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Sample records for nitrate-fuel oil mixtures

  1. Thermal signature measurements for ammonium nitrate/fuel mixtures by laser heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarian, Ashot; Presser, Cary

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • LDTR is a useful diagnostic for characterizing AN/fuel mixture thermochemical behavior. • Each AN/fuel mixture thermal signature was different. • AN/fuel mixture signature features were defined by the individual constituents. • Baseline signatures changed after an experiment. - Abstract: Measurements were carried out to obtain thermal signatures of several ammonium nitrate/fuel (ANF) mixtures, using a laser-heating technique referred to as the laser-driven thermal reactor (LDTR). The mixtures were ammonium nitrate (AN)/kerosene, AN/ethylene glycol, AN/paraffin wax, AN/petroleum jelly, AN/confectioner's sugar, AN/cellulose (tissue paper), nitromethane/cellulose, nitrobenzene/cellulose, AN/cellulose/nitromethane, AN/cellulose/nitrobenzene. These mixtures were also compared with AN/nitromethane and AN/diesel fuel oil, obtained from an earlier investigation. Thermograms for the mixtures, as well as individual constituents, were compared to better understand how sample thermal signature changes with mixture composition. This is the first step in development of a thermal-signature database, to be used along with other signature databases, to improve identification of energetic substances of unknown composition. The results indicated that each individual thermal signature was associated unambiguously with a particular mixture composition. The signature features of a particular mixture were shaped by the individual constituent signatures. It was also uncovered that the baseline signature was modified after an experiment due to coating of unreacted residue on the substrate surface and a change in the reactor sphere oxide layer. Thus, care was required to pre-oxidize the sphere prior to an experiment. A minimum sample mass (which was dependent on composition) was required to detect the signature characteristics. Increased laser power served to magnify signal strength while preserving the signature features. For the mixtures examined, the thermal

  2. Thermal Signature Measurements for Ammonium Nitrate/Fuel Mixtures by Laser Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarian, Ashot; Presser, Cary

    2016-01-10

    Measurements were carried out to obtain thermal signatures of several ammonium nitrate/fuel (ANF) mixtures, using a laser-heating technique referred to as the laser-driven thermal reactor (LDTR). The mixtures were ammonium nitrate (AN)/kerosene, AN/ethylene glycol, AN/paraffin wax, AN/petroleum jelly, AN/confectioner's sugar, AN/cellulose (tissue paper), nitromethane/cellulose, nitrobenzene/cellulose, AN/cellulose/nitromethane, AN/cellulose/nitrobenzene. These mixtures were also compared with AN/nitromethane and AN/diesel fuel oil, obtained from an earlier investigation. Thermograms for the mixtures, as well as individual constituents, were compared to better understand how the sample thermal signature changes with mixture composition. This is the first step in development of a thermal-signature database, to be used along with other signature databases, to improve identification of energetic substances of unknown composition. The results indicated that each individual thermal signature was associated unambiguously with a particular mixture composition. The signature features of a particular mixture were shaped by the individual constituent signatures. It was also uncovered that the baseline signature was modified after an experiment due to coating of unreacted residue on the substrate surface and a change in the reactor sphere oxide layer. Thus, care was required to pre-oxidize the sphere prior to an experiment. A minimum sample mass (which was dependent on composition) was required to detect the signature characteristics. Increased laser power served to magnify signal strength while preserving the signature features. For the mixtures examined, the thermal response of each ANF mixture was found to be different, which was based on the mixture composition and the thermal behavior of each mixture constituent.

  3. Hydroprocesssing of light gas oil - rape oil mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walendziewski, Jerzy; Stolarski, Marek; Luzny, Rafal; Klimek, Bartlomiej [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, ul. Gdanska 7/9, 50-310 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    Two series of experiments of hydroprocessing of light gas oil - rape oil mixtures were carried out. The reactor feed was composed of raw material: first series - 10 wt.% rape oil and 90 wt.% of diesel oil; second series - 20 wt.% rape oil and 80 wt.% of diesel oil. Hydroprocessing of both mixtures was performed with the same parameter sets, temperature (320, 350 and 380 C), hydrogen pressure 3 and 5 MPa, LHSV = 2 h{sup -} {sup 1} and hydrogen feed ratio of 500 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}. It was stated that within limited range it is possible to control vegetable oil hydrogenolysis in the presence of light gas oil fraction (diesel oil boiling range) through the proper selection of the process parameters. Hydrogenolysis of ester bonds and hydrogenation of olefinic bonds in vegetable oils are the main reactions in the process. Basic physicochemical properties of the obtained hydroprocessed products are presented. (author)

  4. Process of decomposing an oil mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubierschky, K

    1917-12-02

    A process is described for the decomposition of oil mixtures, and the like, by means of alcohol, characterized in that the subject mixture is brought into solution in high-grade alcohol, and this solution is washed countercurrent with dilute alcohol.

  5. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or usual name of a mixture of edible fats and oils containing less than 100 percent and more than 0 percent...

  6. Combustion of soybean oil and diesel mixtures for heating purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Adriana Correa; Sanz, Jose Francisco [European University Miguel de Cervantes, Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: acorrea@uemc.es; Hernandez, Salvador; Navas, Luis Manuel; Rodriguez, Elena; Ruiz, Gonzalo [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Agricultural and Forest Engineering; San Jose, Julio [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Energetic Engineering; Gomez, Jaime [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Communications and Signal Theory and Telematics Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Using blends of vegetable oils with petroleum derivates for heating purposes has several advantages over other energy application for vegetable oils. This paper presents the results of an investigation by use of soybean oil and diesel mixture as fuel for producing heat in conventional diesel installation. The paper is set out as follows: properties characterization of soybean oil as fuel and of diesel oil, as well as the mixture of both; selection of the mixture according to their physical chemical properties and how they adapt to conventional combustion installation; experimentation with the selected mixture, allowing the main combustion parameters to be measured; processing the collected data, values of combustion, efficiency and reduction of emissions. Conclusions show that the use of soybean oil and diesel mixture for producing heat energy in conventional equipment is feasible and beneficial for reduction emissions. (author)

  7. Characterisation of Oil-Gas Mixtures by Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2004-01-01

    . The present project deals with development of a technique for quick analysis of oil-gas mixtures. The main emphasis is laid on characterisation of gas phases in equilibrium with oil at high pressures and high temperatures by Raman spectroscopy. The Raman technique has a great potential of being useful, due...

  8. Petroleum Diesel Fuel and Linseed Oil Mixtures as Engine Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, V. A.; Kamaltdinov, V. G.; Savastenko, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The actual problem is the use of alternative biofuels in automotive diesel engines. Insufficiently studied are the indicators of toxicity of exhaust gases of these engines operating on biofuel. The aim of the study is to identify indicators of the toxicity of exhaust gases when using of petroleum diesel fuel and linseed oil mixtures as a fuel for automotive diesel engines. Physical and chemical properties of linseed oil and its mixtures with petroleum diesel fuel are considered. Experimental researches of D-245.12C diesel are carried out on mixtures of diesel fuel and corn oil with a different composition. An opportunity of exhaust toxicity indexes improvement using these mixtures as a fuel for automobiles engine is shown.

  9. Desolventizing of soybean oil/azeotrope mixtures using ceramic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Jonas R M; Tiggeman, Lidia; Rezzadori, Katia; Steffens, Juliana; Palliga, Marshall; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Di Luccio, Marco; Tres, Marcus V

    2017-08-01

    This work investigates the use of ceramic membranes with different molecular weight cut-offs (MWCOs: 5, 10 and 20 kDa) to desolventize azeotropic solvent mixtures (ethanol/n-hexane and isopropyl alcohol/n-hexane) from soybean oil/azeotrope micelles. Results show that a decrease in the MWCO of a membrane and an increase in the solvent mass ratio in the mixture resulted in a significant reduction in the permeate flux. The 20 kDa membrane presented the highest permeate flux, 80 and 60 kg/m 2 h for the soybean oil/n-hexane/isopropyl alcohol and soybean oil/n-hexane/ethanol azeotropes, respectively, for an oil to solvent ratio of 1:3 (w/w). The highest oil retention was found using the n-hexane/isopropyl alcohol azeotrope, around 25% in the membrane with the lowest MWCO, that is, 5 kDa. It is shown that the azeotropic mixtures provided intermediate characteristics compared to the original pure solvent behavior.

  10. Fuel properties of biodiesel from vegetable oils and oil mixtures. Influence of methyl esters distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, G.; Sánchez, N.; Encinar, J.M.; González, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the quality of biodiesel produced by basic transesterification from several vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, high oleic sunflower, Cynara Cardunculus L., Brassica Carinata and Jatropha Curca) cultivated in Extremadura has been studied in detail. The influence of raw material composition on properties such as density, viscosity, cetane number, higher heating value, iodine and saponification values and cold filter plugging point has been verified. Other biodiesel properties such as acid value, water content and flash and combustion points were more dependent on characteristics of production process. Biodiesel produced by rapeseed, sunflower and high oleic sunflower oils transesterification have been biofuels with better properties according to Norm EN 14214. Finally, it has been tested that it is possible to use oils mixtures in biodiesel production in order to improve the biodiesel quality. In addition, with the same process conditions and knowing properties of biodiesel from pure oils; for biodiesel from oils mixtures, its methyl esters content, and therefore properties dependent this content can be predicted from a simple mathematical equation proposed in this work. - Highlights: • Biodiesel quality produced by basic transesterification from vegetable oils. • We examine influences of methyl esters distribution on biodiesel properties. • Biofuels from soybean, sunflower and rapeseed oils were with better properties. • Oils mixtures improve biodiesel quality to fulfill Norm EN 14214. • An equation to predict properties of biodiesel from oil mixtures is proposed

  11. ENZYMATIC BIODIESEL SYNTHESIS FROM ACID OIL USING A LIPASE MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly C. N. R. Pedro

    Full Text Available The conventional biodiesel production process has some disadvantages. It is necessary to use refined vegetable oils with low free fatty acids (FFAs content. An alternative route is to use low-cost acid oils in an enzymatic process. The use of lipases allows simultaneous esterification of FFAs and transesterification of triglycerides present in raw material forming alkyl esters. The aim of this work was to study the production of biodiesel using soybean oils with different acid contents (Acid Value of 8.5, 50, 90 and ethanol catalyzed by commercial immobilized lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme RM IM and Lipozyme TL IM. A significant decrease of acid value was observed mainly with Novozym 435 and Lipozyme RM IM. The use of a mixture of two immobilized lipases was also investigated to decrease catalyst cost and increase the amount of ester produced. The three commercial immobilized lipases were mixed in a dual system and tested for biodiesel synthesis from acid oil (AV of 8.5, 50 and 90. A positive synergistic effect occurred mainly for Lipozyme TL IM (1,3-specific lipase and Novozym 435 (non-specific lipase blend. The ester content doubled when this lipase mixture was used in ethanolysis of acid oil with AV of 90.

  12. Yield and characteristics of shale oil from the retorting of oil shale and fine oil-shale ash mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Mengting; Wang, Sha; Han, Xiangxin; Jiang, Xiumin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The whole formation process of shale oil might be divided into four stages. • Higher ash/shale mass ratio intensified the cracking and coking of shale oil. • Ash/shale ratio of 1:2 was recommended for oil shale fluidized bed retort with fine oil-shale ash as solid heat carrier. - Abstract: For exploring and optimizing the oil shale fluidized bed retort with fine oil-shale ash as a solid heat carrier, retorting experiments of oil shale and fine oil-shale ash mixtures were conducted in a lab-scale retorting reactor to investigate the effects of fine oil-shale ash on shale oil. Oil shale samples were obtained from Dachengzi Mine, China, and mixed with fine oil-shale ash in the ash/shale mass ratios of 0:1, 1:4, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1. The experimental retorting temperature was enhanced from room temperature to 520 °C and the average heating rate was 12 °C min −1 . It was found that, with the increase of the oil-shale ash fraction, the shale oil yield first increased and then decreased obviously, whereas the gas yield appeared conversely. Shale oil was analyzed for the elemental analysis, presenting its atomic H/C ratio of 1.78–1.87. Further, extraction and simulated distillation of shale oil were also conducted to explore the quality of shale oil. As a result, the ash/shale mixing mass ratio of 1:2 was recommended only for the consideration of increasing the yield and quality of shale oil

  13. Transesterification of camelina sativa oil with supercritical alcohol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yingqiang; Ponnusamy, Sundaravadivelnathan; Muppaneni, Tapaswy; Reddy, Harvind K.; Wang, Jun; Zeng, Zheling; Deng, Shuguang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Transesterification of camelina oil under supercritical methanol/ethanol and 1-butanol mixture conditions. • Chemical composition of fatty acid methyl esters, ethyl esters and butyl esters. • Effect of different alcohol molar ratio on biodiesel yields. • Effect of different alcohol molar ratio on physical properties of biodiesel products. - Abstract: The transesterification of camelina sativa oil with methanol–1-butanol, and ethanol–1-butanol alcohol mixtures under supercritical conditions have been studied in order to maximize biodiesel yield and improve biodiesel quality. The influence of the variation of the molar ratio of methanol–1-butanol and ethanol–1-butanol from 1:0, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, to 0:1 on the yield of free fatty methyl esters/free fatty ethanol esters–free fatty acid butyl esters, the composition of the biodiesel blend mixtures, and the physical properties of the biodiesel have been investigated at the reaction temperature of 290 °C, reaction time of 30 min, and the initial reaction pressure of 500 psi. A maximum yield of 86.14 wt% for free fatty acid methyl esters–free fatty acid butyl esters with the optimum cold property can be obtained at the molar ratio of methanol–1-butanol of 0.5–0.9. Also, a maximum yield of 85.60 wt% for free fatty ethyl esters–free fatty butyl esters with the lowest pour point can be achieved at the molar ratio of ethanol–1-butanol in the range of 0.5–0.7

  14. Effect of randomization of mixtures of butter oil and vegetable oil on absorption and lipid metabolism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, C.; Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    2001-01-01

    of the dietary fats compared. Data on the fate of such lipids beyond the bloodstream is rather scarce and animal model studies are needed. Aim of the study To compare the metabolism of butter oil and mixtures of butter and rapeseed oil, native or randomized, in a model. The regiospecific fatty acid distribution...... present in dietary fats was followed through absorption, chylomicron formation, and deposition in adipose tissue and in different liver lipids (triacylglycerols, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters). Methods Rats were fed for 6 weeks from weaning either butter oil (BO), a butteroil- rapeseed oil mixture...... (interesterification) of butter oil with rapeseed oil (65:35 w/w) for use as edible fat did not have any impact on the fatty acid composition beyond the chylomicron step when compared to the native mixture....

  15. A numerical study on the oil retention of R410A and PVE oil mixture in multi heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak Soo; Kim, Min Soo [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Predicting an amount of discharged oil from a compressor is necessary to charge the compressor with proper amount of oil. The amount of discharged oil can be predicted by calculating the oil retention amount in each component of a heat pump system. This study suggests a method for calculating the oil retention amount in a heat pump system. In addition, flow pattern of refrigerant and oil mixture in horizontal gas line of refrigerant was ascertained by flow visualization. The oil retention amounts in each component of multi heat pump system were calculated with respect to mass flux of refrigerant, Oil circulation ratio (OCR), length of horizontal and vertical lines. Oil retention amounts in horizontal and vertical gas lines of refrigerant were significant. To validate the model for gas lines of refrigerant, comparison between predicted and experimental oil retention amounts was conducted, and mean absolute percentage error was 15.0%.

  16. Acute toxicities of crude oils and oil-dispersant mixtures to Red sea fishes and invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisler, R.

    1975-11-01

    Crude oil from fields in the Persian Gulf and in the Sinai plus a chemical oil dispersant were tested, using static bioassay procedures, for toxicity to adults or juveniles of ten marine species: Heteroxenia fuscescens, a soft coral; Nerita forskali and Drupa granulata, gastropod molluscs; Mytilus variabilis, a mussel; Acanthopleura haddoni, a chiton (mollusc); Echinometra mathaei, sea urchin; Calcinus latens, a hermit crab; Palaemon pacificus, a shrimp; Parupeneus barberinus, goatfish; and Siganus rivulatus, rabbitfish. Concentrations fatal to 50 percent of individual test species in 168 hours, LC-50 (168 h), ranged from 0.74 to more than 30.0 ml/liter for Persian Gulf crude, from 14.5 to more than 30.0 ml/liter for Sinai crude, and from 0.006 to 0.064 ml/liter for the dispersant. In general, fishes and crustaceans were the most sensitive groups assayed and molluscs the most resistant. LC-50 (168 h) values for oil-dispersant mixtures of 10 parts oil to 1 part dispersant (v/v) for selected species ranged from 0.047 to 0.152 ml/liter which appears to reflect the biocidal properties of the dispersant. Some individuals that survived immersion in high concentrations of the test compounds for 168 h were adversely affected during treatment and afterwards.

  17. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of the mixture of olive oil and lime cream in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, Zeynep; Yildirim, Gulay; Sumer, Haldun; Yildirim, Sahin

    2013-01-01

    The mixture of olive oil and lime cream has been traditionally used to treat external burns in the region of Hatay/Antakya and middle Anatolia. Olive oil and lime cream have been employed by many physicians to treat many ailments in the past. A limited number of studies have shown the antibacterial effect of olive oil and that it does not have any toxic effect on the skin. But we did not find any reported studies on the mixture of olive oil and lime cream. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of olive oil and lime cream individually or/and in combination in vitro conditions, by using disk-diffusion method and in cell culture. The main purpose in using this mixture is usually to clear burns without a trace. Agar overlay, MTT (Cytotoxicity assay) and antibacterial susceptibility tests were used to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of olive oil and lime cream. We found that lime cream has an antibacterial activity but also cytotoxic on the fibroblasts. On the other hand olive oil has limited or no antibacterial effect and it has little or no cytotoxic on the fibroblasts. When we combined lime cream and olive oil, olive oil reduced its cytotoxic impact. These results suggest that mixture of olive oil and lime cream is not cytotoxic and has antimicrobial activity.

  18. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali

    1995-01-01

    Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  19. Quality control of mixtures consisting of engine oil and rapeseed oil by means of online oil sensors; Qualitaetsueberwachung von Motoroel-Rapsoelmischungen mit Online-Oelsensoren. Labortests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuneke, Klaus; Schreiber, Katja [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum, Straubing (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    It was the goal of the work to investigate interactions between motor oils and rapeseed oil fuel and to test oil sensors for monitoring the quality of aged mixtures of motor oil and rapeseed oil. At first oil samples were aged in the laboratory, whereby motor oil type, share of rapeseed oil and aeration was varied. Depending on type of engine oil different ageing effects were noticed. Higher shares of rapeseed and aeration stimulate increase of viscosity and acid value. In a further step online oil sensors were tested in both, a model of a lubrication system and a test engine. The signals of the sensors plausibly described the oil ageing process by the indicators dynamic or acoustic viscosity, permittivity number, specific electric conductivity. In particular viscosity and permittivity are suitable for showing changes in different motor oil rapeseed oil mixtures during oil ageing. However, for a reliable control system detecting critical rapeseed oil enrichment in the motor oil onboard, further work has to be done. (orig.)

  20. Efficacy of pretreating oil palm fronds with an acid-base mixture catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Park, Yong-Cheol; Park, Kyungmoon; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2017-07-01

    Oil palm fronds are abundant but recalcitrant to chemical pretreatment. Herein, an acid-base mixture was applied as a catalyst to efficiently pretreat oil palm fronds. Optimized conditions for the pretreatment were a 0.1M acidic acid-base mixture and 3min ramping to 190°C and 12min holding. The oil palm fronds pretreated and washed with the acid-base mixture exhibited an enzymatic digestibility of 85% by 15 FPU Accellerase 1000/g glucan after 72h hydrolysis, which was significantly higher than the enzymatic digestibilities obtained by acid or alkali pretreatment alone. This could be attributed to the synergistic actions of the acid and base, producing an 87% glucose recovery with 100% and 40.3% removal of xylan and lignin, respectively, from the solids. Therefore, an acid-base mixture can be a feasible catalyst to deconstruct oil palm fronds for sugar production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT AND OIL PALM FROND WASTE MIXTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BIOMASS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HASSAN, L. S. KEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME sludge generated from palm oil mill industry and oil palm frond (OPF from oil palm plantation are considered biomass wastes that can be fully utilized as a renewable energy sources. In this study, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid biomass fuel. The study was conducted by developing experimental testing on the POME and OPF mixture. The performance of each sample with different weight percentage was investigated using standard tests. The biomass mixture was converted into compressed form of briquette through a simple process. The properties of the briquettes were observed and compared at different weight percentage following standard testing methods included ultimate and proximate analyses, burning characteristics, dimensional stability and crack analysis. Experimental results showed that POME sludge and OPF mixture is feasible as an alternative biomass fuel, with briquette of 90:10 POME sludge to OPF ratio has a good combination of properties as an overall.

  2. Microphase Separation in Oil-Water Mixtures Containing Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tasios, Nikos; Samin, Sela; van Roij, Rene; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    We develop a lattice-based Monte Carlo simulation method for charged mixtures capable of treating dielectric heterogeneities. Using this method, we study oil-water mixtures containing an antagonistic salt, with hydrophilic cations and hydrophobic anions. Our simulations reveal several phases with a

  3. Rheology of petrolatum-paraffin oil mixtures : Applications to analogue modelling of geological processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Schellart, Wouter P.; Cruden, Alexander R.

    2014-01-01

    Paraffins have been widely used in analogue modelling of geological processes. Petrolatum and paraffin oil are commonly used to lubricate model boundaries and to simulate weak layers. In this paper, we present rheological tests of petrolatum, paraffin oil and several homogeneous mixtures of the two.

  4. INTENSIFICATION OF MICROBIAL EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE ETHAPOLAN BIOSYNTHESIS ON MIXTURE OF MOLASSES AND SUNFLOWER OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Pirog

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to establish Acinetobacter sp. IMB B-7005 cultivation conditions, which provide the maximal synthesis of microbial exopolysaccharide ethapolan on a mixture of molasses and sunflower oil, and to explore the possibility of replacing refined oil in a mixture with molasses for waste one. On the basis of theoretical calculations of energy consumption for the synthesis of ethapolan and biomass, it was determined that the optimal molar ratio of the concentrations of energy-deficient (sucrose and energy-excessive (sunflower oil substrates in the mixture was 1.0:0.9. Experiments have shown that the highest values of exopolysaccharide synthesis were observed at a molar ratio of monosubstrates in mixture 1.0:1.1, which is as close as possible to the theoretically calculated one. It was shown that increasing concentration of molasses and refined oil in mixture from 1.0 to 1.5% was accompanied by increase in amount of synthesized exopolysaccharide and its synthesizing capacity by 1.2 and 1.3 times, respectively. The possibility of replacing refined oil in a mixture with molasses for various types of waste (after frying potatoes, meat, vegetables and mixed was established. The maximum parameters of exopolysaccharide synthesis (concentration 14 g/l, synthesizing capacity 3.5 g exopolysaccharide/g biomass were observed when using mixed waste oil for both inoculum obtaining and EPS biosynthesis. The obtained results testify to the possibility of development of universal technology for obtaining microbal exopolysaccharide ethapolan on a mixture of waste (molasses and waste oil independent of the type and provider of waste oil.

  5. Two-component mixture model: Application to palm oil and exchange rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoong, Seuk-Yen; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad

    2014-12-01

    Palm oil is a seed crop which is widely adopt for food and non-food products such as cookie, vegetable oil, cosmetics, household products and others. Palm oil is majority growth in Malaysia and Indonesia. However, the demand for palm oil is getting growth and rapidly running out over the years. This phenomenal cause illegal logging of trees and destroy the natural habitat. Hence, the present paper investigates the relationship between exchange rate and palm oil price in Malaysia by using Maximum Likelihood Estimation via Newton-Raphson algorithm to fit a two components mixture model. Besides, this paper proposes a mixture of normal distribution to accommodate with asymmetry characteristics and platykurtic time series data.

  6. Spilled Oils: Static Mixtures or Dynamic Weathering and Bioavailability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G Carls

    Full Text Available Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs from sequestered MV Selendang Ayu oil were biologically available in 2008, 3.6 y after it was spilled along Unalaska Island, Alaska. Thermodynamically driven weathering was the most probable mechanism of organism exposure to PAHs. Alkane and PAH composition in oil changed over time as smaller constituents were preferentially lost, indicative of weathering. In contrast, composition of the largest compounds (biomarkers including triterpanes, hopanes, and steranes remained unchanged. Smaller molecules (the PAHs lost from stranded oil were observed in indigenous mussels and passive samplers deployed in July 2008. Concentration and composition of PAHs were significantly different than in a non-oiled reference area and patterns observed in mussels were repeated in passive samplers deployed in three zones (intertidal, subtidal, and water. Thus, hydrocarbons lost from one compartment (sequestered whole oil were detectable in another (mussels and passive samplers implying aqueous transfer. Quantities of mobile oil constituents were small, yielding uptake concentrations that are likely inconsequential for mussels, but the sensitivity provided by bioaccumulation and passive sampler uptake ensured that dissolved hydrocarbons were detectable.

  7. Optimization of Surfactant Mixtures and Their Interfacial Behavior for Advanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, Prof. P.

    2001-02-27

    The goal of this report is to develop improved extraction processes to mobilize and produce the oil left untapped using conventional techniques. Current chemical schemes for recovering the residual oil have been in general less than satisfactory. High cost of the processes as well as significant loss of chemicals by adsorption on reservoir materials and precipitation has limited the utility of chemical-flooding operations. There is a need to develop cost-effective, improved reagent schemes to increase recovery from domestic oil reservoirs. The goal of the report was to develop and evaluate novel mixtures of surfactants for improved oil recovery.

  8. Spectroscopic and Chemometric Analysis of Binary and Ternary Edible Oil Mixtures: Qualitative and Quantitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jović, Ozren; Smolić, Tomislav; Primožič, Ines; Hrenar, Tomica

    2016-04-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy coupled with the multivariate numerical methodology for qualitative and quantitative analysis of binary and ternary edible oil mixtures. Four pure oils (extra virgin olive oil, high oleic sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, and sunflower oil), as well as their 54 binary and 108 ternary mixtures, were analyzed using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in combination with principal component and discriminant analysis, partial least-squares, and principal component regression. It was found that the composition of all 166 samples can be excellently represented using only the first three principal components describing 98.29% of total variance in the selected spectral range (3035-2989, 1170-1140, 1120-1100, 1093-1047, and 930-890 cm(-1)). Factor scores in 3D space spanned by these three principal components form a tetrahedral-like arrangement: pure oils being at the vertices, binary mixtures at the edges, and ternary mixtures on the faces of a tetrahedron. To confirm the validity of results, we applied several cross-validation methods. Quantitative analysis was performed by minimization of root-mean-square error of cross-validation values regarding the spectral range, derivative order, and choice of method (partial least-squares or principal component regression), which resulted in excellent predictions for test sets (R(2) > 0.99 in all cases). Additionally, experimentally more demanding gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid content was carried out for all specimens, confirming the results obtained by FTIR-ATR coupled with principal component analysis. However, FTIR-ATR provided a considerably better model for prediction of mixture composition than gas chromatography, especially for high oleic sunflower oil.

  9. The Middle East: A mixture of oil and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeet, I.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of stability is discussed as it applies to the Middle East countries and to the international oil market. The differences in how the various players involved (such as the USA, Europe, Iran, and the Arab countries) view stability are noted. With regard to stability and the oil trade, the results of the recent Gulf war indicate that the international security of oil supply and the regional balance of power in the Gulf are inseparable. Over most of the post-1945 period, there has been a reasonable degree of oil price stability and supply security. This stability and security has not come about through management of the oil price by governments, institutions, or groups of companies. The massive discontinuities in this management process in 1973, 1979/80, and 1986 are brought forward to provide evidence that a new management system must be created to avoid such problems in the future. It is suggested that in the past few years, the management function has been slipping away from OPEC and replaced by a Saudi Arabia/USA joint interest alliance

  10. The Middle East - a mixture of oil and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeet, I.

    1992-01-01

    The paper deals with the prospects for stability, in the context both of Middle East politics and of oil price and security. It shows that, because political stability is viewed differently by the actors who would be required to create the constituent parts of a stable political system, the likelihood of such stability is not high. In the case of oil, the objectives of the so-called producer/consumer dialogue are also different for both sides and a stable system is more likely to persist (although always subject to political upsets) as a result of whatever price management naturally evolves rather than through the creation of newly constructed mechanisms. (author)

  11. Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Biomass/Oil Mixture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, Václav; Hanika, Jiří; Tukač, V.; Lederer, J.; Kovač, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 10 (2013), s. 1940-1945 ISSN 1934-8983 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080; GA MPO 2A-2TP1/024 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : hydrocarbon oil * biomass * catalytic partial oxidation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://www.davidpublishing.com/journals_info.asp?jId=1718#

  12. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar, E-mail: gude@cee.msstate.edu

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Pulse sonication effect on transesterification of waste vegetable oil was studied. • Effects of ethanol, methanol, and alcohol mixtures on FAMEs yield were evaluated. • Effect of ultrasonic intensity, power density, and its output rates were evaluated. • Alcohol mixtures resulted in higher biodiesel yields due to better solubility. - Abstract: This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanol–methanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 1–2 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanol–methanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions.

  13. Thermochemical recycling of mixture of scrap tyres and waste lubricating oil into high caloric value products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul-Raouf, Manar E.; Maysour, Nermine E.; Abdul-Azim, Abdul-Azim A. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Amin, Mahasen S. [Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha (Egypt)

    2010-06-15

    Scrap tyres and used lubricating oils represent together growing environmental problem because they are not biodegradable and their components cannot readily be recovered. In the present investigation, the thermochemical recycling of mixture of old tyres with waste lubricating oil by pyrolysis and the value of the products obtained have been studied. First, thermobalance experiments were carried out, studying the influence of the following variables: temperature, type of catalyst and catalyst concentration on the pyrolysis reaction of a mixture of 1/1 wt./wt. oil/tyre ratio. These thermobalance results were thoroughly investigated to study the effect of the main process variables on yields of derived products: oils, gases and solid residue. (author)

  14. Thermochemical recycling of mixture of scrap tyres and waste lubricating oil into high caloric value products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Raouf, Manar E.; Maysour, Nermine E.; Abdul-Azim, Abdul-Azim A.; Amin, Mahasen S.

    2010-01-01

    Scrap tyres and used lubricating oils represent together growing environmental problem because they are not biodegradable and their components cannot readily be recovered. In the present investigation, the thermochemical recycling of mixture of old tyres with waste lubricating oil by pyrolysis and the value of the products obtained have been studied. First, thermobalance experiments were carried out, studying the influence of the following variables: temperature, type of catalyst and catalyst concentration on the pyrolysis reaction of a mixture of 1/1 wt./wt. oil/tyre ratio. These thermobalance results were thoroughly investigated to study the effect of the main process variables on yields of derived products: oils, gases and solid residue.

  15. Burn drug made from ozonated vegetable oil mixture with white tumeric and cassava leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulydia Farah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to create a burn treatment performed with ozonation process from a mixture of vegetable oil and added extracts of herbal ingredients. Ozonation on vegetable oils proven to kill bacteria and safe for the body. Ozonated vegetable oil produced from the ozone reactor batch process by doing a variety of extraction mixture to Oleozon® and vegetable oils. Then the results of ozonation is added extracts of herbal ingredients that cassava leaves and white turmeric to increase effectiveness in killing bacteria. Cassava leaves have anti-inflammatory agent, namely Vitamin C. While white turmeric Curcuma zedoaria have substance, which of the two compounds can inhibit and kill bacteria. The quality of ozonated oil (Oleozon® analytically were tested by the method of iodine number, acid number, peroxide number, and FTIR. Ozonation increased the peroxide and acid values for both oils, the increase being higher for mixture of coconut oil and soybean oil. The results of such mixing is then tested in bacteria to determine their effectiveness in killing the bacteria. The best ozonation condition is in an increase of 386,85% acid value, peroxide value about 102,91 meq/kg oil, and decrease in iodine number up to 21%. The result showed that under these conditions, ozonized oil has an antiseptic effect against Staphylococcus aureus. The final results of this study are expected to be a new innovation in the healing of skin wounds caused by burns as an anti-inflammatory that is effective, safe, and environmentally friendly.

  16. Corrosion of API 5L B and X52 in crude oil/water/gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdomo, J J; Gonzalez, J J; Viloria, A; De Veer, H; De Abreu, Y

    2000-02-01

    Laboratory and field tests were conducted to evaluate the corrosion behavior of API 5L grade B and X52 steels using Furrial's crude oil in the presence of water and gas containing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). The results suggest that the corrosiveness of this crude oil/water/gas mixture is not detrimental to either steel. However, pitting corrosion was observed. The low general corrosion rates measured were attributed to the natural inhibiting properties of the crude oil.

  17. Corrosion of API 5L B and X52 in crude oil/water/gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdomo, J.J.; Gonzalez, J.J.; Viloria, A.; De Veer, H.; De Abreu, Y.

    2000-02-01

    Laboratory and field tests were conducted to evaluate the corrosion behavior of API 5L grade B and X52 steels using Furrial's crude oil in the presence of water and gas containing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). The results suggest that the corrosiveness of this crude oil/water/gas mixture is not detrimental to either steel. However, pitting corrosion was observed. The low general corrosion rates measured were attributed to the natural inhibiting properties of the crude oil.

  18. The Making of a Liquid Soap Process From Used Wasted Cooking Oil and Coconut Oil Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    S.T., M.T., Zulkarnain

    2011-01-01

    This Moment, used frying oil has not been used well and only used discarded as household waste or industrial. Therefore, to use of used frying oil as raw material a liquid soap will provide added value for used frying oil. The main purpose of this research is to cultivative used frying oil become a liquid soap way saponification with potassium hidroxide . This research do with variation feed ratio that is used frying oil and coconut oil (0:1; 0,5:1; 1:1; 1,5:1; and 2:1) and time of saponifica...

  19. [Study of Determination of Oil Mixture Components Content Based on Quasi-Monte Carlo Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-tian; Xu, Jing; Liu, Xiao-fei; Chen, Meng-han; Wang, Shi-tao

    2015-05-01

    Gasoline, kerosene, diesel is processed by crude oil with different distillation range. The boiling range of gasoline is 35 ~205 °C. The boiling range of kerosene is 140~250 °C. And the boiling range of diesel is 180~370 °C. At the same time, the carbon chain length of differentmineral oil is different. The carbon chain-length of gasoline is within the scope of C7 to C11. The carbon chain length of kerosene is within the scope of C12 to C15. And the carbon chain length of diesel is within the scope of C15 to C18. The recognition and quantitative measurement of three kinds of mineral oil is based on different fluorescence spectrum formed in their different carbon number distribution characteristics. Mineral oil pollution occurs frequently, so monitoring mineral oil content in the ocean is very important. A new method of components content determination of spectra overlapping mineral oil mixture is proposed, with calculation of characteristic peak power integrationof three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum by using Quasi-Monte Carlo Method, combined with optimal algorithm solving optimum number of characteristic peak and range of integral region, solving nonlinear equations by using BFGS(a rank to two update method named after its inventor surname first letter, Boyden, Fletcher, Goldfarb and Shanno) method. Peak power accumulation of determined points in selected area is sensitive to small changes of fluorescence spectral line, so the measurement of small changes of component content is sensitive. At the same time, compared with the single point measurement, measurement sensitivity is improved by the decrease influence of random error due to the selection of points. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra and fluorescence contour spectra of single mineral oil and the mixture are measured by taking kerosene, diesel and gasoline as research objects, with a single mineral oil regarded whole, not considered each mineral oil components. Six characteristic peaks are

  20. Improving Asphalt Mixture Performance by Partially Replacing Bitumen with Waste Motor Oil and Elastomer Modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The environmental concern about waste generation and the gradual decrease of oil reserves has led the way to finding new waste materials that may partially replace the bitumens used in the road paving industry. Used motor oil from vehicles is a waste product that could answer that demand, but it can also drastically reduce the viscosity, increasing the asphalt mixture’s rutting potential. Therefore, polymer modification should be used in order to avoid compromising the required performance of asphalt mixtures when higher amounts of waste motor oil are used. Thus, this study was aimed at assessing the performance of an asphalt binder/mixture obtained by replacing part of a paving grade bitumen (35/50 with 10% waste motor oil and 5% styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS as an elastomer modifier. A comparison was also made with the results of a previous study using a blend of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis and ground tire rubber modifier as a partial substitute for usual PG64-22 bitumen. The asphalt binders were tested by means of Fourier infrared spectra and dynamic shear rheology, namely by assessing their continuous high-performance grade. Later, the water sensitivity, fatigue cracking resistance, dynamic modulus and rut resistance performance of the resulting asphalt mixtures was evaluated. It was concluded that the new binder studied in this work improves the asphalt mixture’s performance, making it an excellent solution for paving works.

  1. Eco-Friendly Superwetting Material for Highly Effective Separations of Oil/Water Mixtures and Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Feng; Yang, Sheng-Yi; Kuo, Shiao-Wei

    2017-02-20

    Because the treatment of oily wastewater, generated from many industrial processes, has become an increasing environmental concern, the search continues for simple, inexpensive, eco-friendly, and readily scalable processes for fabricating novel materials capable of effective oil/water separation. In this study we prepared an eco-friendly superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-modified cotton that mediated extremely efficient separations of mixtures of oil/water and oil/corrosive solutions. This PVP-modified cotton exhibited excellent antifouling properties and could be used to separate oil/water mixtures continuously for up to 20 h. Moreover, the compressed PVP-modified cotton could separate both surfactant-free and -stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with fluxes of up to 23,500 L m -2 h -1 bar -1 -a level one to two orders of magnitude higher than that possible when using traditional ultrafiltration membranes having similar rejection properties. The high performance of our PVP-modified cotton and its green, low-energy, cost-effective preparation suggest its great potential for practical applications.

  2. Identification of unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) of hydrocarbons in commercial fish oil supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Anna-Jean M; Budge, Suzanne M

    2015-01-01

    Heightened awareness of the health benefits of fish oil consumption has led to a great increase in the number of fish oil supplements available to the consumer. Therefore manufacturers are continually looking for ways to distinguish their products from those of competitors. Minimally refined or virgin fish oils provide a unique feature; however, petroleum hydrocarbon contamination from oil spills is a reality in the world's oceans. The question arises whether oil produced from fish species caught in these polluted areas is free of petroleum hydrocarbons, with particular interest in unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs). This study investigates the presence of UCMs in commercially available fish oil supplements advertised as being virgin, as well as refined. Weathered petroleum hydrocarbons in the form of a UCM were found at 523 µg g(-1) in a virgin Alaskan salmon oil supplement. Supplements that were refined were free of this contamination. Fish used in the production of fish oil supplements appear to have accumulated petrogenic hydrocarbons in their tissues which were not removed by minimal oil refining. Further study is required to determine if there are any health implications associated with long-term consumption of these contaminated supplements. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Aguilar Martín

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metals are ubiquitous pollutants present as mixtures. In particular, mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead is among the leading toxic agents detected in the environment. These metals have carcinogenic and cell-transforming potential. In this study, we used a two step cell transformation model, to determine the role of oxidative stress in transformation induced by a mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead. Oxidative damage and antioxidant response were determined. Metal mixture treatment induces the increase of damage markers and the antioxidant response. Loss of cell viability and increased transforming potential were observed during the promotion phase. This finding correlated significantly with generation of reactive oxygen species. Cotreatment with N-acetyl-cysteine induces effect on the transforming capacity; while a diminution was found in initiation, in promotion phase a total block of the transforming capacity was observed. Our results suggest that oxidative stress generated by metal mixture plays an important role only in promotion phase promoting transforming capacity.

  4. Fuel conversion characteristics of black liquor and pyrolysis oil mixture for efficient gasification with inherent catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Bach Oller, Albert; Furusjö, Erik; Umeki, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the technical feasibility of a catalytic co-gasification process using a mixture of black liquor (BL) and pyrolysis oil (PO). A technical concern is if gasifiers can be operated at low temperature (~1000 ºC) without problems of tar, soot or char, as is the case for pure BL due to the catalytic effect of fuel alkali. Hence, we investigated fuel conversion characteristics of BL/PO mixture: conversion of single droplet in flame, and char gasification reactivity. 20wt.% (BP20...

  5. Flow condensation pressure drop characteristics of R410A-oil mixture inside small diameter horizontal microfin tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiangchao; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Zhu, Yu [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gao, Yifeng [International Copper Association Shanghai Office, Shanghai 200020 (China); Deng, Bin [Institute of Heat Transfer Technology, Golden Dragon Precise Copper Tube Group Inc., Shanghai 200135 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Flow condensation pressure drop characteristics of R410A-oil mixture inside small diameter (5.0 mm and 4.0 mm O.D.) horizontal microfin tubes were investigated experimentally covering nominal oil concentrations from 0% to 5%. The research results indicate that, comparing with the frictional pressure drop of pure R410A, the frictional pressure drop of R410A-oil mixture may decrease by maximum of 18% when the vapor quality is lower than 0.6, and increase by maximum of 13% when the vapor quality is higher than 0.6. A new frictional pressure drop correlation for R410A-oil mixture flow condensation inside microfin tubes is developed based on the refrigerant-oil mixture properties, and can agree with 94% of the experimental data within a deviation of -30% to +30%. (author)

  6. Dynamics of gas bubble growth in oil-refrigerant mixtures under isothermal decompression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Joao Paulo; Barbosa Junior, Jader R.; Prata, Alvaro T. [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: jpdias@polo.ufsc.br, jrb@polo.ufsc.br, prata@polo.ufsc.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper proposes a numerical model to predict the growth of gaseous refrigerant bubbles in oil-refrigerant mixtures with high contents of oil subjected to isothermal decompression. The model considers an Elementary Cell (EC) in which a spherical bubble is surrounded by a concentric and spherical liquid layer containing a limited amount of dissolved liquid refrigerant. The pressure reduction in the EC generates a concentration gradient at the bubble interface and the refrigerant is transported to the bubble by molecular diffusion. After a sufficiently long period of time, the concentration gradient in the liquid layer and the bubble internal pressure reach equilibrium and the bubble stops growing, having attained its stable radius. The equations of momentum and chemical species conservation for the liquid layer, and the mass balance at the bubble interface are solved via a coupled finite difference procedure to determine the bubble internal pressure, the refrigerant radial concentration distribution and the bubble growth rate. Numerical results obtained for a mixture of ISO VG10 ester oil and refrigerant HFC-134a showed that bubble growth dynamics depends on model parameters like the initial bubble radius, initial refrigerant concentration in the liquid layer, decompression rate and EC temperature. Despite its simplicity, the model showed to be a potential tool to predict bubble growth and foaming which may result from important phenomena occurring inside refrigeration compressors such as lubrication of sliding parts and refrigerant degassing from the oil stored in oil sump during compressor start-up. (author)

  7. Viscosity and density study for characterization of oil mixtures; Estudo da viscosidade e densidade para caracterizacao das misturas de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Michelle I.; Azevedo, Vildomar S.; Jacinto, Tulio Wagner B. [Aurizonia Petroleo S.A, Natal, RN (Brazil); Vieira, Mariane; Vidal, Rosangela Regia Lima; Garcia, Rosangela Balaban [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The oil can be defined as a mixture of hydrocarbons and sulphur, nitrogen and oxygenated organic derivatives at lower amount. There is a practical difficulty of analytical determination of the oil composition, mainly due to the large quantity of medium and heavy oil fractions. For heavier fractions, it is necessary to infer the composition of the cut from properties that can be readily obtained in the laboratory, such as refraction index, density and viscosity. The analysis of oil composition and its fractions is important information on various aspects (IOB et al., 1996): determining the operating conditions of refining, selection of suitable catalysts and mixing operations ('blending'), the economic evaluation of mixtures and analysis of environmental impact due to emissions. The first study on characterization of fractions of the oil was reported by Hill and Coats (1928), who set an empirical relationship between the density and Saybolt viscosity named viscosity-density constant (VGC). The statement was obtained from the analysis of the density with the oil viscosity changes. Physical properties such as density, boiling point and viscosity can be used to classify the oil. The aim of this work was to classify oil fractions based on viscosity-density constant, using mixtures of oils with different APIs. The results showed that there is an optimum composition for each mixture, and the addition of more oil of medium classification does not lead to potential commercial oil. (author)

  8. Optimization of Surfactant Mixtures and Their Interfacial Behavior for Advanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, Prof. P.

    2002-03-04

    The objective of this project was to develop a knowledge base that is helpful for the design of improved processes for mobilizing and producing oil left untapped using conventional techniques. The main goal was to develop and evaluate mixtures of new or modified surfactants for improved oil recovery. In this regard, interfacial properties of novel biodegradable n-alkyl pyrrolidones and sugar-based surfactants have been studied systematically. Emphasis was on designing cost-effective processes compatible with existing conditions and operations in addition to ensuring minimal reagent loss.

  9. Utilizing Philippine Calatrava coal-diesel oil mixture (CDOM) as alternative fuel for industrial steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archie B. Maglaya [De La Salle University, Manila (Philippines). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-01-01

    The fast depletion of fuel oil and the continuous increase in the demand for power is a global issue. In the Philippines, the demand for diesel oil is expected to increase significantly in a 20-year period as projected by the Department of Energy. In line with the Philippine Government's thrust to lessen the dependence on imported energy, the agenda for the search for alternative fuel is highly prioritized. Thus, this paper presents the results of the study on performance analysis and efficiency test of a diesel oil fired industrial steam generator using Philippine Calatrava coal-diesel oil mixture (CDOM) as alternative fuel. A computer program was developed in HyperText Markup Language (HTML{copyright}) and JavaScript{copyright} to aid the computation of the adiabatic flame temperature from the governing system of equations based on the heat interaction between CDOM fuel, combustion air and products of combustion to determine the most desirable alternative fuel. Actual experimentation for the determination of CDOM fuel properties was also conducted to verify the alternative fuel selected through theoretical calculations. Results showed that the CDOM fuel with a particle size passing 75 {mu}m (-200 mesh) sieve having a proportion of 5% pulverized coal-95% diesel oil and 10% pulverized coal-90% diesel oil could be handled throughout the test with no degradation of the industrial steam generator. The steam generator efficiency using diesel oil is close to the steam generator efficiency using both CDOM fuels. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Investigation of the mixture flow rates of oil-water two-phase flow using the turbine flow meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Donghui; Feng Feifei; Wu Yingxiang; Xu Jingyu

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the mixture flow rate of oil-water flows was studied using the turbine flow-meter. The research emphasis focuses on the effect of oil viscosity and input fluids flow rates on the precision of the meter. Experiments were conducted to measure the in-situ mixture flow rate in a horizontal pipe with 0.05m diameter using seven different viscosities of white oil and tap water as liquid phases. Results showed that both oil viscosity and input oil fraction exert a remarkable effect on measured results, especially when the viscosity of oil phase remained in the area of high value. In addition, for metering mixture flow rate using turbine flow-meter, the results are not sensitive to two-phase flow pattern according to the experimental data.

  11. Effect of temperature on thermoacoustic properties of olive oil in alcohol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriwas, R S; Chimankar, O P; Tabhane, P V; Dange, S P; Tembhurkar, Y D

    2012-01-01

    The ultrasonic studies in liquids are great use in understanding the nature and strength of molecular interactions. Recently ultrasonic is the rapidly growing field research, which has been used in the food industry for both analysis and modification of food products. This paper presents ultrasonic velocity, density, adiabatic compressibility in olive oil with alcohol at different concentration that has been measured in the temperature range from 283.15K to 298.15K. The Moelwyn-Hughes parameter has been utilised to establish some simple relations between the available volumes, Bayer's non- linearity parameter, internal pressure, van der Waal's constant, Debye temperature etc. a relationship among the isobaric, isothermal and isochoric thermo-acoustical parameter have been studied and analyzed in the case olive oil with alcohol mixture. The present treatments had the distinct advantages of the thermo-acoustic parameters in the particular mixture.

  12. Effect of a herbal essential oil mixture on growth and internal organ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary treatments were: a control and two diets containing 24 mg/kg or 48 mg/kg of an essential oil mixture. There were no significant effects of dietary treatment on body weight of the broilers at 21 and 42 days. The effect of the age of the parents did not have a significant effect on body weight of the broilers at 21 and 42 ...

  13. Study of extraction of rare earths by oil sulfoxides and their mixtures with tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhlin, E.B.; Vol'dman, G.M.; Zelikman, A.N.; Novikova, N.N.

    1977-01-01

    Neodymium distribution is studied during its extraction from nitrate solutions with oil sulphoxides (OSO) and their mixtures with TBP in a wide range of neodymium and desalting agent (aluminium nitrate) concentrations. The extraction capacity of OSO is shown to considerably exceed that of TBP. A synergic effect due to formation of mixed solvates is observed at extraction with an OSO-TBP mixture. The separation coefficients (β) of the pairs Ce-La, Pr-Ce and Nd-Pr are determined. OSO and, especially, the OSO-TBP mixture are shown to be applicable for separating cerium and lanthanum, since the βsub(Ge/La) value for these extraction agents is higher than that for TBP, the extraction agent capacity attaining values that are acceptable for practival purposes

  14. Stabilization of heavy oil-water emulsions using a bio/chemical emulsifier mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahbakhsh, A.; Taghizadeh, M.; Movagharnejad, K. [Chemical Engineering Department, Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yakhchali, B. [National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    In this study, the viscosity reduction of heavy oil has been investigated through the formation of oil-water emulsion using a bio/chemical emulsifier mixture. Four bioemulsifiers from indigenous Rhodococcus ergthropolis and Bacillus licheniformis strains were used to stabilize a highly-viscous oil-in-water emulsion. The Taguchi method with an L{sub 9} orthogonal array design was used to investigate the effect of various control factors on the formation of the oil/water emulsions. An emulsion with lowest viscosity was formed using ACO4 strain. The substantial stability of the oil-in-water emulsion allows the heavy oil to be transported practically over long distances or remain stationary for a considerable period of time prior to utilization. As the result of Taguchi analysis, the temperature and concentration of the emulsifier had a significant influence on viscosity reduction of the emulsion. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Comparative Study of Breakdown Voltage of Mineral, Synthetic and Natural Oils and Based Mineral Oil Mixtures under AC and DC Voltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane Beroual

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a comparative study of AC and DC breakdown voltages of based mineral oil mixtures with natural and synthetic esters mainly used in high voltage power transformers. The goal was to analyze the performances of oil mixtures from the dielectric withstand point of view and to predict the behavior of transformers originally filled with mineral oil and re-filled with synthetic or natural ester oils when emptied for maintenance. The study concerns mixtures based on 20%, 50%, and 80% of natural and synthetic ester oils. AC breakdown voltages were measured using a sphere-sphere electrode system according to IEC 60156 specifications; the same specification was adopted for DC measurements since there is no standard specifications for this voltage waveform. A statistical analysis of the mean values, standard deviations, and histograms of breakdown voltage data was carried out. The Normal and Weibull distribution functions were used to analyze the experimental data and the best function that the data followed was used to estimate the breakdown voltage with risk of 1%, 10%, and 50% probability. It was shown that whatever the applied voltage waveforms, ester oils always have a significantly higher breakdown voltage than mineral oil. The addition of only 20% of natural or synthetic ester oil was sufficient to considerably increase the breakdown voltage of mineral oil. The dielectric strength of such a mixture is much higher than that of mineral oil alone and can reach that of ester oils. From the point of view of dielectric strength, the mixtures constitute an option for improving the performance of mineral oil. Thus, re-filling of transformers containing up to 20% mineral oil residues with ester oils, does not present any problem; it is even advantageous when considering only the breakdown voltage. Under AC, the mixtures with natural ester always follow the behavior of vegetable oil alone. With the exception of the 20% mixture of natural

  16. EXTRACTION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERISATION OF PHYTOSTEROL FROM ETHANOLYSIS REACTION MIXTURE OF OIL DEODERISER DISTILLATES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panpipat, Worawan; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    Various plants and plant products (e.g. vegetable oil) are the major sources of phytosterols. Phytosterols are naturally occurring in either free form, or esters of fatty acids or glycoside forms, depending on their natural sources. As a potential industrial product, the main source is from...... deodoriser distillate (DOD) which is a by-product of oil refinery. Major applications of phystosterols are used as a functional food additive and a building block. Phytosterols are found to have cholesterol lowering effect by the inhibition of cholesterol absorption in the intestine lumen. As a building...... block, phytosteryl derivatives can be developed and introduced to pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, we have successfully converted phytosteryl ester from industrial rapeseed and soybean oil DOD ethanolysed mixture to free phytosterols by using enzymatic transesterification. This study...

  17. Bioremediation potential of a tropical soil contaminated with a mixture of crude oil and production water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Santos, Silvia Cristina Cunha Dos Santos; Casella, Renata da Costa; Vital, Ronalt Leite; Sebastin, Gina Vasquez; Seldin, Lucy

    2008-12-01

    A typical tropical soil from the northeast of Brazil, where an important terrestrial oil field is located, was accidentally contaminated with a mixture of oil and saline production water. To study the bioremediation potential in this area, molecular methods based on PCR-DGGE were used to determine the diversity of the bacterial communities in bulk and in contaminated soils. Bacterial fingerprints revealed that the bacterial communities were affected by the presence of the mixture of oil and production water, and different profiles were observed when the contaminated soils were compared with the control. Halotolerant strains capable of degrading crude oil were also isolated from enrichment cultures obtained from the contaminated soil samples. Twenty-two strains showing these features were characterized genetically by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and phenotypically by their colonial morphology and tolerance to high NaCl concentrations. Fifteen ARDRA groups were formed. Selected strains were analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing, and Actinobacteria was identified as the main group found. Strains were also tested for their growth capability in the presence of different oil derivatives (hexane, dodecane, hexadecane, diesel, gasoline, toluene, naphthalene, o-xylene, and p-xylene) and different degradation profiles were observed. PCR products were obtained from 12 of the 15 ARDRA representatives when they were screened for the presence of the alkane hydroxylase gene (alkB). Members of the genera Rhodococcus and Gordonia were identified as predominant in the soil studied. These genera are usually implicated in oil degradation processes and, as such, the potential for bioremediation in this area can be considered as feasible.

  18. Antioxidant Activity of Potato Peel Extracts in a Fish-RapeseedOil Mixture and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were (a) to extract the phenolic fraction from the peels of two Danish varieties of potatoes, viz. Sava and Bintje, and examine their antioxidant capacity in in-vitro systems (b) to evaluate the effect of these extracts on the storage stability of a fish- rapeseed...... oil mixture and oil-in-water emulsions. Multiple antioxidant activity of the potato peel extracts was evident from in-vitro systems as they showed strong reducing power, radical scavenging ability, ferrous ion chelating activity and prevented oxidation in a liposome model system. The Sava variety...... in emulsions. Thus, the results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing waste potato peel as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation....

  19. Oil Spill Adsorption Capacity of Activated Carbon Tablets from Corncobs in Simulated Oil-Water Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonalyn V. Maulion

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil spill in bodies of water is one of severe environmental problems that is facing all over the country and in the world. Since oil is an integral part of the economy, increasing trend for its demand and transport of has led to a great treat in the surface water. One of the promising techniques in the removal of the oil spills in water bodies is adsorption using activated carbon form waste material such as corn cobs. The purpose of this study is to determine the adsorption capacity of activated carbon tablets derived from corncobs in the removal of oil. The properties of activated carbon produced have a pH of 7.0, bulk density of 0.26 g//cm3 , average pore size of 45nm, particle size of 18% at 60 mesh and 39% at 80 mesh, iodine number of 1370 mg/g and surface area of 1205 g/m2. The amount of bentonite clay as binder (15%,20%,30%, number of ACT (1,2,3 and time of contact(30,60,90 mins has been varied to determine the optimum condition where the activated carbon will have the best adsorption capacity in the removal of oil. Results showed that at 15% binder, 60 mins contact time and 3 tablets of activated carbon is the optimum condition which give a percentage adsorption of 22.82% of oil. Experimental data also showed that a Langmuir isotherm was the best fit isotherm for adsorption of ACT.

  20. Partition behavior of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds in oil-brine mixtures during thermal processing for fish canning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Raffaele; Paduano, Antonello; Fiore, Francesca; Della Medaglia, Dorotea; Ambrosino, Maria Luisa; Medina, Isabel

    2002-05-08

    The chemical modifications and partitioning toward the brine phase (5% salt) of major phenol compounds of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) were studied in a model system formed by sealed cans filled with oil-brine mixtures (5:1, v/v) simulating canned-in-oil food systems. Filled cans were processed in an industrial plant using two sterilization conditions commonly used during fish canning. The partitioning of phenolic compounds toward brine induced by thermal processing was studied by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the phenol fraction extracted from oils and brine. Hydroxytyrosol (1), tyrosol (2), and the complex phenolic compounds containing 1 and 2 (i.e., the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycon 3, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon 4, and the oleuropein aglycon 6) decreased in the oily phase after sterilization with a marked partitioning toward the brine phase. The increase of the total amount of 1 and 2 after processing, as well as the presence of elenolic acid 7 released in brine, revealed the hydrolysis of the ester bond of hydrolyzable phenolic compounds 3, 4, and 6 during thermal processing. Both phenomena (partitioning toward the water phase and hydrolysis) contribute to explain the loss of phenolic compounds exhibited by EVOO used as filling medium in canned foods, as well as the protection of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned-in-EVOO fish products.

  1. Studies for the stabilization of coal-oil mixtures. Final report, August 1978-May 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botsaris, G.D.; Glazman, Y.M.; Adams-Viola, M.

    1981-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the stabilization of coal-oil mixtures (COM) was developed. Aggregation of the coal particles was determined to control both the sedimentation and rheological properties of the COM. Sedimentation stability of COM prepared with coal, 80% < 200 mesh, is achieved by particle aggregation, which leads to the formation of a network of particles throughout the oil. The wettability of coal powders was evaluated by the Pickering emulsion test and a spherical agglomeration test to assess its effect on the stability of various COM formulations. Sedimentation stability of hydrophilic coal-oil-water mixtures (COWM) involves the formation of water bridges between the coal particles, while less stabilization of oleophilic COWM is achieved by the formation of an emulsion. Anionic SAA were least sensitive to the coal type and enhanced the aggregation stability of the suspension. The effect of cationic SAA, nonionic SAA and polymer additives depended upon the specific chemical structure of the SAA, the water content of the COM and the type of coal. The sedimentation stability of ultrafine COM was not directly due to the fineness of the powder but due to the formation of a network of flocculated particles.

  2. Involvement of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol Isomers from
Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seed Oil or Oil Mixtures in
the Biphasic DPPH˙ Disappearance Kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Broznić, Dalibor; Jurešić, Gordana Čanadi; Milin, Čedomila

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of three types of pumpkin seed oil or oil mixtures (cold- -pressed, produced from roasted seed paste and salad) produced in the northern part of Croatia and the kinetics of their behaviour as free radical scavengers were investigated using DPPH˙. In addition, the involvement of oil tocopherol isomers (α-, γ- and δ-) in different steps of DPPH˙ disappearance and their impact on the rate of reaction were analysed. The kinetics of DPPH˙ disappearance is a two-step proces...

  3. The selective partitioning of the oligomers of polyethoxylated surfactant mixtures between interface and oil and water bulk phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciaa, Alain; Andérez, José; Bracho, Carlos; Lachaise, Jean; Salager, Jean-Louis; Tolosa, Laura; Ysambertt, Fredy

    2006-11-16

    Because their affinities for the oil and water phases vary considerably with the number of ethylene oxide units in their hydrophilic group, the ethoxylated nonionic species occurring in commercial products tend to behave in a non-collective way, with the low ethoxylation oligomers partitioning mostly in the oil phase. This results in a surfactant mixture at the interface which is more hydrophilic than the one which was introduced in the system in the first place. The pseudophase model is used to study the partitioning in Winsor III type systems, and to estimate the deviation of the interfacial mixture composition from the overall one. New results indicate that the selective partitioning into the oil phase increases when the oil phase becomes aromatic, when the total surfactant concentration decreases and when the water-to-oil ratio decreases.

  4. Evaluation of the insecticidal activity of essential oils and their mixtures against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ríos

    Full Text Available Abstract The search for new insecticides to control dengue fever, chikungunya, and Zika vectors has gained relevance in the past decades. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal action of essential oils (EOs from Thymus vulgaris, Salvia officinalis, Lippia origanoides, Eucalyptus globulus, Cymbopogon nardus, Cymbopogon martinii, Lippia alba, Pelargonium graveolens, Turnera diffusa, and Swinglea glutinosa on Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti. The EOs were extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The chemical components of the EOs were identified by linear retention indices and mass spectra. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95 were determined by probit analysis using larvae of Ae. aegypti between the third and the fourth instars. All EOs achieved larvicidal activity at LC50 values lower than 115 mg/L. The lowest LC50 value (45.73 mg/L corresponded to T. vulgaris EO, whereas C. martinii EO showed the highest LC50 (LC50 = 114.65 mg/L. Some EO mixtures showed lower LC50 than oils used individually, such as the mixtures of L. origanoides + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 38.40 mg/L, T. diffusa + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 63.71 mg/L, and L. alba + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 48.87 mg/L. The main compounds of the EOs with highest larvicidal activity were thymol (42% and p-cymene (26.4%.

  5. High temperature solvent extraction of oil shale and bituminous coal using binary solvent mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, G.K.E. [Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A high volatile bituminous coal from the Saar Basin and an oil shale from the Messel deposit, both Germany, were extracted with binary solvent mixtures using the Advanced Solvent Extraction method (ASE). Extraction temperature and pressure were kept at 100 C, respectively 150 C, and 20,7 MPa. After the heating phase (5 min) static extractions were performed with mixtures (v:v, 1:3) of methanol with toluene, respectively trichloromethane, for further 5 min. Extract yields were the same or on a higher level compared to those from classical soxhlet extractions (3 days) using the same solvents at 60 C. Comparing the results from ASE with those from supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) the extract yields were similar. Increasing the temperature in ASE releases more soluble organic matter from geological samples, because compounds with higher molecular weight and especially more polar substances were solubilized. But also an enhanced extraction efficiency resulted for aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons which are used as biomarkers in Organic Geochemistry. Application of thermochemolysis with tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAH) using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) on the extraction residues shows clearly that at higher extraction temperatures minor amounts of free fatty acids or their methyl esters (original or produced by ASE) were trapped inside the pore systems of the oil shale or the bituminous coal. ASE offers a rapid and very efficient extraction method for geological samples reducing analysis time and costs for solvents. (orig.)

  6. Experimental investigations on a diesel engine operated with fuel blends derived from a mixture of Pakistani waste tyre oil and waste soybean oil biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Muhammad; Ansari, Tariq Mahmood; Hussain, Mazhar

    2017-10-18

    The waste tyre and waste cooking oils have a great potential to be used as alternative fuels for diesel engines. The aim of this study was to convert light fractions of pyrolysis oil derived from Pakistani waste vehicle tyres and waste soybean oil methyl esters into valuable fuel and to reduce waste disposal-associated environmental problems. In this study, the waste tyre pyrolysis liquid (light fraction) was collected from commercial tyre pyrolysis plant and biodiesel was prepared from waste soybean oil. The fuel blends (FMWO10, FMWO20, FMWO30, FMWO40 and FMWO50) were prepared from a 30:70 mixture of waste tyre pyrolysis liquid and waste soybean oil methyl esters with different proportions of mineral diesel. The mixture was named as the fuel mixture of waste oils (FMWO). FT-IR analysis of the fuel mixture was carried out using ALPHA FT-IR spectrometer. Experimental investigations on a diesel engine were carried out with various FMWO blends. It was observed that the engine fuel consumption was marginally increased and brake thermal efficiency was marginally decreased with FMWO fuel blends. FMWO10 has shown lowest NOx emissions among all the fuel blends tested. In addition, HC, CO and smoke emissions were noticeably decreased by 3.1-15.6%, 16.5-33.2%, and 1.8-4.5%, respectively, in comparison to diesel fuel, thereby qualifying the blends to be used as alternative fuel for diesel engines.

  7. Protective Activity of the Mixtures of Pine Oil and Copper Hydroxide against Bacterial Spot and Anthracnose on Red Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Woo Soh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was performed to examine the protective activities of the mixtures of pine oil and copper hydroxide against bacterial spot and anthracnose on pepper plants. As for bacterial spot, the treatment of pine oil alone displayed high disease incidence (59.6% and low protective effect (28.9%. In comparison, the treatments of mixtures and copper hydroxide alone showed protective activities of 66.8-76.1%. The mixture of pine oil and copper hydroxide (4:1 suppressed the most effectively bacterial spot on pepper. On the other hand, the mixture of pine oil and copper hydroxide (4:1 also showed the strongest protective effect against pepper anthracnose among the 4 treatments tested; its disease incidence and disease control value were 49.8% and 41.7%, respectively. The other treatments showed low protective activities with control values of 7.4-17.1%. These results suggested that the mixture of pine oil and copper hydroxide (4:1 can be used for the environmental-friendly disease control of bacterial spot and anthracnose on pepper.

  8. Optimization of Surfactant Mixtures and Their Interfacial Behavior for Advanced Oil Recovery, Annual Report, September 30, 1999-September 30, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, Prof. P.

    2001-04-04

    The goal of this report is to develop improved extraction processes to mobilize and produce the oil left untapped using conventional techniques. Current chemical schemes for recovering the residual oil have been in general less than satisfactory. High cost of the processes as well as significant loss of chemicals by adsorption on reservoir materials and precipitation has limited the utility of chemical-flooding operations. There is a need to develop cost-effective, improved reagent schemes to increase recovery from domestic oil reservoirs. The goal of the report was to develop and evaluate novel mixtures of surfactants for improved oil recovery.

  9. Extraction of oil from pequi fruit (Caryocar Brasiliense, Camb. using several solvents and their mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniassi, R.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the oil extraction process from pequi pulp using different solvents (hexane, acetone and ethyl alcohol and their mixtures was investigated, using a simplex-centroid design. The extraction occurred at 50°C, under stirring (22 Hz, for 16 hours. The solid-liquid ratio used was 1:10 (w/w. Higher yield values were obtained for extractions with acetone and hexane, especially their mixtures with ethanol. Iodine value, saponification value and refractive index did not differ significantly among the treatments. A higher acid value was obtained for the extraction with ethyl alcohol. Higher carotenoid contents were obtained for the extraction with acetone and ethyl alcohol as pure solvents. The fatty acid profile in the oil fraction of the extracts did not vary among the different types of solvents and their mixtures.En este trabajo fue estudiado el proceso de extracción de aceite de la pulpa de pequi utilizando diferentes disolventes (n-hexano, acetona y etanol y sus mezclas, empleando diseño central simplex. Las extracciones fueron realizadas a 50°C, durante 16 horas de agitación (22 Hz. La proporción sólido:líquido empleada fue 1:10 (p/p. Los mayores rendimientos fueron obtenidos para las extracciones con acetona y con hexano, especialmente cuando fueron mezclados con etanol. El índice de yodo, el índice de saponificación y el índice de refracción no difirieron significativamente entre los tratamientos. Los mayores valores de acidez se obtuvieron en la extracción con etanol. Los mayores contenidos en carotenoides se obtuvieron en las extracciones con acetona y etanol como disolventes puros. El perfil de los ácidos grasos en las fracciones de aceite de los extractos no presentó variación entre los diferentes tipos de disolventes y sus mezclas.

  10. Use of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics for the authentication of avocado oil in ternary mixtures with sunflower and soybean oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sotelo, Paola; Hernández-Martínez, Maylet; Osorio-Revilla, Guillermo; Meza-Márquez, Ofelia Gabriela; García-Ochoa, Felipe; Gallardo-Velázquez, Tzayhrí

    2016-07-01

    Avocado oil is a high-value and nutraceutical oil whose authentication is very important since the addition of low-cost oils could lower its beneficial properties. Mid-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was used to detect and quantify adulteration of avocado oil with sunflower and soybean oils in a ternary mixture. Thirty-seven laboratory-prepared adulterated samples and 20 pure avocado oil samples were evaluated. The adulterated oil amount ranged from 2% to 50% (w/w) in avocado oil. A soft independent modelling class analogy (SIMCA) model was developed to discriminate between pure and adulterated samples. The model showed recognition and rejection rate of 100% and proper classification in external validation. A partial least square (PLS) algorithm was used to estimate the percentage of adulteration. The PLS model showed values of R(2) > 0.9961, standard errors of calibration (SEC) in the range of 0.3963-0.7881, standard errors of prediction (SEP estimated) between 0.6483 and 0.9707, and good prediction performances in external validation. The results showed that mid-FTIR spectroscopy could be an accurate and reliable technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis of avocado oil in ternary mixtures.

  11. Evaluation of the insecticidal activity of essential oils and their mixtures against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ríos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The search for new insecticides to control dengue fever, chikungunya, and Zika vectors has gained relevance in the past decades. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal action of essential oils (EOs from Thymus vulgaris, Salvia officinalis, Lippia origanoides, Eucalyptus globulus, Cymbopogon nardus, Cymbopogon martinii, Lippia alba, Pelargonium graveolens, Turnera diffusa, and Swinglea glutinosa on Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti. The EOs were extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The chemical components of the EOs were identified by linear retention indices and mass spectra. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95 were determined by probit analysis using larvae of Ae. aegypti between the third and the fourth instars. All EOs achieved larvicidal activity at LC50 values lower than 115 mg/L. The lowest LC50 value (45.73 mg/L corresponded to T. vulgaris EO, whereas C. martinii EO showed the highest LC50 (LC50 = 114.65 mg/L. Some EO mixtures showed lower LC50 than oils used individually, such as the mixtures of L. origanoides + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 38.40 mg/L, T. diffusa + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 63.71 mg/L, and L. alba + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 48.87 mg/L. The main compounds of the EOs with highest larvicidal activity were thymol (42% and p-cymene (26.4%. Keywords: Essential oil, Larvicidal activity, Mosquito control

  12. Matching Index-of-Refraction for 3D Printing Model Using Mixture of Herb Essential Oil and Light Mineral Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Min Seop; Choi, Hae Yoon; Kim, Eung Soo

    2013-01-01

    This study has extensively investigated the emerging 3-D printing technologies for use of MIR-based flow field visualization methods such as PIV and LDV. As a result, mixture of Herb essential oil and light mineral oil has been evaluated to be great working fluid due to its adequate properties. Using this combination, the RIs between 1.45 and 1.55 can be accurately matched, and most of the transparent materials are found to be ranged in here. Conclusively, the proposed MIR method are expected to provide large flexibility of model materials and geometries for laser based optical measurements. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) are the two major optical technologies used for flow field visualization in the latest fundamental thermal-hydraulics researches. Those techniques seriously require minimizing optical distortions for enabling high quality data. Therefore, matching index of refraction (MIR) between model materials and working fluids are an essential part of minimizing measurement uncertainty. This paper proposes to use 3-D Printing technology for manufacturing models for the MIR-based optical measurements. Because of the large flexibility in geometries and materials of the 3-D Printing, its application is obviously expected to provide tremendous advantages over the traditional MIR-based optical measurements. This study focuses on the 3-D printing models and investigates their optical properties, transparent printing techniques, and index-matching fluids

  13. Matching Index-of-Refraction for 3D Printing Model Using Mixture of Herb Essential Oil and Light Mineral Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Min Seop; Choi, Hae Yoon; Kim, Eung Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This study has extensively investigated the emerging 3-D printing technologies for use of MIR-based flow field visualization methods such as PIV and LDV. As a result, mixture of Herb essential oil and light mineral oil has been evaluated to be great working fluid due to its adequate properties. Using this combination, the RIs between 1.45 and 1.55 can be accurately matched, and most of the transparent materials are found to be ranged in here. Conclusively, the proposed MIR method are expected to provide large flexibility of model materials and geometries for laser based optical measurements. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) are the two major optical technologies used for flow field visualization in the latest fundamental thermal-hydraulics researches. Those techniques seriously require minimizing optical distortions for enabling high quality data. Therefore, matching index of refraction (MIR) between model materials and working fluids are an essential part of minimizing measurement uncertainty. This paper proposes to use 3-D Printing technology for manufacturing models for the MIR-based optical measurements. Because of the large flexibility in geometries and materials of the 3-D Printing, its application is obviously expected to provide tremendous advantages over the traditional MIR-based optical measurements. This study focuses on the 3-D printing models and investigates their optical properties, transparent printing techniques, and index-matching fluids.

  14. Profiling oil sands mixtures from industrial developments and natural groundwaters for source identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Richard A; Roy, James W; Bickerton, Greg; Rowland, Steve J; Headley, John V; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Peru, Kerry M; Parrott, Joanne L; Conly, F Malcolm; Hewitt, L Mark

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify chemical components that could distinguish chemical mixtures in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that had potentially migrated to groundwater in the oil sands development area of northern Alberta, Canada. In the first part of the study, OSPW samples from two different tailings ponds and a broad range of natural groundwater samples were assessed with historically employed techniques as Level-1 analyses, including geochemistry, total concentrations of naphthenic acids (NAs) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS). While these analyses did not allow for reliable source differentiation, they did identify samples containing significant concentrations of oil sands acid-extractable organics (AEOs). In applying Level-2 profiling analyses using electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF/MS) to samples containing appreciable AEO concentrations, differentiation of natural from OSPW sources was apparent through measurements of O2:O4 ion class ratios (ESI-HRMS) and diagnostic ions for two families of suspected monoaromatic acids (GC × GC-TOF/MS). The resemblance between the AEO profiles from OSPW and from 6 groundwater samples adjacent to two tailings ponds implies a common source, supporting the use of these complimentary analyses for source identification. These samples included two of upward flowing groundwater collected <1 m beneath the Athabasca River, suggesting OSPW-affected groundwater is reaching the river system.

  15. Smart candle soot coated membranes for on-demand immiscible oil/water mixture and emulsion switchable separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhao, Zhihong; Li, Dianming; Tian, Haifeng; Zha, Fei; Feng, Hua; Guo, Lin

    2017-09-21

    Oil/water separation is of great importance for the treatment of oily wastewater, including immiscible light/heavy oil-water mixtures, oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions. Smart surfaces with responsive wettability have received extensive attention especially for controllable oil/water separation. However, traditional smart membranes with a switchable wettability between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity are limited to certain responsive materials and continuous external stimuli, such as pH, electrical field or light irradiation. Herein, a candle soot coated mesh (CSM) with a larger pore size and a candle soot coated PVDF membrane (CSP) with a smaller pore size with underwater superoleophobicity and underoil superhydrophobicity were successfully fabricated, which can be used for on-demand immiscible oil/water mixtures and surfactants-stabilized oil/water emulsion separation, respectively. Without any continuous external stimulus, the wettability of our membranes could be reversibly switched between underwater superoleophobicity and underoil superhydrophobicity simply by drying and washing alternately, thus achieving effective and switchable oil/water separation with excellent separation efficiency. We believe that such smart materials will be promising candidates for use in the removal of oil pollutants in the future.

  16. Optimization of natural lipstick formulation based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil using D-optimal mixture experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamairudin, Norsuhaili; Gani, Siti Salwa Abd; Masoumi, Hamid Reza Fard; Hashim, Puziah

    2014-10-16

    The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components-pitaya seed oil (10%-25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (25%-45% w/w), beeswax (5%-25% w/w), candelilla wax (1%-5% w/w) and carnauba wax (1%-5% w/w)-were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to optimize the properties of lipstick by focusing on the melting point with respect to the above influencing components. The D-optimal mixture design analysis showed that the variation in the response (melting point) could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main components of the lipstick. The best combination of each significant factor determined by the D-optimal mixture design was established to be pitaya seed oil (25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (37% w/w), beeswax (17% w/w), candelilla wax (2% w/w) and carnauba wax (2% w/w). With respect to these factors, the 46.0 °C melting point property was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 46.5 °C. Carnauba wax is the most influential factor on this response (melting point) with its function being with respect to heat endurance. The quadratic polynomial model sufficiently fit the experimental data.

  17. Transesterification of oil mixtures catalyzed by microencapsulated cutinase in reversed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes, Sara M; Lemos, Francisco; Cabral, Joaquim M S

    2010-03-01

    Recombinant cutinase from Fusarium solani pisi was used to catalyze the transesterification reaction between a mixture of triglycerides (oils) and methanol in reversed micelles of bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) in isooctane for the purposes of producing biodiesel. The use of a bi-phase lipase-catalyzed system brings advantages in terms of catalyst re-use and the control of water activity in the medium and around the enzyme micro-environment. Small-scale batch studies were performed to study the influence of the initial enzyme and alcohol concentrations, and the substrates molar ratio. Conversions in excess of 75 were obtained with reaction times under 24 h, which makes this enzymatic process highly competitive when compared to similar lipase catalyzed reactions for biodiesel production using methanol.

  18. Process and apparatus for pyrolytic decomposition and coking of mixtures of finely divided solid carbonaceous material and hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, A

    1933-09-18

    A process is described for pyrolytic decomposition and coking of mixtures of finely divided solid and semi-solid carbonaceous material and hydrocarbon oils, whereby the mixture is first heated to a high temperature; the heated products are introduced into a coking zone, where vapors are separated from nonvaporous residue afterwards to be cracked and condensed, characterized in that the mixture is heated to a high temperature under substantially noncoking conditions and that nonvaporous residue obtained in the coking zone is coked as a relatively thin layer on an externally intensely heated surface, preferably of heat-conducting, fireproof material, such as carborundum, fused-aluminum oxide, or clay.

  19. On-line component ratio measurement of oil/gas/water mixtures using an admittance sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, J A

    1984-01-01

    The operator of a production platform is primarily interested in which types of fluids a well is producing and how quickly these different components are being produced. The component ratio and production rate of a well vary during the life of a field. To optimize production, measurement of each well's output is thus desirable. Current designs for subsea production systems lack means of continuously measuring three-component flows. A new method of component ratio measurement is described. The fraction of oil, gas and water flowing between two insulated electrode plates is determined by measuring both the electrical conductance and suseptance across the sensor. A preliminary evaluation of the new measurement system has been performed using a process oil/ water/air mixture. The method is not limited to small pipe diameters. The only possible limitation is that for low velocities in very large pipe diameters an in-line mixer may be required. Advantages of this new system are that real-time measurement of void fraction and water content is possible if a non-intrusive rugged sensor is used, and there are no range limitations, as each component may be measured for any given concentration. 4 references.

  20. Acoustic separation of oil droplets, colloidal particles and their mixtures in a microfluidic cell

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Li, Erqiang; Abdel-Fattah, Amr I.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2016-01-01

    Here we report direct macroscopic and microscopic observations of acoustic driven separation of dodecane oil droplets in water in the presence and absence of colloidal silica particles suspended in the water phase. The experiments were conducted in a simple rectangular channel glass microfluidic cell in which an ultrasound standing wave pattern was generated at 300 KHz frequency. The separation process of both oil droplets and colloidal particles inside the cell was recorded using a high-speed video camera equipped with a macro-objective lens for macroscopic observation or with a high-speed camera attached to an inverted optical microscope for a higher resolution microscopic observation. We characterize the clustering process in the case of emulsion droplets or solid colloidal particles and ultimately demonstrate the emulsion droplets separation from the solid particles in the mixtures based on their different acoustic contrast factors. Finally, we conduct proof of concept experiment to show that the same approach can be used in a continuous fluid flow process.

  1. Acoustic separation of oil droplets, colloidal particles and their mixtures in a microfluidic cell

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2016-06-15

    Here we report direct macroscopic and microscopic observations of acoustic driven separation of dodecane oil droplets in water in the presence and absence of colloidal silica particles suspended in the water phase. The experiments were conducted in a simple rectangular channel glass microfluidic cell in which an ultrasound standing wave pattern was generated at 300 KHz frequency. The separation process of both oil droplets and colloidal particles inside the cell was recorded using a high-speed video camera equipped with a macro-objective lens for macroscopic observation or with a high-speed camera attached to an inverted optical microscope for a higher resolution microscopic observation. We characterize the clustering process in the case of emulsion droplets or solid colloidal particles and ultimately demonstrate the emulsion droplets separation from the solid particles in the mixtures based on their different acoustic contrast factors. Finally, we conduct proof of concept experiment to show that the same approach can be used in a continuous fluid flow process.

  2. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çabuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM or antibiotics (ANTs, a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed, and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed. Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage, amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp., laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L., sage leaf (Salvia triloba L., myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis, fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare, and citrus peel (Citrus sp.. In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P<0.001. However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio.

  3. Process optimisation of microwave-assisted extraction of peony ( Paeonia suffruticosa Andr .) seed oil using hexane-ethanol mixture and its characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoli Sun; Wengang Li; Jian Li; Yuangang Zu; Chung-Yun Hse; Jiulong Xie; Xiuhua Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol and hexane mixture agent microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method was conducted to extract peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.) seed oil (PSO). The aim of the study was to optimise the extraction for both yield and energy consumption in mixture agent MAE. The highest oil yield (34.49%) and lowest unit energy consumption (14 125.4 J g -1)...

  4. Mixtures of wine, essential oils, and plant polyphenolics do not act synergistically against Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella enterica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red wine or fortified red wine formulations containing some various essential oils from oregano or thyme or their pure active components, and a mixture of plant extract powders from apple skin, green tea, and olive, were evaluated for inhibitory activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia c...

  5. Multiresponse optimisation on biodiesel obtained through a ternary mixture of vegetable oil and animal fat: Simplex-centroid mixture design application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orives, Juliane Resges; Galvan, Diego; Coppo, Rodolfo Lopes; Rodrigues, Cezar Henrique Furtoso; Angilelli, Karina Gomes; Borsato, Dionísio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mixture experimental design was used which allowed evaluating various responses. • Predictive equation was presented that allows verifying the behavior of the mixtures. • The results depicted that the obtained biodiesel dispensed the use of any additives. - Abstract: The quality of biodiesel is a determining factor in its commercialisation, and parameters such as the Cold Filter Plugging Point (CFPP) and Induction Period (IP) determine its operability in engines on cold days and storage time, respectively. These factors are important in characterisation of the final product. A B100 biodiesel formulation was developed using a multiresponse optimisation, for which the CFPP and cost were minimised, and the IP and yield were maximised. The experiments were carried out according to a simplex-centroid mixture design using soybean oil, beef tallow, and poultry fat. The optimum formulation consisted of 50% soybean oil, 20% beef tallow, and 30% poultry fat and had CFPP values of 1.92 °C, raw material costs of US$ 903.87 ton −1 , an IP of 8.28 h, and a yield of 95.68%. Validation was performed in triplicate and the t-test indicated that there were no difference between the estimated and experimental values for none of the dependent variables, thus indicating efficiency of the joint optimisation in the biodiesel production process that met the criteria for CFPP and IP, as well as high yield and low cost

  6. Essential Oils of Hyptis pectinata Chemotypes: Isolation, Binary Mixtures and Acute Toxicity on Leaf-Cutting Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa-Alcantara, Rosana B; Bacci, Leandro; Blank, Arie F; Alves, Péricles B; Silva, Indira Morgana de A; Soares, Caroline A; Sampaio, Taís S; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de L; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima

    2017-04-12

    Leaf-cutting ants are pests of great economic importance due to the damage they cause to agricultural and forest crops. The use of organosynthetic insecticides is the main form of control of these insects. In order to develop safer technology, the objective of this work was to evaluate the formicidal activity of the essential oils of two Hyptis pectinata genotypes (chemotypes) and their major compounds on the leaf-cutting ants Acromyrmex balzani Emery and Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel. Bioassays of exposure pathways (contact and fumigation) and binary mixtures of the major compounds were performed. The major compounds identified in the essential oils of H. pectinata were β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide and calamusenone. The essential oils of H. pectinata were toxic to the ants in both exposure pathways. Essential oils were more toxic than their major compounds alone. The chemotype calamusenone was more toxic to A. balzani in both exposure pathways. A. sexdens rubropilosa was more susceptible to the essential oil of the chemotype β-caryophyllene in both exposure pathways. In general, the binary mixtures of the major compounds resulted in additive effect of toxicity. The essential oils of H. pectinata is a raw material of great potential for the development of new insecticides.

  7. Bioremediation of oil sludge contaminated soil using bulking agent mixture enriched consortia of microbial inoculants based by irradiated compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tri Retno, D.L.; Mulyana, N.

    2013-01-01

    Bulking agent mixture enriched consortia of microbial inoculants based by irradiated compost was used on bioremediation of microcosm scale contaminated by hydrocarbon soil. Bioremediation composting was carried out for 42 days. Composting was done with a mixture of bulking agent (sawdust, residual sludge biogas and compost) by 30%, mud petroleum (oil sludge) by 20% and 50% of soil. Mixture of 80% soil and 20% oil sludge was used as a control. Irradiated compost was used as a carrier for consortia of microbial inoculants (F + B) which biodegradable hydrocarbons. Treatment variations include A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2, D1 and D2. Process parameters were observed to determine the optimal conditions include: temperature, pH, water content, TPC (Total Plate Count) and degradation of % TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon). Optimal conditions were achieved in the remediation of oil sludge contamination of 20% using the B2 treatment with the addition consortia of microbial inoculants based by irradiated compost of sawdust (bulking agentby 30% at concentrations of soil by 50% with TPH degradation optimal efficiency of 81.32%. The result of GC-MS analysis showed that bioremediation for 42 days by using a sawdust as a mixture of bulking agents which enriched consortia of microbial inoculants based by irradiated compost is biodegradeable, so initial hydrocarbons with the distribution of the carbon chain C-7 to C-54 into final hydrocarbons with the distribution of carbon chain C-6 to C-8. (author)

  8. Linking the Value Assessment of Oil and Gas Firms to Ambidexterity Theory Using a Mixture of Normal Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casault Sébastien

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas exploration and production firms have return profiles that are not easily explained by current financial theory – the variation in their market returns is non-Gaussian. In this paper, the nature and underlying reason for these significant deviations from expected behavior are considered. Understanding these differences in financial market behavior is important for a wide range of reasons, including: assessing investments, investor relations, decisions to raise capital, assessment of firm and management performance. We show that using a “thicker tailed” mixture of two normal distributions offers a significantly more accurate model than the traditionally Gaussian approach in describing the behavior of the value of oil and gas firms. This mixture of normal distribution is also more effective in bridging the gap between management theory and practice without the need to introduce complex time-sensitive GARCH and/or jump diffusion dynamics. The mixture distribution is consistent with ambidexterity theory that suggests firms operate in two distinct states driven by the primary focus of the firm: an exploration state with high uncertainty and, an exploitation (or production state with lower uncertainty. The findings have direct implications on improving the accuracy of real option pricing techniques and futures analysis of risk management. Traditional options pricing models assume that commercial returns from these assets are described by a normal random walk. However, a normal random walk model discounts the possibility of large changes to the marketplace from events such as the discovery of important reserves or the introduction of new technology. The mixture distribution proves to be well suited to inherently describe the unusually large risks and opportunities associated with oil and gas production and exploration. A significance testing study of 554 oil and gas exploration and production firms empirically supports using a mixture

  9. Optimization of Natural Lipstick Formulation Based on Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus Seed Oil Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norsuhaili Kamairudin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components—pitaya seed oil (10%–25% w/w, virgin coconut oil (25%–45% w/w, beeswax (5%–25% w/w, candelilla wax (1%–5% w/w and carnauba wax (1%–5% w/w—were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to optimize the properties of lipstick by focusing on the melting point with respect to the above influencing components. The D-optimal mixture design analysis showed that the variation in the response (melting point could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main components of the lipstick. The best combination of each significant factor determined by the D-optimal mixture design was established to be pitaya seed oil (25% w/w, virgin coconut oil (37% w/w, beeswax (17% w/w, candelilla wax (2% w/w and carnauba wax (2% w/w. With respect to these factors, the 46.0 °C melting point property was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 46.5 °C. Carnauba wax is the most influential factor on this response (melting point with its function being with respect to heat endurance. The quadratic polynomial model sufficiently fit the experimental data.

  10. Combustion of biodiesel fuel produced from hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture in a Diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usta, N.; Oeztuerk, E.; Can, Oe.; Conkur, E.S.; Nas, S.; Con, A.H.; Can, A.C.; Topcu, M.

    2005-01-01

    Biodiesel is considered as an alternative fuel to Diesel fuel No. 2, which can be generally produced from different kinds of vegetable oils. Since the prices of edible vegetable oils are higher than that of Diesel fuel No. 2, waste vegetable oils and non-edible crude vegetable oils are preferred as potential low priced biodiesel sources. In addition, it is possible to use soapstock, a by-product of edible oil production, for cheap biodiesel production. In this study, a methyl ester biodiesel was produced from a hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture using methanol, sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide in a two stage process. The effects of the methyl ester addition to Diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder, turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) Diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that the hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the Diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of the performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends

  11. Effect-directed analysis and mixture effects of AhR-active PAHs in crude oil and coastal sediments contaminated by the Hebei Spirit oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seongjin; Lee, Sangwoo; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Gi Beum; Ha, Sung Yong; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Ryu, Jongseong; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Jung, Jinho; Giesy, John P.; Khim, Jong Seong

    2015-01-01

    The major AhR-active PAHs were identified in crude oil and oil-contaminated sediments by use of effect-directed analysis. As part of the study, an enhanced potency balance analysis was conducted by establishing the novel relative potency values of (alkyl)-PAHs from the H4IIE-luc bioassay. Silica gel column fractionation of crude oil resulted in greater AhR-mediated potencies in fractions of aromatics (F2) and resins (F3), and such trend was also observed for field collected sediment samples. AhR-mediated potencies of six F2 sub-fractions from HPLC indicated that the majority of F2 responses were attributable to 3–4 ring aromatics. Target PAHs including C4-phenanthrene, C1-chrysene, and C3-chrysene in sediments explained ∼18% of the bioassay-derived TCDD-EQs, however, the unknown AhR agonists and potential mixture effects remain in question. Overall, the AhR-potency and antagonistic potential of residual oil in sediment tended to decrease over time, thus monitoring of weathering process would be key for the post management of oil-contaminated sites. - Highlights: • AhR-active PAHs in crude oil and sediments were newly determined using EDA. • Novel relative potency values of (alkyl)-PAHs for AhR activity were established. • Three to four ring PAHs were identified to be major AhR agonists in crude oil. • Parent and alkyl-PAHs explained ∼18% of the total AhR-mediated potencies of crude oil. • AhR-mediated potencies apparently decreased by the timely weathering processes. - “Major AhR agonists were identified three to four ring PAHs in crude oil and sediments determined by use of effect-directed analysis.”

  12. A novel method for the synergistic remediation of oil-water mixtures using nanoparticles and oil-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabresm, Amjed; Chen, Yung Pin; Decho, Alan W; Lead, Jamie

    2018-07-15

    Releases of crude oil and other types of oil from numerous sources can impose catastrophic physical, chemical, and biological effects on aquatic ecosystems. While currently-used oil removal techniques possess many advantages, they have inherent limitations, including low removal efficiencies and waste disposal challenges. The present study quantified the synergistic interactions of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated magnetite nanoparticles (NP) and oil-degrading bacteria for enhanced oil removal at the laboratory scale. The results showed that at relatively high oil concentrations (375 mg L -1 ), NP alone could remove approximately 70% of lower-chain alkanes (C9-C22) and 65% of higher-chain (C23-C26), after only 1 h, when magnetic separation of NP was used. Removal efficiency did not increase significantly after that, which was likely due to saturation of the NP with oil. Microbial bioremediation, using strains of oil-degrading bacteria, removed almost zero oil immediately but 80-90% removal after 24-48 h. The combination of NPs and oil-degrading bacterial strains worked effectively to remove essentially 100% of oil within 48 h or less. This was likely due to the sorption of oil components to NPs and their subsequent utilization by bacteria as a joint Fe and C source, although the mechanisms of removal require further testing. Furthermore, results showed that the emission of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were reduced after addition of NPs and bacteria separately. When combined, VOC and SVOC emissions were reduced by up to 80%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis of heavy crude oil mixtures with emphasis in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Sandra L.; Silva, Artur M.S.; Ribeiro, Jorge C.; Martins, Fernando G.; Da Silva, Francisco A.; Silva, Carlos M.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques used to characterize heavy crude oils, although more focused in the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as the technique of choice, due to its capability to provide great information on the chemical nature of individual types of proton and carbon atoms in different and complex mixtures of crude oils are described. This review is based on 65 references and describes in a critical and interpretative ways the advantages of the NMR spectroscopy as a main technique to be used in crude oil refining industries that want to characterize crude oil fractions and the obtained refined products. Highlights: ► Chromatogrfaphic and spectroscopic techniques used to characterize heavy crude oils have been reviewed. ► This review describes in a critical and interpretative ways the advantages of the NMR spectroscopy as a main technique to be used in crude oil refining industries. ► The progress in the interpretation of the NMR spectra and of different multivariate data analyses and their potential in the identification and characterization of hydrocarbons and their physical and chemical properties have also been reviewed. - Abstract: The state of the art in the characterization of heavy crude oil mixtures is presented. This characterization can be done by different techniques, such as gas chromatography (GC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is the technique of choice due to its capability to provide information on the chemical nature of individual types of hydrogen and carbon atoms in different and complex mixtures of crude oils. The progress made in the interpretation of the NMR spectra with the development of new NMR techniques and different multivariate data analyses could give relevant

  14. Corrosion of mild steel, copper and brass in crude oil / seawater mixture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi, S.; Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    Mild steel, copper and brass coupons were introduced in natural seawater containing varying amount of crude oil. Mild steel showed higher rate of corrosion in seawater containing oil and lower corrosion rate in natural as well as artificial seawater...

  15. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  16. Involvement of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol Isomers from Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. Seed Oil or Oil Mixtures in the Biphasic DPPH˙ Disappearance Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Broznić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of three types of pumpkin seed oil or oil mixtures (cold-pressed, produced from roasted seed paste and salad produced in the northern part of Croatia and the kinetics of their behaviour as free radical scavengers were investigated using DPPH˙. In addition, the involvement of oil tocopherol isomers (α-, γ- and δ- in different steps of DPPH˙ disappearance and their impact on the rate of reaction were analysed. The kinetics of DPPH˙ disappearance is a two-step process. In the first step, rapid disappearance of DPPH˙ occurs during the first 11 min of the reaction, depending on the oil type, followed by a slower decline in the second step. To describe DPPH˙ disappearance kinetics, six mathematical models (mono- and biphasic were tested. Our findings showed that γ- and δ-tocopherols affected DPPH˙ disappearance during the first step, and α-tocopherol in the second step of the reaction. Moreover, α-tocopherol demonstrated 30 times higher antioxidant activity than γ- and δ-tocopherols. The results indicated the biphasic double-exponential behaviour of DPPH˙ disappearance in oil samples, due to the complexity of reactions that involve different tocopherol isomers and proceed through different chemical pathways.

  17. Involvement of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol Isomers from
Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seed Oil or Oil Mixtures in
the Biphasic DPPH˙ Disappearance Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broznić, Dalibor; Milin, Čedomila

    2016-01-01

    Summary The antioxidant activity of three types of pumpkin seed oil or oil mixtures (cold- -pressed, produced from roasted seed paste and salad) produced in the northern part of Croatia and the kinetics of their behaviour as free radical scavengers were investigated using DPPH˙. In addition, the involvement of oil tocopherol isomers (α-, γ- and δ-) in different steps of DPPH˙ disappearance and their impact on the rate of reaction were analysed. The kinetics of DPPH˙ disappearance is a two-step process. In the first step, rapid disappearance of DPPH˙ occurs during the first 11 min of the reaction, depending on the oil type, followed by a slower decline in the second step. To describe DPPH˙ disappearance kinetics, six mathematical models (mono- and biphasic) were tested. Our findings showed that γ- and δ-tocopherols affected DPPH˙ disappearance during the first step, and α-tocopherol in the second step of the reaction. Moreover, α-tocopherol demonstrated 30 times higher antioxidant activity than γ- and δ-tocopherols. The results indicated the biphasic double-exponential behaviour of DPPH˙ disappearance in oil samples, due to the complexity of reactions that involve different tocopherol isomers and proceed through different chemical pathways. PMID:27904410

  18. Involvement of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol Isomers from
Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seed Oil or Oil Mixtures in
the Biphasic DPPH˙ Disappearance Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broznić, Dalibor; Jurešić, Gordana Čanadi; Milin, Čedomila

    2016-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of three types of pumpkin seed oil or oil mixtures (cold- -pressed, produced from roasted seed paste and salad) produced in the northern part of Croatia and the kinetics of their behaviour as free radical scavengers were investigated using DPPH˙. In addition, the involvement of oil tocopherol isomers (α-, γ- and δ-) in different steps of DPPH˙ disappearance and their impact on the rate of reaction were analysed. The kinetics of DPPH˙ disappearance is a two-step process. In the first step, rapid disappearance of DPPH˙ occurs during the first 11 min of the reaction, depending on the oil type, followed by a slower decline in the second step. To describe DPPH˙ disappearance kinetics, six mathematical models (mono- and biphasic) were tested. Our findings showed that γ- and δ-tocopherols affected DPPH˙ disappearance during the first step, and α-tocopherol in the second step of the reaction. Moreover, α-tocopherol demonstrated 30 times higher antioxidant activity than γ- and δ-tocopherols. The results indicated the biphasic double-exponential behaviour of DPPH˙ disappearance in oil samples, due to the complexity of reactions that involve different tocopherol isomers and proceed through different chemical pathways.

  19. Effectiveness of Indonesian Essential Oil Mixture of Lemongrass, Cananga, and Patchouli in Relaxation through Inhalation: A Clinical Test on Healthy Woman with High Potential for Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Siahaan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Relaxation is one of many mechanisms for coping with stress. One of the most widely used methods for relaxation is aromatherapy with the application of essential oils. Known for their therapeutic benefits, essential oils can be extracted from various Indonesian native herbs such as lemongrass (sereh wangi or Cymbopogon winterianus, cananga or ylang-ylang (kenanga or Canarium odoratum, and patchouli (nilam or Pogostemon cabin. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a mixture of Indonesian essential oil made of lemongrass, cananga, and patchouli extracts. Experiment was conducted by asking a number of subjects to inhale the oil mixture and assessing its effectiveness in terms of psychological relaxation by using Visual Analog Scale or VAS and of physical relaxation by examining the subjects’ blood pressure (MAP, pulse frequency, and breathing frequency. The result was then compared with that of lavender oil and with the control group. The study was conducted on 60 healthy women through single-blind clinical trials (before and after using the “intent to treat” approach, followed by a startle test. Participants were divided into three groups: (1 20 participants who were treated with Indonesian essential oil mixture, (2 20 participants who were treated with lavender oil, and (3 20 participants who served as the control group. Psychological relaxation measurement showed that Indonesian essential oil mixture produced the same degree of effectiveness as lavender oil and the control groups did, although both treatments tended to produce better results than the control group did. However, physical relaxation measurement showed that Indonesian essential oil mixture produced a higher degree of effectiveness than lavender oil and tended to produce a better result than the control group did, especially in terms of blood pressure based on MAP scores.

  20. Characterization of macadamia and pecan oils and detection of mixtures with other edible seed oils by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmona, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Authenticating fats and detecting their adulteration with substantially cheaper fats can pose major problems for producers of high-value oils for nutritional and cosmetic use. In this work, we used Raman spectroscopy to discriminate macadamia and pecan oils from other, cheaper vegetable oils including corn and sunflower oils. This technique additionally allows one to detect and assess the adulteration of macadamia oil with another vegetable oil.La autentificación de grasas para detectar su adulteración con otras grasas más baratas es uno de los principales problemas a los que se enfrentan los productores de aceites de alto valor, ya sea para uso alimentario o para uso cosmético. En este trabajo se emplea la espectroscopia Raman, por un lado, para caracterizar los aceites de macadania y de nuez pecanera, de alto valor y diferenciarlos de otros más baratos, como los de maíz y de girasol, y por otro, para detectar mezclas del aceite de macadamia con estos aceites vegetales más baratos.

  1. Condensation heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture in 5 mm and 4 mm outside diameter horizontal microfin tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiangchao; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Zhu, Yu [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gao, Yifeng [International Copper Association Shanghai Office, Shanghai 200020 (China); Deng, Bin [Institute of Heat Transfer Technology, Golden Dragon Precise Copper Tube Group Inc., Shanghai 200135 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Condensation heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture in 5 mm and 4 mm outside diameter horizontal microfin tubes were investigated experimentally. The experimental condensing temperature is 40 C, and nominal oil concentration range is from 0% to 5%. The test results indicate that the presence of oil deteriorates the heat transfer. The deterioration effect is negligible at nominal oil concentration of 1%, and becomes obvious with the increase of nominal oil concentration. At 5% nominal oil concentration, the heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture is found to have a maximum reduction of 25.1% and 23.8% for 5 mm and 4 mm tubes, respectively. The predictabilities of the existing condensation heat transfer correlations were verified with the experimental data, and Yu and Koyama correlation shows the best predictability. By replacing the pure refrigerant properties with the mixture's properties, Yu and Koyama correlation has a deviation of -15% to + 20% in predicting the local condensation heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture. (author)

  2. Time-resolved small angle neutron scattering measurements of asphaltene nanoparticle aggregation kinetics in incompatible crude oil mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Thomas G.; Lin, Min Y.

    2003-01-01

    We use time-resolved-small angle neutron scattering to study the kinetics of asphaltene nanoparticle aggregation in incompatible crude oil mixtures. We induce asphaltene aggregation by mixing asphaltene-rich Syrian crude oil (SACO) with a paraffinic British crude oil and observe the scattered neutron intensity, I, as a function of wave number, q, over times, t, ranging from twenty minutes to about a week. We observe a growth in I at low q as the nanoscale asphaltenes agglomerate into microscale aggregates and interpret this growth as an increase in surface scattering from the aggregates. We fit I(q,t) to an empirical model and measure the growth in the power-law exponent, α, associated with the low-q logarithmic slope of I(q). We define a time, τ α , associated with the first appearance of the aggregates when α>3; τ α increases as a function of the volume fraction, φ m , of SACO in the mixture. The surface scattering intensity initially increases and then saturates at long times when the aggregate structures no longer evolve at the length scales we probe. Based on this saturation, we define a time scale, τ I , which is larger than τ α but has essentially the same dependence on φ m . We interpret τ α (φ m ) and τ I (φ m ) in terms of a simple aggregation model based on diffusion-limited kinetics and a repulsive potential barrier that models the effective solvent quality

  3. Thermal properties of mixtures of mineral oil and natural ester in terms of their application in the transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadolny Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes research results of thermal properties of mineral oil and natural ester. Percentage proportions of both the liquids were as follows: 100/0, 95/5, 80/20, 50/50, 20/80, 0/100. The authors present measurement results of thermal conductivity, viscosity, specific heat, density, and thermal expansion of the created mixtures. The measurements were taken in a relatively wide temperature range: 25 °C, 40 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C. On the basis of the measurement results, convection heat transfer coefficient α was calculated and the most advantageous proportion of both the components of the mixture was pointed in terms of cooling effectiveness of the transformer.

  4. Traditional Mediterranean plants: characterization and use of an essential oils mixture to treat Malassezia otitis externa in atopic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardoni, Simona; Pistelli, Luisa; Baronti, Ilenia; Najar, Basma; Pisseri, Francesca; Bandeira Reidel, Rose Vanessa; Papini, Roberto; Perrucci, Stefania; Mancianti, Francesca

    2017-08-01

    Several plants extracts from Mediterranean countries are traditionally employed in skin troubles both in humans and in animals. Malassezia pachydermatis is a lipophylic yeast responsible for otitis externa and dermatitis in dogs and for cutaneous and systemic disease in humans. Five mixtures of essential oils obtained from Mediterranean plants (Citrus paradisi, Salvia sclarea, Ocimum basilicum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Citrus limon, Anthemis nobilis, Lavandula hybrida and Thymus vulgaris) provided with antifungal and/or anti-inflammatory action assayed in vitro, were tested in vivo versus M. pachydermatis to treat once daily for 2 weeks 25 atopic dogs with Malassezia otitis externa. Mixture composed by C. limon 1%, S. sclarea 0,5%, R. officinalis 1%, A. nobilis 0,5% yielded excellent results in all treated dogs. Despite of clinical resolution after all treatments the number of blastospores did not decrease. This study confirms recent findings suggesting a multifactorial alternative approach for the management of canine Malassezia otitis.

  5. Method of pyrolytic decomposition and coking of a mixture of finely distributed solid or semisolid carbonaceous material and hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-09-09

    A method of pyrolytic decomposition and coking of a mixture of finely distributed of solid or semi-solid carbonaceous material and hydrocarbon oils is disclosed whereby the mixture is exposed to a decomposition temperature and later is brought into the zone of decomposition where vapors are separated from the unvaporized residue and the vapors are exposed to fractional condensation for the purpose of obtaining a light product of distillation. The method is characterized by the mixture being exposed to heating by means of indirect exchange of heat in a heating zone or by means of a direct addition of a hot heat-conducting medium, or by means of both the mentioned indirect exchange of heat and direct heat under such conditions that the unvaporized residue obtained from the thus-heated mixture in the decomposition zone is transformed to solid coke in this zone by being heated to coking temperature in a comparatively thin layer on the surface of the decomposition zone that has been heated to a high temperature.

  6. Fractionation of acid lime essential oil using ethanol/water mixtures: Effect of the process on the aroma profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Daniel; Costa, Patrícia; Rodrigues, Christianne E.C.; Rodrigues, Alírio E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fractionation of crude acid lime essential oil using ethanol/water mixtures. • Extract phases were enriched in aroma-active components. • Predicted compositions of liquid phases fitted well with the experimental data. • Aroma-active components were separated from terpenes, keeping the original acid lime essential oil odour. • The water content in the solvent did not affect the aroma profile of the phases from the liquid–liquid equilibrium. - Abstract: This study aims to separate aroma-active components of the crude Citrus latifolia essential oil (EO) from the unstable terpene hydrocarbons using ethanol/water mixtures through liquid–liquid equilibrium (LLE) and to evaluate the aroma profiles of the crude EO and the LLE phases. For this purpose, the liquid compositions of the crude EOs and the LLE phases were found by gas chromatography analysis. The compositions of the liquid phases were predicted using the NRTL model and compared to the experimental data. Afterwards, the concentrations of the components in the vapour phases above the liquid mixtures were obtained by headspace analysis and the odour intensity of each component was estimated using the Stevens’ power law concept. Finally, the classification into olfactory families was evaluated through the Perfumery Radar methodology. The solvent extraction technique made it possible to obtain extract phases enriched in citral and poor in monoterpenes, with aromas profiles similar to that of the crude EO and classified as herbaceous and citrus scent, with floral, woody, and oriental nuances. The extract phase obtained from ethanol with 50% water was found to be a promising fraction for industrial applications. Furthermore, the results proved that the NRTL parameters can be efficiently used to predict the compositions of the phases from the LLE.

  7. Density and viscosity behavior of a North Sea crude oil, natural gas liquid, and their mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, KAG; Cisneros, Sergio; Kvamme, B

    2005-01-01

    to accurately model the saturation pressures, densities, and viscosities of petroleum systems ranging from natural gases to heavy crude oils. The applicability of this overall modeling technique to reproduce measured bubble points, densities, and viscosities of a North Sea crude oil, a natural gas liquid...

  8. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Oil and Natural Gas Operations: Potential Environmental Contamination and Recommendations to Assess Complex Environmental Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Tillitt, Donald E; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. Although these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals that are used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and antihormonal activities for chemicals used. We discuss the literature on a) surface and groundwater contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and b) potential human exposure, particularly in the context of the total hormonal and antihormonal activities present in surface and groundwater from natural and anthropogenic sources; we also discuss initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps. In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures. We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide information supporting the idea that using such a component will help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  9. Optimization of Microencapsulation of Fish Oil with Gum Arabic/Casein/Beta-Cyclodextrin Mixtures by Spray Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junjie; Xiong, Shanbai; Wang, Fang; Regenstein, Joe M; Liu, Ru

    2015-07-01

    Fish oil was encapsulated with gum arabic/casein/beta-cyclodextrin mixtures using spray drying. The processing parameters (solids concentration of the barrier solutions, ratio of oil to barrier materials, emulsifying temperature, and air inlet temperature) were optimized based on emulsion viscosity, emulsion stability, encapsulation efficiency, and yield. A suitable viscosity and high emulsion stability could increase encapsulation efficiency and yield. Encapsulation efficiency and yield were significantly affected by all the 4 parameters. Based on the results of orthogonal experiments, encapsulation efficiency and yield reached a maximum of 79.6% and 55.6%, respectively, at the optimal condition: solids concentration of 35%, ratios of oil to barrier materials of 3:7, emulsifying temperature of 55 °C, and air inlet temperature of 220 °C. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that fish oil microcapsules were nearly spherical with a smooth surface with droplet size ranging from 1 to 10 μm. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: Potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. While these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals.Objectives: We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and anti-hormonal activities for chemicals used.Methods: We discuss the literature on 1) surface and ground water contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and 2) potential human exposure, particularly in context of the total hormonal and anti-hormonal activities present in surface and ground water from natural and anthropogenic sources, with initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps discussed.Discussion: In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures.Conclusions: We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide supporting information that using this may help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  11. Modeling Hydrodynamic State of Oil and Gas Condensate Mixture in a Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudin Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Based on the developed model a calculation method was obtained which is used to analyze hydrodynamic state and composition of hydrocarbon mixture in each ith section of the pipeline when temperature-pressure and hydraulic conditions change.

  12. Heat transfer property of refrigerant-oil mixture in a flooded evaporator: The role of bubble formation and oil retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Sung-Gyu; Jeong, Young-Man; Lee, Jae-Keun; Kim, Soo Hyung; Lee, Soowon; Park, Nae-Hyun; Na, Byung-Chul; Hwang, Yoon-Jae; Kim, Byung-Soon; Hwang, Joon-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effect of oil retention on the heat transfer performance of a shell-and-tube-type evaporator which had 26 inner tubes and was filled with the refrigerant R-134a. The refrigerant was boiled on the surface of the inner tubes in the evaporator, while chilled water circulated through these tubes. An experimental apparatus was designed to measure both the pressure and temperature profiles at the inlet and outlet of the flooded evaporator. Four windows were installed for observing the operation of the flooded evaporator. A series of experiments were carried out under the following conditions: the refrigerant saturation temperature, 5 .deg. C; refrigerant inlet quality, 0.1; heat fluxes from water to the refrigerant, 5-7 kW/m"2.. The concentration of the oil retained in the refrigerant was then varied up to approximately 10% to observe the effect on the heat transfer performance of the flooded evaporator. Increasing the oil content (i.e., increasing the concentration up to a maximum of approximately 10%) in the refrigerant R134a did not lead to any appreciable reduction in the overall heat transfer coefficient of a flooded evaporator with multiple-inner-tubes. When the oil concentration in the refrigerant was approximately 10%, the heat transfer degradation in the case of the flooded evaporator with multiple-inner-tubes was approximately 11%, which was found to be much smaller than the heat transfer degradation in the case of a flooded evaporator with a single-tube (26-49%). This observation suggested that the oil retained in the refrigerant did not significantly deteriorate the heat transfer performance of the flooded evaporator, presumably because the presence of tube bundles promoted forced convection by agitating bubbles

  13. Condensation heat transfer for refrigerant-oil mixtures in microfin tube condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, K N [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea); Tae, S J [Sungkyunkwan University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Condensation heat transfer experiments for R-22 and R-407 C refrigerants mixed with mineral oil and POE oil respectively were performed in straight and U-bend sections of a microfin tube. Experimental parameters were an oil concentration from 0 to 5 %, a mass flux from 100 to 400 kg/m{sup 2}s and an inlet quality from 0.5 to 0.9. The enhancement factors for R-22 and R-407 C refrigerants at the first straight section decreased continuously as the oil concentration increased. They decreased rapidly as the mass maximum at the 90 deg. position. The heat transfer coefficients at the second straight section within the dimensionless length of 48 were larger by a maximum of 33 % than the average heat transfer coefficients at the first straight section. (author). 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Study on the thermal ignition of gasoline-air mixture in underground oil depots based on experiment and numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yihong; Du, Yang; Jiang, Xingsheng; Wang, Dong; Liang, Jianjun

    2010-04-01

    The study on the special phenomenon, occurrence process and control mechanism of gasoline-air mixture thermal ignition in underground oil depots is of important academic and applied value for enriching scientific theories of explosion safety, developing protective technology against fire and decreasing the number of fire accidents. In this paper, the research on thermal ignition process of gasoline-air mixture in model underground oil depots tunnel has been carried out by using experiment and numerical simulation methods. The calculation result has been demonstrated by the experiment data. The five stages of thermal ignition course, which are slow oxidation stage, rapid oxidation stage, fire stage, flameout stage and quench stage, have been firstly defined and accurately descried. According to the magnitude order of concentration, the species have been divided into six categories, which lay the foundation for explosion-proof design based on the role of different species. The influence of space scale on thermal ignition in small-scale space has been found, and the mechanism for not easy to fire is that the wall reflection causes the reflux of fluids and changes the distribution of heat and mass, so that the progress of chemical reactions in the whole space are also changed. The novel mathematical model on the basis of unification chemical kinetics and thermodynamics established in this paper provides supplementary means for the analysis of process and mechanism of thermal ignition.

  15. Surface chemistry of a pine-oil cleaner and other terpene mixtures with ozone on vinyl flooring tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jason E; Wells, J Raymond

    2011-04-01

    Indoor environments are dynamic reactors where consumer products (such as cleaning agents, deodorants, and air fresheners) emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can subsequently interact with indoor oxidants such as ozone (O(3)), hydroxyl radicals, and nitrate radicals. Typically, consumer products consist of mixtures of VOCs and semi-VOCs which can react in the gas-phase or on surfaces with these oxidants to generate a variety of oxygenated products. In this study, the reaction of a pine-oil cleaner (POC) with O(3) (100ppb) on a urethane-coated vinyl flooring tile was investigated at 5% and 50% relative humidity. These results were compared to previous α-terpineol+O(3) reactions on glass and vinyl surfaces. Additionally, other terpene and terpene alcohol mixtures were formulated to understand the emission profiles as seen in the POC data. Results showed that the α-terpineol+O(3) reaction products were the prominent species that were also observed in the POC/O(3) surface experiments. Furthermore, α-terpineol+O(3) reactions generate the largest fraction of oxygenated products even in equal mixtures of other terpene alcohols. This finding suggests that the judicial choice of terpene alcohols for inclusion in product formulations may be useful in reducing oxidation product emissions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Selective retention of oils in aqueous mixtures using palygorskite treated with waterproof materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matesanz, J.M.; Aisa, C.; Aragues, J.L.; Ovelleiro, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    An oil-selective absorbent has been developed from clay materials that is easy to manufacture and use, and provides good results in different working conditions, compared to conventional water treatment methods. The absorbent can be used in fixed beds in a column or spread directly onto an oil spill. The absorbent is a palygorskite (attapulgite) coated with a silicone. The silicone coating reduces the water absorption capacity of the palygorskite to near zero, but affects oil absorption capacity very little. The Westinghouse method was used to evaluate the absorption capacity of the silicone-coated palygorskite. The results indicate that the material could be a good choice for reducing the organic matter content of drinking water. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Experimental investigation and correlation of two-phase frictional pressure drop of R410A-oil mixture flow boiling in a 5 mm microfin tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Huang, Xiangchao [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Deng, Bin [Institute of Heat Transfer Technology, Golden Dragon Precise Copper Tube Group Inc., Shanghai 200135 (China); Gao, Yifeng [International Copper Association, Shanghai Office, Shanghai 200020 (China)

    2009-01-15

    This study presents experimental two-phase frictional data for R410A-oil mixture flow boiling in an internal spiral grooved microfin tube with outside diameter of 5 mm. Experimental parameters include the evaporation temperature of 5 C, the mass flux from 200 to 400 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, the heat flux from 7.46 to 14.92 kW m{sup -2}, the inlet vapor quality from 0.1 to 0.8, and nominal oil concentration from 0 to 5%. The test results show that the frictional pressure drop of R410A initially increases with vapor quality and then decreases, presenting a local maximum in the vapor quality range between 0.7 and 0.8; the frictional pressure drop of R410A-oil mixture increases with the mass flux, the presence of oil enhances two-phase frictional pressure drop, and the effect of oil on frictional pressure drop is more evident at higher vapor qualities where the local oil concentrations are higher. The enhanced factor is always larger than unity and increases with nominal oil concentration at a given vapor quality. The range of the enhanced factor is about 1.0-2.2 at present test conditions. A new correlation to predict the local frictional pressure drop of R410A-oil mixture flow boiling inside the internal spiral grooved microfin tube is developed based on local properties of refrigerant-oil mixture, and the measured local frictional pressure drop is well correlated with the empirical equation proposed by the authors. (author)

  18. separation of oil palm kernel and shell mixture using soil and palm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    shape and size of the nuts and a good industrial raw material [3]. ... Large-scale mills have automated hydro-cyclone machines with high separation efficiency, however, clay-baths and hydro cyclones are known for their high energy and water consumption .... A mixture of kernel/shell weighing 20kg were poured into pot 1 ...

  19. Component-based control of oil-gas-water mixture composition in pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytyuk, I. N.

    2018-03-01

    The article theoretically proves the method for measuring the changes in content of oil, gas and water in pipelines; also the measurement system design for implementation thereof is discussed. An assessment is presented in connection with random and systemic errors for the future system, and recommendations for optimization thereof are presented.

  20. Effects of clove oil-phospholipid mixtures on rheology of gum tragacanth - possible application for surfactant action on mucus gel simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, R; Puniyani, R R

    2000-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effectiveness of specialised biomaterials consisting of clove oil- phospholipid mixtures as possible substitute surfactants in diseases of altered mucus viscosity by studying their effect on the viscosity of mucus gel simulants in vitro. Test surfactants consisting of phospholipid-clove oil mixtures in the ratio of 1 part of oil to 9 parts of phospholipid were prepared. The phospholipids used were dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and binary mixtures of PC: PE and PC: PG in the ratio of 2 parts of PC to 3 parts of PE or PG. The effects of the phospholipid-clove oil mixtures on the viscosity of mucus gel simulant (MGS: a polymeric gel consisting predominantly of gum tragacanth and simulating respiratory mucus), was studied by application of steady shear rates ranging from 0.512 to 51.2/s in a concentric cylinder viscometer at 37 degrees C. The change in MGS viscosity, after incubation with surfactants, was found to have a non-Newtonian character and to follow the power law model with R2 values >0.8. The addition of clove oil-phospholipid mixtures caused a decrease in the MGS viscosity when compared with the effect of the phospholipid alone at low shear rates in case of PC, PG and PCPG. The combination of PC : PG with clove oil caused ratios of change in MGS viscosity < 1 i.e., caused a decrease in the MGS viscosity. PC: PG with clove oil was capable of lowering MGS viscosity and should be further researched as possible therapies for diseases of altered mucus rheology.

  1. Numerical and experimental study of the slug-flow regime in a mixture of castor and paraffin oils in a T-type microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakov, A. V.; Shebeleva, A. A.; Yagodnitsyna, A. A.; Kovalev, A. V.; Bilsky, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    The slow-flug regime in a mixture of castor and paraffin oils in a T-type microchannel with crosssectional dimensions of 200 × 400 μm has been studied by numerical and experimental methods. The domain of existence of the slow-flug regime in this system has been determined. Dependence of the paraffin-oil slug length on the ratio of flow rates of the mixture components is established. Comparison of the calculated and experimental data shows their good agreement.

  2. Modelling of associating mixtures for applications in the oil & gas and chemical industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Folas, Georgios; Muro Sunè, Nuria

    2007-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria of associating mixtures cannot often be satisfactorily modelled using conventional models such as cubic equations of state. CPA (cubic-plus-association) is an equation of state (EoS), which combines the SRK EoS with the association term of SAFT. For non......-alcohol (glycol)-alkanes and certain acid and amine-containing mixtures. Recent results include glycol-aromatic hydrocarbons including multiphase, multicomponent equilibria and gas hydrate calculations in combination with the van der Waals-Platteeuw model. This article will outline some new applications...... thermodynamic models especially those combining cubic EoS with local composition activity coefficient models are included. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  3. Synthesis of novel octyl sinapate to enhance antioxidant capacity of rapeseed-linseed oil mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydłowska-Czerniak, Aleksandra; Rabiej, Dobrochna; Krzemiński, Marek

    2018-03-01

    Lipophilisation allows the formation of new functionalised antioxidants having beneficial properties compared to natural hydrophilic phenolic acids. Therefore, this work focused on the synthesis of lipophilic antioxidants, such as a new octyl sinapate, octyl caffeate and octyl ferulate using the modified Fischer esterification of selected hydroxycinnamic acids with 1-octanol. The lipophilic octyl sinapate was obtained for the first time with satisfactory yield (83%) after purification by column chromatography. The identity of the synthesised phenolipids was confirmed by chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses. Antioxidant capacity of phenolipids was determined by DPPH (IC 50  = 35.87-52.24 μg mL -1 ) and ABTS (IC 50  = 39.45-48.72 μg mL -1 ) methods and compared with IC 50 values (7.37-35.30 μg mL -1 and 7.55-41.67 μg mL -1 , respectively) for well known antioxidants. The antioxidant capacity of rapeseed-linseed oil enriched with the purified esters was about two to 30 times higher in comparison with a non-supplemented oil. The novel octyl sinapate as well as octyl caffeate and octyl ferulate have antioxidant properties and lipophilic character, therefore they may be added to vegetable oils as potential antioxidants for tackling oxidative processes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Conditions optimization for obtaining biodiesel from soybean oil using the mixture experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Roberta Spacino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of the yield of transesterification reaction to obtain the B100 biodiesel has been studied using sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, methoxide and sodium ethoxide as catalysts. We applied a randomized simplex centroid mixture and the results of optimization indicate, when using methanol, a yield of 97.61% when using 30,77% NaOH and 69,23% of sodium methoxide and a yield of 89,32% when using only the sodium ethoxide whit ethanol. Chromatographic analysis indicated that the B100 biodiesel obtained is within the parameters established by Brazilian Legislation.

  5. Effects of a mixture of vegetable and essential oils and fatty acid potassium salts on Tetranychus urticae and Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolakis, H; Ragusa, S

    2008-06-01

    Laboratory trials were carried out to evaluate the toxicity and the influence of a commercial mixture of vegetal, essential oils, and potassium salts of fatty acids (Acaridoil 13SL) on the population growth rate (r(i)--instantaneous rate of increase) of two mite species, the phytophagous Tetranychus urticae Koch and the predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. A residue of 1.3 mg/cm(2) of pesticide solution was harmless for Ph. persimilis eggs, while a moderate mortality of eggs and of larvae from treated eggs of T. urticae, was observed (53.8%). The pesticide also caused a delay in the postembryonic development of the tetranychid. Moreover, 83.4% mortality was reported for treated females tetranychids and only 24.0% for Ph. persimilis females. The pesticide influenced negatively the population growth of T. urticae which showed a very low rate of increase (r(i)=0.07), compared to that obtained in the control (r(i)=0.68). The pesticide did not affect negatively the reproductive potential of Ph. persimilis (r(i)=0.54 and r(i)=0.57 for test and control, respectively). These results suggest a considerable acaricidal activity of potassium salts of fatty acids and caraway oil on T. urticae and a good selectivity on Ph. persimilis.

  6. The Safety and Efficacy of a Mixture of Honey, Olive Oil, and Beeswax for the Management of Hemorrhoids and Anal Fissure: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori S. Al-Waili

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have found that a mixture of honey, olive oil, and beeswax was effective for treatment of diaper dermatitis, psoriasis, eczema, and skin fungal infection. The mixture has antibacterial properties. A prospective pilot study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effect of topical application of the mixture on patients with anal fissure or hemorrhoids.Fifteen consecutive patients, 13 males and 2 females, median age 45 years (range: 28–70, who presented with anal fissure (5 patients or first- to third-degree hemorrhoids (4 with first degree, 4 with second degree, and 2 with third degree, were treated with a 12-h application of a natural mixture containing honey, olive oil, and beeswax in ratio of 1:1:1(v/v/v. Bleeding, itching, edema, and erythema were measured using a scoring method: 0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe, and 4 = very severe. The pain score was checked using a visual analog scale (minimum = 0, maximum = 10. Efficacy of treatment was assessed by comparing the symptoms' score before and after treatment; at weekly intervals for a maximum of 4 weeks. The patients were observed for evidence of any adverse effect such as appearance of new signs and symptoms, or worsening of the existing symptoms. The honey mixture significantly reduced bleeding and relieved itching in patients with hemorrhoids. Patients with anal fissure showed significant reduction in pain, bleeding, and itching after the treatment. No side effect was reported with use of the mixture. We conclude that a mixture of honey, olive oil, and beeswax is safe and clinically effective in the treatment of hemorrhoids and anal fissure, which paves the way for further randomized double blind studies.

  7. The Effect of Minarex B Oil and Gamma Irradiation on the Mechanical Properties of Vulcanized Natural Rubber-LDPE Mixture for Shoe Sole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudradjat Iskandar; Isni Marliyanti

    2004-01-01

    To obtain the optimum concentration of minarex B oil and gamma irradiation dose on natural rubber compound for shoe sole, study on the effect of minarex B oil and gamma radiation on the mechanical properties of vulcanized natural rubber-LDPE mixture has been done. Natural rubber was masticated and mixed with additive and filler using two-roll machine, at 120 o C of forward roll and 100 o C of backward roll, with rotation speed of 18 rpm. The additives added with irganox 1076, paraffin wax, stearic acid, and minarex B oil, while fillers used were polyethylene (LDPE) and calcium carbonate. Minarex B oil mixed was vary such as 5, 10 and 20 phr (part per hundred of rubber). The amount of filler and other additives mixed was not varied. The natural rubber film was obtained by pressing the mixture using hot and cold press machine at 135 o C and room temperature for about 3 minutes. The film then irradiated with gamma rays from cobalt-60 source, at the doses of 150, 300, and 500 kGy. The results show that the mechanical properties of natural rubber vulcanized decreases by increasing minarex B oil, and increases by increasing of irradiation dose. The concentration optimum of minarex B oil in the natural rubber compound for shoe sole and irradiation dose about 5 phr and 300 kGy were agree with SII 0944-84. (author)

  8. Combined effect of carnosol, rosmarinic acid and thymol on the oxidative stability of soybean oil using a simplex centroid mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoudi, Salma; Chammem, Nadia; Sifaoui, Ines; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Piñero, José E; Bouassida-Beji, Maha; Hamdi, Moktar; L Bazzocchi, Isabel

    2017-08-01

    Oxidation taking place during the use of oil leads to the deterioration of both nutritional and sensorial qualities. Natural antioxidants from herbs and plants are rich in phenolic compounds and could therefore be more efficient than synthetic ones in preventing lipid oxidation reactions. This study was aimed at the valorization of Tunisian aromatic plants and their active compounds as new sources of natural antioxidant preventing oil oxidation. Carnosol, rosmarinic acid and thymol were isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus capitatus by column chromatography and were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Their antioxidant activities were measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. These active compounds were added to soybean oil in different proportions using a simplex-centroid mixture design. Antioxidant activity and oxidative stability of oils were determined before and after 20 days of accelerated oxidation at 60 °C. Results showed that bioactive compounds are effective in maintaining oxidative stability of soybean oil. However, the binary interaction of rosmarinic acid and thymol caused a reduction in antioxidant activity and oxidative stability of soybean oil. Optimum conditions for maximum antioxidant activity and oxidative stability were found to be an equal ternary mixture of carnosol, rosmarinic acid and thymol. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Interactions in interesterified palm and palm kernel oils mixtures. II – Microscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimaldi, Renato

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil (PO and palm kernel oil (PKO compositions (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 and 0/100 were interesterified in laboratory scale under predetermined conditions (0.4% sodium metoxide, 20 minutes, 100ºC. The fourteen samples, before and after interesterification, were characterized by Polarized Light Microscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Results showed the effect of various factors on the form and width of crystals. The mean area of crystals revealed the increase of crystals when PKO was added, with values varying from 2.7 x 10E3 µm2 to PO and 1.8 x 10E6 µm2 to PKO. After interesterification, the crystal widths were lower at PO/PKO 100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 20/80 fractions and were higher to anothers. The beta-prime polimorphic form was observed in the pure palm oil sample. The results showed in melting curves, onset values from –19.6ºC to more unsaturated peaks until 20.7ºC to more saturated ones. The higher values to more saturated peak in a melting curve to palm oil, 38.7 J.g-1 before and 48.4 J.g-1 after interesterification, showed a mores table saturated group. I n a genera l way, t h e interesterification promoted an increase of crystallization rate and a better compatibility between PO/PKO fractions.Fueron interesterificados en el laboratorio mezclas de aceite de palma (PO y aceite de palmiste (PKO en diferentes proporciones (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 y 0/100 bajo condiciones predeterminadas (0.4% metoxido de sodio, 20 minutos, 100ºC. Las catorce muestras fueron caracterizadas antes y después de la interesterificación por Microscopía de Luz Polarizada y por Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC. Los resultados mostraron el efecto de varios factores sobre la forma y anchura de los cristales. El área media de los cristales revela el aumento de tamaño de los mismos cuando aumenta la proporción de PKO, con valores que varían entre 2.7 x 10E3 µm2 para PO y 1.8 x 10E

  10. Prenatal Exposure to Unconventional Oil and Gas Operation Chemical Mixtures Altered Mammary Gland Development in Adult Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapouckey, Sarah A; Kassotis, Christopher D; Nagel, Susan C; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2018-03-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) operations, which combine hydraulic fracturing (fracking) and directional drilling, involve the use of hundreds of chemicals, including many with endocrine-disrupting properties. Two previous studies examined mice exposed during early development to a 23-chemical mixture of UOG compounds (UOG-MIX) commonly used or produced in the process. Both male and female offspring exposed prenatally to one or more doses of UOG-MIX displayed alterations to endocrine organ function and serum hormone concentrations. We hypothesized that prenatal UOG-MIX exposure would similarly disrupt development of the mouse mammary gland. Female C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to ~3, ~30, ~ 300, or ~3000 μg/kg/d UOG-MIX from gestational day 11 to birth. Although no effects were observed on the mammary glands of these females before puberty, in early adulthood, females exposed to 300 or 3000 μg/kg/d UOG-MIX developed more dense mammary epithelial ducts; females exposed to 3 μg/kg/d UOG-MIX had an altered ratio of apoptosis to proliferation in the mammary epithelium. Furthermore, adult females from all UOG-MIX-treated groups developed intraductal hyperplasia that resembled terminal end buds (i.e., highly proliferative structures typically seen at puberty). These results suggest that the mammary gland is sensitive to mixtures of chemicals used in UOG production at exposure levels that are environmentally relevant. The effect of these findings on the long-term health of the mammary gland, including its lactational capacity and its risk of cancer, should be evaluated in future studies. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  11. BEHAVIOR OF SURFACTANT MIXTURE AT SOLID/LIQUID AND OIL/LIQUID INTERFACE IN CHEMICAL FLOODING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. P. Somasundaran

    2002-03-01

    The aim of the project is to develop and evaluate efficient novel surfactant mixtures for enhanced oil recovery. Preliminary ultra-filtration tests suggest that two kinds of micelles may exist in binary surfactant mixtures at different concentrations. Due to the important role played in interfacial processes by micelles as determined by their structures, focus of the current work is on the delineation of the relationship between such aggregate structures and chemical compositions of the surfactants. A novel analytical centrifuge application is explored to generate information on structures of different surfactants aggregates. In this report, optical systems, typical output of the analytical ultracentrifuge results and four basic experiments are discussed. Initial sedimentation velocity investigations were conducted using nonyl phenol ethoxylated decyl ether (NP-10) to choose the best analytical protocol, calculate the partial specific volume and obtain information on sedimentation coefficient, aggregation mass of micelles. The partial specific volume was calculated to be 0.920. Four softwares: Optima{trademark} XL-A/XL-I data analysis software, DCDT+, Svedberg and SEDFIT, were compared for the analysis of sedimentation velocity experimental data. The sedimentation coefficient and aggregation number of NP-10 micelles obtained using the first three softwares at 25 C are 209, 127, and 111, respectively. The last one is closest to the result from Light Scattering. The reason for the differences in numbers obtained using the three softwares is discussed. Based on these tests, Svedberg and SEDFIT analysis are chosen for further studies. This approach using the analytical ultracentrifugation offers an unprecedented opportunity now to obtain important information on mixed micelles and their role in interfacial processes.

  12. Evaluation of a diesel engine running with stationary mixtures of soybean oil and reused oil diesel; Avaliacao de um motor diesel estacionario funcionando com misturas de oleo de soja reutilizado e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maronhas, Maite E.S.; Fernandes, Haroldo C.; Siqueira, Wagner C.; Figueiredo, Augusto C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)], Emails: maronhas@gmail.com, haroldo@ufv.br, augusto.figueiredo@ufv.br

    2009-07-01

    The tests were conducted at the Laboratory of Agricultural Mechanization Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa using a stationary diesel engine Yanmar brand NS{sub B} 75, with nominal power of 5.8 kw at 2400 rpm, direct injection, and water cooled. This work aimed to examine the reuse of soybean oil to drive the engine stationary. Were used as fuel five mixtures of diesel oil (DO) and soybean oil (OS) re-used in the kitchen of the restaurant of the university in the proportions of 0-100%, 25-75%, 50-50%, 75-25 % and 100-0% respectively. The power and torque of the engine is higher for the mixture showed a 75% OD and 25% OS and 25% lower for DO and 75% OS. The lowest hourly consumption was with a mixture of 25% and 75% OD and OS was 15% lower than for the pure diesel. The values found justifying the use of mixtures of diesel and soybean oil reused, but the technical aspects, especially regarding the wear of the engine, must be evaluated to indicate the use after a long period of engine operation. (author)

  13. Combustion characteristics, performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with a waste cooking oil biodiesel mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, Özer

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High quality biodiesel fuels can be produced by using different waste cooking oils. • Biodiesel fuel blends (in 5 and 10% vol) can be used without any negative effects. • Effects of biodiesel addition on the combustion and exhaust emissions were investigated. - Abstract: In this study, a mixture of biodiesel fuels produced from two different kinds of waste cooking oils was blended in 5% and 10% with No. 2 diesel fuel. The biodiesel/No. 2 diesel fuel blends were tested in a single-cylinder, direct injection, four-stroke, natural aspirated diesel engine under four different engine loads (BMEP 0.48–0.36–0.24–0.12 MPa) and 2200 rpm engine speed. Despite of the earlier start of injection, the detailed combustion and engine performance results showed that the ignition delay with the biodiesel addition was decreased for the all engine loads with the earlier combustion timings due to higher cetane number of biodiesel fuel. Meanwhile the maximum heat release rate and the in-cylinder pressure rise rate were slightly decreased and the combustion duration was generally increased with the biodiesel addition. However, significant changings were not observed on the maximum in-cylinder pressures. In addition, it was observed that the indicated mean effective pressure values were slightly varied depending on the start of combustion timing and the center of heat release location. It was found that 5% and 10% biodiesel fuel addition resulted in slightly increment on break specific fuel consumption (up to 4%) and reduction on break thermal efficiency (up to 2.8%). The biodiesel additions also increased NO x emissions up to 8.7% and decreased smoke and total hydrocarbon emissions for the all engine loads. Although there were no significant changes on CO emissions at the low and medium engine loads, some reductions were observed at the full engine load. Also, CO 2 emissions were slightly increased for the all engine loads

  14. Combined treatment of Thymus vulgaris L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils against Salmonella typhimurium: Optimization of antibacterial activity by mixture design methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadil, Mouhcine; Fikri-Benbrahim, Kawtar; Rachiq, Saad; Ihssane, Bouchaib; Lebrazi, Sara; Chraibi, Marwa; Haloui, Taoufik; Farah, Abdellah

    2018-05-01

    To increase the sensibility of Salmonella typhimurium strain, a mixture of Thymus vulgaris L. (T. vulgaris L.), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (R. officinalis L.) and Myrtus communis L. (M. communis L.) essential oils (EOs) was used in combined treatment by experimental design methodology (mixture design). The chemical composition of EOs was firstly identified by GC and GC/MS and their antibacterial activity was evaluated. The results of this first step have shown that thymol and borneol were the major compounds in T. vulgaris and M. communis L. EOs, respectively, while 1,8-cineole and α-pinene were found as major compounds in R. officinalis L. The same results have shown a strong antibacterial activity of T. vulgaris L. EO followed by an important power of M. communis L. EO against a moderate activity of R. officinalis L. EO. Besides, 1/20 (v/v) was the concentration giving a strain response classified as sensitive. From this concentration, the mixture design was performed and analyzed. The optimization of mixtures antibacterial activities has highlighted the synergistic effect between T. vulgaris L. and M. communis L. essential oils. A formulation comprising 55% of T. vulgaris L. and 45% of M. communis L. essential oils, respectively, can be considered for the increase of Salmonella typhimurium sensibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A predictive method for crude oil volatile organic compounds emission from soil: evaporation and diffusion behavior investigation of binary gas mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haijing; Fischer, Thomas; Wieprecht, Wolfgang; Möller, Detlev

    2015-05-01

    Due to their mobility and toxicity, crude oil volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are representative components for oil pipeline contaminated sites detection. Therefore, contaminated location risk assessment, with airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) survey, in particular, requires ground-based determinative methods for oil VOCs, the interaction between oil VOCs and soil, and information on how they diffuse from underground into atmosphere. First, we developed a method for determination of crude oil VOC binary mixtures (take n-pentane and n-hexane as examples), taking synergistic effects of VOC mixtures on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers into consideration. Using this method, we further aim to extract VOCs from small volumes, for example, from soil pores, using a custom-made sampling device for nondestructive SPME fiber intrusion, and to study VOC transport through heterogeneous porous media. Second, specific surface Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis was conducted and used for estimation of VOC isotherm parameters in soil. Finally, two models were fitted for VOC emission prediction, and the results were compared to the experimental emission results. It was found that free diffusion mode worked well, and an empirical correction factor seems to be needed for the other model to adapt to our condition for single and binary systems.

  16. Impact of Flax Seed and Canola Oils Mixture Supplementation on The Physiological and Biochemical Changes Induced by Monosodium Glutamate in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.; Mohamed, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important problems in the human health nutrition field is the use of food flavor. Monosodium glutamate is one of the main flavors used as an ingredient in various food products, however it produces physiological and biochemical changes. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the supplementation of flax seed and canola oils mixture against the physiological and biochemical changes induced by monosodium glutamate in rats. In addition to analyses the physical and chemical characteristics of flax seed and canola oil and fatty acids composition by using gas liquid chromatography. The results concerning that unsaturated fatty acids of flax seed oil were oleic (18:1) 22%, linoleic acid (18:2) 30 % and linolenic acid (18:3) 36%. Total unsaturated fatty acids percentage in flaxseed oil was 88% and total saturated fatty acids 12%. The unsaturated fatty acids of canola oil were oleic (18:1) 66%, linoleic acid (18:2) 18% and linolenic acid (18:3) 7%, total unsaturated fatty acids percentage in canola oil was 92% and total saturated fatty acids was 8%. On the other hand, treatment of rats with monosodium glutamate for ten consecutive days led to a decrease in RBCs, Hb, Hct % and increased platelet count with decrease in WBCs and undesirable changes in its differential count. There is also, high significant increase in testicular thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) which is accompanied with significant reduction in catalase (CAT) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and serum testosterone level. These disturbances were associated with significant increase in the liver enzymes ALT,AST and ALP and increase in the level of total biluribin and glucose. Also, significant increase in urea, creatinine and uric acid were recorded. The supplementation with mixture of flax seed and canola oils mixture for one month after the injection of monosodium glutamate caused noticeable amelioration in the damage occurred as a result of this flavor. To

  17. Deposition of heavy oil fractions: development of a computational tool to predict oil mixtures compatibility; Deposicao de fracoes pesadas do petroleo: desenvolvimento de uma ferramenta computacional para a previsao da compatibilidade de misturas de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prucole, Elisia S.; Henriques, Fernanda P.; Silva, Leandro M.; Touma, Silvia L. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The remarkable increase in production and processing of national heavy oils is a scenario in which the deposition problem of heavy oil fractions is important, leading to huge losses, not only in economical terms but also in regard to environmental aspects, and can occur in practically all areas of the oil industry. Thus, the knowledge about technology concerning this subject is essential. In terms of heavy fractions, the asphaltenes are the heaviest components of oil and have propensity to aggregate, flocculate, precipitate and be adsorbed on surfaces. The difficulties for modeling the behavior of asphaltenes phases occur because of the high uncertainties which take in the current knowledge about the asphaltenes, their structures, flocculation and precipitation mechanisms and the phenomenon reversibility. The main goal of this work is to propose a predictive methodology for oils compatibility. A fuzzy classifier was implemented in order to predict the compatibility of oil mixtures, assessing whether the mixture condition is stable or not. The results were satisfactory, indicating a good predictive power of the proposed computational tool. (author)

  18. Effects of mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) derived from cod liver oil on H295R steroidogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montano, M.; Zimmer, K.E.; Dahl, E.; Berge, V.; Olsaker, I.; Skaare, J.U.; Murk, A.J.; Ropstad, E.; Verhaegen, S.

    2011-01-01

    Crude cod liver oil and liver oil supplements are consumed as a source of vitamin A, D and polyunsaturated fatty acids; during winter and early pregnancy. Crude cod liver oil however constitutes a considerable source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This paper aimed at characterizing and

  19. Experimental unit to study motion of gas-liquid mixtures in vertical pipes for lifting highly viscous oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abishev, S K; Bulgakov, R R; Sakharov, V A

    1981-01-01

    Basic features are presented of a new experimental-research unit of gas-lift recovery of oil UGDN-2 for conditions of lifting the highly viscous oil. It is proposed that this unit be used to conduct experiments and to determine the calculated relationships of a gas-liquid lifter on fluids simulating highly viscous oil.

  20. Profiling of Indigenous Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity During Enrichment in Molasses-Supplemented Crude Oil-Brine Mixtures for Improved Understanding of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Pedersen, Dorthe Skou; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil-brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses, with or without nitrate to boost microbial growth. Growth of the indigenous microbes was stimulated by addition of molasses. Pyrosequencing showed that specifically Anaerobaculum, Petrotoga, and Methanothermococcus were enriched. Addition of nitrate favored the growth of Petrotoga over Anaerobaculum. The microbial growth caused changes in the crude oil-brine system: formation of oil emulsions, and reduction of interfacial tension (IFT). Reduction in IFT was associated with microbes being present at the oil-brine interphase. These findings suggest that stimulation of indigenous microbial growth by addition of molasses has potential as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) strategy in North Sea oil reservoirs.

  1. Bioremediation of contaminated mixtures of desert mining soil and sawdust with fuel oil by aerated in-vessel composting in the Atacama Region (Chile)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy-Faundez, Alex; Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca; Reyes-Bozo, Lorenzo; Camano, Andres; Saez-Navarrete, Cesar

    2008-01-01

    Since early 1900s, with the beginning of mining operations and especially in the last decade, small, although repetitive spills of fuel oil had occurred frequently in the Chilean mining desert industry during reparation and maintenance of machinery, as well as casual accidents. Normally, soils and sawdust had been used as cheap readily available sorbent materials of spills of fuel oil, consisting of complex mixtures of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Chilean legislation considers these fuel oil contaminated mixtures of soil and sawdust as hazardous wastes, and thus they must be contained. It remains unknown whether it would be feasible to clean-up Chilean desert soils with high salinity and metal content, historically polluted with different commercial fuel oil, and contained during years. Thus, this study evaluated the feasibility of aerated in-vessel composting at a laboratory scale as a bioremediation technology to clean-up contaminated desert mining soils (fuel concentration > 50,000 mg kg -1 ) and sawdust (fuel concentration > 225,000 mg kg -1 ) in the Atacama Region. The composting reactors were operated using five soil to sawdust ratios (S:SD, 1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, 0:1, on a dry weight basis) under mesophilic temperatures (30-40 deg. C), constant moisture content (MC, 50%) and continuous aeration (16 l min -1 ) during 56 days. Fuel oil concentration and physico-chemical changes in the composting reactors were monitored following standard procedures. The highest (59%) and the lowest (35%) contaminant removals were observed in the contaminated sawdust and contaminated soil reactors after 56 days of treatment, respectively. The S:SD ratio, time of treatment and interaction between both factors had a significant effect (p < 0.050) on the contaminant removal. The results of this research indicate that bioremediation of an aged contaminated mixture of desert mining soil and sawdust with fuel oil is feasible. This study recommends a S:SD ratio 1:3 and a correct

  2. Bioremediation of contaminated mixtures of desert mining soil and sawdust with fuel oil by aerated in-vessel composting in the Atacama Region (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Faúndez, Alex; Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca; Reyes-Bozo, Lorenzo; Camaño, Andrés; Sáez-Navarrete, César

    2008-03-01

    Since early 1900s, with the beginning of mining operations and especially in the last decade, small, although repetitive spills of fuel oil had occurred frequently in the Chilean mining desert industry during reparation and maintenance of machinery, as well as casual accidents. Normally, soils and sawdust had been used as cheap readily available sorbent materials of spills of fuel oil, consisting of complex mixtures of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Chilean legislation considers these fuel oil contaminated mixtures of soil and sawdust as hazardous wastes, and thus they must be contained. It remains unknown whether it would be feasible to clean-up Chilean desert soils with high salinity and metal content, historically polluted with different commercial fuel oil, and contained during years. Thus, this study evaluated the feasibility of aerated in-vessel composting at a laboratory scale as a bioremediation technology to clean-up contaminated desert mining soils (fuel concentration>50,000 mg kg(-1)) and sawdust (fuel concentration>225,000 mg kg(-1)) in the Atacama Region. The composting reactors were operated using five soil to sawdust ratios (S:SD, 1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, 0:1, on a dry weight basis) under mesophilic temperatures (30-40 degrees C), constant moisture content (MC, 50%) and continuous aeration (16 l min(-1)) during 56 days. Fuel oil concentration and physico-chemical changes in the composting reactors were monitored following standard procedures. The highest (59%) and the lowest (35%) contaminant removals were observed in the contaminated sawdust and contaminated soil reactors after 56 days of treatment, respectively. The S:SD ratio, time of treatment and interaction between both factors had a significant effect (pcontaminant removal. The results of this research indicate that bioremediation of an aged contaminated mixture of desert mining soil and sawdust with fuel oil is feasible. This study recommends a S:SD ratio 1:3 and a correct nutrient balance

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of a novel exhaust heat-driven non-adiabatic ejection-absorption refrigeration cycle using R290/oil mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Keqiao; Cai, Dehua; Liu, Yue; Jiang, Jingkai; Sun, Wei; He, Guogeng

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel air-cooled non-adiabatic ejection-absorption refrigeration cycle using R290/refrigeration oil has been thermodynamically analyzed. Influences of the ejector and the non-adiabatic absorber applications on the system performance and other system operation parameters have been investigated. The simulation results will be of great help to the miniaturization and practical application of the air-cooled absorption refrigeration system. - Highlights: • A novel air-cooled non-adiabatic ejection-absorption refrigeration cycle is proposed. • Influences of the ejector and the air-cooled non-adiabatic absorber applications on the system performance are investigated. • Variations of system performance and other system operation parameters are investigated. • R290/refrigeration oil mixture used as working pairs is analyzed. - Abstract: This paper thermodynamically analyzes a novel air-cooled non-adiabatic ejection-absorption refrigeration cycle with R290/oil mixture driven by exhaust heat. An ejector located at the upstream of the non-adiabatic absorber is employed to improve the cycle performance. Variations of COP, circulation ratio and component heat load of the system as a function of generating temperature, pressure ratio, absorption temperature, condensing temperature and evaporating temperature have been investigated in this work. The simulation results show that, compared with the conventional absorption refrigeration cycle, this non-adiabatic ejection-absorption refrigeration cycle has higher absorption efficiency, better performance, wider working condition range and lower total heat load and its COP can reach as high as 0.5297. The implementation of the ejector and the non-adiabatic absorber helps to realize the miniaturization and wider application of the absorption refrigeration system. In addition, R290/oil mixture is a kind of highly potential working pairs for absorption refrigeration.

  4. Obtaining biodiesel from oils mixtures of corn and cotton; Obtencao de biodiesel a partir da mistura dos oleos de milho e algodao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Lionete Nunes de; Santos, Jose Carlos Oliveira; Carvalho, Maria Wilma Nunes Cordeiro [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Dantas, Manoel Barbosa; Rosenhaim, Raul; Sousa, Antonio Gouveia [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Most of the world energy consumption derives from oil, coal and natural gas. The shortage of the energy sources, especially the energy from fossil fuels, and moreover the impossibility of its renovation has motivated the development of technologies that allow for the usage of renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is biodegradable, renewable and it obeys the cycle of carbon. It is defined as a blend of mono-alkyl esters of fatty acids derived from renewable sources, as vegetable oils and animal fats. It is obtained by means of a transesterification process, in which the transformation of triglycerides into smaller molecules of fatty acid esters takes place, and it displays physical and chemical characteristics similar to the ones of a fossil fuel-derived diesel oil. This work presents the attainment of biodiesel from the mixture of oils of corn and cotton, utilizing the homogeneous potassium hydroxide catalyst (KOH). The biodiesel was characterized on the basis of physico-chemical properties, of infrared spectroscopy (IR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and thermogravimetry (TG). In thermogravimetric analyses, it was observed that the biodiesel presented an initial decomposition temperature of lower than that of oil, demonstrating be more volatile and bringing up the diesel. (author)

  5. Organogel-emulsions with mixtures of β-sitosterol and γ-oryzanol: influence of water activity and type of oil phase on gelling capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawalha, Hassan; den Adel, Ruud; Venema, Paul; Bot, Arjen; Flöter, Eckhard; van der Linden, Erik

    2012-04-04

    In this study, water-in-oil emulsions were prepared from water containing different salt concentrations dispersed in an oil phase containing a mixture of β-sitosterol and γ-oryzanol. In pure oil, the β-sitosterol and γ-oryzanol molecules self-assemble into tubular microstructures to produce a firm organogel. However, in the emulsion, the water molecules bind to the β-sitosterol molecules, forming monohydrate crystals that hinder the formation of the tubules and resulting in a weaker emulsion-gel. Addition of salt to the water phase decreases the water activity, thereby suppressing the formation of sitosterol monohydrate crystals even after prolonged storage times (∼1 year). When the emulsions were prepared with less polar oils, the tubular microstructure was promoted, which significantly increased the firmness of the emulsion-gel. The main conclusion of this study is that the formation of oryzanol and sitosterol tubular microstructure in the emulsion can be promoted by reducing the water activity and/or by using oils of low polarity.

  6. Variability of Phenolic and Volatile Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil from Leccino and Istarska Bjelica Cultivars in Relation to Their Fruit Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Koprivnjak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic and volatile compounds are closely related to valuable gastronomic and nutritional properties, as well as oxidative stability of virgin olive oil. Since biochemical synthesis and transformation of these compounds during olive processing depend on the activity of endogenous enzymes, which are partially influenced by genetic factors, mixtures of different cultivars could have either a synergistic or antagonistic effect on phenolic and volatile compounds in the resulting oil. In this context, two specific cultivars from the Istrian peninsula, Leccino (L and Istarska bjelica (B, were selected. Two monovarietal fruit samples (L100 and B100 and four mixtures in the following mass ratios: L/B=80:20, L/B=60:40, L/B=40:60 and L/B=20:80 were prepared. The mass fraction of total phenols was determined colourimetrically, while C6 and C5 volatiles from lipoxygenase pathway were determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography. Mass fraction of total phenols in the oil samples from fruit mixtures changed linearly from (199.5±7.2 in Leccino to (642.0±61.7 mg/kg in Istarska bjelica, in a strict correlation with fruit mass ratio of the two cultivars. Leccino monovarietal samples had statistically higher values (p≤0.05 of C6 aldehydes ((15.32±1.69 vs. (10.91±0.62 mg/kg and C6 alcohols ((2.96±0.98 vs. (0.17±0.05 mg/kg, but lower values of C5 compounds ((0.77±0.12 vs. (0.96±0.05 mg/kg compared to Istarska bjelica samples. Volatiles having a direct contribution to the oil aroma (odour activity value >1.0 were 1-penten-3-one (84–201, E-2-hexenal (26–42, hexanal (1.8–2.4 and Z-2-penten-1-ol (1.3–2.6. A significant synergistic effect was observed for C6 aldehydes in the case of L/B=40:60 fruit mixture. The addition of Istarska bjelica to Leccino fruits caused a significant antagonistic effect on C6 alcohols, but no significant deviations from the expected values were found in the case of C6 esters and C5 compounds

  7. Microencapsulation by spray drying of lemon essential oil: Evaluation of mixtures of mesquite gum-nopal mucilage as new wall materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Camargo, Stefani; Cruz-Olivares, Julian; Barragán-Huerta, Blanca E; Dublán-García, Octavio; Román-Guerrero, Angélica; Pérez-Alonso, César

    2017-06-01

    Mesquite gum (MG) and nopal mucilage (NM) mixtures were used for microencapsulation of lemon essential oil (LEO) by spray drying. Emulsions of MG, NM and MG-NM mixtures (25-75, 50-50, 75-25) were evaluated according to the droplet size (1.49-9.16 μm), viscosity and zeta potential (-16.07 to -20.13 mV), and microcapsules were characterised in particle size (11.9-44.4 μm), morphology, volatile oil retention (VOR) (45.9-74.4%), encapsulation efficiency (EE) (70.9-90.6%), oxidative stability and thermal analysis. The higher concentration of MG led to smaller droplet sizes and lower viscosity in the emulsions, and smaller particle sizes with the highest VOR in microcapsules. The higher concentration of NM induced to higher viscosity in the emulsions, and larger particle sizes with the highest values of EE and oxidative stability in microcapsules. This work shows evidence that MG-NM mixtures can have synergic effect in desirable characteristics such as retention and shelf life extension of LEO in microcapsules.

  8. Sustainable hydrogen production from bio-oil model compounds (meta-xylene) and mixtures (1-butanol, meta-xylene and furfural).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizkarra, K; Barrio, V L; Arias, P L; Cambra, J F

    2016-09-01

    In the present work m-xylene and an equimolecular mixture of m-xylene, 1-butanol and furfural, all of them bio-oil model compounds, were studied in steam reforming (SR) conditions. Three different nickel catalysts, which showed to be active in 1-butanol SR (Ni/Al2O3, Ni/CeO2-Al2O3 and Ni/La2O3-Al2O3), were tested and compared with thermodynamic equilibrium values. Tests were carried out at temperatures from 800 to 600°C at atmospheric pressure with a steam to carbon ratio (S/C) of 5.0. Despite the different bio-oils fed, the amount of moles going through the catalytic bed was kept constant in order to obtain comparable results. After their use, catalysts were characterized by different techniques and those values were correlated with the activity results. All catalysts were deactivated during the SR of the mixture, mainly by coking. The highest hydrogen yields were obtained with Ni/Al2O3 and Ni/CeO2-Al2O3 catalysts in the SR of m-xylene and SR of the mixture, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of the cellulose, xylan and lignin constituents on biomass pyrolysis characteristics and bio-oil composition using the Simplex Lattice Mixture Design method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yongsheng; Cai, Yixi; Li, Xiaohua; Jiao, Lihua; Xia, Jisheng; Deng, Xiuli

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Simplex Lattice Mixture Design was firstly applied to study biomass pyrolysis process. • Interactions between the constituents had effects on the biomass pyrolysis behavior. • Biomass pyrolysis behavior can be predicted based on the ratios of three constituents. • Bio-oil composition was affected by the constituents and their pyrolysis products. - Abstract: In order to clarify the relationships between biomass pyrolysis mechanism and its main constituents. The effects of main constituents on biomass pyrolysis characteristics were firstly determined by thermo-gravimetric analysis based on the Simplex Lattice Mixture Design to investigate that whether the prediction of the pyrolysis behavior of a certain lignocellulosic biomass is possible when its main constituent contents are known. The results showed that there are constituent interactions in the pyrolysis process, which can be intuitively reflected through the change laws of kinetics parameters. The mathematical models for calculating kinetics values were established, and the models were proved to be valid for predicting lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis behavior. In addition, the effects of biomass constituents on bio-oil compositions were explored by subsequent vacuum pyrolysis experiments. The xylan pyrolysis had a certain inhibitory effect on the pyrolysis of cellulose, and the pyrolysis products of lignin might promote the further decomposition of sugars from cellulose pyrolysis, while the interaction between xylan and lignin had a little effect on the bio-oil composition.

  10. Modelling phase equilibria for acid gas mixtures using the CPA equation of state. Part VI. Multicomponent mixtures with glycols relevant to oil and gas and to liquid or supercritical CO_2 transport applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CPA EoS was applied to predict the phase behaviour of multicomponent mixtures containing CO_2, glycols, water and alkanes. • Mixtures relevant to oil and gas, CO_2 capture and liquid or supercritical CO_2 transport applications were investigated. • Results are presented using various modelling approaches/association schemes. • The predicting ability of the model was evaluated against experimental data. • Conclusions for the best modelling approach are drawn. - Abstract: In this work the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) equation of state is applied to multicomponent mixtures containing CO_2 with alkanes, water, and glycols. Various modelling approaches are used i.e. different association schemes for pure CO_2 (assuming that it is a non-associating compound, or that it is a self-associating fluid with two, three or four association sites) and different possibilities for modelling mixtures of CO_2 with other hydrogen bonding fluids (only use of one interaction parameter k_i_j or assuming cross association interactions and obtaining the relevant parameters either via a combining rule or using an experimental value for the cross association energy). Initially, new binary interaction parameters were estimated for (CO_2 + glycol) binary mixtures. Having the binary parameters from the binary systems, the model was applied in a predictive way (i.e. no parameters were adjusted to data on ternary and multicomponent mixtures) to model the phase behaviour of ternary and quaternary systems with CO_2 and glycols. It is concluded that CPA performs satisfactorily for most multicomponent systems considered. Some differences between the various modelling approaches are observed. This work is the last part of a series of studies, which aim to arrive in a single “engineering approach” for applying CPA to acid gas mixtures, without introducing significant changes to the model. An overall assessment, based also on the obtained results of this series (Tsivintzelis

  11. Profiling of Indigenous Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity During Enrichment in Molasses-Supplemented Crude Oil-Brine Mixtures for Improved Understanding of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Pedersen, Dorthe Skou; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil–brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses, with or with...... of molasses has potential as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) strategy in North Sea oil reservoirs.......Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil–brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses....... The microbial growth caused changes in the crude oil–brine system: formation of oil emulsions, and reduction of interfacial tension (IFT). Reduction in IFT was associated with microbes being present at the oil–brine interphase. These findings suggest that stimulation of indigenous microbial growth by addition...

  12. Characterization of diesel oil mixtures with soy oil used for activation of engines of internal combustion; Caracterizacao de misturas de oleo diesel com oleo de soja reutilizado para acionamento de motores de combustao interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Wagner da Cunha; Fernandes, Haroldo Carlos; Teixiera, Mauri Martins; Abrahao, Selma Alves; Leite, Daniel Mariano [Universidade de Vicosa, (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: wagner.siqueira@ufv.br, haroldo@ufv.br, mauri@ufv.br, selma.abrahao@ufv.br, daniel.mariano@ufv.br

    2011-07-01

    Alternative energy sources have been studied in several countries, with emphasis on ways of obtaining and using more efficient. The objective of this work to evaluate and characterize mixtures of diesel oil (DO) with soybean oil reused (OSR), the ratios of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of OSR in relation to specific gravity index viscosity and calorific value. To determine the specific gravity was used beaker, thermometer and a balance for each mixture was adjusted a regression model to estimate the bulk density as a function of temperature (25 to 90 deg C). We analyzed the viscosity of the mixtures using an orifice-type viscometer Saybolt, through regression analysis models were fit to estimate the viscosity as a function of temperature, heating the OSR 100% from 40 to 90 deg C decreased by up 90.4% to its viscosity. The tests were performed calorimetric using a bomb calorimeter determines the calorific value , the variation in calorific value followed a descending order with respect to OD with the increasing content of OSR. The OSR is efficient for use in internal combustion engines in small proportions. (author)

  13. Performance evaluation of small scale internal combustion engine with mixtures for diesel oil-palm oil; Avaliacao do desempenho do motor de combustao interna de pequeno porte com misturas oleo diesel - oleo de dende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seye, Omar; Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (CDEAM/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico], Emails: Seye62omar@yahoo.com, rcsouza@internext.com.br

    2006-07-01

    This work aims at the performance evaluation of the Cummins 4B -3.9, an internal combustion engine of maximum power 75 hp (56.6 kW) for small scale power generation, burning different mixtures of diesel fuel and palm oil. The palm oil in nature is mixed manually, what unfortunately will influence the engine performance as it hinders the combustion. The test protocol will include the biodiesel, later on. The emissions were assessed for several proportions of mixture diesel/palm oil covering the strip from 0 to 20% and the results were compared to the engine performance when it operates with diesel only. The motor is coupled to a dynamometer, whose operation consists of the acceleration and deceleration of water in order to simulate the effect of a load being applied to the motor. The system is controlled by the software LT commander that allows the start up and the shutdown of the engine from the screen of the computer that also monitors the following parameters as speed of rotation of the motor (RPM), applied torque (N-m), potency (hp), temperature of the lubricating oil, temperature of the water in the entrance and exit of the motor, and temperature of the environment (deg C), pressures of the lubricating oil and of opening of the injector (mBar). While a flow meter coupled to the piping measures the consumption of fuel, the gas analyzer ECHO Line 6000 it monitors the concentration and temperature of carbon monoxide (CO) (ppm), nitric oxide (NO) (ppm), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), (ppm), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) (ppm) and Oxygen (O{sub 2}) (%) in the exhaust gases. This equipment also determines the combustion parameters as excess of air and the efficiency. The technical results present the efficiency variation, the pressure of the fuel, monoxide carbon, NOx emissions, Oxygen content in the exhaust gases, for the different mixture proportions. Furthermore, the results of economic viability show generation cost values of US$ 135,66/MWh for the motor operating

  14. Effect of Inoculum Dosage Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae mixture with Fermentation Time of Oil Seed Cake (Jatropha curcas L) to the content of Protein and Crude Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniati, T.; Nurlaila, L.; Iim

    2017-04-01

    Jatropha curcas L already widely cultivated for its seeds pressed oil used as an alternative fuel. This plant productivity per hectare obtained 2.5-5 tonnes of oil/ha / year and jatropha seed cake from 5.5 to 9.5 tonnes/ha/year, nutrient content of Jatropha curcas seed L potential to be used as feed material, However, the constraints faced was the low crude protein and high crude protein. The purpose of the research was to determine the dosage of inoculum and fermentation time of Jatropha seed cake by a mixture of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae on crude protein and crude fibre. The study was conducted by an experimental method using a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) factorial design (3×3). The treatment consisted of a mixture of three dosage levels of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae (= 0.2% d1, d2 and d3 = 0.3% = 0.4%) and three levels of fermentation time (w1 = 72 hours, 96 hours and w2 = w3 = 120 hours) each repeated three times. The parameters measured were crude protein and crude fibre. The results showed that dosages of 0.3% (Aspergillus niger Rhizopus oryzae 0.15% and 0.15%) and 72 hours (d2w1) is the dosage and the optimal time to generate the highest crude protein content of 21.11% and crude fibre amounted to 21.36%.

  15. Soybean and fish oil mixture increases IL-10, protects against DNA damage and decreases colonic inflammation in rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Patrícia O

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It was investigated whether dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA could influence colonic injury, tissue DNA damage, cytokines and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO and plasma corticosterone in DSS-induced colitis rats. Male weaning Wistar rats were fed for 47 days with an AIN-93 diet with control (C, fish (F or a mixture of fish and soybean oil (SF. The colitis was induced from day 36 until day 42 by 3% DSS in drinking water. On day 48, blood samples were collected for corticosterone determination. The distal colon was excised for histological analysis and to quantify the cytokine (IL-4, IL-10 and INF-γ, MPO and DNA damage. The disease activity index (DAI was recorded daily during colitis induction. The DAI, MPO, histological analyses showed decreases only in the SF group compared with the C group. IL-10 was increased and DNA damage was reduced in the groups F and SF, and an inverse correlation between these variables was found. There were no differences in corticosterone, IFN-γ and IL-4 levels. Soybean and fish oil mixture may be effective in improving colonic injury and DNA damage, and it could be an important complementary therapy in UC to reduce the use of anti-inflammatory drugs and prevent colorectal cancer.

  16. Phase behavior and formation of o/w nano-emulsion in vegetable oil/ mixture of polyglycerol polyricinoleate and polyglycerin fatty acid ester/water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakisaka, Satoshi; Nakanishi, Masami; Gohtani, Shoichi

    2014-01-01

    It is reported that mixing polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) and polyglycerol laurilester has a great emulsifying capacity, and consequently fine oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions can be formed. However, the role of PGPR is not clear. The objective of this research is to investigate the phase behavior of vegetable oil/mixture of PGPR and polyglycerol fatty acid ester/water systems, and to clarify the role of PGPR in making a fine emulsion. Phase diagrams were constructed to elucidate the optimal process for preparing fine emulsions. In all the systems examined in this study, the phases, including the liquid crystal phase (L(c)) and sponge phase (L(3)), spread widely in the phase diagrams. We examined droplet size of the emulsions prepared from each phase and found that o/w nano-emulsions with droplet sizes as small as 50 nm were formed by emulsifying either from a single L(3) phase or a two-phase region, L(c) + L(3). These results indicate that a sponge phase L(3) or liquid crystal phase L(c) or both is necessary to form an o/w nano-emulsion whose average droplet diameter is less than 50 nm for PGPR and polyglycerin fatty acid ester mixtures used as surfactant.

  17. Application of a Burkholderia cepacia lipase-immobilized silica monolith to batch and continuous biodiesel production with a stoichiometric mixture of methanol and crude Jatropha oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Ryo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enzymatic production of biodiesel through alcoholysis of triglycerides has become more attractive because it shows potential in overcoming the drawbacks of chemical processes. In this study, we investigate the production of biodiesel from crude, non-edible Jatropha oil and methanol to characterize Burkholderia cepacia lipase immobilized in an n-butyl-substituted hydrophobic silica monolith. We also evaluate the performance of a lipase-immobilized silica monolith bioreactor in the continuous production of biodiesel. Results The Jatropha oil used contained 18% free fatty acids, which is problematic in a base-catalyzed process. In the lipase-catalyzed reaction, the presence of free fatty acids made the reaction mixture homogeneous and allowed bioconversion to proceed to 90% biodiesel yield after a 12 hour reaction time. The optimal molar ratio of methanol to oil was 3.3 to 3.5 parts methanol to one part oil, with water content of 0.6% (w/w. Further experiments revealed that B. cepacia lipase immobilized in hydrophobic silicates was sufficiently tolerant to methanol, and glycerol adsorbed on the support disturbed the reaction to some extent in the present reaction system. The continuous production of biodiesel was performed at steady state using a lipase-immobilized silica monolith bioreactor loaded with 1.67 g of lipase. The yield of 95% was reached at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/h, although the performance of the continuous bioreactor was somewhat below that predicted from the batch reactor. The bioreactor was operated successfully for almost 50 days with 80% retention of the initial yield. Conclusions The presence of free fatty acids originally contained in Jatropha oil improved the reaction efficiency of the biodiesel production. A combination of B. cepacia lipase and its immobilization support, n-butyl-substituted silica monolith, was effective in the production of biodiesel. This procedure is easily applicable to the design

  18. Molecular interactions of CPC, CPB, CTAB, and EPC biosurfactants in aqueous olive oil mixtures analyzed with physicochemical data and SEM micrographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural studies of olive oil–water–biosurfactants mixtures are most attracting for several academic as well as industrial significances. Thus, densities (ρ, viscosities (η, and surface tensions (γ of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC and bromide (CPB, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB and egg-phosphatidylcholine (EPC biosurfactants (BS 2–10 mm kg−1 in olive oil + water mixture in 2 mm kg−1 interval at 310.15 K are reported. The densities were for apparent molal volume (Vϕ/10−6 m3 mol−1, η and γ determinations. The viscosities were fitted in extended Jones–Doles equation for intrinsic viscosity (B, kg mol−1 and slope (D, kg mol−12 derivation. The γ and Vϕ data were regressed for their limiting γ0 andVϕ0 data and the SEMs were illustrated surface morphology. The EPC caused maximum oil–water dissolution as compared to other surfactants. Intramolecular multiple force theory [IMMFT] is proposed to explain molecular interactions of olive oil–water–EPC mixtures with a possible correlation of surface and bulk reorientations with microstructures depicted with SEM. Frictional and cohesive forces as Friccohesity have been noted as driving forces to assert for validity of the IMMFT model and its link with SEM.

  19. Cyst Ablation Using a Mixture of N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate and Iodized Oil in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: the Long-Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, See Hyung; Kim, Seung Hyup; Cho, Jeong Yeon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    We wanted to assess the long-term results of cyst ablation with using N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) and iodized oil in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and symptomatic cysts. Cyst ablation using a mixture of NBCA and iodized oil was performed in 99 cysts from 21 patients who had such symptoms as abdominal distension and pain. The collapse or reaccumulation of the ablated cysts after the procedure was assessed during the follow-up period of 36 to 90 months. The treatment effects, including symptom relief, and the clinical data such as the blood pressure and serum creatinine levels were also assessed, together with the complications. The procedure was technically successful in all 99 cysts from the 21 patients. Any procedure-related significant complications were not detected. Seventy-seven of 99 cysts (78%) were successfully collapsed on the follow-up CT. Twenty-two cysts showed reaccumulation during long-term follow-up period. The clinical symptoms were relieved in 17 of the 21 patients (76%). Four of 12 patients (33%) with hypertension and two of six patients (33%) with azotemia were improved. End stage renal disease (ESRD) occurred in six of the 21 patients (28%) during the follow-up period. The mean age of ESRD in our patients was 57 years. The mean time interval for the development of ESRD was 19 months. Ablation using a mixture of NBCA and iodized oil may be an effective, safe method for obtaining symptom relief in patients with ADPKD.

  20. Combustion, Performance, and Emission Evaluation of a Diesel Engine with Biodiesel Like Fuel Blends Derived From a Mixture of Pakistani Waste Canola and Waste Transformer Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Qasim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of a 5.5 kW four-stroke single-cylinder water-cooled direct-injection diesel engine operated with blends of biodiesel-like fuel (BLF15, BLF20 & BLF25 obtained from a 50:50 mixture of transesterified waste transformer oil (TWTO and waste canola oil methyl esters (WCOME with petroleum diesel. The mixture of the waste oils was named as biodiesel-like fuel (BLF.The engine fuelled with BLF blends was evaluated in terms of combustion, performance, and emission characteristics. FTIR analysis was carried out to know the functional groups in the BLF fuel. The experimental results revealed the shorter ignition delay and marginally higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, brake thermal efficiency (BTE and exhaust gas temperature (EGT values for BLF blends as compared to diesel. The hydrocarbon (HC and carbon monoxide (CO emissions were decreased by 10.92–31.17% and 3.80–6.32%, respectively, as compared to those of diesel fuel. Smoke opacity was significantly reduced. FTIR analysis has confirmed the presence of saturated alkanes and halide groups in BLF fuel. In comparison to BLF20 and BLF25, the blend BLF15 has shown higher brake thermal efficiency and lower fuel consumption values. The HC, CO, and smoke emissions of BLF15 were found lower than those of petroleum diesel. The fuel blend BLF15 is suggested to be used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines without any engine modification.

  1. From Trioleoyl glycerol to extra virgin olive oil through multicomponent triacylglycerol mixtures: Crystallization and polymorphic transformation examined with differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayés-García, L; Calvet, T; Cuevas-Diarte, M A; Ueno, S

    2017-09-01

    The polymorphic crystallization and transformation behavior of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) was examined by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction with both laboratory-scale (XRD) and synchrotron radiation source (SR-XRD). The complex behavior observed was studied by previously analyzing mixtures composed by its main 2 to 6 triacylglycerol (TAG) components. Thus, component TAGs were successively added to simulate EVOO composition, until reaching a 6 TAGs mixture, composed by trioleoyl glycerol (OOO), 1-palmitoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO), 1,2-dioleoyl-3-linoleoyl glycerol (OOL), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-linoleoyl glycerol (POL), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-oleoyl glycerol (PPO) and 1-stearoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (SOO). Molten samples were cooled from 25°C to -80°C at a controlled rate of 2°C/min and subsequently heated at the same rate. The polymorphic behavior observed in multicomponent TAG mixtures was interpreted by considering three main groups of TAGs with different molecular structures: triunsaturated OOO and OOL, saturated-unsaturated-unsaturated POO, POL and SOO, and saturated-saturated-unsaturated PPO. As confirmed by our previous work, TAGs belonging to the same structural group displayed a highly similar polymorphic behavior. EVOO exhibited two different β'-2L polymorphic forms (β' 2 -2L and β' 1 -2L), which transformed into β'-3L when heated. Equivalent polymorphic pathways were detected when the same experimental conditions were applied to the 6 TAG components mixture. Hence, minor components may not exert a strong influence in this case. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In-tube flow boiling of R-407C and R-407C/oil mixtures. Part 1: Microfin tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuercher, O; Thome, J R; Favrat, D

    1999-07-01

    In-tube evaporation tests for R-407C and R-407C/oil are reported for a microfin tube. The tests were run at a nominal inlet pressure of 645 kPa (93.5 psia) at mass velocities of 100, 200 and 300 kg/(m{sup 2}{center{underscore}dot}s) (20.5, 41, and 61 lb/s{center{underscore}dot}ft{sup 2}) over nearly the entire vapor quality range. At similar operating conditions, pure R-407C performed similarly to previous pure R-134a tests at the highest mass velocity, but lower than R-134a for the other mass velocities. Any amount of oil tended to decrease local R-407C microfin heat transfer coefficients, especially at high vapor qualities were degradations of as much as 50% or more occurred. Two-phase pressure drops were increased by the presence of oil, especially at high vapor qualities. Buildup of the local oil mass fraction in the microfin test sections was observed at high vapor qualities, together with the formation of slowly flowing viscous liquid films, a phenomenon that became more acute at lower mass velocities.

  3. Experimental investigation and performance evaluation of DI diesel engine fueled by waste oil-diesel mixture in emulsion with water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanthagopal Kasianantham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of the natural reserves of petroleum products has put a tremendous onus on the automotive industry. Increasing pollution levels and the depletion of the petroleum reserves have lead to the search for alternate fuel sources for internal combustion engines. Usage of vegetable oils poses some challenges like poor spray penetration, valve sticking and clogging of injector nozzles. Most of these problems may be solved by partial substitution of diesel with vegetable oil. In this work, the performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine fueled by waste cooking oil-diesel emulsion with different water contents are evaluated. The use of waste cooking oil-diesel emulsion lowers the peak temperature, which reduces the formation of NOx. Moreover the phenomenon of micro explosion that results during the combustion of an emulsified fuel finely atomizes the fuel droplets and thus enhances combustion. Experiments show that CO concentration is reduced as the water content is increased and it is seen that 20% water content gives optimum results. Also, there is a significant reduction in NOx emissions.

  4. Linking the Value Assessment of Oil and Gas Firms to Ambidexterity Theory Using a Mixture of Normal Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casault, Sébastien; Groen, Arend J.; Linton, Jonathan D.; Linton, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Oil and gas exploration and production firms have return profiles that are not easily explained by current financial theory – the variation in their market returns is non-Gaussian. In this paper, the nature and underlying reason for these significant deviations from expected behavior are considered.

  5. A dietary mixture containing fish oil, resveratrol, lycopene, catechins, and vitamins E and C reduces atherosclerosis in transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, L.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Tijani, S.; Toet, K.; Ommen, B. van; Kooistra, T.; Kleemann, R.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation and proatherogenic lipids are important risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Specific dietary constituents such as polyphenols and fish oils may improve cardiovascular risk factors and may have a beneficial effect on disease outcomes. We hypothesized that the intake of

  6. Linking the Value Assessment of Oil and Gas Firms to Ambidexterity Theory Using a Mixture of Normal Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casault, Sebastien; Groen, Aard J.; Linton, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Oil and gas exploration and production firms have return profiles that are not easily explained by current financial theory–the variation in their market returns is non-Gaussian. In this paper, the nature and underlying reason for these significant deviations from expected behavior are considered.

  7. Inhibición de Paenibacillus larvae empleando una mezcla de aceites esenciales y timol Inhibition of Paenibacillus larvae employing a mixture of essential oils and thymol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Fuselli

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de una mezcla de dos aceites esenciales y timol frente a Paenibacillus larvae, agente causal de la enfermedad Loque americana, que afecta a las abejas. Los aceites esenciales utilizados fueron canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum y tomillo (Thymus vulgaris, con el agregado de timol, componente mayoritario del tomillo presente en un 39,9%. Los parámetros medidos fueron la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM en caldo Muller-Hinton, mediante dilución seriada, y la concentración bactericida mínima (CBM en agar MYPGP. El aceite esencial de tomillo registró valores de CIM entre 150 y 250 μg/ml, y de CBM entre 200 y 300 μg/ml, mientras que para el aceite esencial de canela los valores de CIM y de CBM obtenidos fueron 50 a 100 μg/ml y 100 a 125 μg/ml, respectivamente. El timol presentó valores de CIM y de CBM similares, de 100 a 150 μg/ml. No se detectaron diferencias significativas entre las cepas bacterianas estudiadas, pero sí entre la actividad de los aceites esenciales y la del timol (PIn vitro antimicrobial activity of a mixture of two essential oils and thymol against Paenibacillus larvae, causal agent of American Foulbrood (AFB, was evaluated. The essential oils were extracted from cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and thyme (Thymus vulgaris. The third component used, thymol, is the major component of the essential oil of thyme which contains 39.9 % of thymol. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC in Mueller-Hinton broth by the tube dilution method and minimal bactericide concentration (MBC on MYPGP agar were evaluated. Thyme registered MIC values of 150-250 μg/ml and MBC values of 200-300 μg/ml, while the MIC and MBC values obtained for cinnamon were of 50-100 μg/ml and 100-125 μg/ml. Thymol showed similar MIC and MBC values of 100-150 μg/ml. No significant differences between the bacterial strains were detected, but significant differences between essential oils and thymol activity

  8. Effect of interfacial composition on uptake of curcumin-piperine mixtures in oil in water emulsions by Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülseren, İbrahim; Guri, Anilda; Corredig, Milena

    2014-06-01

    Encapsulation in lipid particles is often proposed as a solution to improve curcumin bioavailability. This bioactive molecule has low water solubility and rapidly degrades during digestion. In the present study, the uptake of curcumin from oil in water emulsions, prepared with two different emulsifiers, Tween 20 and Poloxamer 407, was investigated to determine the effect of interfacial composition on absorption. Piperine was added to the curcumin to limit the degradation of curcumin because it is known to inhibit β-glucuronidase activity. The emulsions were administered to Caco-2 cell cultures, which is used as a model for intestinal uptake, and the recovery of curcumin was measured. The curcumin uptake was significantly affected by the type of interface, and the extent of curcumin uptake improved significantly by piperine addition only in the case of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by Poloxamer 407. This work provides further evidence of the importance of interfacial composition on the delivery of bioactives.

  9. MIGRATION OF PHTHALATES FROM PLASTIC TANK TO VEGETABLE OIL AS A PART OF FEEDING MIXTURES USED FOR CHICKEN BROILERS FATTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Suchý

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of phthalic acid esters (PAEs as di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were measured in samples of rapeseed oil, which was used as a feed. First samples were collected during the production process and second after the storage in plastic tank (21 days. The results of measurements are that there is 2.93-10.10 mg PAEs.kg-1 in the oil before storage and 22.73-61.55 mg PAEs.kg-1 after storage. For the monitoring of distribution and accumulation of PAEs in animal tissues and organs (muscles, adipose tissue, skin and liver broiler chicks ROSS 308 were used. The chicks were divided into 4 groups (50 chicks each. All the chicks were fed by commercial diets (complete feed, KKS for broiler chicks (starter – BR1; grower – BR2 and finisher – BR3. The experimental diets were supplemented with vegetable oil (RO with low (group N or high (group V phthalate content, or animal fat with high phthalate content (group Z. Neither the control diets (K nor the grower (BR1 diets contained vegetable oil or animal fat. DBP and DEHP were found in all tissues of all chicks. The highest concentration of DBP of 1.28 1.00 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (an average value from 8 chicks was determined in the adipose tissue of V chicks. The highest concentration of DEHP of 3.27 2.87 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (average of 8 chicks was also determined in the V group. doi:10.5219/49

  10. Effects of Fatty Acid and Geraniol Repellent-Oil Mixtures Applied to Cattle on Blood Feeding and Reproductive Parameters in Field Populations of Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, Bradley A; Soto, Diane; Gerry, Alec C; Fowler, Fallon E; Diniz, Alesha N

    2018-02-28

    California pastured cattle were treated with 250 ml of a 15% mixture of fatty acids (C8-C9-C10) or 125 ml of 2% geraniol in a mineral oil carrier to assess impacts on horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) over two summers. Horn flies were netted from cattle every 3-4 d for 2 wk before treatment, 2 wk during treatment (four treatments, with flies collected before each treatment), and 2 wk after treatments ceased. Blood meal weights were estimated by hemoglobin assay of excised abdomens. Other females were dissected to determine the number of active ovarioles and the stage of primary follicle development. Depending on year and herd, pretreatment males contained an average of 0.6-1.0 mg of blood, while females contained 1.7-2.7 mg. Pretreatment egg development (least developed oocytes were stage 1 and fully developed eggs were stage 5) averaged 3.7-4.3, and number of active ovarioles averaged 18.1 to 19.6/female. During treatment periods, significant reductions in blood weight were noted for females, but usually not for males, and females also often exhibited reduced mean oocyte stage and number of active ovarioles. Peaks in proportions of young nulliparous females (oocyte stages 1 or 2) were seen during some repellent application periods. This suggested older females had been killed or driven off from the local population by the treatments, and flies on cattle included more young flies that likely were recent arrivals. The repellent-oil mixture thus impacted blood feeding, reproductive fitness, and probably age structure in the field.

  11. Highly Viscoelastic Reverse Wormlike Micellar Systems from a Mixture of Lecithin, Polyglycerol Fatty Acid Monoesters, and an Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizaki, Kaname; Imai, Miko; Yako, Shuhei; Tsusaka, Hitomi; Sakanishi, Yuichi; Saito, Yoshihiro; Fujii, Makiko

    2017-09-01

    We report new lecithin reverse wormlike micelles with high viscoelasticity formed using lecithin/polyglycerol fatty acid monoester (PGLFA)/oil systems. In this study, the influence of the amphiphilicity (i.e., hydrophile-lipophile balance, HLB) of PGLFA on the phase behavior and rheological properties of reverse wormlike micelles was investigated in detail. PGLFAs with degrees of polymerization of polyglycerol varying between 6-40 and constituent fatty acids with chains between 6-18 carbon atoms long were used. Partial phase diagrams of the lecithin/PGLFA/n-decane systems indicated that the appropriate PGLFA could change the lecithin/oil solution into a highly viscoelastic solution comprising reverse wormlike micelles. Rheological measurements showed that all systems that formed reverse wormlike micelles exhibited an unusual phenomenon called "shear-thickening". Furthermore, reverse wormlike micelles grew as the PGLFA concentration increased and the zero-shear viscosity (η 0 ) of the solution rapidly increased. Our results indicate that the magnitude of the maximum η 0 depends on the degree of polymerization of the constituent polyglycerol in the PGLFA, while the size of the reverse micellar region and the highly viscous region in the phase diagram depends on the HLB value of the PGLFA.

  12. Synergistic mixtures of chitosan and Mentha piperita L. essential oil to inhibit Colletotrichum species and anthracnose development in mango cultivar Tommy Atkins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Kataryne Árabe Rimá; Berger, Lúcia Raquel Ramos; de Araújo, Samara Amorim; Câmara, Marcos Paz Saraiva; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2017-09-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of chitosan (CHI) and Mentha piperita L. essential oil (MPEO) alone or in combination to control the mycelial growth of five different Colletotrichum species, C. asianum, C. dianesei, C. fructicola, C. tropicale and C. karstii, identified as potential anthracnose-causing agents in mango (Mangifera indica L.). The efficacy of coatings of CHI and MPEO mixtures in controlling the development of anthracnose in mango cultivar Tommy Atkins was evaluated. CHI (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 mg/mL) and MPEO (0.3, 0.6, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 μL/mL) alone effectively inhibited mycelial growth of all tested Colletotrichum strains in synthetic media. Mixtures of CHI (5 or 7.5 mg/mL) and MPEO (0.3, 0.6 or 1.25 μL/mL) strongly inhibited mycelial growth and showed additive or synergistic inhibitory effects on the tested Colletotrichum strains based on the Abbott index. The application of coatings of CHI (5 or 7.5 mg/mL) and MPEO (0.6 or 1.25 μL/mL) mixtures that presented synergistic interactions decreased anthracnose lesion severity in mango artificially contaminated with either of the tested Colletotrichum strains over 15 days of storage at 25 °C. The anthracnose lesion severity in mango coated with the mixtures of CHI and MPEO was similar or lower than those observed in mango treated with the synthetic fungicides thiophanate-methyl (10 μg a.i./mL) and difenoconazole (0.5 μg a.i./mL). The application of coatings containing low doses of CHI and MPEO may be an effective alternative for controlling the postharvest development of anthracnose in mango cultivar Tommy Atkins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermogravimetric analysis and kinetic modeling of low-transition-temperature mixtures pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch for possible maximum yield of pyrolysis oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiin, Chung Loong; Yusup, Suzana; Quitain, Armando T; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Kida, Tetsuya

    2018-05-01

    The impacts of low-transition-temperature mixtures (LTTMs) pretreatment on thermal decomposition and kinetics of empty fruit bunch (EFB) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. EFB was pretreated with the LTTMs under different duration of pretreatment which enabled various degrees of alteration to their structure. The TG-DTG curves showed that LTTMs pretreatment on EFB shifted the temperature and rate of decomposition to higher values. The EFB pretreated with sucrose and choline chloride-based LTTMs had attained the highest mass loss of volatile matter (78.69% and 75.71%) after 18 h of pretreatment. For monosodium glutamate-based LTTMs, the 24 h pretreated EFB had achieved the maximum mass loss (76.1%). Based on the Coats-Redfern integral method, the LTTMs pretreatment led to an increase in activation energy of the thermal decomposition of EFB from 80.00 to 82.82-94.80 kJ/mol. The activation energy was mainly affected by the demineralization and alteration in cellulose crystallinity after LTTMs pretreatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of quartz tuning forks and AlN-based extensional microresonators for viscosity measurements in oil/fuel mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, J.; Manzaneque, T.; Hernando-García, J.; Vazquez, J.; Ababneh, A.; Seidel, H.; Lapuerta, M.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

    2013-05-01

    In-situ monitoring of the physical properties of liquids is of great interest in the automotive industry. For example, lubricants are subject to dilution with diesel fuel as a consequence of late-injection processes, which are necessary for regenerating diesel particulate filters. This dilution can be determined by tracking the viscosity and the density of the lubricant. Here we report the test of two in-plane movement based resonators to explore their capability to monitor oil dilution with diesel and biodiesel. One of the resonators is the commercially available millimeter-sized quartz tuning fork, working at 32.7 kHz. The second resonator is a state-of-the-art micron-sized AlN-based rectangular plate, actuated in the first extensional mode in the MHz range. Electrical impedance measurements were carried out to characterize the performance of the structures in various liquid media in a wide range of viscosities. These measurements were completed with the development of low-cost electronic circuits to track the resonance frequency and the quality factor automatically, these two parameters allow to obtain the viscosity of various fluids under investigation, as in the case of dilution of lubricant SAE 15W40 and biodiesel.

  15. Reduction of FFA in jatropha curcas oil via sequential direct-ultrasonic irradiation and dosage of methanol/sulfuric acid catalyst mixture on esterification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade-Tacca, Cesar Augusto; Chang, Chia-Chi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Ji, Dar-Ren; Wang, Yi-Yu; Yen, Yue-Quen; Chang, Ching-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrasonic irradiation (UI) can auto-induce temperature rise. • Esterification at higher temperature (T) by UI offers greater reduction of acid value. • Sequential UI and catalyst dosing enhance esterification conversion efficiency (η). • UR of jatropha oil at higher T results in less water content on ester as product. • A 99.35% of η is achievable via sequential UI and dosing of 5 mL per dose. - Abstract: Production of jatropha-ester (JO-ester) from jatropha oil (JO) under sequential direct-ultrasonic irradiation (UI) with auto-induced temperature rise followed by adding a mixture of methanol/sulfuric-acid catalyst (M/C) dose between high temperature intervals was studied. Comparisons with various doses of 5, 10, 16.6 and 25 mL at different temperature intervals of 108.9–120 °C, 100–120 °C, 85–120 °C and 75–120 °C respectively were performed. System parameters examined include: esterification times (t E ) for UI, settling time (t S ) after esterification and temperature (T). Properties of acid value (AV), iodine value (IV), kinematic viscosity (kV), density (ρ LO ) and water content (m w ) of JO and JO-ester product were measured. The esterification conversion efficiencies (η) were determined and assessed. An η of 99.35% was obtained at temperature interval of 108.9–120 °C with 5 mL per dose for 20 doses and t E of 167.39 min (denoted as Process U 120-5 ), which is slightly higher than η of 98.87% at temperature interval of 75–120 °C with 25 mL per dose for 4 doses and t E of 108.79 min (noted as Process U 120-25 ). The JO-ester obtained via sequential UI with adding doses of 5 mL possess AV of 0.24 mg KOH/g, IV of 124.77 g I 2 /100 g, kV of 9.89 mm 2 /s, ρ LO of 901.73 kg/m 3 and m w of 0.3 wt.% showing that sequential UI and dose at higher temperature interval can give higher reduction of AV compared with 36.56 mg KOH/g of original oil. The effects of t S and t E on AV are of minor and moderate importance

  16. Cationic polyelectrolyte induced separation of some inorganic contaminants and their mixture (zirconium silicate, kaolin, K-feldspar, zinc oxide) as well as of the paraffin oil from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimici, Luminita

    2016-03-15

    The flocculation efficiency of a cationic polyelectrolyte with quaternary ammonium salt groups in the backbone, namely PCA5 was evaluated on zirconium silicate (kreutzonit), kaolin, K- feldspar and zinc oxide (ZnO) suspensions prepared either with each pollutant or with their mixture. The effect of several parameters such as settling time, polymer dose and the pollutant type on the separation efficacy was evaluated and followed by optical density and zeta potential measurements. Except for ZnO, the interactions between PCA5 and suspended particles led to low residual turbidity values (around 4% for kreutzonit, 5% for kaolin and 8% for K-feldspar) as well as to the reduction of flocs settling time (from 1200 min to 30 min and 120 min in case of kaolinit and K-feldspar, respectively), that meant a high efficiency in their separation. The negative value of the zeta potential and flocs size measurements, at the optimum polymer dose, point to contribution from charge patch mechanism for the particles flocculation. A good efficiency of PCA5 in separation of paraffin oil (a minimum residual turbidity of 9.8%) has been also found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. On the nature of the nanospikes obtained in the sonication of a molten mixture of bismuth and indium under silicone oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vijay Bhooshan [Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Ezersky, Vladimir [Ilse Katz Institute of Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er Sheva 84105 (Israel); Gedanken, Aharon, E-mail: gedanken@mail.biu.ac.il [Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); National Cheng Kung University, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC (China); Porat, Ze' ev, E-mail: poratze@post.bgu.ac.il [Division of Chemistry, Nuclear Research Center-Negev, P.O.Box 9001, Be' er-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Institutes of Applied Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-07-05

    A molten mixture of bismuth and indium, immersed in hot silicone oil, was dispersed into nano- and micro spheres under ultrasonic irradiation. Examination of the composition of these spheres by X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement revealed that they were composed of intermetallic compounds, mainly BiIn and BiIn{sub 2}. TEM and SEM images showed that the surface of the spheres was covered with tiny spikes. Their chemical composition, as determined by EDS and electron diffraction, was found to be In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. We assume that upon formation they were composed of In, which was oxidized when exposed to air. - Highlights: • Ultrasonication of molten Bi–In caused dispersion into nano- and micro spheres. • The spheres were composed of intermetallic compounds, mainly BiIn and BiIn{sub 2}. • The spheres' surface was covered with tiny spikes. • The composition of the spikes was determined by EDS and ED to be In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Upon formation the spikes were composed of In, which was oxidized by air.

  18. Long-term effects of dietary supplementation with an essential oil mixture on the growth and laying performance of two layer strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah U. Çatli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One thousand two hundred 1-day-old Lohmann LSL white and Lohmann Brown layer chickens were fed diets supplemented with either an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP or an herbal essential oil mixture (EOM till 58 wk of age to reveal the long-term effects of those additives on growth, performance and wholesome egg quality parameters. The study was arranged in a 2x3 factorial design with two layer strains and three feed additive regimens. Thus, the layer birds of both strains were randomly assigned to the three dietary treatments, i.e., standard basal diet (control, control with AGP (specifically, avilamycin, 10 mg/kg diet and control with EOM (24 mg/kg diet. The data regarding egg production were recorded between 22 to 58 weeks of age. Neither the dietary treatments nor the bird strain influenced the body weight and mortality of the birds in both the growing and laying period. AGP or EOM supplementation to the laying hen diet significantly increased the egg production rate and egg weight as compared to the control  diet alone, but egg mass output, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio were not effected  by the dietary treatments. Neither dietary treatment created any statistically significantly differences in egg quality parameters with the exception of Haugh unit. The research findings have confirmed the beneficial effects of supplementation with feed-grade EOM on the laying rate and egg weight of both white and brown layers. Indeed, EOM, being a novel feed additive natural origin, proved to be as efficacious as AGP in promoting egg yield.

  19. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  20. Combination of electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure photoionization and laser desorption ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotronic resonance mass spectrometry for the investigation of complex mixtures – Application to the petroleomic analysis of bio-oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzog, Jasmine [LCP-A2MC, FR 2843 Institut Jean Barriol de Chimie et Physique Moléculaires et Biomoléculaires, FR 3624 Réseau National de Spectrométrie de Masse FT-ICR à très haut champ, Université de Lorraine, ICPM, 1 boulevard Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 03 (France); Carré, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.carre@univ-lorraine.fr [LCP-A2MC, FR 2843 Institut Jean Barriol de Chimie et Physique Moléculaires et Biomoléculaires, FR 3624 Réseau National de Spectrométrie de Masse FT-ICR à très haut champ, Université de Lorraine, ICPM, 1 boulevard Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 03 (France); Le Brech, Yann [LRGP, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, ENSIC, 1, Rue Grandville, 54000 Nancy (France); Mackay, Colin Logan [SIRCAMS, School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3FJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Dufour, Anthony [LRGP, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, ENSIC, 1, Rue Grandville, 54000 Nancy (France); Mašek, Ondřej [UK Biochar Research Center, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JN (United Kingdom); and others

    2017-05-29

    The comprehensive description of complex mixtures such as bio-oils is required to understand and improve the different processes involved during biological, environmental or industrial operation. In this context, we have to consider how different ionization sources can improve a non-targeted approach. Thus, the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) has been coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI), laser desorption ionization (LDI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) to characterize an oak pyrolysis bio-oil. Close to 90% of the all 4500 compound formulae has been attributed to C{sub x}H{sub y}O{sub z} with similar oxygen class compound distribution. Nevertheless, their relative abundance in respect with their double bound equivalent (DBE) value has evidenced significant differences depending on the ion source used. ESI has allowed compounds with low DBE but more oxygen atoms to be ionized. APPI has demonstrated the efficient ionization of less polar compounds (high DBE values and less oxygen atoms). The LDI behavior of bio-oils has been considered intermediate in terms of DBE and oxygen amounts but it has also been demonstrated that a significant part of the features are specifically detected by this ionization method. Thus, the complementarity of three different ionization sources has been successfully demonstrated for the exhaustive characterization by petroleomic approach of a complex mixture. - Highlights: • Non-targeted mass spectrometry by combining electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure photoionization and laser/desorption ionization. • Exhaustive description of pyrolytic bio-oil components. • Distinction of sugaric derivatives, lignin derivatives and lipids contained in a woody-based pyrolytic bio-oil.

  1. Assessing in Vitro Acaricidal Effect and Joint Action of a Binary Mixture Between Essential Oil Compounds (Thymol, Phellandrene, Eucalyptol, Cinnamaldehyde, Myrcene, Carvacrol Over Ectoparasitic Mite Varroa Destructor (Acari: Varroidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasesco Constanza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman, 2000 causes the most important parasitosis of beekeeping in the world. For this reason, prevention is needed to avoid colony death. The most typical treatments involve synthetic acaricides. However, the use of these acaricides results in the emergence of resistant populations of mites to these products and in the appearances of drug residues in products of the hives. Compounds of essential oils have emerged as an alternative to traditional acaricides; however the toxicity produced by these mixtures is currently poorly explored. The aim of this work was to assess, by means of in vitro tests with adult bees, how acaricidal action and toxic interactions in a binary mixture of essential oil compounds (Thymol, Phellandrene, Eucalyptol, Cinnamaldehyde, Myrcene, and Carvacrol affect V. destructor. Calculations of LC50 ’s of the individual compounds on A. mellifera and V. destructor made clear that the toxic effect of each compound is different for both species. Thymol and Phellandrene turned out to be lethal for mites at lower concentrations than for bees. The binary mixture of these two substances presented a different toxicity than one produced by each pure compound, as it was highly selective for mites in bioassays at 24 hours through complete exposure to both A. mellifera and V. destructor. These results make such formulations optimal substances to be considered as alternative controls for the parasitosis.

  2. Apparent metabolizable energy of by-products from the soybean oil industry for broilers: acidulated soapstock, glycerin, lecithin, and their mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsatti, L; Vieira, S L; Stefanello, C; Kindlein, L; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Angel, C R

    2018-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the AMEn contents of fat by-products from the soybean oil industry for broiler chickens. A total of 390 slow-feathering Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed into 13 treatments having 6 replicates of 5 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet from placement to 21 d. Experimental corn-soy diets were composed of four fat sources, added at 3 increasing levels each, and were fed from 21 to 28 d. Fat sources utilized were acidulated soybean soapstock (ASS), glycerol (GLY), lecithin (LEC), and a mixture (MIX) containing 85% ASS, 10% GLY and 5% LEC. A 4 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement was used with 4 by-products (ASS, GLY, LEC, or MIX), 3 inclusion levels and 1 basal diet. Each of the four fat by-product sources was included in the diets as follow: 2% of by-products (98% basal + 2% by-product), 4% (96% basal + 4% by-product), or 6% (94% basal + 6% by-product). Birds were submitted to 94, 96, 98, and 100% of ad libitum feed intake; therefore, the differences in AMEn consumption were only due to the added by-product. Total excreta were collected twice daily for 72 h to determine apparent metabolizable energy contents starting at 25 d. The AMEn intake was regressed against feed intake and the slope was used to estimate AMEn values for each fat source. Linear regression equations (P product were as follow: 7,153X - 451.9 for ASS; 3,916X - 68.2 for GLY; 7,051X - 448.3 for LEC, and 8,515X - 622.3 for MIX. Values of AMEn were 7,153, 3,916, 7,051, and 8,515 kcal/kg DM for ASS, GLY, LEC, and MIX, respectively. The present study generated AMEn for fat by-products data that can be used in poultry feed formulation. It also provides indications that, by adding the 3 by-products in the proportions present in the MIX, considerable economic advantage can be attained. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Wash-oil problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlosta, J

    1941-01-01

    Meier-Grolman and others have deduced from experimental studies of the vapor pressure of solutions of benzene in paraffin oil and Solway oil-paraffin oil mixtures that the higher the proportion of aliphatic compounds in a wash oil, the less suitable it is for benzene scrubbing. This generalization is not supported. Paraffin oils from brown-coal tar and low viscous oils from the Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis process are both being successfully used for benzene scrubbing.

  4. On-road performance analysis of R134a/R600a/R290 refrigerant mixture in an automobile air-conditioning system with mineral oil as lubricant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikumar, T.S.; Mohan Lal, D.

    2009-01-01

    R134a has been accepted as the single major refrigerant in the automobile industry and it has been used worldwide. But, the problem associated with it is the use of the PAG oil as the lubricant. Unlike the conventional mineral oil, the synthetic PAG oil used with R134a is highly hygroscopic in nature. The PAG lubricants come with different additives unique for different compressors. This leads to serious service issues. Therefore, a refrigerant, which will be readily available to replace R12, and also compatible with mineral oil, is needed. In the present study the readily available R134a is used in place of R12. However, to avoid PAG oil and to use the conventional mineral oil as lubricant, R134a is mixed with the commercially available hydrocarbon blend, (45.2% R290 and 56.8% R600a) in the proportion of 91% and 9%, respectively by mass. The quantity of hydrocarbons used is well below the lower flammable limit. This new mixture R134a/R600a/R290 is tested in the air-conditioning system of a passenger car 'on road' in the true running conditions and compared with the results that has been obtained with R12. The cool down performance under varying speed and varying ambient conditions, system performance under severe accelerating conditions and bumper-to-bumper traffic conditions is studied. The test results show that the new blend can be a promising substitute for the existing R12 systems and it can eliminate the use of hygroscopic PAG oil.

  5. Combination of electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure photoionization and laser desorption ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotronic resonance mass spectrometry for the investigation of complex mixtures - Application to the petroleomic analysis of bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Jasmine; Carré, Vincent; Le Brech, Yann; Mackay, Colin Logan; Dufour, Anthony; Mašek, Ondřej; Aubriet, Frédéric

    2017-05-29

    The comprehensive description of complex mixtures such as bio-oils is required to understand and improve the different processes involved during biological, environmental or industrial operation. In this context, we have to consider how different ionization sources can improve a non-targeted approach. Thus, the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) has been coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI), laser desorption ionization (LDI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) to characterize an oak pyrolysis bio-oil. Close to 90% of the all 4500 compound formulae has been attributed to C x H y O z with similar oxygen class compound distribution. Nevertheless, their relative abundance in respect with their double bound equivalent (DBE) value has evidenced significant differences depending on the ion source used. ESI has allowed compounds with low DBE but more oxygen atoms to be ionized. APPI has demonstrated the efficient ionization of less polar compounds (high DBE values and less oxygen atoms). The LDI behavior of bio-oils has been considered intermediate in terms of DBE and oxygen amounts but it has also been demonstrated that a significant part of the features are specifically detected by this ionization method. Thus, the complementarity of three different ionization sources has been successfully demonstrated for the exhaustive characterization by petroleomic approach of a complex mixture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Modelling phase equilibria for acid gas mixtures using the CPA equation of state. Part VI. Multicomponent mixtures with glycols relevant to oil and gas and to liquid or supercritical CO2 transport applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2016-01-01

    to data on ternary and multicomponent mixtures) to model the phase behaviour of ternary and quaternary systems with CO2 and glycols. It is concluded that CPA performs satisfactorily for most multicomponent systems considered. Some differences between the various modelling approaches are observed....... This work is the last part of a series of studies, which aim to arrive in a single "engineering approach" for applying CPA to acid gas mixtures, without introducing significant changes to the model. An overall assessment, based also on the obtained results of this series (Tsivintzelis et al., 2010, 2011...

  7. The properties of the mixture of beef tallow and rapeseed oil with a high content of tallow after chemical and enzymatic interesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruczynska, Eliza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of beef tallow with rapeseed oil (3:1 wt/wt was interesterified using sodium metoxide or immobilized lipases from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM and Candida antarctica (Novozym 435 as catalysts. Chemical interesterifications were carried out at 60 and 90 ºC for 0.5 and 1.5 h using 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 wt-% CH3ONa. Depending on the catalyst used enzymatic interesterifications were carried out at 60 ºC for 8 h (Lipozyme IM or at 80 ºC for 4 h (Novozym 435. The catalysts doses were kept constant (8 % but the water content in catalysts varied from 2 to 10 %. The starting mixture and the interesterified products were separated by column chromatography into a pure triacylglycerol fraction and a non-triacylglycerol fraction, which contained free fatty acids, mono- and diacylglycerols. It was found that the concentrations of free fatty acids and partial acylglycerols increased after interesterification. The slip melting points and solid fat contents of the triacylglycerol fractions isolated from interesterified fats were lower when compared with nonesterified blends. The sn-2 and sn-1,3 distributions of fatty acids in the triacylglycerol fractions before and after interesterification were determined.These distributions were random after chemical interesterification and near random when Novozym 435 was used. When Lipozyme IM was used, the fatty acid composition at the sn-2 position remained practically unchanged compared with the starting blend. The interesterified fats and isolated triacylglycerols had reduced oxidative stability, as assessed by Rancimat induction times. The addition of 0.02 % of BHA or BHT to the interesterified fats improved their stabilitie.Una mezcla de sebo con aceite de colza (3:1 p/p fue interesterificada usando metóxido de sodio y lipasas inmovilizadas de Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM and Candida antarctica (Novozym 435 como catalizadores. La interesterificación química se llevó a cabo a 60 ºC y 90

  8. Effect of mixture of alcohols on biodiesel properties which produced from waste cooking oils and compare combustion performance and emissions of biodiesels with petrodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Mansourpoor Mojtaba; Shariati Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Increasing the petroleum price and environmental problems have been driving forces to findalternative and renewable energy resources. Biodiesel has attracted the attention of many researchersdue to various advantages associated with its usages. Several aspects including the type of catalyst,molar ratio of alcohol to oil, temperature, purity of reactants and free fatty acid content have mainlyinfluence on transesterification. In this work, waste cooking oils and two types of alcohols with diff...

  9. A mixture of St. John's wort and sea buckthorn oils regresses endometriotic implants and affects the levels of inflammatory mediators in peritoneal fluid of the rat: A surgically induced endometriosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, Mert; Süntar, İpek; Demirel, Mürşide Ayşe; Yeşilada, Erdem; Keleş, Hikmet; Küpeli Akkol, Esra

    2016-12-01

    Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) and St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) are used as an emmenagog and for the treatment of other gynecological disorders including uterus inflammation and endometriosis. The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential of a mixture of sea buckthorn and St. John's wort oils (HrHp oil) in the treatment of endometriosis. The activity was assessed in surgically induced endometriosis in rats. A 15-mm piece of endometrium was sutured into the abdominal wall. Twenty-eight days later, a second laparotomy was performed to calculate the endometrial foci areas and to score intra-abdominal adhesions. The rats were treated with either vehicle, HrHp oil formulation, or the reference (buserelin acetate). At the end of the experiment all rats were sacrificed and endometriotic foci areas and intra-abdominal adhesions were re-evaluated. The tissue sections were analyzed histopathologically. Peritoneal fluids of the experimental animals were collected in order to detect the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, vascular endothelial growth factor, and interleukin-6, which might be involved in the etiology of endometriosis. In the HrHp oil-treated group, the volumes of endometriotic implants were found to be significantly decreased (from 50.8 mm 3 to 18.6 mm 3 , pnecrosis factor-α decreased from 7.02±1.33 pg/mL to 4.78±1.02 pg/mL (pvascular endothelial growth factor from 17.39±8.52 pg/mL to 9.67±5.04 pg/mL (ptreatment. HrHp oil may be a promising alternative for the treatment of endometriosis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Application of the ERAS model to volumetric properties of binary mixtures of banana oil with primary and secondary alcohols (C1-C4) at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behroozi, Mahboobe; Zarei, Hosseinali

    2011-01-01

    The densities of binary mixtures of {isoamyl acetate + alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and 2-butanol)}, including those of pure liquids, over the entire composition range were measured at temperatures (293.15 to 333.15) K and atmospheric pressure by means of a vibrating-tube densimeter. The excess molar volume, V m E , thermal expansion coefficients, α, and their excess values, α E , were calculated from density data. The V m E values are positive over the entire range of composition and temperature and become more positive with increasing temperature for all of the mixtures except for the (isoamyl acetate + methanol) mixture. The V m E values were correlated by Redlich-Kister equation and the extended real associated solution (ERAS) model was used for describing V m E values at T = 303.15 K.

  11. Grouting mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klyusov, A A; Bakshutov, V S; Kulyavtsev, V A

    1980-10-23

    A grouting mixture is proposed for low-temperature boreholes. The mixture contains cement, beta gypsum polyhydrate, and calcium chloride, so as to increase the water resistance and strength properties of expanding brick at conditions from 20 to -5/sup 0/ C, the components are in the following ratios: (by wt.-%): cement, 77.45-88.06; beta gypsum polyhydrate, 9.79-19.36; calcium chloride, 2.15-3.19. Grouting mortar for cold boreholes serves as the cement.

  12. How to Attain an Ultralow Interfacial Tension and a Three-Phase Behavior with a Surfactant Formulation for Enhanced Oil Recovery: A Review. Part 2. Performance Improvement Trends from Winsor's Premise to Currently Proposed Inter- and Intra-Molecular Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salager, Jean-Louis; Forgiarini, Ana M; Márquez, Laura; Manchego, Lisbeth; Bullón, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    The minimum interfacial tension occurrence along a formulation scan at the so-called optimum formulation is discussed to be related to the interfacial curvature. The attained minimum tension is inversely proportional to the domain size of the bicontinuous microemulsion and to the interfacial layer rigidity, but no accurate prediction is available. The data from a very simple ternary system made of pure products accurately follows the correlation for optimum formulation, and exhibit a linear relationship between the performance index as the logarithm of the minimum tension at optimum, and the formulation variables. This relation is probably too simple when the number of variables is increased as in practical cases. The review of published data for more realistic systems proposed for enhanced oil recovery over the past 30 years indicates a general guidelines following Winsor's basic studies concerning the surfactant-oil-water interfacial interactions. It is well known that the major performance benefits are achieved by blending amphiphilic species at the interface as intermolecular or intramolecular mixtures, sometimes in extremely complex formulations. The complexity is such that a good knowledge of the possible trends and an experienced practical know-how to avoid trial and error are important for the practitioner in enhanced oil recovery.

  13. Evaporation heat transfer for R-22 and R-407C refrigerant-oil mixture in a microfin tube with a U-bend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Keumnam; Tae, Sang-Jin [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (D.P.R. of Korea). School of Mechanical Engineering

    2000-05-01

    Evaporation heat transfer experiments for two refrigerants, R-407C and R-22, mixed with polyol ester and mineral oils were performed in straight and U-bend sections of a microfin tube. Experimental parameters include an oil concentration varied from 0 to 5%, an inlet quality varied from 0.1 to 0.5, two mass fluxes of 219 and 400 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1} and two heat fluxes of 10 and 20 kW m{sup -2}. Pressure drop in the test section increased by approximately 20% as the oil concentration increased from 0 to 5%. Enhancement factors decreased as oil concentration increased under inlet quality of 0.5, mass flux of 219 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1} and heat flux of 10 kW m{sup -2}, whereas they increased under inlet quality of 0.1, mass flux of 400 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, and heat flux of 20 kW m{sup -2}. The local heat transfer coefficient at the outside curvature of a U-bend was larger than that at the inside curvature of a U-bend, and the maximum value occurred at the 90{sup o} position of the U-bend. The heat transfer coefficient was larger in a region of 30 tube diameter length at the second straight section than that at the first straight section. (author)

  14. Hydration kinetics study of class G oil-well cement and olivine nano-silica mixtures at 20–60 °C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quercia Bianchi, G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Sobolev, K.; Shah, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the heat evolution of standard density slurries (1.89 g/cm3) of Class G oil-well cement and olivine nano-silica additions (0.5–2.0 % bwoc), cured under different temperatures (20–60 °C) and atmospheric pressure, were examined by isothermal calorimetry. Under isothermal and isobaric

  15. 21 CFR 184.1555 - Rapeseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Rapeseed oil. 184.1555 Section 184.1555 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1555 Rapeseed oil. (a) Fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil. (1) Fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil is a mixture of triglycerides in which the fatty acid composition is a mixture of...

  16. Co-production of activated carbon, fuel-gas, and oil from the pyrolysis of corncob mixtures with wet and dried sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Linlin; Jiang, Wenbo; Feng, Li; Zhang, Liqiu

    2014-06-01

    This study explored the amount and composition of pyrolysis gas and oil derived from wet material or dried material during the preparation of sludge-corncob activated carbon, and evaluated the physicochemical and surface properties of the obtained two types of sludge-corncob-activated carbons. For wet material, owing to the presence of water, the yields of sludge-corncob activated carbon and the oil fraction slightly decreased while the yield of gases increased. The main pyrolysis gas compounds were H2 and CO2, and more H2 was released from wet material than dried material, whereas the opposite holds for CO2 Heterocyclics, nitriles, organic acids, and steroids were the major components of pyrolysis oil. Furthermore, the presence of water in wet material reduced the yield of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from 6.76% to 5.43%. The yield of furfural, one of heterocyclics, increased sharply from 3.51% to 21.4%, which could be explained by the enhanced hydrolysis of corncob. In addition, the surface or chemical properties of the two sludge-corncob activated carbons were almost not affected by the moisture content of the raw material, although their mesopore volume and diameter were different. In addition, the adsorption capacities of the two sludge-corncob activated carbons towards Pb and nitrobenzene were nearly identical. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Flow boiling of refrigerant-oil mixtures; Transferts de chaleur dans un melange constitue de fluide frigorigene et d'huile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feidt, M

    1999-10-13

    The phase out of chlorine containing refrigerants (CFC and HCFC) has led to the introduction of new refrigerants and lubricants to the market. The interest in using HFC fluids as working fluids to replace fluids harmful to the stratospheric ozone layer. The study presents the influence of synthetic oil (POE ISO 68) on flow boiling of refrigerants R134a (pure fluid) and R410A (R32/R125 50%/50%). Local and average heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops have been measured for a smooth horizontal tube. The distribution of the heat transfer coefficient at the inner wall has been obtained from solving the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP) and resulted in a local combination of nucleate and convective contributions to flow boiling. Local heat transfer coefficients have been averaged and displayed as a function of the vapour quality. For R134a: small amounts of oil (1% to 6%) in the liquid phase increased the heat transfer coefficient at low and intermediate vapour qualities (less than 0.60) compared to pure fluid. However a hugh reduction of the heat transfer has been observed at higher vapour qualities. For R410A : oil dramatically decreases the heat transfer coefficient compared to pure fluid. Pressure drops are also affected by small amounts of lubricant: an important increase has been noted for both fluids. Available design methods for flow boiling heat transfer coefficient (superposition, enhancement, asymptotic) badly predict the experimental results. Nevertheless a new design method accounting for flow patterns has shown good agreements. The influence of the lubricant on the heat transfer is discussed and a new proposition is made to calculate pressure drops. (author)

  18. Flow boiling of refrigerant-oil mixtures; Transferts de chaleur dans un melange constitue de fluide frigorigene et d'huile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feidt, M.

    1999-10-13

    The phase out of chlorine containing refrigerants (CFC and HCFC) has led to the introduction of new refrigerants and lubricants to the market. The interest in using HFC fluids as working fluids to replace fluids harmful to the stratospheric ozone layer. The study presents the influence of synthetic oil (POE ISO 68) on flow boiling of refrigerants R134a (pure fluid) and R410A (R32/R125 50%/50%). Local and average heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops have been measured for a smooth horizontal tube. The distribution of the heat transfer coefficient at the inner wall has been obtained from solving the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP) and resulted in a local combination of nucleate and convective contributions to flow boiling. Local heat transfer coefficients have been averaged and displayed as a function of the vapour quality. For R134a: small amounts of oil (1% to 6%) in the liquid phase increased the heat transfer coefficient at low and intermediate vapour qualities (less than 0.60) compared to pure fluid. However a hugh reduction of the heat transfer has been observed at higher vapour qualities. For R410A : oil dramatically decreases the heat transfer coefficient compared to pure fluid. Pressure drops are also affected by small amounts of lubricant: an important increase has been noted for both fluids. Available design methods for flow boiling heat transfer coefficient (superposition, enhancement, asymptotic) badly predict the experimental results. Nevertheless a new design method accounting for flow patterns has shown good agreements. The influence of the lubricant on the heat transfer is discussed and a new proposition is made to calculate pressure drops. (author)

  19. Refining mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1946-07-05

    A process is described refining raw oils such as mineral oils, shale oils, tar, their fractions and derivatives, by extraction with a selected solvent or a mixture of solvents containing water, forming a solvent more favorable for the hydrocarbons poor in hydrogen than for hydrocarbons rich in hydrogen, this process is characterized by the addition of an aiding solvent for the water which can be mixed or dissolved in the water and the solvent or in the dissolving mixture and increasing in this way the solubility of the water in the solvent or the dissolving mixture.

  20. Enhanced repellency of binary mixtures of Zanthoxylum armatum seed oil, vanillin, and their aerosols to mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyung Wook; Kim, Soon-Il; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Clark, J Marshall; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2011-01-01

    The repellency of Zanthoxylum armatum seed oil (ZA-SO), alone or in combination with vanillin (VA), its six major constituents, and another four major previously known Zanthoxylum piperitum fruit oil constituents, as well as aerosol products containing 5 or 10% ZA-SO and 5% VA, was evaluated against female Aedes aegypti in laboratory and field studies. Results were then compared with those of N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) as a standard. Hand in cage laboratory tests showed that 0.2, 0.1, and 0.05 mg/cm2 ZA-SO resulted in > 92% protection through 30-min postexposure and was not significantly different than 0.05 mg/cm2 DEET. Skin treated with linalool and limonene (from Z. armatum) provided > 80% repellency to female Ae. aegypti at 10-min exposure, whereas cuminaldehyde, citronellal, geranyl acetate, and cuminyl alcohol (from Zanthoxylum piperitum) provided > 90% protection during this same time period. Only cuminaldehyde and citronellal provided complete protection comparable to DEET at 10-min postexposure. After that time, repellency of all plant constituents to mosquitoes was considerably decreased (biting and nuisance caused by mosquitoes.

  1. Method and apparatus for recovering oil from an oil spill on the surface of a body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, R.W.; Patel, K.P.; Lau, P.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method of recovering a hydrophobic hydrocarbon oil from the surface of a body of water, the body of water having a water temperature, the oil having a specific gravity which is less than the specific gravity of the water in the body of water and a viscosity which is greater than approximately 80 centipoise at the water temperature. It comprises continuously withdrawing a feed oil-water mixture from the surface of the body of water; continuously adjusting the viscosity of the oil in the feed oil-water mixture to a level below approximately 80 centipoise to form an adjusted oil-water mixture; and continuously passing the adjusted oil-water mixture through an oil-water coalescer to separate the oil in the adjusted oil-water mixture from the water in the adjusted oil-water mixture

  2. Enhancing instruction in Fuels and Combustion Laboratory via a developed computer-assisted program for establishing efficient coal-diesel oil mixture (CDOM) fuel proportions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglaya, A.B. [La Salle University, Manila (Philippines). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-07-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of digital computation in Fuels and Combustion Laboratory experiments used by the senior students of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, De La Salle University-Manila, Philippines. One of the students' experiments involved the determination of the most efficient CDOM fuel proportion as alternative fuel to diesel oil for steam generators and other industrial applications. Theoretical calculations show that it requires tedious and repetitive computations. A computer-assisted program was developed to lessen the time-consuming activities. The formulation of algorithms were based on the system of equations of the heat interaction between the CDOM fuel, combustion air and products of combustion and by applying the principles of mass and energy equations (or the First Law of Thermodynamics) for reacting systems were utilized. The developed computer-assisted program output verified alternative fuel selected through actual experimentation.

  3. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Catalytic cracking of slack wax with molten mixtures containing aluminum chloride and bromide. [Wax obtained in the process of dewaxing lubricating oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, Y; Oizumi, K; Tamai, Y

    1983-09-01

    The catalytic cracking of slack wax with molten mixtures of AlCl/sub 3/ (aluminum chloride) and AlBr/sub 3/ (aluminum bromide) was investigated in an atmospheric semi-batch reactor at low temperatures of 100 to 160/sup 0/C. The cracking rate was proportional to the amount of unreacted wax. The conversion at 135/sup 0/C reached 25 wt % under typical reaction conditions. About 95 wt % of the cracking products consisted of isobutane, 2-methylbutane, and methylpentanes, ca. 50% of these isoparaffins being isobutane. The difference in cracking activity between this catalyst and a solid acid catalyst is discussed based on the product distribution. Hardly any reaction took place without HCl, which shows that the presence of HCl is essential for this cracking. The cracking rate increased sharply with an increase in the amount of the catalyst. The rate did not depend on the composition of the AlCl/sub 3//sup -/ AlBr/sub 3/ catalyst, but the product distribution did depend on it and the content of the gasoline fraction in the products increased with an increase in the concentration of AlBr/sub 3/. The cracking residue was characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy. The results show that the cracking reaction probably occurs heterogeneously at the interface between the liquid wax and the molten catalyst. 3 figures, 4 tables.

  5. Effect of the incorporation of chitosan on the physico-chemical, mechanical properties and biological activity on a mixture of polycaprolactone and polyurethanes obtained from castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, Fabian; Uscategui, Yomaira L; Diaz, Luis; Cobo, Martha; Valero, Manuel F

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, polyurethane materials were obtained from castor oil, polycaprolactone and isophorone diisocyanate by incorporating different concentrations of chitosan (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% w/w) as an additive to improve the mechanical properties and the biological activity of polyurethanes. The polyurethanes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, stress/strain fracture tests and swelling analysis, and the hydrophilic character of the surface was determined by contact angle trials. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of chitosan on the changes of the physico-chemical and mechanical properties and the in vitro biological activity of the polyurethanes. It was found that the incorporation of chitosan enhances the ultimate tensile strength of the polyurethanes and does not affect the strain at fracture in polyurethanes with 5% w/w of polycaprolactone and concentrations of chitosan ranging from 0 to 2% w/w. In addition, PCL5-Q-PU formulations and their degradation products did not affect cell viability of L929 mouse fibroblast and 3T3, respectively. Polyurethane formulations showed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria. The results of this study have highlighted the potential biomedical application of this polyurethanes related to soft and cardiovascular tissues. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Experimental (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for ternary and quaternary mixtures of fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters (FAME/FAEE) from soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneti, Stéphani C.; Lanza, Marcelo; Mazutti, Marcio A.; Kunita, Marcos Hiroiuqui; Cardozo-Filho, Lúcio; Vladimir Oliveira, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovative technique for quantification of compounds involved in the biodiesel production. • Easy and quick determination from NIR combined with multivariate calibration. • Reliable LLE correlation and predictions can be attained from the technique. -- Abstract: This work is aimed at providing an easy and quick determination of the biodiesel products using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) by combination with the multivariate calibration in the analysis of (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for ternary and quaternary mixtures containing soybean fatty acid methyl (FAME) and ethyl (FAEE) esters, glycerol, ethanol, methanol and water, at various temperatures. The mass balance for the compositions obtained for each phase was carried out so as to demonstrate the reliability of the models generated by the multivariate calibration. Two distinct phases are observed, a glycerol-rich and the other ester-rich, while ethanol is dissolved among the phases hence reducing the partial mutual miscibility between glycerol and ester. Through (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) results, systems containing FAEE at T = 318.15 K and 303.15 K (calibration using data obtained at temperature of 318.15 K), a good agreement is verified among the values determined using conventional and NIR technique for alcoholic phase (AP) or aqueous phase (WP) and biodiesel phase (BP). Likewise in the systems containing FAME at 318.15 K, 303.15 K and 333.15 K (calibration using data obtained at temperature of 318.15 K), the LLE results were reproduced at the upper and lower temperature to the tests of the reproducibility of the models generated by the multivariate calibration

  7. 21 CFR 73.300 - Carrot oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carrot oil. 73.300 Section 73.300 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.300 Carrot oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive carrot oil is the liquid or the solid portion of the mixture or the mixture itself obtained by the hexane...

  8. Purifying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1930-04-15

    Gasoline, lamp oils, and lubricating or other mineral or shale oils are refined by contacting the vapor with a hot aqueous solution of salts of zinc, cadmium, or mercury, or mixtures thereof which may contain 0-5-3-0 percent of oxide or hydroxide in solution or suspension. Chlorides, bromides, iodides, sulfates, nitrates, and sulfonates of benzol, toluol, xylol, and petroleum are specified. Washing with a solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide or carbonate of calcium hydroxide may follow. The oil may first be purified by sulfuric acid or other known agent, or afterwards caustic alkali and sulfuric acid. The Specification as open to inspection under Sect. 91 (3) (a) describes also the use of salts of copper, iron, chromium, manganese, aluminum, nickel, or cobalt, with or without their oxides or hydroxides. This subject-matter does not appear in the Specification as accepted.

  9. Assessment of Antioxidant Indices after incorporating Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Exposure to crude oil pollution leads to the formation ... vitamin/mineral mixture (5 %). The food ..... hepatic antioxidant enzymes against cadmium induced liver ... Interaction of crude oil with alpha-tocopherol: ... Essential oil from Monodora.

  10. Viscosity prediction of carbon dioxide plus hydrocarbon mixtures using the friction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær; Cisneros, Sergio; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2002-01-01

    mixtures are simple representations or real oil mixtures with carbon dioxide, the f-theory approach can easily be extended to more complex scenarios, such as the simulation of carbon dioxide enhance oil recovery. Additionally, a comparison with the LBC model, which is a widely used model in the oil...

  11. Influences of an essential oil mixture supplementation to corn versus wheat-based practical diets on growth, organ size, intestinal morphology and immune response of male and female broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethiye Coven

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diet type, supplementation diet with an essential oil mixture (EOM, and bird gender on the growth performance, carcass yield, internal organ weight, immune response, and small intestine histology of broiler chickens. To do this, a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement was designed. The variables used were: two diet types (based on either wheat or corn, 2 feed additives (with or without EOM, and gender (male or female. EOM supplementation in the diet decreased body weight in corn-fed male birds at Days 21 and 42, but not in those fed the wheat-based diet, signifying a diet x EOM x gender interaction. Cumulative feed intake was not influenced by either the diet type or EOM. The feed conversion ratio was not affected by diet type, whereas EOM improved feed conversion ratio over the 42-day growth period. Feeding birds on wheat decreased the carcass yield while it increased relative small intestine and large intestine weight. Relative weights of liver, bursa fabricius and serum infectious bursal disease (IBD and Newcastle disease (ND titers were not affected by any of the variables studied. EOM supplementation and feeding birds on corn increased jejunal villus height at both 21 and 42 days of age, while bird gender showed no effect. In general, EOM positively influenced body weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion in broiler chickens. Birds receiving the corn-based diet were more efficient in converting feed to body mass as compared to those fed on the wheat-based diet.

  12. The mixture of cashew nut shell liquid and castor oil results in an efficient larvicide against Aedes aegypti that does not alter embryo-fetal development, reproductive performance or DNA integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Miron Vani

    Full Text Available Dengue fever, chikungunya fever and Zika virus are epidemics in Brazil that are transmitted by mosquitoes, such as Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. The liquid from shells of cashew nuts is attractive for its important biological and therapeutic activities, which include toxicity to mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. The present study evaluated the effects of a mixture of surfactants from natural cashew nutshell liquid and castor oil (named TaLCC-20 on the mortality of larvae and on the reproductive performance, embryonic and fetal development and genetic stability of Swiss mice. A total of 400 Ae. aegypti larvae (third larval stage were treated with TaLCC-20 concentrations of 0.05 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L, or 5 mg/L (ppm. Twenty pregnant female mice were also orally administered TaLCC-20 at doses of 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg body weight (b.w., and 10 animals were given only drinking water at 0.1 mL/10 g b.w. (orally. The results of a larvicide test demonstrated that 5 mg/mL TaLCC-20 killed 100% of larvae within three hours, which is comparable to the gold standard indicated by the Ministry of Health. Overall, these results show that TaLCC-20 is an efficient larvicide that does not induce genetic damage. In addition, changes in reproductive performance and embryo-fetal development appear positive, and the formulation is cost effective. Therefore, TaLCC-20 is an important product in the exploration of natural larvicides and can assist in fighting mosquitos as vectors for dengue fever, chikungunya fever and Zika virus, which are emerging/re-emerging and require proper management to ensure minimal harm to the human population. Therefore, TaLCC-20 can be considered a key alternative to commercial products, which are effective yet toxigenic.

  13. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  14. Treating oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolbear, S H

    1921-01-04

    Oil shale is treated for the separation of the valuable organic compounds, with a view to economy in subsequent destructive distillation, by grinding to powder, mixing with water to form a pulp, adding a small quantity of an oil liquid and aerating the mixture to form a froth containing the organic compounds. If the powdered shale contains sufficient free oil, the addition of oil to the pulp may be dispensed with. In some cases an electrolyte such as sulfuric acid may be added to the pulp.

  15. Method of removing paraffin from mineral oils, shale oils, tar oils, and their fractions or residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmquist, F T.E.

    1949-09-08

    A method is described for removing paraffin from mineral oils, shale oils, tar oils, and their fractions or residues by centrifuging in the presence of oil-dissolving and paraffin-precipitating solvents, by which the precipitated paraffin is made to pass through an indifferent auxiliary liquid, in which a removal of oil takes place, characterized in that as auxiliary liquid is used a liquid or mixture of liquids whose surface tension against the oil solution is sufficiently low for the paraffin to pass the layer of auxiliary liquid in the form of separate crystals.

  16. Thermodynamic modeling of CO2 mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Martin Gamel

    Knowledge of the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria of mixtures containing carbon dioxide (CO2) is important in several industrial processes such as enhanced oil recovery, carbon capture and storage, and supercritical extractions, where CO2 is used as a solvent. Despite this importance...

  17. Desempenho de um motor de trator agrícola em bancada dinamométrica com biodiesel de óleo de frango e misturas binárias com óleo diesel Performance of an agricultural tractor engine in dynamometer with chicken oil biodiesel and binary mixtures with diesel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Fiorese

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil, terceiro maior produtor de biodiesel do mundo e terceiro maior produtor mundial de frango, pode incrementar, na sua matriz energética, o uso de óleo oriundo de aves como alternativa aos combustíveis fósseis e à redução da dependência do óleo de soja para esse fim. O país dispõe de mais de 350 milhões de litros de óleo de frango por ano. Considerando a aplicação dos combustíveis alternativos para os motores a diesel, em máquinas agrícolas, o trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o desempenho do motor de um trator agrícola de 53kW acoplado pela TDP em bancada dinamométrica, operando com biodiesel metílico de óleo de frango e misturas com óleo diesel, sendo: B5 (testemunha, B20, B40, B60, B80 e B100. Avaliaram-se a potência, o torque, a reserva de torque, o consumo de combustível, o consumo de energia e a eficiência térmica do motor. O ensaio foi instalado com delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC em esquema fatorial com seis tratamentos. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias ajustadas por equações de regressão. Foram observadas perdas na geração de potência e torque, aumento no consumo de combustível, redução do consumo energético e melhoria na eficiência térmica do motor, de acordo com o aumento da proporção de biodiesel na mistura.Brazil, the world third largest producer of biodiesel, and also the third largest producer of chicken, may increase the energy matrix, using oil derived from chicken, as an alternative to fossil fuels and reduce dependence on soybean oil for this purpose. The country can produce over 350 million liters of chicken oil per year. Considering the application of alternative fuels on diesel engines in agricultural machinery. The study aimed to evaluate the performance of a engine agricultural tractor with 53kW coupled by PTO in dynamometer bench operating with methyl biodiesel oil chicken and mix with diesel oil. Fuels B5 (reference, B20, B

  18. Optimal mixture experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, B K; Pal, Manisha; Das, P

    2014-01-01

    The book dwells mainly on the optimality aspects of mixture designs. As mixture models are a special case of regression models, a general discussion on regression designs has been presented, which includes topics like continuous designs, de la Garza phenomenon, Loewner order domination, Equivalence theorems for different optimality criteria and standard optimality results for single variable polynomial regression and multivariate linear and quadratic regression models. This is followed by a review of the available literature on estimation of parameters in mixture models. Based on recent research findings, the volume also introduces optimal mixture designs for estimation of optimum mixing proportions in different mixture models, which include Scheffé’s quadratic model, Darroch-Waller model, log- contrast model, mixture-amount models, random coefficient models and multi-response model.  Robust mixture designs and mixture designs in blocks have been also reviewed. Moreover, some applications of mixture desig...

  19. Equilibrium study for ternary mixtures of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doungsri, S.; Sookkumnerd, T.; Wongkoblap, A.; Nuchitprasittichai, A.

    2017-11-01

    The liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary mixtures of methanol + fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) + palm oil and FAME + palm oil + glycerol at various temperatures from 35 to 55°C, the tie lines and binodial curves were also investigated and plotted in the equilibrium curve. The experimental results showed that the binodial curves of methanol + FAME + palm oil depended significantly with temperature while the binodial curves of FAME + palm oil + glycerol illustrated insignificant change with temperatures. The interaction parameters between liquid pair obtained for NRTL (Nonrandom Two-Liquid) and UNIQUAC (Universal Quasi-Chemical Theory) models from the experimental data were also investigated. It was found that the correlated parameters of UNIQUAC model for system of FAME + palm oil + glycerol, denoted as a13 and a31, were 580.42K and -123.69K, respectively, while those for system of methanol + FAME + palm oil, denoted as a42 and a24, were 71.48 K and 965.57K, respectively. The ternary LLE data reported here would be beneficial for engineers and scientists to use for prediction of yield and purity of biodiesel for the production. The UNIQUAC model agreed well with the experimental data of ternary mixtures of biodiesel.

  20. Moringa Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana O. Ilesanmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and moringa (Moringa oleifera seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfested grains and analysed statistically. Significantly different means were compared using LSD at <.05. Increasing oil concentration resulted in better cowpea protection, for example, in oviposition where the control had 6513 eggs, only 8 eggs were recorded in pure neem oil-treated sample at 0.5 mL/200 g. Generally, better results were obtained with higher oil concentrations either in their pure forms or mixtures. The control had a total weevil population of 4988, while most treated samples had none. The control samples had 0% uninfested grains, while 73–94% of uninfested grains were observed in treated samples after 6 months of storage. Therefore, mixture of the oils at 1.5 mL/200 g can be effectively used to store cowpea.

  1. Improving oil classification quality from oil spill fingerprint beyond six sigma approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juahir, Hafizan; Ismail, Azimah; Mohamed, Saiful Bahri; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wah, Wong Kok; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Retnam, Ananthy; Taib, Mohd Zaki Mohd; Mokhtar, Mazlin

    2017-07-15

    This study involves the use of quality engineering in oil spill classification based on oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS employing the six-sigma approach. The oil spills are recovered from various water areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). The study approach used six sigma methodologies that effectively serve as the problem solving in oil classification extracted from the complex mixtures of oil spilled dataset. The analysis of six sigma link with the quality engineering improved the organizational performance to achieve its objectivity of the environmental forensics. The study reveals that oil spills are discriminated into four groups' viz. diesel, hydrocarbon fuel oil (HFO), mixture oil lubricant and fuel oil (MOLFO) and waste oil (WO) according to the similarity of the intrinsic chemical properties. Through the validation, it confirmed that four discriminant component, diesel, hydrocarbon fuel oil (HFO), mixture oil lubricant and fuel oil (MOLFO) and waste oil (WO) dominate the oil types with a total variance of 99.51% with ANOVA giving F stat >F critical at 95% confidence level and a Chi Square goodness test of 74.87. Results obtained from this study reveals that by employing six-sigma approach in a data-driven problem such as in the case of oil spill classification, good decision making can be expedited. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  3. The Study of the Desulfurization Process of Oil and Oil Products of "Zhanazhol" Oil Field Using the Approaches of Green Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaksyntay K. Kairbekov; Zhannur K. Myltykbaeva; Nazym T. Smagulova; Dariya K. Kanseitova

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we studied sono catalytic oxidative desulfurization of oil and diesel fraction from “Zhanazhol” oil deposits. We have established that the combined effect of the ultrasonic field and oxidant (ozone-air mixture) in the presence of the catalyst on the oil is potentially very effective method of desulfurization of oil and oil products. This method allows increasing the degree of desulfurization of oil by 62%.

  4. A MODEL FOR DIFFUSION CONTROLLED BIOAVAILABILITY OF CRUDE OIL COMPONENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of several different structural classes of compounds including alkanes, aromatics, heterocyclic polar compounds, and asphaltenes. The rate and extent of microbial degradation of crude oil depends on the interaction between the physical and biochemi...

  5. Seletividade de cultivares de soja RR® submetidos a misturas em tanque de glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl associadas a óleo mineral e inseticidas selectivity of soybean RR® genotypes submitted to glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl tank mixtures associated to mineral oil and insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D.G. Maciel

    2009-01-01

    mixtures combined with insecticides and adjuvants. Aiming to evaluate the selectivity of soybean RR® genotypes submitted to tank mixtures of the glyphosate formulations (Polaris®, Roundup Ready® and Roundup WG® with chlorimuron-ethyl (Classic®, and their associations with mineral oil (Joint Oil® and novaluron insecticides (Gallaxy 100 EC®, permethrin (Piredan® and methomyl (Lannate BR®, an experiment was conducted under field conditions at Maracai -São Paulo, during the 2006/2007 growing year. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications, in a factorial scheme 16 x 4, with 16 representing the tank mixture associations of glyphosate formulations, mineral oil and insecticide, and the four genotypes Monsoy 7210RR®, Monsoy 7979RR®, BRS245RR® and CD 214RR®. Visual symptoms of initial intoxication in the genotypes studied were characterized by chlorosis and wrinkle in the leaves for all tank mixtures of glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl, associated or not with mineral oil, and novaluron, permethrin and methomyl insecticides .None of the tank mixtures promoted significant yield reductions for Monsoy 7210RR®, Monsoy 7979RR® and BRS245RR® genotypes, and controlled Ipomoea spp with satisfactory effectiveness, starting from 21 DAA (days after application.

  6. Shale oil combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-dabbas, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    A 'coutant' carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs

  7. Shale oil combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-dabbas, M A

    1992-05-01

    A `coutant` carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs.

  8. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  9. Thermodiffusion in multicomponent n-alkane mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliero, Guillaume; Bataller, Henri; Bazile, Jean-Patrick; Diaz, Joseph; Croccolo, Fabrizio; Hoang, Hai; Vermorel, Romain; Artola, Pierre-Arnaud; Rousseau, Bernard; Vesovic, Velisa; Bou-Ali, M Mounir; Ortiz de Zárate, José M; Xu, Shenghua; Zhang, Ke; Montel, François; Verga, Antonio; Minster, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Compositional grading within a mixture has a strong impact on the evaluation of the pre-exploitation distribution of hydrocarbons in underground layers and sediments. Thermodiffusion, which leads to a partial diffusive separation of species in a mixture due to the geothermal gradient, is thought to play an important role in determining the distribution of species in a reservoir. However, despite recent progress, thermodiffusion is still difficult to measure and model in multicomponent mixtures. In this work, we report on experimental investigations of the thermodiffusion of multicomponent n -alkane mixtures at pressure above 30 MPa. The experiments have been conducted in space onboard the Shi Jian 10 spacecraft so as to isolate the studied phenomena from convection. For the two exploitable cells, containing a ternary liquid mixture and a condensate gas, measurements have shown that the lightest and heaviest species had a tendency to migrate, relatively to the rest of the species, to the hot and cold region, respectively. These trends have been confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations. The measured condensate gas data have been used to quantify the influence of thermodiffusion on the initial fluid distribution of an idealised one dimension reservoir. The results obtained indicate that thermodiffusion tends to noticeably counteract the influence of gravitational segregation on the vertical distribution of species, which could result in an unstable fluid column. This confirms that, in oil and gas reservoirs, the availability of thermodiffusion data for multicomponent mixtures is crucial for a correct evaluation of the initial state fluid distribution.

  10. Curing kinetics of alkyd/melamine resin mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Mirjana C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkyd resins are the most popular and useful synthetic resins applied as the binder in protective coatings. Frequently they are not used alone but are modified with other synthetic resins in the manufacture of the coatings. An alkyd/melamine resin mixture is the usual composition for the preparation of coating called 'baking enamel' and it is cured through functional groups of resins at high temperatures. In this paper, curing kinetics of alkyd resins based on castor oil and dehydrated castor oil with melamine resin, has been studied by DSC method with programmed heating and in isothermal mode. The results determined from dynamic DSC curves were mathematically transformed using the Ozawa isoconversional method for obtaining the isothermal data. These results, degree of curing versus time, are in good agreement with those determined by the isothermal DSC experiments. By applying the Ozawa method it is possible to calculate the isothermal kinetic parameters for the alkyd/melamine resin mixtures curing using only calorimetric data obtained by dynamic DSC runs. Depending on the alkyd resin type and ratio in mixtures the values of activation energies of curing process of resin mixtures are from 51.3 to 114 kJ mol-1. The rate constant of curing increases with increasing the content of melamine resin in the mixture and with curing temperature. The reaction order varies from 1.12 to 1.37 for alkyd based on dehydrated castor oil/melamine resin mixtures and from 1.74 to 2.03 for mixtures with alkyd based on castor oil. Based on the results obtained, we propose that dehydrated castor oil alkyd/melamine resin mixtures can be used in practice (curing temperatures from 120 to 160°C.

  11. Recovery studies for plutonium machining oil coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Baldwin, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    Lathe coolant oil, contaminated with plutonium and having a carbon tetrachloride diluent, is generated in plutonium machining areas at Rocky Flats. A research program was initiated to determine the nature of plutonium in this mixture of oil and carbon tetrachloride. Appropriate methods then could be developed to remove the plutonium and to recycle the oil and carbon tetrachloride. Studies showed that the mixtures of spent oil and carbon tetrachloride contained particulate plutonium and plutonium species that are soluble in water or in oil and carbon tetrachloride. The particulate plutonium was removed by filtration; the nonfilterable plutonium was removed by adsorption on various materials. Laboratory-scale tests indicated the lathe-coolant oil mixture could be separated by distilling the carbon tetrachloride to yield recyclable products

  12. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  13. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  14. An oil mixture with trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid increases markers of inflammation and in vivo lipid peroxidation compared with cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, Tine; Raff, Marianne; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2008-01-01

    . The plasma cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-a were not affected by the treatments, nor were any of the other variables measured. In conclusion, oil containing trans-10,cis-12 CLA has several adverse effects on classical and novel markers of coronary vascular disease, whereas the c9, t11 CLA...

  15. Influence of Oil on Refrigerant Evaporator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Soo; Nagata, Karsuya; Katsuta, Masafumi; Tomosugi, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Kouichiro; Horichi, Toshiaki

    In vapor compression refrigeration system using oil-lubricated compressors, some amount of oil is always circulated through the system. Oil circulation can have a significant influence on the evaporator performance of automotive air conditioner which is especially required to cool quickly the car interior after a period standing in the sun. An experimental investigation was carried out an electrically heated horizontal tube to measure local heat transfer coefficients for various flow rates and heat fluxes during forced convection boiling of pure refrigerant R12 and refrigerant-oil mixtures (0-11% oil concentration by weight) and the results were compared with oil free performance. Local heat transfer coefficients increased at the region of low vapor quality by the addition of oil. On the other hand, because the oil-rich liquid film was formed on the heat transfer surface, heat transfer coefficients gradually decreased as the vapor quality became higher. Average heat transfer coefficient reached a maximum at about 4% oil concentration and this trend agreed well with the results of Green and Furse. Previous correlations, using the properties of the refrigerant-oil mixture, could not predict satisfactorily the local heat transfer coefficients data. New correlation modified by oil concentration factor was developed for predicting the corresponding heat transfer coefficient for refrigerant-oil mixture convection boiling. The maximum percent deviation between predicted and measured heat transfer coefficient was within ±30%.

  16. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  17. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF proton (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2 curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively.

  18. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ok, S.

    2017-01-01

    Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF) proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV) visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2) curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively. [es

  19. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  20. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-II

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12%...

  1. Perception of trigeminal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiou, Renée-Pier; Lepore, Franco; Bryant, Bruce; Lundström, Johan N; Frasnelli, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The trigeminal system is a chemical sense allowing for the perception of chemosensory information in our environment. However, contrary to smell and taste, we lack a thorough understanding of the trigeminal processing of mixtures. We, therefore, investigated trigeminal perception using mixtures of 3 relatively receptor-specific agonists together with one control odor in different proportions to determine basic perceptual dimensions of trigeminal perception. We found that 4 main dimensions were linked to trigeminal perception: sensations of intensity, warmth, coldness, and pain. We subsequently investigated perception of binary mixtures of trigeminal stimuli by means of these 4 perceptual dimensions using different concentrations of a cooling stimulus (eucalyptol) mixed with a stimulus that evokes warmth perception (cinnamaldehyde). To determine if sensory interactions are mainly of central or peripheral origin, we presented stimuli in a physical "mixture" or as a "combination" presented separately to individual nostrils. Results showed that mixtures generally yielded higher ratings than combinations on the trigeminal dimensions "intensity," "warm," and "painful," whereas combinations yielded higher ratings than mixtures on the trigeminal dimension "cold." These results suggest dimension-specific interactions in the perception of trigeminal mixtures, which may be explained by particular interactions that may take place on peripheral or central levels. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Iterative Mixture Component Pruning Algorithm for Gaussian Mixture PHD Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As far as the increasing number of mixture components in the Gaussian mixture PHD filter is concerned, an iterative mixture component pruning algorithm is proposed. The pruning algorithm is based on maximizing the posterior probability density of the mixture weights. The entropy distribution of the mixture weights is adopted as the prior distribution of mixture component parameters. The iterative update formulations of the mixture weights are derived by Lagrange multiplier and Lambert W function. Mixture components, whose weights become negative during iterative procedure, are pruned by setting corresponding mixture weights to zeros. In addition, multiple mixture components with similar parameters describing the same PHD peak can be merged into one mixture component in the algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed iterative mixture component pruning algorithm is superior to the typical pruning algorithm based on thresholds.

  3. Structuring edible oil with lecithin and sorbitan tri-stearate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pernetti, M.; Malssen, van K.; Kalnin, D.J.E.; Flöter, E.

    2007-01-01

    The gelation of edible oil by a mixture of lecithin and sorbitan tri-stearate (STS) was studied. The two components individually in oil do not give structure at concentrations between 6% and 20% w/w: viscous, pourable solutions are obtained. A synergetic effect is observed with their mixture, at

  4. Oil slick skimmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karterman, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    A craft for removing an oil slick from a body of water is described comprising: a pair of spacedly arranged paralleled positioned elongated floats, a platform mounted on and extending between said floats, a weir mounted on said platform between said floats and being movable independently and substantially vertical of the longitudinal axis of said floats to a position below the surface of said body of water, a submersible oil receiving and storage means detachedly mounted to said platform between said floats and having an inlet port at one level and comprising a substantially enclosed oil accumulator having an outlet port at a lower level, said weir comprising a sluice gate constructed and arranged to admit into said inlet port of said oil receiving and storage means under the effects of gravity a portion of an oil stick comprising a water and oil mixture skimmed from said body of water, and a first pump connected to said outlet port of said accumulator to control the movement of water from the inside lower level of said accumulator out of said accumulator to thereby control the amount of the oil slick flowing into said accumulator

  5. Deceased Slabs Drive Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The application of Re-Os isotope geochemistry to dating single oils is a nascent field [1,2]. Challenges include dissection of oils into asphaltene-maltene (ASPH-MALT) components in a way that preserves meaningful chronologic and source information. Significantly, oil-water mixing rapidly transfers Os to the oil, while Re exchange is sluggish [3]. The Os initial ratio of the oil is shifted in the direction of Os carried in the aqueous fluid, whereas the Re-Os isotopic age is preserved. We show that this phenomenon is operative in natural systems. Further, we show that deserpentinization of old oceanic slabs [4], may be linked to expulsion of Os-enriched waters into overlying sedimentary sections - a process that may be of fundamental importance for oil generation. This conclusion does not diminish the role of traditional organic-rich shales as source rocks for the hydrocarbon, but shows that external fluids are essential to petroleum generation. Moreover, the external fluids may be an important driver for expulsion and migration of oils. We have taken apart several petroleum systems from source rock, to residual oil, to tar mat development, to in situ live oil, through to produced oil. In many cases, a fluid with low 187Os/188Os - unlike that of normal basinal brines - provides a critical component to the oil-water mixture. Funding - CHRONOS project supported by Norwegian petroleum industry (Eni-Norge, Lundin, Aker BP) Acknowledgement - Christine Fichler [4], who first queried us on old slabs and oil, and stimulated ideas. [1] Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., Hannah, J.L., Galimberti, R., Nali, M., Yang, G., and Zimmerman, A. (2016) Re-Os dating of maltenes and asphaltenes within single samples of crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 179: 53-75. [doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2016.01.016] [2] DiMarzio, J., Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., and Hannah, J.L. (in press) Residency of rhenium and osmium in a heavy crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. [3] Hurtig, N.C., Georgiev, S

  6. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE USE OF LOVAGE LEAVES TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF EDIBLE VEGETABLE OILS AND OIL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEIDA SEVDAGUL SULIMAN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied four edible vegetable oils and nine oil blends based on refined sunflower oil, in order to improve the quality characteristics of sunflower oil. The oils used for blends were linseed oil, grapeseed oil, and coconut oil. The physico-chemical properties demonstrated the superior features for oil blends, like lower acidity (measured by acid value and higher stability to autoxidation (measured by peroxide value and refractive index. The best combination for sunflower oil was with coconut oil (lower acidity, higher stability to autoxidation. For a supplementary improvement of properties, especially for the preservation of oils and oil blends, we tested the lovage (Levisticum officinale extract as additive. The obtained additivated mixtures demonstrated better quality characteristics, which recommend them for the human consumption.

  7. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  8. Separation of oil and grease from oil sludge using surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainon Abdul Aziz; Syed Hakimi Sakuma Syed Ahmad; Zalina Laili

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the experiments was to observe the efficiency of the surfactant to remove oil and grease from oil sludges using various surfactant concentration ranging from 10 %, 15 %, 20 % and 30 %. The surfactant solution consists of two mixtures of Aqua 2000 and D Bond. The oil sludge were subjected to heating and surfactant treatment process. Remaining oil and grease concentration were observed on the oil sludges after treatment. Small scale experiments were conducted by heating process, without heating process and heating process with addition of sodium chloride. Surfactant solution was added in each process. Results shows that there is separation of oil and grease from the oil sludges. There were formation of mini emulsions (oil in water). The higher the concentration of surfactant used, the higher the concentrations of mini emulsion formed as observed. Solid remains after the treatment process were found to contain lesser oil concentration with presence of bitumen, sediment, organic and inorganic materials. After a washing process using distilled water, the solid was still black but less oily than before the treatment. There is no separation of oil occurred in aqueous solution for the control experiment. (Author)

  9. Mixtures Estimation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mengersen, Kerrie; Titterington, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This book uses the EM (expectation maximization) algorithm to simultaneously estimate the missing data and unknown parameter(s) associated with a data set. The parameters describe the component distributions of the mixture; the distributions may be continuous or discrete. The editors provide a complete account of the applications, mathematical structure and statistical analysis of finite mixture distributions along with MCMC computational methods, together with a range of detailed discussions covering the applications of the methods and features chapters from the leading experts on the subject

  10. Development of a bank for ultrasonic characterization of olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabra Gemayel, M.N.; Zaatar, Y.; Zaouk, D.; El Hajj, A.; Honein, E.; Assaad, J.

    2015-01-01

    Olive oil has long been renowned for its nutritional and healthy values. These values are being continuously verified by new scientific results. Not all olive oils found in the market are, however,authentic. One of the ways to cheat in olive oil is to mix it with other, cheaper oils. The aim of our study is to develop an ultrasonic measurement system that would quickly detect the fraud in the olive oil and thus protect and preserve this quality product. By using ultrasonic waves of frequency 1.7MHz in transmission through the oils, we have obtained promising results for detection of different mixtures of olive oil with pure sunflower oil. Our results have shown an increasing ultrasonic speed for an increasing percentage of sunflower oil in the mixture. (author)

  11. The influence of the type of oil phase on the self-assembly process of ¿-oryzanol + ß-sitosterol tubules in organogel systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawalha, H.I.M.; Margry, G.; Adel, den R.; Venema, P.; Bot, A.; Flöter, E.; Linden, van der E.

    2013-01-01

    Mixtures of ¿-oryzanol and ß-sitosterol were used to structure different oils (decane, limonene, sunflower oil, castor oil and eugenol). The ¿-oryzanol and ß-sitosterol mixtures self-assemble into double-walled hollow tubules (~10 nm in diameter) in the oil phase, which aggregate to form a network

  12. Improving oil biodegradability of aliphatic crude oil fraction by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The percentage of biodegrading ability of B. subtilis and the mixture of these bacteria to n-alkanes and isoprenoids (pristine, phytane) were measured and compared with control. Crude oil is used as a sole source of energy and the incubation period was 24 days, the hydrocarbons loss are detected each 6 day interval using ...

  13. Preparing hydraulic cement from oil-shale slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-11-19

    A process for the preparation of hydraulic cementing material from oil shale or oil-shale slag according to Patent 411,584 is characterized by the fact that the oil-shale slag is added to burnt marl, blast-furnace slag, and the like, whereupon the mixture is milled to dust in the known way.

  14. Possible hypocholesterolemic effect of ginger and rosemary oils in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group (Ic): rats received i.p 2.5 g/Kg b.w of rosemary oil. Group (Id): Rats received i.p 5 g/Kg b.w mixture of ginger oil and rosemary oil (1:1). The second main ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  15. Challenge of coal-liquid mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peirce, T

    1985-09-01

    The near-term prospect for coal-water (CWMs) mixtures as a convenient replacement fuel for UK oil-fired plant is discussed. Specific use of CWMs in industrial water-tube boilers is presented. The article shows how such developments complement the introduction of new, modern coal-designed industrial combustion equipment in the form of fully automatic stokers and fluidized bed combustion systems. Topics presented include properties and preparation of CWM, combustion characteristics of CWM, and boiler conversion. 9 references, 4 figures.

  16. Use of Water-Fuel Mixture in Diesel Engines at Fishing Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyus, Oleg; Bezyukov, O.

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents the laboratory test results determining physical parameters of fuel mixture made up of petroleum diesel oil, rapeseed oil methyl esters (up to 20%) and water (up to 2.5%). The obtained parameters prove that adding bio-components (rapeseed oil methyl esters) and water to fuel does not result in deterioration of their physical and chemical properties and are comparable to base fuel parameters, namely petroleum diesel oil. The mixture was a subject of bench testing with the use of a self-ignition engine by means of pre-catalytic fuel treatment. The treatment process consisted in fuel - catalytically active material direct contact on the atomizer body. At the comparable operational parameters for the engine, the obtained exhaust gases opacity was lower up to 60% due to the preliminary fuel mixture treatment in relation to the factory-made fuel injection system using petroleum diesel oil.

  17. USE OF WATER-FUEL MIXTURE IN DIESEL ENGINES AT FISHING VESSELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg KLYUS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the laboratory test results determining physical parameters of fuel mixture made up of petroleum diesel oil, rapeseed oil methyl esters (up to 20% and water (up to 2.5%. The obtained parameters prove that adding bio-components (rapeseed oil methyl esters and water to fuel does not result in deterioration of their physical and chemical properties and are comparable to base fuel parameters, namely petroleum diesel oil. The mixture was a subject of bench testing with the use of a self-ignition engine by means of pre-catalytic fuel treatment. The treatment process consisted in fuel – catalytically active material direct contact on the atomizer body. At the comparable operational parameters for the engine, the obtained exhaust gases opacity was lower up to 60% due to the preliminary fuel mixture treatment in relation to the factory-made fuel injection system using petroleum diesel oil.

  18. I-optimal mixture designs

    OpenAIRE

    GOOS, Peter; JONES, Bradley; SYAFITRI, Utami

    2013-01-01

    In mixture experiments, the factors under study are proportions of the ingredients of a mixture. The special nature of the factors in a mixture experiment necessitates specific types of regression models, and specific types of experimental designs. Although mixture experiments usually are intended to predict the response(s) for all possible formulations of the mixture and to identify optimal proportions for each of the ingredients, little research has been done concerning their I-optimal desi...

  19. Transesterification of Waste Frying Oil and Soybean Oil by Combi-lipases Under Ultrasound-Assisted Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Jakeline Kathiele; Matte, Carla Roberta; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Rodrigues, Rafael C; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2018-04-21

    This work describes the use of an ultrasound system for the enzymatic transesterification of oils using combi-lipases as biocatalyst. The reactions were carried out evaluating the individual use of waste oil and fresh soybean oil, and the immobilized lipases CALB, TLL, and RML were used as biocatalysts. It was performed in a mixture design of three factors to obtain the ideal mixture of lipases according to the composition of fatty acids present in each oil, and the main reaction variables were optimized. After 18 h of reaction, ultrasound provided a biodiesel yield of about 90% when using soybean oil and 70% using the waste oil. The results showed that ultrasound technology, in combination with the application of enzyme mixtures, known as combi-lipases, and the use of waste oil, could be a promising route to reduce the overall process costs of enzymatic production of biodiesel.

  20. Mixtures and interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groten, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Drinking water can be considered as a complex mixture that consists of tens, hundreds or thousands of chemicals of which the composition is qualitatively and quantitatively not fully known. From a public health point of view it is most relevant to answer the question of whether chemicals in drinking

  1. Dual Superlyophobic Copper Foam with Good Durability and Recyclability for High Flux, High Efficiency, and Continuous Oil-Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenting; Li, Song; Liu, Yan; Xu, Zhengzheng; Wei, Sufeng; Wang, Guoyong; Lian, Jianshe; Jiang, Qing

    2018-03-21

    Traditional oil-water separation materials have to own ultrahigh or ultralow surface energy. Thus, they can only be wetted by one of the two, oil or water. Our experiment here demonstrates that the wettability in oil-water mixtures can be tuned by oil and water initially. Hierarchical voids are built on commercial copper foams with the help of hydrothermally synthesized titanium dioxide nanorods. The foams can be easily wetted by both oil and water. The water prewetted foams are superhydrophilic and superoleophobic under oil-water mixtures, meanwhile the oil prewetted foams are superoleophilic and superhydrophobic. In this paper, many kinds of water-oil mixtures were separated by two foams, prewetted by corresponding oil or water, respectively, combining a straight tee in a high flux, high efficiency, and continuous mode. This research indicates that oil-water mixtures can be separated more eco-friendly and at lower cost.

  2. Effects of fish oil type, lipid antioxidants and presence of rapeseed oil on oxidative flavour stability of fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2004-01-01

    As a part of our ongoing experiments on optimization of the oxidative stability of fish oils in genuine food systems, this study investigated the oxidative deterioration of fish oil enriched milk emulsions during cold storage. The experimental data showed that addition of rapeseed oil to fish oil...... (1:1) prior to emulsification into milk significantly protected the emulsions against oxidative deterioration. Addition of propyl gallate and a citric acid ester to the fish oil prior to emulsification also protected the fish oil enriched milk during storage. Emulsions containing a rapeseed:fish oil...... mixture were oxidatively stable during 11 d at 2 øC. Thus, no additional inhibitory effect of the added antioxidants was observed. The peroxide value and concentrations of five selected volatiles derived from n- 3 PUFA degradation in rapeseed:fish oil mixture emulsions were not significantly different...

  3. Olive oil increases the magnitude of postprandial chylomicron remnants compared to milk fat and safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, K; Ishikawa, T; Shige, H; Tomiyasu, K; Yoshida, H; Ito, T; Nakajima, K; Yonemura, A; Sawada, S; Nakamura, H

    1997-10-01

    The acute effects of olive oil, milk fat and safflower oil on postprandial lipemia and remnant lipoprotein metabolism were investigated. Eight Healthy male volunteers randomly underwent three types of oral fat-vitamin A loading tests. The test drink was a mixture of retinyl palmitate (RP)(50,000 IU of aqueous vitamin A/m2 body surface area) and one of the three types of oils (40 g of fat/m2 body surface area): olive oil (70.7% oleic acid of total fatty acids); milk fat (69.3% saturated fatty acid); safflower oil (74.2% linoleic acid). Olive oil significantly increased plasma triacylglycerol and RP concentrations 4 hours after fat loading, as compared to other fats. Increases of remnant like particle concentrations were higher after olive oil than after the other two fats. These results show that olive oil increases the magnitude of postprandial chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants compared to milk fat and safflower oil.

  4. The federal law of the Revenue Agency responsibility, the national oil industry and the determination of the average price of the Mexican mixture for export: implications and limitations; La ley federal de responsabilidad hacendaria, la industria petrolera nacional y la determinacion del precio promedio de la mezcla mexicana de exportacion: implicaciones y limitaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltierra, Lauro; Huerta, Carlos E.; Ruiz Alarcon, Fluvio Cesar [LX legislatura, Camara de Diputados, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    The present article refers to the implications that result from the promulgation, in April, 2006, of the Ley Federal de Presupuesto y Responsabilidad Hacendaria (Federal Law of Budget and Revenue Agency Responsibility) in the national oil industry and in the country's economy, when allowing a financing process of the sector, as well as the implications that are originated of the immovable fixation of the petroleum price by legal enforcement. As this limits the constitutional powers of the House of Representatives when denying the faculty, that exerted until the expedition of the Law, of evaluating the estimations of the Federal Executive with respect to the average price of the Mexican mixture for export. In the first section a balance is made of how the Presupuesto de Egresos de la Federacion projects itself as an instrument to restrain the public investment in the oil sector. In the second section aspects related to the estimation of the oil price from the Ley Federal de Presupuesto y Resposabilidad Hacendaria (Federal Law of Budget and Revenue Agency Responsibility) are taken care of, indicating the inconsistency that means to establish a formula for the determination of the same. In the third section, the sub-valuation of the crude prices is addressed as a key factor for the discretional use of the oil surpluses. In the fourth section, the General Criteria of Economic Policy for year 2007 are analyzed, that according to the new Federal Law of Budget and Revenue Agency Responsibility was sent to the House of Representatives by the Federal Executive in the month of April. Finally, the estimations of the Mexican mixture for export for 2007 are presented, that to the consideration of the authors, will oscillate between 50 and 51 dollars as annual average. [Spanish] El presente articulo refiere las repercusiones que resultan de la promulgacion, en abril de 2006, de la Ley Federal de Presupuesto y Responsabilidad Hacendaria en la industria petrolera nacional y

  5. Study of physical and tribology properties of soybean oil-based grease formulated with polysoap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil-based grease formulated with polysoaps, which was synthesized from polymeric epoxdized soybean oil, was investigated. Greases were prepared using a mixture of lithium soap and triethanolammonium polysoap. Grease properties investigated were: hardness, using cone penetration procedure (AS...

  6. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  7. Mixture based outlier filtration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecherková, Pavla; Nagy, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 2 (2006), s. 30-35 ISSN 1210-2709 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA MDS 1F43A/003/120 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : data filtration * system modelling * mixture models Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/20060165.pdf

  8. Intensification of transferring the Kazakhstan high-congealed oil: challenges and advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maimakov, Tayhan P.; Boiko, Galinal; Lyubchenko, Nina P. [High education institute «UNAT», Almaty (Kazakhstan); Shaihutdinov, Yerengaip M. [Kazakh national technical university, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2008-07-01

    It were investigated the rheohgica! parameters of South-Turgay region crude oils at presence of novel pour point depressant additive DP-43/2005. It has shown that additive improves pour point and rheohgica; properties of crude oil mixture Kumkol-Akshabidak, inhibits wax deposition and can provide safe conditions of crude oil mixture transportation through pipeline at the cold season of year. Keywords: oil, temperature of fluidity loss, rheology, viscosity, oligomer depressor dopants.

  9. Effect of vegetable oils on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of chicken frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belichovska, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Belichovska, K.; Uzunoska, Z.; Silovska-Nikolova, A.

    2017-09-01

    To study the effect of pork adipose tissue substitution with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurters, six frankfurter formulations were produced: control; with pork backfat; with olive oil; with rapeseed oil; with sunflower oil; with palm oil, and; with a mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil. Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content and some oxides thereof were determined in the final products. The use of vegetable oils resulted in improvement of the fatty acid composition and nutritional of frankfurters. Frankfurters with vegetable oils contained significantly less cholesterol and some of its oxides, compared to the frankfurters with pork fat. The formulation with palm oil had the least favourable fatty acid composition. The use of 12% rapeseed oil improved the ratio of fatty acids in frankfurters with a mixture of rapeseed and palm oils. Complete pork fat replacement with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurter production is technologically possible. The mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil is a good alternative to pork fat from health aspects. Further research is needed to find the most appropriate mixture of vegetable oils, which will produce frankfurters with good sensory characteristics, a more desirable fatty acid ratio and high nutritional value.

  10. Development of a centrifugal in-line separator for oil-water flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The world energy consumption will increase in the next decades. However, many aging oil fields are showing a steady decline in oil production. And they are producing increasing amounts of water, making the separation of the oil from the oil-water mixture an important processing step. In-line

  11. Treatment of the oily produced water (OPW using coagulant mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hosny

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of the oily produced water (OPW before injection into oil reservoirs is necessary to reduce formation damage. This can be done using chemo-physical process to minimize the oil droplets in water. In this respect, this work aims to extract natural polymer (chitosan from shrimp shells and mix it with coagulants (chitosan/carboxy methyl cellulose and chitosan/aluminum sulfate to adsorb oil from OPW. Adsorption experiments were carried out in batch mode firstly to choose the best coagulants in water treatment, also to investigate the effects of pH on the adsorption uptake, adsorbent dosage, coagulant mixture doses and contact time. It was found that the oil removal by chitosan reached 96.35% and 59% at pH = 4 and pH = 9, respectively. The ability of chitosan to remove oil was increased after adding different coagulants CMC/or aluminum sulfate at average mixing time between 30 and 60 min. It was also found that the highest removal efficiency of chitosan/CMC is 99% at (90% chitosan: 10% CMC and chitosan/Al2(SO43 is 85% at (80% chitosan: 20% Al2(SO43. The SEM photographs of chitosan, chitosan/CMC and chitosan/Al2(SO43 mixture as oil removal showed that chitosan/Al2(SO43 lies between chitosan alone and chitosan/CMC mixture. Generally chitosan/CMC characterized significantly by its high ability to adsorb petroleum oil and suspended solids from OPW, additionally, reduces the economic cost of water treatment.

  12. Mixture for plugging absorption zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitinkov, G V; Kovalenko, N G; Makarov, L V; Zinnatulchin, Ts Kh

    1981-01-17

    A mixture is proposed for plugging absorption zones. The mixture contains synthetic polymer and a solvent. So as to increase the penetrability of the mixture through a reduction in its viscosity and an increase in insulation properties, the compound contains either Capron or Neilon as the synthetic polyamide resin polmyer, and concentrated chloride as the solvent. The mixture is prepared in a special AzINMASh-30 unit (acid cart). After the mixture has been produced, it is injected into the borehole by means of an acid cart pump. So as to prevent coaggulation at the point when the mixture in injected into the stratum through tubes, the mixture is placed betwen chemically inert fluids, for example, a clay mortar. The inert and compressed fluids are injected by means of a cementing unit. The entire process of production and application of the mixture is simple and fully automated through the use of well-known equipment.

  13. Treating oil in a maritime environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebacher, G.

    2002-01-01

    Some details of the International Maritime Organisation's marine pollution regulations are discussed. In simple terms, under IMO regulations oily water must be processed through approved equipment and can be legally discharged if the oil content in the treated effluent is less than 15 ppm. These regulations also make it clear that it is not permitted to use emulsifiers to hide the oil in the effluent. To separate the free oil from water, gravity enhanced separators can be used effectively. With conventional means it is possible to remove free oil from an oily water mixture, to the less than 15 part per million oil content. Conventional IMO certified oil content meters accurately read free oil content in the 0-30 ppm region, to prevent formation of an oil film from treated oily water discharges. Some additional basic rules of thumb worthy of consideration when separating oil from oily water: in general, it is cheaper to prevent oil discharge of oil into the effluent stream than to remove it; emulsifier-enriched lubricating oils emulsify readily and are difficult to remove when present in suspended droplets; the larger the amount of contamination, the greater the difficulty of removing the oil; an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure

  14. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  15. Modeling Phase Equilibria for Acid Gas Mixtures Using the CPA Equation of State. I. Mixtures with H2S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2010-01-01

    (water, methanol, and glycols) are modeled assuming presence or not of cross-association interactions. Such interactions are accounted for using either a combining rule or a cross-solvation energy obtained from spectroscopic data. Using the parameters obtained from the binary systems, one ternary......The Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state is applied to a large variety of mixtures containing H2S, which are of interest in the oil and gas industry. Binary H2S mixtures with alkanes, CO2, water, methanol, and glycols are first considered. The interactions of H2S with polar compounds...... and three quaternary mixtures are considered. It is shown that overall excellent correlation for binary, mixtures and satisfactory prediction results for multicomponent systems are obtained. There are significant differences between the various modeling approaches and the best results are obtained when...

  16. Separating Underdetermined Convolutive Speech Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    a method for underdetermined blind source separation of convolutive mixtures. The proposed framework is applicable for separation of instantaneous as well as convolutive speech mixtures. It is possible to iteratively extract each speech signal from the mixture by combining blind source separation...

  17. Mixtures of truncated basis functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a framework, called mixtures of truncated basis functions (MoTBFs), for representing general hybrid Bayesian networks. The proposed framework generalizes both the mixture of truncated exponentials (MTEs) framework and the mixture of polynomials (MoPs) framework. Similar t...

  18. A biological oil adsorption filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasila, A [University of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering and Household Technology

    2005-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  19. A biological oil adsorption filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasila, A.

    2005-01-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  20. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, and stratified sampling (the two approaches of superpopulation and a finite population are supported for target populations). Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  1. Lavender oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender oil is an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning can occur when ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  2. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  3. Comparative toxicity test of water-accommodated fractions of oils and oil dispersants to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This reference method describes a simple procedure for comparing the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants, and mixtures thereof, to marine animals. It allows the toxicity of different dispersants to be rapidly compared to that of oil, or of a mixture of oil an oil dispersant. It is designed for routine monitoring and screening purposes and is not appropriate as a research method. The physical and chemical properties of oil dispersants create many difficulties in the measurements of their toxicity to marine organisms. Strictly speaking, their toxicity can only be accurately estimated using complex procedures and apparatus. (A relatively simple apparatus for preparing oil/water or oil/water/oil dispersant emulsions is described in Appendix B). Simpler methods can provide useful information, provided their limitations are clearly understood and taken into consideration in the assessment and application of their results. Some of the special considerations relating to the measurement of the toxicity of oil and oil dispersants are described in Appendix A. The Appendix also explains the rationale and limitations of the method described here. 3 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Effects of cooking method, cooking oil, and food type on aldehyde emissions in cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Lin, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Yi-Chun

    2017-02-15

    Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain a mixture of chemicals. Of all chemicals, aldehydes draw a great attention since several of them are considered carcinogenic and formation of long-chain aldehydes is related to fatty acids in cooking oils. The objectives of this research were to compare aldehyde compositions and concentrations in COFs produced by different cooking oils, cooking methods, and food types and to suggest better cooking practices. This study compared aldehydes in COFs produced using four cooking oils (palm oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil), three cooking methods (stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying), and two foods (potato and pork loin) in a typical kitchen. Results showed the highest total aldehyde emissions in cooking methods were produced by deep frying, followed by pan frying then by stir frying. Sunflower oil had the highest emissions of total aldehydes, regardless of cooking method and food type whereas rapeseed oil and palm oil had relatively lower emissions. This study suggests that using gentle cooking methods (e.g., stir frying) and using oils low in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., palm oil or rapeseed oil) can reduce the production of aldehydes in COFs, especially long-chain aldehydes such as hexanal and t,t-2,4-DDE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  6. Dewaxing hydrocarbon oils. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-06-23

    In dewaxing hydrocarbon oils such as residium stocks, overhead distillates and crude petroleum or shale oils, by admixing with a liquefied normally gaseous solvent, such as liquefied propane, and cooling to crystallize the wax, the rate of crystallization diminishes rapidly when a certain temperature in an example about 20/sup 0/F is reached. The diminution is prevented during further cooling by removing solvent by evaporation at such a rate that the proporation of solvent in the oil solvent component is maintained at about that existing at the temperature at which the alteration in the rate of crystallization takes place. The evaporation is effected by adjusting the pressure on the mixture, preferably in stages. Solvents for coloring matters and asphaltic compounds, such as carbon disulfide sulfur dioxide, methyl chloride or butyl alcohol may be added to the mixture before crystallization. Chilled solvent may be added to the chilled mixture before separation of the wax in a centrifuge, in order to increase the difference in specific gravity between the wax and the oil-solvent component.

  7. Separation of gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus is described for the separation of a gaseous plasma mixture into components in some of which the original concentration of a specific ion has been greatly increased or decreased, comprising: a source for converting the gaseous mixture into a train of plasma packets; an open-ended vessel with a main section and at least one branch section, adapted to enclose along predetermined tracks the original plasma packets in the main section, and the separated plasma components in the branch sections; drive means for generating travelling magnetic waves along the predetermined tracks with the magnetic flux vector of the waves transverse to each of the tracks; and means for maintaining phase coherence between the plasma packets and the magnetic waves at a value needed for accelerating the components of the packets to different velocities and in such different directions that the plasma of each packet is divided into distinctly separate packets in some of which the original concentration of a specific ion has been greatly increased or decreased, and which plasma packets are collected from the branch sections of the vessels. (author)

  8. Chemical aspects of shale and shale oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackford, J E

    1922-01-01

    To prove that the kerogen in oil shale is a form of bitumen, several experiments were made with oil shale and a heavy asphaltic oil mixed with fuller's earth. When distilled, both the oil shale and asphalt-impregnated fuller's earth yielded paraffin oil, wax, and hydrogen sulfide (if sulfur was present). Both yielded ammonia if nitrogen was present. The organic material in each was partly isolated by extraction with pyridine and appeared to be the same. Oil shale is a marl that was saturated with oil or through which oil has passed or filtered. The insolubilities of its organic compounds are due to a slightly elevated temperature for a prolonged period and to the retaining effect exerted by the finely divided marl. The marl exerted a selective action on the oil and absorbed the asphaltum, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds from the oil. The class of oil evolved from a shale depended on the nature of the original compounds absorbed. Asphaltenes obtained from crude oil by precipitation with ethyl ether produced distillation products of water, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, oil, wax, and a carbonaceous residue. Water was formed by decomposition of oxyasphaltenes and hydrogen sulfide by decomposition of thioasphaltenes. Ammonia was evolved during decomposition if lime was present, but if there was not sufficient free lime present, pyridine and pyrrole derivatives were redistilled as such. The oil and wax that resulted from the dry distillation were true decomposition products and equaled about 60 weight-percent of the asphaltenes. The oil and wax content of the mixture varied between 8 and 10 percent. The carbonaceous residue, which represented approximately 40 percent of the original asphaltene, was a decomposition product of the asphaltenes. Geologic comparisons of oil-shale deposits and oil-well fields were also made.

  9. Environmental effect of rapeseed oil ethyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makareviciene, V.; Janulis, P.

    2003-01-01

    Exhaust emission tests were conducted on rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), rapeseed oil ethyl ester (REE) and fossil diesel fuel as well as on their mixtures. Results showed that when considering emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke density, rapeseed oil ethyl ester had less negative effect on the environment in comparison with that of rapeseed oil methyl ester. When fuelled with rapeseed oil ethyl ester, the emissions of NO x showed an increase of 8.3% over those of fossil diesel fuel. When operated on 25-50% bio-ester mixed with fossil diesel fuel, NO x emissions marginally decreased. When fuelled with pure rapeseed oil ethyl ester, HC emissions decreased by 53%, CO emissions by 7.2% and smoke density 72.6% when compared with emissions when fossil diesel fuel was used. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, which cause greenhouse effect, decreased by 782.87 g/kWh when rapeseed oil ethyl ester was used and by 782.26 g/kWh when rapeseed oil methyl ester was used instead of fossil diesel fuel. Rapeseed oil ethyl ester was more rapidly biodegradable in aqua environment when compared with rapeseed oil methyl ester and especially with fossil diesel fuel. During a standard 21 day period, 97.7% of rapeseed oil methyl ester, 98% of rapeseed oil ethyl ester and only 61.3% of fossil diesel fuel were biologically decomposed. (author)

  10. Method of removing radioactive waste from oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanger, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a method of removing particulates, radioactive contaminants, and moisture from oil, which consists of: straining out the particulates by passing the oil through a coarse filter screen to a receiving vessel; forming an upper stratum of oil and a lower stratum of sludge, consisting of mud, oil, particulates, and moisture, by heating the upper two-thirds of the receiving vessel; skimming off the stratum of oil from the receiving vessel; transferring the sludge from the receiving vessel to a container; transferring additional separated oil to the receiving vessel; conveying the oil skimmed from the receiving vessel to a mixing vessel; adding an effective amount of Calcium Hypochlorite crystals containing 65% free Chlorine to the mixing vessel to initiate salt formation with the radioactive contaminants; mixing the contents of the mixing vessel for at least ten minutes; transferring the mixture from the mixing vessel to a circulating heater; outputting the mixture from the circulating heater to a second mixing vessel; removing moisture from the oil; and filtering from the oil, the solid radioactive contaminant-salts and residual particulate matter

  11. REFRIGERANT/LUBRICANT MIXTURES: PROBLEMS OF APPLICATION AND PROPERTY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Semenyuk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The results and generalizations of thermophysical property research for the refrigerant/lubricant mixtures are summarized. The methodological aspects of the experimental studies of the thermal properties of real working media for vapor compression refrigeration machines and the general principles of the thermodynamic properties simulation for such solutions are analyzed. It is shown that the admixtures of compressor oil in the refrigerant make the efficiency parameters of compressor systems much lower. The question of a selective solubility of the multicomponent refrigerants in compressor oils is discussed.

  12. Research of Deformation of Clay Soil Mixtures Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Romas Girkontas; Tadas Tamošiūnas; Andrius Savickas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to determine clay soils and clay soils mixtures deformations during drying. Experiments consisted from: a) clay and clay mixtures bridges (height ~ 0,30 m, span ~ 1,00 m); b) tiles of clay and clay, sand and straw (height, length, wide); c) cylinders of clay; clay and straw; clay, straw and sand (diameter; height). According to the findings recommendations for clay and clay mixtures drying technology application were presented. During the experiment clay bridge bear...

  13. Mutagenicity of complex mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelroy, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of coal-derived complex chemical mixtures on the mutagenicity of 6-aminochrysene (6-AC) was determined with Salmonella typhimurium TA98. Previous results suggested that the mutagenic potency of 6-AC for TA98 in the standard microsomal activation (Ames) assay increased if it was presented to the cells mixed with high-boiling coal liquids (CL) from the solvent refined coal (SRC) process. In this year's work, the apparent mutational synergism of CL and 6-AC was independently verified in a fluctuation bioassay which allowed quantitation of mutational frequencies and cell viability. The results of this assay system were similar to those in the Ames assay. Moreover, the fluctation assay revealed that mutagenesis and cellular toxicity induced by 6-AC were both strongly enhanced if 6-AC was presented to the cells mixed in a high-boiling CL. 4 figures

  14. Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems Based on Melon Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research June 2011; 10 (3): 299-307 ... membrane (the major pathway for absorption of drugs) ... [7,8] and a more reproducible plasma level - ... Proximate analysis ..... ionic surfactant-vegetable oil mixture.

  15. Sorption of BTX mixtures to contaminated and uncontaminated site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchrin, C.G.; Koshy, K.; Wojtenko, I.

    1995-01-01

    Both adsorption and desorption studies are being performed examining benzene, toluene, and meta-xylene (BTX) as single components, binary mixtures, and trinary mixture onto both existing contaminated soils as well as some uncontaminated reference soils. The contaminated soils were obtained from an oil refinery site and another industrial site in New Jersey. The oil refinery site soil did not exhibit significant amounts of either benzene, toluene or xylene but was contaminated with other compounds while the other industrial site soil was contaminated with toluene among other compounds. The organic carbon content of the soils ranged from 0.14 to 2.91 percent. Preliminary adsorption studies showed BTX to strongly sorb to these soils. The adsorption studies onto the reference soils also demonstrated the effect of organic matter on adsorption. Sequential batch desorption studies show the BTX to desorb quickly, reaching equilibrium within 48 hours. Long-term uptake and release were not noted with these soil/contaminant systems

  16. Detection of plant oil DNA using high resolution melting (HRM) post PCR analysis: a tool for disclosure of olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietina, Michelangelo; Agrimonti, Caterina; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-12-15

    Extra virgin olive oil is frequently subjected to adulterations with addition of oils obtained from plants other than olive. DNA analysis is a fast and economic tool to identify plant components in oils. Extraction and amplification of DNA by PCR was tested in olives, in milled seeds and in oils, to investigate its use in olive oil traceability. DNA was extracted from different oils made of hazelnut, maize, sunflower, peanut, sesame, soybean, rice and pumpkin. Comparing the DNA melting profiles in reference plant materials and in the oils, it was possible to identify any plant components in oils and mixtures of oils. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) platform has been added of the new methodology of high resolution melting (HRM), both were used to analyse olive oils mixed with different percentage of other oils. Results showed HRM a cost effective method for efficient detection of adulterations in olive oils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oil spillage recovery by vacuum trawl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkett, H.

    1992-01-01

    In this invention, floating oil is sucked from the surface of the sea under a skirt and into a tubular floating boom, along whose interior it is carried to water-oil separation means. The suction is produced by one or more ejectors which are supplied with sea water under pressure and may be located inside the boom, or immediately below it and connected into a separate pipe. The boom is used to enclose an oil slick and drawn tighter to increase the thickness of the oil layer. The oil enters the boom through holes in its upper half and then flows to the ejector(s) along separate internal tubes or between buoyancy balls. A fraction of the oil-water mixture withdrawn from the boom is pressurised and returned to ejector(s) and the rest is diverted to the separation means. (author)

  18. Gelation of Oil Slicks by Amine Carbamates as an Adjunct to U.S. Navy Oil Spill Recovery Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-14

    plan for a field test in Boston Harbor was to be developed and submitted to the EPA, Coast Guard, state and municipal water control authorities. Di ...Residual Special Fuel Oil #6, and similar oils) was found to be a mixture of 40 g. dodecylamine, 25 R. tetradecylamine, and 4.5 g. hexadecylamine In...solution with 100 g. methyl alcohol. By far the best system, however, was a mixture of 70% dehydroabletylamine ("Amine D", as manufactured by Hercules Corp

  19. Palm oil use in Mortadella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Pérez Dubé

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm (Elaeis guineensis oil and its fractions can be combined to obtain designed fats with desired composition and physical properties. Incorporation of this type of ingredient in meat products can influence meat products process and sensory quality. In this study, a mixture of palm refined oil and stearin were employed to replace pork fat in a mortadella type product. A two-component mixture design was employed by the D-optimum design. Moisture, fat, protein, cocking losses and instrumental texture profiles were determined, besides a sensory evaluation. Results indicate that 8.8 % of pork fat can be replaced to obtain a good quality mortadella. Maximum palm fat in formulation was 44% of total fat content.

  20. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  1. Oil crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderoth, H.

    1992-01-01

    The author's aim was to give very precise information on the many causes and effects of the oil crises that have occurred since 1900, and at the same time offer the reader the possibility to build up a basic knowledge of the oil industry and market, as he feels that the public is often subjected to misleading information. Political and economical aspects are elaborated. First-hand sources such as statistics and investigations have been used as far as possible to give information on the oil market. An oil crisis is defined by the author as a significant change in the price of oil compared to prices of other goods. Changes can be in the form of either rising or falling prices. A special chapter concentrates on Denmark in relation to the oil crises. (AB) (165 refs.)

  2. Separating cresote from tars, mineral oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, E

    1921-01-07

    Phenolic bodies are extracted from tars such as lignite, shale, peat, coal, producer and low temperature tars, and from tar distillates and residues and from mineral oils and distillates by washing with a mixture of acetone and water. Acetone extracts of the tars etc., may be mixed with water or aqueous acetone to cause the separation of the oils, while the creosote remains in solution.

  3. Complex mixtures biostudies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the project is to identify potential adverse biological activities associated with human exposures to complex organic mixtures (COM) from energy-related industries. Studies to identify the influence of chemical class fractions from a COM on the initiating activity of a known carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), demonstrated that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (NPAC) fractions were the most effective inhibitors of initiation. In an effort to determine the contribution of BaP to the initiating activity of the COM, binding of radiolabeled BaP to mouse skin DNA was measured. Results indicated that binding of BaP to DNA decreased in the presence of the COM so that at initiating COM doses, BaP binding was near the limit detection. Addition of unlabeled BaP to the COM at an amount similar to that originally present in the COM did not significantly increase the binding. Studies to determine the rates of disappearance of carcinogenic PAH from the site of application on the skin indicated that half-lives for PAH differed by a factor of about 2. Analytical methods developed to identify PAH from COM which covalently bind to DNA demonstrated that the lower level of detection is approximately 200 picograms. Developmental studies demonstrated that both pregnant rats and mice treated dermally with a high-boiling COM developed fetuses with major malformations including cleft palate, small lungs, edema, and sagittal suture hemorrhages. 3 figures, 5 tables

  4. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  5. Component effects in mixture experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepel, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    In a mixture experiment, the response to a mixture of q components is a function of the proportions x 1 , x 2 , ..., x/sub q/ of components in the mixture. Experimental regions for mixture experiments are often defined by constraints on the proportions of the components forming the mixture. The usual (orthogonal direction) definition of a factor effect does not apply because of the dependence imposed by the mixture restriction, /sup q/Σ/sub i=1/ x/sub i/ = 1. A direction within the experimental region in which to compute a mixture component effect is presented and compared to previously suggested directions. This new direction has none of the inadequacies or errors of previous suggestions while having a more meaningful interpretation. The distinction between partial and total effects is made. The uses of partial and total effects (computed using the new direction) in modification and interpretation of mixture response prediction equations are considered. The suggestions of the paper are illustrated in an example from a glass development study in a waste vitrification program. 5 figures, 3 tables

  6. Mixtures of skewed Kalman filters

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoungmoon; Ryu, Duchwan; Mallick, Bani K.; Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Normal state-space models are prevalent, but to increase the applicability of the Kalman filter, we propose mixtures of skewed, and extended skewed, Kalman filters. To do so, the closed skew-normal distribution is extended to a scale mixture class

  7. Easy and flexible mixture distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Mabit, Stefan L.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to generate flexible mixture distributions that are useful for estimating models such as the mixed logit model using simulation. The method is easy to implement, yet it can approximate essentially any mixture distribution. We test it with good results in a simulation study...

  8. Analysis of naphthenic acid mixtures as pentafluorobenzyl derivatives by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Villagomez, Juan Manuel; Vázquez-Martínez, Juan; Ramírez-Chávez, Enrique; Molina-Torres, Jorge; Trudeau, Vance L

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report for the first time the efficiency of pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFBBr) for naphthenic acid (NA) mixtures derivatization, and the comparison in the optimal conditions to the most common NAs derivatization reagents, BF 3 /MeOH and N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA). Naphthenic acids are carboxylic acid mixtures of petrochemical origin. These compounds are important for the oil industry because of their corrosive properties, which can damage oil distillation infrastructure. Moreover, NAs are commercially used in a wide range of products such as paint and ink driers, wood and fabric preservatives, fuel additives, emulsifiers, and surfactants. Naphthenic acids have also been found in sediments after major oils spills in the United States and South Korea. Furthermore, the toxicity of the oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), product of the oil sands extraction activities in Canada's oil sands, has largely been attributed to NAs. One of the main challenges for the chromatographic analysis of these mixtures is the resolution of the components. The derivatization optimization was achieved using surface response analysis with molar ratio and time as factors for derivatization signal yield. After gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry (GC/EIMS) analysis of a mixture of NA standards, it was found that the signal produced by PFB-derivatives was 2.3 and 1.4 times higher than the signal produced by methylated and MTBS-derivatives, respectively. The pentafluorobenzyl derivatives have a characteristic fragment ion at 181m/z that is diagnostic for the differentiation of carboxylic and non-carboxylic acid components within mixtures. In the analysis of a Sigma and a Merichem derivatized oil extract NA mixtures, it was found that some peaks lack the characteristic fragment ion; therefore they are not carboxylic acids. Open column chromatography was used to obtain a hexane and a methanol fraction of the Sigma and

  9. Developmental Exposure to an Environmental PCB Mixture ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental PCB exposure impairs hearing and induces brainstem audiogenic seizures in adult offspring. The degree to which this enhanced susceptibility to seizure is manifest in other brain regions has not been examined. Thus, electrical kindling of the amygdala was used to evaluate the effect of developmental exposure to an environmentally relevant PCB mixture on seizure susceptibility in the rat. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed orally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of the PCB mixture dissolved in corn oil vehicle during the perinatal period. On postnatal day (PND) 21, pups were weaned, and two males from each litter were randomly selected for the kindling study. As adults, the male rats were implanted bilaterally with electrodes in the basolateral amygdala. For each animal, afterdischarge (AD) thresholds in the amygdala were determined on the first day of testing followed by once daily stimulation at a standard 200 µA stimulus intensity until three stage 5 generalized seizures (GS) ensued. Developmental PCB exposure did not affect the AD threshold or total cumulative AD duration, but PCB exposure did increase the latency to behavioral manifestations of seizure propagation. PCB exposed animals required significantly more stimulations to reach stage 2 seizures compared to control animals, indicating an attenuated focal (amygdala) excitability. A delay in kindling progression from a focally stimulated limbic site stands in contrast to our previous finding of increase

  10. The Phase Behavior of γ-Oryzanol and β-Sitosterol in Edible Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawalha, H.I.M.; Venema, P.; Bot, A.; Flöter, E.; Adel, den R.; Linden, van der E.

    2015-01-01

    The phase behavior of binary mixtures of ¿-oryzanol and ß-sitosterol and ternary mixtures of ¿-oryzanol and ß-sitosterol in sunflower oil was studied. Binary mixtures of ¿-oryzanol and ß-sitosterol show double-eutectic behavior. Complex phase behavior with two intermediate mixed solid phases was

  11. Stabilization of soybean oil during accelerated storage by essential oil of ferulago angulata boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ehsan; Mahtabani, Aidin; Etminan, Alireza; Karami, Farahnaz

    2016-02-01

    This study has been considered effect of Ferulago angulata essential oil on stabilizing soybean oil during accelerated storage. The essential oil was extracted by Clevenger-type apparatus. For analysis of the essential oil, GC/MS was used. Main components of the essential oil were monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of F. angulata at four concentrations, i.e. 125 (SBO-125), 250 (SBO-250), 500 (SBO-500) and SBO-Mixture (60 ppm TBHQ +60 ppm essential oil) were added to preheated refined soybean oil. TBHQ was used at 120 ppm as standard besides the control. Antioxidant activity index (AAI), free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide value (PV) and p-anisidine value (p-AnV) were served for appreciation of efficacy of F. angulata in stabilization of soybean oil. Results from different tests showed that SBO-mixture had highest effect and followed by SBO-TBHQ, SBO-250, SBO-125, SBO-500 and Ctrl. These results reveal F. angulata is a strong antioxidant and can be used instead of synthetic antioxidant.

  12. Effect of feeding soybean, linseed oil and different forms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... redox and immune status of turkey hens. The experiment was carried out on 480 turkey hens, type BIG 6, which were divided into four groups. Birds in Group I (control) received soybean oil and synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate in their feed mixture. Group II received soybean oil and natural RRR-d-alpha-tocopherol.

  13. Enhancement of recovery of residual oil using a biosurfactant slug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of the biosurfactant extract revealed a mixture of glycolipid and phospholipid in a ratio of 3.35:1. The irreducible water saturation (Swi) and initial residual oil saturation (Sor) of the sand-pack were 0.280 ± 0.003 and 0.373 ± 0.006, respectively. Core flooding experiment showed that an optimum oil recovery ...

  14. Oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Debnath, D.; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt as well as the antioxidative effect of citric acid ester, vitamin K and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were investigated by measuring peroxide value and volatile secondary oxidation products and by sensory analysis....... No oxidation was observed in yoghurt stored at 2 [degree sign]C for up to 19 days, with or without addition of citric acid ester. Fish oil enriched yoghurt was also very stable even when compared to yoghurt with added rapeseed oil or a mixture of rapeseed oil and fish oil stored for up to 29 days. The addition...

  15. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  16. Oil geochemistry of the Putumayo basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramon, J.C

    1996-01-01

    Bio marker fingerprinting of 2O crude oils from Putumayo Basin, Colombia, shows a vertical segregation of oil families. The Lower Cretaceous reservoirs (Caballos and 'U' Villeta sands) contain oils that come from a mixture of marine and terrestrial organic matter, deposited in a marginal, 'oxic' marine setting. The Upper Cretaceous ('T' and N ' sands) and Tertiary reservoirs contain oils with marine algal input deposited in a reducing, carbonate-rich environment. Lithology, environmental conditions and organic matter type of source rocks as predicted from oil bio marker differences correspond to organic composition of two Cretaceous source rocks. Vertical heterogeneity in the oils, even those from single wells, suggests the presence of two isolated petroleum systems. Hydrocarbons from Lower Cretaceous source rocks charged Lower Cretaceous reservoirs whereas oils from Upper Cretaceous source rocks charged Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary reservoirs. Oil migration from mature source rocks into multiple reservoirs has been stratigraphically up dip along the regional sandstone units and vertical migration through faults has been limited. Bio marker maturity parameters indicate that all oils were generated from early thermal maturity oil window

  17. Evaluating oil/water separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdoch, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Four commercially available oil/water separators were tested at an oil refinery test facility. The separators were the Alfa-Laval OFPX 413 disk-stack centrifuge, the Conoco Vortoil hydrocyclone system, International Separation Technology's Intr-Septor 250, and a modified Flo Trend gravity separator. Each machine was tested against mixtures of salt water and crude oil, and mixtures of salt water and a water-in-oil emulsion. The impact on separator performance from simulated sea motion, and from the addition of emulsion breakers and debris to the influent, were also evaluated. The test equipment, instrumentation, analysis facilities, test plans, and procedures to conduct the tests are described, but test results are not reported. Recommendations for improved test procedures are included. The inability to accurately monitor flow rates was found to have the greatest negative impact on test performance and results. Aspects of the test program that worked well included the use of flexible and semi-rigid hoses for customizing the test setups, the use of modular and leased tanks, and the sea motion simulator swing table design. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Mixture experiment methods in the development and optimization of microemulsion formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanetto, S; Cirri, M; Piepel, G; Mennini, N; Mura, P

    2011-06-25

    Microemulsion formulations represent an interesting delivery vehicle for lipophilic drugs, allowing for improving their solubility and dissolution properties. This work developed effective microemulsion formulations using glyburide (a very poorly-water-soluble hypoglycaemic agent) as a model drug. First, the area of stable microemulsion (ME) formations was identified using a new approach based on mixture experiment methods. A 13-run mixture design was carried out in an experimental region defined by constraints on three components: aqueous, oil and surfactant/cosurfactant. The transmittance percentage (at 550 nm) of ME formulations (indicative of their transparency and thus of their stability) was chosen as the response variable. The results obtained using the mixture experiment approach corresponded well with those obtained using the traditional approach based on pseudo-ternary phase diagrams. However, the mixture experiment approach required far less experimental effort than the traditional approach. A subsequent 13-run mixture experiment, in the region of stable MEs, was then performed to identify the optimal formulation (i.e., having the best glyburide dissolution properties). Percent drug dissolved and dissolution efficiency were selected as the responses to be maximized. The ME formulation optimized via the mixture experiment approach consisted of 78% surfactant/cosurfacant (a mixture of Tween 20 and Transcutol, 1:1, v/v), 5% oil (Labrafac Hydro) and 17% aqueous phase (water). The stable region of MEs was identified using mixture experiment methods for the first time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A general mixture theory. I. Mixtures of spherical molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Esam Z.

    1996-08-01

    We present a new general theory for obtaining mixture properties from the pure species equations of state. The theory addresses the composition and the unlike interactions dependence of mixture equation of state. The density expansion of the mixture equation gives the exact composition dependence of all virial coefficients. The theory introduces multiple-index parameters that can be calculated from binary unlike interaction parameters. In this first part of the work, details are presented for the first and second levels of approximations for spherical molecules. The second order model is simple and very accurate. It predicts the compressibility factor of additive hard spheres within simulation uncertainty (equimolar with size ratio of three). For nonadditive hard spheres, comparison with compressibility factor simulation data over a wide range of density, composition, and nonadditivity parameter, gave an average error of 2%. For mixtures of Lennard-Jones molecules, the model predictions are better than the Weeks-Chandler-Anderson perturbation theory.

  20. Surfactant-Polymer Interaction for Improved Oil Recovery; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabitto, Jorge; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this research was to use the interaction between a surfactant and a polymer for efficient displacement of tertiary oil by improving slug integrity, oil solubility in the displacing fluid and mobility control. Surfactant-polymer flooding has been shown to be highly effective in laboratory-scale linear floods. The focus of this proposal is to design an inexpensive surfactant-polymer mixture that can efficiently recover tertiary oil by avoiding surfactant slug degradation and viscous/heterogeneity fingering

  1. Model of predicting proportion of diesel fuel and engine oil in diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viscosity of diesel adulterated SAE 40 engine oil at varying proportions of the mixture is presented. Regression, variation of intercept and the power parameters methods are used for developing polynomial and power law functions for predicting proportion of either diesel or engine oil in diesel adulterated SAE 40 engine oil ...

  2. Natural gas hydrate formation and inhibition in gas/crude oil/aqueous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraboina, Nagu; Pachitsas, Stylianos; von Solms, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrate formation in multi phase mixtures containing an aqueous phase (with dissolved salts), reservoir fluid (crude oil) and natural gas phase was investigated by using a standard rocking cell (RC-5) apparatus. The hydrate formation temperature was reduced in the presence of crude oils...... can contribute to the safe operation of sub sea pipelines in the oil and gas industry....

  3. On Boiling of Crude Oil under Elevated Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V.; Goldobin, Denis S.

    2016-02-01

    We construct a thermodynamic model for theoretical calculation of the boiling process of multicomponent mixtures of hydrocarbons (e.g., crude oil). The model governs kinetics of the mixture composition in the course of the distillation process along with the boiling temperature increase. The model heavily relies on the theory of dilute solutions of gases in liquids. Importantly, our results are applicable for modelling the process under elevated pressure (while the empiric models for oil cracking are not scalable to the case of extreme pressure), such as in an oil field heated by lava intrusions.

  4. Oils; gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T

    1922-09-18

    Oils and gas are obtained from shale or oil-bearing sand by immersing the shale in and passing it through a bath of liquid oil, cracking the oil-soaked shale, and condensing the vapor and using the condensate to replenish the bath, preferably by passing the gases and vapors direct into the oil-bath container. Shale is fed continuously from a hopper to a bath of oil in an inclined chamber, is carried to the outlet by a conveyer, and through cracking tubes to an outlet pipe by conveyers. The gases and vapors escape by the pipe, a part condensing in the chamber and a run-back pipe and replenishing the bath, and the remainder passing through a condensing tower and condenser connected to reservoirs; the gas is further passed through a scrubber and a pipe to the burner of the retort. The oil condensed in the chamber overflows to the reservoir through a pipe provided with an open pipe to prevent siphoning. The conveyers and a valve on the pipe are operated by gearing. The operation may be conducted at reduced, normal, or increased pressure, e.g., 70 lbs. The temperature of the retort should be about 900 to 1400/sup 0/F, that of the inside of the tubes about 550 to 700/sup 0/F, and that of the chamber about 300/sup 0/F. The chamber and pipe may be insulated or artificially cooled.

  5. A detection method of vegetable oils in edible blended oil based on three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yu-Tian

    2016-12-01

    Edible blended vegetable oils are made from two or more refined oils. Blended oils can provide a wider range of essential fatty acids than single vegetable oils, which helps support good nutrition. Nutritional components in blended oils are related to the type and content of vegetable oils used, and a new, more accurate, method is proposed to identify and quantify the vegetable oils present using cluster analysis and a Quasi-Monte Carlo integral. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra were obtained at 250-400nm (excitation) and 260-750nm (emission). Mixtures of sunflower, soybean and peanut oils were used as typical examples to validate the effectiveness of the method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Winter, B.

    2001-01-01

    In refineries in particular attention is paid to the minimization of the generation of waste. Therefor catalysts in many processes are regenerated, absorbents are recycled and oily by-products are re-refined or used as fuels. This study discusses the origin and utilization of by-products from the oil industry. The processing of crude oils causes by-products and waste resulting from the crude oil itself or from cleaning measures for water pre-treatment, effluent treatment and flue gas treatment. (author)

  7. Natural convection in ternary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, G.M.; Kai, L.

    1981-01-01

    The field equations for a mixture of a viscous fluid, a deformable solid and a non-viscous fluid are studied, based on a linearized theory proposed by Bowen. The fields of density of each constituent, temperature, velocity of each fluid and displacement of the solid are determined, for steady states flow of the mixture between two parallel planes and between two concentric cylinders which are maintained at diferent temperatures. (Author) [pt

  8. Centrifugal separation of mixture gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, M.S.; Chen, W.N.; Yin, Y.T.

    2008-01-01

    An attempt for single centrifugal separation of mixtures with different molecular formula was presented in this paper. The mixtures of SF 6 and CCl 3 F, and SF 6 and CCl 4 were chosen as the processing gases, which were prepared in three mass ratios, 0.5, 0.8 and 0.2, respectively. The separating characteristics such as the overall separation factors and the variation of cuts were studied. (author)

  9. Upgrading of raw tall oil soap into fuel oils and lubricants; Raakasuovan jalostus poltto- ja voiteluoeljyksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A; Arpiainen, V; McKeough, P; Tapola, E; Haekkinen, R; Kuoppala, E; Koskela, K [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    Thermochemical processing of tall oil soap originating from various mixtures of birch and pine has been experimentally investigated. The organic matter of tall oil soap, which is a by- product of Kraft pulping, originates mainly from wood extractives. Conventional processing of tall oil soap involves acidulation with sulphuric acid to yield crude tall oil and subsequent distillation of the oil at centralised refineries. Because tall oil originating from birch wood is far less valuable than that from pine, there is an economic incentive in the Nordic countries to develop alternative conversion processes for the tall oil soap produced at pulp mills where birch is widely used as feedstock. Furthermore, thermochemical processing of tall oil soap does not introduce sulphur into the chemical recovery cycle. This would be a significant advantage in future mills employing closure of water circuits and/or sulphur-free pulping. In small-scale experiments tall oil soaps from wood mixtures with high birch content have been processed using both liquid-phase thermal treatment and pyrolysis. The liquid-phase thermal treatment at 450 deg C under a nitrogen atmosphere yielded a good-quality oil product at high yield (about 50 % of the energy content of the tall oil soap). In the atmospheric pyrolysis of birch tall oil soap a separation of inorganic and organic constituents was obtained. The energy value of the product gases was high. Both processes are promising, but the pyrolysis alternative has the greater economic potential, providing that the promising preliminary experimental results have given a true picture of the performance of the full-scale pyrolysis process. (orig.)

  10. Uppgrading of raw tall oil soap into fuel oils and lubricants; Raakasuovan jalostus poltto- ja voiteluoeljyksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; McKeough, P.; Tapola, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Thermochemical processing of tall oil soap originating from various mixtures of birch and pine has been experimentally investigated. The organic matter of tall oil soap, which is a by-product of kraft pulping, originates mainly from wood extractives. Conventional processing of tall oil soap involves acidulation with sulphuric acid to yield crude tall oil and subsequent distillation of the oil at centralised refineries. Because tall oil originating from birch wood is far less valuable than that from pine, there is an economic incentive in the Nordic countries to develop alternative conversion processes for the tall oil soap produced at pulp mills where birch is widely used as feedstock. Furthermore, thermochemical processing of tall oil soap does not introduce sulphur into the chemical recovery cycle. This would be a significant advantage in future mills employing closure of water circuits and/or sulphur-free pulping. In small-scale experiments tall oil soaps from wood mixtures with high birch content have been processed using both liquid-phase thermal treatment and pyrolysis. The liquid-phase thermal treatment at 450 deg C under a nitrogen atmosphere yielded a good-quality oil product at high yield (about 50% of the energy content of the tall oil soap). In the atmospheric pyrolysis of birch tall oil soap a separation of inorganic and organic constituents was obtained. The energy value of the product gases was high. Both processes are promising, but the pyrolysis alternative has the greater economic potential, providing that the promising preliminary experimental results have given a true picture of the performance of the full-scale pyrolysis process. (orig.)

  11. Performance evaluation of Louisiana superpave mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    This report documents the performance of Louisiana Superpave mixtures through laboratory mechanistic tests, mixture : volumetric properties, gradation analysis, and early field performance. Thirty Superpave mixtures were evaluated in this : study. Fo...

  12. New insights into oxidation behaviours of crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Mehta, S.A.; Moore, R.G. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Innovative technologies will be needed to develop many of the world's oil reservoirs in an economically sustainable manner. In recent years, air injection for light oil reservoirs has gained recognition as an Improved Oil Recovery (IOR) process. In this process, the oxygen from the injected air reacts with a small fraction of the reservoir oil at high temperature to produce a mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. The produced gas generated by the reaction mobilizes the oil downstream, thereby sweeping oil towards the production wells. High pressure air injection used in light oil reservoirs differs from the process used in heavy oil reservoirs, despite the fact that various oxidation reaction schemes exist. The key challenge facing the air injection process is the complexity of the oxidation reaction for crude oil and the lack of understanding of the oxidation behavior of light oils. This study identified a range of oxidation behaviors between light oil and heavy oil. The relationship between crude oil composition and its oxidation behaviors was also examined with reference to 3 different oils and their SARA (saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes) fractions. This study was carried out at various pressures and temperatures using thermogravimetry and pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) as the thermal analysis techniques.

  13. Comparison of solid-phase cytometry and the plate count method for the evaluation of the survival of bacteria in pharmaceutical oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Prijck, K; Peeters, E; Nelis, H J

    2008-12-01

    To compare the survival of four bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in pharmaceutical oils, including jojoba oil/tea tree oil, carbol oil, jojoba oil and sesame oil. Oils were spiked with the test bacteria in a concentration of 10(4) CFU ml(-1). Bacteria were extracted from oils with phosphate-buffered saline containing 0.5% Tween 20. Aliquots of the pooled water layers were analysed by solid-phase cytometry and plate counting. Plate counts dropped to zero for all test strains exposed for 24 h to three of the four oils. In contrast, significant numbers of viable cells were still detected by SPC, except in the jojoba oil/tea tree oil mixture and partly in sesame oil. Exposure of bacteria for 24 h to the two oils containing an antimicrobial led to a loss of their culturability but not necessarily of their viability. The antibacterial activity of the jojoba oil/tea tree oil mixture supersedes that of carbol oil. These in vitro data suggest that the jojoba oil/tea tree oil mixture more than carbol oil inhibits bacterial proliferation when used for intermittent self-catherization.

  14. Peppermint Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T U V W X Y Z Peppermint Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... sheet provides basic information about peppermint and peppermint oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  15. OIL BOND®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: this miscellaneous oil spill control agent is a solidifier used in cleanups. It absorbs and solidifies hydrocarbon spills on freshwater and saltwater or land applications. Ring spill with booms or pillows before treatment.

  16. Mineral oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schult-Bornemann, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    The dominant theme in the world energy market was the fall in oil prices in 2014. From 115 US-$/bbl in June it dropped to below 50 US-$/bbl in January 2015. Thereby the shale oil revolution has had the strong impact on the global energy situation, to this point has been predicted for three years. Although no one could predict the exact height of the fall in oil prices, but with oil as a reserve currency for all other fuels, it has not only had an impact on the gas and coal prices, but other commodities, such as copper, have also yielded. About cause and effect, there is a lot of speculation - not all of which are supported by wisdom. [de

  17. Mechanical recovery of oil in ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solsberg, L.B.; McGrath, M.

    1992-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the mechanical systems used for removing oil in ice. The most promising spill cleanup techniques were identified along with recommendations for future work. Catalogued data in the review focused on skimmers, of which rope mop machines were considered as having the most versatile approach. The performance of the Foxtail VAB 8-14 skimmer was then assessed in North Slope crude oil and diesel fuel at a test site in Alaska. The skimmer operates through a remote power pack and pump, and incorporates eight vertically oriented rope mops. It weighs 900 kg and is suspended from a crane when deployed. Three independent test parameters were measured: oil type, slick thickness, and ice cover. A test strategy was devised to isolate the effects of individual parameters on skimming in order to optimize machine performance. Skimmer performance was based on the percent oil in the recovered oil/water mixture and the net oil collection rate. Skimmer performance was found to be optimal at rope mop speeds of 0.2-0.3 m/s in medium range viscosity oils. The unit tested was significantly less effective in diesel. Overall, the Foxtail skimmer was found to comprise an oil recovery concept that has excellent potential and affords versatility for many oil-in-ice applications. 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Oil vaporizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumontier, F

    1904-03-31

    An oil burner particularly applicable to heavy oils, composed essentially of one or more gasification chambers, heated by the flame from the burners, to which the combustible gases are fed by the collectors suitably fixed on the chambers, all parts of the apparatus and especially the gasification chambers being easily demountable to permit cleaning, and all arranged in such a manner as to avoid fouling by reducing or localizing the deposition of solid deposits in the coking chamber.

  19. Oil on seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerresen, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The present book discusses the effects of oil spills at sea. Topics covered are as follow: Petroleum properties; oil spills at sea; harmfulness of oil spills; effects from acute oil spills; experience of oil spills; oil spill contingency planning in Norway; oil spill protecting equipment and methods; emergency of unloading equipment. 252 refs., 86 figs., 54 tabs

  20. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oils treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by genotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Donnarumma, Lucia; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Mecozzi, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been an increased interest in exploiting allelopathy in organic agriculture. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of essential oil mixtures in order to establish their allelopathic use in agriculture. Two mixtures of essential oils consisting respectively of tea tree oil (TTO) and clove plus rosemary (C + R) oils were tested. Phytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests on the root meristems of Vicia faba minor were performed. A phytotoxic influence was particularly relevant for C + R mixture, while genotoxicity tests revealed significant results with both C + R oil mixture and TTO. Phenotypic analysis on Vicia faba minor primary roots following C + R oil mixture treatment resulted in callose production, an early symptom attributed to lipid peroxidation. The approach described in this study, based on genotoxicity bioassays, might identify specific DNA damage induced by essential oil treatments. These tests may represent a powerful method to evaluate potential adverse effects of different mixtures of essential oils that might be useful in alternative agriculture. Future studies are focusing on the positive synergism of more complex mixtures of essential oils in order to reduce concentrations of potentially toxic components while at the same time maintaining efficacy in antimicrobial and antifungal management.

  1. Nonparametric e-Mixture Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Ken; Hino, Hideitsu; Akaho, Shotaro; Murata, Noboru

    2016-12-01

    This study considers the common situation in data analysis when there are few observations of the distribution of interest or the target distribution, while abundant observations are available from auxiliary distributions. In this situation, it is natural to compensate for the lack of data from the target distribution by using data sets from these auxiliary distributions-in other words, approximating the target distribution in a subspace spanned by a set of auxiliary distributions. Mixture modeling is one of the simplest ways to integrate information from the target and auxiliary distributions in order to express the target distribution as accurately as possible. There are two typical mixtures in the context of information geometry: the [Formula: see text]- and [Formula: see text]-mixtures. The [Formula: see text]-mixture is applied in a variety of research fields because of the presence of the well-known expectation-maximazation algorithm for parameter estimation, whereas the [Formula: see text]-mixture is rarely used because of its difficulty of estimation, particularly for nonparametric models. The [Formula: see text]-mixture, however, is a well-tempered distribution that satisfies the principle of maximum entropy. To model a target distribution with scarce observations accurately, this letter proposes a novel framework for a nonparametric modeling of the [Formula: see text]-mixture and a geometrically inspired estimation algorithm. As numerical examples of the proposed framework, a transfer learning setup is considered. The experimental results show that this framework works well for three types of synthetic data sets, as well as an EEG real-world data set.

  2. Experimental determination of hydrogen content of oil extract from jatropha seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunade, I.O.; Jonah, S.A.; Omede, M.O.

    2010-01-01

    The thermal neutron technique was used for the determination of hydrogen content of oil extract from Jatropha seeds. The experimental arrangement consists of a source holder, Am-Be neutron source embedded in paraffin wax and 3 He detector was used to measure reflection coefficient as a function of hydrogen content of various hydrocarbon materials used as calibration standards. The hydrogen content which is an important property of fuel oils was determined for jatropha oil and jatropha-synthetic diesel using their measured values of neutron reflection coefficients and calibration data. The result obtained showed that the hydrogen content of Jatropha oil exceeds that of the synthetic diesel, thus indicating its suitability as a fuel oil for powering diesel engines. The results obtained also indicated that hydrogen content of jatropha-synthetic diesel mixture increases as the volumetric concentration of jatropha oil in the mixture increases, indicating that jatropha oil can serve as a suitable additive to synthetic diesel oil.

  3. Heterogeneous catalysis afford biodiesel of babassu, castor oil and blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Lee M.G. de; Abreu, Wiury C. de; Silva, Maria das Gracas de O. e; Matos, Jose Milton E. de; Moura, Carla V.R. de; Moura, Edmilson M. de, E-mail: mmoura@ufpi.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Lima, Jose Renato de O.; Oliveira, Jose Eduardo de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP/IQ/CEMPEQC), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Centro de Monitoramento e Pesquisa da Qualidade de Combustiveis, Biocombustiveis, Petroleo e Derivados

    2013-04-15

    This work describes the preparation of babassu, castor oil biodiesel and mixtures in various proportions of these oils, using alkaline compounds of strontium (SrCO{sub 3} + SrO + Sr (OH){sub 2}) as heterogeneous catalysts. The mixture of oils of these oleaginous sources was used in the production of biodiesel with quality parameters that meet current legislation. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XDR), physisorption of gas (BET method), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The viscometric technique was used to monitor the optimization.The transesterification reactions performed using strontium compounds reached conversion rates of 97.2% babassu biodiesel (BB), 96.4% castor oil biodiesel (COB) and 95.3% Babassu/Castor Oil Biodiesel 4:1 (BBCO41). (author)

  4. Heterogeneous catalysis afford biodiesel of babassu, castor oil and blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Lee M.G. de; Abreu, Wiury C. de; Silva, Maria das Gracas de O. e; Matos, Jose Milton E. de; Moura, Carla V.R. de; Moura, Edmilson M. de; Lima, Jose Renato de O.; Oliveira, Jose Eduardo de

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the preparation of babassu, castor oil biodiesel and mixtures in various proportions of these oils, using alkaline compounds of strontium (SrCO 3 + SrO + Sr (OH) 2 ) as heterogeneous catalysts. The mixture of oils of these oleaginous sources was used in the production of biodiesel with quality parameters that meet current legislation. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XDR), physisorption of gas (BET method), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The viscometric technique was used to monitor the optimization.The transesterification reactions performed using strontium compounds reached conversion rates of 97.2% babassu biodiesel (BB), 96.4% castor oil biodiesel (COB) and 95.3% Babassu/Castor Oil Biodiesel 4:1 (BBCO41). (author)

  5. Enzymatic transesterification of used frying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, S.; Hancsok, J. (Univ. of Pannonia, Veszprem (HU)), Email: hancsokj@almos.uni-pannon.hu

    2009-07-01

    The research of converting used frying oils to less harmful products with much higher value was forced by environmental, human biological and economical reasons. One possible pathway of the transformation is the enzymatic transesterification. Through the research work used frying oils (UFO) and sunflower oils (SO) from different origins were first properly pre-treated. Then the previously mentioned feeds and different mixtures of them were transesterified in the presence of Novozym 435 enzyme catalyst under different process conditions. Characteristics of the produced methyl esters were evaluated according to the requirements of EN 14214:2009 standard. We determined that the transesterification of used frying oils is not expediential in the presence of enzyme catalyst because the significant decreasing of catalyst activity. We have found proper UFO and SO mixtures and combination of process conditions (pressure: atmospheric, temperature: 54 +-1 deg C; methanol to triglyceride molar ratio: 4:1; reaction time: 16 hours) resulting in high (>90 %) yield of monoesters. We clearly established that the best results through the enzymatic transesterification were obtained with the improved sunflower oils containing the highest amount (>88 %) of oleic acid and the used frying oils originated from this source. (orig.)

  6. Mixtures of skewed Kalman filters

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoungmoon

    2014-01-01

    Normal state-space models are prevalent, but to increase the applicability of the Kalman filter, we propose mixtures of skewed, and extended skewed, Kalman filters. To do so, the closed skew-normal distribution is extended to a scale mixture class of closed skew-normal distributions. Some basic properties are derived and a class of closed skew. t distributions is obtained. Our suggested family of distributions is skewed and has heavy tails too, so it is appropriate for robust analysis. Our proposed special sequential Monte Carlo methods use a random mixture of the closed skew-normal distributions to approximate a target distribution. Hence it is possible to handle skewed and heavy tailed data simultaneously. These methods are illustrated with numerical experiments. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  7. Preparation of conducting solid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spokas, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    The application of conducting plastic mixtures to the fundamental problem of radiation dosimetry is briefly reviewed. A particular approach to achieving formulations with the necessary characteristics is described. A number of successful mixtures are defined for a number of different specific dosimetry situations. To obtain high quality stable materials requires intense blending and working of the materials at elevated temperatures. One machine that succeeds in this task is the Shonka plastics mixer-extruder. The Shonka mixer is described in complete detail. The procedures used in preparing representative formulations with this device are presented. A number of properties of successful conducting mixtures so prepared are summarized. The conditions required for molding such material are given. Several special welding methods for specific application with these formulations have been devised and are described

  8. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

    2011-12-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online.

  9. Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-07-01

    Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures: A Review of Mixtures Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bjarnason, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    .... Recent advances in disciplines such as genomics, proteomics, metabonomics and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling should assist in the hazard assessment of complex chemical mixtures. However, the process of regulatory assessment of these types of exposures will remain both complex and difficult.

  11. Use of technical mixtures of carboxylic acids to the extraction of silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smulek, W.

    1983-01-01

    The application of technical mixtures of carboxylic acids, obtained from a Polish oil mill, to the extraction of silver, gold, and europium is described. The distribution ratio is given as a function of HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 concentrations, extractant and metal concentrations, and nature of diluent. (author)

  12. On the nonequilibrium segregation state of a two-phase mixture in a porous column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1996-01-01

    The problem of segregation of a two-phase multicomponent mixture under the action of thermal gradient, gravity and capillary forces is studied with respect to component distribution in a thick oil-gas-condensate reservoir. Governing equations are derived on the basis of nonequilibrium...

  13. Modelling of phase equilibria and related properties of mixtures involving lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunico, Larissa

    Many challenges involving physical and thermodynamic properties in the production of edible oils and biodiesel are observed, such as availability of experimental data and realiable prediction. In the case of lipids, a lack of experimental data for pure components and also for their mixtures in open...

  14. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  15. Distilling oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffer, L G

    1912-01-29

    In a process for converting heavy hydrocarbons, such as petroleum or shale oil, into light hydrocarbons by distilling under the pressure of an inert gas, the operation is conducted at a temperature not exceeding 410/sup 0/C and under an accurately regulated pressure, the gas being circulated through the still and the condenser by means of a pump. The oil in the still may be agitated by stirring vanes or by blowing the gas through it. Hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, or gases generated in the distillation may be used as pressure media; the gas is heated before its admission to the still. A pressure of from 11 to 12 atmospheres is used in treating gas oil. Specification 10,277/89 is referred to.

  16. Prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture disrupts reproduction in F1 female mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Changqing; Gao, Liying; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2017-03-01

    Phthalates are used in a large variety of products, such as building materials, medical devices, and personal care products. Most previous studies on the toxicity of phthalates have focused on single phthalates, but it is also important to study the effects of phthalate mixtures because humans are exposed to phthalate mixtures. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture adversely affects female reproduction in mice. To test this hypothesis, pregnant CD-1 dams were orally dosed with vehicle (tocopherol-stripped corn oil) or a phthalate mixture (20 and 200 μg/kg/day, 200 and 500 mg/kg/day) daily from gestational day 10 to birth. The mixture was based on the composition of phthalates detected in urine samples from pregnant women in Illinois. The mixture included 35% diethyl phthalate, 21% di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 15% dibutyl phthalate, 15% diisononyl phthalate, 8% diisobutyl phthalate, and 5% benzylbutyl phthalate. Female mice born to the exposed dams were subjected to tissue collections and fertility tests at different ages. Our results indicate that prenatal exposure to the phthalate mixture significantly increased uterine weight and decreased anogenital distance on postnatal days 8 and 60, induced cystic ovaries at 13 months, disrupted estrous cyclicity, reduced fertility-related indices, and caused some breeding complications at 3, 6, and 9 months of age. Collectively, our data suggest that prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture disrupts aspects of female reproduction in mice. - Highlights: • Prenatal exposure to a phthalate mixture disrupts F1 estrous cyclicity. • Prenatal exposure to a phthalate mixture induces F1 ovarian cysts. • Prenatal exposure to a phthalate mixture decreases F1 female fertility-related indices. • Prenatal exposure to a phthalate mixture induces F1 breeding complications.

  17. Oil integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela agree in to have a bigger exchange of information, technology and experiences in areas of mutual interest that allow in the future, combined developments of the hydrocarbons industry. In such a sense, ECOPETROL narrowed its relationships with the two powerful Latin American oil enterprises, when suiting in Bogota agreements of mutual collaboration with representatives of the respective state companies. To begin, the company signed a cooperation agreement with Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA), with the purpose of to narrow the relationships between the two companies and to undertake combined actions in those matters of the oil and petrochemical industry of mutual interest

  18. Absorption from multicomponent gas mixtures comparing with Elemir gasoline plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miscevic, D

    1970-10-01

    A short description and explanation are outlined of all factors which have influence on hydrocarbon absorption from multicomponent gas mixtures. A short review of these different methods for absorption efficiency calculation is given. On the basis of the explained methods, the absorption from one natural gas at the Elemir plant is calculated and the results are given in tabular data. The number of the theoretical plate and L/V ratio for a given recovery of the key component is fixed by the calculation and by a graphical solution. Special attention is given for absorption oil depending on gas flow, pressure, and temperature. A series of diagrams is presented showing required absorption oil at the Elemir plant for given propane recovery, depending on the variables which are mentioned.

  19. Thermal mixtures in stochastic mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, F [Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica; Loffredo, M I [Salerno Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1981-01-17

    Stochastic mechanics is extended to systems in thermal equilibrium. The resulting stochastic processes are mixtures of Nelson processes. Their Markov property is investigated in some simple cases. It is found that in order to inforce Markov property the algebra of observable associated to the present must be suitably enlarged.

  20. Characterization of bioactive mixtures oligogalacturonidos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mederos Torres, Yuliem; Hormaza Montenegro, Josefa; Reynaldo Escobar, Ines; Montesino Sequi, Raquel

    2011-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides are pectic oligosaccharides composed of lineal chains of D-galacturonic acid, linked by α (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Oligogalacturonides' mixtures are obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of pectins of diverse vegetal species. These oligosaccharides unchain a diverse biological activity in plants, which depends mainly on their polymerization degrees. The National Institute of Agricultural Science has a patent technology at national scale that lets to obtain a mixture of oligogalacturonides with different polymerization degree. In this work is presented the characterization of oligogalacturonides by spectrophotometric analysis attending to their uronic acids, reductor sugars, and neutral sugars content. Also the chromatographic profile of samples in study is obtained, using the derivatization with 2-aminobenzamide label and the separation by high pH anion exchange chromatography. It is achieved the separation of at least eight galacturonic acid oligomers with a variable degree of polymerization. On the other hand, the analysis by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) showed that mixtures were composed by galacturonic acid salts. Results indicated that starting from two pectic acids with different characteristics, mixtures of oligogalacturonides of similar chemical composition could be obtained, but they differ in the proportion that they are presented

  1. Ecological Assembly of Chemical Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human-environment interactions have a significant role in the formation of chemical mixtures in the environment and by extension in human tissues and fluids. These interactions, which include decisions to purchase and use products containing chemicals as well as behaviors and act...

  2. The oil industry in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2007: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  3. The oil industry in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2006: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  4. Biodegradation and environmental behavior of biodiesel mixtures in the sea: An initial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMello, Jared A; Carmichael, Catherine A; Peacock, Emily E; Nelson, Robert K; Samuel Arey, J; Reddy, Christopher M

    2007-07-01

    Biodiesel, a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) derived from animal fats or vegetable oils, is rapidly moving towards the mainstream as an alternative source of energy. However, the behavior of biodiesel, or blends of biodiesel with fossil diesel, in the marine environment have yet to be fully understood. Hence, we performed a series of initial laboratory experiments and simple calculations to evaluate the microbial and environmental fate of FAMEs. Aerobic seawater microcosms spiked with biodiesel or mixtures of biodiesel and fossil diesel revealed that the FAMEs were degraded at roughly the same rate as n-alkanes, and more rapidly than other hydrocarbon components. The residues extracted from these different microcosms became indistinguishable within weeks. Preliminary results from physical-chemical calculations suggest that FAMEs in biodiesel mixtures will not affect the evaporation rates of spilled petroleum hydrocarbons but may stabilize oil droplets in the water column and thereby facilitate transport.

  5. Tribological Effects of Mineral-Oil Lubricant Contamination with Biofuels: A Pin-on-Disk Tribometry and Wear Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Shanta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of biodiesel produces engine oil dilution because of unburned biodiesel impinging on cold walls of the combustion chamber, being scrapped to the oil pan, and leading to changes of oil friction, wear and lubricity properties. In this paper, mixtures of SAE 15W-40 oil, which were contaminated by known percentages of the biodiesels from canola oil, peanut oil, soybean oil, and chicken fat, were tested in a pin-on-disk tribometer. A contact was employed of AISI 1018 steel disk and AISI 316 stainless-steel ball for pin material, and friction force and specific wear were measured. Wear on the disk surfaces showed that any degree of mineral-oil dilution by the tested biodiesels reduces the wear protection of engine oil even at small mixture percentages. However, these reductions were not substantially different than those observed for same percentages of dilution of mineral oil by fossil diesel. The tested mixture of oil contaminated with animal fat feedstock (e.g., chicken fat biodiesel showed the best wear behavior as compared to those for the other tested mixtures (of mineral oil with vegetable feedstock biodiesel dilutions. Obtained results are discussed as baseline for further studies in a renewable energy multidisciplinary approach on biofuels and biolubes.

  6. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies

  7. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known as "medium chain triglycerides." Some of these fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. When applied ... in food amounts. But coconut oil contains a type of fat that can increase cholesterol levels. So people should ...

  8. LINNAEUS OIL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Crude jatropha oil; Heterogeneous catalyst; Transesterification ... mmage for alternative fuel ... be designed to give higher activity and lifetimes [13]. So, the need for a cheap catalyst for biodiesel synthesis from no ... methanol (High Performance Liquid Chromatography ... ratio and were then charged into the glass reactor.

  9. Studies on The Synergistic Effect of Some Irradiated Essential Oils in Some Food Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafy, M.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cumin, rosemary and thyme essential oils were gamma irradiated. Then, antibacterial and antioxidant activities were studied to measure the synergistic effect of their essential oils mixtures. 4, 6 and 4 kGy were the recommended doses for cumin, rosemary and thyme, respectively according to antimicrobial activity (agar well-diffusion) against S. typhimurium, S. aureus, B. cereus and E. coli. There were no changes in the physiochemical properties due to irradiation but, some changes occurred in the GC/MS analysis where, the amount of oxygenated compounds increased in cumin and thyme essential oils while, the oxygenated compounds decreased in rosemary essential oil. The mixture made from non-irradiated cumin (C 0 ) and rosemary (R 0 ) essential oils were showed the highest antimicrobial activity against E. coil and B. cereus at 50 μl. Mixtures made from non-irradiated cumin and thyme (T 0 ) essential oils showed the highest antimicrobial activity against B. cereus. Mixtures made form irradiated cumin at dose 4 kGy (C 4 ) and rosemary at dose 6 kGy (R 6 ) essential oils introduced promising antimicrobial activity as well as C 0 XR 0 mixture. Fraction inhibitory concentrations (FIC) were studied against selected four bacterial strains for measuring synergistic activity however, (FIC) represented indifference in all essential oils mixtures but, the C 0 X R 0 mixture against B. cereus (0.375) and E. coli (0.375) was synergy (below 0.5). Furthermore, the FIC shows addition in case of R 0 XT 0 , C 2 XR 6 , C 4 XR 6 and R 6 XT 4 against B. cereus. And in case of C 4 XR 6 against S. typhimurium. Preliminary experiment represented that 0.2, 0.4 and 0.1% were the acceptable odor in sunflower oil supplemented with rosemary, cumin and thyme essential oils, respectively.

  10. A novel quantitative analysis method of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra for vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Yu-Tian; Liu, Xiao-Fei

    2015-04-01

    Edible blend oil is a mixture of vegetable oils. Eligible blend oil can meet the daily need of two essential fatty acids for human to achieve the balanced nutrition. Each vegetable oil has its different composition, so vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil determine nutritional components in blend oil. A high-precision quantitative analysis method to detect the vegetable oils contents in blend oil is necessary to ensure balanced nutrition for human being. Three-dimensional fluorescence technique is high selectivity, high sensitivity, and high-efficiency. Efficiency extraction and full use of information in tree-dimensional fluorescence spectra will improve the accuracy of the measurement. A novel quantitative analysis is proposed based on Quasi-Monte-Carlo integral to improve the measurement sensitivity and reduce the random error. Partial least squares method is used to solve nonlinear equations to avoid the effect of multicollinearity. The recovery rates of blend oil mixed by peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower are calculated to verify the accuracy of the method, which are increased, compared the linear method used commonly for component concentration measurement.

  11. Modeling phase equilibria for acid gas mixtures using the CPA equation of state. Part IV. Applications to mixtures of CO2 with alkanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Ali, Shahid; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of pure gaseous, liquid or supercritical CO2 and CO2 mixtures with hydrocarbons and other compounds such as water, alcohols, and glycols are very important in many processes in the oil and gas industry. Design of such processes requires use of accurate thermodynamic...... models, capable of predicting the complex phase behavior of multicomponent mixtures as well as their volumetric properties. In this direction, over the last several years, the cubic-plus-association (CPA) thermodynamic model has been successfully used for describing volumetric properties and phase...

  12. Dose-Time Effect of Crude Oil and Hydro-test Effluent on Freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and a brackish water shrimp, Palaemonetes africanus. Test results indicated that the brackish water juvenile shrimps were more sensitive to the mixture of the hydro-test effluent and crude oil than the freshwater habitat. This could be ...

  13. Essential Oils in Foods: From Ancient Times to the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendra, Esther

    2016-06-14

    Medicinal plants and culinary herbs have been used since ancient times. Essential oils (EO) are a mixture of numerous compounds, mainly terpenes, alcohols, acids, esters, epoxides, aldehydes, ketones,aminesandsulfides,thatareprobablyproducedbyplantsasaresponsetostress[1].[...].

  14. Mixtures in nonstable Levy processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroni, N Cufaro

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the Levy processes produced by means of two interconnected classes of nonstable, infinitely divisible distribution: the variance gamma and the Student laws. While the variance gamma family is closed under convolution, the Student one is not: this makes its time evolution more complicated. We prove that-at least for one particular type of Student processes suggested by recent empirical results, and for integral times-the distribution of the process is a mixture of other types of Student distributions, randomized by means of a new probability distribution. The mixture is such that along the time the asymptotic behaviour of the probability density functions always coincide with that of the generating Student law. We put forward the conjecture that this can be a general feature of the Student processes. We finally analyse the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process driven by our Levy noises and show a few simulations of it

  15. Voltammetric fingerprinting of oils and its combination with chemometrics for the detection of extra virgin olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsopelas, Fotios; Konstantopoulos, Dimitris; Kakoulidou, Anna Tsantili

    2018-07-26

    In the present work, two approaches for the voltammetric fingerprinting of oils and their combination with chemometrics were investigated in order to detect the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with olive pomace oil as well as the most common seed oils, namely sunflower, soybean and corn oil. In particular, cyclic voltammograms of diluted extra virgin olive oils, regular (pure) olive oils (blends of refined olive oils with virgin olive oils), olive pomace oils and seed oils in presence of dichloromethane and 0.1 M of LiClO 4 in EtOH as electrolyte were recorded at a glassy carbon working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry was also employed in methanolic extracts of olive and seed oils. Datapoints of cyclic voltammograms were exported and submitted to Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Square- Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). In diluted oils, PLS-DA provided a clear discrimination between olive oils (extra virgin and regular) and olive pomace/seed oils, while SIMCA showed a clear discrimination of extra virgin olive oil in regard to all other samples. Using methanolic extracts and considering datapoints recorded between 0.6 and 1.3 V, PLS-DA provided more information, resulting in three clusters-extra virgin olive oils, regular olive oils and seed/olive pomace oils-while SIMCA showed inferior performance. For the quantification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration with olive pomace oil or seed oils, a model based on Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis was developed. Detection limit of adulteration in olive oil was found to be 2% (v/v) and the linearity range up to 33% (v/v). Validation and applicability of all models was proved using a suitable test set. In the case of PLS, synthetic oil mixtures with 4 known adulteration levels in the range of 4-26% were also employed as a blind test set. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental study on kinetics oil oil-suspended particulate matter aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.; Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON; Khelifa, A.; Wang, Z.; Brown, C.; Fieldhouse, B.; Yang, C.; Zheng, X.; Wong, S.; So, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    Past studies of oil spills have shown that oil suspended particulate matter aggregates (OSAs) play a role in enhancing the natural cleansing of oiled shorelines. OSAs result from aggregation between suspended oil droplets and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in aquatic environments. During this process, oil dispersion into the water column is significantly increased since the surface of the oil droplet is surrounded by sediment particles. In addition, the accelerated biodegradation of the oil can be attributed to the greater oil-water contact area. This study focused on the kinetic aspects of OSA formation, with particular reference to the time scale of this process and its significance to oil dispersion following oil spills in water. A laboratory study was conducted to measure the time scale of OSA formation and its variations with mixing conditions. A reciprocating shaker and various oil/sediment mixtures were used to prepare the OSAs. Standard reference material 1941b was used as the natural sediment mixed with Arabian medium crude and artificial seawater under various mixing energies. The sediment-to-oil ratio remained constant for all experiments. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis was used to measure the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) trapped in negatively buoyant OSAs. Results showed that the TPH in OSAs increased exponentially with shaking time and reached an equilibrium value within 3 hours. The equilibrium decreased from 3 hours to 1.3 hours when the shaking rate increased from 2.0 to 2.3 Hz. It was concluded that high mixing energy enhances OSA formation and shortens the time for OSA formation. 42 refs., 6 tabs., 5 figs

  17. Experimental study on kinetics oil oil-suspended particulate matter aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J. [Ocean Univ. of China, Qingdoa (China). Environmental Science and Engineering Inst.; Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Emergencies, Operational Analytical Laboratories and Research Support Division; Khelifa, A.; Wang, Z.; Brown, C.; Fieldhouse, B.; Yang, C. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Emergencies, Operational Analytical Laboratories and Research Support Division; Zheng, X. [Ocean Univ. of China, Qingdoa (China). Environmental Science and Engineering Inst.; Wong, S. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; So, L.C. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Past studies of oil spills have shown that oil suspended particulate matter aggregates (OSAs) play a role in enhancing the natural cleansing of oiled shorelines. OSAs result from aggregation between suspended oil droplets and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in aquatic environments. During this process, oil dispersion into the water column is significantly increased since the surface of the oil droplet is surrounded by sediment particles. In addition, the accelerated biodegradation of the oil can be attributed to the greater oil-water contact area. This study focused on the kinetic aspects of OSA formation, with particular reference to the time scale of this process and its significance to oil dispersion following oil spills in water. A laboratory study was conducted to measure the time scale of OSA formation and its variations with mixing conditions. A reciprocating shaker and various oil/sediment mixtures were used to prepare the OSAs. Standard reference material 1941b was used as the natural sediment mixed with Arabian medium crude and artificial seawater under various mixing energies. The sediment-to-oil ratio remained constant for all experiments. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis was used to measure the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) trapped in negatively buoyant OSAs. Results showed that the TPH in OSAs increased exponentially with shaking time and reached an equilibrium value within 3 hours. The equilibrium decreased from 3 hours to 1.3 hours when the shaking rate increased from 2.0 to 2.3 Hz. It was concluded that high mixing energy enhances OSA formation and shortens the time for OSA formation. 42 refs., 6 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25 to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil.

  19. Extracting oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patart, G

    1926-03-15

    In the hydrogenation or extraction of by-products from organic substances at high temperatures and pressures, the gases or liquids, or both, used are those which are already heated and compressed during industrial operations such as exothermic synthesizing reactions such as the production of methanol from hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a catalytic process. Gases from this reaction may be passed upwardly through a digester packed with pine wood while liquid from the same catalytic process is passed downwardly through the material. The issuing liquid contains methanol, pine oil, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, and acetic acid. The gases contain additional hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethylene, and its homologs which are condensed upon the catalyser to liquid hydrocarbons. Petroleum oils and coal may be treated similarly.

  20. Performance Analysis of Joule-Thomson Cooler Supplied with Gas Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, A.; Chorowski, M.; Dorosz, P.

    2017-02-01

    Joule-Thomson (J-T) cryo-coolers working in closed cycles and supplied with gas mixtures are the subject of intensive research in different laboratories. The replacement of pure nitrogen by nitrogen-hydrocarbon mixtures allows to improve both thermodynamic parameters and economy of the refrigerators. It is possible to avoid high pressures in the heat exchanger and to use standard refrigeration compressor instead of gas bottles or high-pressure oil free compressor. Closed cycle and mixture filled Joule-Thomson cryogenic refrigerator providing 10-20 W of cooling power at temperature range 90-100 K has been designed and manufactured. Thermodynamic analysis including the optimization of the cryo-cooler mixture has been performed with ASPEN HYSYS software. The paper describes the design of the cryo-cooler and provides thermodynamic analysis of the system. The test results are presented and discussed.

  1. Oxidative stability and alpha-tocopherol retention in soybean oil with lemon seed extract (Citrus limon) under thermoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzia, Débora Maria Moreno; Jorge, Neuza

    2009-11-01

    The synergistic effect of lemon seed extract with tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) in soybean oil subjected to thermoxidation by Rancimat was investigated, and the influence of these antioxidants on a-tocopherol degradation in thermoxidized soybean oil. Control, LSE (2400 mg/kg Lemon Seed Extract), TBHQ (50 mg/kg), Mixture 1 (LSE + 50 mg/kg TBHQ) and Mixture 2 (LSE + 25 mg/kg TBHQ) were subjected to 180 degrees C for 20 h. Samples were taken at time 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 h intervals and analysed for oxidative stability and alpha-tocopherol content. LSE and Mixtures 1 and 2 showed the capacity of retarding lipid oxidation when added to soya oil and also contributed to alpha-tocopherol retention in oil heated at high temperatures. However, Mixtures 1 and 2 added to the oil presented a greater antioxidant power, consequently proving the antioxidants synergistic effect.

  2. The freshwater biodegradation potential of nine Alaskan oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsopp, S.; Segy, G.

    1997-01-01

    Nine Alaskan representative crude oils and oil products with freshwater spill potential were collected, aged, and incubated in the presence of the standard freshwater inoculum for 28 days at 10 degrees C. Detailed analytical chemistry was performed on all samples to quantify compositional changes. All of the samples tested exhibited measurable hydrocarbon loss as a result of incubation with the freshwater inoculum. Total saturate and total n-alkane biodegradation were greatly enhanced when nutrients were present. The oil products Jet B Fuel and Diesel No. 2 appear to be more biodegradable than the Alaska North Slope and Cook Inlet crude oils tested, while the Bunker C/Diesel mixture appears to be less biodegradable than these crude oils. These results suggest that the screening procedures described here can provide useful information when applying bioremediation technology to the cleanup of selected oiled freshwater environments. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs

  3. A numerical model for buoyant oil jets and smoke plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L.; Yapa, P. D.

    1997-01-01

    Development of a 3-D numerical model to simulate the behaviour of buoyant oil jets from underwater accidents and smoke plumes from oil burning was described. These jets/plumes can be oil-in-water, oil/gas mixture in water, gas in water, or gas in air. The ambient can have a 3-D flow structure, and spatially/temporally varying flow conditions. The model is based on the Lagrangian integral technique. The model formulation of oil jet includes the diffusion and dissolution of oil from the jet to the ambient environment. It is suitable to simulate well blowout accidents that can occur in deep waters, including that of the North Sea. The model has been thoroughly tested against a variety of data, including data from both laboratory and field experiments. In all cases the simulation data compared very well with experimental data. 26 refs., 10 figs

  4. Selective separation of oil and water with mesh membranes by capillarity

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yuanlie; Chen, Hua; Liu, Yun; Craig, Vincent S.J.; Lai, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    The separation of oil and water from wastewater generated in the oil-production industries, as well as in frequent oil spillage events, is important in mitigating severe environmental and ecological damage. Additionally, a wide arrange of industrial processes require oils or fats to be removed from aqueous systems. The immiscibility of oil and water allows for the wettability of solid surfaces to be engineered to achieve the separation of oil and water through capillarity. Mesh membranes with extreme, selective wettability can efficiently remove oil or water from oil/water mixtures through a simple filtration process using gravity. A wide range of different types of mesh membranes have been successfully rendered with extreme wettability and applied to oil/water separation in the laboratory. These mesh materials have typically shown good durability, stability as well as reusability, which makes them promising candidates for an ever widening range of practical applications. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Selective separation of oil and water with mesh membranes by capillarity

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yuanlie

    2016-05-29

    The separation of oil and water from wastewater generated in the oil-production industries, as well as in frequent oil spillage events, is important in mitigating severe environmental and ecological damage. Additionally, a wide arrange of industrial processes require oils or fats to be removed from aqueous systems. The immiscibility of oil and water allows for the wettability of solid surfaces to be engineered to achieve the separation of oil and water through capillarity. Mesh membranes with extreme, selective wettability can efficiently remove oil or water from oil/water mixtures through a simple filtration process using gravity. A wide range of different types of mesh membranes have been successfully rendered with extreme wettability and applied to oil/water separation in the laboratory. These mesh materials have typically shown good durability, stability as well as reusability, which makes them promising candidates for an ever widening range of practical applications. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Consistency of the MLE under mixture models

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiahua

    2016-01-01

    The large-sample properties of likelihood-based statistical inference under mixture models have received much attention from statisticians. Although the consistency of the nonparametric MLE is regarded as a standard conclusion, many researchers ignore the precise conditions required on the mixture model. An incorrect claim of consistency can lead to false conclusions even if the mixture model under investigation seems well behaved. Under a finite normal mixture model, for instance, the consis...

  7. Dirichlet Process Parsimonious Mixtures for clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Chamroukhi, Faicel; Bartcus, Marius; Glotin, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    The parsimonious Gaussian mixture models, which exploit an eigenvalue decomposition of the group covariance matrices of the Gaussian mixture, have shown their success in particular in cluster analysis. Their estimation is in general performed by maximum likelihood estimation and has also been considered from a parametric Bayesian prospective. We propose new Dirichlet Process Parsimonious mixtures (DPPM) which represent a Bayesian nonparametric formulation of these parsimonious Gaussian mixtur...

  8. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rapper, Stephanie; Kamatou, Guy; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (ΣFIC) was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1 : 1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%), additive (48.9%), non-interactive (23.7%), and antagonistic (0.7%) interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1 : 1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender. PMID:23737850

  9. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie de Rapper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (ΣFIC was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1 : 1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%, additive (48.9%, non-interactive (23.7%, and antagonistic (0.7% interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1 : 1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender.

  10. Some properties of explosive mixtures containing peroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, Svatopluk; Trzcinski, Waldemar A.; Matyas, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study concerns mixtures of triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) with added water (W), as the case may be, and dry mixtures of TATP with urea nitrate (UN). Relative performances (RP) of the mixtures and their individual components, relative to TNT, were determined by means of ballistic mortar. The detonation energies, E 0 , and detonation velocities, D, were calculated for the mixtures studied by means of the thermodynamic code CHEETAH. Relationships have been found and are discussed between the RP and the E 0 values related to unit volume of gaseous products of detonation of these mixtures. These relationships together with those between RP and oxygen balance values of the mixtures studied indicate different types of participation of AN and UN in the explosive decomposition of the respective mixtures. Dry TATP/UN mixtures exhibit lower RP than analogous mixtures TATP/AN containing up to 25% of water. Depending on the water content, the TATP/AN mixtures possess higher detonability values than the ANFO explosives. A semi-logarithmic relationship between the D values and oxygen coefficients has been derived for all the mixtures studied at the charge density of 1000 kg m -3 . Among the mixtures studied, this relationship distinguishes several samples of the type of 'tertiary explosives' as well as samples that approach 'high explosives' in their performances and detonation velocities

  11. Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria from Oil Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    A Tabatabaee, M Mazaheri Assadi, AA Noohi,VA Sajadian

    2005-01-01

    Biosurfactants or surface-active compounds are produced by microoaganisms. These molecules reduce surface tension both aqueous solutions and hydrocarbon mixtures. In this study, isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing bacteria were assessed. The potential application of these bacteria in petroleum industry was investigated. Samples (crude oil) were collected from oil wells and 45 strains were isolated. To confirm the ability of isolates in biosurfactant production, haemolysis ...

  12. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL): EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, T. P. V. B.; Mielke Neto, P.; Ansolin, M.; Follegatti-Romero, L. A.; Batista, E. A. C.; Meirelles, A. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Phase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol) and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters) up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements...

  13. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL): EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    T. P. V. B. Dias; P. Mielke Neto; L. A. Follegatti-Romero; E. A. C. Batista; A. J. A. Meirelles

    2015-01-01

    AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol) and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters) up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements ...

  14. Quantitative analysis of properties of petroleum mixtures by near infrared spectroscopy; Analise quantitativa de propriedades de misturas de petroleos via espectrofotometria no infravermelho proximo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Leila M.; Silva, Elisangela B.; Fortuny, Montserrat; Dariva, Claudio; Santos, Alexandre F. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa (ITP); Araujo, Augusto M. [Siemens Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Coutinho, Raquel C.C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    An experimental study is carried out aiming to develop a method of quantitative analysis of properties of petroleum mixtures, such as water and asphaltene contents, heavy oil concentration and viscosity based on the use of a NIR spectrophotometer. A strategy of generation of crude oil mixtures with known properties was developed to help calibrating the NIR spectrophotometer. Petroleum mixtures involving 2 or 3 oils under known ratios were prepared based on a set of different light and heavy Brazilian crude oil samples. Moreover, experimental data of 5 binary mixtures were also assembled into a data set named multi-compound. Results indicated that excellent calibration models can be obtained for binary mixtures with correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) greater than 99% for water and asphaltene contents, viscosity and heavy oil concentration. For ternary systems, excellent correlations (R{sup 2}>99%) can be attained for asphaltene and heavy oil contents. Finally for the multi-compound data set, the asphaltene content was the only property that resulted in R{sup 2}>99%, which demonstrates the adequacy of the NIR technique for assessing this property. (author)

  15. Upgrading of raw tall oil soap into fuel oils and lubricants. Final report; Raakasuovan jalostus poltto- ja voiteluoeljyksi. Loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; McKeough, P.

    1997-12-31

    Thermochemical processing of tall oil soap originating from various mixtures of birch and pine has been experimentally investigated. The organic matter of tall oil soap, which is a by- product of Kraft pulping, originated mainly from wood extractives. Conventional processing of tall oil soap involves acidification with sulfuric acid to yield crude tall oil and subsequent distillation of the oil at centralized refineries. Because tall oil originating from birch wood is far less valuable than that from pine, there is an economic incentive in the Nordic Countries to develop alternative conversion processes for the tall oil soap produced at pulp mills where birch is widely used as feedstock. Furthermore, thermochemical processing of tall oil soap does not introduce sulfur into the chemical recovery cycle. This would be a significant advantage in future mills employing closure of water circuits and/or sulfur-free pulping. In small-scale experiments tall oil soaps from wood mixtures with high birch content have been processed using both liquid-phase thermal treatment and pyrolysis. The liquid-phase thermal treatment at 450 deg C under a nitrogen atmosphere yielded a good-quality oil product at high yield (about 50 % of the energy content of the tall oil soap). Also in the atmospheric pyrolysis of birch tall oil soap a separation of inorganic and organic constituents was obtained. The energy value of the product gases was high. Both processes are promising, but the pyrolysis alternative has the greater economic potential, providing that the promising preliminary experimental results have given a true picture of the performance of the full-scale pyrolysis process Bioenergy Research Programme; 3 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Field Tests of Pine Oil as a Repellent for Southern Pine Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.C. Nod; F.L. Hastings; A.S. Jones

    1990-01-01

    An experimental mixture of terpene hydrocarbons derived from wood pulping, BBR-2, sprayed on the lower 6 m of widely separated southern pine trees did not protect nearby trees from southern pine beetle attacks. Whether treated trees were protected from southern pine beetle was inconclusive. The pine oil mixture did not repellpsfrom treated trees or nearby untreated...

  17. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Essential Oil of Leaves of Malus domestica Growing in Western Himalaya (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Walia, Mayanka; Mann, Tavleen S.; Kumar, Dharmesh; Agnihotri, Vijai K.; Singh, Bikram

    2012-01-01

    Light pale-colored volatile oil was obtained from fresh leaves of Malus domestica tree, growing in Dhauladhar range of Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh, India), with characteristic eucalyptol dominant fragrance. The oil was found to be a complex mixture of mono-, sesqui-, di-terpenes, phenolics, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Seventeen compounds accounting for nearly 95.3% of the oil were characterized with the help of capillary GC, GC-MS, and NMR. Major compounds of the oil were characterized as euca...

  18. Effect of Magnetic Field on Diesel Engine Power Fuelled with Jatropha-Diesel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarni Sukarni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha oil has characteristics very close to the diesel fuel, so it has good prospects as a substitute or as a mixture of diesel fuel. Previous research showed that jatropha oil usage in diesel engines caused power to decrease. It was probably owing to the higher viscosity of the Jatropha oil compared to that of diesel oil. Installing the magnetic field in the fuel line of a diesel engine fueled with jatropha-diesel oil is expected to reduce the viscosity of jatropha-diesel oil mixture, hence improve the combustion reaction process. This research aims to know the influence of the magnetic field strength in the fuel lines to the power of diesel engines fueled with a mixture of jatropha-diesel oil. The composition of Jatropha oil-diesel was 20% jatropha oil and 80% diesel oil. Magnetic field variations were 0.122, 0.245 and 0.368 Tesla. The results showed that the higher the strength of the magnetic field was, the higher the average diesel engine’s power would be.

  19. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES FOR REFRIGERANT MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Geller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of models to predict viscosity and thermal conductivity of refrigerant mixtures is developed. A general model for viscosity and thermal conductivity use the three contributions sum form (the dilute-gas terms, the residual terms, and the liquid terms. The corresponding states model is recommended to predict the dense gas transport properties over a range of reduced density from 0 to 2. It is shown that the RHS model provides the most reliable results for the saturated-liquid and the compressed-liquid transport properties over a range of given temperatures from 0,5 to 0,95.

  20. Nonparametric Mixture of Regression Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mian; Li, Runze; Wang, Shaoli

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by an analysis of US house price index data, we propose nonparametric finite mixture of regression models. We study the identifiability issue of the proposed models, and develop an estimation procedure by employing kernel regression. We further systematically study the sampling properties of the proposed estimators, and establish their asymptotic normality. A modified EM algorithm is proposed to carry out the estimation procedure. We show that our algorithm preserves the ascent property of the EM algorithm in an asymptotic sense. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to examine the finite sample performance of the proposed estimation procedure. An empirical analysis of the US house price index data is illustrated for the proposed methodology.

  1. Refining oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1921-05-12

    The desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons, such as kerosene, ligroin, or shale oil, by treatment with alkaline hypochlorite, such as sodium hypochlorite with free alkali is preceded, followed or both preceded and followed by treatment with alkali. The treatment may be effected in a vessel in which brine is being electrolyzed for the production of sodium hypochlorite, and the temperature may be raised to say 120/sup 0/F. The product may be filtered through animal charcoal, fuller's earth, dehydrated alumina, or other adsorbent substance.

  2. GRAVITY PIPELINE TRANSPORT FOR HARDENING FILLING MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid KROUPNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In underground mining of solid minerals becoming increasingly common development system with stowing hardening mixtures. In this case the natural ore array after it is replaced by an artificial excavation of solidified filling mixture consisting of binder, aggregates and water. Such a mixture is prepared on the surface on special stowing complexes and transported underground at special stowing pipelines. However, it is transported to the horizons of a few kilometers, which requires a sustainable mode of motion of such a mixture in the pipeline. Hardening stowing mixture changes its rheological characteristics over time, which complicates the calculation of the parameters of pipeline transportation. The article suggests a method of determining the initial parameters of such mixtures: the status coefficient, indicator of transportability, coefficient of hydrodynamic resistance to motion of the mixture. These indicators characterize the mixture in terms of the possibility to transport it through pipes. On the basis of these indicators is proposed methodology for calculating the parameters of pipeline transport hardening filling mixtures in drift mode when traffic on the horizontal part of the mixture under pressure column of the mixture in the vertical part of the backfill of the pipeline. This technique allows stable operation is guaranteed to provide pipeline transportation.

  3. Oil trading manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.

    1995-01-01

    This manual provides basic information on all aspects of oil trading. Topics reviewed in Part 1 include physical characteristics and refining and oil pricing arrangements. Part 2 on instruments and markets contains chapters on crude oil markets, product markets, forward and futures contracts, forward paper markets, oil future exchanges, options, swaps and long term oil markets. Part 3 deals with administration and has chapters on operations and logistics, credit control, accounting, taxation of oil trading, contracts and legal and regulatory issues. (UK)

  4. Development and characterization of emulsions containing purple rice bran and brown rice oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of this study were to characterize purple rice bran oil (PRBO) as extracted from the bran, and to produce and characterize a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil. An emulsion was prepared using PRBO (10%), sodium caseinate (5%) and water (85%). The mixture was sonicated followed ...

  5. Combined toxicity of three essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essential oils are potential alternatives to synthetic insecticides because they have low mammalian toxicity, degrade rapidly in the environment, and possess complex mixtures of bioactive constituents with multi-modal activity against the target insect populations. Twenty one essential oils were ini...

  6. Vibrational relaxation in OCS mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, C.J.S.M.; Gait, P.D.; Simmie, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental measurements are reported of vibrational relaxation times which may be used to show whether there is near resonant vibration-rotation energy transfer between OCS and H 2 , D 2 or HD. Vibrational relaxation times have been measured in OCS and OCS mixtures over the temperature range 360 to 1000 K using a shock tube and a laser schlieren system. The effectiveness of the additives in reducing the relaxation time of OCS is in the order 4 He 3 He 2 2 and HD. Along this series the effect of an increase in temperature changes from the case of speeding up the rate with 4 He to retarding it with D 2 , HD and H 2 . There is no measurable difference in the effectiveness of n-D 2 and o-D 2 and little, or no, difference between n-H 2 and p-H 2 . Thus the experimental results do not give clear evidence for rotational-vibration energy transfer between hydrogen and OCS. This contrasts with the situation for CO 2 + H 2 mixtures. (author)

  7. Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Michael C.; Hegde, Uday G.

    2012-01-01

    The subject presentation, entitled, Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) Experiment, was presented at the International Space Station (ISS) Increment 33/34 Science Symposium. This presentation provides an overview of an international collaboration between NASA and CNES to study the behavior of a dilute aqueous solution of Na2SO4 (5% w) at near-critical conditions. The Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) investigation, serves as important precursor work for subsequent Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) experiments. The SCWM investigation will be performed in DECLICs High Temperature Insert (HTI) for the purpose of studying critical fluid phenomena at high temperatures and pressures. The HTI includes a completely sealed and integrated test cell (i.e., Sample Cell Unit SCU) that will contain approximately 0.3 ml of the aqueous test solution. During the sequence of tests, scheduled to be performed in FY13, temperatures and pressures will be elevated to critical conditions (i.e., Tc = 374C and Pc = 22 MPa) in order to observe salt precipitation, precipitate agglomeration and precipitate transport in the presence of a temperature gradient without the influences of gravitational forces. This presentation provides an overview of the motivation for this work, a description of the DECLIC HTI hardware, the proposed test sequences, and a brief discussion of the scientific research objectives.

  8. Determination of Component Contents of Blend Oil Based on Characteristics Peak Value Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Pei-guo; Wang, Yu-tian; Pan, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Edible blend oil market is confused at present. It has some problems such as confusing concepts, randomly named, shoddy and especially the fuzzy standard of compositions and ratios in blend oil. The national standard fails to come on time after eight years. The basic reason is the lack of qualitative and quantitative detection of vegetable oils in blend oil. Edible blend oil is mixed by different vegetable oils according to a certain proportion. Its nutrition is rich. Blend oil is eaten frequently in daily life. Different vegetable oil contains a certain components. The mixed vegetable oil can make full use of their nutrients and make the nutrients more balanced in blend oil. It is conducive to people's health. It is an effectively way to monitor blend oil market by the accurate determination of single vegetable oil content in blend oil. The types of blend oil are known, so we only need for accurate determination of its content. Three dimensional fluorescence spectra are used for the contents in blend oil. A new method of data processing is proposed with calculation of characteristics peak value integration in chosen characteristic area based on Quasi-Monte Carlo method, combined with Neural network method to solve nonlinear equations to obtain single vegetable oil content in blend oil. Peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil are used as research object to reconcile into edible blend oil, with single oil regarded whole, not considered each oil's components. Recovery rates of 10 configurations of edible harmonic oil is measured to verify the validity of the method of characteristics peak value integration. An effective method is provided to detect components content of complex mixture in high sensitivity. Accuracy of recovery rats is increased, compared the common method of solution of linear equations used to detect components content of mixture. It can be used in the testing of kinds and content of edible vegetable oil in blend oil for the food quality detection

  9. Essential Oils of Satureja Species: Insecticidal Effect on Culex pipiens Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos G. Chorianopoulos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oils of the wild growing plants of Greek S. spinosa L., S. parnassica subsp. parnassica Heldr.& Sart ex Boiss., S. thymbra and S. montana were determined by GC and GC/MS analysis. The larvicidal activities of the essential oils were assayed against Culex pipiens biotype molestus. The analytical data indicated that various monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic monoterpenes constitute the major constituents of the oils, but their concentration varied greatly among the oils examined. The bioassay results indicated that the oils possess significant larvicidal activities and represent an inexpensive source of natural substances mixture that exhibit potentials for use to control the mosquito larvae.

  10. Process for gasification of heavy hydrocarbons or salvaged oil. [German patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, C

    1978-09-14

    The invention refers to the separation of solids which are carried over during evaporation of salvaged oil (oil recovered from used oil or fat). They are removed by exposing the oil vapour to an acceleration of 500 g to 20,000g in a hot gas cyclone. Subsequently the cleaned gas is converted to fission gas in a fission gas generator using an air-water gas mixture and is taken to the combustion equipment. By this process salvaged oil and heavy hydrocarbons can be used for burning in Diesel engines without previous refining.

  11. Fiber Optic Long Period Grating Based Sensor for Coconut Oil Adulteration Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Libish

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the development and demonstration of a Long-Period Grating (LPG based optical fiber sensor for determining the adulteration of coconut oil by palm oil. The fundamental principle of detection is the sensitive dependence of the resonance peaks of LPG on the changes of the refractive index of the environmental medium around the cladding surface of the grating. Refractive index sensing with LPGs employs light coupling between core and cladding modes in the grating section. The transmittance spectra of a long period grating element immersed in different mixtures of coconut oil and palm oil were recorded. Results show that resonance wavelengths and transmission intensities varied as a function of the adulteration level of coconut oil. Detection limit of adulteration was found to be 2 % for coconut oil–palm oil binary mixture.

  12. Evaluation of behavioral parameters, hematological markers, liver and kidney functions in rodents exposed to Deepwater Horizon crude oil and Corexit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sindhu; Bhattacharya, Dwipayan; Majrashi, Mohammed; Morgan, Marlee; Prabhakar Clement, T; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan

    2018-04-15

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill is the largest marine oil spill in US history. In the aftermath of the spill, the response efforts used a chemical dispersant, Corexit, to disperse the oil spill. The health impacts of crude oil and Corexit mixture to humans, mammals, fishes, and birds are mostly unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the in vivo effects of DWH oil, Corexit, and oil-Corexit mixture on the general behavior, hematological markers, and liver and kidney functions of rodents. C57 Bl6 mice were treated with DWH oil (80 mg/kg) and/or Corexit (95 mg/kg), and several hematological markers, lipid profile, liver and kidney functions were monitored. The results show that both DWH oil and Corexit altered the white blood cells and platelet counts. Moreover, they also impacted the lipid profile and induced toxic effects on the liver and kidney functions. The impacts were more pronounced when the mice were treated with a mixture of DWH-oil and Corexit. This study provides preliminary data to elucidate the potential toxicological effects of DWH oil, Corexit, and their mixtures on mammalian health. Residues from the DWH spill continue to remain trapped along various Gulf Coast beaches and therefore further studies are needed to fully understand their long-term impacts on coastal ecosystems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Competitive adsorption behaviors of carbon dioxide and n-dodecane mixtures in 13X molecular sieve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chaofan; Dong, Mingzhe; Gong, Houjian

    2018-01-01

    The CO2 cyclic injection has been proven to be effective to enhance tight oil recovery under constant reservoir temperature and down hole pressure conditions. However, the enhance tight oil recovery mechanism was unclear, especially the adsorption of the CO2 and alkane in the surface. Therefore, it is great important to study the adsorption mechanism of CO2 and alkane mixtures in tight oil. In this study, a new experimental method and apparatus have been designed to test the change of the mole fraction of CO2 and n-C12 before and after the adsorption equilibrium. Then, the adsorption amount of CO2 and n-C12 was obtained by a mathematical method. Moreover, the adsorption character of CO2 and n-C12 mixtures in 13X molecular sieve and the effect of pressure on the adsorption and amount were studied. The results show that the adsorption of CO2 and the desorption of n-C12 follow the Langmuir adsorption. This study provides a straightforward method to experimentally determine the adsorption properties of the tight oil, which can be used to evaluate enhanced tight oil recovery by CO2 injection.

  14. Converting heavy oils into light oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mony, H

    1915-12-22

    A process is described for transforming heavy oils obtained by the carbonization of lignites, peats, coals, shales into light oils, and also the heavy oils of mineral and vegetable origin, consisting of heating the heavy oils or tars in the presence of one or more solid substances or liquids suitably chosen to cause the distillation of the oils under atmospheric pressure at an appropriate temperature; solid and liquid substances which favor the production of light products under the influence of heat being added preferably to the oil to be treated before putting it in the retort and before heating, so that light oils are obtained by treatment of the heavy oils in a single operation.

  15. Oil Dispersion with Abamectin as Active Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Gašić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abamectin was developed as an insecticide, nematocide and acaricide for use on a varietyof agricultural and horticultural crops. The products with this active ingredient can befound on the market mostly formulated as emulsifiable concentrate (EC. Usually producersrecommend using the EC formulation of abamectin together with some kind of adjuvants(natural oils to improve efficacy of the active ingredient. To overcome the efficacy problemwe tried to formulate the active ingredient abamectin as oil dispersion (OD. Oil dispersion,preferably based on naturally derived oils could improve pesticide efficacy. This type of pesticideformulation contains oil instead of water as in classical suspension concentrate andtypically has better retention and coverage. In the case of abamectin, in this investigationsoybean oil was used with the mixture of different nonionic emulsifiers. Content of abamecetinin formulation was 1.8 %. The developed formulation was tested for few importantparameters. The obtained physicochemical properties for the above mentioned formulationhave shown that it is stable and could be used in plant protection.

  16. Biosurfactants and their role in oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, Michael J. [University of Oklahoma (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the role of biosurfactants in oil recovery. Types of biosurfactants include, among others, lipopeptides, rhamnolipids, sophorolipids. The process of oil recovery and the involvement of microbes are explained. The objective is to know if lipopeptide biosurfactants lower interfacial tension. Fatty acid composition is important for lipopeptide biosurfactant activity and microbial surfactants are hydrophilic and Interfacial Tension (IFT) values are high. Examples of biosurfactants with lower IFT values with mixtures are also given. An experiment was conducted to determine whether lipopeptides recovery entrapped oil or not. The procedure and experimental setup are shown. It is seen that with higher concentration of biosurfactants, the percentage of residual oil recovery is higher. Another experiment was conducted to see if biosurfactants greater than 40 mg/l can be produced in oil reservoirs. The experimental design and the analysis with the results are given. It was seen that more oil was produced. Conclusions from the study were, among other findings, that, in situ biosurfactant production and inoculation are possible.

  17. Mixtures of fuels and its application in power generation; Misturas de combustiveis e sua aplicacao na geracao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes; Oliveira, Jorge Luis de; Fernandes Filho, Jorge [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: temrobe@vm.uff.br; Romeiro, Gilberto Alves [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica Organica]. E-mail: gilbertoromeiro@ig.com.br; Rangel, Ithamar Ribeiro [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ita@epq.ime.eb.br

    2004-07-01

    The world energy matrix shows a rapidly moving to replace part of fossil fuels by biomass. The demand for diesel fuel, more than any other derivative, is determined a very evasion of foreign exchange through import of crude oil and diesel fuel itself. Within this panorama the diesel fuel becomes critical, because any impediment to imports would bring a immediate reflecting in the country transport system, since this system is based primarily in road transport. Besides, the world's oil reserves are becoming increasingly scarce, them it is imperative that research can be carried out to find alternatives that may minimize or even reach a level of full independence, not just of oil diesel, but also of all oil derivatives. However, if the few changes in traditional spark ignition engines (the gasoline engine) enabled the use of ethanol, first as a mixture and then as full replacement of gasoline, it does not occur in the case of diesel oil. Among the various alternatives for partial replacement of diesel oil, the use of mixtures anhydrous ethanol-diesel stands out as the most simple application, since there is great availability of ethanol and is not needed any change in the original engine. The main problem with this type of alternative is the low solubility of ethanol in diesel fuel, and the little stability that these mixtures have with the change of temperature and humidity environment. One solution to increase the solubility and improve the stability is to use a third substance that, acting as co-solvent, allows levels of mixtures with the best level of stability and higher rates of replacements. Among the various alternatives for use of co-solvents, was chosen initially the butane. Various physical and chemical parameters were evaluated for diesel and for mixtures of fuels.

  18. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div

    2001-07-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  1. A ''package'' for the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragland, Aase

    2001-01-01

    This article describes a method for simultaneous on-line monitoring of oil chemicals. The method is based on ''combinatorial chemistry'' and makes it possible to test the chemicals under high pressure and temperature. Measurements are performed in each chemical cell during the testing. Many of the chemicals that are currently used in the offshore petroleum activities have adverse effects on the environment. Polluting companies are likely to be taxed in the future. The development of suitable chemicals is costly and time consuming and therefore has almost come to a halt. Oil companies and chemical suppliers do only a few tests and come up with chemicals that are ''good enough''. However, in an oil reservoir, many chemicals do not work well in a mixture, and so testing is required. This provided motivation for the new concept. So far tests of the concept has been successful, and the prototype is being developed

  2. Castor Oil Transesterification Catalysed by Liquid Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Thalles; Errico, Massimiliano; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, biodiesel production by reaction of non-edible castor oil with methanol under enzymatic catalysis is investigated. Two liquid enzymes were tested: Eversa Transform and Resinase HT. Reactions were performed at 35 °C and with a molar ratio of methanol to oil of 6:1. The reaction...... time was 8 hours. Stepwise addition of methanol was necessary to avoid enzyme inhibition by methanol. In order to minimize the enzyme costs, the influence of enzyme activity loss during reuse of both enzymes was evaluated under two distinct conditions. In the former, the enzymes were recovered...... and fully reused; in the latter, a mixture of 50 % reused and 50 % fresh enzymes was tested. In the case of total reuse after three cycles, both enzymes achieved only low conversions. The biodiesel content in the oil-phase using Eversa Transform was 94.21 % for the first cycle, 68.39 % in the second, and 33...

  3. Microbial enhanced separation of oil from a petroleum refinery sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, P J; Joseph, Ammini

    2009-01-15

    Petroleum refineries around the world have adopted different technological options to manage the solid wastes generated during the refining process and stocking of crude oil. These include physical, chemical and biological treatment methods. In this investigation bacterial mediated oil separation is effected. Two strains of Bacillus were isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils, and inoculated into slurry of sludge, and sludge-sand combinations. The bacteria could effect the separation of oil so as to form a floating scum within 48h with an efficiency of 97% at < or =5% level of sludge in the sludge-sand mixture. The activity was traced to the production of biosurfactants by bacteria.

  4. Estimation of diffusion coefficients in bitumen solvent mixtures as derived from low field NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Y.; Bryan, J.; Kantzas, A.

    2005-01-01

    Use of solvents for the extraction of heavy oil and bitumen appears to be an increasingly feasible technology. Both vapour extraction and direct solvent injection are considered for conventional exploration and production schemes, while solvent dilution of bitumen is a standard technique in oil sands mining. Mass transfer between solvent and bitumen is a poorly understood process. In some cases, it is totally ignored compared to viscous force effects. In other cases, phenomenological estimations of diffusion and dispersion coefficients are used. Low field NMR has been used successfully in determining both solvent content and viscosity reduction in heavy oil and bitumen mixtures with various solvents. As a solvent comes into contact with a heavy oil or bitumen sample, the mobility of hydrogen bearing molecules of both solvent and oil changes. These changes are detectable through changes in the NMR relaxation characteristics of both solvent and oil. Relaxation changes can then be correlated to mass flux and concentration changes. Based on Fick's Second Law, a diffusion coefficient, which is independent of concentration, was calculated against three oils and six solvents. (author)

  5. Use of Oil-Based Mud Cutting Waste in Cement Clinker Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Saif Al-Dhamri, H; Black, L

    2014-01-01

    Oil-based Mud (OBM) cutting waste is generated during the process of oil well drilling. The drilled rocks are removed from deep within the drilled well and pumped to the surface. The portion removed , known at "cutting", is a mixture of rocks, mud, water and oil. Most drilling companies store this waste in open yards with no specific treatment solution. The environmental regulations in Oman specify that storage should involve isolation, to prevent penetration of the contamination to the surfa...

  6. Impact of residual glycerides on viscosity of biodiesel (waste and rapeseed oil blends)

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Jurac; L. Pomenić

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Biodiesel, mixture of fatty acid methyl esters is a biodegradable alternative fuel that is obtained from renewable sources as a vegetable oils or animal fats. Use of waste cooking oils reduce the cost of raw materials for biodiesel production and also reduces the environment pollution. Moreover, pure edible vegetable oils for biodiesel production have an ethical significance because food is used to produce fuel. The aim of this work is a presentation of effects that r...

  7. Empirically Estimated Heats of Combustion of Oxygenated Hydrocarbon Bio-type Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Ponomarev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An empirical method is proposed by which the heats of combustion of oxygenated hydrocarbon oils, typically found from wood pyrolysis, may be calculated additively from empirically predicted heats of combustion of individual compounds. The predicted values are in turn based on four types of energetically inequivalent carbon and four types of energetically inequivalent hydrogen atomic energy values. A method is also given to estimate the condensation heats of oil mixtures based on the presence of four types of intermolecular forces. Agreement between predicted and experimental values of combustion heats for a typical mixture of known compounds was ± 2% and < 1% for a freshly prepared mixture of known compounds.

  8. MEKANISME PRODUKSI MINYAK SEL TUNGGAL DENGAN SISTEM FERMENTASI PADAT PADA MEDIA ONGGOK-AMPAS TAHU DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN KAPANG ASPERGILLUS TERREUS [The Production Mechanism of Single Cell Oil from Aspergillus terreus in a Solid Fermentation System Using a Mixture of Tapioca and Tofu Waste Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Sukarti

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Fat is an important nutrient for health. Considering the ever-increasing annual demand for cooking oil as a result of the rapid increase in population new sources of poly-unsaturated fats must be searched for.One potential source is the Single Cell Oil (SCO; production of SCO does not require vast areas of land, production time is relatively short and is not affected by enviromental conditions. Moreover, product synthesis and production volume can be easily controlled; Moreover, the tri-acyl-glyceral produced contain essential fatty acids, i.e linoleic and linolenic acid.The objectives of this research was to study the influence of two mold strains of A. terreus and the C/N ratio of the growth medium consisting of cassava atarch and tofu processing waste on SCO production.This research consisted of two parts. The first part was a study on keeping methods of pure cultures of A. terreus, preparation of starter cultures, isolation of mold from the starter culture and preparation of fermentation media. The second part of the research was fermentation of A. terreus strain FNOC 6039 and FNOC 6040 on solid media made of tapioca and tofu waste having C/N ratios of 25/1, 30/1, 35/1, 40/1 and 45/1. Post-fermentation observations on the growth medium slabs consisted of moisture, starch, total sugars and protein content and SCO production.Both strain of A. terreus and C/N ratio affected moisture, starch, total sugars and protein content of the growth media. The A. terreus FNOC 6040 strain growth on a medium with C/N ratio of 45/1 was the most potential oil producer, i.e. 14,63% crude SCO. The oil was brownish yellow in color and has a slightly fishy aroma.

  9. Effect of fast pyrolysis bio-oil from palm oil empty fruit bunch on bitumen properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Chia Chin; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Raman, Noor Azah Abdul; Shukry, Nurul Athma Mohd; Warid, Muhammad Naqiuddin Mohd; Satar, Mohd Khairul Idham Mohd; Ros Ismail, Che; Asmah Hassan, Sitti; Mashros, Nordiana

    2018-04-01

    Bitumen shortage has triggered the exploration of another alternative waste material that can be blended with conventional bitumen. This study presents the performance of pyrolysis bio-oil from palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) as an alternative binder in modified bitumen mixtures. The palm oil EFB was first pyrolyzed using auger pyrolyzer to extract the bio-oil. Conventional bitumen 80/100 penetration grade was used as a control sample and compared with samples that were modified with different percentages, i.e., 5% and 10%, of pyrolysis EFB bio-oil. The physical and rheological properties of the control and modified bitumen samples were investigated using penetration, softening point, viscosity and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) tests. Results showed that the addition of EFB bio-oil softened the bitumen with high penetration and a reduction in softening point, penetration index, and viscosity. However, the DSR results showed a comparable rutting resistance between the bitumen samples containing EFB bio-oil and virgin bitumen with a failure temperature achieved greater than 64°C.

  10. Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

    2012-02-17

    The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was

  11. Explosive and accessories in rock blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingua, B.M.P.; Nabiullah, M.; Jagdish, S.; Mishra, G.D.; Singh, T.N. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    1999-02-01

    Chemical explosives are commonly used in the mining industry. Those used in India include nitroglycerine (NG) base, ammonium nitrate fuel oil mixture (ANFO), slurry emulsion and liquid oxygen (LOX). Examples of each type and their general properties are lighted. The electric and non-electric detonating systems used are described. Two Indian companies are producing non-electric in-hole delay system. Raydet (IDL-make) and Excel (ICI-make). Their firing characteristics are listed. Tables are given for burden for different density of rock and explosive strength. Causes of bad blast are itemised. 7 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Production, Characterization, and Stability of Orange or Eucalyptus Essential Oil/β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringel, Dianini Hüttner; Antunes, Mariana Dias; Klein, Bruna; Crizel, Rosane Lopes; Wagner, Roger; de Oliveira, Roberto Pedroso; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to produce and characterize inclusion complexes (IC) between β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and orange essential oil (OEO) or eucalyptus essential oil (EEO), and to compare these with their pure compounds and physical mixtures. The samples were evaluated by chemical composition, morphology, thermal stability, and volatile compounds by static headspace-gas chromatography (SH-GC). Comparing the free essential oil and physical mixture with the inclusion complex, of both essential oils (OEO and EEO), it was observed differences occurred in the chemical composition, thermal stability, and morphology. These differences show that there was the formation of the inclusion complex and demonstrate the necessity of the precipitation method used to guarantee the interaction between β-CD and essential oils. The slow loss of the volatile compounds from both essential oils, when complexed with β-CD, showed a higher stability when compared with their physical mixtures and free essential oils. Therefore, the results showed that the chemical composition, molecular size, and structure of the essential oils influence the characteristics of the inclusion complexes. The application of the β-CD in the formation of inclusion complexes with essential oils can expand the potential applications in foods. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Fuels by Waste Plastics Using Activated Carbon, MCM-41, HZSM-5 and Their Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miskolczi Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste material was pyrolyzed in a horizontal tubular reactor at 530-540°C using different catalysts, such as activated carbon, MCM-41, HZSM-5 and their mixtures. Products were investigated by gas-chromatography, EDXRFS and standardized methods. Catalysts significantly affected the yields of volatiles; e.g. HZSM-5 catalyst increased especially the yield of gaseous hydrocarbons, while MCM-41 catalyst was responsible for increasing the pyrolysis oil yield. Synergistic effects were found using mixtures of different catalysts. Furthermore the catalysts modified the main carbon frame of the products. Pyrolysis oil obtained over HZSM-5 catalyst contained large amounts of aromatics, while MCM-41 catalyst mainly isomerized the carbon frame. Regarding contaminants it was concluded, that the sulphur content could be significantly decreased by activated carbon, however it had only a slight effect to the other properties of the products.

  14. Thermal and mechanical properties of bio-based plasticizers mixtures on poly (vinyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussaha Bouchoul

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of mixtures of nontoxic and biodegradable plasticizers coming from natural resources is a good way to replace conventional phthalates plasticizers. In this study, two secondary plasticizers of epoxidized sunflower oil (ESO and epoxidized sunflower oil methyl ester (ESOME were synthesized and have been used with two commercially available biobased plasticizers; isosorbide diesters (ISB and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC in order to produce flexible PVC. Different mixtures of these plasticizers have been introduced in PVC formulations. Thermal, mechanical and morphological properties have been studied by using discoloration, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA, tensile - strain and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Studies have shown that PVC plasticization and stabilization were improved by addition of plasticizers blends containing ISB, ATBC, ESO and ESOME. An increase in the content of ESO or ESOME improved thermal and mechanical properties, whereas ESOME/ATBC formulations exhibited the best properties.

  15. Mining the essential oils of the Anthemideae | Teixeira da Silva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, as people search for alternative and herbal forms of medicine and relaxation (such as aromatherapy), and provided that there are no suitable synthetic substitutes for many of the compounds or difficulty in profiling and mimicking complex compound mixtures in the volatile oils, the original plant extracts will ...

  16. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated-oil field drill-cuttings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of 2 bacterial isolates (Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in the restoration of oil-field drill-cuttings contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied. A mixture of 4 kg of the drill-cuttings and 0.67 kg of top-soil were charged into triplicate plastic reactors labeled A1 to A3, ...

  17. Moringa oleifera oil: Studies of characterization and biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Silva, Jhosianna P.V.; Serra, Tatiana M.; Meneghetti, Simoni M.P. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Instituto de Quimica e Biotecnologia, Laboratorio de Oleoquimica, Maceio, Alagoas, CEP 57072-970 (Brazil); Gossmann, Marcelo; Wolf, Carlos R.; Meneghetti, Mario R. [Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Instituto de Quimica, Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, CEP 92420-280 (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    This work describes studies with the seeds of Moringa oleifera (MO), obtained in the northeast of Brazil, evaluating some properties and chemical composition of the oil, as well any potential application in biodiesel production. The studied physicochemical properties of the MO biodiesel, suggest that this material may be used as fuel in diesel engines, mainly as a mixture to petrodiesel. (author)

  18. Mixtures and their risk assessment in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Moiz M; Hansen, Hugh; Pohl, Hana R

    2011-01-01

    For communities generally and for persons living in the vicinity of waste sites specifically, potential exposures to chemical mixtures are genuine concerns. Such concerns often arise from perceptions of a site's higher than anticipated toxicity due to synergistic interactions among chemicals. This chapter outlines some historical approaches to mixtures risk assessment. It also outlines ATSDR's current approach to toxicity risk assessment. The ATSDR's joint toxicity assessment guidance for chemical mixtures addresses interactions among components of chemical mixtures. The guidance recommends a series of steps that include simple calculations for a systematic analysis of data leading to conclusions regarding any hazards chemical mixtures might pose. These conclusions can, in turn, lead to recommendations such as targeted research to fill data gaps, development of new methods using current science, and health education to raise awareness of residents and health care providers. The chapter also provides examples of future trends in chemical mixtures assessment.

  19. Sandalwood Album Oil as a Botanical Therapeutic in Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Ronald L; Levenson, Corey

    2017-10-01

    Many skin conditions and diseases are characterized by inflammation, infection, and hyperplasia. Safe and effective topical treatment options that can be used long-term are needed. Traditional botanical medicines, which are often complex mixtures that exert their biological activities via multiple mechanisms of action, are being studied as potential new active ingredients in dermatology. Sandalwood album oil (SAO), also known as East Indian sandalwood oil (EISO), is an essential oil distilled from the Santalum album tree and has demonstrated biological activity as an anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-proliferative agent. Sandalwood album oil has also shown promise in clinical trials for treatment of acne, psoriasis, eczema, common warts, and molluscum contagiosum. The favorable safety profile, ease of topical use, and recent availability of pharmaceutical-grade sandalwood album oil support its broader use as the basis of novel therapies in dermatology.

  20. Changes in the Composition of Aromatherapeutic Citrus Oils during Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of some commercial Citrus oils, lemon, sweet orange, and tangerine, designated for aromatherapy, was examined before and after partial evaporation in a stream of nitrogen. The intact oils contained the expected mixtures of mono- and sesquiterpenes, with hydrocarbons dominating and lesser amounts of oxygenated analogues making up the remainder. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to follow alterations in the relative amounts of the various components present as evaporation proceeded. Changes were marked, and in particular more volatile components present in the intact oils rapidly disappeared. Thus the balance of content was shifted away from monoterpene hydrocarbons towards the analogous alcohols and carbonyl compounds. The results of this differential evaporation are discussed and possible consequences for aromatherapy use are noted. The case of lemon oil was especially interesting as the relative amount of citral, a known sensitizer, remaining as time elapsed represented an increasing percentage of the total oil.

  1. Comparison of Biodiesel Obtained from Virgin Cooking Oil and Waste Cooking Oil Using Supercritical and Catalytic Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeban Poudel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of transesterification of virgin cooking oil (VCO and waste cooking oil (WCO in catalyzed and supercritical transesterification process using methanol and ethanol as solvents has been conducted in this study. The luminous point of this research was the direct comparison of catalytic and supercritical process using the ester composition obtained from virgin cooking oil and waste cooking oil transesterification. Oil to alcohol molar ratio of 1:6 and reaction condition of 65 °C and 1 bar pressure were considered for the catalytic process, while 260 °C and high pressure (65 and 75 bar for methanol and ethanol, respectively were accounted for the supercritical process. Distinct layer separation was observed for both processes. Ester, fatty acid and glycerol composition was studied for both the upper and lower layers separately, from which 100% ester composition in the upper layer and a mixture of ester and other composition in the lower layer was obtained for the catalytic process owing to succeeding filtration and washing. However, mixture of ester (>75% and other composition was obtained in both layers for the supercritical process where purification process was not implemented. The similarity in the result obtained demonstrates the superiority of waste cooking oil compared to virgin cooking oil, taking cost into consideration.

  2. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  3. Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation and hydrocracking of Alcell (R) lignin in alcohol/formic acid mixtures using a Ru/C catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloekhorst, Arjan; Shen, Yu; Yie, Yao; Fang, Ma; Heeres, Hero Jan

    The catalytic conversion of Alcell (R) lignin in iso-propanol/formic acid mixtures (1: 1 mass ratio) was explored in a batch set-up using Ru/C as the catalyst (673 K, 4 h, 28% mass lignin intake on solvent). Lignin oils were obtained in good yields (71% mass yields on lignin input) and shown to

  4. Oil and influence: the oil weapon examined

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maull, H

    1975-01-01

    The term ''oil weapon'' as used here signifies any manipulation of the price and/or supply of oil by exporting nations with the intention of changing the political behavior of the consumer nations. The political potential of the oil price is fairly restricted so, in effect, the supply interruptions are of prime concern. Manipulating price does, in principle, offer the possibilities of both conferring rewards and inflicting sanctions. Oil could be sold on preferential prices and terms. A precondition for using the oil weapon successfully would be the ability to cause real and serious damage to the consumer countries. Four damaging potentials for using the oil weapon could include its application by: (1) one producer against one consumer; (2) one producer against all consumers; (3) a group of producers against one consumer; and (4) by a group of producers against all consumers. It is concluded that the oil weapon will continue to be a force in the international system. (MCW)

  5. Efficient radiative transfer in dust grain mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, S.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of a dust grain mixture consisting of spherical dust grains with different radii and/or chemical composition on the resulting temperature structure and spectral energy distribution of a circumstellar shell is investigated. The comparison with the results based on an approximation of dust grain parameters representing the mean optical properties of the corresponding dust grain mixture reveal that (1) the temperature dispersion of a real dust grain mixture decreases substantially ...

  6. Some properties of explosive mixtures containing peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeman, Svatopluk [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, CZ-532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic)], E-mail: svatopluk.zeman@upce.cz; Trzcinski, Waldemar A. [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, PL-00-908 Warsaw 49 (Poland); Matyas, Robert [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, CZ-532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic)

    2008-06-15

    This study concerns mixtures of triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) with added water (W), as the case may be, and dry mixtures of TATP with urea nitrate (UN). Relative performances (RP) of the mixtures and their individual components, relative to TNT, were determined by means of ballistic mortar. The detonation energies, E{sub 0}, and detonation velocities, D, were calculated for the mixtures studied by means of the thermodynamic code CHEETAH. Relationships have been found and are discussed between the RP and the E{sub 0} values related to unit volume of gaseous products of detonation of these mixtures. These relationships together with those between RP and oxygen balance values of the mixtures studied indicate different types of participation of AN and UN in the explosive decomposition of the respective mixtures. Dry TATP/UN mixtures exhibit lower RP than analogous mixtures TATP/AN containing up to 25% of water. Depending on the water content, the TATP/AN mixtures possess higher detonability values than the ANFO explosives. A semi-logarithmic relationship between the D values and oxygen coefficients has been derived for all the mixtures studied at the charge density of 1000 kg m{sup -3}. Among the mixtures studied, this relationship distinguishes several samples of the type of 'tertiary explosives' as well as samples that approach 'high explosives' in their performances and detonation velocities.

  7. Análise por cromatografia gasosa de BTEX nas emissões de motor de combustão interna alimentado com diesel e mistura diesel-biodiesel (B10 Analysis of BTEX in the emissions from an internal combustion engine burning diesel oil and diesel-biodiesel mixture (B10 by gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio L. Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the procedures for analysing pollutant gases emitted by engines, such as volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene by using high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC. For IC engine burning, in a broad sense, the use of the B10 mixture reduces drastically the emissions of aromatic compounds. Especially for benzene the reduction of concentrations occurs at the level of about 24.5%. Although a concentration value below 1 µg mL-1 has been obtained, this reduction is extremely significant since benzene is a carcinogenic compound.

  8. Effect of Vegetable Oil Fortified Feeds on the Content of Fatty Acids in Breast and Thigh Muscles in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Krejčí-Treu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to compare the effect of six vegetable oils added to feeding mixtures that were administered to broiler chickens on the content of major fatty acids in chicken meat. The experiment started with 90 one-day-old Ross 308 meat hybrid male chickens that were divided into six groups. Chickens were fed complete feeding mixtures for the prefattening (BR1, fattening (BR2, and post-fattening (BR3 of broiler chickens. The BR1 feeding mixture was administered to chickens aged 1-10 days, the BR2 feeding mixture was given from Day 11 to Day 30, and the BR3 feeding mixture was then administered until Day 42. The BR1 feeding mixture that was administered to all six groups during the first ten days of the experiment was supplemented with soybean oil. BR2 and BR3 feeding mixtures used to feed chickens aged 11-42 days were fortified with soybean oil (SO Group, rapeseed oil (RO Group, sunflower oil (SFO Group, flaxseed oil (FO Group, olive oil (OO Group, and evening primrose oil (EPO Group. The vegetable oils used differed by the composition of fatty acids, particularly by the content of oleic acid, linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid. The use of the above-described experimental diets in young broilers from Day 11 to 42 had a significant effect on the content of fatty acids in the fat from breast and thigh muscles. The content of α-linolenic acid in breast and thigh muscles of broilers that received the feed containing flaxseed oil (21.16 g/100 g of oil and 17.13 g/100 g of oil, respectively significantly increased (p ⪬ 0.01. The highest content of linoleic acid (p ⪬ 0.01 in breast and thigh muscles was found in chickens that were fed the feed containing primrose oil (59.13 g/100 g and 51.71 g/100 g. A significant increase (p ⪬ 0.01 in the level of oleic acid was detected in both breast and thigh muscles of broilers that received olive oil fortified feed (52.44 g/100 g and 43.70 g/100 g of oil. No significant variation was

  9. Prediction of the viscosity of lubricating oil blends at any temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, R.M.; Bernardo, M.I.; Fernandez, A.M.; Folgueras, M.B. [University of Oviedo, Oveido (Spain). Dept. of Energy

    1996-04-01

    This paper discusses a method of predicting the viscosity of multicomponent base lubricating oil mixtures based on Andrade`s equation. The kinematic viscosity of three types of base lubricating oils and their binary and ternary mixtures were measured at different temperatures and the parameters of Andrade`s equation were calculated. The results obtained indicate that the Andrade parameters vary linearly with the mixture composition. From these linear equations, generalized mixing equations are derived which confirm the experimental results. By application of the mixing equations, a simple method is obtained for prediction of the viscosity of oil blends at any temperature from viscosity-temperature data of the oil components. The calculated viscosities gave an average absolute deviation of 10% over the temperature range 20-100{degree}C. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Behavior of FFC refrigerants in the presence of refrigerant oils. Oelverhalten chlorfreier Kaeltemittel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, M.; Kruse, H. (Hannover Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Kaeltetechnik und Angewandte Waermetechnik)

    1990-01-01

    Looking for substitutes for the ozone-depleting refrigerants R12 and R22, investigations were made of the miscibility of FFC refrigerants (R23 - trifluoromethane CHF{sub 3}, R134a - tetrafluoroethane CH{sub 3}-CHF{sub 2}, and R152a - difluoroethane CH{sub 3}-CHF{sub 2}) with refrigerator oils. First experimental results reveal the refrigerants' behavior when mixed with mineral oils, alkylbenzene, PAG and ester-based oils. Mixtures of above refrigerants, especially R134a/R152a and R23/R152a as binary nonazeotropic mixtures, are considered conceivable substitutes. While addition of R23 reduces the mixture's flammability, addition of R152a improves the solubility of R134a in refrigerant oils. (orig./HW).

  11. Method for separating gaseous mixtures of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neimann, H.J.; Schuster, E.; Kersting, A.

    1976-01-01

    A gaseous mixture of isotopes is separated by laser excitation of the isotope mixture with a narrow band of wavelengths, molecularly exciting mainly the isotope to be separated and thereby promoting its reaction with its chemical partner which is excited in a separate chamber. The excited isotopes and the chemical partner are mixed, perhaps in a reaction chamber to which the two excited components are conducted by very short conduits. The improvement of this method is the physical separation of the isotope mixture and its partner during excitation. The reaction between HCl and the mixture of 238 UF 6 and 235 UF 6 is discussed

  12. Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures: Mass dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushal, Rohan; Tankeshwar, K.

    2002-06-01

    Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model. (author)

  13. Evaluation of mastic in bituminous mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da; Pais, Jorge C.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency of the asphalt-aggregate bond is one of the key factors which affects the mechanical resistance of bituminous mixtures and a better understanding of its performance allows the behaviour of mixture to be more accurately predicted. The asphalt-aggregate bond depends on the properties of the mastic and the mixture of fine aggregate and bitumen which bonds itself to the larger sized particles within the bituminous mixture. This mastic plays an im-portant role in the asphalt-aggr...

  14. Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures Mass dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushal, R

    2002-01-01

    Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model.

  15. Deciding which chemical mixtures risk assessment methods work best for what mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuschler, Linda K.

    2007-01-01

    The most commonly used chemical mixtures risk assessment methods involve simple notions of additivity and toxicological similarity. Newer methods are emerging in response to the complexities of chemical mixture exposures and effects. Factors based on both science and policy drive decisions regarding whether to conduct a chemical mixtures risk assessment and, if so, which methods to employ. Scientific considerations are based on positive evidence of joint toxic action, elevated human exposure conditions or the potential for significant impacts on human health. Policy issues include legislative drivers that may mandate action even though adequate toxicity data on a specific mixture may not be available and risk assessment goals that impact the choice of risk assessment method to obtain the amount of health protection desired. This paper discusses three important concepts used to choose among available approaches for conducting a chemical mixtures risk assessment: (1) additive joint toxic action of mixture components; (2) toxicological interactions of mixture components; and (3) chemical composition of complex mixtures. It is proposed that scientific support for basic assumptions used in chemical mixtures risk assessment should be developed by expert panels, risk assessment methods experts, and laboratory toxicologists. This is imperative to further develop and refine quantitative methods and provide guidance on their appropriate applications. Risk assessors need scientific support for chemical mixtures risk assessment methods in the form of toxicological data on joint toxic action for high priority mixtures, statistical methods for analyzing dose-response for mixtures, and toxicological and statistical criteria for determining sufficient similarity of complex mixtures

  16. Oil companies make cutbacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    As oil prices are falling, the oil sector faces company restructuring, merger projects, closure of oil fields, and so on. Restructuring is motivated by the costs of offshore exploration and oil production projects. Saudi Arabia tries to fight the emergence of shale gases by reducing oil prices, and somehow succeeds as some projects in the USA are put into question again. Experts perceive this situation as an opportunity for the sector to improve its efficiency and reduce over-staffing

  17. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  18. Dermal tumorigen PAH and complex mixtures for biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griest, W.H.; Guerin, M.R.; Ho, C.

    1985-01-01

    Thirteen commercially available, commonly reported four-five ring dermal tumorigen PAHs, were determined in a set of complex mixtures consisting of crude and upgraded coal liquids, and petroleum crude oils and their distillate fractions. Semi-preparative scale, normal phase high performance liquid chromatographic fractionation followed by capillary column gas chromatography or gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy were used for the measurements. Deuterated or carbon-14 labeled PAH served as internal standards or allowed recovery corrections. Approaches for the preparation and measurement of radiolabeled PAH were examined to provide chemical probes for biological study. Synthetic routes for production of 14 C labeled dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene and 14 C- or 3 H 10-azabenzo[a]pyrene are being studied to provide tracers for fundamental studies in tracheal transplant and skin penetration systems. (DT)

  19. A novel coarsening mechanism of droplets in immiscible fluid mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ryotaro; Tanaka, Hajime

    2015-06-01

    In our daily lives, after shaking a salad dressing, we see the coarsening of oil droplets suspended in vinegar. Such a demixing process is observed everywhere in nature and also of technological importance. For a case of high droplet density, domain coarsening proceeds with inter-droplet collisions and the resulting coalescence. This phenomenon has been explained primarily by the so-called Brownian-coagulation mechanism: stochastic thermal forces exerted by molecules induce random motion of individual droplets, causing accidental collisions and subsequent interface-tension-driven coalescence. Contrary to this, here we demonstrate that the droplet motion is not random, but hydrodynamically driven by the composition Marangoni force due to an interfacial tension gradient produced in each droplet as a consequence of composition correlation among droplets. This alters our physical understanding of droplet coarsening in immiscible liquid mixtures on a fundamental level.

  20. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)], E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Mozo, Ismael; Garcia de la Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Riesco, Nicolas [Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE113TU Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-30

    Mixtures with dimethyl or trimethylpyridines and alkane, aromatic compound or 1-alkanol have been examined using different theories: DISQUAC, Flory, the concentration-concentration structure factor, S{sub CC}(0), or the Kirkwood-Buff formalism. DISQUAC represents fairly well the available experimental data, and improves theoretical calculations from Dortmund UNIFAC. Two important effects have been investigated: (i) the effect of increasing the number of methyl groups attached to the aromatic ring of the amine; (ii) the effect of modifying the position of the methyl groups in this ring. The molar excess enthalpy, H{sup E}, and the molar excess volume, V{sup E}, decrease in systems with alkane or methanol as follows: pyridine > 3-methylpyridine > 3,5-dimethylpyridine and pyridine > 2-methylpyridine > 2,4-dimethylpyridine > 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine, which has been attributed to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions in the same sequences. This is in agreement with the relative variation of the effective dipole moment, {mu}-bar, and of the differences between the boiling temperature of a pyridine base and that of the homomorphic alkane. For heptane solutions, the observed H{sup E} variation, H{sup E} (3,5-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,4-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,6-dimethylpyridine), is explained similarly. Calculations on the basis of the Flory model confirm that orientational effects become weaker in systems with alkane in the order: pyridine > methylpyridine > dimethylpyridine > trimethylpyridine. S{sub CC}(0) calculations show that steric effects increase with the number of CH{sub 3}- groups in the pyridine base, and that the steric effects exerted by methyl groups in positions 2 and 6 are higher than when they are placed in positions 3 and 5. The hydrogen bond energy in methanol mixtures is independent of the pyridine base, and it is estimated to be -35.2 kJ mol{sup -1}. Heterocoordination in these solutions is due in part to size effects. Their

  1. Contact Allergy to Neem Oil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton; Jagtman, Berend A; Woutersen, Marjolijn

    2018-01-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis from neem oil is presented. Neem oil (synonyms: Melia azadirachta seed oil [INCI name], nim oil, margosa oil) is a vegetable (fixed) oil obtained from the seed of the neem tree Azadirachta indica by cold pressing. Contact allergy to neem oil has been described

  2. Preparation of microcapsules containing different contents of different kinds of oils by a segregative coacervation method and their characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIDIJA B. PETROVIĆ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation of different oils was performed using a segregative coacervation method. In order to microencapsulate, 20 % oil-in-water (O/W emulsions were prepared in a continuous phase consisting of a 1 % mixture of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC/sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC mass ratio (0.7/0.3 and various concentrations (0, 0.35 and 1 % of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS. Various interactions between the components occur in the continuous phase of emulsions, which influence the structure and properties of the adsorption layer around the oil droplets. The formed HPMC/SDS complexes in the presence of NaCMC molecules undergo segregative phase separation and form a coacervate which adsorbs onto the oil droplets, forming the wall of the microcapsules. Sunflower oil, pumpkin seed oil and a mixture of sunflower and linseed oil were used as the core material. Microcapsules in the solid form were obtained by spray drying the emulsions. The stability of the emulsions, the particle size and particle size distribution of the emulsions and suspensions of microcapsules and the oil content of the microcapsules were determined. The influence of the oil kind on the properties of the microcapsules was also investigated. It was found that at 0.35 % SDS, a coacervate layer around the oil droplets forms a stabile, compact microcapsules wall, which prevents oil extraction. The kind of oil influences the properties of the emulsions and microcapsules, which is important in the selection of oils for microencapsulation by this method.

  3. Effects of synthetic oil in a compression refrigeration system using R410A. Part II: quality of heat transfer and pressure losses within the heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottin, O.; Guillemet, P. [Ecole Polytechnique de l' Universite de Nantes (France). Laboratoire de Thermocinetique; Lebreton, J-M. [Electricite de France, Moret sur Loing (France)

    2003-11-01

    The consequences of the oil rejected by the compressor of a vapour-compression refrigeration system on the operation of the evaporator and condenser are analysed. The modelled prototype uses the mixture of HFC R410A and a synthetic polyolester (POE) oil. The rise of the amount of lubricant circulating in the system leads to a progressive change in the behaviour of the mixture of refrigerant and oil that, for the higher oil mass fraction, evolves like a zeotropic mixture. One also observes that the presence of lubricant is generally associated with a fall of the performances of the heat exchangers, except however in the evaporator where an optimum is observed when the quantity of oil is equal to 0.1% of the total mass of the mixture. Some conclusions are drawn about the choice of correlations for the calculation of the refrigerant side heat transfer coefficient in a plate evaporator. (author)

  4. Mixtures of bioethanol and gasoline as a fuel for SI engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Dragoslava D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of alternative fuels, especially bioethanol and biodiesel, rises due to the limited oil sources, secure supply, prices changes, and environment pollution. Bioethanol is an alternative fuel which will be important in future, as a fuel produced from different crops and lignocelluloses materials. The quality of bioethanol has significant influence on the characteristics of mixtures with gasoline and engine performance. The investigations were performed with the bioethanol obtained as by-product from sugar industry, which is not denaturated and produced according the requests prescribed by standards for ethanol used in mixtures with gasoline. Main target was to examine the possibility of utilisation of bioethanol obtained as by-product and without additional technologies for purification and additional costs. The results of standard and non-standard investigations and engine tests of bioethanol and gasoline mixtures are presented.

  5. Mixtures of biofuels can serve as an ecological substitute for photovoltaics during nighttime hours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matejovsky, Vladimir [QMS Consulting, Prague (Czech Republic); Hromadko, Jan; Hoenig, Vladimir [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-06-01

    Diesel fuels consisting of mixtures of ethanol (alternatively butanol), FAME and vegetable oils in variable proportions can meet different requirements of OEMs for viscosity and heating values and constitute a form of renewable and storable energy from the sun which can be easily transformed into electricity. The ratio of component can vary according to the immediate availability and prices of components, oxygen content and the absence of aromatic hydrocarbons enabling the combustion of these mixtures in engines with very low emissions, especially of particulates. From these reasons these mixtures constitute an ecological source of energy suitable to supplement photovoltaic power plants during the night, when insufficient electric power supply and even blackouts can occur. It was verified that Diesel engines working with a mixture consisting of 50% ethanol, 30% FAME, 20% rapeseed oil and a small dosage of cetane improver, exuded much less smoke compared with B7 and B30 fuels and only little more when compared with the E95 fuel for which smoke emission ions was almost zero. Similar results were obtained when ethanol was replaced by biobutanol. (orig.)

  6. An oxyde mixture fuel containing uranium and plutonium dioxides and process to obtain this oxyde mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannerz, K.

    1976-01-01

    An oxide-mixture fuel containing uranium and plutonium dioxides having the slage of spherical, or nearly spherical, oxide-mixture particles with a diameter within the range of from 0.2 to 2 mn charactarized in that each oxide-mixture particles is provided with an outer layer comprising mainly UO2, the thickness of which is at least 0.05; whereas the inner portion of the oxide-mixture particles comprises mainly PUO 2

  7. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure and 50°C temperature for comparison of performance of various additives. The use of hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid mixture (10 wt.% was found more economical and effective in desulfurization and improvement of fuel properties of sample oils. The contribution of sulfuric acid in desulfurization and decreasing viscosity was also satisfactory but due to high price of concentrated sulfuric acid its use may not be economical. Calcium oxide and Fuller’s earth was not found to be effective in desulfurization. Results indicate that oxidative desulfurization could render tire pyrolysis oils suitable for blending as heating fuel.

  8. Process Dissociation and Mixture Signal Detection Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, Lawrence T.

    2008-01-01

    The process dissociation procedure was developed in an attempt to separate different processes involved in memory tasks. The procedure naturally lends itself to a formulation within a class of mixture signal detection models. The dual process model is shown to be a special case. The mixture signal detection model is applied to data from a widely…

  9. Buffer gas cooling and mixture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David S.; Doyle, John M.

    2018-03-06

    An apparatus for spectroscopy of a gas mixture is described. Such an apparatus includes a gas mixing system configured to mix a hot analyte gas that includes at least one analyte species in a gas phase into a cold buffer gas, thereby forming a supersaturated mixture to be provided for spectroscopic analysis.

  10. Unfolding the potential of wheat cultivar mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J.; Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Lecarpentier, C.

    2018-01-01

    and they are not encouraged by advisory services. Based on the methodology developed by Kiær et al. (2009), we achieved a meta-analysis of cultivar mixtures in wheat. Among the 120 publications dedicated to wheat, we selected 32 studies to analyze various factors that may condition the success or failure of wheat mixtures...

  11. Separation of organic azeotropic mixtures by pervaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W.

    1991-12-01

    Distillation is a commonly used separation technique in the petroleum refining and chemical processing industries. However, there are a number of potential separations involving azetropic and close-boiling organic mixtures that cannot be separated efficiently by distillation. Pervaporation is a membrane-based process that uses selective permeation through membranes to separate liquid mixtures. Because the separation process is not affected by the relative volatility of the mixture components being separated, pervaporation can be used to separate azetropes and close-boiling mixtures. Our results showed that pervaporation membranes can be used to separate azeotropic mixtures efficiently, a result that is not achievable with simple distillation. The membranes were 5--10 times more permeable to one of the components of the mixture, concentrating it in the permeate stream. For example, the membrane was 10 times more permeable to ethanol than methyl ethyl ketone, producing 60% ethanol permeate from an azeotropic mixture of ethanol and methyl ethyl ketone containing 18% ethanol. For the ethyl acetate/water mixture, the membranes showed a very high selectivity to water (> 300) and the permeate was 50--100 times enriched in water relative to the feed. The membranes had permeate fluxes on the order of 0.1--1 kg/m{sup 2}{center dot}h in the operating range of 55--70{degrees}C. Higher fluxes were obtained by increasing the operating temperature.

  12. Fibril assembly in whey protein mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to study fibril assembly in mixtures of whey proteins. The effect of the composition of the protein mixture on the structures and the resulting phase behaviour was investigated. The current work has shown that beta-lactoglobulin is responsible for the fibril assembly

  13. Mixture Modeling: Applications in Educational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hodis, Flaviu A.

    2016-01-01

    Model-based clustering methods, commonly referred to as finite mixture modeling, have been applied to a wide variety of cross-sectional and longitudinal data to account for heterogeneity in population characteristics. In this article, we elucidate 2 such approaches: growth mixture modeling and latent profile analysis. Both techniques are…

  14. Intelligent gas-mixture flow sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Dijkstra, Fred; Houkes, Z.; van Kuijk, J.C.C.; van Kuijk, Joost

    A simple way to realize a gas-mixture flow sensor is presented. The sensor is capable of measuring two parameters from a gas flow. Both the flow rate and the helium content of a helium-nitrogen gas mixture are measured. The sensor exploits two measurement principles in combination with (local)

  15. Shock formation in mixtures of fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgopia, N.; Ferraioli, F.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of weak-discontinuity propagation in mixtures of two ideal fluids is examined. The presence of exchenge of momentum reduces or enhances the time for shock formation depending on the machanism with whom the exchange of momentum takes place. Numerical evaluation are also presented for mixtures of nitrogen and oxygen simulating dry-air models

  16. The Modified Enskog Equation for Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijeren, H. van; Ernst, M.H.

    1973-01-01

    In a previous paper it was shown that a modified form of the Enskog equation, applied to mixtures of hard spheres, should be considered as the correct extension of the usual Enskog equation to the case of mixtures. The main argument was that the modified Enskog equation leads to linear transport

  17. Effect on of in vitro fermentation of mixture of Tithonia diversifolia, Cenchrus clandestinum and polyunsaturated fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Leonardo Cardona Iglesias

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluated by in vitro, the effect of mixing wild sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia, kikuyu (Cenchrus clandestinum and concentrated feed, with the addition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (AGPI on the production of methane (CH4 ml/g MSd, dry matter digestibility (%DIVMS and production of volatile fatty acids (AGV. The research was conducted in NUTRILAB laboratory (Medellin, Colombia in September 2015. Three combinations of AGPI rich lipid sources were used with a total maximum inclusion level corresponding to 3% of incubated dry matter. Combinations of lipid sources were: SAGPI1: 0.5% soya oil, 0.5% sish oil, 2% rich in omega 3 bypass fat. SAGPI2: 1% Soya oil, 0.5% fish oil, 1.5% bypass fat rich in omega 3. SAGPI3: 2.5% Soya oil, 0.5% fish oil. A source of bypass fat (GSP was also used. The results were processed using pre-planned test comparisons through the PROC MIXED-SAS.The methane production in vitro decreased (p<0.05, while the dry matter digestibility increased (p<0.05 24 and 48 hours after wild sunflower was include and / or AGPI or both into the mixtures. In the molar ratio of AGV (%, acetic acid showed an increased presence. The inclusion of forage like wild sunflower and sources of AGPI supplementation in cattle, could be a strategy to reduce methane emissions without causing a detriment to the ruminal fermentation.

  18. Systematic Investigation of the Role of Surfactant Composition and Choice of oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe Tandrup; Neustrup, Malene Aaby; Harloff-Helleberg, Stine

    2017-01-01

    humoral and CMI responses. METHODS: The influence of emulsion composition was analyzed using a systematic approach. Three factors were varied: i) saturation of the oil phase, ii) type and saturation of the applied surfactant mixture, and iii) surfactant mixture net charge. RESULTS: The emulsions were...... colloidally stable with a droplet diameter of 150-250 nm, and the zeta-potential correlated closely with the net charge of the surfactant mixture. Only cationic emulsions containing the unsaturated surfactant mixture induced concomitant humoral and CMI responses upon immunization of mice with a Ct antigen...

  19. Analysis of a variable speed air conditioner considering the R-290/POE ISO 22 mixture effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Barbosa, Jader R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A numerical model that considers the oil-refrigerant mixture effect is proposed. • In order to compare the model, an air conditioner calorimeter was constructed. • The system was evaluated under oil circulation ratios between 1 and 7%. • The presence of oil resulted in a significant SEER deterioration (around 69%). - Abstract: Air-conditioning applications using propane (R-290) have several environmental and thermodynamic advantages over more commonly used refrigerants, such as R-410A and R-22. This paper presents the development of a mathematical model for variable capacity air conditioning systems that use R-290/POE ISO 22 as refrigerant/lubricant. The thermodynamic performance of the refrigeration system is evaluated in terms of the SEER (Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio). The thermodynamic properties of the refrigerant/lubricant mixture were obtained from a departure-function approach using the Peng-Robinson equation of state. The effect of the oil on the condenser and evaporator heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops was also taken into account. Sub-models were developed for each component of the air conditioning system, including the connecting lines and the scroll compressor. Furthermore, an air conditioner experimental calorimeter was constructed and tested in order to validate the proposed model.

  20. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  1. Mixture toxicity of PBT-like chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Dai, Lina; Ramskov, Tina

    addition is a suitable model for default estimations of mixture effects. One of the major challenges is therefore how to select specific chemicals for actual mixture toxicity assessments. Persistant chemicals are likely to be present in the environment for an extended period of time, thus increasing...... the likelihood of them being present in environmentally found mixtures. Persistant, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals are therefore a highly relevant group of chemicals to consider for mixture toxicity regulation. The present study evaluates to what extent a number of PBT-like chemicals posess concern...... beyond that of the individual components. Firstly, the effects of three chemicals with PBT-like properties (acetyl cedrene, pyrene and triclosan) was examined on the freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Secondly, mixture bioaccumulation of the same three chemicals were assessed experimentally...

  2. A binary mixture operated heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hihara, E.; Saito, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of possible binary mixtures as working fluids in high- temperature heat pump applications. The binary mixtures, which are potential alternatives of fully halogenated hydrocarbons, include HCFC142b/HCFC22, HFC152a/HCFC22, HFC134a/HCFC22. The performance of the mixtures is estimated by a thermodynamic model and a practical model in which the heat transfer is considered in heat exchangers. One of the advantages of binary mixtures is a higher coefficient of performance, which is caused by the small temperature difference between the heat-sink/-source fluid and the refrigerant. The mixture HCFC142b/HCFC22 is promising from the stand point of thermodynamic performance

  3. Radiolytic decomposition of water-ethanol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baquey, Charles

    1968-07-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the behaviour of binary mixtures submitted to ionizing radiations, and notably aims, by studying the case of water-ethanol mixtures, at verifying solutions proposed by previously published works on the origin of hydrogen atoms and of molecular hydrogen, on the intervention of excited atoms, and on the origin of products appearing under radiolysis. The experimental part of this work consists in the dosing of products formed in water-ethanol mixtures irradiated in presence or absence of nitrate, hydrogen, hydrocarbon, acetaldehyde, 2-3 butanediol and nitrite. Results are discussed and interpreted in terms of acetaldehyde efficiency, 2-3 butanediol efficiencies, and hydrocarbon efficiencies in pure ethanol, and in water-ethanol mixtures. The influence of the presence of nitrate ions in mixtures is also discussed

  4. Deformation Properties and Fatigue of Bituminous Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Schlosser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation properties and fatigue performance are important characteristics of asphalt bound materials which are used for construction of pavement layers. Viscoelastic asphalt mixtures are better characterized via dynamic tests. This type of tests allows us to collate materials with regard to axle vibrations which lie usually in the range of 6 Hz–25 Hz for standard conditions. Asphalt modified for heat sensitivity in the range from −20°C to +60°C has significant impact on the overall characteristics of the mixture. Deformation properties are used as inputs for empirical mixture design, and fatigue performance of asphalt mixtures reflects the parameters of functional tests. Master curves convey properties of asphalt mixtures for various conditions and allow us to evaluate them without the need of time expensive testing.

  5. [Biodegradability of the components of natural hydrocarbon mixtures previously submitted to landfarming].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, G N; Pucci, O H

    2003-01-01

    The complex composition of the crude oil and the hydrocarbons that integrate the waste of the different stages of the oil industry turn this product a mixture that presents different difficulties for its elimination by biological methods. The objective of this paper was to study the biodegradation potential of autochthonous bacterial communities on hydrocarbons obtained from four polluted places and subjected to landfarming biorremediation system during a decade. The results showed a marked difference in biodegradability of the three main fractions of crude oil, aliphatic, aromatic, and polar fractions, obtained by column chromatography. All fractions were used as carbon source and energy. There were variations in the production of biomass among the different fractions as well as in the kinetics of biodegradation, according to the composition of each fraction.

  6. Spreading of oil on water in the surface-tension regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D.W.; Berg, J.C.

    1987-11-01

    Data which describe the unidirectional spreading of several pure oils and oil-surfactant mixtures on water in the surface-tension regime are reported. Leading-edge position and profiles of velocity, thickness and film tension are given as functions of time. The data are consistent with the numerical similarity solution of Foda and Cox (1980), although the measured dependence of the film tension on the film thickness often differs from the equilibrium relationship. The configuration of the oil film near the spreading origin may be either a coherent multimolecular layer or a multitude of thinning, outward-moving lenses surrounded by monolayer. The pure oils show an acceleration zone connecting the slow-moving inner region to a fast-moving outer region, while the oil-surfactant mixtures show a much more gradual increase in film velocity.

  7. Neural networks applied to characterize blends containing refined and extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca-Santos, Regina; Cancilla, John C; Pariente, Enrique S; Torrecilla, José S

    2016-12-01

    The identification and quantification of binary blends of refined olive oil with four different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varietals (Picual, Cornicabra, Hojiblanca and Arbequina) was carried out with a simple method based on combining visible spectroscopy and non-linear artificial neural networks (ANNs). The data obtained from the spectroscopic analysis was treated and prepared to be used as independent variables for a multilayer perceptron (MLP) model. The model was able to perfectly classify the EVOO varietal (100% identification rate), whereas the error for the quantification of EVOO in the mixtures containing between 0% and 20% of refined olive oil, in terms of the mean prediction error (MPE), was 2.14%. These results turn visible spectroscopy and MLP models into a trustworthy, user-friendly, low-cost technique which can be implemented on-line to characterize olive oil mixtures containing refined olive oil and EVOOs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Transesterification of rapeseed and palm oils in supercritical methanol and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biktashev, Sh.A.; Usmanov, R.A.; Gabitov, R.R.; Gazizov, R.A.; Gumerov, F.M.; Gabitov, F.R.; Abdulagatov, I.M.; Yarullin, R.S.; Yakushev, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    The results of the rapeseed and palm oils transesterification with supercritical methanol and ethanol were presented. The studies were performed using the experimental setups which are working in batch and continuous regimes. The effect of reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, oil to alcohol ratio, reaction time) on the biodiesel production (conversion yield) was studied. Also the effect of preliminary ultrasonic treatment (ultrasonic irradiation, emulsification of immiscible oil and alcohol mixture) of the initial reagents (emulsion preparation) on the stage before transesterification reaction conduction on the conversion yield was studied. We found that the preliminary ultrasonic treatment of the initial reagents increases considerably the conversion yield. Optimal technological conditions were determined to be as follows: pressure within 20-30 MPa, temperature within 573-623 K. The optimal values of the oil to alcohol ratio strongly depend on preliminary treatment of the reaction mixture. The study showed that the conversion yield at the same temperature with 96 wt.% of ethanol is higher than with 100 wt.% of methanol. -- Highlights: → The results of the rapeseed and palm oils transesterification with supercritical methanol and ethanol were presented. → The effect of reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, oil to alcohol ratio, reaction time) on the biodiesel production (conversion yield) was studied. → Transesterification of vegetable oil with supercritical alcohols. → Effect of temperature and pressure on conversion yield. → Preliminary ultrasonic treatment of the vegetable oil+methanol mixture.

  9. Production of oil from Israeli oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givoni, D.

    1993-01-01

    Oil shale can be utilized in two-ways: direct combustion to generate steam and power or retorting to produce oil or gas. PAMA has been developing both direct combustion and retorting processes. Its main effort is in the combustion. An oil shale fired steam boiler was erected in the Rotem industrial complex for demonstration purposes. PAMA has also been looking into two alternative retorting concepts - slow heating of coarse particles and fast heating of fine particles. The present paper provides operating data of oil shale processing in the following scheme: (a) retorting in moving bed, pilot and bench scale units, and (b) retorting in a fluidized bed, bench scale units. (author)

  10. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  11. Coarse sediment oil persistence laboratory studies and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, B.; Harper, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    To gain understanding of the factors which affect the fate of stranded oil on coarse sediment beaches, a series of oil penetration and tidal flushing experiments was conducted in columns containing sediments of two grain sizes: granules and pebbles. The experiments included changing oil properties by weathering and by emulsification. Factors examined included permeability, effective porosity, and residual capacity of the sediment for oil. The laboratory data provided input to an oil persistence model for coarse sediment beaches, and the model was modified on the basis of the new data. The permeability measurements suggest that the permeability of pebble/granule mixtures is close to that of the smaller component. For low viscosity oils, the permeability in coarse sediments is rapid enough to match the fall and rise of tidal water. Effective porosity of the pebbles was ca 90% of the measured porosity, but for both the granules and a 50-50 pebble/granule mixture, the effective porosity was ca 75% of measured porosity. Results of tidal flushing simulation imply that flushing may be rapid but not efficient. The emulsion completely entered the sediment in the case of pebbles only. 2 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Fractional distillation of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L D

    1931-10-31

    A method of dividing oil into lubricating oil fractions without substantial cracking by introducing the oil in a heated state into a fractionating column from which oil fractions having different boiling points are withdrawn at different levels, while reflux liquid is supplied to the top of the column, and additional heat is introduced into the column by contacting with the oil therein a heated fluid of higher monlecular weight than water and less susceptible to thermal decomposition than is the highest boiling oil fraction resulting from the distillation, or of which any products produced by thermal decomposition will not occur in the highest boiling distillate withdrawn from the column.

  13. Mercury and tritium removal from DOE waste oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, E.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This work covers the investigation of vacuum extraction as a means to remove tritiated contamination as well as the removal via sorption of dissolved mercury from contaminated oils. The radiation damage in oils from tritium causes production of hydrogen, methane, and low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons. When tritium gas is present in the oil, the tritium atom is incorporated into the formed hydrocarbons. The transformer industry measures gas content/composition of transformer oils as a diagnostic tool for the transformers` condition. The analytical approach (ASTM D3612-90) used for these measurements is vacuum extraction of all gases (H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, etc.) followed by analysis of the evolved gas mixture. This extraction method will be adapted to remove dissolved gases (including tritium) from the SRS vacuum pump oil. It may be necessary to heat (60{degrees}C to 70{degrees}C) the oil during vacuum extraction to remove tritiated water. A method described in the procedures is a stripper column extraction, in which a carrier gas (argon) is used to remove dissolved gases from oil that is dispersed on high surface area beads. This method appears promising for scale-up as a treatment process, and a modified process is also being used as a dewatering technique by SD Myers, Inc. (a transformer consulting company) for transformers in the field by a mobile unit. Although some mercury may be removed during the vacuum extraction, the most common technique for removing mercury from oil is by using sulfur-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC). SIAC is currently being used by the petroleum industry to remove mercury from hydrocarbon mixtures, but the sorbent has not been previously tested on DOE vacuum oil waste. It is anticipated that a final process will be similar to technologies used by the petroleum industry and is comparable to ion exchange operations in large column-type reactors.

  14. The Use of D-Optimal Mixture Design in Optimising Okara Soap Formulation for Stratum Corneum Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Farrah Payyadhah; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Shamsuddin, Rosnah

    2014-01-01

    Okara, soybean waste from tofu and soymilk production, was utilised as a natural antioxidant in soap formulation for stratum corneum application. D-optimal mixture design was employed to investigate the influence of the main compositions of okara soap containing different fatty acid and oils (virgin coconut oil A (24–28% w/w), olive oil B (15–20% w/w), palm oil C (6–10% w/w), castor oil D (15–20% w/w), cocoa butter E (6–10% w/w), and okara F (2–7% w/w)) by saponification process on the response hardness of the soap. The experimental data were utilized to carry out analysis of variance (ANOVA) and to develop a polynomial regression model for okara soap hardness in terms of the six design factors considered in this study. Results revealed that the best mixture was the formulation that included 26.537% A, 19.999% B, 9.998% C, 16.241% D, 7.633% E, and 7.000% F. The results proved that the difference in the level of fatty acid and oils in the formulation significantly affects the hardness of soap. Depending on the desirable level of those six variables, creation of okara based soap with desirable properties better than those of commercial ones is possible. PMID:25548777

  15. The Use of D-Optimal Mixture Design in Optimising Okara Soap Formulation for Stratum Corneum Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrah Payyadhah Borhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Okara, soybean waste from tofu and soymilk production, was utilised as a natural antioxidant in soap formulation for stratum corneum application. D-optimal mixture design was employed to investigate the influence of the main compositions of okara soap containing different fatty acid and oils (virgin coconut oil A (24–28% w/w, olive oil B (15–20% w/w, palm oil C (6–10% w/w, castor oil D (15–20% w/w, cocoa butter E (6–10% w/w, and okara F (2–7% w/w by saponification process on the response hardness of the soap. The experimental data were utilized to carry out analysis of variance (ANOVA and to develop a polynomial regression model for okara soap hardness in terms of the six design factors considered in this study. Results revealed that the best mixture was the formulation that included 26.537% A, 19.999% B, 9.998% C, 16.241% D, 7.633% E, and 7.000% F. The results proved that the difference in the level of fatty acid and oils in the formulation significantly affects the hardness of soap. Depending on the desirable level of those six variables, creation of okara based soap with desirable properties better than those of commercial ones is possible.

  16. The use of D-optimal mixture design in optimising okara soap formulation for stratum corneum application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Farrah Payyadhah; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Shamsuddin, Rosnah

    2014-01-01

    Okara, soybean waste from tofu and soymilk production, was utilised as a natural antioxidant in soap formulation for stratum corneum application. D-optimal mixture design was employed to investigate the influence of the main compositions of okara soap containing different fatty acid and oils (virgin coconut oil A (24-28% w/w), olive oil B (15-20% w/w), palm oil C (6-10% w/w), castor oil D (15-20% w/w), cocoa butter E (6-10% w/w), and okara F (2-7% w/w)) by saponification process on the response hardness of the soap. The experimental data were utilized to carry out analysis of variance (ANOVA) and to develop a polynomial regression model for okara soap hardness in terms of the six design factors considered in this study. Results revealed that the best mixture was the formulation that included 26.537% A, 19.999% B, 9.998% C, 16.241% D, 7.633% E, and 7.000% F. The results proved that the difference in the level of fatty acid and oils in the formulation significantly affects the hardness of soap. Depending on the desirable level of those six variables, creation of okara based soap with desirable properties better than those of commercial ones is possible.

  17. Spreading of oil films on water in the surface tension regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Surface tension forces will cause an oil to spread over water if the tension of the oil film (the summed surface and interfacial tensions for bulk oil films, or the equilibrium spreading tension for monomolecular films) is less than the surface tension of water. For oil films spreading in a 40 cm long channel, measurements are made of leading edge position and lateral profiles of film thickness, velocity, and tension as a function of time. Measurements of the tension profiles, important for evaluating proposed theories, is made possible by the development of a new technique based on the Wilhelmy method. The oils studied were silicones, fatty acids and alcohols, and mixtures of surfactants in otherwise nonspreading oils. The single-component oils show an acceleration zone connecting a slow-moving inner region with a fast-moving leading monolayer. The dependence of film tension on film thickness for spreading single-component oils often differs from that at equilibrium. The mixtures show a bulk oil film configuration which extends to the leading edge and have velocity profiles which increase smoothly. The theoretical framework, similarity transformation, and asymptotic solutions of Foda and Cox for single-component oils were shown to be valid. An analysis of spreading surfactant-oil mixtures is developed which allows them to be treated under this framework. An easily-used semi-empirical model is proposed which allows them to be treated under this framework. An easily-used semi-empirical model is proposed which allows accurate prediction of detailed spreading behavior for any spreading oil.

  18. Preparation of function-enhanced vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Maeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previously, we (HM found that most commercially available edible oils, which were processed by hexane extraction followed by a number of purification steps, were extremely low in anti-peroxy radical (ROO., or radical scavenging activity. This is a great contrast to the respective virgin oils as exemplified by extra-virgin olive oil or crude rape seed oil [1-4] (Figure 1. Therefore, such highly purified oils will became prooxidant and less desirable food components in terms of health oriented diet. Oxidized oils may eventually cause DNA cleavages, modification of proteins, RNA, and lipids, as well as cellular damage, or promote inflammation and carcinogenesis at later time [5-9]. These commercial oils of low antioxidant activity may be improved by adding functionally effective antioxidative components, by using dried vegetable-waste such as tomato-juice-waste-residues and wine-ferment-waste-residues. Their antioxiative components will be transferred into the functionally poor grade edible oils, and consequently, one can improve the quality of such functionally poor oils and thereby contributing human health [2,8,9]. The purpose of this paper is to report a practical procedure to fortify functionally low grade conventional edible oils to functionally enriched edible oils using dried vegetable-waste residues such as tomato juice waste, and wine-ferment-residues, or other vegetable-waste residues. Methods: (1 Preparation and measurements of lycopene and carotenoid enriched oils. To 5.0g or 1.0g of the dried residue of tomato juice waste, 100ml of commercial rape seed (canola oil was added respectively. Each mixture was incubated at room temperature in dark for several weeks. Amount of lycopene and carotenoids extracted into the oil was monitored by increase of absorption (400-550nm and fluorescence at 470nm of carotenoid. Grape-juice ferment (wine waste was similarly prepared after hot air drying, and immersed in canola oil. (2

  19. Nano-catalysts for upgrading bio-oil: Catalytic decarboxylation and hydrodeoxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Tran, Nga T. T.; Naqvi, Salman Raza; Nishiyama, Norikazu

    2017-09-01

    Bio-oil is a mixture of oxygenated chemicals produced by fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose, and has attracted much attention recently because the raw material is renewable. Primarily, bio-oil can be used as a replacement of heavy oil. But it is not highly recommended due to bio-oil's inferior properties: high acidity and short shelf life. Upgrading of bio-oil is therefore one of the important technologies nowadays, and is categorized into the two: (A) decrarboxylation/decarbonylation by solid acid catalysts and (B) hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) by metallic catalysts. In our research group, decarboxylation of bio-oil by zeolites and HDO of guaiacol (a model compound of bio-oil) have been investigated. In this paper, recent developments of these upgrading reactions in our research group will be introduced.

  20. Effects of different levels of lespedeza and supplementation with monensin, coconut oil, or soybean oil on ruminal methane emission by mature Boer goat wethers after different lengths of feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature Boer goat wethers were supplemented with 0.5% BW rolled corn and consumed pelleted alfalfa (CON), pelleted Sericea lespedeza (HSL; 6.4% condensed tannins), a 1:1 mixture of alfalfa and lespedeza (MSL), or alfalfa with monensin (ION; 22 mg/kg), coconut oil (CCO; 4%), or soybean oil (SBO; 4%). ...