (PAOII) (unable to use nitrate as an electron acceptor) was the main PAOs species in [Formula: see text] , contributing 72% to total PAOs. Compared with [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] biomass had enhanced nitrite/free nitrous acid (FNA) endurance, as demonstrated by its higher nitrite denitrification and P uptake rates. N2O accumulated temporarily in [Formula: see text] after each pulse of nitrite. Peak N2O concentrations in the bulk for [Formula: see text] were generally 6-11 times higher than that in [Formula: see text] ; these accumulations were rapidly denitrified to nitrogen gases. N2O concentration increased rapidly in nitrate-cultivated biomass when 5 or 10 mg NO2(-)-N/L per pulse was added. Whereas, N2O accumulation did not occur in nitrite-cultivated biomass until up to 30 mg NO2(-)-N/L per pulse was added. Long-term acclimation to nitrite and pulse addition of nitrite in [Formula: see text] reduced the risk of nitrite accumulation, and mitigated N2O accumulation and emissions from denitrifying P removal by nitrite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. FIA-Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Nitrite in Meat Products: An Experiment Exploring Color Reduction of an Azo-Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, Jose C.; Angnes, Lucio; Masini, Jorge C.; Oliveira, Paulo C. C.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the reaction between nitrite and safranine O. This sensitive reaction is based on the disappearance of color of the reddish-orange azo dye, allowing the determination of nitrite at the mg mL-1 level. A factorial optimization of parameters was carried out and the method was applied for the quantification of nitrite in…

  17. The effect of environmental hypercapnia and size on nitrite toxicity in the striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Malthe; Damsgaard, Christian; Gam, Le Thi Hong

    2016-01-01

    Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) are farmed intensively at high stocking densities in Vietnam where they are likely to encounter environmental hypercapnia as well as occasional high levels of aquatic nitrite. Nitrite competes with Cl- for uptake at the branchial HCO3-/Cl- exchanger, ...... the ambient concentration, while small fish did not. Small P. hypophthalmus instead had significantly higher plasma [nitrate], and haemoglobin concentrations, revealing greater capacity for detoxifying nitrite by oxidising it to nitrate.......Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) are farmed intensively at high stocking densities in Vietnam where they are likely to encounter environmental hypercapnia as well as occasional high levels of aquatic nitrite. Nitrite competes with Cl- for uptake at the branchial HCO3-/Cl- exchanger...... to a reduced nitrite uptake. To assess the effect of hypercapnia on nitrite uptake, fish were cannulated in the dorsal aorta, allowing repeated blood sampling for measurements of haemoglobin derivatives, plasma ions and acid-base status during exposure to 0.9 mM nitrite alone and in combination with acute...

  18. Nitrates, Nitrites, and Health. Bulletin 750.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Barbara S.; Sloan, Kenneth W.

    This review is intended to assess available literature in order to define the range of nitrate/nitrite effects on animals. Though the literature deals primarily with livestock and experimental animals, much of the contemporary research is concerned with human nitrite intoxication. Thus, the effects on man are discussed where appropriate. Some of…

  19. Food sources of nitrates and nitrites: the physiologic context for potential health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Norman G; Tang, Yaoping; Bryan, Nathan S

    2009-07-01

    The presence of nitrates and nitrites in food is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer and, in infants, methemoglobinemia. Despite the physiologic roles for nitrate and nitrite in vascular and immune function, consideration of food sources of nitrates and nitrites as healthful dietary components has received little attention. Approximately 80% of dietary nitrates are derived from vegetable consumption; sources of nitrites include vegetables, fruit, and processed meats. Nitrites are produced endogenously through the oxidation of nitric oxide and through a reduction of nitrate by commensal bacteria in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract. As such, the dietary provision of nitrates and nitrites from vegetables and fruit may contribute to the blood pressure-lowering effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. We quantified nitrate and nitrite concentrations by HPLC in a convenience sample of foods. Incorporating these values into 2 hypothetical dietary patterns that emphasize high-nitrate or low-nitrate vegetable and fruit choices based on the DASH diet, we found that nitrate concentrations in these 2 patterns vary from 174 to 1222 mg. The hypothetical high-nitrate DASH diet pattern exceeds the World Health Organization's Acceptable Daily Intake for nitrate by 550% for a 60-kg adult. These data call into question the rationale for recommendations to limit nitrate and nitrite consumption from plant foods; a comprehensive reevaluation of the health effects of food sources of nitrates and nitrites is appropriate. The strength of the evidence linking the consumption of nitrate- and nitrite-containing plant foods to beneficial health effects supports the consideration of these compounds as nutrients.

  20. Nitrite, nitrite alternatives, and the control of Clostridium botulinum in cured meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, M D; Smoot, L A

    1982-01-01

    Historically, nitrite has been a component of meat-curing additives for several centuries. In recent years the safety of nitrite as an additive in cured meats has been questioned mainly because of the possible formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines. Nitrite has many important functions in meat curing including its role in color development, flavor, antioxidant properties, and antimicrobial activity. The inhibition of Clostridium botulinum growth and toxin production is an especially important antimicrobial property of nitrite. This review discusses the effects of processing, curing ingredients (especially nitrite), and storage of cured meats in relation to the control of C. botulinum. If nitrite is eliminated from cured meats or the level of usage decreased, then alternatives for the antibotulinal function of nitrite need to be considered. Several potential alternatives including sorbates, parabens, and biological acidulants are discussed.

  1. Nitrite-dependent vasodilation is facilitated by hypoxia and is independent of known NO-generating nitrite reductase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fago, Angela; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Fago, Angela

    2007-01-01

    is largely intrinsic to the vessel and that under hypoxia physiological nitrite concentrations are sufficient to induce NO-mediated vasodilation independently of the nitrite reductase activities investigated here. Possible reaction mechanisms for nitrite vasoactivity, including formation of S...

  2. Spectrofluorometric and Molecular Modeling Studies on Binding of Nitrite Ion with Bovine Hemoglobin: Effect of Nitrite Ion on Amino Acid Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrakian, T.; Bagheri, H.; Afkhami, A.

    2015-05-01

    The interaction between nitrite ion and bovine hemoglobin was investigated by a spectrofluorometric technique. The experimental results indicated that the interaction causes a static quenching of the fluorescence of bovine hemoglobin, that the binding reaction is spontaneous, and that H-bonding interactions play a major role in binding of this ion to bovine hemoglobin. The formation constant for this interaction was calculated. Based on Förster's theory of nonradiative energy transfer, the binding distance between this ion and bovine hemoglobin was determined. Furthermore, the interaction of nitrite ion with tyrosine and tryptophan was investigated with synchronous fluorescence. There was no significant shift of the maximum emission wavelength with interactions of the mentioned ion with bovine hemoglobin, which implies that interaction of nitrite ion with bovine hemoglobin does not affect the microenvironment around the tryptophan and tyrosine residues. Furthermore, the effect of nitrite ion on amino acid residues of bovine hemoglobin was studied by a molecular docking technique.

  3. Nitrite oxidizing bacteria for water treatment in coastal aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorak, S.; Rakkhiaw, S.; Limjirakhajornt, K.; Uppabullung, A.; Keawtawee, T.; Sangnoi, Y.

    2018-04-01

    This research aimed to isolate and characterize nitrite oxidizing bacteria and to study their capability for water quality improvement. Fourteen strains of bacteria with nitrite-oxidizing character were isolated after 21 days of enrichment in Pep-Beef-NOB medium contained NaNO2. Two strains, SF-1 and SF-5, showed highest nitrite removal rate for 42.42% and 37.2%, respectively. These strains were determined an efficiency of open-system wastewater treatment for 14 days. The results showed that control, SF-1 and SF-5 had remove ammonia from day 1 to day 6. At the end of the study, ammonia was removed by the control, SF-1 and SF-5 for 81.27%, 70.1% and 69.82%, respectively. Nitrite concentration was lowest at day 8 with removal rate of 98.73%, 98.3% and 97.24% from control, SF-1 and SF-5, respectively. However, nitrite concentration in control experiment was increased again at day 11 whereas in SF-1 and SF-5 were increased at day 13. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was decreased by 77.78%, 73.50% and 78.63% in the control, SF-1 and SF-5, respectively. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) in the control, SF-1 and SF-5 were reduced by 85.92%, 79.53% and 82.09%, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA gene, SF-1 and SF-5 were identified as Bacillus vietnamensis and B. firmus, respectively.

  4. Radiation preservation of low nitrite bacon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.

    1988-01-01

    Sodium nitrite, a key ingredient of the mix used to cure bacon and other meats, promotes and fixes bacon's characteristic pink color, inhibits lipid peroxidation and prevents growth of micro-organisms, particularly Clostridium botulinum spores. Unfortunately, nitrite leads to the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines in bacon. This has led to a search for alternatives to the use of nitrite. Irradiation with reduced level of nitrite is a promising alternative. Radurization of bacon containing 20 to 40 mg/kg of nitrite in evacuated packages, irradiated and stored at 4 0 C, gives a product with good organoleptic qualities and extended shelf life of > 90 days, as opposed to ∼ 30 days for the conventionally treated bacon. Radappertization of bacon containing 20 mg/kg of nitrite at a dose of about 30 kGy, irradiated at temperature of -20 0 or lower in evacuated packages, results in a product that is shelf stable at room temperature for months to years. It has organoleptic qualities comparable to commercial bacon in terms of color, flavor, odor and texture. Irradiation also reduces the nitrite and preformed nitrosamines present in bacon. Various aspects of preservation of bacon are reviewed in this report with emphasis on radiation processing. (author)

  5. Supplier selection an MCDA-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Krishnendu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present a comprehensive review of the latest research and development trends at the international level for modeling and optimization of the supplier selection process for different industrial sectors. It is targeted to serve two audiences: the MBA and PhD student interested in procurement, and the practitioner who wishes to gain a deeper understanding of procurement analysis with multi-criteria based decision tools to avoid upstream risks to get better supply chain visibility. The book is expected to serve as a ready reference for supplier selection criteria and various multi-criteria based supplier’s evaluation methods for forward, reverse and mass customized supply chain. This book encompasses several criteria, methods for supplier selection in a systematic way based on extensive literature review from 1998 to 2012. It provides several case studies and some useful links which can serve as a starting point for interested researchers. In the appendix several computer code wri...

  6. Norm based Threshold Selection for Fault Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind; Niemann, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The design of fault detectors for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in dynamic systems is considered from a norm based point of view. An analysis of norm based threshold selection is given based on different formulations of FDI problems. Both the nominal FDI problem as well as the uncertain FDI...... problem are considered. Based on this analysis, a performance index based on norms of the involved transfer functions is given. The performance index allows us also to optimize the structure of the fault detection filter directly...

  7. Ingested nitrate and nitrite and stomach cancer risk: an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Nathan S; Alexander, Dominik D; Coughlin, James R; Milkowski, Andrew L; Boffetta, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    Nitrite and nitrate are naturally occurring molecules in vegetables and also added to cured and processed meats to delay spoilage and pathogenic bacteria growth. Research over the past 15 years has led to a paradigm change in our ideas about health effects of both nitrite and nitrate. Whereas, historically nitrite and nitrate were considered harmful food additives and listed as probable human carcinogens under conditions where endogenous nitrosation could take place, they are now considered by some as indispensible nutrients essential for cardiovascular health by promoting nitric oxide (NO) production. We provide an update to the literature and knowledge base concerning their safety. Most nitrite and nitrate exposure comes from naturally occurring and endogenous sources and part of the cell signaling effects of NO involve nitrosation. Nitrosation must now be considered broadly in terms of both S- and N-nitrosated species, since S-nitrosation is kinetically favored. Protein S-nitrosation is a significant part of the role of NO in cellular signal transduction and is involved in critical aspects of cardiovascular health. A critical review of the animal toxicology literature of nitrite indicates that in the absence of co-administration of a carcinogenic nitrosamine precursor, there is no evidence for carcinogenesis. Newly published prospective epidemiological cohort studies indicate that there is no association between estimated intake of nitrite and nitrate in the diet and stomach cancer. This new and growing body of evidence calls for a reconsideration of nitrite and nitrate safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of nitrite in the photochemical formation of radicals in the snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Hans-Werner; Kleffmann, Jörg; Villena, Guillermo; Wiesen, Peter; King, Martin; France, James; Anastasio, Cort; Staebler, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical reactions in snow can have an important impact on the composition of the atmosphere over snow-covered areas as well as on the composition of the snow itself. One of the major photochemical processes is the photolysis of nitrate leading to the formation of volatile nitrogen compounds. We report nitrite concentrations determined together with nitrate and hydrogen peroxide in surface snow collected at the coastal site of Barrow, Alaska. The results demonstrate that nitrite likely plays a significant role as a precursor for reactive hydroxyl radicals as well as volatile nitrogen oxides in the snow. Pollution events leading to high concentrations of nitrous acid in the atmosphere contributed to an observed increase in nitrite in the surface snow layer during nighttime. Observed daytime nitrite concentrations are much higher than values predicted from steady-state concentrations based on photolysis of nitrate and nitrite indicating that we do not fully understand the production of nitrite and nitrous acid in snow. The discrepancy between observed and expected nitrite concentrations is probably due to a combination of factors, including an incomplete understanding of the reactive environment and chemical processes in snow, and a lack of consideration of the vertical structure of snow.

  9. Personnel Selection Based on Fuzzy Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Cañós

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The decisions of managers regarding the selection of staff strongly determine the success of the company. A correct choice of employees is a source of competitive advantage. We propose a fuzzy method for staff selection, based on competence management and the comparison with the valuation that the company considers the best in each competence (ideal candidate. Our method is based on the Hamming distance and a Matching Level Index. The algorithms, implemented in the software StaffDesigner, allow us to rank the candidates, even when the competences of the ideal candidate have been evaluated only in part. Our approach is applied in a numerical example.

  10. Discriminative Projection Selection Based Face Image Hashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabat, Cagatay; Erdogan, Hakan

    Face image hashing is an emerging method used in biometric verification systems. In this paper, we propose a novel face image hashing method based on a new technique called discriminative projection selection. We apply the Fisher criterion for selecting the rows of a random projection matrix in a user-dependent fashion. Moreover, another contribution of this paper is to employ a bimodal Gaussian mixture model at the quantization step. Our simulation results on three different databases demonstrate that the proposed method has superior performance in comparison to previously proposed random projection based methods.

  11. MONITORING KADAR NITRIT DAN NITRAT PADA AIR SUMUR DI DAERAH CATUR TUNGGAL YOGYAKARTA DENGAN METODE SPEKTROFOTOMETRI UV-VIS (Monitoring of Nitrite and Nitrate Content in Ground Water of Catur Tunggal Region of Yogyakarta by UV-VIS Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiowati Setiowati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Metode analisis nitrit dan nitrat perlu dikembangkan untuk memonitor kualitas air minum. Kualitas air sumur untuk parameter nitrit dan nitrat dipengaruhi oleh kondisi lingkungan dan kedalaman air sumur.Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis nitrit dan nitrat menggunakan asam p-aminobenzoat (PABA pada air sumur di daerah perkotaan Yogyakarta. Analisis nitrit didasarkan pada reaksi antara ion nitrit dengan PABA yang membentuk senyawa azo dengan panjang gelombang maksimum 546 nm. Kedalaman air sumur di daerah Catur Tunggal rata-rata > 10 m. Kadar nitrit dan nitrat pada air sumur adalah 0,05-0,09 dan 8,22-36,58 mg/L. Kadar nitrit dan nitrat tersebut memenuhi baku mutu dan aman untuk dikonsumsi. Konsentrasi nitrit dan nitrat pada air RO adalah 0,05 dan 2,72-59,57 mg/L. Kadar nitrit pada air RO tidak memenuhi baku mutu sedangkan kadar nitrat memenuhi baku mutu kecuali RO 5. ABSTRACT The method for analysis nitrite and nitrate had to developed to monitor the drinking water quality. The well water quality, especially for nitrite and nitrate were influenced by environmental conditions and depth of well. This study aims to analyze nitrite and nitrate using p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA in ground water at urban areas of Yogyakarta. The analysis was based on the reaction between nitrite ions with PABA which form azo compounds with a maximum wavelength of 546 nm. The depth of wells at Catur Tunggal were more than 10 m. Concentration of nitrite and nitrate in well water were 0.05 to 0.09 and 8.22 to 36.58 mg / L. The concentrations met the standard for drinking water quality and was safe for consumption. The concentration of nitrite and nitrate in reverse osmosis (RO water were 0.05 and 2.72 to 59.57 mg / L. The concentration of nitrite did not meet the standard for drinking water quality while the concentration of nitrate met the standard for drinking water quality except RO 5.

  12. An evaluation of the effectiveness of a chemical additive based on sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and sodium nitrite on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Limin; Smith, Megan L; Benjamim da Silva, Erica; Windle, Michelle C; da Silva, Thiago C; Polukis, Stephanie A

    2018-04-11

    We evaluated the effectiveness of an additive comprising sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and sodium nitrite (SSL) as active ingredients for its ability to improve the aerobic stability of corn silages made in North America. In experiment 1, treatment with SSL (1.5 and 2.0 L/t) on whole-plant corn (WPC) was compared with treatment with an additive containing buffered propionic acid and citric acid (BPA; 2 L/t) on corn harvested at 32 and 38% DM and ensiled for 120 d. Silage treated with BPA was higher in ammonia-N and propionic acid relative to other treatments. Treatments with all of the additives had numerically, but not statistically, fewer yeasts compared with untreated silage. Both application rates of SSL resulted in lower concentrations of ethanol compared with untreated and BPA silages. Treatment with BPA improved the aerobic stability of silages compared with untreated silage, but the effect from SSL was markedly greater. In experiment 2, WPC was untreated or treated with 2 or 3 L of SSL/t or a microbial inoculant containing Enterococcus faecium M74, Lactobacillus plantarum CH6072, and Lactobacillus buchneri LN1819 (final total lactic acid bacteria application rate of 150,000 cfu/g of fresh forage). Silages were air stressed for 24 h at 28 and 42 d of storage and ensiled for 49 d before opening. Inoculation had no effect on acid end products, ethanol, number of yeasts, or aerobic stability compared with other treatments. Treatment with SSL decreased the amount of ethanol, had no effect on number of yeasts, and improved aerobic stability in a dose-dependent manner compared with other treatments. In experiment 3, WPC was untreated or treated with 2 L of SSL/t and ensiled for 5, 15, and 30 d. Treatment with SSL resulted in silage with fewer yeasts and lower concentrations of ethanol after all times of ensiling compared with untreated silage. In addition, SSL improved aerobic stability after each period of ensiling, but the effect was more at 15 and 30 d

  13. Iron(II) porphyrins induced conversion of nitrite into nitric oxide: A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting Ting; Liu, Yong Dong; Zhong, Ru Gang

    2015-09-01

    Nitrite reduction to nitric oxide by heme proteins was reported as a protective mechanism to hypoxic injury in mammalian physiology. In this study, the pathways of nitrite reduction to nitric oxide mediated by iron(II) porphyrin (P) complexes, which were generally recognized as models for heme proteins, were investigated by using density functional theory (DFT). In view of two type isomers of combination of nitrite and Fe(II)(P), N-nitro- and O-nitrito-Fe(II)-porphyrin complexes, and two binding sites of proton to the different O atoms of nitrite moiety, four main pathways for the conversion of nitrite into nitric oxide mediated by iron(II) porphyrins were proposed. The results indicate that the pathway of N-bound Fe(II)(P)(NO2) isomer into Fe(III)(P)(NO) and water is similar to that of O-bound isomer into nitric oxide and Fe(III)(P)(OH) in both thermodynamical and dynamical aspects. Based on the initial computational studies of five-coordinate nitrite complexes, the conversion of nitrite into NO mediated by Fe(II)(P)(L) complexes with 14 kinds of proximal ligands was also investigated. Generally, the same conclusion that the pathways of N-bound isomers are similar to those of O-bound isomer was obtained for iron(II) porphyrin with ligands. Different effects of ligands on the reduction reactions were also found. It is notable that the negative proximal ligands can improve reactive abilities of N-nitro-iron(II) porphyrins in the conversion of nitrite into nitric oxide compared to neutral ligands. The findings will be helpful to expand our understanding of the mechanism of nitrite reduction to nitric oxide by iron(II) porphyrins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nitrite disrupts multiple physiological functions in aquatic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo

    2003-01-01

    be inhibited, while changes in ammonia and urea levels and excretion rates reflect an influence of nitrite on nitrogen metabolism. Detoxification of nitrite occurs via endogenous oxidation to nitrate, and elimination of nitrite takes place both via gills and urine. The susceptibility to nitrite varies between...... nitrite-induced vasodilation (possibly via nitric oxide generated from nitrite) that is countered by increased cardiac pumping to re-establish blood pressure. Nitrite can form and/or mimic nitric oxide and thereby interfere with processes regulated by this local hormone. Steroid hormone synthesis may...

  15. Highly sensitive amperometric sensing of nitrite utilizing bulk-modified MnO2 decorated Graphene oxide nanocomposite screen-printed electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaiswal, Nandita; Tiwari, Ida; Foster, Christopher W.; Banks, Craig E.

    2017-01-01

    A screen-printed amperometric sensor based on a carbon ink bulk-modified with MnO 2 decorated graphene oxide (MnO 2 /GO-SPE) nanocomposite was investigated for its ability to serve as a sensor towards nitrite. The composite was prepared by simple ultrasonication and reflux methodology and was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electrochemically using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and differential pulse voltammetry techniques. The MnO 2 /GO-SPE was found to exhibit an electro-catalytic activity for the electrochemical oxidation of nitrite in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4). The electrochemical oxidation of nitrite occurs at +0.55 V (Vs. Ag/AgCl) with a limit of detection (3σ) found to be 0.09 μM and with two linear ranges of 0.1 μM to 1 μM and 1 μM to 1000 μM with sensitivities of 1.25 μAμM −1 cm −2 and 0.005 μAμM −1 cm −2 respectively. Furthermore, the MnO 2 /GO-SPE showed an excellent anti-interference ability towards a range of commonly encountered electroactive species and metal ions. Additionally, the fabricated MnO 2 /GO-SPE nitrite sensor presented an excellent selectivity, reproducibility and stability. The presented study widens the scope of applications of graphene-based nanocomposite materials for on-site monitoring of nitrite.

  16. Feature Selection Based on Mutual Correlation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Somol, Petr; Ververidis, D.; Kotropoulos, C.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4225 (2006), s. 569-577 ISSN 0302-9743. [Iberoamerican Congress on Pattern Recognition. CIARP 2006 /11./. Cancun, 14.11.2006-17.11.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400750407; GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR IAA2075302 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : feature selection Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/haindl-feature selection based on mutual correlation.pdf

  17. Experimental Study of Leaching and Penetration of Nitrite ions in Nitrite-type Repair Materials on the Surface of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumi Inoue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the leaching properties of nitrite ions in nitrite-type repair materials exposed to rainfall. Repaired concrete specimens were prepared for leaching tests using a lithium nitrite solution, and the amounts of leaching and penetration of nitrite ions were measured under simulated rainfall. The results demonstrated that the amount of leaching could be controlled by using polymer cement paste and mortar surface coatings containing lithium nitrite solution, and by using polymer cement mortar surface coatings following direct lithium nitrite solution coatings. Furthermore, the amount of nitrite ion leaching in all cases was lower than the discharge standard value established by the water pollution control law.

  18. Nitrate ammonification in mangrove soils: a hidden source of nitrite?

    KAUST Repository

    Balk, Melike; Laverman, Anniet M; Keuskamp, Joost A; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate reduction is considered to be a minor microbial pathway in the oxidation of mangrove-derived organic matter due to a limited supply of nitrate in mangrove soils. At a limited availability of this electron acceptor compared to the supply of degradable carbon, nitrate ammonification is thought to be the preferential pathway of nitrate reduction. Mangrove forest mutually differ in their productivity, which may lead to different available carbon to nitrate ratios in their soil. Hence, nitrate ammonification is expected to be of more importance in high- compared to low-productive forests. The hypothesis was tested in flow-through reactors that contain undisturbed mangrove soils from high-productive Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle forests in Florida and low-productive Avicennia marina forests in Saudi Arabia. Nitrate was undetectable in the soils from both regions. It was assumed that a legacy of nitrate ammonification would be reflected by a higher ammonium production from these soils upon the addition of nitrate. Unexpectedly, the soils from the low-productive forests in Saudi Arabia produced considerably more ammonium than the soils from the high-productive forests in Florida. Hence, other environmental factors than productivity must govern the selection of nitrate ammonification or denitrification. A rather intriguing observation was the 1:1 production of nitrite and ammonium during the consumption of nitrate, more or less independent from sampling region, location, sampling depth, mangrove species and from the absence or presence of additional degradable carbon. This 1:1 ratio points to a coupled production of ammonium and nitrite by one group of nitrate-reducing microorganisms. Such a production of nitrite will be hidden by the presence of active nitrite-reducing microorganisms under the nitrate-limited conditions of most mangrove forest soils.

  19. Nitrate ammonification in mangrove soils: a hidden source of nitrite?

    KAUST Repository

    Balk, Melike

    2015-03-02

    Nitrate reduction is considered to be a minor microbial pathway in the oxidation of mangrove-derived organic matter due to a limited supply of nitrate in mangrove soils. At a limited availability of this electron acceptor compared to the supply of degradable carbon, nitrate ammonification is thought to be the preferential pathway of nitrate reduction. Mangrove forest mutually differ in their productivity, which may lead to different available carbon to nitrate ratios in their soil. Hence, nitrate ammonification is expected to be of more importance in high- compared to low-productive forests. The hypothesis was tested in flow-through reactors that contain undisturbed mangrove soils from high-productive Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle forests in Florida and low-productive Avicennia marina forests in Saudi Arabia. Nitrate was undetectable in the soils from both regions. It was assumed that a legacy of nitrate ammonification would be reflected by a higher ammonium production from these soils upon the addition of nitrate. Unexpectedly, the soils from the low-productive forests in Saudi Arabia produced considerably more ammonium than the soils from the high-productive forests in Florida. Hence, other environmental factors than productivity must govern the selection of nitrate ammonification or denitrification. A rather intriguing observation was the 1:1 production of nitrite and ammonium during the consumption of nitrate, more or less independent from sampling region, location, sampling depth, mangrove species and from the absence or presence of additional degradable carbon. This 1:1 ratio points to a coupled production of ammonium and nitrite by one group of nitrate-reducing microorganisms. Such a production of nitrite will be hidden by the presence of active nitrite-reducing microorganisms under the nitrate-limited conditions of most mangrove forest soils.

  20. [Detection of nitrite and nitrosocompounds in chemical systems and biological liquids by the calorimetric method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V Iu; Petrenko, Iu M; Vanin, A F; Stepuro, I I

    2010-01-01

    The capacity of nitrite, S-nitrosothiols (RS-NO), dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs) with thiol-containing ligands, and nitrosoamines to inhibit catalase has been used for the selective determination of these compounds in purely chemical systems and biological liquids: cow milk and colostram. The limiting sensitivity of the method is 50 nM. A comparison of the results of the determinations of RS-NO, DNIC, and nitrite by the catalase method and the Greese method conventionally used for nitrite detection showed that, firstly, Greese reagents decompose DNIC and RS-NO to form nitrite. Therefore, the Greese method cannot be used for nitrite determination in solutions of these substances. Secondly, Greese reagents interact with complexes of mercury ions with RS-NO, inducing the release of nitrosonium ions from the complex followed by the hydrolysis of nitrosonium to nitrite. Thus, the proposition about the spontaneous decay of the complexes of mercury ions with RS-NO is incorrect. Keeping in mind a high sensitivity of the method, the use of catalase as an enzyme detector of nitrosocompounds allows one to detect these compounds in neutral medium without prior purification of the object, thereby preventing artificial effects due to noncontrolled modifications of the compounds under study.

  1. Nitrite spray treatment to promote red color stability of vacuum packaged beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Cornforth, Daren; Whittier, Dick; Luo, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Sodium nitrite solutions were sprayed on select grade boneless rib (M. longissimus thoracis) and bottom round (mainly M. biceps femoris) steaks individually, to form bright red nitric oxide myoglobin (NO-Mb) in vacuum packages. Our objective was to determine the optimum level of nitrite in spray for stable raw steak redness, low or no residual nitrite, and low surface pinking (ham-like cured color) after cooking. Results showed that steaks sprayed with 100-350 ppm nitrite solutions had 3.0-3.6g weight gain and a calculated level of 1.3-5.3mg nitrite added/kg steak, but very low (color during 21 days of storage at 1°C (a*>10; chroma C*>16). Raw steak redness was less stable in round than rib. Visual scores for pinkness after cooking were low, indicating that cooked color at even the highest nitrite treatment (350 ppm) was acceptable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the Intake of Nitrate, Nitrite, Nitrosodiethylamine and Nitrosodimethylamine by Food Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Avasilcai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the evaluation of nitrate, nitrite, nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA and nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA intake by food consumption. We determined concentrations of nitrates, nitrites in 102 food samples (40 meat products, 15 fermented cheese, 25 vegetables, 22 fruits and the concentration NDEA, NDMA in 40 meat products. Nitrates and nitrites were determined using Peter-Griess method; nitrosamines were quantified by HPLC with UV detection.  We designed vegetalian, vegetarian and conventional diets of about 2500 kcal/day.  Based of the values found, we calculated the intake of nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamines. The obtained values fits to WHO’s recommendations, except for vegetalian and conventional diet, in which the nitrate content was 3,46 respectively 1,64 times higher than the acceptable daily intake (157 mg NO3-/day.

  3. Sorbate-nitrite interactions: acetonitrile oxide as an alkylating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Prior, M Teresa; Gómez-Bombarelli, Rafael; González-Pérez, Marina; Manso, José A; García-Santos, M Pilar; Calle, Emilio; Casado, Julio

    2009-07-01

    Because chemical species with DNA-damaging and mutagenic activity are formed in sorbate-nitrite mixtures and because sorbic acid sometimes coexists with nitrite occurring naturally or incorporated as a food additive, the study of sorbate-nitrite interactions is important. Here, the alkylating potential of the products resulting from such interactions was investigated. Drawn were the following conclusions: (i) Acetonitrile oxide (ACNO) is the compound responsible for the alkylating capacity of sorbate-nitrite mixtures; (ii) ACNO alkylates 4-(p-nitrobenzyl)pyridine (NBP), a trap for alkylating agents with nucleophilic characteristics similar to those of DNA bases, forming an adduct (AD; epsilon = 1.4 x 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1); lambda = 519 nm); (iii) the NBP alkylation reaction complies with the rate equation, r = d[AD]/dt = k(alk)(ACNO)[ACNO][NBP]-k(hyd)(AD)[AD], k(alk)(ACNO) being the NBP alkylation rate constant for ACNO and k(hyd)(AD) the rate constant for the adduct hydrolysis reaction; (iv) the small fraction of ACNO forming the adduct with NBP, as well as the small magnitude of the quotient (k(alk) (ACNO)/k(hyd)(ACNO)) as compared with those reported for other alkylating agents, such as some lactones and N-alkyl-N-nitrosoureas, reveals the ACNO effective alkylating capacity to be less significant; (v) the low value of the NBP-ACNO adduct life (defined as the total amount of adduct present along the progression of the NBP alkylation per unit of alkylating agent concentration) points to the high instability of this adduct; and (vi) the obtained results are in accordance with the low carcinogenicity of ACNO.

  4. The Reaction of Oxy Hemoglobin with Nitrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hathazi, Denisa; Scurtu, Florina; Bischin, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    The autocatalytic reaction between nitrite and the oxy form of globins involves free radicals. For myoglobin (Mb), an initial binding of nitrite to the iron-coordinated oxygen molecule was proposed; the resulting ferrous-peroxynitrate species was not detected, but its decay product, the high...... to a simple kinetic model involving a transient met-aqua form, in contrast to the ferryl detected in the case of Mb in a similar reaction sequence. These data are in line with a previous observation of a transient accumulation of ferryl Hb under auto-catalytic conditions at much lower concentrations......-peroxynitrate. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations support this latter assignment. The reaction allows for differentiating between the reactivities of various chemically modified hemoglobins, including candidates for blood substitutes. Polymerization of hemoglobin slows the nitrite-induced oxidation, in sharp...

  5. Platelet inhibition by nitrite is dependent on erythrocytes and deoxygenation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirada Srihirun

    Full Text Available Nitrite is a nitric oxide (NO metabolite in tissues and blood, which can be converted to NO under hypoxia to facilitate tissue perfusion. Although nitrite is known to cause vasodilation following its reduction to NO, the effect of nitrite on platelet activity remains unclear. In this study, the effect of nitrite and nitrite+erythrocytes, with and without deoxygenation, on platelet activity was investigated.Platelet aggregation was studied in platelet-rich plasma (PRP and PRP+erythrocytes by turbidimetric and impedance aggregometry, respectively. In PRP, DEANONOate inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP while nitrite had no effect on platelets. In PRP+erythrocytes, the inhibitory effect of DEANONOate on platelets decreased whereas nitrite at physiologic concentration (0.1 µM inhibited platelet aggregation and ATP release. The effect of nitrite+erythrocytes on platelets was abrogated by C-PTIO (a membrane-impermeable NO scavenger, suggesting an NO-mediated action. Furthermore, deoxygenation enhanced the effect of nitrite as observed from a decrease of P-selectin expression and increase of the cGMP levels in platelets. The ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole blood showed inverse correlations with the nitrite levels in whole blood and erythrocytes.Nitrite alone at physiological levels has no effect on platelets in plasma. Nitrite in the presence of erythrocytes inhibits platelets through its reduction to NO, which is promoted by deoxygenation. Nitrite may have role in modulating platelet activity in the circulation, especially during hypoxia.

  6. Determination of five abused drugs in nitrite-adulterated urine by immunoassays and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S C; ElSohly, M A; Dubrovsky, T; Twarowska, B; Towt, J; Salamone, S J

    1998-10-01

    The adulteration of urine specimens with nitrite ion hasseen shown to mask the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmation testing of marijuana use. This study was designed to further investigate the effect of nitrite adulteration on the detection of five commonly abused drugs by immunoassay screening and GC-MS analysis. The drugs tested are cocaine metabolite (benzoylecgonine), morphine, 11-nor-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH), amphetamine, and phencyclidine. The immunoassays evaluated included the instrument-based Abuscreen ONLINE assays, the on-site Abuscreen ONTRAK assays, and the one-step ONTRAK TESTCUP-5 assay. Multianalyte standards containing various levels of drugs were used to test the influence of both potassium and sodium nitrite. In the ONLINE immunoassays, the presence of up to 1.0M nitrite in the multianalyte standards had no significant effect for benzoylecgonine, morphine, and phencyclidine assays. With a high concentration of nitrite, ONLINE became more sensitive for amphetamine (detected more drug than what was expected) and less sensitive for THCCOOH (detected less drug than what was expected). No effects of nitrite were observed on the results of the Abuscreen ONTRAK assays. Similarly, no effects were observed on the absolute qualitative results of the TESTCUP-5 when testing the nitrite-adulterated standards. However, the produced intensities of the signals that indicate the negative test results were slightly lowered in the THC and phencyclidine assays. The presence of 1.0M of nitrite did not show dramatic interference with the GC-MS analysis of benzoylecgonine, morphine, amphetamine, and phencyclidine. In contrast, nitrite ion significantly interfered with the detection of THCCOOH by GC-MS. The presence of 0.03M of nitrite ion resulted in significant loss in the recovery of THCCOOH and its internal standard by GC-MS. The problem of nitrite adulteration could be alleviated by sodium bisulfite treatment even

  7. Carbon-Fiber Nitrite Microsensor for In Situ Biofilm Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    During nitrification, nitrite is produced as an intermediate when ammonia is oxidized to nitrate. It is well established that nitrifying biofilm are involved in nitrification episodes in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems with nitrite accumulation occurring during ...

  8. 9 CFR 319.2 - Products and nitrates and nitrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products and nitrates and nitrites... and nitrates and nitrites. Any product, such as frankfurters and corned beef, for which there is a standard in this part and to which nitrate or nitrite is permitted or required to be added, may be prepared...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The category of chemical substances which are nitrites of the alkali metals (Group IA in the...

  10. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF NITRITE BY ITS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    sources of nitrite include intensive use of chemical nitrogenous fertilizers, ... The current paper describes another kinetic spectrophotometric method for determination of ... s at λmax = 570 nm (allowing a lag time of 5 s) against water as reference. ... samples and the total amount of the analyte was estimated by applying the ...

  11. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat and meat products (including poultry and wild game), with directions for use which limit the amount of sodium nitrite to not more than 200 parts per million in the finished meat product, and the amount of...

  12. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive... as a preservative and color fixative in canned pet food containing fish, meat, and fish and meat... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and...

  13. Nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; DeSousa, S.N.; Fondekar, S.P.

    There are 2 nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea, one at the thermocline depth and the other at depths between 300 and 500 m. The 2nd maximum is more prominent in the northeastern part of the Arabian Sea. The 1st maximum is associated...

  14. Neutralization of wastewater from nitrite passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, L.; Mientki, B.; Wasag, H.

    1982-01-01

    A method for neutralization of wastewater formed in nitrite passivation has been presented. The method consists of introducing urea into wastewater and acidifying it with sulphuric acid. Wastewater is neutralized with lime. After clarification, wastewater can be drained outside the plant

  15. Association of nitrate, nitrite, and total organic carbon (TOC) in drinking water and gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademikia, Samaneh; Rafiee, Zahra; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Poursafa, Parinaz; Mansourian, Marjan; Modaberi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the amounts of nitrate, nitrite, and total organic carbon (TOC) in two drinking water sources and their relationship with some gastrointestinal diseases. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Iran. Two wells located in residential areas were selected for sampling and measuring the TOC, nitrate (NO3(-)), and nitrite (NO2(-)). This water is used for drinking as well as for industrial and agricultural consumption. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations of water samples were analyzed using DR 5000 spectrophotometer. The information of patients was collected from the records of the main referral hospital of the region for gastrointestinal diseases. In both areas under study, the mean water nitrate and nitrite concentrations were higher in July than in other months. The mean TOC concentrations in areas 1 and 2 were 2.29 ± 0.012 and 2.03 ± 0.309, respectively. Pollutant concentration and gastrointestinal disease did not show any significant relationship (P > 0.05). Although we did not document significant association of nitrite, nitrate, and TOC content of water with gastrointestinal diseases, it should be considered that such health hazards may develop over time, and the quality of water content should be controlled to prevent different diseases.

  16. Nitrate ammonification in mangrove soils: A hidden source of nitrite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike eBalk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate reduction is considered to be a minor microbial pathway in the oxidation of mangrove-derived organic matter due to a limited supply of nitrate in mangrove soils. At a limited availability of this electron acceptor compared to the supply of degradable carbon, nitrate ammonification is thought to be the preferential pathway of nitrate reduction. Mangrove forest mutually differ in their productivity, which may lead to different available carbon to nitrate ratios in their soil. Hence, nitrate ammonification is expected to be of more importance in high- compared to low-productive forests.The hypothesis was tested in flow-through reactors that contain undisturbed mangrove soils from high-productive Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle forests in Florida and low-productive Avicennia marina forests in Saudi Arabia. Nitrate was undetectable in the soils from both regions. It was assumed that a legacy of nitrate ammonification would be reflected by a higher ammonium production from these soils upon the addition of nitrate. Unexpectedly, the soils from the low-productive forests in Saudi Arabia produced considerably more ammonium than the soils from the high-productive forests in Florida. Hence, other environmental factors than productivity must govern the selection of nitrate ammonification or denitrification. A rather intriguing observation was the 1:1 production of nitrite and ammonium during the consumption of nitrate, more or less independent from sampling region, location, sampling depth, mangrove species and from the absence or presence of additional degradable carbon. This 1:1 ratio points to a coupled production of ammonium and nitrite by one group of nitrate-reducing microorganisms. Such a production of nitrite will be hidden under the nitrate-limited conditions of most mangrove forest soils.

  17. MIS-based sensors with hydrogen selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li,; Dongmei, [Boulder, CO; Medlin, J William [Boulder, CO; McDaniel, Anthony H [Livermore, CA; Bastasz, Robert J [Livermore, CA

    2008-03-11

    The invention provides hydrogen selective metal-insulator-semiconductor sensors which include a layer of hydrogen selective material. The hydrogen selective material can be polyimide layer having a thickness between 200 and 800 nm. Suitable polyimide materials include reaction products of benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride 4,4-oxydianiline m-phenylene diamine and other structurally similar materials.

  18. Histological alterations in gills of Macrobrachium amazonicum juveniles exposed to ammonia and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Fabrício Martins; Rönnau, Milton; Sponchiado, Dircelei; Forneck, Sandra Carla; Freire, Carolina Arruda; Ballester, Eduardo Luis Cupertino

    2017-06-01

    Aquaculture has shown great growth in the last decades. Due to the restrictions on water use, production systems are becoming increasingly more intensive, raising concerns about the production water quality. Macrobrachium amazonicum is among the freshwater prawn species with favorable characteristics for production and possibility of intensification. Nitrogen compounds such as ammonia and nitrite affect the health of aquatic organisms since they quickly reach toxic concentrations. These compounds can also cause damage to the gill structure, leading to hypoxia in tissues, affecting acid-base balance, osmoregulation (salt absorption) and ammonia excretion, decreasing the immune capacity of the animal and, in extreme cases, cause death. The aim of this study was to assess histological changes in the gills of Macrobrachium amazonicum juveniles subjected to different concentrations of total ammonia and nitrite. The prawns were subjected to different concentrations of those compounds and their gills were removed and preserved for histological analysis. The gills were assessed for changes according to the Organ Index (I org ) and, for each change, an importance factor (w) was attributed according to the degree of reversibility and applied according to the degree of extension or frequency of the damage. The damage to the gills in the treatments with 100% mortality, both for ammonia and nitrite, corresponded to the high occurrence of progressive, regressive, circulatory, and inflammation damages. The other treatments (which caused less mortality) had mainly inflammation and regressive damages, whose occurrence increased according to the increase in ammonia and nitrite concentration. The histological analysis confirmed that the higher the total ammonia and nitrite concentrations, the larger the damages caused to the gill structure and that lower nitrite concentrations caused similar damages to those caused by higher total ammonia concentrations, which reflects the lower

  19. Colour formation in fermented sausages by meat-associated staphylococci with different nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtterup, Jacob; Olsen, Karsten; Knøchel, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    nitrate depended on the specific Staphylococcus strain. Strains with high nitrate-reductase activity showed a significantly faster rate of pigment formation, but other factors were of influence as well. Product stability for the sliced, packaged sausage was evaluated as surface colour and oxidation......Three Staphylococcus strains, S. carnosus, S. simulans and S. saprophyticus, selected due to their varying nitrite and/or nitrate-reductase activities, were used to initiate colour formation during sausage fermentation. During fermentation of sausages with either nitrite or nitrate added, colour...... with hexanal content, and may be used as predictive tools. Overall, nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities of Staphylococcus strains in nitrite-cured sausages were of limited importance regarding colour development, while in nitrate-cured sausages strains with higher nitrate reductase activity were crucial...

  20. Generation of nitric oxide from nitrite by carbonic anhydrase: a possible link between metabolic activity and vasodilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aamand, Rasmus; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Jensen, Frank Bo

    2009-01-01

    In catalyzing the reversible hydration of CO2 to bicarbonate and protons, the ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) plays a crucial role in CO2 transport, in acid-base balance, and in linking local acidosis to O2 unloading from hemoglobin. Considering the structural similarity between...... bicarbonate and nitrite, we hypothesized that CA uses nitrite as a substrate to produce the potent vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) to increase local blood flow to metabolically active tissues. Here we show that CA readily reacts with nitrite to generate NO, particularly at low pH, and that the NO produced...

  1. Modification of membrane sulfhydryl groups in bacteriostatic action of nitrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchman, G.W. III; Hansen, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism by which nitrite inhibits outgrowing spores of bacillus cereus T was examined by using techniques developed earlier for nitrite analogs. The morphological stage of inhibition, cooperativity effects, effect of pH on inhibition, kinetics of protection against tritiated iodoacetate incorporation into membrane sulfhydryl groups, and protection against the bacteriocidal effect of carboxymethylation of iodoacetate indicate that nitrite acts as a membrane-directed sulfhydryl agent. The mechanism by which nitrite modifies the chemical reactivity of the sulfhyrdyl group could be either direct covalent modification or inactivation through communication with another modified membrane component. Profiles of pH effects suggest that the active agent is the protonated form of nitrite. The nitrite concentrations which modify membrane sulfhydryl activity coincide with those which have a bacteriostatic effect. These results are consistent with membrane sulfhydryl modification as a component of the mechanism of nitrite-induced bacteriostasis in this aerobic sporeformer

  2. Mutagenesis breeding research of Lactobacillus brevis of nitrite reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Zeli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of nitrite in food became one of the focus of food safety issues,the use of biotechnology methods degrading nitrite became hotspot.The primitive strain was Lactobacillus brevis C2,preserved in our laboratory,had the ability to degrade nitrite,through composite mutagenesis of 15 W,254 nm,20 cm ultraviolet mutagenesis (UV for 120 s and 0.8% diethyl sulfate(DES in 37℃ mutation for 40 min,after screening,we successfully obtained high efficient strain of nitrite degradation,named UV6-DS2,relative to the starting strain,under the condition of 400 mg/L nitrite,after 12 h degradation,nitrite degradation rate increased from 92.8% to 97.8%,to explore its application in food was able to effectively reduce concentration of nitrite in food.

  3. Molecular characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum DMDL 9010, a strain with efficient nitrite degradation capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-tao Fei

    Full Text Available Nitrites commonly found in food, especially in fermented vegetables, are potential carcinogens. Therefore, limiting nitrites in food is critically important for food safety. A Lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 was previously isolated from fermented vegetables by our group, and is not yet fully characterized. A number of phenotypical and genotypical approaches were employed to characterize Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010. Its nitrite degradation capacity was compared with four other Lactobacillus strains, including Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 719, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricu 1.83, Streptococcus thermophilus 1.204, and lactobacillus plantarum 8140, on MRS medium. Compared to these four Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 had a significantly higher nitrite degradation capacity (P<0.001. Based on 16S rDNA sequencing and sequence comparison, Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 was identified as either Lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus pentosus. To further identify this strain, the flanking regions (922 bp and 806 bp upstream and downstream, respectively of the L-lactate dehydrogenase 1 (L-ldh1 gene were amplified and sequenced. Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 had 98.92 and 76.98% sequence identity in the upstream region with L. plantarum WCFS1 and L. pentosus IG1, respectively, suggesting that Lactobacillu sp. DMDL 9010 is an L. plantarum strain. It was therefore named L. plantarum DMDL 9010. Our study provides a platform for genetic engineering of L. plantarum DMDL 9010, in order to further improve its nitrite degradation capacity.

  4. Isolation of Ochrobactrum sp.QZ2 from sulfide and nitrite treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Hu Baolan; Cai Jing; Zheng Ping; Azim, Muhammad Rashid; Jilani, Ghulam; Islam, Ejazul

    2009-01-01

    A bacterial strain QZ2 was isolated from sludge of anoxic sulfide-oxidizing (ASO) reactor. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis and morphology, the isolate was identified as Ochrobactrum sp. QZ2. The strain was facultative chemolithotroph, able of using sulfide to reduce nitrite anaerobically. It produced either elemental sulfur or sulfate as the product of sulfide oxidation, depending on the initial sulfide and nitrite concentrations. The optimum growth pH and temperature for Ochrobactrum sp. QZ2 were found as 6.5-7.0 and 30 deg. C, respectively. The specific growth rate (μ) was found as 0.06 h -1 with a doubling time of 19.75 h; the growth seemed more sensitive to highly alkaline pH. Ochrobactrum sp. QZ2 catalyzed sulfide oxidation to sulfate was more sensitive to sulfide compared with nitrite as indicated by IC 50 values for sulfide and nitrite utilization implying that isolate was relatively more tolerant to nitrite. The comparison of physiology of Ochrobactrum sp. QZ2 with those of other known sulfide-oxidizing bacteria suggested that the present isolate resembled to Ochrobactrum anthropi in its denitrification ability.

  5. Microbial competition among anammox bacteria in nitrite-limited bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lei; Narita, Yuko; Gao, Lin; Ali, Muhammad; Oshiki, Mamoru; Ishii, Satoshi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetically diverse anammox bacteria have been detected in most of anoxic natural and engineered ecosystems and thus regarded as key players in the global nitrogen cycle. However, ecological niche differentiation of anammox bacteria remains unresolved despite its ecological and practical importance. In this study, the microbial competitions for a common substrate (nitrite) among three anammox species (i.e. “Candidatus Brocadia sinica”, “Candidatus Jettenia caeni” and “Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis”) were systematically investigated in nitrite-limited gel-immobilized column reactors (GICR) and membrane bioreactors (MBRs) under different nitrogen loading rates (NLRs). 16 S rRNA gene-based population dynamics revealed that “Ca. J. caeni” could proliferate only at low NLRs, whereas “Ca. B. sinica” outcompeted other two species at higher NLRs in both types of reactors. Furthermore, FISH analysis revealed that “Ca. J. caeni” was mainly present as spherical microclusters at the inner part (low NO2− environment), whereas “Ca. B. sinica” was present throughout the gel beads and granules. This spatial distribution supports the outcomes of the competition experiments. However, the successful competition of “Ca. J. caeni” at low NLR could not be explained with the Monod model probably due to inaccuracy of kinetic parameters such as half saturation constant (Ks) for nitrite and a difference in the maintenance rate (m). In addition, the growth of “Ca. K. stuttgartiensis” could not be observed in any experimental conditions, suggesting possible unknown factor(s) is missing. Taken together, NLR was one of factors determining ecological niche differentiation of “Ca. B. sinica” and “Ca. J. caeni”.

  6. Microbial competition among anammox bacteria in nitrite-limited bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lei

    2017-08-26

    Phylogenetically diverse anammox bacteria have been detected in most of anoxic natural and engineered ecosystems and thus regarded as key players in the global nitrogen cycle. However, ecological niche differentiation of anammox bacteria remains unresolved despite its ecological and practical importance. In this study, the microbial competitions for a common substrate (nitrite) among three anammox species (i.e. “Candidatus Brocadia sinica”, “Candidatus Jettenia caeni” and “Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis”) were systematically investigated in nitrite-limited gel-immobilized column reactors (GICR) and membrane bioreactors (MBRs) under different nitrogen loading rates (NLRs). 16 S rRNA gene-based population dynamics revealed that “Ca. J. caeni” could proliferate only at low NLRs, whereas “Ca. B. sinica” outcompeted other two species at higher NLRs in both types of reactors. Furthermore, FISH analysis revealed that “Ca. J. caeni” was mainly present as spherical microclusters at the inner part (low NO2− environment), whereas “Ca. B. sinica” was present throughout the gel beads and granules. This spatial distribution supports the outcomes of the competition experiments. However, the successful competition of “Ca. J. caeni” at low NLR could not be explained with the Monod model probably due to inaccuracy of kinetic parameters such as half saturation constant (Ks) for nitrite and a difference in the maintenance rate (m). In addition, the growth of “Ca. K. stuttgartiensis” could not be observed in any experimental conditions, suggesting possible unknown factor(s) is missing. Taken together, NLR was one of factors determining ecological niche differentiation of “Ca. B. sinica” and “Ca. J. caeni”.

  7. Dietary polyphenols generate nitric oxide from nitrite in the stomach and induce smooth muscle relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Barbara S.; Gago, Bruno; Barbosa, Rui M.; Laranjinha, Joao

    2009-01-01

    Nitrite, considered a biological waste and toxic product, is being regarded as an important physiological molecule in nitric oxide (·NO) biochemistry. Because the interaction of dietary phenolic compounds and nitrite would be kinetically (due to the high concentrations achieved) and thermodynamically (on basis of the redox potentials) feasible in the stomach, we have studied the potential reduction of nitrite by polyphenols present in several dietary sources. By measuring the time courses of ·NO production in simulated gastric juice (pH 2), the efficiency of the compounds studied is as follows: Epicatechin-3-O-gallate > quercetin > procyanidin B8 dimer > oleuropein > procyanidin B2 dimer > chlorogenic acid > epicatechin > catechin > procyanidin B5 dimer. The initial rates of ·NO production fall in a narrow range (ca. 1-5 μM s -1 ) but the distinct kinetics of the decay of ·NO signals suggest that competition reactions for ·NO are operative. The proof of concept that, in the presence of nitrite, phenol-containing dietary products induce a strong increase of ·NO in the stomach was established in an in vivo experiment with healthy volunteers consuming lettuce, onions, apples, wine, tea, berries and cherries. Moreover, selected mixtures of oleuropein and catechin with low nitrite (1 μM) were shown to induce muscle relaxation of stomach strips in a structure-dependent way. Data presented here brings strong support to the concept that polyphenols consumed in a variety of dietary products, under gastric conditions, reduce nitrite to ·NO that, in turn, may exert a biological impact as a local relaxant.

  8. Behaviors of nitrite in cured meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Misao

    1980-01-01

    The behaviors of nitrite in cured meat were studied by means of 15 N on the basis of the gaseous 15 N volume from the added nitric acid. The myoglobin, 15 N-nitrite and ascorbate model systems showed a 15 N recovery rate of approximately 100%, but actual meat samples, treated similarly, showed a recovery rate ranging from 66 to 90%, with formation of an unidentified 15 N agent. The largest amount of this unidentified agent was obtained by reaction of the 0.05 M NaCl-soluble dialyzable fraction of meat with 15 N-nitrite. When the reaction product was isolated by Sephadex column chromatography, 15 N in the fraction, which was thought to be the agent, contained approximately 26% of the added 15 N, possessed no UV absorption, and was negative for a ninhydrin reagent. Of the NaCl soluble fraction, reaction in the acidic fraction produced the largest quantity of the unidentified 15 N compound (31% of the added 15 N). This compound was strongly acidic and consisted of 30.7% C, 6.6% H and 4.9% N on element analysis. It showed no mutagenicity against Salmonella by Ames Test. (Chiba, N.)

  9. GC-ECNICI-MS analysis of S-nitrosothiols and nitroprusside after treatment with aqueous sulphide (S2-) and derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl bromide: Evidence of S-transnitrosylation and formation of nitrite and nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikas, Dimitrios; Schmidt, Mario; Hanff, Erik; Böhmer, Anke

    2017-02-01

    A GC-MS method is reported for the quantitative analysis of S-nitrosothiols (RSNO) derived from endogenous low- and high-molecular mass thiols (RSH) including hemoglobin, cysteine, glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, and the exogenous N-acetylcysteine ethyl ester. The method is based on the conversion of RSNO to nitrite by aqueous Na 2 S (S 2- ). 15 N-Labelled analogs (RS 15 NO) or 15 N-labelled nitrite and nitrate were used as internal standards. The nitrite ( 14 NO 2 - and 15 NO 2 - ) and nitrate (O 14 NO 2 - and O 15 NO 2 - anions were derivatised by pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) bromide (PFB-Br) in aqueous acetone and their PFB derivatives were separated by gas chromatography. After electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization, the anions were separated by mass spectrometry and detected by selected-ion monitoring of m/z 46 for 14 NO 2 - , m/z 47 for 15 NO 2 - , m/z 62 for O 14 NO 2 - , and m/z 63 for O 15 NO 2 - . The expected thionitrites ( - S 14 NO and - S 15 NO) were not detected, suggesting that they are intermediates and rapidly exchange their S by O from water, presumably prior to PFB-Br derivatization. The reaction of S 2- with RSNO and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) resulted in the formation of nitrite and nitrate as the major and minor reaction products, respectively. The novel Na 2 S procedure was compared with established procedures based on the use of aqueous HgCl 2 or cysteine/Cu 2+ reagents to convert the S-nitroso group to nitrite. Our results provide evidence for an equilibrium S-transnitrosylation reaction between S 2- with RSNO in buffered solutions of neutral pH. Use of Na 2 S in molar excess over RSNO shifts this reaction to the right, thus allowing almost complete conversion of RSNO to nitrite and nitrate. The Na 2 S procedure should be useful for the quantitative determination of RSNO as nitrite and nitrate after PFB-Br derivatization and GC-MS analysis. The Na 2 S procedure may also contribute to explore the complex reactions of S 2- with RSNO

  10. Colour formation in fermented sausages by meat-associated staphylococci with different nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gøtterup, Jacob; Olsen, Karsten; Knøchel, Susanne; Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise H; Møller, Jens K S

    2008-04-01

    Three Staphylococcus strains, S. carnosus, S. simulans and S. saprophyticus, selected due to their varying nitrite and/or nitrate-reductase activities, were used to initiate colour formation during sausage fermentation. During fermentation of sausages with either nitrite or nitrate added, colour was followed by L(∗)a(∗)b measurements and the content of nitrosylmyoglobin (MbFe(II)NO) quantified by electron spin resonance (ESR). MbFe(II)NO was rapidly formed in sausages with added nitrite independent of the presence of nitrite reducing bacteria, whereas the rate of MbFe(II)NO formation in sausages with added nitrate depended on the specific Staphylococcus strain. Strains with high nitrate-reductase activity showed a significantly faster rate of pigment formation, but other factors were of influence as well. Product stability for the sliced, packaged sausage was evaluated as surface colour and oxidation by autofluorescence and hexanal content, respectively. No significant direct effect of the Staphylococcus addition was observed, however, there was a clear correspondence between high initial amount of MbFe(II)NO in the different sausages and the colour stability during storage. Autofluorescence data correlated well with hexanal content, and may be used as predictive tools. Overall, nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities of Staphylococcus strains in nitrite-cured sausages were of limited importance regarding colour development, while in nitrate-cured sausages strains with higher nitrate reductase activity were crucial for ensuring optimal colour formation during initial fermentation stages.

  11. Toxicity detection of sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate using electrochemical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dengbin; Yong, Daming; Dong, Shaojun

    2013-04-01

    Based on the inhibition effect on the respiratory chain activity of microorganisms by toxicants, an electrochemical method has been developed to measure the current variation of a mediator in the presence of microorganisms contacted with a toxicant. Microelectrode arrays were adopted in this study, which can accelerate the mass transfer rate of an analyte to the electrode and also increase the total current signal, resulting in an improvement in detection sensitivity. We selected Escherichia coli as the testee and the standard glucose-glutamic acid as an exogenous material. Under oxygen restriction, the experiments in the presence of toxicant were performed at optimum conditions (solution pH 7.0, 37 degrees C and reaction for 3 hr). The resulting solution was then separated from the suspended microorganisms and was measured by an electrochemical method, using ferricyanide as a mediator. The current signal obtained represents the reoxidation of ferrocyanide, which was transformed to inhibiting efficiency, IC50, as a quantitative measure of toxicity. The IC50 values measured were 410, 570 and 830 mg/L for sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate, respectively. The results show that the toxicity sequence for these three food additives is consistent with the value reported by other methods. Furthermore, the order of damage degree to the microorganism was also observed to be: sodium nitrite > borax > aluminum potassium sulfate > blank, according to the atomic force microscopy images of E. coli after being incubated for 3 hr with the toxic compound in buffer solutions. The electrochemical method is expected to be a sensitive and simple alternative to toxicity screening for chemical food additives.

  12. Aggregate Size and Architecture Determine Microbial Activity Balance for One-Stage Partial Nitritation and Anammox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaeminck, S.E.; Terada, Akihiko; Smets, Barth F.

    2010-01-01

    by the anoxic nitrite consumption rate. The smallest reactor A, B, and C aggregates were nitrite sources (NARR, > 1.7). Large reactor A and C aggregates were granules capable of autonomous nitrogen removal (NARR, 0.6 to 1.1) with internal AnAOB zones surrounded by an AerAOB rim. Around 50% of the autotrophic......AOB-rich aggregates (reactors B and C). The hypothesized granulation pathways include granule replication by division and budding and are driven by growth and/or decay based on species-specific physiology and by hydrodynamic shear and mixing....

  13. Chemical perspectives on alkali and earth alkaline nitrate and nitrite salts for concentrated solar power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordaro, Joseph G. [Sandia National Labsoratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Molten salts have been widely considered as the leading candidate heat transfer fluids (HTF) used in high temperature, concentrated solar power plants. Specifically, nitrate and nitrite based salts have been investigated as a HTF and even deployed in pilot plants generating up to 19.9 MW of electricity at operating temperatures above 500 C. New plant designs requiring higher operating temperatures for better efficiencies are pushing the stability limit of HTF. This paper presents an overview of the thermophysical properties of nitrate and nitrite salts and discusses thermodynamic and kinetic stability limitations as they relate to concentrated solar power generation. (orig.)

  14. SADA: Ecological Risk Based Decision Support System for Selective Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance (SADA) is freeware that implements terrestrial ecological risk assessment and yields a selective remediation design using its integral geographical information system, based on ecological and risk assessment inputs. Selective remediation ...

  15. Nitrite accumulation from simultaneous free-ammonia and free-nitrous-acid inhibition and oxygen limitation in a continuous-flow biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seongjun; Chung, Jinwook; Rittmann, Bruce E; Bae, Wookeun

    2015-01-01

    To achieve nitrite accumulation for shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR) in a biofilm process, we explored the simultaneous effects of oxygen limitation and free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid (FNA) inhibition in the nitrifying biofilm. We used the multi-species nitrifying biofilm model (MSNBM) to identify conditions that should or should not lead to nitrite accumulation, and evaluated the effectiveness of those conditions with experiments in continuous flow biofilm reactors (CFBRs). CFBR experiments were organized into four sets with these expected outcomes based on the MSNBM as follows: (i) Control, giving full nitrification; (ii) oxygen limitation, giving modest long-term nitrite build up; (iii) FA inhibition, giving no long-term nitrite accumulation; and (iv) FA inhibition plus oxygen limitation, giving major long-term nitrite accumulation. Consistent with MSNBM predictions, the experimental results showed that nitrite accumulated in sets 2-4 in the short term, but long-term nitrite accumulation was maintained only in sets 2 and 4, which involved oxygen limitation. Furthermore, nitrite accumulation was substantially greater in set 4, which also included FA inhibition. However, FA inhibition (and accompanying FNA inhibition) alone in set 3 did not maintained long-term nitrite accumulation. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) activity batch tests confirmed that little NOB or only a small fraction of NOB were present in the biofilms for sets 4 and 2, respectively. The experimental data supported the previous modeling results that nitrite accumulation could be achieved with a lower ammonium concentration than had been required for a suspended-growth process. Additional findings were that the biofilm exposed to low dissolved oxygen (DO) limitation and FA inhibition was substantially denser and probably had a lower detachment rate. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The nitrite-oxidizing community in activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant determined by fatty acid methyl ester-stable isotope probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Myriam; Zumbrägel, Sabine; Bakker, Evert; Spieck, Eva; Eggers, Till; Lipski, André

    2013-10-01

    Metabolically-active autotrophic nitrite oxidizers from activated sludge were labeled with (13)C-bicarbonate under exposure to different temperatures and nitrite concentrations. The labeled samples were characterized by FAME-SIP (fatty acid methyl ester-stable isotope probing). The compound cis-11-palmitoleic acid, which is the major lipid of the most abundant nitrite oxidizer in activated sludge, Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii, showed (13)C-incorporation in all samples exposed to 3 mM nitrite. Subsequently, the lipid cis-7-palmitoleic acid was labeled, and it indicated the activity of a nitrite oxidizer that was different from the known Nitrospira taxa in activated sludge. The highest incorporation of cis-7-palmitoleic acid label was found after incubation with a nitrite concentration of 0.3 mM at 17 and 22°C. While activity of Nitrobacter populations could not be detected by the FAME-SIP approach, an unknown nitrite oxidizer with the major lipid cis-9 isomer of palmitoleic acid exhibited (13)C-incorporation at 28°C with 30 mM nitrite. These results indicated flexibility of nitrite-oxidizing guilds in a complex community responding to different conditions. Labeled lipids so far not described for activated sludge-associated nitrifiers indicated the presence of unknown nitrite oxidizers in this habitat. The FAME-SIP-based information can be used to define appropriate conditions for the enrichment of nitrite-oxidizing guilds from complex samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. The presence of urinary nitrites is a significant predictor of pediatric urinary tract infection susceptibility to first- and third-generation cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Dany; Seabrook, Jamie A; Lim, Rodrick K

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies in adults have refuted the use of nitrites as a predictor of bacterial resistance to both trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and cephalosporins. Some centers now consider first-line outpatient therapy with an oral third-generation cephalosporin appropriate for young children. The objective of this study was to determine if nitrite-negative pediatric urinary tract infections (UTIs) were more likely than nitrite-positive UTIs to be resistant to cephalosporins. This may enable physicians to adjust antimicrobial therapy before patients leave the Emergency Department (ED) to avoid the complications of ineffectively treated pediatric UTIs. A retrospective chart review examined, over a 9-month period, 173 pediatric patients who were diagnosed with a clinical UTI in the ED and who also had a positive urine culture and a recorded dipstick at the time of visit. The chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare nitrite-negative vs. nitrite-positive UTIs for resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and other empiric antimicrobials. For third-generation cephalosporins, 1.4% of nitrite-positive UTIs were resistant, whereas 14.4% of nitrite-negative UTIs were resistant (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.22 to -0.05). For first-generation cephalosporins, 8.4% were resistant in the nitrite-positive group, compared to 22.2% in the nitrite-negative group (95% CI -0.24 to -0.03). The absence of urinary nitrites is a significant indicator for potential resistance to cephalosporins in pediatric UTIs. Due to low levels of pediatric UTI resistance, cephalosporins continue to represent useful empiric therapy in the general pediatric population. However, in high-risk patients, physicians may opt to alter their empiric choice of antibiotic based on the presence of urinary nitrites. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Structuring AHP-based maintenance policy selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Adriaan; Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida; Hummel, J. Marjan; van der Wegen, Leonardus L.M.

    2015-01-01

    We aim to structure the maintenance policy selection process for ships, using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Maintenance is an important contributor to reach the intended life-time of capital technical assets, and it is gaining increasing interest and relevance. A maintenance policy is a

  19. Fine structure characterization of zero-valent iron nanoparticles for decontamination of nitrites and nitrates in wastewater and groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-Song Lin et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of the present study were to investigate the chemical reduction of nitrate or nitrite species by zero-valent iron nanoparticle (ZVIN in aqueous solution and related reaction kinetics or mechanisms using fine structure characterization. This work also exemplifies the utilization of field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE–SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and x-ray diffraction (XRD to reveal the speciation and possible reaction pathway in a very complex adsorption and redox reaction process. Experimentally, ZVIN of this study was prepared by sodium borohydride reduction method at room temperature and ambient pressure. The morphology of as-synthesized ZVIN shows that the nearly ball and ultrafine particles ranged of 20–50 nm were observed with FE–SEM or TEM analysis. The kinetic model of nitrites or nitrates reductive reaction by ZVIN is proposed as a pseudo first-order kinetic equation. The nitrite and nitrate removal efficiencies using ZVIN were found 65–83% and 51–68%, respectively, based on three different initial concentrations. Based on the XRD pattern analyses, it is found that the quantitative relationship between nitrite and Fe(III or Fe(II is similar to the one between nitrate and Fe(III in the ZVIN study. The possible reason is due to the faster nitrite reduction by ZVIN. In fact, the occurrence of the relative faster nitrite reductive reaction suggested that the passivation of the ZVIN have a significant contribution to iron corrosion. The extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS or x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES spectra show that the nitrites or nitrates reduce to N2 or NH3 while oxidizing the ZVIN to Fe2O3 or Fe3O4 electrochemically. It is also very clear that decontamination of nitrate or nitrite species in groundwater via the in-situ remediation with a ZVIN permeable reactive barrier would be environmentally attractive.

  20. Nitrate and nitrite in biology, nutrition and therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Jon O.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Benjamin, Nigel; Bryan, Nathan S.; Butler, Anthony; Cabrales, Pedro; Fago, Angela; Feelisch, Martin; Ford, Peter C.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Frenneau, Michael; Friedman, Joel; Kelm, Malte; Kevil, Christopher G.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Kozlov, Andrey V.; Lancaster, Jack R.; Lefer, David J.; McColl, Kenneth; McCurry, Kenneth; Patel, Rakesh; Petersson, Joel; Rassaf, Tienush; Reutov, Valentin P.; Richter-Addo, George B.; Schechter, Alan; Shiva, Sruti; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; van Faassen, Ernst E.; Webb, Andrew J.; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.; Zweier, Jay L.; Weitzberg, Eddie

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic nitrate and nitrite from endogenous or dietary sources are metabolized in vivo to nitric oxide (NO) and other bioactive nitrogen oxides. The nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway is emerging as an important mediator of blood flow regulation, cell signaling, energetics and tissue responses to hypoxia. The latest advances in our understanding of the biochemistry, physiology and therapeutics of nitrate, nitrite and NO were discussed during a recent two-day meeting at the Nobel Forum, Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm. PMID:19915529

  1. Methaemoglobinaemia due to amyl nitrite inhalation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machabert, R; Testud, F; Descotes, J

    1994-05-01

    Methaemoglobinaemia is a potential toxic effect of aliphatic nitrites which are increasingly abused by male homosexuals and drug addicts because of marked vasodilating properties ('poppers'). In most instances, severe complications were described following the ingestion of large quantities of amyl, butyl or isobutyl nitrites. A deficiency in NADH-dependent haemoglobin reductase in some patients has been noted. This is the first report of symptomatic methaemoglobinaemia following the inhalation of amyl nitrite.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and nitrite ion sensing performance of reclaimable composite samples through a core-shell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao; Yuqing, Zhao; Cui, Jiantao; Zheng, Qian; Bo, Wang

    2018-02-01

    The following paper reported and discussed a nitrite ion optical sensing platform based on a core-shell structure, using superamagnetic nanoparticles as the core, a silica molecular sieve MCM-41 as the shell and two rhodamine derivatives as probe, respectively. This superamagnetic core made this sensing platform reclaimable after finishing nitrite ion sensing procedure. This sensing platform was carefully characterized by means of electron microscopy images, porous structure analysis, magnetic response, IR spectra and thermal stability analysis. Detailed analysis suggested that the emission of these composite samples was quenchable by nitrite ion, showing emission turn off effect. A static sensing mechanism based on an additive reaction between chemosensors and nitrite ion was proposed. These composite samples followed Demas quenching equation against different nitrite ion concentrations. Limit of detection value was obtained as low as 0.4 μM. It was found that, after being quenched by nitrite ion, these composite samples could be reclaimed and recovered by sulphamic acid, confirming their recyclability.

  3. Safer and healthier reduced nitrites turkey meat sausages using lyophilized Cystoseira barbata seaweed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellimi, Sabrine; Benslima, Abdelkarim; Ksouda, Ghada; Montero, Veronique Barragan; Hajji, Mohamed; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-10-21

    Background Nitrite salts are still common additives in the meat industry. The present study provides a first approach on the employment of the lyophilized aqueous extract (WE) of the Tunisian seaweed Cystoseira barbata for the quality enhancement of turkey meat sausage. Methods WE was supplemented as a natural antioxidant agent to investigate its effectiveness in delaying lipid oxidation turkey meat sausages containing reduced amounts of sodium nitrites. Results On storage day 5, all concentrations of WE (0.01-0.4 %) reduced the meat lipid oxidation by approximately 36 %, as compared to the negative control containing only 80 mg/kg of meat of sodium nitrites as antioxidant. It was noted that within 15 days of refrigerated storage, a meat system containing 80 mg/kg of meat of sodium nitrites and 0.02 % and 0.04 % of WE had similar Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) levels (19±1.32 and 17±1.12 µmol/kg of meat, respectively), which were comparable to the positive control containing sodium nitrites (150 mg/kg of meat) and 0.045 % vitamin C (18.46±1.27 µmol/kg of meat). In-depth, the metabolomic profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography-quadripole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) analyses of the Tunisian seaweed C. barbata solvent extracts showed that the main active compounds were phenolic compounds, fatty acids and sterols. Conclusions Overall, the cold medium containing C. barbata lyophilized aqueous extrac, with strong antioxidant activity and antihypertensive properties, may open the way to the development of a natural quality enhancement strategy for new functional and ever healthier reduced nitrites meat sausages based on algae.

  4. The role of nitrite in nitric oxide homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo

    2009-01-01

    Nitrite is endogenously produced as an oxidative metabolite of nitric oxide, but it also functions as a NO donor that can be activated by a number of cellular proteins under hypoxic conditions. This article discusses the physiological role of nitrite and nitrite-derived NO in blood flow regulation...... mechanisms. Nitrite reduction to NO provides cytoprotection in tissues during ischemia-reperfusion events by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration and limiting reactive oxygen species. It is argued that the study of hypoxia-tolerant lower vertebrates and diving mammals may help evaluate mechanisms and a full...

  5. Flow injection determination of metronidazole through spectrophotometric measurement of the nitrite ion produced upon alkaline hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões Simone S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for metronidazole determination, based on spectrometric monitoring of a diazonium salt produced in-line by alkaline hydrolysis released nitrite ions, was developed and successfully applied to pharmaceutical tablets (r = 0.9993, 2.0-20.0 mg L-1, DL = 0.7 mg L-1 with no interference from common ingredients accompanying the drug.

  6. Unimolecular Reactions of Nitrites and Nitrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    verified the mechanism as being the one originally proposed by Levy, RONO - RO + NO RO + NO- 1 2*RONO •I kRO + NO-- ROH HHO -Hi k5 :and not by direct...produced by ,’Levy’s mechanism. I1 Emission from CH30, C2H50, and l-C3H70 radicals were observed in the photolysis of these nitrites between...wavelengths of 2000 and 1100 A, by Ohbayashi, Akimoto and Tanaka [78]. Emission was assigned to the (A2A1IX2E) transition of CH30 . Bands of NO were also *i

  7. Is dietary nitrate/nitrite exposure a risk factor for development of thyroid abnormality? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Ghasemi, Asghar; Kabir, Ali; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2015-05-01

    The potential effects of inorganic nitrate/nitrite on global health are a much debated issue. In addition to possible methemoglobinemia and carcinogenic properties, anti-thyroid effects of nitrate/nitrite have been suggested. Considering the growing significance of nitrate/nitrite and since there is no comprehensive review in data available, clarifying the effect of nitrate/nitrite on thyroid disorder outcomes is essential. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review of experimental and clinical studies, and a meta-analysis of relevant cohort and cross-sectional studies investigating the association of nitrate/nitrite exposure and thyroid function. Most animal studies show that high exposure (~10-600 times of acceptable daily intake) to nitrate/nitrite induces anti-thyroid effects, including decreased serum level of thyroid hormones and histomorphological changes in thyroid gland; however no similar observations have been documented in humans. Based on our meta-analysis, no significant association was observed between nitrate exposure and the risk of thyroid cancer, hyper- and hypothyroidism; findings from three cohort studies however showed a significant association between higher exposure to nitrite and the risk of thyroid cancer (risk = 1.48, 95% confidence interval = 1.09-2.02, P = 0.012). Additional research is needed to clarify the association between nitrate/nitrite exposures and both thyroid function and cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of polyurethane foam and 3-hydroxy-7,8-benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline for determination of nitrite by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apyari, V V; Dmitrienko, S G; Ostrovskaya, V M; Anaev, E K; Zolotov, Y A

    2008-07-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) has been suggested as a solid polymeric reagent for determination of nitrite. The determination is based on the diazotization of end toluidine groups of PUF with nitrite in acidic medium followed by coupling of polymeric diazonium cation with 3-hydroxy-7,8-benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline. The intensely colored polymeric azodye formed in this reaction can be used as a convenient analytic form for the determination of nitrite by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (c (min) = 0.7 ng mL(-1)). The possibility of using a desktop scanner, digital camera, and computer data processing for the numerical evaluation of the color intensity of the polymeric azodye has been investigated. A scanner and digital camera can be used for determination of nitrite with the same sensitivity and reproducibility as with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The approach developed was applied for determination of nitrite in river water and human exhaled breath condensate.

  9. Extreme nitrite tolerance in the clown knifefish Chitala ornata is linked to up-regulation of methaemoglobin reductase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Thi Hong Gam; Jensen, Frank Bo; Damsgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    and fell towards control values during the last half of the exposure period. Plasma nitrate, in contrast, rose continuously, reflecting detoxification of nitrite to nitrate. MetHb generated from the reaction between nitrite and erythrocyte Hb reached 38% at day 2, but then decreased to 17% by the end......The clown knifefish is a facultative air breather, which is widely farmed in freshwater ponds in Vietnam. Here we report a very high nitrite tolerance (96h LC50 of 7.82mM) in this species and examine the effects of 1mM (LC5) and 2.5mM (LC10) ambient nitrite on haemoglobin (Hb) derivatives......, electrolyte levels, acid-base status, and total body water content during 7days of exposure. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that erythrocyte methaemoglobin (metHb) reductase activity is upregulated by nitrite exposure. Plasma nitrite levels increased for 2-3days but stayed below environmental levels...

  10. Comparison of Oxidation Kinetics of Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacteria: Nitrite Availability as a Key Factor in Niche Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowka, Boris; Daims, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Nitrification has an immense impact on nitrogen cycling in natural ecosystems and in wastewater treatment plants. Mathematical models function as tools to capture the complexity of these biological systems, but kinetic parameters especially of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) are lacking because of a limited number of pure cultures until recently. In this study, we compared the nitrite oxidation kinetics of six pure cultures and one enrichment culture representing three genera of NOB (Nitrobacter, Nitrospira, Nitrotoga). With half-saturation constants (Km) between 9 and 27 μM nitrite, Nitrospira bacteria are adapted to live under significant substrate limitation. Nitrobacter showed a wide range of lower substrate affinities, with Km values between 49 and 544 μM nitrite. However, the advantage of Nitrobacter emerged under excess nitrite supply, sustaining high maximum specific activities (Vmax) of 64 to 164 μmol nitrite/mg protein/h, contrary to the lower activities of Nitrospira of 18 to 48 μmol nitrite/mg protein/h. The Vmax (26 μmol nitrite/mg protein/h) and Km (58 μM nitrite) of “Candidatus Nitrotoga arctica” measured at a low temperature of 17°C suggest that Nitrotoga can advantageously compete with other NOB, especially in cold habitats. The kinetic parameters determined represent improved basis values for nitrifying models and will support predictions of community structure and nitrification rates in natural and engineered ecosystems. PMID:25398863

  11. Effect of the kinetics of ammonium and nitrite oxidation on nitritation success or failure for different biofilm reactor geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lackner, Susanne; Smets, Barth F.

    2012-01-01

    was on the influence of key biokinetic parameters (maximum specific growth rates, oxygen and nitrogen affinity constants of AOB (ammonium oxidizing bacteria) and NOB (nitrite oxidizing bacteria)) and their ratios on nitritation efficiency in these geometries. This exhaustive simulation study revealed that nitritation...... strongly depends on the chosen kinetic parameters of AOB and NOB. The maximum specific growth rates (μmax,AOB and μmax,NOB) had the strongest impact on nitritation efficiency (NE). In comparison, the counter-diffusion geometry yielded more parameter combinations (27.5%) that resulted in high NE than the co...

  12. EEG feature selection method based on decision tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lijuan; Ge, Hui; Ma, Wei; Miao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to solve automated feature selection problem in brain computer interface (BCI). In order to automate feature selection process, we proposed a novel EEG feature selection method based on decision tree (DT). During the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal processing, a feature extraction method based on principle component analysis (PCA) was used, and the selection process based on decision tree was performed by searching the feature space and automatically selecting optimal features. Considering that EEG signals are a series of non-linear signals, a generalized linear classifier named support vector machine (SVM) was chosen. In order to test the validity of the proposed method, we applied the EEG feature selection method based on decision tree to BCI Competition II datasets Ia, and the experiment showed encouraging results.

  13. Content-based image retrieval: Color-selection exploited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, E.L. van den; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Kisters, P. M. F.; Schmid, J.C.M. von; Moens, M.F.; Busser, R. de; Hiemstra, D.; Kraaij, W.

    2002-01-01

    This research presents a new color selection interface that facilitates query-by-color in Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR). Existing CBIR color selection interfaces, are being judged as non-intuitive and difficult to use. Our interface copes with these problems of usability. It is based on 11

  14. Content-Based Image Retrieval: Color-selection exploited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moens, Marie-Francine; van den Broek, Egon; Vuurpijl, L.G.; de Brusser, Rik; Kisters, P.M.F.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Kraaij, Wessel; von Schmid, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    This research presents a new color selection interface that facilitates query-by-color in Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR). Existing CBIR color selection interfaces, are being judged as non-intuitive and difficult to use. Our interface copes with these problems of usability. It is based on 11

  15. Tungsten based catalysts for selective deoxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, R.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326164081; Stellwagen, D.R.; Bitter, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/160581435

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decades, impending oil shortages combined with petroleum market instability have prompted a search for a new source of both transportation fuels and bulk chemicals. Renewable bio-based feedstocks such as sugars, grains, and seeds are assumed to be capable of contributing to a

  16. Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite on tetraruthenated metalloporphyrins/Nafion glassy carbon modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calfuman, Karla [Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Casilla 653, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile); Aguirre, Maria Jesus [Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Departamento de Quimica de los Materiales, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Canete-Rosales, Paulina; Bollo, Soledad [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmaceuticas, Departamento de Quimica Farmacologica y Toxicologica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Llusar, Rosa [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Universidad de Jaume I, Castellon (Spain); Isaacs, Mauricio, E-mail: misaacs@uchile.cl [Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Casilla 653, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > Preparation and characterization of modified electrodes with M(II) Tetraruthenated porphyrins onto a Nafion film. > The electrodes were characterized by SEM, TEM, AFM and SECM techniques. > The modified electrodes are active in the electrochemical reduction of nitrite at -660 mV vs Ag/AgCl. > GC/Nf/CoTRP modified electrode is more electrochemically active than their Ni and Zn analogues. - Abstract: This paper describes the electrochemical reduction of nitrite ion in neutral aqueous solution mediated by tetraruthenated metalloporphyrins (Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II)) electrostatically assembled onto a Nafion film previously adsorbed on glassy carbon or ITO electrodes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results have shown that on ITO electrodes the macrocycles forms multiple layers with a disordered stacking orientation over the Nafion film occupying hydrophobic and hydrophilic sites in the polyelectrolyte. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) results demonstrated that the Nafion film is 35 nm thick and tetraruthenated metalloporphyrins layers 190 nm thick presenting a thin but compacted morphology. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) images shows that the Co(II) tetraruthenated porphyrins/Nf/GC modified electrode is more electrochemically active than their Ni and Zn analogues. These modified electrodes are able to reduce nitrite at -660 mV showing enhanced reduction current and a decrease in the required overpotential compared to bare glassy carbon electrode. Controlled potential electrolysis experiments verify the production of ammonia, hydrazine and hydroxylamine at potentials where reduction of solvent is plausible demonstrating some selectivity toward the nitrite ion. Rotating disc electrode voltammetry shows that the factor that governs the kinetics of nitrite reduction is the charge propagation in the film.

  17. Nitrate and nitrite in biology, nutrition and therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundberg, J.O.; van Faassen, E.E.H.; Gladwin, M.T.; Ahluwalia, A.; Benjamin, N.

    2009-01-01

    Inorganic nitrate and nitrite from endogenous or dietary sources are metabolized in vivo to nitric oxide (NO) and other bioactive nitrogen oxides. The nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway is emerging as an important mediator of blood flow regulation, cell signaling, energetics and tissue responses to hypoxia.

  18. Nitrite as a stimulus for ammonia-starved Nitrosomonas europaea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laanbroek, H.J.; Bär-Gilissen, M.J.; Hoogveld, H.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ammonia-starved cells of Nitrosomonas europaea are able to preserve a high level of ammonia-oxidizing activity in the absence of ammonium. However, when the nitrite-oxidizing cells that form part of the natural nitrifying community do not keep pace with the ammonia-oxidizing cells, nitrite

  19. NITRITE AND NITRATE DETERMINATIONS IN PLASMA - A CRITICAL-EVALUATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOSHAGE, H; KOK, B; HUIZENGA, [No Value; JANSEN, PLM

    Plasma nitrite and nitrate determinations are increasingly being used in clinical chemistry as markers for the activity of nitric oxide synthase and the production of nitric oxide radicals. However, a systematic evaluation of the determination of nitrite and nitrate in plasma has not been performed.

  20. Nitrite and nitrate determinations in plasma: a critical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshage, H.; Kok, B.; Huizenga, J. R.; Jansen, P. L.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma nitrite and nitrate determinations are increasingly being used in clinical chemistry as markers for the activity of nitric oxide synthase and the production of nitric oxide radicals. However, a systematic evaluation of the determination of nitrite and nitrate in plasma has not been performed.

  1. Nitrite enhances liver graft protection against cold ischemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amani Cherif-Sayadi

    2017-03-30

    Mar 30, 2017 ... cold ischemia reperfusion injury through a NOS ... oxidation and lipid peroxidation remained at low levels in both nitrite-treated groups when ... liver graft preservation [15]. ... nitrite activity is dependent on NO production but .... LiversT rat (n = 6) were flushed and preserved in IGL-1 solution ..... The nitrate-.

  2. Cermet based solar selective absorbers : further selectivity improvement and developing new fabrication technique

    OpenAIRE

    Nejati, Mohammadreza

    2008-01-01

    Spectral selectivity of cermet based selective absorbers were increased by inducing surface roughness on the surface of the cermet layer using a roughening technique (deposition on hot substrates) or by micro-structuring the metallic substrates before deposition of the absorber coating using laser and imprint structuring techniques. Cu-Al2O3 cermet absorbers with very rough surfaces and excellent selectivity were obtained by employing a roughness template layer under the infrared reflective l...

  3. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS BASED GEARS MATERIAL SELECTION HYBRID INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.C. Li; W.X. Zhu; G. Chen; D.S. Mei; J. Zhang; K.M. Chen

    2003-01-01

    An artificial neural networks(ANNs) based gear material selection hybrid intelligent system is established by analyzing the individual advantages and weakness of expert system (ES) and ANNs and the applications in material select of them. The system mainly consists of tow parts: ES and ANNs. By being trained with much data samples,the back propagation (BP) ANN gets the knowledge of gear materials selection, and is able to inference according to user input. The system realizes the complementing of ANNs and ES. Using this system, engineers without materials selection experience can conveniently deal with gear materials selection.

  4. Simultaneous Voltammetric/Amperometric Determination of Sulfide and Nitrite in Water at BDD Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Baciu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reported new voltammetric/amperometric-based protocols using a commercial boron-doped diamond (BDD electrode for simple and fast simultaneous detection of sulfide and nitrite from water. Square-wave voltammetry operated under the optimized working conditions of 0.01 V step potential, 0.5 V modulation amplitude and 10 Hz frequency allowed achieving the best electroanalytical parameters for the simultaneous detection of nitrite and sulfide. For practical in-field detection applications, the multiple-pulsed amperometry technique was operated under optimized conditions, i.e., −0.5 V/SCE for a duration of 0.3 s as conditioning step, +0.85 V/SCE for a duration of 3 s that assure the sulfide oxidation and +1.25 V/SCE for a duration of 0.3 s, where the nitrite oxidation occurred, which allowed the simultaneously detection of sulfide and nitrite without interference between them. Good accuracy was found for this protocol in comparison with standardized methods for each anion. Also, no interference effect was found for the cation and anion species, which are common in the water matrix.

  5. Determination of Nitrite and Nitrate in Natural Waters Using Flow Injection with Spectrophotometric Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaqoob, M.; Nabi, A.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and sensitive flow injection spectrophotometric method is reported for the room temperature determination of nitrite and nitrate based on the Griess reaction and a copperised cadmium column for reduction of nitrate. Calibration graphs were linear over the range 2 - 1000 micro g N L /sup -1/ (R2 = 0.9997 and 0.9999, n = 9) with a limit of detection (3 s.d.) of 1.0 micro g N L and relative standard deviations (n = 10) of 0.9 and 1.2% for 50 micro g N L nitrite and nitrate respectively. The sample throughput was 50 h. The effect of reagent concentrations, physical parameters (flow rate, sample volume, reaction coil and copperised cadmium column length) and the potential interferences are reported. The effect of salinity on the blank and on the determination of nitrite and nitrate are also presented. The method was applied to natural waters (rainwater, freshwater and estuarine water) and the results for nitrite + nitrate (140 - 7310 micro g N L/sup -1/) were not significantly different (95% confidence interval) from results obtained using a segmented flow analyser reference method with spectrophotometric detection. (author)

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of nitrite by its catalytic effect on the oxidation of congo red with bromate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenovia Moldovan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel simple, sensitive and rapid kinetic-spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts of nitrite is proposed. The method is based on its catalytic effect on the oxidation of congo red (CR by potassium bromate in acidic solution. The oxidation reaction is monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance of CR at a suitable λmax = 570 nm for the first 10–40 s from the start of the reaction. Under the optimum experimental conditions (sulfuric acid, 0.3 M; CR, 0.75Χ10-4 M; potassium bromate, 5Χ10-4 M and 25 oC, nitrite can be determined in the range of 0.015–0.75 µg mL−1 with the detection limit of 0.006 µg mL−1. The relative standard deviation of five replicate determination of 0.25 µg mL−1 nitrite was 2.5%. The proposed method was applied satisfactorily to the determination of nitrite in spiked drinking water samples.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i2.1

  7. A random-sequential mechanism for nitrite binding and active site reduction in copper-containing nitrite reductase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijma, HJ; Jeuken, LJC; Verbeet, MP; Armstrong, FA; Canters, GW

    2006-01-01

    The homotrimeric copper-containing nitrite reductase ( NiR) contains one type-1 and one type-2 copper center per monomer. Electrons enter through the type-1 site and are shuttled to the type-2 site where nitrite is reduced to nitric oxide. To investigate the catalytic mechanism of NiR the effects of

  8. Selection of components based on their importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stvan, F.

    2004-12-01

    A proposal is presented for sorting components of the Dukovany nuclear power plant with respect to their importance. The classification scheme includes property priority, property criticality and property structure. Each area has its criteria with weight coefficients to calculate the importance of each component by the Risk Priority Number method. The aim of the process is to generate a list of components in order of operating and safety importance, which will help spend funds to ensure operation and safety in an optimal manner. This proposal is linked to a proposal for a simple database which should serve to enter information and perform assessments. The present stage focused on a safety assessment of components categorized in safety classes BT1, BT2 and BT3 pursuant to Decree No. 76. Assessment was performed based ona PSE study for Level 1. The database includes inputs for entering financial data, which are represented by a potential damage resulting from the given failure and by the loss of MWh in financial terms. In a next input, the failure incidence intensity and time of correction can be entered. Information regarding the property structure, represented by the degree of backup and reparability of the component, is the last input available

  9. A novel marine nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospira species from Dutch coastal North Sea water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Caroline Marianne Haaijer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms are important for the global nitrogen cycle, but marine nitrifiers, especially aerobic nitrite-oxidizers, remain largely unexplored. To increase the number of cultured representatives of marine nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB, a bioreactor cultivation approach was adopted to first enrich nitrifiers and ultimately nitrite oxidizers from Dutch coastal North Sea water. With solely ammonia as the substrate an active nitrifiying community consisting of novel marine Nitrosomonas aerobic ammonia oxidizers (AOB and Nitrospina and Nitrospira NOB was obtained which converted a maximum of 2 mmoles of ammonia per liter per day. Switching the feed of the culture to nitrite as a sole substrate resulted in a Nitrospira NOB dominated community (approximately 80% of the total microbial community based on FISH and metagenomic data converting a maximum of 3 mmoles of nitrite per liter per day. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the Nitrospira enriched from the North Sea is a novel Nitrospira species with Nitrospira marina as the next taxonomically described relative (94% 16S rRNA sequence identity. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a cell plan typical for Nitrospira species. The cytoplasm contained electron light particles that might represent glycogen storage. A large periplasmic space was present which was filled with electron dense particles. Nitrospira-targeted PCR analyses demonstrated the presence of the enriched Nitrospira species in a time series of North Sea genomic DNA samples. The availability of this new Nitrospira species enrichment culture facilitates further in-depth studies such as determination of physiological constraints, and comparison to other NOB species.

  10. Information Gain Based Dimensionality Selection for Classifying Text Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2013-06-01

    Selecting the optimal dimensions for various knowledge extraction applications is an essential component of data mining. Dimensionality selection techniques are utilized in classification applications to increase the classification accuracy and reduce the computational complexity. In text classification, where the dimensionality of the dataset is extremely high, dimensionality selection is even more important. This paper presents a novel, genetic algorithm based methodology, for dimensionality selection in text mining applications that utilizes information gain. The presented methodology uses information gain of each dimension to change the mutation probability of chromosomes dynamically. Since the information gain is calculated a priori, the computational complexity is not affected. The presented method was tested on a specific text classification problem and compared with conventional genetic algorithm based dimensionality selection. The results show an improvement of 3% in the true positives and 1.6% in the true negatives over conventional dimensionality selection methods.

  11. Multispectral iris recognition based on group selection and game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Foysal; Roy, Kaushik

    2017-05-01

    A commercially available iris recognition system uses only a narrow band of the near infrared spectrum (700-900 nm) while iris images captured in the wide range of 405 nm to 1550 nm offer potential benefits to enhance recognition performance of an iris biometric system. The novelty of this research is that a group selection algorithm based on coalition game theory is explored to select the best patch subsets. In this algorithm, patches are divided into several groups based on their maximum contribution in different groups. Shapley values are used to evaluate the contribution of patches in different groups. Results show that this group selection based iris recognition

  12. 44 CFR 321.2 - Selection of the mobilization base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... base. 321.2 Section 321.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS MAINTENANCE OF THE MOBILIZATION BASE (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.2 Selection of the mobilization base. (a) The Department...

  13. Use of nitrite inhalants ("poppers") among American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Schlenger, William E; Ringwalt, Chris L

    2005-07-01

    We examined the patterns and correlates of nitrite inhalant use among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Study data were drawn from the 2000 and 2001 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. Logistic regression was used to identify the characteristics associated with nitrite inhalant use. Among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, 1.5% reported any lifetime use of nitrite inhalants. The prevalence of lifetime nitrite inhalant use increased to 12% and 14% among adolescents who were dependent on alcohol and any drug in the past year, respectively. Many nitrite inhalant users used at least three other types of inhalants (68%) and also met the criteria for alcohol (33%) and drug (35%) abuse or dependence. Increased odds of nitrite inhalant use were associated with residing in nonmetropolitan areas, recent utilization of mental health services, delinquent behaviors, past year alcohol and drug abuse and dependence, and multi-drug use. Adolescents who had used nitrite inhalants at least once in their lifetime tend to engage in delinquent activities and report co-occurring multiple drug abuse and mental health problems in the past year.

  14. Long-term dietary nitrite and nitrate deficiency causes the metabolic syndrome, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular death in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kina-Tanada, Mika; Sakanashi, Mayuko; Tanimoto, Akihide; Kaname, Tadashi; Matsuzaki, Toshihiro; Noguchi, Katsuhiko; Uchida, Taro; Nakasone, Junko; Kozuka, Chisayo; Ishida, Masayoshi; Kubota, Haruaki; Taira, Yuji; Totsuka, Yuichi; Kina, Shin-Ichiro; Sunakawa, Hajime; Omura, Junichi; Satoh, Kimio; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki; Maeda, Shiro; Ohya, Yusuke; Matsushita, Masayuki; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Arasaki, Akira; Tsutsui, Masato

    2017-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesised not only from L-arginine by NO synthases (NOSs), but also from its inert metabolites, nitrite and nitrate. Green leafy vegetables are abundant in nitrate, but whether or not a deficiency in dietary nitrite/nitrate spontaneously causes disease remains to be clarified. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that long-term dietary nitrite/nitrate deficiency would induce the metabolic syndrome in mice. To this end, we prepared a low-nitrite/nitrate diet (LND) consisting of an amino acid-based low-nitrite/nitrate chow, in which the contents of L-arginine, fat, carbohydrates, protein and energy were identical with a regular chow, and potable ultrapure water. Nitrite and nitrate were undetectable in both the chow and the water. Three months of the LND did not affect food or water intake in wild-type C57BL/6J mice compared with a regular diet (RD). However, in comparison with the RD, 3 months of the LND significantly elicited visceral adiposity, dyslipidaemia and glucose intolerance. Eighteen months of the LND significantly provoked increased body weight, hypertension, insulin resistance and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine, while 22 months of the LND significantly led to death mainly due to cardiovascular disease, including acute myocardial infarction. These abnormalities were reversed by simultaneous treatment with sodium nitrate, and were significantly associated with endothelial NOS downregulation, adiponectin insufficiency and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota. These results provide the first evidence that long-term dietary nitrite/nitrate deficiency gives rise to the metabolic syndrome, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular death in mice, indicating a novel pathogenetic role of the exogenous NO production system in the metabolic syndrome and its vascular complications.

  15. A comparison of organic and inorganic nitrates/nitrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Sami A; Artime, Esther; Webb, Andrew J

    2012-05-15

    Although both organic and inorganic nitrates/nitrites mediate their principal effects via nitric oxide, there are many important differences. Inorganic nitrate and nitrite have simple ionic structures and are produced endogenously and are present in the diet, whereas their organic counterparts are far more complex, and, with the exception of ethyl nitrite, are all medicinally synthesised products. These chemical differences underlie the differences in pharmacokinetic properties allowing for different modalities of administration, particularly of organic nitrates, due to the differences in their bioavailability and metabolic profiles. Whilst the enterosalivary circulation is a key pathway for orally ingested inorganic nitrate, preventing an abrupt effect or toxic levels of nitrite and prolonging the effects, this is not used by organic nitrates. The pharmacodynamic differences are even greater; while organic nitrates have potent acute effects causing vasodilation, inorganic nitrite's effects are more subtle and dependent on certain conditions. However, in chronic use, organic nitrates are considerably limited by the development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction, whereas inorganic nitrate/nitrite may compensate for diminished endothelial function, and tolerance has not been reported. Also, while inorganic nitrate/nitrite has important cytoprotective effects against ischaemia-reperfusion injury, continuous use of organic nitrates may increase injury. While there are concerns that inorganic nitrate/nitrite may induce carcinogenesis, direct evidence of this in humans is lacking. While organic nitrates may continue to dominate the therapeutic arena, this may well change with the increasing recognition of their limitations, and ongoing discovery of beneficial effects and specific advantages of inorganic nitrate/nitrite. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nitrates and Nitrites in the Treatment of Ischemic Cardiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossaman, Vaughn E.; Nossaman, Bobby D.; Kadowitz, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    The organic nitrite, amyl of nitrite, was initially used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of angina pectoris in 1867, but was replaced over a decade later by the organic nitrate, nitroglycerin (NTG), due to the ease of administration and longer duration of action. The administration of organic nitrate esters, such as NTG, continues to be used in the treatment of angina pectoris and heart failure during the birth of modern pharmacology. The clinical effectiveness is due to vasodilator activity in large veins and arteries through an as yet unidentified method of delivering nitric oxide (NO), or a NO-like compound to vascular smooth muscle cells. The major drawback with NTG administration is the rapid development of tolerance; and with amyl of nitrite, the duration and route of administration. Although amyl of nitrite are no longer used in the treatments of hypertension or ischemic heart disease, the nitrite anion has recently been discovered to possess novel pharmacologic actions such as modulating hypoxic vasodilation and providing cytoprotection in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Although the actions of these two similar chemical classes (nitrites and organic nitrates) have often been considered to be alike, we still do not understand their mechanism of action. However, the recent discovery that the nitrite anion, derived from either sodium nitrite or an intermediate NTG form, may act as a storage form for NO and provides support for investigating the use of these agents in the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular states. We review what is presently known about the use of nitrites and nitrates, the potential uses of these agents, and their mechanisms of action. PMID:20539102

  17. Electrochemical preparation of iron cuboid nanoparticles and their catalytic properties for nitrite reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanxin; Chen Shengpei; Chen Qingsong; Zhou Zhiyou; Sun Shigang

    2008-01-01

    Iron cuboid nanoparticles supported on glassy carbon (denoted nm-Fe/GC) were prepared by electrochemical deposition under cyclic voltammetric (CV) conditions. The structure and composition of the Fe nanomaterials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The results demonstrated that the Fe cuboid nanoparticles are dispersed discretely on GC substrate with an average size ca. 171 nm, and confirmed that the electrochemical synthesized nanocubes are single crystals of pure Fe. The catalytic properties of the Fe cuboid nanoparticles towards nitrite electroreduction were investigated, and enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the Fe nanocubes has been determined. In comparison with the data obtained on a bulk-Fe electrode, the onset potential of nitrite reduction on nm-Fe/GC is positively sifted by 100 mV, and the steady reduction current density is enhanced about 2.4-3.2 times

  18. Hypoxia tolerance, nitric oxide, and nitrite: Lessons from extreme animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fago, Angela; B. Jensen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    survival resides in concerted physiological responses, including strong metabolic depression, protection against oxidative damage and – in air breathing animals - redistribution of blood flow. Each of these responses is known to be tightly regulated by nitric oxide (NO) and during hypoxia by its metabolite...... nitrite. The aim of this review is to highlight recent work illustrating the widespread roles of NO and nitrite in the tolerance to extreme oxygen deprivation, in particular in the red-eared slider turtle and crucian carp, but also in diving marine mammals. The emerging picture underscores the importance...... of NO and nitrite signaling in the adaptive response to hypoxia in vertebrate animals....

  19. Electrochemical oxidation of nitrite on nanodiamond powder electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.H.; Zang, J.B.; Wang, Y.H.; Bian, L.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2008-03-10

    Nanodiamond (ND) powder electrodes were fabricated and the electrochemical properties were investigated in the solution containing nitrite in this article. This electrode exhibits substantial catalytic ability toward the oxidation of nitrite anions. The electrochemical oxidation mechanism of nitrite on the ND powder electrode is discussed. The oxidation of NaNO{sub 2} is a two-electron transfer process. The electrode reaction rate constant k is estimated to be 2.013 x 10{sup -4} cm/s and (1 - {alpha})n{sub {alpha}} is 0.1643. The peak current increases linearly with the rising of the concentration of NaNO{sub 2}. (author)

  20. Synthesis of a novel nitrogen-doped carbon dot by microwave-assisted carbonization method and its applications as selective probes for optical pH (acidity) sensing in aqueous/nonaqueous media, determination of nitrate/nitrite, and optical recognition of NO{sub X} gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroodmand, Mohammad Mahdi, E-mail: doroodmand@shirazu.ac.ir; Askari, Mohsen

    2017-05-22

    A novel nitrogen-doped carbon dot (N-CD) was synthesized via carbonization of citric acid in the presence of triethylenetetramine as a nitrogen source. The average size of the N-doped CDs and also the quantum yield of the synthesized N-doped CDs were both estimated to be 9 ± 2 nm and 39.5%, respectively. The applications of the synthesized carbon nanostructure as a high quantum yield fluorescence probe were initially adopted in the fabrication of a novel optical pH (acidity) sensor in both aqueous and nonaqueous environments. Two optimum dynamic intervals were obtained with the ranges of1.5–5.0 and 7.0–10.0. for the fabricated pH sensor with a standard deviation of 0.09 pH (n = 4). The quantity of HClO{sub 4} inside acetic acid was determined as the degree of acidity with a linear range between 1.0 and 4.0%. Determination of nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup −}) and nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup −}) based on the fluorescence quenching of N-CDs was also evaluated in detail. The linear ranges for NO{sub 2}{sup −} and NO{sub 3}{sup −} species were estimated to be from 1 × 10{sup −7}to 7.5 × 10{sup −5} and from 2.5 × 10{sup −6} to 7.5 × 10{sup −4} mol L{sup −1}, respectively with RSD of 3.69% (n = 5) for NO{sub 2}{sup −} and 3.54% (n = 5) for NO{sub 3}{sup −}. The LODs (X+3S{sub b}) for both NO{sub 2}{sup −} and NO{sub 3}{sup −} were estimated to be 2.5 × 10{sup −8} and 7.5 × 10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1}, respectively. The synthesized N-CDs were also applicable for NO{sub X} recognition in the gaseous form at part per thousand (ppt) levels with linear ranges of 3.77–36.51 and 27.67–43.77 ppt, LOD (X+3S{sub b}) of 1.41 ppt (n = 4) and RSD of 4.37% (n = 5). The reliability of these methods was also evaluated via the analyses of different forms of gaseous, water and rumen samples. - Highlights: • N-dots as Fluorescent Probe. • N-dots Synthesized by Microwave-Assisted Carbonization. • Determination of Nitrate/Nitrite

  1. Zirconium-based metal organic frameworks: Highly selective adsorbents for removal of phosphate from water and urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew, E-mail: linky@nchu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shen-Yi [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Jochems, Andrew P. [New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources and New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Phosphate is one of the most concerning compounds in wastewater streams and a main nutrient that causes eutrophication. To eliminate the phosphate pollution, Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are proposed in this study as adsorbents to remove phosphate from water. The zirconium-based MOF, UiO-66, was selected as representative MOF given its exceptional stability in water. To investigate the effect of an amine functional group, UiO-66-NH2 was also prepared using an amine-substituted ligand. The adsorption kinetics and isotherm reveal that UiO-66-NH2 exhibited higher adsorption capacities than UiO-66 possibly due to the amine group. However, the interaction between phosphate and zirconium sites of UiO MOFs might be the primary factor accounting for the phosphate adsorption to UiO MOFs. UiO MOFs also exhibited a high selectivity towards phosphate over other anions such as bromate, nitrite and nitrate. Furthermore, UiO MOFs were found to adsorb phosphate and to completely remove diluted phosphate in urine. We also found that UiO MOFs could be easily regenerated and re-used for phosphate adsorption. These findings suggest that UiO MOFs can be effective and selective adsorbents to remove phosphate from water as well as urine. - Highlights: • UiO-66 as the first type of MOFs was used to remove phosphate from water and urine. • The amine group in UiO MOFs was found to enhance the phosphate adsorption. • UiO-66 exhibited a high adsorption selectivity towards phosphate over other anions. • UiO-66 could be easily regenerated and re-used with 85% regeneration efficiency.

  2. Efficient Multi-Label Feature Selection Using Entropy-Based Label Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaesung Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-label feature selection is designed to select a subset of features according to their importance to multiple labels. This task can be achieved by ranking the dependencies of features and selecting the features with the highest rankings. In a multi-label feature selection problem, the algorithm may be faced with a dataset containing a large number of labels. Because the computational cost of multi-label feature selection increases according to the number of labels, the algorithm may suffer from a degradation in performance when processing very large datasets. In this study, we propose an efficient multi-label feature selection method based on an information-theoretic label selection strategy. By identifying a subset of labels that significantly influence the importance of features, the proposed method efficiently outputs a feature subset. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can identify a feature subset much faster than conventional multi-label feature selection methods for large multi-label datasets.

  3. Ammonia Oxidation and Nitrite Reduction in the Verrucomicrobial Methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepehr S. Mohammadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Solfatara volcano near Naples (Italy, the origin of the recently discovered verrucomicrobial methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV was shown to contain ammonium (NH4+ at concentrations ranging from 1 to 28 mM. Ammonia (NH3 can be converted to toxic hydroxylamine (NH2OH by the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO, the first enzyme of the methane (CH4 oxidation pathway. Methanotrophs rapidly detoxify the intermediate NH2OH. Here, we show that strain SolV performs ammonium oxidation to nitrite at a rate of 48.2 nmol NO2-.h−1.mg DW−1 under O2 limitation in a continuous culture grown on hydrogen (H2 as an electron donor. In addition, strain SolV carries out nitrite reduction at a rate of 74.4 nmol NO2-.h−1.mg DW−1 under anoxic condition at pH 5–6. This range of pH was selected to minimize the chemical conversion of nitrite (NO2- potentially occurring at more acidic pH values. Furthermore, at pH 6, we showed that the affinity constants (Ks of the cells for NH3 vary from 5 to 270 μM in the batch incubations with 0.5–8% (v/v CH4, respectively. Detailed kinetic analysis showed competitive substrate inhibition between CH4 and NH3. Using transcriptome analysis, we showed up-regulation of the gene encoding hydroxylamine dehydrogenase (haoA cells grown on H2/NH4+ compared to the cells grown on CH4/NO3- which do not have to cope with reactive N-compounds. The denitrifying genes nirk and norC showed high expression in H2/NH4+ and CH4/NO3- grown cells compared to cells growing at μmax (with no limitation while the norB gene showed downregulation in CH4/NO3- grown cells. These cells showed a strong upregulation of the genes in nitrate/nitrite assimilation. Our results demonstrate that strain SolV can perform ammonium oxidation producing nitrite. At high concentrations of ammonium this may results in toxic effects. However, at low oxygen concentrations strain SolV is able to reduce nitrite to N2O to cope with this toxicity.

  4. Development of Base Transceiver Station Selection Algorithm for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TEMS) equipment was carried out on the existing BTSs, and a linear algorithm optimization program based on the spectral link efficiency of each BTS was developed, the output of this site optimization gives the selected number of base station sites ...

  5. Cloning and characterization of a nitrite reductase gene related to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... Alexander et al., 2005) and heme-type nitrite reductase gene (Smith and ... owing to a genotype-dependent response (Zhang et al.,. 1991; Sakhanokho et al., ..... Improvement of cell culture conditions for rice. Jpn. Agric. Res.

  6. Performance of denitrifying microbial fuel cell with biocathode over nitrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao eHuimin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cell (MFC with nitrite as an electron acceptor in cathode provided a new technology for nitrogen removal and electricity production simultaneously. The influences of influent nitrite concentration and external resistance on the performance of denitrifying MFC were investigated. The optimal effectiveness were obtained with the maximum total nitrogen (TN removal rate of 54.80±0.01 g m-3 d-1. It would be rather desirable for the TN removal than electricity generation at lower external resistance. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum, accounting for 35.72%. Thiobacillus and Afipia might benefit to nitrite removal. The presence of nitrifying Devosia indicated that nitrite was oxidized to nitrate via a biochemical mechanism in the cathode. Ignavibacterium and Anaerolineaceae was found in the cathode as a heterotrophic bacterium with sodium acetate as substrate, which illustrated that sodium acetate in anode was likely permeated through proton exchange membrane to the cathode .

  7. Differential uptake and metabolism of nitrite in normoxic and hypoxic goldfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo; Hansen, Marie N.

    2011-01-01

    extracellular and intracellular compartments, revealing nitrosative stress with extensive nitros(yl)ation of thiols, amines and heme groups. The degree of nitrosative stress correlated with nitrite load. Nitrate levels increased in all compartments, reflecting that a significant fraction of the nitrite taken up...... was converted to non-toxic nitrate. The generation of methemoglobin and nitrosylhemoglobin (assessed by spectral deconvolution) was more pronounced during normoxic nitrite exposure than during hypoxic nitrite exposure, in agreement with the higher nitrite load in normoxic fish. However, at any given nitrite......Nitrite is a physiological important nitric oxide donor at low concentrations but becomes toxic at high concentrations, as develops in freshwater fish exposed to environmental nitrite. We hypothesized that nitrite uptake across the gills differs between normoxic and hypoxic fish and that nitrite...

  8. Hemoglobin as a nitrite anhydrase: modeling methemoglobin-mediated N2O3 formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, Kathrin H; Cardey, Bruno; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Ghosh, Abhik

    2011-05-27

    Nitrite has recently been recognized as a storage form of NO in blood and as playing a key role in hypoxic vasodilation. The nitrite ion is readily reduced to NO by hemoglobin in red blood cells, which, as it happens, also presents a conundrum. Given NO's enormous affinity for ferrous heme, a key question concerns how it escapes capture by hemoglobin as it diffuses out of the red cells and to the endothelium, where vasodilation takes place. Dinitrogen trioxide (N(2)O(3)) has been proposed as a vehicle that transports NO to the endothelium, where it dissociates to NO and NO(2). Although N(2)O(3) formation might be readily explained by the reaction Hb-Fe(3+)+NO(2)(-)+NO⇌Hb-Fe(2+)+N(2)O(3), the exact manner in which methemoglobin (Hb-Fe(3+)), nitrite and NO interact with one another is unclear. Both an "Hb-Fe(3+)-NO(2)(-)+NO" pathway and an "Hb-Fe(3+)-NO+NO(2)(-) " pathway have been proposed. Neither pathway has been established experimentally. Nor has there been any attempt until now to theoretically model N(2)O(3) formation, the so-called nitrite anhydrase reaction. Both pathways have been examined here in a detailed density functional theory (DFT, B3LYP/TZP) study and both have been found to be feasible based on energetics criteria. Modeling the "Hb-Fe(3+)-NO(2)(-)+NO" pathway proved complex. Not only are multiple linkage-isomeric (N- and O-coordinated) structures conceivable for methemoglobin-nitrite, multiple isomeric forms are also possible for N(2)O(3) (the lowest-energy state has an N-N-bonded nitronitrosyl structure, O(2)N-NO). We considered multiple spin states of methemoglobin-nitrite as well as ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic coupling of the Fe(3+) and NO spins. Together, the isomerism and spin variables result in a diabolically complex combinatorial space of reaction pathways. Fortunately, transition states could be successfully calculated for the vast majority of these reaction channels, both M(S)=0 and M(S)=1. For a six-coordinate Fe(3+)-O

  9. Anoxic sulfide biooxidation using nitrite as electron acceptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Zheng Ping; Cai Jing; Wu Donglei; Hu, Baolan; Li Jinye

    2007-01-01

    Biotechnology can be used to assess the well being of ecosystems, transform pollutants into benign substances, generate biodegradable materials from renewable sources, and develop environmentally safe manufacturing and disposal processes. Simultaneous elimination of sulfide and nitrite from synthetic wastewaters was investigated using a bioreactor. A laboratory scale anoxic sulfide-oxidizing (ASO) reactor was operated for 135 days to evaluate the potential for volumetric loading rates, effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and substrate concentration on the process performance. The maximal sulfide and nitrite removal rates were achieved to be 13.82 and 16.311 kg/(m 3 day), respectively, at 0.10 day HRT. The process can endure high sulfide concentrations, as the sulfide removal percentage always remained higher than 88.97% with influent concentration up to 1920 mg/L. Incomplete sulfide oxidation took place due to lower consumed nitrite to sulfide ratios of 0.93. It also tolerated high nitrite concentration up to 2265.25 mg/L. The potential achieved by decreasing HRT at fixed substrate concentration is higher than that by increasing substrate concentration at fixed HRT. The process can bear short HRT of 0.10 day but careful operation is needed. Nitrite conversion was more sensitive to HRT than sulfide conversion when HRT was decreased from 1.50 to 0.08 day. Stoichiometric analyses and results of batch experiments show that major part of sulfide (89-90%) was reduced by nitrite while some autooxidation (10-11%) was resulted from presence of small quantities of dissolved oxygen in the influent wastewater. There was ammonia amassing in considerably high amounts in the bioreactor when the influent nitrite concentration reached above 2265.25 mg/L. High ammonia concentrations (200-550 mg/L) in the bioreactor contributed towards the overall inhibition of the process. Present biotechnology exhibits practical value with a high potential for simultaneous removal of nitrite

  10. Nitrite uptake by nitrogen-depleted wheat seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, W A; Johnson, R E; Volk, R J

    1974-01-01

    Intact, 14-day-old nitrogen-depleted wheat (Triticum vulgare cv. Blueboy) seedlings were exposed to solutions of 0.5 mM KNO/sub 2/, 0.05 mM CaSO/sub 4/ and 1 mM sodium 2-(N-morpholino)-ethanesulfonate, pH 6.1. Nitrite uptake was determined from depletion of the ambient solution or from incorporation of /sup 15/N in the tissue. An initial nitrite uptake shoulder was followed by a relatively slow uptake rate which subsequently increased to a substantially greater rate. This accelerated phase was maintained through 24 h. Nitrite accumulated to a slight extent in the root tissues during the first few hours but declined to low values when the accelerated rate was fully developed, indicating an increase in nitrite reductase activity paralleling the increase in nitrite uptake capacity. About 50% of the nitrogen absorbed as nitrite was translocated to the shoots by 9 to 12 h. Development of the accelerated nitrite uptake rate was restricted in excised roots, in intact plants kept in darkness, by 400 ..mu..g puromycin ml/sup -1/ and by 1 mM L-ethionine. When puromycin and L-ethionine were added after the accelerated phase had been initiated, their effects were not as detrimental as when they were added at first exposure to KNO/sub 2/. The two inhibitors restricted translocation more than uptake. The data indicate an involvement of protein synthesis and a requirement for movement of a substance from shoots to roots for maximal development of the accelerated nitrite uptake phase. A requirement for protein synthesis in the transport of soluble organic nitrogen from roots to shoots is also suggested.

  11. Influence of irradiation on reaction products of nitrite in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirna, A.; Rau, G.

    1982-01-01

    Nitro alkanes and nitrolic acids are formed in foods by nitrosation reactions with nitrite. Among TEA-responsive compounds nitrolic acid behave to irradiation similar to N-nitrosamines. Some substances, extracted from spices, especially garlic, are also detectable by GC/TEA-chromatogramms of meat products and of reaction products from spices with nitrite show retention times not always clearly differentiated from those of NDMA, NDEA, NPIP and NPYR, respectively. Additional confirmation of such TEA positive compounds, therefore, is necessary. (orig.) [de

  12. Mitochondria recycle nitrite back to the bioregulator nitric monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohl, H.; Staniek, K.; Sobhian, B.; Bahrami, S.; Redl, H.; Kozlov, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    Nitric monoxide (NO) exerts a great variety of physiological functions. L-Arginine supplies amino groups which are transformed to NO in various NO-synthase-active isoenzyme complexes. NO-synthesis is stimulated under various conditions increasing the tissue of stable NO-metabolites. The major oxidation product found is nitrite. Elevated nitrite levels were reported to exist in a variety of diseases including HIV, reperfusion injury and hypovolemic shock. Denitrifying bacteria such as Paracoccus denitrificans have a membrane bound set of cytochromes (cyt cd 1 , cyt bc) which were shown to be involved in nitrite reduction activities. Mammalian mitochondria have similar cytochromes which form part of the respiratory chain. Like in bacteria quinols are used as reductants of these types of cytochromes. The observation of one-e - divergence from this redox-couple to external dioxygen made us to study whether this site of the respiratory chain may also recycle nitrite back to its bioactive form NO. Thus, the aim of the present study was therefore to confirm the existence of a reductive pathway which reestablishes the existence of the bioregulator NO from its main metabolite NO 2 - . Our results show that respiring mitochondria readily reduce added nitrite to NO which was made visible by nitrosylation of deoxyhemoglobin. The adduct gives characteristic triplet-ESR-signals. Using inhibitors of the respiratory chain for chemical sequestration of respiratory segments we were able to identify the site where nitrite is reduced. The results confirm the ubiquinone/cyt bc 1 couple as the reductant site where nitrite is recycled. The high affinity of NO to the heme-iron of cytochrome oxidase will result in an impairment of mitochondrial energy-production. ''Nitrite tolerance'' of angina pectoris patients using NO-donors may be explained in that way. (author)

  13. [The method to remove nitrite from tap water by tea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, M; Chen, L; Xian, H

    1997-03-01

    Drinking water (tap water) is polluted in pipelines by bacteria after long distance transportation. The water contains nitrite (NO2-) which is potentially harmful to human health. The nitrite concentrations range from 0.10 to 2.0 mg/L. Our experiment proved that NO2- could not be removed by boiling, but could be removed by tea. As a natural antioxidant, tea contains several antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid and catechins, which removed NO2- from tap water effectively.

  14. Supplier selection based on multi-criterial AHP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Pócsová

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case-study of supplier selection based on multi-criterial Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method.It is demonstrated that using adequate mathematical method can bring us “unprejudiced” conclusion, even if the alternatives (suppliercompanies are very similar in given selection-criteria. The result is the best possible supplier company from the viewpoint of chosen criteriaand the price of the product.

  15. Personnel Selection Method Based on Personnel-Job Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Li Wang; Xilin Hou; Lili Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The existing personnel selection decisions in practice are based on the evaluation of job seeker's human capital, and it may be difficult to make personnel-job matching and make each party satisfy. Therefore, this paper puts forward a new personnel selection method by consideration of bilateral matching. Starting from the employment thoughts of ¡°satisfy¡±, the satisfaction evaluation indicator system of each party are constructed. The multi-objective optimization model is given according to ...

  16. Construction Tender Subcontract Selection using Case-based Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Due Luu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining competitive quotations from suitably qualified subcontractors at tender tim n significantly increase the chance of w1nmng a construction project. Amidst an increasingly growing trend to subcontracting in Australia, selecting appropriate subcontractors for a construction project can be a daunting task requiring the analysis of complex and dynamic criteria such as past performance, suitable experience, track record of competitive pricing, financial stability and so on. Subcontractor selection is plagued with uncertainty and vagueness and these conditions are difficul_t o represent in generalised sets of rules. DeciSIOns pertaining to the selection of subcontr:act?s tender time are usually based on the mtu1t1onand past experience of construction estimators. Case-based reasoning (CBR may be an appropriate method of addressing the chal_lenges of selecting subcontractors because CBR 1s able to harness the experiential knowledge of practitioners. This paper reviews the practicality and suitability of a CBR approach for subcontractor tender selection through the development of a prototype CBR procurement advisory system. In this system, subcontractor selection cases are represented by a set of attributes elicited from experienced construction estimators. The results indicate that CBR can enhance the appropriateness of the selection of subcontractors for construction projects.

  17. Cooperative Technique Based on Sensor Selection in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISLAM, M. R.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available An energy efficient cooperative technique is proposed for the IEEE 1451 based Wireless Sensor Networks. Selected numbers of Wireless Transducer Interface Modules (WTIMs are used to form a Multiple Input Single Output (MISO structure wirelessly connected with a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP. Energy efficiency and delay of the proposed architecture are derived for different combination of cluster size and selected number of WTIMs. Optimized constellation parameters are used for evaluating derived parameters. The results show that the selected MISO structure outperforms the unselected MISO structure and it shows energy efficient performance than SISO structure after a certain distance.

  18. Determination of nitrite, nitrate and total nitrogen in vegetable samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Kanti Deb

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Yellow diazonium cation formed by reaction of nitrite with 6-amino-1-naphthol-3-sulphonic acid is coupled with β-naphthol in strong alkaline medium to yield a pink coloured azo dye. The azo-dyes shows absorption maximum at 510 nm with molar absorptivity of 2.5 ×104 M-1 cm-1. The dye product obeys Beer's law (correlation coefficient = 0.997, in terms of nitrite concentration, up to 2.7 μg NO2 mL-1. The above colour reaction system has been applied successfully for the determination of nitrite, nitrate and total nitrogen in vegetable samples. Unreduced samples give direct measure for nitrite whilst reduction of samples by copperized-cadmium column gives total nitrogen content and their difference shows nitrate content in the samples. Variety of vegetables have been tested for their N-content (NO2-/NO3-/total-N with % RSD ranging between 1.5 to 2.5 % for nitrite determination. The effects of foreign ions in the determination of the nitrite, nitrate, and total nitrogen have been studied. Statistical comparison of the results with those of reported method shows good agreement and indicates no significant difference in precision.

  19. A Review of Nitrate and Nitrite Toxicity in Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir-Jamal Hosseini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural advancement and population growth have prompted increases in food supplies, and higher crop yields have been made possible through the application of fertilizers. Large quantities of livestock and poultry on farms, along with the accumulation of biomass and agricultural residues, can cause contamination of ground water resources and other water sanitation concerns in both developing and developed countries. Nitrate is mainly used as a fertilizer in agriculture, and because of its high solubility in water, it can create biological problems in the environment. High usage of nitrite in the food industry as a preservative, flavor enhancer, antioxidant, and color stabilizing agent can cause human exposure to this toxic compound. Nitrite is 10 times as toxic as nitrate in humans. Nitrate is converted to nitrite and nitrosamine compounds in the human stomach, which can lead to bladder cancer. In this review, sources of nitrate and nitrite exposure were investigated. Furthermore, the review evaluates standard levels of nitrate and nitrite in different foods, and acceptable daily doses of these compounds in various countries. Finally, we discuss valid methods of nitrate and nitrite identification and removal in foods.

  20. [Nitrates and nitrites in meat products--nitrosamines precursors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasilcăi, Liliana; Cuciureanu, Rodica

    2011-01-01

    To determine the content in nitrates and nitrites and the formation of two nitrosamines (N-nitrosodimethylamine--NDMA, and N-nitrosodiethylaamine--NDEA) in samples of chicken ham, dry Banat salami, dry French salami, traditional Romania sausages, and pork pastrami. Nitrites were determined by spectrophotometry with Peter-Griess reagent, and nitrates by the same method after reduction to nitrites with cadmium powder. High performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was used to determine nitrosamines. The initial concentration of nitrates, nitrites, NDMA and NDEA in the samples ranged as follows: 14.10-60.40 mg NO3/kg, 2.70-26.70 mg NO2/kg, from non-detectable to 0.90 microg NDMA/kg, and from non-detectable to 0.27 microg NDEA/kg, respectively. After 28 days the concentrations were: 3.24-17.1 mg NO3/kg, 0.04 -1.87 mg NO2/kg, 0.8-29 microg NDMA/kg, and 11.6-61.9 microg NDEA/kg, respectively. The decreased nitrate and nitrite and increased NDMA and NDEA concentrations prove that in food products nitrosamines are formed due to residual nitrite during their preservation. The determination of nitrasamines revealed levels much above the admitted maximal concentration for these food products.

  1. Knowledge based expert system approach to instrumentation selection (INSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barai

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The selection of appropriate instrumentation for any structural measurement of civil engineering structure is a complex task. Recent developments in Artificial Intelligence (AI can help in an organized use of experiential knowledge available on instrumentation for laboratory and in-situ measurement. Usually, the instrumentation decision is based on the experience and judgment of experimentalists. The heuristic knowledge available for different types of measurement is domain dependent and the information is scattered in varied knowledge sources. The knowledge engineering techniques can help in capturing the experiential knowledge. This paper demonstrates a prototype knowledge based system for INstrument SELection (INSEL assistant where the experiential knowledge for various structural domains can be captured and utilized for making instrumentation decision. In particular, this Knowledge Based Expert System (KBES encodes the heuristics on measurement and demonstrates the instrument selection process with reference to steel bridges. INSEL runs on a microcomputer and uses an INSIGHT 2+ environment.

  2. Diversified models for portfolio selection based on uncertain semivariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Peng, Jin; Zhang, Bo; Rosyida, Isnaini

    2017-02-01

    Since the financial markets are complex, sometimes the future security returns are represented mainly based on experts' estimations due to lack of historical data. This paper proposes a semivariance method for diversified portfolio selection, in which the security returns are given subjective to experts' estimations and depicted as uncertain variables. In the paper, three properties of the semivariance of uncertain variables are verified. Based on the concept of semivariance of uncertain variables, two types of mean-semivariance diversified models for uncertain portfolio selection are proposed. Since the models are complex, a hybrid intelligent algorithm which is based on 99-method and genetic algorithm is designed to solve the models. In this hybrid intelligent algorithm, 99-method is applied to compute the expected value and semivariance of uncertain variables, and genetic algorithm is employed to seek the best allocation plan for portfolio selection. At last, several numerical examples are presented to illustrate the modelling idea and the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  3. Supercritical fluid extraction of grape seeds: extract chemical composition, antioxidant activity and inhibition of nitrite production in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Concepción; Ruiz del Castillo, María Luisa; Gil, Carmen; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Flores, Gema

    2015-08-01

    Grape by-products are a rich source of bioactive compounds having broad medicinal properties, but are usually wasted from juice/wine processing industries. The present study investigates the use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for obtaining an extract rich in bioactive compounds. First, some variables involved in the extraction were applied. SFE conditions were selected based on the oil mass yield, fatty acid profile and total phenolic composition. As a result, 40 °C and 300 bar were selected as operational conditions. The phenolic composition of the grape seed oil was determined using LC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS and DPPH assays. For the anti-inflammatory activity the inhibition of nitrite production was assessed. The grape seed oil extracted was rich in phenolic compounds and fatty acids with significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. From these results, added economic value to this agroindustrial residue is proposed using environmentally friendly techniques.

  4. Intermediates detected by visible spectroscopy during the reaction of nitrite with deoxyhemoglobin: the effect of nitrite concentration and diphosphoglycerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagababu, Enika; Ramasamy, Somasundaram; Rifkind, Joseph M

    2007-10-16

    The reaction of nitrite with deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb) results in the reduction of nitrite to NO, which binds unreacted deoxyHb forming Fe(II)-nitrosylhemoglobin (Hb(II)NO). The tight binding of NO to deoxyHb is, however, inconsistent with reports implicating this reaction with hypoxic vasodilation. This dilemma is resolved by the demonstration that metastable intermediates are formed in the course of the reaction of nitrite with deoxyHb. The level of intermediates is quantitated by the excess deoxyHb consumed over the concentrations of the final products formed. The dominant intermediate has a spectrum that does not correspond to that of Hb(III)NO formed when NO reacts with methemoglobin (MetHb), but is similar to metHb resulting in the spectroscopic determinations of elevated levels of metHb. It is a delocalized species involving the heme iron, the NO, and perhaps the beta-93 thiol. The putative role for red cell reacted nitrite on vasodilation is associated with reactions involving the intermediate. (1) The intermediate is less stable with a 10-fold excess of nitrite and is not detected with a 100-fold excess of nitrite. This observation is attributed to the reaction of nitrite with the intermediate producing N2O3. (2) The release of NO quantitated by the formation of Hb(II)NO is regulated by changes in the distal heme pocket as shown by the 4.5-fold decrease in the rate constant in the presence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. The regulated release of NO or N2O3 as well as the formation of the S-nitroso derivative of hemoglobin, which has also been reported to be formed from the intermediates generated during nitrite reduction, should be associated with any hypoxic vasodilation attributed to the RBC.

  5. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1992-05-01

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

  6. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1992-05-01

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  7. Time-dependent depletion of nitrite in pork/beef and chicken meat products and its effect on nitrite intake estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Leonardo; Darnerud, Per Ola; Toldrá, Fidel; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The food additive nitrite (E249, E250) is commonly used in meat curing as a food preservation method. Because of potential negative health effects of nitrite, its use is strictly regulated. In an earlier study we have shown that the calculated intake of nitrite in children can exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) when conversion from dietary nitrate to nitrite is included. This study examined time-dependent changes in nitrite levels in four Swedish meat products frequently eaten by children: pork/beef sausage, liver paté and two types of chicken sausage, and how the production process, storage and also boiling (e.g., simmering in salted water) and frying affect the initial added nitrite level. The results showed a steep decrease in nitrite level between the point of addition to the product and the first sampling of the product 24 h later. After this time, residual nitrite levels continued to decrease, but much more slowly, until the recommended use-by date. Interestingly, this continuing decrease in nitrite was much smaller in the chicken products than in the pork/beef products. In a pilot study on pork/beef sausage, we found no effects of boiling on residual nitrite levels, but frying decreased nitrite levels by 50%. In scenarios of time-dependent depletion of nitrite using the data obtained for sausages to represent all cured meat products and including conversion from dietary nitrate, calculated nitrite intake in 4-year-old children generally exceeded the ADI. Moreover, the actual intake of nitrite from cured meat is dependent on the type of meat source, with a higher residual nitrite levels in chicken products compared with pork/beef products. This may result in increased nitrite exposure among consumers shifting their consumption pattern of processed meats from red to white meat products. PMID:26743589

  8. Effect of Dry Red Grape Pomace as a Nitrite Substitute on the Microbiological and Physicochemical Properties and Residual Nitrite of Dry-cured Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Riazi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite have been traditionally used for inhibition of Clostridium botulinum and also as an agent to stabilize the color of meat products; however, usage of these additives at high levels could lead to toxicity and cancer originating from the formation of nitrosamines. Nowadays, application of natural preservatives in order to reduce the nitrite content in meat products is increasing. Thus, we used dry red grape pomace (DRGP as a natural alternative to sodium nitrite. Materials and Methods: The effect of two levels of DRGP (1 and 2% on the proximate composition, microbial counts, pH values and residual nitrite level of the samples formulated with two levels of sodium nitrite (30 and 60 mg/kg, as well as the comparison of these sausages with the blank (nitrite-free  and control (full nitrite added samples on the 1rst, 10th, 20th and 30th days of storage at 3-5 °C were evaluated. Results: The results showed that all chemical compositions were in the ranges reported by other researchers, and nitrite was very effective in preventing the microbial growth. Also about 50 % of the ingoing nitrite could be analyzed in the samples after processing. Moreover, the residual nitrite level declined both during the storage of sausage and after the addition of DRGP. Conclusions: The use of DRGP in combination with nitrite for sausages was more effective in keeping the quality and safety of the refrigerated consumer products as indicated by the lower nitrite levels, microbial count and similar composition as compared to the samples treated with nitrite and without nitrite. Keywords: Dry red grape pomace (DRGP, Sausage, Nitrite, Microbial count

  9. A high-throughput headspace gas chromatographic technique for the determination of nitrite content in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Xin; Peng, Rong; Jiang, Ran; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Barnes, Donald G

    2018-02-23

    This paper reports on a high-throughput headspace gas chromatographic method (HS-GC) for the determination of nitrite content in water sample, based on GC measurement of cyclohexene produced from the reaction between nitrite and cyclamate in a closed vial. The method has a relative standard deviation of water samples. In short, the present HS-GC method is simple, accurate, and sensitive, and it is very suitable to be used in the batch sample testing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Construction of effective disposable biosensors for point of care testing of nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Tiago; Rodrigues, Patrícia R; Gonçalves, Ana Luisa; Moura, José J G; Jubete, Elena; Añorga, Larraitz; Piknova, Barbora; Schechter, Alan N; Silveira, Célia M; Almeida, M Gabriela

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we aim to demonstrate, as a proof-of-concept, the feasibility of the mass production of effective point of care tests for nitrite quantification in environmental, food and clinical samples. Following our previous work on the development of third generation electrochemical biosensors based on the ammonia forming nitrite reductase (ccNiR), herein we reduced the size of the electrodes' system to a miniaturized format, solved the problem of oxygen interference and performed simple quantification assays in real samples. In particular, carbon paste screen printed electrodes (SPE) were coated with a ccNiR/carbon ink composite homogenized in organic solvents and cured at low temperatures. The biocompatibility of these chemical and thermal treatments was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry showing that the catalytic performance was higher with the combination acetone and a 40°C curing temperature. The successful incorporation of the protein in the carbon ink/solvent composite, while remaining catalytically competent, attests for ccNiR's robustness and suitability for application in screen printed based biosensors. Because the direct electrochemical reduction of molecular oxygen occurs when electroanalytical measurements are performed at the negative potentials required to activate ccNiR (ca.-0.4V vs Ag/AgCl), an oxygen scavenging system based on the coupling of glucose oxidase and catalase activities was successfully used. This enabled the quantification of nitrite in different samples (milk, water, plasma and urine) in a straightforward way and with small error (1-6%). The sensitivity of the biosensor towards nitrite reduction under optimized conditions was 0.55 A M(-1) cm(-2) with a linear response range 0.7-370 μM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The sequence relay selection strategy based on stochastic dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rui; Chen, Xihao; Huang, Yangchao

    2017-07-01

    Relay-assisted (RA) network with relay node selection is a kind of effective method to improve the channel capacity and convergence performance. However, most of the existing researches about the relay selection did not consider the statically channel state information and the selection cost. This shortage limited the performance and application of RA network in practical scenarios. In order to overcome this drawback, a sequence relay selection strategy (SRSS) was proposed. And the performance upper bound of SRSS was also analyzed in this paper. Furthermore, in order to make SRSS more practical, a novel threshold determination algorithm based on the stochastic dynamic program (SDP) was given to work with SRSS. Numerical results are also presented to exhibit the performance of SRSS with SDP.

  12. Preparing electrochemical active hierarchically porous carbons for detecting nitrite in drinkable water

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Baojun

    2016-01-13

    A class of hierarchically porous carbons were prepared by a facile dual-templating approach. The obtained samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Brunaner-Emmett-Teller measurement and electrochemical work station, respectively. The porous carbons could possess large specific surface area, interconnected pore structures, high conductivity and graphitizing degree. The resulting materials were used to prepare integrated modified electrodes. Based on the experimental results, the as-prepared hierarchically porous graphite (HPG) modified electrode showed the best electroactive performances toward the detection of nitrite with a detection limit of 8.1 × 10-3 mM. This HPG electrode was also repeatable and stable for 6 weeks. Moreover, this electrode was used for the determination of nitrite in drinkable water, and had acceptable recoveries. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  13. Attribute based selection of thermoplastic resin for vacuum infusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhakaran, R.T. Durai; Lystrup, Aage; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The composite industry looks toward a new material system (resins) based on thermoplastic polymers for the vacuum infusion process, similar to the infusion process using thermosetting polymers. A large number of thermoplastics are available in the market with a variety of properties suitable...... for different engineering applications, and few of those are available in a not yet polymerised form suitable for resin infusion. The proper selection of a new resin system among these thermoplastic polymers is a concern for manufactures in the current scenario and a special mathematical tool would...... be beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a new decision making tool for resin selection based on significant attributes. This article provides a broad overview of suitable thermoplastic material systems for vacuum infusion process available in today’s market. An illustrative example—resin selection...

  14. [Electroencephalogram Feature Selection Based on Correlation Coefficient Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinzhi; Tang, Xiaofang

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of classification with small amount of motor imagery training data on the development of brain-computer interface (BCD systems, we proposed an analyzing method to automatically select the characteristic parameters based on correlation coefficient analysis. Throughout the five sample data of dataset IV a from 2005 BCI Competition, we utilized short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and correlation coefficient calculation to reduce the number of primitive electroencephalogram dimension, then introduced feature extraction based on common spatial pattern (CSP) and classified by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Simulation results showed that the average rate of classification accuracy could be improved by using correlation coefficient feature selection method than those without using this algorithm. Comparing with support vector machine (SVM) optimization features algorithm, the correlation coefficient analysis can lead better selection parameters to improve the accuracy of classification.

  15. An opinion formation based binary optimization approach for feature selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedmoghadam, Homayoun; Jalili, Mahdi; Yu, Xinghuo

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposed a novel optimization method based on opinion formation in complex network systems. The proposed optimization technique mimics human-human interaction mechanism based on a mathematical model derived from social sciences. Our method encodes a subset of selected features to the opinion of an artificial agent and simulates the opinion formation process among a population of agents to solve the feature selection problem. The agents interact using an underlying interaction network structure and get into consensus in their opinions, while finding better solutions to the problem. A number of mechanisms are employed to avoid getting trapped in local minima. We compare the performance of the proposed method with a number of classical population-based optimization methods and a state-of-the-art opinion formation based method. Our experiments on a number of high dimensional datasets reveal outperformance of the proposed algorithm over others.

  16. Dose selection based on physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hannah M; Mayawala, Kapil; Poulin, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are built using differential equations to describe the physiology/anatomy of different biological systems. Readily available in vitro and in vivo preclinical data can be incorporated into these models to not only estimate pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and plasma concentration-time profiles, but also to gain mechanistic insight into compound properties. They provide a mechanistic framework to understand and extrapolate PK and dose across in vitro and in vivo systems and across different species, populations and disease states. Using small molecule and large molecule examples from the literature and our own company, we have shown how PBPK techniques can be utilised for human PK and dose prediction. Such approaches have the potential to increase efficiency, reduce the need for animal studies, replace clinical trials and increase PK understanding. Given the mechanistic nature of these models, the future use of PBPK modelling in drug discovery and development is promising, however some limitations need to be addressed to realise its application and utility more broadly.

  17. Automatic Peak Selection by a Benjamini-Hochberg-Based Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Ahmed; Kong, Xin-Bing; Liu, Zhi; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    A common issue in bioinformatics is that computational methods often generate a large number of predictions sorted according to certain confidence scores. A key problem is then determining how many predictions must be selected to include most of the true predictions while maintaining reasonably high precision. In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based protein structure determination, for instance, computational peak picking methods are becoming more and more common, although expert-knowledge remains the method of choice to determine how many peaks among thousands of candidate peaks should be taken into consideration to capture the true peaks. Here, we propose a Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H)-based approach that automatically selects the number of peaks. We formulate the peak selection problem as a multiple testing problem. Given a candidate peak list sorted by either volumes or intensities, we first convert the peaks into p-values and then apply the B-H-based algorithm to automatically select the number of peaks. The proposed approach is tested on the state-of-the-art peak picking methods, including WaVPeak [1] and PICKY [2]. Compared with the traditional fixed number-based approach, our approach returns significantly more true peaks. For instance, by combining WaVPeak or PICKY with the proposed method, the missing peak rates are on average reduced by 20% and 26%, respectively, in a benchmark set of 32 spectra extracted from eight proteins. The consensus of the B-H-selected peaks from both WaVPeak and PICKY achieves 88% recall and 83% precision, which significantly outperforms each individual method and the consensus method without using the B-H algorithm. The proposed method can be used as a standard procedure for any peak picking method and straightforwardly applied to some other prediction selection problems in bioinformatics. The source code, documentation and example data of the proposed method is available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/pages/software.aspx. © 2013

  18. Automatic Peak Selection by a Benjamini-Hochberg-Based Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Ahmed

    2013-01-07

    A common issue in bioinformatics is that computational methods often generate a large number of predictions sorted according to certain confidence scores. A key problem is then determining how many predictions must be selected to include most of the true predictions while maintaining reasonably high precision. In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based protein structure determination, for instance, computational peak picking methods are becoming more and more common, although expert-knowledge remains the method of choice to determine how many peaks among thousands of candidate peaks should be taken into consideration to capture the true peaks. Here, we propose a Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H)-based approach that automatically selects the number of peaks. We formulate the peak selection problem as a multiple testing problem. Given a candidate peak list sorted by either volumes or intensities, we first convert the peaks into p-values and then apply the B-H-based algorithm to automatically select the number of peaks. The proposed approach is tested on the state-of-the-art peak picking methods, including WaVPeak [1] and PICKY [2]. Compared with the traditional fixed number-based approach, our approach returns significantly more true peaks. For instance, by combining WaVPeak or PICKY with the proposed method, the missing peak rates are on average reduced by 20% and 26%, respectively, in a benchmark set of 32 spectra extracted from eight proteins. The consensus of the B-H-selected peaks from both WaVPeak and PICKY achieves 88% recall and 83% precision, which significantly outperforms each individual method and the consensus method without using the B-H algorithm. The proposed method can be used as a standard procedure for any peak picking method and straightforwardly applied to some other prediction selection problems in bioinformatics. The source code, documentation and example data of the proposed method is available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/pages/software.aspx. © 2013

  19. Automatic learning-based beam angle selection for thoracic IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amit, Guy; Marshall, Andrea; Purdie, Thomas G.; Jaffray, David A.; Levinshtein, Alex; Hope, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Patricia; Pekar, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The treatment of thoracic cancer using external beam radiation requires an optimal selection of the radiation beam directions to ensure effective coverage of the target volume and to avoid unnecessary treatment of normal healthy tissues. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning is a lengthy process, which requires the planner to iterate between choosing beam angles, specifying dose–volume objectives and executing IMRT optimization. In thorax treatment planning, where there are no class solutions for beam placement, beam angle selection is performed manually, based on the planner’s clinical experience. The purpose of this work is to propose and study a computationally efficient framework that utilizes machine learning to automatically select treatment beam angles. Such a framework may be helpful for reducing the overall planning workload. Methods: The authors introduce an automated beam selection method, based on learning the relationships between beam angles and anatomical features. Using a large set of clinically approved IMRT plans, a random forest regression algorithm is trained to map a multitude of anatomical features into an individual beam score. An optimization scheme is then built to select and adjust the beam angles, considering the learned interbeam dependencies. The validity and quality of the automatically selected beams evaluated using the manually selected beams from the corresponding clinical plans as the ground truth. Results: The analysis included 149 clinically approved thoracic IMRT plans. For a randomly selected test subset of 27 plans, IMRT plans were generated using automatically selected beams and compared to the clinical plans. The comparison of the predicted and the clinical beam angles demonstrated a good average correspondence between the two (angular distance 16.8° ± 10°, correlation 0.75 ± 0.2). The dose distributions of the semiautomatic and clinical plans were equivalent in terms of primary target volume

  20. Discrete Biogeography Based Optimization for Feature Selection in Molecular Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Tian, Meihong; Zhang, Chunhua; Li, Xiangtao

    2015-04-01

    Biomarker discovery from high-dimensional data is a complex task in the development of efficient cancer diagnoses and classification. However, these data are usually redundant and noisy, and only a subset of them present distinct profiles for different classes of samples. Thus, selecting high discriminative genes from gene expression data has become increasingly interesting in the field of bioinformatics. In this paper, a discrete biogeography based optimization is proposed to select the good subset of informative gene relevant to the classification. In the proposed algorithm, firstly, the fisher-markov selector is used to choose fixed number of gene data. Secondly, to make biogeography based optimization suitable for the feature selection problem; discrete migration model and discrete mutation model are proposed to balance the exploration and exploitation ability. Then, discrete biogeography based optimization, as we called DBBO, is proposed by integrating discrete migration model and discrete mutation model. Finally, the DBBO method is used for feature selection, and three classifiers are used as the classifier with the 10 fold cross-validation method. In order to show the effective and efficiency of the algorithm, the proposed algorithm is tested on four breast cancer dataset benchmarks. Comparison with genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, differential evolution algorithm and hybrid biogeography based optimization, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is better or at least comparable with previous method from literature when considering the quality of the solutions obtained. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Classification and Target Group Selection Based Upon Frequent Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); R. Potharst (Rob)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this technical report , two new algorithms based upon frequent patterns are proposed. One algorithm is a classification method. The other one is an algorithm for target group selection. In both algorithms, first of all, the collection of frequent patterns in the training set is

  2. Robot soccer action selection based on Q learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper researches robot soccer action selection based on Q learning . The robot learn to activate particular behavior given their current situation and reward signal. We adopt neural network to implementations of Q learning for their generalization properties and limited computer memory requirements

  3. Evaporation rate-based selection of supramolecular chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Shingo; Vandendriessche, Stefaan; Koeckelberghs, Guy; Verbiest, Thierry; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2017-03-09

    We demonstrate the evaporation rate-based selection of supramolecular chirality for the first time. P-type aggregates prepared by fast evaporation, and M-type aggregates prepared by slow evaporation are kinetic and thermodynamic products under dynamic reaction conditions, respectively. These findings provide a novel solution reaction chemistry under the dynamic reaction conditions.

  4. Validity of selected cardiovascular field-based test among Malaysian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on emerge obese problem among Malaysian, this research is formulated to validate published tests among healthy female adult. Selected test namely; 20 meter multi-stage shuttle run, 2.4km run test, 1 mile walk test and Harvard Step test were correlated with laboratory test (Bruce protocol) to find the criterion validity ...

  5. Solar Thermal AIR Collector Based on New Type Selective Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musiy, R.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the best for optical performance and selective coating solar thermal air collector, which operates by solar power on the principle of simultaneous ventilation and heating facilities, is designed. It can be used for vacation homes, museums, wooden churches, warehouses, garages, houses, greenhouses etc.

  6. Exposure level from selected base station tower around Kuala Nerus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health risk due to RF radiation exposure from base station tower (BST) has been debated for years leading to public concerns. Thus, this preliminary study aims to measure, evaluate and analyze the exposure level on three selected BST around Kuala Nerus. The measurement of exposure level in terms of voltage ...

  7. Transmit antenna selection based on shadowing side information

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new transmit antenna selection scheme based on shadowing side information. In the proposed scheme, single transmit antenna which has the highest shadowing coefficient is selected. By the proposed technique, usage of the feedback channel and channel estimation complexity at the receiver can be reduced. We consider independent but not identically distributed Generalized-K composite fading model, which is a general composite fading & shadowing channel model for wireless environments. Exact closed-form outage probability, moment generating function and symbol error probability expressions are derived. In addition, theoretical performance results are validated by Monte Carlo simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. Transmit antenna selection based on shadowing side information

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan; Yilmaz, Ahmet Oǧuz; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Kucur, Oǧuz

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new transmit antenna selection scheme based on shadowing side information. In the proposed scheme, single transmit antenna which has the highest shadowing coefficient is selected. By the proposed technique, usage of the feedback channel and channel estimation complexity at the receiver can be reduced. We consider independent but not identically distributed Generalized-K composite fading model, which is a general composite fading & shadowing channel model for wireless environments. Exact closed-form outage probability, moment generating function and symbol error probability expressions are derived. In addition, theoretical performance results are validated by Monte Carlo simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacterial communities in a pilot-scale chloraminated drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John M; Harrington, Gregory W; Noguera, Daniel R

    2002-01-01

    Nitrification in drinking water distribution systems is a common operational problem for many utilities that use chloramines for secondary disinfection. The diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in the distribution systems of a pilot-scale chloraminated drinking water treatment system was characterized using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and 16S rRNA gene (ribosomal DNA [rDNA]) cloning and sequencing. For ammonia oxidizers, 16S rDNA-targeted T-RFLP indicated the presence of Nitrosomonas in each of the distribution systems, with a considerably smaller peak attributable to Nitrosospira-like AOB. Sequences of AOB amplification products aligned within the Nitrosomonas oligotropha cluster and were closely related to N. oligotropha and Nitrosomonas ureae. The nitrite-oxidizing communities were comprised primarily of Nitrospira, although Nitrobacter was detected in some samples. These results suggest a possible selection of AOB related to N. oligotropha and N. ureae in chloraminated systems and demonstrate the presence of NOB, indicating a biological mechanism for nitrite loss that contributes to a reduction in nitrite-associated chloramine decay.

  10. Determination of nitrate and nitrite in Hanford defense waste (HDW) by reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, S.G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the first application of reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE) for rapid and accurate determination of nitrate and nitrite in Hanford Defense Waste (HDW). The method development was carried out by using Synthetic Hanford Waste (SHW), followed by the analysis of 4 real HDW samples. Hexamethonium bromide (HMB) was used as electroosmotic flow modifier in borate buffer at pH 9.2 to decrease the electroosmotic flow (EOF) in order to enhance the speed of analysis and the resolution of nitrate and nitrite in high ionic strength HDW samples. The application of this capillary zone electrophoresis method, when compared with ion chromatography for two major components of HDW, nitrate and nitrite slightly reduced analysis time, eliminated most pre-analysis handling of the highly radioactive sample, and cut analysis wastes by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The analysis of real HDW samples that were validated by using sample spikes showed a concentration range of 1.03 to 1.42 M for both nitrate. The migration times of the real HDW and the spiked HDW samples were within a precision of less than 3% relative standard deviation. The selectivity ratio test used for peak confirmation of the spiked samples was within 96% of the real sample. Method reliability was tested by spiking the matrix with 72.4 mM nitrate and nitrite. Recoveries for these spiked samples were 93-103%

  11. Supporting palladium metal on gold nanoparticles improves its catalysis for nitrite reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Huifeng; Zhao, Zhun; Velazquez, Juan C; Pretzer, Lori A; Heck, Kimberly N; Wong, Michael S

    2014-01-07

    Nitrate (NO3(-)) and nitrite (NO2(-)) anions are often found in groundwater and surface water as contaminants globally, especially in agricultural areas due to nitrate-rich fertilizer use. One popular approach to studying the removal of nitrite/nitrate from water has been their degradation to dinitrogen via Pd-based reduction catalysis. However, little progress has been made towards understanding how the catalyst structure can improve activity. Focusing on the catalytic reduction of nitrite in this study, we report that Au NPs supporting Pd metal ("Pd-on-Au NPs") show catalytic activity that varies with volcano-shape dependence on Pd surface coverage. At room temperature, in CO2-buffered water, and under H2 headspace, the NPs were maximally active at a Pd surface coverage of 80%, with a first-order rate constant (k(cat) = 576 L g(Pd)(-1) min(-1)) that was 15x and 7.5x higher than monometallic Pd NPs (~4 nm; 40 L g(Pd)(-1) min(-1)) and Pd/Al2O3 (1 wt% Pd; 76 L g(Pd)(-1) min(-1)), respectively. Accounting only for surface Pd atoms, these NPs (576 L g(surface-Pd)(-1) min(-1)) were 3.6x and 1.6x higher than monometallic Pd NPs (160 L g(surface-Pd)(-1) min(-1)) and Pd/Al2O3 (361 L g(surface-Pd)(-1) min(-1)). These NPs retained ~98% of catalytic activity at a chloride concentration of 1 mM, whereas Pd/Al2O3 lost ~50%. The Pd-on-Au nanostructure is a promising approach to improve the catalytic reduction process for nitrite and, with further development, also for nitrate anions.

  12. Nitrate and nitrite ingestion and risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue-Choi, Maki; Jones, Rena R; Anderson, Kristin E; Cantor, Kenneth P; Cerhan, James R; Krasner, Stuart; Robien, Kim; Weyer, Peter J; Ward, Mary H

    2015-07-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are precursors in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOC), potential human carcinogens. We evaluated the association of nitrate and nitrite ingestion with postmenopausal ovarian cancer risk in the Iowa Women's Health Study. Among 28,555 postmenopausal women, we identified 315 incident epithelial ovarian cancers from 1986 to 2010. Dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes were assessed at baseline using food frequency questionnaire data. Drinking water source at home was obtained in a 1989 follow-up survey. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 -N) and total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels for Iowa public water utilities were linked to residences and average levels were computed based on each woman's duration at the residence. We computed multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression. We tested interactions of nitrate with TTHMs and dietary factors known to influence NOC formation. Ovarian cancer risk was 2.03 times higher (CI = 1.22-3.38, ptrend  = 0.003) in the highest quartile (≥2.98 mg/L) compared with the lowest quartile (≤0.47 mg/L; reference) of NO3 -N in public water, regardless of TTHM levels. Risk among private well users was also elevated (HR = 1.53, CI = 0.93-2.54) compared with the same reference group. Associations were stronger when vitamin C intake was nitrate was inversely associated with ovarian cancer risk (ptrend  = 0.02); whereas, dietary nitrite from processed meats was positively associated with the risk (ptrend  = 0.04). Our findings indicate that high nitrate levels in public drinking water and private well use may increase ovarian cancer risk among postmenopausal women. © 2014 UICC.

  13. Sodium nitrite: the "cure" for nitric oxide insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Deepa K; Bryan, Nathan S

    2012-11-01

    This process of "curing" food is a long practice that dates back thousands of years long before refrigeration or food safety regulations. Today food safety and mass manufacturing are dependent upon safe and effective means to cure and preserve foods including meats. Nitrite remains the most effective curing agent to prevent food spoilage and bacterial contamination. Despite decades of rigorous research on its safety and efficacy as a curing agent, it is still regarded by many as a toxic undesirable food additive. However, research within the biomedical science community has revealed enormous therapeutic benefits of nitrite that is currently being developed as novel therapies for conditions associated with nitric oxide (NO) insufficiency. Much of the same biochemistry that has been understood for decades in the meat industry has been rediscovered in human physiology. This review will highlight the fundamental biochemistry of nitrite in human physiology and highlight the risk benefit evaluation surrounding nitrite in food and meat products. Foods or diets enriched with nitrite can have profound positive health benefits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relation between nitrate and nitrite food habits with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Laleh; Koohdani, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoon; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Moslemi, Daryoush; Safari, Farid

    2012-01-01

    Nitrites, a probable human carcinogen, generate reactive nitrogen species that may cause damage to the lung. We evaluated the association between nutritional habits related to nitrite and nitrate intake and risk of lung cancer in Mazandaran, Northern Province of Iran. In this case-control study the two groups were matched for gender and age (+/- 5 years). A semi -quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect dietary data about nutritional habits related to nitrate, nitrite, vitamins E and C intake, from 40 lung cancer cases and 40 control subjects admitted at Mazanaran hospitals. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of lung cancer using logistic regression. Mean score of nutritional habits in case group was significantly lower than that in control group (P less than or equal 0.001). We observed a positive association between animal sources of nitrate and nitrite intake (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 0.13-0.96) and risk of lung cancer. Decreased risk of lung cancer was also observed with fruit intake (OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 1.3-11). Our results indicate a probable association between nutritional habits related to animal sources of nitrate and nitrite intake and the risk of lung cancer that requires to be confirmed by other studies.

  15. Dietary nitrate and nitrite: Benefits, risks, and evolving perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedale, Wendy; Sindelar, Jeffrey J; Milkowski, Andrew L

    2016-10-01

    Consumers have an illogical relationship with nitrite (and its precursor, nitrate) in food. Despite a long history of use, nitrite was nearly banned from use in foods in the 1970s due to health concerns related to the potential for carcinogenic nitrosamine formation. Changes in meat processing methods reduced those potential risks, and nitrite continued to be used in foods. Since then, two opposing movements continue to shape how consumers view dietary nitrate and nitrite. The discovery of the profound physiological importance of nitric oxide led to the realization that dietary nitrate contributes significantly to the nitrogen reservoir for nitric oxide formation. Numerous clinical studies have also demonstrated beneficial effects from dietary nitrate consumption, especially in vascular and metabolic health. However, the latest wave of consumer sentiment against food additives, the clean-label movement, has renewed consumer fear and avoidance of preservatives, including nitrite. Education is necessary but may not be sufficient to resolve this disconnect in consumer perception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of tomato paste and nitrite level on processing and quality characteristics of frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, M S; Bloukas, J G; Fista, G A

    2007-07-01

    Fourteen treatments of frankfurters (18% fat) were produced with two levels of sodium nitrite, 0 and 150mg/kg (0.015%), and seven levels (0%,2%,6%,8%,12% and 16%) of tomato paste with 12% soluble solids The higher the tomato paste level the higher the preference of consumers for frankfurters based on their colour. Frankfurters with 16% tomato paste had a sour taste while those with 12% tomato paste were the most acceptable. In a 2nd experiment three treatments of frankfurters (18% fat) were produced with 0, 50 and 100mg/kg of sodium nitrite and 12% tomato paste and a fourth (control) with only 150mg/kg sodium nitrite. Treatments with 12% tomato paste had lower (pnitrite, and higher (pnitrite (50 and 100mg/kg) and 12% tomato paste had the highest (pnitrites added to frankfurters can be reduced from 150mg/kg to 100mg/kg in combination with 12% tomato paste without any negative effect on the quality of the product.

  17. [Poppers at top: alkyl nitrites use in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, François; Guignard, Romain; Richard, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-10-01

    Poppers is the usual name of various forms of alkyl nitrites. They are used as recreational drugs to intensify sexual intercourses and provoke a short euphoria just after their inhalation. In spite of several periods of ban in the 2000s, poppers' use sharply rose between 2000 and 2010. In the adult population as in teenagers, it is the second product consumed after cannabis among illicit drugs, confirming that it concerns circles wider than gays and lesbians who are sometimes depicted as emblematic users. The lifetime use of poppers concerns 5.3% of 18-64 years in 2010, men (7.2%) more than women (3.4%). At the end of the adolescence, its lifetime prevalence is 8.8% for girls and 9.2% for boys. In the general population and especially among young people, poppers is favourably considered. Nevertheless, this product is not without danger, even if the risk of dependence is extremely low. Several avenues of interventions may be outlined, mainly based on information and a regular follow-up of users which can allow to avoid an intensification of the consumption. © 2014 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  18. Numerical Model based Reliability Estimation of Selective Laser Melting Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2014-01-01

    Selective laser melting is developing into a standard manufacturing technology with applications in various sectors. However, the process is still far from being at par with conventional processes such as welding and casting, the primary reason of which is the unreliability of the process. While...... of the selective laser melting process. A validated 3D finite-volume alternating-direction-implicit numerical technique is used to model the selective laser melting process, and is calibrated against results from single track formation experiments. Correlation coefficients are determined for process input...... parameters such as laser power, speed, beam profile, etc. Subsequently, uncertainties in the processing parameters are utilized to predict a range for the various outputs, using a Monte Carlo method based uncertainty analysis methodology, and the reliability of the process is established....

  19. High-precision quadruple isotope dilution method for simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate in seawater by GCMS after derivatization with triethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliano, Enea, E-mail: enea.pagliano@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca; Meija, Juris; Mester, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • High-precision determination of nitrite and nitrate in seawater. • Use of quadruple isotope dilution. • Aqueous Et₃O⁺BF₄]⁻ derivatization chemistry for GCMS analysis of nitrite and nitrate. Abstract: Quadruple isotope dilution mass spectrometry (ID⁴MS) has been applied for simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate in seawater. ID⁴MS allows high-precision measurements and entails the use of isotopic internal standards (¹⁸O-nitrite and ¹⁵N-nitrate). We include a tutorial on ID⁴MS outlining optimal experimental design which generates results with low uncertainties and obviates the need for direct (separate) evaluation of the procedural blank. Nitrite and nitrate detection was achieved using a headspace GCMS procedure based on single-step aqueous derivatization with triethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate at room temperature. In this paper the sample preparation was revised and fundamental aspects of this chemistry are presented. The proposed method has detection limits in the low parts-per-billion for both analytes, is reliable, precise, and has been validated using a seawater certified reference material (MOOS-2). Simplicity of the experimental design, low detection limits, and the use of quadruple isotope dilution makes the present method superior to the state-of-the-art for determination of nitrite and nitrate, and an ideal candidate for reference measurements of these analytes in seawater.

  20. Improved targeted immunization strategies based on two rounds of selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling-Ling; Song, Yu-Rong; Li, Chan-Chan; Jiang, Guo-Ping

    2018-04-01

    In the case of high degree targeted immunization where the number of vaccine is limited, when more than one node associated with the same degree meets the requirement of high degree centrality, how can we choose a certain number of nodes from those nodes, so that the number of immunized nodes will not exceed the limit? In this paper, we introduce a new idea derived from the selection process of second-round exam to solve this problem and then propose three improved targeted immunization strategies. In these proposed strategies, the immunized nodes are selected through two rounds of selection, where we increase the quotas of first-round selection according the evaluation criterion of degree centrality and then consider another characteristic parameter of node, such as node's clustering coefficient, betweenness and closeness, to help choose targeted nodes in the second-round selection. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategies, we compare them with the degree immunizations including the high degree targeted and the high degree adaptive immunizations using two metrics: the size of the largest connected component of immunized network and the number of infected nodes. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed strategies based on two rounds of sorting are effective for heterogeneous networks and their immunization effects are better than that of the degree immunizations.

  1. Quantifying the sources and sinks of nitrite in the oxygen minimum zone of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qixing; Widner, Brittany; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess; Mulholland, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    In coastal upwelling regions, high surface productivity leads to high export and intense remineralization consuming oxygen. This, in combination with slow ventilation, creates oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) in eastern boundary regions of the ocean, such as the one off the Peruvian coast in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific. The OMZ is characterized by a layer of high nitrite concentration coinciding with water column anoxia. Sharp oxygen gradients are located above and below the anoxic layer (upper and lower oxyclines). Thus, the OMZ harbors diverse microbial metabolisms, several of which involve the production and consumption of nitrite. The sources of nitrite are ammonium oxidation and nitrate reduction. The sinks of nitrite include anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), canonical denitrification and nitrite oxidation to nitrate. To quantify the sources and sinks of nitrite in the Peruvian OMZ, incubation experiments with 15N-labeled substrates (ammonium, nitrite and nitrate) were conducted on a research cruise in January 2015. The direct measurements of instantaneous nitrite production and consumption rates were compared with ambient nitrite concentrations to evaluate the turnover rate of nitrite in the OMZ. The distribution of nitrite in the water column showed a two-peak structure. A primary nitrite maximum (up to 0.5 μM) was located in the upper oxycline. A secondary nitrite maximum (up to 10 μM) was found in the anoxic layer. A nitrite concentration minimum occurred at the oxic-anoxic interface just below the upper oxycline. For the sources of nitrite, highest rates of ammonium oxidation and nitrate reduction were detected in the upper oxycline, where both nitrite and oxygen concentrations were low. Lower rates of nitrite production were detected within the layer of secondary nitrite maximum. For the sinks of nitrite, the rates of anammox, denitrification and nitrite oxidation were the highest just below the oxic-anoxic interface. Low nitrite consumption

  2. In-situ nitrite analysis in high level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Prather, W.S.; Livingston, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site produces special nuclear materials used in the defense of the United States. Most of the processes at SRS are primarily chemical separations and purifications. In-situ chemical analyses help improve the safety, efficiency and quality of these operations. One area where in situ fiberoptic spectroscopy can have a great impact is the management of high level radioactive waste. High level radioactive waste at SRS is stored in more than 50 large waste tanks. The waste exists as a slurry of nitrate salts and metal hydroxides at pH's higher than 10. Sodium Nitrite is added to the tanks as a corrosion inhibitor. In-situ fiberoptic probes are being developed to measure the nitrate, nitrite and hydroxide concentrations in both liquid and solid fractions. Nitrite levels can be measured between 0.01M and 1M in a 1mm pathlength optical cell

  3. Reduction of nitrate and nitrite salts under hydrothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foy, B.R.; Dell'Orco, P.C.; Wilmanns, E.; McInroy, R.; Ely, J.; Robinson, J.M.; Buelow, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of reducing nitrate/nitrite salts under hydrothermal conditions for the treatment of aqueous mixed wastes stored in the underground tanks at the Department of Energy site at Hanford, Washington was studied. The reduction of nitrate and nitrite salts by reaction with EDTA using a tank waste simulant was examined at temperatures between 623K and 800K and pressures between 0.6 and 1.2 kbar. Continuous flow reactors were used to determine kinetics and products of reactions. All reactions were studied under pressures high enough to produce single phase conditions. The reactions are rapid, go to completion in less than a minute, and produce simple products, such as carbonate, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide gases. The experimental results demonstrate the ability of chemical reactions under hydrothermal conditions to reduce the nitrate and nitrite salts and destroy organic compounds in the waste mixtures

  4. Changes in mutagenicity of protein pyrolyzates by reaction with nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, D; Matsumoto, T

    1978-09-01

    Pyrolyzates of protein and related materials were treated with nitrite under acidic conditions, and the mutagenic activity toward Salmonella tester strains was determined. After treatment with nitrite in acidic solution, casein pyrolyzate, an extract of roasted chicken meat, tobacco-smoke condensate and some aromatic amines showed appreciable decreases in their mutagenic activities toward Salmonella typhimurium TA 98. Aromatic amines in the pyrolyzates may be changed by nitrite treatment to other forms having no or lower mutagenic activity toward Salmonella typhimurium TA 98. The contribution by aromatic amines to the total mutagenic activity of the pyrolyzates was as high as 80% in both casein pyrolyzate and extract of roasted chicken meat and 50% in tobacco-smoke condensate. Pyrolyzates of protein and related materials did not show a decrease in the mutagenic activity toward Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 with the same treatment.

  5. Uniform design based SVM model selection for face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihong; Liu, Lijuan; Gong, Weiguo

    2010-02-01

    Support vector machine (SVM) has been proved to be a powerful tool for face recognition. The generalization capacity of SVM depends on the model with optimal hyperparameters. The computational cost of SVM model selection results in application difficulty in face recognition. In order to overcome the shortcoming, we utilize the advantage of uniform design--space filling designs and uniformly scattering theory to seek for optimal SVM hyperparameters. Then we propose a face recognition scheme based on SVM with optimal model which obtained by replacing the grid and gradient-based method with uniform design. The experimental results on Yale and PIE face databases show that the proposed method significantly improves the efficiency of SVM model selection.

  6. NetProt: Complex-based Feature Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Wilson Wen Bin; Wong, Limsoon

    2017-08-04

    Protein complex-based feature selection (PCBFS) provides unparalleled reproducibility with high phenotypic relevance on proteomics data. Currently, there are five PCBFS paradigms, but not all representative methods have been implemented or made readily available. To allow general users to take advantage of these methods, we developed the R-package NetProt, which provides implementations of representative feature-selection methods. NetProt also provides methods for generating simulated differential data and generating pseudocomplexes for complex-based performance benchmarking. The NetProt open source R package is available for download from https://github.com/gohwils/NetProt/releases/ , and online documentation is available at http://rpubs.com/gohwils/204259 .

  7. Nebulization of the acidified sodium nitrite formulation attenuates acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surber Mark W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generalized hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV occurring during exposure to hypoxia is a detrimental process resulting in an increase in lung vascular resistance. Nebulization of sodium nitrite has been shown to inhibit HPV. The aim of this project was to investigate and compare the effects of nebulization of nitrite and different formulations of acidified sodium nitrite on acute HPV. Methods Ex vivo isolated rabbit lungs perfused with erythrocytes in Krebs-Henseleit buffer (adjusted to 10% hematocrit and in vivo anesthetized catheterized rabbits were challenged with periods of hypoxic ventilation alternating with periods of normoxic ventilation. After baseline hypoxic challenges, vehicle, sodium nitrite or acidified sodium nitrite was delivered via nebulization. In the ex vivo model, pulmonary arterial pressure and nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas were monitored. Nitrite and nitrite/nitrate were measured in samples of perfusion buffer. Pulmonary arterial pressure, systemic arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were monitored in the in vivo model. Results In the ex vivo model, nitrite nebulization attenuated HPV and increased nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas and nitrite concentrations in the perfusate. The acidified forms of sodium nitrite induced higher levels of nitric oxide in exhaled gas and had longer vasodilating effects compared to nitrite alone. All nitrite formulations increased concentrations of circulating nitrite to the same degree. In the in vivo model, inhaled nitrite inhibited HPV, while pulmonary arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were not affected. All nitrite formulations had similar potency to inhibit HPV. The tested concentration of appeared tolerable. Conclusion Nitrite alone and in acidified forms effectively and similarly attenuates HPV. However, acidified nitrite formulations induce a more pronounced increase in nitric oxide exhalation.

  8. Attention-based Memory Selection Recurrent Network for Language Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Da-Rong; Chuang, Shun-Po; Lee, Hung-yi

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have achieved great success in language modeling. However, since the RNNs have fixed size of memory, their memory cannot store all the information about the words it have seen before in the sentence, and thus the useful long-term information may be ignored when predicting the next words. In this paper, we propose Attention-based Memory Selection Recurrent Network (AMSRN), in which the model can review the information stored in the memory at each previous time ...

  9. Risk-based audit selection of dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asseldonk, M A P M; Velthuis, A G J

    2014-02-01

    Dairy farms are audited in the Netherlands on numerous process standards. Each farm is audited once every 2 years. Increasing demands for cost-effectiveness in farm audits can be met by introducing risk-based principles. This implies targeting subpopulations with a higher risk of poor process standards. To select farms for an audit that present higher risks, a statistical analysis was conducted to test the relationship between the outcome of farm audits and bulk milk laboratory results before the audit. The analysis comprised 28,358 farm audits and all conducted laboratory tests of bulk milk samples 12 mo before the audit. The overall outcome of each farm audit was classified as approved or rejected. Laboratory results included somatic cell count (SCC), total bacterial count (TBC), antimicrobial drug residues (ADR), level of butyric acid spores (BAB), freezing point depression (FPD), level of free fatty acids (FFA), and cleanliness of the milk (CLN). The bulk milk laboratory results were significantly related to audit outcomes. Rejected audits are likely to occur on dairy farms with higher mean levels of SCC, TBC, ADR, and BAB. Moreover, in a multivariable model, maxima for TBC, SCC, and FPD as well as standard deviations for TBC and FPD are risk factors for negative audit outcomes. The efficiency curve of a risk-based selection approach, on the basis of the derived regression results, dominated the current random selection approach. To capture 25, 50, or 75% of the population with poor process standards (i.e., audit outcome of rejected), respectively, only 8, 20, or 47% of the population had to be sampled based on a risk-based selection approach. Milk quality information can thus be used to preselect high-risk farms to be audited more frequently. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageman, Sven; Scharge, Tina; Willms, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The report on the development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals covers the description of experimental methods, the thermodynamic model for chromate, the thermodynamic model for dichromate, the thermodynamic model for manganese (II), the thermodynamic model for cobalt, the thermodynamic model for nickel, the thermodynamic model for copper (I), the thermodynamic model for copper(II), the thermodynamic model for mercury (0) and mercury (I), the thermodynamic model for mercury (III), the thermodynamic model for arsenate.

  11. Safety and sensory aspects of nitrite alternatives in meat curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahidi, F.; Pegg, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The use of nitrite to cure meats (especially bacon) is viewed as undesirable, because it leads to the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines. The amount of nitrite (10-40 ppm) associated with the cured colour and flavour is fairly harmless, and it is the larger amount, (100-200 ppm) added to preserve the meat, which is potentially harmful. This article reviews various preservatives which can be used in combination with low concentrations of nitrate. The authors consider that the use of lactate, of alternatively radiation sterilization, offers the best safe alternative to nitrate

  12. Linear feature selection in texture analysis - A PLS based method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Joselene; Igel, Christian; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We present a texture analysis methodology that combined uncommitted machine-learning techniques and partial least square (PLS) in a fully automatic framework. Our approach introduces a robust PLS-based dimensionality reduction (DR) step to specifically address outliers and high-dimensional feature...... and considering all CV groups, the methods selected 36 % of the original features available. The diagnosis evaluation reached a generalization area-under-the-ROC curve of 0.92, which was higher than established cartilage-based markers known to relate to OA diagnosis....

  13. Index Fund Selections with GAs and Classifications Based on Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orito, Yukiko; Motoyama, Takaaki; Yamazaki, Genji

    It is well known that index fund selections are important for the risk hedge of investment in a stock market. The`selection’means that for`stock index futures’, n companies of all ones in the market are selected. For index fund selections, Orito et al.(6) proposed a method consisting of the following two steps : Step 1 is to select N companies in the market with a heuristic rule based on the coefficient of determination between the return rate of each company in the market and the increasing rate of the stock price index. Step 2 is to construct a group of n companies by applying genetic algorithms to the set of N companies. We note that the rule of Step 1 is not unique. The accuracy of the results using their method depends on the length of time data (price data) in the experiments. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce a more`effective rule’for Step 1. The rule is based on turnover. The method consisting of Step 1 based on turnover and Step 2 is examined with numerical experiments for the 1st Section of Tokyo Stock Exchange. The results show that with our method, it is possible to construct the more effective index fund than the results of Orito et al.(6). The accuracy of the results using our method depends little on the length of time data (turnover data). The method especially works well when the increasing rate of the stock price index over a period can be viewed as a linear time series data.

  14. A fuzzy logic based PROMETHEE method for material selection problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Gul

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Material selection is a complex problem in the design and development of products for diverse engineering applications. This paper presents a fuzzy PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation method based on trapezoidal fuzzy interval numbers that can be applied to the selection of materials for an automotive instrument panel. Also, it presents uniqueness in making a significant contribution to the literature in terms of the application of fuzzy decision-making approach to material selection problems. The method is illustrated, validated, and compared against three different fuzzy MCDM methods (fuzzy VIKOR, fuzzy TOPSIS, and fuzzy ELECTRE in terms of its ranking performance. Also, the relationships between the compared methods and the proposed scenarios for fuzzy PROMETHEE are evaluated via the Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Styrene Maleic Anhydride and Polypropylene are determined optionally as suitable materials for the automotive instrument panel case. We propose a generic fuzzy MCDM methodology that can be practically implemented to material selection problem. The main advantages of the methodology are consideration of the vagueness, uncertainty, and fuzziness to decision making environment.

  15. Acidified nitrite inhibits proliferation of Listeria monocytogenes - Transcriptional analysis of a preservation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Herbst, Stefanie; Wüstner, Stefanie; Kabisch, Jan; Pichner, Rohtraud; Scherer, Siegfried

    2016-06-02

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is added as a preservative during raw meat processing such as raw sausage production to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria. In the present study it was shown in challenge assays that the addition of sodium nitrite indeed inhibited growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes in short-ripened spreadable raw sausages. Furthermore, in vitro growth analyses were performed, which took into account combinations of various parameters of the raw sausage ripening process like temperature, oxygen availability, pH, NaCl concentration, and absence or presence of NaNO2. Data based on 300 growth conditions revealed that the inhibitory effect of nitrite was most prominent in combination with acidification, a combination that is also achieved during short-ripened spreadable raw sausage production. At pH6.0 and below, L. monocytogenes was unable to replicate in the presence of 200mg/l NaNO2. During the adaptation of L. monocytogenes to acidified nitrite stress (pH6.0, 200mg/l NaNO2) in comparison to acid exposure only (pH6.0, 0mg/l NaNO2), a massive transcriptional adaptation was observed using microarray analyses. In total, 202 genes were up-regulated and 204 genes were down-regulated. In accordance with growth inhibition, a down-regulation of genes encoding for proteins which are involved in central cellular processes, like cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis, translation and ribosomal structure and biogenesis, transcription, and replication, recombination and repair, was observed. Among the up-regulated genes the most prominent group belonged to poorly characterized genes. A considerable fraction of the up-regulated genes has been shown previously to be up-regulated intracellularly in macrophages, after exposure to acid shock or to be part of the SigB regulon. These data indicate that the adaptation to acidified nitrite partly overlaps with the adaptation to stress conditions being present during host colonization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  16. Object width modulates object-based attentional selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Joseph C; Neppi-Modona, Marco; Strother, Lars; Behrmann, Marlene; Shomstein, Sarah

    2018-04-24

    Visual input typically includes a myriad of objects, some of which are selected for further processing. While these objects vary in shape and size, most evidence supporting object-based guidance of attention is drawn from paradigms employing two identical objects. Importantly, object size is a readily perceived stimulus dimension, and whether it modulates the distribution of attention remains an open question. Across four experiments, the size of the objects in the display was manipulated in a modified version of the two-rectangle paradigm. In Experiment 1, two identical parallel rectangles of two sizes (thin or thick) were presented. Experiments 2-4 employed identical trapezoids (each having a thin and thick end), inverted in orientation. In the experiments, one end of an object was cued and participants performed either a T/L discrimination or a simple target-detection task. Combined results show that, in addition to the standard object-based attentional advantage, there was a further attentional benefit for processing information contained in the thick versus thin end of objects. Additionally, eye-tracking measures demonstrated increased saccade precision towards thick object ends, suggesting that Fitts's Law may play a role in object-based attentional shifts. Taken together, these results suggest that object-based attentional selection is modulated by object width.

  17. Titanium-based spectrally selective surfaces for solar thermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A D; Holmes, J P

    1983-10-01

    A study of spectrally selective surfaces based on anodic oxide films on titanium is presented. These surfaces have low values of solar absorptance, 0.77, due to the nonideal optical properties of the anodic TiO2 for antireflection of titanium. A simple chemical etching process is described which gives a textured surface with dimensions similar to the wavelengths of solar radiation, leading to spectral selectivity. The performance of this dark-etched surface can be further improved by anodising, and optimum absorbers have been produced with alpha(s) 0.935 and hemispherical emittances (400 K) 0.23. The surface texturing effects a significant improvement in alpha(s) at oblique incidence.

  18. A Reliability Based Model for Wind Turbine Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Rajeevan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A wind turbine generator output at a specific site depends on many factors, particularly cut- in, rated and cut-out wind speed parameters. Hence power output varies from turbine to turbine. The objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical relationship between reliability and wind power generation. The analytical computation of monthly wind power is obtained from weibull statistical model using cubic mean cube root of wind speed. Reliability calculation is based on failure probability analysis. There are many different types of wind turbinescommercially available in the market. From reliability point of view, to get optimum reliability in power generation, it is desirable to select a wind turbine generator which is best suited for a site. The mathematical relationship developed in this paper can be used for site-matching turbine selection in reliability point of view.

  19. Physiology and interaction of nitrate and nitrite reduction in Staphylococcus carnosus.

    OpenAIRE

    Neubauer, H; Götz, F

    1996-01-01

    Staphylococcus carnosus reduces nitrate to ammonia in two steps. (i) Nitrate was taken up and reduced to nitrite, and nitrite was subsequently excreted. (ii) After depletion of nitrate, the accumulated nitrite was imported and reduced to ammonia, which again accumulated in the medium. The localization, energy gain, and induction of the nitrate and nitrite reductases in S. carnosus were characterized. Nitrate reductase seems to be a membrane-bound enzyme involved in respiratory energy conserva...

  20. Mainstream upflow nitritation-anammox system with hybrid anaerobic pretreatment: Long-term performance and microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojin; Sun, Shan; Yuan, Heyang; Badgley, Brian D; He, Zhen

    2017-11-15

    Mainstream nitritation-anammox is of strong interest to energy- and resource-efficient domestic wastewater treatment. However, there lack in-depth studies of pretreatment, tests of actual wastewater, and examination of long-term performance. Herein, an upflow nitritation-anammox granular reactor has been investigated to treat primary effluent with a hybrid anaerobic reactor (HAR) as pretreatment for more than 300 days. This system achieved 92% of COD removal, 75% of which was accomplished by the HAR, and had an average final effluent COD concentration of 22 mg L -1 . More than 90% of ammonium was removed in the nitritation-anammox reactor, achieving a nitrogen removal rate of 81.0 g N m -3  d -1 in the last stage. The accumulation of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the HAR evidenced the effect of sulfate on COD removal and subsequent nitrogen removal. Anammox bacteria (predominantly Ca. Jettenia asiatica) accounted for up to 40.2% of total granular communities, but their abundance decreased over time in the suspended communities. The dynamics of major metabolisms and functional genes involved in nitrogen conversion were predicted by PICRUSt based on the taxonomic data, providing more insights into the functions of the microbial communities. These results have demonstrated the effectiveness and importance of anaerobic pretreatment to successful mainstream nitritation-anammox. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The inhibitory effects of free ammonia on ammonia oxidizing bacteria and nitrite oxidizing bacteria under anaerobic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wenting; Peng, Yongzhen; Li, Xiyao; Zhang, Qiong; Ma, Bin

    2017-11-01

    The free ammonia (FA) inhibition on ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) under anaerobic condition was investigated in this study. The results indicated that NOB was more sensitive to the FA anaerobic treatment than AOB. The FA anaerobic inhibition on nitrifier gradually heightened with the increase of FA concentration. Accompanied with FA concentration increase from 0 to 16.82mgNH 3 -N·L -1 (the highest concentration adopted in this study), the activity of AOB reduced by 15.9%, while NOB decreased by 29.2%. After FA anaerobic treatment, nitrite was accumulated during nitrification. However, the nitrite accumulation disappeared on the sixth cycle of activity recovery tests with excessive aeration. Based on this result, a novel strategy for achieving nitritation is proposed, which involves recirculating a portion of the activated sludge through a side-line sludge treatment unit, where the sludge is subjected to treatment with FA under anaerobic condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Consumer attitude and purchase intention towards processed meat products with natural compounds and a reduced level of nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yung; de Kok, Theo M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates consumer attitude and purchase intention towards processed meat products with added natural compounds and a reduced level of nitrite. The rationale for such innovation relates to nitrite's negative health image as a chemical additive among consumers, versus the perception of compounds from fruits and vegetables as being natural and healthy. Cross-sectional data were collected through online questionnaires on knowledge about, interest in, attitude and intentions towards such new type of processed meat products in Belgium, The Netherlands, Italy and Germany (n=2057). Consumers generally had limited knowledge about nitrite being added to meat products. Yet, they expressed favourable attitudes and purchase intentions towards the new processed meat products. Purchase intention associated positively with: attitude; preference for natural over chemical additives; perceived harmfulness of chemical additives; risk importance; domain specific innovativeness; awareness of nitrite added; education; general health interest; and processed meat consumption frequency. Consumers from Italy and Germany had a lower level of purchase intention compared to Belgium. Four consumer segments were identified based on attitude and purchase intention: 'enthusiasts' (39.3% of the sample), 'accepters' (11.9%), 'half-hearted' (42.3%) and 'uninterested' (6.6%). This study provides valuable insight for further product development and effective tailoring of marketing communication strategies of innovative processed meat products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Frequency selective surfaces based high performance microstrip antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Shiv; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on performance enhancement of printed antennas using frequency selective surfaces (FSS) technology. The growing demand of stealth technology in strategic areas requires high-performance low-RCS (radar cross section) antennas. Such requirements may be accomplished by incorporating FSS into the antenna structure either in its ground plane or as the superstrate, due to the filter characteristics of FSS structure. In view of this, a novel approach based on FSS technology is presented in this book to enhance the performance of printed antennas including out-of-band structural RCS reduction. In this endeavor, the EM design of microstrip patch antennas (MPA) loaded with FSS-based (i) high impedance surface (HIS) ground plane, and (ii) the superstrates are discussed in detail. The EM analysis of proposed FSS-based antenna structures have been carried out using transmission line analogy, in combination with the reciprocity theorem. Further, various types of novel FSS structures are considered in desi...

  4. Distance based control system for machine vision-based selective spraying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steward, B.L.; Tian, L.F.; Tang, L.

    2002-01-01

    For effective operation of a selective sprayer with real-time local weed sensing, herbicides must be delivered, accurately to weed targets in the field. With a machine vision-based selective spraying system, acquiring sequential images and switching nozzles on and off at the correct locations are

  5. Prospective study of meat intake and dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines and risk of adult glioma123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holick, Crystal N; Batchelor, Tracy T; Giovannucci, Edward; Hunter, David J

    2009-01-01

    Background: The hypothesis that nitrosamine exposure may increase the risk of glioma has been circulating for several decades, but testing it has been difficult because of the ubiquitous nature of nitrosamine exposure. Diet has been the focus of many studies because it can substantially influence nitrosamine exposure, mostly from the endogenous formation of nitrosamines based on intake of nitrite and nitrate. Objective: The objective was to examine the relation between intakes of meats, nitrate, nitrite, and 2 nitrosamines [nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and nitrosopyrolidine (NPYR)] and glioma risk in a prospective analysis. Methods: Data from 3 US prospective cohort studies were combined for this analysis; 335 glioma cases were diagnosed during ≤24 y of follow-up. Dietary intake was assessed with food-frequency questionnaires. Nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamine values were calculated based on published values of these nutrients in various foods over different periods in time. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs. Estimates from each cohort were pooled by using a random-effects model. Results: Risk of glioma was not elevated among individuals in the highest intake category of total processed meats (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.48, 1.77), nitrate (RR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.58), nitrites (RR: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.79), or NDMA (RR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.57, 1.36) compared with the lowest category. No effect modification was observed by intake of vitamins C or E or other antioxidant measures. Conclusion: We found no suggestion that intake of meat, nitrate, nitrite, or nitrosamines is related to the risk of glioma. PMID:19587083

  6. The redox interplay between nitrite and nitric oxide: From the gut to the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassilda Pereira

    2013-01-01

    We here discuss the implications of the redox conversion of nitrite to ·NO in the gut, how nitrite-derived ·NO may signal from the digestive to the central nervous system, influencing brain function, as well as a putative ascorbate-driven nitrite/NO pathway occurring in the brain.

  7. Neurotoxicity induced by alkyl nitrites: Impairment in learning/memory and motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hye Jin; Kim, Yun Ji; Jeon, Seo Young; Kim, Young-Hoon; Shin, Jisoon; Yun, Jaesuk; Han, Kyoungmoon; Park, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Hyung Soo

    2016-04-21

    Although alkyl nitrites are used as recreational drugs, there is only little research data regarding their effects on the central nervous system including their neurotoxicity. This study investigated the neurotoxicity of three representative alkyl nitrites (isobutyl nitrite, isoamyl nitrite, and butyl nitrite), and whether it affected learning/memory function and motor coordination in rodents. Morris water maze test was performed in mice after administrating the mice with varying doses of the substances in two different injection schedules of memory acquisition and memory retention. A rota-rod test was then performed in rats. All tested alkyl nitrites lowered the rodents' capacity for learning and memory, as assessed by both the acquisition and retention tests. The results of the rota-rod test showed that isobutyl nitrite in particular impaired motor coordination in chronically treated rats. The mice chronically injected with isoamyl nitrite also showed impaired function, while butyl nitrite had no significant effect. The results of the water maze test suggest that alkyl nitrites may impair learning and memory. Additionally, isoamyl nitrite affected the rodents' motor coordination ability. Collectively, our findings suggest that alkyl nitrites may induce neurotoxicity, especially on the aspect of learning and memory function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nitrite toxicity assessment in Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Doleželová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrite is a natural component of the nitrogen cycle in the environment. Although it usually occurs in low concentrations, elevated concentrations caused by effluents or affected nitrification process can lead to serious health deterioration of fish. Two aquarium fish zebrafish (Danio rerio and guppy (Poecilia reticulata are recommended to use as model organisms in toxicity tests. However, their sensitivity to nitrite can differ. The aim of this study was to define acute toxicity of nitrite by the semistatic method according to OECD No. 203 (Fish, Acute toxicity test. The series of 4 acute toxicity tests was performed, with 10 fish of both species used for each concentration and for the control. The 96hLC50 NO2- value for D. rerio and P. reticulata was 242.55 ± 15.79 mg·l-1 and 30.2 ± 8.74 mg·l-1, respectively. We have proved significant difference (p D. rerio and P. reticulata. The results showed different sensitivities to nitrites in tested fish species, which could be related to species-specific branchial chloride uptake mechanism. This is the first study on this fish species.

  9. Intramolecular electron transfer in Pseudomonas aeruginosa cd(1) nitrite reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Brunori, Maurizio; Cutruzzolà, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    ) as the level of reduction increased in both the WT and the His mutant. Equilibrium standard enthalpy and entropy changes and activation parameters of this ET process were determined. We concluded that negative cooperativity is a common feature among the cd(1) nitrite reductases, and we discuss this control...

  10. Ammonia and nitrite oxidation in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xuefeng; Fuchsman, Clara A.; Jayakumar, Amal; Oleynik, Sergey; Martens-Habbena, Willm; Devol, Allan H.; Ward, Bess B.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrification plays a key role in the marine nitrogen (N) cycle, including in oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), which are hot spots for denitrification and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox). Recent evidence suggests that nitrification links the source (remineralized organic matter) and sink (denitrification and anammox) of fixed N directly in the steep oxycline in the OMZs. We performed shipboard incubations with 15N tracers to characterize the depth distribution of nitrification in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP). Additional experiments were conducted to investigate photoinhibition. Allylthiourea (ATU) was used to distinguish the contribution of archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidation. The abundance of archaeal and β-proteobacterial ammonia monooxygenase gene subunit A (amoA) was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The rates of ammonia and nitrite oxidation showed distinct subsurface maxima, with the latter slightly deeper than the former. The ammonia oxidation maximum coincided with the primary nitrite concentration maximum, archaeal amoA gene maximum, and the subsurface nitrous oxide maximum. Negligible rates of ammonia oxidation were found at anoxic depths, where high rates of nitrite oxidation were measured. Archaeal amoA gene abundance was generally 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than bacterial amoA gene abundance, and inhibition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria with 10 μM ATU did not affect ammonia oxidation rates, indicating the dominance of archaea in ammonia oxidation. These results depict highly dynamic activities of ammonia and nitrite oxidation in the oxycline of the ETNP OMZ.

  11. Poppers: epidemiology and clinical management of inhaled nitrite abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Frank; Smith, Kelly M; Thornton, Alice C; Pomeroy, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Commonly referred to as "poppers," inhaled nitrites have a long history of abuse. Poppers are rapid-onset, short-acting potent vasodilators that produce a rush characterized by warm sensations and feelings of dizziness. Poppers sometimes are used to facilitate anal intercourse because of their actions on the anal sphincter. Epidemiologically, the frequent use of nitrites by men who have sex with men has led some experts to implicate these chemicals in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Controlled clinical trials to examine this potential correlation have not been conducted, and the use of nitrites simply may be a marker for other high-risk behaviors such as unprotected sex. Although regulated in the United States, many nitrite compounds and isomers are sold at various venues including bars, bookstores, and over the Internet. Adverse effects associated with these products vary from mild allergic reactions to life-threatening methemoglobinemia. The potential for drug-drug interactions and a propensity toward unsafe sex also exist. Clinicians should be familiar with the populations most likely to abuse these agents and with the clinical effects and management guidelines for acute ingestions.

  12. Hydrogen ion (Ph), ammonia, dissolved oxygen and nitrite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrogen ion (pH), dissolved oxygen, ammonia and nitrite concentrations were studied monthly in two systems (re-circulatory and semi-intensive of 3 m2 sizes) each for six months. The systems were each stocked with 200 g of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Results showed that all parameters were within acceptable limits ...

  13. Nitrate, Nitrite, and Ammonium Variability in Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullehner, Jörg; Stayner, Leslie; Hansen, Birgitte

    2017-03-09

    Accurate assessments of exposure to nitrate in drinking water is a crucial part of epidemiological studies investigating long-term adverse human health effects. However, since drinking water nitrate measurements are usually collected for regulatory purposes, assumptions on (1) the intra-distribution system variability and (2) short-term (seasonal) concentration variability have to be made. We assess concentration variability in the distribution system of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, and seasonal variability in all Danish public waterworks from 2007 to 2016. Nitrate concentrations at the exit of the waterworks are highly correlated with nitrate concentrations within the distribution net or at the consumers' taps, while nitrite and ammonium concentrations are generally lower within the net compared with the exit of the waterworks due to nitrification. However, nitrification of nitrite and ammonium in the distribution systems only results in a relatively small increase in nitrate concentrations. No seasonal variation for nitrate, nitrite, or ammonium was observed. We conclude that nitrate measurements taken at the exit of the waterworks are suitable to calculate exposures for all consumers connected to that waterworks and that sampling frequencies in the national monitoring programme are sufficient to describe temporal variations in longitudinal studies.

  14. Nitrite and nitroso compounds can serve as specific catalase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Vladimir Yu; Osipov, Anatoly N

    2017-03-01

    We present evidence that nitrite and nitrosothiols, nitrosoamines and non-heme dinitrosyl iron complexes can reversibly inhibit catalase with equal effectiveness. Catalase activity was evaluated by the permanganatometric and calorimetric assays. This inhibition is not the result of chemical transformations of these compounds to a single inhibitor, as well as it is not the result of NO release from these substances (as NO traps have no effect on the extent of inhibition). It was found that chloride and bromide in concentration above 80 mM and thiocyanate in concentration above 20 μM enhance catalase inhibition by nitrite and the nitroso compounds more than 100 times. The inhibition degree in this case is comparable with that induced by azide. We propose that the direct catalase inhibitor is a positively charged NO-group. This group acquires a positive charge in the active center of enzyme by interaction of nitrite or nitroso compounds with some enzyme groups. Halides and thiocyanate protect the NO + group from hydration and thus increase its inhibition effect. It is probable that a comparatively low chloride concentration in many cells is the main factor to protect catalase from inhibition by nitrite and nitroso compounds.

  15. Control of the ambident reactivity of the nitrite ion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Hai; Rahm, Martin; Thota, Niranjan

    2013-01-01

    of this difference was addressed. The ambident reactivity of the nitrite ion has been found to be the cause of the complex product formation observed, which can be controlled by a neighbouring equatorial ester group. Both N-attack and O-attack occur in the absence of the ester group, whereas O-attack is favoured...

  16. A rapid and sensitive evaluation of nitrite content in Saudi Arabian processed meat and poultry using a novel ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Masoom Raza; Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; Khan, Moonis Ali; ALOthman, Zeid A; Rafiquee, M Z A; Alqadami, Ayoub Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of nitrite (NO 2 - ) anion was performed using a newly developed high throughput ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS) method. The nitrite determination with the proposed method using micellar mobile phase was unknown. Selected ion reaction mode using negative electrospray ionization was adopted for the identification and quantitative analysis of nitrite. The chromatographic separation was performed using BEH C-18 column and a micellar mobile phase consisted of sodium dodecyl sulphate and acetonitrile in ratio 30:70 was used. The elution of nitrite anion was accomplished in less than 1 min. Under the optimal analysis conditions, the linearity of the developed method was checked in the concentration range of 0.5-20 mg kg -1 NO 2 - with an excellent correlation coefficient of 0.996. The precisions of the method with relative standard deviation <2% was observed when standard at concentration of 1 mg kg -1 was used. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation of the developed mass spectrometric method was found to be 0.114 and 0.346 mg kg -1 , respectively. The developed UPLC/MS method was applied to quantify this anion in processed meats and poultries from various super market of Saudi Arabia (Riyadh region). The recoveries of the nitrite in the various samples were found in the range of 100.03-103.5%.

  17. Core Business Selection Based on Ant Colony Clustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Core business is the most important business to the enterprise in diversified business. In this paper, we first introduce the definition and characteristics of the core business and then descript the ant colony clustering algorithm. In order to test the effectiveness of the proposed method, Tianjin Port Logistics Development Co., Ltd. is selected as the research object. Based on the current situation of the development of the company, the core business of the company can be acquired by ant colony clustering algorithm. Thus, the results indicate that the proposed method is an effective way to determine the core business for company.

  18. Multichannel Selective Femtosecond Coherent Control Based on Symmetry Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amitay, Zohar; Gandman, Andrey; Chuntonov, Lev; Rybak, Leonid

    2008-01-01

    We present and implement a new scheme for extended multichannel selective femtosecond coherent control based on symmetry properties of the excitation channels. Here, an atomic nonresonant two-photon absorption channel is coherently incorporated in a resonance-mediated (2+1) three-photon absorption channel. By proper pulse shaping, utilizing the invariance of the two-photon absorption to specific phase transformations of the pulse, the three-photon absorption is tuned independently over an order-of-magnitude yield range for any possible two-photon absorption yield. Noticeable is a set of ''two-photon dark pulses'' inducing widely tunable three-photon absorption

  19. Carbon Nanotube-Based Ion Selective Sensors for Wearable Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Soumyendu; David-Pur, Moshe; Hanein, Yael

    2017-10-11

    Wearable electronics offer new opportunities in a wide range of applications, especially sweat analysis using skin sensors. A fundamental challenge in these applications is the formation of sensitive and stable electrodes. In this article we report the development of a wearable sensor based on carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode arrays for sweat sensing. Solid-state ion selective electrodes (ISEs), sensitive to Na + ions, were prepared by drop coating plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) doped with ionophore and ion exchanger on CNT electrodes. The ion selective membrane (ISM) filled the intertubular spaces of the highly porous CNT film and formed an attachment that was stronger than that achieved with flat Au, Pt, or carbon electrodes. Concentration of the ISM solution used influenced the attachment to the CNT film, the ISM surface morphology, and the overall performance of the sensor. Sensitivity of 56 ± 3 mV/decade to Na + ions was achieved. Optimized solid-state reference electrodes (REs), suitable for wearable applications, were prepared by coating CNT electrodes with colloidal dispersion of Ag/AgCl, agarose hydrogel with 0.5 M NaCl, and a passivation layer of PVC doped with NaCl. The CNT-based REs had low sensitivity (-1.7 ± 1.2 mV/decade) toward the NaCl solution and high repeatability and were superior to bare Ag/AgCl, metals, carbon, and CNT films, reported previously as REs. CNT-based ISEs were calibrated against CNT-based REs, and the short-term stability of the system was tested. We demonstrate that CNT-based devices implemented on a flexible support are a very attractive platform for future wearable technology devices.

  20. Patch-based visual tracking with online representative sample selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Weihua; Yuan, Di; Li, Donghao; Liu, Bin; Xia, Daoxun; Zeng, Wu

    2017-05-01

    Occlusion is one of the most challenging problems in visual object tracking. Recently, a lot of discriminative methods have been proposed to deal with this problem. For the discriminative methods, it is difficult to select the representative samples for the target template updating. In general, the holistic bounding boxes that contain tracked results are selected as the positive samples. However, when the objects are occluded, this simple strategy easily introduces the noises into the training data set and the target template and then leads the tracker to drift away from the target seriously. To address this problem, we propose a robust patch-based visual tracker with online representative sample selection. Different from previous works, we divide the object and the candidates into several patches uniformly and propose a score function to calculate the score of each patch independently. Then, the average score is adopted to determine the optimal candidate. Finally, we utilize the non-negative least square method to find the representative samples, which are used to update the target template. The experimental results on the object tracking benchmark 2013 and on the 13 challenging sequences show that the proposed method is robust to the occlusion and achieves promising results.

  1. Tyrosinase-Based Biosensors for Selective Dopamine Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Florescu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel tyrosinase-based biosensor was developed for the detection of dopamine (DA. For increased selectivity, gold electrodes were previously modified with cobalt (II-porphyrin (CoP film with electrocatalytic activity, to act both as an electrochemical mediator and an enzyme support, upon which the enzyme tyrosinase (Tyr was cross-linked. Differential pulse voltammetry was used for electrochemical detection and the reduction current of dopamine-quinone was measured as a function of dopamine concentration. Our experiments demonstrated that the presence of CoP improves the selectivity of the electrode towards dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA, with a linear trend of concentration dependence in the range of 2–30 µM. By optimizing the conditioning parameters, a separation of 130 mV between the peak potentials for ascorbic acid AA and DA was obtained, allowing the selective detection of DA. The biosensor had a sensitivity of 1.22 ± 0.02 µA·cm−2·µM−1 and a detection limit of 0.43 µM. Biosensor performances were tested in the presence of dopamine medication, with satisfactory results in terms of recovery (96%, and relative standard deviation values below 5%. These results confirmed the applicability of the biosensors in real samples such as human urine and blood serum.

  2. Road Network Selection Based on Road Hierarchical Structure Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Haiwei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new road network selection method based on hierarchical structure is studied. Firstly, road network is built as strokes which are then classified into hierarchical collections according to the criteria of betweenness centrality value (BC value. Secondly, the hierarchical structure of the strokes is enhanced using structural characteristic identification technique. Thirdly, the importance calculation model was established according to the relationships among the hierarchical structure of the strokes. Finally, the importance values of strokes are got supported with the model's hierarchical calculation, and with which the road network is selected. Tests are done to verify the advantage of this method by comparing it with other common stroke-oriented methods using three kinds of typical road network data. Comparision of the results show that this method had few need to semantic data, and could eliminate the negative influence of edge strokes caused by the criteria of BC value well. So, it is better to maintain the global hierarchical structure of road network, and suitable to meet with the selection of various kinds of road network at the same time.

  3. Fuzzy Axiomatic Design approach based green supplier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannan, Devika; Govindan, Kannan; Rajendran, Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    proposes a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach called Fuzzy Axiomatic Design (FAD) to select the best green supplier for Singapore-based plastic manufacturing company. At first, the environmental criteria was developed along with the traditional criteria based on the literature review......Abstract Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) is a developing concept recently utilized by manufacturing firms of all sizes. All industries, small or large, seek improvements in the purchasing of raw materials, manufacturing, allocation, transportation efficiency, in curbing storage time, importing...... responsible in addition to being efficiently managed. A significant way to implement responsible GSCM is to reconsider, in innovative ways, the purchase and supply cycle, and a preliminary step would be to ensure that the supplier of goods successfully incorporates green criteria. Therefore, this paper...

  4. Tunable antenna radome based on graphene frequency selective surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Meijun; Rao, Menglou; Li, Shufang; Deng, Li

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a graphene-based frequency selective surface (FSS) is proposed. The proposed FSS exhibits a tunable bandpass filtering characteristic due to the alterable conductivity of the graphene strips which is controlled by chemical potential. Based on the reconfigurable bandpass property of the proposed FSS, a cylindrical antenna radome is designed using the FSS unit cells. A conventional omnidirectional dipole can realize a two-beam directional pattern when it is placed into the proposed antenna radome. Forward and backward endfire radiations of the dipole loaded with the radome is realized by properly adjusting the chemical potential. The proposed antenna radome is extremely promising for beam-scanning in terahertz and mid-infrared plasmonic devices and systems when the gain of a conventional antenna needs to be enhanced.

  5. SELECTION OF RECIPIENTS FOR HEART TRANSPLANTATION BASED ON URGENCY STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Sujayeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the overview of current international recommendations dedicated to selection of heart transplantation recipients based on urgency status. Authors found that cardiopulmonary bicycle stress test allowed to reveal additional criteria of high death risk within 1 year. These additional criteria were: the maximal oxygen consumption VO2max < 30% of the expected considering the age; VD/VT (ratio of physiologic dead space over tidal volume increasing during the test; maximal tolerance to physical loading ≤50 Wt and/or < 20% of the expected considering the age. Authors created mathematical model for prediction of death within 1 year based on above mentioned data. Special software estimating the probability of death within 1 year was also created.

  6. The influence of extrinsic motivation on competition-based selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sänger, Jessica; Wascher, Edmund

    2011-10-10

    The biased competition approach to visuo-spatial attention proposes that the selection of competing information is effected by the saliency of the stimulus as well as by an intention-based bias of attention towards behavioural goals. Wascher and Beste (2010) [32] showed that the detection of relevant information depends on its relative saliency compared to irrelevant conflicting stimuli. Furthermore the N1pc, N2pc and N2 of the EEG varied with the strength of the conflict. However, this system could also be modulated by rather global mechanisms like attentional effort. The present study investigates such modulations by testing the influence of extrinsic motivation on the selection of competing stimuli. Participants had to detect a luminance change in various conditions among others against an irrelevant orientation change. Half of the participants were motivated to maximize their performance by the announcement of a monetary reward for correct responses. Participants who were motivated had lower error rates than participants who were not motivated. The event-related lateralizations of the EEG showed no motivation-related effect on the N1pc, which reflects the initial saliency driven orientation of attention towards the more salient stimulus. The subsequent N2pc was enhanced in the motivation condition. Extrinsic motivation was also accompanied by enhanced fronto-central negativities. Thus, the data provide evidence that the improvement of selection performance when participants were extrinsically motivated by announcing a reward was not due to changes in the initial saliency based processing of information but was foremost mediated by improved higher-level mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Dry Red Grape Pomace as a Nitrite Substitute on the Microbiological and Physicochemical Properties and Residual Nitrite of Dry-cured Sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Riazi; Fariba Zeynali; Ebrahim Hoseini; Homa Behmadi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite have been traditionally used for inhibition of Clostridium botulinum and also as an agent to stabilize the color of meat products; however, usage of these additives at high levels could lead to toxicity and cancer originating from the formation of nitrosamines. Nowadays, application of natural preservatives in order to reduce the nitrite content in meat products is increasing. Thus, we used dry red grape pomace (DRGP) as a natura...

  8. Selection of Vendor Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabjot Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Business environment is characterized by greater domestic and international competitive position in the global market. Vendors play a key role in achieving the so-called corporate competition. It is not easy however to identify good vendors because evaluation is based on multiple criteria. In practice, for VSP most of the input information about the criteria is not known precisely. Intuitionistic fuzzy set is an extension of the classical fuzzy set theory (FST, which is a suitable way to deal with impreciseness. In other words, the application of intuitionistic fuzzy sets instead of fuzzy sets means the introduction of another degree of freedom called nonmembership function into the set description. In this paper, we proposed a triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number based approach for the vendor selection problem using analytical hierarchy process. The crisp data of the vendors is represented in the form of triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. By applying AHP which involves decomposition, pairwise comparison, and deriving priorities for the various levels of the hierarchy, an overall crisp priority is obtained for ranking the best vendor. A numerical example illustrates our method. Lastly a sensitivity analysis is performed to find the most critical criterion on the basis of which vendor is selected.

  9. Selectively Encrypted Pull-Up Based Watermarking of Biometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, S. A.; Patel, Kushal S.

    2012-10-01

    Biometric authentication systems are becoming increasingly popular due to their potential usage in information security. However, digital biometric data (e.g. thumb impression) are themselves vulnerable to security attacks. There are various methods are available to secure biometric data. In biometric watermarking the data are embedded in an image container and are only retrieved if the secrete key is available. This container image is encrypted to have more security against the attack. As wireless devices are equipped with battery as their power supply, they have limited computational capabilities; therefore to reduce energy consumption we use the method of selective encryption of container image. The bit pull-up-based biometric watermarking scheme is based on amplitude modulation and bit priority which reduces the retrieval error rate to great extent. By using selective Encryption mechanism we expect more efficiency in time at the time of encryption as well as decryption. Significant reduction in error rate is expected to be achieved by the bit pull-up method.

  10. Flow-injection analysis of nitrate by reduction to nitrite and gas-phase molecular absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi, B.; Tavassoli, A. [Dept. of Chemistry, Inst. for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan (Iran)

    2001-12-01

    Two flow-injection manifolds have been investigated for the determination of nitrate. These manifolds are based on the reduction of nitrate to nitrite and determination of nitrite by gas-phase molecular absorption spectrophotometry. Nitrate sample solution (300 {mu}L) which is injected to the flow line, is reduced to nitrite by reaction with hydrazine or passage through the on-line copperized cadmium (Cd-Cu) reduction column. The nitrite produced reacts with a stream of hydrochloric acid and the evolved gases are purged into the stream of O{sub 2}carrier gas. The gaseous phase is separated from the liquid phase using a gas-liquid separator and then swept into a flow-through cell which has been positioned in the cell compartment of an UV-visible spectrophotometer. The absorbance of the gaseous phase is measured at 204.7 nm. A linear relationship was obtained between the intensity of absorption signals and concentration of nitrate when Cd-Cu reduction method was used, but a logarithmic relationship was obtained when the hydrazine reduction method was used. By use of the Cd-Cu reduction method, up to 330 {mu}g of nitrate was determined. The limit of detection was 2.97 {mu}g nitrate and the relative standard deviations for the determination of 12.0, 30.0 and 150 {mu}g nitrate were 3.32, 3.87 and 3.6%, respectively. Maximum sampling rate was approximately 30 samples per hour. The Cd-Cu reduction method was applied to the determination of nitrate and the simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite in meat products, vegetables, urine, and a water sample. (orig.)

  11. Structures, internal rotor potentials, and thermochemical properties for a series of nitrocarbonyls, nitroolefins, corresponding nitrites, and their carbon centered radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitsiriwat, Suarwee; Asatryan, Rubik; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2011-12-01

    Structures, enthalpy (Δ(f)H°(298)), entropy (S°(T)), and heat capacity (C(p)(T)) are determined for a series of nitrocarbonyls, nitroolefins, corresponding nitrites, and their carbon centered radicals using the density functional B3LYP and composite CBS-QB3 calculations. Enthalpies of formation (Δ(f)H°(298)) are determined at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31+G(2d,2p), and composite CBS-QB3 levels using several work reactions for each species. Entropy (S) and heat capacity (C(p)(T)) values from vibration, translational, and external rotational contributions are calculated using the rigid-rotor-harmonic-oscillator approximation based on the vibration frequencies and structures obtained from the density functional studies. Contribution to Δ(f)H(T), S, and C(p)(T) from the analysis on the internal rotors is included. Recommended values for enthalpies of formation of the most stable conformers of nitroacetone cc(═o)cno2, acetonitrite cc(═o)ono, nitroacetate cc(═o)no2, and acetyl nitrite cc(═o)ono are -51.6 kcal mol(-1), -51.3 kcal mol(-1), -45.4 kcal mol(-1), and -58.2 kcal mol(-1), respectively. The calculated Δ(f)H°(298) for nitroethylene c═cno2 is 7.6 kcal mol(-1) and for vinyl nitrite c═cono is 7.2 kcal mol(-1). We also found an unusual phenomena: an intramolecular transfer reaction (isomerization) with a low barrier (3.6 kcal mol(-1)) in the acetyl nitrite. The NO of the nitrite (R-ONO) in CH(3)C(═O')ONO moves to the C═O' oxygen in a motion of a stretching frequency and then a shift to the carbonyl oxygen (marked as O' for illustration purposes). © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. Secondary targets of nitrite-derived reactive nitrogen species: nitrosation/nitration pathways, antioxidant defense mechanisms and toxicological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ischia, Marco; Napolitano, Alessandra; Manini, Paola; Panzella, Lucia

    2011-12-19

    Nitrite, the primary metabolite of nitric oxide (NO) and a widely diffused component of human diet, plays distinct and increasingly appreciated roles in human physiology. However, when exposed to acidic environments, typically in the stomach, or under oxidative stress conditions, it may be converted to a range of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) which in turn can target a variety of biomolecules. Typical consequences of toxicological relevance include protein modification, DNA base deamination and the formation of N-nitrosamines, among the most potent mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds for humans. Besides primary biomolecules, nitrite can cause structural modifications to a variety of endogenous and exogenous organic compounds, ranging from polyunsaturated fatty acids to estrogens, tocopherol, catecholamines, furans, retinoids, dietary phenols, and a range of xenobiotics. The study of the interactions between nitrite and key food components, including phenolic antioxidants, has therefore emerged as an area of great promise for delineating innovative strategies in cancer chemoprevention. Depending on substrates and conditions, diverse reaction pathways may compete to determine product features and distribution patterns. These include nitrosation and nitration but also oxidation, via electron transfer to nitrosonium ion or nitrogen dioxide. This contribution aims to provide an overview of the main classes of compounds that can be targeted by nitrite and to discuss at chemical levels the possible reaction mechanisms under conditions that model those occurring in the stomach. The toxicological implications of the nitrite-modified molecules are finally addressed, and a rational chemical approach to the design of potent antinitrosing agents is illustrated. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. Analysis of PWR auxiliary coolant: determination of chloride in borax/nitrite solution by known addition - known dilution potentiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midgley, D.; Gatford, C.

    1989-11-01

    Chloride concentrations of 75-250 μg 1 -1 have been determined in simulated PWR auxiliary coolant containing 1000 mg l -1 each of sodium tetraborate and sodium nitrite. The effects of the two main components of the coolant solution on a variety of chloride-selective electrodes have been studied. Sodium tetraborate posed no problem except through its effect on the pH, which is easily adjusted. Such high concentrations of nitrite, however, caused significant deviations in e.m.f. for all the electrodes and marked tarnishing of the electroactive membrane after only one or two measurements. Sulphamic acid was selected as the best means of removing nitrite and silver chloride electrodes were preferred over mercury(I) chloride electrodes because of their greater robustness in the conditions. At these chloride concentrations, the electrodes are operating in their non-Nernstian response regions and direct potentiometry has poor precision, even if standards could be successfully matched to samples containing such high concentrations of background material. Known addition - known dilution potentiometry was adopted, with internal calibration for both slope factor and standard potential. (author)

  14. Mechanism of anodic oxidation of molybdenum and tungsten in nitrate-nitrite melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurkinskij, V.P.; Firsova, E.G.; Morachevskij, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of anode oxidation of tungsten and molybdenum in NaNO 3 -KNO 3 (50 mass %) nitrate-nitrite melts with NaNO 2 -KNO 2 (0.5-50 mass %) addition and in NaNO 2 -KNO 2 (35 mole %) nitrite melt in the 516-580 K temperature range is studied. It is supposed that the process of anode dissloving of the mentioned metals in nitrite melt and nitrate-nitrite mixtures is two-electron. Formation of oxide passivating film is possible under electrolysis on the anode surface, the film is then dissolved in nitrate-nitrite melt with formation of molybdates or tungstates

  15. Selective Sequential Zero-Base Budgeting Procedures Based on Total Factor Productivity Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ishikawa; E. F. Sudit

    1981-01-01

    The authors' purpose in this paper is to develop productivity-based sequential budgeting procedures designed to expedite identification of major problem areas in bugetary performance, as well as to reduce the costs associated with comprehensive zero-base analyses. The concept of total factor productivity is reviewed and its relations to ordinary and zero-based budgeting are discussed in detail. An outline for a selective sequential analysis based on monitoring of three key indicators of (a) i...

  16. Nitritation and denitritation of ammonium-rich wastewater using fluidized-bed biofilm reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan, Sukru [Cumhuriyet University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 58140 Sivas (Turkey)], E-mail: saslan@cumhuriyet.edu.tr; Dahab, Mohamed [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, W348 Nebraska Hall, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Fluidized-bed biofilm nitritation and denitritation reactors (FBBNR and FBBDR) were operated to eliminate the high concentrations of nitrogen by nitritation and denitritation process. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was varied from 1.5 to 2.5 g/m{sup 3} at the top of the reactor throughout the experiment. NH{sub 4}-N conversion and NO{sub 2}-N accumulation in the nitritation reactor effluent was over 90 and 65%, respectively. The average NH{sub 4}-N removal efficiency was 99.2 and 90.1% at the NLR of 0.9 and 1.2 kg NH{sub 4}-N/m{sup 3} day, respectively. Increasing the NLR from 1.1 to 1.2 kg NH{sub 4}-N/m{sup 3} day decreased the NH{sub 4}-N elimination approximately two-fold while NH{sub 4}-N conversion to NO{sub 2}-N differences were negligible. The NO{sub 2}-N/NO{sub x}-N ratios corresponded to 0.74, 0.73, 0.72, and 0.69, respectively, indicating the occurrence of partial nitrification. An average free ammonia concentration in the FBBNR was high enough to inhibit nitrite oxidizers selectively, and it seems to be a determining factor for NO{sub 2}-N accumulation in the process. In the FBBDR, the NO{sub x}-N (NO{sub 2}-N + NO{sub 3}-N) concentrations supplied were between 227 and 330 mg N/l (NLR was between 0.08 and 0.4 kg/m{sup 3} day) and the influent flow was increased as long as the total nitrogen removal was close to 90%. The NO{sub 2}-N and NO{sub 3}-N concentrations in the effluent were 3.0 and 0.9 mg/l at 0.08 kg/m{sup 3} day loading rate. About 98% removal of NO{sub x}-N was achieved at the lowest NLR in the FBBDR. The FBBDR exhibited high nitrogen removal up to the NLR of 0.25 kg/m{sup 3} day. The NO{sub x}-N effluent concentration never exceeded 15 mg/l. The total nitrogen removal efficiency in the FBBRs was higher than 93% at 21 {+-} 1 deg. C.

  17. Retention and leaching of nitrite by municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash under the landfill circumstance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Kong, Qingna; Zhu, Huayue; Long, Yuyang; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The retention and leaching of nitrite by municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash could affect its migration in the landfill. In this study, the effect of the dosage of MSWI bottom ash as well as the variation of the landfill environmental parameters including pH, anions and organic matter on the nitrite retention and leaching behavior was investigated by batch experiments. The highest removal percentage (73.0%) of nitrite was observed when the dosage of MSWI bottom ash was 10 g L(-1) in 2 mg L(-1) nitrite solution. Further increase of the dosage would retard the retention, as the nitrite leaching from MSWI bottom ash was enhanced. The optimum retention of nitrite was observed when the pH was 5.0, while the leaching of nitrite showed a consistent reduction with the increase of pH. Besides, the presence of Cl(-), SO4(2)(-) and acetic acid could enhance the leaching of nitrite and mitigate the retention process. However, the retention of nitrite was enhanced by PO4(3)(-), which was probably due to the formation of the apatite, an active material for the adsorption of the nitrite. These results suggested that MSWI bottom ash could affect the migration of nitrite in the landfill, which was related to the variation of the landfill circumstance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of dietary exposure in the French population to 13 selected food colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemrah, Nawel; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Volatier, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    The results of French intake estimates for 13 food additives prioritized by the methods proposed in the 2001 Report from the European Commission on Dietary Food Additive Intake in the European Union are reported. These 13 additives were selected using the first and second tiers of the three-tier approach. The first tier was based on theoretical food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives. The second tier used real individual food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives for the substances which exceeded the acceptable daily intakes (ADI) in the first tier. In the third tier reported in this study, intake estimates were calculated for the 13 additives (colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners) according to two modelling assumptions corresponding to two different food habit scenarios (assumption 1: consumers consume foods that may or may not contain food additives, and assumption 2: consumers always consume foods that contain additives) when possible. In this approach, real individual food consumption data and the occurrence/use-level of food additives reported by the food industry were used. Overall, the results of the intake estimates are reassuring for the majority of additives studied since the risk of exceeding the ADI was low, except for nitrites, sulfites and annatto, whose ADIs were exceeded by either children or adult consumers or by both populations under one and/or two modelling assumptions. Under the first assumption, the ADI is exceeded for high consumers among adults for nitrites and sulfites (155 and 118.4%, respectively) and among children for nitrites (275%). Under the second assumption, the average nitrites dietary exposure in children exceeds the ADI (146.7%). For high consumers, adults exceed the nitrite and sulfite ADIs (223 and 156.4%, respectively) and children exceed the nitrite, annatto and sulfite ADIs (416.7, 124.6 and 130.6%, respectively).

  19. Optimization of free ammonia concentration for nitrite accumulation in shortcut biological nitrogen removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jinwook; Shim, Hojae; Park, Seong-Jun; Kim, Seung-Jin; Bae, Wookeun

    2006-03-01

    A shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR) utilizes the concept of a direct conversion of ammonium to nitrite and then to nitrogen gas. A successful SBNR requires accumulation of nitrite in the system and inhibition of the activity of nitrite oxidizers. A high concentration of free ammonia (FA) inhibits nitrite oxidizers, but unfortunately decreases the ammonium removal rate as well. Therefore, the optimal range of FA concentration is necessary not only to stabilize nitrite accumulation but also to achieve maximum ammonium removal. In order to derive such optimal FA concentrations, the specific substrate utilization rates of ammonium and nitrite oxidizers were measured. The optimal FA concentration range appeared to be 5-10 mg/L for the adapted sludge. The simulated results from the modified inhibition model expressed by FA and ammonium/nitrite concentrations were shown very similar to the experimental results.

  20. Selective carbon monoxide oxidation over Ag-based composite oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guldur, C. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Department; Balikci, F. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Institute of Science and Technology, Environmental Science Department

    2002-02-01

    We report our results of the synthesis of 1 : 1 molar ratio of the silver cobalt and silver manganese composite oxide catalysts to remove carbon monoxide from hydrogen-rich fuels by the catalytic oxidation reaction. Catalysts were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. XRD, BET, TGA, catalytic activity and catalyst deactivation studies were used to identify active catalysts. Both CO oxidation and selective CO oxidation were carried out in a microreactor using a reaction gas mixture of 1 vol% CO in air and another gas mixture was prepared by mixing 1 vol% CO, 2 vol% O{sub 2}, 84 vol% H{sub 2}, the balance being He. 15 vol% CO{sub 2} was added to the reactant gas mixture in order to determine the effect of CO{sub 2}, reaction gases were passed through the humidifier to determine the effect of the water vapor on the oxidation reaction. It was demonstrated that metal oxide base was decomposed to the metallic phase and surface areas of the catalysts were decreased when the calcination temperature increased from 200{sup o}C to 500{sup o}C. Ag/Co composite oxide catalyst calcined at 200{sup o}C gave good activity at low temperatures and 90% of CO conversion at 180{sup o}C was obtained for the selective CO oxidation reaction. The addition of the impurities (CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O) decreased the activity of catalyst for selective CO oxidation in order to get highly rich hydrogen fuels. (author)

  1. A prototype of behavior selection mechanism based on emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guofeng; Li, Zushu

    2007-12-01

    In bionic methodology rather than in design methodology more familiar with, summarizing the psychological researches of emotion, we propose the biologic mechanism of emotion, emotion selection role in creature evolution and a anima framework including emotion similar to the classical control structure; and consulting Prospect Theory, build an Emotion Characteristic Functions(ECF) that computer emotion; two more emotion theories are added to them that higher emotion is preferred and middle emotion makes brain run more efficiently, emotional behavior mechanism comes into being. A simulation of proposed mechanism are designed and carried out on Alife Swarm software platform. In this simulation, a virtual grassland ecosystem is achieved where there are two kinds of artificial animals: herbivore and preyer. These artificial animals execute four types of behavior: wandering, escaping, finding food, finding sex partner in their lives. According the theories of animal ethnology, escaping from preyer is prior to other behaviors for its existence, finding food is secondly important behavior, rating is third one and wandering is last behavior. In keeping this behavior order, based on our behavior characteristic function theory, the specific functions of emotion computing are built of artificial autonomous animals. The result of simulation confirms the behavior selection mechanism.

  2. Development of sustainable Palladium-based catalysts for removal of persistent contaminants from drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Danmeng

    Pd-based catalytic reduction has emerged as an advanced treatment technology for drinking water decontamination, and a suite of persistent contaminants including oxyanions, N-nitrosoamines, and halogenated compounds are amenable to catalytic reduction. The primary goal of this study is to develop novel Pd-based catalysts with enhanced performance (i.e., activity, selectivity, and sustainability) to remove contaminants from drinking water. The effects of water quality (i.e., co-contaminants in water matrix), catalyst support, and catalyst metal were explored, and they provide insights for preparing catalysts with faster kinetics, higher selectivity, and extended lifetime. Azo dyes are wide-spread contaminants, and they are potentially co-exisiting with target contaminants amenable for catalytic removal. The probe azo dye methyl orange (MO) enhanced catalytic reduction kinetics of a suite of oxyanions (i.e., nitrate, nitrite, bromate, chlorate, and perchlorate) and diatrizoate significantly but not N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) with a variety of Pd-based catalysts. Nitrate was selected as a probe contaminant, and several different azo dyes (i.e., (methyl orange, methyl red, fast yellow AB, metanil yellow, acid orange 7, congo red, eriochrome black T, acid red 27, acid yellow 11, and acid yellow 17) were evaluated for their ability to enhance reduction. A hydrogen atom shuttling mechanism was proposed and a kinetic model was proposed based on Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) theory, and they suggest sorbed azo dyes and reduced hydrazo dyes shuttle hydrogen atoms to oxyanions or diatrizoate to enhance their reduction kinetics. Next, vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (CNF) supports were used to explore the effects of Pd nanoparticle size and interior versus exterior loading on nitrite reduction activity and selectivity (i.e., dinitrogen over ammonia production). In order to evaluate the amount of interior versus exterior loading of Pd nanoparticles, a fast and accurate geometric

  3. Do Culture-based Segments Predict Selection of Market Strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Jadczaková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Academists and practitioners have already acknowledged the importance of unobservable segmentation bases (such as psychographics yet still focusing on how well these bases are capable of describing relevant segments (the identifiability criterion rather than on how precisely these segments can predict (the predictability criterion. Therefore, this paper intends to add a debate to this topic by exploring whether culture-based segments do account for a selection of market strategy. To do so, a set of market strategy variables over a sample of 251 manufacturing firms was first regressed on a set of 19 cultural variables using canonical correlation analysis. Having found significant relationship in the first canonical function, it was further examined by means of correspondence analysis which cultural segments – if any – are linked to which market strategies. However, as correspondence analysis failed to find a significant relationship, it may be concluded that business culture might relate to the adoption of market strategy but not to the cultural groupings presented in the paper.

  4. Feature selection gait-based gender classification under different circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Azhin; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Jassim, Sabah

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposes a gender classification based on human gait features and investigates the problem of two variations: clothing (wearing coats) and carrying bag condition as addition to the normal gait sequence. The feature vectors in the proposed system are constructed after applying wavelet transform. Three different sets of feature are proposed in this method. First, Spatio-temporal distance that is dealing with the distance of different parts of the human body (like feet, knees, hand, Human Height and shoulder) during one gait cycle. The second and third feature sets are constructed from approximation and non-approximation coefficient of human body respectively. To extract these two sets of feature we divided the human body into two parts, upper and lower body part, based on the golden ratio proportion. In this paper, we have adopted a statistical method for constructing the feature vector from the above sets. The dimension of the constructed feature vector is reduced based on the Fisher score as a feature selection method to optimize their discriminating significance. Finally k-Nearest Neighbor is applied as a classification method. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach is providing more realistic scenario and relatively better performance compared with the existing approaches.

  5. Selective Osmotic Shock (SOS)-Based Islet Isolation for Microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enck, Kevin; McQuilling, John Patrick; Orlando, Giuseppe; Tamburrini, Riccardo; Sivanandane, Sittadjody; Opara, Emmanuel C

    2017-01-01

    Islet transplantation (IT) has recently been shown to be a promising alternative to pancreas transplantation for reversing diabetes. IT requires the isolation of the islets from the pancreas, and these islets can be used to fabricate a bio-artificial pancreas. Enzymatic digestion is the current gold standard procedure for islet isolation but has lingering concerns. One such concern is that it has been shown to damage the islets due to nonselective tissue digestion. This chapter provides a detailed description of a nonenzymatic method that we are exploring in our lab as an alternative to current enzymatic digestion procedures for islet isolation from human and nonhuman pancreatic tissues. This method is based on selective destruction and protection of specific cell types and has been shown to leave the extracellular matrix (ECM) of islets intact, which may thus enhance islet viability and functionality. We also show that these SOS-isolated islets can be microencapsulated for transplantation.

  6. Analysis of Trust-Based Approaches for Web Service Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragoni, Nicola; Miotto, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The basic tenet of Service-Oriented Computing (SOC) is the possibility of building distributed applications on the Web by using Web services as fundamental building blocks. The proliferation of such services is considered the second wave of evolution in the Internet age, moving the Web from...... a collection of pages to a collections of services. Consensus is growing that this Web service revolution wont eventuate until we resolve trust-related issues. Indeed, the intrinsic openness of the SOC vision makes crucial to locate useful services and recognize them as trustworthy. In this paper we review...... the field of trust-based Web service selection, providing a structured classification of current approaches and highlighting the main limitations of each class and of the overall field....

  7. Wave impedance selection for passivity-based bilateral teleoperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amore, Nicholas John

    When a task must be executed in a remote or dangerous environment, teleoperation systems may be employed to extend the influence of the human operator. In the case of manipulation tasks, haptic feedback of the forces experienced by the remote (slave) system is often highly useful in improving an operator's ability to perform effectively. In many of these cases (especially teleoperation over the internet and ground-to-space teleoperation), substantial communication latency exists in the control loop and has the strong tendency to cause instability of the system. The first viable solution to this problem in the literature was based on a scattering/wave transformation from transmission line theory. This wave transformation requires the designer to select a wave impedance parameter appropriate to the teleoperation system. It is widely recognized that a small value of wave impedance is well suited to free motion and a large value is preferable for contact tasks. Beyond this basic observation, however, very little guidance exists in the literature regarding the selection of an appropriate value. Moreover, prior research on impedance selection generally fails to account for the fact that in any realistic contact task there will simultaneously exist contact considerations (perpendicular to the surface of contact) and quasi-free-motion considerations (parallel to the surface of contact). The primary contribution of the present work is to introduce an approximate linearized optimum for the choice of wave impedance and to apply this quasi-optimal choice to the Cartesian reality of such a contact task, in which it cannot be expected that a given joint will be either perfectly normal to or perfectly parallel to the motion constraint. The proposed scheme selects a wave impedance matrix that is appropriate to the conditions encountered by the manipulator. This choice may be implemented as a static wave impedance value or as a time-varying choice updated according to the

  8. Seasonal and Water Column Trends of the Relative Role of Nitrate and Nitrite as ·OH Sources in Surface Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vione, D.; Minero, C.; Maurino, V.; Pelizzetti, E.

    2007-01-01

    Based on literature data of sunlight spectrum, photolysis quantum yields, and absorption spectra, the relative role of nitrite and nitrate as ·OH sources in surface waters was assessed, and its dependence on the season and the depth of the water column studied. In the majority of surface water samples (river, lake and seawater) nitrite is expected to play a more important role as ·OH source compared to nitrate, in spite of the usually lower [NO 2 - ] values. Interestingly, under the hypothesis of a constant ratio of the concentrations of nitrate and nitrite (to be corrected later on for the actual concentration ratio in a given sample), the relative role of nitrite compared to nitrate would be minimum in summer, at noon, in the surface layer of natural waters. Any decrease in the sunlight intensity that can be experienced in the natural environment (different season than summer, water column absorption, time of the day other than the solar noon), with its associated influence on the sunlight spectrum, would increase the relative role of nitrite compared to nitrate

  9. An Evaluation of Alternatives to Nitrites and Sulfites to Inhibit the Growth of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in Meat Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Alexandre; Miranda, José Manuel; Vázquez, Beatriz; Cepeda, Alberto; Franco, Carlos Manuel

    2016-10-31

    In recent years, the use of nitrites and sulfites as food preservatives has been a cause for concern due to the health problems that these additives can cause in humans. Natural products have been studied as an alternative, but most of them have hardly been applied in the food industry for technological and economic reasons. In this sense, organic salts such as sodium acetate are a good alternative due to their affordability. Thus, this study evaluated the capacity of sodium nitrite, sodium sulfite, a sodium acetate product (TQI C-6000), and chitosan to inhibit two important foodborne pathogens, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes . The MIC of each chemical was in vitro evaluated and their antibacterial action was subsequently checked in situ using minced meat as a food model. MIC values of sodium nitrite (10,000 mg/L) and sodium sulfite (50,000 mg/L) for Salmonella enterica were higher than the values allowed by legislation (450 mg/L for sulfites and 150 mg/L for nitrites). Additionally, the sodium acetate product caused the inhibition of Salmonella enterica and Listeria at a relative low quantity. The two foodborne pathogens were inhibited in the food model with 1% of the sodium acetate product. Additionally, there were no significant differences between sodium nitrite, sodium sulfite, and sodium acetate products in the inhibition of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in the food model. Thus, products based on sodium acetate can be an alternative to traditional preservatives in food products.

  10. An Evaluation of Alternatives to Nitrites and Sulfites to Inhibit the Growth of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Lamas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of nitrites and sulfites as food preservatives has been a cause for concern due to the health problems that these additives can cause in humans. Natural products have been studied as an alternative, but most of them have hardly been applied in the food industry for technological and economic reasons. In this sense, organic salts such as sodium acetate are a good alternative due to their affordability. Thus, this study evaluated the capacity of sodium nitrite, sodium sulfite, a sodium acetate product (TQI C-6000, and chitosan to inhibit two important foodborne pathogens, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes. The MIC of each chemical was in vitro evaluated and their antibacterial action was subsequently checked in situ using minced meat as a food model. MIC values of sodium nitrite (10,000 mg/L and sodium sulfite (50,000 mg/L for Salmonella enterica were higher than the values allowed by legislation (450 mg/L for sulfites and 150 mg/L for nitrites. Additionally, the sodium acetate product caused the inhibition of Salmonella enterica and Listeria at a relative low quantity. The two foodborne pathogens were inhibited in the food model with 1% of the sodium acetate product. Additionally, there were no significant differences between sodium nitrite, sodium sulfite, and sodium acetate products in the inhibition of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in the food model. Thus, products based on sodium acetate can be an alternative to traditional preservatives in food products.

  11. Fatal methemoglobinemia caused by liniment solutions containing sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, T; Takeichi, S; Yukawa, N; Osawa, M

    1996-01-01

    We describe a case of fatal methemoglobinemia (MetHb-emia) resulting from application of liniment solution containing large quantities of sodium nitrite. As a remedial treatment of atopic dermatitis, the liniment solution was applied all over the boy's body. Autopsy findings showed no significant macroscopic or microscopic findings except blood tinted chocolate brown color and chronic atopic dermatitis over the whole surface of the body. Quantitation of the methemoglobin (MetHb) in the blood was performed using spectrophotometer; MetHb concentration of the blood was 76%. Ion chromatographic determination revealed a nitrite concentration of 1 mg/L in the serum. Such a liniment solution is not authorized by the Ministry of Public Welfare.

  12. [Methemoglobinemia due to ingestion of isobutyl nitrite ('poppers')].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruijm, M T C; de Meijer, P H E M

    2002-12-07

    Two male students, aged 20 and 21 years, developed central cyanosis shortly after drinking 5 ml of 'poppers' (isobutyl nitrite). They presented with methaemoglobinaemia and were hospitalised. After treatment with oxygen and intravenous fluids they could be discharged in good health the following day. Poppers are alkyl nitrites with vasdilative and oxidizing properties. They are used as party drugs (i.e. inhaled) because of their short-lived euphoric effect. Overdose can result in methaemoglobinaemia: the presence of oxidized haemoglobin which is unable to transport oxygen. Depending on the serum level of methaemoglobin this may result in central cyanosis, unconsciousness, coma and even death. Patients with high methaemoglobin levels should be treated with i.v. methylene blue.

  13. Intragastric nitrites, nitrosamines, and bacterial overgrowth during cimetidine treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Stockbrugger, R W; Cotton, P B; Eugenides, N; Bartholomew, B A; Hill, M J; Walters, C L

    1982-01-01

    A six week course of cimetidine (1 g/day) healed peptic ulcers in 20 of 23 patients (14 with duodenal ulcer, nine with gastric ulcer). Reduction of basal acid output by 73% and peak acid output by 36% led to a rise in concentrations of intragastric aerobic bacteria and nitrate-reducing bacteria. While the mean intragastric concentration of nitrate was unchanged by treatment, there were statistically significant rises in nitrite and N-nitrosamine concentrations. The conversion from nitrates to...

  14. Determination of nitrate, nitrite, N- nitrosamines, cyanide and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nitrate, nitrite, N- nitrosamines and ascorbic acid content as well as the levels of cyanide in eight brands of fruit juices and twelve brands of sachet water commonly marketed and consumed in Nigeria were estimated. The mean values of nitrate ranged from 2.29±0.05 to 16.50±1.21 mg/L for the juices and 0.64±0.21 to ...

  15. The negative phonon confinement effect in nanoscopic sodium nitrite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koroleva, E.Yu.; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Pokorný, Jan; Kamba, Stanislav; Kumzerov, Y. A.; Vakhrushev, S. B.; Petzelt, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 39 (2009), 395706/1-395706/7 ISSN 0957-4484 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100100704; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0682 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nanocomposite * sodium nitrite * infrared * THz * Raman * phonon * effective medium approach Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.137, year: 2009

  16. Covariance-Based Measurement Selection Criterion for Gaussian-Based Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A. Auat Cheein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Process modeling by means of Gaussian-based algorithms often suffers from redundant information which usually increases the estimation computational complexity without significantly improving the estimation performance. In this article, a non-arbitrary measurement selection criterion for Gaussian-based algorithms is proposed. The measurement selection criterion is based on the determination of the most significant measurement from both an estimation convergence perspective and the covariance matrix associated with the measurement. The selection criterion is independent from the nature of the measured variable. This criterion is used in conjunction with three Gaussian-based algorithms: the EIF (Extended Information Filter, the EKF (Extended Kalman Filter and the UKF (Unscented Kalman Filter. Nevertheless, the measurement selection criterion shown herein can also be applied to other Gaussian-based algorithms. Although this work is focused on environment modeling, the results shown herein can be applied to other Gaussian-based algorithm implementations. Mathematical descriptions and implementation results that validate the proposal are also included in this work.

  17. Selective mutism: a consensus based care pathway of good practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, D V; Fonseca, S; Wintgens, A

    2008-10-01

    Selective mutism (SM) now acknowledged as an anxiety condition, tends to be a poorly understood, highly complex and vastly under-recognised clinical entity. Children with SM are a vulnerable group as the condition is not the remit of any one professional group. This inevitably leads to delay in formal diagnosis and management. There is a lack of systematic research on which to base guidelines for management. To develop, agree and validate key principles underlying the management of SM through a consensus process involving international experts, in order to create a local care pathway. A local multi-agency consultation process developed 11 statements, which were felt to be the key principles underpinning a potential care pathway for managing SM. Thirteen recognised experts from North America, Europe and Australia participated in a modified Delphi process involving two rounds using a Likert-scale and free commentary. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were used in the validation or revision of the statements at each stage. Response rates were 100% for Round 1 and 84.6% for Round 2. Despite the differing professional backgrounds and service contexts, by successive revision and/or revalidation of statements, it was possible to arrive at a consensus about key principles relating to early recognition, assessment and intervention. The agreed key principles are presented together with the resulting local care pathway. Through a Delphi process, agreement was reached by a multidisciplinary group of professionals, on key principles that underpin the timely identification, assessment and management of children with SM. These include the potential for staff in school/preschool settings to identify SM and that intervention programmes should generally be based in these settings. Children with SM should receive assessment for possible coexisting disorders, whether developmental, emotional or behavioural and additional specific intervention given for these. Agreement was

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of nitrite in simulated Purex Process solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, I.daC. de; Matsuda, H T; Araujo, B.F. de; Araujo, J.A. de

    1984-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method for nitrite determination in simulated Purex Process solutions is presented, utilizing the Griess reagent for the formation of the coloured azocompound with an absorption maximum at 525 nm. Molar absortivity was 36,262 and the sensitivity of the method 10/sup -6/M for nitrite. The calibration curve is linear in the range of 2 to 30..mu..g NO/sup -//sub 2//25 ml in cells of 1 cm optical path. The method can be used in the presence of uranium up to limits of an U/NO/sup -//sub 2/ ratio of 150. Test solutions were prepared to simulate composition and concentrations as obtained by irradiating standard fuel with a neutro flux of 3.2 x 10/sup 13/ n.s/sup -1/.cm/sup -2/, with a burn-up value of 33,000 Mwd/T and cooling time of two years. Nitrite determinations in these solutions were accurate within limits of 5%.

  19. Glocal assessment of integrated wastewater treatment and recovery concepts using partial nitritation/Anammox and microalgae for environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiewwijit, Rungnapha; Rijnaarts, Huub; Temmink, Hardy; Keesman, Karel J

    2018-07-01

    This study explored the feasibility and estimated the environmental impacts of two novel wastewater treatment configurations. Both include combined bioflocculation and anaerobic digestion but apply different nutrient removal technologies, i.e. partial nitritation/Anammox or microalgae treatment. The feasibility of such configurations was investigated for 16 locations worldwide with respect to environmental impacts, such as net energy yield, nutrient recovery and effluent quality, CO 2 emission, and area requirements. The results quantitatively support the applicability of partial nitritation/Anammox in tropical regions and some locations in temperate regions, whereas microalgae treatment is only applicable the whole year round in tropical regions that are close to the equator line. Microalgae treatment has an advantage over the configuration with partial nitritation/Anammox with respect to aeration energy and nutrient recovery, but not with area requirements. Differential sensitivity analysis points out the dominant influence of microalgal biomass yield and wastewater nutrient concentrations on area requirements and effluent quality. This study provides initial selection criteria for worldwide feasibility and corresponding environmental impacts of these novel municipal wastewater treatment plant configurations. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Influence of turkey meat on residual nitrite in cured meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, B; Cassens, R G; Borchert, L L

    2001-02-01

    A response surface experimental design was employed to estimate residual nitrite level at various initial nitrite concentrations, percent turkey meat in the formula, and heat quantity (F) values using a typical wiener as the test system. Pork and mechanically separated turkey were used as the meat ingredients. Residual nitrite and pH were measured at day 1, 7 days, 14 days, and 49 days after processing. Protein, fat, salt, moisture, and CIE (L*a*b*) color values were also determined. Results showed that the effect of turkey meat on residual nitrite level was significant (P meat in the formula resulted in lower residual nitrite levels at a fixed pH. The residual nitrite level was initially proportional to initial nitrite concentration, but it became a nonsignificant factor during longer storage time. Differences in heat quantity had a significant effect (P nitrite level initially. Greater heat quantity decreased residual nitrite level in finished cured meat products at a fixed pH. However, this effect became nonsignificant during longer storage. Reduction of residual nitrite in wieners because of turkey meat addition at a fixed pH was due to characteristics of the turkey tissue, but the mechanism of action remains unknown. It was also established that commercial wieners had a higher pH if poultry meat was included in the formulation.

  1. Monitoring nitrite and nitrate residues in frankfurters during processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, M L; Bosch-Bosch, N; Garciá-Mata, M

    1996-09-01

    Frankfurter-type sausages were prepared in a pilot plant with different concentrations of NaNO(2) (75, 125 or 250 ppm) combined or not with 200 ppm KNO(3). A meat system, free of curing agents, was also used as control. Nitrite and nitrate levels were tested in various processing steps and over 120 days storage at 3 °C of the vacuum-packaged frankfurters. Little influence of the originally added nitrite level on the amount of nitrate formed was observed. Important losses of nitrite and nitrate were due to cooking. Thereafter about 50% of the nitrite added initially remained in this form in all samples (39, 59 and 146 ppm, respectively) and between 10 and 15% as nitrate. When only nitrate was initially added, formation of nitrite after cooking was observed (maximum level 43 ppm NaNO(2)). Formulations prepared with both nitrate and nitrite showed no significant differences (p nitrite or nitrate counterparts. A good correlation among nitrite and nitrate levels and storage time was showed by multiple linear regression analysis. It is concluded that the use of nitrate in combination with nitrite in cooked meat products seems to have little technological significance and adds to the total body burden of nitrite.

  2. The use and control of nitrate and nitrite for the processing of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honikel, Karl-Otto

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are used for the purpose of curing meat products. In most countries the use of both substances, usually added as potassium or sodium salts, is limited. Either the ingoing or the residual amounts are regulated by laws. The effective substance is nitrite acting primarily as an inhibitor for some microorganisms. Nitrite added to a batter of meat is partially oxidized to nitrate by sequestering oxygen - thus it acts as an antioxidant - a part of nitrite is bound to myoglobin, forming the heat stable NO-myoglobin, a part is bound to proteins or other substances in meat. Nitrate may be reduced to nitrite in raw meat products by microorganisms. As oxidation and reduction may occur the concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate in a product has to be controlled and measured especially if the residual amounts are regulated. This sum of both compounds is important for the human body. Intake of nitrate with food leads to its absorption over the digestive tract into the blood. In the oral cavity nitrate appears again where it is reduced to nitrite. With the saliva the nitrite is mixed with food, having the same effect as nitrite in a batter (inhibiting growth of some pathogenic microorganisms) and swallowed. In the stomach nitrite can eventually form carcinogenic nitrosamines in the acidic environment.

  3. Changes in plasma and urinary nitrite after birth in premature infants at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Priti; Jones, Jesica; Wolfe, Craig; Deming, Douglas D.; Power, Gordon G.; Blood, Arlin B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Plasma nitrite serves as a reservoir of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity. Because nitrite ingestion is markedly lower in newborns than adults, we hypothesized plasma nitrite levels would be lower in newborns than in adults, and that infants diagnosed with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a disease characterized by ischemia and bacterial invasion of intestinal walls, would have lower levels of circulating nitrite in the days prior to diagnosis. Methods Single blood and urine samples were collected from 9 term infants and 12 adults, 72 preterm infants every 5 d for 3 wk, and from 13 lambs before and after cord occlusion. Results Nitrite fell 50% relative to cord levels in the first day after birth; and within 15 min after cord occlusion in lambs. Urinary nitrite was higher in infants than adults. Plasma and urinary nitrite levels in infants who developed NEC were similar to those of preterm control infants on days 1 and 5, but significantly elevated at 15 and 20 d after birth. Conclusion Plasma nitrite falls dramatically at birth while newborn urinary nitrite levels are significantly greater than adults. Acute NEC is associated with elevated plasma and urinary nitrite levels. PMID:26539663

  4. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations and metabolism in breast milk, infant formula, and parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jesica A; Ninnis, Janet R; Hopper, Andrew O; Ibrahim, Yomna; Merritt, T Allen; Wan, Kim-Wah; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2014-09-01

    Dietary nitrate and nitrite are sources of gastric NO, which modulates blood flow, mucus production, and microbial flora. However, the intake and importance of these anions in infants is largely unknown. Nitrate and nitrite levels were measured in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants, infant formulas, and parenteral nutrition. Nitrite metabolism in breast milk was measured after freeze-thawing, at different temperatures, varying oxygen tensions, and after inhibition of potential nitrite-metabolizing enzymes. Nitrite concentrations averaged 0.07 ± 0.01 μM in milk of mothers of preterm infants, less than that of term infants (0.13 ± 0.02 μM) (P milk. Concentrations in parenteral nutrition were equivalent to or lower than those of breast milk. Freeze-thawing decreased nitrite concentration ~64%, falling with a half-life of 32 minutes at 37°C. The disappearance of nitrite was oxygen-dependent and prevented by ferricyanide and 3 inhibitors of lactoperoxidase. Nitrite concentrations in breast milk decrease with storage and freeze-thawing, a decline likely mediated by lactoperoxidase. Compared to adults, infants ingest relatively little nitrite and nitrate, which may be of importance in the modulation of blood flow and the bacterial flora of the infant GI tract, especially given the protective effects of swallowed nitrite. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  5. Nitrite reductase activity and inhibition of H₂S biogenesis by human cystathionine ß-synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gherasim

    Full Text Available Nitrite was recognized as a potent vasodilator >130 years and has more recently emerged as an endogenous signaling molecule and modulator of gene expression. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate nitrite metabolism is essential for its use as a potential diagnostic marker as well as therapeutic agent for cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we have identified human cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS as a new player in nitrite reduction with implications for the nitrite-dependent control of H₂S production. This novel activity of CBS exploits the catalytic property of its unusual heme cofactor to reduce nitrite and generate NO. Evidence for the possible physiological relevance of this reaction is provided by the formation of ferrous-nitrosyl (Fe(II-NO CBS in the presence of NADPH, the human diflavin methionine synthase reductase (MSR and nitrite. Formation of Fe(II-NO CBS via its nitrite reductase activity inhibits CBS, providing an avenue for regulating biogenesis of H₂S and cysteine, the limiting reagent for synthesis of glutathione, a major antioxidant. Our results also suggest a possible role for CBS in intracellular NO biogenesis particularly under hypoxic conditions. The participation of a regulatory heme cofactor in CBS in nitrite reduction is unexpected and expands the repertoire of proteins that can liberate NO from the intracellular nitrite pool. Our results reveal a potential molecular mechanism for cross-talk between nitrite, NO and H₂S biology.

  6. Selection for Surgical Training: An Evidence-Based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaverien, Mark V

    2016-01-01

    The predictive relationship between candidate selection criteria for surgical training programs and future performance during and at the completion of training has been investigated for several surgical specialties, however there is no interspecialty agreement regarding which selection criteria should be used. Better understanding the predictive reliability between factors at selection and future performance may help to optimize the process and lead to greater standardization of the surgical selection process. PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE databases were searched. Over 560 potentially relevant publications were identified using the search strategy and screened using the Cochrane Collaboration Data Extraction and Assessment Template. 57 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several selection criteria used in the traditional selection demonstrated inconsistent correlation with subsequent performance during and at the end of surgical training. The following selection criteria, however, demonstrated good predictive relationships with subsequent resident performance: USMLE examination scores, Letters of Recommendation (LOR) including the Medical Student Performance Evaluation (MSPE), academic performance during clinical clerkships, the interview process, displaying excellence in extracurricular activities, and the use of unadjusted rank lists. This systematic review supports that the current selection process needs to be further evaluated and improved. Multicenter studies using standardized outcome measures of success are now required to improve the reliability of the selection process to select the best trainees. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Sol-gel based sensor for selective formaldehyde determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunkoed, Opas [Trace Analysis and Biosensor Research Center, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Department of Chemistry and Center for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Davis, Frank [Cranfield Health, Cranfield University, Bedford MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Kanatharana, Proespichaya, E-mail: proespichaya.K@psu.ac.th [Trace Analysis and Biosensor Research Center, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Department of Chemistry and Center for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Thavarungkul, Panote [Trace Analysis and Biosensor Research Center, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Higson, Seamus P.J., E-mail: s.p.j.higson@cranfield.ac.uk [Cranfield Health, Cranfield University, Bedford MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-05

    We report the development of transparent sol-gels with entrapped sensitive and selective reagents for the detection of formaldehyde. The sampling method is based on the adsorption of formaldehyde from the air and reaction with {beta}-diketones (for example acetylacetone) in a sol-gel matrix to produce a yellow product, lutidine, which was detected directly. The proposed method does not require preparation of samples prior to analysis and allows both screening by visual detection and quantitative measurement by simple spectrophotometry. The detection limit of 0.03 ppmv formaldehyde is reported which is lower than the maximum exposure concentrations recommended by both the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This sampling method was found to give good reproducibility, the relative standard deviation at 0.2 and 1 ppmv being 6.3% and 4.6%, respectively. Other carbonyl compounds i.e. acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, acetone and butanone do not interfere with this analytical approach. Results are provided for the determination of formaldehyde in indoor air.

  8. Sol-gel based sensor for selective formaldehyde determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunkoed, Opas; Davis, Frank; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Thavarungkul, Panote; Higson, Seamus P.J.

    2010-01-01

    We report the development of transparent sol-gels with entrapped sensitive and selective reagents for the detection of formaldehyde. The sampling method is based on the adsorption of formaldehyde from the air and reaction with β-diketones (for example acetylacetone) in a sol-gel matrix to produce a yellow product, lutidine, which was detected directly. The proposed method does not require preparation of samples prior to analysis and allows both screening by visual detection and quantitative measurement by simple spectrophotometry. The detection limit of 0.03 ppmv formaldehyde is reported which is lower than the maximum exposure concentrations recommended by both the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This sampling method was found to give good reproducibility, the relative standard deviation at 0.2 and 1 ppmv being 6.3% and 4.6%, respectively. Other carbonyl compounds i.e. acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, acetone and butanone do not interfere with this analytical approach. Results are provided for the determination of formaldehyde in indoor air.

  9. A Lightweight Structure Redesign Method Based on Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a new design method of lightweight parts fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM based on the “Skin-Frame” and to explore the influence of fabrication defects on SLM parts with different sizes. Some standard lattice parts were designed according to the Chinese GB/T 1452-2005 standard and manufactured by SLM. Then these samples were tested in an MTS Insight 30 compression testing machine to study the trends of the yield process with different structure sizes. A set of standard cylinder samples were also designed according to the Chinese GB/T 228-2010 standard. These samples, which were made of iron-nickel alloy (IN718, were also processed by SLM, and then tested in the universal material testing machine INSTRON 1346 to obtain their tensile strength. Furthermore, a lightweight redesigned method was researched. Then some common parts such as a stopper and connecting plate were redesigned using this method. These redesigned parts were fabricated and some application tests have already been performed. The compression testing results show that when the minimum structure size is larger than 1.5 mm, the mechanical characteristics will hardly be affected by process defects. The cylinder parts were fractured by the universal material testing machine at about 1069.6 MPa. These redesigned parts worked well in application tests, with both the weight and fabrication time of these parts reduced more than 20%.

  10. Moldless PEGDA-Based Optoelectrofluidic Platform for Microparticle Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Mo Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an optoelectrofluidic platform which consists of the organic photoconductive material, titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc, and the photocrosslinkable polymer, poly (ethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA. TiOPc simplifies the fabrication process of the optoelectronic chip due to requiring only a single spin-coating step. PEGDA is applied to embed the moldless PEGDA-based microchannel between the top ITO glass and the bottom TiOPc substrate. A real-time control interface via a touch panel screen is utilized to select the target 15 μm polystyrene particles. When the microparticles flow to an illuminating light bar, which is oblique to the microfluidic flow path, the lateral driving force diverts the microparticles. Two light patterns, the switching oblique light bar and the optoelectronic ladder phenomenon, are designed to demonstrate the features. This work integrating the new material design, TiOPc and PEGDA, and the ability of mobile microparticle manipulation demonstrates the potential of optoelectronic approach.

  11. Towards Identify Selective Antibacterial Peptides Based on Abstracts Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana I. Barbosa-Santillán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an Identify Selective Antibacterial Peptides (ISAP approach based on abstracts meaning. Laboratories and researchers have significantly increased the report of their discoveries related to antibacterial peptides in primary publications. It is important to find antibacterial peptides that have been reported in primary publications because they can produce antibiotics of different generations that attack and destroy the bacteria. Unfortunately, researchers used heterogeneous forms of natural language to describe their discoveries (sometimes without the sequence of the peptides. Thus, we propose that learning the words meaning instead of the antibacterial peptides sequence is possible to identify and predict antibacterial peptides reported in the PubMed engine. The ISAP approach consists of two stages: training and discovering. ISAP founds that the 35% of the abstracts sample had antibacterial peptides and we tested in the updated Antimicrobial Peptide Database 2 (APD2. ISAP predicted that 45% of the abstracts had antibacterial peptides. That is, ISAP found that 810 antibacterial peptides were not classified like that, so they are not reported in APD2. As a result, this new search tool would complement the APD2 with a set of peptides that are candidates to be antibacterial. Finally, 20% of the abstracts were not semantic related to APD2.

  12. Route Selection with Unspecified Sites Using Knowledge Based Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Nobuaki; Nakamura, Tomohiro

    This paper addresses the problem of selecting a route to a given destination that traverses several non-specific sites (e.g. a bank, a gas station) as requested by a driver. The proposed solution uses a genetic algorithm that includes viral infection. The method is to generate two populations of viruses as domain specific knowledge in addition to a population of routes. A part of an arterial road is regarded as a main virus, and a road that includes a site is regarded as a site virus. An infection occurs between two points common to a candidate route and the virus, and involves the substitution of the intersections carried by the virus for those on the existing candidate route. Crossover and infection determine the easiest-to-drive and quasi-shortest route through the objective landmarks. Experiments using actual road maps show that this infection-based mechanism is an effective way of solving the problem. Our strategy is general, and can be effectively used in other optimization problems.

  13. Simultaneous GC-ECNICI-MS measurement of nitrite, nitrate and creatinine in human urine and plasma in clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanff, Erik; Lützow, Moritz; Kayacelebi, Arslan Arinc; Finkel, Armin; Maassen, Mirja; Yanchev, Georgi Radoslavov; Haghikia, Arash; Bavendiek, Udo; Buck, Anna; Lücke, Thomas; Maassen, Norbert; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2017-03-15

    Creatinine in urine is a useful biochemical parameter to correct the urinary excretion rate of endogenous and exogenous substances. Nitrite (ONO - ) and nitrate (ONO 2 - ) are metabolites of nitric oxide (NO), a signalling molecule with multiple biological functions. Under certain and standardized conditions, the concentration of nitrate in the urine is a suitable measure of whole body NO synthesis. The urinary nitrate-to-nitrite molar ratio (U NOx R) may indicate nitrite-dependent renal carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity. In clinical studies, urine is commonly collected by spontaneous micturition. In those cases the nitrate and nitrite excretion must be corrected for creatinine excretion. Pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) bromide (PFB-Br) is a useful derivatization reagent of numerous inorganic and organic compounds, including urinary nitrite, nitrate and creatinine, for highly sensitive and specific quantitation by GC-MS. Here, we report on the simultaneous PFB-Br derivatization (60min, 50°C) of ONO - , O 15 NO - , ONO 2 - , O 15 NO 2 - , creatinine (d o -Crea) and [methylo- 2 H 3 ]creatinine (d 3 -Crea) in acetonic dilutions of native human urine and plasma samples (4:1, v/v) and their simultaneous quantification by GC-MS as PFBNO 2 , PFB 15 NO 2 , PFBONO 2 , PFBO 15 NO 2 , d o -Crea-PFB and d 3 -Crea-PFB, respectively. Electron capture negative-ion chemical ionization (ECNICI) of these derivatives generates anions due to [M-PFB] - , i.e., the starting analytes. Quantification is performed by selected-ion monitoring (SIM) of m/z 46 (ONO - ), m/z 47 (O 15 NO - ), m/z 62 (ONO 2 - ), m/z 63 (O 15 NO 2 - ), m/z 112 (d o -Crea), and m/z 115 (d 3 -Crea). Retention times were 2.97min for PFB-ONO 2 /PFB-O 15 NO 2 , 3.1min for PFB-NO 2 /PFB- 15 NO 2 , and 6.7min for d o -Crea-PFB/d 3 -Crea-PFB. We used this method to investigate the effects of long-term oral NaNO 3 or NaCl (serving as placebo) supplementation (each 0.1mmol/kg body weight per day for 3 weeks) on creatinine excretion

  14. Nitrites and nitrates in the human diet: Carcinogens or beneficial hypotensive agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Anthony

    2015-06-05

    The presence of nitrite in the human diet was thought to constitute a hazard as secondary nitrosamines are known to cause gastric cancers. Recent publications on the physiology of serum nitrite have been consulted. Nitrite is added to some foodstuffs as an antibotulinum agent. The epidemiological evidence that nitrite causes gastric ulcers is weak. On the other hand, evidence that the presence of nitrite in serum lowers blood pressure is strong. This allows us to explain why a Tang dynasty treatment for angina, given in a Dunhuang medical manuscript, can be successful. The presence of nitrite in food is free of danger and a diet high in nitrate is beneficial to the health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nitrite and Nitrate Content in Meat Products and Estimated Intake in Denmark From 1998 to 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Fagt, Sisse; Nielsen, S.

    2008-01-01

    The content of nitrite and nitrate in cured meat products has been monitored in Denmark seven times between 1995 and 2006. The maximum permitted added amounts of sodium nitrite in Denmark (60 mg kg(-1) for most products up to 150 mg kg(-1) for special products) have not been exceeded, except...... period with levels varying between 6 and 20 mg sodium nitrite kg(-1) with sausages, meat for open sandwiches and salami-type sausages being the greatest contributors. The mean intake of sodium nitrate was around 1 mg day(-1), which is very low compared with the total intake of 61 mg day(-1). The mean...... group, only very few persons were responsible for the high intake. The conversion of nitrate to nitrite in the saliva and the degradation of nitrite during production and storage must also be considered when evaluating the intake of nitrite....

  16. Change-based test selection : An empirical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, Quinten; Demeyer, Serge; Zaidman, A.E.; Perez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Regression test selection (i.e., selecting a subset of a given regression test suite) is a problem that has been studied intensely over the last decade. However, with the increasing popularity of developer tests as the driver of the test process, more fine-grained solutions that work well within the

  17. Selecting a Good Conference Location Based on Participants' Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Muhammed

    2011-01-01

    Selecting a good conference location within budget constraints to attract paper authors and participants is a very difficult job for the conference organizers. A conference location is also very important along with other issues such as ranking of the conference. Selecting a bad conference location may reduce the number of paper submissions and…

  18. Oxidation phenomena and color properties of grape pomace on nitrite-reduced meat emulsion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazi, Fatemeh; Zeynali, Fariba; Hoseini, Ebrahim; Behmadi, Homa; Savadkoohi, Sobhan

    2016-11-01

    The present study focuses on the effect of different levels of red grape pomace (1 and 2%, w/w) on the color changes, lipid oxidation (TBARS), antioxidant activity, microbial counts, total phenol content and sensory attributes of the sausages formulated with various levels of sodium nitrite (30, 60 and 120mg/kg). It was found that the addition of grape pomace (1%, w/w) in combination of reduced nitrite levels to the beef sausage samples reduced TBARS content and the degree of lipid oxidation. Antioxidant activity and total phenol contents were further evaluated based on DPPH scavenging activity method. A significant reduction in lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) of systems containing grape pomace was observed, following by an increase in the oxidative stability and the radical scavenging activity. Acceptability of beef sausages was not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the addition of grape pomace and had relatively greater scores from a sensory point of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nitrite ion mitigates the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during chloramination of ranitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Mingizem Gashaw; Cho, Kangwoo; Lee, Changha; Park, Hyun-Mee; Hong, Seok Won

    2018-08-15

    Ranitidine (RNT) has been an important tertiary amine precursor of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in chlorine-based water treatment, due to reaction with monochloramine (NH 2 Cl) with exceptionally high molar yields up to 90%. This study examined the effects of nitrite ions (NO 2 - ) on the kinetics of NDMA formation during the chloramination of RNT under variable concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO, 0.7-7.5mg/L), RNT (5-30μM), NH 2 Cl (5-20mM), NO 2 - or NO 3 - (0-2mM) and pH (5.6-8.6). In the absence of the NO 2 - , the ultimate molar yield of NDMA after 6h of reaction was primarily influenced by [DO] and pH, while marginally affected by initial [RNT] and [NH 2 Cl]. A kinetic model, prepared in accordance with the reaction sequence of NDMA formation, suggested that the rate determining step was accelerated with increasing [NH 2 Cl] 0 , [DO], and pH. A Kinetic study together with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-Q-TOF MS) and gas chromatography (GC)/TOF MS analyses in parallel demonstrated that the nitrite ion inhibited the nucleophilic substitution of the terminal amine on NH 2 Cl, and reduced the pseudo-steady state concentration of N-peroxyl radicals, significantly decreasing the ultimate yields of NDMA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Serum nitrate and nitrite are associated with the prevalence of various chronic diseases except cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumanova, Nadezhda G; Deev, Alexander D; Klimushina, Marina V; Kots, Alexander Y; Shalnova, Svetlana A

    2017-04-01

    Nitric oxide and its metabolites, nitrate and nitrite, are important regulators linked to various diseases. We studied the association of fasting serum concentrations of nitrate and nitrite, combined as NOx, without special diet, with the prevalence of various chronic diseases. Fasting concentrations of NOx were assayed in a cohort of 1087 patients recruited to Stress Aging and Health in Russia study that represents male and female population in Moscow, Russia, over 55 years of age. Chronic diseases were recorded based on anamnesis and additional assays were run to characterize immune status and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Odds ratios were calculated to associate NOx concentrations with prevalence of chronic diseases in pooled deciles below or above borderline. NOx over 44.7 µM were associated with increased prevalence of various chronic diseases such as diabetes type II, hyperthyroidism, coronary heart disease, gout and thrombosis/stroke. NOx 65.3 µM and above were associated with lowered prevalence of osteoporosis. NOx levels of 74.6 µM and above were associated with significantly higher number of patients who abstain from consumption of alcoholic beverages. NOx were not associated with cancer. Thus, fasting concentrations of NOx in serum can be an important diagnostic parameter characteristic for specific chronic diseases.

  1. Interactions between ammonia and nitrite oxidizing bacteria in co-cultures: Is there evidence for mutualism, commensalism, or competition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayavedra-Soto, Luis [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Arp, Daniel [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Nitrification is a two-step environmental microbial process in the nitrogen cycle in which ammonia is oxidized to nitrate. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea oxidize ammonia to nitrite and nitrite is oxidized to nitrate by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. These microorganisms, which likely act in concert in a microbial community, play critical roles in the movement of inorganic N in soils, sediments and waters and are essential to the balance of the nitrogen cycle. Anthropogenic activity has altered the balance of the nitrogen cycle through agriculture practices and organic waste byproducts. Through their influence on available N for plant growth, nitrifying microorganisms influence plant productivity for food and fiber production and the associated carbon sequestration. N Fertilizer production, primarily as ammonia, requires large inputs of natural gas and hydrogen. In croplands fertilized with ammonia-based fertilizers, nitrifiers contribute to the mobilization of this N by producing nitrate (NO3-), wasting the energy used in the production and application of ammonia-based fertilizer. The resulting nitrate is readily leached from these soils, oxidized to gaseous N oxides (greenhouse gases), and denitrified to N2 (which is no longer available as a plant N source). Still, ammonia oxidizers are beneficial in the treatment of wastewater and they also show potential to contribute to microbial bioremediation strategies for clean up of environments contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons. Mitigation of the negative effects and exploitation of the beneficial effects of nitrifiers will be facilitated by a systems-level understanding of the interactions of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria with the environment and with each other.

  2. Performance Measurement Model for the Supplier Selection Based on AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio De Felice

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the supplier is a crucial factor for the success or failure of any company. Rational and effective decision making in terms of the supplier selection process can help the organization to optimize cost and quality functions. The nature of supplier selection processes is generally complex, especially when the company has a large variety of products and vendors. Over the years, several solutions and methods have emerged for addressing the supplier selection problem (SSP. Experience and studies have shown that there is no best way for evaluating and selecting a specific supplier process, but that it varies from one organization to another. The aim of this research is to demonstrate how a multiple attribute decision making approach can be effectively applied for the supplier selection process.

  3. Success of mainstream partial nitritation/anammox demands integration of engineering, microbiome and modeling insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Shelesh; Seuntjens, Dries; Cocker, Pieter De; Lackner, Susanne; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2018-04-01

    Twenty years ago, mainstream partial nitritation/anammox (PN/A) was conceptually proposed as pivotal for a more sustainable treatment of municipal wastewater. Its economic potential spurred research, yet practice awaits a comprehensive recipe for microbial resource management. Implementing mainstream PN/A requires transferable and operable ways to steer microbial competition as to meet discharge requirements on a year-round basis at satisfactory conversion rates. In essence, the competition for nitrogen, organic carbon and oxygen is grouped into 'ON/OFF' (suppression/promotion) and 'IN/OUT' (wash-out/retention and seeding) strategies, selecting for desirable conversions and microbes. Some insights need mechanistic understanding, while empirical observations suffice elsewhere. The provided methodological R&D framework integrates insights in engineering, microbiome and modeling. Such synergism should catalyze the implementation of energy-positive sewage treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrochemical sensor for nitrite using a glassy carbon electrode modified with gold-copper nanochain networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Su-Su; Mei, Li-Ping; Zhou, Jia-Ying; Guo, Fei-Ying; Wang, Ai-Jun; Feng, Jiu-Ju; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Bimetallic gold-copper nanochain networks (AuCu NCNs) were prepared by a single-step wet-chemical approach using metformin as a growth-directing agent. The formation mechanism was investigated in detail, and the AuCu NCNs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The nanocrystals were deposited on glassy carbon electrode and this resulted in a highly sensitive sensor for nitrite. Features include a low working potential (best at 0.684 V vs. SCE), fair sensitivity (17.55 μA mM −1 ), a wide linear range (0.01 to 4.0 mM), a low detection limit (0.2 μM, S/N = 3), and superior selectivity as compared to other sensors. (author)

  5. Nitrate reduction to nitrite, nitric oxide and ammonia by gut bacteria under physiological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tiso

    Full Text Available The biological nitrogen cycle involves step-wise reduction of nitrogen oxides to ammonium salts and oxidation of ammonia back to nitrites and nitrates by plants and bacteria. Neither process has been thought to have relevance to mammalian physiology; however in recent years the salivary bacterial reduction of nitrate to nitrite has been recognized as an important metabolic conversion in humans. Several enteric bacteria have also shown the ability of catalytic reduction of nitrate to ammonia via nitrite during dissimilatory respiration; however, the importance of this pathway in bacterial species colonizing the human intestine has been little studied. We measured nitrite, nitric oxide (NO and ammonia formation in cultures of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species grown at different sodium nitrate concentrations and oxygen levels. We found that the presence of 5 mM nitrate provided a growth benefit and induced both nitrite and ammonia generation in E.coli and L.plantarum bacteria grown at oxygen concentrations compatible with the content in the gastrointestinal tract. Nitrite and ammonia accumulated in the growth medium when at least 2.5 mM nitrate was present. Time-course curves suggest that nitrate is first converted to nitrite and subsequently to ammonia. Strains of L.rhamnosus, L.acidophilus and B.longum infantis grown with nitrate produced minor changes in nitrite or ammonia levels in the cultures. However, when supplied with exogenous nitrite, NO gas was readily produced independently of added nitrate. Bacterial production of lactic acid causes medium acidification that in turn generates NO by non-enzymatic nitrite reduction. In contrast, nitrite was converted to NO by E.coli cultures even at neutral pH. We suggest that the bacterial nitrate reduction to ammonia, as well as the related NO formation in the gut, could be an important aspect of the overall mammalian nitrate/nitrite/NO metabolism and is yet another way in

  6. Enhancing nitrite inhibition of Clostridium botulinum with isoascorbate in perishable canned cured meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkin, R B; Christiansen, L N; Shaparis, A B

    1978-01-01

    Addition of sodium isoascorbate to the formulation for perishable canned comminuted cured meat markedly enhanced the efficacy of nitrite against Clostridium botulinum. This effect was reproducible through a series of three tests. In one test it was found that the initial addition of 50 microgram of sodium nitrite per g plus isoascorbate was as effective as 156 microgram of sodium nitrite per g alone. PMID:341810

  7. Modelling nitrite dynamics and associated feedback processes in the Benguela oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashifane, T. B.; Vichi, M.; Waldron, H. N.; Machu, E.; Garçonc, V.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding nitrite dynamics in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) is a challenge as it represents an intermediary nitrogen species with a short turnover time. Nitrite is also reduced to nitrogen in OMZs, preventing its accumulation. This creates difficulties in detecting nitrite with colorimetric methods as concentrations may occur below detection limits in some regions. Nitrite concentrations are key to understanding intermediate nitrogen processes and their implication for nitrogen loss in OMZs. A coupled physical-biogeochemical model is applied in the Benguela OMZ to study nitrite dynamics and its associated feedback processes. Simulated results show occurrence of primary and secondary nitrite maxima in the Benguela shelf waters. The primary nitrite maxima in the Benguela are attributed to nitrification and nitrate assimilation as they occur in association with the nitracline. Secondary nitrite maxima accumulate in the Angola-Benguela Front (ABF) OMZ and are attributed to denitrification. The secondary nitrite maxima are consumed by anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) off Walvis Bay. Nitrite maxima are restricted to the shelf off Walvis Bay and advected offshore in the ABF region. Interchanges between the poleward South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) and the equatorward, well-aerated Eastern South Atlantic Central Water (ESACW) drive the seasonality of nitrogen processes in the Benguela. Subsequent nitrite reduction in the Benguela OMZ leads to nitrous oxide production, with high concentrations occurring in the ABF region as a result of nitrification and denitrification. Off Walvis Bay, nitrous oxide production is low since nitrite is consumed by anammox. Nitrous oxide production occurs in thermocline, intermediate and deeper water masses in the ABF region. High N fluxes in the Benguela are attributed to nitrification as compared to anammox and denitrification. Results from this study demonstrate the role of intermediate nitrogen species in nitrogen feedback

  8. Residual Nitrite in Some Egyptian Meat Products and the Reduction Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Dalia A. Zahran; Gehan M.A. Kassem

    2011-01-01

    Nitrite, a curing agent of meat products, is a precursor of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines during processing of meat products or under human stomach conditions, as well as having its own toxicity. To investigate the residual nitrite level in meat products marketed in Egyptian markets, 160 samples of cured cooked (luncheon and frankfurter) and cured raw (oriental sausages and pastirma) meat products (40 sample each) were analyzed for residual nitrite by a spectrophotometric method. Samples were s...

  9. Nitrate Reduction to Nitrite, Nitric Oxide and Ammonia by Gut Bacteria under Physiological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiso, Mauro; Schechter, Alan N.

    2015-01-01

    The biological nitrogen cycle involves step-wise reduction of nitrogen oxides to ammonium salts and oxidation of ammonia back to nitrites and nitrates by plants and bacteria. Neither process has been thought to have relevance to mammalian physiology; however in recent years the salivary bacterial reduction of nitrate to nitrite has been recognized as an important metabolic conversion in humans. Several enteric bacteria have also shown the ability of catalytic reduction of nitrate to ammonia via nitrite during dissimilatory respiration; however, the importance of this pathway in bacterial species colonizing the human intestine has been little studied. We measured nitrite, nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia formation in cultures of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species grown at different sodium nitrate concentrations and oxygen levels. We found that the presence of 5 mM nitrate provided a growth benefit and induced both nitrite and ammonia generation in E.coli and L.plantarum bacteria grown at oxygen concentrations compatible with the content in the gastrointestinal tract. Nitrite and ammonia accumulated in the growth medium when at least 2.5 mM nitrate was present. Time-course curves suggest that nitrate is first converted to nitrite and subsequently to ammonia. Strains of L.rhamnosus, L.acidophilus and B.longum infantis grown with nitrate produced minor changes in nitrite or ammonia levels in the cultures. However, when supplied with exogenous nitrite, NO gas was readily produced independently of added nitrate. Bacterial production of lactic acid causes medium acidification that in turn generates NO by non-enzymatic nitrite reduction. In contrast, nitrite was converted to NO by E.coli cultures even at neutral pH. We suggest that the bacterial nitrate reduction to ammonia, as well as the related NO formation in the gut, could be an important aspect of the overall mammalian nitrate/nitrite/NO metabolism and is yet another way in which the microbiome

  10. Generalized Selectivity Description for Polymeric Ion-Selective Electrodes Based on the Phase Boundary Potential Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Eric

    2010-02-15

    A generalized description of the response behavior of potentiometric polymer membrane ion-selective electrodes is presented on the basis of ion-exchange equilibrium considerations at the sample-membrane interface. This paper includes and extends on previously reported theoretical advances in a more compact yet more comprehensive form. Specifically, the phase boundary potential model is used to derive the origin of the Nernstian response behavior in a single expression, which is valid for a membrane containing any charge type and complex stoichiometry of ionophore and ion-exchanger. This forms the basis for a generalized expression of the selectivity coefficient, which may be used for the selectivity optimization of ion-selective membranes containing electrically charged and neutral ionophores of any desired stoichiometry. It is shown to reduce to expressions published previously for specialized cases, and may be effectively applied to problems relevant in modern potentiometry. The treatment is extended to mixed ion solutions, offering a comprehensive yet formally compact derivation of the response behavior of ion-selective electrodes to a mixture of ions of any desired charge. It is compared to predictions by the less accurate Nicolsky-Eisenman equation. The influence of ion fluxes or any form of electrochemical excitation is not considered here, but may be readily incorporated if an ion-exchange equilibrium at the interface may be assumed in these cases.

  11. Composite of Cu metal nanoparticles-multiwall carbon nanotubes-reduced graphene oxide as a novel and high performance platform of the electrochemical sensor for simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, Hasan; Hajian, Ali; Rezaei, Mosayeb; Shirzadmehr, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An electrochemical sensor based on Cu metal nanoparticles-multiwall carbon nanotubes-reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode was developed. • Simultaneous electrochemical determination of nitrate and nitrite by fabricated sensor was performed. • Modification improved the sensitivity and detection limit of the method. • It is a useful method for determining of nitrate and nitrite in various real samples. - Abstract: In the present research, we aimed to fabricate a novel electrochemical sensor based on Cu metal nanoparticles on the multiwall carbon nanotubes-reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (Cu/MWCNT/RGO) for individual and simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate ions. The morphology of the prepared nanocomposite on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was characterized using various methods including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Under optimal experimental conditions, the modified GCE showed excellent catalytic activity toward the electro-reduction of nitrite and nitrate ions (pH = 3.0) with a significant increase in cathodic peak currents in comparison with the unmodified GCE. By square wave voltammetry (SWV) the fabricated sensor demonstrated wide dynamic concentration ranges from 0.1 to 75 μM with detection limits (3S_b/m) of 30 nM and 20 nM method for nitrite and nitrate ions, respectively. Furthermore, the applicability of the proposed modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of nitrite and nitrate ions in the tap and mineral waters, sausages, salami, and cheese samples.

  12. Bimodal effect of hydrogen peroxide and oxidative events in nitrite-induced rapid root abscission by the water fern Azolla pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Cohen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the genus Azolla rapid abscission of roots from floating fronds occurs within minutes in response to a variety of stresses, including exposure to nitrite. We found that hydrogen peroxide, though itself not an inducer of root abscission, modulates nitrite-induced root abscission by Azolla pinnata in a dose-dependent manner, with 2 mM H2O2 significantly diminishing the responsiveness to 2 mM NaNO2, and 10 mM H2O2 slightly enhancing it. Hypoxia, which has been found in other plants to result in autogenic production of H2O2, dramatically stimulated root abscission of A. pinnata in response to nitrite, especially for plants previously cultivated in medium containing 5 mM KNO3 compared to plants cultivated under N2-fixing conditions without combined nitrogen. Plants, including Azolla, produce the small signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO from nitrite using nitrate reductase. We found Azolla plants to display dose-dependent root abscission in response to the NO donor spermine NONOate. Treatment of plants with the thiol-modifying agents S-methyl methanethiosulfonate or glutathione inhibited the nitrite-induced root abscission response. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy revealed higher levels of carbonylation in the abscission zone of dropped roots, indicative of reaction products of polysaccharides with potent free radical oxidants. We hypothesize that metabolic products of nitrite and NO react with H2O2 in the apoplast leading to free-radical-mediated cleavage of structural polysaccharides and consequent rapid root abscission.

  13. Bimodal effect of hydrogen peroxide and oxidative events in nitrite-induced rapid root abscission by the water fern Azolla pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael F; Gurung, Sushma; Birarda, Giovanni; Holman, Hoi-Ying N; Yamasaki, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    In the genus Azolla rapid abscission of roots from floating fronds occurs within minutes in response to a variety of stresses, including exposure to nitrite. We found that hydrogen peroxide, though itself not an inducer of root abscission, modulates nitrite-induced root abscission by Azolla pinnata in a dose-dependent manner, with 2 mM H2O2 significantly diminishing the responsiveness to 2 mM NaNO2, and 10 mM H2O2 slightly enhancing it. Hypoxia, which has been found in other plants to result in autogenic production of H2O2, dramatically stimulated root abscission of A. pinnata in response to nitrite, especially for plants previously cultivated in medium containing 5 mM KNO3 compared to plants cultivated under N2-fixing conditions without combined nitrogen. Plants, including Azolla, produce the small signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite using nitrate reductase. We found Azolla plants to display dose-dependent root abscission in response to the NO donor spermine NONOate. Treatment of plants with the thiol-modifying agents S-methyl methanethiosulfonate or glutathione inhibited the nitrite-induced root abscission response. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy revealed higher levels of carbonylation in the abscission zone of dropped roots, indicative of reaction products of polysaccharides with potent free radical oxidants. We hypothesize that metabolic products of nitrite and NO react with H2O2 in the apoplast leading to free-radical-mediated cleavage of structural polysaccharides and consequent rapid root abscission.

  14. OBSERVATIONAL SELECTION EFFECTS WITH GROUND-BASED GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E. [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Katsavounidis, Erik [LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    Ground-based interferometers are not perfect all-sky instruments, and it is important to account for their behavior when considering the distribution of detected events. In particular, the LIGO detectors are most sensitive to sources above North America and the Indian Ocean, and as the Earth rotates, the sensitive regions are swept across the sky. However, because the detectors do not acquire data uniformly over time, there is a net bias on detectable sources’ right ascensions. Both LIGO detectors preferentially collect data during their local night; it is more than twice as likely to be local midnight than noon when both detectors are operating. We discuss these selection effects and how they impact LIGO’s observations and electromagnetic (EM) follow-up. Beyond galactic foregrounds associated with seasonal variations, we find that equatorial observatories can access over 80% of the localization probability, while mid-latitudes will access closer to 70%. Facilities located near the two LIGO sites can observe sources closer to their zenith than their analogs in the south, but the average observation will still be no closer than 44° from zenith. We also find that observatories in Africa or the South Atlantic will wait systematically longer before they can begin observing compared to the rest of the world; though, there is a preference for longitudes near the LIGOs. These effects, along with knowledge of the LIGO antenna pattern, can inform EM follow-up activities and optimization, including the possibility of directing observations even before gravitational-wave events occur.

  15. OBSERVATIONAL SELECTION EFFECTS WITH GROUND-BASED GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E.; Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Katsavounidis, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Ground-based interferometers are not perfect all-sky instruments, and it is important to account for their behavior when considering the distribution of detected events. In particular, the LIGO detectors are most sensitive to sources above North America and the Indian Ocean, and as the Earth rotates, the sensitive regions are swept across the sky. However, because the detectors do not acquire data uniformly over time, there is a net bias on detectable sources’ right ascensions. Both LIGO detectors preferentially collect data during their local night; it is more than twice as likely to be local midnight than noon when both detectors are operating. We discuss these selection effects and how they impact LIGO’s observations and electromagnetic (EM) follow-up. Beyond galactic foregrounds associated with seasonal variations, we find that equatorial observatories can access over 80% of the localization probability, while mid-latitudes will access closer to 70%. Facilities located near the two LIGO sites can observe sources closer to their zenith than their analogs in the south, but the average observation will still be no closer than 44° from zenith. We also find that observatories in Africa or the South Atlantic will wait systematically longer before they can begin observing compared to the rest of the world; though, there is a preference for longitudes near the LIGOs. These effects, along with knowledge of the LIGO antenna pattern, can inform EM follow-up activities and optimization, including the possibility of directing observations even before gravitational-wave events occur.

  16. FPGA-based RF spectrum merging and adaptive hopset selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, R. K.; Flatley, B. N.; Silvius, M. D.; Hopkinson, K. M.

    The radio frequency (RF) spectrum is a limited resource. Spectrum allotment disputes stem from this scarcity as many radio devices are confined to a fixed frequency or frequency sequence. One alternative is to incorporate cognition within a reconfigurable radio platform, therefore enabling the radio to adapt to dynamic RF spectrum environments. In this way, the radio is able to actively sense the RF spectrum, decide, and act accordingly, thereby sharing the spectrum and operating in more flexible manner. In this paper, we present a novel solution for merging many distributed RF spectrum maps into one map and for subsequently creating an adaptive hopset. We also provide an example of our system in operation, the result of which is a pseudorandom adaptive hopset. The paper then presents a novel hardware design for the frequency merger and adaptive hopset selector, both of which are written in VHDL and implemented as a custom IP core on an FPGA-based embedded system using the Xilinx Embedded Development Kit (EDK) software tool. The design of the custom IP core is optimized for area, and it can process a high-volume digital input via a low-latency circuit architecture. The complete embedded system includes the Xilinx PowerPC microprocessor, UART serial connection, and compact flash memory card IP cores, and our custom map merging/hopset selection IP core, all of which are targeted to the Virtex IV FPGA. This system is then incorporated into a cognitive radio prototype on a Rice University Wireless Open Access Research Platform (WARP) reconfigurable radio.

  17. Global stocks of selected mineral-based commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Karl, Nick A.

    2016-12-05

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey, National Minerals Information Center, analyzes mineral and metal supply chains by identifying and describing major components of mineral and material flows from ore extraction, through intermediate forms, to a final product. This report focuses on an important component of the world’s supply chain: the amounts and global distribution of major consumer, producer, and exchange stocks of selected mineral commodities. In this report, the term “stock” is used instead of “inventory” and refers to accumulations of mined ore, intermediate products, and refined mineral-based commodities that are in a form that meets the agreed-upon specifications of a buyer or processor of intermediate products. These may include certain ores such as bauxite, concentrates, smelter products, and refined metals. Materials sometimes referred to as inventory for accounting purposes, such as ore contained in a deposit or in a leach pile, or materials that need to be further processed before they can be shipped to a consumer, are not considered. Stocks may be held (owned) by consumers, governments, investors, producers, and traders. They may serve as (1) a means to achieve economic, social, and strategic goals through government policies; (2) a secure source of supply to meet demand and to mitigate potential shortages in the supply chain; (3) a hedge to mitigate price volatility; and (4) vehicles for speculative investment.The paucity and uneven reliability of data for stocks of ores and concentrates and for material held by producers, consumers, and merchants hinder the accurate estimating of the size and distribution of this portion of the supply chain for certain commodities. This paper reviews the more visible stocks held in commodity exchange warehouses distributed throughout the world.

  18. Nitrogen removal and electricity production at a double-chamber microbial fuel cell with cathode nitrite denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yangyang; Zhao, Jianqiang; Wang, Sha; Zhao, Huimin; Ding, Xiaoqian; Gao, Kun

    2017-12-01

    Double-chamber microbial fuel cell was applied to investigate the performance of the electricity production and nitrite denitrification through feeding nitrite into the cathode. Factors influencing denitrification performance and power production, such as external resistance, influent nitrite concentration and Nitrite Oxygen Bacteria inhibitors, were studied. The results show that when the concentration of nitrite nitrogen and external resistance were 100 mg L -1 and 10 Ω, respectively, the nitrite denitrification reached the best state. The NaN 3 can inhibit nitrite oxidation effectively; meanwhile, the nitrite denitrification with N 2 O as the final products was largely improved. The [Formula: see text] was reduced to [Formula: see text], causing the cathode denitrification coulombic efficiency to exceed 100%. In chemoautotrophic bio-nitrification, microorganisms may utilize H 2 O to oxidize nitrite under anaerobic conditions. Proteobacteria might play a major role in the process of denitrification in MFC.

  19. Determination of Nitrite in Whole Blood by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection and a Case of Nitrite Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hui; Zhuo, Xiangyi; Shen, Baohua; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min

    2016-01-01

    Although nitrite is widely used in meat processing, it is a major toxicity hazard to children and is responsible for the blue-baby syndrome. A simple and effective method to determine nitrite in whole blood has been devised using ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection. The blood sample was deproteinized by adding acetonitrile and purified with mini-cartridges to remove hydrophobic compounds, chloride ions, and metal ions. An aliquot of the filtrate was injected onto the ion chromatography. The retention time for nitrite was 13.8 min and the detection limit of nitrite in whole blood was 0.4 μmol/L. The calibration curve was linear (r(2) = 0.9999) over the concentration working range. The blood nitrite concentration of a victim who attempted suicide by ingesting sodium nitrite powder was determined using the present method. The basal levels for nitrite in human blood was determined with 7.1 ± 0.9 μmol/L (n = 12). © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Radiation preservation with reduced nitrites of bacon and other cured meats - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.

    1987-01-01

    The main problem caused by nitrite as a preservative is the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines in bacon and other cured meats. This has led to a search for alternatives to the use of nitrite. Irradiation with reduced level of nitrite is a promising alternative to the use of current levels of nitrite. Radurization (radiation pasteurization) of bacon containing 20 to to 40 mg/kg of nitrite in evacuated packages, irradiated and stored at 4 degrees C, gives a product with good organoleptic qualities and extended shelf life of > 80 days vs. < days 30 days for the conventionally treated bacon. Radappertization (radiation sterilization) of bacon containing 20 mg/kg of nitrite at a dose of about 30 kGy, irradiated at -20 degrees or lower in evacuated packages, results in a product that is shelf stable for months to years at room temperature (∼ 25 degrees C). It has organoleptic properties comparable to commercial bacon in terms of color, flavor, odor and texture. Irradiation also reduces the nitrite and preformed nitrosamines present in bacon. Lower levels of nitrosamines are formed on cooking irradiated bacon containing presently used commercial levels of nitrite (120-150 mg/kg) and the levels of nitrosamines become negligible with 20 mg/kg of nitrite. Various aspects of preservation of bacon and other cured meats are reviewed in this report with emphasis on radiation processing. 357 refs

  1. Total salivary nitrates and nitrites in oral health and periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gabriel A; Miozza, Valeria A; Delgado, Alejandra; Busch, Lucila

    2014-01-30

    It is well known that nitrites are increased in saliva from patients with periodontal disease. In the oral cavity, nitrites may derive partly from the reduction of nitrates by oral bacteria. Nitrates have been reported as a defence-related mechanism. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the salivary levels of total nitrate and nitrite and their relationship, in unstimulated and stimulated saliva from periodontal healthy subjects, and from patients with chronic periodontal disease. Nitrates and nitrites were determined in saliva from thirty healthy subjects and forty-four patients with periodontal disease. A significant increase in salivary nitrates and nitrites was observed. Nitrates and nitrites concentration was related to clinical attachment level (CAL). A positive and significant Pearson's correlation was found between salivary total nitrates and nitrites. Periodontal treatment induced clinical improvement and decreased nitrates and nitrites. It is concluded that salivary nitrates and nitrites increase, in patients with periodontal disease, could be related to defence mechanisms. The possibility that the salivary glands respond to oral infectious diseases by increasing nitrate secretion should be explored further. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Low nitrous oxide production in intermittent-feed high performance nitritating reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Qingxian; Jensen, Malene M.; Smets, Barth F.

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) production from autotrophic nitrogen removal processes, especially nitritating systems, is of growing concern. N2O dynamics were characterized and N2O production factors were quantified in two lab-scale intermittent-feed nitritating SBRs. 93 ± 14% of the oxidized ammonium...... was converted to nitrite, with the average total net N2O production of 2.1 ± 0.7% of the ammonium oxidized. Operation with intermittent feeding appears an effective optimization approach to mitigate N2O emissions from nitritating systems. Net N2O production rates transiently increased with a rise in pH after...

  3. Color Developing Capacity of Plasma-treated Water as a Source of Nitrite for Meat Curing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Park, Sanghoo; Yong, Hae In; Choe, Jun Ho; Jeon, Hee-Joon; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of plasma with liquid generates nitrogen species including nitrite (NO(-) 2). Therefore, the color developing capacity of plasma-treated water (PTW) as a nitrite source for meat curing was investigated in this study. PTW, which is generated by surface dielectric barrier discharge in air, and the increase of plasma treatment time resulted in increase of nitrite concentration in PTW. The PTW used in this study contains 46 ppm nitrite after plasma treatment for 30 min. To evaluate the effect of PTW on the cured meat color, meat batters were prepared under three different conditions (control, non-cured meat batter; PTW, meat batter cured with PTW; Sodium nitrite, meat batter cured with sodium nitrite). The meat batters were vacuum-packaged and cooked in a water-bath at 80℃ for 30 min. The typical color of cured meat developed in cooked meat batter treated with sodium nitrite or PTW. The lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values were similar in all conditions, whereas, the redness (a*) values of cooked meat batter with PTW and sodium nitrite (pnitrite source in the curing process of meat without addition of other nitrite sources.

  4. Interactions of nitrite with catalase: Enzyme activity and reaction kinetics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krych-Madej, Justyna; Gebicka, Lidia

    2017-06-01

    Catalase, a heme enzyme, which catalyzes decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen, is one of the main enzymes of the antioxidant defense system of the cell. Nitrite, used as a food preservative has long been regarded as a harmful compound due to its ability to form carcinogenic nitrosamines. Recently, much evidence has been presented that nitrite plays a protective role as a nitric oxide donor under hypoxic conditions. In this work the effect of nitrite on the catalytic reactions of catalase was studied. Catalase was inhibited by nitrite, and this process was pH-dependent. IC 50 values varied from about 1μM at pH5.0 to about 150μM of nitrite at pH7.4. The presence of chloride significantly enhanced nitrite-induced catalase inhibition, in agreement with earlier observations. The kinetics of the reactions of nitrite with ferric catalase, its redox intermediate, Compound I, and catalase inactive form, Compound II, was also studied. Possible mechanisms of nitrite-induced catalase inhibition are analyzed and the biological consequences of the reactions of catalase with nitrite are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Selective extraction and detection of noble metal based on ionic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ClPrNTf2) was developed for selective detection of gold(III) by use of inductively coupled ... The importance to develop pre- ... attention. Ionic liquids (ILs) immobilized onto SG have been successfully applied as solid phase adsorbents for.

  6. Fluorescent naphthalene-based benzene tripod for selective ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sensing property was extended for practical utility to sense fluoride in tap water, pond water and river water. Keywords. ... Development of selective optical signalling systems for ... contaminant level defined by the US Environmental.

  7. Innovation in values based public health nursing student selection: A qualitative evaluation of candidate and selection panel member perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Caroline; Abbott, Stephen; Brook, Judy

    2018-02-19

    Values based recruitment emerges from the premise that a high degree of value congruence, or the extent to which an individual's values are similar to those of the health organization in which they work, leads to organizational effectiveness. The aim of this evaluation was to explore how candidates and selection panel members experienced and perceived innovative methods of values based public health nursing student selection. The evaluation was framed by a qualitative exploratory design involving semi-structured interviews and a group exercise. Data were thematically analyzed. Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with selection panel members. Twenty-two successful candidates took part in a group exercise. The use of photo elicitation interviews and situational judgment questions in the context of selection to a university-run public health nursing educational program was explored. While candidates were ambivalent about the use of photo elicitation interviews, with some misunderstanding the task, selection panel members saw the benefits for improving candidate expression and reducing gaming and deception. Situational interview questions were endorsed by candidates and selection panel members due to their fidelity to real-life problems and the ability of panel members to discern value congruence from candidates' responses. Both techniques offered innovative solutions to candidate selection for entry to the public health nursing education program. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Theory of mind selectively predicts preschoolers’ knowledge-based selective word learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau-Liard, Patricia; Penney, Danielle; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Children can selectively attend to various attributes of a model, such as past accuracy or physical strength, to guide their social learning. There is a debate regarding whether a relation exists between theory-of-mind skills and selective learning. We hypothesized that high performance on theory-of-mind tasks would predict preference for learning new words from accurate informants (an epistemic attribute), but not from physically strong informants (a non-epistemic attribute). Three- and 4-year-olds (N = 65) completed two selective learning tasks, and their theory of mind abilities were assessed. As expected, performance on a theory-of-mind battery predicted children’s preference to learn from more accurate informants but not from physically stronger informants. Results thus suggest that preschoolers with more advanced theory of mind have a better understanding of knowledge and apply that understanding to guide their selection of informants. This work has important implications for research on children’s developing social cognition and early learning. PMID:26211504

  9. Theory of mind selectively predicts preschoolers' knowledge-based selective word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau-Liard, Patricia; Penney, Danielle; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2015-11-01

    Children can selectively attend to various attributes of a model, such as past accuracy or physical strength, to guide their social learning. There is a debate regarding whether a relation exists between theory-of-mind skills and selective learning. We hypothesized that high performance on theory-of-mind tasks would predict preference for learning new words from accurate informants (an epistemic attribute), but not from physically strong informants (a non-epistemic attribute). Three- and 4-year-olds (N = 65) completed two selective learning tasks, and their theory-of-mind abilities were assessed. As expected, performance on a theory-of-mind battery predicted children's preference to learn from more accurate informants but not from physically stronger informants. Results thus suggest that preschoolers with more advanced theory of mind have a better understanding of knowledge and apply that understanding to guide their selection of informants. This work has important implications for research on children's developing social cognition and early learning. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  10. A Simple K-Map Based Variable Selection Scheme in the Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multiplexer with (n-l) data select inputs can realise directly a function of n variables. In this paper, a simple k-map based variable selection scheme is proposed such that an n variable logic function can be synthesised using a multiplexer with (n-q) data input variables and q data select variables. The procedure is based on ...

  11. Impact of Menu Sequencing on Internet-Based Educational Module Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensley, Robert; Brusk, John J.; Rivas, Jason; Anderson, Judith V.

    2006-01-01

    Patterns of Internet-based menu item selection can occur for a number of reasons, many of which may not be based on interest in topic. It then becomes important to ensure menu order is devised in a way that ensures the greatest accuracy in matching user need with selection. This study examined the impact of menu rotation on the selection of…

  12. Selective Distance-Based K+ Quantification on Paper-Based Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerold, Chase T; Bakker, Eric; Henry, Charles S

    2018-04-03

    In this study, paper-based microfluidic devices (μPADs) capable of K + quantification in aqueous samples, as well as in human serum, using both colorimetric and distance-based methods are described. A lipophilic phase containing potassium ionophore I (valinomycin) was utilized to achieve highly selective quantification of K + in the presence of Na + , Li + , and Mg 2+ ions. Successful addition of a suspended lipophilic phase to a wax printed paper-based device is described and offers a solution to current approaches that rely on organic solvents, which damage wax barriers. The approach provides an avenue for future alkali/alkaline quantification utilizing μPADs. Colorimetric spot tests allowed for K + quantification from 0.1-5.0 mM using only 3.00 μL of sample solution. Selective distance-based quantification required small sample volumes (6.00 μL) and gave responses sensitive enough to distinguish between 1.0 and 2.5 mM of sample K + . μPADs using distance-based methods were also capable of differentiating between 4.3 and 6.9 mM K + in human serum samples. Distance-based methods required no digital analysis, electronic hardware, or pumps; any steps required for quantification could be carried out using the naked eye.

  13. Process observation in fiber laser-based selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombansen, Ulrich; Gatej, Alexander; Pereira, Milton

    2015-01-01

    The process observation in selective laser melting (SLM) focuses on observing the interaction point where the powder is processed. To provide process relevant information, signals have to be acquired that are resolved in both time and space. Especially in high-power SLM, where more than 1 kW of laser power is used, processing speeds of several meters per second are required for a high-quality processing results. Therefore, an implementation of a suitable process observation system has to acquire a large amount of spatially resolved data at low sampling speeds or it has to restrict the acquisition to a predefined area at a high sampling speed. In any case, it is vitally important to synchronously record the laser beam position and the acquired signal. This is a prerequisite that allows the recorded data become information. Today, most SLM systems employ f-theta lenses to focus the processing laser beam onto the powder bed. This report describes the drawbacks that result for process observation and suggests a variable retro-focus system which solves these issues. The beam quality of fiber lasers delivers the processing laser beam to the powder bed at relevant focus diameters, which is a key prerequisite for this solution to be viable. The optical train we present here couples the processing laser beam and the process observation coaxially, ensuring consistent alignment of interaction zone and observed area. With respect to signal processing, we have developed a solution that synchronously acquires signals from a pyrometer and the position of the laser beam by sampling the data with a field programmable gate array. The relevance of the acquired signals has been validated by the scanning of a sample filament. Experiments with grooved samples show a correlation between different powder thicknesses and the acquired signals at relevant processing parameters. This basic work takes a first step toward self-optimization of the manufacturing process in SLM. It enables the

  14. GoDisco: Selective Gossip Based Dissemination of Information in Social Community Based Overlays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Anwitaman; Sharma, Rajesh

    We propose and investigate a gossip based, social principles and behavior inspired decentralized mechanism (GoDisco) to disseminate information in online social community networks, using exclusively social links and exploiting semantic context to keep the dissemination process selective to relevant nodes. Such a designed dissemination scheme using gossiping over a egocentric social network is unique and is arguably a concept whose time has arrived, emulating word of mouth behavior and can have interesting applications like probabilistic publish/subscribe, decentralized recommendation and contextual advertisement systems, to name a few. Simulation based experiments show that despite using only local knowledge and contacts, the system has good global coverage and behavior.

  15. Metasurface-based angle-selective multichannel acoustic refractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingyi; Jiang, Yongyuan

    2018-05-01

    We theoretically study the angle-selective refractions of an impedance-matched acoustic gradient-index metasurface, which is integrated with a rigid bar array of a deep subwavelength period. An interesting refraction order appears under the all-angle incidence despite the existence of a critical angle, and notably, the odevity of the phase-discretization level apparently selects the transmitted diffraction orders. We utilize the strategy of multilayered media design to realize a three-channel acoustic refractor, which shows good promise for constructing multifunctional diffractive acoustic elements for acoustic communication.

  16. Excessive nitrite affects zebrafish valvulogenesis through yielding too much NO signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Li

    Full Text Available Sodium nitrite, a common food additive, exists widely not only in the environment but also in our body. Excessive nitrite causes toxicological effects on human health; however, whether it affects vertebrate heart valve development remains unknown. In vertebrates, developmental defects of cardiac valves usually lead to congenital heart disease. To understand the toxic effects of nitrite on valvulogenesis, we exposed zebrafish embryos with different concentrations of sodium nitrite. Our results showed that sodium nitrite caused developmental defects of zebrafish heart dose dependently. It affected zebrafish heart development starting from 36 hpf (hour post fertilization when heart initiates looping process. Comprehensive analysis on the embryos at 24 hpf and 48 hpf showed that excessive nitrite did not affect blood circulation, vascular network, myocardium and endocardium development. But development of endocardial cells in atrioventricular canal (AVC of the embryos at 48 hpf was disrupted by too much nitrite, leading to defective formation of primitive valve leaflets at 76 hpf. Consistently, excessive nitrite diminished expressions of valve progenitor markers including bmp4, has2, vcana and notch1b at 48 hpf. Furthermore, 3', 5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP, downstream of nitric oxide (NO signaling, was increased its level significantly in the embryos exposed with excessive nitrite and microinjection of soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ (1H-[1], [2], [4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one, an antagonist of NO signaling, into nitrite-exposed embryos could partly rescue the cardiac valve malformation. Taken together, our results show that excessive nitrite affects early valve leaflet formation by producing too much NO signaling.

  17. Directory of selected forestry-related bibliographic data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter A. Evans

    1979-01-01

    This compilation lists 117 bibliographic data bases maintained by scientists of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. For each data base, the following information is provided; name of the data base; originator; date started; coverage by subject; geographic area, and size of collection; base format; retrieval format; ways to query; who to query; and...

  18. Selecting a risk-based tool to aid in decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendure, A.O.

    1995-03-01

    Selecting a risk-based tool to aid in decision making is as much of a challenge as properly using the tool once it has been selected. Failure to consider customer and stakeholder requirements and the technical bases and differences in risk-based decision making tools will produce confounding and/or politically unacceptable results when the tool is used. Selecting a risk-based decisionmaking tool must therefore be undertaken with the same, if not greater, rigor than the use of the tool once it is selected. This paper presents a process for selecting a risk-based tool appropriate to a set of prioritization or resource allocation tasks, discusses the results of applying the process to four risk-based decision-making tools, and identifies the ``musts`` for successful selection and implementation of a risk-based tool to aid in decision making.

  19. Moment Conditions Selection Based on Adaptive Penalized Empirical Likelihood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunquan Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical likelihood is a very popular method and has been widely used in the fields of artificial intelligence (AI and data mining as tablets and mobile application and social media dominate the technology landscape. This paper proposes an empirical likelihood shrinkage method to efficiently estimate unknown parameters and select correct moment conditions simultaneously, when the model is defined by moment restrictions in which some are possibly misspecified. We show that our method enjoys oracle-like properties; that is, it consistently selects the correct moment conditions and at the same time its estimator is as efficient as the empirical likelihood estimator obtained by all correct moment conditions. Moreover, unlike the GMM, our proposed method allows us to carry out confidence regions for the parameters included in the model without estimating the covariances of the estimators. For empirical implementation, we provide some data-driven procedures for selecting the tuning parameter of the penalty function. The simulation results show that the method works remarkably well in terms of correct moment selection and the finite sample properties of the estimators. Also, a real-life example is carried out to illustrate the new methodology.

  20. MySQL based selection of appropriate indexing technique in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with selection of appropriate indexing technique applied on MySQL Database for a health care system and related performance issues using multiclass support vector machine (SVM). The patient database is generally huge and contains lot of variations. For the quick search or fast retrieval of the desired ...

  1. Emotion of Physiological Signals Classification Based on TS Feature Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yujing; Mo Jianlin

    2015-01-01

    This paper propose a method of TS-MLP about emotion recognition of physiological signal.It can recognize emotion successfully by Tabu search which selects features of emotion’s physiological signals and multilayer perceptron that is used to classify emotion.Simulation shows that it has achieved good emotion classification performance.

  2. Functional Assessment-Based Intervention for Selective Mutism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Lee; Starosta, Kristin M.; Bambara, Linda M.; Cook, Clayton R.; Gresham, Frank R.

    2007-01-01

    The process of functional assessment has emerged as an essential component for intervention development. Applications across divergent types of problem behavior, however, remain limited. This study evaluated the applicability of this promising approach to students with selective mutism. Two middle school students served as participants. The…

  3. based 2D dynamic metal-organic framework showing selective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    materials have been extensively studied for storage, separation, magnetism, sensing, biomedical and very recently for ion conduction applications.14–21 Hydrogen ... thesis of dynamic MOF with high affinity for water becomes handy in separation applications. Also, for a material to be smart sorbent, in addition to selective ...

  4. A CORPUS-BASED STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF SELECTED RADIO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    from Pendants of Rhythm: A Selection of Radio Nigeria Network News ... social roles we have to fill in everyday life and where the meaning processes, or discourses .... Antonymy: Some words opposite in meaning are juxtaposed to underscore .... Hyperbole: The ignorant man is greedy and stuffs his mouth with food until his ...

  5. Computational intelligence-based polymerase chain reaction primer selection based on a novel teaching-learning-based optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Huei

    2014-12-01

    Specific primers play an important role in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments, and therefore it is essential to find specific primers of outstanding quality. Unfortunately, many PCR constraints must be simultaneously inspected which makes specific primer selection difficult and time-consuming. This paper introduces a novel computational intelligence-based method, Teaching-Learning-Based Optimisation, to select the specific and feasible primers. The specified PCR product lengths of 150-300 bp and 500-800 bp with three melting temperature formulae of Wallace's formula, Bolton and McCarthy's formula and SantaLucia's formula were performed. The authors calculate optimal frequency to estimate the quality of primer selection based on a total of 500 runs for 50 random nucleotide sequences of 'Homo species' retrieved from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The method was then fairly compared with the genetic algorithm (GA) and memetic algorithm (MA) for primer selection in the literature. The results show that the method easily found suitable primers corresponding with the setting primer constraints and had preferable performance than the GA and the MA. Furthermore, the method was also compared with the common method Primer3 according to their method type, primers presentation, parameters setting, speed and memory usage. In conclusion, it is an interesting primer selection method and a valuable tool for automatic high-throughput analysis. In the future, the usage of the primers in the wet lab needs to be validated carefully to increase the reliability of the method.

  6. Metabolic fates and effects of nitrite in brown trout under normoxic and hypoxic conditions: blood and tissue nitrite metabolism and interactions with branchial NOS, Na+/K+-ATPase and hsp70 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo; Gerber, Lucie; Hansen, Marie Niemann

    2015-01-01

    were higher in hypoxia than normoxia, suggesting increased NOS activity. Nitrite exposure strongly elevated nitrite concentrations in plasma, erythrocytes, heart tissue and white muscle, which was associated with an extensive metabolism of nitrite to nitrate and to iron-nitrosylated and S......Nitrite secures essential nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in hypoxia at low endogenous concentrations, whereas it becomes toxic at high concentrations. We exposed brown trout to normoxic and hypoxic water in the absence and presence of added ambient nitrite to decipher the cellular metabolism...... and effects of nitrite at basal and elevated concentrations under different oxygen regimes. We also tested hypotheses concerning the influence of nitrite on branchial nitric oxide synthase (NOS), Na+/K+-ATPase (nka) and heat shock protein (hsp70) mRNA expression. Basal plasma and erythrocyte nitrite levels...

  7. Comparative studies of praseodymium(III) selective sensors based on newly synthesized Schiff's bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vinod K.; Goyal, Rajendra N.; Pal, Manoj K.; Sharma, Ram A.

    2009-01-01

    Praseodymium ion selective polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane sensors, based on two new Schiff's bases 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-diylidenebis(azan-1-ylidene)diphenol (M 1 ) and N,N'-bis(pyridoxylideneiminato) ethylene (M 2 ) have been developed and studied. The sensor having membrane composition of PVC: o-NPOE: ionophore (M 1 ): NaTPB (w/w; mg) of 150: 300: 8: 5 showed best performances in comparison to M 2 based membranes. The sensor based on (M 1 ) exhibits the working concentration range 1.0 x 10 -8 to 1.0 x 10 -2 M with a detection limit of 5.0 x 10 -9 M and a Nernstian slope 20.0 ± 0.3 mV decade -1 of activity. It exhibited a quick response time as <8 s and its potential responses were pH independent across the range of 3.5-8.5.The influence of the membrane composition and possible interfering ions have also been investigated on the response properties of the electrode. The sensor has been found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media up to 15% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol or acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 3 months. The selectivity coefficients determined by using fixed interference method (FIM) indicate high selectivity for praseodymium(III) ions over wide variety of other cations. To asses its analytical applicability the prepared sensor was successfully applied for determination of praseodymium(III) in spiked water samples.

  8. BIM-Based Decision Support System for Material Selection Based on Supplier Rating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Akanmu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Material selection is a delicate process, typically hinged on a number of factors which can be either cost or environmental related. This process becomes more complicated when designers are faced with several material options of building elements and each option can be supplied by different suppliers whose selection criteria may affect the budgetary and environmental requirements of the project. This paper presents the development of a decision support system based on the integration of building information models, a modified harmony search algorithm and supplier performance rating. The system is capable of producing the cost and environmental implications of different material combinations or building designs. A case study is presented to illustrate the functionality of the developed system.

  9. Effect of Electrolytes on the Adsorption of Nitrite and Nitrate from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrite and nitrate levels were quantitatively adsorbed to wood-derived activated carbon in aqueous system and the effects of electrolytes investigated in this study using batch sorption process. The data showed that nitrate adsorbed nearly 1.5 times higher than that of nitrite. The adsorption is adequately explained by ...

  10. Effect of sodium nitrite on toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, L N; Tompkin, R B; Shaparis, A B; Kueper, T V; Johnston, R W; Kautter, D A; Kolari, O J

    1974-04-01

    Pork bellies were formulated to 0, 30, 60, 120, 170, or 340 mug of nitrite per g of meat and inoculated with Clostridium botulinum via pickle or after processing and slicing. Processed bacon was stored at 7 or 27 C and assayed for nitrite, nitrate, and botulinal toxin at different intervals. Nitrite levels declined during processing and storage. The rate of decrease was more rapid at 27 than at 7 C. Although not added to the system, nitrate was detected in samples during processing and storage at 7 and 27 C. The amount of nitrate found was related to formulated nitrite levels. No toxin was found in samples incubated at 7 C throughout the 84-day test period. At 27 C, via pickle, inoculated samples with low inoculum (210 C. botulinum per g before processing and 52 per g after processing) became toxic if formulated with 120 mug of nitrite per g of meat or less. Toxin was not detected in bacon formulated with 170 or 340 mug of nitrite per g of meat under these same conditions. Toxin was detected at all formulated nitrite levels in bacon inoculated via the pickle with 19,000 C. botulinum per g (4,300 per g after processing) and in samples inoculated after slicing. However, increased levels of formulated nitrite decreased the probability of botulinal toxin formation in bacon inoculated by both methods.

  11. Nitrate and nitrite content in bottled beverages by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Deng, Gui-Fang; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Chen, Yong-Hong; Chen, Feng; Li, Hua-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite levels in six types of beverages--total of 292 individual samples from 73 brands (four bottles each)--from Guangzhou city in China were evaluated by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography. All samples contained nitrate. Nitrate and nitrite ranges were 0.43-46.08 and safety of Chinese bottled beverages.

  12. Bioavailability of sodium nitrite from an aqueous solution in healthy adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunault, C.C.; van Velzen, A.G.; Sips, A.J.; Schothorst, R.C.; Meulenbelt, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/079479227

    2009-01-01

    Nitrate intake in humans is high through intake of vegetables such as beets, lettuce, and spinach. Nitrate itself is a compound of low toxicity but its metabolite, nitrite, formed by bacteria in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract, has been suspected of potential carcinogenic effects. Nitrite

  13. Making evidence-based selections of influenza vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Childress, Billy-Clyde; Montney, Joshua D; Albro, Elise A

    2014-01-01

    Years ago, intramuscular influenza vaccines were the only option for those who wanted to arm themselves against the flu. Today there are alternatives, including intradermal injections and intranasal sprays. In order to select the right influenza vaccine for their patients, pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals must have a basic understanding of the immune system. Influenza vaccines elicit different levels of immune response involving innate and adaptive immunity, which are critical ...

  14. Neural bases of selective attention in action video game players

    OpenAIRE

    Bavelier, D; Achtman, RL; Mani, M; Föcker, J

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years, the very act of playing action video games has been shown to enhance several different aspects of visual selective attention. Yet little is known about the neural mechanisms that mediate such attentional benefits. A review of the aspects of attention enhanced in action game players suggests there are changes in the mechanisms that control attention allocation and its efficiency (Hubert-Wallander et al., 2010). The present study used brain imaging to test this hypothes...

  15. Selective recognition of Pr3+ based on fluorescence enhancement sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganjali, M.R.; Hosseini, M.; Ghafarloo, A.; Khoobi, M.; Faridbod, F.; Shafiee, A.; Norouzi, P.

    2013-01-01

    (E)-2-(1-(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)ethylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (L) has been used to detect trace amounts of praseodymium ion in acetonitrile–water solution (MeCN/H 2 O) by fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescent probe undergoes fluorescent emission intensity enhancement upon binding to Pr 3+ ions in MeCN/H 2 O (9/1:v/v) solution. The fluorescence enhancement of L is attributed to a 1:1 complex formation between L and Pr 3+ , which has been utilized as the basis for selective detection of Pr 3+ . The sensor can be applied to the quantification of praseodymium ion with a linear range of 1.6 × 10 −7 to 1.0 × 10 −5 M. The limit of detection was 8.3 × 10 −8 M. The sensor exhibits high selectivity toward praseodymium ions in comparison with common metal ions. The proposed fluorescent sensor was successfully used for determination of Pr 3+ in water samples. - Highlights: • A new fluorescent sensor is introduced as a selective probe for Pr 3+ detection. • Fluorescent intensity of the chemical probe enhances upon binding to Pr 3+ ion. • The sensor can be used for Pr 3+ determination in the range of 1.6 × 10 −7 –1.0 × 10 −5 M

  16. Rank-based model selection for multiple ions quantum tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guţă, Mădălin; Kypraios, Theodore; Dryden, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The statistical analysis of measurement data has become a key component of many quantum engineering experiments. As standard full state tomography becomes unfeasible for large dimensional quantum systems, one needs to exploit prior information and the ‘sparsity’ properties of the experimental state in order to reduce the dimensionality of the estimation problem. In this paper we propose model selection as a general principle for finding the simplest, or most parsimonious explanation of the data, by fitting different models and choosing the estimator with the best trade-off between likelihood fit and model complexity. We apply two well established model selection methods—the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC)—two models consisting of states of fixed rank and datasets such as are currently produced in multiple ions experiments. We test the performance of AIC and BIC on randomly chosen low rank states of four ions, and study the dependence of the selected rank with the number of measurement repetitions for one ion states. We then apply the methods to real data from a four ions experiment aimed at creating a Smolin state of rank 4. By applying the two methods together with the Pearson χ 2 test we conclude that the data can be suitably described with a model whose rank is between 7 and 9. Additionally we find that the mean square error of the maximum likelihood estimator for pure states is close to that of the optimal over all possible measurements. (paper)

  17. Multilevel selection in a resource-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernando Fagundes; Campos, Paulo R. A.

    2013-07-01

    In the present work we investigate the emergence of cooperation in a multilevel selection model that assumes limiting resources. Following the work by R. J. Requejo and J. Camacho [Phys. Rev. Lett.0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.108.038701 108, 038701 (2012)], the interaction among individuals is initially ruled by a prisoner's dilemma (PD) game. The payoff matrix may change, influenced by the resource availability, and hence may also evolve to a non-PD game. Furthermore, one assumes that the population is divided into groups, whose local dynamics is driven by the payoff matrix, whereas an intergroup competition results from the nonuniformity of the growth rate of groups. We study the probability that a single cooperator can invade and establish in a population initially dominated by defectors. Cooperation is strongly favored when group sizes are small. We observe the existence of a critical group size beyond which cooperation becomes counterselected. Although the critical size depends on the parameters of the model, it is seen that a saturation value for the critical group size is achieved. The results conform to the thought that the evolutionary history of life repeatedly involved transitions from smaller selective units to larger selective units.

  18. The use of atmospheric pressure plasma-treated water as a source of nitrite for emulsion-type sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Park, Sanghoo; In Yong, Hae; Choe, Jun Ho; Jeon, Hee-Joon; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the possible use of atmospheric pressure plasma-treated water (PTW) as a nitrite source in curing process. Emulsion-type sausages were manufactured with PTW, celery powder containing nitrite, and synthetic sodium nitrite at a concentration of nitrite ion 70mgkg(-1). In terms of sausage quality, there were no noticeable effects of PTW on the total aerobic bacterial counts, color, and peroxide values of sausages compared with those of celery powder and sodium nitrite throughout 28days of storage at 4°C. Sausage with added PTW had lower concentrations of residual nitrite compared to those of added celery powder and sodium nitrite during the storage period (Pnitrite-treated sausages were not different, whereas the sausage with added celery powder received the lowest scores in taste and acceptability. From the results, it is concluded that PTW can be used as a nitrite source equivalent to a natural curing agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrochemical Single‐Molecule AFM of the Redox Metalloenzyme Copper Nitrite Reductase in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Xian; Zhang, Jingdong; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2012-01-01

    We studied the electrochemical behavior of the redox metalloenzyme copper nitrite reductase (CNiR, Achromobacter xylosoxidans) immobilized on a Au(111)‐electrode surface modified by a self‐assembled cysteamine molecular monolayer (SAM) using a combination of cyclic voltammetry and electrochemically......‐controlled atomic force microscopy (in situ AFM). The enzyme showed no voltammetric signals in the absence of nitrite substrate, whereas a strong reductive electrocatalytic signal appeared in the presence of nitrite. Such a pattern is common in protein film and monolayer voltammetry and points to conformational...... in the presence of nitrite. No change in size was observed in the absence of nitrite over the same potential range. The enzyme size variation is suggested to offer clues to the broadly observed substrate triggering in metalloenzyme monolayer voltammetry....

  20. An effort for reducing Nitrite in the partition process by using Diphenyl Thio Urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashudi; Busron-Masduki; Damunir; Mujianto

    1996-01-01

    The existence of nitrite in the process of U-Pu partition will disturb the partition process. In addition to the reoxidization of Pu 3+ to Pu 4+ , nitrite will also react with reductor. Both reactions are not expected, so that the nitrite ion in the partition process must be eliminated or reduced as much as possible. An experiment on the nitrite elimination in the partition process was done by reacting nitrite with diphenyl thio urea. The experiment result showed that the optimum condition was achieved at a contact time of 6 minutes, at the concentration of 0.004 N (300% stoichiometric), and the elimination result was 90%. This result is competitive enough if compared with hydrazine hydroxide or amido sulphonic acid, where the contact time is 6 minutes, the excess of both reactants are 200% and 300%, and the elimination results are 60% and 50% respectively

  1. Practical Use of Nitrite and Basis for Dosage in the Manufacture of Meat Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Jens; Ekgreen, Maria Helbo; Risum, Jørgen

    . The particularities of the production methods make such a quantification rather uncertain. Furthermore, some dry cured products from South Europe are made with nitrate, which slowly and only partly is converted to nitrite and further to NO during the curing process. The Danish limitations on the use of nitrate......The use of nitrite (NaNO2) in the manufacture of salted (cured) meat products has a long tradition in the industry, dating back to the early twentieth century. Nitrite serves several technological purposes, primarily by the formation of a stable red colour in the meat and the inhibition...... of the growth of Clostridium botulinum. According to an assessment report by the European Food Safety Authority (The EFSA Journal, 14, p. 1-134, 2003) all evidence points to that it is the added amount of nitrite rather than the residual amount of nitrite in the product which exerts the antimicrobial effect...

  2. Controls of nitrite oxidation in ammonia-removing biological air filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhler, Susanne; Ottosen, Lars Ditlev Mørck; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2008-01-01

    in accumulation of nitrate rather than nitrite and a significant decline in pH. As a consequence, ammonia is removed more efficiently, but heterotrophic oxidation of odorous compounds might be inhibited.  To identify the controlling mechanisms of nitrite oxidation, full-scale biological air filters were...... activity resulting in a lowered pH and thus a decreased FA concentration, promoting further growth of NOB. Yet, in some cases a situation with a nitrate-to-nitrite ratio of 1 and moderate pH remained stable even under varying air load and water supply, suggesting that additional mechanisms were involved......In biological air filters ammonia is removed due to the action of Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) resulting in nitrite accumulation exceeding 100 mM. Among filters treating exhaust air from pig facilities successful establishment of Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria (NOB) sometimes occurs, resulting...

  3. Voltammetry and Electrocatalysis of Achrornobacter Xylosoxidans Copper Nitrite Reductase on Functionalized Au(111)-Electrode Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Anna C.; Zhang, Jingdong; Hansen, Allan G.

    2007-01-01

    A long-standing issue in protein film voltammetry (PFV), particularly electrocatalytic voltammetry of redox enzyme monolayers, is the variability of protein adsorption modes, reflected in distributions of catalytic activity of the adsorbed protein/enzyme molecules. Use of well-defined, atomically...... planar electrode surfaces is a step towards the resolution of this central issue. We report here the voltammetry of copper nitrite reductase (CNiR, Achromobacter xylosoxidons) on Au(111)-electrode surfaces modified by monolayers of a broad variety of thiol-based linker molecules. These represent......NiR thus shows highly efficient, close to ideal reversible electrocatalytic voltammetry on cysteamine-covered Au(111)-electrode surfaces, most likely due to two cysteamine orientations previously disclosed by in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy. Such a dual orientation exposes both a hydrophobic...

  4. Hubungan antara Indeks Massa Tubuh dengan Kadar Nitrit Oksid pada Masyarakat Etnik Minangkabau di Kota Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Purwadianti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakObesitas merupakan masalah kesehatan yang kompleks dengan penyebab multifaktorial. Obesitas berkaitan erat dengan peningkatan risiko sejumlah komplikasi seperti hipertensi. Salah satu mekanisme yang menghubungkan obesitas dengan hipertensi adalah disfungsi endotel sebagai akibat penurunan kadar nitrit oksid (NO. Pengukuran Indeks Massa Tubuh (IMT merupakan salah satu indikator untuk menentukan obesitas. .Tujuan penelitian ini ialah menentukan hubungan IMT dengan kadar nitrit oksid pada masyarakat etnik Minangkabau. Desain penelitian adalah studi potong lintang dengan populasi masyarakat etnik Minangkabau usia 30 – 65 tahun di 4 kecamatan terpilih di Kota Padang. Jumlah subjek sebanyak 130 orang. Data responden merupakan data sekunder yang dianalisis menggunakan uji korelasi Pearson dan uji beda rerata dengan metode independent sample t-test. Hasil penelitian pada kelompok obesitas diperoleh p-value = 0,982 dengan r = -0,003. Pada kelompok tidak obesitas didapatkan p-value = 0,924 dan r = -0,013. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa tidak terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara IMT dengan kadar NO. Kadar nitrit oksid rerata pada responden obesitas adalah 28,37±17,45 μmol/L dan tidak obesitas adalah 23,91±11,55 μmol/L dengan p-value=0,084. Terdapat perbedaan rerata kadar NO kelompok obesitas dan tidak obesitas pada masyarakat etnik Minangkabau di Kota Padang namun tidak bermakna secara statistik. Diharapkan penelitian lebih lanjut dengan mempertimbangkan faktor lain yang mempengaruhi kadar NO selain IMT.Kata kunci: indeks massa tubuh, kadar nitrit oksid, obesitas AbstractObesity is a complex health problem with multifactorial causes. Obesity is strongly related to risk increase of many complications such as hypertension. One of the mechanisms that links obesity and hypertension is endhotelial disfunction due to nitric oxide (NO level decrease. Body Mass Index (BMI measurement is one of the indicators to determine obesity

  5. Differential contributions of ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers to nitrification in four paddy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baozhan; Zhao, Jun; Guo, Zhiying; Ma, Jing; Xu, Hua; Jia, Zhongjun

    2015-01-01

    Rice paddy fields are characterized by regular flooding and nitrogen fertilization, but the functional importance of aerobic ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers under unique agricultural management is poorly understood. In this study, we report the differential contributions of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) to nitrification in four paddy soils from different geographic regions (Zi-Yang (ZY), Jiang-Du (JD), Lei-Zhou (LZ) and Jia-Xing (JX)) that are representative of the rice ecosystems in China. In urea-amended microcosms, nitrification activity varied greatly with 11.9, 9.46, 3.03 and 1.43 μg NO3−-N g−1 dry weight of soil per day in the ZY, JD, LZ and JX soils, respectively, over the course of a 56-day incubation period. Real-time quantitative PCR of amoA genes and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed significant increases in the AOA population to various extents, suggesting that their relative contributions to ammonia oxidation activity decreased from ZY to JD to LZ. The opposite trend was observed for AOB, and the JX soil stimulated only the AOB populations. DNA-based stable-isotope probing further demonstrated that active AOA numerically outcompeted their bacterial counterparts by 37.0-, 10.5- and 1.91-fold in 13C-DNA from ZY, JD and LZ soils, respectively, whereas AOB, but not AOA, were labeled in the JX soil during active nitrification. NOB were labeled to a much greater extent than AOA and AOB, and the addition of acetylene completely abolished the assimilation of 13CO2 by nitrifying populations. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that archaeal ammonia oxidation was predominantly catalyzed by soil fosmid 29i4-related AOA within the soil group 1.1b lineage. Nitrosospira cluster 3-like AOB performed most bacterial ammonia oxidation in the ZY, LZ and JX soils, whereas the majority of the 13C-AOB in the JD soil was affiliated with the Nitrosomona communis lineage. The 13C-NOB was overwhelmingly

  6. Estimation of nitrite in source-separated nitrified urine with UV spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašić, Alma; Santos, Ana T L; Etter, Bastian; Udert, Kai M; Villez, Kris

    2015-11-15

    Monitoring of nitrite is essential for an immediate response and prevention of irreversible failure of decentralized biological urine nitrification reactors. Although a few sensors are available for nitrite measurement, none of them are suitable for applications in which both nitrite and nitrate are present in very high concentrations. Such is the case in collected source-separated urine, stabilized by nitrification for long-term storage. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry in combination with chemometrics is a promising option for monitoring of nitrite. In this study, an immersible in situ UV sensor is investigated for the first time so to establish a relationship between UV absorbance spectra and nitrite concentrations in nitrified urine. The study focuses on the effects of suspended particles and saturation on the absorbance spectra and the chemometric model performance. Detailed analysis indicates that suspended particles in nitrified urine have a negligible effect on nitrite estimation, concluding that sample filtration is not necessary as pretreatment. In contrast, saturation due to very high concentrations affects the model performance severely, suggesting dilution as an essential sample preparation step. However, this can also be mitigated by simple removal of the saturated, lower end of the UV absorbance spectra, and extraction of information from the secondary, weaker nitrite absorbance peak. This approach allows for estimation of nitrite with a simple chemometric model and without sample dilution. These results are promising for a practical application of the UV sensor as an in situ nitrite measurement in a urine nitrification reactor given the exceptional quality of the nitrite estimates in comparison to previous studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Crosstalk between nitrite, myoglobin and reactive oxygen species to regulate vasodilation under hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Totzeck

    Full Text Available The systemic response to decreasing oxygen levels is hypoxic vasodilation. While this mechanism has been known for more than a century, the underlying cellular events have remained incompletely understood. Nitrite signaling is critically involved in vessel relaxation under hypoxia. This can be attributed to the presence of myoglobin in the vessel wall together with other potential nitrite reductases, which generate nitric oxide, one of the most potent vasodilatory signaling molecules. Questions remain relating to the precise concentration of nitrite and the exact dose-response relations between nitrite and myoglobin under hypoxia. It is furthermore unclear whether regulatory mechanisms exist which balance this interaction. Nitrite tissue levels were similar across all species investigated. We then investigated the exact fractional myoglobin desaturation in an ex vivo approach when gassing with 1% oxygen. Within a short time frame myoglobin desaturated to 58±12%. Given that myoglobin significantly contributes to nitrite reduction under hypoxia, dose-response experiments using physiological to pharmacological nitrite concentrations were conducted. Along all concentrations, abrogation of myoglobin in mice impaired vasodilation. As reactive oxygen species may counteract the vasodilatory response, we used superoxide dismutase and its mimic tempol as well as catalase and ebselen to reduce the levels of reactive oxygen species during hypoxic vasodilation. Incubation of tempol in conjunction with catalase alone and catalase/ebselen increased the vasodilatory response to nitrite. Our study shows that modest hypoxia leads to a significant nitrite-dependent vessel relaxation. This requires the presence of vascular myoglobin for both physiological and pharmacological nitrite levels. Reactive oxygen species, in turn, modulate this vasodilation response.

  8. Conditional Mutual Information Based Feature Selection for Classification Task

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novovičová, Jana; Somol, Petr; Haindl, Michal; Pudil, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4756 (2007), s. 417-426 ISSN 0302-9743 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR IAA2075302 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Pattern classification * feature selection * conditional mutual information * text categorization Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005

  9. Fuzzy Investment Portfolio Selection Models Based on Interval Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs fuzzy set theory to solve the unintuitive problem of the Markowitz mean-variance (MV portfolio model and extend it to a fuzzy investment portfolio selection model. Our model establishes intervals for expected returns and risk preference, which can take into account investors' different investment appetite and thus can find the optimal resolution for each interval. In the empirical part, we test this model in Chinese stocks investment and find that this model can fulfill different kinds of investors’ objectives. Finally, investment risk can be decreased when we add investment limit to each stock in the portfolio, which indicates our model is useful in practice.

  10. Portfolio Selection Based on Distance between Fuzzy Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyi Qian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper researches portfolio selection problem in fuzzy environment. We introduce a new simple method in which the distance between fuzzy variables is used to measure the divergence of fuzzy investment return from a prior one. Firstly, two new mathematical models are proposed by expressing divergence as distance, investment return as expected value, and risk as variance and semivariance, respectively. Secondly, the crisp forms of the new models are also provided for different types of fuzzy variables. Finally, several numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Dynamic Educational e-Content Selection Using Multiple Criteria in Web-Based Personalized Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouselis, Nikos; Sampson, Demetrios

    This paper focuses on the way a multi-criteria decision making methodology is applied in the case of agent-based selection of offered learning objects. The problem of selection is modeled as a decision making one, with the decision variables being the learner model and the learning objects' educational description. In this way, selection of…

  12. Supplier selection based on improved MOGA and its application in nuclear power equipment procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhaojun; Wang Dezhong; Zhou Lei

    2007-01-01

    Considering the fact that there are few objective and available methods supporting the supplier selection in nuclear power equipment purchasing process, a supplier selection method based on improved multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) is proposed. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of this method for the supplier selection in nuclear power equipment procurement process. (authors)

  13. Samarium (III Selective Membrane Sensor Based on Tin (IV Boratophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok S. K. Kumar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A number of Sm (III selective membranes of varying compositions using tin (IV boratophosphate as electroactive material were prepared. Polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and epoxy resin were used as binding materials. Membrane having composition of 40% exchanger and 60% epoxy resin exhibited best performance. This membrane worked well over a wide concentration range of 1x10-5M to 1x10-1 M of samarium ions with a Super-Nernstian slope of 40 mV/decade. It has a fast response time of less than 10 seconds and can be used for at least six months without any considerable divergence in potentials. The proposed sensor revealed good selectivities with respect to alkali, alkaline earth, some transition and rare earth metal ions and can be used in the pH range of 4.0-10.0. It was used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Sm (III ions against EDTA. Effect of internal solution was studied and the electrode was successfully used in non-aqueous media, too.

  14. Intake assessment of the food additives nitrite (E 249 and E 250) and nitrate (E 251 and E 252)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong RC; Niekerk EM; Beukers MH; VVH; V&Z

    2017-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are authorised as preservatives in certain food products, such as salami, ham (nitrite) and cheese (nitrate). They prevent food spoilage and protect the consumer against food-borne pathogens. Next to that, nitrate and nitrite play a role in food colour retention and contribute to

  15. Annotation-Based Whole Genomic Prediction and Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadarmideen, Haja; Do, Duy Ngoc; Janss, Luc

    Genomic selection is widely used in both animal and plant species, however, it is performed with no input from known genomic or biological role of genetic variants and therefore is a black box approach in a genomic era. This study investigated the role of different genomic regions and detected QTLs...... in their contribution to estimated genomic variances and in prediction of genomic breeding values by applying SNP annotation approaches to feed efficiency. Ensembl Variant Predictor (EVP) and Pig QTL database were used as the source of genomic annotation for 60K chip. Genomic prediction was performed using the Bayes...... classes. Predictive accuracy was 0.531, 0.532, 0.302, and 0.344 for DFI, RFI, ADG and BF, respectively. The contribution per SNP to total genomic variance was similar among annotated classes across different traits. Predictive performance of SNP classes did not significantly differ from randomized SNP...

  16. Chaotic Dynamical State Variables Selection Procedure Based Image Encryption Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Bashir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in the modern digital era, the use of computer technologies such as smartphones, tablets and the Internet, as well as the enormous quantity of confidential information being converted into digital form have resulted in raised security issues. This, in turn, has led to rapid developments in cryptography, due to the imminent need for system security. Low-dimensional chaotic systems have low complexity and key space, yet they achieve high encryption speed. An image encryption scheme is proposed that, without compromising the security, uses reasonable resources. We introduced a chaotic dynamic state variables selection procedure (CDSVSP to use all state variables of a hyper-chaotic four-dimensional dynamical system. As a result, less iterations of the dynamical system are required, and resources are saved, thus making the algorithm fast and suitable for practical use. The simulation results of security and other miscellaneous tests demonstrate that the suggested algorithm excels at robustness, security and high speed encryption.

  17. Risk-based selection of SSCs at Peach Bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, G.A.; Marie, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of identifying risk significant systems, structures, and components (SSCS) that are within the scope of the maintenance rule is to bring a higher level of attention to a subset of those SSCS. These risk-significant SSCs will have specific performance criteria established for them, and failure to meet this performance criteria will result in establishing goals to ensure the necessary improvement in performance. The Peach Bottom individual plant examination (IPE) results were used to provide insights for the verification of proposed probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods set forth in the Industry Maintenance Guidelines for Implementation of the Maintenance Rule. The objective of reviewing the methods for selection of SSCs that are considered risk significant was to ensure the methods used are logical, reproducible, and can be consistently applied

  18. Materials selection for oxide-based resistive random access memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John

    2014-01-01

    The energies of atomic processes in resistive random access memories (RRAMs) are calculated for four typical oxides, HfO 2 , TiO 2 , Ta 2 O 5 , and Al 2 O 3 , to define a materials selection process. O vacancies have the lowest defect formation energy in the O-poor limit and dominate the processes. A band diagram defines the operating Fermi energy and O chemical potential range. It is shown how the scavenger metal can be used to vary the O vacancy formation energy, via controlling the O chemical potential, and the mean Fermi energy. The high endurance of Ta 2 O 5 RRAM is related to its more stable amorphous phase and the adaptive lattice rearrangements of its O vacancy

  19. Nanoparticle array based optical frequency selective surfaces: theory and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Chiya; van der Weide, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate a synthesis procedure for designing a bandstop optical frequency selective surface (FSS) composed of nanoparticle (NP) elements. The proposed FSS uses two-dimensional (2-D) periodic arrays of NPs with subwavelength unit-cell dimensions. We derive equivalent circuit for a nanoparticle array (NPA) using the closed-form solution for a 2-D NPA excited by a plane wave in the limit of the dipole approximation, which includes contribution from both individual and collective plasmon modes. Using the extracted equivalent circuit, we demonstrate synthesis of an optical FSS using cascaded NPA layers as coupled resonators, which we validate with both circuit model and full-wave simulation for a third-order Butterworth bandstop prototype.

  20. Supplier Selection based on the Performance by using PROMETHEE Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, T. S.; Siregar, K.

    2017-03-01

    Generally, companies faced problem to identify vendors that can provide excellent service in availability raw material and on time delivery. The performance of suppliers in a company have to be monitored to ensure the availability to fulfill the company needs. This research is intended to explain how to assess suppliers to improve manufacturing performance. The criteria that considered in evaluating suppliers is criteria of Dickson. There are four main criteria which further split into seven sub-criteria, namely compliance with accuracy, consistency, on-time delivery, right quantity order, flexibility and negotiation, timely of order confirmation, and responsiveness. This research uses PROMETHEE methodology in assessing the supplier performances and obtaining a selected supplier as the best one that shown from the degree of alternative comparison preference between suppliers.

  1. Materials selection for oxide-based resistive random access memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John [Engineering Department, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    The energies of atomic processes in resistive random access memories (RRAMs) are calculated for four typical oxides, HfO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, to define a materials selection process. O vacancies have the lowest defect formation energy in the O-poor limit and dominate the processes. A band diagram defines the operating Fermi energy and O chemical potential range. It is shown how the scavenger metal can be used to vary the O vacancy formation energy, via controlling the O chemical potential, and the mean Fermi energy. The high endurance of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} RRAM is related to its more stable amorphous phase and the adaptive lattice rearrangements of its O vacancy.

  2. Expected utility violations evolve under status-based selection mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Eric S

    2008-10-07

    The expected utility theory of decision making under uncertainty, a cornerstone of modern economics, assumes that humans linearly weight "utilities" for different possible outcomes by the probabilities with which these outcomes occur. Despite the theory's intuitive appeal, both from normative and from evolutionary perspectives, many experiments demonstrate systematic, though poorly understood, patterns of deviation from EU predictions. This paper offers a novel theoretical account of such patterns of deviation by demonstrating that EU violations can emerge from evolutionary selection when individual "status" affects inclusive fitness. In humans, battles for resources and social standing involve high-stakes decision making, and assortative mating ensures that status matters for fitness outcomes. The paper therefore proposes grounding the study of decision making under uncertainty in an evolutionary game-theoretic framework.

  3. Role of xanthine oxidoreductase in the anti-thrombotic effects of nitrite in rats in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramkowski, K; Leszczynska, A; Przyborowski, K; Kaminski, T; Rykaczewska, U; Sitek, B; Zakrzewska, A; Proniewski, B; Smolenski, R T; Chabielska, E; Buczko, W; Chlopicki, S

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying nitrite-induced effects on thrombosis and hemostasis in vivo are not clear. The goal of the work described here was to investigate the role of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in the anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic activities of nitrite in rats in vivo. Arterial thrombosis was induced electrically in rats with renovascular hypertension by partial ligation of the left renal artery. Sodium nitrite (NaNO2, 0.17 mmol/kg twice daily for 3 days, p.o) was administered with or without one of the XOR-inhibitors: allopurinol (ALLO) and febuxostat (FEB) (100 and 5 mg/kg, p.o., for 3 days). Nitrite treatment (0.17 mmol/kg), which was associated with a significant increase in NOHb, nitrite/nitrate plasma concentration, resulted in a substantial decrease in thrombus weight (TW) (0.48 ± 0.03 mg vs. vehicle [VEH] 0.88 ± 0.08 mg, p < 0.001) without a significant hypotensive effect. The anti-thrombotic effect of nitrite was partially reversed by FEB (TW = 0.63 ± 0.06 mg, p < 0.05 vs. nitrites), but not by ALLO (TW = 0.43 ± 0.02 mg). In turn, profound anti-platelet effect of nitrite measured ex vivo using collagen-induced whole-blood platelet aggregation (70.5 ± 7.1% vs. VEH 100 ± 4.5%, p < 0.05) and dynamic thromboxaneB2 generation was fully reversed by both XOR-inhibitors. In addition, nitrite decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentration (0.47 ± 0.13 ng/ml vs. VEH 0.62 ± 0.04 ng/ml, p < 0.05) and FEB/ALLO reversed this effect. In vitro the anti-platelet effect of nitrite (1 mM) was reversed by FEB (0.1 mM) under hypoxia (0.5%O2) and normoxia (20%O2). Nitrite treatment had no effect on coagulation parameters. In conclusion, the nitrite-induced anti-platelet effect in rats in vivo is mediated by XOR, but XOR does not fully account for the anti-thrombotic effects of nitrite.

  4. Addition of nitrite enhances the electrochemical defluorination of 2-fluoroaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Huajun; Liang, Yuxiang; Guo, Kun; Long, Yuyang; Cong, Yanqing; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for improving defluorination performance by in situ self-assembly of pollutants was developed. • The mechanisms of 2-FA modification and defluorination are discussed. • Positively-charged diazonium salt is used to weaken the C–F bond. - Abstract: This study introduces a novel approach that uses the interaction of pollutants with added nitrite to produce diazonium salts, which cause in situ self-assembly of the pollutants on carbon electrodes, to improve their 2-fluoroaniline (2-FA) defluorination and removal performance. The 2-FA degradation performance, electrode properties, electrochemical properties and degradation pathway were investigated. The reactor containing NO_2"− achieved a 2-FA removal efficiency of 90.1% and a defluorination efficiency of 38% within 48 h, 1.4 and 2.3 times higher than the corresponding results achieved without NO_2"−, respectively. The residual NO_2"− was less than 0.5 mg/L in the reactor containing added NO_2"−, which would not cause serious secondary pollution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results proved that the carbon anode surface was successfully modified with benzene polymer, and electrochemical tests confirmed that the electrochemical activity of the modified anode was enhanced significantly. The C–F bond was weakened by the effect of the positive charge of the benzenediazonium groups, and the high electrochemical activity of the carbon anode enhanced the electrochemical performance of the system to accelerate defluorination. Thus, the present electrical method involving nitrite nitrogen is very promising for the treatment of wastewater containing fluoroaniline compounds.

  5. Addition of nitrite enhances the electrochemical defluorination of 2-fluoroaniline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Huajun [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Liang, Yuxiang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Guo, Kun [Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Long, Yuyang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Cong, Yanqing, E-mail: yqcong@hotmail.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Shen, Dongsheng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, Hangzhou 310012 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • A method for improving defluorination performance by in situ self-assembly of pollutants was developed. • The mechanisms of 2-FA modification and defluorination are discussed. • Positively-charged diazonium salt is used to weaken the C–F bond. - Abstract: This study introduces a novel approach that uses the interaction of pollutants with added nitrite to produce diazonium salts, which cause in situ self-assembly of the pollutants on carbon electrodes, to improve their 2-fluoroaniline (2-FA) defluorination and removal performance. The 2-FA degradation performance, electrode properties, electrochemical properties and degradation pathway were investigated. The reactor containing NO{sub 2}{sup −} achieved a 2-FA removal efficiency of 90.1% and a defluorination efficiency of 38% within 48 h, 1.4 and 2.3 times higher than the corresponding results achieved without NO{sub 2}{sup −}, respectively. The residual NO{sub 2}{sup −} was less than 0.5 mg/L in the reactor containing added NO{sub 2}{sup −}, which would not cause serious secondary pollution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results proved that the carbon anode surface was successfully modified with benzene polymer, and electrochemical tests confirmed that the electrochemical activity of the modified anode was enhanced significantly. The C–F bond was weakened by the effect of the positive charge of the benzenediazonium groups, and the high electrochemical activity of the carbon anode enhanced the electrochemical performance of the system to accelerate defluorination. Thus, the present electrical method involving nitrite nitrogen is very promising for the treatment of wastewater containing fluoroaniline compounds.

  6. Isoniazid release from suppositories compounded with selected bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Kristofer C; Asbill, C Scott; Webster, Andrew A

    2007-01-01

    There is an increasing need for an alternative route of isoniazid adminstration for prophylaxis and treatment of tuberculosis in children. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the in vitro release of isoniazid from extemporaneously compounded isoniazid suppositories with a goal of optimizing the suppository dosage form for this indication. Suppositories were compounded using three different base formulations (cocoa butter, Witepsol H15 Base F, and a combination of polyethylene glycols 3350, 1000, and 400). The release profiles of six compounded suppositories with isoniazid (100 mg) were tested with a United States Pharmacopeial Convention-approved dissolution apparatus. Isoniazid concentrations at predetermined time points were determined using high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. The results show that drug release from the water-solutble base (mixed polyethylene glycols) was significantly greater than that from the lipophilic bases (cocoa butter and Witepsol H15). The percentage of isoniazid release form the polyethylene glycol suppository formulation (70 +/- 1.4 mg/mL) was greater than that from the cocoa butter (55 +/- 1.1 mg/mL) and Witepsol H15 Base F (18 +/- 0.36 mg/mL) suppository formulations.

  7. Performance Analysis of a Threshold-Based Parallel Multiple Beam Selection Scheme for WDM FSO Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ko, Young-Chai

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we statistically analyze the performance of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme for a free-space optical (FSO) based system with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in cases where a pointing error has occurred

  8. Spatial interaction of archaeal ammonia-oxidizers and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in an unfertilized grassland soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eStempfhuber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interrelated successive transformation steps of nitrification are performed by distinct microbial groups – the ammonia-oxidizers, comprising ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and bacteria (AOB, and nitrite-oxidizers such as Nitrobacter and Nitrospira, which are the dominant genera in the investigated soils. Hence, not only their presence and activity in the investigated habitat is required for nitrification, but also their temporal and spatial interactions. To demonstrate the interdependence of both groups and to address factors promoting putative niche differentiation within each group, temporal and spatial changes in nitrifying organisms were monitored in an unfertilized grassland site over an entire vegetation period at the plot scale of 10 m². Nitrifying organisms were assessed by measuring the abundance of marker genes (amoA for AOA and AOB, nxrA for Nitrobacter, 16S rRNA gene for Nitrospira selected for the respective sub-processes. A positive correlation between numerically dominant AOA and Nitrospira, and their co-occurrence at the same spatial scale in August and October, suggests that the nitrification process is predominantly performed by these groups and is restricted to a limited timeframe. Amongst nitrite-oxidizers, niche differentiation was evident in observed seasonally varying patterns of co-occurrence and spatial separation. While their distributions were most likely driven by substrate concentrations, oxygen availability may also have played a role under substrate-limited conditions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed temporal shifts in Nitrospira community composition with an increasing relative abundance of OTU03 assigned to sublineage V from August onwards, indicating its important role in nitrite oxidation.

  9. Natural ingredients based cosmetics. Content of selected fragrance sensitizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, we have investigated 42 cosmetic products based on natural ingredients for content of 11 fragrance substances: geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, isoeugenol, cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, alpha-amylcinnamic aldehyde, citral, coumarin, dihydrocoumarin and alpha......-hexylcinnamic aldehyde. The study revealed that the 91% (20/22) of the natural ingredients based perfumes contained 0.027%-7.706% of 1 to 7 of the target fragrances. Between 1 and 5 of the chemically defined synthetic constituents of fragrance mix were found in 82% (18/22) of the perfumes. 35% (7/20) of the other...... of hydroxycitronellal and alpha-hexylcinnamic aldehyde in some of the products demonstrates that artificial fragrances, i.e., compounds not yet regarded as natural substances, may be present in products claimed to be based on natural ingredients....

  10. Multi-spectral band selection for satellite-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clodius, W.B.; Weber, P.G.; Borel, C.C.; Smith, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The design of satellite based multispectral imaging systems requires the consideration of a number of tradeoffs between cost and performance. The authors have recently been involved in the design and evaluation of a satellite based multispectral sensor operating from the visible through the long wavelength IR. The criteria that led to some of the proposed designs and the modeling used to evaluate and fine tune the designs will both be discussed. These criteria emphasized the use of bands for surface temperature retrieval and the correction of atmospheric effects. The impact of cost estimate changes on the final design will also be discussed

  11. Risk-based audit selection of dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Velthuis, A.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy farms are audited in the Netherlands on numerous process standards. Each farm is audited once every 2 years. Increasing demands for cost-effectiveness in farm audits can be met by introducing risk-based principles. This implies targeting subpopulations with a higher risk of poor process

  12. Gear-based species selectivity and potential interactions between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and competition between different co-occurring fisheries is therefore important for the implementation of ecosystem based fisheries management interventions. In this study, we used multivariate and ecological approaches to evaluate gear competition and interactions between artisanal and aquarium fishers using a case ...

  13. DFT-based inhibitor and promoter selection criteria for pentagonal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Methane hydrate formation inhibition by methanol and ethylene glycol as well as methane hydrate stabilization by cyclopentane and tetrahydrofuran are critically analysed based on the interaction energy, free energy change, dipole moment and infrared frequency calculation. Calculation of free energy change for formation ...

  14. Influence of selected biotopes on chironomid-based bioassessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... three distinct biotopes, i.e., stones, vegetation and sediments. In this study, the influence of reducing the numbers of biotopes on chironomid-based bioassessment of pollution in the Swartkops River was investigated. This paper addresses the following questions: (i) can the chironomid species assemblage from any single ...

  15. Evaluation Of Selected Commercial Banks Financing Of Agro Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result showed that the agro-based enterprises are faced with the problems of insufficient collateral, high interest rate and poor documentation while the banks are faced with the problems of loan diversion, irregular loan repayment and none presentation of perfectible collaterals by loan beneficiaries. Commercial banks ...

  16. Evaluation and Selection of Gel Base for the Formulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate dexpanthenol gels with enhanced in vivo absorption properties via skin. Methods: Carboxyvinyl derivatives (Carbopol 980 and Ultrez 10) and poloxamer (Lutrol F 127) were used as the hydrogel base in the formulations. Changes in rheological properties (apparent viscosity and penetration values) ...

  17. Patient-based radiographic exposure factor selection: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, William; Robinson, John; McEntee, Mark, E-mail: mark.mcentee@sydney.edu.au [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Digital technology has wider exposure latitude and post-processing algorithms which can mask the evidence of underexposure and overexposure. Underexposure produces noisy, grainy images which can impede diagnosis and overexposure results in a greater radiation dose to the patient. These exposure errors can result from inaccurate adjustment of exposure factors in response to changes in patient thickness. This study aims to identify all published radiographic exposure adaptation systems which have been, or are being, used in general radiography and discuss their applicability to digital systems. Studies in EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS were systematically reviewed. Some of the search terms used were exposure adaptation, exposure selection, exposure technique, 25% rule, 15% rule, DuPont™ Bit System and radiography. A manual journal-specific search was also conducted in The Radiographer and Radiologic Technology. Studies were included if they demonstrated a system of altering exposure factors to compensate for variations in patients for general radiography. Studies were excluded if they focused on finding optimal exposures for an ‘average’ patient or focused on the relationship between exposure factors and dose. The database search uncovered 11 articles and the journal-specific search uncovered 13 articles discussing systems of exposure adaptation. They can be categorised as simple one-step guidelines, comprehensive charts and computer programs. Only two papers assessed the efficacy of exposure adjustment systems. No literature compares the efficacy of exposure adaptations system for film/screen radiography with digital radiography technology nor is there literature on a digital specific exposure adaptation system.

  18. Patient-based radiographic exposure factor selection: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, William; Robinson, John; McEntee, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Digital technology has wider exposure latitude and post-processing algorithms which can mask the evidence of underexposure and overexposure. Underexposure produces noisy, grainy images which can impede diagnosis and overexposure results in a greater radiation dose to the patient. These exposure errors can result from inaccurate adjustment of exposure factors in response to changes in patient thickness. This study aims to identify all published radiographic exposure adaptation systems which have been, or are being, used in general radiography and discuss their applicability to digital systems. Studies in EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS were systematically reviewed. Some of the search terms used were exposure adaptation, exposure selection, exposure technique, 25% rule, 15% rule, DuPont™ Bit System and radiography. A manual journal-specific search was also conducted in The Radiographer and Radiologic Technology. Studies were included if they demonstrated a system of altering exposure factors to compensate for variations in patients for general radiography. Studies were excluded if they focused on finding optimal exposures for an ‘average’ patient or focused on the relationship between exposure factors and dose. The database search uncovered 11 articles and the journal-specific search uncovered 13 articles discussing systems of exposure adaptation. They can be categorised as simple one-step guidelines, comprehensive charts and computer programs. Only two papers assessed the efficacy of exposure adjustment systems. No literature compares the efficacy of exposure adaptations system for film/screen radiography with digital radiography technology nor is there literature on a digital specific exposure adaptation system

  19. Making evidence-based selections of influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Billy-Clyde; Montney, Joshua D; Albro, Elise A

    2014-01-01

    Years ago, intramuscular influenza vaccines were the only option for those who wanted to arm themselves against the flu. Today there are alternatives, including intradermal injections and intranasal sprays. In order to select the right influenza vaccine for their patients, pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals must have a basic understanding of the immune system. Influenza vaccines elicit different levels of immune response involving innate and adaptive immunity, which are critical to fighting infection. For the 2013-2014 flu season, there were 13 different formulations of influenza vaccines on the market with vast differences in indications, contraindications, and effectiveness. The CDC does not recommend one vaccine over another, but recommends that all patients be vaccinated against the flu. Preventing the spread of influenza is no simple task; however, the most recent evidence on influenza vaccines and sufficient knowledge of the immune system will allow pharmacists and other healthcare providers to better advocate for vaccines, determine which are most appropriate, and ensure their proper administration.

  20. GAIN RATIO BASED FEATURE SELECTION METHOD FOR PRIVACY PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Praveena Priyadarsini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Privacy-preservation is a step in data mining that tries to safeguard sensitive information from unsanctioned disclosure and hence protecting individual data records and their privacy. There are various privacy preservation techniques like k-anonymity, l-diversity and t-closeness and data perturbation. In this paper k-anonymity privacy protection technique is applied to high dimensional datasets like adult and census. since, both the data sets are high dimensional, feature subset selection method like Gain Ratio is applied and the attributes of the datasets are ranked and low ranking attributes are filtered to form new reduced data subsets. K-anonymization privacy preservation technique is then applied on reduced datasets. The accuracy of the privacy preserved reduced datasets and the original datasets are compared for their accuracy on the two functionalities of data mining namely classification and clustering using naïve Bayesian and k-means algorithm respectively. Experimental results show that classification and clustering accuracy are comparatively the same for reduced k-anonym zed datasets and the original data sets.

  1. Alkali resistivity of Cu based selective catalytic reduction catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Jensen, Anker Degn; Riisager, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The deactivation of V2O5–WO3–TiO2, Cu–HZSM5 and Cu–HMOR plate type monolithic catalysts was investigated when exposed to KCl aerosols in a bench-scale reactor. Fresh and exposed catalysts were characterized by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) activity measurements, scanning electron microscope......–energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDX) and NH3-temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD). 95% deactivation was observed for the V2O5–WO3–TiO2 catalyst, while the Cu–HZSM5 and Cu–HMOR catalysts deactivated only 58% and 48%, respectively, after 1200 h KCl exposure. SEM analysis of the KCl aerosol exposed...... catalysts revealed that the potassium salt not only deposited on the catalyst surface, but also penetrated into the catalyst wall. Thus, the K/M ratio (M = V or Cu) was high on V2O5–WO3–TiO2 catalyst and comparatively less on Cu–HZSM5 and Cu–HMOR catalysts. NH3-TPD revealed that the KCl exposed Cu–HZSM5...

  2. Neural bases of selective attention in action video game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavelier, D; Achtman, R L; Mani, M; Föcker, J

    2012-05-15

    Over the past few years, the very act of playing action video games has been shown to enhance several different aspects of visual selective attention, yet little is known about the neural mechanisms that mediate such attentional benefits. A review of the aspects of attention enhanced in action game players suggests there are changes in the mechanisms that control attention allocation and its efficiency (Hubert-Wallander, Green, & Bavelier, 2010). The present study used brain imaging to test this hypothesis by comparing attentional network recruitment and distractor processing in action gamers versus non-gamers as attentional demands increased. Moving distractors were found to elicit lesser activation of the visual motion-sensitive area (MT/MST) in gamers as compared to non-gamers, suggestive of a better early filtering of irrelevant information in gamers. As expected, a fronto-parietal network of areas showed greater recruitment as attentional demands increased in non-gamers. In contrast, gamers barely engaged this network as attentional demands increased. This reduced activity in the fronto-parietal network that is hypothesized to control the flexible allocation of top-down attention is compatible with the proposal that action game players may allocate attentional resources more automatically, possibly allowing more efficient early filtering of irrelevant information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gorleben. Waste management site based on an appropriate selection procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiggemann, Anselm

    2010-01-01

    On February 22, 1977, the Lower Saxony state government decided in favor of Gorleben as a ''preliminary'' site of a ''potential'' facility for managing the back end of the fuel cycle of the nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany. The Lower Saxony files, closed until recently, now allow both the factual basis and the political background to be reconstructed comprehensively. The first selection procedure, financed by the federal government, for the site of a ''nuclear waste management center,'' which had been conducted by Kernbrennstoff-Wiederaufarbeitungsgesellschaft (KEWA) in 1974, had not considered Gorleben in any detail. As early as in the winter of 1975/76, Gorleben and a number of other potential sites were indicated to KEWA by the Lower Saxony State Ministry of Economics. The new finding is KEWA's conclusion of 1976 that Gorleben surpassed all potential sites examined so far in terms of suitability. As a consequence, Gorleben was regarded as an alternative alongside the 3 sites favored before, i.e. Wahn, Lutterloh, and Lichtenhorst, when the 3 Federal Ministers, Hans Matthoefer (SPD), Werner Maihofer (F.D.P.), and Hans Friderichs (F.D.P.), discussed the nuclear waste management project with Minister President Albrecht (CDU) in November 1976. The Lower Saxony State Cabinet commissioned an interministerial working party (IMAK) to find other potential sites besides Wahn, Lutterloh, Lichtenhorst, and Gorleben. IMAK proposed Gorleben, Lichtenhorst, Mariaglueck, and Wahn for further examination. IMAK recommended to the State Cabinet in another proposal to earmark either Gorleben or Lichtenhorst. (orig.)

  4. Strategy selection in cue-based decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, David J

    2014-06-01

    People can make use of a range of heuristic and rational, compensatory strategies to perform a multiple-cue judgment task. It has been proposed that people are sensitive to the amount of cognitive effort required to employ decision strategies. Experiment 1 employed a dual-task methodology to investigate whether participants' preference for heuristic versus compensatory decision strategies can be altered by increasing the cognitive demands of the task. As indicated by participants' decision times, a secondary task interfered more with the performance of a heuristic than compensatory decision strategy but did not affect the proportions of participants using either type of strategy. A stimulus set effect suggested that the conjunction of cue salience and cue validity might play a determining role in strategy selection. The results of Experiment 2 indicated that when a perceptually salient cue was also the most valid, the majority of participants preferred a single-cue heuristic strategy. Overall, the results contradict the view that heuristics are more likely to be adopted when a task is made more cognitively demanding. It is argued that people employ 2 learning processes during training, one an associative learning process in which cue-outcome associations are developed by sampling multiple cues, and another that involves the sequential examination of single cues to serve as a basis for a single-cue heuristic.

  5. Effect of Ethanolamines on Corrosion Inhibition of Ductile Cast Iron in Nitrite Containing Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. T.; Kim, Y. S.; Chang, H. Y.; Lim, B. T.; Park, H. B.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, synergistic corrosion inhibition effect of nitrite and 3 kinds of ethanolamines on ductile cast iron using chemical and electrochemical methods was evaluated. This work attempts to clarify the synergistic effect of nitrite and ethanolamines. The effects of single addition of TEA, DEA, and MEA, and mixed addition of nitrite plus TEA, DEA or MEA on the corrosion inhibition of ductile cast iron in a tap water were evaluated. A huge amount of single addition of ethanolamine was needed. However, the synergistic effect by mixed addition was observed regardless of the combination of nitrite and triethanolamines, but their effects increased in a series of MEA + nitrite > DEA + nitrite > TEA + nitrite. This tendency of synergistic effect was attributed to the film properties and polar effect; TEA addition couldn't form the film showing high film resistance and semiconductive properties, but DEA or MEA could build the film having relatively high film resistance and n-type semiconductive properties. Moreover, it can be explained that this behaviour was closely related to electron attractive group within the ethanolamines, and thus corrosion inhibition power depends upon the number of the electron attractive group of MEA, DEA, and TEA.

  6. Effect of Ethanolamines on Corrosion Inhibition of Ductile Cast Iron in Nitrite Containing Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. T.; Kim, Y. S. [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chang, H. Y.; Lim, B. T.; Park, H. B. [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In this work, synergistic corrosion inhibition effect of nitrite and 3 kinds of ethanolamines on ductile cast iron using chemical and electrochemical methods was evaluated. This work attempts to clarify the synergistic effect of nitrite and ethanolamines. The effects of single addition of TEA, DEA, and MEA, and mixed addition of nitrite plus TEA, DEA or MEA on the corrosion inhibition of ductile cast iron in a tap water were evaluated. A huge amount of single addition of ethanolamine was needed. However, the synergistic effect by mixed addition was observed regardless of the combination of nitrite and triethanolamines, but their effects increased in a series of MEA + nitrite > DEA + nitrite > TEA + nitrite. This tendency of synergistic effect was attributed to the film properties and polar effect; TEA addition couldn't form the film showing high film resistance and semiconductive properties, but DEA or MEA could build the film having relatively high film resistance and n-type semiconductive properties. Moreover, it can be explained that this behaviour was closely related to electron attractive group within the ethanolamines, and thus corrosion inhibition power depends upon the number of the electron attractive group of MEA, DEA, and TEA.

  7. Nitrite reduction and methanogenesis in a single-stage UASB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, L I; López-Vazquez, C M; García, H; van Lier, J B

    2015-01-01

    In this study, nitrite reduction and methanogenesis in a single-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was investigated, using high-strength synthetic domestic wastewater as substrate. To assess long-term effects and evaluate the mechanisms that allow successful nitrite reduction and methanogenesis in a single-stage UASB, sludge was exposed to relatively high nitrite loading rates (315 ± 13 mgNO(2)(-)-N/(l.d)), using a chemical oxygen demand (COD) to nitrogen ratio of 18 gCOD/gNO(2)(-)-N, and an organic loading rate of 5.4 ± 0.2 gCOD/(l.d). In parallel, the effects of sludge morphology on methanogenesis inhibition were studied by performing short-term batch activity tests at different COD/NO(2)(-)-N ratios with anaerobic sludge samples. In long-term tests, denitrification was practically complete and COD removal efficiency did not change significantly after nitrite addition. Furthermore, methane production only decreased by 13%, agreeing with the reducing equivalents requirement for complete NO(2)(-) reduction to N₂. Apparently, the spatial separation of denitrification and methanogenesis zones inside the UASB reactor allowed nitrite reduction and methanogenesis to occur at the same moment. Batch tests showed that granules seem to protect methanogens from nitrite inhibition, probably due to transport limitations. Combined COD and N removal via nitrite in a single-stage UASB reactor could be a feasible technology to treat high-strength domestic wastewater.

  8. Preliminary nitrite, nitrate and colour analysis of Malaysian edible bird’s nest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meei Chien Quek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The high nitrite content in edible bird’s nests is a major concern to the local swiftlet industry. It lowers the price of the edible bird’s nests and it brings severe health hazards to consumers and farmers. This research investigated the nitrite and nitrate contents of eight types of local edible bird’s nests by using ion chromatography system and evaluating its colour using the CIE system in L∗a∗b∗ parameters. The nitrite content obtained ranged from 5.7 μg/g for the house nests to 843.8 μg/g for the cave nests. The nitrate content for the house and cave nests was 98.2 μg/g and 36,999.4 μg/g, respectively. The cave nests with darker and redder colour had higher nitrite and nitrate contents than the brighter and more yellow house nests. This likely suggests that the nitrite and nitrate contents have correlations with edible bird’s nests colour. Correlations studies suggested that the nitrite content had high correlations with colour parameters, L∗a∗b∗ of edible bird’s nests at significant level of P < 0.10. These findings suggest that edible bird’s nests’ colour may be a useful indicator for measuring nitrite and nitrate contaminations.

  9. Music stimuli lead to increased levels of nitrite in unstimulated mixed saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Luyuan; Zhang, Mengbi; Xu, Junji; Xia, Dengsheng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jingsong; Wang, Songlin

    2018-06-15

    Concentration of salivary nitrate is approximately 10-fold to that of serum. Many circumstances such as acute stress could promote salivary nitrate secretion and nitrite formation. However, whether other conditions can also be used as regulators of salivary nitrate/nitrite has not yet been explored. The present study was designed to determine the influence of exposure to different music on the salivary flow rate and nitrate secretion and nitrite formation. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females and 12 males) were exposed to silence, rock music, classical music or white noise respectively on four consecutive mornings. The unstimulated salivary flow rate and stimulated salivary flow rate were measured. Salivary ionic (Na + , Ca 2+ Cl - , and PO 4 3- ) content and nitrate/nitrite levels were detected. The unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly increased after classical music exposure compared to that after silence. Salivary nitrite levels were significantly higher upon classical music and white noise stimulation than those under silence in females. However, males were more sensitive only to white noise with regard to the nitrite increase. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that classical music stimulation promotes salivary nitrite formation and an increase in saliva volume was observed. These observations may play an important role in regulating oral function.

  10. Effect of luminal or circulating nitrite on colonic ion movement in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radcliffe, B.C.; Nance, S.H.; Deakin, E.J.; Roediger, W.E.W.

    1987-01-01

    The disposition of intravenously or luminally administered nitrite across the colonic mucosa and its effect on ion movement into or from the colon was assessed in anesthetized Porton rats using the isolated colon instilled either with sodium chloride or sodium chloride with sodium butyrate. Ionic changes in the colon after intravenous injection of 10 μmol NaNO 2 were compared with those occurring after injection of 10 μmol NaCl. After intravenous administration of nitrite, both nitrite and nitrate appeared in the colonic instillate in a ratio of 1:1. Nitrite increased chloride absorption (110%) and bicarbonate production (20%) when 40 mM butyrate was included in the instillate. Net sodium absorption, measured in the whole colon, was unchanged. Intravenous nitrite had no effect on ionic movement in the absence of butyrate. When NaNO 2 was included luminally with the sodium chloride-butyrate instillate, bicarbonate production rate increased, but sodium and chloride absorption were unaffected. Nitrite concentration in the instillate decreased during the 40-min experimental period at a rate of 0.275 nmol·min -1 ·cm -2 and nitrate appeared at a rate of 0.037 nmol·min -1 ·cm -2 . The authors conclude that nitrite stimulates bicarbonate production in the colon, probably by stimulating the oxidation by butyrate, the main source of CO 2 generation by the colonic mucosa

  11. Selective interface transparency in graphene nanoribbon based molecular junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, K P; Kaun, C C; Zhang, R Q

    2018-03-08

    A clear understanding of electrode-molecule interfaces is a prerequisite for the rational engineering of future generations of nanodevices that will rely on single-molecule coupling between components. With a model system, we reveal a peculiar dependence on interfaces in all graphene nanoribbon-based carbon molecular junctions. The effect can be classified into two types depending on the intrinsic feature of the embedded core graphene nanoflake (GNF). For metallic GNFs with |N A - N B | = 1, good/poor contact transparency occurs when the core device aligns with the center/edge of the electrode. The situation is reversed when a semiconducting GNF is the device, where N A = N B . These results may shed light on the design of real connecting components in graphene-based nanocircuits.

  12. Photochemical selectivity in guanine-cytosine base-pair structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abo-Riziq, A.; Grace, L.; Nir, E.; Kabeláč, Martin; Hobza, Pavel; Vries de, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 1 (2005), s. 20-23 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/0009 Grant - others:NSF(US) CHE-0244341 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : DNA base pairs * IR-UV spectroscopy * phytochemistry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 10.231, year: 2005

  13. Automated Threshold Selection for Template-Based Sonar Target Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    features,” OCEANS 2014 - TAIPEI. 4. Groen, J.; Coiras, E .; Del Rio, J.; Evans, Vera B., “Model-based sea mine classification with synthetic aperture...2) 3$*(6 D1$0(2)5(63216,%/(3(5621 D5(3257 E $%675$&7 F7+,63$*( /,0,7$7,212) $%675$&7 6WDQGDUG)RUP 5HY...3UHVFULEHG E \\$16,6WG= 7KHSXEOLFUHSRUWLQJEXUGHQIRUWKLVFROOHFWLRQRI LQIRUPDWLRQLVHVWLPDWHGWRDYHUDJHKRXUSHUUHVSRQVH

  14. IMRT QA: Selecting gamma criteria based on error detection sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steers, Jennifer M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 and Physics and Biology in Medicine IDP, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Fraass, Benedick A., E-mail: benedick.fraass@cshs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: The gamma comparison is widely used to evaluate the agreement between measurements and treatment planning system calculations in patient-specific intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA). However, recent publications have raised concerns about the lack of sensitivity when employing commonly used gamma criteria. Understanding the actual sensitivity of a wide range of different gamma criteria may allow the definition of more meaningful gamma criteria and tolerance limits in IMRT QA. We present a method that allows the quantitative determination of gamma criteria sensitivity to induced errors which can be applied to any unique combination of device, delivery technique, and software utilized in a specific clinic. Methods: A total of 21 DMLC IMRT QA measurements (ArcCHECK®, Sun Nuclear) were compared to QA plan calculations with induced errors. Three scenarios were studied: MU errors, multi-leaf collimator (MLC) errors, and the sensitivity of the gamma comparison to changes in penumbra width. Gamma comparisons were performed between measurements and error-induced calculations using a wide range of gamma criteria, resulting in a total of over 20 000 gamma comparisons. Gamma passing rates for each error class and case were graphed against error magnitude to create error curves in order to represent the range of missed errors in routine IMRT QA using 36 different gamma criteria. Results: This study demonstrates that systematic errors and case-specific errors can be detected by the error curve analysis. Depending on the location of the error curve peak (e.g., not centered about zero), 3%/3 mm threshold = 10% at 90% pixels passing may miss errors as large as 15% MU errors and ±1 cm random MLC errors for some cases. As the dose threshold parameter was increased for a given %Diff/distance-to-agreement (DTA) setting, error sensitivity was increased by up to a factor of two for select cases. This increased sensitivity with increasing dose

  15. A Cancer Gene Selection Algorithm Based on the K-S Test and CFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Su

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To address the challenging problem of selecting distinguished genes from cancer gene expression datasets, this paper presents a gene subset selection algorithm based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S test and correlation-based feature selection (CFS principles. The algorithm selects distinguished genes first using the K-S test, and then, it uses CFS to select genes from those selected by the K-S test. Results. We adopted support vector machines (SVM as the classification tool and used the criteria of accuracy to evaluate the performance of the classifiers on the selected gene subsets. This approach compared the proposed gene subset selection algorithm with the K-S test, CFS, minimum-redundancy maximum-relevancy (mRMR, and ReliefF algorithms. The average experimental results of the aforementioned gene selection algorithms for 5 gene expression datasets demonstrate that, based on accuracy, the performance of the new K-S and CFS-based algorithm is better than those of the K-S test, CFS, mRMR, and ReliefF algorithms. Conclusions. The experimental results show that the K-S test-CFS gene selection algorithm is a very effective and promising approach compared to the K-S test, CFS, mRMR, and ReliefF algorithms.

  16. Tuning Selectivity of Fluorescent Carbon Nanotube-Based Neurotransmitter Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Florian A; Herrmann, Niklas; Meyer, Daniel; Kruss, Sebastian

    2017-06-28

    Detection of neurotransmitters is an analytical challenge and essential to understand neuronal networks in the brain and associated diseases. However, most methods do not provide sufficient spatial, temporal, or chemical resolution. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been used as building blocks for sensors/probes that detect catecholamine neurotransmitters, including dopamine. This approach provides a high spatial and temporal resolution, but it is not understood if these sensors are able to distinguish dopamine from similar catecholamine neurotransmitters, such as epinephrine or norepinephrine. In this work, the organic phase (DNA sequence) around SWCNTs was varied to create sensors with different selectivity and sensitivity for catecholamine neurotransmitters. Most DNA-functionalized SWCNTs responded to catecholamine neurotransmitters, but both dissociation constants ( K d ) and limits of detection were highly dependent on functionalization (sequence). K d values span a range of 2.3 nM (SWCNT-(GC) 15 + norepinephrine) to 9.4 μM (SWCNT-(AT) 15 + dopamine) and limits of detection are mostly in the single-digit nM regime. Additionally, sensors of different SWCNT chirality show different fluorescence increases. Moreover, certain sensors (e.g., SWCNT-(GT) 10 ) distinguish between different catecholamines, such as dopamine and norepinephrine at low concentrations (50 nM). These results show that SWCNTs functionalized with certain DNA sequences are able to discriminate between catecholamine neurotransmitters or to detect them in the presence of interfering substances of similar structure. Such sensors will be useful to measure and study neurotransmitter signaling in complex biological settings.

  17. Effect of Sodium Nitrite and Sodium Nitrate on Botulinal Toxin Production and Nitrosamine Formation in Wieners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustad, Gerald O.; Cerveny, John G.; Trenk, Hugh; Deibel, Robert H.; Kautter, Donald A.; Fazio, Thomas; Johnston, Ralph W.; Kolari, Olaf E.

    1973-01-01

    Wieners were formulated and processed approximating commercial conditions as closely as possible. Twenty-four batches of product were made with the addition of six levels of sodium nitrite (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 300 μg/g), four levels of sodium nitrate (0, 50, 150, and 450 μg/g), and two levels of Clostridium botulinum (0 and 620 spores/g). After formulation, processing, and vacuum packaging, portions of each batch were incubated at 27 C or held for 21 days at 7 C followed by incubation at 27 C for 56 days. The latter storage condition approximated distribution of product through commercial channels and potential temperature abuse at the consumer level. Samples were analyzed for botulinal toxin, nitrite, and nitrate levels after 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days of incubation. When nitrite was not added, toxic samples were detected after 14 days of incubation at 27 C. At the lowest level of nitrite added (50 μg/g), no toxic samples were observed until 56 days of incubation. Higher levels of nitrite completely inhibited toxin production throughout the incubation period. Nine uninoculated samples, representing various levels and combinations of nitrite and nitrate, were evaluated organoleptically. The flavor quality of wieners made with nitrite was judged significantly higher (P = 0.05) than of wieners made without nitrite. The nine samples were negative for 14 volatile nitrosamines at a sensitivity level of 10 ng/g. The results indicated that nitrite effectively inhibited botulinal toxin formation at commercially employed levels in wieners and that detectable quantities of nitrosamines were not produced during preparation and processing of the product for consumption. PMID:4580194

  18. Role of blood and vascular smooth muscle in the vasoactivity of nitrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taiming; Schroeder, Hobe J.; Barcelo, Lisa; Bragg, Shannon L.; Terry, Michael H.; Wilson, Sean M.; Power, Gordon G.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence from humans and rats indicates that nitrite is a vasodilator under hypoxic conditions by reacting with metal-containing proteins to produce nitric oxide (NO). We tested the hypothesis that near-physiological concentrations of nitrite would produce vasodilation in a hypoxia- and concentration-dependent manner in the hind limb of sheep. Anesthetized sheep were instrumented to measure arterial blood pressure and femoral blood flows continuously in both hind limbs. Nitrite was infused into one femoral artery to raise the nitrite concentration in the femoral vein by 10 to 15-fold while the sheep breathed 50%, 14% or 12% oxygen in inspired air. In contrast to reports in humans and rats, the nitrite infusion had no measurable effect on mean femoral blood flows or vascular conductances, regardless of inspired O2 levels. In vitro experiments showed no significant difference in the release of NO from nitrite in sheep and human red blood cells. Further experiments demonstrated nitrite is converted to NO in rat artery homogenates faster than sheep arteries, and that this source of NO production is attenuated in the presence of a heme oxidizer. Finally, western blots indicate that concentrations of the heme-containing protein cytoglobin, but not myoglobin, are markedly lower in sheep arteries compared with rats. Overall, the results demonstrate that nitrite is not a physiological vasodilator in sheep. This is likely due to a lack of conversion of nitrite to NO within the vascular smooth muscle, perhaps due to deficient amounts of the heme-containing protein cytoglobin. PMID:25108012

  19. Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Sell, R.L.; Sobolik, J.L.; Burger, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur. In support of Westinghouse Hanford Company's (WHC) efforts to ensure continued safe storage of these organic- and oxidant-bearing wastes and to define the conditions necessary for reactions to occur, we measured the thermal sensitivities and thermochemical and thermokinetic properties of mixtures of selected organics and sodium nitrate and/or nitrite and a simulated Hanford organic-bearing waste using thermoanalytical technologies. These thermoanalytical technologies are used by chemical reactivity hazards evaluation organizations within the chemical industry to assess chemical reaction hazards

  20. Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Sell, R.L.; Sobolik, J.L.; Burger, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur. In support of Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (WHC) efforts to ensure continued safe storage of these organic- and oxidant-bearing wastes and to define the conditions necessary for reactions to occur, we measured the thermal sensitivities and thermochemical and thermokinetic properties of mixtures of selected organics and sodium nitrate and/or nitrite and a simulated Hanford organic-bearing waste using thermoanalytical technologies. These thermoanalytical technologies are used by chemical reactivity hazards evaluation organizations within the chemical industry to assess chemical reaction hazards.

  1. Different cortical mechanisms for spatial vs. feature-based attentional selection in visual working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Heuer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The limited capacity of visual working memory necessitates attentional mechanisms that selectively update and maintain only the most task-relevant content. Psychophysical experiments have shown that the retroactive selection of memory content can be based on visual properties such as location or shape, but the neural basis for such differential selection is unknown. For example, it is not known if there are different cortical modules specialized for spatial versus feature-based mnemonic attention, in the same way that has been demonstrated for attention to perceptual input. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to identify areas in human parietal and occipital cortex involved in the selection of objects from memory based on cues to their location (spatial information or their shape (featural information. We found that TMS over the supramarginal gyrus (SMG selectively facilitated spatial selection, whereas TMS over the lateral occipital cortex selectively enhanced feature-based selection for remembered objects in the contralateral visual field. Thus, different cortical regions are responsible for spatial vs. feature-based selection of working memory representations. Since the same regions are involved in attention to external events, these new findings indicate overlapping mechanisms for attentional control over perceptual input and mnemonic representations.

  2. Mutual information based feature selection for medical image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Lijia; Zhang, Shaomin; Li, Yan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, authors propose a mutual information based method for lung CT image retrieval. This method is designed to adapt to different datasets and different retrieval task. For practical applying consideration, this method avoids using a large amount of training data. Instead, with a well-designed training process and robust fundamental features and measurements, the method in this paper can get promising performance and maintain economic training computation. Experimental results show that the method has potential practical values for clinical routine application.

  3. Structure-Based Prediction of Subtype Selectivity of Histamine H3 Receptor Selective Antagonists in Clinical Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Soo-Kyung; Fristrup, Peter; Abrol, Ravinder

    2011-01-01

    applications, including treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), epilepsy, and obesity.(1) However, many of these drug candidates cause undesired side effects through the cross-reactivity with other histamine receptor subtypes. In order to develop improved selectivity...... and antagonists. We find that E2065.46 contributes most in binding H3 selective agonists (5, 6, 7) in agreement with experimental mutation studies. We also find that conserved E5.46/S5.43 in both of hH3HR and hH4HR are involved in H3/ H4 subtype selectivity. In addition, we find that M3786.55 in hH3HR provides...... additional hydrophobic interactions different from hH4HR (the corresponding amino acid of T3236.55 in hH4HR) to provide additional subtype bias. From these studies, we developed a pharmacophore model based on our predictions for known hH3HR selective antagonists in clinical study [ABT-239 1, GSK-189,254 2...

  4. Color and oxidative stability of nitrite-free cured meat after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahidi, F.; Pegg, R.B.; Shamsuzzaman, K.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of 5 and 10 kGy irradiation on the color and oxidative stability of meats treated with nitrite or a nitrite-free curing system were investigated. The nitrite-free curing system consisted of the preformed cooked cured-meat pigment, sodium ascorbate and sodium tripolyphosphate with or without sodium acid pyrophosphate. Irradiation had no detrimental effects on the color or flavor of either cured samples. Polyphosphates had a beneficial effect on oxidative stability but had a slight detrimental effect on color stability of irradiated samples

  5. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

  6. Role of Nitrite in Processed Meat Products and its Degradation during their Storage

    OpenAIRE

    ILIRJANA BOCI; ELDA ZIU; GENTJANA BARDHI

    2014-01-01

    This paper represents the analytical data of nitrite level obtained from the experimental work done on meat processed samples taken from a meat processing plant in Tirana. There has been a long debate and health concern about the nitrite content in meat products. Nitrite is added to e.g. sausages, and hams and other meat products to preserve these products and keep them free from dangerous bacteria. Among the aims are preventing botulism, a dangerous food poison. But also it’s important to us...

  7. Effect of residual ascorbate on determination of nitrite in commercial cured meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J B; Doerr, R C; Gates, R

    1984-01-01

    Residual ascorbate in cured meat slurries results in different amounts of pigment being produced from different Griess reagent combinations. The phenomenon was used to study residual ascorbate in commercial cured meat products which had a variety of textures, acidities, moisture and meat content, fat, homogeneity, initial nitrite, and processing conditions. Diluting and heating the samples according to the AOAC procedure did not completely eliminate the ascorbate interference, but making the sample alkaline did. Determining nitrite separately in supernate and precipitate from the first dilution showed the effect of heating to be the elimination of interferences and solubilization or extraction of nitrite from the precipitate.

  8. Occurrence of nitrate, nitrite and volatile nitrosamines in certain feedstuffs and animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ologhobo, A D; Adegede, H I; Maduagiwu, E N

    1996-01-01

    Nitrate, nitrite and nitrosamines were analysed in poultry feeds, meat and eggs. The poultry meat was boiled and roasted while the eggs were raw and boiled, and the effects of these processing treatments on the level of these compounds were investigated. Nitrate levels in the meat samples were significantly (P Nitrite levels were also reduced significantly by processing (P Nitrite levels were generally low in all feed samples. Nitrosamines were not detected in any of the feed samples and in the meat samples except in two samples of boiled meat which contained 0.001 g/kg each.

  9. Preliminary nitrite, nitrate and colour analysis of Malaysian edible bird’s nest

    OpenAIRE

    Quek, Meei Chien; Chin, Nyuk Ling; Yusof, Yus Aniza; Tan, Sheau Wei; Law, Chung Lim

    2015-01-01

    The high nitrite content in edible bird’s nests is a major concern to the local swiftlet industry. It lowers the price of the edible bird’s nests and it brings severe health hazards to consumers and farmers. This research investigated the nitrite and nitrate contents of eight types of local edible bird’s nests by using ion chromatography system and evaluating its colour using the CIE system in L∗a∗b∗ parameters. The nitrite content obtained ranged from 5.7 μg/g for the house nests to 843.8 μg...

  10. Stress Corrosion Cracking of an Austenitic Stainless Steel in Nitrite-Containing Chloride Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Singh Raman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the susceptibility of 316L stainless steel to stress corrosion cracking (SCC in a nitrite-containing chloride solution. Slow strain rate testing (SSRT in 30 wt. % MgCl2 solution established SCC susceptibility, as evidenced by post-SSRT fractography. Addition of nitrite to the chloride solution, which is reported to have inhibitive influence on corrosion of stainless steels, was found to increase SCC susceptibility. The susceptibility was also found to increase with nitrite concentration. This behaviour is explained on the basis of the passivation and pitting characteristics of 316L steel in chloride solution.

  11. A carbon nanotube/polyvanillin composite film as an electrocatalyst for the electrochemical oxidation of nitrite and its application as a nitrite sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Dongyun [College of Chemistry and Molecular Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Hu Chengguo [College of Chemistry and Molecular Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)], E-mail: cghu@whu.edu.cn; Peng Yanfen [College of Chemistry and Molecular Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Hu Shengshui [College of Chemistry and Molecular Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)], E-mail: sshu@whu.edu.cn

    2009-08-30

    We report a simple method for the stable dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in water by vanillin and controllable surface addition onto carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFE) via electropolymerization. We have characterized these polyvanillin-carbon nanotube (PVN-MWNT) composite films with techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and voltammetry. These investigations showed that the films have a uniform porous nanostructure with a large surface area. This PVN-MWNT composite-modified CFE (PVN-MWNT/CFE) exhibited a sensitive response to the electrochemical oxidation of nitrite. Under optimal working conditions, the oxidation peak current of nitrite linearly increased with its concentration in the range of 0.2 {mu}M-3.1 mM, with the system exhibiting a lower detection limit of 50 nM (S/N = 3). We successfully applied the PVN-MWNT/CFE system to the determination of nitrite from lake water. The efficient recovery of nitrite indicated that this electrode was able to detect nitrite in real samples.

  12. Shewanella oneidensis cytochrome c nitrite reductase (ccNiR) does not disproportionate hydroxylamine to ammonia and nitrite, despite a strongly favorable driving force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblut, Matthew; Pauly, Daniel J; Stein, Natalia; Walters, Daniel; Conrad, John A; Moran, Graham R; Bennett, Brian; Pacheco, A Andrew

    2014-04-08

    Cytochrome c nitrite reductase (ccNiR) from Shewanella oneidensis, which catalyzes the six-electron reduction of nitrite to ammonia in vivo, was shown to oxidize hydroxylamine in the presence of large quantities of this substrate, yielding nitrite as the sole free nitrogenous product. UV-visible stopped-flow and rapid-freeze-quench electron paramagnetic resonance data, along with product analysis, showed that the equilibrium between hydroxylamine and nitrite is fairly rapidly established in the presence of high initial concentrations of hydroxylamine, despite said equilibrium lying far to the left. By contrast, reduction of hydroxylamine to ammonia did not occur, even though disproportionation of hydroxylamine to yield both nitrite and ammonia is strongly thermodynamically favored. This suggests a kinetic barrier to the ccNiR-catalyzed reduction of hydroxylamine to ammonia. A mechanism for hydroxylamine reduction is proposed in which the hydroxide group is first protonated and released as water, leaving what is formally an NH2(+) moiety bound at the heme active site. This species could be a metastable intermediate or a transition state but in either case would exist only if it were stabilized by the donation of electrons from the ccNiR heme pool into the empty nitrogen p orbital. In this scenario, ccNiR does not catalyze disproportionation because the electron-donating hydroxylamine does not poise the enzyme at a sufficiently low potential to stabilize the putative dehydrated hydroxylamine; presumably, a stronger reductant is required for this.

  13. Acute, Sub-lethal Cyanide Poisoning in Mice is Ameliorated by Nitrite Alone: Complications Arising from Concomitant Administration of Nitrite and Thiosulfate as an Antidotal Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambal, Leah K.; Swanson, Megan R.; Yuan, Quan; Weitz, Andrew C.; Li, Hui-Hua; Pitt, Bruce R.; Pearce, Linda L.; Peterson, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Sodium nitrite alone is shown to ameliorate sub-lethal cyanide toxicity in mice when given from ~1 hour before until 20 minutes after the toxic dose as demonstrated by the recovery of righting ability. An optimum dose (12 mg/kg) was determined to significantly relieve cyanide toxicity (5.0 mg/kg) when administered to mice intraperitoneally. Nitrite so administered was shown to rapidly produce NO in the bloodsteam as judged by the dose dependent appearance of EPR signals attributable to nitrosylhemoglobin and methemoglobin. It is argued that antagonism of cyanide inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by NO is the crucial antidotal activity rather than the methemoglobin-forming action of nitrite. Concomitant addition of sodium thiosulfate to nitrite-treated blood resulted in the detection of sulfidomethemoblobin by EPR spectroscopy. Sulfide is a product of thiosulfate hydrolysis and, like cyanide, is known to be a potent inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase; the effects of the two inhibitors being essentially additive under standard assay conditions, rather than dominated by either one. The findings afford a plausible explanation for an observed detrimental effect in mice associated with the use of the standard nitrite-thiosulfate combination therapy at sub-lethal levels of cyanide intoxication. PMID:21534623

  14. Combined effects of high hydrostatic pressure and sodium nitrite on color, water holding capacity and texture of frankfurter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, G.; Csehi, B.; Palotas, P.; Toth, A.; Kenesei, Gy; Pasztor-Huszar, K.; Friedrich, L.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium nitrite and high hydrostatic pressure on the color, water holding capacity (WHC) and texture characteristics of frankfurter. Three hundred, 450 and 600 MPa (5 minutes; 20 °C) and 50, 75, 100 and 125 ppm (calculated on weight of meat) sodium nitrite were applied. Parameters were measured right after the pressure treatment. Data were evaluated with two-way analysis of variance (p 0.05) with pressure levels and sodium nitrite amounts as factors. Nitrite reduction significantly increased lightness (L*) and resulted in decreased redness (a*) value. The pressure treatments decreased the lightness at all nitrite concentrations and did not significantly affect the red color of frankfurters. Fifty and 75 ppm nitrite and pressurization at 300 or 450 MPa improved the water holding property of frankfurter. The pressure treatment did not significantly affect the WHC but changing the nitrite amount had significant effect on it. Interactive effect occurred between pressure levels and nitrite concentrations for hardness. The pressure treatment increased and the nitrite reduction decreased hardness. Significant changes were found in cohesiveness at 450 and 600 MPa in frankfurters containing 50 and 75 ppm nitrite: pressure treatment at higher levels and nitrite reduction decreased the value of cohesiveness.

  15. Potential Role of Nitrite for Abiotic Fe(II) Oxidation and Cell Encrustation during Nitrate Reduction by Denitrifying Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueglein, Nicole; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Floetenmeyer, Matthias; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Obst, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms have been observed to oxidize Fe(II) at neutral pH under anoxic and microoxic conditions. While most of the mixotrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria become encrusted with Fe(III)-rich minerals, photoautotrophic and microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers avoid cell encrustation. The Fe(II) oxidation mechanisms and the reasons for encrustation remain largely unresolved. Here we used cultivation-based methods and electron microscopy to compare two previously described nitrate-reducing Fe(II) oxidizers ( Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1 and Pseudogulbenkiania sp. strain 2002) and two heterotrophic nitrate reducers (Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 19367 and P. denitrificans Pd 1222). All four strains oxidized ∼8 mM Fe(II) within 5 days in the presence of 5 mM acetate and accumulated nitrite (maximum concentrations of 0.8 to 1.0 mM) in the culture media. Iron(III) minerals, mainly goethite, formed and precipitated extracellularly in close proximity to the cell surface. Interestingly, mineral formation was also observed within the periplasm and cytoplasm; intracellular mineralization is expected to be physiologically disadvantageous, yet acetate consumption continued to be observed even at an advanced stage of Fe(II) oxidation. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were detected by lectin staining with fluorescence microscopy, particularly in the presence of Fe(II), suggesting that EPS production is a response to Fe(II) toxicity or a strategy to decrease encrustation. Based on the data presented here, we propose a nitrite-driven, indirect mechanism of cell encrustation whereby nitrite forms during heterotrophic denitrification and abiotically oxidizes Fe(II). This work adds to the known assemblage of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria in nature and complicates our ability to delineate microbial Fe(II) oxidation in ancient microbes preserved as fossils in the geological record. PMID:24271182

  16. Meat processing and colon carcinogenesis: cooked, nitrite-treated, and oxidized high-heme cured meat promotes mucin-depleted foci in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Viau, Michelle; Genot, Claude; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2010-07-01

    Processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no experimental study supports the epidemiologic evidence. To study the effect of meat processing on carcinogenesis promotion, we first did a 14-day study with 16 models of cured meat. Studied factors, in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 design, were muscle color (a proxy for heme level), processing temperature, added nitrite, and packaging. Fischer 344 rats were fed these 16 diets, and we evaluated fecal and urinary fat oxidation and cytotoxicity, three biomarkers of heme-induced carcinogenesis promotion. A principal component analysis allowed for selection of four cured meats for inclusion into a promotion study. These selected diets were given for 100 days to rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Colons were scored for preneoplastic lesions: aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF). Cured meat diets significantly increased the number of ACF/colon compared with a no-meat control diet (P = 0.002). Only the cooked nitrite-treated and oxidized high-heme meat significantly increased the fecal level of apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) and the number of MDF per colon compared with the no-meat control diet (P nitrite-treated and oxidized cured meat specifically increased the MDF number compared with similar nonnitrite-treated meat (P = 0.03) and with similar nonoxidized meat (P = 0.004). Thus, a model cured meat, similar to ham stored aerobically, increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, which suggests colon carcinogenesis promotion. Nitrite treatment and oxidation increased this promoting effect, which was linked with increased fecal ATNC level. This study could lead to process modifications to make nonpromoting processed meat. 2010 AACR.

  17. Clonal Selection Based Artificial Immune System for Generalized Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The last two decades has seen a rapid increase in the application of AIS (Artificial Immune Systems) modeled after the human immune system to a wide range of areas including network intrusion detection, job shop scheduling, classification, pattern recognition, and robot control. JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) has developed an integrated pattern recognition/classification system called AISLE (Artificial Immune System for Learning and Exploration) based on biologically inspired models of B-cell dynamics in the immune system. When used for unsupervised or supervised classification, the method scales linearly with the number of dimensions, has performance that is relatively independent of the total size of the dataset, and has been shown to perform as well as traditional clustering methods. When used for pattern recognition, the method efficiently isolates the appropriate matches in the data set. The paper presents the underlying structure of AISLE and the results from a number of experimental studies.

  18. The Effect of Influent Characteristics and Operational Conditions over the Performance and Microbial Community Structure of Partial Nitritation Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rodriguez-Sanchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is a main contaminant of wastewater worldwide. Novel processes for nitrogen removal have been developed over the last several decades. One of these is the partial nitritation process. This process includes the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite without the generation of nitrate. The partial nitritation process has several advantages over traditional nitrification-denitrification processes for nitrogen removal from wastewaters. In addition, partial nitritation is required for anammox elimination of nitrogen from wastewater. Partial nitritation is affected by operational conditions and substances present in the influent, such as quinolone antibiotics. In this review, the impact that several operational conditions, such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, hydraulic retention time and solids retention time, have over the partial nitritation process is covered. The effect of quinolone antibiotics and other emerging contaminants are discussed. Finally, future perspectives for the partial nitritation process are commented upon.

  19. Simultaneous pentafluorobenzyl derivatization and GC-ECNICI-MS measurement of nitrite and malondialdehyde in human urine: Close positive correlation between these disparate oxidative stress biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanff, Erik; Eisenga, Michele F; Beckmann, Bibiana; Bakker, Stephan J L; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2017-02-01

    Urinary nitrite and malondialdehyde (MDA) are biomarkers of nitrosative and oxidative stress, respectively. At physiological pH values of urine and plasma, nitrite and MDA exist almost entirely in their dissociated forms, i.e., as ONO - (ONOH, pK a =3.4) and - CH(CHO) 2 (CH 2 (CHO) 2 , pK a =4.5). Previously, we reported that nitrite and MDA react with pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) bromide (PFB-Br) in aqueous acetone. Here, we report on the simultaneous derivatization of nitrite and MDA and their stable-isotope labeled analogs O 15 NO - (4μM) and CH 2 (CDO) 2 (1μM or 10μM) with PFB-Br (10μL) to PFBNO 2 , PFB 15 NO 2 , C(PFB) 2 (CHO) 2 ), C(PFB) 2 (CDO) 2 by heating acetonic urine (urine-acetone, 100:400μL) for 60min at 50°C. After acetone evaporation under a stream of nitrogen, derivatives were extracted with ethyl acetate (1mL). A 1-μL aliquot of the ethyl acetate phase dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 was injected in the splitless mode for simultaneous GC-MS analysis in the electron capture negative-ion chemical ionization mode. Quantification was performed by selected-ion monitoring (SIM) the anions [M-PFB] - m/z 46 for ONO - , m/z 47 for O 15 NO - , m/z 251 for - C(PFB)(CHO) 2 , and m/z 253 for - C(PFB)(CDO) 2 . The retention times were 3.18min for PFB-ONO 2 /PFB-O 15 NO 2 , and 7.13min for - C(PFB)(CHO) 2 / - C(PFB)(CDO) 2 . Use of CH 2 (CDO) 2 at 1μM but not at 10μM was associated with an unknown interference with the C(PFB) 2 (CDO) 2 peak. Endogenous MDA can be quantified using O 15 NO - (4μM) and CH 2 (CDO) 2 (10μM) as the internal standards. The method is also useful for the measurement of nitrate and creatinine in addition to nitrite and MDA. Nitrite and MDA were measured by this method in urine of elderly healthy subjects (10 females, 9 males; age, 60-70 years; BMI, 25-30kg/m 2 ). Creatinine-corrected excretion rates did not differ between males and females for MDA (62.6 [24-137] vs 80.2 [52-118]nmol/mmol, P=0.448) and for nitrite (102 [71-174] vs

  20. Student Entrepreneurship in Hungary: Selected Results Based on GUESSS Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S. Gubik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigates students’ entrepreneurial activities and aims to answer questions regarding to what extent do students utilize the knowledge gained during their studies and the personal connections acquired at universities, as well as what role a family business background plays in the development of students’ business start-ups. Research Design & Methods: This paper is based on the database of the GUESSS project investigates 658 student entrepreneurs (so-called ‘active entrepreneurs’ who have already established businesses of their own. Findings: The rate of self-employment among Hungarian students who study in tertiary education and consider themselves to be entrepreneurs is high. Motivations and entrepreneurial efforts differ from those who owns a larger company, they do not necessarily intend to make an entrepreneurial path a career option in the long run. A family business background and family support play a determining role in entrepreneurship and business start-ups, while entrepreneurial training and courses offered at higher institutions are not reflected in students’ entrepreneurial activities. Implications & Recommendations: Universities should offer not only conventional business courses (for example, business planning, but also new forms of education so that students meet various entrepreneurial tasks and problems, make decisions in different situations, explore and acquaint themselves with entrepreneurship. Contribution & Value Added: The study provides literature overview of youth entrepreneurship, describes the main characteristics of students’ enterprises and contributes to understanding the factors of youth entrepreneurship.