WorldWideScience

Sample records for nine-point plan based

  1. Stabilizing Planar Inverted Pendulum System Based on Fuzzy Nine-point Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Qi Qian; Liu Feng; Tang Yong-chuan; Yang Yang

    2013-01-01

    In order to stabilize planar inverted pendulum, after analyzing the physical characteristics of the planar inverted pendulum system, a pendulum nine-point controller and a car nine-point controller for X-axis and Y-axis were designed respectively. Then a fuzzy coordinator was designed using the fuzzy control theory based on the priority of those two controllers, and the priority level of the pendulum is higher than the car. Thus, the control tasks of each controller in each axis were harmoniz...

  2. Nine-point plan to improve care of the injured patient: A case study from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Botchey, Isaac; Paruk, Fatima; Wako, Daniel; Saidi, Hassan; Aliwa, Bethuel; Kibias, Simon; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-12-01

    Injury rates in low- and middle-income countries are among the greatest in the world, with >90% of unintentional injury occurring in low- or middle-income countries. The risk of death from injuries is 6 times more in low- and middle-income countries than in high-income countries. This increased rate of injury is partly due to the lack of availability and access to timely and appropriate medical care for injured individuals. Kenya, like most low- and middle-income countries, has seen a 5-fold increase in injury fatalities throughout the past 4 decades, in large part related to the absence of a coordinated, integrated system of trauma care. We aimed to assess the trauma-care system in Kenya and to develop and implement a plan to improve it. A trauma system profile was performed to understand the landscape for the care of the injured patient in Kenya. This process helped identify key gaps in care ranging from prehospital to hospital-based care. In response to this observation, a 9-point plan to improve trauma care in Kenya was developed and implemented in close collaboration with local stakeholders. The 9-point plan was centered on engagement of the stakeholders, generation of key data to guide and improve services, capacity development for prehospital and hospital care, and strengthening policy and legislation. There is an urgent need for coordinated strategies to provide appropriate and timely medical care to injured individuals in low- or middle-income countries to decrease the burden of injuries and related fatalities. Our work in Kenya shows that such an integrated system of trauma care could be achieved through a step-by-step integrated and multifaceted approach that emphasizes engagement of local stakeholders and evidence-based approaches to ensure effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability of system-wide improvements. This plan and lessons learned in its development and implementation could be adaptable to other similar settings to improve the care of the

  3. Management of chronic recurrent osteitis pubis/pubic bone stress in a Premier League footballer: Evaluating the evidence base and application of a nine-point management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleer, Stephen S; Gille, Justus; Bark, Stefan; Riepenhof, Helge

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent chronic groin pain and evaluate the evidence of the interventions. A professional footballer presented with chronic recurrent OP/PBS. The injury was managed successfully with a nine-point programme - 1. Acute pharmacological management. 2. Tone reduction of over-active structures. 3. Improved ROM at hips, pelvis and thorax. 4. Adductor strength. 5. Functional movement assessment. 6. Core stability. 7. Lumbo-pelvic control. 8. Gym-based strengthening. 9. Field-based conditioning/rehabilitation. The evidence for these interventions is reviewed. The player returned to full training and match play within 41 and 50 days, respectively, and experienced no recurrence of his symptoms in follow up at 13 months. This case report displays a nine-point conservative management strategy for OP/PBS, with non-time dependent clinical objective markers as the progression criteria in a Premier League football player. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Euler Line and Nine-Point-Circle Theorems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Frank M.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the Euler line theorem and the nine-point-circle theorem which emphasize transformations and the power of functions in a geometric concept. Presents definitions and proofs of theorems. (ASK)

  5. Introducing Nine-Point Circle to Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiangga, S.; Azizah, M. A. N.; Rini, R. N. K.; Hidayanti, A. N.

    2018-01-01

    The concept of circles is an ancient concept that has appeared since Ancient Egypt from which this concept gives many significant contributions in mathematics’ development until now. Nevertheless, the concept of circles hides many uncover mysterious features that are of applications in mathematics. One of the mysterious features is the Nine-Point Circle. This Nine-point circle is also known as Euler’s circle, six-point circle, Feuerbach’s circle, the twelve-point circle, and many others. Because of these different names, there have been misunderstand among mathematicians about the Nine-Point Circle’s history. Besides, the discussion of Nine-Point Circle can be used to be an initial material to explain elementary geometry topic in junior high school’s level curriculum of 2013. Therefore, this concept needs to be delivered to the students as a geometry introduction. A possible form of the integration historical aspect of Nine-point circle is suggested in this paper as well as its importance in the curriculum of 2013.

  6. A nine-point finite difference scheme for one-dimensional wave equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszka, Barbara

    2017-07-01

    The paper is devoted to an implicit finite difference method (FDM) for solving initial-boundary value problems (IBVP) for one-dimensional wave equation. The second-order derivatives in the wave equation have been approximated at the four intermediate points, as a consequence, an implicit nine-point difference scheme has been obtained. Von Neumann stability analysis has been conducted and we have demonstrated, that the presented difference scheme is unconditionally stable.

  7. A nine-point pH titration method to determine low-concentration VFA in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Hainan; Zhang, Daijun; Lu, Peili; He, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of volatile fatty acid (VFA) in wastewater is significant for understanding the wastewater nature and the wastewater treatment process optimization based on the usage of Activated Sludge Models (ASMs). In this study, a nine-point pH titration method was developed for the determination of low-concentration VFA in municipal wastewater. The method was evaluated using synthetic wastewater containing VFA with the concentration of 10-50 mg/l and the possible interfering buffer systems of carbonate, phosphate and ammonium similar to those in real municipal wastewater. In addition, the further evaluation was conducted through the assay of real wastewater using chromatography as reference. The results showed that the recovery of VFA in the synthetic wastewater was 92%-102 and the coefficient of variance (CV) of reduplicate measurements 1.68%-4.72%. The changing content of the buffering substances had little effect on the accuracy of the method. Moreover, the titration method was agreed with chromatography in the determination of VFA in real municipal wastewater with R(2)= 0.9987 and CV =1.3-1.7. The nine-point pH titration method is capable of satisfied determination of low-concentration VFA in municipal wastewater.

  8. Analysis of the nine-point finite difference approximation for the heat conduction equation in a nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadri, M.

    1983-01-01

    The time dependent heat conduction equation in the x-y Cartesian geometry is formulated in terms of a nine-point finite difference relation using a Taylor series expansion technique. The accuracy of the nine-point formulation over the five-point formulation has been tested and evaluated for various reactor fuel-cladding plate configurations using a computer program. The results have been checked against analytical solutions for various model problems. The following cases were considered in the steady-state condition: (a) The thermal conductivity and the heat generation were uniform. (b) The thermal conductivity was constant, the heat generation variable. (c) The thermal conductivity varied linearly with the temperature, the heat generation was uniform. (d) Both thermal conductivity and heat generation vary. In case (a), approximately, for the same accuracy, 85% fewer grid points were needed for the nine-point relation which has a 14% higher convergence rate as compared to the five-point relation. In case (b), on the average, 84% fewer grid points were needed for the nine-point relation which has a 65% higher convergence rate as compared to the five-point relation. In case (c) and (d), there is significant accuracy (91% higher than the five-point relation) for the nine-point relation when a worse grid was used. The numerical solution of the nine-point formula in the time dependent case was also more accurate and converges faster than the numerical solution of the five-point formula for all comparative tests related to heat conduction problems in a nuclear fuel element

  9. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  10. Behavior-based evacuation planning

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel

    2010-05-01

    In this work, we present a formulation of an evacuation planning problem that is inspired by motion planning and describe an integrated behavioral agent-based and roadmap-based motion planning approach to solve it. Our formulation allows users to test the effect on evacuation of a number of different environmental factors. One of our main focuses is to provide a mechanism to investigate how the interaction between agents influences the resulting evacuation plans. Specifically, we explore how various types of control provided by a set of directing agents effects the overall evacuation planning strategies of the evacuating agents. ©2010 IEEE.

  11. Trajectory Planning of Welding Robot Based on Terminal Priority Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Chi GAO; Minzhou LUO; Fayong GUO; Hui GAO

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the trajectory planning efficiency and accuracy of multi-joint welding robot, according to the movement feature of multi-joint welding robot, the paper analyzed on existing problems in spatial joint planning of the robot, proposed a terminal priority planning method of robot joint planning, based on the study of energy conservation and accuracy of robot terminal. Using this method, the paper proceeded planning of welding robot joint, stated implementation procedure of join...

  12. Trajectory Planning of Welding Robot Based on Terminal Priority Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi GAO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the trajectory planning efficiency and accuracy of multi-joint welding robot, according to the movement feature of multi-joint welding robot, the paper analyzed on existing problems in spatial joint planning of the robot, proposed a terminal priority planning method of robot joint planning, based on the study of energy conservation and accuracy of robot terminal. Using this method, the paper proceeded planning of welding robot joint, stated implementation procedure of joint planning, conducted simulated test simulating welding robot, the result demonstrated that the research is of high feasibility and technological application values.

  13. Codified Risk Based Inspection Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2002-01-01

    and inspection/repair techniques. Generic inspection plans can be used for design of new structures as well as for requalification of existing structures. In this paper it is described how generic inspection plans can be used for codification purposes in connection with inspection planning of steel structures....

  14. Performance-based planning and programming guidebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    "Performance-based planning and programming (PBPP) refers to the application of performance management principles within the planning and programming processes of transportation agencies to achieve desired performance outcomes for the multimodal tran...

  15. Scenario Based Network Infrastructure Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a method for IT infrastructure planning that take into account very long term developments in usages. The method creates a scenario for a final, time independent stage in the planning process. The method abstracts relevant modelling factors from available information......; this includes available statistical information and a short survey of emerging technologies. A scenario for Denmark is presented and consequences are discussed....

  16. Linear Temporal Logic-based Mission Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Kumar; Rahul Kala

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the Linear Temporal Logic-based reactive motion planning. We address the problem of motion planning for mobile robots, wherein the goal specification of planning is given in complex environments. The desired task specification may consist of complex behaviors of the robot, including specifications for environment constraints, need of task optimality, obstacle avoidance, rescue specifications, surveillance specifications, safety specifications, etc. We use Linear Tem...

  17. Robust Planning for Effects-Based Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    hypothesis or options [56]. Recency tends to trump primacy in complex problems. "* Elimination by aspect: When trying to choose among several options...THESIS 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS ROBUST PLANNING FOR EFFECTS BASED OPERATIONS 6. AUTHOR(S) 2D LT BRYANT CORBAN H 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...EG) escribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 DesgJned using Perform Pro, WHS/DIOR, Oct 94 Robust Planning for Effects -Based Operations by Corban Harrell Bryant

  18. Pheromone based alternative route planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangbing Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose an improved alternative route calculation based on alternative figures, which is suitable for practical environments. The improvement is based on the fact that the main traffic route is the road network skeleton in a city. Our approach using nodes may generate a higher possibility of overlapping. We employ a bidirectional Dijkstra algorithm to search the route. To measure the quality of an Alternative Figures (AG, three quotas are proposed. The experiment results indicate that the improved algorithm proposed in this paper is more effective than others.

  19. Gender Responsive Community Based Planning and Budgeting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gender Responsive Community Based Planning and Budgeting Tool for Local Governance. During the early 1990s, IDRC supported the development and testing of a reliable and cost-efficient tool for monitoring poverty and facilitating local level budgeting: the community-based (poverty) monitoring system (CBMS).

  20. Linear Temporal Logic-based Mission Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the Linear Temporal Logic-based reactive motion planning. We address the problem of motion planning for mobile robots, wherein the goal specification of planning is given in complex environments. The desired task specification may consist of complex behaviors of the robot, including specifications for environment constraints, need of task optimality, obstacle avoidance, rescue specifications, surveillance specifications, safety specifications, etc. We use Linear Temporal Logic to give a representation for such complex task specification and constraints. The specifications are used by a verification engine to judge the feasibility and suitability of plans. The planner gives a motion strategy as output. Finally a controller is used to generate the desired trajectory to achieve such a goal. The approach is tested using simulations on the LTLMoP mission planning tool, operating over the Robot Operating System. Simulation results generated using high level planners and low level controllers work simultaneously for mission planning and controlling the physical behavior of the robot.

  1. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is based...... on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used...

  2. Framework for Railway Phase-based Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    and compared. A case study is introduced in the article to demonstrate how the framework works to compare timber sleepers and concrete sleepers from strategic planning level. Two Life Cycle Cost oriented policies are discussed to illustrate: high quality track is necessity to improve the cost efficiency......In the railway field, planning the maintenance and renewal strategy from Life Cycle Cost (LCC) perspective gets more and more attentions recent years. The new approach looks at all the costs through the infrastructure life span and use the annuity (continuing payment with a fixed total annual...... spending) to evaluate the project alternatives. The comparison result can identify the most cost-efficient solution in a long run and therefore reduce the overall costs. This article defines a phase-based framework to guide the railway maintenance and renewal project planning at strategic level...

  3. NASDA knowledge-based network planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaya, K.; Fujiwara, M.; Kosugi, S.; Yambe, M.; Ohmori, M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the SODS (space operation and data system) sub-systems, NP (network planning) was the first expert system used by NASDA (national space development agency of Japan) for tracking and control of satellite. The major responsibilities of the NP system are: first, the allocation of network and satellite control resources and, second, the generation of the network operation plan data (NOP) used in automated control of the stations and control center facilities. Up to now, the first task of network resource scheduling was done by network operators. NP system automatically generates schedules using its knowledge base, which contains information on satellite orbits, station availability, which computer is dedicated to which satellite, and how many stations must be available for a particular satellite pass or a certain time period. The NP system is introduced.

  4. Account-based retiree medical plans: what's good for your pension plan may be good for your retiree medical plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschau, W J

    2001-09-01

    Many of the same forces that caused employers to gravitate toward account-based pension plans are beginning to spark similar changes in retiree medical plans. As medical costs continue to escalate, account-based retiree medical plans offer a new way to manage company outlays, while preserving an important benefit for retirees.

  5. Collaborative environments for capability-based planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuay, William K.

    2005-05-01

    Distributed collaboration is an emerging technology for the 21st century that will significantly change how business is conducted in the defense and commercial sectors. Collaboration involves two or more geographically dispersed entities working together to create a "product" by sharing and exchanging data, information, and knowledge. A product is defined broadly to include, for example, writing a report, creating software, designing hardware, or implementing robust systems engineering and capability planning processes in an organization. Collaborative environments provide the framework and integrate models, simulations, domain specific tools, and virtual test beds to facilitate collaboration between the multiple disciplines needed in the enterprise. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is conducting a leading edge program in developing distributed collaborative technologies targeted to the Air Force's implementation of systems engineering for a simulation-aided acquisition and capability-based planning. The research is focusing on the open systems agent-based framework, product and process modeling, structural architecture, and the integration technologies - the glue to integrate the software components. In past four years, two live assessment events have been conducted to demonstrate the technology in support of research for the Air Force Agile Acquisition initiatives. The AFRL Collaborative Environment concept will foster a major cultural change in how the acquisition, training, and operational communities conduct business.

  6. Commercialization plan laser-based decoating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    F2 Associates Inc. (F2) is a small, high-technology firm focused on developing and commercializing environmentally friendly laser ablation systems for industrial-rate removal of surface coatings from metals, concrete, and delicate substrates such as composites. F2 has a contract with the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to develop and test a laser-based technology for removing contaminated paint and other contaminants from concrete and metal surfaces. Task 4.1 in Phase 2 of the Statement of Work for this DOE contract requires that F2 ''document its plans for commercializing and marketing the stationary laser ablation system. This document shall include a discussion of prospects for commercial customers and partners and may require periodic update to reflect changing strategy. This document shall be submitted to the DOE for review.'' This report is being prepared and submitted in fulfillment of that requirement. This report describes the laser-based technology for cleaning and coatings removal, the types of laser-based systems that have been developed by F2 based on this technology, and the various markets that are emerging for this technology. F2's commercialization and marketing plans are described, including how F2's organization is structured to meet the needs of technology commercialization, F2's strategy and marketing approach, and the necessary steps to receive certification for removing paint from aircraft and DOE certification for D and D applications. The future use of the equipment built for the DOE contract is also discussed

  7. Commercialization plan laser-based decoating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freiwald, J.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    F2 Associates Inc. (F2) is a small, high-technology firm focused on developing and commercializing environmentally friendly laser ablation systems for industrial-rate removal of surface coatings from metals, concrete, and delicate substrates such as composites. F2 has a contract with the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to develop and test a laser-based technology for removing contaminated paint and other contaminants from concrete and metal surfaces. Task 4.1 in Phase 2 of the Statement of Work for this DOE contract requires that F2 ``document its plans for commercializing and marketing the stationary laser ablation system. This document shall include a discussion of prospects for commercial customers and partners and may require periodic update to reflect changing strategy. This document shall be submitted to the DOE for review.`` This report is being prepared and submitted in fulfillment of that requirement. This report describes the laser-based technology for cleaning and coatings removal, the types of laser-based systems that have been developed by F2 based on this technology, and the various markets that are emerging for this technology. F2`s commercialization and marketing plans are described, including how F2`s organization is structured to meet the needs of technology commercialization, F2`s strategy and marketing approach, and the necessary steps to receive certification for removing paint from aircraft and DOE certification for D and D applications. The future use of the equipment built for the DOE contract is also discussed.

  8. Resource Based Multi Agent Plan Merging : Framework and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Van der Krogt, R.P.J.; Witteveen, C.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss a resource-based planning framework where agents are able to merge plans by exchanging resources. In this framework, plans are specified as structured objects composed of resource consuming and resource producing processes (actions). A plan itself can also be conceived as a process

  9. Don't Plan for the Unexpected: Planning Based on Plausibility Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; Jensen, Martin Holm

    2015-01-01

    that the agent achieves this goal. Conversely, a weak plan promises only the possibility of leading to the goal. In real-life planning scenarios where the planning agent is faced with a high degree of uncertainty and an almost endless number of possible exogenous events, strong epistemic planning......We present a framework for automated planning based on plausibility models, as well as algorithms for computing plans in this framework. Our plausibility models include postconditions, as ontic effects are essential for most planning purposes. The framework presented extends a previously developed...... framework based on dynamic epistemic logic (DEL), without plausibilities/beliefs. In the pure epistemic framework, one can distinguish between strong and weak epistemic plans for achieving some, possibly epistemic, goal. By taking all possible outcomes of actions into account, a strong plan guarantees...

  10. A Resource Based Framework for Planning and Replanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Krogt, R.P.J.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss a rigorous unifying framework for both planning and replanning, extending an existing logic-based approach to resource-based planning. The primitive concepts in this Action Resource Framework (ARF) are actions and resources. Actions consume and produce resources. Plans are structures

  11. The Route Analysis Based On Flight Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriyanto, Nur; Saleh, Chairul; Fauzi, Achmad; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Riza Iwaputra, Kahfi

    2016-02-01

    Economic development effects use of air transportation since the business process in every aspect was increased. Many people these days was prefer using airplane because it can save time and money. This situation also effects flight routes, many airlines offer new routes to deal with competition. Managing flight routes is one of the problems that must be faced in order to find the efficient and effective routes. This paper investigates the best routes based on flight performance by determining the amount of block fuel for the Jakarta-Denpasar flight route. Moreover, in this work compares a two kinds of aircraft and tracks by calculating flight distance, flight time and block fuel. The result shows Jakarta-Denpasar in the Track II has effective and efficient block fuel that can be performed by Airbus 320-200 aircraft. This study can contribute to practice in making an effective decision, especially helping executive management of company due to selecting appropriate aircraft and the track in the flight plan based on the block fuel consumption for business operation.

  12. National contingency plan product schedule data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putukian, J.; Hiltabrand, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    During oil spills there are always proposals by the technical community and industry to use chemical agents to help in oil spill cleanups. Federal Clean Water Act regulations require that any chemical agents that the federal on-scene coordinator (FOSC) wants to use for oil cleanup be listed on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Contingency Plan (NCP) Product Schedule. Chemical countermeasures are among the most controversial, complex, and time-critical issues facing decision-making officials choosing response methods to use on coastal oil spills. There are situations in which dispersants are likely to be one of the most appropriate counter-measure strategies. Dispersants are most effective when applied to fresh oil, and their effectiveness dramatically decreases as the oil weathers, which can begin in as little as 24 hours. To logistically implement dispersant use, a decision would need to be made within roughly the first 4 hours after the release. Most of the information that the FOSC needs to make the determination to use a specific chemical agent exists in manuals, EPA bulletins, and the published literature. This information is not in an easy-to-use format under field emergency conditions. Hence the need to collect and disseminate the information in an automated data base. The sources for the information in this data base are the following. Published results of tests performed by Environment Canada; EPA bulletins associated with the NCP Product Schedule; Published results of tests by the chemical industry. The data base resides on a Macintosh computer and contains information about 70 NCP products, including dispersants, surface collecting agents, and biological additives. It contains information on physical properties, toxicity, heavy metal content, safety precautions, use conditions, etc

  13. Optimization-Based Military Capital Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Gerald

    2004-01-01

    ..., and the sheer scale of the endeavor. Mathematical optimization models have long played a key role in unraveling the complexities of capital planning, and the military has lead the development and use of such models. We survey the history of optimizing civilian and military capital plans and then present prototypic models exhibiting features that render these models useful for real-world decision support.

  14. Enhancing SAT Based Planning with Landmark Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elffers, J.; Konijnenberg, D.; Walraven, E.M.P.; Spaan, M.T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Several approaches exist to solve Artificial Intelligence planning problems, but little attention has been given to the combination of using landmark knowledge and satisfiability (SAT). Landmark knowledge has been exploited successfully in the heuristics of classical planning. Recently it was also

  15. Feature-based plan adaptation for fast treatment planning in scanned ion beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenjing; Gemmel, Alexander; Rietzel, Eike

    2013-01-01

    We propose a plan adaptation method for fast treatment plan generation in scanned ion beam therapy. Analysis of optimized treatment plans with carbon ions indicates that the particle number modulation of consecutive rasterspots in depth shows little variation throughout target volumes with convex shape. Thus, we extract a depth-modulation curve (DMC) from existing reference plans and adapt it for creation of new plans in similar treatment situations. The proposed method is tested with seven CT serials of prostate patients and three digital phantom datasets generated with the MATLAB code. Plans are generated with a treatment planning software developed by GSI using single-field uniform dose optimization for all the CT datasets to serve as reference plans and ‘gold standard’. The adapted plans are generated based on the DMC derived from the reference plans of the same patient (intra-patient), different patient (inter-patient) and phantoms (phantom-patient). They are compared with the reference plans and a re-positioning strategy. Generally, in 1 min on a standard PC, either a physical plan or a biological plan can be generated with the adaptive method provided that the new target contour is available. In all the cases, the V95 values of the adapted plans can achieve 97% for either physical or biological plans. V107 is always 0 indicating no overdosage, and target dose homogeneity is above 0.98 in all cases. The dose received by the organs at risk is comparable to the optimized plans. The plan adaptation method has the potential for on-line adaptation to deal with inter-fractional motion, as well as fast off-line treatment planning, with either the prescribed physical dose or the RBE-weighted dose. (paper)

  16. Evaluation of a commercial biologically based IMRT treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenenko, Vladimir A.; Reitz, Bodo; Day, Ellen; Qi, X. Sharon; Miften, Moyed; Li, X. Allen

    2008-01-01

    A new inverse treatment planning system (TPS) for external beam radiation therapy with high energy photons is commercially available that utilizes both dose-volume-based cost functions and a selection of cost functions which are based on biological models. The purpose of this work is to evaluate quality of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans resulting from the use of biological cost functions in comparison to plans designed using a traditional TPS employing dose-volume-based optimization. Treatment planning was performed independently at two institutions. For six cancer patients, including head and neck (one case from each institution), prostate, brain, liver, and rectal cases, segmental multileaf collimator IMRT plans were designed using biological cost functions and compared with clinically used dose-based plans for the same patients. Dose-volume histograms and dosimetric indices, such as minimum, maximum, and mean dose, were extracted and compared between the two types of treatment plans. Comparisons of the generalized equivalent uniform dose (EUD), a previously proposed plan quality index (fEUD), target conformity and heterogeneity indices, and the number of segments and monitor units were also performed. The most prominent feature of the biologically based plans was better sparing of organs at risk (OARs). When all plans from both institutions were combined, the biologically based plans resulted in smaller EUD values for 26 out of 33 OARs by an average of 5.6 Gy (range 0.24 to 15 Gy). Owing to more efficient beam segmentation and leaf sequencing tools implemented in the biologically based TPS compared to the dose-based TPS, an estimated treatment delivery time was shorter in most (five out of six) cases with some plans showing up to 50% reduction. The biologically based plans were generally characterized by a smaller conformity index, but greater heterogeneity index compared to the dose-based plans. Overall, compared to plans based on dose

  17. Knowledge-based treatment planning and its potential role in the transition between treatment planning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Kathryn; Archer, Paul; Jackson, William; Sun, Yilun; Schipper, Matthew; Hamstra, Daniel; Matuszak, Martha

    2017-11-22

    Commissioning a new treatment planning system (TPS) involves many time-consuming tasks. We investigated the role that knowledge-based planning (KBP) can play in aiding a clinic's transition to a new TPS. Sixty clinically treated prostate/prostate bed intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans were exported from an in-house TPS and were used to create a KBP model in a newly implemented commercial application. To determine the benefit that KBP may have in a TPS transition, the model was tested on 2 groups of patients. Group 1 consisted of the first 10 prostate/prostate bed patients treated in the commercial TPS after the transition from the in-house TPS. Group 2 consisted of 10 patients planned in the commercial TPS after 8 months of clinical use. The KBP-generated plan was compared with the clinically used plan in terms of plan quality (ability to meet planning objectives and overall dose metrics) and planning efficiency (time required to generate clinically acceptable plans). The KBP-generated plans provided a significantly improved target coverage (p = 0.01) compared with the clinically used plans for Group 1, but yielded plans of comparable target coverage to the clinically used plans for Group 2. For the organs at risk, the KBP-generated plans produced lower doses, on average, for every normal-tissue objective except for the maximum dose to 0.1 cc of rectum. The time needed for the KBP-generated plans ranged from 6 to 15 minutes compared to 30 to 150 and 15 to 60 minutes for manual planning in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. KBP is a promising tool to aid in the transition to a new TPS. Our study indicates that high-quality treatment plans could have been generated in the newly implemented TPS more efficiently compared with not using KBP. Even after 8 months of the clinical use, KBP still showed an increase in plan quality and planning efficiency compared with manual planning. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published

  18. Dynamic Strategic Planning in a Professional Knowledge-Based Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrom; Reventlow, Susanne; Quelle, Dan Grevelund; Tulinius, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Professional, knowledge-based institutions have a particular form of organization and culture that makes special demands on the strategic planning supervised by research administrators and managers. A model for dynamic strategic planning based on a pragmatic utilization of the multitude of strategy models was used in a small university-affiliated…

  19. An Asset-Based Approach to Tribal Community Energy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Rachael A. [Pratt Inst., Brooklyn, NY (United States). City and Regional Planning; Martino, Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials, Devices, and Energy Technologies; Begay, Sandra K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials, Devices, and Energy Technologies

    2016-08-01

    Community energy planning is a vital component of successful energy resource development and project implementation. Planning can help tribes develop a shared vision and strategies to accomplish their energy goals. This paper explores the benefits of an asset-based approach to tribal community energy planning. While a framework for community energy planning and federal funding already exists, some areas of difficulty in the planning cycle have been identified. This paper focuses on developing a planning framework that offsets those challenges. The asset-based framework described here takes inventory of a tribe’s capital assets, such as: land capital, human capital, financial capital, and political capital. Such an analysis evaluates how being rich in a specific type of capital can offer a tribe unique advantages in implementing their energy vision. Finally, a tribal case study demonstrates the practical application of an asset-based framework.

  20. Value of information-based inspection planning for offshore structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irman, Arifian Agusta; Thöns, Sebastian; Leira, Bernt J.

    2017-01-01

    and risk- based inspection (RRBI) constitutes an efficient method to optimize inspection planning. Basing the inspection planning on pre-posterior Bayesian decision analysis and especially a Value of Information analysis allows to explicitly quantify the expected benefits, costs and risks associated...... with each inspection strategy. A simplified and generic risk-based inspection planning utilizing pre- posterior Bayesian decision analysis had been proposed by Faber et al. [1] and Straub [2]. This paper provides considerations on the theoretical background and a Value of Information analysis......-based inspection planning. The paper will start out with a review of the state-of-art RBI planning procedure based on Bayesian decision theory and its application in offshore structure integrity management. An example of the Value of Information approach is illustrated and it is pointed to further research...

  1. Stereo vision based automated grasp planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmsen, K.; Huber, L.; Silva, D.; Grasz, E.; Cadapan, L.

    1995-02-01

    The Department of Energy has a need for treating existing nuclear waste. Hazardous waste stored in old warehouses needs to be sorted and treated to meet environmental regulations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently experimenting with automated manipulations of unknown objects for sorting, treating, and detailed inspection. To accomplish these tasks, three existing technologies were expanded to meet the increasing requirements. First, a binocular vision range sensor was combined with a surface modeling system to make virtual images of unknown objects. Then, using the surface model information, stable grasp of the unknown shaped objects were planned algorithmically utilizing a limited set of robotic grippers. This paper is an expansion of previous work and will discuss the grasp planning algorithm

  2. Intelligent Transportation and Evacuation Planning A Modeling-Based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Naser, Arab

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation and Evacuation Planning: A Modeling-Based Approach provides a new paradigm for evacuation planning strategies and techniques. Recently, evacuation planning and modeling have increasingly attracted interest among researchers as well as government officials. This interest stems from the recent catastrophic hurricanes and weather-related events that occurred in the southeastern United States (Hurricane Katrina and Rita). The evacuation methods that were in place before and during the hurricanes did not work well and resulted in thousands of deaths. This book offers insights into the methods and techniques that allow for implementing mathematical-based, simulation-based, and integrated optimization and simulation-based engineering approaches for evacuation planning. This book also: Comprehensively discusses the application of mathematical models for evacuation and intelligent transportation modeling Covers advanced methodologies in evacuation modeling and planning Discusses principles a...

  3. [Environmental impact assessment based on planning support system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Bo; Carsjens, Gerrit-Jan

    2011-02-01

    How to assess environmental impact is one of the keys in land use planning. This article described in detail the concepts of activities, impact zones, functions, and sensitivities, as well as the development of STEPP (strategic tool for integrating environmental aspects in planning procedures) based on Avenue, the secondary developing language of ArcView GIS. The system makes it convenient for planning practitioners exchanging information, and can spatially, visually and quantitatively describe environmental impact and its change. In this study, the urban-rural combination area located between EDE and Veenendaal of The Netherlands was taken as case, and the results indicated that the environment was incorporated well in the planning procedure based on the concepts, and could also demonstrate the effects of planning measures on environment spatially, explicitly, and in real-time, facilitating the participation of planning practitioners and decision-making. Some proposals of how to promote STEEP application in China were suggested.

  4. An assembly sequence planning method based on composite algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Enfu LIU; Bo LIU; Xiaoyang LIU; Yi LI

    2016-01-01

    To solve the combination explosion problem and the blind searching problem in assembly sequence planning of complex products, an assembly sequence planning method based on composite algorithm is proposed. In the composite algorithm, a sufficient number of feasible assembly sequences are generated using formalization reasoning algorithm as the initial population of genetic algorithm. Then fuzzy knowledge of assembly is integrated into the planning process of genetic algorithm and ant algorithm...

  5. Optimal Reliability-Based Planning of Experiments for POD Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro; Kroon, I. B.

    Optimal planning of the crack detection test is considered. The test are used to update the information on the reliability of the inspection techniques modelled by probability of detection (P.O.D.) curves. It is shown how cost-optimal and reliability based test plans can be obtained using First O...... Order Reliability Methods in combination with life-cycle cost-optimal inspection and maintenance planning. The methodology is based on preposterior analyses from Bayesian decision theory. An illustrative example is shown.......Optimal planning of the crack detection test is considered. The test are used to update the information on the reliability of the inspection techniques modelled by probability of detection (P.O.D.) curves. It is shown how cost-optimal and reliability based test plans can be obtained using First...

  6. Inverse planning for interstitial gynecologic template brachytherapy: truly anatomy-based planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessard, Etienne; Hsu, I-Chou; Pouliot, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Commercially available optimization schemes generally result in an undesirable dose distribution, because of the particular shapes of tumors extending laterally from the tandem. Dose distribution is therefore manually obtained by adjusting relative dwell time values until an acceptable solution is found. The objective of this work is to present the clinical application of an inverse planning dose optimization tool for the automatic determination of source dwell time values in the treatment of interstitial gynecologic templates. Methods and Materials: In cases where the tumor extends beyond the range of the tandem-ovoid applicator, catheters as well as the tandem are inserted into the paravaginal and parametrial region in an attempt to cover the tumor volume. CT scans of these patients are then used for CT-based dose planning. Dose distribution is obtained manually by varying the relative dwell times until adequate dose coverage is achieved. This manual planning is performed by an experienced physician. In parallel, our in-house inverse planning based on simulated annealing is used to automatically determine which of all possible dwell positions will become active and to calculate the dwell time values needed to fulfill dose constraints applied to the tumor volume and to each organ at risk. To compare the results of these planning methods, dose-volume histograms and isodose distributions were generated for the target and each organ at risk. Results: This procedure has been applied for the dose planning of 12 consecutive interstitial gynecologic templates cases. For all cases, once the anatomy was contoured, the routine of inverse planning based on simulated annealing found the solution to the dose constraints within 1 min of CPU time. In comparison, manual planning took more than 45 min. The inverse planning-generated plans showed improved protection to organs at risk for the same coverage compared to manual planning. Conclusion: This inverse planning tool

  7. Model based decision support for planning of road maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, Aart; Worm, J.M.; Worm, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this article we describe a Decision Support Model, based on Operational Research methods, for the multi-period planning of maintenance of bituminous pavements. This model is a tool for the road manager to assist in generating an optimal maintenance plan for a road. Optimal means: minimising the

  8. Statistical analysis of MRI-only based dose planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, M. E.; Waring, L. W.; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    . MRIonly based RT eliminates these errors and reduce the time and costs of a CT scan. The aim of this study is to investigate the dosimetric differences of a treatment plan when the dose calculation is based on MRI as compared to CT. Materials and Methods: Four diagnostic groups are investigated; 12...... as a clinically approved treatment plan. The treatment planning software is Eclipse v.10.0 (Varian Medical Systems). The dose calculation based on MRI data is evaluated in two different ways; a homogeneous density assigned MRI (MRI unit), where the entire body is assigned an HU equal to water and a heterogeneous...... density assigned MRI (MRI bulk) where in addition the CT segmented bone is transferred to the MRI and assigned an age dependent HU based on ICRU report 46. The CT based clinical treatment plan and structure set are registered to the corresponding MRI unit and MRI bulk. The body is outlined on both the MRI...

  9. Creating a nursing strategic planning framework based on evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Lorie K; Fischer, Brenda

    2011-03-01

    This article describes an evidence-informed strategic planning process and framework used by a Magnet-recognized public health system in California. This article includes (1) an overview of the organization and its strategic planning process, (2) the structure created within nursing for collaborative strategic planning and decision making, (3) the strategic planning framework developed based on the organization's balanced scorecard domains and the new Magnet model, and (4) the process undertaken to develop the nursing strategic priorities. Outcomes associated with the structure, process, and key initiatives are discussed throughout the article. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTIMODAL MONTE CARLO BASED TREATMENT PLANNING SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, Hiroaki; Takada, Kenta; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Minoru; Takata, Takushi; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Matsumura, Akira; Sakae, Takeji

    2017-10-26

    To establish boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), the University of Tsukuba is developing a treatment device and peripheral devices required in BNCT, such as a treatment planning system. We are developing a new multimodal Monte Carlo based treatment planning system (developing code: Tsukuba Plan). Tsukuba Plan allows for dose estimation in proton therapy, X-ray therapy and heavy ion therapy in addition to BNCT because the system employs PHITS as the Monte Carlo dose calculation engine. Regarding BNCT, several verifications of the system are being carried out for its practical usage. The verification results demonstrate that Tsukuba Plan allows for accurate estimation of thermal neutron flux and gamma-ray dose as fundamental radiations of dosimetry in BNCT. In addition to the practical use of Tsukuba Plan in BNCT, we are investigating its application to other radiation therapies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The Importance of Experience Based Decommissioning Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per; Hedin, Gunnar; Bergh, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Decommissioning of a nuclear facility is an extensive and multidisciplinary task, which involves the management and technical actions associated with ceasing operation and thereafter the step-by-step transfer of the facility from an operating plant to an object under decommissioning. The decommissioning phase includes dismantling of systems and components, decontamination and clearance, demolition of buildings, remediation of any contaminated ground and finally a survey of the site. Several of these activities generate radioactive or potentially radioactive waste, which has to be managed properly prior to clearance or disposal. What makes decommissioning of nuclear installations unique is to large extent the radioactive waste management. No other industries have that complex regulatory framework for the waste management. If decommissioning project in the nuclear industry does not consider the waste aspects to the extent required, there is a large risk of failure causing a reduced trust by the regulators and other stakeholders as well as cost and schedule overruns. This paper will give an overview of important aspects and findings gathered during decades of planning and conducting decommissioning and nuclear facility modernization projects. (authors)

  12. Optimal Reliability-Based Planning of Experiments for POD Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, M. H.; Kroon, I. B.

    Optimal planning of the crack detection test is considered. The test are used to update the information on the reliability of the inspection techniques modelled by probability of detection (P.O.D.) curves. It is shown how cost-optimal and reliability based test plans can be obtained using First O...... Order Reliability Methods in combination with life-cycle cost-optimal inspection and maintenance planning. The methodology is based on preposterior analyses from Bayesian decision theory. An illustrative example is shown....

  13. Case-Based Plan Recognition in Computer Games

    OpenAIRE

    Fagan, Michael; Cunningham, Padraig

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we explore the use of case-based plan recognition to predict a player?s actions in a computer game. The game we work with is the classic Space Invaders game and we show that case-based plan recognition can produce good prediction accuracy in real-time, working with a fairly simple game representation. Our evaluation suggests that a personalized plan library will produce better prediction accuracy but, for Space Invaders, good accuracy can be produced using a pl...

  14. Integrating design and production planning with knowledge-based inspection planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Ghaleb Y.; Ketan, Hussein S.; Adil, Mazen B.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper an intelligent environment to integrate design and inspection earlier to the design stage. A hybrid knowledge-based approach integrating computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided inspection planning (CAIP) was developed, thereafter called computer-aided design and inspection planning (CADIP). CADIP was adopted for automated dimensional inspection planning. Critical functional features were screened based on certain attributes for part features for inspection planning application. Testing the model resulted in minimizing the number of probing vectors associated with the most important features in the inspected prismatic part, significant reduction in inspection costs and release of human labor. In totality, this tends to increase customer satisfaction as a final goal of the developed system. (author)

  15. Inverse treatment planning based on MRI for HDR prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrin, Deborah; Ning, Holly; Guion, Peter; Li Guang; Susil, Robert C.; Miller, Robert W.; Lessard, Etienne; Pouliot, Jean; Xie Huchen; Capala, Jacek; Coleman, C. Norman; Camphausen, Kevin; Menard, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and optimize a technique for inverse treatment planning based solely on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and materials: Phantom studies were performed to verify the spatial integrity of treatment planning based on MRI. Data were evaluated from 10 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who had undergone two high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy boosts under MRI guidance before and after pelvic radiotherapy. Treatment planning MRI scans were systematically evaluated to derive a class solution for inverse planning constraints that would reproducibly result in acceptable target and normal tissue dosimetry. Results: We verified the spatial integrity of MRI for treatment planning. MRI anatomic evaluation revealed no significant displacement of the prostate in the left lateral decubitus position, a mean distance of 14.47 mm from the prostatic apex to the penile bulb, and clear demarcation of the neurovascular bundles on postcontrast imaging. Derivation of a class solution for inverse planning constraints resulted in a mean target volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose of 95.69%, while maintaining a rectal volume receiving 75% of the prescribed dose of <5% (mean 1.36%) and urethral volume receiving 125% of the prescribed dose of <2% (mean 0.54%). Conclusion: Systematic evaluation of image spatial integrity, delineation uncertainty, and inverse planning constraints in our procedure reduced uncertainty in planning and treatment

  16. Functional avoidance of lung in plan optimization with an aperture-based inverse planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Hilaire, Jason; Lavoie, Caroline; Dagnault, Anne; Beaulieu, Frederic; Morin, Francis; Beaulieu, Luc; Tremblay, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To implement SPECT-based optimization in an anatomy-based aperture inverse planning system for the functional avoidance of lung in thoracic irradiation. Material and methods: SPECT information has been introduced as a voxel-by-voxel modulation of lung importance factors proportionally to the local perfusion count. Fifteen cases of lung cancer have been retrospectively analyzed by generating angle-optimized non-coplanar plans, comparing a purely anatomical approach and our functional approach. Planning target volume coverage and lung sparing have been compared. Statistical significance was assessed by a Wilcoxon matched pairs test. Results: For similar target coverage, perfusion-weighted volume receiving 10 Gy was reduced by a median of 2.2% (p = 0.022) and mean perfusion-weighted lung dose, by a median of 0.9 Gy (p = 0.001). A separate analysis of patients with localized or non-uniform hypoperfusion could not show which would benefit more from SPECT-based treatment planning. Redirection of dose sometimes created overdosage regions in the target volume. Plans consisted of a similar number of segments and monitor units. Conclusions: Angle optimization and SPECT-based modulation of importance factors allowed for functional avoidance of the lung while preserving target coverage. The technique could be also applied to implement PET-based modulation inside the target volume, leading to a safer dose escalation.

  17. Presentation planning using an integrated knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Yigal; Miller, Lawrence; Sondheimer, Norman

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of user interface research aimed at bringing together multiple input and output modes in a way that handles mixed mode input (commands, menus, forms, natural language), interacts with a diverse collection of underlying software utilities in a uniform way, and presents the results through a combination of output modes including natural language text, maps, charts and graphs. The system, Integrated Interfaces, derives much of its ability to interact uniformly with the user and the underlying services and to build its presentations, from the information present in a central knowledge base. This knowledge base integrates models of the application domain (Navy ships in the Pacific region, in the current demonstration version); the structure of visual displays and their graphical features; the underlying services (data bases and expert systems); and interface functions. The emphasis is on a presentation planner that uses the knowledge base to produce multi-modal output. There has been a flurry of recent work in user interface management systems. (Several recent examples are listed in the references). Existing work is characterized by an attempt to relieve the software designer of the burden of handcrafting an interface for each application. The work has generally focused on intelligently handling input. This paper deals with the other end of the pipeline - presentations.

  18. A Multiagent Based Model for Tactical Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    Pub. Co. 1985. [10] Castillo, J.M. Aproximación mediante procedimientos de Inteligencia Artificial al planeamiento táctico. Doctoral Thesis...been developed under the same conceptual model and using similar Artificial Intelligence Tools. We use four different stimulus/response agents in...The conceptual model is built on base of the Agents theory. To implement the different agents we have used Artificial Intelligence techniques such

  19. MO-D-BRC-03: Knowledge-Based Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Q.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment planning is a central part of radiation therapy, including delineation in tumor volumes and critical organs, setting treatment goals of prescription doses to the tumor targets and tolerance doses to the critical organs, and finally generation of treatment plans to meet the treatment goals. National groups like RTOG have led the effort to standardize treatment goals of the prescription doses to the tumor targets and tolerance doses to the critical organs based on accumulated knowledge from decades of abundant clinical trial experience. The challenge for each clinical department is how to achieve or surpass these set goals within the time constraints of clinical practice. Using fifteen testing cases from different treatment sites such as head and neck, prostate with and without pelvic lymph nodes, SBRT spine, we will present clinically utility of advanced planning tools, including knowledge based, automatic based, and multiple criteria based tools that are clinically implemented. The objectives of this session are: Understand differences among these three advanced planning tools Provide clinical assessments on the utility of the advanced planning tools Discuss clinical challenges of treatment planning with large variations in tumor volumes and their relationships with adjacent critical organs. Ping Xia received research grant from Philips. Jackie Wu received research grant from Varian; P. Xia, Research support by Philips and Varian; Q. Wu, NIH, Varian Medical

  20. Planning Support Systems (PSS-Based Spatial Plan Alternatives and Environmental Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Sun Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning is at the core of national land and urban development. Many countries and cities seek sustainable development through various means such as coordinated environmental planning, environmental assessment, and internalization of environmental analysis and planning. A Planning Support System (PSS is a GIS (Geographic Information System-based, spatial decision-making support system that incorporates a variety of theories and pertinent models. This study adopted the “What if?” model to design an alternative spatial plan that includes generation of predictive scenarios and is relatively easy to use. In the cities studied, we identified a total of six scenarios based on the main drivers of development—namely, population and spatial policies. Subsequently, we assessed the alternatives for their environmental impact, preparing sensitivity maps for each major environmental issue in the target area (natural ecosystem, air and microclimate, natural disasters. One projected advantage of the “What if?” model is that its digital visualization of proposed plans may improve public awareness and involvement. Furthermore, the tool is expected to be highly useful in ensuring the objectivity of quantitative analyses. However, it is necessary to develop a PSS that is both standardized and tailored to the particular needs of each area. Finally, the development of an e-governance system will be beneficial in ensuring public access to the decision making process.

  1. PET/CT Based Dose Planning in Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Jakobsen, Annika Loft; Sapru, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    radiotherapy planning with PET/CT prior to the treatment. The PET/CT, including the radiotherapy planning process as well as the radiotherapy process, is outlined in detail. The demanding collaboration between mould technicians, nuclear medicine physicians and technologists, radiologists and radiology......This mini-review describes how to perform PET/CT based radiotherapy dose planning and the advantages and possibilities obtained with the technique for radiation therapy. Our own experience since 2002 is briefly summarized from more than 2,500 patients with various malignant diseases undergoing...... technologists, radiation oncologists, physicists, and dosimetrists is emphasized. We strongly believe that PET/CT based radiotherapy planning will improve the therapeutic output in terms of target definition and non-target avoidance and will play an important role in future therapeutic interventions in many...

  2. An assembly sequence planning method based on composite algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enfu LIU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To solve the combination explosion problem and the blind searching problem in assembly sequence planning of complex products, an assembly sequence planning method based on composite algorithm is proposed. In the composite algorithm, a sufficient number of feasible assembly sequences are generated using formalization reasoning algorithm as the initial population of genetic algorithm. Then fuzzy knowledge of assembly is integrated into the planning process of genetic algorithm and ant algorithm to get the accurate solution. At last, an example is conducted to verify the feasibility of composite algorithm.

  3. Analysis of velocity planning interpolation algorithm based on NURBS curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanjun; Gao, Shanping; Cheng, Xiyan; Zhang, Feng

    2017-04-01

    To reduce interpolation time and Max interpolation error in NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline) inter-polation caused by planning Velocity. This paper proposed a velocity planning interpolation algorithm based on NURBS curve. Firstly, the second-order Taylor expansion is applied on the numerator in NURBS curve representation with parameter curve. Then, velocity planning interpolation algorithm can meet with NURBS curve interpolation. Finally, simulation results show that the proposed NURBS curve interpolator meet the high-speed and high-accuracy interpolation requirements of CNC systems. The interpolation of NURBS curve should be finished.

  4. AMATCHMETHOD BASED ON LATENT SEMANTIC ANALYSIS FOR EARTHQUAKEHAZARD EMERGENCY PLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the emergency plan on earthquake is complex, and it’s difficult for decision maker to make a decision in a short time. To solve the problem, this paper presents a match method based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA. After the word segmentation preprocessing of emergency plan, we carry out keywords extraction according to the part-of-speech and the frequency of words. Then through LSA, we map the documents and query information to the semantic space, and calculate the correlation of documents and queries by the relation between vectors. The experiments results indicate that the LSA can improve the accuracy of emergency plan retrieval efficiently.

  5. Risk-Based Approach to Developing National Residue Sampling Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Scientific Committee of the Food Safety Authority of Ireland

    2014-01-01

    A ranking system for veterinary medicinal products and medicated feed additives has been developed as a tool to be applied in a risk-based approach to the residue testing programme for foods of animal origin in the National Residue Control Plan. In the context of food sampling and residue testing for the National Residue Control Plan, there is firstly, the risk to human health from residues of chemical substances in food and secondly, the issue of non-compliance with regulations relating ...

  6. Cloud-based Communications Planning Collaboration and Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Marine Expeditionary Force SaaS Software as a Service SOA Service Oriented Architecture SPE Systems Planning and Engineering SPEED... Software as a Service (SaaS) application to improve processes and products in the field of Marine Corps communications planning through automation...collaboration, and interoperability. It introduces the idea of using the Software as a Service (SaaS) model to develop a cloud-based communications

  7. Knowledge-based computer systems for radiotherapy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalet, I J; Paluszynski, W

    1990-08-01

    Radiation therapy is one of the first areas of clinical medicine to utilize computers in support of routine clinical decision making. The role of the computer has evolved from simple dose calculations to elaborate interactive graphic three-dimensional simulations. These simulations can combine external irradiation from megavoltage photons, electrons, and particle beams with interstitial and intracavitary sources. With the flexibility and power of modern radiotherapy equipment and the ability of computer programs that simulate anything the machinery can do, we now face a challenge to utilize this capability to design more effective radiation treatments. How can we manage the increased complexity of sophisticated treatment planning? A promising approach will be to use artificial intelligence techniques to systematize our present knowledge about design of treatment plans, and to provide a framework for developing new treatment strategies. Far from replacing the physician, physicist, or dosimetrist, artificial intelligence-based software tools can assist the treatment planning team in producing more powerful and effective treatment plans. Research in progress using knowledge-based (AI) programming in treatment planning already has indicated the usefulness of such concepts as rule-based reasoning, hierarchical organization of knowledge, and reasoning from prototypes. Problems to be solved include how to handle continuously varying parameters and how to evaluate plans in order to direct improvements.

  8. Benefits of Risk Based Inspection Planning for Offshore Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straub, D.M.; Goyet, J.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2006-01-01

    The economical benefits of applying risk-based inspection planning (RBI) for offshore structures subject to fatigue are evaluated based on experiences from past industrial projects. To this end, the factors influencing the cost of inspection, repair and failure of structures are discussed......, the financial benefit of RBI is assessed....

  9. Research on English course based on career planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Shi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available For the current higher vocational English education way, this paper researches English course on the basis of the need of English competence in career planning, and determines four main objectives to be accomplished in English teaching through the research of the need of English in career planning, and establishes the principle of course design. This paper proposes four kinds of teaching mode according to the career development and career demands, and establishes the hierarchical analysis structure on the basis of the teaching objectives as criteria, analyzes the weight of four objectives, and gives out the quantifiable results for matching with the teaching programs. The results show that, the way of theory and practice education is the most effective, and the academic language competence in career planning is the most important demand. The optimization ratio of English course teaching way based on career planning is 0.26: 0.29: 0.22: 0.23.

  10. Planning for Community Based Tourism in a Remote Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Harwood

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Remote areas are difficult to access, tend to lack critical infrastructure, are highly susceptible to shocks in the marketplace, and are perceived by industry to possess limited development opportunities. Accordingly a community orientated and territorial approach to development planning in a remote area will be more successful than a top down industry based approach [1]. Given the limitations of being remote, the case study community examined in this research manages and sustains a bird watching tourism product within a global market place. This paper examines how a remotely located community in the Arfak Mountains of West Papua overcomes these difficulties and plans for community based tourism (CBT in their locale.

  11. Activity Based Startup Plan for Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-01-01

    Testing activation on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The restart of testing activities will require a review through an activity based startup process based upon Integrated Safety Management (ISM) principles to verify readiness. The Activity Based Startup Plan for the Prototype vertical Denitration Calciner has been developed for this process

  12. Impact of Base Station Cooperation on Cell Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Dexter Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Base station cooperation (BSC has been identified as a key radio access technology for next-generation cellular networks such as LTE-Advanced. BSC impacts cell planning, which is the methodical selection of base station (BS sites, and BS equipment configuration for cost-effective cellular networks. In this paper, the impact of BSC on cell plan parameters (coverage, traffic, handover, and cost, as well as additional cell planning steps required for BSC are discussed. Results show that BSC maximizes its gains over noncooperation (NC in a network wherein interference from cooperating BSs is the main limitation. Locations exist where NC may produce higher throughputs, therefore dynamic or semistatic switching between BSC and NC, called fractional BSC, is recommended. Because of interference from noncooperating BSs, the gains of BSC over NC are upper bounded, and diminishes at greater intersite distances because of noise. This encourages smaller cell sizes, higher transmit powers, and dynamic clustering of cooperative BSs.

  13. Planning of operation & maintenance using risk and reliability based methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florian, Mihai; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Operation and maintenance (OM) of offshore wind turbines contributes with a substantial part of the total levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The objective of this paper is to present an application of risk- and reliability-based methods for planning of OM. The theoretical basis is presented...

  14. Community-based distribution of family planning as perceived by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From September 24 through October 4,1997, a cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the status of Community-based distribution (CBD) of family planning as perceived by reproductive age groups aged 15-49 years and the CBD workers. The study covered 14 German Agency for Technical Co-operation (GTZ) ...

  15. National negative-ion-based neutral-beam development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.S.; Pyle, R.V.

    1983-08-01

    The plan covers facilities required, program milestones, and decision points. It includes identification of applications, experiments, theoretical research areas, development of specific technologies and reactor development and demonstration facilities required to bring about the successful application of negative-ion-based neutral beams. Particular emphasis is placed on those activities leading to use on existing plasma confinement experiments or their upgrades

  16. Participatory land use planning for community based forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participatory land use planning for community based forest management in South-Eastern Nigeria. FE Bisong, A Animashaun. Abstract. No Abstract. Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research Vol. 4 () 2007: pp.329-347. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  17. Uncertainties in model-based outcome predictions for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Markman, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Model-based treatment-plan-specific outcome predictions (such as normal tissue complication probability [NTCP] or the relative reduction in salivary function) are typically presented without reference to underlying uncertainties. We provide a method to assess the reliability of treatment-plan-specific dose-volume outcome model predictions. Methods and Materials: A practical method is proposed for evaluating model prediction based on the original input data together with bootstrap-based estimates of parameter uncertainties. The general framework is applicable to continuous variable predictions (e.g., prediction of long-term salivary function) and dichotomous variable predictions (e.g., tumor control probability [TCP] or NTCP). Using bootstrap resampling, a histogram of the likelihood of alternative parameter values is generated. For a given patient and treatment plan we generate a histogram of alternative model results by computing the model predicted outcome for each parameter set in the bootstrap list. Residual uncertainty ('noise') is accounted for by adding a random component to the computed outcome values. The residual noise distribution is estimated from the original fit between model predictions and patient data. Results: The method is demonstrated using a continuous-endpoint model to predict long-term salivary function for head-and-neck cancer patients. Histograms represent the probabilities for the level of posttreatment salivary function based on the input clinical data, the salivary function model, and the three-dimensional dose distribution. For some patients there is significant uncertainty in the prediction of xerostomia, whereas for other patients the predictions are expected to be more reliable. In contrast, TCP and NTCP endpoints are dichotomous, and parameter uncertainties should be folded directly into the estimated probabilities, thereby improving the accuracy of the estimates. Using bootstrap parameter estimates, competing treatment

  18. Constraint-based local search for container stowage slot planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacino, Dario; Jensen, Rune Møller; Bebbington, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Due to the economical importance of stowage planning, there recently has been an increasing interest in developing optimization algorithms for this problem. We have developed 2-phase approach that in most cases can generate near optimal stowage plans within a few hundred seconds for large deep-sea...... vessels. This paper describes the constrained-based local search algorithm used in the second phase of this approach where individual containers are assigned to slots in each bay section. The algorithm can solve this problem in an average of 0.18 seconds per bay, corresponding to a 20 seconds runtime...

  19. Exploration of Urban Spatial Planning Evaluation Based on Humanland Harmony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X. S.; Ma, Q. R.; Liang, W. Q.; Wang, C. X.; Xiong, X. Q.; Han, X. H.

    2017-09-01

    This study puts forward a new concept, "population urbanization level forecast - driving factor analysis - urban spatial planning analysis" for achieving efficient and intensive development of urbanization considering human-land harmony. We analyzed big data for national economic and social development, studied the development trends of population urbanization and its influencing factors using the grey system model in Chengmai county of Hainan province, China. In turn, we calculated the population of Chengmai coming years based on the forecasting urbanization rate and the corresponding amount of urban construction land, and evaluated the urban spatial planning with GIS spatial analysis method in the study area. The result shows that the proposed concept is feasible for evaluation of urban spatial planning, and is meaningful for guiding the rational distribution of urban space, controlling the scale of development, improving the quality of urbanization and thus promoting highly-efficient and intensive use of limited land resource.

  20. Computer tomography for TNM based radiation planning of urological tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammon, J.; Karstens, J.H.; Ruebben, H.; Technische Hochschule Aachen

    1978-01-01

    From the extensive statistics concerning treatment results of urological tumours which are available from central tumour registers, a first draft of a treatment plan has been worked out, which is based on tumour spread. Since the extent of tumour invasion is documented by the TNM system of the UICC, one is justified in speaking of TNM orientated treatment planning. For planning it is necessary to consider not only tumour type and depth of infiltration of local tissues, but also the lymph node anatomy, whether the nodes are involved or not. Computer tomography assists significantly in the performance of such TNM orientated treatment planning, particularly in determining the extent of the volume to be irradiated. It must be stressed that computer tomography does not replace the use of simulators, but that it is a valuable addition. In our view, computer tomography has also an undoubted value in treatment planning of urological tumours where palliation only is the aim. It provides the possibility of checking the effect of the chosen treatment by a non-invasive diagnostic method. (orig.) [de

  1. Cross-institutional knowledge-based planning (KBP) implementation and its performance comparison to Auto-Planning Engine (APE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, B.; Kusters, M.; Kunze-Busch, M.C.; Dijkema, T.; McNutt, T.; Sanguineti, G.; Bzdusek, K.; Dritschilo, A.; Pang, D.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate (1) whether a plan library established at one institution can be applied for another institution's knowledge-based planning (KBP); (2) the performance of cross-institutional KBP compared to Auto-Planning Engine (APE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Radboud University

  2. Distributed collaborative environments for virtual capability-based planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuay, William K.

    2003-09-01

    Distributed collaboration is an emerging technology that will significantly change how decisions are made in the 21st century. Collaboration involves two or more geographically dispersed individuals working together to share and exchange data, information, knowledge, and actions. The marriage of information, collaboration, and simulation technologies provides the decision maker with a collaborative virtual environment for planning and decision support. This paper reviews research that is focusing on the applying open standards agent-based framework with integrated modeling and simulation to a new Air Force initiative in capability-based planning and the ability to implement it in a distributed virtual environment. Virtual Capability Planning effort will provide decision-quality knowledge for Air Force resource allocation and investment planning including examining proposed capabilities and cost of alternative approaches, the impact of technologies, identification of primary risk drivers, and creation of executable acquisition strategies. The transformed Air Force business processes are enabled by iterative use of constructive and virtual modeling, simulation, and analysis together with information technology. These tools are applied collaboratively via a technical framework by all the affected stakeholders - warfighter, laboratory, product center, logistics center, test center, and primary contractor.

  3. Ultrasound-based conformal planning for gynaecological brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyk, S.; Bernshaw, D.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the evolving use of transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) as an imaging tool to verify tandem placement, localize the treatment volume and aid conformal brachytherapy planning for both cervical and uterine corpus cancers. Two patients, one with cancer of the cervix and one with cancer of the endometrium, are used as examples to illustrate the advantages of using TAUS. TAUS is used to guide applicator insertion and check the applicator in the treatment position. The dimensions of the uterus are recorded. Brachytherapy isodose plans are generated based on these measurements. Confirmation of uterine dimensions and isodose coverage is obtained using MRI taken after the initial fraction of treatment has been delivered. We illustrate how TAUS is successfully used to correct and verify tandem placement after the patient has been moved from insertion to treatment position. We also show how to use TAUS for conformal planning, based on individually derived target dimensions. TAUS has succesfully been used to conformally plan treatment to the uterus and cervix, minimizing brachytherapy-related toxicity to surrounding structures. Ultrasound is portable, inexpensive and simple to use and allows for accurate, conformal, reproducible and adaptive treatments.

  4. BIM-BASED INDOOR PATH PLANNING CONSIDERING OBSTACLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Xu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available At present, 87 % of people’s activities are in indoor environment; indoor navigation has become a research issue. As the building structures for people’s daily life are more and more complex, many obstacles influence humans’ moving. Therefore it is essential to provide an accurate and efficient indoor path planning. Nowadays there are many challenges and problems in indoor navigation. Most existing path planning approaches are based on 2D plans, pay more attention to the geometric configuration of indoor space, often ignore rich semantic information of building components, and mostly consider simple indoor layout without taking into account the furniture. Addressing the above shortcomings, this paper uses BIM (IFC as the input data and concentrates on indoor navigation considering obstacles in the multi-floor buildings. After geometric and semantic information are extracted, 2D and 3D space subdivision methods are adopted to build the indoor navigation network and to realize a path planning that avoids obstacles. The 3D space subdivision is based on triangular prism. The two approaches are verified by the experiments.

  5. Bim-Based Indoor Path Planning Considering Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M.; Wei, S.; Zlatanova, S.; Zhang, R.

    2017-09-01

    At present, 87 % of people's activities are in indoor environment; indoor navigation has become a research issue. As the building structures for people's daily life are more and more complex, many obstacles influence humans' moving. Therefore it is essential to provide an accurate and efficient indoor path planning. Nowadays there are many challenges and problems in indoor navigation. Most existing path planning approaches are based on 2D plans, pay more attention to the geometric configuration of indoor space, often ignore rich semantic information of building components, and mostly consider simple indoor layout without taking into account the furniture. Addressing the above shortcomings, this paper uses BIM (IFC) as the input data and concentrates on indoor navigation considering obstacles in the multi-floor buildings. After geometric and semantic information are extracted, 2D and 3D space subdivision methods are adopted to build the indoor navigation network and to realize a path planning that avoids obstacles. The 3D space subdivision is based on triangular prism. The two approaches are verified by the experiments.

  6. Using gEUD based plan analysis method to evaluate proton vs. photon plans for lung cancer radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiyan; Zou, Wei J; Chen, Ting; Yue, Ning J; Jabbour, Salma K; Parikh, Rahul; Zhang, Miao

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this study was to exam the efficacy of current DVH based clinical guidelines draw from photon experience for lung cancer radiation therapy on proton therapy. Comparison proton plans and IMRT plans were generated for 10 lung patients treated in our proton facility. A gEUD based plan evaluation method was developed for plan evaluation. This evaluation method used normal lung gEUD(a) curve in which the model parameter "a" was sampled from the literature reported value. For all patients, the proton plans delivered lower normal lung V 5 Gy with similar V 20 Gy and similar target coverage. Based on current clinical guidelines, proton plans were ranked superior to IMRT plans for all 10 patients. However, the proton and IMRT normal lung gEUD(a) curves crossed for 8 patients within the tested range of "a", which means there was a possibility that proton plan would be worse than IMRT plan for lung sparing. A concept of deficiency index (DI) was introduced to quantify the probability of proton plans doing worse than IMRT plans. By applying threshold on DI, four patients' proton plan was ranked inferior to the IMRT plan. Meanwhile if a threshold to the location of curve crossing was applied, 6 patients' proton plan was ranked inferior to the IMRT plan. The contradictory ranking results between the current clinical guidelines and the gEUD(a) curve analysis demonstrated there is potential pitfalls by applying photon experience directly to the proton world. A comprehensive plan evaluation based on radio-biological models should be carried out to decide if a lung patient would really be benefit from proton therapy. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  7. A knowledge-based assistant for valve maintenance planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, M.J.; Danofsky, R.A.; Spinrad, B.I.; Howard, K.

    1987-01-01

    A knowledge-based program is being developed to assist engineers in maintenance planning for safety related, motor-operated valves at a boiling water reactor. The purpose of this project is to develop the general framework for a prototype system that demonstrates the capabilities for diagnosing valve symptoms and prescribing corrective maintenance, completing a portion of the Corrective Maintenance Action Request (CMAR) form which must be prepared for each job, and managing an interactive valve data base. Minimizing user input and providing output in a form that is familiar to the maintenance planning engineer are important goals for the program. This paper describes the present features of the valve maintenance advisory system which is currently being tested

  8. Risk-based Inspection Planning Optimisation of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, José Rangel; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Wind industry is substantially propelled and the future scenarios designate offshore locations as important sites for energy production. With this development, offshore wind farms represent a feasible option to accomplish the needed energy, bringing with it technical and economical challenges....... Inspection and maintenance (I&M) costs for offshore sites are much larger than for onshore ones, making the choice of suitable I&M planning for minimising costs important. Risk-based inspection planning (RBI) for offshore installations represents a suitable methodology to identify the optimal maintenance...... and inspection strategies to ‘control’ the deterioration in facilities such as offshore wind turbines (OWT), where fatigue and corrosion are typically affecting these structures. This article considers an RBI approach applied to OWT based on the developed methodologies for oil and gas installations...

  9. Universal Economic Plan Based Law Constitutions of Kingdom and Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Kavak, Mesut

    2017-01-01

    In this work, touched on some social issues whatever the result, and a raising awareness was aimed by some new technological upgrades for vital infrastructures of states, social order and economic plan. The main aim is one world order which has no king and accepts nations as local governances as a requirement of hierarchical order. It is completely based on economic benefits of all nations as there is no alternative to establish a healthy economic order as economic management is directly rela...

  10. Surfaced-based investigations plan, Volume 4: Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This document represents a detailed summary of design plans for surface-based investigations to be conducted for site characterization of the Yucca Mountain site. These plans are current as of December 1988. The description of surface-based site characterization activities contained in this document is intended to give all interested parties an understanding of the current plans for site characterization of Yucca Mountain. The maps presented in Volume 4 are products of the Geographic Information System (GIS) being used by the Yucca Mountain Project. The ARC/INFO GIS software, developed by Environmental Systems Research Institute, was used to digitize and process these SBIP maps. The maps were prepared using existing US Geological Survey (USGS) maps as a planimetric base. Roads and other surface features were interpreted from a variety of sources and entered into the GIS. Sources include the USGS maps, 1976 USGS orthophotoquads and aerial photography, 1986 and 1987 aerial photography, surveyed coordinates of field sites, and a combination of various maps, figures, descriptions and approximate coordinates of proposed locations for future activities

  11. Biological-based and physical-based optimization for biological evaluation of prostate patient's plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhikh, E.; Sheino, I.; Vertinsky, A.

    2017-09-01

    Modern modalities of radiation treatment therapy allow irradiation of the tumor to high dose values and irradiation of organs at risk (OARs) to low dose values at the same time. In this paper we study optimal radiation treatment plans made in Monaco system. The first aim of this study was to evaluate dosimetric features of Monaco treatment planning system using biological versus dose-based cost functions for the OARs and irradiation targets (namely tumors) when the full potential of built-in biological cost functions is utilized. The second aim was to develop criteria for the evaluation of radiation dosimetry plans for patients based on the macroscopic radiobiological criteria - TCP/NTCP. In the framework of the study four dosimetric plans were created utilizing the full extent of biological and physical cost functions using dose calculation-based treatment planning for IMRT Step-and-Shoot delivery of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in prostate case (5 fractions per 7 Gy).

  12. GPU-Monte Carlo based fast IMRT plan optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbao Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT plan optimization needs pre-calculated beamlet dose distribution. Pencil-beam or superposition/convolution type algorithms are typically used because of high computation speed. However, inaccurate beamlet dose distributions, particularly in cases with high levels of inhomogeneity, may mislead optimization, hindering the resulting plan quality. It is desire to use Monte Carlo (MC methods for beamlet dose calculations. Yet, the long computational time from repeated dose calculations for a number of beamlets prevents this application. It is our objective to integrate a GPU-based MC dose engine in lung IMRT optimization using a novel two-steps workflow.Methods: A GPU-based MC code gDPM is used. Each particle is tagged with an index of a beamlet where the source particle is from. Deposit dose are stored separately for beamlets based on the index. Due to limited GPU memory size, a pyramid space is allocated for each beamlet, and dose outside the space is neglected. A two-steps optimization workflow is proposed for fast MC-based optimization. At first step, a rough dose calculation is conducted with only a few number of particle per beamlet. Plan optimization is followed to get an approximated fluence map. In the second step, more accurate beamlet doses are calculated, where sampled number of particles for a beamlet is proportional to the intensity determined previously. A second-round optimization is conducted, yielding the final result.Results: For a lung case with 5317 beamlets, 105 particles per beamlet in the first round, and 108 particles per beam in the second round are enough to get a good plan quality. The total simulation time is 96.4 sec.Conclusion: A fast GPU-based MC dose calculation method along with a novel two-step optimization workflow are developed. The high efficiency allows the use of MC for IMRT optimizations.--------------------------------Cite this article as: Li Y, Tian Z

  13. Points-Based Safe Path Planning of Continuum Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Shahzad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuum robots exhibit great potential in a number of challenging applications where traditional rigid link robots pose certain limitations, e.g., working in unstructured environments. In order to enable the usage of continuum robots in safety-critical applications, such as surgery and nuclear decontamination, it is extremely important to ensure a safe path for the robot's movement. Existing algorithms for continuum robot path planning have certain limitations that need to be addressed. These include the fact that none of the algorithms provide safety assurance parameters and control for path planning. They are computationally expensive, applicable to a specific type of continuum robots, and mostly they do not incorporate design and kinematics constraints. In this paper, we propose a points-based path planning (PoPP algorithm for continuum robots that computes the path by imposing safety constraints and improves upon the limitations of existing approaches. In the algorithm, we exploit the constant curvature-bending property of continuum robots in their path planning process. The algorithm is computationally efficient and provides a good tradeoff between accuracy and efficiency that can be implemented to enable the safety-critical application of continuum robots. This algorithm also provides information regarding path volume and flexibility in movement. Simulation results confirm that the algorithm possesses promising potential for all types of continuum robots (following the constant curvature-bending property. We believe that this effectively balances the desired safety and efficiency requirements.

  14. The Toggle Local Planner for sampling-based motion planning

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory

    2012-05-01

    Sampling-based solutions to the motion planning problem, such as the probabilistic roadmap method (PRM), have become commonplace in robotics applications. These solutions are the norm as the dimensionality of the planning space grows, i.e., d > 5. An important primitive of these methods is the local planner, which is used for validation of simple paths between two configurations. The most common is the straight-line local planner which interpolates along the straight line between the two configurations. In this paper, we introduce a new local planner, Toggle Local Planner (Toggle LP), which extends local planning to a two-dimensional subspace of the overall planning space. If no path exists between the two configurations in the subspace, then Toggle LP is guaranteed to correctly return false. Intuitively, more connections could be found by Toggle LP than by the straight-line planner, resulting in better connected roadmaps. As shown in our results, this is the case, and additionally, the extra cost, in terms of time or storage, for Toggle LP is minimal. Additionally, our experimental analysis of the planner shows the benefit for a wide array of robots, with DOF as high as 70. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Software for project-based learning of robot motion planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Mark; Bordeaux, Janice; Kavraki, Lydia E.

    2013-12-01

    Motion planning is a core problem in robotics concerned with finding feasible paths for a given robot. Motion planning algorithms perform a search in the high-dimensional continuous space of robot configurations and exemplify many of the core algorithmic concepts of search algorithms and associated data structures. Motion planning algorithms can be explained in a simplified two-dimensional setting, but this masks many of the subtleties and complexities of the underlying problem. We have developed software for project-based learning of motion planning that enables deep learning. The projects that we have developed allow advanced undergraduate students and graduate students to reflect on the performance of existing textbook algorithms and their own variations on such algorithms. Formative assessment has been conducted at three institutions. The core of the software used for this teaching module is also used within the Robot Operating System, a widely adopted platform by the robotics research community. This allows for transfer of knowledge and skills to robotics research projects involving a large variety robot hardware platforms.

  16. EA-based evacuation planning using agent-based crowd simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, J.; Cai, W.; Luo, L.; Lees, M.; Tolk, A.; Diallo, S.Y.; Ryzhov, I.O.; Yilmaz, L.; Buckley, S.; Miller, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Safety planning for crowd evacuation is an important and active research topic nowadays. One important issue is to devise the evacuation plans of individuals in emergency situations so as to reduce the total evacuation time. This paper proposes a novel evolutionary algorithm (EA)-based methodology,

  17. Planning of dairy farm and dairy plant based ecotourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnyoto, A. S.; Tama, I. P.; Tantrika, C. F. M.

    2017-06-01

    One of a dairy production company producing pasteurized milk and yoghurt drink, whose brand has widely known in East Java, has a factory plant in Batu City, one of tourism destinations in Indonesia. Behind the factory plant, there is a vacant land with an estimated total area of 2.3 ha and a vacant cowshed which had not been used for cattle ranching. Because of that, the company planned to develop the vacant land as a dairy farm and plant based ecotourism. In addition, dairy farm and dairy plant based tourism attractions are still rarely found in Batu. Thus, the first aim of this study was to analyse the potencies of the company that related to future plans of ecotourism built. The second aim was to set up the strategies that can be done in order to actualize the ecotourism project. The next aim was to plan the ecotourism, especially the facilities planning and the facilities arrangement on the vacant land. Strategic management approach was used to analyse the potencies and to determine the strategies. To select the proper facilities, tourists were asked to give appraisal by using questionnaire. Appraisal result was mapped onto four quadrants spatial map to see advantages and shortcomings of each facility along with choosing the right facilities to be built. Those facilities and tourist activities were compared with ecotourism criteria to make sure that the facilities were appropriate to provide not only entertainment but also ecotourism function. To arrange the chosen facilities, the step in Systematic Layout Planning were conducted to generate a propose layout of facilities arrangement. Based on potencies analysis, in Internal-External matrix, the company current position was on quadrant 2 (grow and build), with the most appropriate strategy was intensive or integrative. The proposed strategies were to build the new infrastructure, to renovate cowshed, and to add new tourism facilities on the land. There were 11 selected facilities based on MDS. Moreover, based

  18. Grid Transmission Expansion Planning Model Based on Grid Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Quan; Wang, Xi; Li, Ting; Zhang, Quanming; Zhang, Hongli; Li, Huaqiang

    2018-03-01

    Based on grid vulnerability and uniformity theory, proposed global network structure and state vulnerability factor model used to measure different grid models. established a multi-objective power grid planning model which considering the global power network vulnerability, economy and grid security constraint. Using improved chaos crossover and mutation genetic algorithm to optimize the optimal plan. For the problem of multi-objective optimization, dimension is not uniform, the weight is not easy given. Using principal component analysis (PCA) method to comprehensive assessment of the population every generation, make the results more objective and credible assessment. the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model are validated by simulation results of Garver-6 bus system and Garver-18 bus.

  19. Multi Sector Planning Tools for Trajectory-Based Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mainini, Matthew; Brasil, Connie

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses a suite of multi sector planning tools for trajectory-based operations that were developed and evaluated in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center. The toolset included tools for traffic load and complexity assessment as well as trajectory planning and coordination. The situation assessment tools included an integrated suite of interactive traffic displays, load tables, load graphs, and dynamic aircraft filters. The planning toolset allowed for single and multi aircraft trajectory planning and data communication-based coordination of trajectories between operators. Also newly introduced was a real-time computation of sector complexity into the toolset that operators could use in lieu of aircraft count to better estimate and manage sector workload, especially in situations with convective weather. The tools were used during a joint NASA/FAA multi sector planner simulation in the AOL in 2009 that had multiple objectives with the assessment of the effectiveness of the tools being one of them. Current air traffic control operators who were experienced as area supervisors and traffic management coordinators used the tools throughout the simulation and provided their usefulness and usability ratings in post simulation questionnaires. This paper presents these subjective assessments as well as the actual usage data that was collected during the simulation. The toolset was rated very useful and usable overall. Many elements received high scores by the operators and were used frequently and successfully. Other functions were not used at all, but various requests for new functions and capabilities were received that could be added to the toolset.

  20. Science-based strategic planning for hazardous fuel treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.L. Peterson; M.C. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    A scientific foundation coupled with technical support is needed to develop long-term strategic plans for fuel and vegetation treatments on public lands. These plans are developed at several spatial scales and are typically a component of fire management plans and other types of resource management plans. Such plans need to be compatible with national, regional, and...

  1. Planning for land use and conservation: Assessing GIS-based conservation software for land use planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob Baldwin; Ryan Scherzinger; Don Lipscomb; Miranda Mockrin; Susan Stein

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in planning and ecological software make it possible to conduct highly technical analyses to prioritize conservation investments and inform local land use planning. We review these tools, termed conservation planning tools, and assess the knowledge of a key set of potential users: the land use planning community. We grouped several conservation software...

  2. Implications of plan-based generalization in sensorimotor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougle, Samuel D; Bond, Krista M; Taylor, Jordan A

    2017-07-01

    Generalization is a fundamental aspect of behavior, allowing for the transfer of knowledge from one context to another. The details of this transfer are thought to reveal how the brain represents what it learns. Generalization has been a central focus in studies of sensorimotor adaptation, and its pattern has been well characterized: Learning of new dynamic and kinematic transformations in one region of space tapers off in a Gaussian-like fashion to neighboring untrained regions, echoing tuned population codes in the brain. In contrast to common allusions to generalization in cognitive science, generalization in visually guided reaching is usually framed as a passive consequence of neural tuning functions rather than a cognitive feature of learning. While previous research has presumed that maximum generalization occurs at the instructed task goal or the actual movement direction, recent work suggests that maximum generalization may occur at the location of an explicitly accessible movement plan. Here we provide further support for plan-based generalization, formalize this theory in an updated model of adaptation, and test several unexpected implications of the model. First, we employ a generalization paradigm to parameterize the generalization function and ascertain its maximum point. We then apply the derived generalization function to our model and successfully simulate and fit the time course of implicit adaptation across three behavioral experiments. We find that dynamics predicted by plan-based generalization are borne out in the data, are contrary to what traditional models predict, and lead to surprising implications for the behavioral, computational, and neural characteristics of sensorimotor adaptation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The pattern of generalization is thought to reveal how the motor system represents learned actions. Recent work has made the intriguing suggestion that maximum generalization in sensorimotor adaptation tasks occurs at the location of the

  3. Cost effectiveness and reliability improvement capabilities of CHECWORKS and SWIPS based inspection and maintenance plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S. [United Dynamics, Malvern, PA (United States); Borodotsky, A. [Rochester Gas and Electric Corp., NY (United States)

    1996-11-01

    CHECWORKS and SWIPS are computer programs that undertaken degradation analysis and generate prioritized lists for scheduling inspections. A simplified analysis presented in this paper demonstrates that application of such computer aided degeneration analysis and prioritized list based I and M plans can achieve full system reliability along with high cost effectiveness. For purposes of developing insight and a basic understanding, relative cost-effectiveness and system reliability improvement analysis is conducted on a small service water system for five types of inspection and maintenance plans. The following plans are considered: a full inspection plan, a random sampling plan, an experienced based sampling plan, a computer aided degeneration analysis based plan, and a superman based plan. The results obtained show that a computer aided inspection plan is the most effective of the feasible plans. For a realistic system, the plan can pay for the analysis cost and generate additional cost savings while maintaining full system reliability.

  4. VISUAL UAV TRAJECTORY PLAN SYSTEM BASED ON NETWORK MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. L. Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The base map of the current software UP-30 using in trajectory plan for Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle is vector diagram. UP-30 draws navigation points manually. But in the field of operation process, the efficiency and the quality of work is influenced because of insufficient information, screen reflection, calculate inconveniently and other factors. If we do this work in indoor, the effect of external factors on the results would be eliminated, the network earth users can browse the free world high definition satellite images through downloading a client software, and can export the high resolution image by standard file format. This brings unprecedented convenient of trajectory plan. But the images must be disposed by coordinate transformation, geometric correction. In addition, according to the requirement of mapping scale ,camera parameters and overlap degree we can calculate exposure hole interval and trajectory distance between the adjacent trajectory automatically . This will improve the degree of automation of data collection. Software will judge the position of next point according to the intersection of the trajectory and the survey area and ensure the position of point according to trajectory distance. We can undertake the points artificially. So the trajectory plan is automatic and flexible. Considering safety, the date can be used in flying after simulating flight. Finally we can export all of the date using a key

  5. Visual Uav Trajectory Plan System Based on Network Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. L.; Lin, Z. J.; Su, G. Z.; Wu, B. Y.

    2012-07-01

    The base map of the current software UP-30 using in trajectory plan for Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle is vector diagram. UP-30 draws navigation points manually. But in the field of operation process, the efficiency and the quality of work is influenced because of insufficient information, screen reflection, calculate inconveniently and other factors. If we do this work in indoor, the effect of external factors on the results would be eliminated, the network earth users can browse the free world high definition satellite images through downloading a client software, and can export the high resolution image by standard file format. This brings unprecedented convenient of trajectory plan. But the images must be disposed by coordinate transformation, geometric correction. In addition, according to the requirement of mapping scale ,camera parameters and overlap degree we can calculate exposure hole interval and trajectory distance between the adjacent trajectory automatically . This will improve the degree of automation of data collection. Software will judge the position of next point according to the intersection of the trajectory and the survey area and ensure the position of point according to trajectory distance. We can undertake the points artificially. So the trajectory plan is automatic and flexible. Considering safety, the date can be used in flying after simulating flight. Finally we can export all of the date using a key

  6. Efficient sampling algorithms for Monte Carlo based treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMarco, J.J.; Solberg, T.D.; Chetty, I.; Smathers, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    Efficient sampling algorithms are necessary for producing a fast Monte Carlo based treatment planning code. This study evaluates several aspects of a photon-based tracking scheme and the effect of optimal sampling algorithms on the efficiency of the code. Four areas were tested: pseudo-random number generation, generalized sampling of a discrete distribution, sampling from the exponential distribution, and delta scattering as applied to photon transport through a heterogeneous simulation geometry. Generalized sampling of a discrete distribution using the cutpoint method can produce speedup gains of one order of magnitude versus conventional sequential sampling. Photon transport modifications based upon the delta scattering method were implemented and compared with a conventional boundary and collision checking algorithm. The delta scattering algorithm is faster by a factor of six versus the conventional algorithm for a boundary size of 5 mm within a heterogeneous geometry. A comparison of portable pseudo-random number algorithms and exponential sampling techniques is also discussed

  7. Body Trajectory Planning of Biped Robot Based on ZMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomoya; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Shibuya, Maki; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    In this paper, a body trajectory planning method of a biped robot based on ZMP (zero-moment point) is proposed. In the proposed method, the body of the biped robot is maintained at a constant height during walking. By this body trajectory, the biped robot walks stably without moving up and down the body height. Higher energy efficiency can be achieved by the proposed method than the conventional method that maintains a constant COG (center of gravity) height, since the biped robot walks with a higher body position and with less torque of joints. Additionally, the validity of the proposed method was confirmed by experiments of walking.

  8. SU-D-BRD-01: Cloud-Based Radiation Treatment Planning: Performance Evaluation of Dose Calculation and Plan Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Y; Kapp, D; Kim, Y; Xing, L; Suh, T

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report the first experience on the development of a cloud-based treatment planning system and investigate the performance improvement of dose calculation and treatment plan optimization of the cloud computing platform. Methods: A cloud computing-based radiation treatment planning system (cc-TPS) was developed for clinical treatment planning. Three de-identified clinical head and neck, lung, and prostate cases were used to evaluate the cloud computing platform. The de-identified clinical data were encrypted with 256-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm. VMAT and IMRT plans were generated for the three de-identified clinical cases to determine the quality of the treatment plans and computational efficiency. All plans generated from the cc-TPS were compared to those obtained with the PC-based TPS (pc-TPS). The performance evaluation of the cc-TPS was quantified as the speedup factors for Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations and large-scale plan optimizations, as well as the performance ratios (PRs) of the amount of performance improvement compared to the pc-TPS. Results: Speedup factors were improved up to 14.0-fold dependent on the clinical cases and plan types. The computation times for VMAT and IMRT plans with the cc-TPS were reduced by 91.1% and 89.4%, respectively, on average of the clinical cases compared to those with pc-TPS. The PRs were mostly better for VMAT plans (1.0 ≤ PRs ≤ 10.6 for the head and neck case, 1.2 ≤ PRs ≤ 13.3 for lung case, and 1.0 ≤ PRs ≤ 10.3 for prostate cancer cases) than for IMRT plans. The isodose curves of plans on both cc-TPS and pc-TPS were identical for each of the clinical cases. Conclusion: A cloud-based treatment planning has been setup and our results demonstrate the computation efficiency of treatment planning with the cc-TPS can be dramatically improved while maintaining the same plan quality to that obtained with the pc-TPS. This work was supported in part by the National Cancer Institute (1

  9. A case-based approach to understanding vacation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan I. Stewart; Christine A. Vogt

    1999-01-01

    Vacations provide an opportunity to make many choices, and even for travelers who want their vacations to be spontaneous, planning is often an important part of vacationing. Although descriptive studies of travel planning have sketched out the elements of the vacation plan, these elements have not been drawn together in a conceptual model of the consumer planning...

  10. Scenario-based transportation planning with involvement of metropolitan planning organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Office of Virginia's Secretary of Transportation identified 21 transportation policies and 42 performance criteria in Virginia's long-range multimodal transportation plan, VTrans2025. A subsequent planning effort, VTrans2035, provided direction f...

  11. a Simulation-As Framework Facilitating Webgis Based Installation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z.; Chang, Z. Y.; Fei, Y. F.

    2017-09-01

    Installation Planning is constrained by both natural and social conditions, especially for spatially sparse but functionally connected facilities. Simulation is important for proper deploy in space and configuration in function of facilities to make them a cohesive and supportive system to meet users' operation needs. Based on requirement analysis, we propose a framework to combine GIS and Agent simulation to overcome the shortness in temporal analysis and task simulation of traditional GIS. In this framework, Agent based simulation runs as a service on the server, exposes basic simulation functions, such as scenario configuration, simulation control, and simulation data retrieval to installation planners. At the same time, the simulation service is able to utilize various kinds of geoprocessing services in Agents' process logic to make sophisticated spatial inferences and analysis. This simulation-as-a-service framework has many potential benefits, such as easy-to-use, on-demand, shared understanding, and boosted performances. At the end, we present a preliminary implement of this concept using ArcGIS javascript api 4.0 and ArcGIS for server, showing how trip planning and driving can be carried out by agents.

  12. An investigation on technical bases of emergency plan zone determination of Qinshan Nuclear Power Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Xuyi

    2000-01-01

    According to the general principal and the basic method of determination of emergency zone and safety criteria and in the light of the environmental and accidental release characteristic of Qinshan Nuclear Power Base, the expectation dose of assumed accident of each plant was compared and analyzed. In consideration of the impact factor of the size of emergency plan zone and referring to the information of emergency plan zone determination of other country in the world, the suggestions of determination method of emergency plan zone are proposed

  13. Agent-based Modeling with MATSim for Hazards Evacuation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. M.; Ng, P.; Henry, K.; Peters, J.; Wood, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Hazard evacuation planning requires robust modeling tools and techniques, such as least cost distance or agent-based modeling, to gain an understanding of a community's potential to reach safety before event (e.g. tsunami) arrival. Least cost distance modeling provides a static view of the evacuation landscape with an estimate of travel times to safety from each location in the hazard space. With this information, practitioners can assess a community's overall ability for timely evacuation. More information may be needed if evacuee congestion creates bottlenecks in the flow patterns. Dynamic movement patterns are best explored with agent-based models that simulate movement of and interaction between individual agents as evacuees through the hazard space, reacting to potential congestion areas along the evacuation route. The multi-agent transport simulation model MATSim is an agent-based modeling framework that can be applied to hazard evacuation planning. Developed jointly by universities in Switzerland and Germany, MATSim is open-source software written in Java and freely available for modification or enhancement. We successfully used MATSim to illustrate tsunami evacuation challenges in two island communities in California, USA, that are impacted by limited escape routes. However, working with MATSim's data preparation, simulation, and visualization modules in an integrated development environment requires a significant investment of time to develop the software expertise to link the modules and run a simulation. To facilitate our evacuation research, we packaged the MATSim modules into a single application tailored to the needs of the hazards community. By exposing the modeling parameters of interest to researchers in an intuitive user interface and hiding the software complexities, we bring agent-based modeling closer to practitioners and provide access to the powerful visual and analytic information that this modeling can provide.

  14. Comparison of CT-based 3D treatment planning with simulator planning of pelvic irradiation of primary cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knocke, T.H.; Pokrajac, B.; Fellner, C.; Poetter, R.

    1999-01-01

    In a prospective study on 20 subsequent patients with primary cervical carcinoma in Stages I to III simulator planning of a 4-field box-technique was performed. After defining the planning target volume (PTV) in the 3D planning system the field configuration of the simulator planning was transmitted. The resulting plan was compared to a second one based on the defined PTV and evaluated regarding a possible geographical miss and encompassment of the PTV by the treated volume (ICRU). Volumes of open and shaped portals were calculated for both techniques. Planning by simulation resulted in 1 geographical miss and in 10 more cases the encompassment of the PTV by the treated volume was inadequate. For a PTV of mean 1 729 cm 3 the mean volume defined by simulation was 3 120 cm 3 for the open portals and 2 702 cm 3 for the shaped portals. The volume reduction by blocks was 13,4% (mean). With CT-based 3D treatment planning the volume of the open portals was 3,3% (mean) enlarged to 3 224 cm 3 . The resulting mean volume of the shaped portals was 2 458 ccm. The reduction compared to the open portals was 23,8% (mean). The treated volumes were 244 cm 3 or 9% (mean) smaller compared to simulator planning. The 'treated volume/planning target volume ratio' was decreased from 1.59 to 1.42. (orig.) [de

  15. 77 FR 24399 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Ozone 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Ozone 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY... approve the ozone 2002 base year emissions inventory, portion of the state implementation plan (SIP... technology (RACT), contingency measures, a 2002 base- year emissions inventory and other planning SIP...

  16. Defense Industrial Base: Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Sector-Specific Plan as Input to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    This Defense Industrial Base (DIB) Sector-Specific Plan (SSP), developed in collaboration with industry and government security partners, provides sector-level critical infrastructure and key resources (CI/KR...

  17. Vanpool trip planning based on evolutionary multiple objective optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Yang, Disheng; Feng, Shibing; Liu, Hengchang

    2017-08-01

    Carpool and vanpool draw a lot of researchers’ attention, which is the emphasis of this paper. A concrete vanpool operation definition is given, based on the given definition, this paper tackles vanpool operation optimization using user experience decline index(UEDI). This paper is focused on making each user having identical UEDI and the system having minimum sum of all users’ UEDI. Three contributions are made, the first contribution is a vanpool operation scheme diagram, each component of the scheme is explained in detail. The second contribution is getting all customer’s UEDI as a set, standard deviation and sum of all users’ UEDI set are used as objectives in multiple objective optimization to decide trip start address, trip start time and trip destination address. The third contribution is a trip planning algorithm, which tries to minimize the sum of all users’ UEDI. Geographical distribution of the charging stations and utilization rate of the charging stations are considered in the trip planning process.

  18. Wilmington Area Planning Council, New Castle County, Delaware and Cecil County, Maryland : a performance-based approach to integrating congestion management into the metropolitan planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Wilmington Area Planning Council takes an objectives-driven, performance-based approach to its metropolitan transportation planning, including paying special attention to integrating its Congestion Management Process into its planning efforts. Th...

  19. Planning Critical Infrastructure based on Population Growth and Environmental Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabawiya Khamis Al Masuudi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the impact of public school location/distribution and surrounding build environment based on its distance from the main street, service road, petrol stations in Sohar, Oman using GIS. Data have been collected from various official sources to fulfil the requirements of this study, which helped in constructing the geodatabase for this project. The results of this study demonstrated that there is an apparent inconsistency in public schools distribution, as most public schools are concentrated in one location. The study concludes with suggestions and recommendations to use GIS and spatial planning by the decision makers to make future sound decisions of building public schools. It is desirable to build schools in areas with lower percentages of highways and commercial sectors.

  20. Visibility-based optimal path and motion planning

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Paul Keng-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    This monograph deals with various visibility-based path and motion planning problems motivated by real-world applications such as exploration and mapping planetary surfaces, environmental surveillance using stationary or mobile robots, and imaging of global air/pollutant circulation. The formulation and solution of these problems call for concepts and methods from many areas of applied mathematics including computational geometry, set-covering, non-smooth optimization, combinatorial optimization and optimal control. Emphasis is placed on the formulation of new problems and methods of approach to these problems. Since geometry and visualization play important roles in the understanding of these problems, intuitive interpretations of the basic concepts are presented before detailed mathematical development. The development of a particular topic begins with simple cases illustrated by specific examples, and then progresses forward to more complex cases. The intended readers of this monograph are primarily studen...

  1. Software for Project-Based Learning of Robot Motion Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Mark; Bordeaux, Janice; Kavraki, Lydia E.

    2013-01-01

    Motion planning is a core problem in robotics concerned with finding feasible paths for a given robot. Motion planning algorithms perform a search in the high-dimensional continuous space of robot configurations and exemplify many of the core algorithmic concepts of search algorithms and associated data structures. Motion planning algorithms can…

  2. Inverse treatment planning using volume-based objective functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Greg; Michalski, Darek; Anne, Pramila R.; Valicenti, Richard K.

    2004-06-01

    The results of optimization of inverse treatment plans depend on a choice of the objective function. Even when the optimal solution for a given cost function can be obtained, a better solution may exist for a given clinical scenario and it could be obtained with a revised objective function. In the approach presented in this work mixed integer programming was used to introduce a new volume-based objective function, which allowed for minimization of the number of under- or overdosed voxels in selected structures. By selecting and prioritizing components of this function the user could drive the computations towards the desired solution. This optimization approach was tested using cases of patients treated for prostate and oropharyngeal cancer. Initial solutions were obtained based on minimization/maximization of the dose to critical structures and targets. Subsequently, the volume-based objective functions were used to locate solutions, which satisfied better clinical objectives particular to each of the cases. For prostate cases, these additional solutions offered further improvements in sparing of the rectum or the bladder. For oropharyngeal cases, families of solutions were obtained satisfying an intensity modulated radiation therapy protocol for this disease site, while offering significant improvement in the sparing of selected critical structures, e.g., parotid glands. An additional advantage of the present approach was in providing a convenient mechanism to test the feasibility of the dose-volume histogram constraints.

  3. The use of GIS-based support of recreational trail planning by local governments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Skov-Petersen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, multiple GIS-based planning support systems have been developed in order to improve the basis for spatial planning. Recent research has focused on problems regarding a lack of utilisation or barriers to the use of advanced GIS and GIS-based planning support systems in planning...... applications. This paper discusses these research findings in the context of outdoor recreational planning by local governments in Denmark. According to a national survey of municipal planners, GIS-based planning support is widely used in Denmark, but more GIS is needed and is being requested for local outdoor...... recreation planning. However, considerable differences exist between the ways municipalities assess their need for and use of GIS planning support. These differences are explored in more detail using a factor analysis of planning variables and uses of GIS. Three situations are described: 1) extensive network...

  4. Nuclear emergency response planning based on participatory decision analytic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.

    2004-10-01

    This work was undertaken in order to develop methods and techniques for evaluating systematically and comprehensively protective action strategies in the case of a nuclear or radiation emergency. This was done in a way that the concerns and issues of all key players related to decisions on protective actions could be aggregated into decision- making transparently and in an equal manner. An approach called facilitated workshop, based on the theory of Decision Analysis, was tailored and tested in the planning of actions to be taken. The work builds on case studies in which it was assumed that a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore different types of protective actions should be considered. Altogether six workshops were organised in which all key players were represented, i.e., the authorities, expert organisations, industry and agricultural producers. The participants were those responsible for preparing advice or presenting matters for those responsible for the formal decision-making. Many preparatory meetings were held with various experts to prepare information for the workshops. It was considered essential that the set-up strictly follow the decision- making process to which the key players are accustomed. Key players or stakeholders comprise responsible administrators and organisations, politicians as well as representatives of the citizens affected and other persons who will and are likely to take part in decision-making in nuclear emergencies. The realistic nature and the disciplined process of a facilitated workshop and commitment to decision-making yielded up insight in many radiation protection issues. The objectives and attributes which are considered in a decision on protective actions were discussed in many occasions and were defined for different accident scenario to come. In the workshops intervention levels were derived according justification and optimisation

  5. Influence of Planning on Students' Language Performance in Task-Based Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingli

    2008-01-01

    Task-based language teaching (TBLT) is an important second language teaching method. Planning is one of the significant factors in the studies of TBLT. This paper will mainly discuss the influence of planning on students' language performance in TBLT.

  6. 75 FR 958 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; 2002 Base Year Emission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... control measures, projection year emission inventories, motor vehicle emissions budgets, and contingency... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; 2002 Base Year Emission Inventory, Reasonable Further Progress Plan, Contingency Measures, Reasonably Available Control Measures, and Transportation...

  7. Patient-specific dosimetric endpoints based treatment plan quality control in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ting; Zhou, Linghong; Staub, David; Chen, Mingli; Lu, Weiguo; Tian, Zhen; Jia, Xun; Li, Yongbao; Jiang, Steve B; Gu, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    In intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the optimal plan for each patient is specific due to unique patient anatomy. To achieve such a plan, patient-specific dosimetric goals reflecting each patient’s unique anatomy should be defined and adopted in the treatment planning procedure for plan quality control. This study is to develop such a personalized treatment plan quality control tool by predicting patient-specific dosimetric endpoints (DEs). The incorporation of patient specific DEs is realized by a multi-OAR geometry-dosimetry model, capable of predicting optimal DEs based on the individual patient’s geometry. The overall quality of a treatment plan is then judged with a numerical treatment plan quality indicator and characterized as optimal or suboptimal. Taking advantage of clinically available prostate volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plans, we built and evaluated our proposed plan quality control tool. Using our developed tool, six of twenty evaluated plans were identified as sub-optimal plans. After plan re-optimization, these suboptimal plans achieved better OAR dose sparing without sacrificing the PTV coverage, and the dosimetric endpoints of the re-optimized plans agreed well with the model predicted values, which validate the predictability of the proposed tool. In conclusion, the developed tool is able to accurately predict optimally achievable DEs of multiple OARs, identify suboptimal plans, and guide plan optimization. It is a useful tool for achieving patient-specific treatment plan quality control. (paper)

  8. Automated Generation of Traffic Incident Response Plan Based on Case-Based Reasoning and Bayesian Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic incident response plan, specifying response agencies and their responsibilities, can guide responders to take actions effectively and timely after traffic incidents. With a reasonable and feasible traffic incident response plan, related agencies will save many losses, such as humans and wealth. In this paper, how to generate traffic incident response plan automatically and specially was solved. Firstly, a well-known and approved method, Case-Based Reasoning (CBR, was introduced. Based on CBR, a detailed case representation and R5-cycle of CBR were developed. To enhance the efficiency of case retrieval, which was an important procedure, Bayesian Theory was introduced. To measure the performance of the proposed method, 23 traffic incidents caused by traffic crashes were selected and three indicators, Precision P, Recall R, and Indicator F, were used. Results showed that 20 of 23 cases could be retrieved effectively and accurately. The method is practicable and accurate to generate traffic incident response plans. The method will promote the intelligent generation and management of traffic incident response plans and also make Traffic Incident Management more scientific and effective.

  9. Web-based GIS for collaborative planning and public participation: an application to the strategic planning of wind farm sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Ana; Densham, Paul J; Haklay, Mordechai Muki

    2009-05-01

    Spatial planning typically involves multiple stakeholders. To any specific planning problem, stakeholders often bring different levels of knowledge about the components of the problem and make assumptions, reflecting their individual experiences, that yield conflicting views about desirable planning outcomes. Consequently, stakeholders need to learn about the likely outcomes that result from their stated preferences; this learning can be supported through enhanced access to information, increased public participation in spatial decision-making and support for distributed collaboration amongst planners, stakeholders and the public. This paper presents a conceptual system framework for web-based GIS that supports public participation in collaborative planning. The framework combines an information area, a Multi-Criteria Spatial Decision Support System (MC-SDSS) and an argumentation map to support distributed and asynchronous collaboration in spatial planning. After analysing the novel aspects of this framework, the paper describes its implementation, as a proof of concept, in a system for Web-based Participatory Wind Energy Planning (WePWEP). Details are provided on the specific implementation of each of WePWEP's four tiers, including technical and structural aspects. Throughout the paper, particular emphasis is placed on the need to support user learning throughout the planning process.

  10. Evaluation Indicator System of Marketing Planning Ability Based on ANP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of “Marketing planning” curriculum in higher vocational colleges should pay attention to planning ability of students which requires a set of scientific evaluation indicator system of marketing planning ability, however, there is less in-depth study in this field, especially the quantitative research. Scientific evaluation indicator system of marketing planning ability should divide the elements of marketing planning ability reasonably, and should give them reasonable weight. Combined with document and the interview data, this paper will carry on the construction and analysis of the evaluation index system of marketing planning ability with Analytic Network Process (ANP, and use Super Decisions Software (SD to carry on the corresponding calculation and verification. Finally a set of more scientific and reasonable evaluation indicator system of marketing planning ability will be summed up.

  11. IMRT head and neck treatment planning with a commercially available Monte Carlo based planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudreau, C; Heath, E; Seuntjens, J; Ballivy, O; Parker, W

    2005-01-01

    The PEREGRINE Monte Carlo dose-calculation system (North American Scientific, Cranberry Township, PA) is the first commercially available Monte Carlo dose-calculation code intended specifically for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment planning and quality assurance. In order to assess the impact of Monte Carlo based dose calculations for IMRT clinical cases, dose distributions for 11 head and neck patients were evaluated using both PEREGRINE and the CORVUS (North American Scientific, Cranberry Township, PA) finite size pencil beam (FSPB) algorithm with equivalent path-length (EPL) inhomogeneity correction. For the target volumes, PEREGRINE calculations predict, on average, a less than 2% difference in the calculated mean and maximum doses to the gross tumour volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV). An average 16% ± 4% and 12% ± 2% reduction in the volume covered by the prescription isodose line was observed for the GTV and CTV, respectively. Overall, no significant differences were noted in the doses to the mandible and spinal cord. For the parotid glands, PEREGRINE predicted a 6% ± 1% increase in the volume of tissue receiving a dose greater than 25 Gy and an increase of 4% ± 1% in the mean dose. Similar results were noted for the brainstem where PEREGRINE predicted a 6% ± 2% increase in the mean dose. The observed differences between the PEREGRINE and CORVUS calculated dose distributions are attributed to secondary electron fluence perturbations, which are not modelled by the EPL correction, issues of organ outlining, particularly in the vicinity of air cavities, and differences in dose reporting (dose to water versus dose to tissue type)

  12. Landslides along Highways: GIS-based Inventory and Planning Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Ann-Kathrin; Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo

    2015-04-01

    Highways rank as critical transportation infrastructures that are at risk of landslides in many areas worldwide (e.g., Hungr et al., 1999; Bhandary et al., 2013). Safe and affordable operations of traffic routes constitute the two main criteria for transportation planning in landslide-prone terrain. A right balancing of these often conflicting priorities requires profound knowledge of landslide locations across highway networks and the costs caused by landslides in the past (e.g., Saha et al., 2005). Much of the direct costs affecting transportation departments relate to capital investments for landslide repair or mitigation and operational expenditures in connection with maintenance works. A systematic collection and inventory of such data sets combined with an acquisition of hazard information on vulnerable road sections is still rarely the case in engineering practice. This is despite significant cost impacts and budgetary burdens, especially in peripheral mountain areas where financial resources are naturally limited (e.g., Klose et al., 2014). The present contribution introduces a regional inventory of landslides along highways in the Harz Mountains, NW Germany. As subset of a landslide database for the entire country, this focused GIS-based inventory has been compiled in close collaboration with the Lower Saxony Department of Transportation. The inventory includes data sets gathered by archive studies and relies on high-quality information sources such as maintenance protocols, geotechnical reports, and documents from tendering, controlling, and accounting. A mapping tool in ArcGIS format is used to specify and visualize road sections affected by landslides. This spatial information on hazard exposure is complemented by narrative risk profiles for landslide sites showing a long history of damage events. By summarizing the occurrence dates of landslides, the associated damages, and the types and costs of repair or prevention, such risk profiles are useful to

  13. A Vision for the Future: Site-Based Strategic Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jerry J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a model to help principals with strategic planning. Success hinges on involving stakeholders, scanning for relevant data, identifying critical success factors, developing vision and mission statements, analyzing the site manager's supports and constraints, creating strategic goals and objectives, developing action plans, allocating…

  14. BUILDING A CULTURE OF EVIDENCE-BASED PLANNING

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    support community demand for improved service provision. 3. Strengthening institutional capacity: The NEHSI design built in space to increase the capacity for collecting and analysing evidence for sound planning as well as for budgeting and delivering services. Strengthening of institutional capacity was planned.

  15. Advantages of integrated and sustainability based assessment for metabolism based strategic planning of urban water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadian, Kourosh; Kapelan, Zoran

    2015-09-15

    Despite providing water-related services as the primary purpose of urban water system (UWS), all relevant activities require capital investments and operational expenditures, consume resources (e.g. materials and chemicals), and may increase negative environmental impacts (e.g. contaminant discharge, emissions to water and air). Performance assessment of such a metabolic system may require developing a holistic approach which encompasses various system elements and criteria. This paper analyses the impact of integration of UWS components on the metabolism based performance assessment for future planning using a number of intervention strategies. It also explores the importance of sustainability based criteria in the assessment of long-term planning. Two assessment approaches analysed here are: (1) planning for only water supply system (WSS) as a part of the UWS and (2) planning for an integrated UWS including potable water, stormwater, wastewater and water recycling. WaterMet(2) model is used to simulate metabolic type processes in the UWS and calculate quantitative performance indicators. The analysis is demonstrated on the problem of strategic level planning of a real-world UWS to where optional intervention strategies are applied. The resulting performance is assessed using the multiple criteria of both conventional and sustainability type; and optional intervention strategies are then ranked using the Compromise Programming method. The results obtained show that the high ranked intervention strategies in the integrated UWS are those supporting both water supply and stormwater/wastewater subsystems (e.g. rainwater harvesting and greywater recycling schemes) whilst these strategies are ranked low in the WSS and those targeting improvement of water supply components only (e.g. rehabilitation of clean water pipes and addition of new water resources) are preferred instead. Results also demonstrate that both conventional and sustainability type performance indicators

  16. Graph-Based Path-Planning for Titan Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Lars James; Fathpour, Nanaz; Elfes, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    A document describes a graph-based path-planning algorithm for balloons with vertical control authority and little or no horizontal control authority. The balloons are designed to explore celestial bodies with atmospheres, such as Titan, a moon of Saturn. The algorithm discussed enables the balloon to achieve horizontal motion using the local horizontal winds. The approach is novel because it enables the balloons to use arbitrary wind field models. This is in contrast to prior approaches that used highly simplified wind field models, such as linear, or binary, winds. This new approach works by discretizing the space in which the balloon operates, and representing the possible states of the balloon as a graph whose arcs represent the time taken to move from one node to another. The approach works with arbitrary wind fields, by looking up the wind strength and direction at every node in the graph from an arbitrary wind model. Having generated the graph, search techniques such as Dijkstra s algorithm are then used to find the set of vertical actuation commands that takes the balloon from the start to the goal in minimum time. In addition, the set of reachable locations on the moon or planet can be determined.

  17. Cross-institutional knowledge-based planning (KBP) implementation and its performance comparison to Auto-Planning Engine (APE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binbin; Kusters, Martijn; Kunze-Busch, Martina; Dijkema, Tim; McNutt, Todd; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Bzdusek, Karl; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Pang, Dalong

    2017-04-01

    To investigate (1) whether a plan library established at one institution can be applied for another institution's knowledge-based planning (KBP); (2) the performance of cross-institutional KBP compared to Auto-Planning Engine (APE). Radboud University Medical Center (RUMC) provided 35 oropharyngeal cancer patients (68Gy to PTV 68 and 50.3Gy to PTV 50.3 ) with clinically-delivered and comparative APE plans. The Johns Hopkins University (JHU) contributed a three-dose-level plan library consisting of 179 clinically-delivered plans. MedStar Georgetown University Hospital (MGUH) contributed a KBP approach employing overlap-volume histogram (OVH-KBP), where the JHU library was used for guiding RUMC patients' KBP. Since clinical protocols adopted at RUMC and JHU are different and both approaches require protocol-specific planning parameters as initial input, 10 randomly selected patients from RUMC were set aside for deriving them. The finalized parameters were applied to the remaining 25 patients for OVH-KBP and APE plan generation. A Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for statistical comparison. PTV 68 and PTV 50.3 's V 95 in OVH-KBP and APE were similar (p>0.36). Cord's D 0.1 cc in OVH-KBP was reduced by 5.1Gy (p=0.0001); doses to other organs were similar (p>0.2). APE and OVH-KBP's plan quality is comparable. Institutional-protocol differences can be addressed to allow cross-institutional library sharing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Phase-based Planning for Railway Infrastructure Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui

    2017-01-01

    . The proposed PDSS (F-PBPA) represents a step forward in solving railway scheduling problems. It can help Infrastructure Managers (IMs) gain a better understanding of the application of optimization in railway planning tasks. There are three optimization phases, TeO, EcO and CoO, that can be performed...... IMs, step by step, to estimate the total project cost for railway projects and to identify the solutions that are economically advantageous. Paper 4 suggests a new LCC framework for IMs to consider costs at the strategic planning level, and Paper 5 considers costs at the project planning level...

  19. Knowledge-based IMRT planning for individual liver cancer patients using a novel specific model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gang; Li, Yang; Feng, Ziwei; Tao, Cheng; Yu, Zuyi; Li, Baosheng; Li, Dengwang

    2018-03-27

    The purpose of this work is to benchmark RapidPlan against clinical plans for liver Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment of patients with special anatomical characteristics, and to investigate the prediction capability of the general model (Model-G) versus our specific model (Model-S). A library consisting of 60 liver cancer patients with IMRT planning was used to set up two models (Model-S, Model-G), using the RapidPlan knowledge-based planning system. Model-S consisted of 30 patients with special anatomical characteristics where the distance from planning target volume (PTV) to the right kidney was less than three centimeters and Model-G was configurated using all 60 patients in this library. Knowledge-based IMRT plans were created for the evaluation group formed of 13 patients similar to those included in Model-S by Model-G, Model-S and manually (M), named RPG-plans, RPS-plans and M-plans, respectively. The differences in the dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were compared, not only between RP-plans and their respective M-plans, but also between RPG-plans and RPS-plans. For all 13 patients, RapidPlan could automatically produce clinically acceptable plans. Comparing RP-plans to M-plans, RP-plans improved V 95% of PTV and had greater dose sparing in the right kidney. For the normal liver, RPG-plans delivered similar doses, while RPS-plans delivered a higher dose than M-plans. With respect to RapidPlan models, RPS-plans had better conformity index (CI) values and delivered lower doses to the right kidney V 20Gy and maximizing point doses to spinal cord, while delivering higher doses to the normal liver. The study shows that RapidPlan can create high-quality plans, and our specific model can improve the CI of PTV, resulting in more sparing of OAR in IMRT for individual liver cancer patients.

  20. 77 FR 42686 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; the 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; the 2002 Base Year Inventory AGENCY: Environmental... matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the Maryland State Implementation Plan... National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) SIP. EPA is proposing to approve the 2002 base year PM 2.5...

  1. An ontological knowledge base for cyber network attack planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chan, P

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available . An ontology enables the representation of semantic information and automated reasoning that can support the complexity of planning cyber operations. It also contributes towards the sharing of information and the creation and maintenance of a common vocabulary...

  2. Planning-Based Approaches for Supporting Sustainable Landscape Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Albert

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Planning often yields only limited influence on policy making. This paper explores how planning could address this challenge and support most effectively transitions towards sustainable landscape change. In merging insights from sustainability science research and nine recently concluded case studies of landscape planning, the paper reflects upon the applicability of the concept of “transition support”, discusses planning approaches and their perceived effectiveness to induce change in landscape governance, and identifies lessons learned. The paper’s outcomes include insights and potentially useful approaches that can be attributed to four emerging cross-cutting themes: approaches for (i dealing with the high degree of complexity and uncertainty of landscape systems, (ii integrating the various perspectives of experts, decision makers, and stakeholders in the assessment process (transdisciplinarity, (iii enhancing policy influence, and (iv initiating and sustaining learning and adaptive governance.

  3. Plan Validation Using DES and Agent-based Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Teck H; Ong, Kim S

    2008-01-01

    .... This thesis explores the possibility of using a multi-agent system (MAS) to generate the aggressor's air strike plans, which could be coupled with a low resolution Discrete Event Simulation (DES...

  4. SU-E-J-193: Feasibility of MRI-Only Based IMRT Planning for Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, P; Botros, M; Chen, X; Paulson, E; Erickson, B; Li, X

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: With the increasing use of MRI simulation and the advent of MRI-guided delivery, it is desirable to use MRI only for treatment planning. In this study, we assess the dosimetric difference between MRI- and CTbased IMRT planning for pancreatic cancer. Methods: Planning CTs and MRIs acquired for a representative pancreatic cancer patient were used. MRI-based planning utilized forced relative electron density (rED) assignment of organ specific values from IRCU report 46, where rED = 1.029 for PTV and a rED = 1.036 for non-specified tissue (NST). Six IMRT plans were generated with clinical dose-volume (DV) constraints using a research Monaco planning system employing Monte Carlo dose calculation with optional perpendicular magnetic field (MF) of 1.5T. The following five plans were generated and compared with the planning CT: 1.) CT plan with MF and dose recalculation without optimization; 2.) MRI (T2) plan with target and OARs redrawn based on MRI, forced rED, no MF, and recalculation without optimization; 3.) Similar as in 2 but with MF; 4.) MRI plan with MF but without optimization; and 5.) Similar as in 4 but with optimization. Results: Generally, noticeable differences in PTV point doses and DV parameters (DVPs) between the CT-and MRI-based plans with and without the MF were observed. These differences between the optimized plans were generally small, mostly within 2%. Larger differences were observed in point doses and mean doses for certain OARs between the CT and MRI plan, mostly due to differences between image acquisition times. Conclusion: MRI only based IMRT planning for pancreatic cancer is feasible. The differences observed between the optimized CT and MRI plans with or without the MF were practically negligible if excluding the differences between MRI and CT defined structures

  5. Repository-Based Software Engineering Program: Working Program Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Repository-Based Software Engineering Program (RBSE) is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored program dedicated to introducing and supporting common, effective approaches to software engineering practices. The process of conceiving, designing, building, and maintaining software systems by using existing software assets that are stored in a specialized operational reuse library or repository, accessible to system designers, is the foundation of the program. In addition to operating a software repository, RBSE promotes (1) software engineering technology transfer, (2) academic and instructional support of reuse programs, (3) the use of common software engineering standards and practices, (4) software reuse technology research, and (5) interoperability between reuse libraries. This Program Management Plan (PMP) is intended to communicate program goals and objectives, describe major work areas, and define a management report and control process. This process will assist the Program Manager, University of Houston at Clear Lake (UHCL) in tracking work progress and describing major program activities to NASA management. The goal of this PMP is to make managing the RBSE program a relatively easy process that improves the work of all team members. The PMP describes work areas addressed and work efforts being accomplished by the program; however, it is not intended as a complete description of the program. Its focus is on providing management tools and management processes for monitoring, evaluating, and administering the program; and it includes schedules for charting milestones and deliveries of program products. The PMP was developed by soliciting and obtaining guidance from appropriate program participants, analyzing program management guidance, and reviewing related program management documents.

  6. SU-F-T-346: Dose Mimicking Inverse Planning Based On Helical Delivery Treatment Plans for Head and Neck Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaran Nair, C; Hoffman, D; Wright, C; Yamamoto, T; Rao, S; Benedict, S; Rong, Y [University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Markham, J [Raysearch Laboratories, Garden City, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: We aim to evaluate a new commercial dose mimicking inverse-planning application that was designed to provide cross-platform treatment planning, for its dosimetric quality and efficiency. The clinical benefit of this application allows patients treated on O-shaped linac to receive an equivalent plan on conventional L-shaped linac as needed for workflow or machine downtime. Methods: The dose mimicking optimization process seeks to create a similar DVH of an O-shaped linac-based plans with an alternative treatment technique (IMRT or VMAT), by maintaining target conformity, and penalizing dose falloff outside the target. Ten head and neck (HN) helical delivery plans, including simple and complex cases were selected for re-planning with the dose mimicking application. All plans were generated for a 6 MV beam model, using 7-field/ 9-field IMRT and VMAT techniques. PTV coverage (D1, D99 and homogeneity index [HI]), and OARs avoidance (Dmean / Dmax) were compared. Results: The resulting dose mimicked HN plans achieved acceptable PTV coverage for HI (VMAT 7.0±2.3, 7-fld 7.3±2.4, and 9-fld 7.0±2.4), D99 (98.0%±0.7%, 97.8%±0.7%, and 98.0%±0.7%), as well as D1 (106.4%±2.1%, 106.5%±2.2%, and 106.4%±2.1%), respectively. The OAR dose discrepancy varied: brainstem (2% to 4%), cord (3% to 6%), esophagus (−4% to −8%), larynx (−4% to 2%), and parotid (4% to 14%). Mimicked plans would typically be needed for 1–5 fractions of a treatment course, and we estimate <1% variance would be introduced in target coverage while maintaining comparable low dose to OARs. All mimicked plans were approved by independent physician and passed patient specific QA within our established tolerance. Conclusion: Dose mimicked plans provide a practical alternative for responding to clinical workflow issues, and provide reliability for patient treatment. The quality of dose mimicking for HN patients highly depends on the delivery technique, field numbers and angles, as well as user

  7. Helical Tomotherapy Planning for Lung Cancer Based on Ventilation Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jing; McLawhorn, Robert; Altes, Tallisa A.; Lange, Eduard de; Read, Paul W.; Larner, James M.; Benedict, Stanley H.; Sheng Ke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of lung ventilation-based treatment planning, computed tomography and hyperpolarized (HP) helium-3 (He-3) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ventilation images of 6 subjects were coregistered for intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning in Tomotherapy. Highly-functional lungs (HFL) and less-functional lungs (LFL) were contoured based on their ventilation image intensities, and a cylindrical planning-target-volume was simulated at locations adjacent to both HFL and LFL. Annals of an anatomy-based plan (Plan 1) and a ventilation-based plan (Plan 2) were generated. The following dosimetric parameters were determined and compared between the 2 plans: percentage of total/HFL volume receiving ≥20 Gy, 15 Gy, 10 Gy, and 5 Gy (TLV 20 , HFLV 20 , TLV 15 , HFLV 15 , TLV 10 , HFLV 10 , TLV 5 , HFLV 5 ), mean total/HFL dose (MTLD/HFLD), maximum doses to all organs at risk (OARs), and target dose conformality. Compared with Plan 1, Plan 2 reduced mean HFLD (mean reduction, 0.8 Gy), MTLD (mean reduction, 0.6 Gy), HFLV 20 (mean reduction, 1.9%), TLV 20 (mean reduction, 1.5%), TLV 15 (mean reduction, 1.7%), and TLV 10 (mean reduction, 2.1%). P-values of the above comparisons are less than 0.05 using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. For HFLV 15 , HFLV 10 , TLV 5 , and HTLV 5 , Plan 2 resulted in lower values than plan 1 but the differences are not significant (P-value range, 0.063–0.219). Plan 2 did not significantly change maximum doses to OARs (P-value range, 0.063–0.563) and target conformality (P = 1.000). HP He-3 MRI of patients with lung disease shows a highly heterogeneous ventilation capacity that can be utilized for functional treatment planning. Moderate but statistically significant improvements in sparing functional lungs were achieved using helical tomotherapy plans.

  8. A fast 4D IMRT/VMAT planning method based on segment aperture morphing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawikowski, Slade; Tai, An; Ates, Ozgur; Ahunbay, Ergun; Li, X Allen

    2018-04-01

    Four-dimensional volumetric modulated arc therapy (4D VMAT) and four-dimensional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (4D IMRT) are developing radiation therapy treatment strategies designed to maximize dose conformality, minimize normal tissue dose, and deliver the treatment as efficiently as possible. The patient's entire breathing cycle is captured through 4D imaging modalities and then separated into individual breathing phases for planning purposes. Optimizing multiphase VMAT and IMRT plans is computationally demanding and currently impractical for clinical application. The purpose of this study is to assess a new planning process decreasing the upfront computational time required to optimize multiphased treatment plans while maintaining good plan quality. Optimized VMAT and IMRT plans were created on the end-of-exhale (EOE) breathing phase of 10-phase 4D CT scans with planning tumor volume (PTV)-based targets. These single-phase optimized plans are analogous to single-phase gated treatment plans. The simulated tracked plans were created by deformably registering EOE contours to the remaining breathing phases, recalculating the optimized EOE plan onto the other individual phases and realigning the MLC's relative positions to the PTV border in each of the individual breathing phases using a segment aperture morphing (SAM) algorithm. Doses for each of the 10 phases were calculated with the treatment planning system and deformably transferred back onto the EOE phase and averaged with equal weighting simulating the actual delivered dose a patient would potentially receive in a tracked treatment plan. Plan DVH quality for the 10-phase 4D SAM plans were comparable with the individual EOE optimized treatment plans for the PTV structures as well as the organ at risk structures. SAM-based algorithms out performed simpler isocenter-shifted only approaches. SAM-based 4D planning greatly reduced plan computation time vs individually optimizing all 10 phases. In addition

  9. SU-G-TeP1-07: Investigation of RapidPlan Based Plan Quality for Breast IMRTSimultaneously Integrated Boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J; Hu, W; Chen, X; Wu, Z

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using RapidPlan for breast cancer radiotherapy and to evaluate its performance for planners with different planning experiences. Methods: A training database was collected with 80 expert plan datasets from patients previously received left breast conserving surgery and IMRT-simultaneously integrated boost radiotherapy. The models were created on the RapidPlan. Five patients from the training database and 5 external patients were used for internal and external validation, respectively. Three planners with different planning experiences (beginner, junior, senior) designed manual and RapidPlan based plans for additional ten patients. The plan qualities were compared with manual and RapidPlan based ones. Results: For the internal and external validations, there were no significant dose differences on target coverage for plans from RapidPlan and manual. Also, no difference was found in the mean doses to contralateral breast and lung. The RapidPlan improved the heart (V5, V10, V20, V30, and mead dose) and ipsilateral lung (V5, V10, V20, V30, and mean dose) sparing for the beginner and junior planners. Compare to the plans from senior planner, 6 out of 16 clinically checked parameters were improved in RapidPlan, and the left parameters were similar. Conclusion: It is feasible to generate clinical acceptable plans using RapidPlan for breast cancer radiotherapy. The RapidPlan helps to systematically improve the quality of IMRT plans against the benchmark of clinically accepted plans. The RapidPlan shows promise for homogenizing plan quality by transferring planning expertise from more experienced to less experienced planners.

  10. Study on environmental impact assessment index system of uranium production base construction plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaochao; Song Liquan

    2008-01-01

    The index system on planning environmental impact assessment of uranium mining base construction is discussed by using the hiberarchy method according to characteristics of uranium production and environmental protection object of planning assessment. The suggested index system is in favor of persistent exploitation of uranium resource and environmental protection in the uranium mining area, and can provide a reference for planning environmental impact assessment of uranium mining base construction in China. (authors)

  11. Homeroom Activities in a College of Technology Based on the Master Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchida, Kunihiiko; Murata, Hideaki; Yuji, Junichiro

    Homeroom (HR) activities have an important role in engineering education at technical colleges. Yatsushiro National College of Technology has made a master plan for them and has been putting the plan into practical use since 2002. This plan is comprehensive and has two main categories, social education and career guidance, both being composed of three sub-categories (e.g., self-understanding and making future plans) . Based on the master plan, each HR teacher makes his own plan for HR activities for his classroom at the beginning of the academic year. We have reached a consensus to share our practice and to improve HR activities for years to come. We also recognize that to carry out HR activities based on a master plan that reflects the school's educational goals is essential in order to train students who are well-prepared, both as engineers and as humans.

  12. Creating virtual humans for simulation-based training and planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansfield, S.; Sobel, A.

    1998-05-12

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a distributed, high fidelity simulation system for training and planning small team Operations. The system provides an immersive environment populated by virtual objects and humans capable of displaying complex behaviors. The work has focused on developing the behaviors required to carry out complex tasks and decision making under stress. Central to this work are techniques for creating behaviors for virtual humans and for dynamically assigning behaviors to CGF to allow scenarios without fixed outcomes. Two prototype systems have been developed that illustrate these capabilities: MediSim, a trainer for battlefield medics and VRaptor, a system for planning, rehearsing and training assault operations.

  13. MOPSO-based multi-objective TSO planning considering uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi

    2014-01-01

    factors, i.e. load growth, generation capacity and line faults, and aims to enhance the transmission system via the multi-objective TSO planning (MOTP) approach. The proposed MOTP approach optimizes three objectives simultaneously, namely the probabilistic available transfer capability (PATC), investment...... cost and power outage cost. A two-phase MOPSO algorithm is employed to solve this optimization problem, which can accelerate the convergence and guarantee the diversity ofPareto-optimal front set as well. The feasibility and effectiveness of both the proposed multi-objective planning approach...

  14. Robot Path Planning Method Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyang Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved genetic algorithm for mobile robot path planning. The algorithm uses artificial potential method to establish the initial population, and increases value weights in the fitness function, which increases the controllability of robot path length and path smoothness. In the new algorithm, a flip mutation operator is added, which ensures the individual population collision path. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can get a smooth, collision-free path to the global optimum, the path planning algorithm which is used to solve the problem is effective and feasible.

  15. 75 FR 953 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; 2002 Base Year Emission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    .... The budgets are identical to the projected 2008 on-road mobile source emission inventories. Because... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; 2002 Base Year Emission Inventory, Reasonable... Maryland State Implementation Plan (SIP) to meet the 2002 base year emissions inventory, the reasonable...

  16. 77 FR 24440 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Ozone 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R04-OAR-2010-0021(b); FRL-9661-9] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Ozone 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY... 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the state implementation plan (SIP) revision submitted by...

  17. Quality assessment for VMAT prostate radiotherapy planning based on data envelopment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Kuan-Min; Simpson, John; Raith, Andrea; Ehrgott, Matthias; Sasso, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The majority of commercial radiotherapy treatment planning systems requires planners to iteratively adjust the plan parameters in order to find a satisfactory plan. This iterative trial-and-error nature of radiotherapy treatment planning results in an inefficient planning process and in order to reduce such inefficiency, plans can be accepted without achieving the best attainable quality. We propose a quality assessment method based on data envelopment analysis (DEA) to address this inefficiency. This method compares a plan of interest to a set of past delivered plans and searches for evidence of potential further improvement. With the assistance of DEA, planners will be able to make informed decisions on whether further planning is required and ensure that a plan is only accepted when the plan quality is close to the best attainable one. We apply the DEA method to 37 prostate plans using two assessment parameters: rectal generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) as the input and D95 (the minimum dose that is received by 95% volume of a structure) of the planning target volume (PTV) as the output. The percentage volume of rectum overlapping PTV is used to account for anatomical variations between patients and is included in the model as a non-discretionary output variable. Five plans that are considered of lesser quality by DEA are re-optimized with the goal to further improve rectal sparing. After re-optimization, all five plans improve in rectal gEUD without clinically considerable deterioration of the PTV D95 value. For the five re-optimized plans, the rectal gEUD is reduced by an average of 1.84 Gray (Gy) with only an average reduction of 0.07 Gy in PTV D95. The results demonstrate that DEA can correctly identify plans with potential improvements in terms of the chosen input and outputs. (paper)

  18. Network-Based Material Requirements Planning (NBMRP) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to 100% efficiency when all the research assumptions are taken into consideration. The study recommends in-depth feasibility analysis of materials with respect to availability, sustainability and uninterrupted scheduled flow throughout the project life cycle. Key Words: Material Requirements Planning, Lead time, Network ...

  19. A Spreadsheet-based GIS tool for planning aerial photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S.EPA's Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool which facilitates planning aerial photography missions. This tool is an Excel spreadsheet which accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the study area and compiles ...

  20. Reliability-Based Maintenance and Inspection Planning for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2004-01-01

    and maintenance costs, and failure costs. Different reconstruction policies in case of failure are considered, including systematic reconstruction in case of failure, no reconstruction and failure of the control system. The concept of generic inspection and maintenance planning coupled with information from...

  1. A multiobjective GIS-based land use planning algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, T.J.; Janssen, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper purposes an enhanced land use optimization model for land-use planning with a new spatial component. This component uses a simple representation of the proximity of related land uses to each other as a function of distances between parcel centroids. A special purpose genetic algorithm is

  2. Column generation based planning in smart grids using TRIANA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toersche, Hermen; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2013-01-01

    Column generation is applied to the TRIANA smart grid framework's planner and combined with distributed dynamic programming. Simulations show that this improves the resulting planning compared to methods described in previous work (extra peak reduction of 7.3%; large fluctuation reduction) at the

  3. Knowledge-based emergency planning for storage tank farms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nevrlý, Václav; Bitala, P.; Nevrlá, P.; Střižík, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2008), s. 10-15 ISSN 1335-4205 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : emergency * preparedness * modeling tank fire boilover Subject RIV: AQ - Safety, Health Protection, Human - Machine http://www.utc.sk/komunikacie

  4. Personal Development Plans: Insights from a Case Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In light of contemporary shifts away from annual appraisals, this study aims to explore the implications of using a personal development plan (PDP) as a means of focussing on continuous feedback and development to improve individual performance and ultimately organisational performance. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected…

  5. IMRT treatment planning based on prioritizing prescription goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkens, Jan J; Alaly, James R; Zakarian, Konstantin; Thorstad, Wade L; Deasy, Joseph O

    2007-01-01

    Determining the 'best' optimization parameters in IMRT planning is typically a time-consuming trial-and-error process with no unambiguous termination point. Recently we and others proposed a goal-programming approach which better captures the desired prioritization of dosimetric goals. Here, individual prescription goals are addressed stepwise in their order of priority. In the first step, only the highest order goals are considered (target coverage and dose-limiting normal structures). In subsequent steps, the achievements of the previous steps are turned into hard constraints and lower priority goals are optimized, in turn, subject to higher priority constraints. So-called 'slip' factors were introduced to allow for slight, clinically acceptable violations of the constraints. Focusing on head and neck cases, we present several examples for this planning technique. The main advantages of the new optimization method are (i) its ability to generate plans that meet the clinical goals, as well as possible, without tuning any weighting factors or dose-volume constraints, and (ii) the ability to conveniently include more terms such as fluence map smoothness. Lower level goals can be optimized to the achievable limit without compromising higher order goals. The prioritized prescription-goal planning method allows for a more intuitive and human-time-efficient way of dealing with conflicting goals compared to the conventional trial-and-error method of varying weighting factors and dose-volume constraints

  6. Efficient Kinect Sensor-Based Reactive Path Planning Method for Autonomous Mobile Robots in Dynamic Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuvshinjargal, Doopalam; Lee, Deok Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient dynamic reactive motion planning method for an autonomous vehicle in a dynamic environment is proposed. The purpose of the proposed method is to improve the robustness of autonomous robot motion planning capabilities within dynamic, uncertain environments by integrating a virtual plane-based reactive motion planning technique with a sensor fusion-based obstacle detection approach. The dynamic reactive motion planning method assumes a local observer in the virtual plane, which allows the effective transformation of complex dynamic planning problems into simple stationary ones proving the speed and orientation information between the robot and obstacles. In addition, the sensor fusion-based obstacle detection technique allows the pose estimation of moving obstacles using a Kinect sensor and sonar sensors, thus improving the accuracy and robustness of the reactive motion planning approach. The performance of the proposed method was demonstrated through not only simulation studies but also field experiments using multiple moving obstacles in hostile dynamic environments

  7. Efficient Kinect Sensor-Based Reactive Path Planning Method for Autonomous Mobile Robots in Dynamic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuvshinjargal, Doopalam; Lee, Deok Jin [Kunsan National University, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, an efficient dynamic reactive motion planning method for an autonomous vehicle in a dynamic environment is proposed. The purpose of the proposed method is to improve the robustness of autonomous robot motion planning capabilities within dynamic, uncertain environments by integrating a virtual plane-based reactive motion planning technique with a sensor fusion-based obstacle detection approach. The dynamic reactive motion planning method assumes a local observer in the virtual plane, which allows the effective transformation of complex dynamic planning problems into simple stationary ones proving the speed and orientation information between the robot and obstacles. In addition, the sensor fusion-based obstacle detection technique allows the pose estimation of moving obstacles using a Kinect sensor and sonar sensors, thus improving the accuracy and robustness of the reactive motion planning approach. The performance of the proposed method was demonstrated through not only simulation studies but also field experiments using multiple moving obstacles in hostile dynamic environments.

  8. A comparison of arc-based and static mini-multileaf collimator-based radiosurgery treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Hideo Dale; Pappas, Conrad T.E.; Wilder, Richard B.

    1997-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to compare arc-based and mini-multileaf collimator (mMLC)-based radiosurgery treatment plans using isodose distributions and dose-volume histograms. Methods: Of 11 patients who underwent conventional arc-based radiosurgery for intracranial malignancies, four were treated with one isocenter, four were treated with two isocenters and three were treated with three isocenters. The same cases were re-planned using a test version of mMLC-based radiosurgery software for multiple static non-coplanar fields. Results and conclusion: For non-spherical targets, treatment planning is relatively intuitive with mMLC-based radiosurgery, reducing the amount of time required for planning. Moreover, a lower dose of radiation is delivered to normal tissue with mMLC-based radiosurgery than with arc-based radiosurgery, which theoretically should lead to a reduced risk of complications

  9. Network tutoring strategy model based on multi-agent plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    Network tutoring system is currently a popular research subject in the world. And with the development of artificial intelligence technology, the intelligent tutoring strategy theory has been improved a lot. This paper makes use of the theory of multi-agent plan to develop the model of network tutoring strategic decision-making system, and improves the efficiency of the decision-making system and the continuity of the system to make decisions by the multi-agent plan. It also coordinates and improves the dynamic timeliness of the decision-making system by the multi-agent, and ensures the decision-making system to obtain the best results in the overall situation.

  10. Robot Path Planning Method Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mingyang Jiang; Xiaojing Fan; Zhili Pei; Jingqing Jiang; Yulan Hu; Qinghu Wang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an improved genetic algorithm for mobile robot path planning. The algorithm uses artificial potential method to establish the initial population, and increases value weights in the fitness function, which increases the controllability of robot path length and path smoothness. In the new algorithm, a flip mutation operator is added, which ensures the individual population collision path. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can get a smooth, collision-free pa...

  11. A Novel Global Path Planning Method for Mobile Robots Based on Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongsheng Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO algorithm has been proposed in recent years. It is a new swarm intelligence optimization algorithm simulating the teaching-learning phenomenon of a classroom. In this paper, a novel global path planning method for mobile robots is presented, which is based on an improved TLBO algorithm called Nonlinear Inertia Weighted Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization (NIWTLBO algorithm in our previous work. Firstly, the NIWTLBO algorithm is introduced. Then, a new map model of the path between start-point and goal-point is built by coordinate system transformation. Lastly, utilizing the NIWTLBO algorithm, the objective function of the path is optimized; thus, a global optimal path is obtained. The simulation experiment results show that the proposed method has a faster convergence rate and higher accuracy in searching for the path than the basic TLBO and some other algorithms as well, and it can effectively solve the optimization problem for mobile robot global path planning.

  12. Is ad-hoc plan adaptation based on 2-Step IMRT feasible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratengeier, Klaus; Polat, Buelent; Gainey, Mark; Grewenig, Patricia; Meyer, Juergen; Flentje, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background: The ability of a geometry-based method to expeditiously adapt a '2-Step' step and shoot IMRT plan was explored. Both changes of the geometry of target and organ at risk have to be balanced. A retrospective prostate planning study was performed to investigate the relative benefits of beam segment adaptation to the changes in target and organ at risk coverage. Methods: Four patients with six planning cases with extraordinarily large deformations of rectum and prostate were chosen for the study. A 9-field IMRT plan (A) using 2-Step IMRT segments was planned on an initial CT study. The plan had to fulfil all the requirements of a conventional high-quality step and shoot IMRT plan. To adapt to changes of the anatomy in a further CT data set, three approaches were considered: the original plan with optimized isocentre position (B), a newly optimized plan (C) and the original plan, adapted using the 2-Step IMRT optimization rules (D). DVH parameters were utilized for quantification of plan quality: D 99 for the CTV and the central planning target volume (PTV), D 95 for an outer PTV, V 95 , V 80 and V 50 for rectum and bladder. Results: The adapted plan (D) achieved almost the same target coverage as the newly optimized plan (C). Target coverage for plan B was poor and for the organs at risk, the rectum V 80 was slightly increased. The volume with more than 95% of the target dose (V 95 ) was 1.5 ± 1.5 cm 3 for the newly optimized plan (C), compared to 2.2 ± 1.3 cm 3 for the original plan (A) and 7.2 ± 4.8 cm 3 (B) on the first and the second CT, respectively. The adapted plan resulted in 4.3 ± 2.1 cm 3 (D), an intermediate dose load to the rectum. All other parameters were comparable for the newly optimized and the adapted plan. Conclusions: The first results for adaptation of interfractional changes using the 2-Step IMRT algorithm are encouraging. The plans were superior to plans with optimized isocentre position and only marginally inferior to a newly

  13. Simulation based planning of surgical interventions in pediatric cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Alison L.

    2013-10-01

    Hemodynamics plays an essential role in the progression and treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, while medical imaging provides increasingly detailed anatomical information, clinicians often have limited access to hemodynamic data that may be crucial to patient risk assessment and treatment planning. Computational simulations can now provide detailed hemodynamic data to augment clinical knowledge in both adult and pediatric applications. There is a particular need for simulation tools in pediatric cardiology, due to the wide variation in anatomy and physiology in congenital heart disease patients, necessitating individualized treatment plans. Despite great strides in medical imaging, enabling extraction of flow information from magnetic resonance and ultrasound imaging, simulations offer predictive capabilities that imaging alone cannot provide. Patient specific simulations can be used for in silico testing of new surgical designs, treatment planning, device testing, and patient risk stratification. Furthermore, simulations can be performed at no direct risk to the patient. In this paper, we outline the current state of the art in methods for cardiovascular blood flow simulation and virtual surgery. We then step through pressing challenges in the field, including multiscale modeling, boundary condition selection, optimization, and uncertainty quantification. Finally, we summarize simulation results of two representative examples from pediatric cardiology: single ventricle physiology, and coronary aneurysms caused by Kawasaki disease. These examples illustrate the potential impact of computational modeling tools in the clinical setting.

  14. Who Really Benefits from 3D-Based Planning of Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, In Bong; Jeong, Bae Kwon; Kang, Ki Mun; Jeong, Hojin; Lee, Yun Hee; Choi, Hoon Sik; Lee, Jong Hak; Choi, Won Jun; Shin, Jeong Kyu; Song, Jin Ho

    2018-04-30

    Although intracavitary radiotherapy (ICR) is essential for the radiation therapy of cervical cancer, few institutions in Korea perform 3-dimensional (3D)-based ICR. To identify patients who would benefit from 3D-based ICR, dosimetric parameters for tumor targets and organs at risk (OARs) were compared between 2-dimensional (2D)- and 3D-based ICR. Twenty patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) following 3D-based ICR were retrospectively evaluated. New 2D-based plans based on the Manchester system were developed. Tumor size was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. The mean high risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) D90 value was about 10% lower for 2D- than for 3D-based plans (88.4% vs. 97.7%; P = 0.068). Tumor coverage did not differ between 2D- and 3D-based plans in patients with tumors ≤ 4 cm at the time of brachytherapy, but the mean HR-CTV D90 values in patients with tumors > 4 cm were significantly higher for 3D-based plans than for 2D-based plans (96.0% vs. 78.1%; P = 0.017). Similar results were found for patients with tumors > 5 cm initially. Other dosimetric parameters for OARs were similar between 2D- and 3D-based plans, except that mean sigmoid D2cc was higher for 2D- than for 3D-based plans (67.5% vs. 58.8%; P = 0.043). These findings indicate that 3D-based ICR plans improve tumor coverage while satisfying the dose constraints for OARs. 3D-based ICR should be considered in patients with tumors > 4 cm size at the time of brachytherapy or > 5 cm initially.

  15. Impact of computer-based treatment planning software on clinical judgment of dental students for planning prosthodontic rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Saee Deshpande, Jayashree Chahande Department of Prosthodontics, Vidya Shikshan Prasarak Mandal's (VPSM Dental College and Research Centre, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Purpose: Successful prosthodontic rehabilitation involves making many interrelated clinical decisions which have an impact on each other. Self-directed computer-based training has been shown to be a very useful tool to develop synthetic and analytical problem-solving skills among students. Thus, a computer-based case study and treatment planning (CSTP software program was developed which would allow students to work through the process of comprehensive, multidisciplinary treatment planning for patients in a structured and logical manner. The present study was aimed at assessing the effect of this CSTP software on the clinical judgment of dental students while planning prosthodontic rehabilitation and to assess the students' perceptions about using the program for its intended use. Methods: A CSTP software program was developed and validated. The impact of this program on the clinical decision making skills of dental graduates was evaluated by real life patient encounters, using a modified and validated mini-CEX. Students' perceptions about the program were obtained by a pre-validated feedback questionnaire. Results: The faculty assessment scores of clinical judgment improved significantly after the use of this program. The majority of students felt it was an informative, useful, and innovative way of learning and they strongly felt that they had learnt the logical progression of planning, the insight into decision making, and the need for flexibility in treatment planning after using this program. Conclusion: CSTP software was well received by the students. There was significant improvement in students' clinical judgment after using this program. It should thus be envisaged fundamentally as an adjunct to conventional teaching techniques to improve students' decision making skills

  16. Impact of computer-based treatment planning software on clinical judgment of dental students for planning prosthodontic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Saee; Chahande, Jayashree

    2014-01-01

    Successful prosthodontic rehabilitation involves making many interrelated clinical decisions which have an impact on each other. Self-directed computer-based training has been shown to be a very useful tool to develop synthetic and analytical problem-solving skills among students. Thus, a computer-based case study and treatment planning (CSTP) software program was developed which would allow students to work through the process of comprehensive, multidisciplinary treatment planning for patients in a structured and logical manner. The present study was aimed at assessing the effect of this CSTP software on the clinical judgment of dental students while planning prosthodontic rehabilitation and to assess the students' perceptions about using the program for its intended use. A CSTP software program was developed and validated. The impact of this program on the clinical decision making skills of dental graduates was evaluated by real life patient encounters, using a modified and validated mini-CEX. Students' perceptions about the program were obtained by a pre-validated feedback questionnaire. The faculty assessment scores of clinical judgment improved significantly after the use of this program. The majority of students felt it was an informative, useful, and innovative way of learning and they strongly felt that they had learnt the logical progression of planning, the insight into decision making, and the need for flexibility in treatment planning after using this program. CSTP software was well received by the students. There was significant improvement in students' clinical judgment after using this program. It should thus be envisaged fundamentally as an adjunct to conventional teaching techniques to improve students' decision making skills and confidence.

  17. Design of Logistics Route Planning for Printing Enterprises Based on Baidu Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Zhong-Yue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As traditional printing industry is facing fierce competition in the market and logistics becomes a new sources of growth, the traditional printing enterprises want to build and improve their logistics system. So in this paper, the author has designed the logistics planning system based on the Baidu map development kit. It has the function of route planning and location tracking. This system meet the printing enterprise logistics route planning and tracking demand.

  18. Optimization of Investment Planning Based on Game-Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna Butsenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The game-theoretic approach has a vast potential in solving economic problems. On the other hand, the theory of games itself can be enriched by the studies of real problems of decision-making. Hence, this study is aimed at developing and testing the game-theoretic technique to optimize the management of investment planning. This technique enables to forecast the results and manage the processes of investment planning. The proposed method of optimizing the management of investment planning allows to choose the best development strategy of an enterprise. This technique uses the “game with nature” model, and the Wald criterion, the maximum criterion and the Hurwitz criterion as criteria. The article presents a new algorithm for constructing the proposed econometric method to optimize investment project management. This algorithm combines the methods of matrix games. Furthermore, I show the implementation of this technique in a block diagram. The algorithm includes the formation of initial data, the elements of the payment matrix, as well as the definition of maximin, maximal, compromise and optimal management strategies. The methodology is tested on the example of the passenger transportation enterprise of the Sverdlovsk Railway in Ekaterinburg. The application of the proposed methodology and the corresponding algorithm allowed to obtain an optimal price strategy for transporting passengers for one direction of traffic. This price strategy contributes to an increase in the company’s income with minimal risk from the launch of this direction. The obtained results and conclusions show the effectiveness of using the developed methodology for optimizing the management of investment processes in the enterprise. The results of the research can be used as a basis for the development of an appropriate tool and applied by any economic entity in its investment activities.

  19. Decision support for simulation-based operation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Johan; Hörling, Pontus

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we develop methods for analyzing large amounts of data from a military ground combat simulation system. Through a series of processes, we focus the big data set on situations that correspond to important questions and show advantageous outcomes. The result is a decision support methodology that provides commanders with results that answer specific questions of interest, such as what the consequences for the Blue side are in various Red scenarios or what a particular Blue force can withstand. This approach is a step toward taking the traditional data farming methodology from its analytical view into a prescriptive operation planning context and a decision making mode.

  20. Sampling Based Trajectory Planning for Robots in Dynamic Human Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Open-ended human environments, such as pedestrian streets, hospital corridors, train stations etc., are places where robots start to emerge. Hence, being able to plan safe and natural trajectories in these dynamic environments is an important skill for future generations of robots. In this work...... method for selecting the best trajectory in the RRT, according to the cost of traversing a potential field. Furthermore the RRT expansion is enhanced to direct the search and account for the kinodynamic robot constraints. A model predictive control (MPC) approach is taken to accommodate...

  1. Adaptive brachytherapy of cervical cancer, comparison of conventional point A and CT based individual treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderaas, Anne D.; Langdal, Ingrid; Danielsen, Signe; Frykholm, Gunilla; Marthinsen, Anne B. L; Sundset, Marit

    2012-01-01

    Background. Locally advanced cervical cancer is commonly treated with external radiation therapy combined with local brachytherapy. The brachytherapy is traditionally given based on standard dose planning with prescription of dose to point A. Dosimetric aspects when changing from former standard treatment to individualized treatment plans based on computed tomography (CT) images are here investigated. Material and methods. Brachytherapy data from 19 patients with a total of 72 individual treatment fractions were retrospectively reviewed. Standard library plans were analyzed with respect to doses to organs at risk (OARs), and the result was compared to corresponding delivered individualized plans. The theoretical potential of further optimization based on prescription to target volumes was investigated. The treatments were performed with a Fletcher applicator. Results. For standard treatment planning, the tolerance dose limits were exceeded in the bladder, rectum and sigmoid in 26%, 4% and 15% of the plans, respectively. This was observed most often for the smallest target volumes. The individualized planning of the delivered treatment gave the possibility of controlling the dose to critical organs to below certain limits. The dose was still prescribed to point A. An increase in target dose coverage was achieved when additional individual optimization was performed, while still keeping the dose to the OARs below predefined limits. Relatively low average target coverage, especially for the largest volumes was however seen. Conclusion. The individualized delivered treatment plans ensured that doses to OARs were within acceptable limits. This was not the case in 42% of the corresponding standard plans. Further optimized treatment plans were found to give an overall better dose coverage. In lack of MR capacity, it may be favorable to use CT for planning due to possible protection of OARs. The CT based target volumes were, however, not equivalent to the volumes described

  2. Threshold-driven optimization for reference-based auto-planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Troy; Chen, Mingli; Jiang, Steve; Lu, Weiguo

    2018-02-01

    We study threshold-driven optimization methodology for automatically generating a treatment plan that is motivated by a reference DVH for IMRT treatment planning. We present a framework for threshold-driven optimization for reference-based auto-planning (TORA). Commonly used voxel-based quadratic penalties have two components for penalizing under- and over-dosing of voxels: a reference dose threshold and associated penalty weight. Conventional manual- and auto-planning using such a function involves iteratively updating the preference weights while keeping the thresholds constant, an unintuitive and often inconsistent method for planning toward some reference DVH. However, driving a dose distribution by threshold values instead of preference weights can achieve similar plans with less computational effort. The proposed methodology spatially assigns reference DVH information to threshold values, and iteratively improves the quality of that assignment. The methodology effectively handles both sub-optimal and infeasible DVHs. TORA was applied to a prostate case and a liver case as a proof-of-concept. Reference DVHs were generated using a conventional voxel-based objective, then altered to be either infeasible or easy-to-achieve. TORA was able to closely recreate reference DVHs in 5-15 iterations of solving a simple convex sub-problem. TORA has the potential to be effective for auto-planning based on reference DVHs. As dose prediction and knowledge-based planning becomes more prevalent in the clinical setting, incorporating such data into the treatment planning model in a clear, efficient way will be crucial for automated planning. A threshold-focused objective tuning should be explored over conventional methods of updating preference weights for DVH-guided treatment planning.

  3. Integrated Coastal Zone Planning Based on Environment Carrying Capacity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miharja, M.; Arsallia, S.

    2017-07-01

    Coastal zone is a crucial area in terms of planning development. It holds high economic value, which affect to increasing number of inhabitants living in the area. As a result, this condition influences environmental degradation. Thus, in every attempt towards coastal zone development, it is crucial to always refer to environment carrying capacity. Carrying capacity is the limit of a certain coastal zone capability to support all human created activities, in which all ecological performances are maintained at sustainable level. The failure to establish strong and clear method and regulation on carrying capacity analysis will lead to a very risky coastal zone development, which in turn would threat the area’s sustainability. This paper discusses method for analysing carrying capacity of coastal zone as important input for the area development plan. Two key parameters, i.e. land and clean water carrying capacities are discussed to form carrying capacity analytical method. Furthermore, an empirical data of Ambon Bay, Moluccas Province, is used to illustrate the operationalization of the method.

  4. Backwards State-space Reduction for Planning in Dynamic Knowledge Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Senni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the problem of planning in rich domains, where knowledge representation is a key aspect for managing the complexity and size of the planning domain. We follow the approach of Description Logic (DL based Dynamic Knowledge Bases, where a state of the world is represented concisely by a (possibly changing ABox and a (fixed TBox containing the axioms, and actions that allow to change the content of the ABox. The plan goal is given in terms of satisfaction of a DL query. In this paper we start from a traditional forward planning algorithm and we propose a much more efficient variant by combining backward and forward search. In particular, we propose a Backward State-space Reduction technique that consists in two phases: first, an Abstract Planning Graph P is created by using the Abstract Backward Planning Algorithm (ABP, then the abstract planning graph P is instantiated into a corresponding planning graph P by using the Forward Plan Instantiation Algorithm (FPI. The advantage is that in the preliminary ABP phase we produce a symbolic plan that is a pattern to direct the search of the concrete plan. This can be seen as a kind of informed search where the preliminary backward phase is useful to discover properties of the state-space that can be used to direct the subsequent forward phase. We evaluate the effectiveness of our ABP+FPI algorithm in the reduction of the explored planning domain by comparing it to a standard forward planning algorithm and applying both of them to a concrete business case study.

  5. A Greedy Search Algorithm for Maneuver-Based Motion Planning of Agile Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Neas, Charles Bennett

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents a greedy search algorithm for maneuver-based motion planning of agile vehicles. In maneuver-based motion planning, vehicle maneuvers are solved offline and saved in a library to be used during motion planning. From this library, a tree of possible vehicle states can be generated through the search space. A depth-first, library-based algorithm called AD-Lib is developed and used to quickly provide feasible trajectories along the tree. AD-Lib combines greedy search tech...

  6. Learning Outcomes in Vocational Education: A Business Plan Development by Production-Based Learning Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningrum, Indrati; Hidayat, Hendra; Ganefri; Anori, Sartika; Dewy, Mega Silfia

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development of a business plan by using production-based learning approach. In addition, this development also aims to maximize learning outcomes in vocational education. Preliminary analysis of curriculum and learning and the needs of the market and society become the basic for business plan development. To produce a…

  7. Optimization-based decision support systems for planning problems in processing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, G.D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Optimization-based decision support systems for planning problems in processing industries Nowadays, efficient planning of material flows within and between supply chains is of vital importance and has become one of the most challenging problems for decision support in practice. The

  8. Optimization-based decision support systems for planning problems in processing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, G.D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary

    Optimization-based decision support systems for planning problems in processing industries

    Nowadays, efficient planning of material flows within and between supply chains is of vital importance and has become one of the most challenging problems for decision support in

  9. A Peer-Based Financial Planning & Education Service Program: An Innovative Pedagogic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Joseph W.; Durband, Dorothy B.; Halley, Ryan E.; Davis, Kimberlee

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a peer-based financial planning and education program as a strategy to address the lack of financial literacy among college students and provide an experiential learning opportunity for students majoring in financial planning or other financial services-related disciplines. Benefits of such programs to campus communities are…

  10. Review of performance-based incentives in community-based family planning programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Nicole M; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    One strategy for improving family planning (FP) uptake at the community level is the use of performance-based incentives (PBIs), which offer community distributors financial incentives to recruit more users of FP. This article examines the use of PBIs in community-based FP programmes via a literature search of the peer-reviewed and grey literature conducted in April 2013. A total of 28 community-based FP programmes in 21 countries were identified as having used PBIs. The most common approach was a sales commission model where distributors received commission for FP products sold, while a referral payment model for long-term methods was also used extensively. Six evaluations were identified that specifically examined the impact of the PBI in community-based FP programmes. Overall, the results of the evaluations are mixed and more research is needed; however, the findings suggest that easy-to-understand PBIs can be successful in increasing the use of FP at the community level. For future use of PBIs in community-based FP programmes it is important to consider the ethics of incentivising FP and ensuring that PBIs are non-coercive and choice-enhancing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Enabling Proactivity in Context-aware Middleware Systems by means of a Planning Framework based on HTN Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Bhargava

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today’s context-aware systems tend to be reactive or ‘pull’ based - the user requests or queries for some information and the system responds with the requested information. However, none of the systems anticipate the user’s intent and behavior, or take into account his current events and activities to pro-actively ‘push’ relevant information to the user. On the other hand, Proactive context-aware systems can predict and anticipate user intent and behavior, and act proactively on the users’ behalf without explicit requests from them. Two fundamental capabilities of such systems are: prediction and autonomy. In this paper, we address the second capability required by a context-aware system to act proactively i.e. acting autonomously without an explicit user request. To address it, we present a new paradigm for enabling proactivity in context-aware middleware systems by means of a Planning Framework based on HTN planning. We present the design of a Planning Framework within the infrastructure of our intelligent context-aware middleware called Rover II. We also implement this framework and evaluate its utility with several use cases. We also highlight the benefits of using such a framework in dynamic ubiquitous systems.

  12. Automation of brachytherapy planning based on RADPLAN system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Helder Rodrigues da; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2000-01-01

    RADPLAN is a software to automate the clinical planning of doses in brachytherapy managing the radionuclide source position and time. It intends to be a important tools to assist cancer treatment in the radiotherapy services. It evaluates the tridimensional isodoses for a set of radioactive sources implanted on tissue or placed inside a body cavity. RADPLAN allows visualization of virtual frames in which isodose curves overlap medical images produced in computerized tomography), X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance equipment. In this work, the software function is explained and a hypothetic case of medical information management is presented, specifically illustrations of isodoses curves obtained for a spatial distribution of Ir 192 wires implanted in a breast. (author)

  13. a New Master Plan for Harran University Based on Geodesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, F. B.; Erdoğan, S.; Yılmaz, M.; Ulukavak, M.; Şenol, H. İ.; Memduhoğlu, A.

    2017-11-01

    Harran hosted the historical Harran University, which is considered to be the oldest university of the world. The Department of Geomatics of the modern Harran University has been charged with the design of a new master plan using Geodesign technology. Carl Steinitz developed a complete framework for doing Geodesign as applied to regional landscape studies. In this project "Geodesign Hub", an online software for collaborative Geodesign, has been selected as the main tool. According to the Geodesign concept, data collection had to be limited to support the evaluation of the ten selected systems. The deployment of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) has been necessary in order to collect data with the required accuracy for such a vast area. Currently, works on the third model of the Geodesign framework are continuing.

  14. A NEW MASTER PLAN FOR HARRAN UNIVERSITY BASED ON GEODESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. B. Ernst

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Harran hosted the historical Harran University, which is considered to be the oldest university of the world. The Department of Geomatics of the modern Harran University has been charged with the design of a new master plan using Geodesign technology. Carl Steinitz developed a complete framework for doing Geodesign as applied to regional landscape studies. In this project “Geodesign Hub”, an online software for collaborative Geodesign, has been selected as the main tool. According to the Geodesign concept, data collection had to be limited to support the evaluation of the ten selected systems. The deployment of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS has been necessary in order to collect data with the required accuracy for such a vast area. Currently, works on the third model of the Geodesign framework are continuing.

  15. Peterson Air Force Base Transportation Plan Final Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ROG Reactive Organic Gases RPZ Runway Protection Zone SE State Endangered SIP State Implementation Plan SO2 Sulfur Dioxide SOX Sulfur Oxides...Page 3-6 Table 3-3 Emission Factors for Combustion Sources* CO NOx PM10 PM2.5 SOx ROG Grader 0.57 1.62 0.08 0.08 0.28 0.15 Loader 0.42 0.86 0.09...0.89 0.07 0.06 0.17 0.12 Excavator 1.30 4.60 0.32 0.31 0.74 0.34 *units are pounds per hour (lbs/hr) Source: USEPA, 1995. ROG - Reactive Organic

  16. Model Checking Artificial Intelligence Based Planners: Even the Best Laid Plans Must Be Verified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Margaret H.; Holzmann, Gerard J.; Cucullu, Gordon C., III; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2005-01-01

    Automated planning systems (APS) are gaining acceptance for use on NASA missions as evidenced by APS flown On missions such as Orbiter and Deep Space 1 both of which were commanded by onboard planning systems. The planning system takes high level goals and expands them onboard into a detailed of action fiat the spacecraft executes. The system must be verified to ensure that the automatically generated plans achieve the goals as expected and do not generate actions that would harm the spacecraft or mission. These systems are typically tested using empirical methods. Formal methods, such as model checking, offer exhaustive or measurable test coverage which leads to much greater confidence in correctness. This paper describes a formal method based on the SPIN model checker. This method guarantees that possible plans meet certain desirable properties. We express the input model in Promela, the language of SPIN and express the properties of desirable plans formally.

  17. Limits to Ecological-based Planning in Zimbabwe. The Case of Harare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archimedes Muzenda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the feasibility of adopting ecological based planning in low-income residential development. It explicates that in developing countries efforts by housing authorities have been on housing provision irrespective of the environmental threats to sustainability. As these houses are built, future of urban ecology is under threat. The questions regarding this phenomenon are several: how do low-income populations perceive environmental issues of urban settlements? How capable and willing are the local authorities to embrace and apply ecological based planning in residential development? What are the facilitating instruments of ecological-based planning? What are the prospects of integrating ecological based planning to low-income residential development? What are the restraining factors towards embracement of ecological based planning and how best can they be harnessed towards future ecological cities? The case study of Hatcliffe residential area in Harare shows that there are many challenges to overcome uncoordinated planning approaches, ineffective policies and legislative frameworks, weak institutional settings, financial constraints, outdated planning standards and regulations, poverty, lack of environmental stewardship and lack of political will among others. The study findings call for robust environmental conservation strategies, strong environmental stewardship, responsive institutional and funding mechanism backed by realistic legislative frameworks and robust policy rectification.

  18. Utilization of Tabu search heuristic rules in sampling-based motion planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaksar, Weria; Hong, Tang Sai; Sahari, Khairul Salleh Mohamed; Khaksar, Mansoor

    2015-05-01

    Path planning in unknown environments is one of the most challenging research areas in robotics. In this class of path planning, the robot acquires the information from its sensory system. Sampling-based path planning is one of the famous approaches with low memory and computational requirements that has been studied by many researchers during the past few decades. We propose a sampling-based algorithm for path planning in unknown environments using Tabu search. The Tabu search component of the proposed method guides the sampling to find the samples in the most promising areas and makes the sampling procedure more intelligent. The simulation results show the efficient performance of the proposed approach in different types of environments. We also compare the performance of the algorithm with some of the well-known path planning approaches, including Bug1, Bug2, PRM, RRT and the Visibility Graph. The comparison results support the claim of superiority of the proposed algorithm.

  19. Pattern-based information portal for business plan co-creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Bontchev, Boyan; Ruskov, Petko

    2010-01-01

    Creation of business plans helps entrepreneurs in managing identification of business opportunities and committing necessary resources for process evolution. Applying patterns in business plan creation facilitates the identification of effective solutions that were adopted in the past and may...... provide a basis for adopting similar solutions in the future within given business context. The article presents the system design of an information portal for business plan cocreation based on patterns. The portal is going to provide start-up and entrepreneurs with ready-to-modify business plan patterns...... in order to help them in development of effective and efficient business plans. It will facilitate entrepreneurs in co-experimenting and co-learning more frequently and faster. Moreover, the paper focuses on the software architecture of the pattern based portal and explains the functionality of its modules...

  20. Planning and management support for NPP personnel SAT-based training programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziakova, M.

    1998-01-01

    Planning and management support for NPP personnel SAT-based training programmes is described for the following job positions: reactor operator; turbine operator; reactor maintenance worker; pump maintenance worker; chemistry foreman; health physics foreman; electric maintenance worker

  1. The effect of education based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Barfi

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: According to the results, Education based on the theory of planned behavior has a positive impact on smoking behavior, Therefore, it is recommended that the above educational model is used to modify the behavior of smokers.

  2. Initial Remedial Action Plan for Expanded Bioventing System BX Service Station, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    This initial remedial action plan presents the scope for an expanded bioventing system for in situ treatment of fuel-contaminated soils at the BX Service Station at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB), Florida...

  3. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems (IVBSS) : light vehicle platform field operational test data analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-22

    This document presents the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institutes plan to : perform analysis of data collected from the light vehicle platform field operational test of the : Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) progr...

  4. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems (IVBSS) : heavy truck platform field operational test data analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-23

    This document presents the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institutes plan to perform : analysis of data collected from the heavy truck platform field operational test of the Integrated Vehicle- : Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) progra...

  5. Accessibility-Based Transportation Planning : Literature and Applications for Shrinking Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    For 15 years, scholars have claimed that accessibility-based transportation planning was at the brink of becoming a new paradigm, and yet this hope remains unrealized. Its implementation may lag due to vague definitions when compared to mobility, or ...

  6. Planning and management support for NPP personnel SAT-based training programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziakova, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with planning and management support for NPP personnel SAT based training programmes based on IAEA TC Project SLR/0/003 on upgrading NPP personnel training, with the aim of upgrading NPP safety and reliability of NPP operation and maintenance. The costs needed include both Slovak and IAEA sources. Five stages of the Project are defined: planning; organizing; motivating; implementation; control, review and accountability

  7. Planning a World Wide Web based design computer system supporting a collaborative design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    1996-01-01

    An early planning of a WWW-based CAD-system is the major of this publication. Different approaches are discussed and the final "solution" for the system is described in a general way.......An early planning of a WWW-based CAD-system is the major of this publication. Different approaches are discussed and the final "solution" for the system is described in a general way....

  8. Data-based control trajectory planning for nonlinear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, C.; Morari, M.; Tsimring, L.S.; Rulkov, N.F.

    1997-01-01

    An open-loop trajectory planning algorithm is presented for computing an input sequence that drives an input-output system such that a reference trajectory is tracked. The algorithm utilizes only input-output data from the system to determine the proper control sequence, and does not require a mathematical or identified description of the system dynamics. From the input-output data, the controlled input trajectory is calculated in a open-quotes one-step-aheadclose quotes fashion using local modeling. Since the algorithm is calculated in this fashion, the output trajectories to be tracked can be nonperiodic. The algorithm is applied to a driven Lorenz system, and an experimental electrical circuit and the results are analyzed. Issues of stability associated with the implementation of this open-loop scheme are also examined using an analytic example of a driven Hacute enon map, problems associated with inverse controllers are illustrated, and solutions to these problems are proposed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. Business intelligence and capacity planning: web-based solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Roger

    2010-07-01

    Income (activity) and expenditure (costs) form the basis of a modern hospital's 'business intelligence'. However, clinical engagement in business intelligence is patchy. This article describes the principles of business intelligence and outlines some recent developments using web-based applications.

  10. Cost Optimal Reliability Based Inspection and Replacement Planning of Piping Subjected to CO2 Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellevik, S. G.; Langen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1999-01-01

    within the framework of Bayesian decision theory. The planning problem is formulated as an optimization problem where the expected lifetime costs are minimized with a constraint on the minimum acceptable reliability level. The optimization parameters are the number of inspections in the expected lifetime......A methodology for cost optimal reliability based inspection and replacement planning of piping subjected to CO2 corrosion is described. Both initial (design phase) and in-service planning are dealt with. The methodology is based on the application of methods for structural reliability analysis...

  11. Is it possible for knowledge-based planning to improve intensity modulated radiation therapy plan quality for planners with different planning experiences in left-sided breast cancer patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juanqi; Hu, Weigang; Yang, Zhaozhi; Chen, Xiaohui; Wu, Zhiqiang; Yu, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaomao; Lu, Saiquan; Li, Kaixuan; Yu, Gongyi

    2017-05-22

    Knowledge-based planning (KBP) is a promising technique that can improve plan quality and increase planning efficiency. However, no attempts have been made to extend the domain of KBP for planners with different planning experiences so far. The purpose of this study was to quantify the potential gains for planners with different planning experiences after implementing KBP in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for left-sided breast cancer patients. The model libraries were populated with 80 expert clinical plans from treated patients who previously received left-sided breast-conserving surgery and IMRT with simultaneously integrated boost. The libraries were created on the RapidPlan TM . 6 planners with different planning experiences (2 beginner planners, 2 junior planners and 2 senior planners) generated manual and KBP optimized plans for additional 10 patients, similar to those included in the model libraries. The plan qualities were compared between manual and KBP plans. All plans were capable of achieving the prescription requirement. There were almost no statistically significant differences in terms of the planning target volume (PTV) coverage and dose conformality. It was demonstrated that the doses for most of organs-at-risk (OARs) were on average lower or equal in KBP plans compared to manual plans except for the senior planners, where the very small differences were not statistically significant. KBP data showed a systematic trend to have superior dose sparing at most parameters for the heart and ipsilateral lung. The observed decrease in the doses to these OARs could be achieved, particularly for the beginner and junior planners. Many differences were statistically significant. It is feasible to generate acceptable IMRT plans after implementing KBP for left-sided breast cancer. KBP helps to effectively improve the quality of IMRT plans against the benchmark of manual plans for less experienced planners without any manual intervention. KBP

  12. A study on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based radiation treatment planning of intracranial lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanescu, T.; Jans, H.-S.; Pervez, N.; Stavrev, P.; Fallone, B. G.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based treatment planning procedure for intracranial lesions. The method relies on (a) distortion correction of raw magnetic resonance (MR) images by using an adaptive thresholding and iterative technique, (b) autosegmentation of head structures relevant to dosimetric calculations (scalp, bone and brain) using an atlas-based software and (c) conversion of MR images into computed tomography (CT)-like images by assigning bulk CT values to organ contours and dose calculations performed in Eclipse (Philips Medical Systems). Standard CT + MRI-based and MRI-only plans were compared by means of isodose distributions, dose volume histograms and several dosimetric parameters. The plans were also ranked by using a tumor control probability (TCP)-based technique for heterogeneous irradiation, which is independent of radiobiological parameters. For our 3 T Intera MRI scanner (Philips Medical Systems), we determined that the total maximum image distortion corresponding to a typical brain study was about 4 mm. The CT + MRI and MRI-only plans were found to be in good agreement for all patients investigated. Following our clinical criteria, the TCP-based ranking tool shows no significant difference between the two types of plans. This indicates that the proposed MRI-based treatment planning procedure is suitable for the radiotherapy of intracranial lesions.

  13. A dose-volume-based tool for evaluating and ranking IMRT treatment plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miften, Moyed M; Das, Shiva K; Su, Min; Marks, Lawrence B

    2004-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy is commonly used for patients with cancer. While tumor shrinkage and palliation are frequently achieved, local control and cure remain elusive for many cancers. With regard to local control, the fundamental problem is that radiotherapy-induced normal tissue injury limits the dose that can be delivered to the tumor. While intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows for the delivery of higher tumor doses and the sparing of proximal critical structures, multiple competing plans can be generated based on dosimetric and/or biological constraints that need to be considered/compared. In this work, an IMRT treatment plan evaluation and ranking tool, based on dosimetric criteria, is presented. The treatment plan with the highest uncomplicated target conformity index (TCI+) is ranked at the top. The TCI+ is a dose-volume-based index that considers both a target conformity index (TCI) and a normal tissue-sparing index (NTSI). TCI+ is designed to assist in the process of judging the merit of a clinical treatment plan. To demonstrate the utility of this tool, several competing lung and prostate IMRT treatment plans are compared. Results show that the plan with the highest TCI+ values accomplished the competing goals of tumor coverage and critical structures sparing best, among rival treatment plans for both treatment sites. The study demonstrates, first, that dose-volume-based indices, which summarize complex dose distributions through a single index, can be used to automatically select the optimal plan among competing plans, and second, that this dose-volume-based index may be appropriate for ranking IMRT dose distributions.

  14. A dose‐volume‐based tool for evaluating and ranking IMRT treatment plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miften, Moyed M.; Das, Shiva K.; Su, Min; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2004-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy is commonly used for patients with cancer. While tumor shrinkage and palliation are frequently achieved, local control and cure remain elusive for many cancers. With regard to local control, the fundamental problem is that radiotherapy‐induced normal tissue injury limits the dose that can be delivered to the tumor. While intensity‐modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows for the delivery of higher tumor doses and the sparing of proximal critical structures, multiple competing plans can be generated based on dosimetric and/or biological constraints that need to be considered/compared. In this work, an IMRT treatment plan evaluation and ranking tool, based on dosimetric criteria, is presented. The treatment plan with the highest uncomplicated target conformity index (TCI+) is ranked at the top. The TCI+ is a dose‐volume‐based index that considers both a target conformity index (TCI) and a normal tissue‐sparing index (NTSI). TCI+ is designed to assist in the process of judging the merit of a clinical treatment plan. To demonstrate the utility of this tool, several competing lung and prostate IMRT treatment plans are compared. Results show that the plan with the highest TCI+ values accomplished the competing goals of tumor coverage and critical structures sparing best, among rival treatment plans for both treatment sites. The study demonstrates, first, that dose‐volume‐based indices, which summarize complex dose distributions through a single index, can be used to automatically select the optimal plan among competing plans, and second, that this dose‐volume‐based index may be appropriate for ranking IMRT dose distributions. PACS numbers: 87.53.‐j, 87.53.Tf PMID:15738916

  15. 77 FR 73313 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; The 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... (i.e., point, area, nonroad mobile and on-road mobile). The 2002 emissions inventory was based on... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; The 2002 Base Year Inventory for the Baltimore, MD... approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the State of...

  16. 77 FR 26441 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Charlotte; Ozone 2002 Base...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Charlotte; Ozone 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory... final action to approve the ozone 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the state implementation... Air Act (CAA or Act). EPA will take action on the South Carolina submission for the ozone 2002 base...

  17. 77 FR 45304 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; The 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; The 2002 Base Year Inventory AGENCY: Environmental... particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the Virginia State Implementation... base year PM 2.5 emissions inventory in accordance with the requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA...

  18. Area-based initiatives - Engines of planning and policy innovation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Norvig Larsen, Jacob

    a broader perspective on the achievements and outcomes of place-based initiatives. Many of these have functioned as important experimental seedbeds in which innovations in urban policy and organization of public decision-making have been tested. The papers seeks to clarify whether, in the long run, change......Area-based initiatives addressing issues of physical degradation, social exclusion, economic deprivation and lack of cohesion in urban regeneration areas have been promoted widely across Europe in the past two or three decades. Following this many evaluation studies have been completed....... Nevertheless, there is still considerable uncertainty as to the most important outcomes of place-based initiatives. Evaluations have mostly focussed on direct quantitative socio-economic indicators. These have often been quite insignificant, while other effects have been largely neglected. This paper proposes...

  19. On Intelligent Design and Planning Method of Process Route Based on Gun Breech Machining Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongzhi, Zhao; Jian, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    The paper states an approach of intelligent design and planning of process route based on gun breech machining process, against several problems, such as complex machining process of gun breech, tedious route design and long period of its traditional unmanageable process route. Based on gun breech machining process, intelligent design and planning system of process route are developed by virtue of DEST and VC++. The system includes two functional modules--process route intelligent design and its planning. The process route intelligent design module, through the analysis of gun breech machining process, summarizes breech process knowledge so as to complete the design of knowledge base and inference engine. And then gun breech process route intelligently output. On the basis of intelligent route design module, the final process route is made, edited and managed in the process route planning module.

  20. Reliability-Based Inspection Planning for Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1993-01-01

    A general model for reliability-based optimal inspection and repair strategies for structural systems is described. The total expected costs in the design lifetime is minimized with the number of inspections, the inspection times and efforts as decision variables. The equivalence of this model wi...

  1. Planning Civilian Reuse of Former Military Base. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    366-2323 Columbus. Indiana 1970 318 491 Cummins Engine. Indiana University. 1.878(C) Wendell Ross . Manager. Columbus Bakalar Air Force rtase 1972 (61...must not be stuck after head is down to snug contact with the rail base. Care must be taken not to overdrive and rail Other Details must not be gaged

  2. Building a culture of evidence-based planning in Nigeria

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    making them more manageable, trans- parent, and science-based. In light of. Nigeria's decentralized health system, it integrates knowledge from communities and multiple levels of government to enhance the information .... knowledge are being institutionalized. Actively involved throughout, state and local governments in ...

  3. Planning for emergency services using GIS-based geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case study presents and applies a methodology to determine the locations of additional fire stations, using accessibility analysis rather than incident data which is often incomplete or unavailable. The required response time is based on the SANS 10090:2003 standard for various risks. The case study recommends that ...

  4. Constraint-based local search for container stowage slot planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacino, Dario; Jensen, Rune Møller; Bebbington, Tom

    2012-01-01

    -sea vessels. This paper describes the constrained-based local search algorithm used in the second phase of this approach where individual containers are assigned to slots in each bay section. The algorithm can solve this problem in an average of 0.18 seconds per bay, corresponding to a 20 seconds runtime...

  5. SU-G-TeP4-14: Quality Control of Treatment Planning Using Knowledge-Based Planning Across a System of Radiation Oncology Practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masi, K; Ditman, M; Marsh, R; Archer, P; Matuszak, M; Dai, J; Huberts, M; Khadija, M; Tatro, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There is potentially a wide variation in plan quality for a certain disease site, even for clinics located in the same system of hospitals. We have used a prostate-specific knowledge-based planning (KBP) model as a quality control tool to investigate the variation in prostate treatment planning across a network of affiliated radiation oncology departments. Methods: A previously created KBP model was applied to 10 patients each from 4 community-based clinics (Clinics A, B, C, and D). The KBP model was developed using RapidPlan (Eclipse v13.5, Varian Medical Systems) from 60 prostate/prostate bed IMRT plans that were originally planned using an in-house treatment planning system at the central institution of the community-based clinics. The dosimetric plan quality (target coverage and normal-tissue sparing) of each model-generated plan was compared to the respective clinically-used plan. Each community-based clinic utilized the same planning goals to develop the clinically-used plans that were used at the main institution. Results: Across all 4 clinics, the model-generated plans decreased the mean dose to the rectum by varying amounts (on average, 12.5, 2.6, 4.5, and 2.7 Gy for Clinics A, B, C, and D, respectively). The mean dose to the bladder also decreased with the model-generated plans (5.4, 2.3, 3.0, and 4.1 Gy, respectively). The KBP model also identified that target coverage (D95%) improvements were possible for for Clinics A, B, and D (0.12, 1.65, and 2.75%) while target coverage decreased by 0.72% for Clinic C, demonstrating potentially different trade-offs made in clinical plans at different institutions. Conclusion: Quality control of dosimetric plan quality across a system of radiation oncology practices is possible with knowledge-based planning. By using a quality KBP model, smaller community-based clinics can potentially identify the areas of their treatment plans that may be improved, whether it be in normal-tissue sparing or improved target

  6. A gEUD-based inverse planning technique for HDR prostate brachytherapy: Feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giantsoudi, D. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Baltas, D. [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Strahlenklinik, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, 63069 Offenbach (Germany); Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, 15701 Athens (Greece); Karabis, A. [Pi-Medical Ltd., Athens 10676 (Greece); Mavroidis, P. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas 78299 and Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, 17176 (Sweden); Zamboglou, N.; Tselis, N. [Strahlenklinik, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, 63069 Offenbach (Germany); Shi, C. [St. Vincent' s Medical Center, 2800 Main Street, Bridgeport, Connecticut 06606 (United States); Papanikolaou, N. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas 78299 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to study the feasibility of a new inverse planning technique based on the generalized equivalent uniform dose for image-guided high dose rate (HDR) prostate cancer brachytherapy in comparison to conventional dose-volume based optimization. Methods: The quality of 12 clinical HDR brachytherapy implants for prostate utilizing HIPO (Hybrid Inverse Planning Optimization) is compared with alternative plans, which were produced through inverse planning using the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD). All the common dose-volume indices for the prostate and the organs at risk were considered together with radiobiological measures. The clinical effectiveness of the different dose distributions was investigated by comparing dose volume histogram and gEUD evaluators. Results: Our results demonstrate the feasibility of gEUD-based inverse planning in HDR brachytherapy implants for prostate. A statistically significant decrease in D{sub 10} or/and final gEUD values for the organs at risk (urethra, bladder, and rectum) was found while improving dose homogeneity or dose conformity of the target volume. Conclusions: Following the promising results of gEUD-based optimization in intensity modulated radiation therapy treatment optimization, as reported in the literature, the implementation of a similar model in HDR brachytherapy treatment plan optimization is suggested by this study. The potential of improved sparing of organs at risk was shown for various gEUD-based optimization parameter protocols, which indicates the ability of this method to adapt to the user's preferences.

  7. A planning quality evaluation tool for prostate adaptive IMRT based on machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xiaofeng; Ge Yaorong; Li Taoran; Thongphiew, Danthai; Yin Fangfang; Wu, Q Jackie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure plan quality for adaptive IMRT of the prostate, we developed a quantitative evaluation tool using a machine learning approach. This tool generates dose volume histograms (DVHs) of organs-at-risk (OARs) based on prior plans as a reference, to be compared with the adaptive plan derived from fluence map deformation. Methods: Under the same configuration using seven-field 15 MV photon beams, DVHs of OARs (bladder and rectum) were estimated based on anatomical information of the patient and a model learned from a database of high quality prior plans. In this study, the anatomical information was characterized by the organ volumes and distance-to-target histogram (DTH). The database consists of 198 high quality prostate plans and was validated with 14 cases outside the training pool. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to DVHs and DTHs to quantify their salient features. Then, support vector regression (SVR) was implemented to establish the correlation between the features of the DVH and the anatomical information. Results: DVH/DTH curves could be characterized sufficiently just using only two or three truncated principal components, thus, patient anatomical information was quantified with reduced numbers of variables. The evaluation of the model using the test data set demonstrated its accuracy ∼80% in prediction and effectiveness in improving ART planning quality. Conclusions: An adaptive IMRT plan quality evaluation tool based on machine learning has been developed, which estimates OAR sparing and provides reference in evaluating ART.

  8. TU-EF-304-08: LET-Based Inverse Planning for IMPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorissen, BL; Giantsoudi, D; Unkelbach, J; Paganetti, H [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Cell survival experiments suggest that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of proton beams depends on linear energy transfer (LET), leading to higher RBE near the end of range. With intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), multiple treatment plans that differ in the dose contribution per field may yield a similar physical dose distribution, but the RBE-weighted dose distribution may be disparate. RBE models currently do not have the required predictive power to be included in an optimization model due to the variations in experimental data. We propose an LET-based planning method that guides IMPT optimization models towards plans with reduced RBE-weighted dose in surrounding organs at risk (OARs) compared to inverse planning based on physical dose alone. Methods: Optimization models for physical dose are extended with a term for dose times LET (doseLET). Monte Carlo code is used to generate the physical dose and doseLET distribution of each individual pencil beam. The method is demonstrated for an atypical meningioma patient where the target volume abuts the brainstem and partially overlaps with the optic nerve. Results: A reference plan optimized based on physical dose alone yields high doseLET values in parts of the brainstem and optic nerve. Minimizing doseLET in these critical structures as an additional planning goal reduces the risk of high RBE-weighted dose. The resulting treatment plan avoids the distal fall-off of the Bragg peaks for shaping the dose distribution in front of critical stuctures. The maximum dose in the OARs evaluated with RBE models from literature is reduced by 8–14\\% with our method compared to conventional planning. Conclusion: LET-based inverse planning for IMPT offers the ability to reduce the RBE-weighted dose in OARs without sacrificing target dose. This project was in part supported by NCI - U19 CA 21239.

  9. The use and usefulness of inventory-based management planning to forest management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Maja Nastasia Juul; Adeyeye, Yemi; Lund, Jens Friis

    2015-01-01

    -structured interviews, participatory rural appraisal exercises and analyses of aerial photographs. First, we find that the operational plans supposed to guide community-level management are based on sub-standard forest inventories, which limits their potential role in practical forest management. Second, we find...... of their forests in the sense that their impressions of past and current forest condition are mirrored in what we can observe from analysis of change in forest condition based on aerial photographs. Based on these results we question the usefulness of inventory-based management planning in the context of community...

  10. Validation of Fully Automated VMAT Plan Generation for Library-Based Plan-of-the-Day Cervical Cancer Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharfo, Abdul Wahab M; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Voet, Peter W J; Heijkoop, Sabrina T; Mens, Jan-Willem M; Hoogeman, Mischa S; Heijmen, Ben J M

    2016-01-01

    To develop and validate fully automated generation of VMAT plan-libraries for plan-of-the-day adaptive radiotherapy in locally-advanced cervical cancer. Our framework for fully automated treatment plan generation (Erasmus-iCycle) was adapted to create dual-arc VMAT treatment plan libraries for cervical cancer patients. For each of 34 patients, automatically generated VMAT plans (autoVMAT) were compared to manually generated, clinically delivered 9-beam IMRT plans (CLINICAL), and to dual-arc VMAT plans generated manually by an expert planner (manVMAT). Furthermore, all plans were benchmarked against 20-beam equi-angular IMRT plans (autoIMRT). For all plans, a PTV coverage of 99.5% by at least 95% of the prescribed dose (46 Gy) had the highest planning priority, followed by minimization of V45Gy for small bowel (SB). Other OARs considered were bladder, rectum, and sigmoid. All plans had a highly similar PTV coverage, within the clinical constraints (above). After plan normalizations for exactly equal median PTV doses in corresponding plans, all evaluated OAR parameters in autoVMAT plans were on average lower than in the CLINICAL plans with an average reduction in SB V45Gy of 34.6% (plibraries has become feasible.

  11. Environmental Assessment Proposed Demolition Plan Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Administrative Code UDAQ Utah Department of Air Quality UDEQ Utah Department of Environmental Quality UPDES Utah Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...storm water is discharged into a collection point then drained off base. Hill AFB does not have a Utah Pollutant Discharge Elimination System ( UPDES ...to accept friable asbestos. Loose flakes of LBP (confirmed to contain lead by on-site inspections using a portable X -ray fluorescence analyzer

  12. A hybrid bit-encoding for SAT planning based on clique-partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Cristóbal; San Segundo, Pablo; Galán, Ramón

    2017-09-01

    Planning as satisfiability is one of the most efficient ways to solve classic automated planning problems. In SAT planning, the encoding used to convert the problem to a SAT formula is critical for the performance of the SAT solver. This paper presents a novel bit-encoding that reduces the number of bits required to represent actions in a SAT-based automated planning problem. To obtain such encoding we first build a conflict graph, which represents incompatibilities of pairs of actions, and bitwise encode the subsets of actions determined by a clique partition. This reduces the number of Boolean variables and clauses of the SAT encoding, while preserving the possibility of parallel execution of compatible (non-neighbor) actions. The article also describes an appropriate algorithm for selecting the clique partition for this application and compares the new encodings obtained over some standard planning problems.

  13. Personalized Location-Based Recommendation Services for Tour Planning in Mobile Tourism Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chien-Chih; Chang, Hsiao-Ping

    Travel and tour planning is a process of searching, selecting, grouping and sequencing destination related products and services including attractions, accommodations, restaurants, and activities. Personalized recommendation services aim at suggesting products and services to meet users’ preferences and needs, while location-based services focus on providing information based on users’ current positions. Due to the fast growing of user needs in the mobile tourism domain, how to provide personalized location-based tour recommendation services becomes a critical research and practical issue. The objective of this paper is to propose a system architecture and design methods for facilitating the delivery of location-based recommendation services to support personalized tour planning. Based on tourists’ current location and time, as well as personal preferences and needs, various recommendations regarding sightseeing spots, hotels, restaurants, and packaged tour plans can be generated efficiently. An application prototype is also implemented to illustrate and test the system feasibility and effectiveness.

  14. MRI-based treatment plan simulation and adaptation for ion radiotherapy using a classification-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rank, Christopher M; Tremmel, Christoph; Hünemohr, Nora; Nagel, Armin M; Jäkel, Oliver; Greilich, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    In order to benefit from the highly conformal irradiation of tumors in ion radiotherapy, sophisticated treatment planning and simulation are required. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of MRI for ion radiotherapy treatment plan simulation and adaptation using a classification-based approach. Firstly, a voxelwise tissue classification was applied to derive pseudo CT numbers from MR images using up to 8 contrasts. Appropriate MR sequences and parameters were evaluated in cross-validation studies of three phantoms. Secondly, ion radiotherapy treatment plans were optimized using both MRI-based pseudo CT and reference CT and recalculated on reference CT. Finally, a target shift was simulated and a treatment plan adapted to the shift was optimized on a pseudo CT and compared to reference CT optimizations without plan adaptation. The derivation of pseudo CT values led to mean absolute errors in the range of 81 - 95 HU. Most significant deviations appeared at borders between air and different tissue classes and originated from partial volume effects. Simulations of ion radiotherapy treatment plans using pseudo CT for optimization revealed only small underdosages in distal regions of a target volume with deviations of the mean dose of PTV between 1.4 - 3.1% compared to reference CT optimizations. A plan adapted to the target volume shift and optimized on the pseudo CT exhibited a comparable target dose coverage as a non-adapted plan optimized on a reference CT. We were able to show that a MRI-based derivation of pseudo CT values using a purely statistical classification approach is feasible although no physical relationship exists. Large errors appeared at compact bone classes and came from an imperfect distinction of bones and other tissue types in MRI. In simulations of treatment plans, it was demonstrated that these deviations are comparable to uncertainties of a target volume shift of 2 mm in two directions indicating that especially

  15. A Multi Agent Based Model for Airport Service Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H. Ip

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aviation industry is highly dynamic and demanding in nature that time and safety are the two most important factors while one of the major sources of delay is aircraft on ground because of it complexity, a lot of machinery like vehicles are involved and lots of communication are involved. As one of the aircraft ground services providers in Hong Kong International Airport, China Aircraft Services Limited (CASL aims to increase competitiveness by better its service provided while minimizing cost is also needed. One of the ways is to optimize the number of maintenance vehicles allocated in order to minimize chance of delay and also operating costs. In the paper, an agent-based model is proposed for support decision making in vehicle allocation. The overview of the aircrafts ground services procedures is firstly mentioned with different optimization methods suggested by researchers. Then, the agent-based approach is introduced and in the latter part of report and a multi-agent system is built and proposed which is decision supportive for CASL in optimizing the maintenance vehicles' allocation. The application provides flexibility for inputting number of different kinds of vehicles, simulation duration and aircraft arrival rate in order to simulation different scenarios which occurs in HKIA.

  16. Tire demand planning based on reliability and operating environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nouri Qarahasanlou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tires represent a critical spare part in mines. There is a shortage of medium and large tires. In addition, with increased mining activities and the creation of new mines, the demand for tires has increased significantly. Thus, it is particularly important for mining engineers to identify tire characteristics and correctly manage the spare part inventory. Spare parts management is critical from an operational perspective, especially in asset intensive industries, such as mining, as well as in organizations owning and operating costly assets. A knowledge of the tires’ behavior (historical data must be considered together with the operating environment conditions (covariates. This study uses multiple regression analysis based on Cox’s regression model to incorporate machine operating environment information into systems reliability analysis to estimate spare parts. It considers a proportional hazard model and a stratified Cox regression model for time independent and dependent covariates. Based on the results, the study develops a mathematical model for spare parts estimation at the component level for non-repairable parts (tires. It validates the outcomes using a case study of loader tires in Sungun mine in Iran. There is a significant difference in the results of spare parts forecasting and inventory management when considering and not considering covariates.

  17. Planning study for Merkel cell carcinoma based on the relapse pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeller, Ulrike; Schubert, Tina; Mueller, Thomas; Budach, Volker; Ghadjar, Pirus; Brenner, Winfried; Kuschke, Wolf

    2017-04-01

    To develop a technique for radiation (RT) of in-transit path ways (IT) in Merkel cell carcinoma. In the planning study, IT were ink-marked on the skin during sentinel lymphscintigraphy and wire-marked in planning-CT. Pre- and post-operative planning-CTs were acquired. The clinical target volume (CTV) included tumor bed plus safety margin, IT and draining nodes, the planning volume (PTV) the CTV plus 0.5-1cm margin. VMAT plans with 2-3 arcs were analyzed. A planning study was performed for five pts. including two pts. with primary tumor (PT) in head and neck, 1 pt. each with PT of elbow, forearm and upper leg respectively. Plans showed satisfactory PTV coverage: D mean 100%±0%, D 98% 92.4%±2.24%, homogeneity index (HI) 0.095±0.01, conformation number (CN) 0.84±0.01 and conformality index (CI) 0.95±0.01. The planning study confirms feasibility of highly conformal irradiation of IT pathways based on individualized target delineation. Currently, patients referred for non-metastatic MCC are encouraged to enroll in a prospective clinical study that evaluates the feasibility of radiation of IT pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Advantages and limitations of navigation-based multicriteria optimization (MCO) for localized prostate cancer IMRT planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, Conor K.; Bokrantz, Rasmus; O’Sullivan, Joe M.; Hounsell, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of inverse planning is becoming increasingly important for advanced radiotherapy techniques. This study’s aims were to validate multicriteria optimization (MCO) in RayStation (v2.4, RaySearch Laboratories, Sweden) against standard intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) optimization in Oncentra (v4.1, Nucletron BV, the Netherlands) and characterize dose differences due to conversion of navigated MCO plans into deliverable multileaf collimator apertures. Step-and-shoot IMRT plans were created for 10 patients with localized prostate cancer using both standard optimization and MCO. Acceptable standard IMRT plans with minimal average rectal dose were chosen for comparison with deliverable MCO plans. The trade-off was, for the MCO plans, managed through a user interface that permits continuous navigation between fluence-based plans. Navigated MCO plans were made deliverable at incremental steps along a trajectory between maximal target homogeneity and maximal rectal sparing. Dosimetric differences between navigated and deliverable MCO plans were also quantified. MCO plans, chosen as acceptable under navigated and deliverable conditions resulted in similar rectal sparing compared with standard optimization (33.7 ± 1.8 Gy vs 35.5 ± 4.2 Gy, p = 0.117). The dose differences between navigated and deliverable MCO plans increased as higher priority was placed on rectal avoidance. If the best possible deliverable MCO was chosen, a significant reduction in rectal dose was observed in comparison with standard optimization (30.6 ± 1.4 Gy vs 35.5 ± 4.2 Gy, p = 0.047). Improvements were, however, to some extent, at the expense of less conformal dose distributions, which resulted in significantly higher doses to the bladder for 2 of the 3 tolerance levels. In conclusion, similar IMRT plans can be created for patients with prostate cancer using MCO compared with standard optimization. Limitations exist within MCO regarding conversion of navigated plans to

  19. Dispositifs photoniques plans a base de verres chalcogenures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Chiara

    Optical devices based on chalcogenide glasses is the central theme of this thesis. Methods for fabricating both planar and channel optical waveguides are presented. Helium ion implantation has been used to induce channel waveguides in As2S3. Ion implantation has also been employed to dope a planar waveguide with neodymium ions. The observation of the emitted luminescence has demonstrated the efficiency of the technique, which can be used to realize integrated optical amplifiers. The photosensitivity of As2S3 by exposure to light below the bandgap, has been shown. The process is due to two-photon absorption. The observation of the photosensitivity by two-photon absorption enables the self-writing of a channel waveguide. The process has been studied with a simple model, which takes into account diffraction and the refraction index increase due to two-photon absorption.

  20. Practical Team-Based Learning from Planning to Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Heather P; Bell, Edward; Eng, Marty; Fuentes, David G; Helms, Kristen L; Maki, Erik D; Vyas, Deepti

    2015-12-25

    Team-based learning (TBL) helps instructors develop an active teaching approach for the classroom through group work. The TBL infrastructure engages students in the learning process through the Readiness Assessment Process, problem-solving through team discussions, and peer feedback to ensure accountability. This manuscript describes the benefits and barriers of TBL, and the tools necessary for developing, implementing, and critically evaluating the technique within coursework in a user-friendly method. Specifically, the manuscript describes the processes underpinning effective TBL development, preparation, implementation, assessment, and evaluation, as well as practical techniques and advice from authors' classroom experiences. The paper also highlights published articles in the area of TBL in education, with a focus on pharmacy education.

  1. Plans for Competency-Based Human Resources Management in KINS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Background: • Government’s Project for Strengthening Regulatory Competency: → Lessons learned from foreign accident and domestic safety issues: • Importance of the role of trusted and robust regulator; • Regulatory activities based on the technical competency and transparency. → Government’s project “Establishment of Nuclear Safety Management System”: • To further strengthen the efforts to improve nuclear safety; • To continue expanding the utilization of nuclear energy. → Emphasis on “strengthening regulatory competency” as a core strategy. • To accomplish KINS vision 2020, strategic goals and strategies: → Developing highly-trained and competent employees: • Through technical and professional training and development opportunities; → Recruiting and retaining qualified employees; → Increasing efficiency and knowledge & skill levels of the employees: • Through advanced management system; → Building a high-performance learning organization

  2. A smooth local path planning algorithm based on modified visibility graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Taizhi; Feng, Maoyan

    2017-07-01

    Path planning is an essential and inevitable problem in robotics. Trapping in local minima and discontinuities often exist in local path planning. To overcome these drawbacks, this paper presents a smooth path planning algorithm based on modified visibility graph. This algorithm consists of three steps: (1) polygons are generated from detected obstacles; (2) a collision-free path is found by simultaneous visibility graph construction and path search by A∗ (SVGA); (3) the path is smoothed by B-spline curves and particle swarm optimization (PSO). Simulation experiment results show the effectiveness of this algorithm, and a smooth path can be found fleetly.

  3. Path Planning for Robot based on Chaotic Artificial Potential Field Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Robot path planning in unknown environments is one of the hot research topics in the field of robot control. Aiming at the shortcomings of traditional artificial potential field methods, we propose a new path planning for Robot based on chaotic artificial potential field method. The path planning adopts the potential function as the objective function and introduces the robot direction of movement as the control variables, which combines the improved artificial potential field method with chaotic optimization algorithm. Simulations have been carried out and the results demonstrate that the superior practicality and high efficiency of the proposed method.

  4. Measurement based scenario analysis of short-range distribution system planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on short-range distribution system planning using a probabilistic approach. Empirical probabilistic distributions of load demand and distributed generations are derived from the historical measurement data and incorporated into the system planning. Simulations with various...... feasible scenarios are performed based on a local distribution system at Støvring in Denmark. Simulation results provide more accurate and insightful information for the decision-maker when using the probabilistic analysis than using the worst-case analysis, so that a better planning can be achieved....

  5. A Conceptual List of Indicators for Urban Planning and Management Based on Earth Observation

    OpenAIRE

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Feigenwinter, Christian; Triantakonstantis, Dimitrios; Penyevskiy Igor,; Tal, Abraham; Parlow, Eberhard; Fleishman, Guy; Düzgün, Sebnem; Esch, Thomas; Marconcini, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development is a key component in urban studies. Earth Observation (EO) can play a valuable role in sustainable urban development and planning, since it represents a powerful data source with the potential to provide a number of relevant urban sustainability indicators. To this end, in this paper we propose a conceptual list of EO-based indicators capable of supporting urban planning and management. Three cities with different typologies, namely Basel, Switzerland; Tel Aviv, Israe...

  6. WE-F-BRB-00: New Developments in Knowledge-Based Treatment Planning and Automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in informatics in radiotherapy are opening up opportunities to improve our ability to assess treatment plans. Models on individualizing patient dose constraints from prior patient data and shape relationships have been extensively researched and are now making their way into commercial products. New developments in knowledge based treatment planning involve understanding the impact of the radiation dosimetry on the patient. Akin to radiobiology models that have driven intensity modulated radiotherapy optimization, toxicity and outcome predictions based on treatment plans and prior patient experiences may be the next step in knowledge based planning. In order to realize these predictions, it is necessary to understand how the clinical information can be captured, structured and organized with ontologies and databases designed for recall. Large databases containing radiation dosimetry and outcomes present the opportunity to evaluate treatment plans against predictions of toxicity and disease response. Such evaluations can be based on dose volume histogram or even the full 3-dimensional dose distribution and its relation to the critical anatomy. This session will provide an understanding of ontologies and standard terminologies used to capture clinical knowledge into structured databases; How data can be organized and accessed to utilize the knowledge in planning; and examples of research and clinical efforts to incorporate that clinical knowledge into planning for improved care for our patients. Learning Objectives: Understand the role of standard terminologies, ontologies and data organization in oncology Understand methods to capture clinical toxicity and outcomes in a clinical setting Understand opportunities to learn from clinical data and its application to treatment planning Todd McNutt receives funding from Philips, Elekta and Toshiba for some of the work presented

  7. Study on Agricultural Park Planning Methods Based on Omni-Directional Information Processing Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xueyuan; Wu, Yongchang; Zhao, Bingwen

    2012-01-01

    International audience; With rapid development of computer science, the means of the agricultural park planning are renewed continuously. Based on the long-term practice in the agricultural park planning, we put forward innovatively the integrated information processing technology in three dimensions in the paper, that is, information, time and spatial dimensions, On the basis of the coupling relation of multi-dimensional space, time and information, data information and time & spatial elemen...

  8. Treatment planning capability assessment of a beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, M S; González, S J; Burlon, A A; Minsky, D M; Kreiner, A J

    2011-12-01

    Within the frame of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT) a theoretical study was performed to assess the treatment planning capability of different configurations of an optimized beam shaping assembly for such a facility. In particular this study aims at evaluating treatment plans for a clinical case of Glioblastoma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. IMPLEMENTING FRANCHISING INTO A BUSINESS. : Based on my own business plan.

    OpenAIRE

    Krzyzaniak, Patryk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to successfully implement a business system based on franchising into the author's own business. The thesis will provide information about the actual busi-ness plan, theoretical and practical investigation on how franchising would efficiently work in the Finnish market, basic principles of cooperation on a franchise basis, categories of fran-chising (in general and in cooperation with the author's business plan), advantages and dis-advantages of having franchising as ...

  10. The minimum knowledge base for predicting organ-at-risk dose-volume levels and plan-related complications in IMRT planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hao H; D'Souza, Warren D; Meyer, Robert R; Shi Leyuan

    2010-01-01

    IMRT treatment planning requires consideration of two competing objectives: achieving the required amount of radiation for the planning target volume and minimizing the amount of radiation delivered to all other tissues. It is important for planners to understand the tradeoff between competing factors so that the time-consuming human interaction loop (plan-evaluate-modify) can be eliminated. Treatment-plan-surface models have been proposed as a decision support tool to aid treatment planners and clinicians in choosing between rival treatment plans in a multi-plan environment. In this paper, an empirical approach is introduced to determine the minimum number of treatment plans (minimum knowledge base) required to build accurate representations of the IMRT plan surface in order to predict organ-at-risk (OAR) dose-volume (DV) levels and complications as a function of input DV constraint settings corresponding to all involved OARs in the plan. We have tested our approach on five head and neck patients and five whole pelvis/prostate patients. Our results suggest that approximately 30 plans were sufficient to predict DV levels with less than 3% relative error in both head and neck and whole pelvis/prostate cases. In addition, approximately 30-60 plans were sufficient to predict saliva flow rate with less than 2% relative error and to classify rectal bleeding with an accuracy of 90%.

  11. SU-E-T-357: Semi-Automated Knowledge-Based Radiation Therapy (KBRT) Planning for Head-And-Neck Cancer (HNC): Can KBRT Plans Achieve Better Results Than Manual Planning?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutzky, C; Grzetic, S; Lo, J; Das, S [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Knowledge Based Radiation Therapy Treatment (KBRT) planning can be used to semi-automatically generate IMRT plans for new patients using constraints derived from previously manually-planned, geometrically similar patients. We investigate whether KBRT plans can achieve greater dose sparing than manual plans using optimized, organspecific constraint weighting factors. Methods: KBRT planning of HNC radiotherapy cases geometrically matched each new (query) case to one of the 105 clinically approved plans in our database. The dose distribution of the planned match was morphed to fit the querys geometry. Dose-volume constraints extracted from the morphed dose distribution were used to run the IMRT optimization with no user input. In the first version, all constraints were multiplied by a weighting factor of 0.7. The weighting factors were then systematically optimized (in order of OARs with increasing separation from the target) to maximize sparing to each OAR without compromising other OARs. The optimized, second version plans were compared against the first version plans and the clinically approved plans for 45 unilateral/bilateral target cases using the dose metrics: mean, median and maximum (brainstem and cord) doses. Results: Compared to the first version, the second version significantly reduced mean/median contralateral parotid doses (>2Gy) for bilateral cases. Other changes between the two versions were not clinically meaningful. Compared to the original clinical plans, both bilateral and unilateral plans in the second version had lower average dose metrics for 5 of the 6 OARs. Compared to the original plans, the second version achieved dose sparing that was at least as good for all OARs and better for the ipsilateral parotid (bilateral) and oral cavity (bilateral/unilateral). Differences in planning target volume coverage metrics were not clinically significant. Conclusion: HNC-KBRT planning generated IMRT plans with at least equivalent dose sparing to

  12. SU-E-T-357: Semi-Automated Knowledge-Based Radiation Therapy (KBRT) Planning for Head-And-Neck Cancer (HNC): Can KBRT Plans Achieve Better Results Than Manual Planning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutzky, C; Grzetic, S; Lo, J; Das, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge Based Radiation Therapy Treatment (KBRT) planning can be used to semi-automatically generate IMRT plans for new patients using constraints derived from previously manually-planned, geometrically similar patients. We investigate whether KBRT plans can achieve greater dose sparing than manual plans using optimized, organspecific constraint weighting factors. Methods: KBRT planning of HNC radiotherapy cases geometrically matched each new (query) case to one of the 105 clinically approved plans in our database. The dose distribution of the planned match was morphed to fit the querys geometry. Dose-volume constraints extracted from the morphed dose distribution were used to run the IMRT optimization with no user input. In the first version, all constraints were multiplied by a weighting factor of 0.7. The weighting factors were then systematically optimized (in order of OARs with increasing separation from the target) to maximize sparing to each OAR without compromising other OARs. The optimized, second version plans were compared against the first version plans and the clinically approved plans for 45 unilateral/bilateral target cases using the dose metrics: mean, median and maximum (brainstem and cord) doses. Results: Compared to the first version, the second version significantly reduced mean/median contralateral parotid doses (>2Gy) for bilateral cases. Other changes between the two versions were not clinically meaningful. Compared to the original clinical plans, both bilateral and unilateral plans in the second version had lower average dose metrics for 5 of the 6 OARs. Compared to the original plans, the second version achieved dose sparing that was at least as good for all OARs and better for the ipsilateral parotid (bilateral) and oral cavity (bilateral/unilateral). Differences in planning target volume coverage metrics were not clinically significant. Conclusion: HNC-KBRT planning generated IMRT plans with at least equivalent dose sparing to

  13. Pattern-based information portal for business plan co-creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontchev, Boyan; Ruskov, Petko; Tanev, Stoyan

    2011-03-01

    Creation of business plans helps entrepreneurs in managing identification of business opportunities and committing necessary resources for process evolution. Applying patterns in business plan creation facilitates the identification of effective solutions that were adopted in the past and may provide a basis for adopting similar solutions in the future within given business context. The article presents the system design of an information portal for business plan co-creation based on patterns. The portal is going to provide start-up and entrepreneurs with ready-to-modify business plan patterns in order to help them in development of effective and efficient business plans. It will facilitate entrepreneurs in co-experimenting and co-learning more frequently and faster. Moreover, the paper focuses on the software architecture of the pattern based portal and explains the functionality of its modules, namely the pattern designer, pattern repository services and agent-based pattern implementers. It explains their role for business process co-creation, storing and managing patterns described formally, and selecting patterns best suited for specific business case. Thus, innovative entrepreneurs will be guided by the portal in co-writing winning business plans and staying competitive in the present day dynamic globalized environment.

  14. Planning for Reform-Based Science: Case Studies of Two Urban Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiante, Elaine Silva

    2018-02-01

    The intent of national efforts to frame science education standards is to promote students' development of scientific practices and conceptual understanding for their future role as scientifically literate citizens (NRC 2012). A guiding principle of science education reform is that all students receive equitable opportunities to engage in rigorous science learning. Yet, implementation of science education reform depends on teachers' instructional decisions. In urban schools serving students primarily from poor, diverse communities, teachers typically face obstacles in providing reform-based science due to limited resources and accountability pressures, as well as a culture of teacher-directed pedagogy, and deficit views of students. The purpose of this qualitative research was to study two white, fourth grade teachers from high-poverty urban schools, who were identified as transforming their science teaching and to investigate how their beliefs, knowledge bases, and resources shaped their planning for reform-based science. Using the Shavelson and Stern's decision model for teacher planning to analyze evidence gathered from interviews, documents, planning meetings, and lesson observations, the findings indicated their planning for scientific practices was influenced by the type and extent of professional development each received, each teacher's beliefs about their students and their background, and the mission and learning environment each teacher envisioned for the reform to serve their students. The results provided specific insights into factors that impacted their planning in high-poverty urban schools and indicated considerations for those in similar contexts to promote teachers' planning for equitable science learning opportunities by all students.

  15. Reoptimization of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Plans Based on Linear Energy Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkelbach, Jan, E-mail: junkelbach@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Botas, Pablo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Faculty of Physics, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Gorissen, Bram L.; Paganetti, Harald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: We describe a treatment plan optimization method for intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) that avoids high values of linear energy transfer (LET) in critical structures located within or near the target volume while limiting degradation of the best possible physical dose distribution. Methods and Materials: To allow fast optimization based on dose and LET, a GPU-based Monte Carlo code was extended to provide dose-averaged LET in addition to dose for all pencil beams. After optimizing an initial IMPT plan based on physical dose, a prioritized optimization scheme is used to modify the LET distribution while constraining the physical dose objectives to values close to the initial plan. The LET optimization step is performed based on objective functions evaluated for the product of LET and physical dose (LET×D). To first approximation, LET×D represents a measure of the additional biological dose that is caused by high LET. Results: The method is effective for treatments where serial critical structures with maximum dose constraints are located within or near the target. We report on 5 patients with intracranial tumors (high-grade meningiomas, base-of-skull chordomas, ependymomas) in whom the target volume overlaps with the brainstem and optic structures. In all cases, high LET×D in critical structures could be avoided while minimally compromising physical dose planning objectives. Conclusion: LET-based reoptimization of IMPT plans represents a pragmatic approach to bridge the gap between purely physical dose-based and relative biological effectiveness (RBE)-based planning. The method makes IMPT treatments safer by mitigating a potentially increased risk of side effects resulting from elevated RBE of proton beams near the end of range.

  16. 77 FR 61513 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; The 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ..., on-road mobile sources, and biogenic sources. The pollutants that comprise the inventory are nitrogen... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; The 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory for the... fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the Maryland State...

  17. 78 FR 14020 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; the 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... inventory includes emissions estimates that cover the general source categories of point sources, non-road... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; the 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory for the...) on April 3, 2008. The SIP revision pertains to the 2002 base year emissions inventory for the...

  18. 77 FR 60626 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; The 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ..., on- road mobile sources, and biogenic sources. The pollutants that comprise the inventory are... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; The 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory for the... fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the Virginia State...

  19. A Dynamic Path Planning Approach for Multirobot Sensor-Based Coverage Considering Energy Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Ahmet; Kirlik, Gokhan; Parlaktuna, Osman; Sipahioglu, Aydin

    2014-03-01

    Multirobot sensor-based coverage path planning determines a tour for each robot in a team such that every point in a given workspace is covered by at least one robot using its sensors. In sensor-based coverage of narrow spaces, i.e., obstacles lie within the sensor range, a generalized Voronoi diagram (GVD)-based graph can be used to model the environment. A complete sensor-based coverage path plan for the robot team can be obtained by using the capacitated arc routing problem solution methods on the GVD-based graph. Unlike capacitated arc routing problem, sensor-based coverage problem requires to consider two types of edge demands. Therefore, modified Ulusoy algorithm is used to obtain mobile robot tours by taking into account two different energy consumption cases during sensor-based coverage. However, due to the partially unknown nature of the environment, the robots may encounter obstacles on their tours. This requires a replanning process that considers the remaining energy capacities and the current positions of the robots. In this paper, the modified Ulusoy algorithm is extended to incorporate this dynamic planning problem. A dynamic path-planning approach is proposed for multirobot sensor-based coverage of narrow environments by considering the energy capacities of the mobile robots. The approach is tested in a laboratory environment using Pioneer 3-DX mobile robots. Simulations are also conducted for a larger test environment.

  20. Planning Community-Based Assessments of HIV Educational Intervention Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelcey, Ben; Shen, Zuchao

    2017-01-01

    A key consideration in planning studies of community-based HIV education programs is identifying a sample size large enough to ensure a reasonable probability of detecting program effects if they exist. Sufficient sample sizes for community- or group-based designs are proportional to the correlation or similarity of individuals within communities.…

  1. SQoS based Planning using 4-regular Grid for Optical Fiber Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2005-01-01

    optical fiber based network infrastructures. In the first step of SQoS based planning, this paper describes how 4-regular Grid structures can be implemented in the physical level of optical fiber network infrastructures. A systematic approach for implementing the Grid structure is presented. We used...

  2. SQoS based Planning using 4-regular Grid for Optical Fiber Metworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Madsen, Ole Brun

    optical fiber based network infrastructures. In the first step of SQoS based planning, this paper describes how 4-regular Grid structures can be implemented in the physical level of optical fiber network infrastructures. A systematic approach for implementing the Grid structure is presented. We used...

  3. Acceptance and implementation of a system of planning computerized based on Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Tarjuelo, J.; Garcia-Molla, R.; Suan-Senabre, X. J.; Quiros-Higueras, J. Q.; Santos-Serra, A.; Marco-Blancas, N.; Calzada-Feliu, S.

    2013-01-01

    It has been done the acceptance for use clinical Monaco computerized planning system, based on an on a virtual model of the energy yield of the head of the linear electron Accelerator and that performs the calculation of the dose with an algorithm of x-rays (XVMC) based on Monte Carlo algorithm. (Author)

  4. Risk-Based Inspection and Maintenance Planning Optimization of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez, José G. Rangel; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    A risk-based inspection planning (RBI) approach applied to offshore wind turbines (OWT) is presented, based on RBI methodology developed in the last decades in the oil and gas industry. In wind farm (IWF) and single-alone locations are considered using a code-established turbulence models including...

  5. Risk-Based Inspection and Maintenance Planning Optimization of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez, José G. Rangel; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    A risk-based inspection planning (RBI) approach applied to offshore wind turbines (OWT) is presented, based on RBI methodology developed in the last decades in the oil and gas industry. In wind farm (IWF) and single-alone locations are considered using a code-established turbulence models includi...

  6. Extension of landscape-based population viability models to ecoregional scales for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Bonnot; Frank R. III Thompson; Joshua Millspaugh

    2011-01-01

    Landscape-based population models are potentially valuable tools in facilitating conservation planning and actions at large scales. However, such models have rarely been applied at ecoregional scales. We extended landscape-based population models to ecoregional scales for three species of concern in the Central Hardwoods Bird Conservation Region and compared model...

  7. Community-based planning in a dynamic landscape development; a teaching experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap, van der W.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In a four-week studio, second-year bachelor students get acquainted with an approach for an operational plan in a Problem Based Learning Environment. In the course set-up each student represents a stakeholder. Based on input, ideas and vision from stakeholders students try to create a development

  8. Reliability analysis and risk-based methods for planning of operation & maintenance of offshore wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2017-01-01

    for extreme and fatigue limit states are presented. Operation & Maintenance planning often follows corrective and preventive strategies based on information from condition monitoring and structural health monitoring systems. A reliability- and risk-based approach is presented where a life-cycle approach...

  9. Framework for Risk-based Planning of Operation and Maintenance for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    For offshore wind turbines, costs to operation and maintenance (OM) are substantial. This paper describes a risk-based life cycle approach for optimal planning of OM. The approach is based on pre-posterior Bayesian decision theory, and can be used both to overall, initial planning of OM, and to s......For offshore wind turbines, costs to operation and maintenance (OM) are substantial. This paper describes a risk-based life cycle approach for optimal planning of OM. The approach is based on pre-posterior Bayesian decision theory, and can be used both to overall, initial planning of OM......, and to sequential optimal decision making on planning of OM taking into account new information. Deterioration mechanisms such as fatigue, corrosion, wear and erosion are associated with significant uncertainty. Observations of the degree of damage can increase the reliability of predictions, especially...... in connection with condition-based maintenance. The approach can be used for gearboxes, generators, fatigue cracks, corrosion, etc. This paper also describes how probabilistic indicators can be used to quantify indirect information about the damage state for critical components, e.g. gearboxes....

  10. Re-Planning for Compensator-Based IMRT with Original Compensators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Geoffrey; Feygelman, Vladimir; Stevens, Craig; Li Weiqi; Leuthold, Susan; Springett, Gregory; Hoffe, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Compared with multileaf collimator (MLC)-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for moving targets, compensator-based IMRT has advantages such as shorter beam-on time, fewer monitor units with potentially decreased secondary carcinogenesis risk, better optimization-to-deliverable dose conversion, and often better dose conformity. Some of the disadvantages include additional time for the compensators to be built and delivered, as well as extra cost. Patients undergoing treatment of abdominal cancers often experience weight loss. It would be necessary to account for this change in weight with a new plan and a second set of compensators. However, this would result in treatment delays and added costs. We have developed a method to re-plan the patient using the same set of compensators. Because the weight changes seen with the treatment of abdominal cancers are usually relatively small, a new 4D computed tomography (CT) acquired in the treatment position with markers on the original isocenter tattoos can be registered to the original planning scan. The contours of target volumes from the original scans are copied to the new scan after fusion. The original compensator set can be used together with a few field-in-field (FiF) beams defined by the MLC (or beams with cerrobend blocks for accelerators not equipped with a MLC). The weights of the beams with compensators are reduced so that the FiF or blocked beams can be optimized to mirror the original plan and dose distribution. Seven abdominal cancer cases are presented using this technique. The new plan on the new planning CT images usually has the same dosimetric quality as the original. The target coverage and dose uniformity are improved compared with the plan without FiF/block modification. Techniques combining additional FiF or blocked beams with the original compensators optimize the treatment plans when patients lose weight and save time and cost compared with generating plans with a new set of compensators.

  11. Knowledge-based prediction of plan quality metrics in intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Satomi; Moore, Kevin L.; Tan, Jun; Olsen, Lindsey A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this work was to develop a comprehensive knowledge-based methodology for predicting achievable dose–volume histograms (DVHs) and highly precise DVH-based quality metrics (QMs) in stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) plans. Accurate QM estimation can identify suboptimal treatment plans and provide target optimization objectives to standardize and improve treatment planning. Methods: Correlating observed dose as it relates to the geometric relationship of organs-at-risk (OARs) to planning target volumes (PTVs) yields mathematical models to predict achievable DVHs. In SRS, DVH-based QMs such as brain V 10Gy (volume receiving 10 Gy or more), gradient measure (GM), and conformity index (CI) are used to evaluate plan quality. This study encompasses 223 linear accelerator-based SRS/SRT treatment plans (SRS plans) using volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), representing 95% of the institution’s VMAT radiosurgery load from the past four and a half years. Unfiltered models that use all available plans for the model training were built for each category with a stratification scheme based on target and OAR characteristics determined emergently through initial modeling process. Model predictive accuracy is measured by the mean and standard deviation of the difference between clinical and predicted QMs, δQM = QM clin − QM pred , and a coefficient of determination, R 2 . For categories with a large number of plans, refined models are constructed by automatic elimination of suspected suboptimal plans from the training set. Using the refined model as a presumed achievable standard, potentially suboptimal plans are identified. Predictions of QM improvement are validated via standardized replanning of 20 suspected suboptimal plans based on dosimetric predictions. The significance of the QM improvement is evaluated using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: The most accurate predictions are obtained when plans are stratified based on

  12. Multi-Case Knowledge-Based IMRT Treatment Planning in Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzetic, Shelby Mariah

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) IMRT treatment planning is a challenging process that relies heavily on the planner's experience. Previously, we used the single, best match from a library of manually planned cases to semi-automatically generate IMRT plans for a new patient. The current multi-case Knowledge Based Radiation Therapy (MC-KBRT) study utilized different matching cases for each of six individual organs-at-risk (OARs), then combined those six cases to create the new treatment plan. From a database of 103 patient plans created by experienced planners, MC-KBRT plans were created for 40 (17 unilateral and 23 bilateral) HNC "query" patients. For each case, 2D beam's-eye-view images were used to find similar geometric "match" patients separately for each of 6 OARs. Dose distributions for each OAR from the 6 matching cases were combined and then warped to suit the query case's geometry. The dose-volume constraints were used to create the new query treatment plan without the need for human decision-making throughout the IMRT optimization. The optimized MC-KBRT plans were compared against the clinically approved plans and Version 1 (previous KBRT using only one matching case with dose warping) using the dose metrics: mean, median, and maximum (brainstem and cord+5mm) doses. Compared to Version 1, MC-KBRT had no significant reduction of the dose to any of the OARs in either unilateral or bilateral cases. Compared to the manually planned unilateral cases, there was significant reduction of the oral cavity mean/median dose (>2Gy) at the expense of the contralateral parotid. Compared to the manually planned bilateral cases, reduction of dose was significant in the ipsilateral parotid, larynx, and oral cavity (>3Gy mean/median) while maintaining PTV coverage. MC-KBRT planning in head and neck cancer generates IMRT plans with better dose sparing than manually created plans. MC-KBRT using multiple case matches does not show significant dose reduction compared to using a

  13. Evaluation of a Knowledge-Based Planning Solution for Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tol, Jim P., E-mail: j.tol@vumc.nl; Delaney, Alexander R.; Dahele, Max; Slotman, Ben J.; Verbakel, Wilko F.A.R.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Automated and knowledge-based planning techniques aim to reduce variations in plan quality. RapidPlan uses a library consisting of different patient plans to make a model that can predict achievable dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for new patients and uses those models for setting optimization objectives. We benchmarked RapidPlan versus clinical plans for 2 patient groups, using 3 different libraries. Methods and Materials: Volumetric modulated arc therapy plans of 60 recent head and neck cancer patients that included sparing of the salivary glands, swallowing muscles, and oral cavity were evenly divided between 2 models, Model{sub 30A} and Model{sub 30B}, and were combined in a third model, Model{sub 60}. Knowledge-based plans were created for 2 evaluation groups: evaluation group 1 (EG1), consisting of 15 recent patients, and evaluation group 2 (EG2), consisting of 15 older patients in whom only the salivary glands were spared. RapidPlan results were compared with clinical plans (CP) for boost and/or elective planning target volume homogeneity index, using HI{sub B}/HI{sub E} = 100 × (D2% − D98%)/D50%, and mean dose to composite salivary glands, swallowing muscles, and oral cavity (D{sub sal}, D{sub swal}, and D{sub oc}, respectively). Results: For EG1, RapidPlan improved HI{sub B} and HI{sub E} values compared with CP by 1.0% to 1.3% and 1.0% to 0.6%, respectively. Comparable D{sub sal} and D{sub swal} values were seen in Model{sub 30A}, Model{sub 30B}, and Model{sub 60}, decreasing by an average of 0.1, 1.0, and 0.8 Gy and 4.8, 3.7, and 4.4 Gy, respectively. However, differences were noted between individual organs at risk (OARs), with Model{sub 30B} increasing D{sub oc} by 0.1, 3.2, and 2.8 Gy compared with CP, Model{sub 30A}, and Model{sub 60}. Plan quality was less consistent when the patient was flagged as an outlier. For EG2, RapidPlan decreased D{sub sal} by 4.1 to 4.9 Gy on average, whereas HI{sub B} and HI{sub E} decreased by 1.1% to

  14. Multi-atlas-based CT synthesis from conventional MRI with patch-based refinement for MRI-based radiotherapy planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghoon; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Zhao, Can; Prince, Jerry L.

    2017-02-01

    Accurate CT synthesis, sometimes called electron density estimation, from MRI is crucial for successful MRI-based radiotherapy planning and dose computation. Existing CT synthesis methods are able to synthesize normal tissues but are unable to accurately synthesize abnormal tissues (i.e., tumor), thus providing a suboptimal solution. We propose a multiatlas- based hybrid synthesis approach that combines multi-atlas registration and patch-based synthesis to accurately synthesize both normal and abnormal tissues. Multi-parametric atlas MR images are registered to the target MR images by multi-channel deformable registration, from which the atlas CT images are deformed and fused by locally-weighted averaging using a structural similarity measure (SSIM). Synthetic MR images are also computed from the registered atlas MRIs by using the same weights used for the CT synthesis; these are compared to the target patient MRIs allowing for the assessment of the CT synthesis fidelity. Poor synthesis regions are automatically detected based on the fidelity measure and refined by a patch-based synthesis. The proposed approach was tested on brain cancer patient data, and showed a noticeable improvement for the tumor region.

  15. Scoping Report for a Scenario-Based Planning Protocol for Application in the Regions of Army Installations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rose, Winifred

    2000-01-01

    .... The objective of this work is to describe a regional scenario-based land use planning methodology, and explore how a standardized protocol for comprehensive military land use planning in a regional...

  16. Development and Application of a Low Impact Development (LID-Based District Unit Planning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Hee Son

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a low impact development-based district unit planning (LID-DP model and to verify the model by applying it to a test site. To develop the model, we identified various barriers to the urban planning process and examined the advantages of various LID-related techniques to determine where in the urban development process LID would provide the greatest benefit. The resulting model provides (1 a set of district unit planning processes that consider LID standards and (2 a set of evaluation methods that measure the benefits of the LID-DP model over standard urban development practices. The developed LID-DP process is composed of status analysis, comprehensive analysis, basic plan, and sectoral plans. To determine whether the LID-DP model met the proposed LID targets, we applied the model to a test site in Cheongju City, Chungcheongbuk-do Province, Republic of Korea. The test simulation showed that the LID-DP plan reduced nonpoint source pollutants (total nitrogen, 113%; total phosphorous, 193%; and biological oxygen demand, 199%; reduced rainfall runoff (infiltration volume, 102%; surface runoff, 101%; and improved the conservation rate of the natural environment area (132%. The successful application of this model also lent support for the greater importance of non-structural techniques over structural techniques in urban planning when taking ecological factors into account.

  17. Using Load Balancing to Scalably Parallelize Sampling-Based Motion Planning Algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Fidel, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Motion planning, which is the problem of computing feasible paths in an environment for a movable object, has applications in many domains ranging from robotics, to intelligent CAD, to protein folding. The best methods for solving this PSPACE-hard problem are so-called sampling-based planners. Recent work introduced uniform spatial subdivision techniques for parallelizing sampling-based motion planning algorithms that scaled well. However, such methods are prone to load imbalance, as planning time depends on region characteristics and, for most problems, the heterogeneity of the sub problems increases as the number of processors increases. In this work, we introduce two techniques to address load imbalance in the parallelization of sampling-based motion planning algorithms: an adaptive work stealing approach and bulk-synchronous redistribution. We show that applying these techniques to representatives of the two major classes of parallel sampling-based motion planning algorithms, probabilistic roadmaps and rapidly-exploring random trees, results in a more scalable and load-balanced computation on more than 3,000 cores. © 2014 IEEE.

  18. Optimal design and planning of glycerol-based biorefinery supply chains under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Carvalho, Ana; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2017-01-01

    The optimal design and planning of glycerol-based biorefinery supply chains is critical for the development and implementation of this concept in a sustainable manner. To achieve this, a decision-making framework is proposed in this work, to holistically optimize the design and planning of the gl......The optimal design and planning of glycerol-based biorefinery supply chains is critical for the development and implementation of this concept in a sustainable manner. To achieve this, a decision-making framework is proposed in this work, to holistically optimize the design and planning......-echelon mixed integer linear programming problem is proposed based upon a previous model, GlyThink. In the new formulation, market uncertainties are taken into account at the strategic planning level. The robustness of the supply chain structures is analyzed based on statistical data provided...... by the implementation of the Monte Carlo method, where a deterministic optimization problem is solved for each scenario. Furthermore, the solution of the stochastic multi-objective optimization model, points to the Pareto set of trade-off solutions obtained when maximizing the NPV and minimizing environmental...

  19. Teaching advance care planning to medical students with a computer-based decision aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael J; Levi, Benjamin H

    2011-03-01

    Discussing end-of-life decisions with cancer patients is a crucial skill for physicians. This article reports findings from a pilot study evaluating the effectiveness of a computer-based decision aid for teaching medical students about advance care planning. Second-year medical students at a single medical school were randomized to use a standard advance directive or a computer-based decision aid to help patients with advance care planning. Students' knowledge, skills, and satisfaction were measured by self-report; their performance was rated by patients. 121/133 (91%) of students participated. The Decision-Aid Group (n = 60) outperformed the Standard Group (n = 61) in terms of students' knowledge (p satisfaction with their learning experience (p student performance. Use of a computer-based decision aid may be an effective way to teach medical students how to discuss advance care planning with cancer patients.

  20. The Quota-Based Compensation Plan in Fashion Retailing Industry under Asymmetric Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a compensation plan problem in the fashion retailing industry, which involves a risk-neutral fashion retailer and a risk-neutral salesperson, in a two-stage game framework with asymmetric information. In the first stage, the fashion retailer provides a menu of compensation plans to the salesperson who decides which plan to sign based on his superior market demand information. Confronted with the asymmetric demand information, the fashion retailer could observe market information from the salesperson's response by designing a menu of compensation plans rather than a single one to the salesperson. In the second stage, the fashion retailer then makes production decision and the salesperson determines his selling effort. We consider both adverse selection and moral hazard. We adopt the quota-based plan to derive the fashion retailer’s optimal compensation plan design and the salesperson's best response. We emphasize the impact of the quota level on the system outcomes. The results reveal that a higher quota level is disadvantageous to the fashion retailer but advantageous to the salespersons.

  1. Analytical investigation of the possibility of parameter invariant TCP-based radiation therapy plan ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavreva, Nadejda; Nahum, Alan; Markov, Krassimir; Ruggieri, Ruggero; Stavrev, Pavel

    2010-11-01

    To analytically investigate the possibility of a parameter invariant ranking of radiotherapy (RT) plans based on comparing the tumor control probabilities (TCPs) produced by the competing plans for different values of the radiobiological model parameters determining the radiation response. Individual TCP models based on the Single hit model of cell kill and on the linear-quadratic (LQ) model of cell damage, with and without repopulation, are considered. The tumor dose distributions in case of heterogeneous dose irradiation are described by a Gaussian distribution function on the basis of which a TCP expression is derived depending only on the mean dose to the tumor and its standard deviation and the TCP model parameters. It is shown that in case of homogeneous dose to the tumor the plan ranking in terms of TCP is parameter invariant. In case of heterogeneous dose to the tumor there are cases when the plan ranking is parameter invariant and cases when the parameter invariance is violated. An interesting dependence of the extent of the parameter invariance violation on the model of cell kill as well as on the size and repopulation rate of the tumor is noted. We conclude that in many cases RT plan ranking in terms of TCP is parameter invariant. However, since there exist cases where the parameter invariance is lost an investigation of the specific plans to be ranked should be performed applying the proposed approach.

  2. Proton therapy of uveal melanomas. Intercomparison of MRI-based and conventional treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnitz, S.; Hinkelbein, W.; Cordini, D.; Heufelder, J.; Simiantonakis, I.; Kluge, H.; Bendl, R.; Lemke, A.J.; Bechrakis, N.E.; Foerster, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: proton therapy for uveal melanoma provides high-conformal dose application to the target volume and, thus, an optimal saving of the organs at risk nearby. Treatment planning is done with the model-based treatment-planning system eyeplan. Tumor reconstruction is based only on a fundus composite, which often leads to an overestimation of the clinical target volume (CTV). The purpose was to exploit MRI on trial in a proton therapy-planning system by using the novel image-based treatment-planning system octopus. Patients and methods: ten patients with uveal melanomas received both a high-resolution planning CT and MRI of the eye. MR examinations were made with an eye coil. Eyeplan requires eye geometry data for modeling, and tantalum marker clips for submillimeter positioning and additional information from ultrasound and 3-D imaging. By contrast, octopus provides the full integration of 3-D imaging (e.g., CT, MRI). CTVs were delineated in each slice. For all patients, CTVs (eyeplan vs. octopus) were compared intraindividually. Results: octopus planning led to a mean reduction of the target volume by a factor of 1.7 (T1-weighted [T1w]) and 2.2 (T2w) without compromising safety. The corresponding field size could be scaled down on average by a factor of 1.2 (T1w) and 1.4 (T2w), respectively. Conclusion: compared with the conventional eyeplan, MRI-based treatment planning of ocular tumors with octopus could be a powerful tool for reducing the CTV and, consequently, the treatment volume and the field size. This might be translated into a better patient compliance during treatment and a decreased late toxicity. (orig.)

  3. Proton therapy of uveal melanomas. Intercomparison of MRI-based and conventional treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnitz, S.; Hinkelbein, W. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Charite Univ. Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Cordini, D.; Heufelder, J.; Simiantonakis, I.; Kluge, H. [Eye Tumor Therapy, Hahn-Meitner Inst., Berlin (Germany); Bendl, R. [Dept. of Medical Physics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Lemke, A.J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Charite Univ. Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Bechrakis, N.E.; Foerster, M.H. [Dept. of Ophthalmology, Charite Univ. Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Background and purpose: proton therapy for uveal melanoma provides high-conformal dose application to the target volume and, thus, an optimal saving of the organs at risk nearby. Treatment planning is done with the model-based treatment-planning system eyeplan. Tumor reconstruction is based only on a fundus composite, which often leads to an overestimation of the clinical target volume (CTV). The purpose was to exploit MRI on trial in a proton therapy-planning system by using the novel image-based treatment-planning system octopus. Patients and methods: ten patients with uveal melanomas received both a high-resolution planning CT and MRI of the eye. MR examinations were made with an eye coil. Eyeplan requires eye geometry data for modeling, and tantalum marker clips for submillimeter positioning and additional information from ultrasound and 3-D imaging. By contrast, octopus provides the full integration of 3-D imaging (e.g., CT, MRI). CTVs were delineated in each slice. For all patients, CTVs (eyeplan vs. octopus) were compared intraindividually. Results: octopus planning led to a mean reduction of the target volume by a factor of 1.7 (T1-weighted [T1w]) and 2.2 (T2w) without compromising safety. The corresponding field size could be scaled down on average by a factor of 1.2 (T1w) and 1.4 (T2w), respectively. Conclusion: compared with the conventional eyeplan, MRI-based treatment planning of ocular tumors with octopus could be a powerful tool for reducing the CTV and, consequently, the treatment volume and the field size. This might be translated into a better patient compliance during treatment and a decreased late toxicity. (orig.)

  4. SU-E-T-616: Plan Quality Assessment of Both Treatment Planning System Dose and Measurement-Based 3D Reconstructed Dose in the Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olch, A [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Systematic radiotherapy plan quality assessment promotes quality improvement. Software tools can perform this analysis by applying site-specific structure dose metrics. The next step is to similarly evaluate the quality of the dose delivery. This study defines metrics for acceptable doses to targets and normal organs for a particular treatment site and scores each plan accordingly. The input can be the TPS or the measurement-based 3D patient dose. From this analysis, one can determine whether the delivered dose distribution to the patient receives a score which is comparable to the TPS plan score, otherwise replanning may be indicated. Methods: Eleven neuroblastoma patient plans were exported from Eclipse to the Quality Reports program. A scoring algorithm defined a score for each normal and target structure based on dose-volume parameters. Each plan was scored by this algorithm and the percentage of total possible points was obtained. Each plan also underwent IMRT QA measurements with a Mapcheck2 or ArcCheck. These measurements were input into the 3DVH program to compute the patient 3D dose distribution which was analyzed using the same scoring algorithm as the TPS plan. Results: The mean quality score for the TPS plans was 75.37% (std dev=14.15%) compared to 71.95% (std dev=13.45%) for the 3DVH dose distribution. For 3/11 plans, the 3DVH-based quality score was higher than the TPS score, by between 0.5 to 8.4 percentage points. Eight/11 plans scores decreased based on IMRT QA measurements by 1.2 to 18.6 points. Conclusion: Software was used to determine the degree to which the plan quality score differed between the TPS and measurement-based dose. Although the delivery score was generally in good agreement with the planned dose score, there were some that improved while there was one plan whose delivered dose quality was significantly less than planned. This methodology helps evaluate both planned and delivered dose quality. Sun Nuclear Corporation has

  5. SU-E-T-616: Plan Quality Assessment of Both Treatment Planning System Dose and Measurement-Based 3D Reconstructed Dose in the Patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olch, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Systematic radiotherapy plan quality assessment promotes quality improvement. Software tools can perform this analysis by applying site-specific structure dose metrics. The next step is to similarly evaluate the quality of the dose delivery. This study defines metrics for acceptable doses to targets and normal organs for a particular treatment site and scores each plan accordingly. The input can be the TPS or the measurement-based 3D patient dose. From this analysis, one can determine whether the delivered dose distribution to the patient receives a score which is comparable to the TPS plan score, otherwise replanning may be indicated. Methods: Eleven neuroblastoma patient plans were exported from Eclipse to the Quality Reports program. A scoring algorithm defined a score for each normal and target structure based on dose-volume parameters. Each plan was scored by this algorithm and the percentage of total possible points was obtained. Each plan also underwent IMRT QA measurements with a Mapcheck2 or ArcCheck. These measurements were input into the 3DVH program to compute the patient 3D dose distribution which was analyzed using the same scoring algorithm as the TPS plan. Results: The mean quality score for the TPS plans was 75.37% (std dev=14.15%) compared to 71.95% (std dev=13.45%) for the 3DVH dose distribution. For 3/11 plans, the 3DVH-based quality score was higher than the TPS score, by between 0.5 to 8.4 percentage points. Eight/11 plans scores decreased based on IMRT QA measurements by 1.2 to 18.6 points. Conclusion: Software was used to determine the degree to which the plan quality score differed between the TPS and measurement-based dose. Although the delivery score was generally in good agreement with the planned dose score, there were some that improved while there was one plan whose delivered dose quality was significantly less than planned. This methodology helps evaluate both planned and delivered dose quality. Sun Nuclear Corporation has

  6. Effect of Dosimetric Outliers on the Performance of a Commercial Knowledge-Based Planning Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaney, Alexander R., E-mail: a.delaney@vumc.nl; Tol, Jim P.; Dahele, Max; Cuijpers, Johan; Slotman, Ben J.; Verbakel, Wilko F.A.R.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: RapidPlan, a commercial knowledge-based planning solution, uses a model library containing the geometry and associated dosimetry of existing plans. This model predicts achievable dosimetry for prospective patients that can be used to guide plan optimization. However, it is unknown how suboptimal model plans (outliers) influence the predictions or resulting plans. We investigated the effect of, first, removing outliers from the model (cleaning it) and subsequently adding deliberate dosimetric outliers. Methods and Materials: Clinical plans from 70 head and neck cancer patients comprised the uncleaned (UC) Model{sub UC}, from which outliers were cleaned (C) to create Model{sub C}. The last 5 to 40 patients of Model{sub C} were replanned with no attempt to spare the salivary glands. These substantial dosimetric outliers were reintroduced to the model in increments of 5, creating Model{sub 5} to Model{sub 40} (Model{sub 5-40}). These models were used to create plans for a 10-patient evaluation group. Plans from Model{sub UC} and Model{sub C}, and Model{sub C} and Model{sub 5-40} were compared on the basis of boost (B) and elective (E) target volume homogeneity indexes (HI{sub B}/HI{sub E}) and mean doses to oral cavity, composite salivary glands (comp{sub sal}) and swallowing (comp{sub swal}) structures. Results: On average, outlier removal (Model{sub C} vs Model{sub UC}) had minimal effects on HI{sub B}/HI{sub E} (0%-0.4%) and sparing of organs at risk (mean dose difference to oral cavity and comp{sub sal}/comp{sub swal} were ≤0.4 Gy). Model{sub 5-10} marginally improved comp{sub sal} sparing, whereas adding a larger number of outliers (Model{sub 20-40}) led to deteriorations in comp{sub sal} up to 3.9 Gy, on average. These increases are modest compared to the 14.9 Gy dose increases in the added outlier plans, due to the placement of optimization objectives below the inferior boundary of the dose-volume histogram-predicted range. Conclusions: Overall

  7. Effect of Dosimetric Outliers on the Performance of a Commercial Knowledge-Based Planning Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Alexander R; Tol, Jim P; Dahele, Max; Cuijpers, Johan; Slotman, Ben J; Verbakel, Wilko F A R

    2016-03-01

    RapidPlan, a commercial knowledge-based planning solution, uses a model library containing the geometry and associated dosimetry of existing plans. This model predicts achievable dosimetry for prospective patients that can be used to guide plan optimization. However, it is unknown how suboptimal model plans (outliers) influence the predictions or resulting plans. We investigated the effect of, first, removing outliers from the model (cleaning it) and subsequently adding deliberate dosimetric outliers. Clinical plans from 70 head and neck cancer patients comprised the uncleaned (UC) ModelUC, from which outliers were cleaned (C) to create ModelC. The last 5 to 40 patients of ModelC were replanned with no attempt to spare the salivary glands. These substantial dosimetric outliers were reintroduced to the model in increments of 5, creating Model5 to Model40 (Model5-40). These models were used to create plans for a 10-patient evaluation group. Plans from ModelUC and ModelC, and ModelC and Model5-40 were compared on the basis of boost (B) and elective (E) target volume homogeneity indexes (HIB/HIE) and mean doses to oral cavity, composite salivary glands (compsal) and swallowing (compswal) structures. On average, outlier removal (ModelC vs ModelUC) had minimal effects on HIB/HIE (0%-0.4%) and sparing of organs at risk (mean dose difference to oral cavity and compsal/compswal were ≤0.4 Gy). Model5-10 marginally improved compsal sparing, whereas adding a larger number of outliers (Model20-40) led to deteriorations in compsal up to 3.9 Gy, on average. These increases are modest compared to the 14.9 Gy dose increases in the added outlier plans, due to the placement of optimization objectives below the inferior boundary of the dose-volume histogram-predicted range. Overall, dosimetric outlier removal from or addition of 5 to 10 outliers to a 70-patient model had marginal effects on resulting plan quality. Although the addition of >20 outliers deteriorated plan quality, the

  8. Double global optimum genetic algorithm-particle swarm optimization-based welding robot path planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewu; Shi, Yingpan; Ding, Dongyan; Gu, Xingsheng

    2016-02-01

    Spot-welding robots have a wide range of applications in manufacturing industries. There are usually many weld joints in a welding task, and a reasonable welding path to traverse these weld joints has a significant impact on welding efficiency. Traditional manual path planning techniques can handle a few weld joints effectively, but when the number of weld joints is large, it is difficult to obtain the optimal path. The traditional manual path planning method is also time consuming and inefficient, and cannot guarantee optimality. Double global optimum genetic algorithm-particle swarm optimization (GA-PSO) based on the GA and PSO algorithms is proposed to solve the welding robot path planning problem, where the shortest collision-free paths are used as the criteria to optimize the welding path. Besides algorithm effectiveness analysis and verification, the simulation results indicate that the algorithm has strong searching ability and practicality, and is suitable for welding robot path planning.

  9. Geospatial Based Information System Development in Public Administration for Sustainable Development and Planning in Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouziokas, Georgios N.

    2016-09-01

    It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several programming languages and programming tools and also a Database Management System (DBMS) for storing and managing urban data of many kinds. Furthermore, geographic information systems were incorporated into the system in order to make possible to the authorities to deal with issues of spatial nature such as spatial planning. The developed system provides a technology based management of geospatial information, environmental and crime data of urban environment aiming at improving public decision making and also at contributing to a more efficient sustainable development and planning.

  10. Interactive Dose Shaping - efficient strategies for CPU-based real-time treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenhein, P.; Kamerling, C. P.; Oelfke, U.

    2014-03-01

    Conventional intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning is based on the traditional concept of iterative optimization using an objective function specified by dose volume histogram constraints for pre-segmented VOIs. This indirect approach suffers from unavoidable shortcomings: i) The control of local dose features is limited to segmented VOIs. ii) Any objective function is a mathematical measure of the plan quality, i.e., is not able to define the clinically optimal treatment plan. iii) Adapting an existing plan to changed patient anatomy as detected by IGRT procedures is difficult. To overcome these shortcomings, we introduce the method of Interactive Dose Shaping (IDS) as a new paradigm for IMRT treatment planning. IDS allows for a direct and interactive manipulation of local dose features in real-time. The key element driving the IDS process is a two-step Dose Modification and Recovery (DMR) strategy: A local dose modification is initiated by the user which translates into modified fluence patterns. This also affects existing desired dose features elsewhere which is compensated by a heuristic recovery process. The IDS paradigm was implemented together with a CPU-based ultra-fast dose calculation and a 3D GUI for dose manipulation and visualization. A local dose feature can be implemented via the DMR strategy within 1-2 seconds. By imposing a series of local dose features, equal plan qualities could be achieved compared to conventional planning for prostate and head and neck cases within 1-2 minutes. The idea of Interactive Dose Shaping for treatment planning has been introduced and first applications of this concept have been realized.

  11. Compass model-based quality assurance for stereotactic VMAT treatment plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valve, Assi; Keyriläinen, Jani; Kulmala, Jarmo

    2017-12-01

    To use Compass as a model-based quality assurance (QA) tool for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plans calculated with Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS). Twenty clinical stereotactic VMAT SBRT and SRT treatment plans were blindly selected for evaluation. Those plans included four different treatment sites: prostate, brain, lung and body. The plans were evaluated against dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters and 2D and 3D gamma analysis. The dose calculated with Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) was compared to Compass calculated dose (CCD) and Compass reconstructed dose (CRD). The maximum differences in mean dose of planning target volume (PTV) were 2.7 ± 1.0% between AAA and Acuros XB calculation algorithm TPS dose, -7.6 ± 3.5% between Eclipse TPS dose and CCD dose and -5.9 ± 3.7% between Eclipse TPS dose and CRD dose for both Eclipse calculation algorithms, respectively. 2D gamma analysis was not able to identify all the cases that 3D gamma analysis specified for further verification. Compass is suitable for QA of SBRT and SRT treatment plans. However, the QA process should include wide set of DVH-based dose parameters and 3D gamma analysis should be the preferred method when performing clinical patient QA. The results suggest that the Compass should not be used for smaller field sizes than 3 × 3 cm 2 or the beam model should be adjusted separately for both small (FS ≤ 3 cm) and large (FS > 3 cm) field sizes. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of plan quality assurance models for prostate cancer patients based on fully automatically generated Pareto-optimal treatment plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibing; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben; Petit, Steven F

    2016-06-07

    IMRT planning with commercial Treatment Planning Systems (TPSs) is a trial-and-error process. Consequently, the quality of treatment plans may not be consistent among patients, planners and institutions. Recently, different plan quality assurance (QA) models have been proposed, that could flag and guide improvement of suboptimal treatment plans. However, the performance of these models was validated using plans that were created using the conventional trail-and-error treatment planning process. Consequently, it is challenging to assess and compare quantitatively the accuracy of different treatment planning QA models. Therefore, we created a golden standard dataset of consistently planned Pareto-optimal IMRT plans for 115 prostate patients. Next, the dataset was used to assess the performance of a treatment planning QA model that uses the overlap volume histogram (OVH). 115 prostate IMRT plans were fully automatically planned using our in-house developed TPS Erasmus-iCycle. An existing OVH model was trained on the plans of 58 of the patients. Next it was applied to predict DVHs of the rectum, bladder and anus of the remaining 57 patients. The predictions were compared with the achieved values of the golden standard plans for the rectum D mean, V 65, and V 75, and D mean of the anus and the bladder. For the rectum, the prediction errors (predicted-achieved) were only  -0.2  ±  0.9 Gy (mean  ±  1 SD) for D mean,-1.0  ±  1.6% for V 65, and  -0.4  ±  1.1% for V 75. For D mean of the anus and the bladder, the prediction error was 0.1  ±  1.6 Gy and 4.8  ±  4.1 Gy, respectively. Increasing the training cohort to 114 patients only led to minor improvements. A dataset of consistently planned Pareto-optimal prostate IMRT plans was generated. This dataset can be used to train new, and validate and compare existing treatment planning QA models, and has been made publicly available. The OVH model was highly accurate

  13. Mainstreaming ecosystem-based adaptation: transformation toward sustainability in urban governance and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wamsler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ecosystem-based adaptation is advocated at international, national, and regional levels. The concept is thought to foster sustainability transitions and is receiving increasing interest from academic and governmental bodies alike. However, there is little theory regarding the pathways for its systematic implementation. It furthermore remains unclear to what degree the concept is already applied in urban planning practice, how it is integrated into existing planning structures and processes, and what drivers exist for further integration. Against this background, this study examines potential ways to sustainably mainstream ecosystem-based adaptation into urban planning. Eight municipalities in Southern Germany were investigated to analyze the processes of mainstreaming ecosystem-based adaptation into current planning practice. Although the mainstreaming entry points for ecosystem-based adaptation were identified to be appreciably different, the results of the study show how mainstreaming has generally led to patterns of change in: (1 on-the-ground measures, (2 organizational structures and assets, (3 formal and informal policies and instruments, (4 external cooperation and networking, and (5 the general working language. In all these areas, ecosystem-based adaptation to heat and flood risk is highly compartmentalized. Furthermore, although scholars have drawn attention to the risk of "mainstreaming overload," the results suggest that at the local level, the integration of ecosystem-based adaptation is strongly driven by departments' experience in mainstreaming other cross-cutting issues, namely environmental planning, climate change mitigation, and disaster risk management. Based on the findings, ways to leverage sustainability transitions via mainstreaming are discussed. It is concluded that systematic mainstreaming is a promising avenue for initiating and promoting local transitions and transformative adaptation. The study

  14. Demand-based urban forest planning using high-resolution remote sensing and AHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolanuvada, Srinivasa Raju; Mariappan, Muneeswaran; Krishnan, Vani

    2016-05-01

    Urban forest planning is important for providing better urban ecosystem services and conserve the natural carbon sinks inside the urban area. In this study, a demand based urban forest plan was developed for Chennai city by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Population density, Tree cover, Air quality index and Carbon stocks are the parameters were considered in this study. Tree cover and Above Ground Biomass (AGB) layers were prepared at a resolution of 1m from airborne LiDAR and aerial photos. The ranks and weights are assigned by the spatial priority using AHP. The results show that, the actual status of the urban forest is not adequate to provide ecosystem services on spatial priority. From this perspective, we prepared a demand based plan for improving the urban ecosystem.

  15. Interactive Decision-Support Tool for Risk-Based Radiation Therapy Plan Comparison for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodin, N. Patrik [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States); Maraldo, Maja V., E-mail: dra.maraldo@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Aznar, Marianne C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Niels Bohr Institute, Faculty of Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Vogelius, Ivan R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Petersen, Peter M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Oncology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Hematology, Rigshospitalet, Faculty of Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bentzen, Søren M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Specht, Lena [Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Oncology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Hematology, Rigshospitalet, Faculty of Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: To present a novel tool that allows quantitative estimation and visualization of the risk of various relevant normal tissue endpoints to aid in treatment plan comparison and clinical decision making in radiation therapy (RT) planning for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Methods and Materials: A decision-support tool for risk-based, individualized treatment plan comparison is presented. The tool displays dose–response relationships, derived from published clinical data, for a number of relevant side effects and thereby provides direct visualization of the trade-off between these endpoints. The Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic reports were applied, complemented with newer data where available. A “relevance score” was assigned to each data source, reflecting how relevant the input data are to current RT for HL. Results: The tool is applied to visualize the local steepness of dose–response curves to drive the reoptimization of a volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plan for an HL patient with head-and-neck involvement. We also use this decision-support tool to visualize and quantitatively evaluate the trade-off between a 3-dimensional conformal RT plan and a volumetric modulated arc therapy plan for a patient with mediastinal HL. Conclusion: This multiple-endpoint decision-support tool provides quantitative risk estimates to supplement the clinical judgment of the radiation oncologist when comparing different RT options.

  16. Overview of energy-conserving development planning and design techniques based on five case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Findings and recommendations are presented of a review of five case studies of ways to conserve energy through development planning and site design in communities. Two approaches were used. In the first approach, a conventional, pre-existing plan was analyzed to determine potential energy use. Once energy-conservation options were identified and evaluated, the conventional plan was modified by employing those options. This approach was used in The Woodlands, Burke Center, and Radisson studies. In the second approach, energy-conservation options are independently identified and evaluated. Those options that passed specific criteria screening were then utilized in developing one or more totally new plans based on energy objectives. This approach was used in Greenbrier and Shenandoah. Radisson is a new town on the outskirts of Syracuse, New York. Greenbrier is a 3000 acre planned community adjacent to Norfolk and Virginia Beach. Shenandoah is a proposed new town in the Atlanta urbanized area. The Woodlands is a new community under development north of Houston. Burke Center is a residential planned unit development in Fairfax County, Virgnia. (MCW)

  17. Iranian EFL Teachers’ Attitudes towards Lesson Planning based on their Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Heidari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine Iranian EFL teachers’ attitudes towards lesson plan based on their gender. The research is a quantitative study in which the data is obtained to get a great understanding on the relationship between lesson plan of Iranian English as Foreign Language (EFL teachers and teachers’ gender. The population included 93 teachers in Eyvan and Ilam, Iran high schools and institutes. Participants in this study answered a Modified Questionnaire, adopted from Ramaila et al (2014.  Independent sample t-test was computed to determine the difference between teachers’ attitudes towards lesson plan and their gender. Through statistically analysis it was found that, the female teachers were more interested in use of lesson plan than the male teachers. This paper recommends that more seminars workshops and in-service courses be organized for all science teachers to help train and boost their attitudes on the significance of lesson plans in teaching/learning of English in schools. Keywords: Teachers’ Attitudes; Lesson Plan; Gender; Iranian EFL

  18. REGULATORY METHODS OF EFFECTIVE CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT BASED ON PLANNING OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRONEVYTSKYI S. P

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Current state building standard SCN 360-92** «Planning and development of territories of population area» does not perform its primary function of construction management during project construction works, because their development and construction works were carried out during of their development in conditions of administrative-planned system of construction management, implementation of construction works by service of a single customer, the design of residential area of housing construction without private property rights for land area. All this determined the peculiarities of the rationing planning and building of territories, not tied to the land area of a specific construction project. Methodology. To provide the implementation of the national engineering and construction works to the technical standards of the European Union, elimination of corruption schemes in construction management, it is necessary correcting and improving of state construction norms on planning and development of territories of population area with the definition of the limit indicators of construction land area reclamation. Conclusion. The new postulates for the management of construction works to provide sustainable urban development are determined. The need of renewal standard base of territorial planning of construction is determined in countries with economies in transition in accordance with the standards of planning the construction in the countries of the European Union. Originality. The comparative analysis of normative-legal documents of some countries is shown . Practical value. Include proposals for the regulation of construction use of land area for development are proposed .

  19. Improving rural electricity system planning: An agent-based model for stakeholder engagement and decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, Jose F.; Miller, Shelie; Johnson, Jeremiah X.; Riolo, Rick R.

    2017-01-01

    Energy planners in regions with low rates of electrification face complex and high-risk challenges in selecting appropriate generating technologies and grid centralization. To better inform such processes, we present an Agent-Based Model (ABM) that facilitates engagement with stakeholders. This approach evaluates long-term plans using the cost of delivered electricity, resource mix, jobs and economic stimulus created within communities, and decentralized generation mix of the system, with results provided in a spatially-resolved format. This approach complements existing electricity planning methods (e.g., Integrated Resource Planning) by offering novel evaluation criteria based on typical stakeholder preferences. We demonstrate the utility of this approach with a case study based on a “blank-slate” scenario, which begins without generation or transmission infrastructure, for the long-term rural renewable energy plans of Liberia, West Africa. We consider five electrification strategies: prioritizing larger populations, deploying large resources, creating jobs, providing economic stimulus, and step-wise cost minimization. Through the case study we demonstrate how this approach can be used to engage stakeholders, supplement more established energy planning tools, and illustrate the effects of stakeholder decisions and preferences on the performance of the system. - Highlights: • An Agent Based Model, BABSTER, for electrification planning is presented. • BABSTER provides a highly engaging spatially resolved interface. • Allows flexible investigation of decision strategies with real-world incentives. • We show that decision strategies directly impact centralization and resource choice. • It is illustrated through the case study of Liberia, West Africa.

  20. Comparison of provider and plan-based targeting strategies for disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, Ann M; Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Tao, Min; Chang, Hsiu-Ching; Luo, Zhehui

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to describe and contrast the targeting methods and engagement outcomes for health plan-delivered disease management with those of a provider-delivered care management program. Health plan epidemiologists partnered with university health services researchers to conduct a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods study of a 2-year pilot. We used semi-structured interviews to assess the characteristics of program-targeting strategies, and calculated target and engagement rates from clinical encounter data. Five physician organizations (POs) with 51 participating practices implemented care management. Health plan member lists were sent monthly to the practices to accept patients, and then the practices sent back data reports regarding targeting and engagement in care management. Among patients accepted by the POs, we compared those who were targeted and engaged by POs with those who met health plan targeting criteria. The health plan's targeting process combined claims algorithms and employer group preferences to identify candidates for disease management; on the other hand, several different factors influenced PO practices' targeting approaches, including clinical and personal knowledge of the patients, health assessment information, and availability of disease-relevant programs. Practices targeted a higher percentage of patients for care management than the health plan (38% vs 16%), where only 7% of these patients met the targeting criteria of both. Practices engaged a higher percentage of their targeted patients than the health plan (50% vs 13%). The health plan's claims-driven targeting approach and the clinically based strategies of practices both provide advantages; an optimal model may be to combine the strengths of each approach to maximize benefits in care management.

  1. Motion planning for autonomous vehicle based on radial basis function neural network in unstructured environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajia; Zhao, Pan; Liang, Huawei; Mei, Tao

    2014-09-18

    The autonomous vehicle is an automated system equipped with features like environment perception, decision-making, motion planning, and control and execution technology. Navigating in an unstructured and complex environment is a huge challenge for autonomous vehicles, due to the irregular shape of road, the requirement of real-time planning, and the nonholonomic constraints of vehicle. This paper presents a motion planning method, based on the Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network, to guide the autonomous vehicle in unstructured environments. The proposed algorithm extracts the drivable region from the perception grid map based on the global path, which is available in the road network. The sample points are randomly selected in the drivable region, and a gradient descent method is used to train the RBF network. The parameters of the motion-planning algorithm are verified through the simulation and experiment. It is observed that the proposed approach produces a flexible, smooth, and safe path that can fit any road shape. The method is implemented on autonomous vehicle and verified against many outdoor scenes; furthermore, a comparison of proposed method with the existing well-known Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT) method is presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method is highly effective in planning the vehicle path and offers better motion quality.

  2. Dynamic Fuzzy-Logic Based Path Planning for Mobility-Assisted Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomari, Abdullah; Phillips, William; Aslam, Nauman; Comeau, Frank

    2017-08-18

    Mobile anchor path planning techniques have provided as an alternative option for node localization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In such context, path planning is a movement pattern where a mobile anchor node's movement is designed in order to achieve a maximum localization ratio possible with a minimum error rate. Typically, the mobility path planning is designed in advance, which is applicable when the mobile anchor has sufficient sources of energy and time. However, when the mobility movement is restricted or limited, a dynamic path planning design is needed. This paper proposes a novel distributed range-free movement mechanism for mobility-assisted localization in WSNs when the mobile anchor's movement is limited. The designed movement is formed in real-time pattern using a fuzzy-logic approach based on the information received from the network and the nodes' deployment. Our proposed model, Fuzzy-Logic based Path Planning for mobile anchor-assisted Localization in WSNs (FLPPL), offers superior results in several metrics including both localization accuracy and localization ratio in comparison to other similar works.

  3. ParleE : An adaptive plan-based event appraisal model of emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, The Duy; Heylen, Dirk; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Anton; Jarke, Matthias; Lakemeyer, Gerhard; Koehler, Jana

    2002-01-01

    We propose ParleE, a quantitative, flexible and adaptive model of emotions for a conversational agent in a multi-agent environment capable of multimodal communication. ParleE appraises events based on learning and a probabilistic planning algorithm. ParleE also models personality and motivational

  4. Predicting Study Abroad Intentions Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnusenberg, Oliver; de Jong, Pieter; Goel, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    The emphasis on study abroad programs is growing in the academic context as U.S. based universities seek to incorporate a global perspective in education. Using a model that has underpinnings in the theory of planned behavior (TPB), we predict students' intention to participate in short-term study abroad program. We use TPB to identify behavioral,…

  5. Development of Lesson Plans and Student Worksheets Based Socio-Scientific Issues on Pollution Environmental Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, S.; Meyliana, M.; Arlingga, A.; Reny, R.; Siahaan, P.; Hernani, H.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to develop lesson plans and student worksheets based socio-scientific issues on pollution environmental topic for seventh-grade junior high school students. Environmental pollution topic split into several subtopics namely air pollution, water pollution and soil pollution. The composing of lesson plans were developed based on socio-scientific issues with five stages, namely (1) Motivate; (2) Challenge; (3) Collect scientific evidence; (4) Analyse the evidence; (5) Build knowledge and make connections; and (6) Use evidence. While student worksheets contain articles on socio-scientific issues, practice, and there are a few questions to determine students’ reasoning. The method that is used in this research is research and development (R & D method). Development model used in this study is a model of Plomp that consists of four stages, namely: (1) Initial Research; (2) Design; (3) Realization or Construction; (4) Testing, evaluation and revision; (5) Implementation, while the research was limited to the fourth stage. Lesson plans and student worksheets based on socio-scientific issues was validated through an expert validation. The result showed that lesson plans and student worksheets based socio-scientific issues on pollution theme have a very decent and be able to apply in science classroom.

  6. Adaptive Path Planning for a Vision-Based quadrotor in an Obstacle Field : Beijing, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junell, J.L.; van Kampen, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a real life approach for quadrotor obstacle avoidance in indoor flight. A color-based vision approach for obstacle detection is used to good effect conjointly with an adaptive path planning algorithm. The presented task is to move about a set indoor space while avoiding

  7. Responding to Hostility: Evidence-Based Guidance for Communication during Planned Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kim Sydow; Carmichael, Pierson; Naidoo, Jefrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Hostile challenges to planned organization change are common and challenging to deal with effectively. Little research has explained successful responses to such stakeholder hostility. To address this gap, we use the concept of readiness to characterize the content of hostile challenges. We also use rhetorical strategies based on speech act theory…

  8. Applying Recreation Survey Results to Recreation Planning for Water-Based Recreation Areas in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett Duncan; John Mintz; Douglas Rischbieter; John Baas

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on identifying applications of recreation survey results in the context of water-based recreation planning. Recreation researchers have sometimes been criticized for conducting research that is weak in applied value (Cordell 1999). The paper also focuses on the important, but sometimes forgotten role that private entities play (e.g., Pacific Gas and...

  9. Phonological and Executive Working Memory in L2 Task-Based Speech Planning and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhisheng

    2016-01-01

    The present study sets out to explore the distinctive roles played by two working memory (WM) components in various aspects of L2 task-based speech planning and performance. A group of 40 post-intermediate proficiency level Chinese EFL learners took part in the empirical study. Following the tenets and basic principles of the…

  10. A CALL-Based Lesson Plan for Teaching Reading Comprehension to Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshsima, Hooshang; Khosravani, Mahboobeh

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this descriptive research is to provide a CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning)-based lesson plan for teaching reading comprehension to Iranian intermediate EFL learners. CALL is a new way of learning and teaching language. It is proved that CALL mainly has positive effects on educational contexts. Although teachers…

  11. Planning and Facilitating Debriefs of Experiential Learning Activities in Skills-Based Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Judith A.; Moyer, Matthew T.; Gasque, Lisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper highlights the importance of conducting structured, student-centered discussions, known as debriefs, following experiential learning activities in health education. Drawing upon Kolb's experiential learning theory and literature from scholars in simulation-based training, the authors outline key considerations for planning and…

  12. Participatory scenario planning in place-based social-ecological research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozas, Elisa Oteros; Martín-López, Berta; Daw, Tim M.

    2015-01-01

    Participatory scenario planning (PSP) is an increasingly popular tool in place-based environmental research for evaluating alternative futures of social-ecological systems. Although a range of guidelines on PSP methods are available in the scientific and grey literature, there is a need to reflect...

  13. Experience Report: Constraint-Based Modelling and Simulation of Railway Emergency Response Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Sandberg, Lene

    2016-01-01

    We report on experiences from a case study applying a constraint-based process-modelling and -simulation tool, dcrgraphs.net, to the modelling and rehearsal of railway emergency response plans with domain experts. The case study confirmed the approach as a viable means for domain experts to analyse...

  14. A discrete event simulation design for block-based maintenance planning under random machine usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Bram

    2015-01-01

    Existing research on block-based preventive maintenance planning generally assumes that machines are either used continuously, or that times until failure do not depend on the actual usage of machines. In practice, however, it is often more realistic to assume that machines are not used continuously

  15. Determinants of oral hygiene behavior : a study based on the theory of planned behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk-Werkhoven, Y.A.; Dijkstra, Arie; van der Schans, C.P.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop an index for oral hygiene behavior (OHB) and to examine potential predictors of this actual behavior based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Measures of oral health knowledge (OHK) and the expected effect of having healthy teeth on social

  16. A Marketing Plan for Recruiting Students into Pharmacy School-based Graduate Programs. A Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdford, David A.; Stratton, Timothy P.

    2000-01-01

    Outlines a marketing plan for recruiting students into pharmacy school-based graduate programs, particularly into social and administrative sciences. Addresses challenges and opportunities when recruiting, the need to clearly define the "product" that graduate programs are trying to sell to potential students, types of students…

  17. Leveraging Literacies through Collaborative, Source-Based Planning and Teaching in Social Studies and Language Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Nancy; Weaver, Joanna; Fletcher, Jamie; Connor, Bryce; Thomas, Angela; Ross, Cindy

    2018-01-01

    The value of preparing students for college, careers, and civic life is a shared outcome of social studies and language arts teachers. This study explores how developing content and civic literacy to these ends can be fortified through language arts and social studies teacher collaboration in source-based planning and teaching. Although numerous…

  18. The impact of automatic enrollment in 401(k) plans on future retirement accumulations: a simulation study based on plan design modifications of large plan sponsors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerhei, Jack

    2010-04-01

    SIGNIFICANCE OF AUTO-ENROLLMENT: Automatic enrollment of participants in 401(k) plans, which was encouraged by provisions in the Pension Protect Act of 2006, is designed to overcome the drawbacks of voluntary enrollment by getting more workers to save in their work place retirement plan. Auto-enrollment for 401(k) plans has been demonstrated by previous EBRI research to have substantial potential benefits for some employees. NEW EBRI RESEARCH: This EBRI study analyzes plan-specific data of 1,000 large defined contribution plans for salaried employees from Benefit SpecSelect (Hewitt Associates LLC) in 2005 and 2009 to compare a subsample of plan sponsors that did not have auto-enrollment in 2005 but that had adopted it in 2009. Actual plan information on both actual auto-enrollment and actual match rate information were coded both before and after adoption of auto-enrollment from 225 large 401(k) plan sponsors and found that the average change was positive under auto-enrollment in each of the following three categories: The first-tier match rate, the effective match rate, the average total employer contribution rate. MODELING ANALYSIS: This analysis created a series of simulation programs using these data. The analysis indicates that the adoption of automatic enrollment in 401(k) plans is likely to have a very significant positive impact (even greater than EBRI projected in 2008) in generating additional retirement savings for many workers, especially for young and low-income workers: Under baseline assumptions, the median 401(k) accumulations for the lowest-income quartile of workers currently age 25-29 (assuming all 401(k) plans were voluntary enrollment plans as typified by the 225 large plan sponsors described above) would only be 0.08 times final earnings at age 65. However, if all 401(k) plans are assumed to be using the large plan sponsor auto-enrollment provisions, the median 401(k) accumulations for the lowest-income quartile jumps to 4.96 times final

  19. Coverage planning in computer-assisted ablation based on Genetic Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongliang; Guo, Weian; Sam Ge, Shuzhi; Lim, Wancheng

    2014-06-01

    An ablation planning system plays a pivotal role in tumor ablation procedures, as it provides a dry run to guide the surgeons in a complicated anatomical environment. Over-ablation, over-perforation or under-ablation may result in complications during the treatments. An optimal solution is desired to have complete tumor coverage with minimal invasiveness, including minimal number of ablations and minimal number of perforation trajectories. As the planning of tumor ablation is a multi-objective problem, it is challenging to obtain optimal covering solutions based on clinician׳s experiences. Meanwhile, it is effective for computer-assisted systems to decide a set of optimal plans. This paper proposes a novel approach of integrating a computational optimization algorithm into the ablation planning system. The proposed ablation planning system is designed based on the following objectives: to achieve complete tumor coverage and to minimize the number of ablations, number of needle trajectories and over-ablation to the healthy tissue. These objectives are taken into account using a Genetic Algorithm, which is capable of generating feasible solutions within a constrained search space. The candidate ablation plans can be encoded in generations of chromosomes, which subsequently evolve based on a fitness function. In this paper, an exponential weight-criterion fitness function has been designed by incorporating constraint parameters that were reflective of the different objectives. According to the test results, the proposed planner is able to generate the set of optimal solutions for tumor ablation problem, thereby fulfilling the aforementioned multiple objectives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Web-based Tool for Transparent, Collaborative Urban Water System Planning for Monterrey, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinheimer, D. E.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Garza Díaz, L. E.; Ramírez, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    Recent rapid advances in web technologies and cloud computing show great promise for facilitating collaboration and transparency in water planning efforts. Water resources planning is increasingly in the context of a rapidly urbanizing world, particularly in developing countries. In such countries with democratic traditions, the degree of transparency and collaboration in water planning can mean the difference between success and failure of water planning efforts. This is exemplified in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, where an effort to build a new long-distance aqueduct to increase water supply to the city dramatically failed due to lack of transparency and top-down planning. To help address, we used a new, web-based water system modeling platform, called OpenAgua, to develop a prototype decision support system for water planning in Monterrey. OpenAgua is designed to promote transparency and collaboration, as well as provide strong, cloud-based, water system modeling capabilities. We developed and assessed five water management options intended to increase water supply yield and/or reliability, a dominant water management concern in Latin America generally: 1) a new long-distance source (the previously-rejected project), 2) a new nearby reservoir, 3) expansion/re-operation of an existing major canal, 4) desalination, and 5) industrial water reuse. Using the integrated modeling and analytic capabilities of OpenAgua, and some customization, we assessed the performance of these options for water supply yield and reliability to help identify the most promising ones. In presenting this assessment, we demonstrate the viability of using online, cloud-based modeling systems for improving transparency and collaboration in decision making, reducing the gap between citizens, policy makers and water managers, and future directions.

  1. Planning diagnostic imaging work-up strategies using case-based reasoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    ISIS is a developmental decision support system that helps physicians select diagnostic imaging procedures. It uses case-based reasoning, an artificial-intelligence approach that emphasizes reasoning and planning from prior experience. The development, training, and evaluation of a prototype system were used to guide the development of ISIS. To realize a clinically useful system, particular emphasis has been placed on increasing the depth and breadth of case-based knowledge, enhancing the exp...

  2. AWARE-P: a collaborative, system-based IAM planning software

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, S. T.; Vitorino, D.

    2011-01-01

    The AWARE-P project aims to promote the application of integrated and risk-based approaches to the rehabilitation of urban water supply and wastewater drainage systems. Central to the project is the development of a software platform based on a set of computational components, which assist in the analyses and decision support involved in the planning process for sustainable infrastructural asset management. The AWARE-P software system brings together onto a common platform the inf...

  3. 3D Path Planning of UAV Based on Improved A * Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhe-Tong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3D path planning method based on A* algorithm is proposed. This method introduces the constraints of UAV and line-of-sight communication with ground stations, and it combines the UAV’s maneuverability, mission requirements and terrain information and other constraints together to avoid terrain and threat. The method of extending the child nodes to the 3D detailed position calculation is also provided. The simulation is realized by Unity 3D software, and the simulation results show that the proposed method can be used to plan the 3D path of UAV which meets UAV constraints.

  4. A Simulation Based Approach for Contingency Planning for Aircraft Turnaround Operation System Activities in Airline Hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleye, Sanya; Chung, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Commercial aircraft undergo a significant number of maintenance and logistical activities during the turnaround operation at the departure gate. By analyzing the sequencing of these activities, more effective turnaround contingency plans may be developed for logistical and maintenance disruptions. Turnaround contingency plans are particularly important as any kind of delay in a hub based system may cascade into further delays with subsequent connections. The contingency sequencing of the maintenance and logistical turnaround activities were analyzed using a combined network and computer simulation modeling approach. Experimental analysis of both current and alternative policies provides a framework to aid in more effective tactical decision making.

  5. GIS-Based emergency and evacuation planning for volcanic hazards in New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, J. W.; Sabel, C. E.; Blumenthal, E.

    2005-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provide a range of techniques which allow ready access to data, and the opportunity to overlay graphical location-based information for ease of interpretation. They can be used to solve complex planning and management problems. All phases of emergency management...... (reduction, readiness, response and recovery) can benefit from CIS, including applications related to transportation systems, a critical element in managing effective lifelines in an emergency. This is particularly true immediately before and during a volcanic eruption. The potential for volcanic activity...... used in emergency management, and suggests how it can be used in evacuation planning....

  6. Acceptance Sampling Plans Based on Truncated Life Tests for Sushila Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Ibrahim Al-Omari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An acceptance sampling plan problem based on truncated life tests when the lifetime following a Sushila distribution is considered in this paper. For various acceptance numbers, confidence levels and values of the ratio between fixed experiment time and particular mean lifetime, the minimum sample sizes required to ascertain a specified mean life were found. The operating characteristic function values of the suggested sampling plans and the producer’s risk are presented. Some tables are provided and the results are illustrated by an example of a real data set.

  7. Optimal running and planning of a biomass-based energy production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruglieri, Maurizio; Liberti, Leo

    2008-01-01

    We propose mathematical programming models for solving problems arising from planning and running an energy production process based on burning biomasses. The models take into account different aspects of the problem: determination of the biomasses to produce and/or buy, transportation decisions to convey the materials to the respective plants, and plant site locations. Whereas the 'running model' is linear, we propose two 'planning models', both of which are mixed-integer nonlinear programming problems. We show that a spatial branch-and-bound type algorithm applied to them is guaranteed to converge to an exact optimum in a finite number of steps

  8. Autonomously Generating Operations Sequences for a Mars Rover Using Artificial Intelligence-Based Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, R.; Mutz, D.; Estlin, T.; Chien, S.; Backes, P.; Norris, J.; Tran, D.; Cooper, B.; Rabideau, G.; Mishkin, A.; Maxwell, S.

    2001-07-01

    This article discusses a proof-of-concept prototype for ground-based automatic generation of validated rover command sequences from high-level science and engineering activities. This prototype is based on ASPEN, the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment. This artificial intelligence (AI)-based planning and scheduling system will automatically generate a command sequence that will execute within resource constraints and satisfy flight rules. An automated planning and scheduling system encodes rover design knowledge and uses search and reasoning techniques to automatically generate low-level command sequences while respecting rover operability constraints, science and engineering preferences, environmental predictions, and also adhering to hard temporal constraints. This prototype planning system has been field-tested using the Rocky 7 rover at JPL and will be field-tested on more complex rovers to prove its effectiveness before transferring the technology to flight operations for an upcoming NASA mission. Enabling goal-driven commanding of planetary rovers greatly reduces the requirements for highly skilled rover engineering personnel. This in turn greatly reduces mission operations costs. In addition, goal-driven commanding permits a faster response to changes in rover state (e.g., faults) or science discoveries by removing the time-consuming manual sequence validation process, allowing rapid "what-if" analyses, and thus reducing overall cycle times.

  9. On the role of model-based monitoring for adaptive planning under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Luciano; Kwakkel, Jan; Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Mariolijn

    2016-04-01

    , triggered by the challenge of uncertainty in operational control, may offer solutions from which monitoring for adaptive planning can benefit. Specifically: (i) in control, observations are incorporated into the model through data assimilation, updating the present state, boundary conditions, and parameters based on new observations, diminishing the shadow of the past; (ii) adaptive control is a way to modify the characteristics of the internal model, incorporating new knowledge on the system, countervailing the inhibition of learning; and (iii) in closed-loop control, a continuous system update equips the controller with "inherent robustness", i.e. to capacity to adapts to new conditions even when these were not initially considered. We aim to explore how inherent robustness addresses the challenge of surprise. Innovations in model-based control might help to improve and adapt the models used to support adaptive delta management to new information (reducing uncertainty). Moreover, this would offer a starting point for using these models not only in the design of adaptive plans, but also as part of the monitoring. The proposed research requires multidisciplinary cooperation between control theory, the policy sciences, and integrated assessment modeling.

  10. Three-dimensional Path Planning for Underwater Vehicles Based on an Improved Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional path planning for underwater vehicles is an important problem that focuses on optimizing the route with consideration of various constraints in a complex underwater environment. In this paper, an improved ant colony optimization (IACO algorithm based on pheromone exclusion is proposed to solve the underwater vehicle 3D path planning problem. The IACO algorithm can balance the tasks of exploration and development in the ant search path, and enable the ants in the search process to explore initially and develop subsequently. Then, the underwater vehicle can find the safe path by connecting the chosen nodes of the 3D mesh while avoiding the threat area. This new approach can overcome common disadvantages of the basic ant colony algorithm, such as falling into local extremum, poor quality, and low accuracy. Experimental comparative results demonstrate that this proposed IACO method is more effective and feasible in underwater vehicle 3D path planning than the basic ACO model.

  11. Enhancing Evacuation Plans with a Situation Awareness System Based on End-User Knowledge Provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Morales

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent disasters have shown that having clearly defined preventive procedures and decisions is a critical component that minimizes evacuation hazards and ensures a rapid and successful evolution of evacuation plans. In this context, we present our Situation-Aware System for enhancing Evacuation Plans (SASEP system, which allows creating end-user business rules that technically support the specific events, conditions and actions related to evacuation plans. An experimental validation was carried out where 32 people faced a simulated emergency situation, 16 of them using SASEP and the other 16 using a legacy system based on static signs. From the results obtained, we compare both techniques and discuss in which situations SASEP offers a better evacuation route option, confirming that it is highly valuable when there is a threat in the evacuation route. In addition, a study about user satisfaction using both systems is presented showing in which cases the systems are assessed as satisfactory, relevant and not frustrating.

  12. Evaluation of DVH-based treatment plan verification in addition to gamma passing rates for head and neck IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Ruurd; Wauben, David J.L.; Groot, Martijn de; Steenbakkers, Roel J.H.M.; Bijl, Henk P.; Godart, Jeremy; Veld, Aart A. van’t; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Korevaar, Erik W.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Treatment plan verification of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is generally performed with the gamma index (GI) evaluation method, which is difficult to extrapolate to clinical implications. Incorporating Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) information can compensate for this. The aim of this study was to evaluate DVH-based treatment plan verification in addition to the GI evaluation method for head and neck IMRT. Materials and methods: Dose verifications of 700 subsequent head and neck cancer IMRT treatment plans were categorised according to gamma and DVH-based action levels. Fractionation dependent absolute dose limits were chosen. The results of the gamma- and DVH-based evaluations were compared to the decision of the medical physicist and/or radiation oncologist for plan acceptance. Results: Nearly all treatment plans (99.7%) were accepted for treatment according to the GI evaluation combined with DVH-based verification. Two treatment plans were re-planned according to DVH-based verification, which would have been accepted using the evaluation alone. DVH-based verification increased insight into dose delivery to patient specific structures increasing confidence that the treatment plans were clinically acceptable. Moreover, DVH-based action levels clearly distinguished the role of the medical physicist and radiation oncologist within the Quality Assurance (QA) procedure. Conclusions: DVH-based treatment plan verification complements the GI evaluation method improving head and neck IMRT-QA

  13. A new Monte Carlo-based treatment plan optimization approach for intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongbao; Tian, Zhen; Shi, Feng; Song, Ting; Wu, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yaqiang; Jiang, Steve; Jia, Xun

    2015-04-07

    Intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) plan optimization needs beamlet dose distributions. Pencil-beam or superposition/convolution type algorithms are typically used because of their high computational speed. However, inaccurate beamlet dose distributions may mislead the optimization process and hinder the resulting plan quality. To solve this problem, the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation method has been used to compute all beamlet doses prior to the optimization step. The conventional approach samples the same number of particles from each beamlet. Yet this is not the optimal use of MC in this problem. In fact, there are beamlets that have very small intensities after solving the plan optimization problem. For those beamlets, it may be possible to use fewer particles in dose calculations to increase efficiency. Based on this idea, we have developed a new MC-based IMRT plan optimization framework that iteratively performs MC dose calculation and plan optimization. At each dose calculation step, the particle numbers for beamlets were adjusted based on the beamlet intensities obtained through solving the plan optimization problem in the last iteration step. We modified a GPU-based MC dose engine to allow simultaneous computations of a large number of beamlet doses. To test the accuracy of our modified dose engine, we compared the dose from a broad beam and the summed beamlet doses in this beam in an inhomogeneous phantom. Agreement within 1% for the maximum difference and 0.55% for the average difference was observed. We then validated the proposed MC-based optimization schemes in one lung IMRT case. It was found that the conventional scheme required 10(6) particles from each beamlet to achieve an optimization result that was 3% difference in fluence map and 1% difference in dose from the ground truth. In contrast, the proposed scheme achieved the same level of accuracy with on average 1.2 × 10(5) particles per beamlet. Correspondingly, the computation

  14. Heuristic knowledge-based planning for single-isocenter stereotactic radiosurgery to multiple brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemer, Benjamin P; Sanghvi, Parag; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona; Moore, Kevin L

    2017-10-01

    Single-isocenter, volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for multiple brain metastases (multimets) can deliver highly conformal dose distributions and reduce overall patient treatment time compared to other techniques. However, treatment planning for multimet cases is highly complex due to variability in numbers and sizes of brain metastases, as well as their relative proximity to organs-at-risk (OARs). The purpose of this study was to automate the VMAT planning of multimet cases through a knowledge-based planning (KBP) approach that adapts single-target SRS dose predictions to multiple target predictions. Using a previously published artificial neural network (ANN) KBP system trained on single-target, linac-based SRS plans, 3D dose distribution predictions for multimet patients were obtained by treating each brain lesion as a solitary target and subsequently combining individual dose predictions into a single distribution. Spatial dose distributions di(r→) for each of the i = 1…N lesions were merged using the combination function d(r→)=∑iNdin(r→)1/n. The optimal value of n was determined by minimizing root-mean squared (RMS) difference between clinical multimet plans and predicted dose per unit length along the line profile joining each lesion in the clinical cohort. The gradient measure GM=[3/4π]1/3V50%1/3-V100%1/3 is the primary quality metric for SRS plan evaluation at our institution and served as the main comparative metric between clinical plans and the KBP results. A total of 41 previously treated multimet plans, with target numbers ranging from N = 2-10, were used to validate the ANN predictions and subsequent KBP auto-planning routine. Fully deliverable KBP plans were developed by converting predicted dose distribution into patient-specific optimization objectives for the clinical treatment planning system (TPS). Plan parity was maintained through identical arc configuration and target normalization. Overall

  15. Application of science-based restoration planning to a desert river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Brian G; Jimenez, Justin; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-06-01

    Persistence of many desert river species is threatened by a suite of impacts linked to water infrastructure projects that provide human water security where water is scarce. Many desert rivers have undergone regime shifts from spatially and temporally dynamic ecosystems to more stable systems dominated by homogenous physical habitat. Restoration of desert river systems could aid in biodiversity conservation, but poses formidable challenges due to multiple threats and the infeasibility of recovery to pre-development conditions. The challenges faced in restoring desert rivers can be addressed by incorporating scientific recommendations into restoration planning efforts at multiple stages, as demonstrated here through an example restoration project. In particular, use of a watershed-scale planning process can identify data gaps and irreversible constraints, which aid in developing achievable restoration goals and objectives. Site-prioritization focuses limited the resources for restoration on areas with the greatest potential to improve populations of target organisms. Investment in research to understand causes of degradation, coupled with adoption of a guiding vision is critical for identifying feasible restoration actions that can enhance river processes. Setting monitoring as a project goal, developing hypotheses for expected outcomes, and implementing restoration as an experimental design will facilitate adaptive management and learning from project implementation. Involvement of scientists and managers during all planning stages is critical for developing process-based restoration actions and an implementation plan to maximize learning. The planning process developed here provides a roadmap for use of scientific recommendations in future efforts to recover dynamic processes in imperiled riverine ecosystems.

  16. Foresight for commanders: a methodology to assist planning for effects-based operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul K.; Kahan, James P.

    2006-05-01

    Looking at the battlespace as a system of systems is a cornerstone of Effects-Based Operations and a key element in the planning of such operations, and in developing the Commander's Predictive Environment. Instead of a physical battleground to be approached with weapons of force, the battlespace is an interrelated super-system of political, military, economic, social, information and infrastructure systems to be approached with diplomatic, informational, military and economic actions. A concept that has proved useful in policy arenas other than defense, such as research and development for information technology, addressing cybercrime, and providing appropriate and cost-effective health care, is foresight. In this paper, we provide an overview of how the foresight approach addresses the inherent uncertainties in planning courses of action, present a set of steps in the conduct of foresight, and then illustrate the application of foresight to a commander's decision problem. We conclude that foresight approach that we describe is consistent with current doctrinal intelligence preparation of the battlespace and operational planning, but represents an advance in that it explicitly addresses the uncertainties in the environment and planning in a way that identifies strategies that are robust over different possible ground truths. It should supplement other planning methods.

  17. A new column-generation-based algorithm for VMAT treatment plan optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Fei; Epelman, Marina A; Romeijn, H Edwin; Jia Xun; Gu Xuejun; Jiang, Steve B

    2012-01-01

    We study the treatment plan optimization problem for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). We propose a new column-generation-based algorithm that takes into account bounds on the gantry speed and dose rate, as well as an upper bound on the rate of change of the gantry speed, in addition to MLC constraints. The algorithm iteratively adds one aperture at each control point along the treatment arc. In each iteration, a restricted problem optimizing intensities at previously selected apertures is solved, and its solution is used to formulate a pricing problem, which selects an aperture at another control point that is compatible with previously selected apertures and leads to the largest rate of improvement in the objective function value of the restricted problem. Once a complete set of apertures is obtained, their intensities are optimized and the gantry speeds and dose rates are adjusted to minimize treatment time while satisfying all machine restrictions. Comparisons of treatment plans obtained by our algorithm to idealized IMRT plans of 177 beams on five clinical prostate cancer cases demonstrate high quality with respect to clinical dose–volume criteria. For all cases, our algorithm yields treatment plans that can be delivered in around 2 min. Implementation on a graphic processing unit enables us to finish the optimization of a VMAT plan in 25–55 s. (paper)

  18. Application of science-based restoration planning to a desert river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Brian G.; Jimenez, Justin; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-01-01

    Persistence of many desert river species is threatened by a suite of impacts linked to water infrastructure projects that provide human water security where water is scarce. Many desert rivers have undergone regime shifts from spatially and temporally dynamic ecosystems to more stable systems dominated by homogenous physical habitat. Restoration of desert river systems could aid in biodiversity conservation, but poses formidable challenges due to multiple threats and the infeasibility of recovery to pre-development conditions. The challenges faced in restoring desert rivers can be addressed by incorporating scientific recommendations into restoration planning efforts at multiple stages, as demonstrated here through an example restoration project. In particular, use of a watershed-scale planning process can identify data gaps and irreversible constraints, which aid in developing achievable restoration goals and objectives. Site-prioritization focuses limited the resources for restoration on areas with the greatest potential to improve populations of target organisms. Investment in research to understand causes of degradation, coupled with adoption of a guiding vision is critical for identifying feasible restoration actions that can enhance river processes. Setting monitoring as a project goal, developing hypotheses for expected outcomes, and implementing restoration as an experimental design will facilitate adaptive management and learning from project implementation. Involvement of scientists and managers during all planning stages is critical for developing process-based restoration actions and an implementation plan to maximize learning. The planning process developed here provides a roadmap for use of scientific recommendations in future efforts to recover dynamic processes in imperiled riverine ecosystems.

  19. An Approach in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning: A Fast, GPU-Based Monte Carlo Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaee, Mojtaba; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Tavakoli, Mohammad B

    2017-01-01

    An accurate and fast radiation dose calculation is essential for successful radiation radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to implement a new graphic processing unit (GPU) based radiation therapy treatment planning for accurate and fast dose calculation in radiotherapy centers. A program was written for parallel running based on GPU. The code validation was performed by EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc. Moreover, a semi-automatic, rotary, asymmetric phantom was designed and produced using a bone, the lung, and the soft tissue equivalent materials. All measurements were performed using a Mapcheck dosimeter. The accuracy of the code was validated using the experimental data, which was obtained from the anthropomorphic phantom as the gold standard. The findings showed that, compared with those of DOSXYZnrc in the virtual phantom and for most of the voxels (>95%), GPU-based Monte Carlo method in dose calculation may be useful in routine radiation therapy centers as the core and main component of a treatment planning verification system.

  20. PLANNING OF SECONDARY SCHOOL LOCATION AT SUBCENTRE OF MEDAN SELAYANG SERVICE BASED ON GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATON SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansyur Hidayat Pasaribu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available his research aimed to solve the problem of requirement of facility and infrastructure of high school education year 2030 at 4 sub-districts in sub department of Medan Selayang. By knowing the number of junior high school student we can calculate requirement of middle school infrastructure needed. The need for secondary school building infrastructure at the Medan Selayang service sub-center in 2030 is calculated based on the number of population aged 0-4 years in 2016 as users of secondary education services in the planning year. The need for the number of new school units based on the maximum capacity of study groups available in each school in the study area, the lack of learning groups is met through new classroom addition programs and the addition of new school units. With the population of middle school age in 2030 in four districts amounting to 33,299, it is required to provide 1 unit of new school in Medan Baru sub-district, 1 unit of new school in Medan Selayang sub-district, 2 units of new school in Medan Tuntungan sub-district. The lack of study group in Medan Baru sub-district can be fulfilled by adding new classroom based on the availability of school land. Planning of school location in the addition of new school unit based on spatial analysis using geographic information system application. Method of research used is descriptive method quantitatively. Quantitative analysis done By using Geographic Information System. Analysis is done based on the factors that influence the selection of school location which consists of service coverage factors, distribution pattern factors, accessibility factors and land use factors. From the results of analysis based on spatial data found sowed that the area has not been served in the region Planning. This underserved area became a zone in the determination of secondary school location planning at the Medan Selayang service sub-center.

  1. WE-B-304-02: Treatment Planning Evaluation and Optimization Should Be Biologically and Not Dose/volume Based

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deasy, J.

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate goal of radiotherapy treatment planning is to find a treatment that will yield a high tumor control probability (TCP) with an acceptable normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Yet most treatment planning today is not based upon optimization of TCPs and NTCPs, but rather upon meeting physical dose and volume constraints defined by the planner. It has been suggested that treatment planning evaluation and optimization would be more effective if they were biologically and not dose/volume based, and this is the claim debated in this month’s Point/Counterpoint. After a brief overview of biologically and DVH based treatment planning by the Moderator Colin Orton, Joseph Deasy (for biological planning) and Charles Mayo (against biological planning) will begin the debate. Some of the arguments in support of biological planning include: this will result in more effective dose distributions for many patients DVH-based measures of plan quality are known to have little predictive value there is little evidence that either D95 or D98 of the PTV is a good predictor of tumor control sufficient validated outcome prediction models are now becoming available and should be used to drive planning and optimization Some of the arguments against biological planning include: several decades of experience with DVH-based planning should not be discarded we do not know enough about the reliability and errors associated with biological models the radiotherapy community in general has little direct experience with side by side comparisons of DVH vs biological metrics and outcomes it is unlikely that a clinician would accept extremely cold regions in a CTV or hot regions in a PTV, despite having acceptable TCP values Learning Objectives: To understand dose/volume based treatment planning and its potential limitations To understand biological metrics such as EUD, TCP, and NTCP To understand biologically based treatment planning and its potential limitations

  2. Methods for risk-based planning of O&M of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    , a method based on limited memory influence diagrams and a method based on the partially observable Markov decision process. The methods with decision rules based on observed variables are easy to use, but can only take the most recent observation into account, when a decision is made. The other methods can......In order to make wind energy more competitive, the big expenses for operation and maintenance must be reduced. Consistent decisions that minimize the expected costs can be made based on risk-based methods. Such methods have been implemented for maintenance planning for oil and gas structures...... take more information into account, and especially, the method based on the Markov decision process is very flexible and accurate. A case study shows that the Markov decision process and decision rules based on the probability of failure are equally good and give lower costs compared to decision rules...

  3. A Planning Approach of Engineering Characteristics Based on QFD-TRIZ Integrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shang; Shi, Dongyan; Zhang, Ying

    Traditional QFD planning method compromises contradictions between engineering characteristics to achieve higher customer satisfaction. However, this compromise trade-off can not eliminate the contradictions existing among the engineering characteristics which limited the overall customer satisfaction. QFD (Quality function deployment) integrated with TRIZ (the Russian acronym of the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) becomes hot research recently for TRIZ can be used to solve contradictions between engineering characteristics which construct the roof of HOQ (House of quality). But, the traditional QFD planning approach is not suitable for QFD integrated with TRIZ for that TRIZ requires emphasizing the contradictions between engineering characteristics at problem definition stage instead of compromising trade-off. So, a new planning approach based on QFD / TRIZ integration is proposed in this paper, which based on the consideration of the correlation matrix of engineering characteristics and customer satisfaction on the basis of cost. The proposed approach suggests that TRIZ should be applied to solve contradictions at the first step, and the correlation matrix of engineering characteristics should be amended at the second step, and at next step IFR (ideal final result) must be validated, then planning execute. An example is used to illustrate the proposed approach. The application indicated that higher customer satisfaction can be met and the contradictions between the characteristic parameters are eliminated.

  4. Scenario-based stakeholder engagement: incorporating stakeholders preferences into coastal planning for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Emma L; Few, Roger; Brown, Katrina

    2008-09-01

    Climate change poses many challenges for ecosystem and resource management. In particular, coastal planners are struggling to find ways to prepare for the potential impacts of future climate change while dealing with immediate pressures. Decisions on how to respond to future risks are complicated by the long time horizons and the uncertainty associated with the distribution of impacts. Existing coastal zone management approaches in the UK either do not adequately incorporate changing stakeholder preferences, or effectively ensure that stakeholders are aware of the trade-offs inherent in any coastal management decision. Using a novel method, scenario-based stakeholder engagement, which brings together stakeholder analysis, climate change management scenarios and deliberative techniques, the necessary trade-offs associated with long term coastal planning are explored. The method is applied to two case studies of coastal planning in Christchurch Bay on the south coast of England and the Orkney Islands off the north coast of Scotland. A range of conflicting preferences exist on the ideal governance structure to manage the coast under different climate change scenarios. In addition, the results show that public understanding of the trade-offs that have to be made is critical in gaining some degree of public support for long term coastal decision-making. We conclude that scenario-based stakeholder engagement is a useful tool to facilitate coastal management planning that takes into account the complexities and challenges of climate change, and could be used in conjunction with existing approaches such as the Shoreline Management Planning process.

  5. Retrieval with Clustering in a Case-Based Reasoning System for Radiotherapy Treatment Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khussainova, Gulmira; Petrovic, Sanja; Jagannathan, Rupa

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy treatment planning aims to deliver a sufficient radiation dose to cancerous tumour cells while sparing healthy organs in the tumour surrounding area. This is a trial and error process highly dependent on the medical staff's experience and knowledge. Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is an artificial intelligence tool that uses past experiences to solve new problems. A CBR system has been developed to facilitate radiotherapy treatment planning for brain cancer. Given a new patient case the existing CBR system retrieves a similar case from an archive of successfully treated patient cases with the suggested treatment plan. The next step requires adaptation of the retrieved treatment plan to meet the specific demands of the new case. The CBR system was tested by medical physicists for the new patient cases. It was discovered that some of the retrieved cases were not suitable and could not be adapted for the new cases. This motivated us to revise the retrieval mechanism of the existing CBR system by adding a clustering stage that clusters cases based on their tumour positions. A number of well-known clustering methods were investigated and employed in the retrieval mechanism. Results using real world brain cancer patient cases have shown that the success rate of the new CBR retrieval is higher than that of the original system. (paper)

  6. Shelter planning based on self-saving concepts in urban residential districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buri Qi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing population density in Asia, the potential higher risk was resulted from the residential districts with the higher plot ratio, especially in some megapolis (eg. Beijing and Shanghai. Presently it is more difficult for the rescue operation during the disasters because of the decreasing safe space among the buildings as a result of higher buildings and denser the district. Thus, an immediate self-saving action is more important than before during the disaster in the residential districts, and its realization depends on the reasonable shelter planning and its management system. In this study, the factors related to the self-saving were analyzed and concluded by the related the literatures retrieval and case study, and the case study was done by the in-depth interview and questionnaires in three different residential districts in Shanghai. It was found that the following factors related to the self-saving should be considered in the shelters planning: the distribution of the shelters including their space accessibility and area, evacuation passageways, the facilities of the disaster prevention (such as fire hydrant and guide signs and subsidiary facilities (such as vegetation for the disaster prevention, the social cohesion, awareness of the self-saving and disaster prevention. Simultaneously, the shelters planning countermeasures based on the self-saving were proposed, which provided some theoretical bases for the study  and plan of the security residential districts in future.

  7. A Dynamic Bioinspired Neural Network Based Real-Time Path Planning Method for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianjun; Wu, Liuying; Shi, Pengfei; Yang, Simon X

    2017-01-01

    Real-time path planning for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is a very difficult and challenging task. Bioinspired neural network (BINN) has been used to deal with this problem for its many distinct advantages: that is, no learning process is needed and realization is also easy. However, there are some shortcomings when BINN is applied to AUV path planning in a three-dimensional (3D) unknown environment, including complex computing problem when the environment is very large and repeated path problem when the size of obstacles is bigger than the detection range of sensors. To deal with these problems, an improved dynamic BINN is proposed in this paper. In this proposed method, the AUV is regarded as the core of the BINN and the size of the BINN is based on the detection range of sensors. Then the BINN will move with the AUV and the computing could be reduced. A virtual target is proposed in the path planning method to ensure that the AUV can move to the real target effectively and avoid big-size obstacles automatically. Furthermore, a target attractor concept is introduced to improve the computing efficiency of neural activities. Finally, some experiments are conducted under various 3D underwater environments. The experimental results show that the proposed BINN based method can deal with the real-time path planning problem for AUV efficiently.

  8. Reachable Distance Space: Efficient Sampling-Based Planning for Spatially Constrained Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Xinyu Tang,

    2010-01-25

    Motion planning for spatially constrained robots is difficult due to additional constraints placed on the robot, such as closure constraints for closed chains or requirements on end-effector placement for articulated linkages. It is usually computationally too expensive to apply sampling-based planners to these problems since it is difficult to generate valid configurations. We overcome this challenge by redefining the robot\\'s degrees of freedom and constraints into a new set of parameters, called reachable distance space (RD-space), in which all configurations lie in the set of constraint-satisfying subspaces. This enables us to directly sample the constrained subspaces with complexity linear in the number of the robot\\'s degrees of freedom. In addition to supporting efficient sampling of configurations, we show that the RD-space formulation naturally supports planning and, in particular, we design a local planner suitable for use by sampling-based planners. We demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach for several systems including closed chain planning with multiple loops, restricted end-effector sampling, and on-line planning for drawing/sculpting. We can sample single-loop closed chain systems with 1,000 links in time comparable to open chain sampling, and we can generate samples for 1,000-link multi-loop systems of varying topologies in less than a second. © 2010 The Author(s).

  9. A Dynamic Bioinspired Neural Network Based Real-Time Path Planning Method for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Real-time path planning for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is a very difficult and challenging task. Bioinspired neural network (BINN) has been used to deal with this problem for its many distinct advantages: that is, no learning process is needed and realization is also easy. However, there are some shortcomings when BINN is applied to AUV path planning in a three-dimensional (3D) unknown environment, including complex computing problem when the environment is very large and repeated path problem when the size of obstacles is bigger than the detection range of sensors. To deal with these problems, an improved dynamic BINN is proposed in this paper. In this proposed method, the AUV is regarded as the core of the BINN and the size of the BINN is based on the detection range of sensors. Then the BINN will move with the AUV and the computing could be reduced. A virtual target is proposed in the path planning method to ensure that the AUV can move to the real target effectively and avoid big-size obstacles automatically. Furthermore, a target attractor concept is introduced to improve the computing efficiency of neural activities. Finally, some experiments are conducted under various 3D underwater environments. The experimental results show that the proposed BINN based method can deal with the real-time path planning problem for AUV efficiently. PMID:28255297

  10. Retrieval with Clustering in a Case-Based Reasoning System for Radiotherapy Treatment Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khussainova, Gulmira; Petrovic, Sanja; Jagannathan, Rupa

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy treatment planning aims to deliver a sufficient radiation dose to cancerous tumour cells while sparing healthy organs in the tumour surrounding area. This is a trial and error process highly dependent on the medical staff's experience and knowledge. Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is an artificial intelligence tool that uses past experiences to solve new problems. A CBR system has been developed to facilitate radiotherapy treatment planning for brain cancer. Given a new patient case the existing CBR system retrieves a similar case from an archive of successfully treated patient cases with the suggested treatment plan. The next step requires adaptation of the retrieved treatment plan to meet the specific demands of the new case. The CBR system was tested by medical physicists for the new patient cases. It was discovered that some of the retrieved cases were not suitable and could not be adapted for the new cases. This motivated us to revise the retrieval mechanism of the existing CBR system by adding a clustering stage that clusters cases based on their tumour positions. A number of well-known clustering methods were investigated and employed in the retrieval mechanism. Results using real world brain cancer patient cases have shown that the success rate of the new CBR retrieval is higher than that of the original system.

  11. Autonomously Implemented Versatile Path Planning for Mobile Robots Based on Cellular Automata and Ant Colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Akbarimajd

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A path planning method for mobile robots based on two dimensional cellular automata is proposed. The method can be applied for environments with both concave and convex obstacles. It is also appropriate for multi-robot problems as well as dynamic environments. In order to develop the planning method, environment of the robot is decomposed to a rectangular grid and the automata is defined with four states including Robot cell, Free cell, Goal cell and Obstacle cell. Evolution rules of automata are proposed in order to direct the robot toward its goal. CA based path planner method is afterwards modified by a colony technique to be applicable for concave obstacles. Then a layered architecture is proposed to autonomously implement the planning algorithm. The architecture employs an abstraction approach which makes the complexity manageable. An important feature of the architecture is internal artifacts that have some beliefs about the world. Most actions of the robot are planned and performed with respect to these artifacts.

  12. An Ensemble Approach to Knowledge-Based Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahan Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge-based planning (KBP utilizes experienced planners’ knowledge embedded in prior plans to estimate optimal achievable dose volume histogram (DVH of new cases. In the regression-based KBP framework, previously planned patients’ anatomical features and DVHs are extracted, and prior knowledge is summarized as the regression coefficients that transform features to organ-at-risk DVH predictions. In our study, we find that in different settings, different regression methods work better. To improve the robustness of KBP models, we propose an ensemble method that combines the strengths of various linear regression models, including stepwise, lasso, elastic net, and ridge regression. In the ensemble approach, we first obtain individual model prediction metadata using in-training-set leave-one-out cross validation. A constrained optimization is subsequently performed to decide individual model weights. The metadata is also used to filter out impactful training set outliers. We evaluate our method on a fresh set of retrospectively retrieved anonymized prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT cases and head and neck IMRT cases. The proposed approach is more robust against small training set size, wrongly labeled cases, and dosimetric inferior plans, compared with other individual models. In summary, we believe the improved robustness makes the proposed method more suitable for clinical settings than individual models.

  13. SU-F-T-355: Evaluation of Knowledge-Based Planning Model for the Cervical Cancer Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X; Wang, J; Hu, W [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, Shanghai (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The Varian RapidPlan™ is a commercial knowledge-based optimization process which uses a set of clinically used treatment plans to train a model that can predict individualized dose-volume objectives. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of RapidPlan to generate intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for cervical cancer. Methods: Totally 70 IMRT plans for cervical cancer with varying clinical and physiological indications were enrolled in this study. These patients were all previously treated in our institution. There were two prescription levels usually used in our institution: 45Gy/25 fractions and 50.4Gy/28 fractions. 50 of these plans were selected to train the RapidPlan model for predicting dose-volume constraints. After model training, this model was validated with 10 plans from training pool(internal validation) and additional other 20 new plans(external validation). All plans used for the validation were re-optimized with the original beam configuration and the generated priorities from RapidPlan were manually adjusted to ensure that re-optimized DVH located in the range of the model prediction. DVH quantitative analysis was performed to compare the RapidPlan generated and the original manual optimized plans. Results: For all the validation cases, RapidPlan based plans (RapidPlan) showed similar or superior results compared to the manual optimized ones. RapidPlan increased the result of D98% and homogeneity in both two validations. For organs at risk, the RapidPlan decreased mean doses of bladder by 1.25Gy/1.13Gy (internal/external validation) on average, with p=0.12/p<0.01. The mean dose of rectum and bowel were also decreased by an average of 2.64Gy/0.83Gy and 0.66Gy/1.05Gy,with p<0.01/ p<0.01and p=0.04/<0.01 for the internal/external validation, respectively. Conclusion: The RapidPlan model based cervical cancer plans shows ability to systematically improve the IMRT plan quality. It suggests that RapidPlan has

  14. Systematic Planning and Ecosystem-Based Management as Strategies to Reconcile Mangrove Conservation with Resource Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Borges

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available About 120 million people worldwide live within 10 km of large mangrove forests, and many of them directly depend on the goods and services provided by these ecosystems. However, it remains unclear how to synchronize ecological definitions and legal conservation strategies regarding mangroves, especially in developing countries, such as Brazil. The influence of human populations' socio-economic context in mangrove conservation policies, as well associated challenges in incorporating this influence, are underestimated or, often, largely ignored. Considering the recent threats emerging from changes in legislation and the lack of spatial and social-ecological integrated data to plan mangrove conservation in Brazil, this paper aims to answer the following questions: (1 What suitable measures could managers and other decision makers adopt for efficient mangrove conservation planning?; (2 What are the site-specific, social-ecological aspects that need to be taken into account when deciding on conservation and management strategies?; and (3 How could science contribute to the development of these measures? In order to achieve an ecosystem-based management approach, mangrove ecosystems should not be divided into sub-systems, but instead treated as an integrated system. Furthermore, interconnections with other coastal ecosystems must be assessed and taken into account. This is crucial for effective systematic conservation planning. Also, most of the particular social-ecological aspects in the different types of mangrove ecosystems along the Brazilian coast, and how those differences might be considered while planning for conservation, remain poorly understood. Based on similar drivers of change, geological features, and likely impacts of climate change, a macro-unit approach is proposed to group mangrove systems along the Brazilian coast and guide national policies. This paper draws parallels with management approaches worldwide to find common points and

  15. GIS-Based Planning and Modeling for Renewable Energy: Challenges and Future Research Avenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Resch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the face of the broad political call for an “energy turnaround”, we are currently witnessing three essential trends with regard to energy infrastructure planning, energy generation and storage: from planned production towards fluctuating production on the basis of renewable energy sources, from centralized generation towards decentralized generation and from expensive energy carriers towards cost-free energy carriers. These changes necessitate considerable modifications of the energy infrastructure. Even though most of these modifications are inherently motivated by geospatial questions and challenges, the integration of energy system models and Geographic Information Systems (GIS is still in its infancy. This paper analyzes the shortcomings of previous approaches in using GIS in renewable energy-related projects, extracts distinct challenges from these previous efforts and, finally, defines a set of core future research avenues for GIS-based energy infrastructure planning with a focus on the use of renewable energy. These future research avenues comprise the availability base data and their “geospatial awareness”, the development of a generic and unified data model, the usage of volunteered geographic information (VGI and crowdsourced data in analysis processes, the integration of 3D building models and 3D data analysis, the incorporation of network topologies into GIS, the harmonization of the heterogeneous views on aggregation issues in the fields of energy and GIS, fine-grained energy demand estimation from freely-available data sources, decentralized storage facility planning, the investigation of GIS-based public participation mechanisms, the transition from purely structural to operational planning, data privacy aspects and, finally, the development of a new dynamic power market design.

  16. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Route Planning in the Presence of a Threat Environment Based on a Virtual Globe Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Zhang; Chen Su; Yuan Liu; Mingyuan Hu; Yuesheng Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Route planning is a key technology for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to fly reliably and safely in the presence of a threat environment. Existing route planning methods are mainly based on the simulation scene, whereas approaches based on the virtual globe platform have rarely been reported. In this paper, a new planning space for the virtual globe and the planner is proposed and a common threat model is constructed for threats including a no-fly zone, hazardous weather, radar coverage are...

  17. Optimal, Risk-based Operation and Maintenance Planning for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    , corrosion, wear and erosion are associated with significant uncertainty. Observations of the degree of damage can increase the reliability of predictions, especially in connection with condition-based maintenance. The approach can be used for gearboxes, generators, cracks, corrosion, etc. The paper also......For offshore wind turbines costs to operation and maintenance are substantial. This paper describes a risk-based life-cycle approach for optimal planning of operation and maintenance. The approach is based on pre-posterior Bayesian decision theory. Deterioration mechanisms such as fatigue...

  18. Production Planning with Respect to Uncertainties. Simulator Based Production Planning of Average Sized Combined Heat and Power Production Plants; Produktionsplanering under osaekerhet. Simulatorbaserad produktionsplanering av medelstora kraftvaermeanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeggstaahl, Daniel [Maelardalen Univ., Vaesteraas (Sweden); Dotzauer, Erik [AB Fortum, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Production planning in Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems is considered. The focus is on development and use of mathematical models and methods. Different aspects on production planning are discussed, including weather and load predictions. Questions relevant on the different planning horizons are illuminated. The main purpose with short-term (one week) planning is to decide when to start and stop the production units, and to decide how to use the heat storage. The main conclusion from the outline of pros and cons of commercial planning software are that several are using Mixed Integer Programming (MIP). In that sense they are similar. Building a production planning model means that the planning problem is formulated as a mathematical optimization problem. The accuracy of the input data determines the practical detail level of the model. Two alternatives to the methods used in today's commercial programs are proposed: stochastic optimization and simulator-based optimization. The basic concepts of mathematical optimization are outlined. A simulator-based model for short-term planning is developed. The purpose is to minimize the production costs, depending on the heat demand in the district heating system, prices of electricity and fuels, emission taxes and fees, etc. The problem is simplified by not including any time-linking conditions. The process model is developed in IPSEpro, a heat and mass-balance software from SimTech Simulation Technology. TOMLAB, an optimization toolbox in MATLAB, is used as optimizer. Three different solvers are applied: glcFast, glcCluster and SNOPT. The link between TOMLAB and IPSEpro is accomplished using the Microsoft COM technology. MATLAB is the automation client and contains the control of IPSEpro and TOMLAB. The simulator-based model is applied to the CHP plant in Eskilstuna. Two days are chosen and analyzed. The optimized production is compared to the measured. A sensitivity analysis on how variations in outdoor

  19. Measures of safeguard and rehabilitation for landscape protection planning: a qualitative approach based on diversity indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Daniele; Privitera, Riccardo; Martinico, Francesco; La Greca, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Maintaining existing levels of landscape diversity is becoming more and more important for planning considering the increasing pressures on agricultural ecosystems due to soil sealing, sprawl processes and intensive agriculture. Norms for land-use regulation and measures for landscape Safeguard and Rehabilitation have to take into consideration these threats in landscape planning. Evaluating the diversity of agricultural ecosystems is a fundamental step for proposing sound approaches to planning and managing both soil and landscape, as well as maintaining the related ecosystem services. The paper proposes a method aimed at the qualitative evaluation of spatial diversity of agricultural landscapes using a reduced set of ecological indicators based on land-use vector data. Indicators are calculated for defined landscape units characterized by landscape homogeneity. GIS geoprocessing and spatial analysis functions are employed. The study area is the Province of Enna in Sicily (Italy), which is characterized by cultivation mosaics in its southern region, cereal cultivation in the central region and prevailing natural environments in the northern region. Results from the indicator calculations are used to define measures to be included in a Landscape Protection Plan. Safeguard and Rehabilitation measures are introduced, which link indicator scores to planning protection aims. The results highlight the relevance of some agricultural mosaics in proximity to streams and seasonal fluvial environments, where some undamaged natural environments are still present. For these areas, specific landscape safeguard measures are proposed to preserve their diversity features together with their original agricultural functions. The work shows that even with a reduced number of indicators, a differentiated set of measures can be proposed for a Landscape Protection Plan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Uncertainties in CT-Based Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning Associated with Patient Breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, James M.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Lam, Kwok L.; Robertson, John M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate uncertainties associated with treatment-planning computed tomography (CT) data obtained with the patient breathing freely. Methods and Materials: Patients with thoracic or abdominal tumors underwent a standard treatment-planning CT study while breathing quietly and freely, followed by CT scans while holding their breath at normal inhalation and normal exhalation. Identical treatment plans on all three CT data sets for each patient pointed out differences in: (a) radiation path lengths; (b) positions of the organs; (c) physical volumes of the lung, liver, and kidneys; (d) the interpretation of plan evaluation tools such as dose-volume histograms and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models; and (e) how well the planning CT data set represented the average of the inhalation and exhalation studies. Results: Inhalation and exhalation data differ in terms of radiation path length (nearly one quarter of the cases had path-length differences > 1 cm), although the free breathing and average path lengths do not exhibit large differences (0-9 mm). Liver and kidney movements averaged 2 cm, whereas differences between the free breathing and average positions averaged 0.6 cm. The physical volume of the liver between the free breathing and static studies varied by as much as 12%. The NTCP calculations on exhale and inhale studies varied from 3 to 43% for doses that resulted in a 15% NTCP on the free-breathing studies. Conclusion: Free-breathing CT studies may improperly estimate the position and volume of critical structures, and thus may mislead evaluation of plans based on such volume dependent criteria such as dose-volume histograms and NTCP calculations

  1. Planning of step-stress accelerated degradation test based on the inverse Gaussian process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huan; Wang, Guan-jun; Duan, Feng-jun

    2016-01-01

    The step-stress accelerated degradation test (SSADT) is a useful tool for assessing the lifetime distribution of highly reliable or expensive product. Some efficient SSADT plans have been proposed when the underlying degradation follows the Wiener process or Gamma process. However, how to design an efficient SSADT plan for the inverse Gaussian (IG) process is still a problem to be solved. The aim of this paper is to provide an optimal SSADT plan for the IG degradation process. A cumulative exposure model for the SSADT is adopted, in which the product degradation path depends only on the current stress level and the degradation accumulated, and has nothing to do with the way of accumulation. Under the constraint of the total experimental budget, some design variables are optimized by minimizing the asymptotic variance of the estimated p-quantile of the lifetime distribution of the product. Finally, we use the proposed method to deal with the optimal SSADT design for a type of electrical connector based on a set of stress relaxation data. The sensitivity and stability of the SSADT plan are studied, and we find that the optimal test plan is quite robust for a moderate departure from the values of the parameters. - Highlights: • We propose an optimal SSADT plan for the IG degradation process. • A CE model is assumed in describing the degradation path of the SSADT. • The asymptotic variance of the estimated p-quantile is used as the objective function. • A set of stress relaxation data is analyzed and used for illustration of our method.

  2. Stochastic-based resource expansion planning for a grid-connected microgrid using interval linear programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaban Boloukat, Mohammad Hadi; Akbari Foroud, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    This paper represents a stochastic approach for long-term optimal resource expansion planning of a grid-connected microgrid (MG) containing different technologies as intermittent renewable energy resources, energy storage systems and thermal resources. Maximizing profit and reliability, along with minimizing investment and operation costs, are major objectives which have been considered in this model. Also, the impacts of intermittency and uncertainty in renewable energy resources were investigated. The interval linear programming (ILP) was applied for modelling inherent stochastic nature of the renewable energy resources. ILP presents some superiority in modelling of uncertainties in MG planning. The problem was formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming. It has been demonstrated previously that the benders decomposition (BD) served as an effective tool for solving such problems. BD divides the original problem into a master (investment) problem and operation and reliability subproblems. In this paper a multiperiod MG planning is presented, considering life time, maximum penetration limit of each technology, interest rate, capital recovery factor and investment fund. Real-time energy exchange with the utility is covered, with a consideration of variable tariffs at different load blocks. The presented approach can help MG planners to adopt best decision under various uncertainty levels based on their budgetary policies. - Highlights: • Considering uncertain nature of the renewable resources with applying ILP. • Considering the effect of intermittency of renewable in MG planning. • Multiobjective MG planning problem which covers cost, profit and reliability. • Multiperiod approach for MG planning considering life time and MPL of technologies. • Presenting real-time energy exchange with the utility considering variable tariffs.

  3. Reliability and risk-based planning of operation and maintenance of offshore wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Florian, Mihai; Berzonskis, Arvydas

    2016-01-01

    electrical and mechanical components as well as a control system also reliability aspects of these components are discussed in the paper. Illustrative examples are presented considering uncertainty modelling, reliability assessment and risk-based planning of Operation & Maintenance....... costly (and safe), and it is important to include in the reliability assessment the information obtained during operation (from condition monitoring and inspections) and the maintenance performed (incl. repairs and replacements). The paper presents a risk-based approach for optimal planning of Operation...... & Maintenance of offshore wind turbines. Further, the paper considers models for uncertainty modelling and reliability assessment of structural components such as tower, blades, substructure and foundation as well as cast steel drivetrain components. The function of a wind turbine is highly dependent on many...

  4. An Efficient Energy Constraint Based UAV Path Planning for Search and Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Gramajo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A path planning strategy for a search and coverage mission for a small UAV that maximizes the area covered based on stored energy and maneuverability constraints is presented. The proposed formulation has a high level of autonomy, without requiring an exact choice of optimization parameters, and is appropriate for real-time implementation. The computed trajectory maximizes spatial coverage while closely satisfying terminal constraints on the position of the vehicle and minimizing the time of flight. Comparisons of this formulation to a path planning algorithm based on those with time constraint show equivalent coverage performance but improvement in prediction of overall mission duration and accuracy of the terminal position of the vehicle.

  5. Behavioral Intention to Use Public Transport Based on Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ambak Kamarudin; Kasvar Kanesh Kumar; Daniel Basil David; Prasetijo Joewono; Abd Ghani Ahmad Raqib

    2016-01-01

    An increase in population generates increasing in travel demand. In Malaysia, public transport become an important modes of transport that connection people. This paper presents behavioural intention to use public transport especially public bus based on Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). A questionnaire survey was conducted to identify factors that contribute and influence users to use public bus and to determine factor that most dominant using TPB model. A total of 282 questionnaires were d...

  6. Optimal Trajectory Planning and Coordinated Tracking Control Method of Tethered Space Robot Based on Velocity Impulse

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Panfeng; Xu, Xiudong; Meng, Zhongjie

    2014-01-01

    The tethered space robot (TSR) is a new concept of space robot which consists of a robot platform, space tether and operation robot. This paper presents a multi-objective optimal trajectory planning and a coordinated tracking control scheme for TSR based on velocity impulse in the approaching phase. Both total velocity impulse and flight time are included in this optimization. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is employed to obtain the optimal trajectory Pareto solution using the TS...

  7. Configuration management plan. System definition and project development. Repository Based Software Engineering (RBSE) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Charles

    1991-01-01

    This is the configuration management Plan for the AdaNet Repository Based Software Engineering (RBSE) contract. This document establishes the requirements and activities needed to ensure that the products developed for the AdaNet RBSE contract are accurately identified, that proposed changes to the product are systematically evaluated and controlled, that the status of all change activity is known at all times, and that the product achieves its functional performance requirements and is accurately documented.

  8. Reporting and analyzing statistical uncertainties in Monte Carlo-based treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetty, Indrin J.; Rosu, Mihaela; Kessler, Marc L.; Fraass, Benedick A.; Haken, Randall K. ten; Kong, Feng-Ming; McShan, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate methods of reporting and analyzing statistical uncertainties in doses to targets and normal tissues in Monte Carlo (MC)-based treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Methods for quantifying statistical uncertainties in dose, such as uncertainty specification to specific dose points, or to volume-based regions, were analyzed in MC-based treatment planning for 5 lung cancer patients. The effect of statistical uncertainties on target and normal tissue dose indices was evaluated. The concept of uncertainty volume histograms for targets and organs at risk was examined, along with its utility, in conjunction with dose volume histograms, in assessing the acceptability of the statistical precision in dose distributions. The uncertainty evaluation tools were extended to four-dimensional planning for application on multiple instances of the patient geometry. All calculations were performed using the Dose Planning Method MC code. Results: For targets, generalized equivalent uniform doses and mean target doses converged at 150 million simulated histories, corresponding to relative uncertainties of less than 2% in the mean target doses. For the normal lung tissue (a volume-effect organ), mean lung dose and normal tissue complication probability converged at 150 million histories despite the large range in the relative organ uncertainty volume histograms. For 'serial' normal tissues such as the spinal cord, large fluctuations exist in point dose relative uncertainties. Conclusions: The tools presented here provide useful means for evaluating statistical precision in MC-based dose distributions. Tradeoffs between uncertainties in doses to targets, volume-effect organs, and 'serial' normal tissues must be considered carefully in determining acceptable levels of statistical precision in MC-computed dose distributions

  9. Case-Based Parameter Selection for Plans: Coordinating Autonomous Vehicle Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    revise Bayesian network models for setting the control parameters of a genetic algorithm that performs root identification for geomet- ric problems. In... networks to model software programs and biological sys- tems, resulting in a case representation of problem, solution, and outcome similar to ours...the parameters for multiple systems, including a rule-based reasoner used to modify therapies for diabetes patients. We focus on multi-agent planning

  10. Intercenter validation of a knowledge based model for automated planning of volumetric modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer. The experience of the German RapidPlan Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Schubert

    Full Text Available To evaluate the performance of a model-based optimisation process for volumetric modulated arc therapy applied to prostate cancer in a multicentric cooperative group. The RapidPlan (RP knowledge-based engine was tested for the planning of Volumetric modulated arc therapy with RapidArc on prostate cancer patients. The study was conducted in the frame of the German RapidPlan Consortium (GRC.43 patients from one institute of the GRC were used to build and train a RP model. This was further shared with all members of the GRC plus an external site from a different country to increase the heterogeneity of the patient's sampling. An in silico multicentric validation of the model was performed at planning level by comparing RP against reference plans optimized according to institutional procedures. A total of 60 patients from 7 institutes were used.On average, the automated RP based plans resulted fully consistent with the manually optimised set with a modest tendency to improvement in the medium-to-high dose region. A per-site stratification allowed to identify different patterns of performance of the model with some organs at risk resulting better spared with the manual or with the automated approach but in all cases the RP data fulfilled the clinical acceptability requirements. Discrepancies in the performance were due to different contouring protocols or to different emphasis put in the optimization of the manual cases.The multicentric validation demonstrated that it was possible to satisfactorily optimize with the knowledge based model patients from all participating centres. In the presence of possibly significant differences in the contouring protocols, the automated plans, though acceptable and fulfilling the benchmark goals, might benefit from further fine tuning of the constraints. The study demonstrates that, at least for the case of prostate cancer patients, it is possibile to share models among different clinical institutes in a cooperative

  11. Constructing an Indoor Floor Plan Using Crowdsourcing Based on Magnetic Fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haiyong; Zhao, Fang; Jiang, Mengling; Ma, Hao; Zhang, Yuexia

    2017-11-20

    A large number of indoor positioning systems have recently been developed to cater for various location-based services. Indoor maps are a prerequisite of such indoor positioning systems; however, indoor maps are currently non-existent for most indoor environments. Construction of an indoor map by external experts excludes quick deployment and prevents widespread utilization of indoor localization systems. Here, we propose an algorithm for the automatic construction of an indoor floor plan, together with a magnetic fingerprint map of unmapped buildings using crowdsourced smartphone data. For floor plan construction, our system combines the use of dead reckoning technology, an observation model with geomagnetic signals, and trajectory fusion based on an affinity propagation algorithm. To obtain the indoor paths, the magnetic trajectory data obtained through crowdsourcing were first clustered using dynamic time warping similarity criteria. The trajectories were inferred from odometry tracing, and those belonging to the same cluster in the magnetic trajectory domain were then fused. Fusing these data effectively eliminates the inherent tracking errors originating from noisy sensors; as a result, we obtained highly accurate indoor paths. One advantage of our system is that no additional hardware such as a laser rangefinder or wheel encoder is required. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed algorithm successfully constructs indoor floor plans with 0.48 m accuracy, which could benefit location-based services which lack indoor maps.

  12. Constructing an Indoor Floor Plan Using Crowdsourcing Based on Magnetic Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyong Luo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of indoor positioning systems have recently been developed to cater for various location-based services. Indoor maps are a prerequisite of such indoor positioning systems; however, indoor maps are currently non-existent for most indoor environments. Construction of an indoor map by external experts excludes quick deployment and prevents widespread utilization of indoor localization systems. Here, we propose an algorithm for the automatic construction of an indoor floor plan, together with a magnetic fingerprint map of unmapped buildings using crowdsourced smartphone data. For floor plan construction, our system combines the use of dead reckoning technology, an observation model with geomagnetic signals, and trajectory fusion based on an affinity propagation algorithm. To obtain the indoor paths, the magnetic trajectory data obtained through crowdsourcing were first clustered using dynamic time warping similarity criteria. The trajectories were inferred from odometry tracing, and those belonging to the same cluster in the magnetic trajectory domain were then fused. Fusing these data effectively eliminates the inherent tracking errors originating from noisy sensors; as a result, we obtained highly accurate indoor paths. One advantage of our system is that no additional hardware such as a laser rangefinder or wheel encoder is required. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed algorithm successfully constructs indoor floor plans with 0.48 m accuracy, which could benefit location-based services which lack indoor maps.

  13. Road Risk Modeling and Cloud-Aided Safety-Based Route Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaojian; Kolmanovsky, Ilya; Atkins, Ella; Lu, Jianbo; Filev, Dimitar P; Michelini, John

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a safety-based route planner that exploits vehicle-to-cloud-to-vehicle (V2C2V) connectivity. Time and road risk index (RRI) are considered as metrics to be balanced based on user preference. To evaluate road segment risk, a road and accident database from the highway safety information system is mined with a hybrid neural network model to predict RRI. Real-time factors such as time of day, day of the week, and weather are included as correction factors to the static RRI prediction. With real-time RRI and expected travel time, route planning is formulated as a multiobjective network flow problem and further reduced to a mixed-integer programming problem. A V2C2V implementation of our safety-based route planning approach is proposed to facilitate access to real-time information and computing resources. A real-world case study, route planning through the city of Columbus, Ohio, is presented. Several scenarios illustrate how the "best" route can be adjusted to favor time versus safety metrics.

  14. Estimation of carrying angle based on CT images in preoperative surgical planning for cubitus deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shinsuk; Kim, Eugene

    2009-12-01

    Conventionally, the carrying angle of the elbow is measured using simple two-dimensional radiography or goniometry, which has questionable reliability. This study proposes a novel method for estimating carrying angles using computed tomography that can enhance the reliability of the angle measurement. Data of CT scans from 25 elbow joints were processed to build segmented three-dimensional models. The cross-sectional centerlines of the ulna and the humerus were traced from the 3D models, and the angle between 2 vectors formed from the centerlines of the humerus and the ulna was defined as the "three-dimensional carrying angle." These angles were compared with those measured by simple radiograph. Two cases of angular deformity were underwent surgery based on this preoperative surgical planning, and the postoperative 3D carrying angles were evaluated using the proposed method. The mean value of the calculated three-dimensional carrying angle was 20.7 degrees +/-3.61, while it was 16.3 degrees +/-3.21 based on simple radiography without statistical difference. Based on the 3D carrying angle estimations, 2 surgical cases of cubitus deformities were planned by comparison with the normal contra-lateral elbow. Postoperative angle estimations confirmed that the corrected angles were nearly identical to the planned angles for both cases. The results of this study showed that the carrying angle can be accurately estimated using three-dimensional CT and that the proposed method is useful in evaluating deformities of the elbow with high reliability.

  15. Gafchromic EBT2 film dosimetry in reflection mode with a novel plan-based calibration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, I; Hartman, V; Hudej, R; Strojnik, A; Casar, B

    2013-01-01

    A dosimetric system formed by Gafchromic EBT2 radiochromic film and Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner was commissioned for dosimetry. In this paper, several open questions concerning the commissioning of radiochromic films for dosimetry were addressed: (a) is it possible to employ this dosimetric system in reflection mode; (b) if so, can the methods used in transmission mode also be used in reflection mode; (c) is it possible to obtain accurate absolute dose measurements with Gafchromic EBT2 films; (d) which calibration method should be followed; (e) which calibration models should be used; and (f) does three-color channel dosimetry offer a significant improvement over single channel dosimetry. The purpose of this paper is to help clarify these questions. In this study, films were scanned in reflection mode, the effect of surrounding film was evaluated and the feasibility of EBT2 film dosimetry in reflection mode was studied. EBT2's response homogeneity has been reported to lead to excessive dose uncertainties. To overcome this problem, a new plan-based calibration method was implemented. Plan-based calibration can use every pixel and each of the three color channels of the scanned film to obtain the parameters of the calibration model. A model selection analysis was conducted to select lateral correction and sensitometric curve models. The commonly used calibration with fragments was compared with red-channel plan-based calibration and with three-channel plan-based calibration. No effect of surrounding film was found in this study. The film response inhomogeneity in EBT2 films was found to be important not only due to differences in the fog but also due to differences in sensitivity. The best results for lateral corrections were obtained using absolute corrections independent of the dose. With respect to the sensitometric curves, an empirical polynomial fit of order 4 was found to obtain results equivalent to a gamma-distributed single hit model based on

  16. Employment-based retirement plan participation: geographic differences and trends, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Craig

    2011-10-01

    LATEST DATA: This Issue Brief examines the level of participation by workers in public- and private-sector employment-based pension or retirement plans, based on the U.S. Census Bureau's March 2011 Current Population Survey (CPS), the most recent data currently available (for year-end 2010). SPONSORSHIP RATE: Among all working-age (21-64) wage and salary employees, 54.2 percent worked for an employer or union that sponsored a retirement plan in 2010. Among full-time, full-year wage and salary workers ages 21-64 (those with the strongest connection to the work force), 61.6 percent worked for an employer or union that sponsors a plan. PARTICIPATION LEVEL: Among full-time, full-year wage and salary workers ages 21-64, 54.5 percent participated in a retirement plan. TREND: This is virtually unchanged from 54.4 percent in 2009. Participation trends increased significantly in the late 1990s, and decreased in 2001 and 2002. In 2003 and 2004, the participation trend flattened out. The retirement plan participation level subsequently declined in 2005 and 2006, before a significant increase in 2007. Slight declines occurred in 2008 and 2009, followed by a flattening out of the trend in 2010. AGE: Participation increased with age (61.4 percent for wage and salary workers ages 55-64, compared with 29.2 percent for those ages 21-24). GENDER: Among wage and salary workers ages 21-64, men had a higher participation level than women, but among full-time, full-year workers, women had a higher percentage participating than men (55.5 percent for women, compared with 53.8 percent for men). Female workers' lower probability of participation among wage and salary workers results from their overall lower earnings and lower rates of full-time work in comparison with males. RACE: Hispanic wage and salary workers were significantly less likely than both white and black workers to participate in a retirement plan. The gap between the percentages of black and white plan participants that

  17. Vision-based map building and trajectory planning to enable autonomous flight through urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Adam S.

    The desire to use Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) in a variety of complex missions has motivated the need to increase the autonomous capabilities of these vehicles. This research presents autonomous vision-based mapping and trajectory planning strategies for a UAV navigating in an unknown urban environment. It is assumed that the vehicle's inertial position is unknown because GPS in unavailable due to environmental occlusions or jamming by hostile military assets. Therefore, the environment map is constructed from noisy sensor measurements taken at uncertain vehicle locations. Under these restrictions, map construction becomes a state estimation task known as the Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) problem. Solutions to the SLAM problem endeavor to estimate the state of a vehicle relative to concurrently estimated environmental landmark locations. The presented work focuses specifically on SLAM for aircraft, denoted as airborne SLAM, where the vehicle is capable of six degree of freedom motion characterized by highly nonlinear equations of motion. The airborne SLAM problem is solved with a variety of filters based on the Rao-Blackwellized particle filter. Additionally, the environment is represented as a set of geometric primitives that are fit to the three-dimensional points reconstructed from gathered onboard imagery. The second half of this research builds on the mapping solution by addressing the problem of trajectory planning for optimal map construction. Optimality is defined in terms of maximizing environment coverage in minimum time. The planning process is decomposed into two phases of global navigation and local navigation. The global navigation strategy plans a coarse, collision-free path through the environment to a goal location that will take the vehicle to previously unexplored or incompletely viewed territory. The local navigation strategy plans detailed, collision-free paths within the currently sensed environment that maximize local coverage

  18. Computationally based methodology for reengineering the high-level waste planning process at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, P.K.; Gregory, M.V.; Wells, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has started processing its legacy of 34 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste into its final disposable form. The SRS high-level waste (HLW) complex consists of 51 waste storage tanks, 3 evaporators, 6 waste treatment operations, and 2 waste disposal facilities. It is estimated that processing wastes to clean up all tanks will take 30+ yr of operation. Integrating all the highly interactive facility operations through the entire life cycle in an optimal fashion-while meeting all the budgetary, regulatory, and operational constraints and priorities-is a complex and challenging planning task. The waste complex operating plan for the entire time span is periodically published as an SRS report. A computationally based integrated methodology has been developed that has streamlined the planning process while showing how to run the operations at economically and operationally optimal conditions. The integrated computational model replaced a host of disconnected spreadsheet calculations and the analysts' trial-and-error solutions using various scenario choices. This paper presents the important features of the integrated computational methodology and highlights the parameters that are core components of the planning process

  19. Team-based learning: a novel approach to medical student education in family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Sheila K; Kiley, Jessica; Gawron, Lori; Garcia, Patricia; Hammond, Cassing

    2013-08-01

    Medical schools are increasingly using team-based learning (TBL). We compared medical student satisfaction and understanding of key concepts in family planning following TBL and traditional lectures. During the OB/GYN clinical rotation orientation, third year medical students completed a pretest in family planning. Students in the odd-numbered clerkships participated in TBL, and students in the even-numbered clerkships participated in lectures. Both groups of students completed a posttest and satisfaction survey. A total of 130 students participated in this study. Sixty-nine students were in the TBL group, and 61 students were in the lecture group. The TBL group reported higher scores when asked if the learning style was a valuable experience (p=.045), helped them learn the course material (p=.01) and improved problem-solving skills (p=.04). Both groups gained significant amount of knowledge (plearning strategy for family planning, TBL resulted in high student satisfaction. This is the first study to evaluate this innovative teaching style for medical student education in family planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Medical Students' Knowledge of Fertility Awareness-Based Methods of Family Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, Peter G; Kurz, Sally A; Covert, Laura M

    2017-01-01

    Traditional medical school curricula have not addressed fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs) of family planning. The objective of this study was to assess (1) 3-year medical students' knowledge of FABMs of family planning, (2) their confidence in utilizing that knowledge in patient care, and (3) to implement focused education on FABMs to improve knowledge and confidence. Third-year medical students at one institution in the United States were given a 10-question assessment at the beginning of their OB-GYN rotation. Two lectures about FABMs and their clinical applications were given during the rotation. Students were given the same questions at the end of the rotation. Each questionnaire consisted of eight questions to assess a student's knowledge of FABMs and two questions to assess the student's confidence in sharing and utilizing that information in a clinical setting. McNemar's test was used to analyze the data. Two hundred seventy-seven students completed a pretest questionnaire and 196 students completed the posttest questionnaire. Medical knowledge improved from an initial test score of 38.99% to final test score of 53.57% ( p  family planning. This study shows that brief, focused education can increase medical students' knowledge of and confidence with FABMs of family planning.

  1. FIRM: Sampling-based feedback motion-planning under motion uncertainty and imperfect measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Agha-mohammadi, A.-a.

    2013-11-15

    In this paper we present feedback-based information roadmap (FIRM), a multi-query approach for planning under uncertainty which is a belief-space variant of probabilistic roadmap methods. The crucial feature of FIRM is that the costs associated with the edges are independent of each other, and in this sense it is the first method that generates a graph in belief space that preserves the optimal substructure property. From a practical point of view, FIRM is a robust and reliable planning framework. It is robust since the solution is a feedback and there is no need for expensive replanning. It is reliable because accurate collision probabilities can be computed along the edges. In addition, FIRM is a scalable framework, where the complexity of planning with FIRM is a constant multiplier of the complexity of planning with PRM. In this paper, FIRM is introduced as an abstract framework. As a concrete instantiation of FIRM, we adopt stationary linear quadratic Gaussian (SLQG) controllers as belief stabilizers and introduce the so-called SLQG-FIRM. In SLQG-FIRM we focus on kinematic systems and then extend to dynamical systems by sampling in the equilibrium space. We investigate the performance of SLQG-FIRM in different scenarios. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Impact of urban planning on household's residential decisions: An agent-based simulation model for Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaube, Veronika; Remesch, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    Interest in assessing the sustainability of socio-ecological systems of urban areas has increased notably, with additional attention generated due to the fact that half the world's population now lives in cities. Urban areas face both a changing urban population size and increasing sustainability issues in terms of providing good socioeconomic and environmental living conditions. Urban planning has to deal with both challenges. Households play a major role by being affected by urban planning decisions on the one hand and by being responsible - among many other factors - for the environmental performance of a city (e.g. energy use). We here present an agent-based decision model referring to the city of Vienna, the capital of Austria, with a population of about 1.7 million (2.3 million within the metropolitan area, the latter being more than 25% of Austria's total population). Since the early 1990s, after decades of negative population growth, Vienna has been experiencing a steady increase in population, mainly driven by immigration. The aim of the agent-based decision model is to simulate new residential patterns of different household types based on demographic development and migration scenarios. Model results were used to assess spatial patterns of energy use caused by different household types in the four scenarios (1) conventional urban planning, (2) sustainable urban planning, (3) expensive centre and (4) no green area preference. Outcomes show that changes in preferences of households relating to the presence of nearby green areas have the most important impact on the distribution of households across the small-scaled city area. Additionally, the results demonstrate the importance of the distribution of different household types regarding spatial patterns of energy use.

  3. Impact of urban planning on household's residential decisions: An agent-based simulation model for Vienna☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaube, Veronika; Remesch, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Interest in assessing the sustainability of socio-ecological systems of urban areas has increased notably, with additional attention generated due to the fact that half the world's population now lives in cities. Urban areas face both a changing urban population size and increasing sustainability issues in terms of providing good socioeconomic and environmental living conditions. Urban planning has to deal with both challenges. Households play a major role by being affected by urban planning decisions on the one hand and by being responsible – among many other factors – for the environmental performance of a city (e.g. energy use). We here present an agent-based decision model referring to the city of Vienna, the capital of Austria, with a population of about 1.7 million (2.3 million within the metropolitan area, the latter being more than 25% of Austria's total population). Since the early 1990s, after decades of negative population growth, Vienna has been experiencing a steady increase in population, mainly driven by immigration. The aim of the agent-based decision model is to simulate new residential patterns of different household types based on demographic development and migration scenarios. Model results were used to assess spatial patterns of energy use caused by different household types in the four scenarios (1) conventional urban planning, (2) sustainable urban planning, (3) expensive centre and (4) no green area preference. Outcomes show that changes in preferences of households relating to the presence of nearby green areas have the most important impact on the distribution of households across the small-scaled city area. Additionally, the results demonstrate the importance of the distribution of different household types regarding spatial patterns of energy use. PMID:27667962

  4. Telematics-based online client-server/client collaborative environment for radiotherapy planning simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Oyeon

    2007-11-01

    Customized cancer radiation treatment planning for each patient is very useful for both a patient and a doctor because it provides the ability to deliver higher doses to a more accurately defined tumor and at the same time lower doses to organs at risk and normal tissues. This can be realized by building an accurate planning simulation system to provide better treatment strategies based on each patient's tomographic data such as CT, MRI, PET, or SPECT. In this study, we develop a real-time online client-server/client collaborative environment between the client (health care professionals or hospitals) and the server/client under a secure network using telematics (the integrated use of telecommunications and medical informatics). The implementation is based on a point-to-point communication scheme between client and server/client following the WYSIWIS (what you see is what I see) paradigm. After uploading the patient tomographic data, the client is able to collaborate with the server/client for treatment planning. Consequently, the level of health care services can be improved, specifically for small radiotherapy clinics in rural/remote-country areas that do not possess much experience or equipment such as a treatment planning simulator. The telematics service of the system can also be used to provide continued medical education in radiotherapy. Moreover, the system is easy to use. A client can use the system if s/he is familiar with the Windows(TM) operating system because it is designed and built based on a user-friendly concept. This system does not require the client to continue hardware and software maintenance and updates. These are performed automatically by the server.

  5. Environmental Assessment: General Plan-Based Environmental Impact Analysis Process, Laughlin Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    BASED ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS LAUGHLIN AIR FORCE BASE, TEXAS AGENCY: 47th Flying Training Wing (FTW), Laughlin Air Force Base (AFB), Texas...in their decision-making process. The President’s Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) has issued regulations to implement NEPA that include...Order (EO) 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, was issued by the President on

  6. Monte Carlo based dosimetry and treatment planning for neutron capture therapy of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamenhof, R.G.; Clement, S.D.; Harling, O.K.; Brenner, J.F.; Wazer, D.E.; Madoc-Jones, H.; Yanch, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Monte Carlo based dosimetry and computer-aided treatment planning for neutron capture therapy have been developed to provide the necessary link between physical dosimetric measurements performed on the MITR-II epithermal-neutron beams and the need of the radiation oncologist to synthesize large amounts of dosimetric data into a clinically meaningful treatment plan for each individual patient. Monte Carlo simulation has been employed to characterize the spatial dose distributions within a skull/brain model irradiated by an epithermal-neutron beam designed for neutron capture therapy applications. The geometry and elemental composition employed for the mathematical skull/brain model and the neutron and photon fluence-to-dose conversion formalism are presented. A treatment planning program, NCTPLAN, developed specifically for neutron capture therapy, is described. Examples are presented illustrating both one and two-dimensional dose distributions obtainable within the brain with an experimental epithermal-neutron beam, together with beam quality and treatment plan efficacy criteria which have been formulated for neutron capture therapy. The incorporation of three-dimensional computed tomographic image data into the treatment planning procedure is illustrated. The experimental epithermal-neutron beam has a maximum usable circular diameter of 20 cm, and with 30 ppm of B-10 in tumor and 3 ppm of B-10 in blood, it produces a beam-axis advantage depth of 7.4 cm, a beam-axis advantage ratio of 1.83, a global advantage ratio of 1.70, and an advantage depth RBE-dose rate to tumor of 20.6 RBE-cGy/min (cJ/kg-min). These characteristics make this beam well suited for clinical applications, enabling an RBE-dose of 2,000 RBE-cGy/min (cJ/kg-min) to be delivered to tumor at brain midline in six fractions with a treatment time of approximately 16 minutes per fraction

  7. The digital Dalton Plan: Progressive education as integral part of web-based learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Weichhart

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available e-Learning systems increasingly support learning management and self-organized learning processes. Since the latter have been studied in the field of progressive education extensively, it is worthwhile to consider them for developing digital learning environments to support self-regulated learning processes. In this paper we aim at transforming one of the most prominent and sustainable approaches to self-organized learning, the “Dalton Plan” as proposed by Helen Parkhurst. Its assignment structure supports learners when managing their learning tasks, thus triggering self-organized acquisition of knowledge, and its feedback graphs enable transparent learning processes. Since e-learning environments have become common use, rather than creating another system, we propose a modular approach that can be used for extending existing e-learning environments. In order to design a respective component, we interviewed experts in self-organized e-learning. Their input facilitated integrating the Dalton Plan with existing features of e-learning environments. After representing each interview in concept maps, we were able to aggregate them for deriving e-learning requirements conform to the Dalton Plan instruments. In the course of implementing them, particular attention had to be paid to the asynchrony of interaction during runtime. Java Server Faces technology enable the Dalton Plan component to be migrated into existing web 2.0 e-learning platforms. The result was evaluated based on the acquired concept maps, as they also captured the transformation process of the Dalton Plan to e-learning features. The findings encourage embodying further progressive education approaches in this way, since the structured (concept mapping of the Dalton Plan to e-learning features turned out to be accurate. The experts were able to recognize the potential of the approach both in terms of structuring the knowledge acquisition process, and in terms of developing

  8. Pilot utilization plan for satellite data-based service for agriculture in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatkowska, Martyna; Paradowski, Karol; Wróbel, Karolina

    2017-10-01

    The paper aims at demonstrating the assumptions and achievements of the Pilot Utilization Plan Activities performed within the Project ASAP "Advanced Sustainable Agricultural Production", co-financed by European Space Agency under the ARTES IAP Programme. Within the course of the project, the Pilot Utilization Plan (PilUP) activities are performed in order to develop the remote sensing based models, and further calibrate and validate them in order to achieve the accuracy, which meets the requirements of paying customers. The completion of the first PilUP resulted in development of the following models based of Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 satellite data: model of homogenous polygons demarcation on the basis of comparison of electromagnetic scanning results and bare soil spectral reflectance, model of problematic areas indication and model for yield potential, delivered on the basis of NDVI map developed 1 month before harvest and the map of yield/collected yield derived from Users participating in PilUP. The second edition of the PilUP is being conducted between March 2017 until the end of 2017. This edition includes farmers and insurance companies. The following activities are planned: development of model for delimitation of loses due to unfavorable wintering of winter crops and validation of the model with in-situ data collected by the insurance companies in-field investigators, further enhancement of the model for homogenous polygons delimitation and primary indication of soil productivity and testing of the applicability and viability of map of problematic areas with the farmers.

  9. Current concepts in F18 FDG PET/CT-based Radiation Therapy planning for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy eLee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is an important component of cancer therapy for early stage as well as locally advanced lung cancer. The use of F18 FDG PET/CT has come to the forefront of lung cancer staging and overall treatment decision-making. FDG PET/CT parameters such as standard uptake value and metabolic tumor volume provide important prognostic and predictive information in lung cancer. Importantly, FDG PET/CT for radiation planning has added biological information in defining the gross tumor volume as well as involved nodal disease. For example, accurate target delineation between tumor and atelectasis is facilitated by utilizing PET and CT imaging. Furthermore, there has been meaningful progress in incorporating metabolic information from FDG PET/CT imaging in radiation treatment planning strategies such as radiation dose escalation based on standard uptake value thresholds as well as using respiratory gated PET and CT planning for improved target delineation of moving targets. In addition, PET/CT based follow-up after radiation therapy has provided the possibility of early detection of local as well as distant recurrences after treatment. More research is needed to incorporate other biomarkers such as proliferative and hypoxia biomarkers in PET as well as integrating metabolic information in adaptive, patient-centered, tailored radiation therapy.

  10. Practical application of game theory based production flow planning method in virtual manufacturing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olender, M.; Krenczyk, D.

    2016-08-01

    Modern enterprises have to react quickly to dynamic changes in the market, due to changing customer requirements and expectations. One of the key area of production management, that must continuously evolve by searching for new methods and tools for increasing the efficiency of manufacturing systems is the area of production flow planning and control. These aspects are closely connected with the ability to implement the concept of Virtual Enterprises (VE) and Virtual Manufacturing Network (VMN) in which integrated infrastructure of flexible resources are created. In the proposed approach, the players role perform the objects associated with the objective functions, allowing to solve the multiobjective production flow planning problems based on the game theory, which is based on the theory of the strategic situation. For defined production system and production order models ways of solving the problem of production route planning in VMN on computational examples for different variants of production flow is presented. Possible decision strategy to use together with an analysis of calculation results is shown.

  11. A scalable method for parallelizing sampling-based motion planning algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Jacobs, Sam Ade

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes a scalable method for parallelizing sampling-based motion planning algorithms. It subdivides configuration space (C-space) into (possibly overlapping) regions and independently, in parallel, uses standard (sequential) sampling-based planners to construct roadmaps in each region. Next, in parallel, regional roadmaps in adjacent regions are connected to form a global roadmap. By subdividing the space and restricting the locality of connection attempts, we reduce the work and inter-processor communication associated with nearest neighbor calculation, a critical bottleneck for scalability in existing parallel motion planning methods. We show that our method is general enough to handle a variety of planning schemes, including the widely used Probabilistic Roadmap (PRM) and Rapidly-exploring Random Trees (RRT) algorithms. We compare our approach to two other existing parallel algorithms and demonstrate that our approach achieves better and more scalable performance. Our approach achieves almost linear scalability on a 2400 core LINUX cluster and on a 153,216 core Cray XE6 petascale machine. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. Development of Web-Based Menu Planning Support System and its Solution Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Shimpei; Ishii, Hiroaki

    2009-10-01

    Recently lifestyle-related diseases have become an object of public concern, while at the same time people are being more health conscious. As an essential factor for causing the lifestyle-related diseases, we assume that the knowledge circulation on dietary habits is still insufficient. This paper focuses on everyday meals close to our life and proposes a well-balanced menu planning system as a preventive measure of lifestyle-related diseases. The system is developed by using a Web-based frontend and it provides multi-user services and menu information sharing capabilities like social networking services (SNS). The system is implemented on a Web server running Apache (HTTP server software), MySQL (database management system), and PHP (scripting language for dynamic Web pages). For the menu planning, a genetic algorithm is applied by understanding this problem as multidimensional 0-1 integer programming.

  13. The Motion Planning of Overhead Crane Based on Suppressing Payload Residual Swing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hua-sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the overhead crane system is subject to under actuation system due to that overhead crane and payload are connected by flexibility wire rope. The payload generates residual swing when the overhead crane is accelerating/ decelerating the motions. This may cause trouble for the payload precise positioning and motion planning. Hence, an optimization input shaping control method is presented to reduce the under actuated overhead crane’s payload swing caused via the inertia force. The dynamic model of the overhead crane is proposed according to the physics structure of the crane. The input shaper based on the motion planning of the crane is used as the feed forward input to suppress payload residual swing. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the ZV input shaper and ZVD input shaper can reduce the payload swing of the overhead crane.

  14. Simulation-Based Planning and Control of Transport Flows in Port Logistic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Diogo Passos Lima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In highly dynamic and uncertain transport conditions, transport transit time has to be continuously monitored so that the service level is ensured at a proper cost. The aim of this research is to propose and to test a procedure which allows an agile planning and control of transport flows in port logistic systems. The procedure couples an agent-based simulation and a queueing theory model. In this paper, the transport scheduling performed by an agent at the intermodal terminal was taken into consideration. The decision-making agent takes into account data which is acquired in remote points of the system. The obtained results indicate the relevance of continuously considering, for the transport planning and control, the expected transit time and further waiting times along port logistic systems.

  15. Planning of the development of the MMIS core technology based on nuclear-IT convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kee Choon; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Hwang, In Koo

    2012-01-01

    - Drive nuclear-IT convergence technologies such as middleware applied new concept nuclear instrumentation and control architecture, automated operation of future nuclear power plant, virtual reality/augmented reality, design and verification technology of a nuclear power plant main control room, software dependability, and cyber security technology - Write state-of-the-art report for the nuclear instrumentation and control based on IT convergence - A prototype which implemented related equipment and software subject to nuclear reactor operator that reside in the main control room (Reactor Operator, RO) order to a on-site operator (Local Operator, LO) and confirm the task performance matches the RO's intention - 'IT Convergence intelligent instrumentation and control technology' project planning for the Fourth Nuclear Power Research and Development in the long-term plan

  16. A Monte Carlo-based treatment-planning tool for ion beam therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Böhlen, T T; Dosanjh, M; Ferrari, A; Haberer, T; Parodi, K; Patera, V; Mairan, A

    2013-01-01

    Ion beam therapy, as an emerging radiation therapy modality, requires continuous efforts to develop and improve tools for patient treatment planning (TP) and research applications. Dose and fluence computation algorithms using the Monte Carlo (MC) technique have served for decades as reference tools for accurate dose computations for radiotherapy. In this work, a novel MC-based treatment-planning (MCTP) tool for ion beam therapy using the pencil beam scanning technique is presented. It allows single-field and simultaneous multiple-fields optimization for realistic patient treatment conditions and for dosimetric quality assurance for irradiation conditions at state-of-the-art ion beam therapy facilities. It employs iterative procedures that allow for the optimization of absorbed dose and relative biological effectiveness (RBE)-weighted dose using radiobiological input tables generated by external RBE models. Using a re-implementation of the local effect model (LEM), theMCTP tool is able to perform TP studies u...

  17. Transmission network expansion planning based on hybridization model of neural networks and harmony search algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ameli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission Network Expansion Planning (TNEP is a basic part of power network planning that determines where, when and how many new transmission lines should be added to the network. So, the TNEP is an optimization problem in which the expansion purposes are optimized. Artificial Intelligence (AI tools such as Genetic Algorithm (GA, Simulated Annealing (SA, Tabu Search (TS and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs are methods used for solving the TNEP problem. Today, by using the hybridization models of AI tools, we can solve the TNEP problem for large-scale systems, which shows the effectiveness of utilizing such models. In this paper, a new approach to the hybridization model of Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNNs and Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA was used to solve the TNEP problem. Finally, by considering the uncertain role of the load based on a scenario technique, this proposed model was tested on the Garver’s 6-bus network.

  18. Reliability worth applied to transmission expansion planning based on ant colony system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite da Silva, Armando M.; Rezende, Leandro S. [Institute of Electric Systems and Energy, Federal University of Itajuba, UNIFEI (Brazil); da Fonseca Manso, Luiz A.; de Resende, Leonidas C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Sao Joao del Rei, UFSJ (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    This paper proposes a new methodology to solve transmission expansion planning (TEP) problems in power system, based on the metaheuristic ant colony optimisation (ACO). The TEP problem includes the search for the least cost solution, bearing in mind investment cost and reliability worth. Reliability worth is considered through the assessment of the interruption costs represented by the index LOLC - loss of load cost. The focus of this work is the development of a tool for the multi-stage planning of transmission systems and how reliability aspects can influence on the decision-making process. The applications of the proposed methodology are illustrated through case studies carried out using a test system and a real sub-transmission network. (author)

  19. A change navigation-based, scenario planning process within a developing world context from an Afro-centric leadership perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chris A. Geldenhuys; Theo H. Veldsman

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: In the hyper turbulent context faced currently by organisations, more flexible strategic planning approaches, such as scenario planning which take into account a more comprehensive range of possible futures for an organisation, will position organisations better than conventional forecast and estimates that depend only on a single, linearly extrapolated, strategic response. Research purpose: This study aimed to investigate how scenario-based planning (a strictly cognitive...

  20. MOVES: A knowledge-based system for maintenance planning for motor-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, M.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past several years, knowledge-based expert systems have emerged as an important part of the general research area known as artificial intelligence. This paper describes a cooperative effort between faculty members at Iowa State University and engineers at the Duane Arnold Energy Center [a 545-MW(electric) boiling water reactor operated by Iowa Electric Light and Power Company] to explore the development of an advisory system for valve maintenance planning. This knowledge-based program, known as Motor-Operated Valves Expert System (MOVES), has a data base that currently includes safety-related motor-operated valves (∼117 valves). Valve maintenance was selected as the subject for the expert system because of the importance of valves in nuclear plant and their impact of plant availability. MOVES is being developed using the microcomputer-(IBM compatible) based expert system tool INSIGHT2+. The authors have found that the project benefits both the university and the utility

  1. Value-Based Insurance Design Benefit Offsets Reductions In Medication Adherence Associated With Switch To Deductible Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mary E; Warton, E Margaret; Kim, Eileen; Solomon, Matthew D; Karter, Andrew J

    2017-03-01

    Enrollment in high-deductible health plans is increasing out-of-pocket spending. But innovative plans that pair deductibles with value-based insurance designs can help preserve low-cost access to high-value treatments for patients by aligning coverage with clinical value. Among adults in high-deductible health plans who were prescribed medications for chronic conditions, we examined what impact a value-based pharmacy benefit that offered free chronic disease medications had on medication adherence. Overall, we found that the value-based plan offset reductions in medication adherence associated with switching to a deductible plan. The value-based plan appeared particularly beneficial for patients who started with low levels of medication adherence. Patients with additional clinical complexity or vulnerable populations living in neighborhoods with lower socioeconomic status, however, did not show adherence improvements and might not be taking advantage of value-based insurance design provisions. Additional efforts may be needed to educate patients about their nuanced benefit plans to help overcome initial confusion about these complex plans. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  2. Verification of Gamma Knife extend system based fractionated treatment planning using EBT2 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natanasabapathi, Gopishankar; Bisht, Raj Kishor

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents EBT2 film verification of fractionated treatment planning with the Gamma Knife (GK) extend system, a relocatable frame system for multiple-fraction or serial multiple-session radiosurgery.Methods: A human head shaped phantom simulated the verification process for fractionated Gamma Knife treatment. Phantom preparation for Extend Frame based treatment planning involved creating a dental impression, fitting the phantom to the frame system, and acquiring a stereotactic computed tomography (CT) scan. A CT scan (Siemens, Emotion 6) of the phantom was obtained with following parameters: Tube voltage—110 kV, tube current—280 mA, pixel size—0.5 × 0.5 and 1 mm slice thickness. A treatment plan with two 8 mm collimator shots and three sectors blocking in each shot was made. Dose prescription of 4 Gy at 100% was delivered for the first fraction out of the two fractions planned. Gafchromic EBT2 film (ISP Wayne, NJ) was used as 2D verification dosimeter in this process. Films were cut and placed inside the film insert of the phantom for treatment dose delivery. Meanwhile a set of films from the same batch were exposed from 0 to 12 Gy doses for calibration purposes. An EPSON (Expression 10000 XL) scanner was used for scanning the exposed films in transparency mode. Scanned films were analyzed with inhouse written MATLAB codes.Results: Gamma index analysis of film measurement in comparison with TPS calculated dose resulted in high pass rates >90% for tolerance criteria of 1%/1 mm. The isodose overlay and linear dose profiles of film measured and computed dose distribution on sagittal and coronal plane were in close agreement.Conclusions: Through this study, the authors propose treatment verification QA method for Extend frame based fractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery using EBT2 film

  3. Computer-based planning of optimal donor sites for autologous osseous grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Zdzislaw; Chlebiej, Michal; Zerfass, Peter; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian U.; Sader, Robert; Mikolajczak, Pawel; Keeve, Erwin

    2002-05-01

    Bone graft surgery is often necessary for reconstruction of craniofacial defects after trauma, tumor, infection or congenital malformation. In this operative technique the removed or missing bone segment is filled with a bone graft. The mainstay of the craniofacial reconstruction rests with the replacement of the defected bone by autogeneous bone grafts. To achieve sufficient incorporation of the autograft into the host bone, precise planning and simulation of the surgical intervention is required. The major problem is to determine as accurately as possible the donor site where the graft should be dissected from and to define the shape of the desired transplant. A computer-aided method for semi-automatic selection of optimal donor sites for autografts in craniofacial reconstructive surgery has been developed. The non-automatic step of graft design and constraint setting is followed by a fully automatic procedure to find the best fitting position. In extension to preceding work, a new optimization approach based on the Levenberg-Marquardt method has been implemented and embedded into our computer-based surgical planning system. This new technique enables, once the pre-processing step has been performed, selection of the optimal donor site in time less than one minute. The method has been applied during surgery planning step in more than 20 cases. The postoperative observations have shown that functional results, such as speech and chewing ability as well as restoration of bony continuity were clearly better compared to conventionally planned operations. Moreover, in most cases the duration of the surgical interventions has been distinctly reduced.

  4. Verification of Gamma Knife extend system based fractionated treatment planning using EBT2 film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natanasabapathi, Gopishankar; Bisht, Raj Kishor [Gamma Knife Unit, Department of Neurosurgery, Neurosciences Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This paper presents EBT2 film verification of fractionated treatment planning with the Gamma Knife (GK) extend system, a relocatable frame system for multiple-fraction or serial multiple-session radiosurgery.Methods: A human head shaped phantom simulated the verification process for fractionated Gamma Knife treatment. Phantom preparation for Extend Frame based treatment planning involved creating a dental impression, fitting the phantom to the frame system, and acquiring a stereotactic computed tomography (CT) scan. A CT scan (Siemens, Emotion 6) of the phantom was obtained with following parameters: Tube voltage—110 kV, tube current—280 mA, pixel size—0.5 × 0.5 and 1 mm slice thickness. A treatment plan with two 8 mm collimator shots and three sectors blocking in each shot was made. Dose prescription of 4 Gy at 100% was delivered for the first fraction out of the two fractions planned. Gafchromic EBT2 film (ISP Wayne, NJ) was used as 2D verification dosimeter in this process. Films were cut and placed inside the film insert of the phantom for treatment dose delivery. Meanwhile a set of films from the same batch were exposed from 0 to 12 Gy doses for calibration purposes. An EPSON (Expression 10000 XL) scanner was used for scanning the exposed films in transparency mode. Scanned films were analyzed with inhouse written MATLAB codes.Results: Gamma index analysis of film measurement in comparison with TPS calculated dose resulted in high pass rates >90% for tolerance criteria of 1%/1 mm. The isodose overlay and linear dose profiles of film measured and computed dose distribution on sagittal and coronal plane were in close agreement.Conclusions: Through this study, the authors propose treatment verification QA method for Extend frame based fractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery using EBT2 film.

  5. CT-Based Brachytherapy Treatment Planning using Monte Carlo Simulation Aided by an Interface Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Moslemi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In brachytherapy, radioactive sources are placed close to the tumor, therefore, small changes in their positions can cause large changes in the dose distribution. This emphasizes the need for computerized treatment planning. The usual method for treatment planning of cervix brachytherapy uses conventional radiographs in the Manchester system. Nowadays, because of their advantages in locating the source positions and the surrounding tissues, CT and MRI images are replacing conventional radiographs. In this study, we used CT images in Monte Carlo based dose calculation for brachytherapy treatment planning, using an interface software to create the geometry file required in the MCNP code. The aim of using the interface software is to facilitate and speed up the geometry set-up for simulations based on the patient’s anatomy. This paper examines the feasibility of this method in cervix brachytherapy and assesses its accuracy and speed. Material and Methods: For dosimetric measurements regarding the treatment plan, a pelvic phantom was made from polyethylene in which the treatment applicators could be placed. For simulations using CT images, the phantom was scanned at 120 kVp. Using an interface software written in MATLAB, the CT images were converted into MCNP input file and the simulation was then performed. Results: Using the interface software, preparation time for the simulations of the applicator and surrounding structures was approximately 3 minutes; the corresponding time needed in the conventional MCNP geometry entry being approximately 1 hour. The discrepancy in the simulated and measured doses to point A was 1.7% of the prescribed dose.  The corresponding dose differences between the two methods in rectum and bladder were 3.0% and 3.7% of the prescribed dose, respectively. Comparing the results of simulation using the interface software with those of simulation using the standard MCNP geometry entry showed a less than 1

  6. Photon Optimizer (PO) prevails over Progressive Resolution Optimizer (PRO) for VMAT planning with or without knowledge-based solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Wu, Hao; Yue, Haizhen; Jia, Fei; Zhang, Yibao

    2017-03-01

    The enhanced dosimetric performance of knowledge-based volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning might be jointly contributed by the patient-specific optimization objectives, as estimated by the RapidPlan model, and by the potentially improved Photon Optimizer (PO) algorithm than the previous Progressive Resolution Optimizer (PRO) engine. As PO is mandatory for RapidPlan estimation but optional for conventional manual planning, appreciating the two optimizers may provide practical guidelines for the algorithm selection because knowledge-based planning may not replace the current method completely in a short run. Using a previously validated dose-volume histogram (DVH) estimation model which can produce clinically acceptable plans automatically for rectal cancer patients without interactive manual adjustment, this study reoptimized 30 historically approved plans (referred as clinical plans that were created manually with PRO) with RapidPlan solution (PO plans). Then the PRO algorithm was utilized to optimize the plans again using the same dose-volume constraints as PO plans, where the line objectives were converted as a series of point objectives automatically (PRO plans). On the basis of comparable target dose coverage, the combined applications of new objectives and PO algorithm have significantly reduced the organs-at-risk (OAR) exposure by 23.49-32.72% than the clinical plans. These discrepancies have been largely preserved after substituting PRO for PO, indicating the dosimetric improvements were mostly attributable to the refined objectives. Therefore, Eclipse users of earlier versions may instantly benefit from adopting the model-generated objectives from other RapidPlan-equipped centers, even with PRO algorithm. However, the additional contribution made by the PO relative to PRO accounted for 1.54-3.74%, suggesting PO should be selected with priority whenever available, with or without RapidPlan solution as a purchasable package. Significantly

  7. The Importance of Documenting and Including Traditional Wisdom in Community-Based Ecotourism Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Đukić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article accords to the theory of community-based tourism, which represents a concept that respects natural and cultural resources of a particular community and encourages participation of its members in the process of tourist product creation. The article operates in the planning phase and aims to give insights into the process of establishing the groundwork for community-based tourism. The key element is documenting and illustrating everything that could be a part of what is known as “traditional wisdom,” namely, the skills and knowledge of traditional life practices. The methods of case study, content analysis, and observation of the village of Omoljica, Serbia, were used. The positive aspect of this locality is reflected in the existing short-term initiatives of organizations and individuals engaging in preserving traditional practices, but without systematic, long-term planning and management of community-based tourism, these individual efforts to revalue traditional life practices would stay unrecognizable and invisible for visitors and stakeholders. Thus, the main goal of this article is to understand the relation between short-term bottom-up initiatives and long-term top-down strategic planning of specific ecotourism destinations, one that would embrace the traditional ways of rural community life. The contribution of this study, in addition to documenting and illustrating “traditional wisdom” of the specific rural community placed in the protected area which encompasses a particular local social system, will be reflected in the creation of a set of guidelines for sustainable, rural, community-based ecotourism as a soft-driver development of protected areas near big cities of the postsocialist countries.

  8. A Duration Prediction Using a Material-Based Progress Management Methodology for Construction Operation Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongho Ko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Precise and accurate prediction models for duration and cost enable contractors to improve their decision making for effective resource management in terms of sustainability in construction. Previous studies have been limited to cost-based estimations, but this study focuses on a material-based progress management method. Cost-based estimations typically used in construction, such as the earned value method, rely on comparing the planned budget with the actual cost. However, accurately planning budgets requires analysis of many factors, such as the financial status of the sectors involved. Furthermore, there is a higher possibility of changes in the budget than in the total amount of material used during construction, which is deduced from the quantity take-off from drawings and specifications. Accordingly, this study proposes a material-based progress management methodology, which was developed using different predictive analysis models (regression, neural network, and auto-regressive moving average as well as datasets on material and labor, which can be extracted from daily work reports from contractors. A case study on actual datasets was conducted, and the results show that the proposed methodology can be efficiently used for progress management in construction.

  9. V&V Plan for FPGA-based ESF-CCS Using System Engineering Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerani, Restu; Mayaka, Joyce; El Akrat, Mohamed; Cheon, Jung Jae

    2018-02-01

    Instrumentation and Control (I&C) systems play an important role in maintaining the safety of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operation. However, most current I&C safety systems are based on Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) hardware, which is difficult to verify and validate, and is susceptible to software common cause failure. Therefore, a plan for the replacement of the PLC-based safety systems, such as the Engineered Safety Feature - Component Control System (ESF-CCS), with Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) is needed. By using a systems engineering approach, which ensures traceability in every phase of the life cycle, from system requirements, design implementation to verification and validation, the system development is guaranteed to be in line with the regulatory requirements. The Verification process will ensure that the customer and stakeholder’s needs are satisfied in a high quality, trustworthy, cost efficient and schedule compliant manner throughout a system’s entire life cycle. The benefit of the V&V plan is to ensure that the FPGA based ESF-CCS is correctly built, and to ensure that the measurement of performance indicators has positive feedback that “do we do the right thing” during the re-engineering process of the FPGA based ESF-CCS.

  10. 2018 Annual Terrestrial Sampling Plan for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico on Kirtland Air Force Base.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Stacy R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The 2018 Annual Terrestrial Sampling Plan for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico on Kirtland Air Force Base has been prepared in accordance with the “Letter of Agreement Between Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Sandia Field Office (DOE/NNSA/SFO) and 377th Air Base Wing (ABW), Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) for Terrestrial Sampling” (signed January 2017), Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The Letter of Agreement requires submittal of an annual terrestrial sampling plan.

  11. 2017 Annual Terrestrial Sampling Plan for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico on Kirtland Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Stacy R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The 2017 Annual Terrestrial Sampling Plan for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico on Kirtland Air Force Base has been prepared in accordance with the “Letter of Agreement Between Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Sandia Field Office (DOE/NNSA/SFO) and 377th Air Base Wing (ABW), Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) for Terrestrial Sampling” (signed January 2017), Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The Letter of Agreement requires submittal of an annual terrestrial sampling plan.

  12. Sex differences in the nine-point Beighton hypermobility test scores ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Joint hypermobility syndromes are often misinterpreted and wrongly diagnosed. Widely accepted naming such as Heritable Disorder of Connective Tissue has been shown to manifest features that closely overlap with better known disorders such as Marfan and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes and Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

  13. Tuition and Financial Aid: Nine Points for Boards to Consider in Keeping College Affordable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    The headlines report that college tuition is rising rapidly and students are struggling to pay for college. Financial-aid issues have also been in the news lately, with questions about student debt particularly prominent. Non-tuition revenues are weak because of declining state appropriations, depleted endowments, and anemic annual giving. At the…

  14. A generalisation of the nine-point circle and Euler line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael de Villiers

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available To most people, including some mathematics teachers, geometry is synonymous with ancient Greek geometry, especially as epitomised in Euclid's Elements of 300 BC. Sadly, many are not even aware of the significant extensions and investigations of Apollonius, Ptolemy, Pappus, and many others until about 320 AD. Even more people are completely unaware of the major developments that took place in synthetic Euclidean plane geometry from about 1750-1940, and more recently again from about 1990 onwards (stimulated in no small way by the current availability of dynamic geometry software.

  15. Geospatial Data Availability for Haiti: An Aid in the Development of GIS-Based Natural Resource Assessments for Conservation Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya Quinones; William Gould; Carlos D. Rodriguez-Pedraza

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the type and source of geospatial data available for Haiti. It was compiled to serve as a resource for geographic information system (GIS)-based land management and planning. It will be useful for conservation planning, reforestation efforts, and agricultural extension projects. Our study indicates that there is a great deal of geospatial...

  16. Text Analysis: Critical Component of Planning for Text-Based Discussion Focused on Comprehension of Informational Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucan, Linda; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan

    2018-01-01

    This investigation focuses on a tool used in a reading methods course to introduce reading specialist candidates to text analysis as a critical component of planning for text-based discussions. Unlike planning that focuses mainly on important text content or information, a text analysis approach focuses both on content and how that content is…

  17. The Yangbajing Super Complex Array Plan Based on the ARGO Carpet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Youheng; Zha Min

    2008-01-01

    Following the completion of the 5700 m 2 RPC carpet-like AS array at YangBaJing this year, a further plan based on the ARGO Carpet is raised. It characterizes with its high altitude site, its full-coverage detector array and the multi-parameter measurements. Apart from studies on TeV and sub-TeV energy range, UHE Gamma-ray sources and the Knee Physics will become its characteristic subjects. In the first phase of the plan, the Yangbajing Super Complex Array (YSCA) will include a 10 4 m 2 RPC Carpet, five indoor μ-detectors (∼170 m 2 each), four big outdoor μ-detectors (∼432 m 2 each) and a traditional field scintillation detector array surrounding the Carpet. Monte-Carlo study shows that, with such an array in YBJ (4300 m a.s.l.), γ-ray induced air showers can be separated from proton induced air showers clearly using only the observed electron and μ data event by event. To assist the classification of UHE air showers induced by different primary nuclei groups without severe interference by Composition/Model Entanglement, a second phase plan having a Central Burst Detector Array (CBDA) and some pulse shape detectors is schemed

  18. Planning and design of a knowledge based system for green manufacturing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Mohamed, Nik Mohd Zuki Nik; Aminuddin, Adam Shariff Adli

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual design approach to the development of a hybrid Knowledge Based (KB) system for Green Manufacturing Management (GMM) at the planning and design stages. The research concentrates on the GMM by using a hybrid KB system, which is a blend of KB system and Gauging Absences of Pre-requisites (GAP). The hybrid KB/GAP system identifies all potentials elements of green manufacturing management issues throughout the development of this system. The KB system used in the planning and design stages analyses the gap between the existing and the benchmark organizations for an effective implementation through the GAP analysis technique. The proposed KBGMM model at the design stage explores two components, namely Competitive Priority and Lean Environment modules. Through the simulated results, the KBGMM System has identified, for each modules and sub-module, the problem categories in a prioritized manner. The System finalized all the Bad Points (BP) that need to be improved to achieve benchmark implementation of GMM at the design stage. The System provides valuable decision making information for the planning and design a GMM in term of business organization

  19. Optimal Trajectory Planning and Coordinated Tracking Control Method of Tethered Space Robot Based on Velocity Impulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfeng Huang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The tethered space robot (TSR is a new concept of space robot which consists of a robot platform, space tether and operation robot. This paper presents a multi-objective optimal trajectory planning and a coordinated tracking control scheme for TSR based on velocity impulse in the approaching phase. Both total velocity impulse and flight time are included in this optimization. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is employed to obtain the optimal trajectory Pareto solution using the TSR dynamic model and optimal trajectory planning model. The coordinated tracking control scheme utilizes optimal velocity impulse. Furthermore, the PID controller is designed in order to compensate for the distance measurement errors. The PID control force is optimized and distributed to thrusters and the space tether using a simulated annealing algorithm. The attitude interferential torque of the space tether is compensated a using time-delay algorithm through reaction wheels. The simulation results show that the multi-objective optimal trajectory planning method can reveal the relationships among flight time, fuel consumption, planar view angle and velocity impulse number. This method can provide a series of optimal trajectory according to a number of special tasks. The coordinated control scheme can significantly save thruster fuel for tracking the optimal trajectory, restrain the attitude interferential torque produced by space tether and maintain the relative attitude stability of the operation robot.

  20. Stochastic Extended LQR for Optimization-based Motion Planning Under Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen; van den Berg, Jur; Alterovitz, Ron

    2016-04-01

    We introduce a novel optimization-based motion planner, Stochastic Extended LQR (SELQR), which computes a trajectory and associated linear control policy with the objective of minimizing the expected value of a user-defined cost function. SELQR applies to robotic systems that have stochastic non-linear dynamics with motion uncertainty modeled by Gaussian distributions that can be state- and control-dependent. In each iteration, SELQR uses a combination of forward and backward value iteration to estimate the cost-to-come and the cost-to-go for each state along a trajectory. SELQR then locally optimizes each state along the trajectory at each iteration to minimize the expected total cost, which results in smoothed states that are used for dynamics linearization and cost function quadratization. SELQR progressively improves the approximation of the expected total cost, resulting in higher quality plans. For applications with imperfect sensing, we extend SELQR to plan in the robot's belief space. We show that our iterative approach achieves fast and reliable convergence to high-quality plans in multiple simulated scenarios involving a car-like robot, a quadrotor, and a medical steerable needle performing a liver biopsy procedure.

  1. Planning and design of a knowledge based system for green manufacturing management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal Mohd Nawawi, Mohd; Mohd Zuki Nik Mohamed, Nik; Shariff Adli Aminuddin, Adam

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a conceptual design approach to the development of a hybrid Knowledge Based (KB) system for Green Manufacturing Management (GMM) at the planning and design stages. The research concentrates on the GMM by using a hybrid KB system, which is a blend of KB system and Gauging Absences of Pre-requisites (GAP). The hybrid KB/GAP system identifies all potentials elements of green manufacturing management issues throughout the development of this system. The KB system used in the planning and design stages analyses the gap between the existing and the benchmark organizations for an effective implementation through the GAP analysis technique. The proposed KBGMM model at the design stage explores two components, namely Competitive Priority and Lean Environment modules. Through the simulated results, the KBGMM System has identified, for each modules and sub-module, the problem categories in a prioritized manner. The System finalized all the Bad Points (BP) that need to be improved to achieve benchmark implementation of GMM at the design stage. The System provides valuable decision making information for the planning and design a GMM in term of business organization.

  2. The Uncertainties on the GIS Based Land Suitability Assessment for Urban and Rural Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Zhan, Q.; Zhan, M.

    2017-09-01

    The majority of the research on the uncertainties of spatial data and spatial analysis focuses on some specific data feature or analysis tool. Few have accomplished the uncertainties of the whole process of an application like planning, making the research of uncertainties detached from practical applications. The paper discusses the uncertainties of the geographical information systems (GIS) based land suitability assessment in planning on the basis of literature review. The uncertainties considered range from index system establishment to the classification of the final result. Methods to reduce the uncertainties arise from the discretization of continuous raster data and the index weight determination are summarized. The paper analyzes the merits and demerits of the "Nature Breaks" method which is broadly used by planners. It also explores the other factors which impact the accuracy of the final classification like the selection of class numbers, intervals and the autocorrelation of the spatial data. In the conclusion part, the paper indicates that the adoption of machine learning methods should be modified to integrate the complexity of land suitability assessment. The work contributes to the application of spatial data and spatial analysis uncertainty research on land suitability assessment, and promotes the scientific level of the later planning and decision-making.

  3. A comparison of plan-based and abstract MDP reward shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthymiadis, Kyriakos; Kudenko, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Reward shaping has been shown to significantly improve an agent's performance in reinforcement learning. As attention is shifting away from tabula-rasa approaches many different reward shaping methods have been developed. In this paper, we compare two different methods for reward shaping; plan-based, in which an agent is provided with a plan and extra rewards are given according to the steps of the plan the agent satisfies, and reward shaping via abstract Markov decision process (MDPs), in which an abstract high-level MDP of the environment is solved and the resulting value function is used to shape the agent. The comparison is conducted in terms of total reward, convergence speed and scaling up to more complex environments. Empirical results demonstrate the need to correctly select and set up reward shaping methods according to the needs of the environment the agents are acting in. This leads to the more interesting question, is there a reward shaping method which is universally better than all other approaches regardless of the environment dynamics?

  4. Automated planning target volume generation: an evaluation pitting a computer-based tool against human experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketting, Case H.; Austin-Seymour, Mary; Kalet, Ira; Jacky, Jon; Kromhout-Schiro, Sharon; Hummel, Sharon; Unger, Jonathan; Fagan, Lawrence M.; Griffin, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Software tools are seeing increased use in three-dimensional treatment planning. However, the development of these tools frequently omits careful evaluation before placing them in clinical use. This study demonstrates the application of a rigorous evaluation methodology using blinded peer review to an automated software tool that produces ICRU-50 planning target volumes (PTVs). Methods and Materials: Seven physicians from three different institutions involved in three-dimensional treatment planning participated in the evaluation. Four physicians drew partial PTVs on nine test cases, consisting of four nasopharynx and five lung primaries. Using the same information provided to the human experts, the computer tool generated PTVs for comparison. The remaining three physicians, designated evaluators, individually reviewed the PTVs for acceptability. To exclude bias, the evaluators were blinded to the source (human or computer) of the PTVs they reviewed. Their scorings of the PTVs were statistically examined to determine if the computer tool performed as well as the human experts. Results: The computer tool was as successful as the human experts in generating PTVs. Failures were primarily attributable to insufficient margins around the clinical target volume and to encroachment upon critical structures. In a qualitative analysis, the human and computer experts displayed similar types and distributions of errors. Conclusions: Rigorous evaluation of computer-based radiotherapy tools requires comparison to current practice and can reveal areas for improvement before the tool enters clinical practice

  5. Scenario-based water resources planning for utilities in the Lake Victoria region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vishal K.; Aslam, Omar; Dale, Larry; Miller, Norman; Purkey, David R.

    Urban areas in the Lake Victoria (LV) region are experiencing the highest growth rates in Africa. As efforts to meet increasing demand accelerate, integrated water resources management (IWRM) tools provide opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders to develop a planning framework comprehensive enough to include short term (e.g. landuse change), as well as longer term (e.g. climate change) scenarios. This paper presents IWRM models built using the Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) decision support system, for three towns in the LV region - Bukoba (Tanzania), Masaka (Uganda), and Kisii (Kenya). Each model was calibrated under current system performance based on site visits, utility reporting and interviews. Projected water supply, demand, revenues and costs were then evaluated against a combination of climate, demographic and infrastructure scenarios up to 2050. Our results show that water supply in all three towns is currently infrastructure limited; achieving existing design capacity could meet most projected demand until 2020s in Masaka beyond which new supply and conservation strategies would be needed. In Bukoba, reducing leakages would provide little performance improvement in the short-term, but doubling capacity would meet all demands until 2050. In Kisii, major infrastructure investment is urgently needed. In Masaka, streamflow simulations show that wetland sources could satisfy all demand until 2050, but at the cost of almost no water downstream of the intake. These models demonstrate the value of IWRM tools for developing water management plans that integrate hydroclimatology-driven supply to demand projections on a single platform.

  6. Scenario planning based on geomatics: a case study in Zijin mountain national forest park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingyang; He, Yanjie; Xu, Guangcai; Wu, Wenhao; Wang, Baozhong

    2007-06-01

    With the rapid development of forest tourism, it is crucial to coordinate the conflicting goals of a forest park by making a scientific plan. It is difficult to determine the complex relationship by means of traditional laboratory and field experiments on the scale of landscape. Zijin Mountain national forest park is taken as a case study area, while RS and GIS software ERDAS 8.7, ArcGis 9.0 are chosen as the spatial platforms of doing scenario planning. Three different periods remote sensing data in the years of 2000 (IKNOS), 2002(SPOT5), 2004 ( QuickBird ) are gathered, then supervised classification, neighborhood analysis are being done before three scenarios of national park in ten years are built based on Cellular Automation Model (CAM). Three spatial pattern index of mean patch area, shape index, patch density of each scenario are calculated by using the spatial pattern analysis program of Fragstats 3.3. After comparison of the three scenarios from two aspects of landscape spatial pattern and protection goals, an optimized planning is made and compared with the land classes in 2002. In the end of the paper, some problems concerned with the scenario making are discussed.

  7. THE UNCERTAINTIES ON THE GIS BASED LAND SUITABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR URBAN AND RURAL PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the research on the uncertainties of spatial data and spatial analysis focuses on some specific data feature or analysis tool. Few have accomplished the uncertainties of the whole process of an application like planning, making the research of uncertainties detached from practical applications. The paper discusses the uncertainties of the geographical information systems (GIS based land suitability assessment in planning on the basis of literature review. The uncertainties considered range from index system establishment to the classification of the final result. Methods to reduce the uncertainties arise from the discretization of continuous raster data and the index weight determination are summarized. The paper analyzes the merits and demerits of the “Nature Breaks” method which is broadly used by planners. It also explores the other factors which impact the accuracy of the final classification like the selection of class numbers, intervals and the autocorrelation of the spatial data. In the conclusion part, the paper indicates that the adoption of machine learning methods should be modified to integrate the complexity of land suitability assessment. The work contributes to the application of spatial data and spatial analysis uncertainty research on land suitability assessment, and promotes the scientific level of the later planning and decision-making.

  8. The research on regional conservation planning of urban historical and cultural areas based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shangli; Xu, Jian; Li, Qian

    2017-06-01

    With the rapid economic development and the growth of population happening in the urban historical and cultural areas, heritage and historical buildings along with their natural and artificial surrounding environments are suffering constructive destruction. Due to the lack of precise partition of protection region and construction control region in the local cultural relics protection law, traditional regional conservation planning cannot engaged with the urban controllability detailed planning very well. According to the several protection regulations about heritage and historical buildings from latest laws, we choose Baxian Temple area to study on the improvments of traditional regional conservation planning. The technical methods of this study mainly rely on GIS, which can complete the fundamental work of each stage. With the analytic hierarchy process(AHP), the comprehensive architectural value assessments can be calculated according to the investigation results. Based on the calculation results and visual corridor analysis, the precise range of protection region and construction control region can be decided and the specific protection measures can be formulated.

  9. Optimal planning approaches with multiple impulses for rendezvous based on hybrid genetic algorithm and control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JingRui Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we focus on safe and effective completion of a rendezvous and docking task by looking at planning approaches and control with fuel-optimal rendezvous for a target spacecraft running on a near-circular reference orbit. A variety of existent practical path constraints are considered, including the constraints of field of view, impulses, and passive safety. A rendezvous approach is calculated by using a hybrid genetic algorithm with those constraints. Furthermore, a control method of trajectory tracking is adopted to overcome the external disturbances. Based on Clohessy–Wiltshire equations, we first construct the mathematical model of optimal planning approaches of multiple impulses with path constraints. Second, we introduce the principle of hybrid genetic algorithm with both stronger global searching ability and local searching ability. We additionally explain the application of this algorithm in the problem of trajectory planning. Then, we give three-impulse simulation examples to acquire an optimal rendezvous trajectory with the path constraints presented in this article. The effectiveness and applicability of the tracking control method are verified with the optimal trajectory above as control objective through the numerical simulation.

  10. NASA HRP Plans for Collaboration at the IBMP Ground-Based Experimental Facility (NEK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2016-01-01

    NASA and IBMP are planning research collaborations using the IBMP Ground-based Experimental Facility (NEK). The NEK offers unique capabilities to study the effects of isolation on behavioral health and performance as it relates to spaceflight. The NEK is comprised of multiple interconnected modules that range in size from 50-250m(sup3). Modules can be included or excluded in a given mission allowing for flexibility of platform design. The NEK complex includes a Mission Control Center for communications and monitoring of crew members. In an effort to begin these collaborations, a 2-week mission is planned for 2017. In this mission, scientific studies will be conducted to assess facility capabilities in preparation for longer duration missions. A second follow-on 2-week mission may be planned for early in 2018. In future years, long duration missions of 4, 8 and 12 months are being considered. Missions will include scenarios that simulate for example, transit to and from asteroids, the moon, or other interplanetary travel. Mission operations will be structured to include stressors such as, high workloads, communication delays, and sleep deprivation. Studies completed at the NEK will support International Space Station expeditions, and future exploration missions. Topics studied will include communication, crew autonomy, cultural diversity, human factors, and medical capabilities.

  11. A Model for Urban Environment and Resource Planning Based on Green GDP Accounting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyu Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment and resources are currently on course that is unsustainable in the long run due to excessive human pursuit of economic goals. Thus, it is very important to develop a model to analyse the relationship between urban economic development and environmental resource protection during the process of rapid urbanisation. This paper proposed a model to identify the key factors in urban environment and resource regulation based on a green GDP accounting system, which consisted of four parts: economy, society, resource, and environment. In this model, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method and a modified Pearl curve model were combined to allow for dynamic evaluation, with higher green GDP value as the planning target. The model was applied to the environmental and resource planning problem of Wuyishan City, and the results showed that energy use was a key factor that influenced the urban environment and resource development. Biodiversity and air quality were the most sensitive factors that influenced the value of green GDP in the city. According to the analysis, the urban environment and resource planning could be improved for promoting sustainable development in Wuyishan City.

  12. Bi-objective optimization for multi-modal transportation routing planning problem based on Pareto optimality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of study is to solve the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem that aims to select an optimal route to move a consignment of goods from its origin to its destination through the multi-modal transportation network. And the optimization is from two viewpoints including cost and time. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, a bi-objective mixed integer linear programming model is proposed to optimize the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem. Minimizing the total transportation cost and the total transportation time are set as the optimization objectives of the model. In order to balance the benefit between the two objectives, Pareto optimality is utilized to solve the model by gaining its Pareto frontier. The Pareto frontier of the model can provide the multi-modal transportation operator (MTO and customers with better decision support and it is gained by the normalized normal constraint method. Then, an experimental case study is designed to verify the feasibility of the model and Pareto optimality by using the mathematical programming software Lingo. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the demand and supply in the multi-modal transportation organization is performed based on the designed case. Findings: The calculation results indicate that the proposed model and Pareto optimality have good performance in dealing with the bi-objective optimization. The sensitivity analysis also shows the influence of the variation of the demand and supply on the multi-modal transportation organization clearly. Therefore, this method can be further promoted to the practice. Originality/value: A bi-objective mixed integer linear programming model is proposed to optimize the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem. The Pareto frontier based sensitivity analysis of the demand and supply in the multi-modal transportation organization is performed based on the designed case.

  13. Theory and experiments in autonomous sensor-based motion planning with applications for flight planetary microrovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Sharon Lynn

    1999-11-01

    With the success of Mars Pathfinder's Sojourner rover, a new era of planetary exploration has opened, with demand for highly capable mobile robots. These robots must be able to traverse long distances over rough, unknown terrain autonomously, under severe resource constraints. Much prior work in mobile robot path planning has been based on assumptions that are not truly applicable to navigation through planetary terrains. Based on the author's firsthand experience with the Mars Pathfinder mission, this work reviews issues which are critical for successful autonomous navigation of planetary rovers. No current methodology addresses all of these constraints. We next develop the sensor-based "Wedgebug" motion-planning algorithm. This algorithm is complete, correct, requires minimal memory for storage of its world model, and uses only on-board sensors, which are guided by the algorithm to efficiently sense only the data needed for motion planning, while avoiding unnecessary robot motion. The planner has the additional advantage of producing locally-optimal paths, and is suitable for robots with a field-of-view limited in both downrange and angular scope, for a variety of applications including planetary navigation. This work includes the proof of completeness and correctness of the Wedgebug algorithm, and in particular provides a corrected, detailed proof of a key result required for the proof of completeness of the Wedgebug algorithm (and for the TangentBug algorithm which inspired this approach). In addition, we extend this result to a broader class of environments. The implementation of a version of Wedgebug, called "RoverBug," on the Rocky7 Mars Rover prototype at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is described, and experimental results from operation in simulated martian terrain are presented.

  14. Trajectory Planning of 7-DOF Space Manipulator for Minimizing Base Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the free-floating mode, there is intense dynamic coupling existing between the space manipulator and the base, and the base attitude may change while performing a motion with its manipulator. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the interference that resulted from the manipulator movement. For planning trajectories of the space manipulator with 7 degrees of freedom (7-DOF, simulated annealing particle swarm optimization (SAPSO algorithm is presented in the paper. Firstly, kinematics equations are setup. Secondly, the joint functions are parameterized by sinusoidal functions, and the objective function is defined according to the motion constraints of manipulator and accuracy requirements of the base attitude. Finally, SAPSO algorithm is used to search the optimal trajectory. The simulation results verify the proposed method.

  15. Potential Odor Intensity Grid Based UAV Path Planning Algorithm with Particle Swarm Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a potential odor intensity grid based optimization approach for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV path planning with particle swarm optimization (PSO technique. Odor intensity is created to color the area in the searching space with highest probability where candidate particles may locate. A potential grid construction operator is designed for standard PSO based on different levels of odor intensity. The potential grid construction operator generates two potential location grids with highest odor intensity. Then the middle point will be seen as the final position in current particle dimension. The global optimum solution will be solved as the average. In addition, solution boundaries of searching space in each particle dimension are restricted based on properties of threats in the flying field to avoid prematurity. Objective function is redesigned by taking minimum direction angle to destination into account and a sampling method is introduced. A paired samples t-test is made and an index called straight line rate (SLR is used to evaluate the length of planned path. Experiments are made with other three heuristic evolutionary algorithms. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of generating higher quality paths efficiently for UAV than any other tested optimization techniques.

  16. A test sheet generating algorithm based on intelligent genetic algorithm and hierarchical planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Peipei; Niu, Zhendong; Chen, Xuting; Chen, Wei

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, computer-based testing has become an effective method to evaluate students' overall learning progress so that appropriate guiding strategies can be recommended. Research has been done to develop intelligent test assembling systems which can automatically generate test sheets based on given parameters of test items. A good multisubject test sheet depends on not only the quality of the test items but also the construction of the sheet. Effective and efficient construction of test sheets according to multiple subjects and criteria is a challenging problem. In this paper, a multi-subject test sheet generation problem is formulated and a test sheet generating approach based on intelligent genetic algorithm and hierarchical planning (GAHP) is proposed to tackle this problem. The proposed approach utilizes hierarchical planning to simplify the multi-subject testing problem and adopts genetic algorithm to process the layered criteria, enabling the construction of good test sheets according to multiple test item requirements. Experiments are conducted and the results show that the proposed approach is capable of effectively generating multi-subject test sheets that meet specified requirements and achieve good performance.

  17. Monte Carlo based treatment planning systems for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in Petten, The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nievaart, V A; Daquino, G G; Moss, R L [JRC European Commission, PO Box 2, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-06-15

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a bimodal form of radiotherapy for the treatment of tumour lesions. Since the cancer cells in the treatment volume are targeted with {sup 10}B, a higher dose is given to these cancer cells due to the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction, in comparison with the surrounding healthy cells. In Petten (The Netherlands), at the High Flux Reactor, a specially tailored neutron beam has been designed and installed. Over 30 patients have been treated with BNCT in 2 clinical protocols: a phase I study for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and a phase II study on the treatment of malignant melanoma. Furthermore, activities concerning the extra-corporal treatment of metastasis in the liver (from colorectal cancer) are in progress. The irradiation beam at the HFR contains both neutrons and gammas that, together with the complex geometries of both patient and beam set-up, demands for very detailed treatment planning calculations. A well designed Treatment Planning System (TPS) should obey the following general scheme: (1) a pre-processing phase (CT and/or MRI scans to create the geometric solid model, cross-section files for neutrons and/or gammas); (2) calculations (3D radiation transport, estimation of neutron and gamma fluences, macroscopic and microscopic dose); (3) post-processing phase (displaying of the results, iso-doses and -fluences). Treatment planning in BNCT is performed making use of Monte Carlo codes incorporated in a framework, which includes also the pre- and post-processing phases. In particular, the glioblastoma multiforme protocol used BNCT{sub r}tpe, while the melanoma metastases protocol uses NCTPlan. In addition, an ad hoc Positron Emission Tomography (PET) based treatment planning system (BDTPS) has been implemented in order to integrate the real macroscopic boron distribution obtained from PET scanning. BDTPS is patented and uses MCNP as the calculation engine. The precision obtained by the Monte Carlo

  18. Population-based health promotion perspective for older driver safety: Conceptual framework to intervention plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherrilene Classen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sherrilene Classen1,2, Ellen DS Lopez3, Sandra Winter2, Kezia D Awadzi4, Nita Ferree5, Cynthia W Garvan61Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Public Health and Health Professions (CPHHP, University of Florida (UF, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2PhD Program in Rehabilitation Science, CPHHP, UF Gainesville, FL, USA; 3Department of Behavioral Science and Community Health, CPHHP, UF, Gainesville, FL, USA; 4Department of Health Services Research, Management, and Policy, CPHHP, UF, Gainesville, FL, USA; 5Health Science Center Libraries, UF, Gainesville, FL, USA; 6Division of Biostatistics, College of Medicine, UF, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: The topic of motor vehicle crashes among the elderly is dynamic and multi-faceted requiring a comprehensive and synergistic approach to intervention planning. This approach must be based on the values of a given population as well as health statistics and asserted through community, organizational and policy strategies. An integrated summary of the predictors (quantitative research, and views (qualitative research of the older drivers and their stakeholders, does not currently exist. This study provided an explicit socio-ecological view explaining the interrelation of possible causative factors, an integrated summary of these causative factors, and empirical guidelines for developing public health interventions to promote older driver safety. Using a mixed methods approach, we were able to compare and integrate main findings from a national crash dataset with perspectives of stakeholders. We identified: 11 multi-causal factors for safe elderly driving; the importance of the environmental factors - previously underrated in the literature- interacting with behavioral and health factors; and the interrelatedness among many socio-ecological factors. For the first time, to our knowledge, we conceptualized the fundamental elements of a multi-causal health promotion plan, with measurable intermediate and long

  19. Voxel-based dose prediction with multi-patient atlas selection for automated radiotherapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Chris; Purdie, Thomas G.

    2017-01-01

    Automating the radiotherapy treatment planning process is a technically challenging problem. The majority of automated approaches have focused on customizing and inferring dose volume objectives to be used in plan optimization. In this work we outline a multi-patient atlas-based dose prediction approach that learns to predict the dose-per-voxel for a novel patient directly from the computed tomography planning scan without the requirement of specifying any objectives. Our method learns to automatically select the most effective atlases for a novel patient, and then map the dose from those atlases onto the novel patient. We extend our previous work to include a conditional random field for the optimization of a joint distribution prior that matches the complementary goals of an accurately spatially distributed dose distribution while still adhering to the desired dose volume histograms. The resulting distribution can then be used for inverse-planning with a new spatial dose objective, or to create typical dose volume objectives for the canonical optimization pipeline. We investigated six treatment sites (633 patients for training and 113 patients for testing) and evaluated the mean absolute difference in all DVHs for the clinical and predicted dose distribution. The results on average are favorable in comparison to our previous approach (1.91 versus 2.57). Comparing our method with and without atlas-selection further validates that atlas-selection improved dose prediction on average in whole breast (0.64 versus 1.59), prostate (2.13 versus 4.07), and rectum (1.46 versus 3.29) while it is less important in breast cavity (0.79 versus 0.92) and lung (1.33 versus 1.27) for which there is high conformity and minimal dose shaping. In CNS brain, atlas-selection has the potential to be impactful (3.65 versus 5.09), but selecting the ideal atlas is the most challenging.

  20. THE INDEPENDENCE OF POST SECTIO CAESAREA MOTHER WITH DISCHARGE PLANNING BASED ON OREM'S SELF CARE THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinok Ayu Putri W

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discharge planning is one of nursing intervention that aim to promote the independence of patient's self care-activities after discharge from hospital. This study was aimed to examine the effect of discharge planning on wound care independence of post sectio caesarea mother at Melati Room, Dr. Soegiri Hospital, Lamongan. Method: Design of this study was quasy experiment. The population were post sectio caesarea mother at Melati Room Dr. Soegiri Hospital Lamongan, since May – June 2012. The samples were taken by purposive sampling technique. Fourteen responsdents matched with the inclusion criteria and divided into treatment and control groups. The datas were collected by using questionnaire and observation sheet. Then datas were analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level of α ≤ 0.05. Result: The result of this study showed that post sectio caesarea mother knowledge had significance level of p = 0.027 in treatment group, and in control group was p = 0.034, for post sectio caesarea patient's skill p = 0.015 in treatment group and in control group was p = 0.017. The result of Mann Whitney U test was p = 0.001, it means there was different in knowledge, and skill of wound care on post sectio caesarea patient between treatment and control groups. Discussion: It can be concluded that there are significant effect of wound care independence of post sectio caesarea patient with discharge planning approach based on orem's self care theory to improve patient's independence. Hospital need to develop discharge planning procedure to meet the needs of patient with post sectio caesarea wound and decrease the number of surgical wound infection.

  1. Risk-Based Operation and Maintenance Planning for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Jessen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    Operation and maintenance (O&M) are large contributors to the cost of energy for offshore wind turbines. Optimal planning of O&M should include use of inspections and monitoring results to make decisions that minimize the expected costs through the lifetime of the structures. For offshore...... structures it is especially important because of the dependence on weather windows for inspections and repairs to be possible. A model has been developed to estimate the expected costs to corrective and condition based maintenance for a wind turbine with a single component. The deterioration of the component...

  2. Laser-plasma based electron acceleration studies planned at CAT, Indore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, P.A.; Gupta, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    The Laser Plasma Division at the Centre for Advanced Technology is engaged in a variety of R and D activities on laser-plasma interaction with special emphasis on laser-matter interaction at ultra-high intensities. An important aspect of our future work is studies in laser-plasma based acceleration using an elaborate infrastructural set-up of ultra-fast laser and plasma diagnostic systems and recently acquired 10 TW, 50 fs Ti: Sapphire laser system. This paper presents outline of the planned studies in this field. (author)

  3. Interactive, three dimensional, CT-based treatment planning of stereotaxic I-125 brain implants. 132

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lulu, B.; Lewis, J.; Smith, V.; Stuart, A.

    1987-01-01

    Brain implants of I-125 seeds are done with the Brown-Roberts-Wells stereotaxic frame. The patient is CT scanned with the frame bolted to the skull. In the time between the scan and surgery, while the patient is under anesthesia, an interactive three dimensional CT-based treatment plan is performed on a VAX computer. The program is menu driven, easy to use, and easily modifiable. Device dependencies are limited to a small number of subroutines, and an array processor is used to speed dose calculations

  4. Statistical Approaches in GIS-Based Techniques for Sustainable Planning: Kayaçukuru Case

    OpenAIRE

    Aygun Erdogan

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make both a summary and additional descriptive and inferential statistical analyses for a completed thesis on "Sustainable/Environment Friendly Development Planning of Fethiye-Kayaçukuru Using GIS-Based Techniques" (M.Sc. in the Graduate School of Geodetic and Geographic Information Technologies, Middle East Technical University, Supervisor: Assoc.Prof.Dr. Oğuz Işık, September 2000, 214 pages). The statistical analyses explained in this paper comprise a part of...

  5. Consolidation of Environmental Planning, Bioenvironmental Engineering and Base Safety into a Single Resource Protection Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    DC: HQ USAF, 24 October 1975. 20. Department of the Air Force. Polluion Abatement and Environmental Qualit AFR 19-1. Washington DC: HQ USAF, 9 January...1 9Nh~93 CONSOLIDATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING / *IOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AN..(U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECH URIGNT-PATTERSON AFD 0O4 SCHOOL OF...DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY I AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio T~~M h boomb appmŘu ton Iri.\\;.-C G

  6. AngelStow: A Commercial Optimization-Based Decision Support Tool for Stowage Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Ortegon, Alberto; Jensen, Rune Møller; Guilbert, Nicolas

    save port fees, optimize use of vessel capacity, and reduce bunker consumption. Stowage Coordinators (SCs) produce these plans manually with the help of graphical tools, but high-quality SPs are hard to generate with the limited support they provide. In this abstract, we introduce AngelStow which...... is a commercial optimization-based decision support tool for stowing container vessels developed in collaboration between Ange Optimization and The IT University of Copenhagen. The tool assists SCs in the process of generating SPs interactively, focusing on satisfying and optimizing constraints and objectives...

  7. Investigating the enhanced Best Performance Algorithm for Annual Crop Planning problem based on economic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewumi, Aderemi Oluyinka; Chetty, Sivashan

    2017-01-01

    The Annual Crop Planning (ACP) problem was a recently introduced problem in the literature. This study further expounds on this problem by presenting a new mathematical formulation, which is based on market economic factors. To determine solutions, a new local search metaheuristic algorithm is investigated which is called the enhanced Best Performance Algorithm (eBPA). eBPA's results are compared against two well-known local search metaheuristic algorithms; these include Tabu Search and Simulated Annealing. The results show the potential of the eBPA for continuous optimization problems.

  8. Providing Evidence-Based, Intelligent Support for Flood Resilient Planning and Policy: The PEARL Knowledge Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Karavokiros

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While flood risk is evolving as one of the most imminent natural hazards and the shift from a reactive decision environment to a proactive one sets the basis of the latest thinking in flood management, the need to equip decision makers with necessary tools to think about and intelligently select options and strategies for flood management is becoming ever more pressing. Within this context, the Preparing for Extreme and Rare Events in Coastal Regions (PEARL intelligent knowledge-base (PEARL KB of resilience strategies is presented here as an environment that allows end-users to navigate from their observed problem to a selection of possible options and interventions worth considering within an intuitive visual web interface assisting advanced interactivity. Incorporation of real case studies within the PEARL KB enables the extraction of (evidence-based lessons from all over the word, while the KB’s collection of methods and tools directly supports the optimal selection of suitable interventions. The Knowledge-Base also gives access to the PEARL KB Flood Resilience Index (FRI tool, which is an online tool for resilience assessment at a city level available to authorities and citizens. We argue that the PEARL KB equips authorities with tangible and operational tools that can improve strategic and operational flood risk management by assessing and eventually increasing resilience, while building towards the strengthening of risk governance. The online tools that the PEARL KB gives access to were demonstrated and tested in the city of Rethymno, Greece.

  9. Fully automated treatment planning for head and neck radiotherapy using a voxel-based dose prediction and dose mimicking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Chris; Welch, Mattea; McNiven, Andrea; Jaffray, David A.; Purdie, Thomas G.

    2017-08-01

    Recent works in automated radiotherapy treatment planning have used machine learning based on historical treatment plans to infer the spatial dose distribution for a novel patient directly from the planning image. We present a probabilistic, atlas-based approach which predicts the dose for novel patients using a set of automatically selected most similar patients (atlases). The output is a spatial dose objective, which specifies the desired dose-per-voxel, and therefore replaces the need to specify and tune dose-volume objectives. Voxel-based dose mimicking optimization then converts the predicted dose distribution to a complete treatment plan with dose calculation using a collapsed cone convolution dose engine. In this study, we investigated automated planning for right-sided oropharaynx head and neck patients treated with IMRT and VMAT. We compare four versions of our dose prediction pipeline using a database of 54 training and 12 independent testing patients by evaluating 14 clinical dose evaluation criteria. Our preliminary results are promising and demonstrate that automated methods can generate comparable dose distributions to clinical. Overall, automated plans achieved an average of 0.6% higher dose for target coverage evaluation criteria, and 2.4% lower dose at the organs at risk criteria levels evaluated compared with clinical. There was no statistically significant difference detected in high-dose conformity between automated and clinical plans as measured by the conformation number. Automated plans achieved nine more unique criteria than clinical across the 12 patients tested and automated plans scored a significantly higher dose at the evaluation limit for two high-risk target coverage criteria and a significantly lower dose in one critical organ maximum dose. The novel dose prediction method with dose mimicking can generate complete treatment plans in 12-13 min without user interaction. It is a promising approach for fully automated treatment

  10. SU-E-T-628: A Cloud Computing Based Multi-Objective Optimization Method for Inverse Treatment Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Y; Suh, T; Xing, L

    2012-06-01

    Multi-objective (MO) plan optimization entails generation of an enormous number of IMRT or VMAT plans constituting the Pareto surface, which presents a computationally challenging task. The purpose of this work is to overcome the hurdle by developing an efficient MO method using emerging cloud computing platform. As a backbone of cloud computing for optimizing inverse treatment planning, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud with a master node (17.1 GB memory, 2 virtual cores, 420 GB instance storage, 64-bit platform) is used. The master node is able to scale seamlessly a number of working group instances, called workers, based on the user-defined setting account for MO functions in clinical setting. Each worker solved the objective function with an efficient sparse decomposition method. The workers are automatically terminated if there are finished tasks. The optimized plans are archived to the master node to generate the Pareto solution set. Three clinical cases have been planned using the developed MO IMRT and VMAT planning tools to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method. The target dose coverage and critical structure sparing of plans are comparable obtained using the cloud computing platform are identical to that obtained using desktop PC (Intel Xeon® CPU 2.33GHz, 8GB memory). It is found that the MO planning speeds up the processing of obtaining the Pareto set substantially for both types of plans. The speedup scales approximately linearly with the number of nodes used for computing. With the use of N nodes, the computational time is reduced by the fitting model, 0.2+2.3/N, with r̂2>0.99, on average of the cases making real-time MO planning possible. A cloud computing infrastructure is developed for MO optimization. The algorithm substantially improves the speed of inverse plan optimization. The platform is valuable for both MO planning and future off- or on-line adaptive re-planning. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Evidence-based dentistry for planning restorative treatments: barriers and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrashtehfar, K I; Eimar, H; Yassine, R; Abi-Nader, S; Tamimi, F

    2017-11-01

    Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) can help provide the best treatment option for every patient, however, its implementation in restorative dentistry is very limited. This study aimed at assessing the barriers preventing the implementation of EBD among dental undergraduate and graduate students in Montreal, and explore possible solutions to overcome these barriers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by means of a paper format self-administrated questionnaire distributed among dental students. The survey assessed the barriers and potential solutions for implementation of an evidence-based practice. Sixty-one students completed the questionnaire. Forty-one percent of respondents found evidence-based literature to be the most reliable source of information for restorative treatment planning, however, only 16% used it. They considered that finding reliable information was difficult and they sometimes encountered conflicting information when consulting different sources. Dental students had positive attitudes towards the need for better access to evidence-based literature to assist learning and decision making in restorative treatment planning and to improve treatment outcomes. Even for dentists trained in EBD, online searching takes too much time, and even though it can provide information of better quality than personal intuition, it might not be enough to identify the best available evidence. Even though dental students are aware of the importance of EBD in restorative dentistry they rarely apply the concept, mainly due to time constraints. For this reason, implementation of EBD would probably require faster access to evidence-based knowledge. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. MRI-based measurements of respiratory motion variability and assessment of imaging strategies for radiotherapy planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackall, J. M.; Ahmad, S.; Miquel, M. E.; McClelland, J. R.; Landau, D. B.; Hawkes, D. J.

    2006-09-01

    Respiratory organ motion has a significant impact on the planning and delivery of radiotherapy (RT) treatment for lung cancer. Currently widespread techniques, such as 4D-computed tomography (4DCT), cannot be used to measure variability of this motion from one cycle to the next. In this paper, we describe the use of fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to investigate the intra- and inter-cycle reproducibility of respiratory motion and also to estimate the level of errors that may be introduced into treatment delivery by using various breath-hold imaging strategies during lung RT planning. A reference model of respiratory motion is formed to enable comparison of different breathing cycles at any arbitrary position in the respiratory cycle. This is constructed by using free-breathing images from the inhale phase of a single breathing cycle, then co-registering the images, and thereby tracking landmarks. This reference model is then compared to alternative models constructed from images acquired during the exhale phase of the same cycle and the inhale phase of a subsequent cycle, to assess intra- and inter-cycle variability ('hysteresis' and 'reproducibility') of organ motion. The reference model is also compared to a series of models formed from breath-hold data at exhale and inhale. Evaluation of these models is carried out on data from ten healthy volunteers and five lung cancer patients. Free-breathing models show good levels of intra- and inter-cycle reproducibility across the tidal breathing range. Mean intra-cycle errors in the position of organ surface landmarks of 1.5(1.4)-3.5(3.3) mm for volunteers and 2.8(1.8)-5.2(5.2) mm for patients. Equivalent measures of inter-cycle variability across this range are 1.7(1.0)-3.9(3.3) mm for volunteers and 2.8(1.8)-3.3(2.2) mm for patients. As expected, models based on breath-hold sequences do not represent normal tidal motion as well as those based on free-breathing data, with mean errors of 4

  13. MRI-based measurements of respiratory motion variability and assessment of imaging strategies for radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackall, J M; Ahmad, S; Miquel, M E; McClelland, J R; Landau, D B; Hawkes, D J

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory organ motion has a significant impact on the planning and delivery of radiotherapy (RT) treatment for lung cancer. Currently widespread techniques, such as 4D-computed tomography (4DCT), cannot be used to measure variability of this motion from one cycle to the next. In this paper, we describe the use of fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to investigate the intra- and inter-cycle reproducibility of respiratory motion and also to estimate the level of errors that may be introduced into treatment delivery by using various breath-hold imaging strategies during lung RT planning. A reference model of respiratory motion is formed to enable comparison of different breathing cycles at any arbitrary position in the respiratory cycle. This is constructed by using free-breathing images from the inhale phase of a single breathing cycle, then co-registering the images, and thereby tracking landmarks. This reference model is then compared to alternative models constructed from images acquired during the exhale phase of the same cycle and the inhale phase of a subsequent cycle, to assess intra- and inter-cycle variability ('hysteresis' and 'reproducibility') of organ motion. The reference model is also compared to a series of models formed from breath-hold data at exhale and inhale. Evaluation of these models is carried out on data from ten healthy volunteers and five lung cancer patients. Free-breathing models show good levels of intra- and inter-cycle reproducibility across the tidal breathing range. Mean intra-cycle errors in the position of organ surface landmarks of 1.5(1.4)-3.5(3.3) mm for volunteers and 2.8(1.8)-5.2(5.2) mm for patients. Equivalent measures of inter-cycle variability across this range are 1.7(1.0)-3.9(3.3) mm for volunteers and 2.8(1.8)-3.3(2.2) mm for patients. As expected, models based on breath-hold sequences do not represent normal tidal motion as well as those based on free-breathing data, with mean errors of 4

  14. Advanced software development workstation. Knowledge base design: Design of knowledge base for flight planning application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izygon, Michel E.

    1992-01-01

    The development process of the knowledge base for the generation of Test Libraries for Mission Operations Computer (MOC) Command Support focused on a series of information gathering interviews. These knowledge capture sessions are supporting the development of a prototype for evaluating the capabilities of INTUIT on such an application. the prototype includes functions related to POCC (Payload Operation Control Center) processing. It prompts the end-users for input through a series of panels and then generates the Meds associated with the initialization and the update of hazardous command tables for a POCC Processing TLIB.

  15. Intra-generational Redistribution under Public Pension Planning Based on Generation-based Funding Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjo, Daisuke; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Murata, Tadahiko

    In this paper, we propose a method of determining the pension in the generation-based funding scheme. In this proposal, we include two types of pensions in the scheme. One is the payment-amount related pension and the other is the payment-frequency related pension. We set the ratio of the total amount of payment-amount related pension to the total amount of both pensions, and simulate income gaps and the relationship between contributions and benefits for each individual when the proposed method is applied.

  16. Checking the determinants of physical activity based on the theory of planned behavior in the housewives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Fatemeh; Shanazi, Hossein; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sedentary life has been recognized as a serious problem in today's Iranian society. Promoting the lifestyle with increased physical activity and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is imperative. The purpose of this study was identifying the determinants of physical activity in the housewives of Nain city in 2012 based on the theory of planned behavior. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 120 housewives were selected by simple random sampling method. Data collection tool was a questionnaire designed based on a standardized and fabricated questionnaire and consisted of four parts. The questionnaire included awareness variables, theory of structures, planned behavior, and physical activity. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS software version 18 and associated statistical tests. Findings: The 120 housewives under study had a mean age of 34.58 ± 6.86 years. The mean scores of awareness, attitude, motivation to perform, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control variables were 74.1 ± 18.5, 82.6 ± 12.1, 59.4 ± 21.7, 63.2 ± 21.2, and 48.1 ± 12.9 respectively. There was a significant relationship between the motivation for physical activity among women and knowledge (P = 0.02) attitude (P = 0.04) subjective norms (P = 0.002) perceived behavioral control (P = 0.001), and physical activity (P = 0.04). Conclusions: It seems that the housewives, despite being aware of and having a positive attitude on the benefits of physical activity, had a poor lifestyle. Perhaps further studies can help in finding the causes of this issue and the barriers to physical activity such as the conditions and plan for greater measures for improving physical activity, in order to promote women's health which has a significant role in family and community health. PMID:25250360

  17. Health behavior change in advance care planning: an agent-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie C. Ernecoff

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A practical and ethical challenge in advance care planning research is controlling and intervening on human behavior. Additionally, observing dynamic changes in advance care planning (ACP behavior proves difficult, though tracking changes over time is important for intervention development. Agent-based modeling (ABM allows researchers to integrate complex behavioral data about advance care planning behaviors and thought processes into a controlled environment that is more easily alterable and observable. Literature to date has not addressed how best to motivate individuals, increase facilitators and reduce barriers associated with ACP. We aimed to build an ABM that applies the Transtheoretical Model of behavior change to ACP as a health behavior and accurately reflects: 1 the rates at which individuals complete the process, 2 how individuals respond to barriers, facilitators, and behavioral variables, and 3 the interactions between these variables. Methods We developed a dynamic ABM of the ACP decision making process based on the stages of change posited by the Transtheoretical Model. We integrated barriers, facilitators, and other behavioral variables that agents encounter as they move through the process. Results We successfully incorporated ACP barriers, facilitators, and other behavioral variables into our ABM, forming a plausible representation of ACP behavior and decision-making. The resulting distributions across the stages of change replicated those found in the literature, with approximately half of participants in the action-maintenance stage in both the model and the literature. Conclusions Our ABM is a useful method for representing dynamic social and experiential influences on the ACP decision making process. This model suggests structural interventions, e.g. increasing access to ACP materials in primary care clinics, in addition to improved methods of data collection for behavioral studies, e.g. incorporating

  18. The quality of paper-based versus electronic nursing care plan in Australian aged care homes: A documentation audit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Yu, Ping; Hailey, David

    2015-08-01

    The nursing care plan plays an essential role in supporting care provision in Australian aged care. The implementation of electronic systems in aged care homes was anticipated to improve documentation quality. Standardized nursing terminologies, developed to improve communication and advance the nursing profession, are not required in aged care practice. The language used by nurses in the nursing care plan and the effect of the electronic system on documentation quality in residential aged care need to be investigated. To describe documentation practice for the nursing care plan in Australian residential aged care homes and to compare the quantity and quality of documentation in paper-based and electronic nursing care plans. A nursing documentation audit was conducted in seven residential aged care homes in Australia. One hundred and eleven paper-based and 194 electronic nursing care plans, conveniently selected, were reviewed. The quantity of documentation in a care plan was determined by the number of phrases describing a resident problem and the number of goals and interventions. The quality of documentation was measured using 16 relevant questions in an instrument developed for the study. There was a tendency to omit 'nursing problem' or 'nursing diagnosis' in the nursing process by changing these terms (used in the paper-based care plan) to 'observation' in the electronic version. The electronic nursing care plan documented more signs and symptoms of resident problems and evaluation of care than the paper-based format (48.30 vs. 47.34 out of 60, Ppaper-based system (Ppaper-based system. Omission of the nursing problem or diagnosis from the nursing process may reflect a range of factors behind the practice that need to be understood. Further work is also needed on qualitative aspects of the nurse care plan, nurses' attitudes towards standardized terminologies and the effect of different documentation practice on care quality and resident outcomes. Copyright

  19. Computer-aided beam arrangement based on similar cases in radiation treatment-planning databases for stereotactic lung radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magome, Taiki; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Arimura, Hidetaka

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided method for determination of beam arrangements based on similar cases in a radiotherapy treatment-planning database for stereotactic lung radiation therapy. Similar-case-based beam arrangements were automatically determined based on the following two steps. First, the five most similar cases were searched, based on geometrical features related to the location, size and shape of the planning target volume, lung and spinal cord. Second, five beam arrangements of an objective case were automatically determined by registering five similar cases with the objective case, with respect to lung regions, by means of a linear registration technique. For evaluation of the beam arrangements five treatment plans were manually created by applying the beam arrangements determined in the second step to the objective case. The most usable beam arrangement was selected by sorting the five treatment plans based on eight plan evaluation indices, including the D95, mean lung dose and spinal cord maximum dose. We applied the proposed method to 10 test cases, by using an RTP database of 81 cases with lung cancer, and compared the eight plan evaluation indices between the original treatment plan and the corresponding most usable similar-case-based treatment plan. As a result, the proposed method may provide usable beam arrangements, which have no statistically significant differences from the original beam arrangements (P>0.05) in terms of the eight plan evaluation indices. Therefore, the proposed method could be employed as an educational tool for less experienced treatment planners. (author)

  20. A neural network-based exploratory learning and motor planning system for co-robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron V Galbraith

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative robots, or co-robots, are semi-autonomous robotic agents designed to work alongside humans in shared workspaces. To be effective, co-robots require the ability to respond and adapt to dynamic scenarios encountered in natural environments. One way to achieve this is through exploratory learning, or learning by doing, an unsupervised method in which co-robots are able to build an internal model for motor planning and coordination based on real-time sensory inputs. In this paper, we present an adaptive neural network-based system for co-robot control that employs exploratory learning to achieve the coordinated motor planning needed to navigate toward, reach for, and grasp distant objects. To validate this system we used the 11-degrees-of-freedom RoPro Calliope mobile robot. Through motor babbling of its wheels and arm, the Calliope learned how to relate visual and proprioceptive information to achieve hand-eye-body coordination. By continually evaluating sensory inputs and externally provided goal directives, the Calliope was then able to autonomously select the appropriate wheel and joint velocities needed to perform its assigned task, such as following a moving target or retrieving an indicated object.

  1. A partnership-based model for embedding employability in urban planning education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neale Blair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a partnership-based model for embedding employability in urban planning education. The model is based on the author’s experiences of implementing an international project which supported the development of employability skills in urban and regional planning education in Malawi. Since independence, urban planners have typically trained outside the country, attending university in the UK and other Commonwealth countries. More recently, the paradigm has shifted towards in-country education delivered by academic staff cognisant with the opportunities and challenges of development in Malawi. There remains, though, a gap between graduate knowledge of the subject and the skills necessary to pursue a professional career in the sector. Although there is no consensus yet on the meaning of employability in the literature, lessons from the project indicate that academic–public–private collaboration helps incorporate in curriculum skills that employers anticipate. Applicability of these principles is however context dependent, particularly in the emerging economy context where institutional capacity may be less developed compared to elsewhere.

  2. Maxillary, mandibular, and chin advancement: treatment planning based on airway anatomy in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Stephen; Powell, Nelson; Jacobson, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Surgical correction of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome involves understanding a number of parameters, of which the 3-dimensional airway anatomy is important. Visualization of the upper airway based on cone beam computed tomography scans and automated computer analysis is an aid in understanding normal and abnormal airway conditions and their response to surgery. The goal of surgical treatment of OSA syndrome is to enlarge the velo-oropharyngeal airway by anterior/lateral displacement of the soft tissues and musculature by maxillary, mandibular, and possibly, genioglossus advancement. Knowledge of the specific airway obstruction and characteristics based on 3-dimensional studies permits a directed surgical treatment plan that can successfully address the area or areas of airway obstruction. The end occlusal result can be improved when orthodontic treatment is combined with the surgical plan. The individual with OSA, though, is more complicated than the usual orthognathic patient, and both the medical condition and treatment length need to be judiciously managed when OSA and associated conditions are present. The perioperative management of the patient with OSA is more complex and the margin for error is reduced, and this needs to be taken into consideration and the care altered as indicated. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acceptability of a text-message-based fertility awareness application for family planning in Lucknow, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Klaira; Reyes, Griselda; Tiwari, Siddharth; Tewari, Akhilesh; Hastings, Charlotte; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2018-03-25

    To assess user satisfaction and acceptability toward a cellphone-based short message system (SMS) application for fertility awareness. Between July 1 and September 30, 2013, the present observational study recruited women of reproductive age were presenting for family-planning services in Lucknow, India, who were not pregnant, who agreed to use the application, and who understood basic English. The application collected information on an individual's menstrual cycle and, using the calendar days approach, predicted fertility. Based on an algorithm, the application sent a daily SMS text indicating the participant's fertility status. Participants completed an acceptability survey at the end of the 60-day pilot period. There were 21 participants enrolled. All reported that the application was highly acceptable, and found it to be private, secure, and convenient. All participants were interested in receiving future SMS reminders for tracking fertility. Most participants (20 [95%]) reported being likely or very likely to recommend the family planning application to friends. The application, with the aims of helping participants to identify their most fertile days once a month during ovulation and make informed decisions regarding fertility and contraception, was highly acceptable and might be useful in low-resource settings worldwide. Larger studies are needed for software optimization and determination of long-term effectiveness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. A surrogate-based metaheuristic global search method for beam angle selection in radiation treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H H; Gao, S; Chen, W; Shi, L; D'Souza, W D; Meyer, R R

    2013-03-21

    An important element of radiation treatment planning for cancer therapy is the selection of beam angles (out of all possible coplanar and non-coplanar angles in relation to the patient) in order to maximize the delivery of radiation to the tumor site and minimize radiation damage to nearby organs-at-risk. This category of combinatorial optimization problem is particularly difficult because direct evaluation of the quality of treatment corresponding to any proposed selection of beams requires the solution of a large-scale dose optimization problem involving many thousands of variables that represent doses delivered to volume elements (voxels) in the patient. However, if the quality of angle sets can be accurately estimated without expensive computation, a large number of angle sets can be considered, increasing the likelihood of identifying a very high quality set. Using a computationally efficient surrogate beam set evaluation procedure based on single-beam data extracted from plans employing equallyspaced beams (eplans), we have developed a global search metaheuristic process based on the nested partitions framework for this combinatorial optimization problem. The surrogate scoring mechanism allows us to assess thousands of beam set samples within a clinically acceptable time frame. Tests on difficult clinical cases demonstrate that the beam sets obtained via our method are of superior quality.

  5. A surrogate-based metaheuristic global search method for beam angle selection in radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H H; D’Souza, W D; Gao, S; Shi, L; Chen, W; Meyer, R R

    2013-01-01

    An important element of radiation treatment planning for cancer therapy is the selection of beam angles (out of all possible coplanar and non-coplanar angles in relation to the patient) in order to maximize the delivery of radiation to the tumor site and minimize radiation damage to nearby organs-at-risk. This category of combinatorial optimization problem is particularly difficult because direct evaluation of the quality of treatment corresponding to any proposed selection of beams requires the solution of a large-scale dose optimization problem involving many thousands of variables that represent doses delivered to volume elements (voxels) in the patient. However, if the quality of angle sets can be accurately estimated without expensive computation, a large number of angle sets can be considered, increasing the likelihood of identifying a very high quality set. Using a computationally efficient surrogate beam set evaluation procedure based on single-beam data extracted from plans employing equally-spaced beams (eplans), we have developed a global search metaheuristic process based on the nested partitions framework for this combinatorial optimization problem. The surrogate scoring mechanism allows us to assess thousands of beam set samples within a clinically acceptable time frame. Tests on difficult clinical cases demonstrate that the beam sets obtained via our method are of superior quality. (paper)

  6. A SIMULATION-AS-A-SERVICE FRAMEWORK FACILITATING WEBGIS BASED INSTALLATION PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Installation Planning is constrained by both natural and social conditions, especially for spatially sparse but functionally connected facilities. Simulation is important for proper deploy in space and configuration in function of facilities to make them a cohesive and supportive system to meet users’ operation needs. Based on requirement analysis, we propose a framework to combine GIS and Agent simulation to overcome the shortness in temporal analysis and task simulation of traditional GIS. In this framework, Agent based simulation runs as a service on the server, exposes basic simulation functions, such as scenario configuration, simulation control, and simulation data retrieval to installation planners. At the same time, the simulation service is able to utilize various kinds of geoprocessing services in Agents’ process logic to make sophisticated spatial inferences and analysis. This simulation-as-a-service framework has many potential benefits, such as easy-to-use, on-demand, shared understanding, and boosted performances. At the end, we present a preliminary implement of this concept using ArcGIS javascript api 4.0 and ArcGIS for server, showing how trip planning and driving can be carried out by agents.

  7. A neural network-based exploratory learning and motor planning system for co-robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Byron V; Guenther, Frank H; Versace, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative robots, or co-robots, are semi-autonomous robotic agents designed to work alongside humans in shared workspaces. To be effective, co-robots require the ability to respond and adapt to dynamic scenarios encountered in natural environments. One way to achieve this is through exploratory learning, or "learning by doing," an unsupervised method in which co-robots are able to build an internal model for motor planning and coordination based on real-time sensory inputs. In this paper, we present an adaptive neural network-based system for co-robot control that employs exploratory learning to achieve the coordinated motor planning needed to navigate toward, reach for, and grasp distant objects. To validate this system we used the 11-degrees-of-freedom RoPro Calliope mobile robot. Through motor babbling of its wheels and arm, the Calliope learned how to relate visual and proprioceptive information to achieve hand-eye-body coordination. By continually evaluating sensory inputs and externally provided goal directives, the Calliope was then able to autonomously select the appropriate wheel and joint velocities needed to perform its assigned task, such as following a moving target or retrieving an indicated object.

  8. A Sustainable City Planning Algorithm Based on TLBO and Local Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Lin, Li; Huang, Xuanxuan; Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Yonggang

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, how to design a city with more sustainable features has become a center problem in the field of social development, meanwhile it has provided a broad stage for the application of artificial intelligence theories and methods. Because the design of sustainable city is essentially a constraint optimization problem, the swarm intelligence algorithm of extensive research has become a natural candidate for solving the problem. TLBO (Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization) algorithm is a new swarm intelligence algorithm. Its inspiration comes from the “teaching” and “learning” behavior of teaching class in the life. The evolution of the population is realized by simulating the “teaching” of the teacher and the student “learning” from each other, with features of less parameters, efficient, simple thinking, easy to achieve and so on. It has been successfully applied to scheduling, planning, configuration and other fields, which achieved a good effect and has been paid more and more attention by artificial intelligence researchers. Based on the classical TLBO algorithm, we propose a TLBO_LS algorithm combined with local search. We design and implement the random generation algorithm and evaluation model of urban planning problem. The experiments on the small and medium-sized random generation problem showed that our proposed algorithm has obvious advantages over DE algorithm and classical TLBO algorithm in terms of convergence speed and solution quality.

  9. A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jack C P; Ma, Lauren Y H

    2013-06-01

    Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C&D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D&R) works and the growing amount of D&R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D&R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results could provide alerts to contractors ahead of time at project planning stage. This paper also presents an example scenario with a 47-floor residential building in Hong Kong to demonstrate our D&R waste estimation and planning system. As the BIM technology has been increasingly adopted in the architectural, engineering and construction industry

  10. A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jack C.P.; Ma, Lauren Y.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We developed a waste estimation system leveraging the BIM technology. ► The system can calculate waste disposal charging fee and pick-up truck demand. ► We presented an example scenario demonstrating this system. ► Automatic, time-saving and wide applicability are the features of the system. - Abstract: Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C and D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D and R) works and the growing amount of D and R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D and R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results

  11. High-resolution temperature-based optimization for hyperthermia treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, H P; Haaren, P M A van; Kamer, J B Van de; Wiersma, J; Dijk, J D P Van; Crezee, J

    2005-01-01

    In regional hyperthermia, optimization techniques are valuable in order to obtain amplitude/phase settings for the applicators to achieve maximal tumour heating without toxicity to normal tissue. We implemented a temperature-based optimization technique and maximized tumour temperature with constraints on normal tissue temperature to prevent hot spots. E-field distributions are the primary input for the optimization method. Due to computer limitations we are restricted to a resolution of 1 x 1 x 1 cm 3 for E-field calculations, too low for reliable treatment planning. A major problem is the fact that hot spots at low-resolution (LR) do not always correspond to hot spots at high-resolution (HR), and vice versa. Thus, HR temperature-based optimization is necessary for adequate treatment planning and satisfactory results cannot be obtained with LR strategies. To obtain HR power density (PD) distributions from LR E-field calculations, a quasi-static zooming technique has been developed earlier at the UMC Utrecht. However, quasi-static zooming does not preserve phase information and therefore it does not provide the HR E-field information required for direct HR optimization. We combined quasi-static zooming with the optimization method to obtain a millimetre resolution temperature-based optimization strategy. First we performed a LR (1 cm) optimization and used the obtained settings to calculate the HR (2 mm) PD and corresponding HR temperature distribution. Next, we performed a HR optimization using an estimation of the new HR temperature distribution based on previous calculations. This estimation is based on the assumption that the HR and LR temperature distributions, though strongly different, respond in a similar way to amplitude/phase steering. To verify the newly obtained settings, we calculate the corresponding HR temperature distribution. This method was applied to several clinical situations and found to work very well. Deviations of this estimation method for

  12. Development and Application of a Planning Support System for Regional Spatial Functional Zoning Based on GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaorui Zhang; Qian Hua; Linya Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Regional spatial functional zoning in China is a large-scale strategic planning and requires very advanced planning decision support technology. With respect to spatial functional zoning, the planning support system (PSS) is introduced as one of the most popular computer aided planning systems at the present time in this paper, and is further explained with the example of the latest regional main functional area (RMFA) planning in China. On the Visual Studio.NET visualization development plat...

  13. Grid-based modeling for land use planning and environmental resource mapping.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J. A.

    1999-08-04

    Geographic Information System (GIS) technology is used by land managers and natural resource planners for examining resource distribution and conducting project planning, often by visually interpreting spatial data representing environmental or regulatory variables. Frequently, many variables influence the decision-making process, and modeling can improve results with even a small investment of time and effort. Presented are several grid-based GIS modeling projects, including: (1) land use optimization under environmental and regulatory constraints; (2) identification of suitable wetland mitigation sites; and (3) predictive mapping of prehistoric cultural resource sites. As different as the applications are, each follows a similar process of problem conceptualization, implementation of a practical grid-based GIS model, and evaluation of results.

  14. Global and Local Path Planning Study in a ROS-Based Research Platform for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Marin-Plaza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to integrate and analyze the performance of a path planning method based on Time Elastic Bands (TEB in real research platform based on Ackermann model. Moreover, it will be proved that all modules related to the navigation can coexist and work together to achieve the goal point without any collision. The study is done by analyzing the trajectory generated from global and local planners. The software prototyping tool is Robot Operating System (ROS from Open Source Robotics Foundation and the research platform is the iCab (Intelligent Campus Automobile from University Carlos III. This work has been validated from a test inside the campus where the iCab has performed the navigation between the starting point and the goal point without any collision. During the experiment, we proved the low sensitivity of the TEB method to variations of the vehicle model configuration and constraints.

  15. Comparison of Planning Quality and Efficiency Between Conventional and Knowledge-based Algorithms in Nasopharyngeal Cancer Patients Using Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Amy T Y; Hung, Albert W M; Cheung, Fion W K; Lee, Michael C H; Chan, Oscar S H; Philips, Helen; Cheng, Yung-Tang; Ng, Wai-Tong

    2016-07-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is widely used to achieve a highly conformal dose and improve treatment outcome. However, plan quality and planning time are institute and planner dependent, and no standardized tool exists to recognize an optimal plan. RapidPlan, a knowledge-based algorithm, can generate constraints to assist optimization and produce high-quality IMRT plans. This report evaluated the quality and efficiency of using RapidPlan in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) IMRT planning. RapidPlan was configured using 79 radical IMRT plans for NPC; 20 consecutive NPC patients indicated for radical radiation therapy between October 2014 and May 2015 were then recruited to assess its performance. The ability of RapidPlan to produce acceptable plans was evaluated. For plans that could not achieve clinical acceptance, manual touch-up was performed. The IMRT plans produced without RapidPlan (manual plans) and with RapidPlan (RP-2 plans, including those with manual touch-up) were compared in terms of dosimetric quality and planning efficiency. RapidPlan by itself could produce clinically acceptable plans for 9 of the 20 patients; manual touch-up increased the number of acceptable plans (RP-2 plans) to 19. The target dose coverage and conformity were very similar. No difference was found in the maximum dose to the brainstem and optic chiasm. RP-2 plans delivered a higher maximum dose to the spinal cord (46.4 Gy vs 43.9 Gy, P=.002) but a lower dose to the parotid (mean dose to right parotid, 37.3 Gy vs 45.4 Gy; left, 34.4 Gy vs 43.1 Gy; Pmanual plans (64 minutes vs 295 minutes, P<.001). This study shows that RapidPlan can significantly improve planning efficiency and produce quality IMRT plans for NPC patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A risk-based method for planning of bus–subway corridor evacuation under hybrid uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Y.; Yan, X.D.; Sun, W.; Gao, Z.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Emergencies involved in a bus–subway corridor system are associated with many processes and factors with social and economic implications. These processes and factors and their interactions are related to a variety of uncertainties. In this study, an interval chance-constrained integer programming (EICI) method is developed in response to such challenges for bus–subway corridor based evacuation planning. The method couples a chance-constrained programming with an interval integer programming model framework. It can thus deal with interval uncertainties that cannot be quantified with specified probability distribution functions. Meanwhile, it can also reflect stochastic features of traffic flow capacity, and thereby help examine the related violation risk of constraint. The EICI method is applied to a subway incident based evacuation case study. It is solved through an interactive algorithm that does not lead to more complicated intermediate submodels and has a relatively low computational requirement. A number of decision alternatives could be directly generated based on results from the EICI method. It is indicated that the solutions cannot only help decision makers identify desired population evacuation and vehicle dispatch schemes under hybrid uncertainties, but also provide bases for in-depth analyses of tradeoffs among evacuation plans, total evacuation time, and constraint-violation risks. - Highlights: • An inexact model is developed for the bus–subway corridor evacuation management. • It tackles stochastic and interval uncertainties in an integer programming problem. • It can examine violation risk of the roadway flow capacity related constraint. • It will help identify evacuation schemes under hybrid uncertainties

  17. MO-G-201-04: Knowledge-Based Planning for Single-Isocenter Stereotactic Radiosurgery to Multiple Brain Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemer, B [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Shiraishi, S [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Hattangadi-Gluth, J; Sanghvi, P; Moore, K

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Single-isocenter, linac-based SRS for multiple brain metastases (multi-mets) can deliver highly conformal radiation doses and reduce overall patient treatment time compared to other therapy techniques. This study aims to quantify the dosimetric benefits of knowledge-based planning (KBP) for multi-met treatments. Methods: Using a previously-published KBP methodology (an artificial neural network (ANN) trained on single-target linac-based SRS plans), 3D dose distribution predictions for multi-met patients were obtained by treating each brain lesion as a solitary target and subsequently combining individual predictions into a single distribution using a dose-weighted geometric averaging to obtain the best results in the inter-target space. 17 previously-treated multi-met plans, with target numbers ranging from N=2–5, were used to validate the ANN predictions and subsequent KBP auto-planning routine. The fully-deliverable KBP plans were developed by converting dose distribution predictions into patient-specific optimization objectives while maintaining identical target normalizations (typically PTV V100%=D98%). Plan quality improvements were quantified by the difference between SRS quality metrics (QMs): δdQM=QM(clinical)-QM(KBP). QMs of interest were: gradient measure (GM), conformity index (CI), brain V10 and V5, brainstem D0.1cc and heterogeneity index (HI). Finally, overall plan quality was judged via blinded plan comparison by SRS-specializing physicians. Results: Two clinical plans were found to be significant outliers wherein plan quality was dramatically worse than KBP. Despite indicating KBP superiority, these were removed from the QM analysis to prevent skewing the results. In the remaining cases, clinical and KBP QMs were nearly identical with modest improvements in the KBP sample: δGM=0.12±0.56mm, δCI=−0.01±0.04, Brain δV10=0.8±2.6cc, brain δV5=6.3 ±10.7cc, brainstem δD0.1cc=0.06±1.19Gy and δHI= −0.04±0.05. Ultimately, 13/17 KBP

  18. MO-G-201-04: Knowledge-Based Planning for Single-Isocenter Stereotactic Radiosurgery to Multiple Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemer, B; Shiraishi, S; Hattangadi-Gluth, J; Sanghvi, P; Moore, K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Single-isocenter, linac-based SRS for multiple brain metastases (multi-mets) can deliver highly conformal radiation doses and reduce overall patient treatment time compared to other therapy techniques. This study aims to quantify the dosimetric benefits of knowledge-based planning (KBP) for multi-met treatments. Methods: Using a previously-published KBP methodology (an artificial neural network (ANN) trained on single-target linac-based SRS plans), 3D dose distribution predictions for multi-met patients were obtained by treating each brain lesion as a solitary target and subsequently combining individual predictions into a single distribution using a dose-weighted geometric averaging to obtain the best results in the inter-target space. 17 previously-treated multi-met plans, with target numbers ranging from N=2–5, were used to validate the ANN predictions and subsequent KBP auto-planning routine. The fully-deliverable KBP plans were developed by converting dose distribution predictions into patient-specific optimization objectives while maintaining identical target normalizations (typically PTV V100%=D98%). Plan quality improvements were quantified by the difference between SRS quality metrics (QMs): δdQM=QM(clinical)-QM(KBP). QMs of interest were: gradient measure (GM), conformity index (CI), brain V10 and V5, brainstem D0.1cc and heterogeneity index (HI). Finally, overall plan quality was judged via blinded plan comparison by SRS-specializing physicians. Results: Two clinical plans were found to be significant outliers wherein plan quality was dramatically worse than KBP. Despite indicating KBP superiority, these were removed from the QM analysis to prevent skewing the results. In the remaining cases, clinical and KBP QMs were nearly identical with modest improvements in the KBP sample: δGM=0.12±0.56mm, δCI=−0.01±0.04, Brain δV10=0.8±2.6cc, brain δV5=6.3 ±10.7cc, brainstem δD0.1cc=0.06±1.19Gy and δHI= −0.04±0.05. Ultimately, 13/17 KBP

  19. 77 FR 60087 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year Inventory for the... proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the... National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) SIP. EPA is proposing to approve the 2002 base year PM 2.5...

  20. 77 FR 60094 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year Inventory for the... proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the... Standard (NAAQS) SIP. EPA is proposing to approve the 2002 base year PM 2.5 emissions inventory for the...

  1. 77 FR 60085 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year Inventory for the... proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the... Quality Standard (NAAQS) SIP. EPA is proposing to approve the 2002 base year PM 2.5 emissions inventory...

  2. Advance care planning, culture and religion: an environmental scan of Australian-based online resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Salgado, Amanda; Mader, Patrick; Boyd, Leanne M

    2017-04-20

    Objectives Culture and religion are important in advance care planning (ACP), yet it is not well understood how this is represented in ACP online resources. The aim of the present study was to identify the availability of Australian-based ACP websites and online informational booklets containing cultural and religious information. Methods An environmental scanning framework was used with a Google search conducted from 30 June 2015 to 5 July 2015. Eligible Australian-based ACP websites and online informational booklets were reviewed by two analysts (APS & PM) for information pertaining to at least one culture or religion. Common characteristics were agreed upon and tabulated with narrative description. Results Seven Australian-based ACP websites were identified with varying degrees of cultural and religious information. Seven Australian-based ACP informational booklets were identified addressing culture or religion, namely of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (n=5), Sikh (n=1) and Italian (n=1) communities. Twenty-one other online resources with cultural and religious information were identified, developed within the context of health and palliative care. Conclusions There is no comprehensive Australian-based ACP website or informational booklet supporting ACP across several cultural and religious contexts. Considering Australia's multicultural and multifaith population, such a resource may be beneficial in increasing awareness and uptake of ACP. What is known about the topic? Health professionals and consumers frequently use the Internet to find information. Non-regulation has resulted in the proliferation of ACP online resources (i.e. ACP websites and online informational booklets). Although this has contributed to raising awareness of ACP, the availability of Australian-based ACP online resources with cultural and religious information is not well known. What does this paper add? This paper is the first to use an environmental scanning methodology to identify

  3. Development Plan and R and D Status of China Lead-based Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yican; Bai, Yunqing; Song, Yong; Li, Yazhou; Team, FDS

    2013-01-01

    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) launched an engineering project to develop ADS system and lead-based reactors named China LEAd-based Reactor (CLEAR) series. The Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology (INEST) will be responsible for the CLEAR design and R and D. In this project, CAS plans to develop the lead-based reactors through 3 phases which are 10MWth lead based research reactor (CLEAR-I), 100MWth lead-based experimental reactor (CLEAR-II), 1000MWth lead-based demonstration reactor (CLEAR-III). As a pre-testing facility, a lead-based zero-power reactor (CLEAR-0) is required to be built before CLEAR-I construction and operation. The new conceptual design of lead-based reactors, including hydrogen production, tritium production for fusion energy and thorium utilization, is also on-going. Lead-lithium cooled fusion reactor blanket design and lead-lithium experimental loops have been developed more than 10 years. CLEAR series reactor conceptual design has been finished and detailed engineering design for CLEAR-I is underway. The R and D activities for CLEAR reactor including design and safety software, key components, structural materials, lead-based experimental loops and neutronics experimental platform are developing. Series of liquid lead-based experimental loops named DRAGON (Lead-Lithium) and KYLIN (Lead-Bismuth) have already been built or on constructing to performed experiments investigating the structure material corrosion issues and the thermal-hydraulic properties of lead-based coolant. The Highly Intensified D-T Neutron Generator HINEG for neutron experiment and software validation will be constructed. Series advanced reactor design software and nuclear library have been developed for lead-alloy cooled reactor, including CAD based Multi-Functional 4D Neutronics Simulation System (Visual Bus), Monte Carlo Automatic Modeling Program for Radiation Transport Simulation (MCAM), Super Monte Carlo Simulation Program (SuperMC), Nuclear Radiation

  4. Effect Of Relaxation Education, Based on Theory of planned behavior On students’ painful dismenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Jalambadani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common problems in females. “Theory of Planned Behavior” is one of the important theories that explains the main process of adopting health behaviors. The present study assessed applying “ the Theory of Planned Behavior in relaxation training regarding the  severity and duration of painful dysmenorrhea in Mashhad girl students. Materials and Methods: In this Semi-experimental study, 160  first year intermediate students of Mashhad city who suffered from dysmenorrhea were assessed.They had been randomly selected from 5 girl high- schools in the 6th educational district. They were divided into equal groups  “case” and “control”. Intervention was made in four sessions. The requisite  data was gathered by means of  a researcher designed questionnaire before  and 3 months after the education of the students. Finally, the obtained data was fed into SPSS software (v:16 using statistical  tests including   Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, Independent T-test, Paired T and X2. Results: After educational intervention, mean level of knowledge, attitude, perceived behavioral control, and willed performance of relaxation techniques significantly increased  in the case group (P<0.05. These changes were not significant in the control group. Besides, no statistically significant difference in subjective norms was observed between the two groups after intervention. Meditation education group was increased significantly (P<0.05. Conclusion: Education of relaxation base on the Theory of Planned Behavior is effective in reduced pain intensity and its duration.

  5. Technical Note: Is bulk electron density assignment appropriate for MRI-only based treatment planning for lung cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Phil; Chen, Xinfeng; Gore, Elizabeth; Johnstone, Candice; Li, X Allen

    2017-07-01

    MRI-based treatment planning in radiation therapy (RT) is prohibitive, in part, due to the lack of electron density (ED) information within the image. The dosimetric differences between MRI- and CT-based planning for intensity modulated RT (IMRT) of lung cancer were investigated to assess the appropriateness of bulk ED assignment. Planning CTs acquired for six representative lung cancer patients were used to generate bulk ED IMRT plans. To avoid the effect of anatomic differences between CT and MRI, "simulated MRI-based plans" were generated by forcing the relative ED (rED) to water on CT-delineated structures using organ specific values from the ICRU Report 46 and using the mean rED value of the internal target volume (ITV) from the planning CT. The "simulated MRI-based plans" were generated using a research planning system (Monaco v5.09.07a, Elekta, AB) and employing Monte Carlo dose calculation. The following dose-volume-parameters (DVPs) were collected from both the "simulated MRI-based plans" and the original planning CT: D 95 , the dose delivered to 95% of the ITV & planning target volume (PTV), D 5 and V 5 , the volume of normal lung irradiated ≥5 Gy. The percent point difference and relative dose difference were used for comparison with the CT based plan for V 5 and D 95 respectively. A total of five plans per patient were generated; three with the ITV rED (rED ITV ) = 1.06, 1.0 and the mean value from the planning CT while the lung rED (rED lung ) was fixed at the ICRU value of 0.26 and two with rED lung = 0.1 and 0.5 while the rED ITV was fixed to the mean value from the planning CT. Noticeable differences in the ITV and PTV DVPs were observed. Variations of the normal lung V 5 can be as large as 9.6%. In some instances, varying the rED ITV between rED mean and 1.06 resulted in D 95 increases ranging from 3.9% to 6.3%. Bulk rED assignment on normal lung affected the DVPs of the ITV and PTV by 4.0-9.8% and 0.3-19.6% respectively. Dose volume histograms

  6. Locally advanced pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma: pancreatectomy with planned arterial resection based on axial arterial encasement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinel, J; Nappo, G; El Bechwaty, M; Walter, T; Hervieu, V; Valette, P J; Feugier, P; Adham, M

    2016-12-01

    Pancreatectomy with arterial resection for locally advanced pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma (PDA) is associated with high morbidity and is thus considered as a contraindication. The aim of our study was to report our experience of pancreatectomy with planned arterial resection for locally advanced PDA based on specific selection criteria. All patients receiving pancreatectomy for PDA between October 2008 and July 2014 were reviewed. The patients were classified into group 1, pancreatectomy without vascular resection (66 patients); group 2, pancreatectomy with isolated venous resection (31 patients), and group 3, pancreatectomy with arterial resection for locally advanced PDA (14 patients). The primary selection criteria for arterial resection was the possibility of achieving a complete resection based on the extent of axial encasement, the absence of tumor invasion at the origin of celiac trunk (CT) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA), and a free distal arterial segment allowing reconstruction. Patient outcomes and survival were analyzed. Six SMA, two CT, four common hepatic artery, and two replaced right hepatic artery resections were undertaken. The preferred arterial reconstruction was splenic artery transposition. Group 3 had a higher preoperative weight loss, a longer operative time, and a higher incidence of intraoperative blood transfusion. Ninety-day mortality occurred in three patients in groups 1 and 2. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence, grade, and type of complications in the three groups. Postoperative pancreatic fistula and postpancreatectomy hemorrhage were also comparable. In group 3, none had arterial wall invasion and nine patients had recurrence (seven metastatic and two loco-regional). Survival and disease-free survival were comparable between groups. Planned arterial resection for PDA can be performed safely with a good outcome in highly selected patients. Key elements for defining the resectability is based on

  7. Teaching Medical Students About "The Conversation": An Interactive Value-Based Advance Care Planning Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Hillary D; Dukes, Joanna; Church, Skotti; Abbott, Jean; Youngwerth, Jean M

    2018-02-01

    Advance care planning (ACP) promotes care consistent with patient wishes. Medical education should teach how to initiate value-based ACP conversations. To develop and evaluate an ACP educational session to teach medical students a value-based ACP process and to encourage students to take personal ACP action steps. Groups of third-year medical students participated in a 75-minute session using personal reflection and discussion framed by The Conversation Starter Kit. The Conversation Project is a free resource designed to help individuals and families express their wishes for end-of-life care. One hundred twenty-seven US third-year medical students participated in the session. Student evaluations immediately after the session and 1 month later via electronic survey. More than 90% of students positively evaluated the educational value of the session, including rating highly the opportunities to reflect on their own ACP and to use The Conversation Starter Kit. Many students (65%) reported prior ACP conversations. After the session, 73% reported plans to discuss ACP, 91% had thought about preferences for future medical care, and 39% had chosen a medical decision maker. Only a minority had completed an advance directive (14%) or talked with their health-care provider (1%). One month later, there was no evidence that the session increased students' actions regarding these same ACP action steps. A value-based ACP educational session using The Conversation Starter Kit successfully engaged medical students in learning about ACP conversations, both professionally and personally. This session may help students initiate conversations for themselves and their patients.

  8. Integrating human impacts and ecological integrity into a risk-based protocol for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, K.M.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation planning aims to protect biodiversity by sustainng the natural physical, chemical, and biological processes within representative ecosystems. Often data to measure these components are inadequate or unavailable. The impact of human activities on ecosystem processes complicates integrity assessments and might alter ecosystem organization at multiple spatial scales. Freshwater conservation targets, such as populations and communities, are influenced by both intrinsic aquatic properties and the surrounding landscape, and locally collected data might not accurately reflect potential impacts. We suggest that changes in five major biotic drivers-energy sources, physical habitat, flow regime, water quality, and biotic interactions-might be used as surrogates to inform conservation planners of the ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems. Threats to freshwater systems might be evaluated based on their impact to these drivers to provide an overview of potential risk to conservation targets. We developed a risk-based protocol, the Ecological Risk Index (ERI), to identify watersheds with least/most risk to conservation targets. Our protocol combines risk-based components, specifically the frequency and severity of human-induced stressors, with biotic drivers and mappable land- and water-use data to provide a summary of relative risk to watersheds. We illustrate application of our protocol with a case study of the upper Tennessee River basin, USA. Differences in risk patterns among the major drainages in the basin reflect dominant land uses, such as mining and agriculture. A principal components analysis showed that localized, moderately severe threats accounted for most of the threat composition differences among our watersheds. We also found that the relative importance of threats is sensitive to the spatial grain of the analysis. Our case study demonstrates that the ERI is useful for evaluating the frequency and severity of ecosystemwide risk, which can

  9. Final Bioventing Pilot Test Work Plan for Base Exchange Service Station Underground Storage Tank Area, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Part I

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    This pilot test work plan presents the scope of an in situ enhanced biological degradation, or "bioventing", pilot test for treatment of gasoline- contaminated soils at the Base Exchange Service Station (BXSS...

  10. Computer-aided process planning in prismatic shape die components based on Standard for the Exchange of Product model data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Ahmad Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient technologies made good integration between the die components in design, process planning, and manufacturing impossible in the past few years. Nowadays, the advanced technologies based on Standard for the Exchange of Product model data are making it possible. This article discusses the three main steps for achieving the complete process planning for prismatic parts of the die components. These three steps are data extraction, feature recognition, and process planning. The proposed computer-aided process planning system works as part of an integrated system to cover the process planning of any prismatic part die component. The system is built using Visual Basic with EWDraw system for visualizing the Standard for the Exchange of Product model data file. The system works successfully and can cover any type of sheet metal die components. The case study discussed in this article is taken from a large design of progressive die.

  11. Optimal planning of gas turbine cogeneration system based on linear programming. Paper no. IGEC-1-ID09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.-D.; Kwak, H.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    An optimal planning for gas turbine cogeneration system has been studied. The planning problem considered in this study is to determine the optimal configuration of the system equipments and optimal operational policy of the system when the annual energy demands of electric power, heat and cooling are given a priori. The main benefit of the optimal planning is to minimize operational costs and to save energy by efficient energy utilization. A mixed-integer linear programming and the branch and bound algorithm have been adopted to obtain the optimal solution. Both the optimal configuration of the system equipments and the optimal operation policy has been obtained based on annual cost method. The planning method employed here may be applied to the planning problem of the cogeneration plant to any specific building or hotel. (author)

  12. Speed scanning system based on solid-state microchip laser for architectural planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redka, Dmitriy; Grishkanich, Alexsandr S.; Kolmakov, Egor; Tsvetkov, Konstantin

    2017-10-01

    According to the current great interest concerning Large-Scale Metrology applications in many different fields of manufacturing industry, technologies and techniques for dimensional measurement have recently shown a substantial improvement. Ease-of-use, logistic and economic issues, as well as metrological performance, are assuming a more and more important role among system requirements. The project is planned to conduct experimental studies aimed at identifying the impact of the application of the basic laws of microlasers as radiators on the linear-angular characteristics of existing measurement systems. The project is planned to conduct experimental studies aimed at identifying the impact of the application of the basic laws of microlasers as radiators on the linear-angular characteristics of existing measurement systems. The system consists of a distributed network-based layout, whose modularity allows to fit differently sized and shaped working volumes by adequately increasing the number of sensing units. Differently from existing spatially distributed metrological instruments, the remote sensor devices are intended to provide embedded data elaboration capabilities, in order to share the overall computational load.

  13. Solving Fuzzy Multiproduct Aggregate Production Planning Problems Based on Extension Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Pin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggregate production planning (APP plays a critical role in supply chain management (SCM. This paper investigates multiproduct, multiperiod APP problems with several distinct types of fuzzy uncertainties. In contrast to the existing studies, the modelling in this work conserves the fuzziness such that the obtained APP is more effective. Based on Zadeh’s extension principle, the results obtained are fuzzy solutions described by membership functions, in contrast to results from previous studies. A pair of two-level parametric mathematical programs is formulated to calculate the lower and upper bounds of the optimum fuzzy performance measure. The membership function of the fuzzy total cost is constructed by enumerating various possibility levels. A case studied in previous research is investigated to demonstrate the validity of the proposed model and solution procedure. Because the optimal objective value and associated decision variables are expressed using fuzzy numbers rather than crisp values, the proposed approach is able to represent APP systems more accurately, and therefore, the results obtained can provide decision makers with more effective and informative APPs and more chance to achieve the optimal disaggregate plan.

  14. Fuzzy based method for project planning of the infrastructure design for the diagnostic in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piros, Attila; Veres, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    The long-term design projects need special preparation before the start of the execution. This preparation usually includes the drawing of the network diagram for the whole procedure. This diagram includes the time estimation of the individual subtasks and gives us information about the predicted dates of the milestones. The calculated critical path in this network characterizes a specific design project concerning to its duration very well. Several methods are available to support this step of preparation. This paper describes a new method to map the structure of the design process and clarify the milestones and predict the dates of these milestones. The method is based on the PERT (Project Evaluation and Review Technique) network but as a novelty it applies fuzzy logic to find out the concerning times in this graph. With the application of the fuzzy logic the handling of the different kinds of design uncertainties becomes feasible. Many kinds of design uncertainties exist from the possible electric blackout up to the illness of an engineer. In many cases these uncertainties are related with human errors and described with linguistic expressions. The fuzzy logic enables to transform these ambiguous expressions into numeric values for further mathematical evaluation. The method is introduced in the planning of the design project of the infrastructure for the diagnostic systems of ITER. The method not only helps the project in the planning phase, but it will be a powerful tool in mathematical modeling and monitoring of the project execution

  15. Failure of the Current Advance Care Planning Paradigm: Advocating for a Communications-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vearrier, Laura

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of advance care planning (ACP) is to allow an individual to maintain autonomy in end-of-life (EOL) medical decision-making even when incapacitated by disease or terminal illness. The intersection of EOL medical technology, ethics of EOL care, and state and federal law has driven the development of the legal framework for advance directives (ADs). However, from an ethical perspective the current legal framework is inadequate to make ADs an effective EOL planning tool. One response to this flawed AD process has been the development of Physician Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment (POLST). POLST has been described as a paradigm shift to address the inadequacies of ADs. However, POLST has failed to bridge the gap between patients and their autonomous, preferred EOL care decisions. Analysis of ADs and POLST reveals that future policy should focus on a communications-based approach to ACP that emphasizes ongoing interactions between healthcare providers and patients to optimize EOL medical care to the individual patient.

  16. Fuzzy based method for project planning of the infrastructure design for the diagnostic in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piros, Attila, E-mail: attila.piros@gt3.bme.hu [Department of Machine and Product Design, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Veres, Gábor [Department of Plasma Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-10-15

    The long-term design projects need special preparation before the start of the execution. This preparation usually includes the drawing of the network diagram for the whole procedure. This diagram includes the time estimation of the individual subtasks and gives us information about the predicted dates of the milestones. The calculated critical path in this network characterizes a specific design project concerning to its duration very well. Several methods are available to support this step of preparation. This paper describes a new method to map the structure of the design process and clarify the milestones and predict the dates of these milestones. The method is based on the PERT (Project Evaluation and Review Technique) network but as a novelty it applies fuzzy logic to find out the concerning times in this graph. With the application of the fuzzy logic the handling of the different kinds of design uncertainties becomes feasible. Many kinds of design uncertainties exist from the possible electric blackout up to the illness of an engineer. In many cases these uncertainties are related with human errors and described with linguistic expressions. The fuzzy logic enables to transform these ambiguous expressions into numeric values for further mathematical evaluation. The method is introduced in the planning of the design project of the infrastructure for the diagnostic systems of ITER. The method not only helps the project in the planning phase, but it will be a powerful tool in mathematical modeling and monitoring of the project execution.

  17. Effect of education based on theory of planned behavior in healthy cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabea Agh Atabay

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Healthy eating habits can reduce the risk of several chronic diseases and decrease overall mortality in women by 11%. Regarding the crucial role of women in feeding the family, we investigated the effect of education in healthy cooking behavior of rural women by applying the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. A sample of native women in rural areas of Chabahar (n=152, who aged 12-75 years old, were selected by multistage sampling. Pre and post intervention measures of TPB variables, knowledge, and behavior were conducted via questionnaire. The educational intervention was performed with the help of high school girl students for the intervention group. There were positive significant changes in healthy cooking behavior intention, knowledge, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavior in the intervention group, while none of these changes were significant in the control group. The results suggest that educational intervention based on the theory of planned behavior can be effective in healthy cooking behavior of rural women of Chabahar.

  18. Knowledge-light adaptation approaches in case-based reasoning for radiotherapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Sanja; Khussainova, Gulmira; Jagannathan, Rupa

    2016-03-01

    Radiotherapy treatment planning aims at delivering a sufficient radiation dose to cancerous tumour cells while sparing healthy organs in the tumour-surrounding area. It is a time-consuming trial-and-error process that requires the expertise of a group of medical experts including oncologists and medical physicists and can take from 2 to 3h to a few days. Our objective is to improve the performance of our previously built case-based reasoning (CBR) system for brain tumour radiotherapy treatment planning. In this system, a treatment plan for a new patient is retrieved from a case base containing patient cases treated in the past and their treatment plans. However, this system does not perform any adaptation, which is needed to account for any difference between the new and retrieved cases. Generally, the adaptation phase is considered to be intrinsically knowledge-intensive and domain-dependent. Therefore, an adaptation often requires a large amount of domain-specific knowledge, which can be difficult to acquire and often is not readily available. In this study, we investigate approaches to adaptation that do not require much domain knowledge, referred to as knowledge-light adaptation. We developed two adaptation approaches: adaptation based on machine-learning tools and adaptation-guided retrieval. They were used to adapt the beam number and beam angles suggested in the retrieved case. Two machine-learning tools, neural networks and naive Bayes classifier, were used in the adaptation to learn how the difference in attribute values between the retrieved and new cases affects the output of these two cases. The adaptation-guided retrieval takes into consideration not only the similarity between the new and retrieved cases, but also how to adapt the retrieved case. The research was carried out in collaboration with medical physicists at the Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, City Hospital Campus, UK. All experiments were performed using real-world brain cancer

  19. Impact of computer-based treatment planning software on clinical judgment of dental students for planning prosthodontic rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Saee; Chahande,Jayashree

    2014-01-01

    Saee Deshpande, Jayashree Chahande Department of Prosthodontics, Vidya Shikshan Prasarak Mandal's (VPSM) Dental College and Research Centre, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Purpose: Successful prosthodontic rehabilitation involves making many interrelated clinical decisions which have an impact on each other. Self-directed computer-based training has been shown to be a very useful tool to develop synthetic and analytical problem-solving skills among students. Thus, a computer-based case s...

  20. Web-Based Training on Reviewing Dose Modeling Aspects of NRC Decommissioning and License Termination Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LePoire, D.; Cheng, J.J.; Kamboj, S.; Arnish, J.; Richmond, P.; Chen, S.Y.; Barr, C.; McKenney, C.

    2008-01-01

    NRC licensees at decommissioning nuclear facilities submit License Termination Plans (LTP) or Decommissioning Plans (DP) to NRC for review and approval. To facilitate a uniform and consistent review of these plans, the NRC developed training for its staff. A live classroom course was first developed in 2005, which targeted specific aspects of the LTP and DP review process related to dose-based compliance demonstrations or modeling. A web-based training (WBT) course was developed in 2006 and 2007 to replace the classroom-based course. The advantage of the WBT is that it will allow for staff training or refreshers at any time, while the advantage of a classroom-based course is that it provides a forum for lively discussion and the sharing of experience of classroom participants. The objective of this course is to train NRC headquarters and regional office staff on how to review sections of a licensee's DP or LTP that pertain to dose modeling. The DP generally refers to the decommissioning of non-reactor facilities, while the LTP refers specifically to the decommissioning of reactors. This review is part of the NRC's licensing process, in which the NRC determines if a licensee has provided a suitable technical basis to support derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs)1 or dose modeling analyses performed to demonstrate compliance with dose-based license termination rule criteria. This type of training is one component of an organizational management system. These systems 'use a range of practices to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge for reuse, awareness and learning'. This is especially important in an organization undergoing rapid change or staff turnover to retain organizational information and processes. NRC is committed to maintaining a dynamic program of training, development, and knowledge transfer to ensure that the NRC acquires and maintains the competencies needed to accomplish its mission. This paper discusses one specific project