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Sample records for nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis

  1. Immune-relevant thrombocytes of common carp undergo parasite-induced nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Inge R; Ribeiro, Carla M S; Forlenza, Maria; Taverne-Thiele, Anja; Rombout, Jan H W M; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2015-06-01

    Common carp thrombocytes account for 30-40% of peripheral blood leukocytes and are abundant in the healthy animals' spleen, the thrombopoietic organ. We show that, ex vivo, thrombocytes from healthy carp express a large number of immune-relevant genes, among which several cytokines and Toll-like receptors, clearly pointing at immune functions of carp thrombocytes. Few studies have described the role of fish thrombocytes during infection. Carp are natural host to two different but related protozoan parasites, Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii, which reside in the blood and tissue fluids. We used the two parasites to undertake controlled studies on the role of fish thrombocytes during these infections. In vivo, but only during infection with T. borreli, thrombocytes were massively depleted from the blood and spleen leading to severe thrombocytopenia. Ex vivo, addition of nitric oxide induced a clear and rapid apoptosis of thrombocytes from healthy carp, supporting a role for nitric oxide-mediated control of immune-relevant thrombocytes during infection with T. borreli. The potential advantage for parasites to selectively deplete the host of thrombocytes via nitric oxide-induced apoptosis is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nitric oxide and bcl-2 mediated the apoptosis induced by nickel(II) in human T hybridoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Fuqin; Zhang Dongmei; Wang Xinchang; Chen Junhui

    2007-01-01

    Although effects of nickel(II) on the immune system have long been recognized, little is known about the effects of nickel(II) on the induction of apoptosis and related signaling events in T cells. In the present study, we investigated the roles and signaling pathways of nickel(II) in the induction of apoptosis in a human T cell line jurkat. The results showed that the cytotoxic effects of Ni involved significant morphological changes and chromosomal condensation (Hoechst 33258 staining). Analyses of hypodiploid cells and FITC-Annexin V and PI double staining showed significant increase of apoptosis in jurkat cells 6, 12 and 24 h after nickel(II) treatment. Flow cytometry analysis also revealed that the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) occurred concomitantly with the onset of NiCl 2 -induced apoptosis. Induction of apoptotic cell death by nickel was mediated by reduction of bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, nickel stimulated the generation of nitric oxide (NO). These results suggest that nickel(II) chloride induces jurkat cells apoptosis via nitric oxide generation, mitochondrial depolarization and bcl-2 suppression

  3. Neuroprotective properties of nitric oxide and S-nitrosoglutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauhala, Pekka; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Chiueh, C.C.

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress and apoptosis may play an important role in the neurodegeneration. The present paper outlines antioxidative and antiapototic mechanisms of nitric oxide and S-nitrosothiols, which could mediate neuroprotection. Nitric oxide generated by nitric oxide synthase or released from an endogenous S-nitrosothiol, S-nitrosoglutathione may up-regulate antioxidative thioredoxin system and antiapototic Bcl-2 protein through a cGMP-dependent mechanism. Moreover, nitric oxide radicals have been shown to have direct antioxidant effect through their reaction with free radicals and iron-oxygen complexes. In addition to serving as a stabilizer and carrier of nitric oxide, S-nitrosoglutathione may have protective effect through transnitrosylation reactions. Based on these new findings, a hypothesis arises that the homeostasis of nitric oxide, S-nitrosothiols, glutathione, and thioredoxin systems is important for protection against oxidative stress, apoptosis, and related neurodegenerative disorders

  4. Calcium and Superoxide-Mediated Pathways Converge to Induce Nitric Oxide-Dependent Apoptosis in Mycobacterium fortuitum-Infected Fish Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Debika; Khatri, Preeti; Banerjee, Chaitali; Singh, Ambika; Meena, Ramavatar; Saha, Dhira Rani; Raman, Rajagopal; Rajamani, Paulraj; Mitra, Abhijit; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum causes 'mycobacteriosis' in wide range of hosts although the mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the role of calcium (Ca+2)-signalling cascade on M. fortuitum-induced apoptosis in headkidney macrophages (HKM) of Clarias sp. M. fortuitum could trigger intracellular-Ca+2 influx leading to the activation of calmodulin (CaM), protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) and Calmodulin kinase II gamma (CaMKIIg). Gene silencing and inhibitor studies established the role of CaM in M. fortuitum pathogenesis. We noted that CaMKIIg activation is regulated by CaM as well as PKCα-dependent superoxide anions. This is altogether first report of oxidised CaMKIIg in mycobacterial infections. Our studies with targeted-siRNA and pharmacological inhibitors implicate CaMKIIg to be pro-apoptotic and critical for the activation of extra-cellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Inhibiting the ERK1/2 pathway attenuated nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Conversely, inhibiting the NOS2-NO axis by specific-siRNA and inhibitors down-regulated ERK1/2 activation suggesting the crosstalk between ERK1/2 and NO is essential for pathogenesis induced by the bacterium. Silencing the NOS2-NO axis enhanced intracellular bacterial survival and attenuated caspase-8 mediated activation of caspase-3 in the infected HKM. Our findings unveil hitherto unknown mechanism of M. fortuitum pathogenesis. We propose that M. fortuitum triggers intracellular Ca+2 elevations resulting in CaM activation and PKCα-mediated superoxide generation. The cascade converges in common pathway mediated by CaMKIIg resulting in the activation of ERK1/2-NOS2 axis. The crosstalk between ERK1/2 and NO shifts the balance in favour of caspase dependent apoptosis of M. fortuitum-infected HKM.

  5. DMPD: Regulation of nitric oxide synthesis and apoptosis by arginase and argininerecycling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17513437 Regulation of nitric oxide synthesis and apoptosis by arginase and arginin...tion of nitric oxide synthesis and apoptosis by arginase and argininerecycling. A...erecycling. Mori M. J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6 Suppl 2):1616S-1620S. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Regulation of nitric oxide synthe...sis and apoptosis by arginase and argininerecycling. PubmedID 17513437 Title Regula

  6. The nitric oxide-sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway mediates S-nitrosoglutathione-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujita, Maristela; Batista, Wagner L.; Ogata, Fernando T.; Stern, Arnold; Monteiro, Hugo P.; Arai, Roberto J.

    2008-01-01

    p21Ras protein plays a critical role in cellular signaling that induces either cell cycle progression or apoptosis. Nitric oxide (NO) has been consistently reported to activate p21Ras through the redox sensitive cysteine residue (118). In this study, we demonstrated that the p21Ras-ERK pathway regulates THP-1 monocyte/macrophage apoptosis induced by S-nitrosoglutathione (SNOG). This was apparent from studies in THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras (p21Ras C118S ) where the pro-apoptotic action of SNOG was almost abrogated. Three major MAP kinase pathways (ERK, JNK, and p38) that are downstream to p21Ras were investigated. It was observed that only the activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases by SNOG in THP-1 cells was attributable to p21Ras. The inhibition of the ERK pathway by PD98059 markedly attenuated apoptosis in SNOG-treated THP-1 cells, but had a marginal effect on SNOG-treated THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras. The inhibition of the JNK and p38 pathways by selective inhibitors had no marked effects on the percentage of apoptosis. The induction of p21Waf1 expression by SNOG was observed in THP-1 cells harboring mutant and wild-type p21Ras, however in cells expressing mutant Ras, the expression of p21Waf1 was significantly attenuated. The treatment of THP-1 cells expressing wild-type p21Ras with PD98059 resulted in significant attenuation of p21Waf1 expression. These results indicate that the redox sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway plays a critical role in sensing and delivering the pro-apoptotic signaling mediated by SNOG

  7. Mitochondrial dysfunction associated with nitric oxide pathways in glutamate neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manucha, Walter

    Multiple mechanisms underlying glutamate-induced neurotoxicity have recently been discussed. Likewise, a clear deregulation of the mitochondrial respiratory mechanism has been described in patients with neurodegeneration, oxidative stress, and inflammation. This article highlights nitric oxide, an atypical neurotransmitter synthesized and released on demand by the post-synaptic neurons, and has many important implications for nerve cell survival and differentiation. Consequently, synaptogenesis, synapse elimination, and neurotransmitter release, are nitric oxide-modulated. Interesting, an emergent role of nitric oxide pathways has been discussed as regards neurotoxicity from glutamate-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that nitric oxide pathways modulation could prevent oxidative damage to neurons through apoptosis inhibition. This review aims to highlight the emergent aspects of nitric oxide-mediated signaling in the brain, and how they can be related to neurotoxicity, as well as the development of neurodegenerative diseases development. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Prenatal irradiation: nitric oxide and oxidative stress roles in radiation-induced apoptosis of the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjurjo, Julieta

    2001-01-01

    . Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. Cellular response to radiation injury was clearly dependent on the dose, with a significant increase in apoptosis death from 0,4 Gy on, measured 20 hours post irradiation and increasing in a linear way with total dose. Furthermore, apoptosis of cortical cells was dependant on developmental age. That is, it depends on both the proliferation rate and the differentiation stage, being maximal at day 15 of gestational age and decreasing to day 19. The time-course evolution of apoptosis revealed a significant increase from 4 hours post irradiation for a 2 Gy fixed dose, showing that though it is an early event, it continues to happen with an augmentation of apoptotic cells number to 20 hours post irradiation. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the etiology of neuronal apoptosis. Nitric oxide (NO) production and oxidative stress have been implicated in the neuronal injury seen in different neuro degenerative disorders. It is well-known that the excessive stimulation of glutamate receptors could mediate neuronal death by NO and superoxide anion, whose combination form peroxynitrite, a potent neurotoxic molecule. In spite of that, cortical cultures treatment with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors, L-NAME and N-Arginine and with NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 produced a statistically significant increase of radiation-induced apoptosis at every concentration and incubation times tested. Because of this, NMDA receptors blockade could be implicated in NOS activity reduction and thus, in a minor NO production rate. Nitric oxide could be playing a protective role in this system. In some cases NO could potentate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) toxicity, but in other circumstances it could have direct or indirect antioxidant actions in biologic systems subjected to oxidative stress due to excessive ROS production, mainly protecting biologic membranes from lipid peroxidation. Besides NO actions, it is evident that radiation

  9. Hydroxychavicol, a Piper betle leaf component, induces apoptosis of CML cells through mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-dependent JNK and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation and overrides imatinib resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Jayashree B; Mahato, Sanjit K; Joshi, Kalpana; Shinde, Vaibhav; Rakshit, Srabanti; Biswas, Nabendu; Choudhury Mukherjee, Indrani; Mandal, Labanya; Ganguly, Dipyaman; Chowdhury, Avik A; Chaudhuri, Jaydeep; Paul, Kausik; Pal, Bikas C; Vinayagam, Jayaraman; Pal, Churala; Manna, Anirban; Jaisankar, Parasuraman; Chaudhuri, Utpal; Konar, Aditya; Roy, Siddhartha; Bandyopadhyay, Santu

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic extract of Piper betle (Piper betle L.) leaves was recently found to induce apoptosis of CML cells expressing wild type and mutated Bcr-Abl with imatinib resistance phenotype. Hydroxy-chavicol (HCH), a constituent of the alcoholic extract of Piper betle leaves, was evaluated for anti-CML activity. Here, we report that HCH and its analogues induce killing of primary cells in CML patients and leukemic cell lines expressing wild type and mutated Bcr-Abl, including the T315I mutation, with minimal toxicity to normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. HCH causes early but transient increase of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species-dependent persistent activation of JNK leads to an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase-mediated nitric oxide generation. This causes loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, cleavage of caspase 9, 3 and poly-adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase leading to apoptosis. One HCH analogue was also effective in vivo in SCID mice against grafts expressing the T315I mutation, although to a lesser extent than grafts expressing wild type Bcr-Abl, without showing significant bodyweight loss. Our data describe the role of JNK-dependent endothelial nitric oxide synthase-mediated nitric oxide for anti-CML activity of HCH and this molecule merits further testing in pre-clinical and clinical settings. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  10. Nitric oxide-induced eosinophil apoptosis is dependent on mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT, JNK and oxidative stress: apoptosis is preceded but not mediated by early mPT-dependent JNK activation

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    Ilmarinen-Salo Pinja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eosinophils are critically involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. Nitric oxide (NO is produced in high amounts in asthmatic lungs and has an important role as a regulator of lung inflammation. NO was previously shown to induce eosinophil apoptosis mediated via c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and caspases. Our aim was to clarify the cascade of events leading to NO-induced apoptosis in granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF-treated human eosinophils concentrating on the role of mitochondria, reactive oxygen species (ROS and JNK. Methods Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometric analysis of relative DNA content, by Annexin-V labelling and/or morphological analysis. Immunoblotting was used to study phospho-JNK (pJNK expression. Mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed by JC-1-staining and mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT by loading cells with calcein acetoxymethyl ester (AM and CoCl2 after which flow cytometric analysis was conducted. Statistical significance was calculated by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA or paired t-test. Results NO-donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP induced late apoptosis in GM-CSF-treated eosinophils. SNAP-induced apoptosis was suppressed by inhibitor of mPT bongkrekic acid (BA, inhibitor of JNK SP600125 and superoxide dismutase-mimetic AEOL 10150. Treatment with SNAP led to late loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Additionally, we found that SNAP induces early partial mPT (1 h that was followed by a strong increase in pJNK levels (2 h. Both events were prevented by BA. However, these events were not related to apoptosis because SNAP-induced apoptosis was prevented as efficiently when BA was added 16 h after SNAP. In addition to the early and strong rise, pJNK levels were less prominently increased at 20–30 h. Conclusions Here we demonstrated that NO-induced eosinophil apoptosis is mediated via ROS, JNK and late mPT. Additionally

  11. Nitric Oxide Plays a Key Role in Ovariectomy-Induced Apoptosis in Anterior Pituitary: Interplay between Nitric Oxide Pathway and Estrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteros, Fernanda A.; Duvilanski, Beatriz H.; Cabilla, Jimena P.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the estrogenic status produce deep changes in pituitary physiology, mainly because estrogens (E2) are one of the main regulators of pituitary cell population. Also, E2 negatively regulate pituitary neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity and expression and may thereby modulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), an important regulator of cell death and survival. Little is known about how ovary ablation affects anterior pituitary cell remodelling and molecular mechanisms that regulate this process have not yet been elucidated. In this work we used freshly dispersed anterior pituitaries as well as cell cultures from ovariectomized female rats in order to study whether E2 deficiency induces apoptosis in the anterior pituitary cells, the role of NO in this process and effects of E2 on the NO pathway. Our results showed that cell activity gradually decreases after ovariectomy (OVX) as a consequence of cell death, which is completely prevented by a pan-caspase inhibitor. Furthermore, there is an increase of fragmented nuclei and DNA cleavage thereby presenting the first direct evidence of the existence of apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland after OVX. NO production and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) expression in anterior pituitary cells increased concomitantly to the apoptosis. Inhibition of both, NO synthase (NOS) and sGC activities prevented the drop of cell viability after OVX, showing for the first time that increased NO levels and sGC activity observed post-OVX play a key role in the induction of apoptosis. Conversely, E2 and prolactin treatments decreased nNOS expression and activity in pituitary cells from OVX rats in a time- and E2 receptor-dependent manner, thus suggesting interplay between NO and E2 pathways in anterior pituitary. PMID:27611913

  12. Nitric Oxide Plays a Key Role in Ovariectomy-Induced Apoptosis in Anterior Pituitary: Interplay between Nitric Oxide Pathway and Estrogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia A Ronchetti

    Full Text Available Changes in the estrogenic status produce deep changes in pituitary physiology, mainly because estrogens (E2 are one of the main regulators of pituitary cell population. Also, E2 negatively regulate pituitary neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS activity and expression and may thereby modulate the production of nitric oxide (NO, an important regulator of cell death and survival. Little is known about how ovary ablation affects anterior pituitary cell remodelling and molecular mechanisms that regulate this process have not yet been elucidated. In this work we used freshly dispersed anterior pituitaries as well as cell cultures from ovariectomized female rats in order to study whether E2 deficiency induces apoptosis in the anterior pituitary cells, the role of NO in this process and effects of E2 on the NO pathway. Our results showed that cell activity gradually decreases after ovariectomy (OVX as a consequence of cell death, which is completely prevented by a pan-caspase inhibitor. Furthermore, there is an increase of fragmented nuclei and DNA cleavage thereby presenting the first direct evidence of the existence of apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland after OVX. NO production and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC expression in anterior pituitary cells increased concomitantly to the apoptosis. Inhibition of both, NO synthase (NOS and sGC activities prevented the drop of cell viability after OVX, showing for the first time that increased NO levels and sGC activity observed post-OVX play a key role in the induction of apoptosis. Conversely, E2 and prolactin treatments decreased nNOS expression and activity in pituitary cells from OVX rats in a time- and E2 receptor-dependent manner, thus suggesting interplay between NO and E2 pathways in anterior pituitary.

  13. Nitric Oxide Plays a Key Role in Ovariectomy-Induced Apoptosis in Anterior Pituitary: Interplay between Nitric Oxide Pathway and Estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchetti, Sonia A; Machiavelli, Leticia I; Quinteros, Fernanda A; Duvilanski, Beatriz H; Cabilla, Jimena P

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the estrogenic status produce deep changes in pituitary physiology, mainly because estrogens (E2) are one of the main regulators of pituitary cell population. Also, E2 negatively regulate pituitary neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity and expression and may thereby modulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), an important regulator of cell death and survival. Little is known about how ovary ablation affects anterior pituitary cell remodelling and molecular mechanisms that regulate this process have not yet been elucidated. In this work we used freshly dispersed anterior pituitaries as well as cell cultures from ovariectomized female rats in order to study whether E2 deficiency induces apoptosis in the anterior pituitary cells, the role of NO in this process and effects of E2 on the NO pathway. Our results showed that cell activity gradually decreases after ovariectomy (OVX) as a consequence of cell death, which is completely prevented by a pan-caspase inhibitor. Furthermore, there is an increase of fragmented nuclei and DNA cleavage thereby presenting the first direct evidence of the existence of apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland after OVX. NO production and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) expression in anterior pituitary cells increased concomitantly to the apoptosis. Inhibition of both, NO synthase (NOS) and sGC activities prevented the drop of cell viability after OVX, showing for the first time that increased NO levels and sGC activity observed post-OVX play a key role in the induction of apoptosis. Conversely, E2 and prolactin treatments decreased nNOS expression and activity in pituitary cells from OVX rats in a time- and E2 receptor-dependent manner, thus suggesting interplay between NO and E2 pathways in anterior pituitary.

  14. Nitric oxide mediates insect cellular immunity via phospholipase A2 activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    After infection or invasion is recognized, biochemical mediators act in signaling insect immune functions. These include biogenic amines, insect cytokines, eicosanoids and nitric oxide (NO). Treating insects or isolated hemocyte populations with different mediators often leads to similar results. Se...

  15. Deltamethrin-induced testicular apoptosis in rats: the protective effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gohary, M; Awara, W M; Nassar, S; Hawas, S

    1999-01-01

    This study is the first to examine and characterize the testicular apoptosis which might be induced due to exposure of male rats to deltamethrin. Furthermore, the role which might be played by nitric oxide (NO), as well as the other reactive oxygen species (ROS) in controlling this testicular apoptosis was assessed. Apoptosis was evaluated by DNA fragmentation detected by agarose gel electrophoresis and cellular morphology on testicular tissue sections. It was found that administration of deltamethrin (1 mg/kg daily for 21 days) to animals resulted in characteristic DNA migration patterns (laddering), thereby providing evidence that apoptosis is the major mechanism of cell death in the testicular tissues. In addition, histopathological examination of testicular tissue sections showed that apoptosis was confined to the basal germ cells, primary and secondary spermatocytes. These changes, in addition to the appearance of Sertoli cell vacuoles in deltamethrin-intoxicated animals, indicates the suppression of spermatogenesis. At the same time, the plasma levels of both NO and lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) were found to be significantly increased in deltamethrin-treated animals. Administration of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors such as N(G)-nitro monomethyl L-arginine hydrochloride (L-NMMA, 1 mg/kg) to rats 2 h before exposure to deltamethrin was effective in the reduction of the typically testicular apoptotic DNA fragmentation pattern and the associated histopathological changes. These findings may suggest that deltamethrin-induced testicular apoptosis is mediated by NO. Therefore, the pharmacological manipulation of apoptosis by selective NOS inhibitors such as L-NMMA may offer new possibilities for the control of deltamethrin-induced testicular dysfunction and infertility in the future.

  16. Nitric Oxide-Mediated Posttranslational Modifications: Impacts at the Synapse

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    Sophie A. Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an important gasotransmitter molecule that is involved in numerous physiological processes throughout the nervous system. In addition to its involvement in physiological plasticity processes (long-term potentiation, LTP; long-term depression, LTD which can include NMDAR-mediated calcium-dependent activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, new insights into physiological and pathological consequences of nitrergic signalling have recently emerged. In addition to the canonical cGMP-mediated signalling, NO is also implicated in numerous pathways involving posttranslational modifications. In this review we discuss the multiple effects of S-nitrosylation and 3-nitrotyrosination on proteins with potential modulation of function but limit the analyses to signalling involved in synaptic transmission and vesicular release. Here, crucial proteins which mediate synaptic transmission can undergo posttranslational modifications with either pre- or postsynaptic origin. During normal brain function, both pathways serve as important cellular signalling cascades that modulate a diverse array of physiological processes, including synaptic plasticity, transcriptional activity, and neuronal survival. In contrast, evidence suggests that aging and disease can induce nitrosative stress via excessive NO production. Consequently, uncontrolled S-nitrosylation/3-nitrotyrosination can occur and represent pathological features that contribute to the onset and progression of various neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s.

  17. Nitric oxide as a mediator of gastrointestinal mucosal injury?—Say it ain't so

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    Paul Kubes

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide has been suggested as a contributor to tissue injury in various experimental models of gastrointestinal inflammation. However, there is overwhelming evidence that nitric oxide is one of the most important mediators of mucosal defence, influencing such factors as mucus secretion, mucosal blood flow, ulcer repair and the activity of a variety of mucosal immunocytes. Nitric oxide has the capacity to down-regulate inflammatory responses in the gastrointestinal tract, to scavenge various free radical species and to protect the mucosa from injury induced by topical irritants. Moreover, questions can be raised regarding the evidence purported to support a role for nitric oxide in producing tissue injury. In this review, we provide an overview of the evidence supporting a role for nitric oxide in protecting the gastrointestinal tract from injury.

  18. Nitric oxide: a physiologic messenger.

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    Lowenstein, C J; Dinerman, J L; Snyder, S H

    1994-02-01

    To review the physiologic role of nitric oxide, an unusual messenger molecule that mediates blood vessel relaxation, neurotransmission, and pathogen suppression. A MEDLINE search of articles published from 1987 to 1993 that addressed nitric oxide and the enzyme that synthesizes it, nitric oxide synthase. Animal and human studies were selected from 3044 articles to analyze the clinical importance of nitric oxide. Descriptions of the structure and function of nitric oxide synthase were selected to show how nitric oxide acts as a biological messenger molecule. Biochemical and physiologic studies were analyzed if the same results were found by three or more independent observers. Two major classes of nitric oxide synthase enzymes produce nitric oxide. The constitutive isoforms found in endothelial cells and neurons release small amounts of nitric oxide for brief periods to signal adjacent cells, whereas the inducible isoform found in macrophages releases large amounts of nitric oxide continuously to eliminate bacteria and parasites. By diffusing into adjacent cells and binding to enzymes that contain iron, nitric oxide plays many important physiologic roles. It regulates blood pressure, transmits signals between neurons, and suppresses pathogens. Excess amounts, however, can damage host cells, causing neurotoxicity during strokes and causing the hypotension associated with sepsis. Nitric oxide is a simple molecule with many physiologic roles in the cardiovascular, neurologic, and immune systems. Although the general principles of nitric oxide synthesis are known, further research is necessary to determine what role it plays in causing disease.

  19. Cerium oxide and platinum nanoparticles protect cells from oxidant-mediated apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Andrea; Zhu Aiping; Sun Kai; Petty, Howard R.

    2011-01-01

    Catalytic nanoparticles represent a potential clinical approach to replace or correct aberrant enzymatic activities in patients. Several diseases, including many blinding eye diseases, are promoted by excessive oxidant stress due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cerium oxide and platinum nanoparticles represent two potentially therapeutic nanoparticles that de-toxify ROS. In the present study, we directly compare these two classes of catalytic nanoparticles. Cerium oxide and platinum nanoparticles were found to be 16 ± 2.4 and 1.9 ± 0.2 nm in diameter, respectively. Using surface plasmon-enhanced microscopy, we find that these nanoparticles associate with cells. Furthermore, cerium oxide and platinum nanoparticles demonstrated superoxide dismutase catalytic activity, but did not promote hemolytic or cytolytic pathways in living cells. Importantly, both cerium oxide and platinum nanoparticles reduce oxidant-mediated apoptosis in target cells as judged by the activation of caspase 3. The ability to diminish apoptosis may contribute to maintaining healthy tissues.

  20. Garlic extracts prevent oxidative stress, hypertrophy and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes: a role for nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In ancient times, plants were recognized for their medicinal properties. Later, the arrival of synthetic drugs pushed it to the backstage. However, from being merely used for food, plants are now been widely explored for their therapeutic value. The current study explores the potential of skin and flesh extracts from a hard-necked Rocambole variety of purple garlic in preventing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. Methods Norepinephrine (NE) was used to induce hypertrophy in adult rat cardiomyocytes pretreated with garlic skin and flesh extracts. Cell death was measured as ratio of rod to round shaped cardiomyocytes. Fluorescent probes were used to measure apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes treated with and without extracts and NE. Pharmacological blockade of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were used to elucidate the mechanism of action of garlic extracts. Garlic extract samples were also tested for alliin and allicin concentrations. Results Exposure of cardiomyocytes to NE induced an increase in cell size and cell death; this increase was significantly prevented upon treatment with garlic skin and flesh extracts. Norepinephrine increased apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes which was prevented upon pretreatment with skin and flesh extracts; NO, and H2S blockers significantly inhibited this beneficial effect. Allicin and alliin concentration were significantly higher in garlic flesh extract when compared to the skin extract. Conclusion These results suggest that both skin and flesh garlic extracts are effective in preventing NE induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. Reduction in oxidative stress may also play an important role in the anti-hypertrophic and anti-apoptotic properties of garlic extracts. These beneficial effects may in part be mediated by NO and H2S. PMID:22931510

  1. Nitric oxide protects anterior pituitary cells from cadmium-induced apoptosis.

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    Poliandri, Ariel H B; Velardez, Miguel O; Cabilla, Jimena P; Bodo, Cristian C A; Machiavelli, Leticia I; Quinteros, Alnilan F; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

    2004-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd2+) is a potent toxic metal for both plants and animals. Chronic exposure to low doses of Cd2+ results in damage to several organs. We have previously reported that Cd2+ induces apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells by a caspase- and oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis is affected by Cd2+ in several systems. NO has been shown to be either cytoprotective or cytotoxic in many systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible participation of NO in the cytotoxic effect of Cd2+ on rat anterior pituitary cells. Cell viability was evaluated by mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity assay and confirmed by microscopy, studying nuclear morphology. Here we show that DETA NONOate ((Z)-1-[2 (2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate), a long-term NO donor, at concentrations below 0.5 mM, reduces nuclear condensation and fragmentation and reverses the decrease in cellular activity induced by Cd2+. Cd2+, by itself, induced NO synthesis, and inhibition of this synthesis enhanced Cd2+ cytotoxicity. NO also prevented caspase-3 activation and lipidic peroxidation induced by Cd2+. The NO/cGMP pathway does not seem to be involved in the cytoprotective effect of NO. These results indicate that NO has a cytoprotective role in Cd2+ -induced apoptosis, suggesting that endogenous NO could have a physiological role in protecting anterior pituitary cells.

  2. Xylopine Induces Oxidative Stress and Causes G2/M Phase Arrest, Triggering Caspase-Mediated Apoptosis by p53-Independent Pathway in HCT116 Cells

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    Luciano de Souza Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xylopine is an aporphine alkaloid that has cytotoxic activity to cancer cells. In this study, the underlying mechanism of xylopine cytotoxicity was assessed in human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. Xylopine displayed potent cytotoxicity in different cancer cell lines in monolayer cultures and in a 3D model of cancer multicellular spheroids formed from HCT116 cells. Typical morphology of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, increased internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and increased phosphatidylserine externalization and caspase-3 activation were observed in xylopine-treated HCT116 cells. Moreover, pretreatment with a caspase-3 inhibitor (Z-DEVD-FMK, but not with a p53 inhibitor (cyclic pifithrin-α, reduced xylopine-induced apoptosis, indicating induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis by the p53-independent pathway. Treatment with xylopine also caused an increase in the production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS, including hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, but not superoxide anion, and reduced glutathione levels were decreased in xylopine-treated HCT116 cells. Application of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine reduced the ROS levels and xylopine-induced apoptosis, indicating activation of ROS-mediated apoptosis pathway. In conclusion, xylopine has potent cytotoxicity to different cancer cell lines and is able to induce oxidative stress and G2/M phase arrest, triggering caspase-mediated apoptosis by the p53-independent pathway in HCT116 cells.

  3. Dwindling of cardio damaging effect of isoproterenol by Punica granatum L. peel extract involve activation of nitric oxide-mediated Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway and apoptosis inhibition.

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    Gupta, Mahesh; Sharma, Pallavi; Mazumder, Arindam Ghosh; Patial, Vikram; Singh, Damanpreet

    2015-09-09

    Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) peel is often considered as a food waste in-spite of its high bioactive metabolite composition. Primarily it is rich in therapeutically active phenolics that act on multiple cellular sites, through diverse mechanisms. Hence, the present study was envisaged to investigate the effect of standardised peel extract of P. granatum against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI). ISO administration at a dose of 150 mg/kg; s.c., twice at 24 h interval resulted in electrocardiographic abnormalities with increased heart weight and myocardial tissue damage signifying MI. Pretreatment with the extract at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg; p.o., for 21 days prior to ISO intoxication (30 min prior to intoxication on day 22 and 23) attenuated the observed changes, along with increased myocardial tissue superoxide dismutase activity, reduced glutathione and nitrite levels, and decreased lipid peroxidation. The extract treated groups also showed reduced serum marker enzymes of MI, showing maximum effect at highest tested dose. Immunohistochemical studies revealed increased myocardial expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Bcl-2 proteins in the extract treated groups with decreased Bax expression. From the results it can be concluded that the extract pretreatment prevents ISO-induced MI through increased myocardial expression of eNOS, leading to nitric oxide-mediated Nrf2 activation, thus upregulating antioxidant mechanisms, along with inhibition of apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nitric oxide mediates the stress response induced by diatom aldehydes in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Romano

    Full Text Available Diatoms are ubiquitous and abundant primary producers that have been traditionally considered as a beneficial food source for grazers and for the transfer of carbon through marine food webs. However, many diatom species produce polyunsaturated aldehydes that disrupt development in the offspring of grazers that feed on these unicellular algae. Here we provide evidence that production of the physiological messenger nitric oxide increases after treatment with the polyunsaturated aldehyde decadienal in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. At high decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide mediates initial apoptotic events leading to loss of mitochondrial functionality through the generation of peroxynitrite. At low decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide contributes to the activation of hsp70 gene expression thereby protecting embryos against the toxic effects of this aldehyde. When nitric oxide levels were lowered by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase activity, the expression of hsp70 in swimming blastula decreased and the proportion of abnormal plutei increased. However, in later pluteus stages nitric oxide was no longer able to exert this protective function: hsp70 and nitric oxide synthase expression decreased with a consequent increase in the expression of caspase-8. Our findings that nitric oxide production increases rapidly in response to a toxic exogenous stimulus opens new perspectives on the possible role of this gas as an important messenger to environmental stress in sea urchins and for understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying toxicity during diatom blooms.

  5. Flavone inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, nitric oxide production and protein S-nitrosylation in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wenzhen; Yang, Bingwu; Fu, Huiling; Ma, Long; Liu, Tingting; Chai, Rongfei; Zheng, Zhaodi [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Resistant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Zhang, Qunye, E-mail: wz.zhangqy@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Public Health, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Li, Guorong, E-mail: grli@sdnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Resistant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2015-03-13

    As the core structure of flavonoids, flavone has been proved to possess anticancer effects. Flavone's growth inhibitory functions are related to NO. NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and generally increased in a variety of cancer cells. NO regulates multiple cellular responses by S-nitrosylation. In this study, we explored flavone-induced regulations on nitric oxide (NO)-related cellular processes in breast cancer cells. Our results showed that, flavone suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Flavone restrains NO synthesis by does-dependent inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity. The decrease of NO generation was detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Flavone-induced inhibitory effect on NOS activity is dependent on intact cell structure. For the NO-induced protein modification, flavone treatment significantly down-regulated protein S-nitrosylation, which was detected by “Biotin-switch” method. The present study provides a novel, NO-related mechanism for the anticancer function of flavone. - Highlights: • Flavone inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. • Flavone decreases nitric oxide production by inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity in breast cancer cells. • Flavone down-regulates protein S-nitrosylation.

  6. Flavone inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, nitric oxide production and protein S-nitrosylation in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenzhen; Yang, Bingwu; Fu, Huiling; Ma, Long; Liu, Tingting; Chai, Rongfei; Zheng, Zhaodi; Zhang, Qunye; Li, Guorong

    2015-01-01

    As the core structure of flavonoids, flavone has been proved to possess anticancer effects. Flavone's growth inhibitory functions are related to NO. NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and generally increased in a variety of cancer cells. NO regulates multiple cellular responses by S-nitrosylation. In this study, we explored flavone-induced regulations on nitric oxide (NO)-related cellular processes in breast cancer cells. Our results showed that, flavone suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Flavone restrains NO synthesis by does-dependent inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity. The decrease of NO generation was detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Flavone-induced inhibitory effect on NOS activity is dependent on intact cell structure. For the NO-induced protein modification, flavone treatment significantly down-regulated protein S-nitrosylation, which was detected by “Biotin-switch” method. The present study provides a novel, NO-related mechanism for the anticancer function of flavone. - Highlights: • Flavone inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. • Flavone decreases nitric oxide production by inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity in breast cancer cells. • Flavone down-regulates protein S-nitrosylation

  7. Synergistic effects between catalase inhibitors and modulators of nitric oxide metabolism on tumor cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheit, Katrin; Bauer, Georg

    2014-10-01

    Inhibitors of catalase (such as ascorbate, methyldopa, salicylic acid and neutralizing antibodies) synergize with modulators of nitric oxide (NO) metabolism (such as arginine, arginase inhibitor, NO synthase-inducing interferons and NO dioxygenase inhibitors) in the singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase. This is followed by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent apoptosis induction. TGF-beta, NADPH oxidase-1, NO synthase, dual oxidase-1 and caspase-9 are characterized as essential catalysts in this process. The FAS receptor and caspase-8 are required for amplification of ROS signaling triggered by individual compounds, but are dispensable when the synergistic effect is established. Our findings explain the antitumor effects of catalase inhibitors and of compounds that target NO metabolism, as well as their synergy. These data may have an impact on epidemiological studies related to secondary plant compounds and open new perspectives for the establishment of novel antitumor drugs and for the improvement of established chemotherapeutics. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. Cellular signaling with nitric oxide and cyclic GMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Murad

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, nitric oxide signaling has been one of the most rapidly growing areas in biology. This simple free radical gas can regulate an ever growing list of biological processes. In most instances nitric oxide mediates its biological effects by activating guanylyl cyclase and increasing cyclic GMP synthesis. However, the identification of effects of nitric oxide that are independent of cyclic GMP is also growing at a rapid rate. The effects of nitric oxide can mediate important physiological regulatory events in cell regulation, cell-cell communication and signaling. Nitric oxide can function as an intracellular messenger, neurotransmitter and hormone. However, as with any messenger molecule, there can be too much or too little of the substance and pathological events ensue. Methods to regulate either nitric oxide formation, metabolism or function have been used therapeutically for more than a century as with nitroglycerin therapy. Current and future research should permit the development of an expanded therapeutic armamentarium for the physician to manage effectively a number of important disorders. These expectations have undoubtedly fueled the vast research interests in this simple molecule.

  9. Reactive oxygen species mediate nitric oxide production through ERK/JNK MAPK signaling in HAPI microglia after PFOS exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng; Nie, Xiaoke; Zhang, Yan [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001 (China); Li, Ting; Mao, Jiamin [Department of Labor and Environmental Hygiene, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001 (China); Liu, Xinhang [Department of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001 (China); Gu, Yiyang; Shi, Jiyun [Department of Labor and Environmental Hygiene, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001 (China); Xiao, Jing [Department of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001 (China); Wan, Chunhua [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001 (China); Wu, Qiyun, E-mail: wqy@ntu.edu.cn [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), an emerging persistent contaminant that is commonly encountered during daily life, has been shown to exert toxic effects on the central nervous system (CNS). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of PFOS remain largely unknown. It has been widely acknowledged that the inflammatory mediators released by hyper-activated microglia play vital roles in the pathogenesis of various neurological diseases. In the present study, we examined the impact of PFOS exposure on microglial activation and the release of proinflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxidative species (ROS). We found that PFOS exposure led to concentration-dependent NO and ROS production by rat HAPI microglia. We also discovered that there was rapid activation of the ERK/JNK MAPK signaling pathway in the HAPI microglia following PFOS treatment. Moreover, the PFOS-induced iNOS expression and NO production were attenuated after the inhibition of ERK or JNK MAPK by their corresponding inhibitors, PD98059 and SP600125. Interestingly, NAC, a ROS inhibitor, blocked iNOS expression, NO production, and activation of ERK and JNK MAPKs, which suggested that PFOS-mediated microglial NO production occurs via a ROS/ERK/JNK MAPK signaling pathway. Finally, by exposing SH-SY5Y cells to PFOS-treated microglia-conditioned medium, we demonstrated that NO was responsible for PFOS-mediated neuronal apoptosis. - Highlights: • PFOS exposure induced expression of iNOS and production of NO in HAPI microglia. • PFOS induced the production of ROS in HAPI microglia. • ERK/JNK MAPK pathways were activated following PFOS exposure in HAPI microglia. • NO released by HAPI microglia participated in the apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells.

  10. Reactive oxygen species mediate nitric oxide production through ERK/JNK MAPK signaling in HAPI microglia after PFOS exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Cheng; Nie, Xiaoke; Zhang, Yan; Li, Ting; Mao, Jiamin; Liu, Xinhang; Gu, Yiyang; Shi, Jiyun; Xiao, Jing; Wan, Chunhua; Wu, Qiyun

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), an emerging persistent contaminant that is commonly encountered during daily life, has been shown to exert toxic effects on the central nervous system (CNS). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of PFOS remain largely unknown. It has been widely acknowledged that the inflammatory mediators released by hyper-activated microglia play vital roles in the pathogenesis of various neurological diseases. In the present study, we examined the impact of PFOS exposure on microglial activation and the release of proinflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxidative species (ROS). We found that PFOS exposure led to concentration-dependent NO and ROS production by rat HAPI microglia. We also discovered that there was rapid activation of the ERK/JNK MAPK signaling pathway in the HAPI microglia following PFOS treatment. Moreover, the PFOS-induced iNOS expression and NO production were attenuated after the inhibition of ERK or JNK MAPK by their corresponding inhibitors, PD98059 and SP600125. Interestingly, NAC, a ROS inhibitor, blocked iNOS expression, NO production, and activation of ERK and JNK MAPKs, which suggested that PFOS-mediated microglial NO production occurs via a ROS/ERK/JNK MAPK signaling pathway. Finally, by exposing SH-SY5Y cells to PFOS-treated microglia-conditioned medium, we demonstrated that NO was responsible for PFOS-mediated neuronal apoptosis. - Highlights: • PFOS exposure induced expression of iNOS and production of NO in HAPI microglia. • PFOS induced the production of ROS in HAPI microglia. • ERK/JNK MAPK pathways were activated following PFOS exposure in HAPI microglia. • NO released by HAPI microglia participated in the apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells.

  11. Exercise promotes collateral artery growth mediated by monocytic nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Stephan H; Millenaar, Dominic N; Werner, Christian; Schuh, Lisa; Degen, Achim; Bettink, Stephanie I; Lipp, Peter; van Rooijen, Nico; Meyer, Tim; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

    2015-08-01

    Collateral artery growth (arteriogenesis) is an important adaptive response to hampered arterial perfusion. It is unknown whether preventive physical exercise before limb ischemia can improve arteriogenesis and modulate mononuclear cell function. This study aimed at investigating the effects of endurance exercise before arterial occlusion on MNC function and collateral artery growth. After 3 weeks of voluntary treadmill exercise, ligation of the right femoral artery was performed in mice. Hindlimb perfusion immediately after surgery did not differ from sedentary mice. However, previous exercise improved perfusion restoration ≤7 days after femoral artery ligation, also when exercise was stopped at ligation. This was accompanied by an accumulation of peri-collateral macrophages and increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in hindlimb collateral and in MNC of blood and spleen. Systemic monocyte and macrophage depletion by liposomal clodronate but not splenectomy attenuated exercise-induced perfusion restoration, collateral artery growth, peri-collateral macrophage accumulation, and upregulation of iNOS. iNOS-deficient mice did not show exercise-induced perfusion restoration. Transplantation of bone marrow-derived MNC from iNOS-deficient mice into wild-type animals inhibited exercise-induced collateral artery growth. In contrast to sedentary controls, thrice weekly aerobic exercise training for 6 months in humans increased peripheral blood MNC iNOS expression. Circulating mononuclear cell-derived inducible nitric oxide is an important mediator of exercise-induced collateral artery growth. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Arginase strongly impairs neuronal nitric oxide-mediated airway smooth muscle relaxation in allergic asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, H; Leusink, J; Bos, I Sophie T; Zaagsma, J; Meurs, H

    2006-01-01

    Background: Using guinea pig tracheal preparations, we have recently shown that endogenous arginase activity attenuates inhibitory nonadrenergic noncholinergic (iNANC) nerve-mediated airway smooth muscle relaxation by reducing nitric oxide (NO) production - due to competition with neuronal

  13. Cellular inactivation of nitric oxide induces p53-dependent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research August 2016; 15 (8): 1595-1603 ... Cellular inactivation of nitric oxide induces p53-dependent apoptosis in ... apoptosis induced by a selective iNOS inhibitor, N-[(3-aminomethyl) benzyl] acetamidine (1400W), .... and nitrate. ... Nitrite production was measured in culture media.

  14. Involvement of the nitric oxide in melatonin-mediated protection against injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenguo; He, Yifan; Guan, Xiaoyan; Gu, Wenzhen; Wu, Zhi; Zhu, Xiao; Huang, Fang; He, Hongwen

    2018-05-01

    Melatonin is a hormone mainly synthesized by the pineal gland in vertebrates and known well as an endogenous regulator of circadian and seasonal rhythms. It has been demonstrated that melatonin is involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes showing antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical gas in the biological system, which is produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family. NO acts as a biological mediator and plays important roles in different systems in humans. The NO/NOS system exerts a broad spectrum of signaling functions. Accumulating evidence has clearly revealed that melatonin regulates NO/NOS system through multiple mechanisms that may influence physiological and pathophysiological processes. This article reviews the latest evidence for the effects of melatonin on NO/NOS regulation in different organs and disease conditions, the potential cellular mechanisms by which melatonin is involved in organ protection are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nitric oxide in the rat cerebellum after hypoxia/ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, José; Fernández, Ana Patricia; Alonso, David; Serrano, Julia; Fernández-Vizarra, Paula; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo; Bentura, María Luisa; Martinez, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a regulatory biological substance and an important intracellular messenger that acts as a specific mediator of various neuropathological disorders. In mammals and invertebrates, nitric oxide is synthesized from L-arginine in the central and peripheral neural structures by the endothelial, neuronal and inducible enzymatic isoforms of nitric oxide synthase. Nitric oxide may affect the function of various neurotransmitter-specific systems, and is involved in neuromodulation, reproductive function, immune response, and regulation of the cerebral blood circulation. This makes nitric oxide the main candidate in brain responses to brain ischemia/hypoxia. The cerebellum has been reported to be the area of the brain that has the highest nitric oxide synthase activity and the highest concentration of glutamate and aspartate. By glutamate receptors and physiological action of nitric oxide, cyclic guanisine-5'-monophosphate may be rapidly increased. The cerebellum significantly differs with respect to ischemia and hypoxia, this response being directly related to the duration and intensity of the injury. The cerebellum could cover the eventual need for nitric oxide during the hypoxia, boosting the nitric oxide synthase activity, but overall ischemia would require de novo protein synthesis, activating the inducible nitric oxide synthase to cope with the new situation. The specific inhibitors of nitric oxide synthesis show neuroprotective effects.

  16. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil preconditions adult cardiac myocytes against necrosis and apoptosis. Essential role of nitric oxide signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anindita; Xi, Lei; Kukreja, Rakesh C

    2005-04-01

    We investigated the effect of sildenafil in protection against necrosis or apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Adult mouse ventricular myocytes were treated with sildenafil (1 or 10 microM) for 1 h before 40 min of simulated ischemia (SI). Necrosis was determined by trypan blue exclusion and lactate dehydrogenase release following SI alone or plus 1 or 18 h of reoxygenation (RO). Apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling assay and mitochondrial membrane potential measured using a fluorescent probe 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1). Sildenafil reduced necrosis as indicated by decrease in trypan blue-positive myocytes and leakage of lactate dehydrogenase compared with untreated cells after either SI or SI-RO. The number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling-positive myocytes or loss of JC-1 fluorescence following SI and 18 h of RO was attenuated in the sildenafil-treated group with concomitant inhibition of caspase 3 activity. An early increase in Bcl-2 to Bax ratio with sildenafil treatment was also observed in myocytes after SI-RO. The increase of Bcl-2 expression by sildenafil was inhibited by nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-nitro-amino-methyl-ester. The drug also enhanced mRNA and protein content of inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) in the myocytes. Sildenafil-induced protection against necrosis and apoptosis was absent in the myocytes derived from iNOS knock-out mice and was attenuated in eNOS knock-out myocytes. The up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression by sildenafil was also absent in iNOS-deficient myocytes. Reverse transcription-PCR, Western blots, and immunohistochemical assay confirmed the expression of phosphodiesterase-5 in mouse cardiomyocytes. These data provide strong evidence for a direct protective effect of sildenafil against necrosis and apoptosis through NO signaling pathway. The results may have possible

  17. Myeloperoxidase potentiates nitric oxide-mediated nitrosation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Vijaya M; Nauseef, William M; Zenser, Terry V

    2005-01-21

    Nitrosation is an important reaction elicited by nitric oxide (NO). To better understand how nitrosation occurs in biological systems, we assessed the effect of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a mediator of inflammation, on nitrosation observed during NO autoxidation. Nitrosation of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ; 10 mum) to 2-nitrosoamino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (N-NO-IQ) was monitored by HPLC. Using the NO donor spermine NONOate at pH 7.4, MPO potentiated N-NO-IQ formation. The minimum effective quantity of necessary components was 8.5 nm MPO, 0.25 mum H(2)O(2)/min, and 0.024 mum NO/min. Autoxidation was only detected at >/=1.2 mum NO/min. MPO potentiation was not affected by a 40-fold excess flux of H(2)O(2) over NO or less than a 2.4-fold excess flux of NO over H(2)O(2). Potentiation was due to an 8.8-fold increased affinity of MPO-derived nitrosating species for IQ. Autoxidation was inhibited by azide, suggesting involvement of the nitrosonium ion, NO(+). MPO potentiation was inhibited by NADH, but not azide, suggesting oxidative nitrosylation with NO(2)(.) or an NO(2)(.)-like species. MPO nonnitrosative oxidation of IQ with 0.3 mm NO(2)(-) at pH 5.5 was inhibited by azide, but not NADH, demonstrating differences between MPO oxidation of IQ with NO compared with NO(2)(-). Using phorbol ester-stimulated human neutrophils, N-NO-IQ formation was increased with superoxide dismutase and inhibited by catalase and NADH, but not NaN(3). This is consistent with nitrosation potentiation by MPO, not peroxynitrite. Increased N-NO-IQ formation was not detected with polymorphonuclear neutrophils from two unrelated MPO-deficient patients. Results suggest that the highly diffusible stable gas NO could initiate nitrosation at sites of neutrophil infiltration.

  18. Combination of nitric oxide stimulation with high-dose 18F-FDG promotes apoptosis and enhances radiation therapy of endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Jin-Young; Park, Jin-Won; Jung, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Eun Jeong; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: High-dose 18 F-FDG can provide targeted nuclear therapy of cancer. Endothelial cell injury is a key determinant of tumor response to radiotherapy. Here, we tested the hypothesis that activation of endothelial cell glycolytic metabolism with nitric oxide can enhance the therapeutic effect of high-dose 18 F-FDG. Methods: Calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells were treated with graded doses of 18 F-FDG. Glycolysis was stimulated by 24 h of exposure to the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Cell viability was assessed by MTT and clonogenic assays. Apoptosis was evaluated by ELISA of cytosolic DNA fragments and Western blots of cleaved caspase-3. Results: SNP stimulation (0.1 and 1 mM) augmented CPAE cell 18 F-FDG uptake to 2.6- and 4.6-fold of controls without adverse effects. Treatment with 333 μCi/ml 18 F-FDG alone reduced viable cell number to 35.4% of controls by Day 3. Combining 0.1 mM SNP stimulation significantly enhanced the killing effect, reducing cell numbers to 19.2% and 39.2% of controls by 333 and 167 μCi/ml of 18 F-FDG, respectively. 18 F-FDG also suppressed clonogenic survival to 80.8% and 43.2% of controls by 83 and 167 μCi/ml, which was again intensified by SNP to 59.7% and 21.1% of controls. The cytotoxic effect of 18 F-FDG was attributed to induction of apoptosis as shown by increased cytosolic fragmented DNA and cleaved caspase-3 levels (26.4% and 30.7% increases by 167 μCi/ml). Combining SNP stimulation significantly increased both of these levels to 1.8-fold of control cells. Conclusion: High-dose 18 F-FDG combined with nitric oxide-stimulated glycolysis is an effective method to inhibit endothelial cell survival and promote apoptosis. These results suggest a potential role of this strategy for targeted radiotherapy of angiogenic vasculature.

  19. Evaluation Of Oxidative Stress And Apoptosis In Breast Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were positively correlated with positive progesterone receptor. In Conclusion; oxidative stress, NO and apoptosis are highly detected in breast cancer tissues especially with advanced grade and stage. Key words: Breast cancer, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric Oxide (NO), Total Antioxidants

  20. Activation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway contributes to inflammation-induced osteoporosis by suppressing bone formation and causing osteoblast apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K J; Armour, K E; van't Hof, R J; Reid, D M; Wei, X Q; Liew, F Y; Ralston, S H

    2001-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a major clinical problem in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. The mechanism of bone loss in this condition remains unclear, but previous studies have indicated that depressed bone formation plays a causal role. Since cytokine-induced nitric oxide (NO) production has been shown to inhibit osteoblast growth and differentiation in vitro, this study was undertaken to investigate the role of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) pathway in the pathogenesis of inflammation-mediated osteoporosis (IMO) by studying mice with targeted inactivation of the iNOS gene (iNOS knockout [iNOS KO] mice). IMO was induced in wild-type (WT) and iNOS KO mice by subcutaneous injections of magnesium silicate. The skeletal response was assessed at the tibial metaphysis by measurements of bone mineral density (BMD), using peripheral quantitative computed tomography, by bone histomorphometry, and by measurements of bone cell apoptosis. NO production increased 2.5-fold (P < 0.005) in WT mice with IMO, but did not change significantly in iNOS KO mice. Total BMD values decreased by a mean +/- SEM of 14.4+/-2.0% in WT mice with IMO, compared with a decrease of 8.6+/-1.2% in iNOS KO mice with IMO (P < 0.01). Histomorphometric analysis confirmed that trabecular bone volume was lower in WT mice with IMO compared with iNOS KO mice with IMO (16.2+/-1.5% versus 23.4+/-2.6%; P < 0.05) and showed that IMO was associated with reduced bone formation and a 320% increase in osteoblast apoptosis (P < 0.005) in WT mice. In contrast, iNOS KO mice with IMO showed less inhibition of bone formation than WT mice and showed no significant increase in osteoblast apoptosis. Inducible NOS-mediated osteoblast apoptosis and depressed bone formation play important roles in the pathogenesis of IMO.

  1. Pu-erh Tea Reduces Nitric Oxide Levels in Rats by Inhibiting Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression through Toll-Like Receptor 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Wang, Guan; Li, Chunjie; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Hang; Sheng, Jun; Shi, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Pu-erh tea undergoes a unique fermentation process and contains theabrownins, polysaccharides and caffeine; although it is unclear about which component is associated with the down regulation of nitric oxide levels or how this process is mediated. To address this question we examined the effects of pu-erh tea on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes. Cohorts of rats were separately given four-week treatments of water as control, pu-erh tea, or the tea components: theabrownins, caffeine or polysaccharides. Five experimental groups were injected with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce nitric oxide (NO) production, while the corresponding five control groups were injected with saline as a negative control. The serum and liver NO concentrations were examined and the NOS expression of both mRNA and protein was measured in liver. The results showed that the rats which were fed pu-erh tea or polysaccharides had lower levels of NO which corresponded with the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. We further demonstrate that this effect is mediated through reduction of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. Thus we find that the polysaccharide components in pu-erh tea reduce NO levels in an animal model by inhibiting the iNOS expression via signaling through TLR4. PMID:22837686

  2. Nitric oxide is a mediator of methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity. In vitro evidence from primary cultures of mesencephalic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, P; Cerruti, C; Ali, S; Cadet, J L

    1996-10-31

    METH is a monoaminergic toxic that destroys dopamine terminals in vivo. Oxidative mechanisms associated with DA metabolism are thought to play an important role in its toxic effects. These ideas were supported by the demonstration that CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) transgenic mice were protected against the toxic effects of the drug. In the present study, we sought to determine if nitric oxide (NO) production was also involved in METH-induced neurotoxicity using primary cultures obtained from fetal rat mesencephalon. METH caused dose- and time-dependent cell death in vitro. Blockade of nitric oxide (NO) formation with several nitric oxide (NO) synthase blockers attenuated METH-mediated toxicity. Moreover, inhibition of ADP-ribosylation with nicotinamide and benzamide also provided protection against the toxicity of the drug. These results, together with our previous results in transgenic mice, support a role for free radicals in METH-induced toxic effects.

  3. Overexpression of glutaredoxin protects cardiomyocytes against nitric oxide-induced apoptosis with suppressing the S-nitrosylation of proteins and nuclear translocation of GAPDH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inadomi, Chiaki; Murata, Hiroaki; Ihara, Yoshito; Goto, Shinji; Urata, Yoshishige; Yodoi, Junji; Kondo, Takahito; Sumikawa, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► GRX1 overexpression protects myocardiac H9c2 cells against NO-induced apoptosis. ► NO-induced nuclear translocation of GAPDH is suppressed in GRX overexpressors. ► Oxidation of GAPDH by NO is less in GRX overexpressors than in controls. -- Abstract: There is increasing evidence demonstrating that glutaredoxin 1 (GRX1), a cytosolic enzyme responsible for the catalysis of protein deglutathionylation, plays distinct roles in inflammation and apoptosis by inducing changes in the cellular redox system. In this study, we investigated whether and how the overexpression of GRX1 protects cardiomyocytes against nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis. Cardiomyocytes (H9c2 cells) were transfected with the expression vector for mouse GRX1 cDNA, and mock-transfected cells were used as a control. Compared with the mock-transfected cells, the GRX1-transfected cells were more resistant to NO-induced apoptosis. Stimulation with NO significantly increased the nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a pro-apoptotic protein, in the mock-transfected cells, but did not change GAPDH localization in the GRX1-transfected cells. Furthermore, we found that NO stimulation clearly induced the oxidative modification of GAPDH in the mock-transfected cells, whereas less modification of GAPDH was observed in the GRX1-transfected cells. These data suggest that the overexpression of GRX1 could protect cardiomyocytes against NO-induced apoptosis, likely through the inhibition of the oxidative modification and the nuclear translocation of GAPDH.

  4. CD36 Mediated Fatty Acid-Induced Podocyte Apoptosis via Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hua

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia-induced apoptosis mediated by fatty acid translocase CD36 is associated with increased uptake of ox-LDL or fatty acid in macrophages, hepatocytes and proximal tubular epithelial cells, leading to atherosclerosis, liver damage and fibrosis in obese patients, and diabetic nephropathy (DN, respectively. However, the specific role of CD36 in podocyte apoptosis in DN with hyperlipidemia remains poorly investigated.The expression of CD36 was measured in paraffin-embedded kidney tissue samples (Ctr = 18, DN = 20 by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. We cultured conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes (MPC5 and treated cells with palmitic acid, and measured CD36 expression by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence; lipid uptake by Oil red O staining and BODIPY staining; apoptosis by flow cytometry assay, TUNEL assay and Western blot analysis; and ROS production by DCFH-DA fluorescence staining. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 21.0 statistical software.CD36 expression was increased in kidney tissue from DN patients with hyperlipidemia. Palmitic acid upregulated CD36 expression and promoted its translocation from cytoplasm to plasma membrane in podocytes. Furthermore, palmitic acid increased lipid uptake, ROS production and apoptosis in podocytes, Sulfo-N-succinimidyloleate (SSO, the specific inhibitor of the fatty acid binding site on CD36, decreased palmitic acid-induced fatty acid accumulation, ROS production, and apoptosis in podocytes. Antioxidant 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine -1-oxyl (tempol inhibited the overproduction of ROS and apoptosis in podocytes induced by palmitic acid.CD36 mediated fatty acid-induced podocyte apoptosis via oxidative stress might participate in the process of DN.

  5. Involvement of inositol biosynthesis and nitric oxide in the mediation of UV-B induced oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro I Lytvyn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of NO-signaling in ultraviolet B (UV-B induced oxidative stress in plants is an open question. Inositol biosynthesis contributes to numerous cellular functions, including the regulation of plants tolerance to stress. This work reveals the involvement of inositol-3-phosphate synthase 1 (IPS1, a key enzyme for biosynthesis of myo-inositol and its derivatives, in the response to NO-dependent oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. Homozygous mutants deficient for IPS1 (atips1 and wild-type plants were transformed with a reduction-oxidation-sensitive green fluorescent protein 2 (grx1-rogfp2 and used for the dynamic measurement of UV-B-induced and SNP (sodium nitroprusside-mediated oxidative stresses by confocal microscopy. atips1 mutants displayed greater tissue-specific resistance to the action of UV-B than the wild type. SNP can act both as an oxidant or repairer depending on the applied concentration, but mutant plants were more tolerant than the wild type to nitrosative effects of high concentration of SNP. Additionally, pretreatment with low concentrations of SNP (10, 100 μM before UV-B irradiation resulted in a tissue-specific protective effect that was enhanced in atips1. We conclude that the interplay between nitric oxide and inositol signaling can be involved in the mediation of UV-B-initiated oxidative stress in the plant cell.

  6. Overexpression of glutaredoxin protects cardiomyocytes against nitric oxide-induced apoptosis with suppressing the S-nitrosylation of proteins and nuclear translocation of GAPDH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inadomi, Chiaki, E-mail: inadomic@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Anesthesiology, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Nagasaki 852-8501 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in Disease, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Murata, Hiroaki [Department of Anesthesiology, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Nagasaki 852-8501 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in Disease, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Ihara, Yoshito [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in Disease, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama 641-8509 (Japan); Goto, Shinji; Urata, Yoshishige [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in Disease, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Yodoi, Junji [Department of Biological Responses, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kondo, Takahito [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in Disease, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Sumikawa, Koji [Department of Anesthesiology, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Nagasaki 852-8501 (Japan)

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GRX1 overexpression protects myocardiac H9c2 cells against NO-induced apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NO-induced nuclear translocation of GAPDH is suppressed in GRX overexpressors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidation of GAPDH by NO is less in GRX overexpressors than in controls. -- Abstract: There is increasing evidence demonstrating that glutaredoxin 1 (GRX1), a cytosolic enzyme responsible for the catalysis of protein deglutathionylation, plays distinct roles in inflammation and apoptosis by inducing changes in the cellular redox system. In this study, we investigated whether and how the overexpression of GRX1 protects cardiomyocytes against nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis. Cardiomyocytes (H9c2 cells) were transfected with the expression vector for mouse GRX1 cDNA, and mock-transfected cells were used as a control. Compared with the mock-transfected cells, the GRX1-transfected cells were more resistant to NO-induced apoptosis. Stimulation with NO significantly increased the nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a pro-apoptotic protein, in the mock-transfected cells, but did not change GAPDH localization in the GRX1-transfected cells. Furthermore, we found that NO stimulation clearly induced the oxidative modification of GAPDH in the mock-transfected cells, whereas less modification of GAPDH was observed in the GRX1-transfected cells. These data suggest that the overexpression of GRX1 could protect cardiomyocytes against NO-induced apoptosis, likely through the inhibition of the oxidative modification and the nuclear translocation of GAPDH.

  7. Advanced oxidation protein products induce chondrocyte apoptosis via receptor for advanced glycation end products-mediated, redox-dependent intrinsic apoptosis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Zhong, Zhao-Ming; Zhu, Si-Yuan; Liao, Cong-Rui; Pan, Ying; Zeng, Ji-Huan; Zheng, Shuai; Ding, Ruo-Ting; Lin, Qing-Song; Ye, Qing; Ye, Wen-Bin; Li, Wei; Chen, Jian-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced chondrocyte apoptosis is a primary cause of cartilage destruction in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), a novel pro-inflammatory mediator, have been confirmed to accumulate in patients with RA. However, the effect of AOPPs accumulation on chondrocyte apoptosis and the associated cellular mechanisms remains unclear. The present study demonstrated that the plasma formation of AOPPs was enhanced in RA rats compared with normal. Then, chondrocyte were treated with AOPPs-modified rat serum albumin (AOPPs-RSA) in vitro. Exposure of chondrocyte to AOPPs activated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and increased expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, which was mediated by receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), but not scavenger receptor CD36. Moreover, AOPPs challenge triggered NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation which induced mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress resulted in activation of caspase family that eventually lead to apoptosis. Lastly, blockade of RAGE, instead of CD36, largely attenuated these signals. Our study demonstrated first time that AOPPs induce chondrocyte apoptosis via RAGE-mediated and redox-dependent intrinsic apoptosis pathway in vitro. These data implicates that AOPPs may represent a novel pathogenic factor that contributes to RA progression. Targeting AOPPs-triggered cellular mechanisms might emerge as a promising therapeutic option for patients with RA.

  8. Nitric Oxide and ERK mediates regulation of cellular processes by Ecdysterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omanakuttan, Athira; Bose, Chinchu; Pandurangan, Nanjan; Kumar, Geetha B.; Banerji, Asoke; Nair, Bipin G., E-mail: bipin@amrita.edu

    2016-08-15

    The complex process of wound healing is a major problem associated with diabetes, venous or arterial disease, old age and infection. A wide range of pharmacological effects including anabolic, anti-diabetic and hepato-protective activities have been attributed to Ecdysterone. In earlier studies, Ecdysterone has been shown to modulate eNOS and iNOS expression in diabetic animals and activate osteogenic differentiation through the Extracellular-signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) pathway in periodontal ligament stem cells. However, in the wound healing process, Ecdysterone has only been shown to enhance granulation tissue formation in rabbits. There have been no studies to date, which elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the complex cellular process involved in wound healing. The present study, demonstrates a novel interaction between the phytosteroid Ecdysterone and Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS), in an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-dependent manner, thereby promoting cell proliferation, cell spreading and cell migration. These observations were further supported by the 4-amino-5-methylamino- 2′ ,7′ -difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF FM) fluorescence assay which indicated that Ecdysterone activates NOS resulting in increased Nitric Oxide (NO) production. Additionally, studies with inhibitors of both the EGFR and ERK, demonstrated that Ecdysterone activates NOS through modulation of EGFR and ERK. These results clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that Ecdysterone enhances Nitric Oxide production and modulates complex cellular processes by activating ERK1/2 through the EGF pathway. - Highlights: • Ecdysterone significantly enhances cell migration in a dose dependent manner. • Ecdysterone augments cell spreading during the initial phase of cell migration through actin cytoskeletal rearrangement. • Ecdysterone enhances cell proliferation in a nitric oxide dependent manner. • Ecdysterone enhances nitric oxide production via activation of EGFR

  9. Nitric Oxide and ERK mediates regulation of cellular processes by Ecdysterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omanakuttan, Athira; Bose, Chinchu; Pandurangan, Nanjan; Kumar, Geetha B.; Banerji, Asoke; Nair, Bipin G.

    2016-01-01

    The complex process of wound healing is a major problem associated with diabetes, venous or arterial disease, old age and infection. A wide range of pharmacological effects including anabolic, anti-diabetic and hepato-protective activities have been attributed to Ecdysterone. In earlier studies, Ecdysterone has been shown to modulate eNOS and iNOS expression in diabetic animals and activate osteogenic differentiation through the Extracellular-signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) pathway in periodontal ligament stem cells. However, in the wound healing process, Ecdysterone has only been shown to enhance granulation tissue formation in rabbits. There have been no studies to date, which elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the complex cellular process involved in wound healing. The present study, demonstrates a novel interaction between the phytosteroid Ecdysterone and Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS), in an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-dependent manner, thereby promoting cell proliferation, cell spreading and cell migration. These observations were further supported by the 4-amino-5-methylamino- 2′ ,7′ -difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF FM) fluorescence assay which indicated that Ecdysterone activates NOS resulting in increased Nitric Oxide (NO) production. Additionally, studies with inhibitors of both the EGFR and ERK, demonstrated that Ecdysterone activates NOS through modulation of EGFR and ERK. These results clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that Ecdysterone enhances Nitric Oxide production and modulates complex cellular processes by activating ERK1/2 through the EGF pathway. - Highlights: • Ecdysterone significantly enhances cell migration in a dose dependent manner. • Ecdysterone augments cell spreading during the initial phase of cell migration through actin cytoskeletal rearrangement. • Ecdysterone enhances cell proliferation in a nitric oxide dependent manner. • Ecdysterone enhances nitric oxide production via activation of EGFR

  10. Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in induction of apoptosis and inflammatory response in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, Ramovatar; Kumar, Sumit; Paulraj, R.

    2015-01-01

    The ever increasing applications of engineered nanoparticles in 21st century cause serious concern about its potential health risks on living being. Regulatory health risk assessment of such particles has become mandatory for the safe use of nanomaterials in consumer products and medicines. In order to study the mechanism underlying the effects of nano-TiO 2 (TiO 2 nanoparticles) on the brain, wistar rats were administrated intravenously with various doses of nano-TiO 2 (21 nm) through the caudal vein, once a week for 4 weeks and different parameters such as bioaccumulation of nano-TiO 2 , oxidative stress-mediated response, level of inflammatory markers such as NF-κB (p65), HSP 60, p38, nitric oxide, IFN-γ and TNF-α, and level of neurochemicals in brain as well as DNA damage and expression of apoptosis markers (p53, Bax, Bcl-2, and cyto c) were evaluated. Results show that the concentration of nano-TiO 2 in the brain increased with increasing the doses of nano-TiO 2 . Oxidative stress and injury of the brain occurred as nano-TiO 2 appeared to trigger a cascade of reactions such as inflammation, lipid peroxidation, decreases the activities of antioxidative enzymes and melatonin level, the reduction of glutamic acid, downregulated levels of acetylcholinesterase activities, and the increase in caspase-3 activity (a biomarker of apoptosis), DNA fragmentation, and apoptosis. It may be concluded that nano-TiO 2 induces oxidative stress that leads to activation of inflammatory cytokines and an alteration in the level of neurotransmitters resulted in the induction of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis

  11. Inducible nitric-oxide synthase plays a minimal role in lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-induced, T cell-mediated protective immunity and immunopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, C; Nansen, A; Christensen, Jeanette Erbo

    1999-01-01

    -mediated immune response was found to be unaltered in iNOS-deficient mice compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice, and LCMV- induced general immunosuppression was equally pronounced in both strains. In vivo analysis revealed identical kinetics of virus clearance, as well as unaltered clinical severity of systemic......By using mice with a targetted disruption in the gene encoding inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), we have studied the role of nitric oxide (NO) in lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-induced, T cell-mediated protective immunity and immunopathology. The afferent phase of the T cell...... LCMV infection in both strains. Concerning the outcome of intracerebral infection, no significant differences were found between iNOS-deficient and wild-type mice in the number or composition of mononuclear cells found in the cerebrospinal fluid on day 6 post-infection. Likewise, NO did not influence...

  12. Nitric Oxide Mediates Biofilm Formation and Symbiosis in Silicibacter sp. Strain TrichCH4B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Minxi; Smith, Brian C; Marletta, Michael A

    2015-05-05

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important signaling role in all domains of life. Many bacteria contain a heme-nitric oxide/oxygen binding (H-NOX) protein that selectively binds NO. These H-NOX proteins often act as sensors that regulate histidine kinase (HK) activity, forming part of a bacterial two-component signaling system that also involves one or more response regulators. In several organisms, NO binding to the H-NOX protein governs bacterial biofilm formation; however, the source of NO exposure for these bacteria is unknown. In mammals, NO is generated by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and signals through binding the H-NOX domain of soluble guanylate cyclase. Recently, several bacterial NOS proteins have also been reported, but the corresponding bacteria do not also encode an H-NOX protein. Here, we report the first characterization of a bacterium that encodes both a NOS and H-NOX, thus resembling the mammalian system capable of both synthesizing and sensing NO. We characterized the NO signaling pathway of the marine alphaproteobacterium Silicibacter sp. strain TrichCH4B, determining that the NOS is activated by an algal symbiont, Trichodesmium erythraeum. NO signaling through a histidine kinase-response regulator two-component signaling pathway results in increased concentrations of cyclic diguanosine monophosphate, a key bacterial second messenger molecule that controls cellular adhesion and biofilm formation. Silicibacter sp. TrichCH4B biofilm formation, activated by T. erythraeum, may be an important mechanism for symbiosis between the two organisms, revealing that NO plays a previously unknown key role in bacterial communication and symbiosis. Bacterial nitric oxide (NO) signaling via heme-nitric oxide/oxygen binding (H-NOX) proteins regulates biofilm formation, playing an important role in protecting bacteria from oxidative stress and other environmental stresses. Biofilms are also an important part of symbiosis, allowing the organism to remain in a

  13. Regulation and control of nitric oxide (NO) in macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacevic, Zaklina; Sahni, Sumit; Lok, K.H.

    2017-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that a novel storage and transport mechanism for nitric oxide (NO) mediated by glutathione-S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1), protects M1-macrophage (M1-MØ) models from large quantities of endogenous NO. This system stores and transp......We recently demonstrated that a novel storage and transport mechanism for nitric oxide (NO) mediated by glutathione-S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1), protects M1-macrophage (M1-MØ) models from large quantities of endogenous NO. This system stores...... be responsible for delivering cytotoxic NO as DNICs via MRP1 from M1-MØs, to tumor cell targets....

  14. Resveratrol and Endothelial Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Xia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO derived from the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS has antihypertensive, antithrombotic, anti-atherosclerotic and antiobesogenic properties. Resveratrol is a polyphenol phytoalexin with multiple cardiovascular and metabolic effects. Part of the beneficial effects of resveratrol are mediated by eNOS. Resveratrol stimulates NO production from eNOS by a number of mechanisms, including upregulation of eNOS expression, stimulation of eNOS enzymatic activity and reversal of eNOS uncoupling. In addition, by reducing oxidative stress, resveratrol prevents oxidative NO inactivation by superoxide thereby enhancing NO bioavailability. Molecular pathways underlying these effects of resveratrol involve SIRT1, AMPK, Nrf2 and estrogen receptors.

  15. Oxygen, nitric oxide and articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Fermor

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Molecular oxygen is required for the production of nitric oxide (NO, a pro-inflammatory mediator that is associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. To date there has been little consideration of the role of oxygen tension in the regulation of nitric oxide production associated with arthritis. Oxygen tension may be particularly relevant to articular cartilage since it is avascular and therefore exists at a reduced oxygen tension. The superficial zone exists at approximately 6% O2, while the deep zone exists at less than 1% O2. Furthermore, oxygen tension can alter matrix synthesis, and the material properties of articular cartilage in vitro.The increase in nitric oxide associated with arthritis can be caused by pro-inflammatory cytokines and mechanical stress. Oxygen tension significantly alters endogenous NO production in articular cartilage, as well as the stimulation of NO in response to both mechanical loading and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mechanical loading and pro-inflammatory cytokines also increase the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. There is a complex interaction between NO and PGE2, and oxygen tension can alter this interaction. These findings suggest that the relatively low levels of oxygen within the joint may have significant influences on the metabolic activity, and inflammatory response of cartilage as compared to ambient levels. A better understanding of the role of oxygen in the production of inflammatory mediators in response to mechanical loading, or pro-inflammatory cytokines, may aid in the development of strategies for therapeutic intervention in arthritis.

  16. Role of nitric oxide in pheromone-mediated intraspecific communication in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Martínez-Ricós, Joana; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2009-12-07

    Nitric oxide is known to take part in the control of sexual and agonistic behaviours. This is usually attributed to its role in neural transmission in the hypothalamus and other structures of the limbic system. However, socio-sexual behaviours in rodents are mainly directed by chemical signals detected by the vomeronasal system, and nitric oxide is abundant in key structures along the vomeronasal pathway. Thus, here we check whether pharmacological treatments interfering with nitrergic transmission could affect socio-sexual behaviour by impairing the processing of chemical signals. Treatment with an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis (Nomega-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, L-NAME, 100mg/kg) blocks the innate preference displayed by female mice for sexual pheromones contained in male-soiled bedding, with a lower dose of the drug (50mg/kg) having no effect. Animals treated with the high dose of L-NAME show no reduction of olfactory discrimination of male urine in a habituation-dishabituation test, thus suggesting that the effect of the drug on the preference for male pheromones is not due to an inability to detect male urine. Alternatively, it may result from an alteration in processing the reinforcing value of pheromones as sexual signals. These results add a new piece of evidence to our understanding of the neurochemistry of intraspecific chemical communication in rodents, and suggest that the role of nitric oxide in socio-sexual behaviours should be re-evaluated taking into account the involvement of this neuromodulator in the processing of chemical signals.

  17. Titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles in induction of apoptosis and inflammatory response in brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, Ramovatar, E-mail: rammeenarv@gmail.com; Kumar, Sumit; Paulraj, R., E-mail: paulrajr@hotmail.com [Jawaharlal Nehru University, School of Environmental Sciences (India)

    2015-01-15

    The ever increasing applications of engineered nanoparticles in 21st century cause serious concern about its potential health risks on living being. Regulatory health risk assessment of such particles has become mandatory for the safe use of nanomaterials in consumer products and medicines. In order to study the mechanism underlying the effects of nano-TiO{sub 2} (TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles) on the brain, wistar rats were administrated intravenously with various doses of nano-TiO{sub 2} (21 nm) through the caudal vein, once a week for 4 weeks and different parameters such as bioaccumulation of nano-TiO{sub 2}, oxidative stress-mediated response, level of inflammatory markers such as NF-κB (p65), HSP 60, p38, nitric oxide, IFN-γ and TNF-α, and level of neurochemicals in brain as well as DNA damage and expression of apoptosis markers (p53, Bax, Bcl-2, and cyto c) were evaluated. Results show that the concentration of nano-TiO{sub 2} in the brain increased with increasing the doses of nano-TiO{sub 2}. Oxidative stress and injury of the brain occurred as nano-TiO{sub 2} appeared to trigger a cascade of reactions such as inflammation, lipid peroxidation, decreases the activities of antioxidative enzymes and melatonin level, the reduction of glutamic acid, downregulated levels of acetylcholinesterase activities, and the increase in caspase-3 activity (a biomarker of apoptosis), DNA fragmentation, and apoptosis. It may be concluded that nano-TiO{sub 2} induces oxidative stress that leads to activation of inflammatory cytokines and an alteration in the level of neurotransmitters resulted in the induction of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis.

  18. Nitric oxide-induced calcium release: activation of type 1 ryanodine receptor by endogenous nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakizawa, Sho; Yamazawa, Toshiko; Iino, Masamitsu

    2013-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs), located in the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) membrane, are required for intracellular Ca2+ release that is involved in a wide range of cellular functions. In addition to Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in cardiac cells and voltage-induced Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle cells, we recently identified another mode of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization mediated by RyR, i.e., nitric oxide-induced Ca2+ release (NICR), in cerebellar Purkinje cells. NICR is evoked by neuronal activity, is dependent on S-nitrosylation of type 1 RyR (RyR1) and is involved in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) of cerebellar synapses. In this addendum, we examined whether peroxynitrite, which is produced by the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide, may also have an effect on the Ca2+ release via RyR1 and the cerebellar LTP. We found that scavengers of peroxynitrite have no significant effect either on the Ca2+ release via RyR1 or on the cerebellar LTP. We also found that an application of a high concentration of peroxynitrite does not reproduce neuronal activity-dependent Ca2+ release in Purkinje cells. These results support that NICR is induced by endogenous nitric oxide produced by neuronal activity through S-nitrosylation of RyR1.

  19. Telmisartan attenuates colon inflammation, oxidative perturbations and apoptosis in a rat model of experimental inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany H Arab

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has indicated the implication of angiotensin II in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD via its proinflammatory features. Telmisartan (TLM is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist with marked anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions that mediated its cardio-, reno- and hepatoprotective actions. However, its impact on IBD has not been previously explored. Thus, we aimed to investigate the potential alleviating effects of TLM in tri-nitrobenezene sulphonic acid (TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Pretreatment with TLM (10 mg/kg p.o. attenuated the severity of colitis as evidenced by decrease of disease activity index (DAI, colon weight/length ratio, macroscopic damage, histopathological findings and leukocyte migration. TLM suppressed the inflammatory response via attenuation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity as a marker of neutrophil infiltration besides restoration of interleukin-10 (IL-10. TLM also suppressed mRNA and protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB p65 and mRNA of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS proinflammatory genes with concomitant upregulation of PPAR-γ. The alleviation of TLM to colon injury was also associated with inhibition of oxidative stress as evidenced by suppression of lipid peroxides and nitric oxide (NO besides boosting glutathione (GSH, total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. With respect to apoptosis, TLM downregulated the increased mRNA, protein expression and activity of caspase-3. It also suppressed the elevation of cytochrome c and Bax mRNA besides the upregulation of Bcl-2. Together, these findings highlight evidences for the beneficial effects of TLM in IBD which are mediated through modulation of colonic inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  20. Sildenafil Prevents Apoptosis of Human First-Trimester Trophoblast Cells Exposed to Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolnick, Jay M.; Kilburn, Brian A.; Bolnick, Alan D.; Diamond, Michael P.; Singh, Manvinder; Hertz, Michael; Dai, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Human first-trimester trophoblast cells proliferate at low O2, but survival is compromised by oxidative stress, leading to uteroplacental insufficiency. The vasoactive drug, sildenafil citrate (Viagra, Sigma, St Louis, Missouri), has proven useful in reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes. An important biological function of this pharmaceutical is its action as an inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase type 5 activity, which suggests that it could have beneficial effects on trophoblast survival. To investigate whether sildenafil can prevent trophoblast cell death, human first-trimester villous explants and the HTR-8/SVneo cytotrophoblast cell line were exposed to hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R) to generate oxidative stress, which induces apoptosis. Apoptosis was optimally inhibited during H/R by 350 ng/mL sildenafil. Sildenafil-mediated survival was reversed by l-NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride or cGMP antagonist, indicating a dependence on both nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP. Indeed, either a cGMP agonist or an NO generator was cytoprotective independent of sildenafil. These findings suggest a novel intervention route for patients with recurrent pregnancy loss or obstetrical placental disorders. PMID:25431453

  1. Iron(II) porphyrins induced conversion of nitrite into nitric oxide: A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting Ting; Liu, Yong Dong; Zhong, Ru Gang

    2015-09-01

    Nitrite reduction to nitric oxide by heme proteins was reported as a protective mechanism to hypoxic injury in mammalian physiology. In this study, the pathways of nitrite reduction to nitric oxide mediated by iron(II) porphyrin (P) complexes, which were generally recognized as models for heme proteins, were investigated by using density functional theory (DFT). In view of two type isomers of combination of nitrite and Fe(II)(P), N-nitro- and O-nitrito-Fe(II)-porphyrin complexes, and two binding sites of proton to the different O atoms of nitrite moiety, four main pathways for the conversion of nitrite into nitric oxide mediated by iron(II) porphyrins were proposed. The results indicate that the pathway of N-bound Fe(II)(P)(NO2) isomer into Fe(III)(P)(NO) and water is similar to that of O-bound isomer into nitric oxide and Fe(III)(P)(OH) in both thermodynamical and dynamical aspects. Based on the initial computational studies of five-coordinate nitrite complexes, the conversion of nitrite into NO mediated by Fe(II)(P)(L) complexes with 14 kinds of proximal ligands was also investigated. Generally, the same conclusion that the pathways of N-bound isomers are similar to those of O-bound isomer was obtained for iron(II) porphyrin with ligands. Different effects of ligands on the reduction reactions were also found. It is notable that the negative proximal ligands can improve reactive abilities of N-nitro-iron(II) porphyrins in the conversion of nitrite into nitric oxide compared to neutral ligands. The findings will be helpful to expand our understanding of the mechanism of nitrite reduction to nitric oxide by iron(II) porphyrins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Nitric Oxide Prodrug JS-K Induces Ca(2+)-Mediated Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Wang, Dongmei; Wang, Jiangang; Wang, Shuying

    2016-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common and deadly forms of human malignancies. JS-K, O(2)-(2, 4-dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl) piperazin-1-yl] diazen-1-ium-1, 2-diolate, has the ability to induce apoptosis of tumor cell lines. In the present study, JS-K inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner and significantly induced apoptosis. JS-K enhanced the ratio of Bax-to-Bcl-2, released of cytochrome c (Cyt c) from mitochondria and the activated caspase-9/3. JS-K caused an increasing cytosolic Ca(2+) and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Carboxy-PTIO (a NO scavenger) and BAPTA-AM (an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator) significantly blocked an increasing cytosolic Ca(2+) in JS-K-induced HepG2 cells apoptosis, especially Carboxy-PTIO. Meanwhile, Carboxy-PTIO and BAPTA-AM treatment both attenuate JS-K-induced apoptosis through upregulation of Bcl-2, downregulation of Bax, reduction of Cyt c release from mitochondria to cytoplasm and inactivation of caspase-9/3. In summary, JS-K induced HepG2 cells apoptosis via Ca(2+)/caspase-3-mediated mitochondrial pathway. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Inducible nitric oxide synthase mediates bone loss in ovariectomized mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuzzocrea, S.; Mazzon, E.; Dugo, L.; Genovese, T.; Paola, R. Di; Ruggeri, Z.; Vegeto, E.; Caputi, A.P.; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Puzzolo, D.; Maggi, A.

    2003-01-01

    Several clinical studies have shown that bone loss may be attributed to osteoclast recruitment induced by mediators of inflammation. In different experimental paradigms we have recently demonstrated that estrogen exhibits antiinflammatory activity by preventing the induction of inducible nitric

  4. Overexpression of human kynurenine-3-monooxygenase protects against 3-hydroxykynurenine-mediated apoptosis through bidirectional nonlinear feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K; Auer, M; Binnie, M; Zheng, X; Pham, N T; Iredale, J P; Webster, S P; Mole, D J

    2016-04-14

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is a critical regulator of inflammation. The preferred KMO substrate, kynurenine, is converted to 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK), and this product exhibits cytotoxicity through mechanisms that culminate in apoptosis. Here, we report that overexpression of human KMO with orthotopic localisation to mitochondria creates a metabolic environment during which the cell exhibits increased tolerance for exogenous 3HK-mediated cellular injury. Using the selective KMO inhibitor Ro61-8048, we show that KMO enzyme function is essential for cellular protection. Pan-caspase inhibition with Z-VAD-FMK confirmed apoptosis as the mode of cell death. By defining expression of pathway components upstream and downstream of KMO, we observed alterations in other key kynurenine pathway components, particularly tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase upregulation, through bidirectional nonlinear feedback. KMO overexpression also increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). These changes in gene expression are functionally relevant, because siRNA knockdown of the pathway components kynureninase and quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase caused cells to revert to a state of susceptibility to 3HK-mediated apoptosis. In summary, KMO overexpression, and importantly KMO activity, have metabolic repercussions that fundamentally affect resistance to cell stress.

  5. Interleukin 1 beta induces diabetes and fever in normal rats by nitric oxide via induction of different nitric oxide synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, J I; Bjerre, U; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    1994-01-01

    Substantial in vitro evidence suggests that nitric oxide may be a major mediator of interleukin 1 (IL-1) induced pancreatic beta-cell inhibition and destruction in the initial events leading to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Using NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of both...

  6. JS-K, a Nitric Oxide Prodrug, Has Enhanced Cytotoxicity in Colon Cancer Cells with Knockdown of Thioredoxin Reductase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edes, Kornelia; Cassidy, Pamela; Shami, Paul J.; Moos, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The selenoenzyme thioredoxin reductase 1 has a complex role relating to cell growth. It is induced as a component of the cellular response to potentially mutagenic oxidants, but also appears to provide growth advantages to transformed cells by inhibiting apoptosis. In addition, selenocysteine-deficient or alkylated forms of thioredoxin reductase 1 have also demonstrated oxidative, pro-apoptotic activity. Therefore, a greater understanding of the role of thioredoxin reductase in redox initiated apoptotic processes is warranted. Methodology The role of thioredoxin reductase 1 in RKO cells was evaluated by attenuating endogenous thioredoxin reductase 1 expression with siRNA and then either inducing a selenium-deficient thioredoxin reductase or treatment with distinct redox challenges including, hydrogen peroxide, an oxidized lipid, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenol, and a nitric oxide donating prodrug. Thioredoxin redox status, cellular viability, and effector caspase activity were measured. Conclusions/Significance In cells with attenuated endogenous thioredoxin reductase 1, a stably integrated selenocysteine-deficient form of the enzyme was induced but did not alter either the thioredoxin redox status or the cellular growth kinetics. The oxidized lipid and the nitric oxide donor demonstrated enhanced cytotoxicity when thioredoxin reductase 1 was knocked-down; however, the effect was more pronounced with the nitric oxide prodrug. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that attenuation of the thioredoxin-system can promote apoptosis in a nitric oxide-dependent manner. PMID:20098717

  7. An ethanol extract of Piper betle Linn. mediates its anti-inflammatory activity via down-regulation of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sudipto; Mula, Soumyaditya; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2007-05-01

    The leaves of Piper betle (locally known as Paan) have long been in use in the Indian indigenous system of medicine for the relief of pain; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this effect have not been elucidated. The anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of an ethanolic extract of the leaves of P. betle (100 mg kg(-1); PB) were demonstrated in a complete Freund's adjuvant-induced model of arthritis in rats with dexamethasone (0.1 mg kg(-1)) as the positive control. At non-toxic concentrations of PB (5-25 microg mL(-1)), a dose-dependent decrease in extracellular production of nitric oxide in murine peritoneal macrophages was measured by the Griess assay and corroborated by flow cytometry using the nitric oxide specific probe, 4,5-diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate. This decreased generation of reactive nitrogen species was mediated by PB progressively down-regulating transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages, and concomitantly causing a dose-dependent decrease in the expression of interleukin-12 p40, indicating the ability of PB to down-regulate T-helper 1 pro-inflammatory responses. Taken together, the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthrotic activity of PB is attributable to its ability to down-regulate the generation of reactive nitrogen species, thus meriting further pharmacological investigation.

  8. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase mediates insulin- and oxidative stress-induced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Dean L; McCammon, Karen M; Hinchee-Rodriguez, Kathryn S; Adamo, Martin L; Roman, Linda J

    2017-09-01

    Previously published studies strongly suggested that insulin- and exercise-induced skeletal muscle glucose uptake require nitric oxide (NO) production. However, the signal transduction mechanisms by which insulin and contraction regulated NO production and subsequent glucose transport are not known. In the present study, we utilized the myotube cell lines treated with insulin or hydrogen peroxide, the latter to mimic contraction-induced oxidative stress, to characterize these mechanisms. We found that insulin stimulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) phosphorylation, NO production, and GLUT4 translocation were all significantly reduced by inhibition of either nNOS or Akt2. Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) induced phosphorylation of nNOS at the same residue as did insulin, and also stimulated NO production and GLUT4 translocation. nNOS inhibition prevented H 2 O 2 -induced GLUT4 translocation. AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition prevented H 2 O 2 activation and phosphorylation of nNOS, leading to reduced NO production and significantly attenuated GLUT4 translocation. We conclude that nNOS phosphorylation and subsequently increased NO production are required for both insulin- and H 2 O 2 -stimulated glucose transport. Although the two stimuli result in phosphorylation of the same residue on nNOS, they do so through distinct protein kinases. Thus, insulin and H 2 O 2 -activated signaling pathways converge on nNOS, which is a common mediator of glucose uptake in both pathways. However, the fact that different kinases are utilized provides a basis for the use of exercise to activate glucose transport in the face of insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Epidermal growth factor prevents thallium(I)- and thallium(III)-mediated rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, María Teresa Luján; Marotte, Clarisa; Verstraeten, Sandra Viviana

    2017-03-01

    We have reported recently that the proliferation of PC12 cells exposed to micromolar concentrations of Tl(I) or Tl(III) has different outcomes, depending on the absence (EGF - cells) or the presence (EGF + cells) of epidermal growth factor (EGF) added to the media. In the current work, we investigated whether EGF supplementation could also modulate the extent of Tl(I)- or Tl(III)-induced cell apoptosis. Tl(I) and Tl(III) (25-100 μM) decreased cell viability in EGF - but not in EGF + cells. In EGF - cells, Tl(I) decreased mitochondrial potential, enhanced H 2 O 2 generation, and activated mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. In addition, Tl(III) increased nitric oxide production and caused a misbalance between the anti- and pro-apoptotic members of Bcl-2 family. Tl(I) increased ERK1/2, JNK, p38, and p53 phosphorylation in EGF - cells. In these cells, Tl(III) did not affect ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation but increased p53 phosphorylation that was related to the promotion of cell senescence. In addition, this cation significantly activated p38 in both EGF - and EGF + cells. The specific inhibition of ERK1/2, JNK, p38, or p53 abolished Tl(I)-mediated EGF - cell apoptosis. Only when p38 activity was inhibited, Tl(III)-mediated apoptosis was prevented in EGF - and EGF + cells. Together, current results indicate that EGF partially prevents the noxious effects of Tl by preventing the sustained activation of MAPKs signaling cascade that lead cells to apoptosis and point to p38 as a key mediator of Tl(III)-induced PC12 cell apoptosis.

  10. Nitric oxide agents impair insulin-mediated signal transduction in rat skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragoobirsingh Dalip

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence demonstrates that exogenously administered nitric oxide (NO can induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. We have investigated the modulatory effects of two NO donors, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D, L-penicillamine (SNAP and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO on the early events in insulin signaling in rat skeletal myocytes. Results Skeletal muscle cells from 6–8 week old Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with SNAP or GSNO (25 ng/ml in the presence or absence of glucose (25 mM and insulin (100 nM. Cellular insulin receptor-β levels and tyrosine phosphorylation in IRS-1 were significantly reduced, while serine phosphorylation in IRS-1 was significantly increased in these cells, when compared to the insulin-stimulated control. Reversal to near normal levels was achieved using the NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO. Conclusion These data suggest that NO is a potent modulator of insulin-mediated signal transduction and may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  11. Vitamin E and Lycopene Reduce Coal Burning Fluorosis-induced Spermatogenic Cell Apoptosis via Oxidative Stress-mediated JNK and ERK Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Xiao, Yuehai; Wang, Bolin; Sun, Chao; Tang, Kaifa; Sun, Fa

    2017-12-22

    Although fluoride has been widely used in toothpaste, mouthwash, and drinking water to prevent dental caries, the excessive intake of fluoride can cause fluorosis which is associated with dental, skeletal, and soft tissue fluorosis. Recent evidences have drawn the attention to its adverse effects on male reproductive system that include spermatogenesis defect, sperm count loss, and sperm maturation impairment. Fluoride induces oxidative stress through the activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade which can lead to cell apoptosis. Vitamin E (VE) and lycopene are two common anti-oxidants, being protective to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced toxic effects. However, whether and how these two anti-oxidants prevent fluoride-induced spermatogenic cell apoptosis are largely unknown. In the present study, a male rat model for coal burning fluorosis was established and the histological lesions and spermatogenic cell apoptosis in rat testes were observed. The decreased expression of clusterin, a heterodimeric glycoprotein reported to regulate spermatogenic cell apoptosis, is detected in fluoride-treated rat testes. Interestingly, the co-administration with VE or lycopene reduced fluorosis-mediated testicular toxicity and rescued clusterin expression. Further, fluoride caused the enhanced Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, which was reduced by VE or lycopene. Thus, VE and lycopene prevent coal burning fluorosis-induced spermatogenic cell apoptosis through the suppression of oxidative stress-mediated JNK and ERK signaling pathway, which could be an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of fluorosis. ©2017 The Author(s).

  12. Study on the effect of reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidative stress on the activation of mitochondrial apoptosis and the tenderness of yak meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Lin; Yu, Qun-Li; Han, Ling; Ma, Xiu-Li; Song, Ren-De; Zhao, Suo-Nan; Zhang, Wen-Hua

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidative stress on activation of mitochondrial apoptosis and tenderness of yak meat during postmortem ageing. Oxidative stress degree, Ca 2+ levels, membrane permeability transition pore opening, mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptotic factors and the shear force were examined. Results showed that the ROS generated by H 2 O 2 significantly increased mitochondrial oxidative stress by decreasing the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and increasing lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, oxidative stress enhanced Ca 2+ production and cytochrome c release, changed the levels of Bcl-2 family proteins and activated caspase-9 and -3 activities. Ultimately, oxidative stress increased the apoptosis rate and tenderness of yak meat. These observations confirmed that ROS-mediated oxidative stress participates in the activation of the apoptotic cascade reaction involving Ca 2+ and Bcl-2 family proteins. The results further suggested that ROS-mediated oxidative stress plays a significant role in meat tenderization through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Resveratrol induces acute endothelium-dependent renal vasodilation mediated through nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species scavenging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordish, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is suggested to have beneficial cardiovascular and renoprotective effects. Resveratrol increases endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. We hypothesized resveratrol acts as an acute renal vasodilator, mediated through increased NO production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In anesthetized rats, we found 5.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) of resveratrol increased renal blood flow (RBF) by 8% [from 6.98 ± 0.42 to 7.54 ± 0.17 ml·min−1·gram of kidney weight−1 (gkw); n = 8; P resveratrol before and after 10 mg/kg bw of the NOS inhibitor N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). l-NAME reduced the increase in RBF to resveratrol by 54% (from 0.59 ± 0.05 to 0.27 ± 0.06 ml·min−1·gkw−1; n = 10; P resveratrol before and after 1 mg/kg bw tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic. Resveratrol increased RBF 7.6% (from 5.91 ± 0.32 to 6.36 ± 0.12 ml·min−1·gkw−1; n = 7; P resveratrol-induced increase in RBF (from 0.45 ± 0.12 to 0.10 ± 0.05 ml·min−1·gkw−1; n = 7; P Resveratrol-induced vasodilation remained unaffected. We conclude intravenous resveratrol acts as an acute renal vasodilator, partially mediated by increased NO production/NO bioavailability and superoxide scavenging but not by inducing vasodilatory cyclooxygenase products. PMID:24431202

  14. Hydrogen Peroxide- and Nitric Oxide-mediated Disease Control of Bacterial Wilt in Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in tomato plants by Ralstonia solanacearum infection and the role of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂ and nitric oxide in tomato bacterial wilt control were demonstrated. During disease development of tomato bacterial wilt, accumulation of superoxide anion (O₂− and H₂O₂ was observed and lipid peroxidation also occurred in the tomato leaf tissues. High doses of H₂O₂and sodium nitroprusside (SNP nitric oxide donor showed phytotoxicity to detached tomato leaves 1 day after petiole feeding showing reduced fresh weight. Both H₂O₂and SNP have in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in a dose-dependent manner, as well as plant protection in detached tomato leaves against bacterial wilt by 10⁶ and 10⁷ cfu/ml of R. solanacearum. H₂O₂- and SNP-mediated protection was also evaluated in pots using soil-drench treatment with the bacterial inoculation, and relative ‘area under the disease progressive curve (AUDPC’ was calculated to compare disease protection by H₂O₂ and/or SNP with untreated control. Neither H₂O₂ nor SNP protect the tomato seedlings from the bacterial wilt, but H₂O₂+ SNP mixture significantly decreased disease severity with reduced relative AUDPC. These results suggest that H₂O₂ and SNP could be used together to control bacterial wilt in tomato plants as bactericidal agents.

  15. Protective role of morin, a flavonoid, against high glucose induced oxidative stress mediated apoptosis in primary rat hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Kapoor

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is an early event of liver damage in diabetes and oxidative stress has been linked to accelerate the apoptosis in hepatocytes. Therefore, the compounds that can scavenge ROS may confer regulatory effects on high-glucose induced apoptosis. In the present study, primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to high concentration (40 mM of glucose. At this concentration decreased cell viability and enhanced ROS generation was observed. Depleted antioxidant status of hepatocytes under high glucose stress was also observed as evident from transcriptional level and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Further, mitochondrial depolarisation was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial integrity and altered expression of Bax and Bcl-2. Increased translocation of apoptotic proteins like AIF (Apoptosis inducing factor & Endo-G (endonuclease-G from its resident place mitochondria to nucleus was also observed. Cyt-c residing in the inter-membrane space of mitochondria also translocated to cytoplasm. These apoptotic proteins initiated caspase activation, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, increased apoptotic DNA content in glucose treated hepatocytes, suggesting mitochondria mediated apoptotic mode of cell death. Morin, a dietary flavonoid from Psidium guajava was effective in increasing the cell viability and decreasing the ROS level. It maintained mitochondrial integrity, inhibited release of apoptotic proteins from mitochondria, prevented DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation and hypodiploid DNA upon exposure to high glucose. This study confirms the capacity of dietary flavonoid Morin in regulating apoptosis induced by high glucose via mitochondrial mediated pathway through intervention of oxidative stress.

  16. Ursolic acid-mediated changes in glycolytic pathway promote cytotoxic autophagy and apoptosis in phenotypically different breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinska, Anna; Adamczyk-Grochala, Jagoda; Kwasniewicz, Ewa; Deregowska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2017-06-01

    Plant-derived pentacyclic triterpenotids with multiple biological activities are considered as promising candidates for cancer therapy and prevention. However, their mechanisms of action are not fully understood. In the present study, we have analyzed the effects of low dose treatment (5-20 µM) of ursolic acid (UA) and betulinic acid (BA) on breast cancer cells of different receptor status, namely MCF-7 (ER + , PR +/- , HER2 - ), MDA-MB-231 (ER - , PR - , HER2 - ) and SK-BR-3 (ER - , PR - , HER2 + ). UA-mediated response was more potent than BA-mediated response. Triterpenotids (5-10 µM) caused G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, an increase in p21 levels and SA-beta-galactosidase staining that was accompanied by oxidative stress and DNA damage. UA (20 µM) also diminished AKT signaling that affected glycolysis as judged by decreased levels of HK2, PKM2, ATP and lactate. UA-induced energy stress activated AMPK that resulted in cytotoxic autophagy and apoptosis. UA-mediated elevation in nitric oxide levels and ATM activation may also account for AMPK activation-mediated cytotoxic response. Moreover, UA-promoted apoptosis was associated with decreased pERK1/2 signals and the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. Taken together, we have shown for the first time that UA at low micromolar range may promote its anticancer action by targeting glycolysis in phenotypically distinct breast cancer cells.

  17. Nitric oxide synthase-I containing cortical interneurons co-express antioxidative enzymes and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 following focal ischemia: evidence for direct and indirect mechanisms towards their resistance to neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidmon, H J; Emde, B; Kowalski, T; Schmitt, M; Mayer, B; Kato, K; Asayama, K; Witte, O W; Zilles, K

    2001-09-01

    Neuronal nitric oxide-I is constitutively expressed in approximately 2% of cortical interneurons and is co-localized with gamma-amino butric acid, somatostatin or neuropeptide Y. These interneurons additionally express high amounts of glutamate receptors which mediate the glutamate-induced hyperexcitation following cerebral injury, under these conditions nitric oxide production increases contributing to a potentiation of oxidative stress. However, perilesional nitric oxide synthase-I containing neurons are known to be resistant to ischemic and excitotoxic injury. In vitro studies show that nitrosonium and nitroxyl ions inactivate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, resulting in neuroprotection. The question remains of how these cells are protected against their own high intracellular nitric oxide production after activation. In this study, we investigated immunocytochemically nitric oxide synthase-I containing cortical neurons in rats after unilateral, cortical photothrombosis. In this model of focal ischemia, perilesional, constitutively nitric oxide synthase-I containing neurons survived and co-expressed antioxidative enzymes, such as manganese- and copper-zinc-dependent superoxide dismutases, heme oxygenase-2 and cytosolic glutathione peroxidase. This enhanced antioxidant expression was accompanied by a strong perinuclear presence of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein. No colocalization was detectable with upregulated heme oxygenase-1 in glia and the superoxide and prostaglandin G(2)-producing cyclooxygenase-2 in neurons. These results suggest that nitric oxide synthase-I containing interneurons are protected against intracellular oxidative damage and apoptosis by Bcl-2 and several potent antioxidative enzymes. Since nitric oxide synthase-I positive neurons do not express superoxide-producing enzymes such as cyclooxygenase-1, xanthine oxidase and cyclooxygenase-2 in response to injury, this may additionally contribute to their resistance by reducing their internal

  18. Therapeutic strategies to address neuronal nitric oxide synthase deficiency and the loss of nitric oxide bioavailability in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpani, Cara A; Hayes, Alan; Rybalka, Emma

    2017-05-25

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is a rare and fatal neuromuscular disease in which the absence of dystrophin from the muscle membrane induces a secondary loss of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and the muscles capacity for endogenous nitric oxide synthesis. Since nitric oxide is a potent regulator of skeletal muscle metabolism, mass, function and regeneration, the loss of nitric oxide bioavailability is likely a key contributor to the chronic pathological wasting evident in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. As such, various therapeutic interventions to re-establish either the neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein deficit or the consequential loss of nitric oxide synthesis and bioavailability have been investigated in both animal models of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and in human clinical trials. Notably, the efficacy of these interventions are varied and not always translatable from animal model to human patients, highlighting a complex interplay of factors which determine the downstream modulatory effects of nitric oxide. We review these studies herein.

  19. A Comparison of the Effects of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Cartilage Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Selim Gokay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cartilage regeneration. The study involved 27 Wistar rats that were divided into five groups. On Day 1, both knees of 3 rats were resected and placed in a formalin solution as a control group. The remaining 24 rats were separated into 4 groups, and their right knees were surgically damaged. Depending on the groups, the rats were injected with intra-articular normal saline solution, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amino-guanidine (30 mg/kg, or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (200 mg/kg. After 21 days, the right and left knees of the rats were resected and placed in formalin solution. The samples were histopathologically examined by a blinded evaluator and scored on 8 parameters. Although selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition exhibited significant (P=0.044 positive effects on cartilage regeneration following cartilage damage, it was determined that inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no statistically significant effect on cartilage regeneration. It was observed that the nitric oxide synthase activation triggered advanced arthrosis symptoms, such as osteophyte formation. The fact that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were observed to have mitigating effects on the severity of the damage may, in the future, influence the development of new agents to be used in the treatment of cartilage disorders.

  20. Radiation, nitric oxide and cellular death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D.; Perez, M.R. Del; Michelin, S.C.; Gisone, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms of radiation induced cellular death constitute an objective of research ever since the first biological effects of radiation were first observed. The explosion of information produced in the last 20 years calls for a careful analysis due to the apparent contradictory data related to the cellular system studied and the range of doses used. This review focuses on the role of the active oxygen species, in particular the nitric oxides, in its relevance as potential mediator of radiation induced cellular death

  1. Nitric oxide-mediated modulation of iron regulatory proteins: implication for cellular iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangwon; Ponka, Prem

    2002-01-01

    Iron regulatory proteins (IRP1 and IRP2) control the synthesis of transferrin receptors (TfR) and ferritin by binding to iron-responsive elements (IREs) that are located in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) and the 5' UTR of their respective mRNAs. Cellular iron levels affect binding of IRPs to IREs and consequently expression of TfR and ferritin. Moreover, NO(.), a redox species of nitric oxide that interacts primarily with iron, can activate IRP1 RNA-binding activity resulting in an increase in TfR mRNA levels and a decrease in ferritin synthesis. We have shown that treatment of RAW 264.7 cells (a murine macrophage cell line) with NO(+) (nitrosonium ion, which causes S-nitrosylation of thiol groups) resulted in a rapid decrease in RNA-binding of IRP2, followed by IRP2 degradation, and these changes were associated with a decrease in TfR mRNA levels and a dramatic increase in ferritin synthesis. Moreover, we demonstrated that stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) increased IRP1 binding activity, whereas RNA-binding of IRP2 decreased and was followed by a degradation of this protein. Furthermore, the decrease of IRP2 binding/protein levels was associated with a decrease in TfR mRNA levels and an increase in ferritin synthesis in LPS/IFN-gamma-treated cells, and these changes were prevented by inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase. These results suggest that NO(+)-mediated degradation of IRP2 plays a major role in iron metabolism during inflammation.

  2. Nitric Oxide Synthase and Cyclooxygenase Pathways: A Complex Interplay in Cellular Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The cellular reaction to external challenges is a tightly regulated process consisting of integrated processes mediated by a variety of signaling molecules, generated as a result of modulation of corresponding biosynthetic systems. Both, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) systems, consist of constitutive forms (NOS1, NOS3 and COX-1), which are mostly involved in housekeeping tasks, and inducible forms (NOS2 and COX-2), which shape the cellular response to stress and variety of bioactive agents. The complex interplay between NOS and COX pathways can be observed at least at three levels. Firstly, products of NOS and Cox systems can mediate the regulation and the expression of inducible forms (NOS2 and COX-2) in response of similar and dissimilar stimulus. Secondly, the reciprocal modulation of cyclooxygenase activity by nitric oxide and NOS activity by prostaglandins at the posttranslational level has been shown to occur. Mechanisms by which nitric oxide can modulate prostaglandin synthesis include direct S-nitrosylation of COX and inactivation of prostaglandin I synthase by peroxynitrite, product of superoxide reaction with nitric oxide. Prostaglandins, conversely, can promote an increased association of dynein light chain (DLC) (also known as protein inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase) with NOS1, thereby reducing its activity. The third level of interplay is provided by intracellular crosstalk of signaling pathways stimulated by products of NOS and COX which contributes significantly to the complexity of cellular signaling. Since modulation of COX and NOS pathways was shown to be principally involved in a variety of pathological conditions, the dissection of their complex relationship is needed for better understanding of possible therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on implications of interplay between NOS and COX for cellular function and signal integration.

  3. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase deficiency influences normal cell cycle progression and apoptosis in trabecular meshwork cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Liao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To clarify how the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, NOS3 make effect on outflow facility through the trabecular meshwork (TM. METHODS: Inhibition of NOS3 gene expression in human TM cells were conducted by three siRNAs. Then the mRNA and protein levels of NOS3 in siRNA-treated and negative control (NC cells were determined, still were the collagen, type IV, alpha 1 (COL4A1 and fibronectin 1 by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. In addition, NOS3 concentrations in culture supernatant fluids of TM cells were measured. Cell cycle and cell apoptosis analysis were performed using flow cytometry. RESULTS: The mRNA level of NOS3 was decreased by three different siRNA interference, similar results were obtained not only of the relative levels of NOS3 protein, but also the expression levels of COL4A1 and fibronectin 1. The number of cells in S phase was decreased, while contrary result was obtained in G2 phase. The number of apoptotic cells in siRNA-treated groups were significant increased compared to the NC samples. CONCLUSION: Abnormal NOS3 expression can make effects on the proteins levels of extracellular matrix component (e.g. fibronectin 1 and COL4A1. Reduced NOS3 restrains the TM cell cycle progression at the G2/M-phase transition and induced cell apoptosis.

  4. Water-Soluble Dinitrosyl Iron Complex (DNIC): a Nitric Oxide Vehicle Triggering Cancer Cell Death via Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shou-Cheng; Lu, Chung-Yen; Chen, Yi-Lin; Lo, Feng-Chun; Wang, Ting-Yin; Chen, Yu-Jen; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou; Liaw, Wen-Feng; Wang, Yun-Ming

    2016-09-19

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important cellular signaling molecule that modulates various physiological activities. Angiogenesis-promoting activities of NO-donor drugs have been explored in both experimental and clinical studies. In this study, a structurally well characterized and water-soluble neutral {Fe(NO)2}(9) DNIC [(S(CH2)2OH)(S(CH2)2NH3)Fe(NO)2] (DNIC 2) was synthesized to serve as a NO-donor species. The antitumor activity of DNIC 2 was determined by MTT assay, confocal imaging, and Annexin-V/PI staining. The IC50 values of DNIC 2 were 18.8, 42.9, and 38.6 μM for PC-3, SKBR-3, and CRL5866 tumor cells, respectively. Moreover, DNIC 2 promoted apoptotic cell death via activation of apoptosis-associated proteins and inhibition of survival associated proteins. In particular, DNIC 2 treatment suppressed PC-3 tumor growth by 2.34- and 19.3-fold at 7 and 21 days, in comparison with the control group. These results indicate that water-soluble DNIC 2 may serve as a promising drug for cancer therapy.

  5. Increasing the Fungicidal Action of Amphotericin B by Inhibiting the Nitric Oxide-Dependent Tolerance Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Vriens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphotericin B (AmB induces oxidative and nitrosative stresses, characterized by production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, in fungi. Yet, how these toxic species contribute to AmB-induced fungal cell death is unclear. We investigated the role of superoxide and nitric oxide radicals in AmB’s fungicidal activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using a digital microfluidic platform, which enabled monitoring individual cells at a spatiotemporal resolution, and plating assays. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME was used to interfere with nitric oxide radical production. L-NAME increased and accelerated AmB-induced accumulation of superoxide radicals, membrane permeabilization, and loss of proliferative capacity in S. cerevisiae. In contrast, the nitric oxide donor S-nitrosoglutathione inhibited AmB’s action. Hence, superoxide radicals were important for AmB’s fungicidal action, whereas nitric oxide radicals mediated tolerance towards AmB. Finally, also the human pathogens Candida albicans and Candida glabrata were more susceptible to AmB in the presence of L-NAME, pointing to the potential of AmB-L-NAME combination therapy to treat fungal infections.

  6. A ROS-dependent and Caspase-3-mediated apoptosis in sheep bronchial epithelial cells in response to Mycoplasma Ovipneumoniae infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Di; Li, Yanan; Jiang, Zhongjia; Deng, Guangcun; Li, Min; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

    2017-05-01

    Mycoplasma Ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae) is a primary etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia in sheep and goats. It can enter and colonize ovine respiratory epithelial cells to establish an infection, which leads a serious cell death of epithelial cells. However, the nature of the interaction between pathogen of M. ovipneumoniae and host cells in the cell injury is currently not well understood. In this study, we investigated the epithelial cell apoptosis caused by an infection of M. ovipneumoniae in sheep primary air-liquid interface (ALI) epithelial cultures. The results showed that M. ovipneumoniae could specifically bind to ciliated cells at early stage of infection. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that an infection of M. ovipneumoniae induced a time-dependent cell apoptotic cell death, accompanied with an increased production of extracellular nitric oxide (NO), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activation of caspase-3 signaling in sheep bronchial epithelial cells. The induced cell apoptosis was further confirmed by a transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Interestingly, the M. ovipneumoniae-induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-3 were correlated with the production of ROS but not NO. Mechanistically, M. ovipneumoniae-induced cell apoptosis was mediated by a mechanism by increasing the expression of phosphorylation of p38 and pro-apoptotic proteins, and activating caspase-3, caspase-8 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. These results suggest a ROS-dependent and caspase-3-mediated cell apoptosis in sheep bronchial epithelial cells in response to M. ovipneumoniae infections. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Sorbitol-modified hyaluronic acid reduces oxidative stress, apoptosis and mediators of inflammation and catabolism in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongkhon, John-Max; Thach, Maryane; Shi, Qin; Fernandes, Julio C; Fahmi, Hassan; Benderdour, Mohamed

    2014-08-01

    Our study was designed to elucidate the precise molecular mechanisms by which sorbitol-modified hyaluronic acid (HA/sorbitol) exerts beneficial effects in osteoarthritis (OA). Human OA chondrocytes were treated with increasing doses of HA/sorbitol ± anti-CD44 antibody or with sorbitol alone and thereafter with or without interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Signal transduction pathways and parameters related to oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation, and catabolism were investigated. HA/sorbitol prevented IL-1β-induced oxidative stress, as measured by reactive oxygen species, p47-NADPH oxidase phosphorylation, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) production and HNE-metabolizing glutathione-S-transferase A4-4 expression. Moreover, HA/sorbitol stifled IL-1β-induced metalloproteinase-13, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 release as well as inducible NO synthase expression. Study of the apoptosis process revealed that this gel significantly attenuated cell death, caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation elicited by exposure to a cytotoxic H2O2 dose. Examination of signaling pathway components disclosed that HA/sorbitol prevented IL-1β-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappa B activation, but not that of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. Interestingly, the antioxidant as well as the anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects of HA/sorbitol were attributed to sorbitol and HA, respectively. Altogether, our findings support a beneficial effect of HA/sorbitol in OA through the restoration of redox status and reduction of apoptosis, inflammation and catabolism involved in cartilage damage.

  8. Role of heat shock protein 90 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase during early anesthetic and ischemic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, Julien; Brzezinska, Anna K; Weihrauch, Dorothee; Billstrom, Amie R; Zielonka, Jacek; Krolikowski, John G; Bienengraeber, Martin W; Warltier, David C; Pratt, Philip F; Kersten, Judy R

    2009-02-01

    Nitric oxide is known to be essential for early anesthetic preconditioning (APC) and ischemic preconditioning (IPC) of myocardium. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) regulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. In this study, the authors tested the hypothesis that Hsp90-eNOS interactions modulate APC and IPC. Myocardial infarct size was measured in rabbits after coronary occlusion and reperfusion in the absence or presence of preconditioning within 30 min of isoflurane (APC) or 5 min of coronary artery occlusion (IPC), and with or without pretreatment with geldanamycin or radicicol, two chemically distinct Hsp90 inhibitors, or N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a nonspecific nitric oxide synthase NOS inhibitor. Isoflurane-dependent nitric oxide production was measured (ozone chemiluminescence) in human coronary artery endothelial cells or mouse cardiomyocytes, in the absence or presence of Hsp90 inhibitors or N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Interactions between Hsp90 and eNOS, and eNOS activation, were assessed with immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and confocal microscopy. APC and IPC decreased infarct size (by 50% and 59%, respectively), and this action was abolished by Hsp90 inhibitors. N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester blocked APC but not IPC. Isoflurane increased nitric oxide production in human coronary artery endothelial cells concomitantly with an increase in Hsp90-eNOS interaction (immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry). Pretreatment with Hsp90 inhibitors abolished isoflurane-dependent nitric oxide production and decreased Hsp90-eNOS interactions. Isoflurane did not increase nitric oxide production in mouse cardiomyocytes, and eNOS was below the level of detection. The results indicate that Hsp90 plays a critical role in mediating APC and IPC through protein-protein interactions, and suggest that endothelial cells are important contributors to nitric oxide-mediated signaling during APC.

  9. Serotonin-induced vasodilatation in the human forearm is mediated by the "nitric oxide-pathway": no evidence for involvement of the 5-HT3-receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruning, T. A.; Chang, P. C.; Blauw, G. J.; Vermeij, P.; van Zwieten, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    The "nitric oxide (NO)-pathway" is presumed to be involved in acetylcholine (ACh)- and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)-mediated vasodilatation. In addition, both the 5-HT-induced transient and persistent vasodilator responses in the forearm vascular bed are abolished by the

  10. How to protect liver graft with nitric oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassen Ben Abdennebi; Mohamed Amine Zaoualí; Izabel Alfany-Fernandez; Donia Tabka; Joan Roselló-Catafau

    2011-01-01

    Organ preservation and ischemia reperfusion injury associated with liver transplantation play an important role in the induction of graft injury. One of the earliest events associated with the reperfusion injury is endothelial cell dysfunction. It is generally accepted that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS) is cell-protective by mediating vasodilatation, whereas inducible nitric oxide synthase mediates liver graft injury after transplantation. We conducted a critical review of the literature evaluating the potential applications of regulating and promoting e-NOS activity in liver preservation and transplantation, showing the most current evidence to support the concept that enhanced bioavailability of NO derived from e-NOS is detrimental to ameliorate graft liver preservation, as well as preventing subsequent graft reperfusion injury. This review deals mainly with the beneficial effects of promoting "endogenous" pathways for NO generation, via e-NOS inducer drugs in cold preservation solution, surgical strategies such as ischemic preconditioning, and alternative "exogenous" pathways that focus on the enrichment of cold storage liquid with NO donors. Finally, we also provide a basic bench-to-bed side summary of the liver physiology and cell signalling mechanisms that account for explaining the e-NOS protective effects in liver preservation and transplantation.

  11. Unintended inhalation of nitric oxide by contamination of compressed air: physiologic effects and interference with intended nitric oxide inhalation in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzing, A; Loop, T; Mols, G; Geiger, K

    1999-10-01

    Compressed air from a hospital's central gas supply may contain nitric oxide as a result of air pollution. Inhaled nitric oxide may increase arterial oxygen tension and decrease pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Therefore, the authors wanted to determine whether unintentional nitric oxide inhalation by contamination of compressed air influences arterial oxygen tension and pulmonary vascular resistance and interferes with the therapeutic use of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide concentrations in the compressed air of a university hospital were measured continuously by chemiluminescence during two periods (4 and 2 weeks). The effects of unintended nitric oxide inhalation on arterial oxygen tension (n = 15) and on pulmonary vascular resistance (n = 9) were measured in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome by changing the source of compressed air of the ventilator from the hospital's central gas supply to a nitric oxide-free gas tank containing compressed air. In five of these patients, the effects of an additional inhalation of 5 ppm nitric oxide were evaluated. During working days, compressed air of the hospital's central gas supply contained clinically effective nitric oxide concentrations (> 80 parts per billion) during 40% of the time. Change to gas tank-supplied nitric oxide-free compressed air decreased the arterial oxygen tension by 10% and increased pulmonary vascular resistance by 13%. The addition of 5 ppm nitric oxide had a minimal effect on arterial oxygen tension and pulmonary vascular resistance when added to hospital-supplied compressed air but improved both when added to tank-supplied compressed air. Unintended inhalation of nitric oxide increases arterial oxygen tension and decreases pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The unintended nitric oxide inhalation interferes with the

  12. Role of nitric oxide and KATP channel in the protective effect mediated by nicorandil in bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Yasmin S; Ahmed, Lamiaa A; Salem, Hesham A; Agha, Azza M

    2018-05-01

    Liver fibrosis is one of the most serious conditions affecting patients worldwide. In the present study, the role of nitric oxide and KATP channel was investigated for the first time in the possible protection mediated by nicorandil in bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Nicorandil (3 mg/kg/day) was given orally 24 h after bile duct ligation for 14 days till the end of the experiment. Nicorandil group showed marked improvement in liver function tests, hepatic oxidative stress and inflammatory markers as well as inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein expressions. Furthermore, nicorandil administration led to significant decrement of phosphorylated protein kinase C, fibrosis and hepatic stellate cells activation as indicated by decreased alpha smooth muscle actin expression. Oral co-administration of glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day) (a KATP channel blocker) with nicorandil mostly showed similar improvement though not reaching to that of nicorandil group. However, co-adminstration of L-NAME (15 mg/kg/day) (an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) completely abolished the protective effects of nicorandil and produced more or less similar results to that of untreated bile duct ligated group. In conclusion, nicorandil is an effective therapy against the development of bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in rats where nitric oxide plays a more prominent role in the protective effect of nicorandil than KATP channel opening. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Microcystin-LR Induces Apoptosis via NF-κB /iNOS Pathway in INS-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Shen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial toxins, especially the microcystins, are found in eutrophied waters throughout the world, and their potential to impact on human and animal health is a cause for concern. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR is one of the common toxic microcystin congeners and occurs frequently in diverse water systems. Recent work suggested that apoptosis plays a major role in the toxic effects induced by MC-LR in hepatocytes. However, the roles of MC-LR in pancreatic beta cells have not been fully established. The aim of the present study was to assess possible in vitro effects of MC-LR on cell apoptosis in the rat insulinoma cell line, INS-1. Our results demonstrated that MC-LR promoted selectively activation of NF-κB (increasing nuclear p50/p65 translocation and increased the mRNA and protein levels of induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. The chronic treatment with MC-LR stimulated nitric oxide (NO production derived from iNOS and induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner in INS-1 cells. Meanwhile, this effect was inhibited by the NF-κB inhibitor PDTC, which reversed the apoptosis induced by MC-LR. Our observations indicate that MC-LR induced cell apoptosis via an iNOS-dependent pathway. A well-known nuclear transcription factor, NF-κB, is activated and mediates intracellular nitric oxide synthesis. We suggest that the apoptosis induced by chronic MC-LR in vivo presents a possible cause of β-cell dysfunction, as a key environmental factor in the development of diabetes mellitus.

  14. Reactive oxygen species are key mediators of the nitric oxide apoptotic pathway in anterior pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiavelli, Leticia I; Poliandri, Ariel H; Quinteros, Fernanda A; Cabilla, Jimena P; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

    2007-03-01

    We previously showed that long-term exposure of anterior pituitary cells to nitric oxide (NO) induces apoptosis. The intracellular signals underlying this effect remained unclear. In this study, we searched for possible mechanisms involved in the early stages of the NO apoptotic cascade. Caspase 3 was activated by NO with no apparent disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. NO caused a rapid increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and this increase seems to be dependent of mitochondrial electron transport chain. The antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine avoided ROS increase, prevented the NO-induced caspase 3 activation, and reduced the NO apoptotic effect. Catalase was inactivated by NO, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) were not modified at first, but increased at later times of NO exposure. The increase of GSH level is important for the scavenging of the NO-induced ROS overproduction. Our results indicate that ROS have an essential role as a trigger of the NO apoptotic cascade in anterior pituitary cells. The permanent inhibition of catalase may strengthen the oxidative damage induced by NO. GPx activity and GSH level augment in response to the oxidative damage, though this increase seems not to be enough to rescue the cells from the NO effect.

  15. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Systems § 862.3080 Breath nitric oxide test system. (a) Identification. A breath nitric oxide test system... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section... fractional nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to...

  16. Iron-Mediated Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization in Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Oxidative Damage and Apoptosis: Protective Effects of Quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron, in its free ferrous states, can catalyze Fenton reaction to produce OH∙, which is recognized as a crucial role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD. As a result of continuous decomposition of iron-containing compounds, lysosomes contain a pool of redox-active iron. To investigate the important role of intralysosomal iron in alcoholic liver injury and the potential protection of quercetin, male C57BL/6J mice fed by Lieber De Carli diets containing ethanol (30% of total calories were cotreated by quercetin or deferoxamine (DFO for 15 weeks and ethanol-incubated mice primary hepatocytes were pretreated with FeCl3, DFO, and bafilomycin A1 at their optimal concentrations and exposure times. Chronic ethanol consumption caused an evident increase in lysosomal redox-active iron accompanying sustained oxidative damage. Iron-mediated ROS could trigger lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP and subsequent mitochondria apoptosis. The hepatotoxicity was attenuated by reducing lysosomal iron while being exacerbated by escalating lysosomal iron. Quercetin substantially alleviated the alcoholic liver oxidative damage and apoptosis by decreasing lysosome iron and ameliorating iron-mediated LMP, which provided a new prospective of the use of quercetin against ALD.

  17. The emphysematous lung is abnormally sensitive to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milot Julie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alveolar apoptosis is increased in the emphysematous lung. However, mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Recently, we demonstrated that levels of TRAIL receptor 1 and 2, levels of p53, and Bax/Bcl-xL ratio were elevated in the lung of subjects with emphysema, despite smoking cessation. Thus, we postulate that due to chronic pulmonary oxidative stress, the emphysematous lung would be abnormally sensitive to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Methodology A549 cells were exposed to rTRAIL, cigarette smoke extract, and/or H2O2 prior to caspase-3 activity measurement and annexin V staining assessment. In addition, freshly resected lung samples were obtained from non-emphysematous and emphysematous subjects and exposed ex vivo to rTRAIL for up to 18 hours. Lung samples were harvested and levels of active caspase-3 and caspase-8 were measured from tissue lysates. Results Both cigarette smoke extract and H2O2 were able to sensitize A549 cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Moreover, following exposure to rTRAIL, caspase-3 and -8 were activated in lung explants from emphysematous subjects while being decreased in lung explants from non-emphysematous subjects. Significance of the study Alveolar sensitivity to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis is strongly increased in the emphysematous lung due to the presence of oxidative stress. This might be a new mechanism leading to increased alveolar apoptosis and persistent alveolar destruction following smoking cessation.

  18. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a device used to add nitric oxide to gases that are to be breathed by a patient. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is to be used in conjunction with a ventilator or other breathing gas administration system. (b) Classification...

  19. Neuronal Nitric-Oxide Synthase Deficiency Impairs the Long-Term Memory of Olfactory Fear Learning and Increases Odor Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi, Eloisa; Heldt, Scott A.; Fletcher, Max L.

    2013-01-01

    Experience-induced changes associated with odor learning are mediated by a number of signaling molecules, including nitric oxide (NO), which is predominantly synthesized by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the brain. In the current study, we investigated the role of nNOS in the acquisition and retention of conditioned olfactory fear. Mice…

  20. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae-derived lipid-associated membrane proteins induce apoptosis in porcine alveolar macrophage via increasing nitric oxide production, oxidative stress, and caspase-3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fangfang; Ni, Bo; Liu, Maojun; Feng, Zhixin; Xiong, Qiyan; Xiao, Shaobo; Shao, Guoqing

    2013-09-15

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the primary etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia in swine. Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMP) of mycoplasma are the main pathogenicity factors in mycoplasma diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of M. hyopneumoniae LAMP on porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) 3D4/21 cell line. Apoptotic features, such as chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies, were observed in LAMP-treated PAM 3D4/21 cells. Moreover, LAMP significantly increased the number of TUNEL positive apoptotic cells in PAM 3D4/21 cells compared with the untreated control. In addition, flow cytometric analysis using dual staining with annexin-V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) showed that LAMP of M. hyopneumoniae induced a time-dependent apoptosis in PAM 3D4/21 cells. Moreover, increased levels of superoxide anion production and activated caspase-3 in PAM 3D4/21 cells were observed after exposure to LAMP. Increased production of nitric oxide (NO) was also confirmed in the cell supernatants. Besides, apoptotic rates increase and caspase-3 activation were suppressed by NOS inhibitor or antioxidant. It is suggested that LAMP of M. hyopneumoniae induced apoptosis in porcine alveolar macrophage via NO production, superoxide anion production, and caspase-3 activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide ameliorates anoxia/reoxygenation-mediated oxidative stress and apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Song; Li, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xian-Yi; Yan, Yu-Xin; Nie, Shao-Ping; Gong, De-Ming; Tang, Xiao-Fang; He, Ming; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2017-05-01

    Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1), a main polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum, possesses potent antioxidant capacity and cardiovascular benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PSG-1 in oxidative stress and apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) injury conditions. The results showed that exposure of HUVECs to A/R triggered cell death and apoptosis. Administration of PSG-1 significantly inhibited A/R-induced cell death and apoptosis in HUVECs. PSG-1-reduced A/R injury was mediated via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, as evidenced by elevation of mitochondrial Bcl-2 protein and mitochondrial membrane potential, and attenuation of Bax translocation, cytochrome c release and caspases activation. Furthermore, PSG-1 enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and glutathione content, and concomitantly attenuated reactive oxygen species generation, lipid peroxidation and glutathione disulfide content. The antioxidant, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, significantly ameliorated all of these endothelial injuries caused by A/R, suggesting that antioxidant activities might play a key role in PSG-1-induced endothelial protection. Taken together, these findings suggested that PSG-1 could be as a promising adjuvant against endothelial dysfunction through ameliorating oxidative stress and apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Roles of thioredoxin in nitric oxide-dependent preconditioning-induced tolerance against MPTP neurotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiueh, C.C.; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Chock, P. Boon

    2005-01-01

    Hormesis, a stress tolerance, can be induced by ischemic preconditioning stress. In addition to preconditioning, it may be induced by other means, such as gas anesthetics. Preconditioning mechanisms, which may be mediated by reprogramming survival genes and proteins, are obscure. A known neurotoxicant, 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), causes less neurotoxicity in the mice that are preconditioned. Pharmacological evidences suggest that the signaling pathway of ·NO-cGMP-PKG (protein kinase G) may mediate preconditioning phenomenon. We developed a human SH-SY5Y cell model for investigating · NO-mediated signaling pathway, gene regulation, and protein expression following a sublethal preconditioning stress caused by a brief 2-h serum deprivation. Preconditioned human SH-SY5Y cells are more resistant against severe oxidative stress and apoptosis caused by lethal serum deprivation and 1-mehtyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + ). Both sublethal and lethal oxidative stress caused by serum withdrawal increased neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS/NOS1) expression and · NO levels to a similar extent. In addition to free radical scavengers, inhibition of nNOS, guanylyl cyclase, and PKG blocks hormesis induced by preconditioning. S-nitrosothiols and 6-Br-cGMP produce a cytoprotection mimicking the action of preconditioning tolerance. There are two distinct cGMP-mediated survival pathways: (i) the up-regulation of a redox protein thioredoxin (Trx) for elevating mitochondrial levels of antioxidant protein Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, and (ii) the activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels [K(ATP)]. Preconditioning induction of Trx increased tolerance against MPP + , which was blocked by Trx mRNA antisense oligonucleotide and Trx reductase inhibitor. It is concluded that Trx plays a pivotal role in · NO-dependent preconditioning hormesis against MPTP/MPP +

  3. Inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitrotyrosine and apoptosis in gastric adenocarcinomas and their correlation with a poor survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long-Gang; Xu, Hui-Mian

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To detect the presence of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine (NT) and apoptosis in gastric adenocarcinomas and their possible correlations with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of gastric adenocarcinoma. METHODS: Sixty-six specimens of gastric adenocarcinoma and corresponding adjacent normal gastric tissues were studied. Immunohistochemistry was employed to localize iNOS and NT protein and an immunohistochemical scoring system was used. The occurrence of apoptotic cell death (apoptotic index [AI]) was analyzed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method. RESULTS: Results showed that iNOS expression was detected at an intermediate or high level in 41 of 66 (62%) specimens of gastric adenocarcinoma. NT expression was 58%. Neither of them was found in the normal gastric tissues; there were significant positive correlations among iNOS expression, NT expression and AI. Many clinicopathologic characteristics of gastric adenocarcinoma, such as tumor size, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis and TNM staging, were related to iNOS and NT expressions (P<0.05). In 66 surviving patients, the 5-year survival rate of 41 patients who had tumors with intermediate or high iNOS expressions and high AIs (4.09%; 19.96%) was significantly lower than that of 25 patients who had tumors with negative or low iNOS expressions and low AIs (0.79%; 47.14%) (P = 0.001). COX’s multivariate analysis revealed that the iNOS expression was identified as one of the significant independent prognostic factors predictive of a poor survival (relative risk [RR] = 2.69). CONCLUSION: NO produced by iNOS may play a stronger role in promoting gastric adenocarcinoma growth than in suppressing its growth. iNOS and NT expressions by gastric adenocarcinoma may correlate with a poor survival. PMID:15849807

  4. Treatment Of Sunitinib-Induced Hypertension In Solid Tumors By Nitric Oxid Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís A. Leon

    2015-08-01

    Hypertension (HT is one of the most common adverse effects of angiogenesis inhibitors. Hypertension observed in clinical trials appears to correlate with the potency of VEGF kinase inhibitor against VEGFR-2: agents with higher potency are associated with a higher incidence of hypertension. Although the exact mechanism by TKIs induce hypertension has not yet been completely clarified, two key hypotheses have been postulated. First, some studies have pointed to a VEGF inhibitors-induced decrease in nitric oxide synthase (NOS and nitric oxide (NO production, that can result in vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure. VEGF, mediated by PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathway, upregulates the endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme leading to up-regulation of NO production. So inhibition of signaling through the VEGF pathway would lead to a decrease in NO production, resulting in an increase in vascular resistance and blood pressure. Secondly a decrease in the number of microvascular endothelial cells and subsequent depletion of normal microvessel density (rarefaction occurs upon VEGF signaling inhibition.

  5. Ursolic acid mediates photosensitization by initiating mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuan-Hao; Wang, Exing; Kumar, Neeru; Glickman, Randolph D.

    2013-02-01

    The signaling pathways PI3K/Akt and MAPK play key roles in transcription, translation and carcinogenesis, and may be activated by light exposure. These pathways may be modulated or inhibited by naturally-occurring compounds, such as the triterpenoid, ursolic acid (UA). Previously, the transcription factors p53 and NF-kB, which transactivate mitochondrial apoptosis-related genes, were shown to be differentially modulated by UA. Our current work indicates that UA causes these effects via the mTOR and insulin-mediated pathways. UA-modulated apoptosis, following exposure to UV radiation, is observed to correspond to differential levels of oxidative stress in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) and skin melanoma (SM) cells. Flow cytometry analysis, DHE (dihydroethidium) staining and membrane permeability assay showed that UA pretreatment potentiated cell cycle arrest and radiation-induced apoptosis selectively on SM cells while DNA photo-oxidative damage (i.e. strand breakage) was reduced, presumably by some antioxidant activity of UA in RPE cells. The UA-mediated NF-κB activation in SM cells was reduced by rapamycin pretreatment, which indicates that these agents exert inter-antagonistic effects in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. In contrast, the antagonistic effect of UA on the PI3K/Akt pathway was reversed by insulin leading to greater NF-κB and p53 activation in RPE cells. MitoTracker, a mitochondrial functional assay, indicated that mitochondria in RPE cells experienced reduced oxidative stress while those in SM cells exhibited increased oxidative stress upon UA pretreatment. When rapamycin administration was followed by UA, mitochondrial oxidative stress was increased in RPE cells but decreased in SM cells. These results indicate that UA modulates p53 and NF-κB, initiating a mitogenic response to radiation that triggers mitochondria-dependent apoptosis.

  6. Calcium-mediated signaling and calmodulin-dependent kinase regulate hepatocyte-inducible nitric oxide synthase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baochun; Crankshaw, Will; Nesemeier, Ryan; Patel, Jay; Nweze, Ikenna; Lakshmanan, Jaganathan; Harbrecht, Brian G

    2015-02-01

    Induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is induced in hepatocytes by shock and inflammatory stimuli. Excessive NO from iNOS mediates shock-induced hepatic injury and death, so understanding the regulation of iNOS will help elucidate the pathophysiology of septic shock. In vitro, cytokines induce iNOS expression through activation of signaling pathways including mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor κB. Cytokines also induce calcium (Ca(2+)) mobilization and activate calcium-mediated intracellular signaling pathways, typically through activation of calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMK). Calcium regulates NO production in macrophages but the role of calcium and calcium-mediated signaling in hepatocyte iNOS expression has not been defined. Primary rat hepatocytes were isolated, cultured, and induced to produce NO with proinflammatory cytokines. Calcium mobilization and Ca(2+)-mediated signaling were altered with ionophore, Ca(2+) channel blockers, and inhibitors of CaMK. The Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 suppressed cytokine-stimulated NO production, whereas Ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid and nifedipine increased NO production, iNOS messenger RNA, and iNOS protein expression. Inhibition of CaMK with KN93 and CBD increased NO production but the calcineurin inhibitor FK 506 decreased iNOS expression. These data demonstrate that calcium-mediated signaling regulates hepatocyte iNOS expression and does so through a mechanism independent of calcineurin. Changes in intracellular calcium levels may regulate iNOS expression during hepatic inflammation induced by proinflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Berberine prevents nitric oxide-induced rat chondrocyte apoptosis and cartilage degeneration in a rat osteoarthritis model via AMPK and p38 MAPK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Shi-Qing; Yu, Ling; He, Bin; Wu, Shi-Hao; Zhao, Qi; Xia, Shao-Qiang; Mei, Hong-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Chondrocyte apoptosis is an important mechanism involved in osteoarthritis (OA). Berberine (BBR), a plant alkaloid derived from Chinese medicine, is characterized by multiple pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. This study aimed to evaluate the chondroprotective effect and underlying mechanisms of BBR on sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-stimulated chondrocyte apoptosis and surgically-induced rat OA model. The in vitro results revealed that BBR suppressed SNP-stimulated chondrocyte apoptosis as well as cytoskeletal remodeling, down-regulated expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and caspase-3, and up-regulated Bcl-2/Bax ratio and Type II collagen (Col II) at protein levels, which were accompanied by increased adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and decreased phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Furthermore, the anti-apoptotic effect of BBR was blocked by AMPK inhibitor Compound C (CC) and adenosine-9-β-D-arabino-furanoside (Ara A), and enhanced by p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. In vivo experiment suggested that BBR ameliorated cartilage degeneration and exhibited an anti-apoptotic effect on articular cartilage in a rat OA model, as demonstrated by histological analyses, TUNEL assay and immunohistochemical analyses of caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax expressions. These findings suggest that BBR suppresses SNP-stimulated chondrocyte apoptosis and ameliorates cartilage degeneration via activating AMPK signaling and suppressing p38 MAPK activity.

  8. Requirement of phosphorylatable endothelial nitric oxide synthase at Ser-1177 for vasoinhibin-mediated inhibition of endothelial cell migration and proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Celina; Nuñez-Anita, Rosa Elvira; Thebault, Stéphanie; Arredondo Zamarripa, David; Jeziorsky, Michael C; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Clapp, Carmen

    2014-03-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived nitric oxide is a major vasorelaxing factor and a mediator of vasopermeability and angiogenesis. Vasoinhibins, a family of antiangiogenic prolactin fragments that include 16 K prolactin, block most eNOS-mediated vascular effects. Vasoinhibins activate protein phosphatase 2A, causing eNOS inactivation through dephosphorylation of eNOS at serine residue 1179 in bovine endothelial cells and thereby blocking vascular permeability. In this study, we examined whether human eNOS phosphorylation at S1177 (analogous to bovine S1179) influences other actions of vasoinhibins. Bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells were stably transfected with human wild-type eNOS (WT) or with phospho-mimetic (S1177D) or non-phosphorylatable (S1177A) eNOS mutants. Vasoinhibins inhibited the increases in eNOS activity, migration, and proliferation following the overexpression of WT eNOS but did not affect these responses in cells expressing S1177D and S1177A eNOS mutants. We conclude that eNOS inhibition by dephosphorylation of S1177 is fundamental for the inhibition of endothelial cell migration and proliferation by vasoinhibins.

  9. Erythropoietin and a nonerythropoietic peptide analog promote aortic endothelial cell repair under hypoxic conditions: role of nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikal L

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lamia Heikal,1 Pietro Ghezzi,1 Manuela Mengozzi,1 Blanka Stelmaszczuk,2 Martin Feelisch,2 Gordon AA Ferns1 1Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Falmer, Brighton, 2Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital and Institute for Life Sciences, Southampton, UK Abstract: The cytoprotective effects of erythropoietin (EPO and an EPO-related nonerythropoietic analog, pyroglutamate helix B surface peptide (pHBSP, were investigated in an in vitro model of bovine aortic endothelial cell injury under normoxic (21% O2 and hypoxic (1% O2 conditions. The potential molecular mechanisms of these effects were also explored. Using a model of endothelial injury (the scratch assay, we found that, under hypoxic conditions, EPO and pHBSP enhanced scratch closure by promoting cell migration and proliferation, but did not show any effect under normoxic conditions. Furthermore, EPO protected bovine aortic endothelial cells from staurosporine-induced apoptosis under hypoxic conditions. The priming effect of hypoxia was associated with stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor-1α, EPO receptor upregulation, and decreased Ser-1177 phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS; the effect of hypoxia on the latter was rescued by EPO. Hypoxia was associated with a reduction in nitric oxide (NO production as assessed by its oxidation products, nitrite and nitrate, consistent with the oxygen requirement for endogenous production of NO by endothelial NOS. However, while EPO did not affect NO formation in normoxia, it markedly increased NO production, in a manner sensitive to NOS inhibition, under hypoxic conditions. These data are consistent with the notion that the tissue-protective actions of EPO-related cytokines in pathophysiological settings associated with poor oxygenation are mediated by NO. These findings may be particularly relevant to atherogenesis and postangioplasty restenosis. Keywords

  10. The human coronary vasodilatory response to acute mental stress is mediated by neuronal nitric oxide synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sitara G.; Melikian, Narbeh; Shabeeh, Husain; Cabaco, Ana R.; Martin, Katherine; Khan, Faisal; O’Gallagher, Kevin; Chowienczyk, Philip J.

    2017-01-01

    Mental stress-induced ischemia approximately doubles the risk of cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease, yet the mechanisms underlying changes in coronary blood flow in response to mental stress are poorly characterized. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) regulates basal coronary blood flow in healthy humans and mediates mental stress-induced vasodilation in the forearm. However, its possible role in mental stress-induced increases in coronary blood flow is unknown. We studied 11 patients (6 men and 5 women, mean age: 58 ± 14 yr) undergoing elective diagnostic cardiac catheterization and assessed the vasodilator response to mental stress elicited by the Stroop color-word test. Intracoronary substance P (20 pmol/min) and isosorbide dinitrate (1 mg) were used to assess endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation, respectively. Coronary blood flow was estimated using intracoronary Doppler recordings and quantitative coronary angiography to measure coronary artery diameter. Mental stress increased coronary flow by 34 ± 7.0% over the preceding baseline during saline infusion (P coronary artery diameter by 6.9 ± 3.7% (P = 0.02) and 0.5 ± 2.8% (P = 0.51) in the presence of S-methyl-l-thiocitrulline. The response to substance P did not predict the response to mental stress (r2 = −0.22, P = 0.83). nNOS mediates the human coronary vasodilator response to mental stress, predominantly through actions at the level of coronary resistance vessels. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Acute mental stress induces vasodilation of the coronary microvasculature. Here, we show that this response involves neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the human coronary circulation. Listen to this article’s corresponding podcast at http://ajpheart.podbean.com/e/nnos-and-coronary-flow-during-mental-stress/. PMID:28646032

  11. The human coronary vasodilatory response to acute mental stress is mediated by neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sitara G; Melikian, Narbeh; Shabeeh, Husain; Cabaco, Ana R; Martin, Katherine; Khan, Faisal; O'Gallagher, Kevin; Chowienczyk, Philip J; Shah, Ajay M

    2017-09-01

    Mental stress-induced ischemia approximately doubles the risk of cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease, yet the mechanisms underlying changes in coronary blood flow in response to mental stress are poorly characterized. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) regulates basal coronary blood flow in healthy humans and mediates mental stress-induced vasodilation in the forearm. However, its possible role in mental stress-induced increases in coronary blood flow is unknown. We studied 11 patients (6 men and 5 women, mean age: 58 ± 14 yr) undergoing elective diagnostic cardiac catheterization and assessed the vasodilator response to mental stress elicited by the Stroop color-word test. Intracoronary substance P (20 pmol/min) and isosorbide dinitrate (1 mg) were used to assess endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation, respectively. Coronary blood flow was estimated using intracoronary Doppler recordings and quantitative coronary angiography to measure coronary artery diameter. Mental stress increased coronary flow by 34 ± 7.0% over the preceding baseline during saline infusion ( P stress increased coronary artery diameter by 6.9 ± 3.7% ( P = 0.02) and 0.5 ± 2.8% ( P = 0.51) in the presence of S -methyl-l-thiocitrulline. The response to substance P did not predict the response to mental stress ( r 2 = -0.22, P = 0.83). nNOS mediates the human coronary vasodilator response to mental stress, predominantly through actions at the level of coronary resistance vessels. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Acute mental stress induces vasodilation of the coronary microvasculature. Here, we show that this response involves neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the human coronary circulation.Listen to this article's corresponding podcast at http://ajpheart.podbean.com/e/nnos-and-coronary-flow-during-mental-stress/. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Nitric oxide and chronic colitis

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    Matthew B Grisham

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is thought to play an important role in modulating the inflammatory response by virtue of its ability to affect bloodflow, leukocyte function and cell viability. The objective of this study was to assess the role that NO may play in mediating the mucosal injury and inflammation in a model of chronic granulomatous colitis using two pharmacologically different inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Chronic granulomatous colitis with liver and spleen inflammation was induced in female Lewis rats via the subserosal (intramural injection of peptidoglycan/polysaccharide (PG/PS derived from group A streptococci. Chronic NOS inhibition by oral administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME (15 µmol/kg/day or amino-guanidine (AG (15 µmol/ kg/day was found to attenuate the PG/PS-induced increases in macroscopic colonic inflammation scores and colonic myeloperoxidase activity. Only AG -- not L-NAME – attenuated the PG/PS-induced increases in colon dry weight. Both L-NAME and AG significantly attenuated the PG/PS-induced increases in spleen weight whereas neither was effective at significantly attenuating the PG/PS-induced increases in liver weight. Although both L-NAME and AG inhibited NO production in vivo, as measured by decreases in plasma nitrite and nitrate levels, only AG produced significantly lower values (38±3 versus 83±8 µM, respectively, P<0.05. Finally, L-NAME, but not AG, administration significantly increased mean arterial pressure from 83 mmHg in colitic animals to 105 mmHg in the PG/PS+ L-NAME-treated animals (P<0.05. It is concluded that NO may play an important role in mediating some of the pathophysiology associated with this model of chronic granulomatous colitis.

  13. Nitric oxide in the psychobiology of mental disorders

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    Altan Eşsizoğlu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide is in a gaseous form and is widespread in the human body. It functions by acting as a secondary messenger in the modulatory activities of neuronal functions of the central nervous system. Nitric oxide is the first identified neurotransmitter of the nontraditional neurotransmitter family.Studies conducted on experimental animals demonstrate that nitric oxide has a neuromodulatory efficacy on the secretions of other neurotransmitters and that it has an effect on learning and memory functions, and on various neuronal mechanisms. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the location of nitric oxide in the central nervous system, its effect on anxiety and depression, its relationship with other neurotransmitters, and also about its role on neurotoxicity. There are clinical studies concerning the level of nitrate, a product of nitric oxide metabolism, and also experimental studies concerning its rewarding effect of alcohol and substance use, in patients with depression and schizophrenia. However, limited studies have been conducted to investigate its relationship with stress, which is an important factor in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. These studies demonstrate that nitric oxide is closely related with stress physiology.Nitric oxide is a neuromodulator, which is frequently being mentioned about nowadays in psychiatry. Clinical and experimental studies play an important role in the psychobiology of psychiatric disorders.

  14. Fiber type-specific nitric oxide protects oxidative myofibers against cachectic stimuli.

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    Zengli Yu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative skeletal muscles are more resistant than glycolytic muscles to cachexia caused by chronic heart failure and other chronic diseases. The molecular mechanism for the protection associated with oxidative phenotype remains elusive. We hypothesized that differences in reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO determine the fiber type susceptibility. Here, we show that intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS in mice resulted in higher level of ROS and greater expression of muscle-specific E3 ubiqitin ligases, muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx/atrogin-1 and muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF1, in glycolytic white vastus lateralis muscle than in oxidative soleus muscle. By contrast, NO production, inducible NO synthase (iNos and antioxidant gene expression were greatly enhanced in oxidative, but not in glycolytic muscles, suggesting that NO mediates protection against muscle wasting. NO donors enhanced iNos and antioxidant gene expression and blocked cytokine/endotoxin-induced MAFbx/atrogin-1 expression in cultured myoblasts and in skeletal muscle in vivo. Our studies reveal a novel protective mechanism in oxidative myofibers mediated by enhanced iNos and antioxidant gene expression and suggest a significant value of enhanced NO signaling as a new therapeutic strategy for cachexia.

  15. Hyperglycemia adversely modulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase during anesthetic preconditioning through tetrahydrobiopterin- and heat shock protein 90-mediated mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, Julien; Brzezinska, Anna K; Jager, Zachary; Sullivan, Corbin; Weihrauch, Dorothee; Du, Jianhai; Vladic, Nikolina; Shi, Yang; Warltier, David C; Pratt, Phillip F; Kersten, Judy R

    2010-03-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity is regulated by (6R-)5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and heat shock protein 90. The authors tested the hypothesis that hyperglycemia abolishes anesthetic preconditioning (APC) through BH4- and heat shock protein 90-dependent pathways. Myocardial infarct size was measured in rabbits in the absence or presence of APC (30 min of isoflurane), with or without hyperglycemia, and in the presence or absence of the BH4 precursor sepiapterin. Isoflurane-dependent nitric oxide production was measured (ozone chemiluminescence) in human coronary artery endothelial cells cultured in normal (5.5 mm) or high (20 mm) glucose conditions, with or without sepiapterin (10 or 100 microm). APC decreased myocardial infarct size compared with control experiments (26 +/- 6% vs. 46 +/- 3%, respectively; P < 0.05), and this action was blocked by hyperglycemia (43 +/- 4%). Sepiapterin alone had no effect on infarct size (46 +/- 3%) but restored APC during hyperglycemia (21 +/- 3%). The beneficial actions of sepiapterin to restore APC were blocked by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (47 +/- 2%) and the BH4 synthesis inhibitor N-acetylserotonin (46 +/- 3%). Isoflurane increased nitric oxide production to 177 +/- 13% of baseline, and this action was attenuated by high glucose concentrations (125 +/- 6%). Isoflurane increased, whereas high glucose attenuated intracellular BH4/7,8-dihydrobiopterin (BH2) (high performance liquid chromatography), heat shock protein 90-endothelial nitric oxide synthase colocalization (confocal microscopy) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation (immunoblotting). Sepiapterin increased BH4/BH2 and dose-dependently restored nitric oxide production during hyperglycemic conditions (149 +/- 12% and 175 +/- 9%; 10 and 100 microm, respectively). The results indicate that tetrahydrobiopterin and heat shock protein 90-regulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity play a central

  16. Requirement of the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway for IL-1-induced osteoclastic bone resorption

    OpenAIRE

    van't Hof, R. J.; Armour, K. J.; Smith, L. M.; Armour, K. E.; Wei, X. Q.; Liew, F. Y.; Ralston, S. H.

    2000-01-01

    Nitric oxide has been suggested to be involved in the regulation of bone turnover, especially in pathological conditions characterized by release of bone-resorbing cytokines. The cytokine IL-1 is thought to act as a mediator of periarticular bone loss and tissue damage in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. IL-1 is a potent stimulator of both osteoclastic bone resorption and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in bone cells and other cell types. In this study,...

  17. Nitric oxide-mediated bystander signal transduction induced by heavy-ion microbeam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Masanori; Matsumoto, Hideki; Funayama, Tomoo; Yokota, Yuichiro; Otsuka, Kensuke; Maeda, Munetoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2015-07-01

    In general, a radiation-induced bystander response is known to be a cellular response induced in non-irradiated cells after receiving bystander signaling factors released from directly irradiated cells within a cell population. Bystander responses induced by high-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ions at low fluence are an important health problem for astronauts in space. Bystander responses are mediated via physical cell-cell contact, such as gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC) and/or diffusive factors released into the medium in cell culture conditions. Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known major initiator/mediator of intercellular signaling within culture medium during bystander responses. In this study, we investigated the NO-mediated bystander signal transduction induced by high-LET argon (Ar)-ion microbeam irradiation of normal human fibroblasts. Foci formation by DNA double-strand break repair proteins was induced in non-irradiated cells, which were co-cultured with those irradiated by high-LET Ar-ion microbeams in the same culture plate. Foci formation was suppressed significantly by pretreatment with an NO scavenger. Furthermore, NO-mediated reproductive cell death was also induced in bystander cells. Phosphorylation of NF-κB and Akt were induced during NO-mediated bystander signaling in the irradiated and bystander cells. However, the activation of these proteins depended on the incubation time after irradiation. The accumulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a downstream target of NO and NF-κB, was observed in the bystander cells 6 h after irradiation but not in the directly irradiated cells. Our findings suggest that Akt- and NF-κB-dependent signaling pathways involving COX-2 play important roles in NO-mediated high-LET heavy-ion-induced bystander responses. In addition, COX-2 may be used as a molecular marker of high-LET heavy-ion-induced bystander cells to distinguish them from directly irradiated cells, although this may depend on the time

  18. Getting to NO Alzheimer’s Disease: Neuroprotection versus Neurotoxicity Mediated by Nitric Oxide

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    Rachelle Balez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder involving the loss of neurons in the brain which leads to progressive memory loss and behavioral changes. To date, there are only limited medications for AD and no known cure. Nitric oxide (NO has long been considered part of the neurotoxic insult caused by neuroinflammation in the Alzheimer’s brain. However, focusing on early developments, prior to the appearance of cognitive symptoms, is changing that perception. This has highlighted a compensatory, neuroprotective role for NO that protects synapses by increasing neuronal excitability. A potential mechanism for augmentation of excitability by NO is via modulation of voltage-gated potassium channel activity (Kv7 and Kv2. Identification of the ionic mechanisms and signaling pathways that mediate this protection is an important next step for the field. Harnessing the protective role of NO and related signaling pathways could provide a therapeutic avenue that prevents synapse loss early in disease.

  19. Activating transcription factor 6 mediates oxidized LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation and apoptosis in macrophages by up-regulating CHOP expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shutong; Zong, Chuanlong; Zhang, Ying; Sang, Hui; Yang, Mingfeng; Jiao, Peng; Fang, Yongqi; Yang, Nana; Song, Guohua; Qin, Shucun

    2013-01-01

    This study was to explore whether activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), an important sensor to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, would mediate oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)- induced cholesterol accumulation and apoptosis in cultured macrophages and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Intracellular lipid droplets and total cholesterol levels were assayed by oil red O staining and enzymatic colorimetry, respectively. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined using MTT assay and AnnexinV-FITC apoptosis detection kit, respectively. The nuclear translocation of ATF6 in cells was detected by immunofluorescence analysis. Protein and mRNA levels were examined by Western blot analysis and real time-PCR, respectively. ATF6 siRNA was transfected to RAW264.7 cells by lipofectamin. Exposure of cells to ox-LDL induced glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a key-signaling component of ER stress-induced apoptosis, was up-regulated in ox-LDL-treated cells. ATF6, a factor that positively regulates CHOP expression, was activated by ox-LDL in a concentration- and time- dependent manner. The role of the ATF6-mediated ER stress pathway was further confirmed through the siRNA-mediated knockdown of ATF6, which attenuated ox-LDL-induced upregulation of CHOP, cholesterol accumulation and apoptosis in macrophages. In addition, the phosphorylation of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), another factor that positively regulates CHOP expression, was induced in the presence of ox-LDL, and PERK-specific siRNA also inhibited the ox-LDL-induced upregulation of CHOP and apoptosis in RAW264.7 cells. These results demonstrate that ER stress-related proteins, particularly ATF6 and its downstream molecule CHOP, are involved in ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation and apoptosis in macrophages.

  20. Chronic nandrolone administration promotes oxidative stress, induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine and TNF-α mediated apoptosis in the kidneys of CD1 treated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riezzo, Irene; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Bello, Stefania; Cantatore, Santina [Department of Forensic Pathology, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Cerretani, Daniela [Pharmacology Unit, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, University of Siena, Siena (Italy); Di Paolo, Marco [Department of Forensic Pathology, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Fiaschi, Anna Ida [Pharmacology Unit, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, University of Siena, Siena (Italy); Frati, Paola [Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic and Orthopaedic Sciences, University of Rome Sapienza, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy); Neri, Margherita [Department of Forensic Pathology, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Pedretti, Monica [Department of Forensic Pathology, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Fineschi, Vittorio, E-mail: vfinesc@tin.it [Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic and Orthopaedic Sciences, University of Rome Sapienza, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    Nandrolone decanoate administration and strenuous exercise increase the extent of renal damage in response to renal toxic injury. We studied the role played by oxidative stress in the apoptotic response caused by nandrolone decanoate in the kidneys of strength-trained male CD1 mice. To measure cytosolic enzyme activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined after nandrolone treatment. An immunohistochemical study and Western blot analysis were performed to evaluate cell apoptosis and to measure the effects of renal expression of inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, TNF-α) on the induction of apoptosis (HSP90, TUNEL). Dose-related oxidative damage in the kidneys of treated mice is shown by an increase in MDA levels and by a reduction of antioxidant enzyme GR and GPx activities, resulting in the kidney's reduced radical scavenging ability. Renal specimens of the treated group showed relevant glomeruli alterations and increased immunostaining and protein expressions, which manifested significant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The induction of proinflammatory cytokine expression levels was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Long-term administration of nandrolone promotes oxidative injury in the mouse kidneys. TNF-α mediated injury due to nandrolone in renal cells appears to play a role in the activation of both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. - Highlights: • We analyze abuse of nandrolone decanoate in strength-trained male CD1 mice. • Nandrolone decanoate administration increases oxidative stress. • Increased cytokine expressions were observed. • Renal apoptosis was described. • Long-term administration of nandrolone promotes oxidative injury in mice kidney.

  1. Chronic nandrolone administration promotes oxidative stress, induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine and TNF-α mediated apoptosis in the kidneys of CD1 treated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riezzo, Irene; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Bello, Stefania; Cantatore, Santina; Cerretani, Daniela; Di Paolo, Marco; Fiaschi, Anna Ida; Frati, Paola; Neri, Margherita; Pedretti, Monica; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Nandrolone decanoate administration and strenuous exercise increase the extent of renal damage in response to renal toxic injury. We studied the role played by oxidative stress in the apoptotic response caused by nandrolone decanoate in the kidneys of strength-trained male CD1 mice. To measure cytosolic enzyme activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined after nandrolone treatment. An immunohistochemical study and Western blot analysis were performed to evaluate cell apoptosis and to measure the effects of renal expression of inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, TNF-α) on the induction of apoptosis (HSP90, TUNEL). Dose-related oxidative damage in the kidneys of treated mice is shown by an increase in MDA levels and by a reduction of antioxidant enzyme GR and GPx activities, resulting in the kidney's reduced radical scavenging ability. Renal specimens of the treated group showed relevant glomeruli alterations and increased immunostaining and protein expressions, which manifested significant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The induction of proinflammatory cytokine expression levels was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Long-term administration of nandrolone promotes oxidative injury in the mouse kidneys. TNF-α mediated injury due to nandrolone in renal cells appears to play a role in the activation of both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. - Highlights: • We analyze abuse of nandrolone decanoate in strength-trained male CD1 mice. • Nandrolone decanoate administration increases oxidative stress. • Increased cytokine expressions were observed. • Renal apoptosis was described. • Long-term administration of nandrolone promotes oxidative injury in mice kidney

  2. Oxidative stress and apoptosis after acute respiratory hypoxia and reoxygenation in rat brain

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    Debora Coimbra-Costa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute hypoxia increases the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the brain. However, the effect of reoxygenation, unavoidable to achieve full recovery of the hypoxic organ, has not been clearly established. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of exposition to acute severe respiratory hypoxia followed by reoxygenation on the evolution of oxidative stress and apoptosis in the brain. We investigated the effect of in vivo acute severe normobaric hypoxia (rats exposed to 7% O2 for 6 h and reoxygenation in normoxia (21% O2 for 24 h or 48 h on oxidative stress markers, the antioxidant system and apoptosis in the brain. After respiratory hypoxia we found increased levels of HIF-1α expression, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and nitric oxide in brain extracts. Antioxidant defence systems such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, reduced glutathione (GSH and glutathione peroxidase (GPx and the reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio were significantly decreased in the brain. After 24 h of reoxygenation, oxidative stress parameters and the anti-oxidant system returned to control values. Regarding the apoptosis parameters, acute hypoxia increased cytochrome c, AIF and caspase 3 activity in the brain. The apoptotic effect is greatest after 24 h of reoxygenation. Immunohistochemistry suggests that CA3 and dentate gyrus in the hippocampus seem more susceptible to hypoxia than the cortex. Severe acute hypoxia increases oxidative damage, which in turn could activate apoptotic mechanisms. Our work is the first to demonstrate that after 24 h of reoxygenation oxidative stress is attenuated, while apoptosis is maintained mainly in the hippocampus, which may, in fact, be the cause of impaired brain function. Keywords: Antioxidants, Apoptosis, Normobaric hypoxia, Oxidative stress, Reoxygenation

  3. Advanced glycation endproducts alter functions and promote apoptosis in endothelial progenitor cells through receptor for advanced glycation endproducts mediate overpression of cell oxidant stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianfei; Song, Minbao; Yu, Shiyong; Gao, Pan; Yu, Yang; Wang, Hong; Huang, Lan

    2010-02-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in preventing atherosclerosis. The factors that regulate the function of EPCs are not completely clear. Increased formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) is generally regarded as one of the main mechanisms responsible for vascular damage in patients with diabetes and atherosclerosis. AGEs lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and part of the regenerative capacity of EPCs seems to be due to their low baseline ROS levels and reduced sensitivity to ROS-induced cell apoptosis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that AGEs can alter functions and promote apoptosis in EPCs through overpress cell oxidant stress. EPCs, isolated from bone marrow, were cultured in the absence or presence of AGEs (50, 100, and 200 microg/ml). A modified Boyden's chamber was used to assess the migration of EPCs and the number of recultured EPCs was counted to measure the adhesiveness function. MTT assay was used to determine the proliferation function. ROS were analyzed using the ROS assay kit. A spectrophotometer was used to assess superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity, and PCR was used to test mRNA expression of SOD and GSH-PX. SiRNA was used to block receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGEs) expression. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V immunostaining and TUNEL staining. Co-culturing with AGEs increases ROS production, decreases anti-oxidant defenses, overpresses oxidant stress, inhibits the proliferation, migration, and adhesion of EPCs, and induces EPCs apoptosis. In addition, these effects were attenuated during block RAGE protein expression by siRNA. AGEs may serve to impair EPCs functions through RAGE-mediate oxidant stress, and promote EPCs sensitivity toward oxidative-stress-mediated apoptosis, which indicates a new pathophysiological mechanism of disturbed vascular adaptation in atherosclerosis and suggests that lower levels of AGEs might improve the

  4. Nitric Oxide Metabolites and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Concentrations in Breast Milk

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    Hakan Öztürk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nitric oxide plays a preventive role in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis. Oral nitrite and nitrate intake has gained importance with the discovery of the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide in acidic medium out of the synthesis of nitric oxide from L-arginine. Objective of this study was to examine the breast milk concentrations of nitric oxide and asymmetric dimethylarginine which is a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide and to compare these concentrations in terms of gestational age and maturity of breast milk. Study Design: Forty-one women were included in the study. Milk samples were collected from 3 groups of mothers as term, late preterm and preterm on the postpartum days 3, 7 and 28. Results: When breast milk concentrations of nitric oxide were compared according to the postnatal day of the milk independently from gestational age; nitric oxide concentration was higher in the colostrum than in the transition milk and mature milk (p=0,035; p=0,001; respectively. For the comparison of asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations among these groups and days; no statistically significant difference was observed in terms of gestational age and maturity of the milk (p=0.865, p=0.115; respectively. Conclusion: The highest nitric oxide concentration was found in the colostrum, suggesting that colostrum is a valuable food for newborns. Plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine were negatively correlated with nitric oxide and did not show a correlation with breast milk, suggesting that asymmetric dimethylargininedoesn’t make nitric oxide inhibition in breast milk.

  5. Altered contractile response due to increased beta3-adrenoceptor stimulation in diabetic cardiomyopathy: the role of nitric oxide synthase 1-derived nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, Julien; Loyer, Xavier; Le Guen, Morgan; Mabrouk, Nejma; David, Jean-Stéphane; Camors, Emmanuel; Carusio, Nunzia; Vivien, Benoît; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Heymes, Christophe; Riou, Bruno

    2007-09-01

    In the diabetic heart, the positive inotropic response to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation is altered and beta1 and beta2 adrenoceptors are down-regulated, whereas beta3 adrenoceptor is up-regulated. In heart failure, beta3-adrenoceptor stimulation induces a negative inotropic effect that results from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3)-derived nitric oxide production. The objective of our study was to investigate the role of beta3-adrenoceptor in diabetic cardiomyopathy. beta-Adrenergic responses were investigated in vivo (dobutamine echocardiography) and in vitro (left ventricular papillary muscle) in healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The effect of beta3-adrenoceptor inhibition on the inotropic response was studied in vitro. Immunoblots and NOS activities were performed in heart homogenates (electron paramagnetic resonance) and isolated cardiomyocytes. Data are mean percentage of baseline +/- SD. The impaired positive inotropic effect was confirmed in diabetes both in vivo (121 +/- 15% vs. 160 +/- 16%; P < 0.05) and in vitro (112 +/- 5% vs. 179 +/- 15%; P < 0.05). In healthy rat, the positive inotropic effect was not significantly modified in presence of beta3-adrenoceptor antagonist (174 +/- 20%), nonselective NOS inhibitor (N -nitro-l-arginine methylester [l-NAME]; 183 +/- 19%), or selective NOS1 inhibitor (vinyl-l-N-5-(1-imino-3-butenyl)-l-ornithine [l-VNIO]; 172 +/- 13%). In diabetes, in parallel with the increase in beta3-adrenoceptor protein expression, the positive inotropic effect was partially restored by beta3-adrenoceptor antagonist (137 +/- 8%; P < 0.05), l-NAME (133 +/- 11%; P < 0.05), or l-VNIO (130 +/- 13%; P < 0.05). Nitric oxide was exclusively produced by NOS1 within diabetic cardiomyocytes. NOS2 and NOS3 proteins were undetectable. beta3-Adrenoceptor is involved in altered positive inotropic response to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation in diabetic cardiomyopathy. This effect is mediated by NOS1-derived nitric oxide in diabetic

  6. Mechanism of vasoconstriction induced by chronic inhibition of nitric oxide in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, N; Aynedjian, H S; Khan, G A

    1994-09-01

    Either acute or chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis by L-arginine analogues results in increases in mean arterial pressure and reductions in renal blood flow. The role of endogenous vasoconstrictors in mediating these effects is not entirely clear. In the present study, nitric oxide was inhibited in male Sprague-Dawley rats by oral administration of nitro-L-arginine for 3 weeks. At the end of this time, mean arterial pressure was 30 to 40 mm Hg higher than in normal controls, renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate were 25% to 30% lower, and renal vascular resistance was markedly increased. Intravenous infusion of receptor antagonists for angiotensin II, thromboxane, epinephrine, and endothelin-1 had no significant effect on the hypertension. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and furosemide-induced diuresis in the presence of angiotensin blockade also had no effect on blood pressure. Renal vascular resistance was also unaffected by these interventions, except that saralasin did reduce renal resistance in both control and nitric oxide-inhibited groups. However, the absolute level of renal vascular resistance remained higher in the latter group. Calcium channel blockade partially corrected blood pressure and renal resistance, but the levels remained significantly higher than in control animals. The findings are consistent with the view that the increase in vascular smooth muscle tone caused by inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis cannot be accounted for by overexpression of common endogenous vasoconstrictors. Rather, the generalized increase in vascular smooth muscle tone appears to be due to a direct effect of reduced nitric oxide availability, which may lead to an increase in intracellular calcium concentration or sensitivity.

  7. Blocking RhoA/ROCK inhibits the pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris by suppressing oxidative stress and apoptosis through TAK1/NOD2-mediated NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junqin; Zeng, Xuewen; Halifu, Yilinuer; Chen, Wenjing; Hu, Fengxia; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Huan; Kang, Xiaojing

    2017-12-01

    Oxidative stress and apoptosis play critical roles in pemphigus vulgaris (PV). The main aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of RhoA/ROCK signaling on UVB-induced oxidative damage, and to delineate the molecular mechanisms involved in the UVB-mediated inflammatory and apoptotic response. In HaCaT cells, we observed that blockage of RhoA/ROCK signaling with the inhibitor CT04 or Y27632 greatly inhibited the UVB-mediated increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, inhibition of RhoA/ROCK signaling reduced UVB-induced apoptosis, as exemplified by a reduction in DNA fragmentation, and also elevated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, concomitant with reduced levels of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, caspase-3 cleavage and decreased PARP-1 protein. The release of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 was also attenuated. Mechanically, we observed that blockage of RhoA/ROCK repressed the TAK1/NOD2-mediated NF-κB pathway in HaCaT cells exposed to UVB. Taken together, these data reveal that RhoA/ROCK signaling is one of the regulators contributing to oxidative damage and apoptosis in human keratinocytes, suggesting that RhoA/ROCK signaling has strong potential to be used as a useful therapeutic target in skin diseases including PV.

  8. Protective effect of thymoquinone improves cardiovascular function, and attenuates oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis by mediating the PI3K/Akt pathway in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Hong-Yang; Jiang, Yi-Nong; Li, Nan

    2016-03-01

    Thymoquinone is the main active monomer extracted from black cumin and has anti‑inflammatory, antioxidant and anti‑apoptotic functions. However, the protective effects of thymoquinone on cardiovascular function in diabetes remain to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underling the beneficial effects of thymoquinone on the cardiovascular function in streptozotocin‑induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rats. Supplement thymoquinone may recover the insulin levels and body weight, inhibit blood glucose levels and reduce the heart rate in DM‑induced rats. The results indicated that the heart, liver and lung to body weight ratios, in addition to the blood pressure levels, were similar for each experimental group. Treatment with thymoquinone significantly reduced oxidative stress damage, inhibited the increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein expression and suppressed the elevation of cyclooxygenase‑2 levels in DM‑induced rats. In addition, thymoquinone significantly suppressed the promotion of tumor necrosis factor‑α and interleukin‑6 levels in the DM‑induced rats. Furthermore, administration of thymoquinone significantly reduced caspase‑3 activity and the promotion of phosphorylated‑protein kinase B (Akt) protein expression levels in DM‑induced rats. These results suggest that the protective effect of thymoquinone improves cardiovascular function and attenuates oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis by mediating the phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase/Akt pathway in DM‑induced rats.

  9. Role of nitric oxide in long-term potentiation of the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S; Pettorossi, V E

    2000-01-01

    In rat brainstem slices, we investigated the role of nitric oxide in long-term potentiation induced in the ventral portion of the medial vestibular nuclei by high-frequency stimulation of the primary vestibular afferents. The nitric oxide scavenger [2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide ] and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester were administered before and after induction of potentiation. Both drugs completely prevented long-term potentiation, whereas they did not impede the potentiation build-up, or affect the already established potentiation. These results demonstrate that the induction, but not the maintenance of vestibular long-term potentiation, depends on the synthesis and release into the extracellular medium of nitric oxide. In addition, we analysed the effect of the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside on vestibular responses. Sodium nitroprusside induced long-term potentiation, as evidenced through the field potential enhancement and unit peak latency decrease. This potentiation was impeded by D, L-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, and was reduced under blockade of synaptosomal platelet-activating factor receptors by ginkgolide B and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors by (R,S)-1-aminoindan-1, 5-dicarboxylic acid. When reduced, potentiation fully developed following the washout of antagonist, demonstrating an involvement of platelet-activating factor and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in its full development. Potentiation induced by sodium nitroprusside was also associated with a decrease in the paired-pulse facilitation ratio, which persisted under ginkgolide B, indicating that nitric oxide increases glutamate release independently of platelet-activating factor-mediated presynaptic events. We suggest that nitric oxide, released after the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, acts as a retrograde messenger leading to an enhancement of glutamate release to a

  10. Caffeic acid, a phenol found in white wine, modulates endothelial nitric oxide production and protects from oxidative stress-associated endothelial cell injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Migliori

    Full Text Available Several studies demonstrated that endothelium dependent vasodilatation is impaired in cardiovascular and chronic kidney diseases because of oxidant stress-induced nitric oxide availability reduction. The Mediterranean diet, which is characterized by food containing phenols, was correlated with a reduced incidence of cardiovascular diseases and delayed progression toward end stage chronic renal failure. Previous studies demonstrated that both red and white wine exert cardioprotective effects. In particular, wine contains Caffeic acid (CAF, an active component with known antioxidant activities.The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of low doses of CAF on oxidative stress-induced endothelial injury.CAF increased basal as well as acetylcholine-induced NO release by a mechanism independent from eNOS expression and phosphorylation. In addition, low doses of CAF (100 nM and 1 μM increased proliferation and angiogenesis and inhibited leukocyte adhesion and endothelial cell apoptosis induced by hypoxia or by the uremic toxins ADMA, p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate. The biological effects exerted by CAF on endothelial cells may be at least in part ascribed to modulation of NO release and by decreased ROS production. In an experimental model of kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice, CAF significantly decreased tubular cell apoptosis, intraluminal cast deposition and leukocyte infiltration.The results of the present study suggest that CAF, at very low dosages similar to those observed after moderate white wine consumption, may exert a protective effect on endothelial cell function by modulating NO release independently from eNOS expression and phosphorylation. CAF-induced NO modulation may limit cardiovascular and kidney disease progression associated with oxidative stress-mediated endothelial injury.

  11. Nitric oxide in the stress axis

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Figueroa, M.O.; Day, H.E.W.; Akil, H.; Watson, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a unique biological messenger. NO is a highly diffusible gas, synthesized from L-arginine by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Three unique subtypes of NOS have been described, each with a specific distribution profile in the brain and periphery. NOS subtype I is present, among other areas, in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland. Together these structures form the limbichypothalamic- ...

  12. SIRT1 sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells expressing hepatitis B virus X protein to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srisuttee, Ratakorn; Koh, Sang Seok; Malilas, Waraporn; Moon, Jeong; Cho, Il-Rae; Jhun, Byung Hak; Horio, Yoshiyuki; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Up-regulation of SIRT1 protein and activity sensitizes Hep3B-HBX cells to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. ► Nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for oxidation-induced apoptosis. ► Ectopic expression and enhanced activity of SIRT1 attenuate JNK phosphorylation. ► Inhibition of SIRT1 activity restores resistance to oxidation-induced apoptosis through JNK activation. -- Abstract: We previously showed that SIRT1 deacetylase inhibits proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells expressing hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBX), by destabilization of β-catenin. Here, we report another role for SIRT1 in HBX-mediated resistance to oxidative stress. Ectopic expression and enhanced activity of SIRT1 sensitize Hep3B cells stably expressing HBX to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. SIRT1 mutant analysis showed that nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for sensitization of oxidation-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, ectopic expression of SIRT1 and treatment with resveratrol (a SIRT1 activator) attenuated JNK phosphorylation, which is a prerequisite for resistance to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Conversely, suppression of SIRT1 activity with nicotinamide inhibited the effect of resveratrol on JNK phosphorylation, leading to restoration of resistance to oxidation-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that up-regulation of SIRT1 under oxidative stress may be a therapeutic strategy for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma cells related to HBV through inhibition of JNK activation.

  13. SIRT1 sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells expressing hepatitis B virus X protein to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srisuttee, Ratakorn [WCU, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Sang Seok [Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Malilas, Waraporn; Moon, Jeong; Cho, Il-Rae [WCU, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Jhun, Byung Hak [Department of Applied Nanoscience, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Horio, Yoshiyuki [Department of Pharmacology, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Chung, Young-Hwa, E-mail: younghc@pusan.ac.kr [WCU, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Up-regulation of SIRT1 protein and activity sensitizes Hep3B-HBX cells to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for oxidation-induced apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectopic expression and enhanced activity of SIRT1 attenuate JNK phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of SIRT1 activity restores resistance to oxidation-induced apoptosis through JNK activation. -- Abstract: We previously showed that SIRT1 deacetylase inhibits proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells expressing hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBX), by destabilization of {beta}-catenin. Here, we report another role for SIRT1 in HBX-mediated resistance to oxidative stress. Ectopic expression and enhanced activity of SIRT1 sensitize Hep3B cells stably expressing HBX to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. SIRT1 mutant analysis showed that nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for sensitization of oxidation-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, ectopic expression of SIRT1 and treatment with resveratrol (a SIRT1 activator) attenuated JNK phosphorylation, which is a prerequisite for resistance to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Conversely, suppression of SIRT1 activity with nicotinamide inhibited the effect of resveratrol on JNK phosphorylation, leading to restoration of resistance to oxidation-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that up-regulation of SIRT1 under oxidative stress may be a therapeutic strategy for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma cells related to HBV through inhibition of JNK activation.

  14. Different sources of nitric oxide mediate neurovascular coupling in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen De Labra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the link between neuronal responses and metabolic signals is fundamental to our knowledge of brain function and it is a milestone in our efforts to interpret data from modern non invasive optical techniques such as fMRI, which are based on the close coupling between metabolic demand of active neurons and local changes in blood flow. The challenge is to unravel the link. Here we show, using spectrophotometry to record oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb and metahemoglobin (MetHb (surrogate markers of cerebral flow and nitric oxide levels respectively together with extracellular neuronal recordings in vivo and applying a multiple polynomial regression model, that the markers are able to predict up about 80% of variability in neuronal response. Furthermore, we show that the coupling between blood flow and neuronal activity is heavily influenced by nitric oxide (NO. While neuronal responses show the typical saturating response, blood flow shows a linear behaviour during contrast-response curves, with nitric oxide from different sources acting differently for low and high intensity.

  15. Investigating nitric oxide signalling involvement in the antidepressant action of ketamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebenberg, Nico; Müller, Heidi Kaastrup; Elfving, Betina

    2012-01-01

    Stress-induced excessive glutamate transmission at N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA-R’s) may underlie a primary mechanism in the physiology that leads to depression, and ketamine, an NMDA-R antagonist, has been shown to rapidly relieve depression in humans. A number of downstream mechanisms...... have been suggested to mediate the antidepressant action of ketamine, including the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), protein kinase B (or Akt) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). However, the mechanism(s) that are affected immediately downstream of NMDA......-R’s remain unclear. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is directly coupled to and activated by NMDA-R’s, and the uncoupling of the nNOS-NMDA-R complex prevents NMDA-R-mediated excitotoxicity. Therefore, we investigated whether the antidepressant mechanism of ketamine involves the inhibition of nitric...

  16. Low-Dose Ribavirin Treatments Attenuate Neuroinflammatory Activation of BV-2 Cells by Interfering with Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Bozic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia play a key role in defending central nervous system from various internal and external threats. However, their excessive and/or chronic activation is associated with deleterious effects in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Previously, we have shown that ribavirin when applied in clinically relevant dosage (10 μM modulates activated microglia in complex fashion inducing both anti- and proinflammatory effects, simultaneously causing cytotoxicity. Here, we examined potential of low-dose ribavirin (0.1 and 1 μM to modulate activated BV-2 microglia. Morphological and functional activation of BV-2 cells was achieved with lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation. Our results demonstrated that low-dose ribavirin did not induce cell death, while 10 μM ribavirin promoted LPS induced apoptosis. We determined that 1 μM ribavirin was equally efficient in deactivation of LPS induced morphological changes as 10 μM ribavirin treatment. Ribavirin showed halfway success in reducing markers of functional activation of microglia. Namely, none of the doses had effect on LPS triggered production of proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha. On the other hand, low-dose ribavirin proved its effectiveness in reduction of another inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide, by inhibiting inducible form of nitric oxide synthase. Our results imply that low-dose ribavirin may alleviate nitrosative stress during neuroinflammation.

  17. Low-Dose Ribavirin Treatments Attenuate Neuroinflammatory Activation of BV-2 Cells by Interfering with Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Iva; Savic, Danijela; Jovanovic, Marija; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Laketa, Danijela; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Stojiljkovic, Mirjana; Pekovic, Sanja; Lavrnja, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Microglia play a key role in defending central nervous system from various internal and external threats. However, their excessive and/or chronic activation is associated with deleterious effects in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Previously, we have shown that ribavirin when applied in clinically relevant dosage (10 μM) modulates activated microglia in complex fashion inducing both anti- and proinflammatory effects, simultaneously causing cytotoxicity. Here, we examined potential of low-dose ribavirin (0.1 and 1 μM) to modulate activated BV-2 microglia. Morphological and functional activation of BV-2 cells was achieved with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Our results demonstrated that low-dose ribavirin did not induce cell death, while 10 μM ribavirin promoted LPS induced apoptosis. We determined that 1 μM ribavirin was equally efficient in deactivation of LPS induced morphological changes as 10 μM ribavirin treatment. Ribavirin showed halfway success in reducing markers of functional activation of microglia. Namely, none of the doses had effect on LPS triggered production of proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha. On the other hand, low-dose ribavirin proved its effectiveness in reduction of another inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide, by inhibiting inducible form of nitric oxide synthase. Our results imply that low-dose ribavirin may alleviate nitrosative stress during neuroinflammation. PMID:26413464

  18. Medicinal chemistry and anti-inflammatory activity of nitric oxide-releasing NSAI drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç And, Esra; Küçükgüzel, S Güniz

    2009-05-01

    Nitric Oxide, which acts as a non-specific cytotoxic mediator and a biological messenger on immunological competence, has been gaining significantly increasing importance. As an alternative to conventional NSAIDs having significant side effects, pharmacologically improved and therapeutically enhanced NO releasing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with less side effects are being planned to produce.

  19. JNK1 protects against glucolipotoxicity-mediated beta-cell apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prause, Michala; Christensen, Dan Ploug; Billestrup, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction is central to type 2 diabetes pathogenesis. Prolonged elevated levels of circulating free-fatty acids and hyperglycemia, also termed glucolipotoxicity, mediate β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis associated with increased c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) activity. Endoplas......Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction is central to type 2 diabetes pathogenesis. Prolonged elevated levels of circulating free-fatty acids and hyperglycemia, also termed glucolipotoxicity, mediate β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis associated with increased c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) activity....... Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress are elicited by palmitate and high glucose concentrations further potentiating JNK activity. Our aim was to determine the role of the JNK subtypes JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3 in palmitate and high glucose-induced β-cell apoptosis. We established insulin-producing INS1...... INS1 cells showed increased apoptosis and cleaved caspase 9 and 3 compared to non-sense shRNA expressing control INS1 cells when exposed to palmitate and high glucose associated with increased CHOP expression, ROS formation and Puma mRNA expression. JNK2 shRNA expressing INS1 cells did not affect...

  20. On hydrazine oxidation in nitric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zil'berman, B.Ya.; Lelyuk, G.A.; Mashkin, A.N.; Yasnovitskaya, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Yield of products of radiolytic ( 60 Co gamma radiation) and chemical hydrazine (HZ) oxidation in nitric acid media is studied. Under radiolyte HZ oxidation by nitric acid hydrazoic acid, ammonia and nitrogen appear to be the reaction products. HN 3 yield maximum under HZN oxidation makes up ∼ 0.35 mol per a mol of oxiduzed HZN. Under chemical oxidation HZN is oxidized by HNO 3 according to reaction catalysed by technetium HN 3 yield makes up ∼ 0.35 mol per a mol of oxidized HZN. Radiation-chemical oxidation of HN 3 proceeds up to its complete decomposition, decomposition rate is comparable with HZ oxidation rate. Under the chemical oxidation HN 3 is more stable, it is slowly decomposed after complete HZ decomposition

  1. Role of Nitric Oxide in the Regulation of Renin and Vasopressin Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ian A.

    1994-01-01

    Research during recent years has established nitric oxide as a unique signaling molecule that plays important roles in the regulation of the cardiovascular, nervous, immune, and other systems. Nitric oxide has also been implicated in the control of the secretion of hormones by the pancreas, hypothalamus, and anterior pituitary gland, and evidence is accumulating that it contributes to the regulation of the secretion of renin and vasopressin, hormones that play key roles in the control of sodium and water balance. Several lines of evidence have implicated nitric oxide in the control of renin secretion. The enzyme nitric oxide synthase is present in vascular and tubular elements of the kidney, particularly in cells of the macula densa, a structure that plays an important role in the control of renin secretion. Guanylyl cyclase, a major target for nitric oxide, is also present in the kidney. Drugs that inhibit nitric oxide synthesis generally suppress renin release in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a stimulatory role for the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway in the control of renin secretion. Under some conditions, however, blockade of nitric oxide synthesis increases renin secretion. Recent studies indicate that nitric oxide not only contributes to the regulation of basal renin secretion, but also participates in the renin secretory responses to activation of the renal baroreceptor, macula densa, and beta adrenoceptor mechanisms that regulate renin secretion. Histochemical and immunocytochemical studies have revealed the presence of nitric oxide synthase in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and in the posterior pituitary gland. Colocalization of nitric oxide synthase and vasopressin has been demonstrated in some hypothalamic neurons. Nitric oxide synthase activity in the hypothalamus and pituitary is increased by maneuvers known to stimulate vasopressin secretion, including salt loading and dehydration, Administration of L-arginine and nitric

  2. Lycopene inhibits regulator of calcineurin 1-mediated apoptosis by reducing oxidative stress and down-regulating Nucling in neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seiyoung; Hwang, Sinwoo; Yu, Ji Hoon; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2017-05-01

    Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) is located on the Down syndrome critical region (DSCR) locus in human chromosome 21. Oxidative stress and overexpression of RCAN1 are implicated in neuronal impairment in Down's syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Serum level of lycopene, an antioxidant pigment, is low in DS and AD patients, which may be related to neuronal damage. The present study is to investigate whether lycopene inhibits apoptosis by reducing ROS levels, NF-κB activation, expression of the apoptosis regulator Nucling, cell viability, and indices of apoptosis (cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation) in RCAN1-overexpressing neuronal cells. Cells transfected with either pcDNA or RCAN1 were treated with or without lycopene. Lycopene decreased intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels, NF-κB activity, and Nucling expression while it reversed decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration, and glycolytic function in RCAN1-overexpressing cells. Lycopene inhibited cell death, DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation, and cytochrome c release in RCAN1-overexpressing cells. Lycopene inhibits RCAN1-mediated apoptosis by reducing ROS levels and by inhibiting NF-κB activation, Nucling induction, and the increase in apoptotic indices in neuronal cells. Consumption of lycopene-rich foods may prevent oxidative stress-associated neuronal damage in some pathologic conditions such as DS or AD. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Nitric Oxide - Its Importance in Swallowing, Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    2001-01-01

    tract and neighbouring reticular formation, and there is likely one subnetwork for the oropharyngeal phase and the other for the esophageal phase of swallowing. The neurosubstances mediating striated and smooth muscle peristalsis may be both anatomically and neurochemically distinct. The role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of esophageal motility disorders remains to be established.

  4. Reproducibility of exhaled nitric oxide measurements in overweight and obese adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Willemien; de Mutsert, Renée; le Cessie, Saskia; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Middeldorp, Saskia; Rabe, Klaus F.

    2014-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide is a noninvasive measure of airway inflammation that can be detected by a handheld device. Obesity may influence the reproducibility of exhaled nitric oxide measurements, by - for instance - decreased expiratory reserve volume. We analyzed triple exhaled nitric oxide

  5. Nitric oxide in the stress axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Figueroa, M O; Day, H E; Akil, H; Watson, S J

    1998-10-01

    In recent years nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a unique biological messenger. NO is a highly diffusible gas, synthesized from L-arginine by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Three unique subtypes of NOS have been described, each with a specific distribution profile in the brain and periphery. NOS subtype I is present, among other areas, in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland. Together these structures form the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) or stress axis, activation of which is one of the defining features of a stress response. Evidence suggests that NO may modulate the release of the stress hormones ACTH and corticosterone, and NOS activity and transcription is increased in the LHPA axis following various stressful stimuli. Furthermore, following activation of the stress axis, glucocorticoids are thought to down-regulate the transcription and activity of NOS via a feedback mechanism. Taken together, current data indicate a role for NO in the regulation of the LHPA axis, although at present this role is not well defined. It has been suggested that NO may act as a cellular communicator in plasticity and development, to facilitate the activation or the release of other neurotransmitters, to mediate immune responses, and/or as a vasodilator in the regulation of blood flow. In the following review we summarize some of the latest insights into the function of NO, with special attention to its relationship with the LHPA axis.

  6. Isosorbide 5 mononitrate administration increases nitric oxide blood levels and reduces proteinuria in IgA glomerulonephritis patients with abnormal urinary endothelin/cyclic GMP ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccatello, D; Mengozzi, G; Ferro, M; Cesano, G; Polloni, R; Mosso, R; Bonetti, G; Inconis, T; Paradisi, L; Sena, L M

    1995-09-01

    An endothelin urinary hyperexcretion, which is not counterbalanced by an adequate increase in cGMP biosynthesis, was previously detected in some patients with IgA Nephropathy (IgAN). Since this imbalance might potentiate local ET1-mediated hemodynamics effects, 9 IgAN patients with an increased (> or = 0.1) urinary ET1/cGMP ratio (group 1) and 5 IgAN patients with comparable renal function and reduced ET1/cGMP ratio (group 2) were given standard doses of isosorbide 5 mononitrate (as a nitric oxide source). Blood nitric oxide (NO) levels, as detected by electron paramagnetic resonance, significantly increased after isosorbide administration (p effective renal plasma flow (p counterbalancing effects of nitric oxide on endothelin-mediated mesangial contraction.

  7. Nitric oxide signaling pathways involved in the inhibition of spontaneous activity in the guinea pig prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Anupa; Lang, Richard J; Exintaris, Betty

    2012-06-01

    We investigated nitric oxide mediated inhibition of spontaneous activity recorded in young and aging guinea pig prostates. Conventional intracellular microelectrode and tension recording techniques were used. The nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (10 μM) abolished spontaneous contractions and slow wave activity in 5 young and 5 aging prostates. Upon adding the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (10 μM) the frequency of spontaneous contractile and electrical activity was significantly increased in each age group. This increase was significantly larger in 4 to 8 preparations of younger vs aging prostates (about 40% to 50% vs about 10% to 20%, 2-way ANOVA pguinea pig prostates (Student paired t test pproduction. This may further explain the increase in prostatic smooth muscle tone observed in age related prostate specific conditions, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nitric Oxide Binds to and Modulates the Activity of a Pollen Specific Arabidopsis Diacylglycerol Kinase

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule in plants. In the pollen of Arabidopsis thaliana, NO causes re-orientation of the growing tube and this response is mediated by 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). However, in plants, NO

  9. Nitric Oxide and Interlukin-6 Levels in Intellectual Disability Adults with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmeli, Eli; Beiker, Reut; Morad, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) are highly reactive mediators that have been shown to play different roles in a variety of different biological process. The role of NO and IL-6 in the neuropathogenesis of brain seizures is still questionable. In order to evaluate the role of NO and IL-6 in neurological disorders such as seizures, we…

  10. JS-K, a GST-activated nitric oxide generator, induces DNA double-strand breaks, activates DNA damage response pathways, and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo in human multiple myeloma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziltepe, Tanyel; Hideshima, Teru; Ishitsuka, Kenji; Ocio, Enrique M; Raje, Noopur; Catley, Laurence; Li, Chun-Qi; Trudel, Laura J; Yasui, Hiroshi; Vallet, Sonia; Kutok, Jeffery L; Chauhan, Dharminder; Mitsiades, Constantine S; Saavedra, Joseph E; Wogan, Gerald N; Keefer, Larry K; Shami, Paul J; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2007-07-15

    Here we investigated the cytotoxicity of JS-K, a prodrug designed to release nitric oxide (NO(*)) following reaction with glutathione S-transferases, in multiple myeloma (MM). JS-K showed significant cytotoxicity in both conventional therapy-sensitive and -resistant MM cell lines, as well as patient-derived MM cells. JS-K induced apoptosis in MM cells, which was associated with PARP, caspase-8, and caspase-9 cleavage; increased Fas/CD95 expression; Mcl-1 cleavage; and Bcl-2 phosphorylation, as well as cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and endonuclease G (EndoG) release. Moreover, JS-K overcame the survival advantages conferred by interleukin-6 (IL-6) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), or by adherence of MM cells to bone marrow stromal cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that JS-K-induced cytotoxicity was mediated via NO(*) in MM cells. Furthermore, JS-K induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and activated DNA damage responses, as evidenced by neutral comet assay, as well as H2AX, Chk2 and p53 phosphorylation. JS-K also activated c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) in MM cells; conversely, inhibition of JNK markedly decreased JS-K-induced cytotoxicity. Importantly, bortezomib significantly enhanced JS-K-induced cytotoxicity. Finally, JS-K is well tolerated, inhibits tumor growth, and prolongs survival in a human MM xenograft mouse model. Taken together, these data provide the preclinical rationale for the clinical evaluation of JS-K to improve patient outcome in MM.

  11. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in trigeminal ganglion cells during culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen-Olesen, Inger; Zhou, MingFang; Zinck, Tina Jovanovic

    2005-01-01

    RNA and protein could be detected. The data suggest that iNOS expression may be a molecular mechanism mediating the adaptive response of trigeminal ganglia cells to the serum free stressful stimulus the culture environment provides. It may act as a cellular signalling molecule that is expressed after cell......Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signalling molecule that has been suggested to be a key molecule for induction and maintenance of migraine attacks based on clinical studies, animal experimental studies and the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactivity within the trigeminovascular......, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. In trigeminal ganglia cells not subjected to culture, endothelial (e) and neuronal (n) but not inducible (i) NOS mRNA and protein were detected. Culture of rat neurones resulted in a rapid axonal outgrowth of NOS positive...

  12. Auxin-induced nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins were involved in the gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiming; Hu, Liwei; Hu, Xiangyang; Cui, Dayong; Cai, Weiming

    Gravitropism is the asymmetric growth or curvature of plant organs in response to gravistimulation. There is a complex signal transduction cascade which involved in the differential growth of plants in response to changes in the gravity vector. The role of auxin in gravitropism has been demonstrated by many experiments, but little is known regarding the molecular details of such effects. In our studies before, mediation of the gravitropic bending of soybean roots and rice leaf sheath bases by nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins, are induced by auxin. The asymmetrical distribution of nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins resulted from the asymmetrical synthesis of them in bending sites. In soybean roots, inhibitions of NO and cGMP synthesis reduced differential NO and cGMP accumulation respectively, which both of these effects can lead to the reduction of gravitropic bending. Gibberellin-induced OsXET, OsEXPA4 and OsRWC3 were also found involved in the gravitropic bending. These data indicated that auxin-induced nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins were involved in the gravitropism. More experiments need to prove the more detailed mechanism of them.

  13. S-nitrosylation mediates nitric oxide -auxin crosstalk in auxin signaling and polar auxin transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitric oxide (NO) and auxin phytohormone cross talk has been implicated in plant development and growth. Addition and removal of NO moieties to cysteine residues of proteins, is termed S-nitrosylation and de-nitrosylation, respectively and functions as an on/off switch of protein activity. This dyna...

  14. Nitrite: A physiological store of nitric oxide and modulator of mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sruti Shiva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrite, long considered a biologically inert metabolite of nitric oxide (NO oxidation, is now accepted as a physiological storage pool of NO that can be reduced to bioactive NO in hypoxic conditions to mediate a spectrum of physiological responses in blood and tissue. This graphical review will provide a broad overview of the role of nitrite in physiology, focusing on its formation and reduction to NO as well as its regulation of the mitochondrion—an emerging subcellular target for its biological actions in tissues.

  15. Stress response to cadmium and manganese in Paracentrotus lividus developing embryos is mediated by nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; Romano, Giovanna; Palumbo, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • NO is produced in sea urchin embryos in response to cadmium and manganese. • Cadmium and manganese affect the expression of specific genes. • NO levels regulate directly or indirectly the expression of some metal-induced genes. • NO is proposed as a sensor of different stress agents in sea urchin embryos. - Abstract: Increasing concentrations of contaminants, often resulting from anthropogenic activities, have been reported to occur in the marine environment and affect marine organisms. Among these, the metal ions cadmium and manganese have been shown to induce developmental delay and abnormalities, mainly reflecting skeleton elongation perturbation, in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, an established model for toxicological studies. Here, we provide evidence that the physiological messenger nitric oxide (NO), formed by L-arginine oxidation by NO synthase (NOS), mediates the stress response induced by cadmium and manganese in sea urchins. When NO levels were lowered by inhibiting NOS, the proportion of abnormal plutei increased. Quantitative expression of a panel of 19 genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification and multidrug efflux processes was followed at different developmental stages and under different conditions: metals alone, metals in the presence of NOS inhibitor, NO donor and NOS inhibitor alone. These data allowed the identification of different classes of genes whose metal-induced transcriptional expression was directly or indirectly mediated by NO. These results open new perspectives on the role of NO as a sensor of different stress agents in sea urchin developing embryos

  16. Stress response to cadmium and manganese in Paracentrotus lividus developing embryos is mediated by nitric oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata [Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples (Italy); Romano, Giovanna [Laboratory of Functional and Evolutionary Ecology, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples (Italy); Palumbo, Anna, E-mail: anna.palumbo@szn.it [Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • NO is produced in sea urchin embryos in response to cadmium and manganese. • Cadmium and manganese affect the expression of specific genes. • NO levels regulate directly or indirectly the expression of some metal-induced genes. • NO is proposed as a sensor of different stress agents in sea urchin embryos. - Abstract: Increasing concentrations of contaminants, often resulting from anthropogenic activities, have been reported to occur in the marine environment and affect marine organisms. Among these, the metal ions cadmium and manganese have been shown to induce developmental delay and abnormalities, mainly reflecting skeleton elongation perturbation, in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, an established model for toxicological studies. Here, we provide evidence that the physiological messenger nitric oxide (NO), formed by L-arginine oxidation by NO synthase (NOS), mediates the stress response induced by cadmium and manganese in sea urchins. When NO levels were lowered by inhibiting NOS, the proportion of abnormal plutei increased. Quantitative expression of a panel of 19 genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification and multidrug efflux processes was followed at different developmental stages and under different conditions: metals alone, metals in the presence of NOS inhibitor, NO donor and NOS inhibitor alone. These data allowed the identification of different classes of genes whose metal-induced transcriptional expression was directly or indirectly mediated by NO. These results open new perspectives on the role of NO as a sensor of different stress agents in sea urchin developing embryos.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of an inorganic gold and silica nanoparticle mediated drug delivery system for nitric oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Amitava; Singla, Sumit K; Shah, Vijay H [Gastroenterology Research Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Mukherjee, Priyabrata; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Patra, Chitta Ranjan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Guturu, Praveen [Department of Internal Medicine, UTMB, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Frost, Megan C, E-mail: patra.chittaranjan@mayo.edu, E-mail: patra.chitta@gmail.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2010-07-30

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in inhibiting the development of hepatic fibrosis and its ensuing complication of portal hypertension by inhibiting human hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. Here we have developed a gold nanoparticle and silica nanoparticle mediated drug delivery system containing NO donors, which could be used for potential therapeutic application in chronic liver disease. The gold nanoconjugates were characterized using several physico-chemical techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Silica nanoconjugates were synthesized and characterized as reported previously. NO released from gold and silica nanoconjugates was quantified under physiological conditions (pH = 7.4 at 37 deg. C) for a substantial period of time. HSC proliferation and the vascular tube formation ability, manifestations of their activation, were significantly attenuated by the NO released from these nanoconjugates. This study indicates that gold and silica nanoparticle mediated drug delivery systems for introducing NO could be used as a strategy for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis or chronic liver diseases, by limiting HSC activation.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of an inorganic gold and silica nanoparticle mediated drug delivery system for nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Amitava; Singla, Sumit K; Shah, Vijay H; Mukherjee, Priyabrata; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Guturu, Praveen; Frost, Megan C

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in inhibiting the development of hepatic fibrosis and its ensuing complication of portal hypertension by inhibiting human hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. Here we have developed a gold nanoparticle and silica nanoparticle mediated drug delivery system containing NO donors, which could be used for potential therapeutic application in chronic liver disease. The gold nanoconjugates were characterized using several physico-chemical techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Silica nanoconjugates were synthesized and characterized as reported previously. NO released from gold and silica nanoconjugates was quantified under physiological conditions (pH = 7.4 at 37 deg. C) for a substantial period of time. HSC proliferation and the vascular tube formation ability, manifestations of their activation, were significantly attenuated by the NO released from these nanoconjugates. This study indicates that gold and silica nanoparticle mediated drug delivery systems for introducing NO could be used as a strategy for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis or chronic liver diseases, by limiting HSC activation.

  19. Interferon-γ and NF-κB mediate nitric oxide production by mesenchymal stromal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, I.; Ozaki, K.; Sato, K.; Meguro, A.; Tatara, R.; Hatanaka, K.; Nagai, T.; Muroi, K.; Ozawa, K.

    2007-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to have an immunosuppressive effect. Previously, we demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) is one of the immunomodulatory mediators of MSCs. We herein show that primary mouse bone marrow MSCs and three cell lines that mimic MSCs suppress both differentiation and proliferation in Th1 condition, whereas the suppression in Th2 condition is mild. NO production is inversely correlated with T cell proliferation in Th1 and Th2 conditions. NO is highly induced in Th1 and minimally induced in Th2. Moreover, an inhibitor of NO synthase restores both proliferation and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in Th1 condition. Furthermore, an anti-IFN-γ antibody strongly inhibits NO production and an inhibitor of NF-κB reduces the level of induction of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in MSCs. Taken together, our results suggest that NO plays a significant role in the modification of Th1 and Th2 differentiation by MSCs, and that both IFN-γ and NF-κB are critical for NO production by MSCs

  20. Nitrosative stress induces DNA strand breaks but not caspase mediated apoptosis in a lung cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentz Brandon G

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Key steps crucial to the process of tumor progression are genomic instability and escape from apoptosis. Nitric oxide and its interrelated reactive intermediates (collectively denoted as NOX have been implicated in DNA damage and mutational events leading to cancer development, while also being implicated in the inhibition of apoptosis through S-nitrosation of key apoptotic enzymes. The purpose of this study was to explore the interrelationship between NOX-mediated DNA strand breaks (DSBs and apoptosis in cultured tumor cell lines. Methods Two well-characterized cell lines were exposed to increasing concentrations of exogenous NOX via donor compounds. Production of NOX was quantified by the Greiss reaction and spectrophotometery, and confirmed by nitrotyrosine immunostaining. DSBs were measured by the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (the COMET assay, and correlated with cell viability by the MTT assay. Apoptosis was analyzed both by TUNEL staining and Annexin V/propidium iodine FACS. Finally, caspase enzymatic activity was measured using an in-vitro fluorogenic caspase assay. Results Increases in DNA strand breaks in our tumor cells, but not in control fibroblasts, correlated with the concentration as well as rate of release of exogenously administered NOX. This increase in DSBs did not correlate with an increase in cell death or apoptosis in our tumor cell line. Finally, this lack of apoptosis was found to correlate with inhibition of caspase activity upon exposure to thiol- but not NONOate-based NOX donor compounds. Conclusions Genotoxicity appears to be highly interrelated with both the concentration and kinetic delivery of NOX. Moreover, alterations in cell apoptosis can be seen as a consequence of the explicit mechanisms of NOX delivery. These findings lend credence to the hypothesis that NOX may play an important role in tumor progression, and underscores potential pitfalls which should be considered when

  1. New Evidence for Cross Talk between Melatonin and Mitochondria Mediated by a Circadian-Compatible Interaction with Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Arese

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Extending our previous observations, we have shown on HaCat cells that melatonin, at ~10−9 M concentration, transiently raises not only the expression of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS mRNA, but also the nNOS protein synthesis and the nitric oxide oxidation products, nitrite and nitrate. Interestingly, from the cell bioenergetic point of view, the activated NO-related chemistry induces a mild decrease of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS efficiency, paralleled by a depression of the mitochondrial membrane potential. The OXPHOS depression is apparently balanced by glycolysis. The mitochondrial effects described have been detected only at nanomolar concentration of melatonin and within a time window of a few hours’ incubation; both findings compatible with the melatonin circadian cycle.

  2. Nitric oxide-induced interstrand cross-links in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Jennifer L; Wishnok, John S; Tannenbaum, Steven R

    2003-05-01

    The DNA damaging effects of nitrous acid have been extensively studied, and the formation of interstrand cross-links have been observed. The potential for this cross-linking to occur through a common nitrosating intermediate derived from nitric oxide is investigated here. Using a HPLC laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system, the amount of interstrand cross-link formed on nitric oxide treatment of the 5'-fluorescein-labeled oligomer ATATCGATCGATAT was determined. This self-complimentary sequence contains two 5'-CG sequences, which is the preferred site for nitrous acid-induced cross-linking. Nitric oxide was delivered to an 0.5 mM oligomer solution at 15 nmol/mL/min to give a final nitrite concentration of 652 microM. The resulting concentration of the deamination product, xanthine, in this sample was found to be 211 +/- 39 nM, using GC/MS, and the amount of interstrand cross-link was determined to be 13 +/- 2.5 nM. Therefore, upon nitric oxide treatment, the cross-link is found at approximately 6% of the amount of the deamination product. Using this system, detection of the cross-link is also possible for significantly lower doses of nitric oxide, as demonstrated by treatment of the same oligomer with NO at a rate of 18 nmol/mL/min resulting in a final nitrite concentration of 126 microM. The concentration of interstrand cross-link was determined to be 3.6 +/- 0.1 nM in this sample. Therefore, using the same dose rate, when the total nitric oxide concentration delivered drops by a factor of approximately 5, the concentration of cross-link drops by a factor of about 4-indicating a qausi-linear response. It may now be possible to predict the number of cross-links in a small genome based on the number of CpG sequences and the yield of xanthine derived from nitrosative deamination.

  3. Nitric oxide and mitochondria in metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, Larisa; Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Fattakhov, Nikolai; Vasilenko, Mariia; Zatolokin, Pavel; Kirienkova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders that collectively increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a crucial role in the pathogeneses of MS components and is involved in different mitochondrial signaling pathways that control respiration and apoptosis. The present review summarizes the recent information regarding the interrelations of mitochondria and NO in MS. Changes in the activities of different NO synthase isoforms lead to the formation of metabolic disorders and therefore are highlighted here. Reduced endothelial NOS activity and NO bioavailability, as the main factors underlying the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in MS, are discussed in this review in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. We also focus on potential therapeutic strategies involving NO signaling pathways that can be used to treat patients with metabolic disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The article may help researchers develop new approaches for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of MS. PMID:25741283

  4. Gallic acid prevents nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastropathy in rat by blocking oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Chinmay; Bindu, Samik; Dey, Sumanta; Alam, Athar; Goyal, Manish; Iqbal, Mohd Shameel; Maity, Pallab; Adhikari, Susanta S; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2010-07-15

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced oxidative stress plays a critical role in gastric mucosal cell apoptosis and gastropathy. NSAIDs induce the generation of hydroxyl radical ((*)OH) through the release of free iron, which plays an important role in developing gastropathy. Thus, molecules having both iron-chelating and antiapoptotic properties will be beneficial in preventing NSAID-induced gastropathy. Gallic acid (GA), a polyphenolic natural product, has the capacity to chelate free iron. Here, we report that GA significantly prevents, as well as heals, NSAID-induced gastropathy. In vivo, GA blocks NSAID-mediated mitochondrial oxidative stress by preventing mitochondrial protein carbonyl formation, lipid peroxidation, and thiol depletion. In vitro, GA scavenges free radicals and blocks (*)OH-mediated oxidative damage. GA also attenuates gastric mucosal cell apoptosis in vivo as well as in vitro in cultured gastric mucosal cells as evident from the TUNEL assay. GA prevents NSAID-induced activation of caspase-9, a marker for the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, and restores NSAID-mediated collapse of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and dehydrogenase activity. Thus, the inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative stress by GA is associated with the inhibition of NSAID-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of apoptosis in gastric mucosal cells, which are responsible for gastric injury or gastropathy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel approaches to improving endothelium-dependent nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Ulf; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Rosalia; Dalsgaard, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction, which is defined by decreased endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, is associated with an increased number of cardiovascular events. Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is reduced by altered endothelial signal transduction or increased formation of radical oxygen species...... reacting with NO. Endothelial dysfunction is therapeutically reversible and physical exercise, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor antagonists improve flow-evoked endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with hypertension and diabetes. We have...... the endothelial signal transduction pathways involved in vasorelaxation and NO release induced by an olive oil component, oleanolic acid, and (3) investigated the role of calcium-activated K channels in the release of NO induced by receptor activation. Tempol increases endothelium-dependent vasodilatation...

  6. Effect of biliary cirrhosis on nonadrenergic noncholinergic-mediated relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum: Role of nitric oxide pathway and endocannabinoid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehpour A.R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Relaxation of the corpus cavernosum plays a major role in penile erection. Nitric oxide (NO is known to be the most important factor mediating relaxation of corpus cavernosum, which is mainly derived from nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC nerves. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of biliary cirrhosis on nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC-mediated relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum as well as the possible relevant roles of endocannabinoid and nitric oxide systems.Methods: Corporal strips from sham-operated and biliary cirrhotic rats were mounted under tension in a standard oxygenated organ bath with guanethidine sulfate (5 µM and atropine (1 µM to induce adrenergic and cholinergic blockade. The strips were precontracted with phenylephrine hydrochloride (7.5 µM and electrical field stimulation was applied at different frequencies (2, 5, 10, 15 Hz to obtain NANC-mediated relaxation. In separate precontracted strips of the sham and cirrhotic groups, the concentration-dependent relaxant responses to sodium nitroprusside (10 nM-1mM, as an NO donor, were assessed.  Results: The NANC-mediated relaxation was significantly enhanced in cirrhotic animals (P<0.01. Anandamide potentiated the relaxations in both groups (P<0.05. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (10 µM and the vanilloid receptor antagonist capsazepine (10 µM each significantly prevented the enhanced relaxations in cirrhotic rats (P<0.01. The CB2 receptor antagonist AM630 had no effect on relaxations in the cirrhotic group. In a concentration-dependent manner, L-NAME (30-1000 nM inhibited relaxations in both the sham and cirrhotic groups, although cirrhotic groups were more resistant to the inhibitory effects of L-NAME. The degree of relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside (10 nM-1 mM was similar in the two groups.Conclusions: Biliary cirrhosis enhances the neurogenic relaxation in rat corpus cavernosum probably via the NO pathway and

  7. Oxalomalate, a competitive inhibitor of NADP+ -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, regulates lipid peroxidation-mediated apoptosis in U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun Sun; Yang, Joon-Hyuck; Park, Ji Eun; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2005-01-01

    Membrane lipid peroxidation processes yield products that may react with DNA and proteins to cause oxidative modifications. Recently, we demonstrated that the control of cytosolic redox balance and the cellular defense against oxidative damage is one of the primary functions of cytosolic NADP+ -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) through to supply NADPH for antioxidant systems. The protective role of IDPc against lipid peroxidation-mediated apoptosis in U937 cells was investigated in control and cells pre-treated with oxlalomalate, a competitive inhibitor of IDPc. Upon exposure to 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH) to U937 cells, which induces lipid peroxidation in membranes, the susceptibility to apoptosis was higher in oxalomalate-treated cells as compared to control cells. The results suggest that IDPc plays an important protective role in apoptosis of U937 cells induced by lipid peroxidation-mediated oxidative stress.

  8. Catalytic abatement of nitrous oxide from nitric and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, J.

    1998-01-01

    Nitric acid production is identified as a main source of nitrous oxide. Options for emission reduction however are not available. TNO and Hydro Agri studied the technological and economic feasibility of catalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide in nitric acid tail-gases. Although in literature

  9. Effects of naringin on apoptosis and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelani, Isaacson; Bankole, Esther; Rotimi, Oluwakemi; Rotimi, Solomon

    2018-04-01

    Oxidative stress and apoptosis have been reported to play major roles in the pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) through insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. Naringin is a citrus derived flavonoid that has been reported for its antioxidant properties. Even though effects of naringin in T2DM related oxidative stress has been reported, varying dose concentration in oxidative stress and mechanism of action involving T2DM related apoptosis is far-fetched. This research studied the effects of naringin at varying dose concentration on apoptosis, biomarkers of organ function and oxidative stress in high fat diet/low-streptozotocin-induced T2DM in albino Wistar rats. Diabetic rats were treated with naringin at 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight for 21 days. Some biomarkers of organ function and oxidative stress in the animals were assayed using spectrophotometric techniques. The levels of expression of caspases and apoptotic regulators were quantified using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR). Enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) level. Naringin treatment shows a dose dependent significant (plipid peroxidation, glutathione- s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the liver. Naringin treatment also showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in the expression of caspase 3 and reduction in BCL-2 as against the diabetic control. In addition, there was dose dependent decrease in plasma CO2 concentration and increase in the plasma iNOS concentration as compared to the diabetic control. This result highlights positive effect of naringin as an antioxidant, its role in apoptosis and also reverting the effects of organ damage in type 2 diabetes.

  10. Diallyl trisulfide ameliorates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by reducing oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in type 1 diabetic rats: role of SIRT1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liming; Li, Shu; Tang, Xinlong; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Jian; Xue, Xiaodong; Han, Jinsong; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yuji; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Yinli; Yang, Yang; Wang, Huishan

    2017-07-01

    Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) protects against apoptosis during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury in diabetic state, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Previously, we and others demonstrated that silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) activation inhibited oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress during MI/R injury. We hypothesize that DATS reduces diabetic MI/R injury by activating SIRT1 signaling. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats were subjected to MI/R surgery with or without perioperative administration of DATS (40 mg/kg). We found that DATS treatment markedly improved left ventricular systolic pressure and the first derivative of left ventricular pressure, reduced myocardial infarct size as well as serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities. Furthermore, the myocardial apoptosis was also suppressed by DATS as evidenced by reduced apoptotic index and cleaved caspase-3 expression. However, these effects were abolished by EX527 (the inhibitor of SIRT1 signaling, 5 mg/kg). We further found that DATS effectively upregulated SIRT1 expression and its nuclear distribution. Additionally, PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP-mediated ER stress-induced apoptosis was suppressed by DATS treatment. Moreover, DATS significantly activated Nrf-2/HO-1 antioxidant signaling pathway, thus reducing Nox-2/4 expressions. However, the ameliorative effects of DATS on oxidative stress and ER stress-mediated myocardial apoptosis were inhibited by EX527 administration. Taken together, these data suggest that perioperative DATS treatment effectively ameliorates MI/R injury in type 1 diabetic setting by enhancing cardiac SIRT1 signaling. SIRT1 activation not only upregulated Nrf-2/HO-1-mediated antioxidant signaling pathway but also suppressed PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP-mediated ER stress level, thus reducing myocardial apoptosis and eventually preserving cardiac function.

  11. The influence of propofol on P-selectin expression and nitric oxide production in re-oxygenated human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corcoran, T B

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Reperfusion injury is characterized by free radical production and endothelial inflammation. Neutrophils mediate much of the end-organ injury that occurs, requiring P-selectin-mediated neutrophil-endothelial adhesion, and this is associated with decreased endothelial nitric oxide production. Propofol has antioxidant properties in vitro which might abrogate this inflammation. METHODS: Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to 20 h of hypoxia and then returned to normoxic conditions. Cells were treated with saline, Diprivan 5 microg\\/l or propofol 5 microg\\/l for 4 h after re-oxygenation and were then examined for P-selectin expression and supernatant nitric oxide concentrations for 24 h. P-selectin was determined by flow cytometry, and culture supernatant nitric oxide was measured as nitrite. RESULTS: In saline-treated cells, a biphasic increase in P-selectin expression was demonstrated at 30 min (P = 0.01) and 4 h (P = 0.023) after re-oxygenation. Propofol and Diprivan prevented these increases in P-selectin expression (P < 0.05). Four hours after re-oxygenation, propofol decreased endothelial nitric oxide production (P = 0.035). CONCLUSION: This is the first study to demonstrate an effect of propofol upon endothelial P-selectin expression. Such an effect may be important in situations of reperfusion injury such as cardiac transplantation and coronary artery bypass surgery. We conclude that propofol attenuates re-oxygenation-induced endothelial inflammation in vitro.

  12. The endogenous nitric oxide mediates selenium-induced phytotoxicity by promoting ROS generation in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Chen

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is suggested as an emerging pollutant in agricultural environment because of the increasing anthropogenic release of Se, which in turn results in phytotoxicity. The most common consequence of Se-induced toxicity in plants is oxidative injury, but how Se induces reactive oxygen species (ROS burst remains unclear. In this work, histofluorescent staining was applied to monitor the dynamics of ROS and nitric oxide (NO in the root of Brassica rapa under Se(IV stress. Se(IV-induced faster accumulation of NO than ROS. Both NO and ROS accumulation were positively correlated with Se(IV-induced inhibition of root growth. The NO accumulation was nitrate reductase (NR- and nitric oxide synthase (NOS-dependent while ROS accumulation was NADPH oxidase-dependent. The removal of NO by NR inhibitor, NOS inhibitor, and NO scavenger could alleviate Se(IV-induced expression of Br_Rbohs coding for NADPH oxidase and the following ROS accumulation in roots, which further resulted in the amelioration of Se(IV-induced oxidative injury and growth inhibition. Thus, we proposed that the endogenous NO played a toxic role in B. rapa under Se(IV stress by triggering ROS burst. Such findings can be used to evaluate the toxic effects of Se contamination on crop plants.

  13. Endothelium derived nitric oxide synthase negatively regulates the PDGF-survivin pathway during flow-dependent vascular remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yu

    Full Text Available Chronic alterations in blood flow initiate structural changes in vessel lumen caliber to normalize shear stress. The loss of endothelial derived nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in mice promotes abnormal flow dependent vascular remodeling, thus uncoupling mechanotransduction from adaptive vascular remodeling. However, the mechanisms of how the loss of eNOS promotes abnormal remodeling are not known. Here we show that abnormal flow-dependent remodeling in eNOS knockout mice (eNOS (-/- is associated with activation of the platelet derived growth factor (PDGF signaling pathway leading to the induction of the inhibitor of apoptosis, survivin. Interfering with PDGF signaling or survivin function corrects the abnormal remodeling seen in eNOS (-/- mice. Moreover, nitric oxide (NO negatively regulates PDGF driven survivin expression and cellular proliferation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Collectively, our data suggests that eNOS negatively regulates the PDGF-survivin axis to maintain proportional flow-dependent luminal remodeling and vascular quiescence.

  14. Constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS activity in Langerhans islets from streptozotocin diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonovich de Schroeder T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide synthase activity was measured in Langerhans islets isolated from control and streptozotocin diabetic rats. The activity of the enzyme was linear up to 150 µg of protein from control rats and was optimal at 0.1 µM calcium, when it was measured after 45 min of incubation at 37oC in the presence of 200 µM arginine. Specific activity of the enzyme was 25 x 10-4 nmol [3H]citrulline 45 min-1 mg protein-1. Streptozotocin diabetic rats exhibited less enzyme activity both in total pancreas homogenate and in isolated Langerhans islets when compared to control animals. Nitric oxide synthase activity measured in control and diabetic rats 15 days after the last streptozotocin injection in the second group of animals corresponded only to a constitutive enzyme since it was not inhibited by aminoguanidine in any of the mentioned groups. Hyperglycemia in diabetic rats may be the consequence of impaired insulin release caused at least in part by reduced positive modulation mediated by constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity, which was dramatically reduced in islets severely damaged after streptozotocin treatment.

  15. Flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach augment nitric oxide status and improve endothelial function in healthy men and women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Yang, Xingbin; Croft, Kevin D; Considine, Michael J; Ward, Natalie C; Rich, Lisa; Puddey, Ian B; Swinny, Ewald; Mubarak, Aidilla; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    Flavonoids and nitrates in fruits and vegetables may protect against cardiovascular disease. Dietary flavonoids and nitrates can augment nitric oxide status via distinct pathways, which may improve endothelial function and lower blood pressure. Recent studies suggest that the combination of flavonoids and nitrates can enhance nitric oxide production in the stomach. Their combined effect in the circulation is unclear. Here, our objective was to investigate the independent and additive effects of flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach on nitric oxide status, endothelial function, and blood pressure. A randomized, controlled, crossover trial with healthy men and women (n=30) was conducted. The acute effects of four energy-matched treatments (control, apple, spinach, and apple+spinach), administered in random order, were compared. Measurements included plasma nitric oxide status, assessed by measuring S-nitrosothiols+other nitrosylated species (RXNO) and nitrite, blood pressure, and endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery. Results are means and 95% CI. Relative to control, all treatments resulted in higher RXNO (control, 33 nmol/L, 26, 42; apple, 51 nmol/L, 40, 65; spinach, 86 nmol/L, 68, 110; apple+spinach, 69 nmol/L, 54, 88; Pflow-mediated dilatation (Peffect was observed on diastolic blood pressure. The combination of apple and spinach did not result in additive effects on nitric oxide status, endothelial function, or blood pressure. In conclusion, flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach can independently augment nitric oxide status, enhance endothelial function, and lower blood pressure acutely, outcomes that may benefit cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Induction of insulin secretion in engineered liver cells by nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Sabire

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus results from an autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells, which produce insulin. The lack of insulin leads to chronic hyperglycemia and secondary complications, such as cardiovascular disease. The currently approved clinical treatments for diabetes mellitus often fail to achieve sustained and optimal glycemic control. Therefore, there is a great interest in the development of surrogate beta cells as a treatment for type 1 diabetes. Normally, pancreatic beta cells produce and secrete insulin only in response to increased blood glucose levels. However in many cases, insulin secretion from non-beta cells engineered to produce insulin occurs in a glucose-independent manner. In the present study we engineered liver cells to produce and secrete insulin and insulin secretion can be stimulated via the nitric oxide pathway. Results Expression of either human insulin or the beta cell specific transcription factors PDX-1, NeuroD1 and MafA in the Hepa1-6 cell line or primary liver cells via adenoviral gene transfer, results in production and secretion of insulin. Although, the secretion of insulin is not significantly increased in response to high glucose, treatment of these engineered liver cells with L-arginine stimulates insulin secretion up to three-fold. This L-arginine-mediated insulin release is dependent on the production of nitric oxide. Conclusion Liver cells can be engineered to produce insulin and insulin secretion can be induced by treatment with L-arginine via the production of nitric oxide.

  17. A novel theory: biological processes mostly involve two types of mediators, namely general and specific mediators Endogenous small radicals such as superoxide and nitric oxide may play a role of general mediator in biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jian

    2005-01-01

    A great number of papers have shown that free radicals as well as bioactive molecules can play a role of mediator in a wide spectrum of biological processes, but the biological actions and chemical reactivity of the free radicals are quite different from that of the bioactive molecules, and that a wide variety of bioactive molecules can be easily modified by free radicals due to having functional groups sensitive to redox, and the significance of the interaction between the free radicals and the bioactive molecules in biological processes has been confirmed by the results of some in vitro and in vivo studies. Based on these evidence, this article presented a novel theory about the mediators of biological processes. The essentials of the theory are: (a) mediators of biological processes can be classified into general and specific mediators; the general mediators include two types of free radicals, namely superoxide and nitric oxide; the specific mediators include a wide variety of bioactive molecules, such as specific enzymes, transcription factors, cytokines and eicosanoids; (b) a general mediator can modify almost any class of the biomolecules, and thus play a role of mediator in nearly every biological process via diverse mechanisms; a specific mediator always acts selectively on certain classes of the biomolecules, and may play a role of mediator in different biological processes via a same mechanism; (c) biological processes are mostly controlled by networks of their mediators, so the free radicals can regulate the last consequence of a biological process by modifying some types of the bioactive molecules, or in cooperation with these bioactive molecules; the biological actions of superoxide and nitric oxide may be synergistic or antagonistic. According to this theory, keeping the integrity of these networks and the balance between the free radicals and the bioactive molecules as well as the balance between the free radicals and the free radical scavengers

  18. Differential requirement for nitric oxide in IGF-1-induced anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant and anti-atherosclerotic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, Sergiy; Higashi, Yusuke; Shai, Shaw-Yung; Blackstock, Christopher; Galvez, Sarah; Vaughn, Charlotte; Titterington, Jane; Delafontaine, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    We have shown previously that insulin like-growth factor I (IGF-1) suppressed atherosclerosis in Apoe−/− mice and activated endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase. To determine whether IGF-1-induced atheroprotection depends on NO, IGF-1- or saline-infused mice were treated with L-NAME, the pan-NO synthase inhibitor or with D-NAME (control). IGF-1 reduced atherosclerosis in both the D-NAME and L-NAME groups suggesting that IGF-1’s anti-atherogenic effect was NO-independent. IGF-1 increased plaque smooth muscle cells, suppressed cell apoptosis and downregulated lipoprotein lipase and these effects were also NO-independent. On the contrary, IGF-1 decreased oxidative stress and suppressed TNF-α levels and these effects were blocked by L-NAME. Thus IGF-1’s anti-oxidant effect is dependent on its ability to increase NO but is distinct from its anti-atherosclerotic effect which is NO-independent. PMID:21872589

  19. Estimation of the nitric oxide formed from hydroxylamine by Nitrosomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. H.

    1965-01-01

    1. Nitric oxide that was produced by reducing nitrite with an excess of acidified potassium iodide under nitrogen in Warburg respirometer flasks was rapidly absorbed by a solution of permanganate in sodium hydroxide held in the side arm. A small amount of nitrous oxide (or nitrogen) that was also produced was not absorbed. 2. By using a quantitative method for the recovery of nitrite from samples of the alkaline permanganate, it was found that the sum of the nitrite N formed and the residual nitrous oxide N was equivalent to the nitrite N used to generate the gases. These results showed that alkaline permanganate completely oxidized nitric oxide to nitrite. The method was suitable for determining 0·4–20 μmoles of nitric oxide. 3. The technique was used to determine the nitric oxide content of the nitrogenous gas that was produced anaerobically from hydroxylamine by an extract of the autotrophic nitrifying micro-organism Nitrosomonas in the presence of methylene blue as electron acceptor. PMID:14342235

  20. The correlation between total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA damage was measured by comet assay and nitric oxide concentration was evaluated by Griess assay. TAC was measured in seminal plasma based on the generation of peroxyl radicals from 2,2-azinobis (2-amidino propane) dihydrochlorid (AAPH). Our results show that the means of DNA damage and nitric oxide ...

  1. Modulation of Fibrosis in Systemic Sclerosis by Nitric Oxide and Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Dooley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma: SSc is a multisystem, connective tissue disease of unknown aetiology characterized by vascular dysfunction, autoimmunity, and enhanced fibroblast activity resulting in fibrosis of the skin, heart, and lungs, and ultimately internal organ failure, and death. One of the most important and early modulators of disease activity is thought to be oxidative stress. Evidence suggests that the free radical nitric oxide (NO, a key mediator of oxidative stress, can profoundly influence the early microvasculopathy, and possibly the ensuing fibrogenic response. Animal models and human studies have also identified dietary antioxidants, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, to function as a protective system against oxidative stress and fibrosis. Hence, targeting EGCG may prove a possible candidate for therapeutic treatment aimed at reducing both oxidant stress and the fibrotic effects associated with SSc.

  2. Surface modification of PLGA nanoparticles to deliver nitric oxide to inhibit Escherichia coli growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reger, Nina A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Meng, Wilson S. [Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Gawalt, Ellen S., E-mail: gawalte@duq.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Thin film functionalized PLGA nanoparticles were modified to release nitric oxide from an s-nitrosothiol donor. • The nitric oxide modified nanoparticles were bacteriostatic against Escherichia coli. • The nitric oxide modified nanoparticles increased the effectiveness of tetracycline against Escherichia coli. • The modified nitric oxide nanoparticles did not exhibit cytotoxic effects against fibroblasts. - Abstract: Polymer nanoparticles consisting of poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) were surface functionalized to deliver nitric oxide. These biodegradable and biocompatible nanoparticles were modified with an S-nitrosothiol molecule, S-nitrosocysteamine, as the nitric oxide delivery molecule. S-nitrosocysteamine was covalently immobilized on the nanoparticle surface using small organic molecule linkers and carbodiimide coupling. Nanoparticle size, zeta potential, and morphology were determined using dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Subsequent attachment of the S-nitrosothiol resulted in a nitric oxide release of 37.1 ± 1.1 nmol per milligram of nanoparticles under physiological conditions. This low concentration of nitric oxide reduced Escherichia coli culture growth by 31.8%, indicating that the nitric oxide donor was effective at releasing nitric oxide even after attachment to the nanoparticle surface. Combining the nitric oxide modified nanoparticles with tetracycline, a commonly prescribed antibiotic for E. coli infections, increased the effectiveness of the antibiotic by 87.8%, which allows for lower doses of antibiotics to be used in order to achieve the same effect. The functionalized nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to mouse fibroblasts.

  3. Surface modification of PLGA nanoparticles to deliver nitric oxide to inhibit Escherichia coli growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reger, Nina A.; Meng, Wilson S.; Gawalt, Ellen S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin film functionalized PLGA nanoparticles were modified to release nitric oxide from an s-nitrosothiol donor. • The nitric oxide modified nanoparticles were bacteriostatic against Escherichia coli. • The nitric oxide modified nanoparticles increased the effectiveness of tetracycline against Escherichia coli. • The modified nitric oxide nanoparticles did not exhibit cytotoxic effects against fibroblasts. - Abstract: Polymer nanoparticles consisting of poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) were surface functionalized to deliver nitric oxide. These biodegradable and biocompatible nanoparticles were modified with an S-nitrosothiol molecule, S-nitrosocysteamine, as the nitric oxide delivery molecule. S-nitrosocysteamine was covalently immobilized on the nanoparticle surface using small organic molecule linkers and carbodiimide coupling. Nanoparticle size, zeta potential, and morphology were determined using dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Subsequent attachment of the S-nitrosothiol resulted in a nitric oxide release of 37.1 ± 1.1 nmol per milligram of nanoparticles under physiological conditions. This low concentration of nitric oxide reduced Escherichia coli culture growth by 31.8%, indicating that the nitric oxide donor was effective at releasing nitric oxide even after attachment to the nanoparticle surface. Combining the nitric oxide modified nanoparticles with tetracycline, a commonly prescribed antibiotic for E. coli infections, increased the effectiveness of the antibiotic by 87.8%, which allows for lower doses of antibiotics to be used in order to achieve the same effect. The functionalized nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to mouse fibroblasts.

  4. Nitric oxide, human diseases and the herbal products that affect the nitric oxide signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achike, Francis I; Kwan, Chiu-Yin

    2003-09-01

    1. Nitric oxide (NO) is formed enzymatically from l-arginine in the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nitric oxide is generated constitutively in endothelial cells via sheer stress and blood-borne substances. Nitric oxide is also generated constitutively in neuronal cells and serves as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve endings. Furthermore, NO can also be formed via enzyme induction in many tissues in the presence of cytokines. 2. The ubiquitous presence of NO in the living body suggests that NO plays an important role in the maintenance of health. Being a free radical with vasodilatory properties, NO exerts dual effects on tissues and cells in various biological systems. At low concentrations, NO can dilate the blood vessels and improve the circulation, but at high concentrations it can cause circulatory shock and induce cell death. Thus, diseases can arise in the presence of the extreme ends of the physiological concentrations of NO. 3. The NO signalling pathway has, in recent years, become a target for new drug development. The high level of flavonoids, catechins, tannins and other polyphenolic compounds present in vegetables, fruits, soy, tea and even red wine (from grapes) is believed to contribute to their beneficial health effects. Some of these compounds induce NO formation from the endothelial cells to improve circulation and some suppress the induction of inducible NOS in inflammation and infection. 4. Many botanical medicinal herbs and drugs derived from these herbs have been shown to have effects on the NO signalling pathway. For example, the saponins from ginseng, ginsenosides, have been shown to relax blood vessels (probably contributing to the antifatigue and blood pressure-lowering effects of ginseng) and corpus cavernosum (thus, for the treatment of men suffering from erectile dysfunction; however, the legendary aphrodisiac effect of ginseng may be an overstatement). Many plant extracts or

  5. Cannula sensor for nitric oxide detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glazier, S.A. [National Institute of Standard and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Nitric oxide (NO) has received much attention because of its numerous roles in mammalian systems. It has been found in the brain and nervous system to act as a neurotransmitter, in blood vessels as a blood pressure regulator, in the immune system to act as a bactericide and tumorcide, and in other postulated roles as well. Nitric oxide is produced in mammalian cells by the enzyme nitric oxide synthetase. Once produced, NO is oxidized or reacts rapidly with components in living systems and hence has a short half-life. Only a few sensors have been constructed which can detect NO at nanomolar to micromolar levels found in these systems. We are currently examining the use of a cannula sensor employing oxyhemoglobin for NO detection. This sensor continuously draws in liquid sample at a low rate and immediately reacts it with oxyhemoglobin. The absorbance changes which accompany the reaction are monitored. The sensor has a linear response range from approximately 50 to 1000 nM of NO in aqueous solution. Its utility in monitoring NO produced by stimulated murine macrophage cells (RAW 264.7) in culture is currently being examined. The sensor design is generic in that it can also employ fluorescence and chemiluminescence detection chemistries which may allow lower detection limits to be achieved. Details of the sensor`s performance will be given.

  6. Prevention of dopaminergic neurotoxicity by targeting nitric oxide and peroxynitrite: implications for the prevention of methamphetamine-induced neurotoxic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, S Z; Islam, F; Itzhak, Y; Slikker, W; Ali, S F

    2000-09-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a neurotoxic psychostimulant that produces catecholaminergic brain damage by producing oxidative stress and free radical generation. The role of oxygen and nitrogen radicals is well documented as a cause of METH-induced neurotoxic damage. In this study, we have obtained evidence that METH-induced neurotoxicity is the resultant of interaction between oxygen and nitrogen radicals, and it is mediated by the production of peroxynitrite. We have also assessed the effects of inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) as well as scavenger of nitric oxide and a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst. Significant protective effects were observed with the inhibitor of nNOS, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), as well as by the selective peroxynitrite scavenger or decomposition catalyst, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(2,4,6-trimethyl-3,5-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinato iron III (FeTPPS). However, the use of a nitric oxide scavenger, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO), did not provide any significant protection against METH-induced hyperthermia or peroxynitrite generation and the resulting dopaminergic neurotoxicity. In particular, treatment with FeTPPS completely prevented METH-induced hyperthermia, peroxynitrite production, and METH-induced dopaminergic depletion. Together, these data demonstrate that METH-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is mediated by the generation of peroxynitrite, which can be selectively protected by nNOS inhibitors or peroxynitrite scavenger or decomposition catalysts.

  7. Exogenous nitric oxide improves sugarcane growth and photosynthesis under water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Neidiquele M; Frungillo, Lucas; Marcos, Fernanda C C; Pelegrino, Milena T; Miranda, Marcela T; Seabra, Amedea B; Salgado, Ione; Machado, Eduardo C; Ribeiro, Rafael V

    2016-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated redox signaling plays a role in alleviating the negative impact of water stress in sugarcane plants by improving root growth and photosynthesis. Drought is an environmental limitation affecting sugarcane growth and yield. The redox-active molecule nitric oxide (NO) is known to modulate plant responses to stressful conditions. NO may react with glutathione (GSH) to form S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), which is considered the main reservoir of NO in cells. Here, we investigate the role of NO in alleviating the effects of water deficit on growth and photosynthesis of sugarcane plants. Well-hydrated plants were compared to plants under drought and sprayed with mock (water) or GSNO at concentrations ranging from 10 to 1000 μM. Leaf GSNO sprayed plants showed significant improvement of relative water content and leaf and root dry matter under drought compared to mock-sprayed plants. Additionally, plants sprayed with GSNO (≥ 100 μM) showed higher leaf gas exchange and photochemical activity as compared to mock-sprayed plants under water deficit and after rehydration. Surprisingly, a raise in the total S-nitrosothiols content was observed in leaves sprayed with GSH or GSNO, suggesting a long-term role of NO-mediated responses to water deficit. Experiments with leaf discs fumigated with NO gas also suggested a role of NO in drought tolerance of sugarcane plants. Overall, our data indicate that the NO-mediated redox signaling plays a role in alleviating the negative effects of water stress in sugarcane plants by protecting the photosynthetic apparatus and improving shoot and root growth.

  8. Long-term treatment of anterior pituitary cells with nitric oxide induces programmed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velardez, Miguel Omar; Poliandri, Ariel Hernán; Cabilla, Jimena Paula; Bodo, Cristian Carlos Armando; Machiavelli, Leticia Inés; Duvilanski, Beatriz Haydeé

    2004-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a complex role in modulating programmed cell death. It can either protect the cell from apoptotic death or mediate apoptosis, depending on its concentration and the cell type and/or status. In this study, we demonstrate that long-term exposition to NO induces cell death of anterior pituitary cells from Wistar female rats. DETA NONOate (Z)-1-[2-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate, 1 mm], a NO donor that releases NO for an extended period of time, decreased cellular viability and prolactin release from primary cultures of anterior pituitary cells. Morphological studies showed an increase in the number of cells with chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation at 24 and 48 h after DETA/NO exposure. DNA internucleosomal fragmentation was also observed at the same time. Reversibility of the NO effect on cellular viability and prolactin release was observed only when the cells were incubated with DETA/NO for less than 6 h. Most apoptotic cells were immunopositive for prolactin, suggesting a high susceptibility of lactotrophs to the effect of NO. The cytotoxic effect of NO is dependent of caspase-9 and caspase-3, but seems to be independent of oxidative stress or nitrosative stress. Our results show that the exposition of anterior pituitary cells to NO for long periods induces programmed cell death of anterior pituitary cells.

  9. Contribution of radiation-induced, nitric oxide-mediated bystander effect to radiation-induced adaptive response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, H.; Ohnishi, T.

    There has been a recent upsurge of interest in radiation-induced adaptive response and bystander effect which are specific modes in stress response to low-dose low-dose rate radiation Recently we found that the accumulation of inducible nitric oxide NO synthase iNOS in wt p53 cells was induced by chronic irradiation with gamma rays followed by acute irradiation with X-rays but not by each one resulting in an increase in nitrite concentrations of medium It is suggested that the accumulation of iNOS may be due to the depression of acute irradiation-induced p53 functions by pre-chronic irradiation In addition we found that the radiosensitivity of wt p53 cells against acute irradiation with X-rays was reduced after chronic irradiation with gamma rays This reduction of radiosensitivity of wt p53 cells was nearly completely suppressed by the addition of NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO to the medium This reduction of radiosensitivity of wt p53 cells is just radiation-induced adaptive response suggesting that NO-mediated bystander effect may considerably contribute to adaptive response induced by radiation

  10. The protective effect of dexanabinol (HU-211) on nitric oxide and cysteine protease-mediated neuronal death in focal cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Ramazan; Ozden, Hilmi; Kanbak, Güngör; Aral, Erinç; Arslan, Okan Can; Kartkaya, Kazim; Uzuner, Kubilay

    2008-09-01

    We hypothesized that dexanabinol can prevent neuronal death by protecting neuronal lysosomes from nitric oxide (NO)-mediated toxicity, and in turn, by suppressing the release of cathepsins during cerebral ischemia. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced in two sets of animals by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. The first set was used to monitor NO concentration and cathepsin activity, while the second was used for histological examination with hematoxylin and eosin, and TUNEL staining. In post-ischemic brain tissue, NO content and cathepsin B and L activity increased (p 0.05). The number of eosinophilic and apoptotic neurons increased in the post-ischemic cerebral cortex (p agent for the treatment of stroke patients.

  11. Mechanisms of electrochemical reduction and oxidation of nitric oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vooys, de A.C.A.; Beltramo, G.L.; Riet, van B.; Veen, van J.A.R.; Koper, M.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    A summary is given of recent work on the reactivity of nitric oxide on various metal electrodes. The significant differences between the reactivity of adsorbed NO and NO in solution are pointed out, both for the reduction and the oxidation reaction(s). Whereas adsorbed NO can be reduced only to

  12. JS-K, a nitric oxide prodrug, induces cytochrome c release and caspase activation in HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udupi, Vidya; Yu, Margaret; Malaviya, Swati; Saavedra, Joseph E; Shami, Paul J

    2006-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) induces differentiation and apoptosis in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells. The NO prodrug O2-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate, or JS-K, has potent antileukemic activity. JS-K induces apoptosis in HL-60 cells by a caspase-dependent mechanism. The purpose of this study was to determine the pathway through which JS-K induces apoptosis. We show that JS-K alters mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) and induces cytochrome c release from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. Treatment with JS-K resulted in activation of Caspase (Casp) 9, Casp 3 and Casp 8. JS-K constitutes a promising lead for a new class of anti-leukemic agents.

  13. Zeolites as catalyzer to environmental control. Nitric oxide removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, C.; Zapata N, M; Villa H, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Zeolites and the microporous materials related to them are a class of environmental catalysts, it which are used to remove the produced gases in combustion process (as mobile sources). In this work the importance that has catalysis for environment improvement is emphasized. A review of recent progress in the use of certain zeolitic material as catalysts for nitric oxide elimination of combustion systems is presented. More used nitric oxide removal methods are presented, as well as its advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, it is emphasized on the need of accomplishing more investigation projects on the development of an active catalyst for the decomposition of the nitric oxide in its elements (N and O)

  14. Acrolein produces nitric oxide through the elevation of intracellular calcium levels to induce apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: implications for smoke angiopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misonou, Yoshiko; Asahi, Michio; Yokoe, Shunichi; Miyoshi, Eiji; Taniguchi, Naoyuki

    2006-03-01

    Acrolein is a highly electrophilic alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehyde, the levels of which are increased in the blood of smokers. To determine if acrolein is involved in the pathology of smoke angiopathy, the effect of acrolein on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was examined. Intracellular nitric oxide (NO) levels, determined using diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate (DAF-2 DA), an NO sensitive fluorescent dye, were found to be increased after treatment in HUVEC with 10 microM acrolein. The measurement of nitrite with 2,3-diaminonaphthalene and a Western blot analysis revealed that nitrite and S-nitroso-cysteine levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner, confirming that NO production is increased by acrolein. The increase was not reduced by treatment with 10mM N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), an anti-oxidant, but was reduced with 10 microM of the intracellular calcium chelator, 1,2-bis (o-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra (acetoxymethyl) ester. Acrolein-stimulated NO production was significantly reduced by pretreatment with 1mM N(G)-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), an NO synthase inhibitor. The cytotoxicity of acrolein was reduced by pretreatment with 10 microM 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO), an intracellular NO scavenger, or 1mM L-NAME, whereas it was not reduced by 10mM NAC, 20 microM Curcumin, another peroxide scavenger, or 100 microM Mn(III)TMPyP, a superoxide dismutase mimic. Nuclear staining and a Western blot analysis using an anti-cleaved caspase 3 antibody revealed that the reduced viability of HUVEC by acrolein was due to apoptosis, which was reversed after pretreatment with 0.1mM carboxy-PTIO or 1mM L-NAME. Thus, acrolein increases intracellular calcium production to induce intracellular NO production by a calcium-dependent NO synthase, possibly eNOS, and the excess and rapid increase in NO might lead to the apoptosis of HUVEC. These data suggest that acrolein might be

  15. Daily life negative mood and exhaled nitric oxide in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Thomas; Kullowatz, Antje; Bill, Michelle N; Rosenfield, David

    2016-07-01

    Psychosocial stress and negative affect have been linked to asthma exacerbations, but longitudinal studies demonstrating a daily life association between negative affect and airway nitric oxide are missing. The longitudinal association between negative mood fluctuations, exhaled nitric oxide, and lung function in asthma was examined. Self-assessments of the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), spirometry (forced expiratory volume in the first second, FEV1), negative mood, and daily activities were obtained from 20 patients with asthma for 2 months, resulting in 1108 assessments for the analyses (approximately 55 per patient). Concurrent and prospective associations between FeNO, FEV1, and negative mood were analyzed using mixed effects regression models for longitudinal data. Negative mood was positively associated with changes in FeNO during the same day, and to a stronger extent when prior day negative mood was included in the prediction. FeNO and negative mood were positively associated with same-day FEV1, with the latter relation being partially mediated by changes in FeNO. Associations between FeNO and FEV1 were stronger in younger patients, with earlier onset of asthma, or with lower asthma control. Findings were not changed when controlling for physical activity, medication, cold symptoms, air pollution, and hours spent outside. Daily life changes of negative mood in asthma are positively associated with FeNO changes and FeNO increases are associated with a mild bronchodilation. These findings indicate that psychological influences need to be considered when using FeNO as indicator of airway inflammation and guide for treatment decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nitric oxide-dependent activation of CaMKII increases diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release in cardiac myocytes in response to adrenergic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Jerry; Tang, Lifei; Roof, Steve R; Velmurugan, Sathya; Millard, Ashley; Shonts, Stephen; Wang, Honglan; Santiago, Demetrio; Ahmad, Usama; Perryman, Matthew; Bers, Donald M; Mohler, Peter J; Ziolo, Mark T; Shannon, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous calcium waves in cardiac myocytes are caused by diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum release (SR Ca(2+) leak) through ryanodine receptors. Beta-adrenergic (β-AR) tone is known to increase this leak through the activation of Ca-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) and the subsequent phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor. When β-AR drive is chronic, as observed in heart failure, this CaMKII-dependent effect is exaggerated and becomes potentially arrhythmogenic. Recent evidence has indicated that CaMKII activation can be regulated by cellular oxidizing agents, such as reactive oxygen species. Here, we investigate how the cellular second messenger, nitric oxide, mediates CaMKII activity downstream of the adrenergic signaling cascade and promotes the generation of arrhythmogenic spontaneous Ca(2+) waves in intact cardiomyocytes. Both SCaWs and SR Ca(2+) leak were measured in intact rabbit and mouse ventricular myocytes loaded with the Ca-dependent fluorescent dye, fluo-4. CaMKII activity in vitro and immunoblotting for phosphorylated residues on CaMKII, nitric oxide synthase, and Akt were measured to confirm activity of these enzymes as part of the adrenergic cascade. We demonstrate that stimulation of the β-AR pathway by isoproterenol increased the CaMKII-dependent SR Ca(2+) leak. This increased leak was prevented by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase 1 but not nitric oxide synthase 3. In ventricular myocytes isolated from wild-type mice, isoproterenol stimulation also increased the CaMKII-dependent leak. Critically, in myocytes isolated from nitric oxide synthase 1 knock-out mice this effect is ablated. We show that isoproterenol stimulation leads to an increase in nitric oxide production, and nitric oxide alone is sufficient to activate CaMKII and increase SR Ca(2+) leak. Mechanistically, our data links Akt to nitric oxide synthase 1 activation downstream of β-AR stimulation. Collectively, this evidence supports the hypothesis that CaMKII is

  17. Nrf2 Inhibits Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell Apoptosis under Excessive Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyze novel mechanisms underlying Nrf2-mediated anti-apoptosis in periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs in the periodontitis oxidative microenvironment. We created an oxidative stress model with H2O2-treated PDLSCs. We used real-time PCR, Western blotting, TUNEL staining, fluorogenic assay and transfer genetics to confirm the degree of oxidative stress and apoptosis as well as the function of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2. We demonstrated that with upregulated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA, the effect of oxidative stress was obvious under H2O2 treatment. Oxidative molecules were altered after the H2O2 exposure, whereby the signaling of Nrf2 was activated with an increase in its downstream effectors, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1 and γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS. Additionally, the apoptosis levels gradually increased with oxidative stress by the upregulation of caspase-9, caspase-3, Bax and c-Fos levels in addition to the downregulation of Bcl-2. However, there was no alterations in levels of caspase-8. The enhanced antioxidant effect could not mitigate the occurrence of apoptosis. Furthermore, Nrf2 overexpression effectively improved the anti-oxidative levels and increased cell proliferation. At the same time, overexpression effectively restrained TUNEL staining and decreased the molecular levels of caspase-9, caspase-3, Bax and c-Fos, but not that of caspase-8. In contrast, silencing the expression of Nrf2 levels had the opposite effect. Collectively, Nrf2 alleviates PDLSCs via its effects on regulating oxidative stress and anti-intrinsic apoptosis by the activation of oxidative enzymes.

  18. Nitric oxide is an obligate bacterial nitrification intermediate produced by hydroxylamine oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caranto, Jonathan D; Lancaster, Kyle M

    2017-08-01

    Ammonia (NH 3 )-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) emit substantial amounts of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O), both of which contribute to the harmful environmental side effects of large-scale agriculture. The currently accepted model for AOB metabolism involves NH 3 oxidation to nitrite (NO 2 - ) via a single obligate intermediate, hydroxylamine (NH 2 OH). Within this model, the multiheme enzyme hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) catalyzes the four-electron oxidation of NH 2 OH to NO 2 - We provide evidence that HAO oxidizes NH 2 OH by only three electrons to NO under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. NO 2 - observed in HAO activity assays is a nonenzymatic product resulting from the oxidation of NO by O 2 under aerobic conditions. Our present study implies that aerobic NH 3 oxidation by AOB occurs via two obligate intermediates, NH 2 OH and NO, necessitating a mediator of the third enzymatic step.

  19. Mequindox-Induced Kidney Toxicity Is Associated With Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in the Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianying Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mequindox (MEQ, belonging to quinoxaline-di-N-oxides (QdNOs, is a synthetic antimicrobial agent widely used in China. Previous studies found that the kidney was one of the main toxic target organs of the QdNOs. However, the mechanisms underlying the kidney toxicity caused by QdNOs in vivo still remains unclear. The present study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of kidney toxicity in mice after chronic exposure to MEQ. MEQ led to the oxidative stress, apoptosis, and mitochondrial damage in the kidney of mice. Meanwhile, MEQ upregulated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, disrupted mitochondrial permeability transition pores, caused cytochrome c release, and a cascade activation of caspase, eventually induced apoptosis. The oxidative stress mediated by MEQ might led to mitochondria damage and apoptosis in a mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, upregulation of the Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway was also observed. Our findings revealed that the oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and the Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway were associated with the kidney apoptosis induced by MEQ in vivo.

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Nitric Oxide-Releasing Ti-6Al-4V Metal Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, Nina A.; Meng, Wilson S.; Gawalt, Ellen S.

    2017-01-01

    Titanium and titanium alloy materials are commonly used in joint replacements, due to the high strength of the materials. Pathogenic microorganisms can easily adhere to the surface of the metal implant, leading to an increased potential for implant failure. The surface of a titanium-aluminum-vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) metal oxide implant material was functionalized to deliver an small antibacterial molecule, nitric oxide. S-nitroso-penicillamine, a S-nitrosothiol nitric oxide donor, was covalently immobilized on the metal oxide surface using self-assembled monolayers. Infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the attachment of the S-nitrosothiol donor to the Ti-Al-4V surface. Attachment of S-nitroso-penicillamine resulted in a nitric oxide (NO) release of 89.6 ± 4.8 nmol/cm2 under physiological conditions. This low concentration of nitric oxide reduced Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis growth by 41.5 ± 1.2% and 25.3 ± 0.6%, respectively. Combining the S-nitrosothiol releasing Ti-6Al-4V with tetracycline, a commonly-prescribed antibiotic, increased the effectiveness of the antibiotic by 35.4 ± 1.3%, which allows for lower doses of antibiotics to be used. A synergistic effect of ampicillin with S-nitroso-penicillamine-modified Ti-6Al-4V against S. epidermidis was not observed. The functionalized Ti-6Al-4V surface was not cytotoxic to mouse fibroblasts. PMID:28635681

  1. Activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by dietary isoflavones: role of NO in Nrf2-mediated antioxidant gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Giovanni E; Rowlands, David J; Li, Francois Y L; de Winter, Patricia; Siow, Richard C M

    2007-07-15

    The endothelium plays a key role in the maintenance of vascular homeostasis, and increased oxidative stress in vascular disease leads to reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of resistance vessels. Although epidemiological evidence suggests that diets containing high amounts of natural antioxidants afford protection against coronary heart disease (CHD), antioxidant supplementation trials have largely reported only marginal health benefits. There is controversy concerning the cardiovascular benefits of prolonged estrogen/progestin or soy isoflavone therapy for postmenopausal women and patients with an increased risk of CHD. Research on the potential health benefits of soy isoflavones and other polyphenols contained in red wine, green and black tea and dark chocolate developed rapidly during the 1990's, and recent clinical trials and studies in animal models and cultured endothelial cells provide important and novel insights into the mechanisms by which dietary polyphenols afford protection against oxidative stress. In this review, we highlight that NO and reactive oxygen radicals may mediate dietary polyphenol induced activation of Nrf2, which in turn triggers antioxidant response element (ARE) driven transcription of phase II detoxifying and antioxidant defense enzymes in vascular cells.

  2. SOIL NITROUS OXIDE, NITRIC OXIDE, AND AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM A RECOVERING RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM IN SOUTHERN APPALACHIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents two years of seasonal nitric oxide, ammonia, and nitrous oxide trace gas fluxes measured in a recovering riparian zone with cattle excluded and in an adjacent riparian zone grazed by cattle. In the recovering riparian zone, average nitric oxide, ammonia, and ni...

  3. Characteristics of MOX dissolution with silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, Miki; Nakazaki, Masato; Kida, Takashi; Sato, Kenji; Kato, Tadahito; Kihara, Takehiro; Sugikawa, Susumu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    MOX dissolution with silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method is to be applied to the preparation of plutonium nitrate solution to be used for criticality safety experiments at Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility (NUCEF). Silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method uses the strong oxidisation ability of Ag(II) ion. This method is though to be effective for the dissolution of MOX, which is difficult to be dissolved with nitric acid. In this paper, the results of experiments on dissolution with 100 g of MOX are described. It was confirmed from the results that the MOX powder to be used at NUCEF was completely dissolved by silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method and that Pu(VI) ion in the obtained solution was reduced to tetravalent by means of NO{sub 2} purging. (author)

  4. Caffeinated nitric oxide-releasing lozenge improves cycling time trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kim, H T; Solares, G J; Kim, K; Ding, Z; Ivy, J L

    2015-02-01

    Boosting nitric oxide production during exercise by various means has been found to improve exercise performance. We investigated the effects of a nitric oxide releasing lozenge with added caffeine (70 mg) on oxygen consumption during steady-state exercise and cycling time trial performance using a double-blinded randomized, crossover experimental design. 15 moderately trained cyclists (7 females and 8 males) were randomly assigned to ingest the caffeinated nitric oxide lozenge or placebo 5 min before exercise. Oxygen consumption and blood lactate were assessed at rest and at 50%, 65% and 75% maximal oxygen consumption. Exercise performance was assessed by time to complete a simulated 20.15 km cycling time-trial course. No significant treatment effects for oxygen consumption or blood lactate at rest or during steady-state exercise were observed. However, time-trial performance was improved by 2.1% (p<0.01) when participants consumed the nitric oxide lozenge (2,424±69 s) compared to placebo (2,476±78 s) and without a significant difference in rating of perceived exertion. These results suggest that acute supplementation with a caffeinated nitric oxide releasing lozenge may be a practical and effective means of improving aerobic exercise performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Radiation-induced apoptosis of neural precursors cell cultures: early modulation of the response mediated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Robello, E.; Michelin, S.; Perez, M. R.

    2004-07-01

    Apoptosis, the typical mode of radiation-induced cell death in developing Central Nervous System (CNS), is closely related with the oxidative status. Enhanced radiation-induced generation of ROS/RNS has been observed after exposures to low radiation doses leading to cellular amplification of signal transduction and further molecular and cellular radiation-responses. Moreover Nitric oxide (NO) and hydroxyl radical are implicated in dopaminergic neurotoxicity in different parading. This study is an attempt to address the participation of radiation-induced free radicals production, the contribution of endogenous NO generation, and the excitonic pathway, in the radiation-induced apoptosis of neural cortical precursors. Cortical cells obtained from at 17 gestational day (gd) were irradiated with doses from 0,2 Gy to 2 Gy at a dose-rate of 0.3 Gy/m. A significant decrease of Luminol-dependent Chemiluminescence was evident 30 m after irradiation reaching basal levels at 120 m follow for a tendency to increasing values Incubations with Superoxide Dismatuse (SOD) decreased significantly the chemiluminescence in irradiated samples NO content estimated by measuring the stable products NO{sub 2} and NO{sub 3} released to the culture medium in the same period, has shown a time-dependent accumulation from 1 h post-irradiation. the apoptosis, determined 24 h post-irradiation by flow cytometry, morphology and DNA fragmentation revealed a dose-effect relationship with significant differences from 0.4 Gy. The samples pre-treated with 10 mM of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) a precursor of intracellular GSH synthesis, shown a significant decrease of the apoptosis. Apoptosis was significantly increased in irradiated cells after inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) byL-NAME. We conclude that ROS/RNS play a pivotal role in the early signaling pathways leading to a radiation-induced cell death. (Author) 40 refs.

  6. Radiation-induced apoptosis of neural precursors cell cultures: early modulation of the response mediated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Robello, E.; Michelin, S.; Perez, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    Apoptosis, the typical mode of radiation-induced cell death in developing Central Nervous System (CNS), is closely related with the oxidative status. Enhanced radiation-induced generation of ROS/RNS has been observed after exposures to low radiation doses leading to cellular amplification of signal transduction and further molecular and cellular radiation-responses. Moreover Nitric oxide (NO) and hydroxyl radical are implicated in dopaminergic neurotoxicity in different parading. This study is an attempt to address the participation of radiation-induced free radicals production, the contribution of endogenous NO generation, and the excitonic pathway, in the radiation-induced apoptosis of neural cortical precursors. Cortical cells obtained from at 17 gestational day (gd) were irradiated with doses from 0,2 Gy to 2 Gy at a dose-rate of 0.3 Gy/m. A significant decrease of Luminol-dependent Chemiluminescence was evident 30 m after irradiation reaching basal levels at 120 m follow for a tendency to increasing values Incubations with Superoxide Dismatuse (SOD) decreased significantly the chemiluminescence in irradiated samples NO content estimated by measuring the stable products NO 2 and NO 3 released to the culture medium in the same period, has shown a time-dependent accumulation from 1 h post-irradiation. the apoptosis, determined 24 h post-irradiation by flow cytometry, morphology and DNA fragmentation revealed a dose-effect relationship with significant differences from 0.4 Gy. The samples pre-treated with 10 mM of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) a precursor of intracellular GSH synthesis, shown a significant decrease of the apoptosis. Apoptosis was significantly increased in irradiated cells after inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) byL-NAME. We conclude that ROS/RNS play a pivotal role in the early signaling pathways leading to a radiation-induced cell death. (Author) 40 refs

  7. Macroautophagy-generated increase of lysosomal amyloid β-protein mediates oxidant-induced apoptosis of cultured neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Lin; Terman, Alexei; Hallbeck, Martin

    2011-01-01

    and accumulation of Aβ within lysosomes, induced apoptosis in differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Cells under hyperoxia showed: (1) increased numbers of autophagic vacuoles that contained amyloid precursor protein (APP) as well as Aβ monomers and oligomers, (2) increased reactive oxygen species production...... and resulting lysosomal Aβ accumulation are essential for oxidant-induced apoptosis in cultured neuroblastoma cells and provide additional support for the interactive role of oxidative stress and the lysosomal system in AD-related neurodegeneration....

  8. Nitric oxide mediates the anticonvulsant effects of thalidomide on pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizures in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payandemehr, Borna; Rahimian, Reza; Gooshe, Maziar; Bahremand, Arash; Gholizadeh, Ramtin; Berijani, Sina; Ahmadi-Dastgerdi, Mohammad; Aminizade, Mehdi; Sarreshte-Dari, Ali; Dianati, Vahid; Amanlou, Massoud; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2014-05-01

    Thalidomide is an old glutamic acid derivative which was initially used as a sedative medication but withdrawn from the market due to the high incidence of teratogenicity. Recently, it has reemerged because of its potential for counteracting number of diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. Other than the antiemetic and hypnotic aspects, thalidomide exerts some anticonvulsant properties in experimental settings. However, the underlying mechanisms of thalidomide actions are not fully realized yet. Some investigations revealed that thalidomide could elicit immunomodulatory or neuromodulatory properties by affecting different targets, including cytokines (such as TNF α), neurotransmitters, and nitric oxide (NO). In this regard, we used a model of clonic seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male NMRI mice to investigate whether the anticonvulsant effect of thalidomide is affected through modulation of the l-arginine-nitric oxide pathway or not. Injection of a single effective dose of thalidomide (10 mg/kg, i.p. or higher) significantly increased the seizure threshold (P<0.05). On the one hand, pretreatment with low and per se noneffective dose of l-arginine [NO precursor] (10, 30 and 60 mg/kg) prevented the anticonvulsant effect of thalidomide. On the other hand, NOS inhibitors [l-NAME and 7-NI] augmented the anticonvulsant effect of a subeffective dose of thalidomide (1 and 5 mg/kg, i.p.) at relatively low doses. Meanwhile, several doses of aminoguanidine [an inducible NOS inhibitor] (20, 50 and 100 mg/kg) failed to alter the anticonvulsant effect of thalidomide significantly. In summary, our findings demonstrated that the l-arginine-nitric oxide pathway can be involved in the anticonvulsant properties of thalidomide, and the role of constitutive nNOS is prominent in the reported neuroprotective feature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. GLP-2-mediated up-regulation of intestinal blood flow and glucose uptake is nitric oxide-dependent in TPN-fed piglets 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Xinfu; Stoll, Barbara; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2003-01-01

    (n = 8) received consecutive intravenous infusions of saline, GLP-2, and GLP-2 plus N(G)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 50 micromol x kg(-1) x hour(-1)) for 4 hours each. RESULTS: GLP-2 acutely increased portal-drained visceral (PDV) blood flow rate (+25%) and intestinal blood volume (+51......%) in TPN-fed piglets. GLP-2 also increased intestinal constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and endothelial NOS protein abundance. GLP-2 acutely increased PDV glucose uptake (+90%) and net lactate production (+79%). Co-infusion of GLP-2 plus L-NAME did not increase either PDV blood flow rate......, and this response is nitric oxide-dependent. These findings suggest that GLP-2 may play an important physiological role in the regulation of intestinal blood flow and that nitric oxide is involved in GLP-2 receptor function....

  10. Flow Cytometric Evaluation of Human Neutrophil Apoptosis During Nitric Oxide Generation In Vitro: The Role of Exogenous Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Sulowska

    2005-01-01

    in vitro. The effect of exogenous supply of NO donors such as SNP, SIN-1, and GEA-3162 on the course of human neutrophil apoptosis and the role of extracellular antioxidants in this process was investigated. Isolated from peripheral blood, neutrophils were cultured in the presence or absence of NO donor compounds and antioxidants for 8, 12, and 20 hours. Apoptosis of neutrophils was determined in vitro by flow cytometric analysis of cellular DNA content and Annexin V protein binding to the cell surface. Exposure of human neutrophils to GEA-3162 and SIN-1 significantly accelerates and enhances their apoptosis in vitro in a time-dependent fashion. In the presence of SNP, intensification of apoptosis has not been revealed until 12 hours after the culture. The inhibition of GEA-3162- and SIN-1-mediated neutrophil apoptosis by superoxide dismutase (SOD but not by catalase (CAT was observed. Our results show that SOD and CAT can protect neutrophils against NO-donors-induced apoptosis and suggest that the interaction of NO and oxygen metabolites signals may determine the destructive or protective role of NO donor compounds during apoptotic neutrophil death.

  11. Non-asthmatic patients show increased exhaled nitric oxide concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz M. Saraiva-Romanholo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate whether exhaled nitric oxide may serve as a marker of intraoperative bronchospasm. INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative bronchospasm remains a challenging event during anesthesia. Previous studies in asthmatic patients suggest that exhaled nitric oxide may represent a noninvasive measure of airway inflammation. METHODS: A total of 146,358 anesthesia information forms, which were received during the period from 1999 to 2004, were reviewed. Bronchospasm was registered on 863 forms. From those, three groups were identified: 9 non-asthmatic patients (Bronchospasm group, 12 asthmatics (Asthma group and 10 subjects with no previous airway disease or symptoms (Control group. All subjects were submitted to exhaled nitric oxide measurements (parts/billion, spirometry and the induced sputum test. The data was compared by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test and Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn's test. RESULTS: The normal lung function test results for the Bronchospasm group were different from those of the asthma group (p <0.05. The median percentage of eosinophils in induced sputum was higher for the Asthma [2.46 (0.45-6.83] compared with either the Bronchospasm [0.55 (0-1.26] or the Control group [0.0 (0] (p <0.05; exhaled nitric oxide followed a similar pattern for the Asthma [81.55 (57.6-86.85], Bronchospasm [46.2 (42.0 -62.6] and Control group [18.7 (16.0-24.7] (p< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Non-asthmatic patients with intraoperative bronchospasm detected during anesthesia and endotracheal intubation showed increased expired nitric oxide.

  12. Piper sarmentosum increases nitric oxide production in oxidative stress: a study on human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugusman, Azizah; Zakaria, Zaiton; Hui, Chua Kien; Nordin, Nor Anita Megat Mohd

    2010-07-01

    Nitric oxide produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) possesses multiple anti-atherosclerotic properties. Hence, enhanced expression of eNOS and increased Nitric oxide levels may protect against the development of atherosclerosis. Piper sarmentosum is a tropical plant with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper sarmentosum on the eNOS and Nitric oxide pathway in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECS WERE DIVIDED INTO FOUR GROUPS: control, treatment with 180 microM hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), treatment with 150 microg/mL aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum, and concomitant treatment with aqueous extract of PS and H(2)O(2) for 24 hours. Subsequently, HUVECs were harvested and eNOS mRNA expression was determined using qPCR. The eNOS protein level was measured using ELISA, and the eNOS activity and Nitric oxide level were determined by the Griess reaction. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum showed a marked induction of Nitric oxide. Treatment with PS also resulted in increased eNOS mRNA expression, eNOS protein level and eNOS activity in HUVECs. Aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum may improve endothelial function by promoting NO production in HUVECs.

  13. Role of nitric oxide in glucose-, fructose and galactose-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies have shown that the infusion of glucose, fructose and galactose resulted in significant increases in intestinal glucose uptake (IGU) and the role of nitric oxide in these responses was not known. The present study was designed to investigate the role of nitric oxide in the observed increases in IGU.

  14. Pain modulation by nitric oxide in the spinal cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio M Freire

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a versatile messenger molecule first associated with endothelial relaxing effects. In the central nervous system (CNS, NO synthesis is primarily triggered by activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors and has a Janus face, with both beneficial and harmful properties, depending on concentration and the identity of its synthetic enzyme isoform. There are three isoforms of the NO synthesizing enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS: neuronal (nNOS, endothelial (eNOS, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, each one involved with specific events in the brain. In CNS, nNOS is involved with modulation of synaptic transmission through long-term potentiation in several regions, including nociceptive circuits in the spinal cord. Here, we review the role played by NO on central pain sensitization.

  15. Role of nitric oxide in cellular iron metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangwon; Ponka, Prem

    2003-03-01

    Iron regulatory proteins (IRP1 and IRP2) control the synthesis of transferrin receptors (TfR) and ferritin by binding to iron-responsive elements (IREs) which are located in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) and the 5' UTR of their respective mRNAs. Cellular iron levels affect binding of IRPs to IREs and consequently expression of TfR and ferritin. Moreover, NO*, a redox species of nitric oxide that interacts primarily with iron, can activate IRP1 RNA-binding activity resulting in an increase in TfR mRNA levels. We have shown that treatment of RAW 264.7 cells (a murine macrophage cell line) with NO+ (nitrosonium ion, which causes S-nitrosylation of thiol groups) resulted in a rapid decrease in RNA-binding of IRP2, followed by IRP2 degradation, and these changes were associated with a decrease in TfR mRNA levels. Moreover, we demonstrated that stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) increased IRP1 binding activity, whereas RNA-binding of IRP2 decreased and was followed by a degradation of this protein. Furthermore, the decrease of IRP2 binding/protein levels was associated with a decrease in TfR mRNA levels in LPS/IFN-gamma-treated cells, and these changes were prevented by inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase. These results suggest that NO+-mediated degradation of IRP2 plays a major role in iron metabolism during inflammation.

  16. Nitric oxide mediates angiogenesis induced in vivo by platelet-activating factor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrucchio, G.; Lupia, E.; de Martino, A.; Battaglia, E.; Arese, M.; Tizzani, A.; Bussolino, F.; Camussi, G.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the role of an endogenous production of nitric oxide (NO) in the in vitro migration of endothelial cells and in the in vivo angiogenic response elicited by platelet-activating factor (PAF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The NO synthase inhibitor, N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), but not its enantiomer D-NAME, prevented chemotaxis of endothelial cells induced in vitro by PAF and by TNF. The motogenic activity of TNF was also inhibited by WEB 2170, a specific PAF-receptor antagonist. In contrast, chemotaxis induced by bFGF was not prevented by L-NAME or by WEB 2170. Angiogenesis was studied in vivo in a murine model in which Matrigel was used as a vehicle for the delivery of mediators. In this model, the angiogenesis induced by PAF and TNF was inhibited by WEB 2170 and L-NAME but not by D-NAME. In contrast, angiogenesis induced by bFGF was not affected by L-NAME or by WEB 2170. TNF, but not bFGF, induced PAF synthesis within Matrigel. These results suggest that NO mediates the angiogenesis induced by PAF as well as that induced by TNF, which is dependent on the production of PAF. In contrast, the angiogenic effect of bFGF appears to be both PAF and NO independent. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9250168

  17. Host and Viral Factors in HIV-Mediated Bystander Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Himanshu; Joshi, Anjali

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections lead to a progressive loss of CD4 T cells primarily via the process of apoptosis. With a limited number of infected cells and vastly disproportionate apoptosis in HIV infected patients, it is believed that apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells plays a significant role in this process. Disease progression in HIV infected individuals is highly variable suggesting that both host and viral factors may influence HIV mediated apoptosis. Amongst the viral factors, the role of Envelope (Env) glycoprotein in bystander apoptosis is well documented. Recent evidence on the variability in apoptosis induction by primary patient derived Envs underscores the role of Env glycoprotein in HIV disease. Amongst the host factors, the role of C-C Chemokine Receptor type 5 (CCR5), a coreceptor for HIV Env, is also becoming increasingly evident. Polymorphisms in the CCR5 gene and promoter affect CCR5 cell surface expression and correlate with both apoptosis and CD4 loss. Finally, chronic immune activation in HIV infections induces multiple defects in the immune system and has recently been shown to accelerate HIV Env mediated CD4 apoptosis. Consequently, those factors that affect CCR5 expression and/or immune activation in turn indirectly regulate HIV mediated apoptosis making this phenomenon both complex and multifactorial. This review explores the complex role of various host and viral factors in determining HIV mediated bystander apoptosis. PMID:28829402

  18. Nitric oxide-related drug targets in headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jes

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY: Nitric oxide (NO) is a very important molecule in the regulation of cerebral and extra cerebral cranial blood flow and arterial diameters. It is also involved in nociceptive processing. Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a pro-drug for NO, causes headache in normal volunteers and a so-called del......SUMMARY: Nitric oxide (NO) is a very important molecule in the regulation of cerebral and extra cerebral cranial blood flow and arterial diameters. It is also involved in nociceptive processing. Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a pro-drug for NO, causes headache in normal volunteers and a so......-called delayed headache that fulfils criteria for migraine without aura in migraine sufferers. Blockade of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) by L-nitromonomethylarginine effectively treats attacks of migraine without aura. Similar results have been obtained for chronic the tension-type headache and cluster headache....... Inhibition of the breakdown of cyclic guanylate phosphate (cGMP) also provokes migraine in sufferers, indicating that cGMP is the effector of NO-induced migraine. Similar evidence suggests an important role of NO in the tension-type headache and cluster headache. These very strong data from human...

  19. Endothelial progenitor cell mobilization and increased intravascular nitric oxide in patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jonathan D; Powell, Tiffany M; Thompson, Michael; Benjamin, Moshe; Rodrigo, Maria; Carlow, Andrea; Annavajjhala, Vidhya; Shiva, Sruti; Dejam, Andre; Gladwin, Mark T; McCoy, J Philip; Zalos, Gloria; Press, Beverly; Murphy, Mandy; Hill, Jonathan M; Csako, Gyorgy; Waclawiw, Myron A; Cannon, Richard O

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether cardiac rehabilitation participation increases circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and benefits vasculature in patients already on stable therapy previously shown to augment EPCs and improve endothelial function. Forty-six of 50 patients with coronary artery disease completed a 36-session cardiac rehabilitation program: 45 were treated with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) therapy > or = 1 month (average baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol = 81 mg/dL). Mononuclear cells isolated from blood were quantified for EPCs by flow cytometry (CD133/VEGFR-2 cells) and assayed in culture for EPC colony-forming units (CFUs). In 23 patients, EPCs were stained for annexin-V as a marker of apoptosis, and nitrite was measured in blood as an indicator of intravascular nitric oxide. Endothelial progenitor cells increased from 35 +/- 5 to 63 +/- 10 cells/mL, and EPC-CFUs increased from 0.9 +/- 0.2 to 3.1 +/- 0.6 per well (both P < .01), but 11 patients had no increase in either measure. Those patients whose EPCs increased from baseline showed significant increases in nitrite and reduction in annexin-V staining (both P < .01) versus no change in patients without increase in EPCs. Over the course of the program, EPCs increased prior to increase in nitrite in the blood. Cardiac rehabilitation in patients receiving stable statin therapy and with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol at goal increases EPC number, EPC survival, and endothelial differentiation potential, associated with increased nitric oxide in the blood. Although this response was observed in most patients, a significant minority showed neither EPC mobilization nor increased nitric oxide in the blood.

  20. Influence of nitric oxide on histamine and carbachol – induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed to determine the influence of nitric oxide (NO) on the action of histamine and carbachol on acid secretion in the common African toad – Bufo regularis. Gastric acidity was determined by titration method. The acid secretion was determined when nitric oxide was absent following administration of NO synthase ...

  1. Investigating altered nitric oxide signalling as an up-stream mediator of the antidepressant action of ketamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebenberg, N.; Muller, H. K.; Elfving, B.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Stress-induced excessive glutamate transmission at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors may underlie a major mechanism in the pathophysiology that leads to depression, while ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, has been shown to induce a rapid antidepressant effect in depre......Background and Aim: Stress-induced excessive glutamate transmission at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors may underlie a major mechanism in the pathophysiology that leads to depression, while ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, has been shown to induce a rapid antidepressant effect...... in depressed patients following a single intravenous administration that is sustained for (plus or minus) 7 days. A number of downstream cellular mechanisms appear to mediate the antidepressant action of ketamine, and the majority of evidence point to a rapid activation of protein translation leading...... to and activated by NMDA receptors, while the uncoupling of the nNOS-NMDA receptor complex prevents NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. Thus, it is possible that the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) signalling underlies a key upstream mechanism in the antidepressant action of ketamine. Methods: We used a genetic rat model...

  2. Cigarette smoking impairs nitric oxide-mediated cerebral blood flow increase: Implications for Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Toda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral blood flow is mainly regulated by nitrergic (parasympathetic, postganglionic nerves and nitric oxide (NO liberated from endothelial cells in response to shear stress and stretch of vasculature, whereas sympathetic vasoconstrictor control is quite weak. On the other hand, peripheral vascular resistance and blood flow are mainly controlled by adrenergic vasoconstrictor nerves; endothelium-derived NO and nitrergic nerves play some roles as vasodilator factors. Cigarette smoking impairs NO synthesis in cerebral vascular endothelial cells and nitrergic nerves leading to interference with cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in the brain. Smoking-induced cerebral hypoperfusion is induced by impairment of synthesis and actions of NO via endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/neuronal NOS (nNOS inhibition and by increased production of oxygen radicals, resulting in decreased actions of NO on vascular smooth muscle. Nicotine acutely and chronically impairs the action of endothelial NO and also inhibits nitrergic nerve function in chronic use. Impaired cerebral blood supply promotes the synthesis of amyloid β that accelerates blood flow decrease. This vicious cycle is thought to be one of the important factors involving in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Quitting smoking is undoubtedly one of the important ways to prevent and delay the genesis or slow the progress of impaired cognitive function and AD.

  3. A plasma needle generates nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffels, E; Gonzalvo, Y Aranda; Whitmore, T D; Seymour, D L; Rees, J A

    2006-01-01

    Generation of nitric oxide (NO) by a plasma needle is studied by means of mass spectrometry. The plasma needle is an atmospheric glow generated by a radio-frequency excitation in a mixture of helium and air. This source is used for the treatment of living tissues, and nitric oxide may be one of the most important active agents in plasma therapy. Efficient NO generation is of particular importance in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Mass spectrometric measurements have been performed under various plasma conditions; gas composition in the plasma and conversion of feed gases (nitrogen and oxygen) into other species has been studied. Up to 30% of the N 2 and O 2 input is consumed in the discharge, and NO has been identified as the main conversion product

  4. Production of nitric oxide using a microwave plasma torch and its application to fungal cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Young Ho; Kang, Min-Ho; Cho, Guang Sup; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Gyungsoon; Uhm, Han Sup; Kumar, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    The generation of nitric oxide by a microwave plasma torch is proposed for its application to cell differentiation. A microwave plasma torch was developed based on basic kinetic theory. The analytical theory indicates that nitric oxide density is nearly proportional to oxygen molecular density and that the high-temperature flame is an effective means of generating nitric oxide. Experimental data pertaining to nitric oxide production are presented in terms of the oxygen input in units of cubic centimeters per minute. The apparent length of the torch flame increases as the oxygen input increases. The various levels of nitric oxide are observed depending on the flow rate of nitrogen gas, the mole fraction of oxygen gas, and the microwave power. In order to evaluate the potential of nitric oxide as an activator of cell differentiation, we applied nitric oxide generated from the microwave plasma torch to a model microbial cell (Neurospora crassa: non-pathogenic fungus). Germination and hyphal differentiation of fungal cells were not dramatically changed but there was a significant increase in spore formation after treatment with nitric oxide. In addition, the expression level of a sporulation related gene acon-3 was significantly elevated after 24 h upon nitric oxide treatment. Increase in the level of nitric oxide, nitrite and nitrate in water after nitric oxide treatment seems to be responsible for activation of fungal sporulation. Our results suggest that nitric oxide generated by plasma can be used as a possible activator of cell differentiation and development. (paper)

  5. Circulating nitric oxide products do not solely reflect nitric oxide release in cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Bazeghi, Nassim; Bie, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Patients with cirrhosis often develop a systemic vasodilatation and a hyperdynamic circulation with activation of vasoconstrictor systems such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), and vasopressin. Increased nitric oxide (NO) synthesis has been implicated in the development of this ...

  6. Cisplatin upregulates mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase and peroxynitrite formation to promote renal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Michaela; Hotter, Georgina; Vinas, Jose Luis; Sola, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The mitochondria are a critical target for cisplatin-associated nephrotoxicity. Though nitric oxide formation has been implicated in the toxicity of cisplatin, this formation has not so far been related to a possible activation of mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mNOS). We show here that the upregulation of oxide mNOS and peroxynitrite formation in cisplatin treatment are key events that influence the development of the harmful parameters described in cisplatin-associated kidney failure. We confirm this by isolating the mitochondrial fraction of the kidney and across different access routes such as the use of a specific inhibitor of neuronal NOS, L-NPA, a peroxynitrite scavenger, FeTMPyP, and a peroxynitrite donor, SIN-1. The in vitro studies corroborated the information obtained in the in vivo experiments. The administration of cisplatin reveals a clear upregulation in the transcription of neuronal NOS and an increase in the levels of nitrites in the mitochondrial fractions of the kidneys. The upregulated transcription directly affects the cytoskeleton structure and the apoptosis. The inhibition of neuronal NOS reduces the levels of nitrites, cell death, and cytoskeleton derangement. Peroxynitrite is involved in the mechanism promoting the NOS transcription. In addition, in controls SIN-1 imitates the effects of cisplatin. In summary, we demonstrate that upregulation of mNOS in cisplatin treatment is a key component in both the initiation and the spread of cisplatin-associated damage in the kidney. Furthermore, peroxynitrite formation is directly involved in this process

  7. Piper sarmentosum increases nitric oxide production in oxidative stress: a study on human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah Ugusman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS possesses multiple anti-atherosclerotic properties. Hence, enhanced expression of eNOS and increased Nitric oxide levels may protect against the development of atherosclerosis. Piper sarmentosum is a tropical plant with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper sarmentosum on the eNOS and Nitric oxide pathway in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. METHODS: HUVECs were divided into four groups: control, treatment with 180 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, treatment with 150 μg/mL aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum, and concomitant treatment with aqueous extract of PS and H2O2 for 24 hours. Subsequently, HUVECs were harvested and eNOS mRNA expression was determined using qPCR. The eNOS protein level was measured using ELISA, and the eNOS activity and Nitric oxide level were determined by the Griess reaction. RESULTS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum showed a marked induction of Nitric oxide. Treatment with PS also resulted in increased eNOS mRNA expression, eNOS protein level and eNOS activity in HUVECs. CONCLUSION: Aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum may improve endothelial function by promoting NO production in HUVECs.

  8. Role of the L-citrulline/L-arginine cycle in iNANC nerve-mediated nitric oxide production and airway smooth muscle relaxation in allergic asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, Ham; Leusink, John; Zaagsma, Johan; Meurs, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) converts L-arginine into nitric oxide (NO) and L-Citrulline. In NO-producing cells, L-citrulline can be recycled to L-arginine in a two-step reaction involving argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) and -lyase (ASL). In guinea pig trachea, L-arginine is a limiting factor in

  9. Nitric oxide-related species-induced protein oxidation: reversible, irreversible, and protective effects on enzyme function of papain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Antti J; Kankuri, Esko; Rauhala, Pekka

    2005-04-15

    Protein oxidation, irreversible modification, and inactivation may play key roles in various neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, we studied the effects of the potentially in vivo occurring nitric oxide-related species on two different markers of protein oxidation: protein carbonyl generation on bovine serum albumine (BSA) and loss of activity of a cysteine-dependent protease, papain, in vitro by using Angeli's salt, papanonoate, SIN-1, and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) as donors of nitroxyl, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, and nitrosonium ions, respectively. Angeli's salt, SIN-1, and papanonoate (0-1000 microM) all generated a concentration-dependent increase in carbonyl formation on BSA (107, 60, and 45%, respectively). GSNO did not affect carbonyl formation. Papain was inhibited by Angeli's salt, SIN-1, papanonoate, and GSNO with IC50 values of 0.62, 2.3, 54, and 80 microM, respectively. Angeli's salt (3.16 microM)-induced papain inactivation was only partially reversible, while the effects of GSNO (316 microM) and papanonoate (316 microM) were reversible upon addition of excess DTT. The Angeli's salt-mediated DTT-irreversible inhibition of papain was prevented by GSNO or papanonoate pretreatment, hypothetically through mixed disulfide formation or S-nitrosylation of the catalytically critical thiol group of papain. These results, for the first time, compare the generation of carbonyls in proteins by Angeli's salt, papanonoate, and SIN-1. Furthermore, these results suggest that S-nitrosothiols may have a novel function in protecting critical thiols from irreversible oxidative damage.

  10. Opposite effect of oxidative stress on inducible nitric oxide synthase and haem oxygenase-1 expression in intestinal inflammation: anti-inflammatory effect of carbon monoxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Gerard; Blokzijl, Hans; Bok, Lisette; Homan, Manon; van Goor, Harry; Faber, Klaas Nico; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Moshage, Han

    2004-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is expressed in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) of patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in IEC of endotoxaemic rats. The induction of iNOS in IEC is an element of the NF-kappaB-mediated survival pathway. Haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an

  11. Intravenous beta-endorphin administration fails to alter hypothalamic blood flow in rats expressing normal or reduced nitric oxide synthase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benyo, Z.; Szabo, C; Velkel, M.H; Bohus, B.G J; Wahl, M.A; Sandor, P

    1996-01-01

    beta-Endorphin (beta-END) significantly contributes to the maintenance of hypothalamic blood flow (HBF) autoregulation during hemorrhagic hypotension in rats. Recently, several natural and synthetic opioid peptides were reported to induce nitric oxide (NO)-mediated dilation in the cerebrovascular

  12. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may overcome nitric oxide blockage during cyanide intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polzik, Peter; Hansen, Marco Bo; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the effects of a blockade of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis on hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy during cyanide (CN) intoxication. METHODS: 39 anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CN intoxication (5.4 mg/kg intra-arterially) with or without previous nitric oxide...

  13. Valsartan reduces AT1-AA-induced apoptosis through suppression oxidative stress mediated ER stress in endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z-C; Qi, J; Liu, L-M; Li, J; Xu, H-Y; Liang, B; Li, B

    2017-03-01

    Valsartan has been reported to have the function of treating hypertension and improving the prognosis of patients. Many studies indicated that valsartan can also increase angiotensin II, andosterone and plasma renin activity (PRA). Autoantibodies against the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-AA) have been showed to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium (Ca2+) and result in apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells. In this study, we attempted to explore the effect of valsartan on AT1-AA-induced apoptosis in endothelial progenitor cells. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were cultured. The cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay. EPCs apoptosis was determined by DAPI staining and flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species, intracellular calcium concentration and calpain activity were measured using Fluostar Omega Spectrofluorimeter. The expression of p-ERK, p-eIF-2a, CHOP, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 were detected by Western blot. MTT assays showed valsartan significantly inhibited AT1-AA- induced decline of the viability of EPCs. DAPI staining and flow cytometry results indicated valsartan inhibited AT1-AA-induced decline of the viability of EPCs via inhibiting AT1-AA-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the increasing of reactive oxygen species, intracellular calcium and calpain activity induced by AT1-AA in EPCs were also recovered after pre-treated with valsartan. Meanwhile, the upregulation of p-ERK, p-eIF-2a and CHOP, downregulation of Bcl-2, and activation of Caspase-3 caused by AT1-AA were reversed after pre-incubated with valsartan. Valsartan could inhibit AT1-AA-induced apoptosis through inhibiting oxidative stress mediated ER stress in EPCs.

  14. In vivo arginine production and nitric oxide synthesis in pregnant Indian women with normal and low body mass indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as a mediator of vascular expansion during pregnancy. Inability to increase NO synthesis and/or production of its precursor, arginine, may be a contributor to pregnancy-induced hypertension or preeclampsia. Because maternal weight is associated with blood pressure...

  15. Modulation of parathion toxicity by glucose feeding: Is nitric oxide involved?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jing; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Goad, John T.; Karanth, Subramanya; Pope, Carey

    2007-01-01

    Glucose feeding can markedly exacerbate the toxicity of the anticholinesterase insecticide, parathion. We determined the effects of parathion on brain nitric oxide and its possible role in potentiation of toxicity by glucose feeding. Adult rats were given water or 15% glucose in water for 3 days and challenged with vehicle or parathion (18 mg/kg, s.c.) on day 4. Functional signs, plasma glucose and brain cholinesterase, citrulline (an indicator of nitric oxide production) and high-energy phosphates (HEPs) were measured 1-3 days after parathion. Glucose feeding exacerbated cholinergic toxicity. Parathion increased plasma glucose (15-33%) and decreased cortical cholinesterase activity (81-90%), with no significant differences between water and glucose treatment groups. In contrast, parathion increased brain regional citrulline (40-47%) and decreased HEPs (18-40%) in rats drinking water, with significantly greater changes in glucose-fed rats (248-363% increase and 31-61% decrease, respectively). We then studied the effects of inhibiting neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) by 7-nitroindazole (7NI, 30 mg/kg, i.p. x4) on parathion toxicity and its modulation by glucose feeding. Co-exposure to parathion and 7NI led to a marked increase in cholinergic signs of toxicity and lethality, regardless of glucose intake. Thus, glucose feeding enhanced the accumulation of brain nitric oxide following parathion exposure, but inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis was ineffective at counteracting increased parathion toxicity associated with glucose feeding. Evidence is therefore presented to suggest that nitric oxide may play both toxic and protective roles in cholinergic toxicity, and its precise contribution to modulation by glucose feeding requires further investigation

  16. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase decreases elevated levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and apoptotic cell death in ocular hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan, Mutay, E-mail: mutayaslan@akdeniz.edu.tr [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Basaranlar, Goksun [Department of Biophysics, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Unal, Mustafa [Department of Ophthalmology, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Ciftcioglu, Akif [Department of Pathology, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Derin, Narin [Department of Biophysics, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Mutus, Bulent [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and excessive nitric oxide production via induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuronal retinal cell death in ocular hypertension. Neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase)/ceramide pathway can regulate NOS2 expression, hence this study determined the role of selective neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase) inhibition on retinal NOS2 levels, ER stress, apoptosis and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in a rat model of elevated intraocular pressure (EIOP). NOS2 expression and retinal protein nitration were significantly greater in EIOP and significantly decreased with N-SMase inhibition. A significant increase was observed in retinal ER stress markers pPERK, CHOP and GRP78 in EIOP, which were not significantly altered by N-SMase inhibition. Retinal TUNEL staining showed increased apoptosis in all EIOP groups; however N-SMase inhibition significantly decreased the percent of apoptotic cells in EIOP. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities were significantly increased in EIOP and returned to baseline levels following N-SMase inhibition. Latencies of all VEP components were significantly prolonged in EIOP and shortened following N-SMase inhibition. Data confirm the role of nitrative injury in EIOP and highlight the protective effect of N-SMase inhibition in EIOP via down-regulation of NOS2 levels and nitrative stress. - Highlights: • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases NOS2 levels in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases protein nitration in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases caspase activation in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases apoptosis in ocular hypertension.

  17. Plant survival in a changing environment: the role of nitric oxide in plant responses to abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela eSimontacchi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide in plants may originate endogenously or come from surrounding atmosphere and soil. Interestingly, this gaseous free radical is far from having a constant level and varies greatly among tissues depending on a given plant´s ontogeny and environmental fluctuations.Proper plant growth, vegetative development, and reproduction require the integration of plant hormonal activity with the antioxidant network, as well as the maintenance of concentration of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species within a narrow range. Plants are frequently faced with abiotic stress conditions such as low nutrient availability, salinity, drought, high ultraviolet (UV radiation and extreme temperatures, which can influence developmental processes and lead to growth restriction making adaptive responses the plant´s priority. The ability of plants to respond and survive under environmental-stress conditions involves sensing and signalling events where nitric oxide becomes a critical component mediating hormonal actions, interacting with reactive oxygen species, and modulating gene expression and protein activity. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the role of nitric oxide in adaptive plant responses to some specific abiotic stress conditions, particularly low mineral nutrient supply, drought, salinity and high UV-B radiation.

  18. Plant Survival in a Changing Environment: The Role of Nitric Oxide in Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simontacchi, Marcela; Galatro, Andrea; Ramos-Artuso, Facundo; Santa-María, Guillermo E.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide in plants may originate endogenously or come from surrounding atmosphere and soil. Interestingly, this gaseous free radical is far from having a constant level and varies greatly among tissues depending on a given plant’s ontogeny and environmental fluctuations. Proper plant growth, vegetative development, and reproduction require the integration of plant hormonal activity with the antioxidant network, as well as the maintenance of concentration of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species within a narrow range. Plants are frequently faced with abiotic stress conditions such as low nutrient availability, salinity, drought, high ultraviolet (UV) radiation and extreme temperatures, which can influence developmental processes and lead to growth restriction making adaptive responses the plant’s priority. The ability of plants to respond and survive under environmental-stress conditions involves sensing and signaling events where nitric oxide becomes a critical component mediating hormonal actions, interacting with reactive oxygen species, and modulating gene expression and protein activity. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the role of nitric oxide in adaptive plant responses to some specific abiotic stress conditions, particularly low mineral nutrient supply, drought, salinity and high UV-B radiation. PMID:26617619

  19. Thrombin has biphasic effects on the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in endothelial cells and contributes to experimental pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin F Nickel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A potential role for coagulation factors in pulmonary arterial hypertension has been recently described, but the mechanism of action is currently not known. Here, we investigated the interactions between thrombin and the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in pulmonary endothelial cells and experimental pulmonary hypertension. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chronic treatment with the selective thrombin inhibitor melagatran (0.9 mg/kg daily via implanted minipumps reduced right ventricular hypertrophy in the rat monocrotaline model of experimental pulmonary hypertension. In vitro, thrombin was found to have biphasic effects on key regulators of the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in endothelial cells (HUVECs. Acute thrombin stimulation led to increased expression of the cGMP-elevating factors endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC subunits, leading to increased cGMP levels. By contrast, prolonged exposition of pulmonary endothelial cells to thrombin revealed a characteristic pattern of differential expression of the key regulators of the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, in which specifically the factors contributing to cGMP elevation (eNOS and sGC were reduced and the cGMP-hydrolyzing PDE5 was elevated (qPCR and Western blot. In line with the differential expression of key regulators of the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, a reduction of cGMP by prolonged thrombin stimulation was found. The effects of prolonged thrombin exposure were confirmed in endothelial cells of pulmonary origin (HPAECs and HPMECs. Similar effects could be induced by activation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a link between thrombin generation and cGMP depletion in lung endothelial cells through negative regulation of the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, possibly mediated via PAR-1, which could be of relevance in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

  20. Apoptosis and telomeres shortening related to HIV-1 induced oxidative stress in an astrocytoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollace Vincenzo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress plays a key role in the neuropathogenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1 infection causing apoptosis of astroglia cells and neurons. Recent data have shown that oxidative stress is also responsible for the acceleration of human fibroblast telomere shortening in vitro. In the present study we analyzed the potential relations occurring between free radicals formation and telomere length during HIV-1 mediated astroglial death. Results To this end, U373 human astrocytoma cells have been directly exposed to X4-using HIV-1IIIB strain, for 1, 3 or 5 days and treated (where requested with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a cysteine donor involved in the synthesis of glutathione (GSH, a cellular antioxidant and apoptosis has been evaluated by FACS analysis. Quantitative-FISH (Q-FISH has been employed for studying the telomere length while intracellular reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio has been determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Incubation of U373 with HIV-1IIIB led to significant induction of cellular apoptosis that was reduced in the presence of 1 mM NAC. Moreover, NAC improved the GSH/GSSG, a sensitive indicator of oxidative stress, that significantly decreased after HIV-1IIIB exposure in U373. Analysis of telomere length in HIV-1 exposed U373 showed a statistically significant telomere shortening, that was completely reverted in NAC-treated U373. Conclusion Our results support the role of HIV-1-mediated oxidative stress in astrocytic death and the importance of antioxidant compounds in preventing these cellular damages. Moreover, these data indicate that the telomere structure, target for oxidative damage, could be the key sensor of cell apoptosis induced by oxidative stress after HIV infection.

  1. Nitric oxide scavenging by hemoglobin or nitric oxide synthase inhibition by N-Nitro-L-arginine induces cortical spreading ischemia when K+0+ is increased in the subarachnoid space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, J.P.; Körner, K.; Ebert, Nathalie

    1998-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow, nitric oxide, potassium, spreading depression, vasospasm, migraine, migrainous stroke, mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)......Cerebral blood flow, nitric oxide, potassium, spreading depression, vasospasm, migraine, migrainous stroke, mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)...

  2. Continuous determination of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagisawa, S; Yamate, N; Mitsuzawa, S; Mori, M

    1966-10-01

    Continuous determinations of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide in that atmospheric air by the use of a modified Saltzman reagent is described. Measurement was made intermittently, once every 30 min., by an automatic continuous analyzer equipped with a single-path colorimeter. The response of the analyzer was obtained as an average of the concentration of nitrogen oxides over a period of 25 min. Two bubblers were used for absorbing nitrogen oxides into the modified Saltzman reagent, whose transmittance was measured for the determination. One bubbler was designed to absorb nitrogen dioxide, and the other, nitric oxide plus nitrogen dioxide after the oxidation of the nitric oxide by permanganate. The oxidizing efficiency of the permanganate was 96-100%. The acetic acid in the Saltzman reagent was replaced with n-propyl alcohol in the modified Saltzman reagent; the spontaneous coloration and corrosive quality of the reagent was decreased by this substitution. The concentration of nitric oxide was obtained from the difference between the two responses of the analyzer, while the concentration of nitrogen dioxide could be read directly from the indication of the recorder. The transmittance ratio method was applied to the measurements, accurate determinations were possible, even at high blank values. Therefore, the reagent was used repeatedly by cycling it on the basis of measuring the difference in the coloration of the reagent before and after the absorption of nitrogen oxides. The analyzer could be used for a long period without changing the reagent.

  3. p,p'-DDT induces testicular oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouani, Neila; Hallegue, Dorsaf; Sakly, Mohsen; Benkhalifa, Moncef; Ben Rhouma, Khémais; Tebourbi, Olfa

    2017-05-26

    The 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) is a known persistent organic pollutant and male reproductive toxicant. The present study is designed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates p,p'-DDT-induced apoptosis in testis. Male Wistar rats received an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of the pesticide at doses of 50 and 100mg/kg for 10 consecutive days. The oxidative stress was evaluated by biomarkers such lipid peroxidation (LPO) and metallothioneins (MTs) levels. Antioxidant enzymes activities was assessed by determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) production. In addition, glutathione-dependent enzymes and reducing power in testis was evaluated by glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities and reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH - GSSG) levels. Apoptosis was evaluated by DNA fragmentation detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Germinal cells apoptosis and the apoptotic index was assessed through the TUNEL assay. After 10 days of treatment, an increase in LPO level and H 2 O 2 production occurred, while MTs level, SOD and CAT activities were decreased. Also, the Gpx, GR, GST, and GSH activities were decreased, whereas GSSG activity was increased. Testicular tissues of treated rats showed pronounced degradation of the DNA into oligonucleotides as seen in the typical electrophoretic DNA ladder pattern. Intense apoptosis was observed in germinal cells of DDT-exposed rats. In addition, the apoptotic index was significantly increased in testis of DDT-treated rats. These results clearly suggest that DDT sub-acute treatment causes oxidative stress in rat testis leading to apoptosis.

  4. Scoparia dulcis, a traditional antidiabetic plant, protects against streptozotocin induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, Muniappan; Pari, Leelavinothan; Sitasawad, Sandhya; Bhonde, Ramesh

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. The experiments were performed on normal and experimental male Wistar rats treated with Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt). The effect of SPEt was tested on streptozotocin (STZ) treated Rat insulinoma cell lines (RINm5F cells) and isolated islets in vitro. Administration of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis by intragastric intubation (po) at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight significantly decreased the blood glucose and lipid peroxidative marker thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with significant increase in the activities of plasma insulin, pancreatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in streptozotocin diabetic rats at the end of 15 days treatment. Streptozotocin at a dose of 10 mug/mL evoked 6-fold stimulation of insulin secretion from isolated islets indicating its insulin secretagogue activity. The extract markedly reduced the STZ-induced lipidperoxidation in RINm5F cells. Further, SPEt protected STZ-mediated cytotoxicity and nitric oxide (NO) production in RINm5F cells. Treatment of RINm5F cells with 5 mM STZ and 10 mug of SPEt completely abrogated apoptosis induced by STZ, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress. Flow cytometric assessment on the level of intracellular peroxides using fluorescent probe 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) confirmed that STZ (46%) induced an intracellular oxidative stress in RINm5F cells, which was suppressed by SPEt (21%). In addition, SPEt also reduced (33%) the STZ-induced apoptosis (72%) in RINm5F cells indicating the mode of protection of SPEt on RIN m5Fcells, islets, and pancreatic beta-cell mass (histopathological observations). Present study thus confirms antihyperglycemic effect of SPEt and also demonstrated the consistently strong antioxidant properties of Scoparia dulcis used in the traditional medicine. (c) 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Evidence for a pathogenic role of nitric oxide in inflammation-induced osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K E; Van'T Hof, R J; Grabowski, P S; Reid, D M; Ralston, S H

    1999-12-01

    Inflammatory disease is associated with increased production of nitric oxide (NO) and activation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathway. Several studies have addressed the role of NO as a mediator of cytokine effects on bone cell activity in vitro. Stimulatory and inhibitory actions have been found, however, depending on the concentrations produced and model system used. In view of this, it has been difficult to predict whether increased production of NO during inflammation is likely to increase bone loss or prevent it. We have investigated the pathogenic role of NO in an animal model of inflammation-induced osteoporosis (IMO). NO production was increased in IMO when compared with controls (+344%; p turnover, but L-NMMA had no effect on bone mass in control animals. This study has important implications for many inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and inflammatory bowel disease which are associated with increased NO production and osteoporosis. Our data not only suggest that iNOS activation and increased NO production contribute to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in these situations, but also suggest that NOS inhibitors could be of therapeutic value in the prevention and treatment of such bone loss.

  6. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... chronic periodontitis (CP), 31 with gingivitis (G) and 50 healthy controls. Probing depth ..... Periodontal disease in pregnancy I. Prevalence and severity. ... endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene in premenopausal women with.

  7. Studies on nitric oxide removal in simulated gas compositions under plasma-dielectric/catalytic discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajanikanth, B.S.; Rout, Satyabrata

    2001-01-01

    Application of pulsed electrical discharges for gas cleaning is gaining prominence, mainly from the energy consideration point of view. This present paper presents recent work on applying the electrical discharge plasma technology for treating gaseous pollutants, in general, and nitric oxide, in particular, as this is one of the major contributors to air pollution. The present work focuses attention on pulsed electrical discharge technique for nitric oxide removal from simulated gas compositions and study of effect of packed dielectric pellets, with and without a coating of catalyst, on the removal process. Experiments were conducted in a cylindrical corona reactor energized by repetitive high voltage pulses. The effects of various parameters, viz. pulse voltage magnitude, pulse frequency, initial nitric oxide concentration and gas mixture composition on nitric oxide removal efficiency, are discussed. When the reactors were filled with different dielectric pellets like, barium titanate, alumina, and alumina coated with palladium catalyst, the improvement in nitric oxide removal efficiency is studied and discussed. The power dissipated in the reactor and the energy consumed per nitric oxide molecule removed was calculated. Further results and comparative study of various cases are presented in the paper

  8. Synthetic polymeric substrates as potent pro-oxidant versus anti-oxidant regulators of cytoskeletal remodeling and cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hak-Joon; Chandra, Prafulla; Treiser, Matthew D; Liu, Er; Iovine, Carmine P; Moghe, Prabhas V; Kohn, Joachim

    2009-03-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell signal transduction pathways emanating from engineered cell substrates remains unclear. To elucidate the role, polymers derived from the amino acid L-tyrosine were used as synthetic matrix substrates. Variations in their chemical properties were created by co-polymerizing hydrophobic L-tyrosine derivatives with uncharged hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mw = 1,000 Da), and negatively charged desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine (DT). These substrates were characterized for their intrinsic ability to generate ROS, as well as their ability to elicit Saos-2 cell responses in terms of intracellular ROS production, actin remodeling, and apoptosis. PEG-containing substrates induced both exogenous and intracellular ROS production, whereas the charged substrates reduced production of both types, indicating a coupling of exogenous ROS generation and intracellular ROS production. Furthermore, PEG-mediated ROS induction caused nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and an increase in caspase-3 activity, confirming a link with apoptosis. PEG-rich pro-oxidant substrates caused cytoskeletal actin remodeling through beta-actin cleavage by caspase-3 into fractins. The fractins co-localized to the mitochondria and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. The remnant cytosolic beta-actin was polymerized and condensed, events consistent with apoptotic cell shrinkage. The cytoskeletal remodeling was integral to the further augmentation of intracellular ROS production. Conversely, the anti-oxidant DT-containing charged substrates suppressed the entire cascade of apoptotic progression. We demonstrate that ROS activity serves an important role in "outside-in" signaling for cells grown on substrates: the ROS activity couples exogenous stress, driven by substrate composition, to changes in intracellular signaling. This signaling causes cell apoptosis, which is mediated by actin remodeling.

  9. Nitric-oxide supplementation for treatment of long-term complications in argininosuccinic aciduria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is required for the synthesis and channeling of L-arginine to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for nitric oxide (NO) production. Congenital ASL deficiency causes argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA), the second most common urea cycle disorder, and leads to deficiency of both urea...

  10. Oxidative stress is involved in Dasatinib-induced apoptosis in rat primary hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Tao; Luo, Peihua; Zhu, Hong; Zhao, Yuqin [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wu, Honghai; Gai, Renhua; Wu, Youping [Center for Drug Safety Evaluation and Research of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang, Bo [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang, Xiaochun, E-mail: yangxiaochun@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Center for Drug Safety Evaluation and Research of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); He, Qiaojun, E-mail: qiaojunhe@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Center for Drug Safety Evaluation and Research of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-06-15

    Dasatinib, a multitargeted inhibitor of BCR–ABL and SRC kinases, exhibits antitumor activity and extends the survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, some patients suffer from hepatotoxicity, which occurs through an unknown mechanism. In the present study, we found that Dasatinib could induce hepatotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Dasatinib reduced the cell viability of rat primary hepatocytes, induced the release of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in vitro, and triggered the ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes in Sprague–Dawley rats in vivo. Apoptotic markers (chromatin condensation, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP) were detected to indicate that the injury induced by Dasatinib in hepatocytes in vitro was mediated by apoptosis. This result was further validated in vivo using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Here we found that Dasatinib dramatically increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hepatocytes, reduced the intracellular glutathione (GSH) content, attenuated the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), generated malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, and activated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) related to oxidative stress and survival. These results confirm that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in Dasatinib-mediated hepatotoxicity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a typical antioxidant, can scavenge free radicals, attenuate oxidative stress, and protect hepatocytes against Dasatinib-induced injury. Thus, relieving oxidative stress is a viable strategy for reducing Dasatinib-induced hepatotoxicity. -- Highlights: ►Dasatinib shows potential hepatotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. ►Apoptosis plays a vital role in Dasatinib

  11. Flavonoids as scavengers of nitric oxide radical.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Acker, S.A.B.E.; Tromp, M.N.J.L.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; van der Vijgh, W.J.F.; Bast, A.

    1995-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of naturally occurring compounds used, e.g., in the treatment of vascular endothelial damage. They are known to be excellent scavengers of oxygen free radicals. Since the nitric oxide radical (

  12. Interactions between cytokines and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, F Y

    1995-01-01

    There is now an impressive range of evidence supporting the important role of cytokines in sleep regulation (see Krueger et al., 1995; De Simoni et al., 1995). It has also been reported that inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis suppresses sleep in rabbits (Kapás et al., 1994). This is not surprising, since NO is closely involved in neurotransmission (Garthwaite, 1991; Schuman and Madison, 1994) and cytokines are the major inducers of NO synthesis (Hibbs et al., 1990). Further, it is now clear that NO plays an important role in modulating immune responses, possibly through the differential regulation of cytokine synthesis (Taylor-Robinson et al., 1994). In this article, I will provide evidence for the interactions between cytokines and nitric oxide, and discuss their implications in the regulation of immune responses. I shall illustrate these mainly with results from my coworkers and I, from our laboratory rather than attempting an exhaustive review of the subject.

  13. Vascular nitric oxide: Beyond eNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzi Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the first discovered gaseous signaling molecule, nitric oxide (NO affects a number of cellular processes, including those involving vascular cells. This brief review summarizes the contribution of NO to the regulation of vascular tone and its sources in the blood vessel wall. NO regulates the degree of contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells mainly by stimulating soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC to produce cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP, although cGMP-independent signaling [S-nitrosylation of target proteins, activation of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA or production of cyclic inosine monophosphate (cIMP] also can be involved. In the blood vessel wall, NO is produced mainly from l-arginine by the enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS but it can also be released non-enzymatically from S-nitrosothiols or from nitrate/nitrite. Dysfunction in the production and/or the bioavailability of NO characterizes endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis.

  14. Adrenoceptor-activated nitric oxide synthesis in salivary acinar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Looms, Dagnia; Dissing, Steen; Tritsaris, Katerina

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the cellular regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in isolated acinar cells from rat parotid and human labial salivary glands, using the newly developed fluorescent nitric oxide (NO) indicator, DAF-2. We found that sympathetic stimulation with norepinephrine (NE) caused...... a strong increase in NO synthesis that was not seen after parasympathetic stimulation with acetylcholine. In rat parotid acinar cells, we furthermore investigated to which extent the NOS activity was dependent on the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by simultaneously measuring NO synthesis...

  15. A nitric oxide donor (nitroglycerin) triggers genuine migraine attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L L; Kruuse, C; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    1994-01-01

    Supersensitivity to induction of headache and arterial dilatation by a donor of nitric oxide (nitroglycerin) has recently been demonstrated in migraine sufferers. The aims of the present study were to examine whether the nitric oxide donor nitroglycerin may induce a typical migraine attack......, to exclude placebo-related effects and to describe the relation between middle cerebral artery dilatation and provoked migraine. Nitroglycerin (0.5 μg/kg/min for 20 min) or placebo was infused into 12 migraine patients in a double-blind cross-over trial. Blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery...

  16. L-Arginine Increases Cytotoxicity in Irradiated Ehrlich Carcinoma Cell Line: Possible Potential Role of Nitric Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noaman, E.

    2008-01-01

    Cancer cells possess nitric oxide syntheses (NOS) which metabolize L-Arginine (L-Arg) for producing nitric oxide (NO) The present study investigates the relations between NO and ionizing radiation in the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell line. NOS activity was stimulated by exposure of cells to L-Arg just after irradiation. L-Arg (5 m M) supply led to an increase in ionizing radiation induced cytotoxicity (% of viability 18± 3 %) whereas, neither L-Arg itself nor ionizing irradiation caused cell death at the doses used in this study. Also, cells were treated either with L-Thio citrulline (L-Thio), an irreversible inhibitor of NOS or with exogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. L-Thio and SOD prevented L-Arg mediated deleterious effects on Irradiated cells, whereas catalase was ineffective. Intracellular antioxidant enzyme activity was also determined. Ionizing radiation + L-Arg stress altered the activity of catalase (66 % decrease) and glutathione peroxidase (83 % decrease). Our findings demonstrated that L-Arg induces increase the radiation-mediated deleterious effects in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells cytotoxicity and that the ratio NO/ O 2 plays a key role in these processes. NO could participate the deleterious effect of irradiation, in conjugation with others reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during the oxidation of intracellular components by ionizing radiation (dose 6 Gy)

  17. Reactive oxygen species regulated mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in PC12 cells exposed to chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Eun [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hyeon [Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, In Chul [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Hyun Chul, E-mail: hckoh@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-01

    Reactive oxidative species (ROS) generated by environmental toxicants including pesticides could be one of the factors underlying the neuronal cell damage in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we found that chlorpyrifos (CPF) induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neuronal components of PC12 cells as demonstrated by the activation of caspases and nuclear condensation. Furthermore, CPF also reduced the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive immunoreactivity in substantia nigra of the rat. In addition, CPF induced inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity. Importantly, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) treatment effectively blocked apoptosis via the caspase-9 and caspase-3 pathways while NAC attenuated the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity as well as the oxidative metabolism of dopamine (DA). These results demonstrated that CPF-induced apoptosis was involved in mitochondrial dysfunction through the production of ROS. In the response of cellular antioxidant systems to CPF, we found that CPF treatment increased HO-1 expression while the expression of CuZnSOD and MnSOD was reduced. In addition, we found that CPF treatment activated MAPK pathways, including ERK 1/2, the JNK, and the p38 MAP kinase in a time-dependent manner. NAC treatment abolished MAPK phosphorylation caused by CPF, indicating that ROS are upstream signals of MAPK. Interestingly, MAPK inhibitors abolished cytotoxicity and reduced ROS generation by CPF treatment. Our results demonstrate that CPF induced neuronal cell death in part through MAPK activation via ROS generation, suggesting its potential to generate oxidative stress via mitochondrial damage and its involvement in oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative disease. -- Highlights: ► Chlorpyrifos induces apoptosis. ► Chlorpyrifos inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity. ► ROS is involved in chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis. ► Chlorpyrifos affects cellular antioxidant systems. ► Chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis mediates activation of MAPK.

  18. Reactive oxygen species regulated mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in PC12 cells exposed to chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Eun; Park, Jae Hyeon; Shin, In Chul; Koh, Hyun Chul

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxidative species (ROS) generated by environmental toxicants including pesticides could be one of the factors underlying the neuronal cell damage in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we found that chlorpyrifos (CPF) induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neuronal components of PC12 cells as demonstrated by the activation of caspases and nuclear condensation. Furthermore, CPF also reduced the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive immunoreactivity in substantia nigra of the rat. In addition, CPF induced inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity. Importantly, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) treatment effectively blocked apoptosis via the caspase-9 and caspase-3 pathways while NAC attenuated the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity as well as the oxidative metabolism of dopamine (DA). These results demonstrated that CPF-induced apoptosis was involved in mitochondrial dysfunction through the production of ROS. In the response of cellular antioxidant systems to CPF, we found that CPF treatment increased HO-1 expression while the expression of CuZnSOD and MnSOD was reduced. In addition, we found that CPF treatment activated MAPK pathways, including ERK 1/2, the JNK, and the p38 MAP kinase in a time-dependent manner. NAC treatment abolished MAPK phosphorylation caused by CPF, indicating that ROS are upstream signals of MAPK. Interestingly, MAPK inhibitors abolished cytotoxicity and reduced ROS generation by CPF treatment. Our results demonstrate that CPF induced neuronal cell death in part through MAPK activation via ROS generation, suggesting its potential to generate oxidative stress via mitochondrial damage and its involvement in oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative disease. -- Highlights: ► Chlorpyrifos induces apoptosis. ► Chlorpyrifos inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity. ► ROS is involved in chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis. ► Chlorpyrifos affects cellular antioxidant systems. ► Chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis mediates activation of MAPK.

  19. Chemical kinetic models for combustion of hydrocarbons and formation of nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachimowski, C. J.; Wilson, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides NOx during combustion of methane, propane, and a jet fuel, JP-4, was investigated in a jet stirred combustor. The results of the experiments were interpreted using reaction models in which the nitric oxide (NO) forming reactions were coupled to the appropriate hydrocarbon combustion reaction mechanisms. Comparison between the experimental data and the model predictions reveals that the CH + N2 reaction process has a significant effect on NO formation especially in stoichiometric and fuel rich mixtures. Reaction models were assembled that predicted nitric oxide levels that were in reasonable agreement with the jet stirred combustor data and with data obtained from a high pressure (5.9 atm (0.6 MPa)), prevaporized, premixed, flame tube type combustor. The results also suggested that the behavior of hydrocarbon mixtures, like JP-4, may not be significantly different from that of pure hydrocarbons. Application of the propane combustion and nitric oxide formation model to the analysis of NOx emission data reported for various aircraft gas turbines showed the contribution of the various nitric oxide forming processes to the total NOx formed.

  20. Requirement of the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway for IL-1-induced osteoclastic bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van't Hof, R J; Armour, K J; Smith, L M; Armour, K E; Wei, X Q; Liew, F Y; Ralston, S H

    2000-07-05

    Nitric oxide has been suggested to be involved in the regulation of bone turnover, especially in pathological conditions characterized by release of bone-resorbing cytokines. The cytokine IL-1 is thought to act as a mediator of periarticular bone loss and tissue damage in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. IL-1 is a potent stimulator of both osteoclastic bone resorption and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in bone cells and other cell types. In this study, we investigated the role that the iNOS pathway plays in mediating the bone-resorbing effects of IL-1 by studying mice with targeted disruption of the iNOS gene. Studies in vitro and in vivo showed that iNOS-deficient mice exhibited profound defects of IL-1-induced osteoclastic bone resorption but responded normally to calciotropic hormones such as 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 and parathyroid hormone. Immunohistochemical studies and electrophoretic mobility shift assays performed on bone marrow cocultures from iNOS-deficient mice showed abnormalities in IL-1-induced nuclear translocation of the p65 component of NFkappaB and in NFkappaB-DNA binding, which were reversed by treatment with the NO donor S-nitroso-acetyl penicillamine. These results show that the iNOS pathway is essential for IL-1-induced bone resorption and suggest that the effects of NO may be mediated by modulating IL-1-induced nuclear activation of NFkappaB in osteoclast precursors.

  1. Requirement of the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway for IL-1-induced osteoclastic bone resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    van't Hof, R. J.; Armour, K. J.; Smith, L. M.; Armour, K. E.; Wei, X. Q.; Liew, F. Y.; Ralston, S. H.

    2000-01-01

    Nitric oxide has been suggested to be involved in the regulation of bone turnover, especially in pathological conditions characterized by release of bone-resorbing cytokines. The cytokine IL-1 is thought to act as a mediator of periarticular bone loss and tissue damage in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. IL-1 is a potent stimulator of both osteoclastic bone resorption and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in bone cells and other cell types. In this study, we investigated the role that the iNOS pathway plays in mediating the bone-resorbing effects of IL-1 by studying mice with targeted disruption of the iNOS gene. Studies in vitro and in vivo showed that iNOS-deficient mice exhibited profound defects of IL-1-induced osteoclastic bone resorption but responded normally to calciotropic hormones such as 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 and parathyroid hormone. Immunohistochemical studies and electrophoretic mobility shift assays performed on bone marrow cocultures from iNOS-deficient mice showed abnormalities in IL-1-induced nuclear translocation of the p65 component of NFκB and in NFκB-DNA binding, which were reversed by treatment with the NO donor S-nitroso-acetyl penicillamine. These results show that the iNOS pathway is essential for IL-1-induced bone resorption and suggest that the effects of NO may be mediated by modulating IL-1-induced nuclear activation of NFκB in osteoclast precursors. PMID:10869429

  2. The myth of nitric oxide in central cardiovascular control by the nucleus tractus solitarii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talman W.T.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence suggests that nitroxidergic mechanisms in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS participate in cardiovascular reflex control. Much of that evidence, being based on responses to nitric oxide precursors or inhibitors of nitric oxide synthesis, has been indirect and circumstantial. We sought to directly determine cardiovascular responses to nitric oxide donors microinjected into the NTS and to determine if traditional receptor mechanisms might account for responses to certain of these donors in the central nervous system. Anesthetized adult Sprague Dawley rats that were instrumented for recording arterial pressure and heart rate were used in the physiological studies. Microinjection of nitric oxide itself into the NTS did not produce any cardiovascular responses and injection of sodium nitroprusside elicited minimal depressor responses. The S-nitrosothiols, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, S-nitrosoacetylpenicillamine (SNAP, and S-nitroso-D-cysteine (D-SNC produced no significant cardiovascular responses while injection of S-nitroso-L-cysteine (L-SNC elicited brisk, dose-dependent depressor and bradycardic responses. In contrast, injection of glyceryl trinitrate elicited minimal pressor responses without associated changes in heart rate. It is unlikely that the responses to L-SNC were dependent on release of nitric oxide in that 1 the responses were not affected by injection of oxyhemoglobin or an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis prior to injection of L-SNC and 2 L- and D-SNC released identical amounts of nitric oxide when exposed to brain tissue homogenates. Although GSNO did not independently affect blood pressure, its injection attenuated responses to subsequent injection of L-SNC. Furthermore, radioligand binding studies suggested that in rat brain synaptosomes there is a saturable binding site for GSNO that is displaced from that site by L-SNC. The studies suggest that S-nitrosocysteine, not nitric oxide, may be an

  3. Comparison Between the Acute Pulmonary Vascular Effects of Oxygen with Nitric Oxide and Sildenafil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Day

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Right heart catheterization is performed in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension to determine the severity of disease and their pulmonary vascular reactivity. The acute pulmonary vascular effect of inhaled nitric oxide is frequently used to identify patients who will respond favorably to vasodilator therapy. This study sought to determine whether the acute pulmonary vascular effects of oxygen with nitric oxide and intravenous sildenafil are similar. Methods. A retrospective, descriptive study of 13 individuals with pulmonary hypertension who underwent heart catheterization and acute vasodilator testing was performed. The hemodynamic measurements during five phases (21% to 53% oxygen, 100% oxygen, 100% oxygen with 20 ppm nitric oxide, 21% to 51% oxygen, and 21% to 51% oxygen with 0.05 mg/kg to 0.29 mg/kg intravenous sildenafil of the procedures were compared.Results. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance acutely decreased with 100% oxygen with nitric oxide, and 21% to 51% oxygen with sildenafil. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mm Hg, mean ± standard error of the mean was 38 ± 4 during 21% to 53% oxygen, 32 ± 3 during 100% oxygen, 29 ± 2 during 100% oxygen with nitric oxide, 37 ± 3 during 21% to 51% oxygen, and 32 ± 2 during 21% to 51% oxygen with sildenafil. There was not a significant correlation between the percent change in pulmonary vascular resistance from baseline with oxygen and nitric oxide, and from baseline with sildenafil (r2 = 0.011, p = 0.738. Conclusions. Oxygen with nitric oxide and sildenafil decreased pulmonary vascular resistance. However, the pulmonary vascular effects of oxygen and nitric oxide cannot be used to predict the acute response to sildenafil. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the acute response to sildenafil can be used to predict the long-term response to treatment with an oral phosphodiesterase V inhibitor.

  4. Nitric oxide protects the mitochondria of anterior pituitary cells and prevents cadmium-induced cell death by reducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliandri, Ariel H B; Machiavelli, Leticia I; Quinteros, Alnilan F; Cabilla, Jimena P; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

    2006-02-15

    Cadmium (Cd2+) is a highly toxic metal that affects the endocrine system. We have previously shown that Cd2+ induces caspase-3 activation and apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells and that endogenous nitric oxide (NO) protects these cells from Cd2+. Here we investigate the mechanisms by which NO exerts this protective role. Cd2+ (25 microM) reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) as measured by flow cytometry. Cd2+-induced apoptosis was mitochondrial dependent since cyclosporin A protected the cells from this metal. Inhibition of NO synthesis with 0.5 mM L-NAME increased the effect of Cd2+ on MMP, whereas the NO donor DETANONOate (0.1 mM) reduced it. Cd2+ increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as measured by flow cytometry. This effect was electron-transfer-chain-dependent since it was inhibited by rotenone. In fact, rotenone reduced the cytotoxic effect of the metal. The action of Cd2+ on mitochondrial integrity was ROS dependent. Trolox, an antioxidant, inhibited the effect of the metal on the MMP. Cd2+-induced increase in ROS generation was reduced by DETANONOate. There are discrepancies concerning the role of NO in Cd2+ toxicity. Here we show that NO reduces Cd2+ toxicity by protecting the mitochondria from oxidative stress in a system where NO plays a regulatory role.

  5. Glia Maturation Factor Dependent Inhibition of Mitochondrial PGC-1α Triggers Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis in N27 Rat Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, Govindhasamy Pushpavathi; Iyer, Shankar S; Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Raju, Murugesan; Thangavel, Ramasamy; Saeed, Daniyal; Ahmed, Mohammad Ejaz; Zahoor, Harris; Raikwar, Sudhanshu P; Zaheer, Smita; Zaheer, Asgar

    2018-01-30

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting over five million individuals worldwide. The exact molecular events underlying PD pathogenesis are still not clearly known. Glia maturation factor (GMF), a neuroinflammatory protein in the brain plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PD. Mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress trigger apoptosis leading to dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in PD. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α or PPARGC-α) acts as a transcriptional co-regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism by controlling oxidative phosphorylation, antioxidant activity, and autophagy. In this study, we found that incubation of immortalized rat dopaminergic (N27) neurons with GMF influences the expression of peroxisome PGC-1α and increases oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptotic cell death. We show that incubation with GMF reduces the expression of PGC-1α with concomitant decreases in the mitochondrial complexes. Besides, there is increased oxidative stress and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in these cells. Further, GMF reduces tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and shifts Bax/Bcl-2 expression resulting in release of cytochrome-c and increased activations of effector caspase expressions. Transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed alteration in the mitochondrial architecture. Our results show that GMF acts as an important upstream regulator of PGC-1α in promoting dopaminergic neuronal death through its effect on oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis. Our current data suggest that GMF is a critical risk factor for PD and suggest that it could be explored as a potential therapeutic target to inhibit PD progression.

  6. Glufosinate ammonium stimulates nitric oxide production through N-methyl D-aspartate receptors in rat cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaki, T; Mishima, A; Suzuki, E; Shintani, F; Fujii, T

    2000-09-01

    Glufosinate ammonium, a structural analogue of glutamate, is an active herbicidal ingredient. The neuronal activities of this compound were investigated by use of a microdialysis system that allowed us to measure nitric oxide production in the rat cerebellum in vivo. Kainate (0.3-30 nmol/10 microliter), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) (3-300 nmol/10 microliter) and glufosinate ammonium (30-3000 nmol/10 microliter), which were administered through the microdialysis probe at a rate of 1 microliter/min for 10 min, stimulated nitric oxide production. The glufosinate ammonium-elicited increase in nitric oxide production was suppressed by an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and was antagonized by NMDA receptor antagonists, but not by a kainate/(+/-)-alphaamino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor antagonist. These results suggest that glufosinate ammonium stimulates nitric oxide production through NMDA receptors.

  7. Statin-induced inhibition of breast cancer proliferation and invasion involves attenuation of iron transport: intermediacy of nitric oxide and antioxidant defence mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanugula, Anantha Koteswararao; Gollavilli, Paradesi Naidu; Vasamsetti, Sathish Babu; Karnewar, Santosh; Gopoju, Raja; Ummanni, Ramesh; Kotamraju, Srigiridhar

    2014-08-01

    Accumulating evidence from in vitro, in vivo, clinical and epidemiological studies shows promising results for the use of statins against many cancers including breast carcinoma. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-proliferative and anti-invasive properties of statins still remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the involvement of nitric oxide, iron homeostasis and antioxidant defence mechanisms in mediating the anti-proliferative and anti-invasive properties of hydrophobic statins in MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453 and BT-549 metastatic triple negative breast cancer cells. Fluvastatin and simvastatin significantly increased cytotoxicity which was reversed with mevalonate. Interestingly, fluvastatin downregulated transferrin receptor (TfR1), with a concomitant depletion of intracellular iron levels in these cells. Statin-induced effects were mimicked by geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor (GGTI-298) but not farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI-277). Further, it was observed that TfR1 downregulation is mediated by increased nitric oxide levels via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. NOS inhibitors (asymmetric dimethylarginine and 1400W) counteracted and sepiapterin, a precursor of tetrahydrobiopterin, exacerbated statin-induced depletion of intracellular iron levels. Notably, fluvastatin increased manganese superoxide dismutase (by repressing the transcription factor DNA damage-binding protein 2), catalase and glutathione which, in turn, diminished H2 O2 levels. Fluvastatin-induced downregulation of TfR1, matrix metalloproteinase-2, -9 and inhibition of invasion were reversed in the presence of aminotriazole, a specific inhibitor of catalase. Finally, we conclude that fluvastatin, by altering iron homeostasis, nitric oxide generation and antioxidant defence mechanisms, induces triple negative breast cancer cell death. © 2014 FEBS.

  8. A redox-based mechanism for the neuroprotective and neurodestructive effects of nitric oxide and related nitroso-compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, S A; Choi, Y B; Pan, Z H; Lei, S Z; Chen, H S; Sucher, N J; Loscalzo, J; Singel, D J; Stamler, J S

    1993-08-12

    Congeners of nitrogen monoxide (NO) are neuroprotective and neurodestructive. To address this apparent paradox, we considered the effects on neurons of compounds characterized by alternative redox states of NO: nitric oxide (NO.) and nitrosonium ion (NO+). Nitric oxide, generated from NO. donors or synthesized endogenously after NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor activation, can lead to neurotoxicity. Here, we report that NO.- mediated neurotoxicity is engendered, at least in part, by reaction with superoxide anion (O2.-), apparently leading to formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO-), and not by NO. alone. In contrast, the neuroprotective effects of NO result from downregulation of NMDA-receptor activity by reaction with thiol group(s) of the receptor's redox modulatory site. This reaction is not mediated by NO. itself, but occurs under conditions supporting S-nitrosylation of NMDA receptor thiol (reaction or transfer of NO+). Moreover, the redox versatility of NO allows for its interconversion from neuroprotective to neurotoxic species by a change in the ambient redox milieu. The details of this complex redox chemistry of NO may provide a mechanism for harnessing neuroprotective effects and avoiding neurotoxicity in the central nervous system.

  9. Gaseous Mediators Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Sulfide in the Mechanism of Gastrointestinal Integrity, Protection and Ulcer Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Magierowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO and hydrogen sulfide (H2S are known as biological messengers; they play an important role in human organism and contribute to many physiological and pathophysiological processes. NO is produced from l-arginine by constitutive NO synthase (NOS and inducible NOS enzymatic pathways. This gaseous mediator inhibits platelet aggregation, leukocyte adhesion and contributes to the vessel homeostasis. NO is known as a vasodilatory molecule involved in control of the gastric blood flow (GBF and the maintenance of gastric mucosal barrier integrity in either healthy gastric mucosa or that damaged by strong irritants. Biosynthesis of H2S in mammals depends upon two enzymes cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase. This gaseous mediator, similarly to NO and carbon monoxide, is involved in neuromodulation, vascular contractility and anti-inflammatory activities. For decades, H2S has been known to inhibit cytochrome c oxidase and reduce cell energy production. Nowadays it is generally considered to act through vascular smooth muscle ATP-dependent K+ channels, interacting with intracellular transcription factors and promote sulfhydration of protein cysteine moieties within the cell, but the mechanism of potential gastroprotective and ulcer healing properties of H2S has not been fully explained. The aim of this review is to compare current results of the studies concerning the role of H2S and NO in gastric mucosa protection and outline areas that may pose new opportunities for further development of novel therapeutic targets.

  10. Enteric Glia Mediate Neuron Death in Colitis Through Purinergic Pathways That Require Connexin-43 and Nitric OxideSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isola A.M. Brown

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: The concept of enteric glia as regulators of intestinal homeostasis is slowly gaining acceptance as a central concept in neurogastroenterology. Yet how glia contribute to intestinal disease is still poorly understood. Purines generated during inflammation drive enteric neuron death by activating neuronal P2X7 purine receptors (P2X7R; triggering adenosine triphosphate (ATP release via neuronal pannexin-1 channels that subsequently recruits intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i in surrounding enteric glia. We tested the hypothesis that the activation of enteric glia contributes to neuron death during inflammation. Methods: We studied neuroinflammation in vivo using the 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid model of colitis and in situ using whole-mount preparations of human and mouse intestine. Transgenic mice with a targeted deletion of glial connexin-43 (Cx43 [GFAP::CreERT2+/−/Cx43f/f] were used to specifically disrupt glial signaling pathways. Mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide (NO synthase (iNOS−/− were used to study NO production. Protein expression and oxidative stress were measured using immunohistochemistry and in situ Ca2+ and NO imaging were used to monitor glial [Ca2+]i and [NO]i. Results: Purinergic activation of enteric glia drove [Ca2+]i responses and enteric neuron death through a Cx43-dependent mechanism. Neurotoxic Cx43 activity, driven by NO production from glial iNOS, was required for neuron death. Glial Cx43 opening liberated ATP and Cx43-dependent ATP release was potentiated by NO. Conclusions: Our results show that the activation of glial cells in the context of neuroinflammation kills enteric neurons. Mediators of inflammation that include ATP and NO activate neurotoxic pathways that converge on glial Cx43 hemichannels. The glial response to inflammatory mediators might contribute to the development of motility disorders. Keywords: Enteric Nervous System, Hemichannels

  11. Rat duodenal motility in vitro: Prokinetic effects of DL-homocysteine thiolactone and modulation of nitric oxide mediated inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Homocysteine is a significant but modifiable risk factor for vascular diseases. As gastrointestinal smooth musculature is similar to blood vessel muscles, we investigated how elevated homocysteine levels affect nitric oxide-mediated neurotransmission in the gut. There is accumulated evidence that a dysfunction of NO neurons in the myenteric plexus may cause various diseases in the gastrointestinal tract such as achalasia, diabetic gastroparesis and infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. In the present study, we aimed to assess the effects of homocysteine on NO-mediated responses in vitro, and to examine the effects of DL-homocysteine thiolactone on the spontaneous motility of rat duodenum and nitrergic neurotransmission. DL-homocysteine thiolactone concentration of 10 μmol/L leads to the immediate increase in tone, amplitude and frequency of spontaneous movements in isolated rat duodenum. L-NAME (30 μmol/L leads to an increase in basal tone, amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions. The relaxations induced by EFS were significantly reduced in duodenal segments incubated in DL-homocysteine thiolactone compared with the control group. EFS-induced relaxations were inhibited by L-NAME in both experimental and control groups. These results suggest that a high level of homocysteine causes an important impairment of non-adrenergic non-cholinergic innervation of the rat duodenum. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175043

  12. Novel piplartine-containing ruthenium complexes: synthesis, cell growth inhibition, apoptosis induction and ROS production on HCT116 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Sousa Costa, Cinara O; Araujo Neto, João H; Baliza, Ingrid R S; Dias, Rosane B; Valverde, Ludmila de F; Vidal, Manuela T A; Sales, Caroline B S; Rocha, Clarissa A G; Moreira, Diogo R M; Soares, Milena B P; Batista, Alzir A; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2017-11-28

    Piplartine (piperlongumine) is a plant-derived molecule that has been receiving intense interest due to its anticancer characteristics that target the oxidative stress. In the present paper, two novel piplartine-containing ruthenium complexes [Ru(piplartine)(dppf)(bipy)](PF 6 ) 2 (1) and [Ru(piplartine)(dppb)(bipy)](PF 6 ) 2 (2) were synthesized and investigated for their cellular and molecular responses on cancer cell lines. We found that both complexes are more potent than metal-free piplartine in a panel of cancer cell lines on monolayer cultures, as well in 3D model of cancer multicellular spheroids formed from human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. Mechanistic studies uncovered that the complexes reduced the cell growth and caused phosphatidylserine externalization, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation and loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential on HCT116 cells. Moreover, the pre-treatment with Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor, reduced the complexes-induced apoptosis, indicating cell death by apoptosis through caspase-dependent and mitochondrial intrinsic pathways. Treatment with the complexes also caused a marked increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and nitric oxide, and decreased reduced glutathione levels. Application of N-acetyl-cysteine, an antioxidant, reduced the ROS levels and apoptosis induced by the complexes, indicating activation of ROS-mediated apoptosis pathway. RNA transcripts of several genes, including gene related to the cell cycle, apoptosis and oxidative stress, were regulated under treatment. However, the complexes failed to induce DNA intercalation. In conclusion, the complexes are more potent than piplartine against different cancer cell lines and are able to induce caspase-dependent and mitochondrial intrinsic apoptosis on HCT116 cells by ROS-mediated pathway.

  13. Estimation of nitric oxide as an inflammatory marker in periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menaka K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is not only important in host defense and homeostasis but it is also regarded as harmful and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The presence of NO in periodontal disease may reflect the participation of an additional mediator of bone resorption responsible for disease progression. The aim of this study was to assess the level of NO in serum in chronic periodontitis, and correlate these levels with the severity of periodontal disease. Sixty subjects participated in the study and were divided into two groups. NO levels were assayed by measuring the accumulation of stable oxidative metabolite, nitrite with Griess reaction. Results showed subjects with periodontitis had significantly high nitrite in serum than healthy subjects. NO production is increased in periodontal disease, this will enable us to understand its role in disease progression and selective inhibition of NO may be of therapeutic utility in limiting the progression of periodontitis.

  14. Increase of hepatic nitric oxide levels in a nutritional model of fatty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC), and also nitric oxide (NO) in over fed broiler breeder hens, 198 hens. (30 weeks old) .... The total protein in the liver tissue was determined by a method ... Table 1. Egg production and LHS in broiler breeder hens .... trations of nitric oxide metabolites (nitrates-nitrites) in rat.

  15. Combined inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandins reduces human skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, Henning; Gemmer, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The vascular endothelium is an important mediator of tissue vasodilatation, yet the role of the specific substances, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PG), in mediating the large increases in muscle perfusion during exercise in humans is unclear. Quadriceps microvascular blood flow......, respectively (P exercise in humans. These findings demonstrate an important synergistic role of NO and PG for skeletal muscle vasodilatation and hyperaemia during muscular contraction....... was quantified by near infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green in six healthy humans during dynamic knee extension exercise with and without combined pharmacological inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) and PG by L-NAME and indomethacin, respectively. Microdialysis was applied to determine interstitial release...

  16. Modulation of cholinergic airway reactivity and nitric oxide production by endogenous arginase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurs, Herman; Hamer, M.A M; Pethe, S; Vadon-Le Goff, S; Boucher, J.-L; Zaagsma, Hans

    1 Cholinergic airway constriction is functionally antagonized by agonist-induced constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS)-derived nitric oxide (NO). Since cNOS and arginase, which hydrolyzes L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea, use L-arginine as a common substrate, competition between both enzymes

  17. Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation of organic waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.A.; Smith, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    A wet chemical oxidation technology has been developed to address issues facing defense-related facilities, private industry, and small-volume generators such as university and medical laboratories. Initially tested to destroy and decontaminate a heterogenous mixture of radioactive-contaminated solid waste, the technology can also remediate other hazardous waste forms. The process, unique to Savannah River, offers a valuable alternative to incineration and other high-temperature or high-pressure oxidation processes. The process uses nitric acid in phosphoric acid; phosphoric acid allows nitric acid to be retained in solution well above its normal boiling point. The reaction converts organics to carbon dioxide and water, and generates NO x vapors which can be recycled using air and water. Oxidation is complete in one to three hours. In previous studies, many organic compounds were completely oxidized, within experimental error, at atmospheric pressure below 180 degrees C; more stable compounds were decomposed at 200 degrees C and 170 kPa. Recent studies have evaluated processing parameters and potential throughputs for three primary compounds: EDTA, polyethylene, and cellulose. The study of polyvinylchloride oxidation is incomplete at this time

  18. Nitric oxide levels in the anterior chamber of vitrectomized eyes with silicon oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Escarião

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the nitric oxide levels in the anterior chamber of eyes who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with silicone oil. METHODS: Patients who underwent PPV with silicon oil injection, from february 2005 to august 2007, were selected. Nine patients (nine eyes participated in the study (five women and four men. Nitric oxide concentration was quantified after the aspiration of aqueous humor samples during the procedure of silicon oil removal. Data such as: oil emulsification; presence of oil in the anterior chamber; intraocular pressure and time with silicone oil were evaluated. Values of p <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: A positive correlation between nitric oxide concentration and time with silicon oil in the vitreous cavity (r=0.799 was observed. The nitric oxide concentration was significantly higher (p=0.02 in patients with silicon oil more than 24 months (0.90µmol/ml ± 0.59, n=3 in the vitreous cavity comparing to patients with less than 24 months (0.19µmol/ml ± 0.10, n=6. CONCLUSION: A positive correlation linking silicone oil time in the vitreous cavity with the nitric oxide concentration in the anterior chamber was observed.

  19. Carboxyhemoglobin formation secondary to nitric oxide therapy in the setting of interstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruisi, Phillip; Ruisi, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has been widely recognized as an exogenous poison, although endogenous mechanisms for its formation involve heme-oxygenase (HO) isoforms, more specifically HO-1, in the setting of oxidative stress such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, trauma, and nitric oxide use have been studied. In patients with refractory hypoxemia, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) therapy is used to selectively vasodilate the pulmonary vasculature and improve ventilation-perfusion match. Inhaled nitric oxide is rapidly inactivated on binding to hemoglobin in the formation of nitrosyl- and methemoglobin in the pulmonary vasculature. Hence, inhaled nitric oxide has minimal systemic dissemination. Several experimental design studies involving lab rats have demonstrated increased levels of carboxyhemoglobin and exhaled CO as a result of nitric oxide HO-1 induction.

  20. Role of inducible nitric oxide synthase-derived nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-γ-induced pulmonary inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeidler, Patti C.; Millecchia, Lyndell M.; Castranova, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    Exposure of mice to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-γ (IFN-γ) increases nitric oxide (NO) production, which is proposed to play a role in the resulting pulmonary damage and inflammation. To determine the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-induced NO in this lung reaction, the responses of inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout (iNOS KO) versus C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice to aspirated LPS + IFN-γ were compared. Male mice (8-10 weeks) were exposed to LPS (1.2 mg/kg) + IFN-γ (5000 U/mouse) or saline. At 24 or 72 h postexposure, lungs were lavaged with saline and the acellular fluid from the first bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, albumin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). The cellular fraction of the total BAL was used to determine alveolar macrophage (AM) and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) counts, and AM zymosan-stimulated chemiluminescence (AM-CL). Pulmonary responses 24 h postexposure to LPS + IFN-γ were characterized by significantly decreased TAC, increased BAL AMs and PMNs, LDH, albumin, TNF-α, and MIP-2, and enhanced AM-CL to the same extent in both WT and iNOS KO mice. Responses 72 h postexposure were similar; however, significant differences were found between WT and iNOS KO mice. iNOS KO mice demonstrated a greater decline in total antioxidant capacity, greater BAL PMNs, LDH, albumin, TNF-α, and MIP-2, and an enhanced AM-CL compared to the WT. These data suggest that the role of iNOS-derived NO in the pulmonary response to LPS + IFN-γ is anti-inflammatory, and this becomes evident over time

  1. Enhancement of vascular targeting by inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Peter D.; Tozer, Gillian M.; Naylor, Matthew A.; Thomson, Peter; Lewis, Gemma; Hill, Sally A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the enhancement of the vascular targeting activity of the tubulin-binding agent combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) by various inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases. Methods and Materials: The syngeneic tumors CaNT and SaS growing in CBA mice were used for this study. Reduction in perfused vascular volume was measured by injection of Hoechst 33342 24 h after drug administration. Necrosis (hematoxylin and eosin stain) was assessed also at 24 h after treatment. Combretastatin A4 phosphate was synthesized by a modification of the published procedure and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors L-NNA, L-NMMA, L-NIO, L-NIL, S-MTC, S-EIT, AMP, AMT, and L-TC, obtained from commercial sources. Results: A statistically significant augmentation of the reduction in perfused vascular volume by CA4P in the CaNT tumor was observed with L-NNA, AMP, and AMT. An increase in CA4P-induced necrosis in the same tumor achieved significance with L-NNA, L-NMMA, L-NIL, and AMT. CA4P induced little necrosis in the SaS tumor, but combination with the inhibitors L-NNA, L-NMMA, L-NIO, S-EIT, and L-TC was effective. Conclusions: Augmentation of CA4P activity by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors of different structural classes supports a nitric oxide-related mechanism for this effect. L-NNA was the most effective inhibitor studied

  2. Processes regulating nitric oxide emissions from soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kim

    2013-01-01

    , the net result is complex and dependent on several factors such as nitrogen availability, organic matter content, oxygen status, soil moisture, pH and temperature. This paper reviews recent knowledge on processes forming NO in soils and the factors controlling its emission to the atmosphere. Schemes......Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive gas that plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry by influencing the production and destruction of ozone and thereby the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. NO also contributes by its oxidation products to the formation of acid rain. The major sources...

  3. Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation of solid and liquid organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.A.; Smith, J.R.; Poprik, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation has been developed specifically to address issues that face the Savannah River Site, other defense-related facilities, private industry, and small-volume generators such as university and medical laboratories. Initially tested to destroy and decontaminate SRS solid, Pu-contaminated job-control waste, the technology has also exhibited potential for remediating hazardous and mixed-hazardous waste forms. The process is unique to Savannah River and offers a valuable alternative to other oxidation processes that require extreme temperatures and/or elevated pressures. To address the broad categories of waste, many different organic compounds which represent a cross-section of the waste that must be treated have been successfully oxidized. Materials that have been quantitatively oxidized at atmospheric pressure below 180 degrees C include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, tributylphosphate, and nitromethane. More stable compounds such as benzoic acid, polyethylene, oils, and resins have been completely decomposed below 200 degrees C and 10 psig. The process uses dilute nitric acid in a concentrated phosphoric acid media as the main oxidant for the organic compounds. Phosphoric acid allow nitric acid to be retained in solution well above its normal boiling point. The reaction forms NOx vapors which can be reoxidized and recycled using air and water. The addition of 0.001M Pd(II) reduces CO generation to near 1% of the released carbon gases. The advantages of this process are that it is straightforward, uses relatively inexpensive reagents, operates at relatively low temperature and pressure, and produces final solutions which are compatible with stainless steel equipment. For organic wastes, all carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen are converted to gaseous products. If interfaced with an acid recovery system which converts NOx back to nitric acid, the net oxidizer would be oxygen from air

  4. [Ultrasound induced the formation of nitric oxide and nitrosonium ions in water and aqueous solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepuro, I I; Adamchuk, R I; Stepuro, V I

    2004-01-01

    Nitric oxide, nitrosonium ions, nitrites, and nitrates are formed in water saturated with air under the action of ultrasound. Nitrosonium ions react with water and hydrogen peroxide to form nitrites and nitrates in sonicated solution, correspondingly. Nitric oxide is practically completely released from sonicated water into the atmosphere and reacts with air oxygen, forming NOx compounds. The oxidation of nitric oxide in aqueous medium by hydroxyl radicals and dissolved oxygen is a minor route of the formation of nitrites and nitrates in ultrasonic field.

  5. Sensing nitric oxide with a carbon nanofiber paste electrode modified with a CTAB and nafion composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Dongyun; Liu, Xiaojun; Zhu, Shanying; Cao, Huimin; Chen, Yaguang; Hu, Shengshui

    2015-01-01

    We describe an electrochemical sensor for nitric oxide that was obtained by modifying the surface of a nanofiber carbon paste microelectrode with a film composed of hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide and nafion. The modified microelectrode displays excellent catalytic activity in the electrochemical oxidation of nitric oxide. The mechanism was studied by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Under optimal conditions, the oxidation peak current at a working voltage of 0.75 V (vs. SCE) is related to the concentration of nitric oxide in the 2 nM to 0.2 mM range, and the detection limit is as low as 2 nM (at an S/N ratio of 3). The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of nitric oxide released from mouse hepatocytes. (author)

  6. Geoditin A Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis on Human Colon HT29 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Keung Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Geoditin A, an isomalabaricane triterpene isolated from the marine sponge Geodia japonica, has been demonstrated to dissipate mitochondrial membrane potential, activate caspase 3, decrease cytoplasmic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, and induce apoptosis of leukemia cells, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear [1]. In this study, we found fragmentation of Golgi structure, suppression of transferrin receptor expression, production of oxidants, and DNA fragmentation in human colon cancer HT29 cells after treatment with geoditin A for 24 h. This apoptosis was not abrogated by chelation of intracellular iron with salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH, but suppressed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a thiol antioxidant and GSH precursor, indicating that the cytotoxic effect of geoditin A is likely mediated by a NAC-inhibitable oxidative stress. Our results provide a better understanding of the apoptotic properties and chemotherapeutical potential of this marine triterpene.

  7. NOpiates: Novel Dual Action Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors with μ-Opioid Agonist Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renton, Paul; Green, Brenda; Maddaford, Shawn; Rakhit, Suman; Andrews, John S

    2012-03-08

    A novel series of benzimidazole designed multiple ligands (DMLs) with activity at the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) enzyme and the μ-opioid receptor was developed. Targeting of the structurally dissimilar heme-containing enzyme and the μ-opioid GPCR was predicated on the modulatory role of nitric oxide on μ-opioid receptor function. Structure-activity relationship studies yielded lead compound 24 with excellent nNOS inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.44 μM), selectivity over both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (10-fold) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (125-fold), and potent μ-opioid binding affinity, K i = 5.4 nM. The functional activity as measured in the cyclic adenosine monosphospate secondary messenger assay resulted in full agonist activity (EC50 = 0.34 μM). This work represents a novel approach in the development of new analgesics for the treatment of pain.

  8. Unexpected neuronal protection of SU5416 against 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-induced toxicity via inhibiting neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cui

    Full Text Available SU5416 was originally designed as a potent and selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2 for cancer therapy. In this study, we have found for the first time that SU5416 unexpectedly prevented 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+-induced neuronal apoptosis in cerebellar granule neurons, and decreased 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons and impairment of swimming behavior in zebrafish in a concentration-dependent manner. However, VEGFR-2 kinase inhibitor II, another specific VEGFR-2 inhibitor, failed to reverse neurotoxicity at the concentration exhibiting anti-angiogenic activity, strongly suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of SU5416 is independent from its anti-angiogenic action. SU5416 potently reversed MPP(+-increased intracellular nitric oxide level with an efficacy similar to 7-nitroindazole, a specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS inhibitor. Western blotting analysis showed that SU5416 reduced the elevation of nNOS protein expression induced by MPP(+. Furthermore, SU5416 directly inhibited the enzyme activity of rat cerebellum nNOS with an IC(50 value of 22.7 µM. In addition, knock-down of nNOS expression using short hairpin RNA (shRNA abolished the neuroprotective effects of SU5416 against MPP(+-induced neuronal loss. Our results strongly demonstrate that SU5416 might exert its unexpected neuroprotective effects by concurrently reducing nNOS protein expression and directly inhibiting nNOS enzyme activity. In view of the capability of SU5416 to cross the blood-brain barrier and the safety for human use, our findings further indicate that SU5416 might be a novel drug candidate for neurodegenerative disorders, particularly those associated with NO-mediated neurotoxicity.

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Relationship between endothelial nitric oxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    The haplotype analysis confirmed ... hand, no consistent association was shown between the two SNPs and SBP or. DBP. ... Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms and risk of MI .... type (-786T*+894G), the haplotypes ... Tests adjusted for age, BMI, diabetes, current smoking and alcohol consumption.

  10. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) is involved in key steps of immune response. Genetic factors predispose individuals to periodontal disease. This study's aim was to explore the association between NOS3 gene polymorphisms and clinical parameters in patients with periodontal disease. Genomic DNA was obtained ...

  11. Metformin Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest Mediated by Oxidative Stress, AMPK and FOXO3a in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Eveline A. I. F.; Puukila, Stephanie; Eichler, Rosangela; Sampaio, Sandra C.; Forsyth, Heidi L.; Lees, Simon J.; Barbosa, Aneli M.; Dekker, Robert F. H.; Fortes, Zuleica B.; Khaper, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the anti-diabetic drug, metformin, can exhibit direct antitumoral effects, or can indirectly decrease tumor proliferation by improving insulin sensitivity. Despite these recent advances, the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in decreasing tumor formation are not well understood. In this study, we examined the antiproliferative role and mechanism of action of metformin in MCF-7 cancer cells treated with 10 mM of metformin for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Using BrdU and the MTT assay, it was found that metformin demonstrated an antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 cells that occurred in a time- and concentration- dependent manner. Flow cytometry was used to analyze markers of cell cycle, apoptosis, necrosis and oxidative stress. Exposure to metformin induced cell cycle arrest in G0-G1 phase and increased cell apoptosis and necrosis, which were associated with increased oxidative stress. Gene and protein expression were determined in MCF-7 cells by real time RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. In MCF-7 cells metformin decreased the activation of IRβ, Akt and ERK1/2, increased p-AMPK, FOXO3a, p27, Bax and cleaved caspase-3, and decreased phosphorylation of p70S6K and Bcl-2 protein expression. Co-treatment with metformin and H2O2 increased oxidative stress which was associated with reduced cell number. In the presence of metformin, treating with SOD and catalase improved cell viability. Treatment with metformin resulted in an increase in p-p38 MAPK, catalase, MnSOD and Cu/Zn SOD protein expression. These results show that metformin has an antiproliferative effect associated with cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, which is mediated by oxidative stress, as well as AMPK and FOXO3a activation. Our study further reinforces the potential benefit of metformin in cancer treatment and provides novel mechanistic insight into its antiproliferative role. PMID:24858012

  12. Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene plant defense pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mur, Luis A J; Prats, Elena; Pierre, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    to be tailored to particular biotic stresses. Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a major signal influencing resistance mediated by both signalling pathways but no attempt has been made to integrate NO into established SA/JA/ET interactions. NO has been shown to act as an inducer or suppressor of signalling along......Plant defence against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defence responses...

  13. A novel nitric oxide-based anticancer therapeutics by macrophage-targeted poly(l-arginine)-based nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Shinpei; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2015-11-10

    In the immune system, macrophages in tumor tissue generate nitric oxide (NO), producing versatile effects including apoptosis of tumor cells, because inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the cytoplasm of a macrophage produces NO using l-arginine as a substrate. Here, we propose novel NO-triggered immune therapeutics based on our newly designed nanoparticle system. We designed a poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(l-arginine) (i.e., PEG-b-P(l-Arg)) block copolymer and prepared polyion complex micelles (PEG-b-P(l-Arg)/m) composed of PEG-b-P(l-Arg) and chondroitin sulfate for systemic anticancer immunotherapy. iNOS treatment of PEG-b-P(l-Arg) did not generate NO, but NO molecules were detected after trypsin pretreatment, indicating that hydrolysis of P(l-Arg) to monomeric arginine was taking place in vitro. RAW264.7 macrophages abundantly generated NO from the PEG-b-P(l-Arg)/m in comparison with control micelles; this finding is indicative of robustness of the proposed method. It is interesting to note that systemic administration of PEG-b-P(l-Arg)/m had no noticeable adverse effects and suppressed the tumor growth rate in C26 tumor-bearing mice in a dose-dependent manner. Our newly designed nanoparticle-assisted arginine delivery system seems to hold promise as an NO-mediated anticancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular basis for arsenic-Induced alteration in nitric oxide production and oxidative stress: implication of endothelial dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Yoshito; Pi Jingbo

    2004-01-01

    Accumulated epidemiological studies have suggested that prolonged exposure of humans to arsenic in drinking water is associated with vascular diseases. The exact mechanism of how this occurs currently unknown. Nitric oxide (NO), formed by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), plays a crucial role in the vascular system. Decreased availability of biologically active NO in the endothelium is implicated in the pathophysiology of several vascular diseases and inhibition of eNOS by arsenic is one of the proposed mechanism s for arsenic-induced vascular diseases. In addition, during exposure to arsenic, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can occur, resulting in oxidative stress, which is another major risk factor for vascular dysfunction. The molecular basis for decreased NO levels and increased oxidative stress during arsenic exposure is poorly understood. In this article, evidence for arsenic-mediated alteration in NO production and oxidative stress is reviewed. The results of a cross-sectional study in an endemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning and experimental animal studies to elucidate a potential mechanism for the impairment of NO formation and oxidative stress caused by prolonged exposure to arsenate in the drinking water are also reviewed

  15. The antidiabetic effect of L-carnitine in rats: the role of nitric oxide system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh Hajian-Shahri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, the use of L-carnitine in the treatment of diabetes is increasing. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of co-administration of L-arginine (precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide and nitro-L-arginine (nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor on antidiabetic activity of L-carnitine in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, 50 male rats weighing 180-201g were divided into five groups: (1 non diabetic control rats; (2 untreated diabetic rats; (3 diabetic rats treated with L-carnitine 300 mg/kg (4; diabetic rats treated with L-carnitine 300 mg/kg + L-arginine 300 mg/kg; and (5 diabetic rats treated with L-carnitine (300 mg/kg + nitro-L-arginine (1mg/kg. Type 1 diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 110 mg/kg body weight alloxan. After 30 days, liver malondialdehyde levels, lipid profile, serum glucose, and glycated hemoglobin serum levels were measured. Results: Blood glucose, liver enzymes, glycated hemoglobin, and liver malondialdehyde levels significantly decreased in diabetic rats treated with L-carnitine compared to the untreated diabetic group (P<0.05. The co-administration of L-arginine and L-carnitine led to a significant decrease in glycated hemoglobin levels and serum glucose, in a manner similar to the group received only L-carnitine. Also, L-arginine and nitro-l-arginine had similar effects on liver lipid peroxidation and serum biochemical parameters. Conclusion: The results suggest that the hypoglycemic effect of L-carnitine is mediated independently from nitric oxide pathways. The interaction between L-carnitine and L-arginine may not be synergistic. So, their combined administration is not recommended for the diabetic patients.

  16. Critical role of gap junction communication, calcium and nitric oxide signaling in bystander responses to focal photodynamic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calì, Bianca; Ceolin, Stefano; Ceriani, Federico; Bortolozzi, Mario; Agnellini, Andrielly H R; Zorzi, Veronica; Predonzani, Andrea; Bronte, Vincenzo; Molon, Barbara; Mammano, Fabio

    2015-04-30

    Ionizing and nonionizing radiation affect not only directly targeted cells but also surrounding "bystander" cells. The underlying mechanisms and therapeutic role of bystander responses remain incompletely defined. Here we show that photosentizer activation in a single cell triggers apoptosis in bystander cancer cells, which are electrically coupled by gap junction channels and support the propagation of a Ca2+ wave initiated in the irradiated cell. The latter also acts as source of nitric oxide (NO) that diffuses to bystander cells, in which NO levels are further increased by a mechanism compatible with Ca(2+)-dependent enzymatic production. We detected similar signals in tumors grown in dorsal skinfold chambers applied to live mice. Pharmacological blockade of connexin channels significantly reduced the extent of apoptosis in bystander cells, consistent with a critical role played by intercellular communication, Ca2+ and NO in the bystander effects triggered by photodynamic therapy.

  17. Beneficial effects of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) on acute doxorubicin cardiotoxicity in mice: Role of oxidative stress and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, Hitesh; Pandya, Gaurav; Patel, Praful; Acharya, Aviseka; Jain, Mukul; Mehta, Anita A.

    2011-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DXR) has been used in variety of human malignancies for decades. Despite its efficacy in cancer, clinical usage is limited because of its cardiotoxicity, which has been associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) have been shown to reduce the oxidative damage and apoptosis. The present study investigated the effects of CORM-2, a fast CO-releaser, against DXR-induced cardiotoxicity in mice using biochemical, histopathological and gene expression approaches. CORM-2 (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 10 days and terminated the study on day 11. DXR (20 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected before 72 h of termination. Mice treated with DXR showed cardiotoxicity as evidenced by elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), caspase-3 and decrease the level of total antioxidant status (TAS) in heart tissues. Pre- and post-treatment with CORM-2 (30 mg/kg, i.p.) elicited significant improvement in CK, LDH, MDA, caspase-3 and TAS levels. Histopathological studies showed that cardiac damage with DXR has been reversed with CORM-2 + DXR treatment. There was dramatic decrease in hematological count in DXR-treated mice, which has been improved with CORM-2. Furthermore, there was also elevation of mRNA expression of heme oxygenase-1, hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor and decrease in inducible-nitric oxide synthase expression upon treatment with CORM-2 that might be linked to cardioprotection. These data suggest that CORM-2 treatment provides cardioprotection against acute doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice and this effect may be attributed to CORM-2-mediated antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties.

  18. Caveolin versus calmodulin. Counterbalancing allosteric modulators of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, J B; Feron, O; Sase, K; Prabhakar, P; Michel, T

    1997-10-10

    Nitric oxide is synthesized in diverse mammalian tissues by a family of calmodulin-dependent nitric oxide synthases. The endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is targeted to the specialized signal-transducing membrane domains termed plasmalemmal caveolae. Caveolin, the principal structural protein in caveolae, interacts with eNOS and leads to enzyme inhibition in a reversible process modulated by Ca2+-calmodulin (Michel, J. B., Feron, O., Sacks, D., and Michel, T. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 15583-15586). Caveolin also interacts with other structurally distinct signaling proteins via a specific region identified within the caveolin sequence (amino acids 82-101) that appears to subserve the role of a "scaffolding domain." We now report that the co-immunoprecipitation of eNOS with caveolin is completely and specifically blocked by an oligopeptide corresponding to the caveolin scaffolding domain. Peptides corresponding to this domain markedly inhibit nitric oxide synthase activity in endothelial membranes and interact directly with the enzyme to inhibit activity of purified recombinant eNOS expressed in Escherichia coli. The inhibition of purified eNOS by the caveolin scaffolding domain peptide is competitive and completely reversed by Ca2+-calmodulin. These studies establish that caveolin, via its scaffolding domain, directly forms an inhibitory complex with eNOS and suggest that caveolin inhibits eNOS by abrogating the enzyme's activation by calmodulin.

  19. Nitric oxide and TGF-β1 inhibit HNF-4α function in HEPG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Susana de; Lopez-Alcorocho, Juan Manuel; Bartolome, Javier; Carreno, Vicente

    2004-01-01

    This study analyzes if the profibrogenic factors nitric oxide and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) affect hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF-4α) function. For this purpose, HepG2 cells were treated with TGF-β1 or with a nitric oxide donor to determine mRNA levels of coagulation factor VII and HNF-4α. Treatment effect on factor VII gene promoter was assessed by chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase assays in cells transfected with the pFVII-CAT plasmid. HNF-4α binding and protein levels were determined by gel shift assays and Western blot. TGF-β1 and nitric oxide downregulated factor VII mRNA levels by inhibiting its gene promoter activity. This inhibition is caused by a decrease in the DNA binding of HNF-4α. TGF-β1 induces degradation of HNF-4α in the proteasome while nitric oxide provokes nitrosylation of cysteine residues in this factor. TGF-β1 and nitric oxide inhibit HNF-4α activity. These findings may explain the loss of liver functions that occurs during fibrosis progression

  20. Pro-survival Effects of 17β-Estradiol on Osteocytes Are Mediated by Nitric Oxide/cGMP via Differential Actions of cGMP-dependent Protein Kinases I and II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Nisha; Rangaswami, Hema; Zhuang, Shunhui; Boss, Gerry R.; Pilz, Renate B.

    2012-01-01

    Estrogens promote bone health in part by increasing osteocyte survival, an effect that requires activation of the protein kinases Akt and ERK1/2, but the molecular mechanisms involved are only partly understood. Because estrogens increase nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and NO can have anti-apoptotic effects, we examined the role of NO/cGMP signaling in estrogen regulation of osteocyte survival. Etoposide-induced death of MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells, assessed by trypan blue staining, caspase-3 cleavage, and TUNEL assays, was completely prevented when cells were pre-treated with 17β-estradiol. This protective effect was mimicked when cells were pre-treated with a membrane-permeable cGMP analog and blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of NO synthase, soluble guanylate cyclase, or cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs), supporting a requirement for NO/cGMP/PKG signaling downstream of 17β-estradiol. siRNA-mediated knockdown and viral reconstitution of individual PKG isoforms demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic effects of estradiol and cGMP were mediated by PKG Iα and PKG II. Akt and ERK1/2 activation by 17β-estradiol required PKG II, and cGMP mimicked the effects of estradiol on Akt and ERK, including induction of ERK nuclear translocation. cGMP induced BAD phosphorylation on several sites, and experiments with phosphorylation-deficient BAD mutants demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic effects of cGMP and 17β-estradiol required BAD phosphorylation on Ser136 and Ser155; these sites were targeted by Akt and PKG I, respectively, and regulate BAD interaction with Bcl-2. In conclusion, 17β-estradiol protects osteocytes against apoptosis by activating the NO/cGMP/PKG cascade; PKG II is required for estradiol-induced activation of ERK and Akt, and PKG Iα contributes to pro-survival signaling by directly phosphorylating BAD. PMID:22117068

  1. Inhaled nitric oxide augments nitric oxide transport on sickle cell hemoglobin without affecting oxygen affinity

    OpenAIRE

    Gladwin, Mark T.; Schechter, Alan N.; Shelhamer, James H.; Pannell, Lewis K.; Conway, Deirdre A.; Hrinczenko, Borys W.; Nichols, James S.; Pease-Fye, Margaret E.; Noguchi, Constance T.; Rodgers, Griffin P.; Ognibene, Frederick P.

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) inhalation has been reported to increase the oxygen affinity of sickle cell erythrocytes. Also, proposed allosteric mechanisms for hemoglobin, based on S-nitrosation of β-chain cysteine 93, raise the possibilty of altering the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease by inhibiting polymerization or by increasing NO delivery to the tissue. We studied the effects of a 2-hour treatment, using varying concentrations of inhaled NO. Oxygen affinity, as measured by P50, did not respo...

  2. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphism G298T in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary data: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphism G298T in association with oxidative DNA damage in coronary atherosclerosis. Rajesh G. Kumar, Mrudula K. Spurthi, Kishore G. Kumar, Sanjib K. Sahu and Surekha H. Rani. J. Genet. 91, 349–352. Table 1. The demographic and clinical data of the CHD ...

  3. Effect of Nitric Oxide, Vitamin E and Selenium on Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nader, Manar M.; Eissa, Laila A.; Gamil, Nariman M.; Ammar, El-Sayed M.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by a series of complications that may affect many organs. This study aimed to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) as a physiological mediator in the body via the use of L-arginine as NO precursor Ng-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) as Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme inhibitor in diabetic rats. The effect of vitamin E as antioxidant and selenium as a potent insulin-mimetic agent in diabetic rats were studied. The possible combination of selenium or vitamin E with L-arginine was studied in the same animal model to show the ability of these treatments to ameliorate some of the biochemical changes that are worsen with the development of diabetes such as lipid profile, plasma glucose, blood malondialdehyde (MDA), plasma nitric oxide and plasma b-2 microglobulin levels. Experimental diabetes was induced in male rats by I.V. injection of Streptozotocin (STZ) (50mg/kg). Diabetic rats showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in the plasma level of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, b2-micro globulin, blood MDA as a result of increased oxidative stress while there was a significant decrease in plasma HDL-cholesterol, and nitrate/nitrite levels. L-arginine, vitamin E and selenium administration produced a significant decrease in plasma glucose level of diabetic arts (13%, 29.11%, 61.65%) respectively from its initial value, so as they showed a significant reduction in blood MDA level, plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-Ch.. levels when compared with the initial diabetic values. Combined therapy of vitamin E and L-arginine showed no significant change of any of the measured parameters (except for nitrate/nitrite level) on comparison either with vitamin E or with L-arginine treated group. The combined therapy of selenium and L-arginine showed a significant decrease nearly to normal level in the plasma glucose concentration and may be of clinical significance. (author)

  4. Inducible nitric oxide synthase catalyzes ethanol oxidation to α-hydroxyethyl radical and acetaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porasuphatana, Supatra; Weaver, John; Rosen, Gerald M.

    2006-01-01

    The physiologic function of nitric oxide synthases, independent of the isozyme, is well established, metabolizing L-arginine to L-citrulline and nitric oxide (NO). This enzyme can also transfer electrons to O 2 , affording superoxide (O 2 · - ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). We have demonstrated that NOS1, in the presence of L-arginine, can biotransform ethanol (EtOH) to α-hydroxyethyl radical (CH 3 ·CHOH). We now report that a competent NOS2 with L-arginine can, like NOS1, oxidize EtOH to CH 3 ·CHOH. Once this free radical is formed, it is metabolized to acetaldehyde as shown by LC-ESI-MS/MS and HPLC analysis. These observations suggest that NOS2 can behave similarly to cytochrome P-450 in the catalysis of acetaldehyde formation from ethanol via the generation of α-hydroxyethyl radical when L-arginine is present

  5. Role of CD137 signaling in dengue virus-mediated apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagila, Amar; Netsawang, Janjuree; Srisawat, Chatchawan; Noisakran, Sansanee; Morchang, Atthapan; Yasamut, Umpa; Puttikhunt, Chunya; Kasinrerk, Watchara

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → For the first time the role of CD137 in dengue virus (DENV) infection. → Induction of DENV-mediated apoptosis by CD137 signaling. → Sensitization to CD137-mediated apoptosis by dengue virus capsid protein (DENV C). → Nuclear localization of DENV C is required for CD137-mediated apoptosis. -- Abstract: Hepatic dysfunction is a well recognized feature of dengue virus (DENV) infection. However, molecular mechanisms of hepatic injury are still poorly understood. A complex interaction between DENV and the host immune response contributes to DENV-mediated tissue injury. DENV capsid protein (DENV C) physically interacts with the human death domain-associated protein Daxx. A double substitution mutation in DENV C (R85A/K86A) abrogates Daxx interaction, nuclear localization and apoptosis. Therefore we compared the expression of cell death genes between HepG2 cells expressing DENV C and DENV C (R85A/K86A) using a real-time PCR array. Expression of CD137, which is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, increased significantly in HepG2 cells expressing DENV C compared to HepG2 cells expressing DENV C (R85A/K86A). In addition, CD137-mediated apoptotic activity in HepG2 cells expressing DENV C was significantly increased by anti-CD137 antibody compared to that of HepG2 cells expressing DENV C (R85A/K86A). In DENV-infected HepG2 cells, CD137 mRNA and CD137 positive cells significantly increased and CD137-mediated apoptotic activity was increased by anti-CD137 antibody. This work is the first to demonstrate the contribution of CD137 signaling to DENV-mediated apoptosis.

  6. Role of CD137 signaling in dengue virus-mediated apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagila, Amar [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Netsawang, Janjuree [Faculty of Medical Technology, Rangsit University, Bangkok (Thailand); Srisawat, Chatchawan [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Noisakran, Sansanee [Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Research Unit, Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Medical Biotechnology Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Bangkok (Thailand); Morchang, Atthapan; Yasamut, Umpa [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Puttikhunt, Chunya [Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Research Unit, Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Medical Biotechnology Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Bangkok (Thailand); Kasinrerk, Watchara [Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Medical Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Biomedical Technology Research Center, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency at Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand); and others

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} For the first time the role of CD137 in dengue virus (DENV) infection. {yields} Induction of DENV-mediated apoptosis by CD137 signaling. {yields} Sensitization to CD137-mediated apoptosis by dengue virus capsid protein (DENV C). {yields} Nuclear localization of DENV C is required for CD137-mediated apoptosis. -- Abstract: Hepatic dysfunction is a well recognized feature of dengue virus (DENV) infection. However, molecular mechanisms of hepatic injury are still poorly understood. A complex interaction between DENV and the host immune response contributes to DENV-mediated tissue injury. DENV capsid protein (DENV C) physically interacts with the human death domain-associated protein Daxx. A double substitution mutation in DENV C (R85A/K86A) abrogates Daxx interaction, nuclear localization and apoptosis. Therefore we compared the expression of cell death genes between HepG2 cells expressing DENV C and DENV C (R85A/K86A) using a real-time PCR array. Expression of CD137, which is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, increased significantly in HepG2 cells expressing DENV C compared to HepG2 cells expressing DENV C (R85A/K86A). In addition, CD137-mediated apoptotic activity in HepG2 cells expressing DENV C was significantly increased by anti-CD137 antibody compared to that of HepG2 cells expressing DENV C (R85A/K86A). In DENV-infected HepG2 cells, CD137 mRNA and CD137 positive cells significantly increased and CD137-mediated apoptotic activity was increased by anti-CD137 antibody. This work is the first to demonstrate the contribution of CD137 signaling to DENV-mediated apoptosis.

  7. Nitric oxide metabolism and indole acetic acid biosynthesis cross-talk in Azospirillum brasilense SM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Vatsala; Tripathi, Chandrakant; Adholeya, Alok; Kochar, Mandira

    2015-04-01

    Production of nitric oxide (NO) and the presence of NO metabolism genes, nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ), nitrous oxide reductase regulator (nosR) and nitric oxide reductase (norB) were identified in the plant-associated bacterium (PAB) Azospirillum brasilense SM. NO presence was confirmed in all overexpressing strains, while improvement in the plant growth response of these strains was mediated by increased NO and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels in the strains. Electron microscopy showed random distribution to biofilm, with surface colonization of pleiomorphic Azospirilla. Quantitative IAA estimation highlighted a crucial role of nosR and norBC in regulating IAA biosynthesis. The NO quencher and donor reduced/blocked IAA biosynthesis by all strains, indicating their common regulatory role in IAA biosynthesis. Tryptophan (Trp) and l-Arginine (Arg) showed higher expression of NO genes tested, while in the case of ipdC, only Trp and IAA increased expression, while Arg had no significant effect. The highest nosR expression in SMnosR in the presence of IAA and Trp, along with its 2-fold IAA level, confirmed the relationship of nosR overexpression with Trp in increasing IAA. These results indicate a strong correlation between IAA and NO in A. brasilense SM and suggest the existence of cross-talk or shared signaling mechanisms in these two growth regulators. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Intracellular conversion of environmental nitrate and nitrite to nitric oxide with resulting developmental toxicity to the crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany R Hannas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate and nitrite (jointly referred to herein as NO(x are ubiquitous environmental contaminants to which aquatic organisms are at particularly high risk of exposure. We tested the hypothesis that NO(x undergo intracellular conversion to the potent signaling molecule nitric oxide resulting in the disruption of endocrine-regulated processes.These experiments were performed with insect cells (Drosophila S2 and whole organisms Daphnia magna. We first evaluated the ability of cells to convert nitrate (NO(3(- and nitrite (NO(2(- to nitric oxide using amperometric real-time nitric oxide detection. Both NO(3(- and NO(2(- were converted to nitric oxide in a substrate concentration-dependent manner. Further, nitric oxide trapping and fluorescent visualization studies revealed that perinatal daphnids readily convert NO(2(- to nitric oxide. Next, daphnids were continuously exposed to concentrations of the nitric oxide-donor sodium nitroprusside (positive control and to concentrations of NO(3(- and NO(2(-. All three compounds interfered with normal embryo development and reduced daphnid fecundity. Developmental abnormalities were characteristic of those elicited by compounds that interfere with ecdysteroid signaling. However, no compelling evidence was generated to indicate that nitric oxide reduced ecdysteroid titers.Results demonstrate that nitrite elicits developmental and reproductive toxicity at environmentally relevant concentrations due likely to its intracellular conversion to nitric oxide.

  9. The effect of inhaled nitric oxide in acute respiratory distress syndrome in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karam, O; Gebistorf, F; Wetterslev, J

    2017-01-01

    on mortality in adults and children with acute respiratory distress syndrome. We included all randomised, controlled trials, irrespective of date of publication, blinding status, outcomes reported or language. Our primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. We performed several subgroup and sensitivity......Acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Inhaled nitric oxide has been used to improve oxygenation but its role remains controversial. Our primary objective in this systematic review was to examine the effects of inhaled nitric oxide administration......% CI) 1.59 (1.17-2.16)) with inhaled nitric oxide. In conclusion, there is insufficient evidence to support inhaled nitric oxide in any category of critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome despite a transient improvement in oxygenation, since mortality is not reduced and it may...

  10. Nitric oxide enhances osmoregulation of tobacco ( Nicotiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of the intracellular signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) on osmoregulation of tobacco cells under osmotic stress caused by phenylethanoid glycosides 6000 (PEG 6000). The results show that the PEG stress induced a specific pattern of endogenous NO production with two ...

  11. Nitric oxide-mediated maintenance of redox homeostasis contributes to NPR1-dependent plant innate immunity triggered by lipopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Aizhen; Nie, Shengjun; Xing, Da

    2012-10-01

    The perception of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) by plant cells can lead to nitric oxide (NO) production and defense gene induction. However, the signaling cascades underlying these cellular responses have not yet been resolved. This work investigated the biosynthetic origin of NO and the role of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1) to gain insight into the mechanism involved in LPS-induced resistance of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Analysis of inhibitors and mutants showed that LPS-induced NO synthesis was mainly mediated by an arginine-utilizing source of NO generation. Furthermore, LPS-induced NO caused transcript accumulation of alternative oxidase genes and increased antioxidant enzyme activity, which enhanced antioxidant capacity and modulated redox state. We also analyzed the subcellular localization of NPR1 to identify the mechanism for protein-modulated plant innate immunity triggered by LPS. LPS-activated defense responses, including callose deposition and defense-related gene expression, were found to be regulated through an NPR1-dependent pathway. In summary, a significant NO synthesis induced by LPS contributes to the LPS-induced defense responses by up-regulation of defense genes and modulation of cellular redox state. Moreover, NPR1 plays an important role in LPS-triggered plant innate immunity.

  12. Three transcription regulators of the Nss family mediate the adaptive response induced by nitrate, nitric oxide or nitrous oxide in Wolinella succinogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Melanie; Simon, Jörg

    2016-09-01

    Sensing potential nitrogen-containing respiratory substrates such as nitrate, nitrite, hydroxylamine, nitric oxide (NO) or nitrous oxide (N2 O) in the environment and subsequent upregulation of corresponding catabolic enzymes is essential for many microbial cells. The molecular mechanisms of such adaptive responses are, however, highly diverse in different species. Here, induction of periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), cytochrome c nitrite reductase (Nrf) and cytochrome c N2 O reductase (cNos) was investigated in cells of the Epsilonproteobacterium Wolinella succinogenes grown either by fumarate, nitrate or N2 O respiration. Furthermore, fumarate respiration in the presence of various nitrogen compounds or NO-releasing chemicals was examined. Upregulation of each of the Nap, Nrf and cNos enzyme systems was found in response to the presence of nitrate, NO-releasers or N2 O, and the cells were shown to employ three transcription regulators of the Crp-Fnr superfamily (homologues of Campylobacter jejuni NssR), designated NssA, NssB and NssC, to mediate the upregulation of Nap, Nrf and cNos. Analysis of single nss mutants revealed that NssA controls production of the Nap and Nrf systems in fumarate-grown cells, while NssB was required to induce the Nap, Nrf and cNos systems specifically in response to NO-generators. NssC was indispensable for cNos production under any tested condition. The data indicate dedicated signal transduction routes responsive to nitrate, NO and N2 O and imply the presence of an N2 O-sensing mechanism. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Local arginase inhibition during early reperfusion mediates cardioprotection via increased nitric oxide production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian T Gonon

    Full Text Available Consumption of L-arginine contributes to reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO that is critical for the development of ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of the study was to determine myocardial arginase expression and activity in ischemic-reperfusion myocardium and whether local inhibition of arginase within the ischemic myocardium results in increased NO production and protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. Anesthetized pigs were subjected to coronary artery occlusion for 40 min followed by 4 h reperfusion. The pigs were randomized to intracoronary infusion of vehicle (n = 7, the arginase inhibitor N-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA, 2 mg/min, n = 7, the combination of nor-NOHA and the NO synthase inhibitor N(G-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 0.35 mg/min, n = 6 into the jeopardized myocardial area or systemic intravenous infusion of nor-NOHA (2 mg/min, n = 5 at the end of ischemia and start of reperfusion. The infarct size of the vehicle group was 80 ± 4% of the area at risk. Intracoronary nor-NOHA reduced infarct size to 46 ± 5% (P<0.01. Co-administration of L-NMMA abrogated the cardioprotective effect mediated by nor-NOHA (infarct size 72 ± 6%. Intravenous nor-NOHA did not reduce infarct size. Arginase I and II were expressed in cardiomyocytes, endothelial, smooth muscle and poylmorphonuclear cells. There was no difference in cytosolic arginase I or mitochondrial arginase II expression between ischemic-reperfused and non-ischemic myocardium. Arginase activity increased 2-fold in the ischemic-reperfused myocardium in comparison with non-ischemic myocardium. In conclusion, ischemia-reperfusion increases arginase activity without affecting cytosolic arginase I or mitochondrial arginase II expression. Local arginase inhibition during early reperfusion reduces infarct size via a mechanism that is dependent on increased bioavailability of NO.

  14. Inhibition of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase, Cycleooxygenase-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Won Chung, Jin Uk Oh, Sehyung Lee and Sung-Jin Kim* ... was determined by Western blot analysis for iNOS and COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW ..... Nitric oxide-scavenging and antioxidant effects ofUraria crinite root. Food.

  15. Lack of endothelial nitric oxide synthase aggravates murine accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, P; van Goor, H; Itoh-Lindstrom, Y; Maeda, N; Falk, RJ; Assmann, KJM; Kallenberg, CGM; Jennette, JC

    Nitric oxide (NO) radicals generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are involved in the regulation of vascular tone. In addition, NO radicals derived from eNOS inhibit platelet aggregation and leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium and, thus, may have anti-inflammatory effects. To study

  16. Trigeminocardiac reflex by mandibular extension on rat pial microcirculation: role of nitric oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominga Lapi

    Full Text Available In the present study we have extended our previous findings about the effects of 10 minutes of passive mandibular extension in anesthetized Wistar rats. By prolonging the observation time to 3 hours, we showed that 10 minutes mandibular extension caused a significant reduction of the mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate respect to baseline values, which persisted up to 160 minutes after mandibular extension. These effects were accompanied by a characteristic biphasic response of pial arterioles: during mandibular extension, pial arterioles constricted and after mandibular extension dilated for the whole observation period. Interestingly, the administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone abolished the vasoconstriction observed during mandibular extension, while the administration of Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, abolished the vasodilation observed after mandibular extension. Either drug did not affect the reduction of mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate induced by mandibular extension. By qRT-PCR, we also showed that neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene expression was significantly increased compared with baseline conditions during and after mandibular extension and endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene expression markedly increased at 2 hours after mandibular extension. Finally, western blotting detected a significant increase in neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein expression. In conclusion mandibular extension caused complex effects on pial microcirculation involving opioid receptor activation and nitric oxide release by both neurons and endothelial vascular cells at different times.

  17. Nitric oxide mediated DNA double strand breaks induced in proliferating bystander cells after {alpha}-particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Wei [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chen Shaopeng [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Wu Lijun [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2010-02-03

    Low-dose {alpha}-particle exposures comprise 55% of the environmental dose to the human population and have been shown to induce bystander responses. Previous studies showed that bystander effect could induce stimulated cell growth or genotoxicity, such as excessive DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), micronuclei (MN), mutation and decreased cell viability, in the bystander cell population. In the present study, the stimulated cell growth, detected with flow cytometry (FCM), and the increased MN and DSB, detected with p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) immunofluorescence, were observed simultaneously in the bystander cell population, which were co-cultured with cells irradiated by low-dose {alpha}-particles (1-10 cGy) in a mixed system. Further studies indicated that nitric oxide (NO) and transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) played very important roles in mediating cell proliferation and inducing MN and DSB in the bystander population through treatments with NO scavenger and TGF-{beta}1 antibody. Low-concentrations of NO, generated by spermidine, were proved to induce cell proliferation, DSB and MN simultaneously. The proliferation or shortened cell cycle in bystander cells gave them insufficient time to repair DSBs. The increased cell division might increase the probability of carcinogenesis in bystander cells since cell proliferation increased the probability of mutation from the mis-repaired or un-repaired DSBs.

  18. Nitric oxide mediated DNA double strand breaks induced in proliferating bystander cells after α-particle irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wei; Chen Shaopeng; Yu, K.N.; Wu Lijun

    2010-01-01

    Low-dose α-particle exposures comprise 55% of the environmental dose to the human population and have been shown to induce bystander responses. Previous studies showed that bystander effect could induce stimulated cell growth or genotoxicity, such as excessive DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), micronuclei (MN), mutation and decreased cell viability, in the bystander cell population. In the present study, the stimulated cell growth, detected with flow cytometry (FCM), and the increased MN and DSB, detected with p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) immunofluorescence, were observed simultaneously in the bystander cell population, which were co-cultured with cells irradiated by low-dose α-particles (1-10 cGy) in a mixed system. Further studies indicated that nitric oxide (NO) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) played very important roles in mediating cell proliferation and inducing MN and DSB in the bystander population through treatments with NO scavenger and TGF-β1 antibody. Low-concentrations of NO, generated by spermidine, were proved to induce cell proliferation, DSB and MN simultaneously. The proliferation or shortened cell cycle in bystander cells gave them insufficient time to repair DSBs. The increased cell division might increase the probability of carcinogenesis in bystander cells since cell proliferation increased the probability of mutation from the mis-repaired or un-repaired DSBs.

  19. Serum ferritin, serum nitric oxide, and cognitive function in pediatric thalassemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septiana Nur Qurbani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Hemolysis and repeated blood transfusions in children with thalassemia major cause iron overload in various organs, including the brain, and may lead to neurodegeneration. Hemolysis also causes decreased levels of nitric oxide, which serves as a volume transmitter and slow dynamic modulation, leading to cognitive impairment. Objective To assess for correlations between serum ferritin as well as nitric oxide levels and cognitive function in children with thalassemia major.  Methods This analytical study with cross-sectional design on 40 hemosiderotic thalassemia major patients aged 6−14 years, was done at the Thalassemia Clinic in Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, West Java, from May to June 2015. Serum ferritin measurements were performed by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay; serum nitric oxide was assayed by a colorimetric procedure based on Griess reaction; and cognitive function was assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children test. Statistical analysis was done using Spearman’s Rank correlation, with a significance value of 0.05. Results Abnormal values in verbal, performance, and full scale IQ were found in 35%, 57.5% and 57.5%, respectively. Serum nitric oxide level was significantly correlated with performance IQ (P=0.022, but not with verbal IQ (P=0.359 or full scale IQ (P=0.164. There were also no significant correlations between serum ferritin level and full scale, verbal, or performance IQ (P=0.377, 0.460, and 0.822, respectively. Conclusion Lower serum nitric oxide level is significantly correlated to lower cognitive function, specifically in the performance IQ category. However, serum ferritin level has no clear correlation with cognitive function.

  20. Critical evaluation of pressurized microwave-assisted digestion efficiency using nitric acid oxidizing systems (M7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusiewicz, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The possibilities of enhancement of a medium-pressure microwave-assisted digestion system for sample preparation in trace element analysis of biological material was investigated. Based on optimal digestion conditions for oxidizing systems with nitric acid, different digestion procedures were examined to minimize residual carbon. The substitution of nitric acid and the addition of hydrogen peroxide and ozone to nitric acid was evaluated. The residual carbon content of the digestate was determined coulometrically. Addition of hydrogen peroxide during organic oxidation reactions does not lower the resolved carbon in the solution. Ozone was tested as an additional, potentially non-contaminating, digestion/oxidation system to the nitric acid used in the sample preparation method. (author)

  1. Chk2 mediates RITA-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, J; Verlaan-de Vries, M; Teunisse, A F A S; Jochemsen, A G

    2012-06-01

    Reactivation of the p53 tumor-suppressor protein by small molecules like Nutlin-3 and RITA (reactivation of p53 and induction of tumor cell apoptosis) is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. The molecular mechanisms involved in the responses to RITA remain enigmatic. Several groups reported the induction of a p53-dependent DNA damage response. Furthermore, the existence of a p53-dependent S-phase checkpoint has been suggested, involving the checkpoint kinase Chk1. We have recently shown synergistic induction of apoptosis by RITA in combination with Nutlin-3, and we observed concomitant Chk2 phosphorylation. Therefore, we investigated whether Chk2 contributes to the cellular responses to RITA. Strikingly, the induction of apoptosis seemed entirely Chk2 dependent. Transcriptional activity of p53 in response to RITA required the presence of Chk2. A partial rescue of apoptosis observed in Noxa knockdown cells emphasized the relevance of p53 transcriptional activity for RITA-induced apoptosis. In addition, we observed an early p53- and Chk2-dependent block of DNA replication upon RITA treatment. Replicating cells seemed more prone to entering RITA-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the RITA-induced DNA damage response, which was not a secondary effect of apoptosis induction, was strongly attenuated in cells lacking p53 or Chk2. In conclusion, we identified Chk2 as an essential mediator of the cellular responses to RITA.

  2. Involvement of beta 3-adrenoceptor in altered beta-adrenergic response in senescent heart: role of nitric oxide synthase 1-derived nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birenbaum, Aurélie; Tesse, Angela; Loyer, Xavier; Michelet, Pierre; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Heymes, Christophe; Riou, Bruno; Amour, Julien

    2008-12-01

    In senescent heart, beta-adrenergic response is altered in parallel with beta1- and beta2-adrenoceptor down-regulation. A negative inotropic effect of beta3-adrenoceptor could be involved. In this study, the authors tested the hypothesis that beta3-adrenoceptor plays a role in beta-adrenergic dysfunction in senescent heart. beta-Adrenergic responses were investigated in vivo (echocardiography-dobutamine, electron paramagnetic resonance) and in vitro (isolated left ventricular papillary muscle, electron paramagnetic resonance) in young adult (3-month-old) and senescent (24-month-old) rats. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunolabeling (confocal microscopy), nitric oxide production (electron paramagnetic resonance) and beta-adrenoceptor Western blots were performed in vitro. Data are mean percentages of baseline +/- SD. An impaired positive inotropic effect (isoproterenol) was confirmed in senescent hearts in vivo (117 +/- 23 vs. 162 +/- 16%; P < 0.05) and in vitro (127 +/- 10 vs. 179 +/- 15%; P < 0.05). In the young adult group, the positive inotropic effect was not significantly modified by the nonselective NOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME; 183 +/- 19%), the selective NOS1 inhibitor vinyl-L-N-5(1-imino-3-butenyl)-L-ornithine (L-VNIO; 172 +/- 13%), or the selective NOS2 inhibitor 1400W (183 +/- 19%). In the senescent group, in parallel with beta3-adrenoceptor up-regulation and increased nitric oxide production, the positive inotropic effect was partially restored by L-NAME (151 +/- 8%; P < 0.05) and L-VNIO (149 +/- 7%; P < 0.05) but not by 1400W (132 +/- 11%; not significant). The positive inotropic effect induced by dibutyryl-cyclic adenosine monophosphate was decreased in the senescent group with the specific beta3-adrenoceptor agonist BRL 37344 (167 +/- 10 vs. 142 +/- 10%; P < 0.05). NOS1 and NOS2 were significantly up-regulated in the senescent rat. In senescent cardiomyopathy, beta3-adrenoceptor overexpression plays an important role in the

  3. Nitric oxide production by nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) and clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria) peripheral blood leucocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Cathy J; Toranto, Jason D; Gilliland, C Taylor; Noyes, David R; Bodine, Ashby B; Luer, Carl A

    2006-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen intermediates, such as nitric oxide (NO), are important immunomodulators in vertebrate immune systems, but have yet to be identified as mediators of host defence in any member of class Chondrichthyes, the cartilaginous fishes. In the present study, production of NO by nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) stimulated with bacterial cell wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. PBL were cultured for 24 to 96 h following stimulation with LPS at concentrations ranging from 0 to 25 microg ml(-1), in both serum-supplemented and serum-free culture conditions. Production of NO was measured indirectly using the Griess reaction, with maximal NO production occurring after 72 h using 10% FBS and 10 microg LPS ml(-1). Application of these culture conditions to PBL from another cartilaginous fish (clearnose skate, Raja eglanteria) resulted in a similar NO response. Addition of a specific inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine (L-NIL), resulted in a significant decrease in the production of NO by PBL from both species.

  4. Ionizing radiation and nitric oxide donor sensitize Fas-induced apoptosis via up-regulation of Fas in human cervical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In Chul; Woo, Sang Hyeok; Park, Myung Jin; Lee, Hyung Chahn; Lee Su Jae; Hong, Young Joon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Hong, Seok II; Rhee, Chang Hun

    2004-01-01

    Fas/CD95/Apo1 is a transmembrane receptor known to trigger apoptotic cell death in several cell types. In the present study, we showed that ionizing radiation (IR) and NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP), sensitized Fas-induced apoptotic cell death of HeLa human cervical cancers. Suboptimal dose of IR and SNAP up-regulated cell-surface Fas antigen, detected by FACScan using FITC-anti-Fas antibody. When combined with IR or SNAP, agonistic anti-Fas antibody CH-11 resulted in marked enhancement of apoptosis. This sensitization was completely abrogated by anti-Fas neutralizing antibody ZB4. During the IR and SNAP sensitized Fas-induced apoptosis, mitochondria permeabilization, cytochrome c release, and DNA fragmentation were detected. Furthermore, combined treatment of IR and SNAP additively up-regulated the surface Fas protein expression and sensitized Fas-induced apoptosis. Our finding demonstrate that sensitization of HeLa cervical cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis by IR and NO donor is most likely due to the up-regulation of Fas expression and also provides a means with which to sensitize tumors to the killing effects of cancer therapy via the Fas receptor

  5. Fluorescence-based detection of nitric oxide in aqueous and methanol media using a copper(II) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Biplab; Kumar, Pankaj; Ghosh, Pokhraj; Kalita, Apurba

    2011-03-14

    The quenched fluorescent intensity of a copper(II) complex, 1, of a fluorescent ligand, in degassed methanol or aqueous (buffered at pH 7.2) solution, was found to reappear on exposure to nitric oxide. Thus, it can function as a fluorescence based nitric oxide sensor. It has been found that the present complex can be used to sense nanomolar quantities of nitric oxide in both methanol and pH 7.2 buffered-water medium.

  6. Arsenic moiety in gallium arsenide is responsible for neuronal apoptosis and behavioral alterations in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flora, Swaran J.S.; Bhatt, Kapil; Mehta, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), an intermetallic semiconductor finds widespread applications in high frequency microwave and millimeter wave, and ultra fast supercomputers. Extensive use of GaAs has led to increased exposure to humans working in semiconductor industry. GaAs has the ability to dissociate into its constitutive moieties at physiological pH and might be responsible for the oxidative stress. The present study was aimed at evaluating, the principle moiety (Ga or As) in GaAs to cause neurological dysfunction based on its ability to cause apoptosis, in vivo and in vitro and if this neuronal dysfunction translated to neurobehavioral changes in chronically exposed rats. Result indicated that arsenic moiety in GaAs was mainly responsible for causing oxidative stress via increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation, both in vitro and in vivo. Increased ROS further caused apoptosis via mitochondrial driven pathway. Effects of oxidative stress were also confirmed based on alterations in antioxidant enzymes, GPx, GST and SOD in rat brain. We noted that ROS induced oxidative stress caused changes in the brain neurotransmitter levels, Acetylcholinesterase and nitric oxide synthase, leading to loss of memory and learning in rats. The study demonstrates for the first time that the slow release of arsenic moiety from GaAs is mainly responsible for oxidative stress induced apoptosis in neuronal cells causing behavioral changes.

  7. Downstream mechanisms of nitric oxide-mediated skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Troy L; Lynch, Gordon S; McConell, Glenn K

    2010-12-01

    There is evidence that nitric oxide (NO) is required for the normal increases in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction, but the mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. We examined whether NO regulates glucose uptake during skeletal muscle contractions via cGMP-dependent or cGMP-independent pathways. Isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from mice were stimulated to contract ex vivo, and potential NO signaling pathways were blocked by the addition of inhibitors to the incubation medium. Contraction increased (P contraction by ∼50% (P contraction; however, DTT attenuated (P contraction-stimulated glucose uptake (by 70%). NOS inhibition and antioxidant treatment reduced contraction-stimulated increases in protein S-glutathionylation and tyrosine nitration (P skeletal muscle glucose uptake during ex vivo contractions via a cGMP/PKG-, AMPK-, and p38 MAPK-independent pathway. In addition, it appears that NO and ROS may regulate skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction through a similar pathway.

  8. The effect of nitric oxide releasing cream on healing pressure ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Saidkhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pressure ulcer is one of the main concerns of nurses in medical centers around the world, which, if untreated, causes irreparable problems for patients. In recent years, nitric oxide (NO has been proposed as an effective method for wound healing. This study was conducted to determine the effect of nitric oxide on pressure ulcer healing. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 58 patients with pressure ulcer at hospitals affiliated to Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences were homogenized and later divided randomly into two groups of treatment (nitric oxide cream; n = 29 and control (placebo cream; n = 29. In this research, the data collection tool was the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH. At the outset of the study (before using the cream, the patients' ulcers were examined weekly in terms of size, amount of exudates, and tissue type using the PUSH tool for 3 weeks. By integrating these three factors, wound healing was determined. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: Although no significant difference was found in terms of the mean of score size, the amount of exudates, and the tissue type between the two groups, the mean of total score (healing between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.04. Conclusions: Nitric oxide cream seems to accelerate wound healing. Therefore, considering its easy availability and cost-effectiveness, it can be used for treating pressure ulcers in the future.

  9. The effect of nitric oxide releasing cream on healing pressure ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidkhani, Vahid; Asadizaker, Marziyeh; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Latifi, Sayed Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pressure ulcer is one of the main concerns of nurses in medical centers around the world, which, if untreated, causes irreparable problems for patients. In recent years, nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as an effective method for wound healing. This study was conducted to determine the effect of nitric oxide on pressure ulcer healing. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 58 patients with pressure ulcer at hospitals affiliated to Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences were homogenized and later divided randomly into two groups of treatment (nitric oxide cream; n = 29) and control (placebo cream; n = 29). In this research, the data collection tool was the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH). At the outset of the study (before using the cream), the patients' ulcers were examined weekly in terms of size, amount of exudates, and tissue type using the PUSH tool for 3 weeks. By integrating these three factors, wound healing was determined. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: Although no significant difference was found in terms of the mean of score size, the amount of exudates, and the tissue type between the two groups, the mean of total score (healing) between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Nitric oxide cream seems to accelerate wound healing. Therefore, considering its easy availability and cost-effectiveness, it can be used for treating pressure ulcers in the future. PMID:27186212

  10. An Abnormal Nitric Oxide Metabolism Contributes to Brain Oxidative Stress in the Mouse Model for the Fragile X Syndrome, a Possible Role in Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Cabello, Elena; Garcia-Guirado, Francisco; Calvo-Medina, Rocio; el Bekay, Rajaa; Perez-Costillas, Lucia; Quintero-Navarro, Carolina; Sanchez-Salido, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fragile X syndrome is the most common genetic cause of mental disability. Although many research has been performed, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis is unclear and needs further investigation. Oxidative stress played major roles in the syndrome. The aim was to investigate the nitric oxide metabolism, protein nitration level, the expression of NOS isoforms, and furthermore the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 subunit in different brain areas on the fragile X mouse model. Methods. This study involved adult male Fmr1-knockout and wild-type mice as controls. We detected nitric oxide metabolism and the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κBp65 subunit, comparing the mRNA expression and protein content of the three NOS isoforms in different brain areas. Results. Fmr1-KO mice showed an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism and increased levels of protein tyrosine nitrosylation. Besides that, nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly increased in the Fmr1-knockout mice. mRNA and protein levels of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly decreased in the knockout mice. However, the epithelial nitric oxide synthase isoform displayed no significant changes. Conclusions. These data suggest the potential involvement of an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism in the pathogenesis of the fragile X syndrome. PMID:26788253

  11. An Abnormal Nitric Oxide Metabolism Contributes to Brain Oxidative Stress in the Mouse Model for the Fragile X Syndrome, a Possible Role in Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lima-Cabello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fragile X syndrome is the most common genetic cause of mental disability. Although many research has been performed, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis is unclear and needs further investigation. Oxidative stress played major roles in the syndrome. The aim was to investigate the nitric oxide metabolism, protein nitration level, the expression of NOS isoforms, and furthermore the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 subunit in different brain areas on the fragile X mouse model. Methods. This study involved adult male Fmr1-knockout and wild-type mice as controls. We detected nitric oxide metabolism and the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κBp65 subunit, comparing the mRNA expression and protein content of the three NOS isoforms in different brain areas. Results. Fmr1-KO mice showed an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism and increased levels of protein tyrosine nitrosylation. Besides that, nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly increased in the Fmr1-knockout mice. mRNA and protein levels of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly decreased in the knockout mice. However, the epithelial nitric oxide synthase isoform displayed no significant changes. Conclusions. These data suggest the potential involvement of an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism in the pathogenesis of the fragile X syndrome.

  12. Effects of epidermal growth factor, interleukin 1 and nitric oxide on prostaglandin production by guinea-pig uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeble, J E; Poyser, N L

    2002-08-01

    Initial experiments in the present study investigated the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF), interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and sodium nitroprusside (a nitric oxide donor) on the output of prostaglandins from guinea-pig uterus on day 7 of the oestrous cycle. Superfusion of day 7 guinea-pig uterus in vitro with either EGF or sodium nitroprusside increased the output of PGF(2alpha) and 6-keto-PGF(1alpha), but not of PGE(2). IL-1beta had no effect on the output of these three prostaglandins. EGF still increased the output of PGF(2alpha), but did not increase the output of 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) in a calcium-depleted superfusate. Subsequent experiments investigated the effect of sodium nitroprusside on contractile activity of day 7 guinea-pig uterus. Basal spontaneous activity of both the intact uterus and isolated myometrium superfused in vitro was low. Sodium nitroprusside increased the contractile activity of these tissues two- to fourfold. EGF did not affect the contractile activity of the uterus, indicating that sodium nitroprusside-induced contractions are not due to increased prostaglandin production. Overall, the findings indicate that EGF and nitric oxide may act as mediators in the mechanism by which oestradiol acting on a progesterone-primed uterus stimulates the increase in PGF(2alpha) production by the guinea-pig uterus necessary for luteolysis. Nitric oxide may increase the spontaneous activity of the uterus when this activity is low.

  13. On EPR detection of nitric oxide in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Faassen, E.E.H.

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO ) is a peculiar radical: Ground state is not paramagnetic (g = 0 since orbital and spin magnetic moments cancel); low reactivity with other molecules except superoxide (O2 ); thermodynamically unstable; dimerizes to N2O2; difficult to detect in-vivo.

  14. Arginine, citrulline and nitric oxide metabolism in sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arginine has vasodilatory effects, via its conversion by nitric oxide (NO) synthase into NO, and immunomodulatory actions that play important roles in sepsis. Protein breakdown affects arginine availability, and the release of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an inhibitor of NO synthase, may therefore a...

  15. Nitric oxide amplifies the rat electroretinogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielma, Alex; Delgado, Luz; Elgueta, Claudio; Osorio, Rodrigo; Palacios, Adrián G; Schmachtenberg, Oliver

    2010-11-01

    It is well established that nitric oxide (NO) participates in retinal signal processing through stimulation of its receptor enzyme, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). However, under pathological conditions such as uveoretinitis, diabetic or ischemic retinopathy, elevated NO concentrations may cause protein S-nitrosation and peroxynitrite formation in the retina, promoting cellular injury and apoptosis. Previous electroretinogram (ERG) studies demonstrated deleterious effects of NO on the retinal light response, but showed no evidence for a role in normal signal processing. To better understand the function of NO in ocular physiology, we investigated the effects of exogenous NO, produced by NO donors with different release kinetics, on the flash ERG of the rat. Within a limited concentration range, NO strongly amplified ERG a- and b-waves, oscillatory potentials, and the scotopic threshold response. Amplification exceeded 100% under dark adaptation, whereas the photopic ERG and the isolated cone response were increased by less than 50%. Blocking photoreceptor-bipolar cell synapses by AP-4 demonstrated a significant increase of the isolated a-wave by NO, and modeling the ERG generator PIII supported photoreceptors as primary NO targets. The sGC inhibitors ODQ and NS2028 did not reduce NO-dependent ERG amplification, ruling out an involvement of the classical NO effector cyclic GMP. Using immunohistochemistry, we show that illumination and exogenous NO altered the S-nitrosation level of the photoreceptor layer, suggesting that direct protein modifications caused by elevated levels of NO may be responsible for the observed phenomenon. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced Abscisic Acid-Mediated Responses in nia1nia2noa1-2 Triple Mutant Impaired in NIA/NR- and AtNOA1-Dependent Nitric Oxide Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Juste, Jorge; León, José

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) regulates a wide range of plant processes from development to environmental adaptation. Despite its reported regulatory functions, it remains unclear how NO is synthesized in plants. We have generated a triple nia1nia2noa1-2 mutant that is impaired in nitrate reductase (NIA/NR)- and Nitric Oxide-Associated1 (AtNOA1)-mediated NO biosynthetic pathways. NO content in roots of nia1nia2 and noa1-2 plants was lower than in wild-type plants and below the detection limit in nia1nia2noa1-2 plants. NIA/NR- and AtNOA1-mediated biosynthesis of NO were thus active and responsible for most of the NO production in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The nia1nia2noa1-2 plants displayed reduced size, fertility, and seed germination potential but increased dormancy and resistance to water deficit. The increasing deficiency in NO of nia1nia2, noa1-2, and nia1nia2noa1-2 plants correlated with increased seed dormancy, hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) in seed germination and establishment, as well as dehydration resistance. In nia1nia2noa1-2 plants, enhanced drought tolerance was due to a very efficient stomata closure and inhibition of opening by ABA, thus uncoupling NO from ABA-triggered responses in NO-deficient guard cells. The NO-deficient mutants in NIA/NR- and AtNOA1-mediated pathways in combination with the triple mutant will be useful tools to functionally characterize the role of NO and the contribution of both biosynthetic pathways in regulating plant development and defense. PMID:20007448

  17. Effect of systemic nitric oxide synthase inhibition on optic disc oxygen partial pressure in normoxia and in hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Ioannis K; Pournaras, Jean-Antoine C; Stangos, Alexandros N; Pournaras, Constantin J

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of systemic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on optic disc oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)) in normoxia and hypercapnia. Intervascular optic disc PO(2) was measured in 12 anesthetized minipigs by using oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes placed 0.1), despite a 21% increase of mean arterial pressure. Optic disc PO(2) increase under hypercapnia was blunted after L-NAME injection (DeltaPO(2) = 0.6 +/- 1.1 mm Hg; 3%; P > 0.1), and this effect was reversible by L-arginine. Moreover, L-NAME reduced the response to carbogen by 29% (DeltaPO(2) = 9.1 +/- 4.4 mm Hg; 49%; P = 0.01 versus before L-NAME). The response to hyperoxia was not affected. Whereas systemic NOS inhibition did not affect optic disc PO(2) in normoxia, a blunting effect was noted on the CO(2)-induced optic disc PO(2) increase. Nitric oxide appears to mediate the hypercapnic optic disc PO(2) increase.

  18. Arginine affects appetite via nitric oxide in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Hou, S S; Huang, W; Xu, T S; Rong, G H; Xie, M

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the mechanism by which arginine regulates feed intake in Pekin ducks. In experiment 1, one hundred forty-four 1-d-old male Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens of 8 birds per pen. Birds in each group were fed a corn-corn gluten meal diet containing 0.65, 0.95, and 1.45% arginine. Ducks fed the diet containing 0.65% arginine had lower feed intake and plasma nitric oxide level (P ducks were allotted to 1 of 2 treatments. After 2 h fasting, birds in the 2 groups were intraperitoneally administrated saline and l-NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester HCl (L-NAME) for 3 d, respectively. Feed intake (P study implied that arginine modifies feeding behavior possibly through controlling endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide in Pekin ducks. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Locally Different Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Protein Levels in Ascending Aortic Aneurysms of Bicuspid and Tricuspid Aortic Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah A. Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Dysregulated expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS is observed in aortic aneurysms associated with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV. We determined eNOS protein levels in various areas in ascending aortic aneurysms. Methods and Results. Aneurysmal specimens were collected from 19 patients, 14 with BAV and 5 with tricuspid aortic valve (TAV. ENOS protein levels were measured in the outer curve (convexity, the opposite side (concavity, the distal and above the sinotubular junction (proximal aneurysm. Cultured aortic cells were treated with NO synthesis inhibitor L-NAME and the amounts of 35 apoptosis-related proteins were determined. In patients with BAV, eNOS levels were significantly lower in the proximal aorta than in the concavity and distal aorta. ENOS protein levels were also lower in the convexity than in the concavity. While the convexity and distal aorta showed similar eNOS protein levels in BAV and TAV patients, levels were higher in TAV proximal aorta. Inhibition of NO synthesis in aneurysmal aortic cells by L-NAME led to a cytosolic increase in the levels of mitochondrial serine protease HTRA2/Omi. Conclusion. ENOS protein levels were varied at different areas of the aneurysmal aorta. The dysregulation of nitric oxide can lead to an increase in proapoptotic HTRA2/Omi.

  20. JS-K, a nitric oxide prodrug, induces DNA damage and apoptosis in HBV-positive hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2.2.15 cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengyun; Li, Guangmin; Gou, Ying; Xiao, Dongyan; Luo, Guo; Saavedra, Joseph E; Liu, Jie; Wang, Huan

    2017-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most important cause of cancer-related death, and 85% of HCC is caused by chronic HBV infection, the prognosis of patients and the reduction of HBV DNA levels remain unsatisfactory. JS-K, a nitric oxide-releasing diazeniumdiolates, is effective against various tumors, but little is known on its effects on HBV positive HCC. We found that JS-K reduced the expression of HBsAg and HBeAg in HBV-positive HepG2.2.15 cells. This study aimed to further examine anti-tumor effects of JS-K on HepG2.2.15 cells. The MTT assay and colony forming assay were used to study the cell growth inhibition of JS-K; scratch assay and transwell assay were performed to detect cell migration. The cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry. The immunofluorescence, flow cytometry analysis, and western blot were used to study DNA damage and cell apoptosis. JS-K inhibited HepG2.2.15 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, suppressed cell colony formation and migration, arrested cells gather in the G2 phase. JS-K (1-20μM) increased the expression of DNA damage-associated protein phosphorylation H 2 AX (γH 2 AX), phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 1 (p-Chk1), phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 2 (p-Chk2), ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), phosphorylation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated rad3-related (p-ATR) and apoptotic-associated proteins cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-7, cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (cleaved PARP). The study demonstrated JS-K is effective against HBV-positive HepG2.2.15 cells, the mechanisms are not only related to inhibition of HBsAg and HBeAg secretion, but also related with induction of DNA damage and apoptosis. JS-K is a promising anti-cancer candidate against HBV-positive HCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. TRPV4 activation mediates flow-induced nitric oxide production in the rat thick ascending limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) regulates renal function. Luminal flow stimulates NO production in the thick ascending limb (TAL). Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a mechano-sensitive channel activated by luminal flow in different types of cells. We hypothesized that TRPV4 mediates flow-induced NO production in the rat TAL. We measured NO production in isolated, perfused rat TALs using the fluorescent dye DAF FM. Increasing luminal flow from 0 to 20 nl/min stimulated NO from 8 ± 3 to 45 ± 12 arbitrary units (AU)/min (n = 5; P < 0.05). The TRPV4 antagonists, ruthenium red (15 μmol/l) and RN 1734 (10 μmol/l), blocked flow-induced NO production. Also, luminal flow did not increase NO production in the absence of extracellular calcium. We also studied the effect of luminal flow on NO production in TALs transduced with a TRPV4shRNA. In nontransduced TALs luminal flow increased NO production by 47 ± 17 AU/min (P < 0.05; n = 5). Similar to nontransduced TALs, luminal flow increased NO production by 39 ± 11 AU/min (P < 0.03; n = 5) in TALs transduced with a control negative sequence-shRNA while in TRPV4shRNA-transduced TALs, luminal flow did not increase NO production (Δ10 ± 15 AU/min; n = 5). We then tested the effect of two different TRPV4 agonists on NO production in the absence of luminal flow. 4α-Phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (1 μmol/l) enhanced NO production by 60 ± 11 AU/min (P < 0.002; n = 7) and GSK1016790A (10 ηmol/l) increased NO production by 52 ± 15 AU/min (P < 0.03; n = 5). GSK1016790A (10 ηmol/l) did not stimulate NO production in TRPV4shRNA-transduced TALs. We conclude that activation of TRPV4 channels mediates flow-induced NO production in the rat TAL. PMID:24966090

  2. Nitric oxide circulates in mammalian plasma primarily as an S-nitroso adduct of serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamler, J S; Jaraki, O; Osborne, J; Simon, D I; Keaney, J; Vita, J; Singel, D; Valeri, C R; Loscalzo, J

    1992-01-01

    We have recently shown that nitric oxide or authentic endothelium-derived relaxing factor generated in a biologic system reacts in the presence of specific protein thiols to form S-nitrosoprotein derivatives that have endothelium-derived relaxing factor-like properties. The single free cysteine of serum albumin, Cys-34, is particularly reactive toward nitrogen oxides (most likely nitrosonium ion) under physiologic conditions, primarily because of its anomalously low pK; given its abundance in plasma, where it accounts for approximately 0.5 mM thiol, we hypothesized that this plasma protein serves as a reservoir for nitric oxide produced by the endothelial cell. To test this hypothesis, we developed a methodology, which involves UV photolytic cleavage of the S--NO bond before reaction with ozone for chemiluminescence detection, with which to measure free nitric oxide, S-nitrosothiols, and S-nitrosoproteins in biologic systems. We found that human plasma contains approximately 7 microM S-nitrosothiols, of which 96% are S-nitrosoproteins, 82% of which is accounted for by S-nitroso-serum albumin. By contrast, plasma levels of free nitric oxide are only in the 3-nM range. In rabbits, plasma S-nitrosothiols are present at approximately 1 microM; 60 min after administration of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine at 50 mg/ml, a selective and potent inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetases, S-nitrosothiols decreased by approximately 40% (greater than 95% of which were accounted for by S-nitrosoproteins, and approximately 80% of which was S-nitroso-serum albumin); this decrease was accompanied by a concomitant increase in mean arterial blood pressure of 22%. These data suggest that naturally produced nitric oxide circulates in plasma primarily complexed in S-nitrosothiol species, principal among which is S-nitroso-serum albumin. This abundant, relatively long-lived adduct likely serves as a reservoir with which plasma levels of highly reactive, short-lived free nitric oxide can be

  3. Nitric oxide and non-quantal acetylcholine release

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyskočil, František

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2003), s. 241-243 ISSN 1211-7579. [Celostátní konference biologické psychiatrie /11./. Luhačovice, 11.06.2003-14.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/02/1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922; CEZ:MSM 113100003 Keywords : nitric oxide Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  4. Crocin Suppresses LPS-Stimulated Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 via Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hee Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crocin is a water-soluble carotenoid pigment that is primarily used in various cuisines as a seasoning and coloring agent, as well as in traditional medicines for the treatment of edema, fever, and hepatic disorder. In this study, we demonstrated that crocin markedly induces the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 which leads to an anti-inflammatory response. Crocin inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression and nitric oxide production via downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B activity in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. These effects were abrogated by blocking of HO-1 expression or activity. Crocin also induced Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular pools and phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 4 (CAMK4. CAMK4 knockdown and kinase-dead mutant inhibited crocin-mediated HO-1 expression, Nrf2 activation, and phosphorylation of Akt, indicating that HO-1 expression is mediated by CAMK4 and that Akt is a downstream mediator of CAMK4 in crocin signaling. Moreover, crocin-mediated suppression of iNOS expression was blocked by CAMK4 inhibition. Overall, these results suggest that crocin suppresses LPS-stimulated expression of iNOS by inducing HO-1 expression via Ca2+/calmodulin-CAMK4-PI3K/Akt-Nrf2 signaling cascades. Our findings provide a novel molecular mechanism for the inhibitory effects of crocin against endotoxin-mediated inflammation.

  5. Investigation on oxidative stress of nitric oxide synthase interacting protein from Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Meng; Xu, Qingxia; Xu, Yanquan; Li, Shan; Wang, Xiaoyun; Sheng, Jiahe; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-01-01

    Numerous evidences indicate that excretory-secretory products (ESPs) from liver flukes trigger the generation of free radicals that are associated with the initial pathophysiological responses in host cells. In this study, we first constructed a Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, Cs)-infected BALB/c mouse model and examined relative results respectively at 3, 5, 7, and 9 weeks postinfection (p.i.). Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR indicated that the transcriptional level of both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) gradually decreased with lastingness of infection, while the transcriptional level of inducible NOS (iNOS) significantly increased. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in sera of infected mouse significantly increased versus the healthy control group. These results showed that the liver of C. sinensis-infected mouse was in a state with elevated levels of oxidation stress. Previously, C. sinensis NOS interacting protein coding gene (named CsNOSIP) has been isolated and recombinant CsNOSIP (rCsNOSIP) has been expressed in Escherichia coli, which has been confirmed to be a component present in CsESPs and confirmed to play important roles in immune regulation of the host. In the present paper, we investigated the effects of rCsNOSIP on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activated RAW264.7, a murine macrophage cell line. We found that endotoxin-free rCsNOSIP significantly promoted the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) after pretreated with rCsNOSIP, while the level of SOD decreased. Furthermore, rCsNOSIP could also increase the level of lipid peroxidation MDA. Taken together, these results suggested that CsNOSIP was a key molecule which was involved in the production of nitric oxide (NO) and its reactive intermediates, and played an important role in oxidative stress during C. sinensis infection.

  6. Nitric oxide mediated bystander responses induced by microbeam targeted cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, C.; Prise, K.M.; Folkard, M.; Michael, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    Considerable evidence has recently been accumulated in support of the existence of a 'bystander effect', which cells having received no irradiation show biological consequences from their vicinal irradiated cells. The application of microbeams is providing new insights into the radiation-induced bystander effect. The present study found that when a fraction of radioresistant human glioblastoma cells were individually targeted with a precise number of helium ions generated from the Gray Cancer Institute Charged Particle Microbeam, micronucleus (MN) induction significantly exceeded the expected value that was calculated from the number of MN observed when all of the cells were targeted assuming no bystander effect occurring. Even when only a single cell within a population was hit by one helium ion, the MN induction in the population could be increased by 16%. These results provide direct evidence of radiation-induced bystander effect. Moreover, MN was effectively induced in the unirradiated primary human fibroblasts and glioblastoma cells either co-cultured with irradiated cells or treated with the medium harvested from irradiated cells, indicating a signal molecule was produced from the irradiated cells. However, when c-PTIO, a nitric oxide (NO)-specific scavenger, was present in the medium during and after irradiation until MN analysis, the production of MN in all of the above cases was reduced to low levels. Consequently, NO plays an important role in the radiation-induced bystander effect

  7. Dietary rose hip exerts antiatherosclerotic effects and increases nitric oxide-mediated dilation in ApoE-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalera, Michele; Axling, Ulrika; Rippe, Catarina; Swärd, Karl; Holm, Cecilia

    2017-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease in which atheromatous plaques develop inside arteries, leading to reduced or obstructed blood flow that in turn may cause stroke and heart attack. Rose hip is the fruit of plants of the genus Rosa, belonging to the Rosaceae family, and it is rich in antioxidants with high amounts of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds. Several studies have shown that fruits, seeds and roots of these plants exert antidiabetic, antiobesity and cholesterol-lowering effects in rodents as well as humans. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which rose hip lowers plasma cholesterol and to evaluate its effects on atherosclerotic plaque formation. ApoE-null mice were fed either an HFD (CTR) or HFD with rose hip supplementation (RH) for 24 weeks. At the end of the study, we found that blood pressure and atherosclerotic plaques, together with oxidized LDL, total cholesterol and fibrinogen levels were markedly reduced in the RH group. Fecal cholesterol content, liver expression of Ldlr and selected reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) genes such as Abca1, Abcg1 and Scarb1 were significantly increased upon RH feeding. In the aorta, the scavenger receptor Cd36 and the proinflammatory Il1β genes were markedly down-regulated compared to the CTR mice. Finally, we found that RH increased nitric oxide-mediated dilation of the caudal artery. Taken together, these results suggest that rose hip is a suitable dietary supplement for preventing atherosclerotic plaques formation by modulating systemic blood pressure and the expression of RCT and inflammatory genes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. α-Klotho expression determines nitric oxide synthesis in response to FGF-23 in human aortic endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chung

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells (ECs express fibroblast growth factor (FGF receptors and are metabolically active after treatment with FGF-23. It is not known if this effect is α-Klotho independent or mediated by humoral or endogenous endothelial α-Klotho. In the present study, we aimed to characterize EC α-Klotho expression within the human vascular tree and to investigate the potential role of α-Klotho in determining FGF-23 mediated EC regulation. Human tissue and ECs from various organs were used for immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Primary cultures of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs and human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs were used to generate in vitro cell models. We found endogenous α-Klotho expression in ECs from various organs except in microvascular ECs from human brain. Furthermore, FGF-23 stimulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression, nitric oxide (NO production, and cell proliferation in HAECs. Interestingly, these effects were not observed in our HBMEC model in vitro. High phosphate treatment and endothelial α-Klotho knockdown mitigated FGF-23 mediated eNOS induction, NO production, and cell proliferation in HAECs. Rescue treatment with soluble α-Klotho did not reverse endothelial FGF-23 resistance caused by reduced or absent α-Klotho expression in HAECs. These novel observations provide evidence for differential α-Klotho functional expression in the human endothelium and its presence may play a role in determining the response to FGF-23 in the vascular tree. α-Klotho was not detected in cerebral microvascular ECs and its absence may render these cells nonresponsive to FGF-23.

  9. Efeito oxidativo do óxido nítrico e infertilidade no macho Oxidative effect of nitric oxide and male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onofre Ferreira de Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A capacidade de fertilização dos espermatozóides é dependente, entre outros fatores, da sua motilidade e da integridade de sua membrana. As substâncias oxidativas, quando produzidas em excesso no organismo, em particular no líquido seminal, comprometem a motilidade do espermatozóide e a sua viabilidade em promover a fertilização. Um dos agentes oxidantes capazes de promover estes efeitos é o óxido nítrico (ON, responsável pela mediação em vários processos fisiológicos. O uso de terapias antioxidantes no tratamento de alguns tipos de infertilidade deve ser feito com cautela, pois uma inibição muito severa poderá comprometer as taxas de ON e, conseqüentemente, irá influenciar outros mecanismos fisiológicos dependentes de sua concentração.The capacity of fertilization of the sperm is dependent, among other factors, of the mobility and integrity of its membrane. The oxidative substances when produced in excess in the organism, in matter in the seminal liquid, they commit the mobility and viability of the sperm in their capacity of fertilization. One of the oxidative substance capable to promote these effects is the nitric oxide (NO, responsible for the mediation in several physiologic processes. The use of antioxidant therapies in the treatment of some infertility types should be made with caution because it can commit the nitric oxide's levels and consequently, it will influence other physiologic mechanisms dependents of its concentration.

  10. Suppression of grasshopper sound production by nitric oxide-releasing neurons of the central complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, Anja; Kunst, Michael; Wirmer, Andrea; Holstein, Gay R.

    2008-01-01

    The central complex of acridid grasshoppers integrates sensory information pertinent to reproduction-related acoustic communication. Activation of nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP-signaling by injection of NO donors into the central complex of restrained Chorthippus biguttulus females suppresses muscarine-stimulated sound production. In contrast, sound production is released by aminoguanidine (AG)-mediated inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the central body, suggesting a basal release of NO that suppresses singing in this situation. Using anti-citrulline immunocytochemistry to detect recent NO production, subtypes of columnar neurons with somata located in the pars intercerebralis and tangential neurons with somata in the ventro-median protocerebrum were distinctly labeled. Their arborizations in the central body upper division overlap with expression patterns for NOS and with the site of injection where NO donors suppress sound production. Systemic application of AG increases the responsiveness of unrestrained females to male calling songs. Identical treatment with the NOS inhibitor that increased male song-stimulated sound production in females induced a marked reduction of citrulline accumulation in central complex columnar and tangential neurons. We conclude that behavioral situations that are unfavorable for sound production (like being restrained) activate NOS-expressing central body neurons to release NO and elevate the behavioral threshold for sound production in female grasshoppers. PMID:18574586

  11. Medroxyprogesterone acetate attenuates estrogen-induced nitric oxide production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Akira; Ohmichi, Masahide; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Toshifumi; Mori-Abe, Akiko; Kawagoe, Jun; Otsu, Reiko; Mochizuki, Yoshiko; Inaba, Noriyuki; Kurachi, Hirohisa

    2004-01-01

    We report the novel observation that medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) attenuates the induction by 17β estradiol (E2) of both nitric oxide (NO) production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Although MPA had no effect on basal NO production or basal eNOS phosphorylation or activity, it attenuated the E2-induced NO production and eNOS phosphorylation and activity. Moreover, we examined the mechanism by which MPA attenuated the E2-induced NO production and eNOS phosphorylation. MPA attenuated the E2-induced phosphorylation of Akt, a kinase that phosphorylates eNOS. Treatment with pure progesterone receptor (PR) antagonist RU486 completely abolished the inhibitory effect of MPA on E2-induced Akt phosphorylation and eNOS phosphorylation. In addition, the effects of actinomycin D were tested to rule out the influence of genomic events mediated by nuclear PRs. Actinomycin D did not affect the inhibitory effect of MPA on E2-induced Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, the potential roles of PRA and PRB were evaluated. In COS cells transfected with either PRA or PRB, MPA attenuated E2-induced Akt phosphorylation. These results indicate that MPA attenuated E2-induced NO production via an Akt cascade through PRA or PRB in a non-genomic manner

  12. Far-infrared radiation acutely increases nitric oxide production by increasing Ca2+ mobilization and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at serine 1179

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Sangmi; Cho, Du-Hyong; Park, Young Mi; Kang, Duk-Hee; Jo, Inho

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Far-infrared (FIR) radiation increases eNOS-Ser 1179 phosphorylation and NO production in BAEC. •CaMKII and PKA mediate FIR-stimulated increases in eNOS-Ser 1179 phosphorylation. •FIR increases intracellular Ca 2+ levels. •Thermo-sensitive TRPV Ca 2+ channels are unlikely to be involved in the FIR-mediated eNOS-Ser 1179 phosphorylation pathway. -- Abstract: Repeated thermal therapy manifested by far-infrared (FIR) radiation improves vascular function in both patients and mouse model with coronary heart disease, but its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Using FIR as a thermal therapy agent, we investigate the molecular mechanism of its effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and NO production. FIR increased the phosphorylation of eNOS at serine 1179 (eNOS-Ser 1179 ) in a time-dependent manner (up to 40 min of FIR radiation) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) without alterations in eNOS expression. This increase was accompanied by increases in NO production and intracellular Ca 2+ levels. Treatment with KN-93, a selective inhibitor of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and H-89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, inhibited FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser 1179 phosphorylation. FIR radiation itself also increased the temperature of culture medium. As transient receptors potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels are known to be temperature-sensitive calcium channels, we explore whether TRPV channels mediate these observed effects. Reverse transcription-PCR assay revealed two TRPV isoforms in BAEC, TRPV2 and TRPV4. Although ruthenium red, a pan-TRPV inhibitor, completely reversed the observed effect of FIR radiation, a partial attenuation (∼20%) was found in cells treated with Tranilast, TRPV2 inhibitor. However, ectopic expression of siRNA of TRPV2 showed no significant alteration in FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser 1179 phosphorylation. This study suggests that FIR radiation increases NO

  13. Nitric Oxide and Reactive Oxygen Species in the Pathogenesis of Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Matsubara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is characterized by disturbed extravillous trophoblast migration toward uterine spiral arteries leading to increased uteroplacental vascular resistance and by vascular dysfunction resulting in reduced systemic vasodilatory properties. Its pathogenesis is mediated by an altered bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO and tissue damage caused by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Furthermore, superoxide (O2− rapidly inactivates NO and forms peroxynitrite (ONOO−. It is known that ONOO− accumulates in the placental tissues and injures the placental function in PE. In addition, ROS could stimulate platelet adhesion and aggregation leading to intravascular coagulopathy. ROS-induced coagulopathy causes placental infarction and impairs the uteroplacental blood flow in PE. The disorders could lead to the reduction of oxygen and nutrients required for normal fetal development resulting in fetal growth restriction. On the other hand, several antioxidants scavenge ROS and protect tissues against oxidative damage. Placental antioxidants including catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx protect the vasculature from ROS and maintain the vascular function. However, placental ischemia in PE decreases the antioxidant activity resulting in further elevated oxidative stress, which leads to the appearance of the pathological conditions of PE including hypertension and proteinuria. Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between ROS and antioxidant activity. This review provides new insights about roles of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of PE.

  14. Slow and sustained nitric oxide releasing compounds inhibit multipotent vascular stem cell proliferation and differentiation without causing cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Brandon M.; Leix, Kyle Alexander; Ji, Yajing; Glaves, Richard Samuel Elliot; Ash, David E.; Mohanty, Dillip K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multipotent vascular stem cells (MVSCs) proliferate and differentiate. • Nitric oxide inhibits proliferation of MVSCs. • Nitric oxide inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs). • Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) neither de-differentiate nor proliferate. - Abstract: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of cerebral and myocardial infarction. It is believed that neointimal growth common in the later stages of atherosclerosis is a result of vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) de-differentiation in response to endothelial injury. However, the claims of the SMC de-differentiation theory have not been substantiated by monitoring the fate of mature SMCs in response to such injuries. A recent study suggests that atherosclerosis is a consequence of multipotent vascular stem cell (MVSC) differentiation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known mediator against atherosclerosis, in part because of its inhibitory effect on SMC proliferation. Using three different NO-donors, we have investigated the effects of NO on MVSC proliferation. Results indicate that NO inhibits MVSC proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. A slow and sustained delivery of NO proved to inhibit proliferation without causing cell death. On the other hand, larger, single-burst NO concentrations, inhibits proliferation, with concurrent significant cell death. Furthermore, our results indicate that endogenously produced NO inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs) and subsequently to SMC as well

  15. Slow and sustained nitric oxide releasing compounds inhibit multipotent vascular stem cell proliferation and differentiation without causing cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Brandon M.; Leix, Kyle Alexander [Department of Chemistry, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Ji, Yajing [Department of Biomedical Science and Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Glaves, Richard Samuel Elliot [Department of Biology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Ash, David E. [Department of Chemistry, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Mohanty, Dillip K., E-mail: Mohan1dk@cmich.edu [Department of Chemistry, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Multipotent vascular stem cells (MVSCs) proliferate and differentiate. • Nitric oxide inhibits proliferation of MVSCs. • Nitric oxide inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs). • Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) neither de-differentiate nor proliferate. - Abstract: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of cerebral and myocardial infarction. It is believed that neointimal growth common in the later stages of atherosclerosis is a result of vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) de-differentiation in response to endothelial injury. However, the claims of the SMC de-differentiation theory have not been substantiated by monitoring the fate of mature SMCs in response to such injuries. A recent study suggests that atherosclerosis is a consequence of multipotent vascular stem cell (MVSC) differentiation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known mediator against atherosclerosis, in part because of its inhibitory effect on SMC proliferation. Using three different NO-donors, we have investigated the effects of NO on MVSC proliferation. Results indicate that NO inhibits MVSC proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. A slow and sustained delivery of NO proved to inhibit proliferation without causing cell death. On the other hand, larger, single-burst NO concentrations, inhibits proliferation, with concurrent significant cell death. Furthermore, our results indicate that endogenously produced NO inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs) and subsequently to SMC as well.

  16. Nitric oxide and neopterin in bipolar affective disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Fekkes, D.; Pepplinkhuizen, L.; Loonen, A.J.M.; Tuinier, S.; Verhoeven, W.M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: There is an increasing interest in the role of nitric oxide (NO) and pterines in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. The results so far show an inconsistent pattern. Methods: In the present study, neopterin and a measure of NO synthesis in plasma of symptomatic and

  17. NITRIC OXIDE AND ENDOTHELIN-1 IN CHILDREN WITH DIGESTIVE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Panova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The important part in the group of biological compounds, participating in the regulation of the functions of the gastro-intestinal tract, is assigned to endothelial factors because of their impact on the majority of physiological and pathophysiological processes of the digestive system. The article provides information about physiological role of nitric oxide and endothelin-1 and presents a review of scientific data on the participation of nitric oxide and endothelin-1 in the pathogenesis of many digestive system diseases, emphasizing chronic inflammatory disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The authors accentuate the importance of endothelium endocrine function research in children with esophagogastroduodenal disorders at the beginning of puberty, which is the critical period of ontogenesis.

  18. Influence of environmental ammonia on the production of nitric oxide and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the freshwater air-breathing catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Mahua G. [Biochemical Adaptation Laboratory, Department of Zoology, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022 (India); Saha, Nirmalendu, E-mail: nsaha@nehu.ac.in [Biochemical Adaptation Laboratory, Department of Zoology, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022 (India)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High environmental ammonia caused more production and accumulation of NO in air-breathing catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hyper-ammonia stress caused induction and zonal specific expression of iNOS enzyme protein, mRNA expression in different tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of NF{kappa}B that resulted under hyper-ammonia stress was believed to be the cause of induction of iNOS gene. - Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly versatile and unique ubiquitous signaling molecule, and is known to play diverse physiological functions in mammals including those of adaptation to various stresses. The present study reports on the influence of exposure to high external ammonia (HEA) on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), that produces NO from L-arginine in the freshwater air-breathing catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis), which is reported to tolerate a very HEA. Some levels of NO were found to be present in all the tissues and also in plasma of control fish, which further enhanced significantly in fishes treated with high concentrations of environmental ammonia (25 and 50 mM ammonium chloride) for 7 days, accompanied by more efflux of NO from the perfused liver. This was accomplished by the induction of iNOS activity in different tissues of fish exposed to HEA, which otherwise was not detectable in control fish. Exposure to 25 mM ammonium chloride also led to a significant expression of iNOS protein in different tissues, followed by further increase at 50 mM ammonium chloride. Further, there was an increase in the expression of iNOS mRNA in ammonia-treated fish, thus suggesting that the expression of iNOS gene under hyper-ammonia stress was probably regulated at the transcriptional level. Immunocytochemical analysis indicated that the expression of iNOS in different tissues was zonal specific and not expressed uniformly

  19. Influence of environmental ammonia on the production of nitric oxide and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the freshwater air-breathing catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, Mahua G.; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► High environmental ammonia caused more production and accumulation of NO in air-breathing catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis). ► Hyper-ammonia stress caused induction and zonal specific expression of iNOS enzyme protein, mRNA expression in different tissues. ► Activation of NFκB that resulted under hyper-ammonia stress was believed to be the cause of induction of iNOS gene. - Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly versatile and unique ubiquitous signaling molecule, and is known to play diverse physiological functions in mammals including those of adaptation to various stresses. The present study reports on the influence of exposure to high external ammonia (HEA) on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), that produces NO from L-arginine in the freshwater air-breathing catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis), which is reported to tolerate a very HEA. Some levels of NO were found to be present in all the tissues and also in plasma of control fish, which further enhanced significantly in fishes treated with high concentrations of environmental ammonia (25 and 50 mM ammonium chloride) for 7 days, accompanied by more efflux of NO from the perfused liver. This was accomplished by the induction of iNOS activity in different tissues of fish exposed to HEA, which otherwise was not detectable in control fish. Exposure to 25 mM ammonium chloride also led to a significant expression of iNOS protein in different tissues, followed by further increase at 50 mM ammonium chloride. Further, there was an increase in the expression of iNOS mRNA in ammonia-treated fish, thus suggesting that the expression of iNOS gene under hyper-ammonia stress was probably regulated at the transcriptional level. Immunocytochemical analysis indicated that the expression of iNOS in different tissues was zonal specific and not expressed uniformly throughout the organ. Hyper-ammonia stress also led to activation and nuclear

  20. Stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis by the aqueous extract of Panax ginseng root in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, R; Moeslinger, T; Kopp, B; Spieckermann, P G

    2001-12-01

    1. In this study, we investigated the effect of Panax ginseng root aqueous extracts upon inducible nitric oxide synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells. Panax ginseng root extract has been used in the Asian world for centuries as a traditional herb to enhance physical strength and resistance and is becoming more and more popular in Europe and North America. 2. Incubation of murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) with increasing amounts of aqueous extracts of Panax ginseng (0.05 - 0.8 microg microl(-1)) showed a dose dependent stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis. 3. Polysaccharides isolated from Panax ginseng showed strong stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis, whereas a triterpene-enriched fraction from an aqueous extract of Panax ginseng did not show any stimulation. 4. Inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression was enhanced in a dose dependent manner as revealed by immunoblotting when cells were incubated with increasing amounts of Panax ginseng extract. This was associated with an incline in inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA-levels as determined by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction and electromobility shift assay studies indicated enhanced nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding activity. 5. As nitric oxide plays an important role in immune function, Panax ginseng treatment could modulate several aspects of host defense mechanisms due to stimulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase.

  1. The expression of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase and apoptosis in intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury under the action of ischemic preconditioning and pentoxifylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Teresinha Regina Ribeiro de; Oliveira, Geraldo Ferreira de; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Feitosa, Suellen Maurim; Tikazawa, Eduardo Hiroshi; Monteiro, Hugo Pequeno; Fagundes, Djalma José; Taha, Murched Omar

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and apoptosis associated with ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and pentoxifylline (PTX) in intestinal ischemia (I) and reperfusion (R) injury. Thirty male rats were assigned to 5 groups: (CG), no clamping of the superior mesenteric artery (90 minutes); (IR-SS) saline + ischemia (30 minutes) + reperfusion (60 minutes); (IR-PTX) PTX + ischemia (30 minutes) + reperfusion (60 minutes); (IPC-IR-SS) 5 minutes of ischemia + 5 minutes of reperfusion (IPC) + saline + I(30 minutes)+R(60 minutes); and (IPC-IR-PTX) IPC + PTX + I(30 minutes)+ R(60 minutes). The application of IPC and PTX showed a significantly lower immunohistochemistry reaction for active caspase-3 (P0.05). The NOS-2 expression (qRTPCR) in the IR-PTX group (P<0.05) was higher than the values for the IPC+IR-SS and IPC-IR-PTX groups. The NOS-3 expression was significantly upper in the IPC-IR-PTX group than in the CG (P<0.05), the IR-SS (P<0.05) and the IR-PTX (P<0.05) groups. The BCL-2 and active caspase-3 showed beneficial effects on PTX and IPC. The expression of NOS-2 and NOS-3 in the IPC and IPC-PTX groups showed no synergistic effect.

  2. Neonatal hyperthyroidism on rat heart: interrelation with nitric oxide and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, L; Detomaso, F; Braga, P; Prendes, M; Perosi, F; Cernadas, G; Balaszczuk, A; Fellet, A

    2015-06-01

    To clarify the mechanism mediating the effect of hyperthyroidism on cardiac function during the second month of life in rats. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to a control or to a triiodothyronine (T3)-treated group. Treatment of each group was started on the third day after birth. Control rats (Eut) received 0.9 NaCl [0.1 ml/100 g body weight (BW)] every second day during 60 days and T3-treated rats (Hyper) received subcutaneous (SC) T3 injections every second day during 60 days. Hyperthyroidism decreased left ventricle volume only in male rats. Female euthyroid rats presented higher atrial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity than male rats and hormonal treatment decreased this enzyme's activity in both sexes. Euthyroid male and female rats had similar atrial NOS protein levels, but females had higher caveolin (cav) 3 protein levels. T3 treatment increased this protein only in males. Female rats had lower ventricular NOS activity than male rats; hyperthyroidism increased NOS activity in both sexes but this effect was associated with lower cav 3 protein levels. Hyperthyroidism did not change cav 1 protein levels in both male and female rats. The results of this study demonstrating clinically relevant sex-related differences in the pathophysiology of the hyperthyroid heart have raised new questions regarding the mechanisms responsible for the observed differences. This study suggests that sex-related intrinsic factors such as nitric oxide may modulate the response to hyperthyroidism that leads to cardiovascular dysfunction.

  3. Effect of nanoparticles binding ß-amyloid peptide on nitric oxide production by cultured endothelial cells and macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Antonina Orlando,1 Francesca Re,1 Silvia Sesana,1 Ilaria Rivolta,1 Alice Panariti,1 Davide Brambilla,2 Julien Nicolas,2 Patrick Couvreur,2 Karine Andrieux,2 Massimo Masserini,1 Emanuela Cazzaniga1 1Department of Health Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy; 2Institut Galien Paris Sud, University Paris-Sud, Châtenay-Malabry, France Background: As part of a project designing nanoparticles for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, we have synthesized and characterized a small library of nanoparticles binding with high affinity to the β-amyloid peptide and showing features of biocompatibility in vitro, which are important properties for administration in vivo. In this study, we focused on biocompatibility issues, evaluating production of nitric oxide by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells and macrophages, used as models of cells which would be exposed to nanoparticles after systemic administration. Methods: The nanoparticles tested were liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles carrying phosphatidic acid or cardiolipin, and PEGylated poly(alkyl cyanoacrylate nanoparticles (PEG-PACA. We measured nitric oxide production using the Griess method as well as phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and intracellular free calcium, which are biochemically related to nitric oxide production. MTT viability tests and caspase-3 detection were also undertaken. Results: Exposure to liposomes did not affect the viability of endothelial cells at any concentration tested. Increased production of nitric oxide was detected only with liposomes carrying phosphatidic acid or cardiolipin at the highest concentration (120 µg/mL, together with increased synthase phosphorylation and intracellular calcium levels. Macrophages exposed to liposomes showed a slightly dose-dependent decrease in viability, with no increase in production of nitric oxide. Exposure to solid lipid nanoparticles carrying phosphatidic acid decreased viability in

  4. Hepatitis C virus infection induces apoptosis through a Bax-triggered, mitochondrion-mediated, caspase 3-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lin; Adachi, Tetsuya; Kitayama, Kikumi; Bungyoku, Yasuaki; Kitazawa, Sohei; Ishido, Satoshi; Shoji, Ikuo; Hotta, Hak

    2008-11-01

    We previously reported that cells harboring the hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replicon as well as those expressing HCV NS3/4A exhibited increased sensitivity to suboptimal doses of apoptotic stimuli to undergo mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis (Y. Nomura-Takigawa, et al., J. Gen. Virol. 87:1935-1945, 2006). Little is known, however, about whether or not HCV infection induces apoptosis of the virus-infected cells. In this study, by using the chimeric J6/JFH1 strain of HCV genotype 2a, we demonstrated that HCV infection induced cell death in Huh7.5 cells. The cell death was associated with activation of caspase 3, nuclear translocation of activated caspase 3, and cleavage of DNA repair enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, which is known to be an important substrate for activated caspase 3. These results suggest that HCV-induced cell death is, in fact, apoptosis. Moreover, HCV infection activated Bax, a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, as revealed by its conformational change and its increased accumulation on mitochondrial membranes. Concomitantly, HCV infection induced disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, followed by mitochondrial swelling and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. HCV infection also caused oxidative stress via increased production of mitochondrial superoxide. On the other hand, HCV infection did not mediate increased expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) or GRP94, which are known as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced proteins; this result suggests that ER stress is not primarily involved in HCV-induced apoptosis in our experimental system. Taken together, our present results suggest that HCV infection induces apoptosis of the host cell through a Bax-triggered, mitochondrion-mediated, caspase 3-dependent pathway(s).

  5. Immune effector mechanisms of the nitric oxide pathway in malaria: cytotoxicity versus cytoprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nahrevanian

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is thought to be an important mediator and critical signaling molecule for malaria immunopathology; it is also a target for therapy and for vaccine. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS is synthesized by a number of cell types under inflammatory conditions. The most relevant known triggers for its expression are endotoxins and cytokines. To date, there have been conflicting reports concerning the clinical significance of NO in malaria. Some researchers have proposed that NO contributes to the development of severe and complicated malaria, while others have argued that NO has a protective role. Infection with parasites resistant to the microbicidal action of NO may result in high levels of NO being generated, which could then damage the host, instead of controlling parasitemia. Consequently, the host-parasite interaction is a determining factor for whether the parasite is capable of stimulating NO production; the role of NO in resistance to malaria appears to be strain specific. It is known that NO and/or its related molecules are involved in malaria, but their involvement is not independent of other immune events. NO is an important, but possibly not an essential contributor to the control of acute-phase malaria infection. The protective immune responses against malaria parasite are multifactorial; however, they necessarily involve final effector molecules, including NO, iNOS and RNI.

  6. Nitric oxide and catalase-sensitive relaxation by scutellarin in the mouse thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weimin; Lust, Robert M; Bofferding, April; Wingard, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    The vascular activity of scutellarin (SCU), a flavonoid isolated from a Chinese traditional medicinal plant, was investigated in isolated thoracic aortic rings of mice. SCU-induced dose-dependent relaxation of phenylephrine (1 microM) stimulated contractions. This relaxation was reduced by endothelium removal, significantly reduced by both the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methylester, 300 microM) and slightly limited by the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (1 H-[1,2,4] oxidazolol [4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one, 100 microM). The catalase inhibitor (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, 50 mM) augmented the constriction and blocked the lowest SCU concentration relaxation, whereas catalase addition was without effect. Preincubation with 300 and 1000 microM SCU significantly suppressed the contractile dose-response to phenylephrine, causing both a significant rise in half maximal effective concentration and a decrease in the maximal developed force. Western blot analysis showed that SCU inhibition of contraction was independent of reductions in myosin light chain phosphorylation. These results suggested that SCU relaxation was predominantly endothelium dependent and likely involved the catalase-sensitive nitric oxide synthase signaling pathway, without loss of myosin phosphorylation. The potential clinical use of SCU may prove to be effective in increasing vasoreactivity, independently of smooth muscle contractile activity that is mediated by the 20-kDa myosin light chain phosphorylation.

  7. Nitric oxide in health and disease of the respiratory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricciardolo, Fabio L. M.; Sterk, Peter J.; Gaston, Benjamin; Folkerts, Gert

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade a plethora of studies have unravelled the multiple roles of nitric oxide (NO) in airway physiology and pathophysiology. In the respiratory tract, NO is produced by a wide variety of cell types and is generated via oxidation of l-arginine that is catalyzed by the enzyme NO

  8. Nicotinamide induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis through oxidative stress in human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yi; Wang, Yonghua; Jiang, Chengrui; Fang, Zishui; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Lin, Xiaoying; Sun, Liwei; Jiang, Weiying

    2017-07-15

    Nicotinamide participates in energy metabolism and influences cellular redox status and modulates multiple pathways related with both cellular survival and death. Recent studies have shown that it induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in many cancer cells. However, little is known about the effects of nicotinamide on human cervical cancer cells. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the indicated concentrations nicotinamide on cell proliferation, apoptosis and redox-related parameters in HeLa cells and investigated the apoptotic mechanism. After the treatment of the indicated concentrations nicotinamide, HeLa cell proliferation was evaluated by the CCK-8 assay and the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) was measured using 2',7'-Dichlorofluorescin diacetate. The apoptotic effect was confirmed by observing the cellular and nuclear morphologies with fluorescence microscope and apoptotic rate of HeLa cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry using Annexin-V method. Moreover, we examined the mitochondrial membrane potential by JC-1 method and measured the expression of apoptosis related genes using qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Nicotinamide restrained the HeLa cell proliferation and significantly increased the accumulation of ROS and depletion of GSH at relatively high concentrations. Furthermore, nicotinamide promoted HeLa cell apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Our study revealed that nicotinamide induced the apoptosis through oxidative stress and intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathways in HeLa cell. The results emerge that nicotinamide may be an inexpensive, safe and promising therapeutic agent or a neoadjuvant chemotherapy for cervical cancer patients, as well useful to find new drugs for cervical cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fatty Acid Mixtures from Nigella sativa Protects PC12 Cells from Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Induced by Doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hosseinzadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatty acids (FAs, the key structural elements of dietary lipids, are notable in the nutritional value of plants. Black cumin, a popular anti-inflammatory and antioxidant food seasoning, contains nonpolar constituents such as FAs. Methods: Seeds were extracted using hexane and their cytoprotective activity was assessed against doxorubicin (DOX-mediated oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 cell line. Results: In spite of the cellular death induced by DOX toward PC12 cells, bioassay-guided purification showed that pretreatment with FAs mixtures (24h attenuated DOX-mediated apoptosis, which could be attributed to the inhibited caspase 3 activity and enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential. Palmitic acid, caprylic acid and oleic acid each 1/3 in the mixture, also suppressed DOX-induced ROS generation. Conclusion: Our observation indicated that the subtoxic concentration of FAs from Nigella sativa could effectively protect the cells against oxidative stress, due to their antioxidant activity, and could be regarded as a dietary supplement.

  10. [Studies on the oxidation reaction of octanol-2 with nitric acid by infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G; Zhao, G; Wang, Y; Zhang, Q; Zhang, S; Lu, F

    1998-04-01

    In this paper, the reaction process of oxidation of octanol-2 with nitric acid has been studied by IR spectroscopy. It is found that the main components of non-sapoifiable matter are different in different oxidation degrees. The relation between oxidation products and the amount of nitric acid are investigated,the reaction mechanism has also been studied. Experimental results show that the oxidation process of octanol-2 is as follows: first, octanol-2 is oxidated to octanone-2, or to nitrate, nitrite and nitrile copmpounds, then these compounds are reoxidated to caproic acid in the meantime some by-products, such as valeric, enanthic acids are also found in oxidated products.

  11. JS-K, a GST-activated nitric oxide donor prodrug, enhances chemo-sensitivity in renal carcinoma cells and prevents cardiac myocytes toxicity induced by Doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Mingning; Ke, Longzhi; Zhang, Sai; Zeng, Xin; Fang, Zesong; Liu, Jianjun

    2017-08-01

    Doxorubicin, a highly effective and widely used anthracycline antibiotic in multiple chemotherapy regimens, has been limited by its cardiotoxicity. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of nitric oxide donor prodrug JS-K on proliferation and apoptosis in renal carcinoma cells and cardiac myocytes toxicity induced by Doxorubicin and to explore possible p53-related mechanism in renal carcinoma cells. The effect of JS-K on anti-cancer activity of Doxorubicin was investigated in renal carcinoma cells via detecting cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, cell death and apoptosis and expressions of apoptotic-related proteins. Effect of p53 on the combination of JS-K and Doxorubicin was determined using p53 inhibitor Pifithrin-α and p53 activator III. Furthermore, the effect of JS-K on cardiac myocytes toxicity of Doxorubicin was investigated in H9c2 (2-1) cardiac myocytes via measuring cell growth, cell death and apoptosis, expressions of proteins involved in apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species. We demonstrated that JS-K could increase Doxorubicin-induced renal carcinoma cell growth suppression and apoptosis and could increase expressions of proteins that are involved in apoptosis. Additionally, Pifithrin-α reversed the promoting effect of JS-K on Doxorubicin-induced renal carcinoma cell apoptosis; conversely, the p53 activator III exacerbated the promoting effect of JS-K on Doxorubicin-induced renal carcinoma cell apoptosis. Furthermore, JS-K protected H9c2 (2-1) cardiac myocytes against Doxorubicin-induced toxicity and decreased Doxorubicin-induced reactive oxygen species production. JS-K enhances the anti-cancer activity of Doxorubicin in renal carcinoma cells by upregulating p53 expression and prevents cardiac myocytes toxicity of Doxorubicin by decreasing oxidative stress.

  12. Involvement of nitric oxide in anticompulsive-like effect of agmatine on marble-burying behaviour in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawali, Nitin B; Chowdhury, Amrita A; Kothavade, Pankaj S; Bulani, Vipin D; Nagmoti, Dnyaneshwar M; Juvekar, Archana R

    2016-01-05

    In view of the reports that nitric oxide modulates the neurotransmitters implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), patients with OCD exhibit higher plasma nitrate levels, and drugs useful in OCD influence nitric oxide. Agmatine is a polyamine and widely distributed in mammalian brain which interacts with nitrergic systems. Hence, the present study was carried out to understand the involvement of nitrergic systems in the anticompulsive-like effect of agmatine. We used marble-burying behaviour (MBB) of mice as the animal model of OCD, and nitric oxide levels in hippocampus (HC) and cortex homogenate were measured. Results revealed that, agmatine (20 and 40mg/kg, i.p) significantly inhibited the MBB. Intraperitoneal administration of nitric oxide enhancers viz. nitric oxide precursor - l-arginine (l-ARG) (400mg/kg and 800mg/kg) increased MBB as well as brain nitrites levels, whereas treatment with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (30mg/kg and 50mg/kg, i.p.) and 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) (20mg/kg and 40mg/kg) attenuated MBB and nitrites levels in brain. Further, in combination studies, the anticompulsive-like effect of agmatine (20mg/kg, ip) was exacerbated by prior administration of l-ARG (400mg/kg) and conversely l-NAME (15mg/kg) or 7-NI (10.0mg/kg) attenuated OCD-like behaviour with HC and cortex changes in the levels of NO. None of the above treatment had any significant influence on locomotor activity. In conclusion, Agmatine is effective in ameliorating the compulsive-like behaviour in mice which appears to be related to nitric oxide in brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Total Glucosides of Paeonia lactiflora Pall Suppress Nitric Oxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iNOS) expression and ... Keywords: Total glucosides, Paeonia lactiflora, Nitric oxide, iNOs, Nuclear factor-κB. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Nuclear factor (NF)-κB is the key transcriptional factor regulating iNOS gene transcription.

  14. Experience with inhaled nitric oxide therapy in hypoxic respiratory failure of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Arvind; Callander, Ian; Stack, Jacqueline; Momsen, Tracey; Sterling-Levis, Katy

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory diseases are the commonest cause of morbidity and mortality in newborns. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been shown to be effective in the management of persistent pulmonory hypertension of newborn (PPHN). To retrospectively analyse data to determine the effectiveness of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in the management of newborns with PPHN in terms of survival and changes in oxygenation status. Neo-natal data since inception of iNO therapy at the unit (past six years) was reviewed. Pertinent demographic and clinical information was collected from medical records of newborns that received inhaled nitric oxide therapy during their stay. Details of underlying illnesses, other therapeutic modalities, arterial blood gas, ventilatory and nitric oxide parameters were assessed and analysed to ascertain efficacy of iNO. A total of 36 babies (gestational age ranging from 24-41 weeks) received iNO during this period; two were excluded from final analysis. Overall survival rate was 80 percent. There was a statistically significant increase in systemic oxygenation (PaO2) from 41.1 +/- 2.1 mmHg to 128.5 +/- 13.2 mmHg and a decline in oxygenation index (OI) from 49.4 +/- 5.9 to 17.3 +/- 2.5, when assessed after four hours (P < 0.001). Mean duration of iNO therapy was 63 +/- 7.3 hours and the maximum methaemoglobin levels were noted to be 2.1 percent. Inhaled nitric oxide appears to be an effective rescue therapy for the management of PPHN associated with hypoxic respiratory failure. It is safe and well tolerated with no evidence of clinical or biochemical side effects.

  15. Curcumin supplementation improves vascular endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R; Strahler, Talia R; Bassett, Candace J; Bispham, Nina Z; Chonchol, Michel B; Seals, Douglas R

    2017-01-03

    We hypothesized that curcumin would improve resistance and conduit artery endothelial function and large elastic artery stiffness in healthy middle-aged and older adults. Thirty-nine healthy men and postmenopausal women (45-74 yrs) were randomized to 12 weeks of curcumin (2000 mg/day Longvida®; n=20) or placebo (n=19) supplementation. Forearm blood flow response to acetylcholine infusions (FBF ACh ; resistance artery endothelial function) increased 37% following curcumin supplementation (107±13 vs. 84±11 AUC at baseline, P=0.03), but not placebo (P=0.2). Curcumin treatment augmented the acute reduction in FBF ACh induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; P=0.03), and reduced the acute increase in FBF ACh to the antioxidant vitamin C (P=0.02), whereas placebo had no effect (both P>0.6). Similarly, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (conduit artery endothelial function) increased 36% in the curcumin group (5.7±0.4 vs. 4.4±0.4% at baseline, P=0.001), with no change in placebo (P=0.1). Neither curcumin nor placebo influenced large elastic artery stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity or carotid artery compliance) or circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation (all P>0.1). In healthy middle-aged and older adults, 12 weeks of curcumin supplementation improves resistance artery endothelial function by increasing vascular nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress, while also improving conduit artery endothelial function.

  16. Inhibition of the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway mediates the antidepressant effects of ketamine in rats in the forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang-Fen; Wang, Nan; Shi, Jin-Yun; Xu, Shi-Xia; Li, Xiao-Min; Ji, Mu-Huo; Zuo, Zhi-Yi; Zhou, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Jian-Jun

    2013-09-01

    Converging evidence shows that the acute administration of a sub-anaesthetic dose ketamine produces fast-acting and robust antidepressant properties in patients suffering from major depressive disorder. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the role of the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in the antidepressant effects of ketamine in rats performing the forced swimming test (FST). Ketamine (10 mg/kg) significantly decreased immobility times in the FST and the activities of total nitric oxide synthases (T-NOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and endothelial NOS (eNOS) in the rat hippocampus. Interestingly, the plasma activities of T-NOS, iNOS, and eNOS increased after administration of ketamine. Furthermore, the activities of neuronal NOS (nNOS) did not change significantly in either the hippocampus or plasma after ketamine administration. The antidepressant effects of ketamine were prevented by pre-treatment with l-arginine (750 mg/kg). Pre-treatment with the NOS inhibitor L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester at a sub-antidepressant dose of 50 mg/kg and ketamine at a sub-antidepressant dose of 3 mg/kg reduced immobility time in the FST compared to treatment with either drug alone. None of the drugs affected crossing and rearing scores in the open field test. These results suggest that the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway is involved in the antidepressant effects of ketamine observed in rats in the FST and this involvement is characterised by the inhibition of brain T-NOS, iNOS, and eNOS activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Polymorphisms With Acute Rejection in Liver Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarpira, Negar; Namazi, Soha; Malahi, Sayan; Kazemi, Kourosh

    2016-06-01

    Polymorphisms of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene have been associated with altered endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between endothelial nitric oxide synthase -786T/C and 894G/T polymorphism and their haplotypes on the occurrence of acute rejection episodes in liver transplant recipients. We conducted a case control study in which 100 liver transplant recipients and 100 healthy controls were recruited from Shiraz Transplant Center. The patients used triple therapy including tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisolone for immunosuppression maintenance. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Patients included 60 men and 40 women (mean age, 32.35 ± 10.2 y). There was a significant association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase 894G/T and acute rejection episode. The GT* gen-otype and acute rejection episodes had a significant association (odds ratio, 2.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-6.15; P = .03). The GG and GT* genotype and T* allele frequency were significantly different between patients and control subjects (P = .001). Haplotype TT* was higher in recipients than control subjects (odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-4.25; P = .01). Haplotype TG was higher in the control group (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.96; P = .02). Our results suggest a relation between different endothelial nitric oxide synthase geno-types and risk of acute rejection episodes. However, further study is necessary to determine genetic susceptibility for transplant patients.

  18. Isoorientin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in HepG2 cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Li; Wang, Jing; Xiao, Haifang; Xiao, Chunxia; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo

    2012-01-01

    Isoorientin (ISO) is a flavonoid compound that can be extracted from several plant species, such as Phyllostachys pubescens, Patrinia, and Drosophyllum lusitanicum; however, its biological activity remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the effects and putative mechanism of apoptosis induced by ISO in human hepatoblastoma cancer (HepG2) cells. The results showed that ISO induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells, but no toxicity in human liver cells (HL-7702) and buffalo rat liver cells (BRL-3A) treated with ISO at the indicated concentrations. ISO-induced cell death included apoptosis which characterized by the appearance of nuclear shrinkage, the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and DNA fragmentation. ISO significantly (p < 0.01) increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), increased the release of cytochrome c, activated caspase-3, and enhanced intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). In addition, ISO effectively inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and increased FoxO4 expression. The PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 enhanced the apoptosis-inducing effect of ISO. However, LY294002 markedly quenched ROS and NO generation and diminished the protein expression of heme peroxidase enzyme (HO-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Furthermore, the addition of a ROS inhibitor (N-acetyl cysteine, NAC) or iNOS inhibitor (N-[3-(aminomethyl) benzyl] acetamidine, dihydrochloride, 1400W) significantly diminished the apoptosis induced by ISO and also blocked the phosphorylation of Akt. These results demonstrated for the first time that ISO induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells and indicate that this apoptosis might be mediated through mitochondrial dysfunction and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and has no toxicity in normal liver cells, suggesting that ISO may have good potential as a therapeutic and chemopreventive agent for liver cancer. Highlights:

  19. Cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase protects macrophages from LPS-induced nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Oky; Kim, Yong Chan; Shin, Han-Jae; Lee, Jie-Oh; Huh, Tae-Lin; Kang, Kwang-il; Kim, Young Sang; Paik, Sang-Gi; Lee, Hayyoung

    2004-04-30

    Macrophages activated by microbial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) produce bursts of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Redox protection systems are essential for the survival of the macrophages since the nitric oxide and ROS can be toxic to them as well as to pathogens. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) we found that cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) is strongly upregulated by nitric oxide in macrophages. The levels of IDPc mRNA and of the corresponding enzymatic activity were markedly increased by treatment of RAW264.7 cells or peritoneal macrophages with LPS or SNAP (a nitric oxide donor). Over-expression of IDPc reduced intracellular peroxide levels and enhanced the survival of H2O2- and SNAP-treated RAW264.7 macrophages. IDPc is known to generate NADPH, a cellular reducing agent, via oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate. The expression of enzymes implicated in redox protection, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, was relatively unaffected by LPS and SNAP. We propose that the induction of IDPc is one of the main self-protection mechanisms of macrophages against LPS-induced oxidative stress.

  20. UV irradiation/cold shock-mediated apoptosis is switched to bubbling cell death at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Jung; Lin, Pei-Wen; Lin, Hsin-Ping; Huang, Shenq-Shyang; Lai, Feng-Jie; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Hsu, Li-Jin; Chang, Nan-Shan

    2015-04-10

    When COS7 fibroblasts and other cells were exposed to UVC irradiation and cold shock at 4°C for 5 min, rapid upregulation and nuclear accumulation of NOS2, p53, WWOX, and TRAF2 occurred in 10-30 min. By time-lapse microscopy, an enlarging gas bubble containing nitric oxide (NO) was formed in the nucleus in each cell that finally popped out to cause "bubbling death". Bubbling occurred effectively at 4 and 22°C, whereas DNA fragmentation was markedly blocked at 4°C. When temperature was increased to 37°C, bubbling was retarded and DNA fragmentation occurred in 1 hr, suggesting that bubbling death is switched to apoptosis with increasing temperatures. Bubbling occurred prior to nuclear uptake of propidium iodide and DAPI stains. Arginine analog Nω-LAME inhibited NO synthase NOS2 and significantly suppressed the bubbling death. Unlike apoptosis, there were no caspase activation and flip-over of membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) during bubbling death. Bubbling death was significantly retarded in Wwox knockout MEF cells, as well as in cells overexpressing TRAF2 and dominant-negative p53. Together, UV/cold shock induces bubbling death at 4°C and the event is switched to apoptosis at 37°C. Presumably, proapoptotic WWOX and p53 block the protective TRAF2 to execute the bubbling death.

  1. Induction of oxidative and nitrosative stresses in human retinal pigment epithelial cells by all-trans-retinal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xue [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi 214063, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Ke, E-mail: wangke@jsinm.org [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi 214063, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Kai [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi 214063, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhou, Fanfan [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Zhu, Ling [Save Sight Institute, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2000 (Australia)

    2016-10-15

    Delayed clearance of free form all-trans-retinal (atRAL) is estimated be the key cause of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells injury during the pathogenesis of retinopathies such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are far from clear. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity effect and underlying molecular mechanism of atRAL on human retinal pigment epithelium ARPE-19 cells. The results indicated that atRAL could cause cell dysfunction by inducing oxidative and nitrosative stresses in ARPE-19 cells. The oxidative stress induced by atRAL was mediated through up-regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, activating mitochondrial-dependent and MAPKs signaling pathways, and finally resulting in apoptosis of ARPE-19 cells. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin could partly attenuated ROS generation, indicating that NADPH oxidase activity was involved in atRAL-induced oxidative stress in ARPE-19 cells. The nitrosative stress induced by atRAL was mainly reflected in increasing nitric oxide (NO) production, enhancing iNOS, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions, and promoting monocyte adhesion. Furthermore, above effects could be dramatically blocked by using a nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor SN50, indicated that atRAL-induced oxidative and nitrosative stresses were mediated by NF-κB. The results provide better understanding of atRAL-induced toxicity in human RPE cells. - Highlights: • atRAL induces oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. • atRAL induces oxidative stress-mediated inflammation in ARPE-19 cells. • NF-κB is involved in atRAL-induced oxidative and nitrosative stresses.

  2. Induction of oxidative and nitrosative stresses in human retinal pigment epithelial cells by all-trans-retinal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xue; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Kai; Zhou, Fanfan; Zhu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Delayed clearance of free form all-trans-retinal (atRAL) is estimated be the key cause of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells injury during the pathogenesis of retinopathies such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are far from clear. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity effect and underlying molecular mechanism of atRAL on human retinal pigment epithelium ARPE-19 cells. The results indicated that atRAL could cause cell dysfunction by inducing oxidative and nitrosative stresses in ARPE-19 cells. The oxidative stress induced by atRAL was mediated through up-regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, activating mitochondrial-dependent and MAPKs signaling pathways, and finally resulting in apoptosis of ARPE-19 cells. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin could partly attenuated ROS generation, indicating that NADPH oxidase activity was involved in atRAL-induced oxidative stress in ARPE-19 cells. The nitrosative stress induced by atRAL was mainly reflected in increasing nitric oxide (NO) production, enhancing iNOS, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions, and promoting monocyte adhesion. Furthermore, above effects could be dramatically blocked by using a nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor SN50, indicated that atRAL-induced oxidative and nitrosative stresses were mediated by NF-κB. The results provide better understanding of atRAL-induced toxicity in human RPE cells. - Highlights: • atRAL induces oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. • atRAL induces oxidative stress-mediated inflammation in ARPE-19 cells. • NF-κB is involved in atRAL-induced oxidative and nitrosative stresses.

  3. Nitric oxide inhibits the bradykinin B2 receptor-mediated adrenomedullary catecholamine release but has no effect on adrenal blood flow response in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouallegue, Ali; Yamaguchi, Nobuharu

    2005-06-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in bradykinin (BK)-induced adrenal catecholamine secretion still remains obscure. The present study was to investigate whether an inhibition of NO synthase with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) would modulate BK-induced adrenal catecholamine secretion (ACS) and adrenal vasodilating response (AVR) in anesthetized dogs. Plasma catecholamine concentrations were determined with an HPLC coupled with an electrochemical detector. All drugs were locally administered to the left adrenal gland via intra-arterial infusion. BK dose-dependently increased both ACS and AVR. Hoe-140, a selective B(2) antagonist, significantly blocked the BK-induced increases in both ACS and AVR. In the presence of L-NAME, the BK-induced ACS was significantly enhanced, while the simultaneous AVR remained unaffected. These results suggest that the both BK-induced ACS and AVR are primarily mediated by B(2) receptors in the canine adrenal gland. Our results also suggest that the enhanced ACS in response to BK in the presence of L-NAME may have resulted from a specific inhibition of NO formation in the adrenal gland. It is concluded that the BK-induced NO may play an inhibitory role in the B(2)-receptor-mediated mechanisms regulating ACS, while it may not be implicated in the B(2)-receptor-mediated AVR under in vivo conditions.

  4. Prolonged exposure of resveratrol induces reactive superoxide species-independent apoptosis in murine prostate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Stokes, James; Singh, Udai P; Scissum-Gunn, Karyn; Singh, Rajesh; Manne, Upender; Mishra, Manoj K

    2017-10-01

    Nitric oxide, a signaling molecule, inhibits mitochondrial respiration by binding with cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in elevated production of reactive superoxide species (reactive oxygen and nitrogen) in the mitochondria and increased susceptibility to cell death. Generation of mitochondrial superoxide species can be suppressed by natural compounds such as resveratrol, a dietary polyphenol found in the skin of red fruits. In various cancer cells, resveratrol shows anti-oxidant and cancer preventive properties. Since, the effect of resveratrol on reactive superoxide species-independent apoptosis in prostate cancer cells is not well illustrated; therefore, we investigated this phenomenon in TRAMP murine prostate cancer cells. To accomplish this, TRAMP cells were incubated with resveratrol, resveratrol + DETA-NONOate, DETA-NONOate (nitric oxide donor), resveratrol + L-NMMA, or L-NMMA (nitric oxide inhibitor) for 48 h, and reactive superoxide species in the mitochondria and culture supernatant were measured. In addition, the mitochondrial membrane potential, cell viability, expression of apoptotic markers (Bax and Bcl2), γ-H2A.x, p53, and caspase-3 was determined. We found that resveratrol suppressed reactive superoxide species such as reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria and nitric oxide in culture supernatant when compared to the DETA-NONOate treatment and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential. Resveratrol also reduced cell viability, altered the expression of apoptotic markers (Bax and Bcl2), and increased expression of γ-H2A.x (indicative marker of DNA fragmentation) and p53 (a critical DNA damage response protein). However, there was no appreciable modulation of the caspase-3. Therefore, our data suggest that resveratrol induces superoxide species-independent apoptosis and may act as a therapeutic agent against prostate cancer.

  5. Curcumin Induced Human Gastric Cancer BGC-823 Cells Apoptosis by ROS-Mediated ASK1-MKK4-JNK Stress Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The signaling mediated by stress-activated MAP kinases (MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK has well-established importance in cancer. In the present report, we investigated the effects of curcumin on the signaling pathway in human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells. Curcumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS production and BGC-823 cells apoptosis. Inhibition of ROS generation by antioxidant (NAC or Trion significantly prevented curcumin-mediated apoptosis. Notably, we observed that curcumin activated ASK1, a MAPKKK that is oxidative stress sensitive and responsible to phosphorylation of JNK via triggering cascades, up-regulated an upstream effector of the JNK, MKK4, and phosphorylated JNK protein expression in BGC-823 cells. However, curcumin induced ASK1-MKK4-JNK signaling was attenuated by NAC. All the findings confirm the possibility that oxidative stress-activated ASK1-MKK4-JNK signaling cascade promotes the apoptotic response in curcumin-treated BGC-823 cells.

  6. Premotor nitric oxide synthase immunoreactive pathway connecting lumbar segments with the ventral motor nucleus of the cervical enlargement in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsala, Jozef; Lukácová, Nadezda; Cízková, Dása; Lukác, Imrich; Kuchárová, Karolína; Marsala, Martin

    2004-03-01

    In this study we investigate the occurrence and origin of punctate nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in the neuropil of the ventral motor nucleus in C7-Th1 segments of the dog spine, which are supposed to be the terminal field of an ascending premotor propriospinal nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive pathway. As the first step, nitric oxide synthase immunohistochemistry was used to distinguish nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive staining of the ventral motor nucleus. Dense, punctate nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity was found on control sections in the neuropil of the ventral motor nucleus. After hemisection at Th10-11, axotomy-induced retrograde changes consisting in a strong upregulation of nitric oxide synthase-containing neurons were found mostly unilaterally in lamina VIII, the medial part of lamina VII and in the pericentral region in all segments of the lumbosacral enlargement. Concurrently, a strong depletion of the punctate nitric oxide synthase immunopositivity in the neuropil of the ventral motor nucleus ipsilaterally with the hemisection was detected, thus revealing that an uncrossed ascending premotor propriospinal pathway containing a fairly high number of nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive fibers terminates in the ventral motor nucleus. Application of the retrograde fluorescent tracer Fluorogold injected into the ventral motor nucleus and analysis of alternate sections processed for nitric oxide synthase immunocytochemistry revealed the presence of Fluorogold-labeled and nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive axons in the ventrolateral funiculus and in the lateral and medial portions of the ventral column throughout the thoracic and upper lumbar segments. A noticeable number of Fluorogold-labeled and nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive somata detected on consecutive sections were found in the lumbosacral enlargement, mainly in laminae VIII-IX, the medial part of lamina VII and in the pericentral region (lamina X), ipsilaterally with the

  7. Nitric Oxide Mediates Crosstalk between Interleukin 1β and WNT Signaling in Primary Human Chondrocytes by Reducing DKK1 and FRZB Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Leilei; Schivo, Stefano; Huang, Xiaobin; Leijten, Jeroen; Karperien, Marcel; Post, Janine N

    2017-11-22

    Interleukin 1 beta (IL1β) and Wingless-Type MMTV Integration Site Family (WNT) signaling are major players in Osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. Despite having a large functional overlap in OA onset and development, the mechanism of IL1β and WNT crosstalk has remained largely unknown. In this study, we have used a combination of computational modeling and molecular biology to reveal direct or indirect crosstalk between these pathways. Specifically, we revealed a mechanism by which IL1β upregulates WNT signaling via downregulating WNT antagonists, DKK1 and FRZB. In human chondrocytes, IL1β decreased the expression of Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and Frizzled related protein (FRZB) through upregulation of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), thereby activating the transcription of WNT target genes. This effect could be reversed by iNOS inhibitor 1400W, which restored DKK1 and FRZB expression and their inhibitory effect on WNT signaling. In addition, 1400W also inhibited both the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and cytokine-induced apoptosis. We concluded that iNOS/NO play a pivotal role in the inflammatory response of human OA through indirect upregulation of WNT signaling. Blocking NO production may inhibit the loss of the articular phenotype in OA by preventing downregulation of the expression of DKK1 and FRZB.

  8. Far-infrared radiation acutely increases nitric oxide production by increasing Ca(2+) mobilization and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at serine 1179.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Sangmi; Cho, Du-Hyong; Park, Young Mi; Kang, Duk-Hee; Jo, Inho

    2013-07-12

    Repeated thermal therapy manifested by far-infrared (FIR) radiation improves vascular function in both patients and mouse model with coronary heart disease, but its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Using FIR as a thermal therapy agent, we investigate the molecular mechanism of its effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and NO production. FIR increased the phosphorylation of eNOS at serine 1179 (eNOS-Ser(1179)) in a time-dependent manner (up to 40min of FIR radiation) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) without alterations in eNOS expression. This increase was accompanied by increases in NO production and intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Treatment with KN-93, a selective inhibitor of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and H-89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, inhibited FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser(1179) phosphorylation. FIR radiation itself also increased the temperature of culture medium. As transient receptors potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels are known to be temperature-sensitive calcium channels, we explore whether TRPV channels mediate these observed effects. Reverse transcription-PCR assay revealed two TRPV isoforms in BAEC, TRPV2 and TRPV4. Although ruthenium red, a pan-TRPV inhibitor, completely reversed the observed effect of FIR radiation, a partial attenuation (∼20%) was found in cells treated with Tranilast, TRPV2 inhibitor. However, ectopic expression of siRNA of TRPV2 showed no significant alteration in FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser(1179) phosphorylation. This study suggests that FIR radiation increases NO production via increasing CaMKII-mediated eNOS-Ser(1179) phosphorylation but TRPV channels may not be involved in this pathway. Our results may provide the molecular mechanism by which FIR radiation improves endothelial function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide in Mediating Chemotherapeutic Drug Induced Bystander Response in Human Cancer Cells Exposed In-Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Mani; Rao, Bhavna S; Deepika, Ramasamy; Paul, Solomon F.D.; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2012-01-01

    Background The intention of cancer chemotherapy is to control the growth of cancer cells using chemical agents. However, the occurrence of second malignancies has raised concerns, leading to re-evaluation of the current strategy in use for chemotherapeutic agents. Although the mechanisms involved in second malignancy remain ambiguous, therapeutic-agent-induced non-DNA targeted effects like bystander response and genomic instability cannot be eliminated completely. Hence, Bleomycin (BLM) and Neocarzinostatin (NCS), chemotherapeutic drugs with a mode of action similar to ionizing radiation, were used to study the mechanism of bystander response in human cancer cells (A549, CCRF-CEM and HL-60) by employing co-culture methodology. Methods Bystander effect was quantified using micronucleus (MN) assay and in-situ immunofluorescence(γH2AX assay).The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in mediating the bystander response was explored by pre-treating bystander cells with dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and C-PTIO respectively. Results Bystander response was observed only in CCRF-CEM and A549 cells (P bystander response on treatment with DMSO, suggests that ROS has a more significant role in mediating the bystander response.Since the possibility of the ROS and NO in mediating these bystander effect was confirmed, mechanistic control of these signaling molecules could either reduce radiation damage and potential carcinogenicity of normal tissues (by reducing bystander signaling) or maximize cell sterilization during chemotherapy (by amplifying bystander responses in tumors). PMID:29147282

  10. In vitro inducible nitric oxide synthesis inhibitory active constituents from Fraxinus rhynchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N Y; Pae, H O; Ko, Y S; Yoo, J C; Choi, B M; Jun, C D; Chung, H T; Inagaki, M; Higuchi, R; Kim, Y C

    1999-10-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an H2O extract of the barks of Fraxinus rhynchophylla has furnished two inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitory compounds, ferulaldehyde (1) and scopoletin (3) together with a coumarin, fraxidin (2). Compounds 1 and 3 showed inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in a dose-dependent manner by murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The inhibition of NO synthesis of 1 was reflected in the decreased amount of iNOS protein, as determined by Western blotting.

  11. Nitric oxide inhibits glycogen synthesis in isolated rat hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, F.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Romijn, J. A.; van Woerkom, G. M.; Meijer, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the existence of intrahepatic regulation of glucose metabolism by Kupffer cell products. Nitric oxide (NO) is known to inhibit gluconeogenic flux through pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. However, NO may also influence glucose metabolism at

  12. The effects of nitric oxide on the immune response during giardiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wander Rogério Pavanelli

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a free radical synthesized from L-arginine by different isoforms NO-synthases. NO possesses multiple and complex biological functions. NO is an important mediator of homeostasis, and changes in its generation or actions can contribute or not to pathological states. The knowledge of effects of NO has been not only important to our understanding of immune response, but also to new tools for research and treatment of various diseases. Knowing the importance of NO as inflammatory mediator in diverse infectious diseases, we decided to develop a revision that shows the participation/effect of this mediator in immune response induced against Giardia spp. Several studies already demonstrated the participation of NO with microbicidal and microbiostatic activity in giardiasis. On the other hand, some works report that Giardia spp. inhibit NO production by consuming the intermediate metabolite arginine. In fact, studies in vitro showed that G. lamblia infection of human intestinal epithelial cells had reduced NO production. This occurs due to limited offer of the crucial substrate arginine (essential aminoacid for NO production, consequently reducing NO production. Therefore, the balance between giardial arginine consumption and epithelial NO production could contribute to the variability of the duration and severity of infections by this ubiquitous parasite.

  13. Nitric oxide synthase gene G298 allele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagib El-Kilany, Galal E.; Nayel, Ehab; Hazzaa, Sahar

    2004-01-01

    Background: Nitric oxide (NO) has an important effect on blood pressure, arterial wall, and the basal release of endothelial NO in hypertension (HPN) may be reduced. Until now, there is no solid data revealing the potential role of the polymorphism of the nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS) in patients with HPN and microvascular angina. Aim: The aim of the present study is to investigate the gene of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), as the polymorphism of this gene may be a putative candidate for HPN and initiate the process of atherosclerosis. Methods: Sixty participants were recruited for this study; 50 were hypertensive patients complaining of chest pain [30 of them have electrocardiogram (EKG) changes of ischemia], 20 had isolated HPN, and 10 healthy volunteers served as control. All patients underwent stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and coronary angiography. Genotyping of eNOS for all patients and controls was performed. The linkages between HPN, microvascular angina and eNOS gene polymorphism were investigated. Results: MPI and coronary angiography revealed that 15 patients had chest pain with true ischemia and reversible myocardial perfusion defects (multiple and mild) but normal epicardial coronary arteries (microvascular angina), while 15 patients had significant coronary artery disease (CAD), and 20 hypertensive patients showed normal perfusion scan and coronary angiography. The prevalence of the NOS G 298 allele was higher in the hypertensive group with microvascular angina (documented by MPI) than it was among the control participants (P<.005). The eNOS allele was significantly higher in the hypertensive group than in the control participants, but there was no significant difference in homozygote mutants among hypertensive participants, x-syndrome and patients with CAD. Conclusion: eNOS gene polymorphism is proved to be an important etiology in microvascular angina (x-syndrome) among hypertensive patients. In addition, the eNOS mutant

  14. Physiological Levels of Nitric Oxide Diminish Mitochondrial Superoxide. Potential Role of Mitochondrial Dinitrosyl Iron Complexes and Nitrosothiols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Dikalov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are the major source of superoxide radicals and superoxide overproduction contributes to cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. Endothelial dysfunction and diminished nitric oxide levels are early steps in the development of these pathological conditions. It is known that physiological production of nitric oxide reduces oxidative stress and inflammation, however, the precise mechanism of “antioxidant” effect of nitric oxide is not clear. In this work we tested the hypothesis that physiological levels of nitric oxide diminish mitochondrial superoxide production without inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. In order to test this hypothesis we analyzed effect of low physiological fluxes of nitric oxide (20 nM/min on superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production by ESR spin probes and Amplex Red in isolated rat brain mitochondria. Indeed, low levels of nitric oxide substantially attenuated both basal and antimycin A-stimulated production of reactive oxygen species in the presence of succinate or glutamate/malate as mitochondrial substrates. Furthermore, slow releasing NO donor DPTA-NONOate (100 μM did not change oxygen consumption in State 4 and State 3. However, the NO-donor strongly inhibited oxygen consumption in the presence of uncoupling agent CCCP, which is likely associated with inhibition of the over-reduced complex IV in uncoupled mitochondria. We have examined accumulation of dinitrosyl iron complexes and nitrosothiols in mitochondria treated with fast-releasing NO donor MAHMA NONOate (10 μM for 30 min until complete release of NO. Following treatment with NO donor, mitochondria were frozen for direct detection of dinitrosyl iron complexes using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR while accumulation of nitrosothiols was measured by ferrous-N-Methyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate complex, Fe(MGD2, in lysed mitochondria. Treatment of mitochondria with NO-donor gave rise to ESR signal of dinitrosyl iron complexes while ESR

  15. Nitric oxide coordinates metabolism, growth, and development via the nuclear receptor E75

    OpenAIRE

    Cáceres, Lucía; Necakov, Aleksandar S.; Schwartz, Carol; Kimber, Sandra; Roberts, Ian J.H.; Krause, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide gas acts as a short-range signaling molecule in a vast array of important physiological processes, many of which include major changes in gene expression. How these genomic responses are induced, however, is poorly understood. Here, using genetic and chemical manipulations, we show that nitric oxide is produced in the Drosophila prothoracic gland, where it acts via the nuclear receptor ecdysone-induced protein 75 (E75), reversing its ability to interfere with its heterodimer part...

  16. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice have impaired Renin release but normal blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sällström, Johan; Carlström, Mattias; Jensen, Boye L

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundNitric oxide deficiency is involved in the development of hypertension, but the mechanisms are currently unclear. This study was conducted to further elucidate the role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in blood pressure regulation and renin release in relation to different sodiu......-116; doi:10.1038/ajh.2007.16American Journal of Hypertension (2008) 21 111-116; doi:10.1038/ajh.2007.16....

  17. JS-K promotes apoptosis by inducing ROS production in human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Mingning; Chen, Lieqian; Tan, Guobin; Ke, Longzhi; Zhang, Sai; Chen, Hege; Liu, Jianjun

    2017-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemical species that alter redox status, and are responsible for inducing carcinogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of the glutathione S transferase-activated nitric oxide donor prodrug, JS-K, on ROS accumulation and on proliferation and apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Cell proliferation and apoptosis, ROS accumulation and the activation of the mitochondrial signaling pathway were measured. The results demonstrated that JS-K may inhibit prostate cancer cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and induce ROS accumulation and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. With increasing concentrations of JS-K, expression of pro-apoptotic proteins increased, but Bcl-2 expression decreased. Additionally, the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine reversed JS-K-induced cell apoptosis; conversely, the pro-oxidant glutathione disulfide exacerbated JS-K-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, the data suggest that JS-K induces prostate cancer cell apoptosis by increasing ROS levels.

  18. Role of nitric oxide in methamphetamine neurotoxicity: protection by 7-nitroindazole, an inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Monte, D A; Royland, J E; Jakowec, M W; Langston, J W

    1996-12-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO.) in the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine (METH) was evaluated using 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), a potent inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Treatment of mice with 7-NI (50 mg/kg) almost completely counteracted the loss of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity observed 5 days after four injections of 10 or 7.5 mg/kg METH. With the higher dose of METH, this protection at 5 days occurred despite the fact that combined administration of METH and 7-NI significantly increased lethality and exacerbated METH-induced dopamine release (as indicated by a greater dopamine depletion at 90 min and 1 day). Combined treatment with 4 x 10 mg/kg METH and 7-NI also slightly increased the body temperature of mice as compared with METH alone. Thus, the neuroprotective effects of 7-NI are independent from lethality, are not likely to be related to a reduction of METH-induced dopamine release, and are not due to a decrease in body temperature. These results indicate that NO. formation is an important step leading to METH neurotoxicity, and suggest that the cytotoxic properties of NO. may be directly involved in dopaminergic terminal damage.

  19. The production of nitric oxide in EL4 lymphoma cells overexpressing growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robyn E; Weigent, Douglas A

    2003-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is produced by immunocompetent cells and has been implicated in the regulation of a multiplicity of functions in the immune system involved in growth and activation. However, the actions of endogenous or lymphocyte GH and its contribution to immune reactivity when compared with those of serum or exogenous GH are still unclear. In the present study, we overexpressed lymphocyte GH in EL4 lymphoma cells, which lack the GH receptor (GHR), to determine the role of endogenous GH in nitric oxide (NO) production and response to genotoxic stress. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the levels of GH increased approximately 40% in cells overexpressing GH (GHo) when compared with cells with vector alone. The results also show a substantial increase in NO production in cells overexpressing GH that could be blocked by N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), an L-arginine analogue that competitively inhibits all three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). No evidence was obtained to support an increase in peroxynitrite in cells overexpressing GH. Overexpression of GH increased NOS activity, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) promoter activity, and iNOS protein expression, whereas endothelial nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein levels were essentially unchanged. In addition, cells overexpressing GH showed increased arginine transport ability and intracellular arginase activity when compared with control cells. GH overexpression appeared to protect cells from the toxic effects of the DNA alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate. This possibility was suggested by maintenance of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential in cells overexpressing GH when compared with control cells that could be blocked by L-NMMA. Taken together, the data support the notion that lymphocyte GH, independently of the GH receptor, may play a key role in the survival of lymphocytes exposed to stressful stimuli via the production of NO.

  20. Dihydroartemisinin induces apoptosis preferentially via a Bim-mediated intrinsic pathway in hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guiqi; Zhao, ChuBiao; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Hongyu; Quan, Yingyao; Chai, Liuying; Wu, Shengnan; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2015-08-01

    This report is designed to dissect the detail molecular mechanism by which dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a derivative of artemisinin, induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. DHA induced a loss of the mitochondrial transmemberane potential (ΔΨm), release of cytochrome c, activation of caspases, and externalization of phosphatidylserine indicative of apoptosis induction. Compared with the modest inhibitory effects of silencing Bax, silencing Bak largely prevented DHA-induced ΔΨm collapse and apoptosis though DHA induced a commensurable activation of Bax and Bak, demonstrating a key role of the Bak-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway. DHA did not induce Bid cleavage and translocation from cytoplasm to mitochondria and had little effects on the expressions of Puma and Noxa, but did increase Bim and Bak expressions and decrease Mcl-1 expression. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of DHA was remarkably reduced by silencing Bim, and modestly but significantly reduced by silencing Puma or Noxa. Silencing Bim or Noxa preferentially reduced DHA-induced Bak activation, while silencing Puma preferentially reduced DHA-induced Bax activation, demonstrating that Bim and to a lesser extent Noxa act as upstream mediators to trigger the Bak-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway. In addition, silencing Mcl-1 enhanced DHA-induced Bak activation and apoptosis. Taken together, our data demonstrate a crucial role of Bim in preferentially regulating the Bak/Mcl-1 rheostat to mediate DHA-induced apoptosis in HCC cells.

  1. Correlation and role of nitric oxide (NO) and BCL-2 in duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moawed, F.S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, degenerative muscle disease caused by a genetic mutation that leads to the complete absence of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin in muscle fibers. Although the mechanisms underlying muscle degeneration are still uncertain, oxidative-damage and regenerating aging have been proposed to play a key role. The aim of the present study was to test for these two theories, and to evaluate the possible ameliorative effect of He;Ne laser on them. Subjects and Methods: twenty-two duchenne muscular dystrophy boys (7-15 years old ) with proven dystrophin gene mutation, together with twenty-two normal males, who served as controls, were enrolled for this study. Initial blood samples were taken for the determinations of creatine kinase (CK), markers of replicative aging; in terms of plasma and lymphocyte Bcl-2 protein and apoptosis percentage in circulating mononuclear cells, along with those of oxidative stress in terms of lipid peroxidation (as plasma malondialdehyde MDA), catalase activity, cholesterol, triacylglycerol and nitric oxide. Whole blood samples were then irradiated with 2.5 j/cm 2 by He-Ne laser at wave length 632.8 nm and power output 10 MW.

  2. Mediated electrochemical oxidation as an alternative to incineration for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Z.; Schumacher, B.; Lewis, P.; Murguia, L.

    1995-02-01

    Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) is an aqueous process which oxidizes organics electrochemically at low temperatures and ambient pressures. The process can be used to treat mixed wastes containing hazardous organics by destroying the organic components of the wastes. The radioactive components of the wastes are dissolved in the electrolyte where they can be recovered if desired, or immobilized for disposal. The process of destroying organics is accomplished via a mediator, which is in the form of metallic ions in solution. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) we have worked with worked with several mediators, including silver, cobalt and cerium. We have tested mediators in nitric as well as sulfuric acids. We have recently completed extensive experimental studies on cobalt-sulfuric acid and silver-nitric acid systems for destroying the major organic components of Rocky Flats Plant combustible mixed wastes. Organics tested were: Trimsol (a cutting oil), cellulose (including paper and cloth), rubber (latex), plastics (Tyvek, polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride) and biomass (bacteria). The process was capable of destroying almost all of the organics tested, attaining high destruction efficiencies at reasonable coulombic efficiencies. The only exception was polyvinyl chloride, which was destroyed very slowly resulting in poor coulombic efficiencies. Besides the process development work mentioned above, we are working on the design of a pilot-plant scale integrated system to be installed in the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at LLNL. The system will also be completely integrated with upstream and downstream processes (for example, feed preparation, off-gas and water treatment, and final forms encapsulation). The conceptual design for the NEO-MWMF system has been completed and preliminary design work has been initiated. Demonstration of the process with low-level mixed wastes is expected to commence in 1998

  3. Lysosomal ceramide generated by acid sphingomyelinase triggers cytosolic cathepsin B-mediated degradation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein in natural killer/T lymphoma cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, M; Ogiso, H; Takeuchi, T; Kitatani, K; Umehara, H; Okazaki, T

    2015-04-09

    We previously reported that IL-2 deprivation induced acid sphingomyelinase-mediated (ASM-mediated) ceramide elevation and apoptosis in an NK/T lymphoma cell line KHYG-1. However, the molecular mechanism of ASM-ceramide-mediated apoptosis during IL-2 deprivation is poorly understood. Here, we showed that IL-2 deprivation induces caspase-dependent apoptosis characterized by phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase-8, -9, and -3 cleavage, and degradation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). IL-2 re-supplementation rescued apoptosis via inhibition of XIAP degradation without affecting caspase cleavage. However, IL-2 deprivation induced ceramide elevation via ASM in lysosomes and activated lysosomal cathepsin B (CTSB) but not cathepsin D. A CTSB inhibitor CA-074 Me and knockdown of CTSB inhibited ceramide-mediated XIAP degradation and apoptosis. Inhibition of ceramide accumulation in lysosomes using an ASM inhibitor, desipramine, decreased cytosolic activation of CTSB by inhibiting its transfer into cytosol from the lysosome. Knockdown of ASM also inhibited XIAP degradation and apoptosis. Furthermore, cell permeable N-acetyl sphingosine (C2-ceramide), which increases mainly endogenous d18:1/16:0 and d18:1/24:1 ceramide-like IL-2 deprivation, induced caspase-dependent apoptosis with XIAP degradation through CTSB. These findings suggest that lysosomal ceramide produced by ASM mediates XIAP degradation by activation of cytosolic CTSB and caspase-dependent apoptosis. The ASM-ceramide-CTSB signaling axis is a novel pathway of ceramide-mediated apoptosis in IL-2-deprived NK/T lymphoma cells.

  4. Impaired endothelial nitric oxide bioavailability: a common link between aging, hypertension, and atherogenesis?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Thomas

    2012-01-31

    Endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO) is responsible for maintaining continuous vasodilator tone and for regulating local perfusion and systemic blood pressure. It also has significant antiproliferative effects on vascular smooth muscle and platelet anti-aggregatory effects. Impaired endothelial-dependent (NO mediated) vasorelaxation is observed in most animal and human models of healthy aging. It also occurs in age-associated conditions such as atherosclerosis and hypertension. Such "endotheliopathy" increases vascular risk in older adults. Studies have indicated that pharmacotherapeutic intervention with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme-A reductase inhibitors may improve NO-mediated vasomotor function. This review, evaluates the association between impaired endothelial NO bioavailability, accelerated vascular aging, and the age-associated conditions hypertension and atherogenesis. This is important, because pharmacotherapy aimed at improving endothelial NO bioavailability could modify age-related vascular disease and transform age into a potentially modifiable vascular risk factor, at least in a subpopulation of older adults.

  5. Oxidative Stress in Oral Diseases: Understanding Its Relation with Other Systemic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress occurs in diabetes, various cancers, liver diseases, stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic inflammation, and other degenerative diseases related to the nervous system. The free radicals have deleterious effect on various organs of the body. This is due to lipid peroxidation and irreversible protein modification that leads to cellular apoptosis or programmed cell death. During recent years, there is a rise in the oral diseases related to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress in oral disease is related to other systemic diseases in the body such as periodontitis, cardiovascular, pancreatic, gastric, and liver diseases. In the present review, we discuss the various pathways that mediate oxidative cellular damage. Numerous pathways mediate oxidative cellular damage and these include caspase pathway, PERK/NRF2 pathway, NADPH oxidase 4 pathways and JNK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase pathway. We also discuss the role of inflammatory markers, lipid peroxidation, and role of oxygen species linked to oxidative stress. Knowledge of different pathways, role of inflammatory markers, and importance of low-density lipoprotein, fibrinogen, creatinine, nitric oxide, nitrates, and highly sensitive C-reactive proteins may be helpful in understanding the pathogenesis and plan better treatment for oral diseases which involve oxidative stress.

  6. Modulation of glucose uptake in adipose tissue by nitric oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    ion-dependent breakdown and trans-nitrosation reactions are ... [McGrowder D, Ragoobirsingh D and Brown P 2006 Modulation of glucose uptake in adipose tissue by nitric oxide-generating ... Briefly, nicotinamide (Sigma Chemical Co.,.

  7. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in tumor biology: the two sides of the same coin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lechner, Matthias; Lirk, Philipp; Rieder, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is one of three key enzymes generating nitric oxide (NO) from the amino acid l-arginine. iNOS-derived NO plays an important role in numerous physiological (e.g. blood pressure regulation, wound repair and host defence mechanisms) and pathophysiological

  8. Lysosomal ceramide generated by acid sphingomyelinase triggers cytosolic cathepsin B-mediated degradation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein in natural killer/T lymphoma cell apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, M; Ogiso, H; Takeuchi, T; Kitatani, K; Umehara, H; Okazaki, T

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that IL-2 deprivation induced acid sphingomyelinase-mediated (ASM-mediated) ceramide elevation and apoptosis in an NK/T lymphoma cell line KHYG-1. However, the molecular mechanism of ASM?ceramide-mediated apoptosis during IL-2 deprivation is poorly understood. Here, we showed that IL-2 deprivation induces caspase-dependent apoptosis characterized by phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase-8, -9, and -3 cleavage, and degradation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis pro...

  9. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide signaling in bystander cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jella, Kishore Kumar; Moriarty, Roisin; McClean, Brendan; Byrne, Hugh J; Lyng, Fiona M

    2018-01-01

    It is now well accepted that radiation induced bystander effects can occur in cells exposed to media from irradiated cells. The aim of this study was to follow the bystander cells in real time following addition of media from irradiated cells and to determine the effect of inhibiting these signals. A human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT cells, was irradiated (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 Gy) with γ irradiation, conditioned medium was harvested after one hour and added to recipient bystander cells. Reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, Glutathione levels, caspase activation, cytotoxicity and cell viability was measured after the addition of irradiated cell conditioned media to bystander cells. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide levels in bystander cells treated with 0.5Gy ICCM were analysed in real time using time lapse fluorescence microscopy. The levels of reactive oxygen species were also measured in real time after the addition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase pathway inhibitors. ROS and glutathione levels were observed to increase after the addition of irradiated cell conditioned media (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 Gy ICCM). Caspase activation was found to increase 4 hours after irradiated cell conditioned media treatment (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 Gy ICCM) and this increase was observed up to 8 hours and there after a reduction in caspase activation was observed. A decrease in cell viability was observed but no major change in cytotoxicity was found in HaCaT cells after treatment with irradiated cell conditioned media (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 Gy ICCM). This study involved the identification of key signaling molecules such as reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, glutathione and caspases generated in bystander cells. These results suggest a clear connection between reactive oxygen species and cell survival pathways with persistent production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in bystander cells following exposure to irradiated cell

  10. Caveolin-1-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase in human colon carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMANUELA FELLEY-BOSCO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species are now widely recognized as important players contributing both to cell homeostasis and the development of disease. In this respect nitric oxide (NO is no exception. The discussion here will center on regulation of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS for two reasons. First, only iNOS produces micromolar NO concentrations, amounts that are high by comparison with the picomolar to nanomolar concentrations resulting from Ca2+-controlled NO production by endothelial eNOS or neuronal nNOS. Second, iNOS is not constitutively expressed in cells and regulation of this isoenzyme, in contrast to endothelial eNOS or neuronal nNOS, is widely considered to occur at the transcriptional level only. In particular, we were interested in the possibility that caveolin-1, a protein that functions as a tumor suppressor in colon carcinoma cells (Bender et al., 2002; this issue, might regulate iNOS activity. Our results provide evidence for the existence of a post-transcriptional mechanism controlling iNOS protein levels that involves caveolin-1-dependent sequestration of iNOS within a detergent-insoluble compartment. Interestingly, despite the high degree of conservation of the caveolin-1 scaffolding domain binding motif within all NOS enzymes, the interaction detected between caveolin-1 and iNOS in vitro is crucially dependent on presence of a caveolin-1 sequence element immediately adjacent to the scaffolding domain. A model is presented summarizing the salient aspects of these results. These observations are important in the context of tumor biology, since down-regulation of caveolin-1 is predicted to promote uncontrolled iNOS activity, genotoxic damage and thereby facilitate tumor development in humans

  11. Inhibition of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E 2 Expression by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inhibition of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E 2 Expression by Methanol Extract of Polyopes affinis in Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 Microglial Cells through Suppression of Akt-dependent NF-kB Activity and MAPK Pathway.

  12. Nitric oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, David O.; Martinez, Luis R.; Blecher, Karin; Chouake, Jason S.; Nacharaju, Parimala; Gialanella, Philip; Friedman, Joel M.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Friedman, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a critical component of host defense against invading pathogens; however, its therapeutic utility is limited due to a lack of practical delivery systems. Recently, a NO-releasing nanoparticulate platform (NO-np) was shown to have in vitro broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and in vivo pre-clinical efficacy in a dermal abscess model. To extend these findings, both topical (TP) and intralesional (IL) NO-np administration was evaluated in a MRSA intramuscular murine abscess model and compared with vancomycin. All treatment arms accelerated abscess clearance clinically, histologically, and by microbiological assays on both days 4 and 7 following infection. However, abscesses treated with NO-np via either route demonstrated a more substantial, statistically significant decrease in bacterial survival based on colony forming unit assays and histologically revealed less inflammatory cell infiltration and preserved muscular architecture. These data suggest that the NO-np may be an effective addition to our armament for deep soft tissue infections. PMID:22286699

  13. Isoxazole derivatives as new nitric oxide elicitors in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Oancea

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Several 3,5-disubstituted isoxazoles were obtained in good yields by regiospecific 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions between aromatic nitrile oxides, generated in situ from the corresponding hydroxyimidoyl chlorides, with non-symmetrical activated alkynes in the presence of catalytic amounts of copper(I iodide. Effects of 3,5-disubstituted isoxazoles on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species generation in Arabidopsis tissues was studied using specific diaminofluoresceine dyes as fluorescence indicators.

  14. Nitric oxide turnover in permeable river sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Frank; Stief, Peter; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2014-01-01

    We measured nitric oxide (NO) microprofiles in relation to oxygen (O2) and all major dissolved N-species (ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide [N2O]) in a permeable, freshwater sediment (River Weser, Germany). NO reaches peak concentrations of 0.13 μmol L-1 in the oxic zone and is consumed......-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) (1) confirmed denitrification as the main NO consumption pathway, with N2O as its major product, (2) showed that denitrification combines one free NO molecule with one NO molecule formed from nitrite to produce N2O, and (3) suggested that NO inhibits N2O reduction....

  15. Localization of nitric oxide synthase in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Ulrik; Lopez-Figueroa, M.; Hellsten, Ylva

    1996-01-01

    The present study investigated the cellular localization of the neuronal type I and endothelial type III nitric oxide synthase in human skeletal muscle. Type I NO synthase immunoreactivity was found in the sarcolemma and the cytoplasm of all muscle fibres. Stronger immunoreactivity was expressed...

  16. Water vapour and carbon dioxide decrease nitric oxide readings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderMark, TW; Kort, E; Meijer, RJ; Postma, DS; Koeter, GH

    Measurement of nitric oxide levels in exhaled ah-is commonly performed using a chemiluminescence detector. However, water vapour and carbon dioxide affect the chemiluminescence process, The influence of these gases at the concentrations present in exhaled air has not vet been studied. For this in

  17. Study of Nitric Oxide production by murine peritoneal macrophages induced by Brucella Lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavoosi G

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Brueclla is a gram negative bacteria that causes Brucellosis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS ", the pathogenic agent of Brucella is composed of O-chain, core oligosaccharide and lipid A. in addition, the structural and biological properties of different LPS extracted from different strains are not identical. The first defense system against LPS is nonspecific immunity that causes macrophage activation. Activated macrophages produce oxygen and nitrogen radicals that enhance the protection against intracellular pathogens.In this experiment LPS was extracted by hot phenol- water procedure and the effect of various LPSs on nitric oxide prodution by peritoneal mouse macrophages was examined.Our results demonstrated that the effect of LPS on nitric oxide production is concentration-dependent we observed the maximum response in concentration of 10-20 microgram per milliliter. Also our results demonstrate that LPS extracted from vaccine Brucella abortus (S 19 had a highe effect on nitric oxide production than the LPS from other strains

  18. Fe-Chlorophyllin Promotes the Growth of Wheat Roots Associated with Nitric Oxide Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jiang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available : Effects of Fe-chlorophyllin on the growth of wheat root were investigated in this study. We found that Fe-chlorophyllin can promote root growth. The production of nitric oxide in wheat root was detected using DAF-2DA fluorescent emission. The intensity of fluorescent in the presence of 0.1 mg/L Fe-chlorophyllin was near to that observed with the positive control of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, the nitric oxide donor. IAA oxidase activity decreased with all treatments of Fe-chlorophyllin from 0.01 to 10 mg/L. At the relatively lower Fe-chlorophyllin concentration of 0.1 mg/L, the activity of IAA oxidase displayed a remarkable decrease, being 40.1% lower than the control. Meanwhile, Fe-chlorophyllin treatment could increase the activities of reactive oxygen scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD, as determined using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results indicate that Fe-chlorophyllin contributes to the growth of wheat root associated with nitric oxide generation.

  19. Melatonin resists oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in nucleus pulposus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruijun; Cui, Min; Lin, Hui; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Jiayu; Chen, Songfeng; Shao, Zengwu

    2018-04-15

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is thought to be the major cause of low back pain (LBP), which is still in lack of effective etiological treatment. Oxidative stress has been demonstrated to participate in the impairment of nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs). As the most important neuroendocrine hormone in biological clock regulation, melatonin (MLT) is also featured by good antioxidant effect. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanisms of melatonin on oxidative stress-induced damage in rat NPCs. Cytotoxicity of H 2 O 2 and protecting effect of melatonin were analyzed with Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8). Cell apoptosis rate was detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. DCFH-DA probe was used for the reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) changes were analyzed with JC-1 probe. Intracellular oxidation product and reductants were measured through enzymatic reactions. Extracellular matrix (ECM) and apoptosis associated proteins were analyzed with Western blot assays. Melatonin preserved cell viability of NPCs under oxidative stress. The apoptosis rate, ROS level and malonaldehyde (MDA) declined with melatonin. MLT/H 2 O 2 group showed higher activities of GSH and SOD. The fall of MMP receded and the expression of ECM protein increased with treatment of melatonin. The mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis was inhibited by melatonin. Melatonin alleviated the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of NPCs. Melatonin could be a promising alternative in treatment of IVDD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of selective inhibition of renal inducible nitric oxide synthase on renal blood flow and function in experimental hyperdynamic sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ken; Calzavacca, Paolo; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Bailey, Michael; May, Clive N

    2012-08-01

    Nitric oxide plays an important role in the control of renal blood flow and renal function. In sepsis, increased levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase produce excessive nitric oxide, which may contribute to the development of acute kidney injury. We, therefore, examined the effects of intrarenal infusion of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors in a large animal model of hyperdynamic sepsis in which acute kidney injury occurs in the presence of increased renal blood flow. Prospective crossover randomized controlled interventional studies. University-affiliated research institute. Twelve unilaterally nephrectomized Merino ewes. Infusion of a selective (1400W) and a partially selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (aminoguanidine) into the renal artery for 2 hrs after the induction of sepsis, and comparison with a nonselective inhibitor (Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester). In sheep with nonhypotensive hyperdynamic sepsis, creatinine clearance halved (32 to 16 mL/min, ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.51 [0.28-0.92]) despite increased renal blood flow (241 to 343 mL/min, difference [95% confidence interval] 102 [78-126]). Infusion of 1400W did not change renal blood flow, urine output, or creatinine clearance, whereas infusion of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and a high dose of aminoguanidine normalized renal blood flow, but did not alter creatinine clearance. In hyperdynamic sepsis, intrarenal infusion of a highly selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor did not reduce the elevated renal blood flow or improve renal function. In contrast, renal blood flow was reduced by infusion of a nonselective NOS inhibitor or a high dose of a partially selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. The renal vasodilatation in septic acute kidney injury may be due to nitric oxide derived from the endothelial and neural isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, but their blockade did not restore renal function.

  1. The role of nitrite in nitric oxide homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo

    2009-01-01

    Nitrite is endogenously produced as an oxidative metabolite of nitric oxide, but it also functions as a NO donor that can be activated by a number of cellular proteins under hypoxic conditions. This article discusses the physiological role of nitrite and nitrite-derived NO in blood flow regulation...... mechanisms. Nitrite reduction to NO provides cytoprotection in tissues during ischemia-reperfusion events by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration and limiting reactive oxygen species. It is argued that the study of hypoxia-tolerant lower vertebrates and diving mammals may help evaluate mechanisms and a full...

  2. Human recombinant factor VIIa may improve heat intolerance in mice by attenuating hypothalamic neuronal apoptosis and damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Hsien; Yung, Ming-Chi

    2014-10-01

    Intolerance to heat exposure is believed to be associated with hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis impairment [reflected by decreases in blood concentrations of both adrenocorticotrophic-hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone]. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of human recombinant factor VIIa (rfVIIa) on heat intolerance, HPA axis impairment, and hypothalamic inflammation, ischemic and oxidative damage, and apoptosis in mice under heat stress. Immediately after heat stress (41.2 °C for 1 h), mice were treated with vehicle (1 mL/kg of body weight) or rfVIIa (65-270 µg/kg of body weight) and then returned to room temperature (26 °C). Mice still alive on day 4 of heat exposure were considered survivors. Cellular ischemia markers (e.g., glutamate, lactate-to-pyruvate ratio), oxidative damage markers (e.g., nitric oxide metabolite, hydroxyl radials), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α) in hypothalamus were determined. In addition, blood concentrations of both ACTH and corticosterone were measured. Hypothalamic cell damage was assessed by determing the neuronal damage scores, whereas the hypothalamic cell apoptosis was determined by assessing the numbers of cells stained with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated αUTP nick-end labeling, caspase-3-positive cells, and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecula-1-positive cells in hypothalamus. Compared with vehicle-treated heated mice, rfVIIa-treated heated mice had significantly higher fractional survival (8/10 vs 1/10), lesser thermoregulatory deficit (34.1 vs 24.8 °C), lesser extents of ischemic, oxidative, and inflammatory markers in hypothalamus, lesser neuronal damage scores and apoptosis in hypothalamus, and lesser HPA axis impairment. Human recombinant factor VIIa appears to exert a protective effect against heatstroke by attenuating hypothalamic cell apoptosis (due to ischemic, inflammatory, and oxidative damage

  3. Effects of Cerebral Ischemia in Mice Deficient in Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhihong; Huang, Paul L.; Panahian, Nariman; Dalkara, Turgay; Fishman, Mark C.; Moskowitz, Michael A.

    1994-09-01

    The proposal that nitric oxide (NO) or its reactant products mediate toxicity in brain remains controversial in part because of the use of nonselective agents that block NO formation in neuronal, glial, and vascular compartments. In mutant mice deficient in neuronal NO synthase (NOS) activity, infarct volumes decreased significantly 24 and 72 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion, and the neurological deficits were less than those in normal mice. This result could not be accounted for by differences in blood flow or vascular anatomy. However, infarct size in the mutant became larger after endothelial NOS inhibition by nitro-L-arginine administration. Hence, neuronal NO production appears to exacerbate acute ischemic injury, whereas vascular NO protects after middle cerebral artery occlusion. The data emphasize the importance of developing selective inhibitors of the neuronal isoform.

  4. Nitric oxide synthase in the gill of Atlantic salmon: colocalization with and inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesson, Lars O E; Tipsmark, Christian K; Holmqvist, Bo

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between nitric oxide (NO) and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) in the gill of anadromous Atlantic salmon. Cells containing NO-producing enzymes were revealed by means of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunocytochemistry and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphor...

  5. Nitric oxide mediates strigolactone signaling in auxin and ethylene-sensitive lateral root formation in sunflower seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Niharika; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) play significant role in shaping root architecture whereby auxin-SL crosstalk has been observed in SL-mediated responses of primary root elongation, lateral root formation and adventitious root (AR) initiation. Whereas GR24 (a synthetic strigolactone) inhibits LR and AR formation, the effect of SL biosynthesis inhibitor (fluridone) is just the opposite (root proliferation). Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) leads to LR proliferation but completely inhibits AR development. The diffusive distribution of PIN1 in the provascular cells in the differentiating zone of the roots in response to GR24, fluridone or NPA treatments further indicates the involvement of localized auxin accumulation in LR development responses. Inhibition of LR formation by GR24 treatment coincides with inhibition of ACC synthase activity. Profuse LR development by fluridone and NPA treatments correlates with enhanced [Ca(2+)]cyt in the apical region and differentiating zones of LR, indicating a critical role of [Ca(2+)] in LR development in response to the coordinated action of auxins, ethylene and SLs. Significant enhancement of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) activity (enzyme responsible for SL biosynthesis) in tissue homogenates in presence of cPTIO (NO scavenger) indicates the role of endogenous NO as a negative modulator of CCD activity. Differences in the spatial distribution of NO in the primary and lateral roots further highlight the involvement of NO in SL-modulated root morphogenesis in sunflower seedlings. Present work provides new report on the negative modulation of SL biosynthesis through modulation of CCD activity by endogenous nitric oxide during SL-modulated LR development.

  6. Progesterone modulates the LPS-induced nitric oxide production by a progesterone-receptor independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Manuel Luis; Schander, Julieta Aylen; Bariani, María Victoria; Correa, Fernando; Franchi, Ana María

    2015-12-15

    Genital tract infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria induce miscarriage and are one of the most common complications of human pregnancy. LPS administration to 7-day pregnant mice induces embryo resorption after 24h, with nitric oxide playing a fundamental role in this process. We have previously shown that progesterone exerts protective effects on the embryo by modulating the inflammatory reaction triggered by LPS. Here we sought to investigate whether the in vivo administration of progesterone modulated the LPS-induced nitric oxide production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pregnant and non-pregnant mice. We found that progesterone downregulated LPS-induced nitric oxide production by a progesterone receptor-independent mechanism. Moreover, our results suggest a possible participation of glucocorticoid receptors in at least some of the anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Placebo neural systems: nitric oxide, morphine and the dopamine brain reward and motivation circuitries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricchione, Gregory; Stefano, George B

    2005-05-01

    Evidence suggests that the placebo response is related to the tonic effects of constitutive nitric oxide in neural, vascular and immune tissues. Constitutive nitric oxide levels play a role in the modulation of dopamine outflow in the nigrostriatal movement and the mesolimbic and mesocortical reward and motivation circuitries. Endogenous morphine, which stimulates constitutive nitric oxide, may be an important signal molecule working at mu receptors on gamma aminobutyric acid B interneurons to disinhibit nigral and tegmental dopamine output. We surmise that placebo induced belief will activate the prefrontal cortex with downstream stimulatory effects on these dopamine systems as well as on periaqueductal grey opioid output neurons. Placebo responses in Parkinson's disease, depression and pain disorder may result. In addition, mesolimbic/mesocortical control of the stress response systems may provide a way for the placebo response to benefit other medical conditions.

  8. Preserved microvascular endothelial function in young, obese adults with functional loss of nitric oxide signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eHarrell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Data indicate endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD may be preserved in the skeletal muscle microcirculation of young, obese adults. Preserved EDD might be mediated by compensatory mechanisms, impeding insight into preclinical vascular dysfunction. We aimed to determine the functional roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS and cyclooxygenase (COX toward EDD in younger obese adults. We first hypothesized EDD would be preserved in young, obese adults. Further, we hypothesized a reduced contribution of NOS in young, obese adults would be replaced by increased COX signaling. Microvascular EDD was assessed with Doppler ultrasound and brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (ACh in younger (27±1 yr obese (n=29 and lean (n=46 humans. Individual and combined contributions of NOS and COX were examined with intra-arterial infusions of L-NMMA and ketorolac, respectively. Vasodilation was quantified as an increase in forearm vascular conductance (ΔFVC. Arterial endothelial cell biopsies were analyzed for protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. ΔFVC to ACh was similar between groups. After L-NMMA, ΔFVC to ACh was greater in obese adults (p<0.05. There were no group differences in ΔFVC to ACh with ketorolac. With combined NOS-COX inhibition, ΔFVC was greater in obese adults at the intermediate dose of ACh. Surprisingly, arterial endothelial cell eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS were similar between groups. Younger obese adults exhibit preserved EDD and eNOS expression despite functional dissociation of NOS-mediated vasodilation and similar COX signaling. Compensatory NOS- and COX-independent vasodilatory mechanisms conceal reduced NOS contributions in otherwise healthy obese adults early in life, which may contribute to vascular dysfunction.

  9. Far-infrared radiation acutely increases nitric oxide production by increasing Ca{sup 2+} mobilization and Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at serine 1179

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Sangmi [Department of Molecular Medicine and Ewha Medical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Du-Hyong [Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Mi [Department of Molecular Medicine and Ewha Medical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Duk-Hee [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Inho, E-mail: inhojo@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Medicine and Ewha Medical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Far-infrared (FIR) radiation increases eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation and NO production in BAEC. •CaMKII and PKA mediate FIR-stimulated increases in eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation. •FIR increases intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels. •Thermo-sensitive TRPV Ca{sup 2+} channels are unlikely to be involved in the FIR-mediated eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation pathway. -- Abstract: Repeated thermal therapy manifested by far-infrared (FIR) radiation improves vascular function in both patients and mouse model with coronary heart disease, but its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Using FIR as a thermal therapy agent, we investigate the molecular mechanism of its effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and NO production. FIR increased the phosphorylation of eNOS at serine 1179 (eNOS-Ser{sup 1179}) in a time-dependent manner (up to 40 min of FIR radiation) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) without alterations in eNOS expression. This increase was accompanied by increases in NO production and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels. Treatment with KN-93, a selective inhibitor of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and H-89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, inhibited FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation. FIR radiation itself also increased the temperature of culture medium. As transient receptors potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels are known to be temperature-sensitive calcium channels, we explore whether TRPV channels mediate these observed effects. Reverse transcription-PCR assay revealed two TRPV isoforms in BAEC, TRPV2 and TRPV4. Although ruthenium red, a pan-TRPV inhibitor, completely reversed the observed effect of FIR radiation, a partial attenuation (∼20%) was found in cells treated with Tranilast, TRPV2 inhibitor. However, ectopic expression of siRNA of TRPV2 showed no significant alteration in FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation. This

  10. Thermal-grating contributions to degenerate four-wave mixing in nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danehy, P.M.; Paul, P.H.; Farrow, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    We report investigations of degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) line intensities in the A 2 Σ + left-arrow X 2 Π electronic transitions of nitric oxide. Contributions from population gratings (spatially varying perturbations in the level populations of absorbing species) and thermal gratings (spatially varying perturbations in the overall density) were distinguished and compared by several experimental and analytical techniques. For small quantities of nitric oxide in a strongly quenching buffer gas (carbon dioxide), we found that thermal-grating contributions dominated at room temperature for gas pressures of ∼0.5 atm and higher. In a nearly nonquenching buffer (nitrogen) the population-grating mechanism dominated at pressures of ∼1.0 atm and lower. At higher temperatures in an atmospheric-pressure methane/air flame, population gratings of nitric oxide also dominated. We propose a simple model for the ratio of thermal- to population-grating scattering intensities that varies as P 4 T -4.4 . Preliminary investigations of the temperature dependence and detailed studies of the pressure dependence are in agreement with this model. Measurements of the temporal evolution and the peak intensity of isolated thermal-grating signals are in detailed agreement with calculations based on a linearized hydrodynamic model [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 384 (1995)]. copyright 1995 Optical Society of America

  11. Hypercholesterolemia aggravates myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury via activating endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Zhang, Xiaowen; Jia, Pengyu; Jia, Dalin

    2015-12-01

    The effect of hypercholesterolemia on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) is in controversy and the underlying mechanism is still not well understood. In the present study, we firstly detected the effects of hypercholesterolemia on MIRI and the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis pathway in this process. The infarct size was determined by TTC staining, and apoptosis was measured by the TUNEL method. The marker proteins of ER stress response and ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway were detected by Western blot. The results showed that high cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia significantly increased the myocardial infarct size, the release of myocardium enzyme and the ratio of apoptosis, but did not affect the recovery of cardiac function. Moreover, hypercholesterolemia also remarkably up-regulated the expressions of ER stress markers (glucose-regulated protein 78 and calreticulin) and critical molecules in ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway (CHOP, caspase 12, phospho-JNK). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that hypercholesterolemia enhanced myocardial vulnerability/sensitivity to ischemia reperfusion injury involved in aggravation the ER stress and activation of ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway and it gave us a new insight into the underlying mechanisms associated with hypercholesterolemia-induced exaggerated MIRI and also provided a novel target for preventing MIRI in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. mediated oxidation of vic-dioxime to furoxan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    membered heterocycles and exhibit nitric oxide (NO) ... copper complexes (via chelation through nitrogen atoms of ... ammonium nitrate, this oxidation process was observed to take ... failed to produce the blue intermediate species at low ...

  13. Nitric Oxide Synthases Reveal a Role for Calmodulin in Controlling Electron Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Soud, Husam M.; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    1993-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized within the immune, vascular, and nervous systems, where it acts as a wide-ranging mediator of mammalian physiology. The NO synthases (EC 1.14.13.39) isolated from neurons or endothelium are calmodulin dependent. Calmodulin binds reversibly to neuronal NO synthase in response to elevated Ca2+, triggering its NO production by an unknown mechanism. Here we show that calmodulin binding allows NADPH-derived electrons to pass onto the heme group of neuronal NO synthase. Calmodulin-triggered electron transfer to heme was independent of substrate binding, caused rapid enzymatic oxidation of NADPH in the presence of O_2, and was required for NO synthesis. An NO synthase isolated from cytokine-induced macrophages that contains tightly bound calmodulin catalyzed spontaneous electron transfer to its heme, consistent with bound calmodulin also enabling electron transfer within this isoform. Together, these results provide a basis for how calmodulin may regulate NO synthesis. The ability of calmodulin to trigger electron transfer within an enzyme is unexpected and represents an additional function for calcium-binding proteins in biology.

  14. Enhanced 15-HPETE production during oxidant stress induces apoptosis of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordillo, Lorraine M; Weaver, James A; Cao, Yu-Zhang; Corl, Chris; Sylte, Matt J; Mullarky, Isis K

    2005-05-01

    Oxidant stress plays an important role in the etiology of vascular diseases by increasing rates of endothelial cell apoptosis, but few data exist on the mechanisms involved. Using a unique model of oxidative stress based on selenium deficiency (-Se), the effects of altered eicosanoid production on bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) apoptosis was evaluated. Oxidant stress significantly increased the immediate oxygenation product of arachidonic acid metabolized by the 15-lipoxygenase pathway, 15-hydroxyperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HPETE). Treatment of -Se BAEC with TNFalpha/cyclohexamide (CHX) exhibited elevated levels of apoptosis, which was significantly reduced by the addition of a specific 15-lipoxygenase inhibitor PD146176. Furthermore, the addition of 15-HPETE to PD146176-treated BAEC, partially restored TNF/CHX-induced apoptosis. Increased exposure to 15-HPETE induced apoptosis, as determined by internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, caspase-3 activation, and caspase-9 activation, which suggests mitochondrial dysfunction. The expression of Bcl-2 protein also was decreased in -Se BAEC. Addition of a caspase-9 inhibitor (LEHD-fmk) completely blocked 15-HPETE-induced chromatin condensation in -Se BAEC, suggesting that 15-HPETE-induced apoptosis is caspase-9 dependent. Increased apoptosis of BAEC as a result of oxidant stress and subsequent production of 15-HPETE may play a critical role in a variety of inflammatory based diseases.

  15. Metagenomic analysis of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity: implications for nitric oxide homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Embriette R; Andrade, Fernando; Vaksman, Zalman; Parthasarathy, Kavitha; Jiang, Hong; Parthasarathy, Deepa K; Torregrossa, Ashley C; Tribble, Gena; Kaplan, Heidi B; Petrosino, Joseph F; Bryan, Nathan S

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota of the human lower intestinal tract helps maintain healthy host physiology, for example through nutrient acquisition and bile acid recycling, but specific positive contributions of the oral microbiota to host health are not well established. Nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis is crucial to mammalian physiology. The recently described entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has been shown to provide bioactive NO from dietary nitrate sources. Interestingly, this pathway is dependent upon oral nitrate-reducing bacteria, since humans lack this enzyme activity. This pathway appears to represent a newly recognized symbiosis between oral nitrate-reducing bacteria and their human hosts in which the bacteria provide nitrite and nitric oxide from nitrate reduction. Here we measure the nitrate-reducing capacity of tongue-scraping samples from six healthy human volunteers, and analyze metagenomes of the bacterial communities to identify bacteria contributing to nitrate reduction. We identified 14 candidate species, seven of which were not previously believed to contribute to nitrate reduction. We cultivated isolates of four candidate species in single- and mixed-species biofilms, revealing that they have substantial nitrate- and nitrite-reduction capabilities. Colonization by specific oral bacteria may thus contribute to host NO homeostasis by providing nitrite and nitric oxide. Conversely, the lack of specific nitrate-reducing communities may disrupt the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway and lead to a state of NO insufficiency. These findings may also provide mechanistic evidence for the oral systemic link. Our results provide a possible new therapeutic target and paradigm for NO restoration in humans by specific oral bacteria.

  16. Metagenomic analysis of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity: implications for nitric oxide homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Embriette R Hyde

    Full Text Available The microbiota of the human lower intestinal tract helps maintain healthy host physiology, for example through nutrient acquisition and bile acid recycling, but specific positive contributions of the oral microbiota to host health are not well established. Nitric oxide (NO homeostasis is crucial to mammalian physiology. The recently described entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has been shown to provide bioactive NO from dietary nitrate sources. Interestingly, this pathway is dependent upon oral nitrate-reducing bacteria, since humans lack this enzyme activity. This pathway appears to represent a newly recognized symbiosis between oral nitrate-reducing bacteria and their human hosts in which the bacteria provide nitrite and nitric oxide from nitrate reduction. Here we measure the nitrate-reducing capacity of tongue-scraping samples from six healthy human volunteers, and analyze metagenomes of the bacterial communities to identify bacteria contributing to nitrate reduction. We identified 14 candidate species, seven of which were not previously believed to contribute to nitrate reduction. We cultivated isolates of four candidate species in single- and mixed-species biofilms, revealing that they have substantial nitrate- and nitrite-reduction capabilities. Colonization by specific oral bacteria may thus contribute to host NO homeostasis by providing nitrite and nitric oxide. Conversely, the lack of specific nitrate-reducing communities may disrupt the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway and lead to a state of NO insufficiency. These findings may also provide mechanistic evidence for the oral systemic link. Our results provide a possible new therapeutic target and paradigm for NO restoration in humans by specific oral bacteria.

  17. Combination of nitric oxide therapy, anti-oxidative therapy, low level laser therapy, plasma rich platelet therapy and stem cell therapy as a novel therapeutic application to manage the pain and treat many clinical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Salaheldin; Dickinson, Eva

    2014-02-01

    From hypertension to diabetes, cancer to HIV, stroke to memory loss and learning disorders to septic shock, male impotence to tuberculosis, there is probably no pathological condition where nitric oxide does not play an important role. Nitric oxide is an analgesic, immune-modulator, vasodilator, anti-apoptotic, growth modulator, angiogenetic, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory and neuro-modulator. Because of the above actions of nitric oxide, many clinical conditions associated with abnormal Nitric oxide (NO) production and bioavailability. Our novel therapeutic approach is to restore the homeostasis of nitric oxide and replace the lost cells by combining nitric oxide therapy, anti-oxidative therapy, low level laser therapy, plasma rich platelet therapy and stem cell therapy.

  18. Effects of carbon tetrachloride on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Rui; Cao, Li-Ping; Du, Jin-Liang; Wang, Jia-Hao; Liu, Ying-Juan; Jeney, Galina; Xu, Pao; Yin, Guo-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We explored the underlying toxicology of CCl 4 at the cellular and molecular levels. • QRT-PCR detected the gene expression of NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines. • The apoptosis and necrosis occurred simultaneously in carp liver damage. • CCl 4 activated the TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways. - Abstract: In the present study, the cellular and molecular mechanism of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced hepatotoxicity in fish was investigated by studying the effects of CCl 4 on the oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis. Common carp were given an intraperitoneal injection of 30% CCl 4 in arachis oil (0.5 ml/kg body weight). At 72 h post-injection, blood were collected to measure glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde (MDA), liver samples were taken to analyze toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and gene expressions of inflammatory cytokines and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB/cREL). Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed after treatment of the primary hepatocytes with CCl 4 at 8 mM. The results showed that CCl 4 significantly increased the levels of GPT, GOT, MDA, TLR4 and CYP2E1, reduced the levels of SOD, GPx, CAT, GSH and T-AOC, and up-regulated the gene expressions of NF-κB/cREL and inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12. In vitro, CCl 4 caused a dramatic loss in cell viability and induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Overall results suggest that oxidative stress lipid peroxidation, and TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways play important roles in CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity in fish

  19. Effects of carbon tetrachloride on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Rui [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081