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Sample records for nile virus-induced cellular

  1. A CRISPR-Based Screen Identifies Genes Essential for West-Nile-Virus-Induced Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongming; Dang, Ying; Wu, Yonggan; Jia, Gengxiang; Anaya, Edgar; Zhang, Junli; Abraham, Sojan; Choi, Jang-Gi; Shi, Guojun; Qi, Ling; Manjunath, N; Wu, Haoquan

    2015-07-28

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes an acute neurological infection attended by massive neuronal cell death. However, the mechanism(s) behind the virus-induced cell death is poorly understood. Using a library containing 77,406 sgRNAs targeting 20,121 genes, we performed a genome-wide screen followed by a second screen with a sub-library. Among the genes identified, seven genes, EMC2, EMC3, SEL1L, DERL2, UBE2G2, UBE2J1, and HRD1, stood out as having the strongest phenotype, whose knockout conferred strong protection against WNV-induced cell death with two different WNV strains and in three cell lines. Interestingly, knockout of these genes did not block WNV replication. Thus, these appear to be essential genes that link WNV replication to downstream cell death pathway(s). In addition, the fact that all of these genes belong to the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway suggests that this might be the primary driver of WNV-induced cell death. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Human Monoclonal Antibodies against West Nile Virus Induced by Natural Infection Neutralize at a Postattachment Step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Matthew R.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Goudsmit, Jaap; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Austin, S. Kyle; Oliphant, Theodore; Nelson, Steevenson; Pierson, Theodore C.; Wilschut, Jan; Throsby, Mark; Diamond, Michael S.

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that is now a primary cause of epidemic encephalitis in North America. Studies of mice have demonstrated that the humoral immune response against WNV limits primary infection and protects against a secondary challenge. The most-potent neutralizing

  3. Human monoclonal antibodies against West Nile virus induced by natural infection neutralize at a postattachment step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Matthew R.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Goudsmit, Jaap; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Austin, S. Kyle; Oliphant, Theodore; Nelson, Steevenson; Pierson, Theodore C.; Wilschut, Jan; Throsby, Mark; Diamond, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that is now a primary cause of epidemic encephalitis in North America. Studies of mice have demonstrated that the humoral immune response against WNV limits primary infection and protects against a secondary challenge. The most-potent neutralizing

  4. A recombinant influenza a virus expressing domain III of west nile virus induces protective immune responses against influenza and west nile virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E.E. Martina (Byron); P. van den Doel (Petra); P. Koraka (Penelope); G. van Amerongen (Geert); G. Spohn (Gunther); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); L.B.V. Provacia (Lisette); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWest Nile virus (WNV) continues to circulate in the USA and forms a threat to the rest of the Western hemisphere. Since methods for the treatment of WNV infections are not available, there is a need for the development of safe and effective vaccines. Here, we describe the construction of

  5. JC virus induces altered patterns of cellular gene expression: Interferon-inducible genes as major transcriptional targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Saguna; Ziegler, Katja; Ananthula, Praveen; Co, Juliene K.G.; Frisque, Richard J.; Yanagihara, Richard; Nerurkar, Vivek R.

    2006-01-01

    Human polyomavirus JC (JCV) infects 80% of the population worldwide. Primary infection, typically occurring during childhood, is asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals and results in lifelong latency and persistent infection. However, among the severely immunocompromised, JCV may cause a fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Virus-host interactions influencing persistence and pathogenicity are not well understood, although significant regulation of JCV activity is thought to occur at the level of transcription. Regulation of the JCV early and late promoters during the lytic cycle is a complex event that requires participation of both viral and cellular factors. We have used cDNA microarray technology to analyze global alterations in gene expression in JCV-permissive primary human fetal glial cells (PHFG). Expression of more than 400 cellular genes was altered, including many that influence cell proliferation, cell communication and interferon (IFN)-mediated host defense responses. Genes in the latter category included signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), interferon stimulating gene 56 (ISG56), myxovirus resistance 1 (MxA), 2'5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), and cig5. The expression of these genes was further confirmed in JCV-infected PHFG cells and the human glioblastoma cell line U87MG to ensure the specificity of JCV in inducing this strong antiviral response. Results obtained by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses supported the microarray data and provide temporal information related to virus-induced changes in the IFN response pathway. Our data indicate that the induction of an antiviral response may be one of the cellular factors regulating/controlling JCV replication in immunocompetent hosts and therefore constraining the development of PML

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus-induced pathology favored by cellular transmission and activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.E.; Yoffe, B.; Bosworth, C.G.; Hollinger, F.B.; Rich, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) occurs primarily by transference of virally infected cells. However, the efficiency of lytic productive infection induced by HIV after transmission of cell-associated virus vs. free virus is difficult to assess. The present studies compare the extent of depletion of CD4+ (helper/inducer) T cells after mixing uninfected cells with either free HIV or irradiated HIV-infected allogeneic or autologous cells in vitro. Rapid CD4+ cellular depletion occurred only in cultures containing allogeneic infected cells or after addition of a nonspecific T cell activation signal to cultures with autologous infected cells. These in vitro observations strongly support the epidemiological implication that interactions between infected and uninfected cells are the most efficient means of transmission and HIV-induced cytopathology in vivo. They also provide direct support for the concept that immunological stimulation by foreign cells infected with HIV dramatically increases the likelihood of transmission. These in vitro observations suggest a model for the acquisition of HIV in vivo and the role of cellular activation in dissemination of the virus to uninfected cells in an infected individual

  7. Ultrastructural Characterization of Turnip Mosaic Virus-Induced Cellular Rearrangements Reveals Membrane-Bound Viral Particles Accumulating in Vacuoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Juan; Basu, Kaustuv; Mui, Jeannie; Vali, Hojatollah; Zheng, Huanquan; Laliberté, Jean-François

    2015-12-01

    Positive-strand RNA [(+) RNA] viruses remodel cellular membranes to facilitate virus replication and assembly. In the case of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), the viral membrane protein 6K2 plays an essential role in endomembrane alterations. Although 6K2-induced membrane dynamics have been widely studied by confocal microscopy, the ultrastructure of this remodeling has not been extensively examined. In this study, we investigated the formation of TuMV-induced membrane changes by chemical fixation and high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution (HPF/FS) for transmission electron microscopy at different times of infection. We observed the formation of convoluted membranes connected to rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) early in the infection process, followed by the production of single-membrane vesicle-like (SMVL) structures at the midstage of infection. Both SMVL and double-membrane vesicle-like structures with electron-dense cores, as well as electron-dense bodies, were found late in the infection process. Immunogold labeling results showed that the vesicle-like structures were 6K2 tagged and suggested that only the SMVL structures were viral RNA replication sites. Electron tomography (ET) was used to regenerate a three-dimensional model of these vesicle-like structures, which showed that they were, in fact, tubules. Late in infection, we observed filamentous particle bundles associated with electron-dense bodies, which suggests that these are sites for viral particle assembly. In addition, TuMV particles were observed to accumulate in the central vacuole as membrane-associated linear arrays. Our work thus unravels the sequential appearance of distinct TuMV-induced membrane structures for viral RNA replication, viral particle assembly, and accumulation. Positive-strand RNA viruses remodel cellular membranes for different stages of the infection process, such as protein translation and processing, viral RNA synthesis, particle assembly, and virus transmission. The

  8. ISG15 facilitates cellular antiviral response to dengue and west nile virus infection in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Wen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue virus (DENV and West Nile virus (WNV, close siblings of the Flaviviridae family, are the causative agents of Dengue hemorraghic shock or West Nile meningoencephalitis respectively. Vaccines against these two flaviviruses are currently unavailable. Interferon- Stimulated Gene 15 (ISG15, encoding an ubiquitin-like protein, is significantly induced by type I interferons or viral infections. Its roles in viral infections, however, vary with viruses, being either anti- or pro-viral. The exact roles of ISG15 in DENV and WNV infections remain unknown. In the current study, we evaluated the relevancies of ISG15 to DENV and WNV infection of a mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Findings Quantitative PCR showed that mouse Isg15 was dramatically induced in DENV or WNV- infected RAW264.7 cells compared with non-infected cells. Isg15 and two other Jak-Stat related genes, Socs1 and Socs3, were silenced using siRNA mediated RNA interference. The intracellular DENV and WNV loads, as determined by quantitative PCR, were significantly higher in Isg15 silenced cells than control cells. The expression levels of interferon beta 1 (Ifnb1 were increased significantly in Isg15, Socs1 or Socs3 siRNA treated cells. Further investigation indicated that protein modification by ISG15, so called ISGylation, was significantly enhanced in DENV-infected cells compared to that in non-infected cells. Conclusions These findings suggest that ISG15 plays an anti-DENV/WNV function via protein ISGylation.

  9. Alpha/beta interferon protects against lethal West Nile virus infection by restricting cellular tropism and enhancing neuronal survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Melanie A; Diamond, Michael S

    2005-11-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is neurotropic in humans, birds, and other animals. While adaptive immunity plays an important role in preventing WNV spread to the central nervous system (CNS), little is known about how alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) protects against peripheral and CNS infection. In this study, we examine the virulence and tropism of WNV in IFN-alpha/beta receptor-deficient (IFN- alpha/betaR-/-) mice and primary neuronal cultures. IFN-alpha/betaR-/- mice were acutely susceptible to WNV infection through subcutaneous inoculation, with 100% mortality and a mean time to death (MTD) of 4.6 +/- 0.7 and 3.8+/- 0.5 days after infection with 10(0) and 10(2) PFU, respectively. In contrast, congenic wild-type 129Sv/Ev mice infected with 10(2) PFU showed 62% mortality and a MTD of 11.9 +/- 1.9 days. IFN-alpha/betaR-/- mice developed high viral loads by day 3 after infection in nearly all tissues assayed, including many that were not infected in wild-type mice. IFN-alpha/betaR-/- mice also demonstrated altered cellular tropism, with increased infection in macrophages, B cells, and T cells in the spleen. Additionally, treatment of primary wild-type neurons in vitro with IFN-beta either before or after infection increased neuronal survival independent of its effect on WNV replication. Collectively, our data suggest that IFN-alpha/beta controls WNV infection by restricting tropism and viral burden and by preventing death of infected neurons.

  10. West Nile virus-induced cell adhesion molecules on human brain microvascular endothelial cells regulate leukocyte adhesion and modulate permeability of the in vitro blood-brain barrier model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Roe

    Full Text Available Characterizing the mechanisms by which West Nile virus (WNV causes blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption, leukocyte infiltration into the brain and neuroinflammation is important to understand the pathogenesis of WNV encephalitis. Here, we examined the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs in mediating the adhesion and transendothelial migration of leukocytes across human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVE. Infection with WNV (NY99 strain significantly induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin in human endothelial cells and infected mice brain, although the levels of their ligands on leukocytes (VLA-4, LFA-1and MAC-1 did not alter. The permeability of the in vitro BBB model increased dramatically following the transmigration of monocytes and lymphocytes across the models infected with WNV, which was reversed in the presence of a cocktail of blocking antibodies against ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin. Further, WNV infection of HBMVE significantly increased leukocyte adhesion to the HBMVE monolayer and transmigration across the infected BBB model. The blockade of these CAMs reduced the adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes across the infected BBB model. Further, comparison of infection with highly neuroinvasive NY99 and non-lethal (Eg101 strain of WNV demonstrated similar level of virus replication and fold-increase of CAMs in HBMVE cells suggesting that the non-neuropathogenic response of Eg101 is not because of its inability to infect HBMVE cells. Collectively, these results suggest that increased expression of specific CAMs is a pathological event associated with WNV infection and may contribute to leukocyte infiltration and BBB disruption in vivo. Our data further implicate that strategies to block CAMs to reduce BBB disruption may limit neuroinflammation and virus-CNS entry via 'Trojan horse' route, and improve WNV disease outcome.

  11. West Nile virus-induced disruption of the blood-brain barrier in mice is characterized by the degradation of the junctional complex proteins and increase in multiple matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Kelsey; Kumar, Mukesh; Lum, Stephanie; Orillo, Beverly; Nerurkar, Vivek R; Verma, Saguna

    2012-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis is characterized by neuroinflammation, neuronal loss and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. However, the mechanisms associated with the BBB disruption are unclear. Complex interactions between the tight junction proteins (TJP) and the adherens junction proteins (AJP) of the brain microvascular endothelial cells are responsible for maintaining the BBB integrity. Herein, we characterized the relationship between the BBB disruption and expression kinetics of key TJP, AJP and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the mice brain. A dramatic increase in the BBB permeability and extravasation of IgG was observed at later time points of the central nervous system (CNS) infection and did not precede virus-CNS entry. WNV-infected mice exhibited significant reduction in the protein levels of the TJP ZO-1, claudin-1, occludin and JAM-A, and AJP β-catenin and vascular endothelial cadherin, which correlated with increased levels of MMP-1, -3 and -9 and infiltrated leukocytes in the brain. Further, intracranial inoculation of WNV also demonstrated increased extravasation of IgG in the brain, suggesting the role of virus replication in the CNS in BBB disruption. These data suggest that altered expression of junction proteins is a pathological event associated with WNV infection and may explain the molecular basis of BBB disruption. We propose that WNV initially enters CNS without altering the BBB integrity and later virus replication in the brain initiates BBB disruption, allowing enhanced infiltration of immune cells and contribute to virus neuroinvasion via the 'Trojan-horse' route. These data further implicate roles of multiple MMPs in the BBB disruption and strategies to interrupt this process may influence the WNV disease outcome.

  12. West Nile virus-induced cell adhesion molecules on human brain microvascular endothelial cells regulate leukocyte adhesion and modulate permeability of the in vitro blood-brain barrier model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Kelsey; Orillo, Beverly; Verma, Saguna

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the mechanisms by which West Nile virus (WNV) causes blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, leukocyte infiltration into the brain and neuroinflammation is important to understand the pathogenesis of WNV encephalitis. Here, we examined the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in mediating the adhesion and transendothelial migration of leukocytes across human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVE). Infection with WNV (NY99 strain) significantly induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin in human endothelial cells and infected mice brain, although the levels of their ligands on leukocytes (VLA-4, LFA-1and MAC-1) did not alter. The permeability of the in vitro BBB model increased dramatically following the transmigration of monocytes and lymphocytes across the models infected with WNV, which was reversed in the presence of a cocktail of blocking antibodies against ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin. Further, WNV infection of HBMVE significantly increased leukocyte adhesion to the HBMVE monolayer and transmigration across the infected BBB model. The blockade of these CAMs reduced the adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes across the infected BBB model. Further, comparison of infection with highly neuroinvasive NY99 and non-lethal (Eg101) strain of WNV demonstrated similar level of virus replication and fold-increase of CAMs in HBMVE cells suggesting that the non-neuropathogenic response of Eg101 is not because of its inability to infect HBMVE cells. Collectively, these results suggest that increased expression of specific CAMs is a pathological event associated with WNV infection and may contribute to leukocyte infiltration and BBB disruption in vivo. Our data further implicate that strategies to block CAMs to reduce BBB disruption may limit neuroinflammation and virus-CNS entry via 'Trojan horse' route, and improve WNV disease outcome.

  13. Alpha/Beta Interferon Protects against Lethal West Nile Virus Infection by Restricting Cellular Tropism and Enhancing Neuronal Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, Melanie A.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is neurotropic in humans, birds, and other animals. While adaptive immunity plays an important role in preventing WNV spread to the central nervous system (CNS), little is known about how alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) protects against peripheral and CNS infection. In this study, we examine the virulence and tropism of WNV in IFN-α/β receptor-deficient (IFN- α/βR−/−) mice and primary neuronal cultures. IFN-α/βR−/− mice were acutely su...

  14. Towards the conservation of endangered avian species: a recombinant West Nile Virus vaccine results in increased humoral and cellular immune responses in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay A Young

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV arrived in North America in 1999 and is now endemic. Many families of birds, especially corvids, are highly susceptible to WNV and infection often results in fatality. Avian species susceptible to WNV infection also include endangered species, such as the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus uropbasianuts and the Eastern Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus migrans. The virus has been shown to contribute towards the likelihood of their extinction. Although a clear and present threat, there exists no avian WNV vaccine available to combat this lethal menace. As a first step in establishing an avian model for testing candidate WNV vaccines, avian antibody based reagents were assessed for cross-reactivity with Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica T cell markers CD4 and CD8; the most reactive were found to be the anti-duck CD8 antibody, clone Du-CD8-1, and the anti-chicken/turkey CD4 antibody, clone CT4. These reagents were then used to assess vaccine performance as well as to establish T cell populations in quail, with a novel population of CD4/CD8 double positive T cells being identified in Japanese quail. Concurrently, non-replicating recombinant adenoviruses, expressing either the WNV envelope or NS3 'genes' were constructed and assessed for effectiveness as avian vaccines. Japanese Quail were selected for testing the vaccines, as they provide an avian model that parallels the population diversity of bird species in the wild. Both the level of WNV specific antibodies and the number of T cells in vaccinated birds were increased compared to unvaccinated controls. The results indicate the vaccines to be effective in increasing both humoral and cellular immune responses. These recombinant vaccines therefore may find utility as tools to protect and maintain domestic and wild avian populations. Their implementation may also arrest the progression towards extinction of endangered avian species and reduce the viral reservoir that

  15. Towards the Conservation of Endangered Avian Species: A Recombinant West Nile Virus Vaccine Results in Increased Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joanne A.; Jefferies, Wilfred

    2013-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) arrived in North America in 1999 and is now endemic. Many families of birds, especially corvids, are highly susceptible to WNV and infection often results in fatality. Avian species susceptible to WNV infection also include endangered species, such as the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus uropbasianuts) and the Eastern Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus migrans). The virus has been shown to contribute towards the likelihood of their extinction. Although a clear and present threat, there exists no avian WNV vaccine available to combat this lethal menace. As a first step in establishing an avian model for testing candidate WNV vaccines, avian antibody based reagents were assessed for cross-reactivity with Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) T cell markers CD4 and CD8; the most reactive were found to be the anti-duck CD8 antibody, clone Du-CD8-1, and the anti-chicken/turkey CD4 antibody, clone CT4. These reagents were then used to assess vaccine performance as well as to establish T cell populations in quail, with a novel population of CD4/CD8 double positive T cells being identified in Japanese quail. Concurrently, non-replicating recombinant adenoviruses, expressing either the WNV envelope or NS3 ‘genes’ were constructed and assessed for effectiveness as avian vaccines. Japanese Quail were selected for testing the vaccines, as they provide an avian model that parallels the population diversity of bird species in the wild. Both the level of WNV specific antibodies and the number of T cells in vaccinated birds were increased compared to unvaccinated controls. The results indicate the vaccines to be effective in increasing both humoral and cellular immune responses. These recombinant vaccines therefore may find utility as tools to protect and maintain domestic and wild avian populations. Their implementation may also arrest the progression towards extinction of endangered avian species and reduce the viral reservoir that potentiates

  16. Oxidative Lung Injury in Virus-Induced Wheezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    antioxidant enzyme (AOE) genes in the lung. Thus, we propose a new molecular pathway by which respiratory viruses induce lung inflammation, with implication...AOE) genes in the lung. Thus, we propose a new molecular pathway by which respiratory viruses induce lung inflammation, with implication for novel...model of infection, with significant amelioration of oxidative stress, which is an important pathogenetic component of viral-induced lung disease

  17. DNA Oncogenic Virus-Induced Oxidative Stress, Genomic Damage, and Aberrant Epigenetic Alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankgopo Magdeline Kgatle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20% of human cancers is attributable to DNA oncogenic viruses such as human papillomavirus (HPV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. Unrepaired DNA damage is the most common and overlapping feature of these DNA oncogenic viruses and a source of genomic instability and tumour development. Sustained DNA damage results from unceasing production of reactive oxygen species and activation of inflammasome cascades that trigger genomic changes and increased propensity of epigenetic alterations. Accumulation of epigenetic alterations may interfere with genome-wide cellular signalling machineries and promote malignant transformation leading to cancer development. Untangling and understanding the underlying mechanisms that promote these detrimental effects remain the major objectives for ongoing research and hope for effective virus-induced cancer therapy. Here, we review current literature with an emphasis on how DNA damage influences HPV, HVB, and EBV replication and epigenetic alterations that are associated with carcinogenesis.

  18. Pseudorabies Virus Induces Viability Changes and Oxidative Stress in Swine Testis Cell-Line

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    Xiao-Zhan Zhang§1, Ye Chen§1, Hong-Liang Huang§2, Dong-Lei Xu1, Chang-Bao Ren2, Bi-Tao Liu1, Shuo Su1 and Zhao-Xin Tang1, 2*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the association between pseudorabies (PRV virus-induced viability changes and oxidative stress in vitro cultivated swine testis (ST cells. The kinetic of 2, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h during the cell culture with PRV by using a multiplicity of infection (MOI of 1 TCID50 per cell were adopted. The results suggested a complex relation between cell viability and oxidative stress during PRV infection. In the early stages of PRV infection, the cell viability was higher than the control group, and the state of cellular oxidative stress remained relatively stable. After 24 h, the cell viability began to decrease, and the amount of the cellular malondialdehyde in ST cells increased significantly, and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase decreased significantly (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the rising concentrations of cellular hydrogen peroxide were detected prior to the changes in cell viability and oxidative stress. In conclusion, the PRV infection of ST cells leads to oxidative stress, and this stress could play a crucial role on the cell viability as the PRV infection time progresses.

  19. Discover the Nile River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project WET Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Bordering on the Fantastic. As the longest river on earth, the Nile passes through 10 countries. Presented through a wide range of activities and a winning array of games, it's also unsurpassed at taking young minds into exploring the world of water, as well as natural and man made wonders.

  20. Nile Basin Scenario Construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, B.; Onencan, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The Nile river traverses eleven countries in Africa. It is the source of life for millions of people and its aquifers, tributaries, lakes, and surface waters provide valuable nature (wetlands), drinking water, hydropower and it provides large areas of arid soils with irrigation water. Rapid

  1. Virus-induced Systemic Vasculitides: New Therapeutic Approaches

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    Loïc Guillevin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The best therapeutic strategy in virus-induced vasculitides should take into account the etiology of the disease and be adapted to the pathogenesis. The combination of antiviral treatments and plasma exchanges has been proven effective in polyarteritis nodosa (PAN. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-related vasculitis this strategy is also effective and does not jeopardize, like cytotoxic agents, the outcome of AIDS. In vasculitis related to HCV-associated cryoglobulinemia, plasma exchanges improve the outcome but the poor effectiveness of antiviral drugs is not able to favor, usually, a definite recovery of the patients and relapses are frequent.

  2. Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is an amplifier of virus-induced neuropathology.

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    Das Sarma, Jayasri

    2014-04-01

    Microglia, the major resident immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS) are considered as the key cellular mediators of neuroinflammatory processes. In the past few years, microglial research has become a main focus in cellular neuroimmunology and neuroinflammation. Chronic/remitting neurological disease such as multiple sclerosis (MS) has long been considered an inflammatory autoimmune disease with the infiltration of peripheral myelin-specific T cells into the CNS. With the rapid advancement in the field of microglia and astrocytic neurobiology, the term neuroinflammation progressively started to denote chronic CNS cell-specific inflammation in MS. The direct glial responses in MS are different from conventional peripheral immune responses. This review attempts to summarize current findings of neuroinflammatory responses within the CNS by direct infection of neural cells by mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and the mechanisms by which glial cell responses ultimately contribute to the neuropathology on demyelination. Microglia can be persistently infected by MHV. Microglial activation and phagocytosis are recognized to be critically important in the pathogenesis of demyelination. Emerging evidence for the pathogenic role of microglia and the activation of inflammatory pathways in these cells in MHV infection supports the concept that microglia induced neuroinflammation is an amplifier of virus-induced neuropathology.

  3. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

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    Siew Pheng Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

  4. cDNA libraries for virus-induced gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Andrea T; Liu, Enwu; Page, Jonathan E

    2010-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) exploits endogenous plant antiviral defense mechanisms to posttranscriptionally silence the expression of targeted plant genes. VIGS is quick and relatively easy to perform and therefore serves as a powerful tool for high-throughput functional genomics in plants. Combined with the use of subtractive cDNA libraries for generating a collection of VIGS-ready cDNA inserts, VIGS can be utilized to screen a large number of genes to determine phenotypes resulting from the knockdown/knockout of gene function. Taking into account the optimal insert design for VIGS, we describe a methodology for producing VIGS-ready cDNA libraries enriched for inserts relevant to the biological process of interest.

  5. Cure of Chronic Viral Infection and Virus-Induced Type 1 Diabetes by Neutralizing Antibodies

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    Mette Ejrnaes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of neutralizing antibodies is one of the most successful methods to interfere with receptor-ligand interactions in vivo. In particular blockade of soluble inflammatory mediators or their corresponding cellular receptors was proven an effective way to regulate inflammation and/or prevent its negative consequences. However, one problem that comes along with an effective neutralization of inflammatory mediators is the general systemic immunomodulatory effect. It is therefore important to design a treatment regimen in a way to strike at the right place and at the right time in order to achieve maximal effects with minimal duration of immunosuppression or hyperactivation. In this review we reflect on two examples of how short time administration of such neutralizing antibodies can block two distinct inflammatory consequences of viral infection. First, we review recent findings that blockade of IL-10/IL-10R interaction can resolve chronic viral infection and second, we reflect on how neutralization of the chemokine CXCL10 can abrogate virus-induced type 1 diabetes.

  6. Cure of Chronic Viral Infection and Virus-Induced Type 1 Diabetes by Neutralizing Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Ejrnaes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of neutralizing antibodies is one of the most successful methods to interfere with receptor–ligand interactions in vivo. In particular blockade of soluble inflammatory mediators or their corresponding cellular receptors was proven an effective way to regulate inflammation and/or prevent its negative consequences. However, one problem that comes along with an effective neutralization of inflammatory mediators is the general systemic immunomodulatory effect. It is, therefore, important to design a treatment regimen in a way to strike at the right place and at the right time in order to achieve maximal effects with minimal duration of immunosuppression or hyperactivation. In this review, we reflect on two examples of how short time administration of such neutralizing antibodies can block two distinct inflammatory consequences of viral infection. First, we review recent findings that blockade of IL-10/IL-10R interaction can resolve chronic viral infection and second, we reflect on how neutralization of the chemokine CXCL10 can abrogate virus-induced type 1 diabetes.

  7. Newcastle disease virus induces stable formation ofbona fidestress granules to facilitate viral replication through manipulating host protein translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingjie; Dong, Luna; Yu, Shengqing; Wang, Xiaoxu; Zheng, Hang; Zhang, Pin; Meng, Chunchun; Zhan, Yuan; Tan, Lei; Song, Cuiping; Qiu, Xusheng; Wang, Guijun; Liao, Ying; Ding, Chan

    2017-04-01

    Mammalian cells respond to various environmental stressors to form stress granules (SGs) by arresting cytoplasmic mRNA, protein translation element, and RNA binding proteins. Virus-induced SGs function in different ways, depending on the species of virus; however, the mechanism of SG regulation of virus replication is not well understood. In this study, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) triggered stable formation of bona fide SGs on HeLa cells through activating the protein kinase R (PKR)/eIF2α pathway. NDV-induced SGs contained classic SG markers T-cell internal antigen (TIA)-1, Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein (G3BP)-1, eukaryotic initiation factors, and small ribosomal subunit, which could be disassembled in the presence of cycloheximide. Treatment with nocodazole, a microtubule disruption drug, led to the formation of relatively small and circular granules, indicating that NDV infection induces canonical SGs. Furthermore, the role of SGs on NDV replication was investigated by knockdown of TIA-1 and TIA-1-related (TIAR) protein, the 2 critical components involved in SG formation from the HeLa cells, followed by NDV infection. Results showed that depletion of TIA-1 or TIAR inhibited viral protein synthesis, reduced extracellular virus yields, but increased global protein translation. FISH revealed that NDV-induced SGs contained predominantly cellular mRNA rather than viral mRNA. Deletion of TIA-1 or TIAR reduced NP mRNA levels in polysomes. These results demonstrate that NDV triggers stable formation of bona fide SGs, which benefit viral protein translation and virus replication by arresting cellular mRNA.-Sun, Y., Dong, L., Yu, S., Wang, X., Zheng, H., Zhang, P., Meng, C., Zhan, Y., Tan, L., Song, C., Qiu, X., Wang, G., Liao, Y., Ding, C. Newcastle disease virus induces stable formation of bona fide stress granules to facilitate viral replication through manipulating host protein translation. © FASEB.

  8. Virus-induced exacerbations in asthma and COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke eKurai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by chronic airway inflammation and/or airflow limitation due to pulmonary emphysema. Chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, and bronchial asthma may all be associated with airflow limitation; therefore, exacerbation of asthma may be associated with the pathophysiology of COPD. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that the exacerbation of asthma, namely virus-induced asthma, may be associated with a wide variety of respiratory viruses.COPD and asthma have different underlying pathophysiological processes and thus require individual therapies. Exacerbation of both COPD and asthma, which are basically defined and diagnosed by clinical symptoms, is associated with a rapid decline in lung function and increased mortality. Similar pathogens, including human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and coronavirus, are also frequently detected during exacerbation of asthma and/or COPD. Immune response to respiratory viral infections, which may be related to the severity of exacerbation in each disease, varies in patients with both COPD and asthma. In this regard, it is crucial to recognize and understand both the similarities and differences of clinical features in patients with COPD and/or asthma associated with respiratory viral infections, especially in the exacerbative stage.In relation to definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology, this review aims to summarize current knowledge concerning exacerbation of both COPD and asthma by focusing on the clinical significance of associated respiratory virus infections.

  9. Zika Virus-Induced Microcephaly and Its Possible Molecular Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizan, Md Imam; Abdullah, Mohd; Ali, Sher; Naqvi, Irshad H; Ahmed, Anwar; Parveen, Shama

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an arthropod-borne re-emerging pathogen associated with the global pandemic of 2015-2016. The devastating effect of Zika viral infection is reflected by its neurological manifestations such as microcephaly in newborns. This scenario evoked our interest to uncover the neurotropic localization, multiplication of the virus, and the mechanism of microcephaly. The present report provides an overview of a possible molecular mechanism of Zika virus-induced microcephaly based on recent publications. Transplacental transmission of Zika viral infection from mother to foetus during the first trimester of pregnancy results in propagation of the virus in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), where entry is facilitated by the receptor (AXL protein) leading to the alteration of signalling and immune pathways in host cells. Further modification of the viral-induced TLR3-mediated immune network in the infected hNPCs affects viral replication. Downregulation of neurogenesis and upregulation of apoptosis in hNPCs leads to cell cycle arrest and death of the developing neurons. In addition, it is likely that the environmental, physiological, immunological, and genetic factors that determine in utero transmission of Zika virus are also involved in neurotropism. Despite the global concern regarding the Zika-mediated epidemic, the precise molecular mechanism of neuropathogenesis remains elusive. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. CLEC5A regulates Japanese encephalitis virus-induced neuroinflammation and lethality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Ting Chen

    Full Text Available CLEC5A/MDL-1, a member of the myeloid C-type lectin family expressed on macrophages and neutrophils, is critical for dengue virus (DV-induced hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome in Stat1⁻/⁻ mice and ConA-treated wild type mice. However, whether CLEC5A is involved in the pathogenesis of viral encephalitis has not yet been investigated. To investigate the role of CLEC5A to regulate JEV-induced neuroinflammation, antagonistic anti-CLEC5A mAb and CLEC5A-deficient mice were generated. We find that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV directly interacts with CLEC5A and induces DAP12 phosphorylation in macrophages. In addition, JEV activates macrophages to secrete proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which are dramatically reduced in JEV-infected Clec5a⁻/⁻ macrophages. Although blockade of CLEC5A cannot inhibit JEV infection of neurons and astrocytes, anti-CLEC5A mAb inhibits JEV-induced proinflammatory cytokine release from microglia and prevents bystander damage to neuronal cells. Moreover, JEV causes blood-brain barrier (BBB disintegrity and lethality in STAT1-deficient (Stat1⁻/⁻ mice, whereas peripheral administration of anti-CLEC5A mAb reduces infiltration of virus-harboring leukocytes into the central nervous system (CNS, restores BBB integrity, attenuates neuroinflammation, and protects mice from JEV-induced lethality. Moreover, all surviving mice develop protective humoral and cellular immunity against JEV infection. These observations demonstrate the critical role of CLEC5A in the pathogenesis of Japanese encephalitis, and identify CLEC5A as a target for the development of new treatments to reduce virus-induced brain damage.

  11. Canine distemper virus induces apoptosis in cervical tumor derived cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajão Daniela S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apoptosis can be induced or inhibited by viral proteins, it can form part of the host defense against virus infection, or it can be a mechanism for viral spread to neighboring cells. Canine distemper virus (CDV induces apoptotic cells in lymphoid tissues and in the cerebellum of dogs naturally infected. CDV also produces a cytopathologic effect, leading to apoptosis in Vero cells in tissue culture. We tested canine distemper virus, a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, for the ability to trigger apoptosis in HeLa cells, derived from cervical cancer cells resistant to apoptosis. To study the effect of CDV infection in HeLa cells, we examined apoptotic markers 24 h post infection (pi, by flow cytometry assay for DNA fragmentation, real-time PCR assay for caspase-3 and caspase-8 mRNA expression, and by caspase-3 and -8 immunocytochemistry. Flow cytometry showed that DNA fragmentation was induced in HeLa cells infected by CDV, and immunocytochemistry revealed a significant increase in the levels of the cleaved active form of caspase-3 protein, but did not show any difference in expression of caspase-8, indicating an intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Confirming this observation, expression of caspase-3 mRNA was higher in CDV infected HeLa cells than control cells; however, there was no statistically significant change in caspase-8 mRNA expression profile. Our data suggest that canine distemper virus induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, triggering apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway, with no participation of the initiator caspase -8 from the extrinsic pathway. In conclusion, the cellular stress caused by CDV infection of HeLa cells, leading to apoptosis, can be used as a tool in future research for cervical cancer treatment and control.

  12. Virus-induced enhancement of arachidonate metabolism by bovine alveolar macrophages in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laegreid, W.W.; Taylor, S.M.; Leid, R.W.; Silflow, R.M.; Evermann, J.R.; Breeze, R.G.; Liggitt, H.D.

    1989-04-01

    Virus infection of alveolar macrophages both in vivo and in vitro has been associated with a variety of changes in cellular function. Some of these changes are identical to the effects that arachidonate-derived mediators, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, have on macrophage function. Virus infection of macrophages has been previously shown to increase the output of some arachidonate metabolites, most notably PGE2. However, the effect of virus infection on arachidonate metabolism in general has not been well described. In our experiments, primary cultures of alveolar macrophages obtained from normal cattle by bronchoalveolar lavage, were infected in vitro with parainfluenza type 3 virus. At days 0 to 4 post-infection (p.i.) these cells were labelled with 3H-arachidonic acid and stimulated with either serum-coated zymosan, the calcium ionophore A23187, or phorbol myristate acetate. The complete spectrum of arachidonate-derived metabolites was determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography with UV and on-line radiometric monitoring of column eluant. The total output of metabolites of arachidonic acid by virus-infected alveolar macrophages was increased over that of noninfected controls (with all stimuli tested) by day 4 p.i. (P less than or equal to 0.05). The production of metabolites by the cyclooxygenase, 12- and 5-lipoxygenase enzyme systems was significantly increased, as was the release of 3H-arachidonate. The lack of stimulus specificity and the increases in arachidonate release suggest that greater substrate availability, due either to increased phospholipase activity or direct virus-membrane interaction, may be responsible for the virus-induced enhancement of metabolite output.

  13. The White Nile sedimentary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Padoan, Marta; Resentini, Alberto; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Villa, Igor

    2014-05-01

    The Nile River flows for ~6700 km from south of the Equator to finally reach the Mediterranean Sea at northern subtropical latitudes (Woodward et al. 2007). This is the longest sedimentological laboratory on Earth, a unique setting in which we are investigating changes in sediment composition associated with diverse chemical and physical processes, including weathering and hydraulic sorting. The present study focuses on the southern branch of the Nile across 20° of latitude, from hyperhumid Burundi and Rwanda highlands in central Africa to Khartoum, the capital city of Sudan at the southern edge of the Sahara. Our study of the Kagera basin emphasizes the importance of weathering in soils at the source rather than during stepwise transport, and shows that the transformation of parent rocks into quartzose sand may be completed in one sedimentary cycle (Garzanti et al. 2013a). Micas and heavy minerals, less effectively diluted by recycling than main framework components, offer the best key to identify the original source-rock imprint. The different behaviour of chemical indices such as the CIA (a truer indicator of weathering) and the WIP (markedly affected by quartz dilution) helps us to distinguish strongly weathered first-cycle versus polycyclic quartz sands (Garzanti et al. 2013b). Because sediment is efficiently trapped in East African Rift lakes, the composition of Nile sediments changes repeatedly northwards across Uganda. Downstream of both Lake Kyoga and Lake Albert, quartzose sands are progressively enriched in metamorphiclastic detritus supplied from tributaries draining amphibolite-facies basements. The evolution of White Nile sediments across South Sudan, a scarcely accessible region that suffered decades of civil war, was inferred from the available information (Shukri 1950), integrated by original petrographic, heavy-mineral and geochemical data (Padoan et al. 2011). Mineralogical and isotopic signatures of Bahr-el-Jebel and Sobat sediments, derived

  14. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  15. Virus-induced gene silencing and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression in Nicotiana tabacum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a rapid method for transient silencing of plant genes. In this chapter, we describe the methodology for Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based VIGS in Nicotiana tabacum. In combination with subsequent co-expression of the tomato immune receptor Ve1 and the

  16. Protocol: using virus-induced gene silencing to study the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Mette; Olsen, Anne; Johansen, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an alternative reverse genetics tool for silencing of genes in some plants, which are difficult to transform. The pea early-browning virus (PEBV) has been developed as a VIGS vector and used in pea for functional analysis of several genes. However, the avail...

  17. The potential of virus-induced gene silencing for speeding up functional characterization of plant genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedito, V.A.; Visser, P.B.; Angenent, G.C.; Krens, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been shown to be of great potential in plant reverse genetics. Advantages of VIGS over other approaches, such as T-DNA or transposon tagging, include the circumvention of plant transformation, methodological simplicity and robustness, and speedy results. These

  18. Virus-induced gene silencing in detached tomatoes and biochemical effects of phytoene desaturase gene silencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, I.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Bovy, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a technology that has rapidly emerged for gene function studies in plants. Many advances have been made in applying this technique in an increasing number of crops. Recently, VIGS has been successfully used to silence genes in tomato fruit through

  19. Extended Synaptotagmin 1 Interacts with Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein M and Negatively Modulates Virus-Induced Membrane Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kasmi, Imane; Khadivjam, Bita; Lackman, Miki; Duron, Johanne; Bonneil, Eric; Thibault, Pierre; Lippé, Roger

    2018-01-01

    Enveloped viruses typically encode their own fusion machinery to enter cells. Herpesviruses are unusual, as they fuse with a number of cellular compartments throughout their life cycles. As uncontrolled fusion of the host membranes should be avoided in these events, tight regulation of the viral fusion machinery is critical. While studying herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein gM, we identified the cellular protein E-Syt1 (extended synaptotagmin 1) as an interaction partner. The interaction took place in both infected and transfected cells, suggesting other viral proteins were not required for the interaction. Most interestingly, E-Syt1 is a member of the synaptotagmin family of membrane fusion regulators. However, the protein is known to promote the tethering of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane. We now show that E-Syt1, along with the related E-Syt3, negatively modulates viral release into the extracellular milieu, cell-to-cell viral spread, and viral entry, all processes that implicate membrane fusion events. Similarly, these E-Syt proteins impacted the formation of virus-induced syncytia. Altogether, these findings hint at the modulation of the viral fusion machinery by the E-Syt family of proteins. IMPORTANCE Viruses typically encode their own fusion apparatus to enable them to enter cells. For many viruses, this means a single fusogenic protein. However, herpesviruses are large entities that express several accessory viral proteins to regulate their fusogenic activity. The present study hints at the additional participation of cellular proteins in this process, suggesting the host can also modulate viral fusion to some extent. Hence E-Syt proteins 1 and 3 seem to negatively modulate the different viral fusion events that take place during the HSV-1 life cycle. This could represent yet another innate immunity response to the virus. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Influenza A virus-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte dysfunction in the pathogenesis of experimental pneumococcal otitis media.

    OpenAIRE

    Abramson, J S; Giebink, G S; Quie, P G

    1982-01-01

    The role of influenza A virus-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte and eustachian tube dysfunction in the pathogenesis of acute purulent otitis media was studied in chinchillas. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte function, middle ear pressure, and the incidence of pneumococcal otitis media were observed after intranasal inoculation with influenza A virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or both. Results showed that depressed negative middle ear pressure and polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemiluminescence and...

  1. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing as a Tool to Study Tomato Fruit Biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Elio; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Virus-Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) is an excellent reverse genetic tool for the study of gene function in plants, based on virus infection. In this chapter, we describe a high-throughput approach based on VIGS for the study of tomato fruit biochemistry. It comprises the selection of the sequence for silencing using bioinformatics tools, the cloning of the fragment in the Tobacco Rattle Virus (TRV), and the agroinfiltration of tomato fruits mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

  2. Virus-induced gene silencing and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression in Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2014-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a rapid method for transient silencing of plant genes. In this chapter, we describe the methodology for Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based VIGS in Nicotiana tabacum. In combination with subsequent co-expression of the tomato immune receptor Ve1 and the corresponding Verticillium effector Ave1 through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient transformation (agroinfiltration), we established a rapid system for assessing the requirement of candidate plant genes for Ve1-mediated immune signaling.

  3. Influenza Virus Induces Inflammatory Response in Mouse Primary Cortical Neurons with Limited Viral Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gefei; Li, Rui; Jiang, Zhiwu; Gu, Liming; Chen, Yanxia; Dai, Jianping; Li, Kangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Unlike stereotypical neurotropic viruses, influenza A viruses have been detected in the brain tissues of human and animal models. To investigate the interaction between neurons and influenza A viruses, mouse cortical neurons were isolated, infected with human H1N1 influenza virus, and then examined for the production of various inflammatory molecules involved in immune response. We found that replication of the influenza virus in neurons was limited, although early viral transcription was not affected. Virus-induced neuron viability decreased at 6 h postinfection (p.i.) but increased at 24 h p.i. depending upon the viral strain. Virus-induced apoptosis and cytopathy in primary cortical neurons were not apparent at 24 h p.i. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I interferons were upregulated at 6 h and 24 h p.i. These results indicate that the influenza virus induces inflammatory response in mouse primary cortical neurons with limited viral replication. The cytokines released in viral infection-induced neuroinflammation might play critical roles in influenza encephalopathy, rather than in viral replication-induced cytopathy.

  4. Comparative analysis of radiation- and virus-induced leukemias in BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomb, E.W.; Binari, R.; Fleissner, E.

    1985-01-01

    Endogenous murine leukemia virus (MuLV) proviral copies were analyzed in thymomas induced in normal BALB/c (Fv-1b) and in Fv-1n congenic mice by X-irradiation. Both strains of mice developed leukemia with similar kinetics, indicating that N-tropism of endogenous MuLV was not a rate-limiting factor in development of disease. Southern blot analysis, using a probe specific for ecotropic virus and for ecotropic-specific sequences retained in pathogenic, env-recombinant viruses, showed that the majority of radiation leukemias lacked newly acquired, clonally integrated, proviruses. This was in contrast to virus-induced leukemias, which routinely exhibited several new proviral integration sites. When an internal proviral DNA restriction fragment was monitored, some radiation leukemias showed evidence of nonclonal infection, accounting for more frequent isolation of infectious virus from such leukemias. Differences in expression of T-cell surface antigens were found in X-ray-induced and virus-induced leukemias. All radiation leukemias were TL positive, whereas virus-induced leukemias were primarily negative for TL. Some differences were also found in Lyt-1 and Lyt-2 expression. The data as a whole suggest that, in the majority of cases, radiation leukemogenesis is not initiated by a viral route--that is, the sort of viral mechanism for which exogenous infection by known pathogenic MuLV is the paradigm

  5. Influenza Virus Induces Inflammatory Response in Mouse Primary Cortical Neurons with Limited Viral Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gefei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike stereotypical neurotropic viruses, influenza A viruses have been detected in the brain tissues of human and animal models. To investigate the interaction between neurons and influenza A viruses, mouse cortical neurons were isolated, infected with human H1N1 influenza virus, and then examined for the production of various inflammatory molecules involved in immune response. We found that replication of the influenza virus in neurons was limited, although early viral transcription was not affected. Virus-induced neuron viability decreased at 6 h postinfection (p.i. but increased at 24 h p.i. depending upon the viral strain. Virus-induced apoptosis and cytopathy in primary cortical neurons were not apparent at 24 h p.i. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I interferons were upregulated at 6 h and 24 h p.i. These results indicate that the influenza virus induces inflammatory response in mouse primary cortical neurons with limited viral replication. The cytokines released in viral infection-induced neuroinflammation might play critical roles in influenza encephalopathy, rather than in viral replication-induced cytopathy.

  6. Comparative analysis of radiation- and virus-induced leukemias in BALB/c mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newcomb, E.W.; Binari, R.; Fleissner, E.

    1985-01-15

    Endogenous murine leukemia virus (MuLV) proviral copies were analyzed in thymomas induced in normal BALB/c (Fv-1b) and in Fv-1n congenic mice by X-irradiation. Both strains of mice developed leukemia with similar kinetics, indicating that N-tropism of endogenous MuLV was not a rate-limiting factor in development of disease. Southern blot analysis, using a probe specific for ecotropic virus and for ecotropic-specific sequences retained in pathogenic, env-recombinant viruses, showed that the majority of radiation leukemias lacked newly acquired, clonally integrated, proviruses. This was in contrast to virus-induced leukemias, which routinely exhibited several new proviral integration sites. When an internal proviral DNA restriction fragment was monitored, some radiation leukemias showed evidence of nonclonal infection, accounting for more frequent isolation of infectious virus from such leukemias. Differences in expression of T-cell surface antigens were found in X-ray-induced and virus-induced leukemias. All radiation leukemias were TL positive, whereas virus-induced leukemias were primarily negative for TL. Some differences were also found in Lyt-1 and Lyt-2 expression. The data as a whole suggest that, in the majority of cases, radiation leukemogenesis is not initiated by a viral route--that is, the sort of viral mechanism for which exogenous infection by known pathogenic MuLV is the paradigm.

  7. Replication of many human viruses is refractory to inhibition by endogenous cellular microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogerd, Hal P; Skalsky, Rebecca L; Kennedy, Edward M; Furuse, Yuki; Whisnant, Adam W; Flores, Omar; Schultz, Kimberly L W; Putnam, Nicole; Barrows, Nicholas J; Sherry, Barbara; Scholle, Frank; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A; Griffin, Diane E; Cullen, Bryan R

    2014-07-01

    The issue of whether viruses are subject to restriction by endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) and/or by virus-induced small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in infected human somatic cells has been controversial. Here, we address this question in two ways. First, using deep sequencing, we demonstrate that infection of human cells by the RNA virus dengue virus (DENV) or West Nile virus (WNV) does not result in the production of any virus-derived siRNAs or viral miRNAs. Second, to more globally assess the potential of small regulatory RNAs to inhibit virus replication, we used gene editing to derive human cell lines that lack a functional Dicer enzyme and that therefore are unable to produce miRNAs or siRNAs. Infection of these cells with a wide range of viruses, including DENV, WNV, yellow fever virus, Sindbis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, measles virus, influenza A virus, reovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, or herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), failed to reveal any enhancement in the replication of any of these viruses, although HSV-1, which encodes at least eight Dicer-dependent viral miRNAs, did replicate somewhat more slowly in the absence of Dicer. We conclude that most, and perhaps all, human viruses have evolved to be resistant to inhibition by endogenous human miRNAs during productive replication and that dependence on a cellular miRNA, as seen with hepatitis C virus, is rare. How viruses have evolved to avoid inhibition by endogenous cellular miRNAs, which are generally highly conserved during metazoan evolution, remains to be determined. Importance: Eukaryotic cells express a wide range of small regulatory RNAs, including miRNAs, that have the potential to inhibit the expression of mRNAs that show sequence complementarity. Indeed, previous work has suggested that endogenous miRNAs have the potential to inhibit viral gene expression and replication. Here, we demonstrate that the replication of a wide range of

  8. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  9. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and...

  10. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  11. Water resources: Future Nile river flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Declan

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is projected to increase annual Nile river flow; importantly, year-to-year variability is also expected to increase markedly. More variable flows could present a challenge for consistent water resource provision in this region.

  12. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and...

  13. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  14. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  15. Tracking Nile Delta Vulnerability to Holocene Change

    OpenAIRE

    Marriner, Nick; Flaux, Cl?ment; Morhange, Christophe; Stanley, Jean-Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with i...

  16. West Nile virus: North American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  17. Bioinformatics analysis of the factors controlling type I IFN gene expression in autoimmune disease and virus-induced immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di eFeng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and Sjögren's syndrome (SS display increased levels of type I IFN-induced genes. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs are natural interferon producing cells and considered to be a primary source of IFN-α in these two diseases. Differential expression patterns of type I IFN inducible transcripts can be found in different immune cell subsets and in patients with both active and inactive autoimmune disease. A type I IFN gene signature generally consists of three groups of IFN-induced genes - those regulated in response to virus-induced type I IFN, those regulated by the IFN-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK pathway, and those by the IFN-induced phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3K pathway. These three groups of type I IFN-regulated genes control important cellular processes such as apoptosis, survival, adhesion, and chemotaxis, that when dysregulated, contribute to autoimmunity. With the recent generation of large datasets in the public domain from next-generation sequencing and DNA microarray experiments, one can perform detailed analyses of cell type-specific gene signatures as well as identify distinct transcription factors that differentially regulate these gene signatures. We have performed bioinformatics analysis of data in the public domain and experimental data from our lab to gain insight into the regulation of type I IFN gene expression. We have found that the genetic landscape of the IFNA and IFNB genes are occupied by transcription factors, such as insulators CTCF and cohesin, that negatively regulate transcription, as well as IRF5 and IRF7, that positively and distinctly regulate IFNA subtypes. A detailed understanding of the factors controlling type I IFN gene transcription will significantly aid in the identification and development of new therapeutic strategies targeting the IFN pathway in autoimmune disease.

  18. Review of Tour of the Nile [iPad App

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Strudwick

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A review of the iPad app, Tour of the Nile. The app promises 'a virtual journey along the Nile Valley' plus the chance to 'handle' objects through the technology of augmented reality.

  19. Conserved peptides within the E2 region of Hepatitis C virus induce humoral and cellular responses in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Shenawy Reem

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The reason(s why human antibodies raised against hepatitis C virus (HCV E2 epitopes do not offer protection against multiple viral infections may be related to either genetic variations among viral strains particularly within the hypervariable region-1 (HVR-1, low titers of anti E2 antibodies or interference of non neutralizing antibodies with the function of neutralizing antibodies. This study was designed to assess the immunogenic properties of genetically conserved peptides derived from the C-terminal region of HVR-1 as potential therapeutic and/or prophylactic vaccines against HCV infection. Goats immunized with E2-conserved synthetic peptides termed p36 (a.a 430–446, p37(a.a 517–531 and p38 (a.a 412–419 generated high titers of anti-p36, anti-p37 and anti-P38 antibody responses of which only anti- p37 and anti- p38 were neutralizing to HCV particles in sera from patients infected predominantly with genotype 4a. On the other hand anti-p36 exhibited weak viral neutralization capacity on the same samples. Animals super-immunized with single epitopes generated 2 to 4.5 fold higher titers than similar antibodies produced in chronic HCV patients. Also the studied peptides elicited approximately 3 fold increase in cell proliferation of specific antibody-secreting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from immunized goats. These results indicate that, besides E1 derived peptide p35 (a.a 315–323 described previously by this laboratory, E2 conserved peptides p37 and p38 represent essential components of a candidate peptide vaccine against HCV infection.

  20. Immunogenetic analysis of cellular interactions governing the recruitment of T lymphocytes and monocytes in lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-induced immunopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, P.C.; Ceredig, R.; Allan, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Lyt2+ class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted virus-immune T cells that induce murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) are targeted onto radiation-resistant cells in the central nervous system of virus-infected mice. The use of appropriate bone marrow radiation chimeras as LCM virus-infected, (immunosuppressed recipients for immune T-cell transfer has established that, though bone marrow-derived cells can stimulate virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in spleen, they do not reconstitute the barrier to T-cell recruitment from blood to cerebrospinal fluid. This is true for chimeras made up to 8 months previously, even though the inflammatory monocytes and macrophages in such chimeras are all of donor bone marrow origin. Radiation-resistant cells in the spleens of these chimeras are also still able to further stimulate virus-immune CTL. There is no requirement for H-2 compatibility between virus-immune T lymphocytes and secondarily recruited monocytes, or T cells of an inappropriate specificity. The key event in LCM immunopathology may thus be localization of T cells to the antigen-presenting endothelium in brain, leading to the secretion of mediators that promote the nonspecific recruitment of monocytes and other T cells

  1. Flesh quality differentiation of wild and cultured Nile tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in chemical composition and carcass traits among different wild and cultured Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus populations were analyzed to study and compare the differences among different wild (Manzalah lake, Nile river and Edku lake) and cultured Nile tilapia populations. Data of body composition of different ...

  2. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein M and the Membrane-Associated Protein UL11 Are Required for Virus-Induced Cell Fusion and Efficient Virus Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Joong; Chouljenko, Vladimir N.; Walker, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) facilitates virus entry into cells and cell-to-cell spread by mediating fusion of the viral envelope with cellular membranes and fusion of adjacent cellular membranes. Although virus strains isolated from herpetic lesions cause limited cell fusion in cell culture, clinical herpetic lesions typically contain large syncytia, underscoring the importance of cell-to-cell fusion in virus spread in infected tissues. Certain mutations in glycoprotein B (gB), gK, UL20, and other viral genes drastically enhance virus-induced cell fusion in vitro and in vivo. Recent work has suggested that gB is the sole fusogenic glycoprotein, regulated by interactions with the viral glycoproteins gD, gH/gL, and gK, membrane protein UL20, and cellular receptors. Recombinant viruses were constructed to abolish either gM or UL11 expression in the presence of strong syncytial mutations in either gB or gK. Virus-induced cell fusion caused by deletion of the carboxyl-terminal 28 amino acids of gB or the dominant syncytial mutation in gK (Ala to Val at amino acid 40) was drastically reduced in the absence of gM. Similarly, syncytial mutations in either gB or gK did not cause cell fusion in the absence of UL11. Neither the gM nor UL11 gene deletion substantially affected gB, gC, gD, gE, and gH glycoprotein synthesis and expression on infected cell surfaces. Two-way immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that the membrane protein UL20, which is found as a protein complex with gK, interacted with gM while gM did not interact with other viral glycoproteins. Viruses produced in the absence of gM or UL11 entered into cells more slowly than their parental wild-type virus strain. Collectively, these results indicate that gM and UL11 are required for efficient membrane fusion events during virus entry and virus spread. PMID:23678175

  3. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Chen, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Nan; Cao, Ming-Ya; Dong, Fei-Fan; Jiang, Ya-Ming; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Although current antiviral strategies can inhibit baculovirus infection and decrease viral DNA replication to a certain extent, novel tools are required for specific and accurate elimination of baculovirus genomes from infected insects. Using the newly developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) technology, we disrupted a viral genome in infected insect cells in vitro as a defense against viral infection. We optimized the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit foreign and viral genome in insect cells. Using Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) as a model, we found that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was capable of cleaving the replication key factor ie-1 in BmNPV thus effectively inhibiting virus proliferation. Furthermore, we constructed a virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 editing system, which minimized the probability of off-target effects and was rapidly activated after viral infection. This is the first report describing the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect antiviral research. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells provides insights to produce virus-resistant transgenic strains for future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Salicylate prevents virus-induced type 1 diabetes in the BBDR rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoxing Yang

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that virus infection plays an important role in human type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. We used the virus-inducible BioBreeding Diabetes Resistant (BBDR rat to investigate the ability of sodium salicylate, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, to modulate development of type 1 diabetes. BBDR rats treated with Kilham rat virus (KRV and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (pIC, a TLR3 agonist develop diabetes at nearly 100% incidence by ~2 weeks. We found distinct temporal profiles of the proinflammatory serum cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-12, and haptoglobin (an acute phase protein in KRV+pIC treated rats. Significant elevations of IL-1β and IL-12, coupled with sustained elevations of haptoglobin, were specific to KRV+pIC and not found in rats co-treated with pIC and H1, a non-diabetogenic virus. Salicylate administered concurrently with KRV+pIC inhibited the elevations in IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and haptoglobin almost completely, and reduced IL-12 levels significantly. Salicylate prevented diabetes in a dose-dependent manner, and diabetes-free animals had no evidence of insulitis. Our data support an important role for innate immunity in virus-induced type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. The ability of salicylate to prevent diabetes in this robust animal model demonstrates its potential use to prevent or attenuate human autoimmune diabetes.

  5. Cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Codd, E F

    1968-01-01

    Cellular Automata presents the fundamental principles of homogeneous cellular systems. This book discusses the possibility of biochemical computers with self-reproducing capability.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of some theorems dealing with conditions under which universal computation and construction can be exhibited in cellular spaces. This text then presents a design for a machine embedded in a cellular space or a machine that can compute all computable functions and construct a replica of itself in any accessible and sufficiently large region of t

  6. Liquefaction potential of Nile delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergany, Elsayed; Omar, Khaled

    2017-06-01

    Understanding how sedimentary basins respond to seismic-wave energy generated by earthquake events is a significant concern for seismic-hazard estimation and risk analysis. The main goal of this study is assessing the vulnerability index, Kg, as an indicator for liquefaction potential sites in the Nile delta basin based on the microtremor measurements. Horizontal to Vertical spectral ratio analyses (HVSR) of ambient noise data, which was conducted in 2006 at 120 sites covering the Nile delta from south to north were reprocessed using Geopsy software. HVSR factors of amplification, A, and fundamental frequency, F, were calculated and Kg was estimated for each measurement. The Kg value varies widely from south toward north delta and the potential liquefaction places were estimated. The higher vulnerability indices are associated with sites located in southern part of the Nile delta and close to the branches of Nile River. The HVSR factors were correlated with geologic setting of the Nile delta and show good correlations with the sediment thickness and subsurface stratigraphic boundaries. However, we note that sites located in areas that have greatest percentage of sand also yielded relatively high Kg values with respect to sites in areas where clay is abundant. We concluded that any earthquake with ground acceleration more than 50 gal at hard rock can cause a perceived deformation of sandy sediments and liquefaction can take place in the weak zones of Kg ≥ 20. The worst potential liquefaction zones (Kg > 30) are frequently joined to the Damietta and Rosetta Nile River branches and south Delta where relatively coarser sand exists. The HVSR technique is a very sensitive tool for lithological stratigraphy variations in two dimensions and varying liquefaction susceptibility.

  7. Nox1 oxidase suppresses influenza a virus-induced lung inflammation and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Selemidis

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus infection is an ongoing clinical problem and thus, there is an urgent need to understand the mechanisms that regulate the lung inflammation in order to unravel novel generic pharmacological strategies. Evidence indicates that the Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase enzyme promotes influenza A virus-induced lung oxidative stress, inflammation and dysfunction via ROS generation. In addition, lung epithelial and endothelial cells express the Nox1 isoform of NADPH oxidase, placing this enzyme at key sites to regulate influenza A virus-induced lung inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Nox1 oxidase regulates the inflammatory response and the oxidative stress to influenza infection in vivo in mice. Male WT and Nox1-deficient (Nox1(-/y mice were infected with the moderately pathogenic HkX-31 (H3N2, 1×10(4 PFU influenza A virus for analysis of bodyweight, airways inflammation, oxidative stress, viral titre, lung histopathology, and cytokine/chemokine expression at 3 and 7 days post infection. HkX-31 virus infection of Nox1(-/y mice resulted in significantly greater: loss of bodyweight (Day 3; BALF neutrophilia, peri-bronchial, peri-vascular and alveolar inflammation; Nox2-dependent inflammatory cell ROS production and peri-bronchial, epithelial and endothelial oxidative stress. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2, IL-1β, IL-6, GM-CSF and TNF-α was higher in Nox1(-/y lungs compared to WT mice at Day 3, however, the expression of CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2, IFN-γ and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were lower in lungs of Nox1(-/y mice vs. WT mice at Day 7. Lung viral titre, and airways infiltration of active CD8(+ and CD4(+ T lymphocytes, and of Tregs were similar between WT and Nox1(-/y mice. In conclusion, Nox1 oxidase suppresses influenza A virus induced lung inflammation and oxidative stress in mice particularly at the early phases of the infection. Nox1 and Nox2 oxidases appear

  8. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Maize with a Foxtail mosaic virus Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yu; Whitham, Steven A

    2018-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful technology for rapidly and transiently knocking down the expression of plant genes to study their functions. A VIGS vector for maize derived from Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV), a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus, was recently developed. A cloning site created near the 3' end of the FoMV genome enables insertion of 200-400 nucleotide fragments of maize genes targeted for silencing. The recombinant FoMV clones are inoculated into leaves of maize seedlings by biolistic particle delivery, and silencing is typically observed within 2 weeks after inoculation. This chapter provides a protocol for constructing FoMV VIGS clones and inoculating them into maize seedlings.

  9. Virus-induced gene silencing in Medicago truncatula and Lathyrus odorata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Mette; Kjær, Gabriela Didina Constantin; Piednoir, Elodie

    2008-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has become an important reverse genetics tool for functional genomics. VIGS vectors based on Pea early browning virus (PEBV, genus Tobravirus) and Bean pod mottle virus (genus Comovirus) are available for the legume species Pisum sativum and Glycine max, respec...

  10. Virus-induced gene silencing of RPC5-like subunit of RNA polymerase III caused pleiotropic effects in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    In eukaryotic cells, RNA polymerase III is highly conserved, contains 17 subunits and transcribes housekeeping genes such as ribosomal 50S rRNA, tRNA and other small RNAs. Functional roles of the RPC5 are poorly characterized in the literature. In this work, we report that virus-induced gene silenci...

  11. Virus-induced gene silencing in diverse maize lines using the Brome Mosaic virus-based silencing vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a widely used tool for gene function studies in many plant species, though its use in monocots has been limited. Using a Brome mosaic virus (BMV) vector designed to silence the maize phytoene desaturase gene, a genetically diverse set of maize inbred lines was ...

  12. Circulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as an early and sensitive marker for virus-induced T cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Johansen, J; Marker, O

    1995-01-01

    The effect of systemic virus infection on the level of circulating ICAM-1 (cICAM-1) in serum, and the role of virus-activated T cells in this context, were studied using the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection as primary model system. A marked virus-induced elevation in cICAM-1...

  13. Transcriptome analyses and virus induced gene silencing identify genes in the Rpp4-mediated Asian soybean rust resistance pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rpp4 (Resistance to Phakopsora pachyrhizi 4) confers resistance to P. pachyrhizi, the causal agent of Asian soybean rust (ASR). By combining expression profiling and virus induced gene silencing (VIGS), we are developing a genetic framework for Rpp4-mediated resistance. We measured gene expression i...

  14. Tracking Nile Delta vulnerability to Holocene change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriner, Nick; Flaux, Clément; Morhange, Christophe; Stanley, Jean-Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the 'monsoon pacemaker', attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile's deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan 'depeopling', reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms) and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world's deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction.

  15. Tracking Nile Delta vulnerability to Holocene change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Marriner

    Full Text Available Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the 'monsoon pacemaker', attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile's deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan 'depeopling', reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world's deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction.

  16. Why We Need West Nile Virus Testing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-27

    Dr. Rodrigo Hasbun, a professor of infectious diseases at McGovern Medical School at UT Health, discusses the need for West Nile virus testing in Texas.  Created: 9/27/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/27/2016.

  17. Vaccines in Development against West Nile Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Tangy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine.

  18. Comparative symptomatology of West Nile fever

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 358, č. 9278 (2001), s. 254-255 ISSN 0140-6736 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : West Nile virus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 13.251, year: 2001 http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140673601054915/fulltext

  19. Production of Genetically Improved Organic Nile Tilapia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charo, H.; Komen, J.; Bovenhuis, H.; Rezk, M.A.; Ponzoni, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    Demand for organic products for human consumption has been on the increase due to the belief that organic products are safer and healthier to the consumer and the environment. In developing countries, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is usually grown in low-input organically fed ponds with

  20. Identification of a novel gene, Vin-1, in murine leukemia virus-induced T-cell leukemias by provirus insertional mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, P J; Kozak, C A; Jolicoeur, P

    1992-01-01

    The BL/VL3 radiation leukemia virus is a nondefective retrovirus which induces clonal or oligoclonal T-cell leukemia in mice. To study the role of provirus insertional mutagenesis in the development of these neoplasias, we searched for common provirus integration sites in BL/VL3 radiation leukemia virus-induced tumors. Using cellular sequences flanking a provirus cloned from one of these thymomas, we found that the viral genome was integrated into a common region, designated Vin-1, in a low percentage (5%) of these tumors. The proviruses found in this locus were integrated in the same orientation, close to a CpG-rich island, at proximity of a transcriptional unit encoding a 6-kb RNA. Vin-1 RNA was detected in several organs of the adult mouse. Vin-1 RNA levels were high in tumors having a provirus inserted within the Vin-1 region but were also high in some other tumors whose Vin-1 region was not found to be rearranged. Vin-1 was found to be well conserved among mammalian species and was mapped to mouse chromosome 6, between raf and K-ras-2. Vin-1 appears to be a novel gene which may be involved in tumor development. Images PMID:1738193

  1. Subsurface Miocene sequence stratigraphic framework in the Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Sherif; Ziko, Abdelmohsen; Eweda, Shehtta A.; Said, Ali E.

    2014-03-01

    The Miocene depositional history of the Nile Delta is dominated by fluvial-deltaic, marginal marine and marine shelf sedimentation. It exhibits radical lateral facies changes due to its tectonic setting. Different attributions in age assignments characterise the Miocene Nile Delta due to the lack of large vertical facies changes, which consists mainly of siliciclastic with different environments. This study uses integrating lithologic, biostratigraphic, gamma-ray log and benthic foraminiferal biofacies, at four boreholes (Tanta-1, Rommana-1X, El-Fayrouz and Rosetta-7) in the Nile Delta, Egypt. Planktonic foraminifera allow subdivision of the Miocene Nile Delta succession into 12 planktonic biozones and benthic species are used in paleobathymetic estimates.

  2. Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus through traditional and modern breeding methods: II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign DNA into fish gonads.

  3. Migratory birds and West Nile virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rappole, J. H.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 94, s1 (2003), s. 47-58 ISSN 1364-5072. [Conference of Society for Applied Microbiology (U.K.) "Pathogens in the Environment and Changing Ecosystems". Nottingham, 08.07.2002-11.07.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : West Nile virus * bird migration Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.743, year: 2003

  4. Hydroclimatology of the Nile: results from a regional climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the result of the regional coupled climatic and hydrologic model of the Nile Basin. For the first time the interaction between the climatic processes and the hydrological processes on the land surface have been fully coupled. The hydrological model is driven by the rainfall and the energy available for evaporation generated in the climate model, and the runoff generated in the catchment is again routed over the wetlands of the Nile to supply moisture for atmospheric feedback. The results obtained are quite satisfactory given the extremely low runoff coefficients in the catchment. The paper presents the validation results over the sub-basins: Blue Nile, White Nile, Atbara river, the Sudd swamps, and the Main Nile for the period 1995 to 2000. Observational datasets were used to evaluate the model results including radiation, precipitation, runoff and evaporation data. The evaporation data were derived from satellite images over a major part of the Upper Nile. Limitations in both the observational data and the model are discussed. It is concluded that the model provides a sound representation of the regional water cycle over the Nile. The sources of atmospheric moisture to the basin, and location of convergence/divergence fields could be accurately illustrated. The model is used to describe the regional water cycle in the Nile basin in terms of atmospheric fluxes, land surface fluxes and land surface-climate feedbacks. The monthly moisture recycling ratio (i.e. locally generated/total precipitation over the Nile varies between 8 and 14%, with an annual mean of 11%, which implies that 89% of the Nile water resources originates from outside the basin physical boundaries. The monthly precipitation efficiency varies between 12 and 53%, and the annual mean is 28%. The mean annual result of the Nile regional water cycle is compared to that of the Amazon and the Mississippi basins.

  5. Canine distemper virus-induced depletion of uninfected lymphocytes is associated with apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobesberger, Martina; Summerfield, Artur; Doherr, Marcus G; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Griot, Christian

    2005-03-10

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a negative stranded RNA morbillivirus, causes a multisystemic disease in dogs, which is associated with a severe immune suppression. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of early CDV infection on leukocyte depletion, lymphopenia and virus-induced cell death in dogs infected with a virulent CDV strain. From 10 infected dogs, peripheral blood leukocytes were harvested periodically, phenotyped and analyzed for CDV antigen content and apoptosis using Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide labeling. CDV infection induced a severe CD3+ T cell and CD21+ B cell depletion in all animals at 3 days post-infection (d.p.i.). For dogs with severe distemper, developing virus persistence in the lymphoid tissue and central nervous system, this lymphopenia lasted until the end of the experiment. Increased levels of lymphocyte apoptosis were found at 3 d.p.i., and monocyte apoptosis at 6 d.p.i. This was more prominent in the group of animals with severe distemper. At 3 d.p.i. no leukocyte infection was detectable indicating that the early lymphocyte depletion and apoptosis was not a direct consequence of virus infection. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CDV-induced lymphopenia is an early event and that the degree of lymphocyte depletion correlates with the severity of disease and virus persistence in the lymphoid tissue and central nervous system.

  6. A Foxtail mosaic virus Vector for Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Maize1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yu; Kernodle, Bliss M.; Hill, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Plant viruses have been widely used as vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). A limited number of viruses have been developed into viral vectors for the purposes of gene expression or VIGS in monocotyledonous plants, and among these, the tripartite viruses Brome mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus have been shown to induce VIGS in maize (Zea mays). We describe here a new DNA-based VIGS system derived from Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV), a monopartite virus that is able to establish systemic infection and silencing of endogenous maize genes homologous to gene fragments inserted into the FoMV genome. To demonstrate VIGS applications of this FoMV vector system, four genes, phytoene desaturase (functions in carotenoid biosynthesis), lesion mimic22 (encodes a key enzyme of the porphyrin pathway), iojap (functions in plastid development), and brown midrib3 (caffeic acid O-methyltransferase), were silenced and characterized in the sweet corn line Golden × Bantam. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the FoMV infectious clone establishes systemic infection in maize inbred lines, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and green foxtail (Setaria viridis), indicating the potential wide applications of this viral vector system for functional genomics studies in maize and other monocots. PMID:27208311

  7. A Foxtail mosaic virus Vector for Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yu; Zhang, Chunquan; Kernodle, Bliss M; Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A

    2016-06-01

    Plant viruses have been widely used as vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). A limited number of viruses have been developed into viral vectors for the purposes of gene expression or VIGS in monocotyledonous plants, and among these, the tripartite viruses Brome mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus have been shown to induce VIGS in maize (Zea mays). We describe here a new DNA-based VIGS system derived from Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV), a monopartite virus that is able to establish systemic infection and silencing of endogenous maize genes homologous to gene fragments inserted into the FoMV genome. To demonstrate VIGS applications of this FoMV vector system, four genes, phytoene desaturase (functions in carotenoid biosynthesis), lesion mimic22 (encodes a key enzyme of the porphyrin pathway), iojap (functions in plastid development), and brown midrib3 (caffeic acid O-methyltransferase), were silenced and characterized in the sweet corn line Golden × Bantam. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the FoMV infectious clone establishes systemic infection in maize inbred lines, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and green foxtail (Setaria viridis), indicating the potential wide applications of this viral vector system for functional genomics studies in maize and other monocots. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Outer nuclear membrane fusion of adjacent nuclei in varicella-zoster virus-induced syncytia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Lianwei; Huang, Xiumin; Fu, Wenkun; Pan, Dequan; Cai, Linli; Ye, Jianghui; Liu, Jian; Xia, Ningshao; Cheng, Tong; Zhu, Hua

    2017-12-01

    Syncytia formation has been considered important for cell-to-cell spread and pathogenesis of many viruses. As a syncytium forms, individual nuclei often congregate together, allowing close contact of nuclear membranes and possibly fusion to occur. However, there is currently no reported evidence of nuclear membrane fusion between adjacent nuclei in wild-type virus-induced syncytia. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is one typical syncytia-inducing virus that causes chickenpox and shingles in humans. Here, we report, for the first time, an interesting observation of apparent fusion of the outer nuclear membranes from juxtaposed nuclei that comprise VZV syncytia both in ARPE-19 human epithelial cells in vitro and in human skin xenografts in the SCID-hu mouse model in vivo. This work reveals a novel aspect of VZV-related cytopathic effect in the context of multinucleated syncytia. Additionally, the information provided by this study could be helpful for future studies on interactions of viruses with host cell nuclei. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Graft-accelerated virus-induced gene silencing facilitates functional genomics in rose flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huijun; Shi, Shaochuan; Ma, Nan; Cao, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Hao; Qiu, Xianqin; Wang, Qigang; Jian, Hongying; Zhou, Ningning; Zhang, Zhao; Tang, Kaixue

    2018-01-01

    Rose has emerged as a model ornamental plant for studies of flower development, senescence, and morphology, as well as the metabolism of floral fragrances and colors. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has long been used in functional genomics studies of rose by vacuum infiltration of cuttings or seedlings with an Agrobacterium suspension carrying TRV-derived vectors. However, VIGS in rose flowers remains a challenge because of its low efficiency and long time to establish silencing. Here we present a novel and rapid VIGS method that can be used to analyze gene function in rose, called 'graft-accelerated VIGS', where axillary sprouts are cut from the rose plant and vacuum infiltrated with Agrobacterium. The inoculated scions are then grafted back onto the plants to flower and silencing phenotypes can be observed within 5 weeks, post-infiltration. Using this new method, we successfully silenced expression of the RhDFR1, RhAG, and RhNUDX1 in rose flowers, and affected their color, petal number, as well as fragrance, respectively. This grafting method will facilitate high-throughput functional analysis of genes in rose flowers. Importantly, it may also be applied to other woody species that are not currently amenable to VIGS by conventional leaf or plantlet/seedling infiltration methods. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Disruption of Rpp1-mediated soybean rust immunity by virus-induced gene silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bret; Campbell, Kimberly B; McMahon, Michael B; Luster, Douglas G

    2013-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, a fungus that causes rust disease on soybean, has potential to impart significant yield loss and disrupt food security and animal feed production. Rpp1 is a soybean gene that confers immunity to soybean rust, and it is important to understand how it regulates the soybean defense system and to use this knowledge to protect commercial crops. It was previously discovered that some soybean proteins resembling transcription factors accumulate in the nucleus of Rpp1 soybeans. To determine if they contribute to immunity, Bean pod mottle virus was used to attenuate or silence the expression of their genes. Rpp1 plants subjected to virus-induced gene silencing exhibited reduced amounts of RNA for 5 of the tested genes, and the plants developed rust-like symptoms after subsequent inoculation with fungal spores. Symptoms were associated with the accumulation of rust fungal RNA and protein. Silenced plants also had reduced amounts of RNA for the soybean Myb84 transcription factor and soybean isoflavone O-methyltransferase, both of which are important to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and lignin formation, crucial components of rust resistance. These results help resolve some of the genes that contribute to Rpp1-mediated immunity and improve upon the knowledge of the soybean defense system. It is possible that these genes could be manipulated to enhance rust resistance in otherwise susceptible soybean cultivars. PMID:24401541

  11. Virus-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in the guinea-pig is inhibited by levodropropizine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkerts, G; van der Linde, H J; Omini, C; Nijkamp, F P

    1993-08-01

    Intratracheal Parainfluenza type 3 (PI-3) virus inoculation of guinea pigs leads to a non-specific airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo and in vitro which coincides with a significant increase in the number of inflammatory cells in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (90% increase, 4 days after inoculation). The activity of the bronchoalveolar cells, as measured by the chemiluminescence production of infected animals is significantly diminished (34.2%, 4 days after inoculation) after renewed stimulation with PI-3 virus in vitro as compared to the chemiluminescence production by bronchoalveolar cells obtained from control guinea pigs. Pretreatment of the guinea-pigs with the antitussive agent levodropropizine, administered intra-peritoneally twice a day for five successive days at a dose of 10 mg/kg, prevents the virus-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo and in vitro, and inhibits the influx of broncho-alveolar cells. Levodropropizine at a dose of 1 mg/kg did not modulate these responses. Further, the decrease in chemiluminescence production of broncho-alveolar cells obtained from virus-infected animals after PI-3 virus stimulation in vitro was inhibited by levodropropizine (10 mg/kg). These data demonstrate the ability of levodropropizine to counteract the hyperresponsiveness phenomenon and the associated inflammatory event induced by PI-3 virus, an effect which may be due to its capacity to act on the peptidergic system or may be due to the anti-allergic/bronchoconstrictor property of this compound.

  12. Investigating Gene Function in Cereal Rust Fungi by Plant-Mediated Virus-Induced Gene Silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Vinay; Bakkeren, Guus

    2017-01-01

    Cereal rust fungi are destructive pathogens, threatening grain production worldwide. Targeted breeding for resistance utilizing host resistance genes has been effective. However, breakdown of resistance occurs frequently and continued efforts are needed to understand how these fungi overcome resistance and to expand the range of available resistance genes. Whole genome sequencing, transcriptomic and proteomic studies followed by genome-wide computational and comparative analyses have identified large repertoire of genes in rust fungi among which are candidates predicted to code for pathogenicity and virulence factors. Some of these genes represent defence triggering avirulence effectors. However, functions of most genes still needs to be assessed to understand the biology of these obligate biotrophic pathogens. Since genetic manipulations such as gene deletion and genetic transformation are not yet feasible in rust fungi, performing functional gene studies is challenging. Recently, Host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) has emerged as a useful tool to characterize gene function in rust fungi while infecting and growing in host plants. We utilized Barley stripe mosaic virus-mediated virus induced gene silencing (BSMV-VIGS) to induce HIGS of candidate rust fungal genes in the wheat host to determine their role in plant-fungal interactions. Here, we describe the methods for using BSMV-VIGS in wheat for functional genomics study in cereal rust fungi.

  13. Method: low-cost delivery of the cotton leaf crumple virus-induced gene silencing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuttle John

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously developed a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS vector for cotton from the bipartite geminivirusCotton leaf crumple virus (CLCrV. The original CLCrV VIGS vector was designed for biolistic delivery by a gene gun. This prerequisite limited the use of the system to labs with access to biolistic equipment. Here we describe the adaptation of this system for delivery by Agrobacterium (Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We also describe the construction of two low-cost particle inflow guns. Results The biolistic CLCrV vector was transferred into two Agrobacterium binary plasmids. Agroinoculation of the binary plasmids into cotton resulted in silencing and GFP expression comparable to the biolistic vector. Two homemade low-cost gene guns were used to successfully inoculate cotton (G. hirsutum and N. benthamiana with either the CLCrV VIGS vector or the Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV VIGS vector respectively. Conclusions These innovations extend the versatility of CLCrV-based VIGS for analyzing gene function in cotton. The two low-cost gene guns make VIGS experiments affordable for both research and teaching labs by providing a working alternative to expensive commercial gene guns.

  14. Disruption of Rpp1-mediated soybean rust immunity by virus-induced gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bret; Campbell, Kimberly B; McMahon, Michael B; Luster, Douglas G

    2013-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, a fungus that causes rust disease on soybean, has potential to impart significant yield loss and disrupt food security and animal feed production. Rpp1 is a soybean gene that confers immunity to soybean rust, and it is important to understand how it regulates the soybean defense system and to use this knowledge to protect commercial crops. It was previously discovered that some soybean proteins resembling transcription factors accumulate in the nucleus of Rpp1 soybeans. To determine if they contribute to immunity, Bean pod mottle virus was used to attenuate or silence the expression of their genes. Rpp1 plants subjected to virus-induced gene silencing exhibited reduced amounts of RNA for 5 of the tested genes, and the plants developed rust-like symptoms after subsequent inoculation with fungal spores. Symptoms were associated with the accumulation of rust fungal RNA and protein. Silenced plants also had reduced amounts of RNA for the soybean Myb84 transcription factor and soybean isoflavone O-methyltransferase, both of which are important to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and lignin formation, crucial components of rust resistance. These results help resolve some of the genes that contribute to Rpp1-mediated immunity and improve upon the knowledge of the soybean defense system. It is possible that these genes could be manipulated to enhance rust resistance in otherwise susceptible soybean cultivars.

  15. Immunosuppression during viral oncogenesis. V. Resistance to virus-induced immunosuppressive factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, D S; Dombrowski, J

    1988-07-01

    Rabbits given malignant rabbit fibroma virus (MV) develop severe immunologic dysfunction during the course of infection. Splenic T lymphocytes from these rabbits elaborate a soluble non-specific immunosuppressive factor (virus-induced suppressor factor (VISF]. As malignant rabbit fibroma virus infection progresses, normal immunologic responsiveness returns. This recovery is multi-factorial and involves production by T lymphocytes of a soluble factor capable of antagonizing the activity of VISF. This soluble anti-suppressor factor (ASF) is not a generalized immunologic potentiator. Its sole apparent effect on immune function appears to be to antagonize the activity of VISF. The protective effects of ASF are evident only when suppressor factors and ASF are simultaneously present in culture. Pre-treatment of target cells with ASF-containing culture supernatants does not render them insensitive to the immunosuppressive effects of subsequent treatment with VISF. In addition, ASF appears to be directly responsible for antagonizing VISF activity. That is, ASF does not appear to initiate an anti-suppressive cascade by activating a population of cells that in turn generate secondary protective factors. ASF-producing cells do not bind Vicia villosa lectin, as do contra-suppressor cells described by others. In almost all of these features, the system we describe herein differs from systems in which other investigators have described factors that antagonize the effects of suppressor factors.

  16. Inflammatory cytokine-mediated evasion of virus-induced tumors from NK cell control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rabinarayan; Polic, Bojan; Welsh, Raymond M; Szomolanyi-Tsuda, Eva

    2013-07-15

    Infections with DNA tumor viruses, including members of the polyomavirus family, often result in tumor formation in immune-deficient hosts. The complex control involved in antiviral and antitumor immune responses during these infections can be studied in murine polyomavirus (PyV)-infected mice as a model. We found that NK cells efficiently kill cells derived from PyV-induced salivary gland tumors in vitro in an NKG2D (effector cell)-RAE-1 (target cell)-dependent manner; but in T cell-deficient mice, NK cells only delay but do not prevent the development of PyV-induced tumors. In this article, we show that the PyV-induced tumors have infiltrating functional NK cells. The freshly removed tumors, however, lack surface RAE-1 expression, and the tumor tissues produce soluble factors that downregulate RAE-1. These factors include the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-33, and TNF. Each of these cytokines downregulates RAE-1 expression and susceptibility to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. CD11b(+)F4/80(+) macrophages infiltrating the PyV-induced tumors produce high amounts of IL-1β and TNF. Thus, our data suggest a new mechanism whereby inflammatory cytokines generated in the tumor environment lead to evasion of NK cell-mediated control of virus-induced tumors.

  17. A novel virus-inducible enhancer of the interferon-β gene with tightly linked promoter and enhancer activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, A Raja; Kim, Yoon Jung; Kim, Tae Hoon

    2014-11-10

    Long-range enhancers of transcription are a key component of the genomic regulatory architecture. Recent studies have identified bi-directionally transcribed RNAs emanating from these enhancers known as eRNAs. However, it remains unclear how tightly coupled eRNA production is with enhancer activity. Through our systematic search for long-range elements that interact with the interferon-β gene, a model system for studying inducible transcription, we have identified a novel enhancer, which we have named L2 that regulates the expression of interferon-β. We have demonstrated its virus-inducible enhancer activity by analyzing epigenomic profiles, transcription factor association, nascent RNA production and activity in reporter assays. This enhancer exhibits intimately linked virus-inducible enhancer and bidirectional promoter activity that is largely dependent on a conserved Interferon Stimulated Response Element and robustly generates virus inducible eRNAs. Notably, its enhancer and promoter activities are fully retained in reporter assays even upon a complete elimination of its associated eRNA sequences. Finally, we show that L2 regulates IFNB1 expression by siRNA knockdown of eRNAs, and the deletion of L2 in a BAC transfection assay. Thus, L2 is a novel enhancer that regulates IFNB1 and whose eRNAs exert significant activity in vivo that is distinct from those activities recapitulated in the luciferase reporter assays. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. TRANES analysis of the fluorescence of nile red in organized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    TRANES; TRES; fluorescence; nile red; solvent relaxation; organized molecular assemblies; solvation ... A polarity- and viscosity-sensitive dye such as nile red is used to probe the environmental properties around the site of .... Both the species are simultaneously excited giving rise to two emissive species A* and B*. A and ...

  19. West Nile virus in overwintering mosquitoes, central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, I.; Betášová, L.; Blažejová, H.; Venclíková, Kristýna; Straková, P.; Šebesta, O.; Mendel, J.; Bakonyi, T.; Schaffner, F.; Nowotny, N.; Hubálek, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 2 October (2017), s. 1-4, č. článku 452. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : West Nile fever * West Nile virus * Flavivirus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  20. Nutritional composition and shelflife of the lake victoria nile perch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nile perch, the most important commercial fish species from the Lake Victoria fishery, contributes about 67% of Kenya's total annual fish export earnings. Despite the Nile perch being an important foreign exchange earner, little information is available on its nutritional composition and shelf life on ice, information that is ...

  1. nonlinear kinetics and mechanism of nile blue reaction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. S.B. Jonnalagadda

    A 11-step mechanism, consistent with the overall reaction dynamics and supported by simulations, is ... been designed based on the chemistry of BZ reactions, the role of bromide ion under various concentration ... dynamics of nile blue - acidic bromate reaction arises from the extremely slow depletion rate of nile blue in the ...

  2. TRANES analysis of the fluorescence of nile red in organized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 113; Issue 2. TRANES analysis of the fluorescence of nile red in ... in the ground and/or excited state). TRANES analysis shows that the fluorescence emission of nile red in TX micelle and egg-PC membrane is due to two emissive species solubilized in different sites.

  3. Intestine histology, nutrient digestibility and body composition of Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestine histology, nutrient digestibility and body composition of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) fed on diets with both cotton and sunflower seed cakes. ... The formulations with 10%CSC25%SFSC and 20%CSC15%SFSC could be used for making Nile tilapia diets. Keywords: Plant protein, intestine histology, ...

  4. Seasonal abundance and molecular identification of West Nile virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion of the Ace2 gene by PCR confirmed morphormetric identification of the mosquitoes. Results: A total of 751 mosquitoes were ... WestNile virus, (WNV), Yellow fever virus. (YFV), Dengue virus (DNV) and Rift valley fever virus ..... West Nile virus in mosquitoes and febrile patients in a semi-arid zone in Nigeria. J Am Sci.

  5. c Intes compo on die stine h osition ets wit istolog of Nile th both gy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    species that it grows fas tolerates. 9). Plant prote diet of Nile author. E-mail: that this article ense. 0 September,. 394 ht of this article als.org/AJB h Paper istolog of Nile th both nstantine C .... Although Nile tilapia is adapted to feeding on plant ..... should analyze Nile tilapia diets formulated based on the amino and fatty acid ...

  6. Nile behaviour and Upper Palaeolithic humans in Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Pierre M.

    2014-05-01

    There is evidence of a decreasing human occupation of the Upper Egyptian Nile valley during the MIS 5 to MIS 3 period. Whereas very large extraction sites of the Middle Stone Age have been recorded, only very few sites of the Upper Palaeolithic have been found. The best explanation of this fact is that during the Late Middle Stone Age and the Upper Palaeolithc there was nearly no need for raw materials because there was only a very restricted population present in Upper Egypt. From about 22 ka BP an important population increase is registered by the presence of numerous Late Palaeolithic sites. During the whole LGM there is abundant presence of humans along the Nile Valley in Upper Egypt. This population was mainly living from fishing. There seems to be an abrupt end of the Palaeolithic occupation after 12.8 ka BP. Until now, no sites were found in the Valley until some rare Epipaleolithic sites occur about 8.0 ka BP. It will be suggested that these population changes are influenced by the river Nile behaviour. The best interpretation of the observations in the Upper Egyptian Nile Valley is the hypothesis that at the same time that Nile flow was reduced because of the dryness in its source area, the impact of aeolian activity was increased over Northeast Africa. The increased aeolian activity by northern winds in the Fayum and Wadi Ryan during the LGM resulted in the accumulation of aeolian sand in the valley. That aeolian sand was transported along the western Nile valley cliffs until it was accumulated when the Nile Valley change it S-N direction, such as at Nag'Hammadi. At other places sand was invading the Nile valley, directly from the Western Desert, creating a damming of the Nile at several places such as Armant and Aswan. As Nile flow was quite reduced, the Nile was unable to erode all the incoming sand and the Nile water with its important clay content was dammed. At several places large lakes were created in the Nile Valley. Those lakes were an ideal

  7. Pollution Sources in the nile and their environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El- Bary, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past decades , the natural quality of water sources has been altered by the impact of various human activities and water uses. In Egypt, the Nile River which is considered as the main water source is still a recipient of most of the wastewater discharged by industrial effluents and several agriculture drains contains mixed wastes (sewage and industrial). These wastes includes a variety of pollutants which have considerable potential effect on both water ecosystem and human health. Monitoring of these pollutant is the first step for the improvement and protection of the Nile River .The Nile Research Institute designed a monitoring program includes collection and analysis of samples from 35 stations along the Nile River from Aswan to the Mediterranean Sea and from all points sources of pollution discharge their wastes into the Nile. The most important pollutant in these wastes are heavy metals, organic matters, inorganic compounds and micro organism causing disease

  8. West Nile virus ecology in a tropical ecosystem in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Betoulle, Maria E; Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A; Alvarez, Danilo; López, María R; Betoulle, Jean-Luc; Sosa, Silvia M; Müller, María L; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Lanciotti, Robert S; Johnson, Barbara W; Powers, Ann M; Cordón-Rosales, Celia

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus ecology has yet to be rigorously investigated in the Caribbean Basin. We identified a transmission focus in Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, and established systematic monitoring of avian abundance and infection, seroconversions in domestic poultry, and viral infections in mosquitoes. West Nile virus transmission was detected annually between May and October from 2005 to 2008. High temperature and low rainfall enhanced the probability of chicken seroconversions, which occurred in both urban and rural sites. West Nile virus was isolated from Culex quinquefasciatus and to a lesser extent, from Culex mollis/Culex inflictus, but not from the most abundant Culex mosquito, Culex nigripalpus. A calculation that combined avian abundance, seroprevalence, and vertebrate reservoir competence suggested that great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus) is the major amplifying host in this ecosystem. West Nile virus transmission reached moderate levels in sentinel chickens during 2007, but less than that observed during outbreaks of human disease attributed to West Nile virus in the United States.

  9. Evaluation of the efficacy of a recombinant subunit West Nile vaccine in Syrian golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siirin, Marina T; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Newman, Patrick; Weeks-Levy, Carolyn; Coller, Beth-Ann; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Lieberman, Michael M; Watts, Douglas M

    2008-12-01

    The efficacy of a recombinant subunit West Nile (WN) vaccine candidate was determined in a hamster model of encephalitis. Animals included young, aged, and immunocompromised animals in an effort to simulate key groups at risk of WN virus-induced disease. Groups of aged (12 month old), weanling, and adult hamsters rendered leukopenic after immunization were immunized subcutaneously with a WN virus recombinant envelope protein (WN-80E) with or without WN virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) mixed with adjuvant or adjuvant alone. A challenge dose of wild-type WN virus was administered to produce 40-100% mortality in the control hamsters. The recombinant antigen preparations containing WN-80E with or without WN NS1 gave similar results. Hamsters in both groups had a strong antibody response after immunization, and none of the aged or weanling animals became ill or developed detectable viremia after challenge with WN virus at 2 weeks after booster vaccination. However, mortality among the control animals (administered adjuvant without antigen) at 2 weeks after booster challenge was 40-60%. In hamsters rendered leukopenic after immunization, survival rates up to 80% were observed, and a low-level viremia was detected in the vaccinated and challenged hamsters. The survival rate was significantly (Psurvival after challenge. In contrast, all of the control animals that received adjuvant only developed a very high level of viremia, and the mortality rate was 100%. These findings indicate that the recombinant WN vaccines induced antibody in and afforded protection to young and aged hamsters and immunosuppressed hamsters.

  10. Dissection of tomato lycopene biosynthesis through virus-induced gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Elio; Falcone, Giulia; Frusciante, Sarah; Giliberto, Leonardo; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    Lycopene biosynthesis in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits has been proposed to proceed through a poly-cis pathway catalyzed by phytoene synthase (PSY), two desaturases (phytoene desaturase [PDS] and ζ-carotene desaturase [ZDS]), and two cis-trans isomerases (ζ-carotene isomerase [ZISO] and prolycopene isomerase [CrtISO]). The mechanism of action of these enzymes has been studied in Escherichia coli, but a systematic study of their in vivo function is lacking. We studied the function of nine candidate genes (PSY1, PSY2, PSY3, PDS, ZDS, ZISO, CrtISO, CrtISO-Like1, and CrtISO-Like2) using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) coupled to high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and mass spectrometry, which allowed the identification and quantitation of 45 different carotenoid isomers, including linear xanthophylls. The data confirm the confinement of the VIGS signal to the silenced fruits and the similarity of the phenotypes of PSY1- and CrtISO-silenced fruits with those of the yellow flesh and tangerine mutants. Light was able to restore lycopene biosynthesis in ZISO-silenced fruits. Isomeric composition of fruits silenced at different metabolic steps suggested the existence of three functional units, comprising PSY1, PDS/ZISO, and ZDS/CrtISO, and responsible for the synthesis of 15-cis-phytoene, 9,9'-di-cis-ζ-carotene, and all-trans-lycopene, respectively. Silencing of a desaturase (PDS or ZDS) resulted in the induction of the isomerase in the same functional unit (ZISO or CrtISO, respectively). All-trans-ζ-carotene was detectable in nonsilenced fruits, greatly increased in ZDS-silenced ones, and disappeared in CrtISO-Like1-/CrtISO-Like2-silenced ones, suggesting the existence of a metabolic side branch, comprising this compound and initiated by the latter enzymes.

  11. An efficient virus-induced gene silencing vector for maize functional genomics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Yang, Xinxin; Wang, Nian; Liu, Xuedong; Nelson, Richard S; Li, Weimin; Fan, Zaifeng; Zhou, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Maize is a major crop whose rich genetic diversity provides an advanced resource for genetic research. However, a tool for rapid transient gene function analysis in maize that may be utilized in most maize cultivars has been lacking, resulting in reliance on time-consuming stable transformation and mutation studies to obtain answers. We developed an efficient virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vector for maize based on a naturally maize-infecting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) strain, ZMBJ-CMV. An infectious clone of ZMBJ-CMV was constructed, and a vascular puncture inoculation method utilizing Agrobacterium was optimized to improve its utility for CMV infection of maize. ZMBJ-CMV was then modified to function as a VIGS vector. The ZMBJ-CMV vector induced mild to moderate symptoms in many maize lines, making it useful for gene function studies in critically important maize cultivars, such as the sequenced reference inbred line B73. Using this CMV VIGS system, expression of two endogenous genes, ZmPDS and ZmIspH, was found to be decreased by 75% and 78%, respectively, compared with non-silenced tissue. Inserts with lengths of 100-300 bp produced the most complete transcriptional and visual silencing phenotypes. Moreover, genes related to autophagy, ZmATG3 and ZmATG8a, were also silenced, and it was found that they function in leaf starch degradation. These results indicate that our ZMBJ-CMV VIGS vector provides a tool for rapid and efficient gene function studies in maize. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Polyoma virus-induced osteosarcomas in inbred strains of mice: host determinants of metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanivel Velupillai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mouse polyoma virus induces a broad array of solid tumors in mice of many inbred strains. In most strains tumors grow rapidly but fail to metastasize. An exception has been found in the Czech-II/Ei mouse in which bone tumors metastasize regularly to the lung. These tumors resemble human osteosarcoma in their propensity for pulmonary metastasis. Cell lines established from these metastatic tumors have been compared with ones from non-metastatic osteosarcomas arising in C3H/BiDa mice. Osteopontin, a chemokine implicated in migration and metastasis, is known to be transcriptionally induced by the viral middle T antigen. Czech-II/Ei and C3H/BiDa tumor cells expressed middle T and secreted osteopontin at comparable levels as the major chemoattractant. The tumor cell lines migrated equally well in response to recombinant osteopontin as the sole attractant. An important difference emerged in assays for invasion in which tumor cells from Czech-II/Ei mice were able to invade across an extracellular matrix barrier while those from C3H/BiDa mice were unable to invade. Invasive behavior was linked to elevated levels of the metalloproteinase MMP-2 and of the transcription factor NFAT. Inhibition of either MMP-2 or NFAT inhibited invasion by Czech-II/Ei osteosarcoma cells. The metastatic phenotype is dominant in F1 mice. Osteosarcoma cell lines from F1 mice expressed intermediate levels of MMP-2 and NFAT and were invasive. Osteosarcomas in Czech-II/Ei mice retain functional p53. This virus-host model of metastasis differs from engineered models targeting p53 or pRb and provides a system for investigating the genetic and molecular basis of bone tumor metastasis in the absence of p53 loss.

  13. Virus-induced gene silencing as a tool for comparative functional studies in Thalictrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica S Di Stilio

    Full Text Available Perennial woodland herbs in the genus Thalictrum exhibit high diversity of floral morphology, including four breeding and two pollination systems. Their phylogenetic position, in the early-diverging eudicots, makes them especially suitable for exploring the evolution of floral traits and the fate of gene paralogs that may have shaped the radiation of the eudicots. A current limitation in evolution of plant development studies is the lack of genetic tools for conducting functional assays in key taxa spanning the angiosperm phylogeny. We first show that virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS of a PHYTOENE DESATURASE ortholog (TdPDS can be achieved in Thalictrum dioicum with an efficiency of 42% and a survival rate of 97%, using tobacco rattle virus (TRV vectors. The photobleached leaf phenotype of silenced plants significantly correlates with the down-regulation of endogenous TdPDS (P<0.05, as compared to controls. Floral silencing of PDS was achieved in the faster flowering spring ephemeral T. thalictroides. In its close relative, T. clavatum, silencing of the floral MADS box gene AGAMOUS (AG resulted in strong homeotic conversions of floral organs. In conclusion, we set forth our optimized protocol for VIGS by vacuum-infiltration of Thalictrum seedlings or dormant tubers as a reference for the research community. The three species reported here span the range of floral morphologies and pollination syndromes present in Thalictrum. The evidence presented on floral silencing of orthologs of the marker gene PDS and the floral homeotic gene AG will enable a comparative approach to the study of the evolution of flower development in this group.

  14. The White Nile as a source for Nile sediments: Assessment using U-Pb geochronology of detrital rutile and monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be'eri-Shlevin, Yaron; Avigad, Dov; Gerdes, Axel

    2018-04-01

    Basement terranes exposed at the headwaters of the White Nile include Archean-Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Congo Craton, whose northern sectors were severely reworked during Neoproterozoic orogeny. New U-Pb analyses of detrital rutile and monazite from early Quaternary to Recent coastal quartz sands of Israel, at the northeast extension of the Nile sedimentary system, yield mostly late Neoproterozoic ages, with a dominant peak at ca. 600 Ma. While derivation from the reworked sectors of the Craton cannot be negated, the absence of pre-Neoproterozoic rutile and monazite indicates that the detrital contribution from the Congo cratonic nuclei into the main Nile was insignificant. The near absence of White Nile basement-derived heavy minerals from the Nile sands arriving at the Eastern Mediterranean may be explained by a number of factors such as relatively minor erosion of the Cratonic basement nuclei during the Quaternary, late connection of the White Nile to the main Nile system with a possibility that northern segments connected prior to more southerly ones, and a long-term effective sediment blockage mechanism at the mouth of White Nile. Likewise, our previous study demonstrated that Nile sands display a detrital zircon U-Pb-Hf pattern consistent with significant recycling of NE African Paleozoic sediments. It is thus plausible that any detrital contribution from White Nile basement rocks was thoroughly diluted by eroded Paleozoic sediments, or their recycled products, which were likely the greatest sand reservoir in the region. This study adds to previous studies showing the advantage of a multi mineral U-Pb geochronology strategy in constraining sediment provenance patterns.

  15. Wild snakes harbor West Nile virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Dahlin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV has a complex eco-epidemiology with birds acting as reservoirs and hosts for the virus. Less well understood is the role of reptiles, especially in wild populations. The goal of our study was to determine whether a wild population of snakes in Pennsylvania harbored WNV. Six species of snakes were orally sampled in the summer of 2013 and were tested for the presence of WNV viral RNA using RT-PCR. Two Eastern Garter Snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis tested positive for viral RNA (2/123, 1.62%. These results indicate a possible role for snakes in the complex transmission cycle of WNV.

  16. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A.; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohamed Megahed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  18. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  19. Enhanced emission of Nile Red on plasmonic platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synak, Anna; Bojarski, Piotr; Grobelna, Beata; Gryczyński, Ignacy; Fudala, Rafał; Mońka, Michal

    2018-04-01

    Strongly enhanced fluorescence of Nile Red deposited in the vicinity of silver nanoparticles and gold semitransparent mirror was observed. The properties of three different plasmonic platforms based on TiO2, TiO2-GLYMO (1:1) and SiO2 matrices were studied with spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Significant differences of Nile Red spectroscopic properties in both matrices were observed. In particular, the sensitivity of Nile Red fluorescence enhancement and its peak location to the polarity of local surrounding was found.

  20. Optimized cDNA libraries for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS using tobacco rattle virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page Jonathan E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS has emerged as a method for performing rapid loss-of-function experiments in plants. Despite its expanding use, the effect of host gene insert length and other properties on silencing efficiency have not been systematically tested. In this study, we probed the optimal properties of cDNA fragments of the phytoene desaturase (PDS gene for efficient VIGS in Nicotiana benthamiana using tobacco rattle virus (TRV. Results NbPDS inserts of between 192 bp and 1304 bp led to efficient silencing as determined by analysis of leaf chlorophyll a levels. The region of the NbPDS cDNA used for silencing had a small effect on silencing efficiency with 5' and 3' located inserts performing more poorly than those from the middle. Silencing efficiency was reduced by the inclusion of a 24 bp poly(A or poly(G homopolymeric region. We developed a method for constructing cDNA libraries for use as a source of VIGS-ready constructs. Library construction involved the synthesis of cDNA on a solid phase support, digestion with RsaI to yield short cDNA fragments lacking poly(A tails and suppression subtractive hybridization to enrich for differentially expressed transcripts. We constructed two cDNA libraries from methyl-jasmonate treated N. benthamiana roots and obtained 2948 ESTs. Thirty percent of the cDNA inserts were 401–500 bp in length and 99.5% lacked poly(A tails. To test the efficiency of constructs derived from the VIGS-cDNA libraries, we silenced the nicotine biosynthetic enzyme, putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT, with ten different VIGS-NbPMT constructs ranging from 122 bp to 517 bp. Leaf nicotine levels were reduced by more than 90% in all plants infected with the NbPMT constructs. Conclusion Based on the silencing of NbPDS and NbPMT, we suggest the following design guidelines for constructs in TRV vectors: (1 Insert lengths should be in the range of ~200 bp to ~1300 bp, (2 they should be positioned in

  1. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, André C; Chakravarthy, Suma; Martin, Gregory B

    2009-06-10

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a highly specific gene-silencing phenomenon triggered by dsRNA. This silencing mechanism uses two major classes of RNA regulators: microRNAs, which are produced from non-protein coding genes and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Plants use RNAi to control transposons and to exert tight control over developmental processes such as flower organ formation and leaf development. Plants also use RNAi to defend themselves against infection by viruses. Consequently, many viruses have evolved suppressors of gene silencing to allow their successful colonization of their host. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a method that takes advantage of the plant RNAi-mediated antiviral defense mechanism. In plants infected with unmodified viruses the mechanism is specifically targeted against the viral genome. However, with virus vectors carrying sequences derived from host genes, the process can be additionally targeted against the corresponding host mRNAs. VIGS has been adapted for high-throughput functional genomics in plants by using the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens to deliver, via its Ti plasmid, a recombinant virus carrying the entire or part of the gene sequence targeted for silencing. Systemic virus spread and the endogenous plant RNAi machinery take care of the rest. dsRNAs corresponding to the target gene are produced and then cleaved by the ribonuclease Dicer into siRNAs of 21 to 24 nucleotides in length. These siRNAs ultimately guide the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to degrade the target transcript. Different vectors have been employed in VIGS and one of the most frequently used is based on tobacco rattle virus (TRV). TRV is a bipartite virus and, as such, two different A. tumefaciens strains are used for VIGS. One carries pTRV1, which encodes the replication and movement viral functions while the other, pTRV2, harbors the coat protein and the sequence used for VIGS. Inoculation of Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato seedlings

  2. Highly efficient virus-induced gene silencing in apple and soybean by apple latent spherical virus vector and biolistic inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective tool for the analysis of the gene function in plants within a short time. However, in woody fruit tree like apple, some of Solanum crops, and soybean, it is generally difficult to inoculate virus vector by conventional inoculation methods. Here, we show efficient VIGS in apple and soybean by Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector and biolistic inoculation. The plants inoculated with ALSV vectors by particle bombardment showed uniform silenced phenotypes of target genes within 2-3 weeks post inoculation.

  3. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) as a reverse genetic tool to study development of symbiotic root nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Gabriela Didina Constantin; Grønlund, Mette; Stougaard, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can provide a shortcut to plants with altered expression of specific genes. Here, we report that VIGS of the Nodule inception gene (Nin) can alter the nodulation phenotype and Nin gene expression in Pisum sativum. PsNin was chosen as target because of the disti......NinB, nodulation was reduced by at least 45%. Down-regulation of PsNin transcripts in plants inoculated with vectors carrying PsNin cDNA fragments was confirmed and these plants displayed a relative increase in the root/shoot ratio, as expected if nitrogen fixation had been impaired....

  4. A high throughput Nile red method for quantitative measurement of neutral lipids in microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhang, Chengwu; Song, Lirong; Sommerfeld, Milton; Hu, Qiang

    2009-04-01

    Isolation of high neutral lipid-containing microalgae is key to the commercial success of microalgae-based biofuel production. The Nile red fluorescence method has been successfully applied to the determination of lipids in certain microalgae, but has been unsuccessful in many others, particularly those with thick, rigid cell walls that prevent the penetration of the fluorescence dye. The conventional "one sample at a time" method was also time-consuming. In this study, the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was introduced to microalgal samples as the stain carrier at an elevated temperature. The cellular neutral lipids were determined and quantified using a 96-well plate on a fluorescence spectrophotometer with an excitation wavelength of 530 nm and an emission wavelength of 575 nm. An optimized procedure yielded a high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.998) with the lipid standard triolein and repeated measurements of replicates. Application of the improved method to several green algal strains gave very reproducible results with relative standard errors of 8.5%, 3.9% and 8.6%, 4.5% for repeatability and reproducibility at two concentration levels (2.0 microg/mL and 20 microg/mL), respectively. Moreover, the detection and quantification limits of the improved Nile red staining method were 0.8 microg/mL and 2.0 microg/mL for the neutral lipid standard triolein, respectively. The modified method and a conventional gravimetric determination method provided similar results on replicate samples. The 96-well plate-based Nile red method can be used as a high throughput technique for rapid screening of a broader spectrum of naturally-occurring and genetically-modified algal strains and mutants for high neutral lipid/oil production.

  5. DNA barcode for genetic traceability of Nile Perch and Nile Tilapia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avossa, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    For this study, mitochondrial DNA was extracted from 55 fish samples (26 Nile Perch Samples and 29 Nile Tilapia Samples collected from 3 different Ugandan regions of Lake Victoria. In order to optimize the PCR method, we also extracted DNA from two other different fish samples: one from Italy and one from a Viennese market. The COI gene was amplified using universal primers (COI2, COI3, cocktails of 8 and 4 primers respectively). After the amplification step, the amplicons were analysed using gel electrophoresis , in order to establish that the set primers worked well in the samples. The positive results of an agarose gel electrophoresis analysis with the PCR amplicons (amplicons length ~700pb) are shown.

  6. Cellular dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humm, J.L.; Chin, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation dose is a useful predictive parameter for describing radiation toxicity in conventional radiotherapy. Traditionally, in vitro radiation biology dose-effect relations are expressed in the form of cell survival curves, a semilog plot of cell survival versus dose. However, the characteristic linear or linear quadratic survival curve shape, for high- and low-LET radiations respectively, is only strictly valid when the radiation dose is uniform across the entire target population. With an external beam of 60 Co gamma rays or x-rays, a uniform field may be readily achievable. When radionuclides are incorporated into a cell milieu, several new problems emerge which can result in a departure from uniformity in energy deposition throughout a cell population. This nonuniformity can have very important consequences for the shape of the survival curve. Cases in which perturbations of source uniformity may arise include: 1. Elemental sources may equilibrate in the cell medium with partition coefficients between the extracellular, cytosol, and nuclear compartments. The effect of preferential cell internalization or binding to cell membrane of some radionuclides can increase or decrease the slope of the survival curve. 2. Radionuclides bound to antibodies, hormones, metabolite precursors, etc., may result in a source localization pattern characteristic of the carrier agent, i.e., the sources may bind to cell surface receptors or antigens, be internalized, bind to secreted antigen concentrated around a fraction of the cell population, or become directly incorporated into the cell DNA. We propose to relate the distribution of energy deposition in cell nuclei to biological correlates of cellular inactivation. The probability of each cell's survival is weighted by its individual radiation burden, and the summation of these probabilities for the cell population can be used to predict the number or fraction of cell survivors

  7. New research centre supports adaptation efforts in Egypt's Nile Delta

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-06-20

    Jun 20, 2014 ... Dr Mohamed Abdrabo is the Executive Director of the Alexandria Research Centre for Adaptation to Climate Change, a new research centre that supports Egypt´s adaptation policies for the Nile Delta.

  8. Quantification of River Nile/Quaternary aquifer exchanges via ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jess/125/08/1697-1711 ... Abstract. This study approach seeks to characterize the hydraulic interactions between the Nile and the Quaternary aquifer via riverbank filtration (RBF) in Abu Tieg area, Assuit Governorate.

  9. NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000...

  10. West Nile virus in overwintering mosquitoes, central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; Venclíková, Kristýna; Straková, Petra; Šebesta, Oldřich; Mendel, Jan; Bakonyi, T.; Schaffner, F.; Nowotny, N.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 452 (2017), č. článku 452. ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-20054S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile fever * West Nile virus * Flavivirus * Hibernation * Overwintering * Culex pipiens * Anopheles maculipennis * Culiseta annulata * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  11. Nonlinear Kinetics and Mechanism of Nile Blue Reaction with Acidic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After an induction period, a swift reaction occurs. The overall reaction is NB+ + BrO3- react to P + CH3COOH + H+ + Br-, where P is the de-ethylated N-oxide derivative of nile blue. The rapid kinetics of the reaction of bromine direct with nile blue were also reported. A 11-step mechanism, consistent with the overall reaction ...

  12. Toxicity of Malathion to Nile Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus (Linn.) Fingerlings

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Cariño,; Emmanuel Capinpin

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity of a commercial grade malathion on Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings was determined. The 24, 48, 72, and 96-h LC50 of malathion on Nile tilapia fingerlings were 7.19, 5.43, 5.34, and 5.30 mg/l, respectively. Behavioral changes in fish included rapid opercular movement, hyperexcitability, darkening of the body, and contraction of trunk muscles. Moribund fish displayed labored opercular movement, severe contraction of the trunk muscles, erratic swimming, and total lo...

  13. Circulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as an early and sensitive marker for virus-induced T cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Johansen, J; Marker, O

    1995-01-01

    mice, clearly demonstrating that T cells were mandatory. Analysis of MHC class I and MHC class II-deficient mice revealed that either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells alone are sufficient, despite a markedly reduced inflammatory exudate in the former animals. These results indicate that virus-activated T cells......The effect of systemic virus infection on the level of circulating ICAM-1 (cICAM-1) in serum, and the role of virus-activated T cells in this context, were studied using the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection as primary model system. A marked virus-induced elevation in cICAM-1...... in serum was revealed, the presence of which coincided with the phase of virus-induced T cell activation. However, high levels of cICAM-1 in serum were observed well before maximal T cell activation could be demonstrated. No increase in cICAM-1 was observed in the serum of infected T cell-deficient nude...

  14. Climate change enhances interannual variability of the Nile river flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siam, Mohamed S.; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2017-04-01

    The human population living in the Nile basin countries is projected to double by 2050, approaching one billion. The increase in water demand associated with this burgeoning population will put significant stress on the available water resources. Potential changes in the flow of the Nile River as a result of climate change may further strain this critical situation. Here, we present empirical evidence from observations and consistent projections from climate model simulations suggesting that the standard deviation describing interannual variability of total Nile flow could increase by 50% (+/-35%) (multi-model ensemble mean +/- 1 standard deviation) in the twenty-first century compared to the twentieth century. We attribute the relatively large change in interannual variability of the Nile flow to projected increases in future occurrences of El Niño and La Niña events and to observed teleconnection between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Nile River flow. Adequacy of current water storage capacity and plans for additional storage capacity in the basin will need to be re-evaluated given the projected enhancement of interannual variability in the future flow of the Nile river.

  15. Determining the palaeodrainage of the Nile river from a provenance study of the Nile delta cone sediments: an on-going geochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Laura; Najman, Yani; Millar, Ian; Butterworth, Peter; Kneller, Ben; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    This study documents the palaeodrainage history of the Nile River, in particular the time of transition from a small locally sourced drainage network to the initiation of an extensive Nile catchment, by conducting a provenance study of the well-dated Nile cone sediments. The identification of specific source inputs into the Nile cone has important implications for the prediction of reservoir quality and connectivity in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Presently, the Nile river drains as far south as south of Lake Victoria, with the White Nile draining largely Cratonic basement rocks of Archean to Proterozoic ages and the Blue Nile draining Cenozoic continental flood basalts and Neoproterozoic basement in Ethiopia. However, the timing of catchment expansion to its current extent is highly debated. There are a number of proposed palaeodrainage reconstructions, two of which are: A) The Blue Nile did not connect with the main (lower) Nile until the Late Messinian, and the White Nile did not connect with the lower Nile until at 0.5 Ma (e.g. Issawi and McCauley, 1992). In this model, the pre-Messinian Nile cone sediments are derived exclusively from the northern part of the present drainage basin, from the Red Sea Hills. B) The Blue Nile and Atbara Rivers have been connected to the main (lower) Nile since the Oligocene, simultaneous with large scale regional uplift and volcanism in the Ethiopian Highlands; with the river following a similar course to present day (Burke and Wells 1989). The palaeo-Nile cone sediments have the capacity to provide a unique archive of the river's highly debated palaeodrainage history. Our first objective was to characterise petrographically, geochemically and isotopically each possible source area (Ethiopian Flood Basalts, African Craton and Red Sea Hills) using a multidisciplinary approach in order to identify the presence (if any) of sediment from these sources in the delta core samples. Heavy mineral, petrographic, U-Pb zircon and rutile analyses

  16. X RF measurement for sediment sample collected from the niles in Khartoum State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Aisha Abdelgader Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study to determine the concentration of element (K, Ca Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr) in sediment sample collected from thirty different sites from the three rivers in Khartoum state. X-ray fluorescence (X RF) was used to identify the element concentration. Validation of the equipment was done by measuring reference samples provided by IAEA. Iron was found to be the dominant element with concentration ranged between (13000 ppm) in the white nile to (101000 ppm) in the blue nile, Pb was found to be the lowest among the twelve elements measured with concentration ranged between (11.7 ppm) in the white nile to (28 ppm) in the river nile for all samples. In general there was no variation of the concentration of elements between the blue nile sediments and the river nile sediments and was found variation of concentration of elements between the white nile sediments and other two niles. (Author).

  17. Effects of resources and mortality on the growth and reproduction of Nile perch in Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downing, A.S.; Nes, van E.H.; Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Scheffer, M.; Mooij, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    1. A collapse of Nile perch stocks of Lake Victoria could affect up to 30 million people. Furthermore, changes in Nile perch population size-structure and stocks make the threat of collapse imminent. However, whether eutrophication or fishing will be the bane of Nile perch is still debated. 2. Here,

  18. [Observation of cells tolerant of tobacco mosaic virus in virus-induced local lesions in Datura stramonium L. leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunov, A V; Lega, S N; Nagorskaia, V P; Lapshina, L A

    2011-01-01

    Ultrastructural examination of tobacco mosaic virus-induced local lesions developing in leaves of Datura stramonium plants demonstrated that, in the central area of the lesions, the cell response to viral invasion was not uniform. Most cells exhibited an acute hypersensitive reaction and underwent rapid and complete necrosis. However, some cells, despite considerable virus accumulation and immediate contact with completely collapsed cells, maintained a certain degree of structural integrity. Analysis performed showed that the proportion of collapsed and uncollapsed cells in the lesion centre 3 to 5 days after infection did not change essentially. These data suggest that the absence of hypersensitive response in some cells in the lesion centre is not due to an early stage of infection but is likely caused by cell tolerance of the virus.

  19. Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 negatively regulates neuroinflammation and T cell activation following coronavirus-induced encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirotta, Emanuele; Duncker, Patrick; Oak, Jean; Klaus, Suzi; Tsukamoto, Michelle R; Gov, Lanny; Lane, Thomas E

    2013-01-15

    Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) associates with p28 and p35 to form the immunomodulatory cytokines IL-27 and IL-35, respectively. Infection of EBI3-/- mice with the neuroadapted JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) resulted in increased mortality that was not associated with impaired ability to control viral replication but enhanced T cell and macrophage infiltration into the CNS. IFN-γ secretion from virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells isolated from infected EBI3-/- mice was augmented while IL-10 expression muted in comparison to infected WT mice. These data demonstrate a regulatory role for EBI3-associated cytokines in controlling host responses following CNS viral infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Induction and maintenance of DNA methylation in plant promoter sequences by apple latent spherical virus-induced transcriptional gene silencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya eKon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV is an efficient virus-induced gene silencing vector in functional genomics analyses of a broad range of plant species. Here, an Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation (agroinoculation system was developed for the ALSV vector, and virus-induced transcriptional gene silencing (VITGS is described in plants infected with the ALSV vector. The cDNAs of ALSV RNA1 and RNA2 were inserted between the CaMV 35S promoter and the NOS-T sequences in a binary vector pCAMBIA1300 to produce pCALSR1 and pCALSR2-XSB or pCALSR2-XSB/MN. When these vector constructs were agroinoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana plants with a construct expressing a viral silencing suppressor, the infection efficiency of the vectors was 100%. A recombinant ALSV vector carrying part of the 35S promoter sequence induced transcriptional gene silencing of the green fluorescent protein gene in a line of N. benthamiana plants, resulting in the disappearance of green fluorescence of infected plants. Bisulfite sequencing showed that cytosine residues at CG and CHG sites of the 35S promoter sequence were highly methylated in the silenced generation 0 plants infected with the ALSV carrying the promoter sequence as well as in progeny. The ALSV-mediated VITGS state was inherited by progeny for multiple generations. In addition, induction of VITGS of an endogenous gene (chalcone synthase-A was demonstrated in petunia plants infected with an ALSV vector carrying the native promoter sequence. These results suggest that ALSV-based vectors can be applied to study DNA methylation in plant genomes, and provide a useful tool for plant breeding via epigenetic modification.

  1. Novel avian influenza A (H7N9 virus induces impaired interferon responses in human dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veera Arilahti

    Full Text Available In March 2013 a new avian influenza A(H7N9 virus emerged in China and infected humans with a case fatality rate of over 30%. Like the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, H7N9 virus is causing severe respiratory distress syndrome in most patients. Based on genetic analysis this avian influenza A virus shows to some extent adaptation to mammalian host. In the present study, we analyzed the activation of innate immune responses by this novel H7N9 influenza A virus and compared these responses to those induced by the avian H5N1 and seasonal H3N2 viruses in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs. We observed that in H7N9 virus-infected cells, interferon (IFN responses were weak although the virus replicated as well as the H5N1 and H3N2 viruses in moDCs. H7N9 virus-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines remained at a significantly lower level as compared to H5N1 virus-induced "cytokine storm" seen in human moDCs. However, the H7N9 virus was extremely sensitive to the antiviral effects of IFN-α and IFN-β in pretreated cells. Our data indicates that different highly pathogenic avian viruses may show considerable differences in their ability to induce host antiviral responses in human primary cell models such as moDCs. The unexpected appearance of the novel H7N9 virus clearly emphasizes the importance of the global influenza surveillance system. It is, however, equally important to systematically characterize in normal human cells the replication capacity of the new viruses and their ability to induce and respond to natural antiviral substances such as IFNs.

  2. Dengue virus induces mitochondrial elongation through impairment of Drp1-triggered mitochondrial fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Vincent; Lang, Diane; Valois, Sierra; Rothman, Alan L; Medin, Carey L

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that undergo continuous cycles of fission and fusion to maintain essential cellular functions. An imbalance between these two processes can result in many pathophysiological outcomes. Dengue virus (DENV) interacts with cellular organelles, including mitochondria, to successfully replicate in cells. This study used live-cell imaging and found an increase in mitochondrial length and respiration during DENV infection. The level of mitochondrial fission protein, Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), was decreased on mitochondria during DENV infection, as well as Drp1 phosphorylated on serine 616, which is important for mitochondrial fission. DENV proteins NS4b and NS3 were also associated with subcellular fractions of mitochondria. Induction of fission through uncoupling of mitochondria or overexpression of Drp1 wild-type and Drp1 with a phosphomimetic mutation (S616D) significantly reduced viral replication. These results demonstrate that DENV infection causes an imbalance in mitochondrial dynamics by inhibiting Drp1-triggered mitochondrial fission, which promotes viral replication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Function of Membrane Rafts in Viral Lifecycles and Host Cellular Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadanobu Takahashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane rafts are small (10–200 nm sterol- and sphingolipid-enriched domains that compartmentalize cellular processes. Membrane rafts play an important role in viral infection cycles and viral virulence. Viruses are divided into four main classes, enveloped DNA virus, enveloped RNA virus, nonenveloped DNA virus, and nonenveloped RNA virus. General virus infection cycle is also classified into two sections, the early stage (entry process and the late stage (assembly, budding, and release processes of virus particles. In the viral cycle, membrane rafts act as a scaffold of many cellular signal transductions, which are associated with symptoms caused by viral infections. In this paper, we describe the functions of membrane rafts in viral lifecycles and host cellular response according to each virus classification, each stage of the virus lifecycle, and each virus-induced signal transduction.

  4. Molecular and Cellular Analysis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Induced Apoptosis in Lymphoblastoid T-Cell-Line-Expressing Wild-Type and Mutated CD4 Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutouh, Laure; Estaquier, Jérôme; Richman, Douglas D.; Corbeil, Jacques

    1998-01-01

    We have previously shown that the presence of the CD4 cytoplasmic tail is critical for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced apoptosis (J. Corbeil, M. Tremblay, and D. D. Richman, J. Exp. Med. 183:39–48, 1996). We have pursued our investigation of the role of the CD4 transduction pathway in HIV-induced apoptosis. To do this, wild-type and mutant forms of the CD4 cytoplasmic tail were stably expressed in the lymphoblastoid T-cell line A2.01. Apoptosis was prevented when CD4 truncated at residue 402 was expressed; however, cells expressing mutated receptors that do not associate with p56lck (mutated at the dicysteine motif and truncated at residue 418) but which conserved proximal domains of the cytoplasmic tail underwent apoptosis like wild-type CD4. The differences between wild-type and mutated receptors in the induction of apoptosis were not related to levels of p56lck or NF-κB activation. Initial signaling through the CD4 receptor played a major role in the sensitization of HIV-infected T cells to undergo apoptosis. Incubation of HIV-infected cells with monoclonal antibody (MAb) 13B8-2, which binds to CD4 in a region critical for dimerization of the receptor, prevented apoptosis without inhibiting HIV replication. Moreover, the apoptotic process was not related to Fas-Fas ligand interaction; however, an antagonistic anti-Fas MAb (ZB-4) enhanced apoptosis in HIV-infected cells without inducing apoptosis in uninfected cells. These observations demonstrate that CD4 signaling mediates HIV-induced apoptosis by a mechanism independent of Fas-Fas ligand interaction, does not require p56lck signaling, and may involve a critical region for CD4 dimerization. PMID:9733846

  5. Epstein-Barr Virus Induces Global Changes in Cellular mRNA Isoform Usage That Are Important for the Maintenance of Latency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Nicholas J.; Salinas, Raul; Forte, Eleonora; Robinson, Timothy J.; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.

    2013-01-01

    Oncogenic viruses promote cell proliferation through the dramatic reorganization of host transcriptomes. In addition to regulating mRNA abundance, changes in mRNA isoform usage can have a profound impact on the protein output of the transcriptome. Using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformation of primary B cells, we have studied the ability of an oncogenic virus to alter the mRNA isoform profile of its host. Using the algorithm called SplicerEX with two complementary Affymetrix microarray platforms, we uncovered 433 mRNA isoform changes regulated by EBV during B-cell transformation. These changes were largely orthogonal with the 2,163 mRNA abundance changes observed during transformation, such that less than one-third of mRNAs changing at the level of isoform also changed in overall abundance. While we observed no preference for a mechanistic class of mRNA isoform change, we detected a significant shortening of 3′ untranslated regions and exclusion of cassette exons in EBV-transformed cells relative to uninfected B cells. Gene ontology analysis of the mRNA isoform changes revealed significant enrichment in nucleic acid binding proteins. We validated several of these isoform changes and were intrigued by those in two mRNAs encoding the proteins XBP1 and TCF4, which have both been shown to bind and activate the promoter of the major EBV lytic trans-activator BZLF1. Our studies indicate that EBV latent infection promotes the usage of mRNA isoforms of XBP1 and TCF4 that restrict BZLF1 activation. Therefore, characterization of global changes in mRNA isoform usage during EBV infection identifies a new mechanism for the maintenance of latent infection. PMID:24027308

  6. The radiosensitivity of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Michael Joseph T.; Velasco, Pia Victoria V.

    2000-04-01

    The nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a very popular fish commercially in the Philippines, was studied to determine its radiosensitivity and to see its potential as a biological indicator in aquatic ecosystems. Nile tilapia was seen to be radiosensitive. The fish were exposed to gamma-irradiation and chromosomal aberrations were induced. The various types of aberrations seen were chromatid gaps, chromosome gaps, chromatid fragments, dicentric rings, fusions, despiralizations and translocations. Among the aberrations observed, dicentric rings, fusions and chromosome gaps were strongly correlated with dosage, with only the dicentric rings increasing steadily with increasing dosage. In the course of the study, the lethal dosage 50 for nile tilapia with 18 days was determined and it was observed at 2.0 krad. The modal chromosome number was also established at 2n=44 with a karyotype exhibiting 22 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes with 2 pairs of marker chromosomes present. (Author)

  7. Cellular: Toward personal communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Stuart

    1991-09-01

    The cellular industry is one of the fastest growing segment of the telecommunications industry. With an estimated penetration rate of 20 percent in the near future, cellular is becoming an ubiquitous telecommunications service in the U.S. In this paper we will examine the major advancements in the cellular industry: customer equipment, cellular networks, engineering tools, customer support, and nationwide seamless service.

  8. Aquatic and fisheries survey of the upper Victoria Nile: a report prepared for AES Nile Power Bujagali hydropower project, final report

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The aquatic ecosystem of the Upper Victoria Nile is part of a wider complex of water bodies (lakes and rivers) in Uganda that is of immense socioeconomic importance, especially the fisheries. A source of food, income, energy, irrigation and drinking water, the protection, sustainable use and management of the Upper Victoria Nile water resources are vital to Uganda's economy. The Upper Victoria Nile,due to its abundance of socio-economic benefits,provides a significant contribution to Ugand...

  9. Predation Efficiency of Nile Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) on Fry Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758): Effect of Prey Density, Predator Size, Feed Supplementation and Submerged Vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    *(1), Mohsen Abdel-Tawwab

    2014-01-01

    The overpopulation of tilapia in confined ponds is an obvious problem, and causes stunted growth due to the shortage of natural food, particularly in semi-intensive culture. However, the control of tilapias population by predator culture has been practiced worldwide. The factors affecting predation efficiency of Nile catfish, Clarias gariepinus (B.) for controlling the overpopulation of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) were studied in four indoor experiments. Nile catfish with differe...

  10. An Integrated Hydrological and Water Management Study of the Entire Nile River System - Lake Victoria to Nile Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Alo, Clement; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Anderson, Martha; Policelli, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    The Nile basin River system spans 3 million km(exp 2) distributed over ten nations. The eight upstream riparian nations, Ethiopia, Eretria, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Congo, Tanzania and Kenya are the source of approximately 86% of the water inputs to the Nile, while the two downstream riparian countries Sudan and Egypt, presently rely on the river's flow for most of the their needs. Both climate and agriculture contribute to the complicated nature of Nile River management: precipitation in the headwaters regions of Ethiopia and Lake Victoria is variable on a seasonal and inter-annual basis, while demand for irrigation water in the arid downstream region is consistently high. The Nile is, perhaps, one of the most difficult trans-boundary water issue in the world, and this study would be the first initiative to combine NASA satellite observations with the hydrologic models study the overall water balance in a to comprehensive manner. The cornerstone application of NASA's Earth Science Research Results under this project are the NASA Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) and the USDA Atmosphere-land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model. These two complementary research results are methodologically independent methods for using NASA observations to support water resource analysis in data poor regions. Where an LDAS uses multiple sources of satellite data to inform prognostic simulations of hydrological process, ALEXI diagnoses evapotranspiration and water stress on the basis of thermal infrared satellite imagery. Specifically, this work integrates NASA Land Data Assimilation systems into the water management decision support systems that member countries of the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) and Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD, located in Nairobi, Kenya) use in water resource analysis, agricultural planning, and acute drought response to support sustainable development of Nile Basin water resources. The project is motivated by the recognition that

  11. Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Rab32 Aggregation and Its Implications for Virion Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tu M.; Tran, Si C.; Lim, Yun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly dependent on cellular factors for viral propagation. Using high-throughput next-generation sequencing, we analyzed the host transcriptomic changes and identified 30 candidate genes which were upregulated in cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. Of these candidates, we selected Rab32 for further investigation. Rab32 is a small GTPase that regulates a variety of intracellular membrane-trafficking events in various cell types. In this study, we demonstrated that both mRNA and protein levels of Rab32 were increased in HCV-infected cells. Furthermore, we showed that HCV infection converted the predominantly expressed GTP-bound Rab32 to GDP-bound Rab32, contributing to the aggregation of Rab32 and thus making it less sensitive to cellular degradation machinery. In addition, GDP-bound Rab32 selectively interacted with HCV core protein and deposited core protein into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated Rab32-derived aggregated structures in the perinuclear region, which were likely to be viral assembly sites. Using RNA interference technology, we demonstrated that Rab32 was required for the assembly step but not for other stages of the HCV life cycle. Taken together, these data suggest that HCV may modulate Rab32 activity to facilitate virion assembly. IMPORTANCE Rab32, a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases, regulates various intracellular membrane-trafficking events in many cell types. In this study, we showed that HCV infection concomitantly increased Rab32 expression at the transcriptional level and altered the balance between GDP- and GTP-bound Rab32 toward production of Rab32-GDP. GDP-bound Rab32 selectively interacted with HCV core protein and enriched core in the ER-associated Rab32-derived aggregated structures that were probably necessary for viral assembly. Indeed, we showed that Rab32 was specifically required for the assembly of HCV. Collectively, our study identifies that Rab32 is a novel

  12. Neuromuscular Manifestations of West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arturo eLeis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common neuromuscular manifestation of West Nile virus (WNV infection is a poliomyelitis syndrome with asymmetric paralysis variably involving one (monoparesis to four limbs (quadriparesis, with or without brainstem involvement and respiratory failure. This syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis may occur without overt fever or meningoencephalitis. Although involvement of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and motor neurons in the brainstem are the major sites of pathology responsible for neuromuscular signs, inflammation also may involve skeletal or cardiac muscle (myositis, myocarditis, motor axons (polyradiculitis, peripheral nerve (Guillain-Barré syndrome, brachial plexopathy. In addition, involvement of spinal sympathetic neurons and ganglia provides a plausible explanation for autonomic instability seen in some patients. Many patients also experience prolonged subjective generalized weakness and disabling fatigue. Despite recent evidence that WNV may persist long term in the central nervous system or periphery in animals, the evidence in humans is controversial. WNV persistence would be of great concern in immunosuppressed patients or in those with prolonged or recurrent symptoms. Support for the contention that WNV can lead to autoimmune disease arises from reports of patients presenting with various neuromuscular diseases that presumably involve autoimmune mechanisms (GBS, other demyelinating neu¬ropathies, myasthenia gravis, brachial plexopathies, stiff-person syndrome, and delayed or recurrent symptoms. Although there is no specific treatment or vaccine currently approved in humans, and the standard remains supportive care, drugs that can alter the cascade of immunobiochemical events leading to neuronal death may be potentially useful (high-dose corticosteroids, interferon preparations, and intravenous immune globulin containing WNV-specific antibodies. Human experience with these agents seems promising based on anecdotal

  13. Pathogenetic mechanisms of hepatitis C virus-induced B-cell lymphomagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghieri, Fabio; Luppi, Mario; Barozzi, Patrizia; Maffei, Rossana; Potenza, Leonardo; Narni, Franco; Marasca, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is probably the most common chronic viral infection and affects an estimated 180 million people worldwide, accounting for 3% of the global population. Although the liver is considered to be the primary target, extrahepatic manifestations are well recognized among patients with chronic HCV infection. Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated a correlation between chronic HCV infection and occurrence of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (B-NHL). The clinical evidence that antiviral therapy has a significant role in the treatment at least of some HCV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders, especially indolent B-NHL, further supports the existence of an etiopathogenetic link. However, the mechanisms exploited by HCV to induce B-cell lymphoproliferation have so far not completely clarified. It is conceivable that different biological mechanisms, namely, chronic antigen stimulation, high-affinity interaction between HCV-E2 protein and its cellular receptors, direct HCV infection of B-cells, and "hit and run" transforming events, may be combined themselves and cooperate in a multifactorial model of HCV-associated lymphomagenesis.

  14. Well-tolerated Spirulina extract inhibits influenza virus replication and reduces virus-induced mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hsiang; Chang, Gi-Kung; Kuo, Shu-Ming; Huang, Sheng-Yu; Hu, I-Chen; Lo, Yu-Lun; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is one of the most common human respiratory diseases, and represents a serious public health concern. However, the high mutability of influenza viruses has hampered vaccine development, and resistant strains to existing anti-viral drugs have also emerged. Novel anti-influenza therapies are urgently needed, and in this study, we describe the anti-viral properties of a Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) cold water extract. Anti-viral effects have previously been reported for extracts and specific substances derived from Spirulina, and here we show that this Spirulina cold water extract has low cellular toxicity, and is well-tolerated in animal models at one dose as high as 5,000 mg/kg, or 3,000 mg/kg/day for 14 successive days. Anti-flu efficacy studies revealed that the Spirulina extract inhibited viral plaque formation in a broad range of influenza viruses, including oseltamivir-resistant strains. Spirulina extract was found to act at an early stage of infection to reduce virus yields in cells and improve survival in influenza-infected mice, with inhibition of influenza hemagglutination identified as one of the mechanisms involved. Together, these results suggest that the cold water extract of Spirulina might serve as a safe and effective therapeutic agent to manage influenza outbreaks, and further clinical investigation may be warranted. PMID:27067133

  15. Well-tolerated Spirulina extract inhibits influenza virus replication and reduces virus-induced mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hsiang; Chang, Gi-Kung; Kuo, Shu-Ming; Huang, Sheng-Yu; Hu, I-Chen; Lo, Yu-Lun; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2016-04-12

    Influenza is one of the most common human respiratory diseases, and represents a serious public health concern. However, the high mutability of influenza viruses has hampered vaccine development, and resistant strains to existing anti-viral drugs have also emerged. Novel anti-influenza therapies are urgently needed, and in this study, we describe the anti-viral properties of a Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) cold water extract. Anti-viral effects have previously been reported for extracts and specific substances derived from Spirulina, and here we show that this Spirulina cold water extract has low cellular toxicity, and is well-tolerated in animal models at one dose as high as 5,000 mg/kg, or 3,000 mg/kg/day for 14 successive days. Anti-flu efficacy studies revealed that the Spirulina extract inhibited viral plaque formation in a broad range of influenza viruses, including oseltamivir-resistant strains. Spirulina extract was found to act at an early stage of infection to reduce virus yields in cells and improve survival in influenza-infected mice, with inhibition of influenza hemagglutination identified as one of the mechanisms involved. Together, these results suggest that the cold water extract of Spirulina might serve as a safe and effective therapeutic agent to manage influenza outbreaks, and further clinical investigation may be warranted.

  16. Some haematological and biochemical profile of blood of Nile tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematological and biochemical profile of blood of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed on diets containing watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seedmeal were evaluated using packed cell volume (PCV); haemoglobin content (Hb), white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), mean corpuscular haemoglobin ...

  17. Heritability of cold tolerance in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charo-Karisa, H.; Rezk, M.A.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

    2005-01-01

    The inability of tilapia to tolerate low temperatures is of major economic concern as it reduces their growing season and leads to over winter mortality. In this study, cold tolerance of juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, was investigated and heritability estimates obtained. A total of 80

  18. Optimum rabbit density over fish ponds to optimise Nile tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although previous studies have suggested that rabbit excreta can be used as high-quality manure for sustaining plankton production due to their gradual nutrient release, integrated rabbit–fish production systems are still not widely used. Between 2006 and 2010 optimal rabbit densities for sustainable integrated rabbit–Nile ...

  19. Activity of some Nile River aquatic macrophyte extracts against the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activity of some Nile River aquatic macrophyte extracts against the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. ... active substances of different concentrations, with P. tomentosum having the highest polyphenols, 1.95% of dry weight. Keywords: algal bloom control, allelopathy, phenolic compounds, toxic cyanobacteria ...

  20. Purpura fulminans associated with acute West Nile virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sheevam; Fite, Laura Paul; Lane, Natalie; Parekh, Palak

    2016-02-01

    Purpura fulminans is a progressive thrombotic disorder that presents with widespread purpura due to deficiency or dysfunction of protein C or protein S. Lesions present as well-demarcated erythematous macules that progress to irregular areas of hemorrhagic necrosis.West Nile virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family transmitted to humans through the bite of various mosquito species. It manifests as West Nile fever in 25% of those infected and less commonly as neuroinvasive disease. An African American man in his fortiespresented with altered mental status and was noted to have evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation according to his lab data. He then developed dusky skin discoloration and systemic flaccid bullae with desquamation. Biopsy was consistent with purpura fulminans and the patient eventually developed symmetric peripheral gangrene, requiring amputations of all four extremities. Infectious work up revealed positive testing for IgM and IgG antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid leading to the diagnosis of acute West Nile Virus encephalitis. We present this case to describe the rarely reported association of purpura fulminans with West Nile Virus infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Growth comparison of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Blue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... This study was conducted to compare and evaluate the productive performance characteristics of the base generation (F0) of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and Blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus under the effect of interspecific hybridization and genetically modified breeding by introducing a fragmented.

  2. Depression after Infection with West Nile Virus 1

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Kristy O.; Resnick, Melissa; Miller, Vicki

    2007-01-01

    Previous reports have noted depression after West Nile virus (WNV) infection. We further measured this outcome and found that 31% of patients reported new-onset depression and 75% of these had Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scores indicative of mild-to-severe depression. Physicians should be aware of neuropsychiatric consequences of WNV in patients.

  3. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., from individuals who have signs and symptoms consistent with viral meningitis/encephalitis. The detection aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of viral meningitis/encephalitis caused by West Nile virus. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special control is FDA's guidance entitled...

  4. Population morphological variation of the Nile perch (Lates niloticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    traditional fishing grounds, history as told by the local fisher folk, previous knowledge of Nile perch distribution, findings of tagging experiments, and the Lake topography. Trawls were done after the hydroacoustics experts on board detected signals indicating abundance of relatively big size fish on their computer screen. For.

  5. The Buzz-z-z on West Nile Virus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-12

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about West Nile Virus and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 1/12/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/12/2012.

  6. Population morphological variation of the Nile perch (Lates niloticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    morphological phylogenetic relationships of the Nile perch in the. East African waters. Based on the outcome of the mixture analysis in 'PAST', all data were subjected to K-means clustering to determine non-hierarchical clustering of all the samples into the number of groups (2) specified under the mixture analysis. For all ...

  7. Morphological variation of Nile tilapia populations from major water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we used a suite of morphological traits to identify strains of Nile tilapia among 425 individuals sampled from the four major water bodies, lakes – Albert, Edward-George, Kyoga and Victoria. Morphological variation was investigated using multivariate approaches including principal component analysis, ...

  8. Clinical sentinel surveillance of equine West Nile fever, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saegerman, C.; Alba-Casals, A.; García-Bocanegra, I.

    2016-01-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral zoonotic infection caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Flaviviridae family. According to a comparative study, the passive surveillance of horses by equine veterinarians appeared to be the most cost-effective system in the European context of WNF. Clinical...

  9. Blood biochemical of nile crocodile ( Crocodylus niloticus ) in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six (6) adult Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) were captured from crocodile pond. Blood was collected from post occipital sinus of the physically restrain crocodile and used for serum biochemical parameters. The results revealed the Total Serum Protein (TSP) concentration of 9.2g/L, albumin concentration which is a ...

  10. Chronic West Nile virus infection in kea (Nestor notabilis)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakonyi, T.; Gaydon, G. K.; Schwing, R.; Vogl, W.; Häbich, A.-C.; Thaller, D.; Weissenböck, H.; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Nowotny, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 183, February (2016), s. 135-139 ISSN 0378-1135 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT; European Commission(XE) 261391 - EUROWESTNILE Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile virus * Lineage 2 * Kea * Nestor notabilis * Psittaciformes * Persistent infection * Austria Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.628, year: 2016

  11. Breeding for improved production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to generate knowledge that supports the design of breeding programs for Nile tilapia targeting genetic improvement of body weight and fillet yield to serve the European market. To this end, both the genetic variation and the performance levels of different strains of

  12. Salmonella and Vibrio cholerae in Nile perch ( Lates niloticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nile perch (Lates niloticus) industry in East Africa has suffered severe economic losses in the last few years due to failure to comply with the microbiological standards of European Union (E.U). Fresh and frozen products have been suspected to be contaminated with Salmonella and Vibrio cholerae. This has led to a ...

  13. Feeding selectivity of wild and pond-cultured Nile tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of feeding selectivity of wild and pond-cultured Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus was conducted in 2008. Water and fish samples were collected in Shirati Bay, Lake Victoria, and from fish ponds in Tarime district using a La Motte water sampler and seine nets, respectively. Cyanophytes were abundant and ...

  14. Optimisation of selective breeding program for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trong, T.Q.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to optimise the selective breeding program for Nile tilapia in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. Two breeding schemes, the “classic” BLUP scheme following the GIFT method (with pair mating) and a rotational mating scheme with own performance selection and

  15. Histological Changes of Liver in Overfed Young Nile Tilapia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taddesse, F.; Huh, M.D.; Bai, S.C.; Vijverberg, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated histopathologically liver structural responses of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus towards overfeeding. Mixed population of O. niloticus with mean weight of 55±3.83 g was acclimated for one week. Then, the fish were separated into control and treatment groups. Glass aquariums with

  16. Growth comparison of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Blue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to compare and evaluate the productive performance characteristics of the base generation (F0) of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and Blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus under the effect of interspecific hybridization and genetically modified breeding by introducing a fragmented purified DNA ...

  17. Hematological and enzymatic responses of Nile tilapia Oreochromis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of the present study suggest that sublethal concentrations of zinc affect the hematological changes and impaired liver functions. These parameters can be useful in environmental biomonitoring of zinc contamination. Key words: Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, liver enzymes, hematological parameters, LCa50 of ...

  18. Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in Greece, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Theocharopoulos, George; Dougas, Georgios; Athanasiou, Maria; Detsis, Marios; Baka, Agoritsa; Lytras, Theodoros; Mellou, Kassiani; Bonovas, Stefanos; Panagiotopoulos, Takis

    2011-01-01

    During 2010, an outbreak of West Nile virus infection occurred in Greece. A total of 197 patients with neuroinvasive disease were reported, of whom 33 (17%) died. Advanced age and a history of heart disease were independently associated with death, emphasizing the need for prevention of this infection in persons with these risk factors. PMID:22000357

  19. Nutrient influx, Water quality and growth performance of Nile tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutrient influx, water quality and growth performance of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fed recycled food wastebased diets was studied in a closed recirculation system for 11 weeks, during which no water renewal was carried out in the system. Fish (mean weight 1.2 + 0.11 g) were fed with different levels of recycled ...

  20. Toxicity of Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) effluent on the Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of cassava tuber was conducted to determine some of the active ingredients and the toxicity of cassava effluent on the fingerlings of the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L). The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of hydrogen cyanide, oxalate and phytate. While hydrogen cyanide and oxalate ...

  1. Growth Performance, Yields and Economic Benefits of Nile Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fish culture integration in the growth, yields and economic benefits of fish and vegetables. Two 200 m2 earthen fishponds were stocked with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at 20,000 fish fingerlings per hectare. Pond A was fertilized with ...

  2. Carbohydrate Reserves And Metal Accumulation Of The Nile Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the carbohydrate reserves and metal accumulation of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus after exposure to sublethal concentrations of heavy metals such as copper, lead and zinc for a 12-week period, using static renewable toxicity tests. The concentrations of the metals accumulated in the tissue ...

  3. Reproductive biology of Bagrus docmak in the Victoria Nile, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspects of the reproductive biology of Bagrus docmak in the Victoria Nile were investigated between November 2005 and October 2006. Macroscopic and histological analysis of the gonads confirmed it as an asynchronous batch spawner which spawns throughout the year with bimodal spawning peaks coinciding with ...

  4. Warm-blooded isochore structure in Nile crocodile and turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S; Zelus, D; Mouchiroud, D

    1999-11-01

    The genomes of warm-blooded vertebrates are characterized by a strong heterogeneity in base composition, with GC-rich and GC-poor isochores. The GC content of sequences, especially in third codon positions, is highly correlated with that of the isochore they are embedded in. In amphibian and fish genomes, GC-rich isochores are nearly absent. Thus, it has been proposed that the GC increase in a part of mammalian and avian genomes represents an adaptation to homeothermy. To test this selective hypothesis, we sequenced marker protein genes in two cold-blooded vertebrates, the Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus (10 genes) and the red-eared slider Trachemys scripta elegans (6 genes). The analysis of base composition in third codon position of this original data set shows that the Nile crocodile and the turtle also exhibit GC-rich isochores, which rules out the homeothermy hypothesis. Instead, we propose that the GC increase results from a mutational bias that took place earlier than the adaptation to homeothermy in birds and before the turtle/crocodile divergence. Surprisingly, the isochore structure appears very similar between the red-eared slider and the Nile crocodile than between the chicken and the Nile crocodile. This point questions the phylogenetic position of turtles as a basal lineage of extant reptiles. We also observed a regular molecular clock in the Archosauria, which enables us, by using a more extended data set, to confirm Kumar and Hedges's dating of the bird-crocodile split.

  5. The Nile Basin Initiative and the Cooperative Framework Agreement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nearly two decades since its inception, the Transitional Mechanism of the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) has been credited for fulfilling several components of its institutional undertaking –building an atmosphere of trust and dialogue among riparian states. Yet, the negotiations pursued under the auspices of the NBI have failed ...

  6. Hepatitis C virus induces E6AP-dependent degradation of the retinoblastoma protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsubasa Munakata

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a positive-strand RNA virus that frequently causes persistent infections and is uniquely associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. While the mechanism(s by which the virus promotes cancer are poorly defined, previous studies indicate that the HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B, forms a complex with the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb, targeting it for degradation, activating E2F-responsive promoters, and stimulating cellular proliferation. Here, we describe the mechanism underlying pRb regulation by HCV and its relevance to HCV infection. We show that the abundance of pRb is strongly downregulated, and its normal nuclear localization altered to include a major cytoplasmic component, following infection of cultured hepatoma cells with either genotype 1a or 2a HCV. We further demonstrate that this is due to NS5B-dependent ubiquitination of pRb and its subsequent degradation via the proteasome. The NS5B-dependent ubiquitination of pRb requires the ubiquitin ligase activity of E6-associated protein (E6AP, as pRb abundance was restored by siRNA knockdown of E6AP or overexpression of a dominant-negative E6AP mutant in cells containing HCV RNA replicons. E6AP also forms a complex with pRb in an NS5B-dependent manner. These findings suggest a novel mechanism for the regulation of pRb in which the HCV NS5B protein traps pRb in the cytoplasm, and subsequently recruits E6AP to this complex in a process that leads to the ubiquitination of pRb. The disruption of pRb/E2F regulatory pathways in cells infected with HCV is likely to promote hepatocellular proliferation and chromosomal instability, factors important for the development of liver cancer.

  7. Herpes simplex virus induces neural oxidative damage via microglial cell Toll-like receptor-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Little Morgan R

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a murine model of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 encephalitis, our laboratory has determined that induction of proinflammatory mediators in response to viral infection is largely mediated through a Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2-dependent mechanism. Published studies have shown that, like other inflammatory mediators, reactive oxygen species (ROS are generated during viral brain infection. It is increasingly clear that ROS are responsible for facilitating secondary tissue damage during central nervous system infection and may contribute to neurotoxicity associated with herpes encephalitis. Methods Purified microglial cell and mixed neural cell cultures were prepared from C57B/6 and TLR2-/- mice. Intracellular ROS production in cultured murine microglia was measured via 2', 7'-Dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA oxidation. An assay for 8-isoprostane, a marker of lipid peroxidation, was utilized to measure free radical-associated cellular damage. Mixed neural cultures obtained from β-actin promoter-luciferase transgenic mice were used to detect neurotoxicity induced by HSV-infected microglia. Results Stimulation with HSV-1 elevated intracellular ROS in wild-type microglial cell cultures, while TLR2-/- microglia displayed delayed and attenuated ROS production following viral infection. HSV-infected TLR2-/- microglia produced less neuronal oxidative damage to mixed neural cell cultures in comparison to HSV-infected wild-type microglia. Further, HSV-infected TLR2-/- microglia were found to be less cytotoxic to cultured neurons compared to HSV-infected wild-type microglia. These effects were associated with decreased activation of p38 MAPK and p42/p44 ERK in TLR2-/- mice. Conclusions These studies demonstrate the importance of microglial cell TLR2 in inducing oxidative stress and neuronal damage in response to viral infection.

  8. Dengue Virus Induces Novel Changes in Gene Expression of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warke, Rajas V.; Xhaja, Kris; Martin, Katherine J.; Fournier, Marcia F.; Shaw, Sunil K.; Brizuela, Nathaly; de Bosch, Norma; Lapointe, David; Ennis, Francis A.; Rothman, Alan L.; Bosch, Irene

    2003-01-01

    Endothelial cells are permissive to dengue virus (DV) infection in vitro, although their importance as targets of DV infection in vivo remains a subject of debate. To analyze the virus-host interaction, we studied the effect of DV infection on gene expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by using differential display reverse transcription-PCR (DD-RTPCR), quantitative RT-PCR, and Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays. DD identified eight differentially expressed cDNAs, including inhibitor of apoptosis-1, 2′-5′ oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), a 2′-5′ OAS-like (OASL) gene, galectin-9, myxovirus protein A (MxA), regulator of G-protein signaling, endothelial and smooth muscle cell-derived neuropilin-like protein, and phospholipid scramblase 1. Microarray analysis of 22,000 human genes confirmed these findings and identified an additional 269 genes that were induced and 126 that were repressed more than fourfold after DV infection. Broad functional responses that were activated included the stress, defense, immune, cell adhesion, wounding, inflammatory, and antiviral pathways. These changes in gene expression were seen after infection of HUVECs with either laboratory-adapted virus or with virus isolated directly from plasma of DV-infected patients. Tumor necrosis factor alpha, OASL, and MxA and h-IAP1 genes were induced within the first 8 to 12 h after infection, suggesting a direct effect of DV infection. These global analyses of DV effects on cellular gene expression identify potentially novel mechanisms involved in dengue disease manifestations such as hemostatic disturbance. PMID:14557666

  9. Noncoding Subgenomic Flavivirus RNA: Multiple Functions in West Nile Virus Pathogenesis and Modulation of Host Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin A. Roby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses are a large group of positive strand RNA viruses transmitted by arthropods that include many human pathogens such as West Nile virus (WNV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. All members in this genus tested so far are shown to produce a unique subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA derived from the 3' untranslated region (UTR. sfRNA is a product of incomplete degradation of genomic RNA by the cell 5'–3' exoribonuclease XRN1 which stalls at highly ordered secondary RNA structures at the beginning of the 3'UTR. Generation of sfRNA results in inhibition of XRN1 activity leading to an increase in stability of many cellular mRNAs. Mutant WNV deficient in sfRNA generation was highly attenuated displaying a marked decrease in cytopathicity in cells and pathogenicity in mice. sfRNA has also been shown to inhibit the antiviral activity of IFN-α/β by yet unknown mechanism and of the RNAi pathway by likely serving as a decoy substrate for Dicer. Thus, sfRNA is involved in modulating multiple cellular pathways to facilitate viral pathogenicity; however the overlying mechanism linking all these multiple functions of sfRNA remains to be elucidated.

  10. Investigating plasmodesmata genetics with virus-induced gene silencing and an agrobacterium-mediated GFP movement assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkard, Jacob O; Burch-Smith, Tessa M; Runkel, Anne M; Zambryski, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are channels that connect the cytoplasm of adjacent plant cells, permitting intercellular transport and communication. PD function and formation are essential to plant growth and development, but we still know very little about the genetic pathways regulating PD transport. Here, we present a method for assaying changes in the rate of PD transport following genetic manipulation. Gene expression in leaves is modified by virus-induced gene silencing. Seven to ten days after infection with Tobacco rattle virus carrying a silencing trigger, the gene(s) of interest is silenced in newly arising leaves. In these new leaves, individual cells are then transformed with Agrobacterium to express GFP, and the rate of GFP diffusion via PD is measured. By measuring GFP diffusion both within the epidermis and between the epidermis and mesophyll, the assay can be used to study the effects of silencing a gene(s) on PD transport in general, or transport through secondary PD specifically. Plant biologists working in several fields will find this assay useful, since PD transport impacts plant physiology, development, and defense.

  11. Molecular characterization of oxysterol binding to the Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 2 (GPR183)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benned-Jensen, Tau; Norn, Christoffer; Laurent, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    , the family of G protein-coupled seven transmembrane-spanning receptors (7TM receptors) was added to this group. Specifically, the Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 2 (EBI2 or GPR183) was shown to be activated by several oxysterols, most potently by 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol (7α,25-OHC). Nothing is known about...... the binding mode, however. Using mutational analysis, we identify here four key residues for 7α,25-OHC binding: Arg-87 in TM-II (position II:20/2.60), Tyr-112 and Tyr-116 (positions III:09/3.33 and III:13/3.37) in TM-III, and Tyr-260 in TM-VI (position VI:16/6.51). Substituting these residues with Ala and....../or Phe results in a severe decrease in agonist binding and receptor activation. Docking simulations suggest that Tyr-116 interacts with the 3β-OH group in the agonist, Tyr-260 with the 7α-OH group, and Arg-87, either directly or indirectly, with the 25-OH group, although nearby residues likely also...

  12. Systemic virus-induced gene silencing allows functional characterization of maize genes during biotrophic interaction with Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, Karina; Kastner, Christine; Kumlehn, Jochen; Kahmann, Regine; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Infection of maize (Zea mays) plants with the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis leads to the formation of large tumors on the stem, leaves and inflorescences. In this biotrophic interaction, plant defense responses are actively suppressed by the pathogen, and previous transcriptome analyses of infected maize plants showed massive and stage-specific changes in host gene expression during disease progression. To identify maize genes that are functionally involved in the interaction with U. maydis, we adapted a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system based on the brome mosaic virus (BMV) for maize. Conditions were established that allowed successful U. maydis infection of BMV-preinfected maize plants. This set-up enabled quantification of VIGS and its impact on U. maydis infection using a quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)-based readout. In proof-of-principle experiments, an U. maydis-induced terpene synthase was shown to negatively regulate disease development while a protein involved in cell death inhibition was required for full virulence of U. maydis. The results suggest that this system is a versatile tool for the rapid identification of maize genes that determine compatibility with U. maydis. © (2010) Max Planck Society. Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  13. N-acetyl-l-cystine (NAC) protects against H9N2 swine influenza virus-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Hua; Li, Chun-Hong; Wang, Cun-Lian; Xu, Ming-Ju; Xu, Tong; Wei, Dong; Liu, Bao-Jian; Wang, Guo-Hua; Tian, Shu-Fei

    2014-09-01

    The antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) had been shown to inhibit replication of seasonal human influenza A viruses. Here, the effects of NAC on H9N2 swine influenza virus-induced acute lung injury (ALI) were investigated in mice. BALB/c mice were inoculated intranasally with 10(7) 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID(50)) of A/swine/HeBei/012/2008/(H9N2) viruses with or without NAC treatments to induce ALI model. The result showed that pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary edema, MPO activity, total cells, neutrophils, macrophages, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and CXCL-10 in BALF were attenuated by NAC. Moreover, our data showed that NAC significantly inhibited the levels of TLR4 protein and TLR4 mRNA in the lungs. Pharmacological inhibitors of TLR4 (E5564) exerted similar effects like those determined for NAC in H9N2 swine influenza virus-infected mice. These results suggest that antioxidants like NAC represent a potential additional treatment option that could be considered in the case of an influenza A virus pandemic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Decreased Diversity of the Oral Microbiota of Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Induced Chronic Liver Disease: A Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zongxin; Liu, Xia; Cheng, Yiwen; Jiang, Xiawei; Jiang, Haiyin; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that altered gut microbiota is implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus-induced chronic liver disease (HBV-CLD). However, the structure and composition of the oral microbiota of patients with HBV-CLD remains unclear. High-throughput pyrosequencing showed that decreased oral bacterial diversity was found in patients with HBV-CLD. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was increased significantly, which indicated that dysbiosis of the oral microbiota participated in the process of HBV-CLD development. However, the changing patterns of the oral microbiota in patients with HBV-induced liver cirrhosis (LC) were almost similar to patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). HBV infection resulted in an increase in potential H2S- and CH3SH-producing phylotypes such as Fusobacterium, Filifactor, Eubacterium, Parvimonas and Treponema, which might contribute to the increased oral malodor. These key oral-derived phylotypes might invade into the gut as opportunistic pathogens and contribute to altering the composition of the gut microbiota. This study provided important clues that dysbiosis of the oral microbiota might be involved in the development of HBV-CLD. Greater understanding of the relationships between the dysbiosis of oral microbiota and the development of HBV-CLD might facilitate the development of non-invasive differential diagnostic procedures and targeted treatments of HBV-CLD patients harbouring specific oral phylotypes. PMID:26606973

  15. A high throughput barley stripe mosaic virus vector for virus induced gene silencing in monocots and dicots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yuan

    Full Text Available Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV is a single-stranded RNA virus with three genome components designated alpha, beta, and gamma. BSMV vectors have previously been shown to be efficient virus induced gene silencing (VIGS vehicles in barley and wheat and have provided important information about host genes functioning during pathogenesis as well as various aspects of genes functioning in development. To permit more effective use of BSMV VIGS for functional genomics experiments, we have developed an Agrobacterium delivery system for BSMV and have coupled this with a ligation independent cloning (LIC strategy to mediate efficient cloning of host genes. Infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves provided excellent sources of virus for secondary BSMV infections and VIGS in cereals. The Agro/LIC BSMV VIGS vectors were able to function in high efficiency down regulation of phytoene desaturase (PDS, magnesium chelatase subunit H (ChlH, and plastid transketolase (TK gene silencing in N. benthamiana and in the monocots, wheat, barley, and the model grass, Brachypodium distachyon. Suppression of an Arabidopsis orthologue cloned from wheat (TaPMR5 also interfered with wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici infections in a manner similar to that of the A. thaliana PMR5 loss-of-function allele. These results imply that the PMR5 gene has maintained similar functions across monocot and dicot families. Our BSMV VIGS system provides substantial advantages in expense, cloning efficiency, ease of manipulation and ability to apply VIGS for high throughput genomics studies.

  16. Oral insulin treatment suppresses virus-induced antigen-specific destruction of beta cells and prevents autoimmune diabetes in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    von Herrath, M G; Dyrberg, T; Oldstone, M B

    1996-01-01

    Oral administration of self-antigens has been proposed as a therapy to prevent and treat autoimmune diseases. Here we report that oral treatment with insulin prevents virus-induced insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in a transgenic (tg) mouse model. Such mice express the viral nucleoprotein (NP) of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) under control of the rat insulin promoter in their pancreatic beta cells and < 2% spontaneously develop diabetes. However, 2 mo after challenge wit...

  17. Flat Cellular (UMTS) Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Samuel, L.G.; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, P.; Rittenhouse, G.

    Traditionally, cellular systems have been built in a hierarchical manner: many specialized cellular access network elements that collectively form a hierarchical cellular system. When 2G and later 3G systems were designed there was a good reason to make system hierarchical: from a cost-perspective

  18. Evaluation of some water characteristics of the blue nile in Khartoum state as indicators of river nile pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khilla, E. E. A.

    2004-05-01

    This study investigated some physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Blue nile river in Khartoum state. Four sites were chosen and studied namely. River transport corporation. Burri and Bahri power stations and Manshiya bridge (under construction) between may and july 2003. Four classes of phytoplankton were encountered: chlorophyceae, chrysophyceae, bacillariophyceae; with the last two classes being the most dominant.The zooplankton was represented by the genera copepoda- the dominant one- cladocera and rotifera. River transport corporation site showed higher total coliform counts during may and june, while all four stations showed the highest count (>100 MPN per 100 ml) in july. Values for total coliform and fecal bacteria were higher than previous studies which could be an indication that the blue nile river is polluted with both total coliform and fecal coliform bacteria. Pollution indicators were also manifested in relatively higher values of BOD, COD, and NO 3N , NO 2N .This could be attributed to anthropogenic activities such as bickerers, agricultural runoff, human and animal waste. Some of the changes were attributed to the natural hydrological regime of the Blue nile river such as increase of temperature, transparency and pH, at low flood period and the increase in TDS and conductivity; decline in transparency besides the disappearance of plankton with the onset of floodwater. The site of Manshiya bridge exhibited lowest transparency value due to dredging activities.The investigation within the Manshiya bridge site (under construction ), albeit done in a preliminary way. is the first of its kind in Sudan. The data indicate that the Blue nile river within Khartoum state has undergone physical, chemical and biological changes.The magnitude, causes and trends are yet to be elucidated.The study calls for an urgent, proper and long-term investigation of the Blue nile as well as the major rivers in Sudan.(Author)

  19. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs for flood forecasting at Dongola Station in the River Nile, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulafa Hag Elsafi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy seasonal rains cause the River Nile in Sudan to overflow and flood the surroundings areas. The floods destroy houses, crops, roads, and basic infrastructure, resulting in the displacement of people. This study aimed to forecast the River Nile flow at Dongola Station in Sudan using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN as a modeling tool and validated the accuracy of the model against actual flow. The ANN model was formulated to simulate flows at a certain location in the river reach, based on flow at upstream locations. Different procedures were applied to predict flooding by the ANN. Readings from stations along the Blue Nile, White Nile, Main Nile, and River Atbara between 1965 and 2003 were used to predict the likelihood of flooding at Dongola Station. The analysis indicated that the ANN provides a reliable means of detecting the flood hazard in the River Nile.

  20. West Nile virus infection and diplopia: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahal U

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Udip Dahal,1 Neville Mobarakai,1 Dikshya Sharma,2 Bandana Pathak11Department of Medicine, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Nepalgunj Medical College, Banke, NepalAbstract: West Nile virus is a neurotropic virus transmitted to humans via an infected mosquito bite. The increase in the incidences and fatalities of West Nile virus disease has made West Nile virus an important pathogen. Here we describe a case of a 65-year-old man with fever and diplopia presenting to the emergency department during a fall season and who was later diagnosed with West Nile virus infection. Diplopia is an uncommon manifestation of West Nile virus and recognition of the different modes of presentation, especially the uncommon ones like diplopia, will aid in the diagnosis of this emerging infectious disease.Keywords: West Nile virus, diplopia, ocular manifestations, infectious disease, Flaviviridae

  1. Does feeding frequency affect utilization of added amino acids in Nile tilapia?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, Rezaul; Bajgai, Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is one of the major farmed fish species, with main production in Asia, South and Central America that can tolerate a wide range of environmental stress and easily adapt with low quality of feed ingredients. The aims of the experiments were to determine effects of feeding frequency on utilization of protein and energy in Nile tilapia, to quantify differences in excretion of ammonia and ammonium in Nile tilapia fed the same daily ration, distributed over 2 a...

  2. A distal 140 kyr sediment record of Nile discharge and East African monsoon variability

    OpenAIRE

    W. Ehrmann; G. Schmiedl; M. Seidel; S. Krüger; H. Schulz

    2016-01-01

    Clay mineral assemblages in a sediment core from the distal Nile discharge plume off Israel have been used to reconstruct the late Quaternary Nile sediment discharge into the eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS). The record spans the last ca. 140 kyr. Smectite abundances indicate the influence of the Blue Nile and the Atbara River that have their headwaters in the volcanic rocks of the Ethiopian Highlands. Kaolinite abundances indicate the influence of wadis, which contribute per...

  3. A Mechanism Relating the Indian Ocean SSTs, ENSO, and the Nile Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siam, M.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    A significant fraction of the inter-annual variability in the Nile River flow is associated with ElNino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Fluctuations of the Indian Ocean Sea Surface temperature (SST) are also associated with the Nile flow. Here, we investigate the intermediate role of Indian Ocean SSTs in the teleconnection between Nile flow and ENSO. Using the partial coherency analysis, we show that connection between the North and Middle of Indian Ocean SSTs and Nile flow is driven by ENSO. However, the South of Indian Ocean SSTs have an independent role from ENSO in shaping variability of Nile flow. This independence allows for indices of SSTs over the South of Indian Ocean and ENSO to explain about 60% of the variability of the Nile flow when they are used together. During ElNino events, the SSTs over the Indian Ocean increase following the warming of the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), which forces a Matsuno-Gill circulation with enhanced westerlies winds over Indian Ocean that decreases the convergence of boundary layer air over the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin. On the other hand, the increased SSTs over South of Indian Ocean generate a cyclonic motion, which has a similar effect on the convergence of boundary layer air over the UBN. The proposed mechanism has an important implication in understanding the potential climate change impacts on the Nile flow induced by warming of over Indian Ocean and provide new indices for Nile flow forecast models.

  4. The role of myeloid cell activation and arginine metabolism in the pathogenesis of virus-induced diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina S. Burrack

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available When an antiviral immune response is generated, a balance must be reached between two opposing pathways: the production of proinflammatory and cytotoxic effectors that drive a robust antiviral immune response to control the infection and regulators that function to limit or blunt an excessive immune response to minimize immune-mediated pathology and repair tissue damage. Myeloid cells, including monocytes and macrophages, play an important role in this balance, particularly through the activities of the arginine-hydrolyzing enzymes nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2; iNOS and arginase 1 (Arg1. Nitric oxide (NO production by iNOS is an important proinflammatory mediator, whereas Arg1-expressing macrophages contribute to the resolution of inflammation and wound repair. In the context of viral infections, expression of these enzymes can result in a variety of outcomes for the host. NO has direct antiviral properties against some viruses, whereas during other virus infections NO can mediate immunopathology and/or inhibit the antiviral immune response to promote chronic infection. Arg1 activity has important wound healing functions but can also inhibit the antiviral immune response during some viral infections. Thus, depending on the specific virus and the tissue(s involved, the activity of both of these arginine-hydrolyzing enzymes can either exacerbate or limit the severity of virus-induced disease. In this review, we will discuss a variety of viral infections, including HIV, SARS-CoV, LCMV, HCV, RSV, and others, where myeloid cells influence the control and clearance of the virus from the host, as well as the severity and resolution of tissue damage, via the activities of iNOS and/or Arg1. Clearly, monocyte/macrophage activation and arginine metabolism will continue to be important areas of investigation in the context of viral infections.

  5. Development of Agrobacterium-mediated virus-induced gene silencing and performance evaluation of four marker genes in Gossypium barbadense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhuan Pang

    Full Text Available Gossypiumbarbadense is a cultivated cotton species and possesses many desirable traits, including high fiber quality and resistance to pathogens, especially Verticilliumdahliae (a devastating pathogen of Gossypium hirsutum, the main cultivated species. These elite traits are difficult to be introduced into G. hirsutum through classical breeding methods. In addition, genetic transformation of G. barbadense has not been successfully performed. It is therefore important to develop methods for evaluating the function and molecular mechanism of genes in G. barbadense. In this study, we had successfully introduced a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS system into three cultivars of G. barbadense by inserting marker genes into the tobacco rattle virus (TRV vector. After we optimized the VIGS conditions, including light intensity, photoperiod, seedling age and Agrobacterium strain, 100% of plants agroinfiltrated with the GaPDS silencing vector showed white colored leaves. Three other marker genes, GaCLA1, GaANS and GaANR, were employed to further test this VIGS system in G. barbadense. The transcript levels of the endogenous genes in the silenced plants were reduced by more than 99% compared to control plants; these plants presented phenotypic symptoms 2 weeks after inoculation. We introduced a fusing sequence fragment of GaPDS and GaANR gene silencing vectors into a single plant, which resulted in both photobleaching and brownish coloration. The extent of silencing in plants agroinfiltrated with fusing two-gene-silencing vector was consistent with plants harboring a single gene silencing vector. The development of this VIGS system should promote analysis of gene function in G. barbadense, and help to contribute desirable traits for breeding of G. barbadense and G. hirsutum.

  6. In vivo treatment with a MHC class I-restricted blocking peptide can prevent virus-induced autoimmune diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Herrath, M G; Coon, B; Lewicki, H; Mazarguil, H; Gairin, J E; Oldstone, M B

    1998-11-01

    We tested the in vivo potential of a MHC class I-restricted blocking peptide to sufficiently lower an anti-viral CTL response for preventing virus-induced CTL-mediated autoimmune diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)) in vivo without affecting systemic viral clearance. By designing and screening several peptides with high binding affinities to MHC class I H-2Db for best efficiency in blocking killing of target cells by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and other viral CTL, we identified the peptide for this study. In vitro, it selectively lowered CTL killing restricted to the Db allele, which correlated directly with the affinity of the respective epitopes. Expression of the blocking peptide in the target cell lowered recognition of all Db-restricted LCMV epitopes. In addition, in vitro expansion of LCMV memory CTL was prevented, resulting in decreased IFN-gamma secretion. In vivo, a 2-wk treatment with this peptide lowered the LCMV Db-restricted CTL response by over threefold without affecting viral clearance. However, the CTL reduction by the peptide treatment was sufficient to prevent LCMV-induced IDDM in rat insulin promoter-LCMV-glycoprotein transgenic mice. Following LCMV infection, these mice develop IDDM, which depends on Db-restricted anti-self (viral) CTL. Precursor numbers of splenic LCMV-CTL in peptide-treated mice were reduced, but their cytokine profile was not altered, indicating that the peptide did not induce regulatory cells. Further, non-LCMV-CTL recognizing the blocking peptide secreted IFN-gamma and did not protect from IDDM. This study demonstrates that in vivo treatment with a MHC class I blocking peptide can prevent autoimmune disease by directly affecting expansion of autoreactive CTL.

  7. Virus-Induced Chaperone-Enriched (VICE domains function as nuclear protein quality control centers during HSV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M Livingston

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Virus-Induced Chaperone-Enriched (VICE domains form adjacent to nuclear viral replication compartments (RC during the early stages of HSV-1 infection. Between 2 and 3 hours post infection at a MOI of 10, host protein quality control machinery such as molecular chaperones (e.g. Hsc70, the 20S proteasome and ubiquitin are reorganized from a diffuse nuclear distribution pattern to sequestration in VICE domains. The observation that VICE domains contain putative misfolded proteins suggests that they may be similar to nuclear inclusion bodies that form under conditions in which the protein quality control machinery is overwhelmed by the presence of misfolded proteins. The detection of Hsc70 in VICE domains, but not in nuclear inclusion bodies, indicates that Hsc70 is specifically reorganized by HSV-1 infection. We hypothesize that HSV-1 infection induces the formation of nuclear protein quality control centers to remodel or degrade aberrant nuclear proteins that would otherwise interfere with productive infection. Detection of proteolytic activity in VICE domains suggests that substrates may be degraded by the 20S proteasome in VICE domains. FRAP analysis reveals that GFP-Hsc70 is dynamically associated with VICE domains, suggesting a role for Hsc70 in scanning the infected nucleus for misfolded proteins. During 42 degrees C heat shock, Hsc70 is redistributed from VICE domains into RC perhaps to remodel viral replication and regulatory proteins that have become insoluble in these compartments. The experiments presented in this paper suggest that VICE domains are nuclear protein quality control centers that are modified by HSV-1 to promote productive infection.

  8. Time-place learning in food-restricted Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delicio, Helton Carlos; Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio

    2008-01-01

    Time-place learning based on food association was investigated in eight food-restricted Nile tilapias. Each fish was individually housed for 10 days in an experimental tank for adjustments to laboratory conditions, and fed daily in excess. Feeding was then interrupted for 17 days. Training was then started, based on a food-restricted regime in a tank divided into three interconnected compartments. Daily food was offered in one compartment (left or right side) of the tank in the morning and on the opposite side in the afternoon, for a continuous 30-day period. Frequency of choices on the right side was measured on days 10, 20 and 30 (during these test days, fish were not fed). Following this 30-day conditioning period, the Nile tilapias were able to switch sides at the correct period of the day to get food, suggesting that food restriction facilitates time-place learning discrimination.

  9. Subacute brachial diplegia associated with West Nile virus myelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Sahar F; Ubogu, Eroboghene E

    2012-06-01

    Brachial diplegia is a clinical term used to describe weakness restricted to the upper extremities. We report a case of brachial diplegia associated with West Nile virus infection. A 48-year-old man developed severe painless bilateral upper extremity weakness within a few weeks of a flu-like illness. Clinical examination revealed marked periscapular, shoulder girdle, and humeral muscle atrophy and bilateral scapular winging, with near symmetrical bilateral hypotonic upper extremity weakness. This was associated with clinical signs of an encephalomyelopathy without cognitive or sensory deficits. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated a subacute disorder of motor neurons, their axons or both, involving the cervical and thoracic myotomes, with ongoing denervation. Serological studies confirmed recent West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Gradual improvement occurred following conservative supportive therapies. Progressive brachial diplegia is a rare neuromuscular presentation of WNV neuroinvasive disease. This case report adds to the clinical spectrum of WNV-induced neurologic sequelae. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Alexander the Great and West Nile virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, John S; Calisher, Charles H

    2003-12-01

    Alexander the Great died in Babylon in 323 BC. His death at age 32 followed a 2-week febrile illness. Speculated causes of death have included poisoning; assassination, and a number of infectious diseases. One incident, mentioned by Plutarch but not considered by previous investigators, may shed light on the cause of Alexander's death. The incident, which occurred as he entered Babylon, involved a flock of ravens exhibiting unusual behavior and subsequently dying at his feet. The inexplicable behavior of ravens is reminiscent of avian illness and death weeks before the first human cases of West Nile virus infection were identified in the United States. We posit that Alexander may have died of West Nile virus encephalitis.

  11. Clinical Manifestations and Outcomes of West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Sejvar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV in North America in 1999, understanding of the clinical features, spectrum of illness and eventual functional outcomes of human illness has increased tremendously. Most human infections with WNV remain clinically silent. Among those persons developing symptomatic illness, most develop a self-limited febrile illness. More severe illness with WNV (West Nile neuroinvasive disease, WNND is manifested as meningitis, encephalitis or an acute anterior (polio myelitis. These manifestations are generally more prevalent in older persons or those with immunosuppression. In the future, a more thorough understanding of the long-term physical, cognitive and functional outcomes of persons recovering from WNV illness will be important in understanding the overall illness burden.

  12. Recent progress in West Nile virus diagnosis and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Filette Marina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract West Nile virus (WNV is a positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, a large family with 3 main genera (flavivirus, hepacivirus and pestivirus. Among these viruses, there are several globally relevant human pathogens including the mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV, yellow fever virus (YFV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV and West Nile virus (WNV, as well as tick-borne viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV. Since the mid-1990s, outbreaks of WN fever and encephalitis have occurred throughout the world and WNV is now endemic in Africa, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe and the Unites States. This review describes the molecular virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and highlights recent progress regarding diagnosis and vaccination against WNV infections.

  13. Evaluation of nitrogen and phosphorus wastes produced by Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogenous (N) and phosphorus (P) wastes discharged into water by Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. (initial mean weight: 16.4 g) fed in tanks for 90 days was studied. Fish were fed with six isonitrogenous (29.2% crude protein) and isoenergetic (16.9 Kj g-1) diets A0, A10, A20, A30, A40 and A50, containing 0%, 10%, ...

  14. Optimal feeding rate for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Dilip Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define optimal feeding rates for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding rate on growth performance of larger and juvenile tilapia by means of estimating growth rates, apparent nutrient digestibilities, feed utilization, body compositions, and nutrient and energy retentions. One nutritionally balanced diet (crude protein 342, crude fat 67, ash 47, starch 251 (all values in g (kg dry matter)-1)) was ...

  15. Eastern Nile at crossroads: Preservation and utilization concerns in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that nurture our crops and that enable us live our lives as generations come and go. The words “soil to soil and ashes to ashes” signify this truth. Ancient Egyptians believed that Ptah was the Nile god and that his “head supported the sky, his feet rested upon the earth”. They also believed that the sun and the moon were the ...

  16. The Holocene Geoarchaeology of the Desert Nile in Northern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Jamie; Macklin, Mark; Spencer, Neal; Welsby, Derek; Dalton, Matthew; Hay, Sophie; Hardy, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Invited Paper Forty years ago Colin Renfrew declared that "every archaeological problem starts as a problem in geoarchaeology" (Renfrew, 1976 p. 2). With this assertion in mind, this paper draws upon the findings from field research in two sectors of the Nile Valley of Northern Sudan dedicated to the exploration of human-environment interactions during the middle and late Holocene. This part of the Nile corridor contains a rich cultural record and an exceptionally well preserved Holocene fluvial archive. A distinctive feature of these records is the variety of evidence for interaction between desert and river over a range of spatial and temporal scales. This interaction presented both challenges and opportunities for its ancient inhabitants. This paper will present evidence for large-scale landscape changes driven by shifts in global climate. It will also show how we have integrated the archaeological and geological records in the Northern Dongola Reach and at Amara West - where long-term field projects led by archaeologists from the British Museum have recognised the importance of a sustained commitment to interdisciplinary research to achieve a fully integrated geoarchaeological approach across a range of scales. The former project is a large-scale landscape survey with multiple sites across an 80 km reach of the Nile whilst the latter has a strong focus on a single New Kingdom town site and changes in its environmental setting. By combining multiple archaeological and geological datasets - and pioneering the use of OSL dating and strontium isotope analysis in the Desert Nile - we have developed a new understanding of human responses to Holocene climate and landscape change in this region. Renfrew, C. (1976) Archaeology and the earth sciences. In: D.A. Davidson and M.I. Shackley (eds) Geoarchaeology: Earth Science and the Past, Duckworth, London, 1-5.

  17. Import of West Nile virus infection in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Lukáčová, L.; Halouzka, Jiří; Širůček, P.; Januška, J.; Přecechtělová, J.; Procházka, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2006), s. 323-324 ISSN 0393-2990 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : West Nile virus * CNS infection * Flavivirus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2006

  18. Water and Regional Stability: The Nile a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    Basin-Wide Study Final Report ( Dar es Salaam , Tanzania, May 2008), 2-1, 2-2. 30 Global Water Partnership Toolbox IWRM page, http...St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t WATER AND REGIONAL STABILITY: THE NILE A CASE STUDY BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL JOHN C. CURWEN United...in her remarks to Congress , eloquently described many of the reasons why the United States views water as strategically important1. The 2010 report

  19. Serological evidence of West Nile virus circulation in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Sílvia C.; Ramos, Fernanda; Fagulha, Teresa; Duarte, Margarida; Henriques, Margarida; Luís, Tiago; Fevereiro, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The circulation of West Nile virus in Portugal was assessed by serological surveys conducted during 2004-2010 in horses and birds. The detection of WNV antibodies in both species in all the years covered by the study as well as the presence of anti-WNV IgM in symptomatic horses that had not traveled outside the country, support the notion that WNV circulates in Portugal. correspondence: Corresponding author. (Fevereiro, Miguel) ...

  20. Linearizable cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobe, Atsushi; Yura, Fumitaka

    2007-01-01

    The initial value problem for a class of reversible elementary cellular automata with periodic boundaries is reduced to an initial-boundary value problem for a class of linear systems on a finite commutative ring Z 2 . Moreover, a family of such linearizable cellular automata is given

  1. Vertical transmission of microcystins to Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singo, Alukhethi; Myburgh, Jan G; Laver, Peter N; Venter, Elizabeth A; Ferreira, Gezina C H; Rösemann, Gertruida M; Botha, Christo J

    2017-08-01

    Cyanobacteria or blue green algae are known for their extensive and highly visible blooms in eutrophic, stagnant freshwater bodies. Climate change and global warming have also contributed to a rise in toxic cyanobacterial blooms. One of the most important cyanobacteria is Microcystis aeruginosa, which can synthesize various microcystins that can affect the health of terrestrial and aquatic animals. Commercial Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) farming in South Africa is based on keeping breeders (adult males and females) in big dams on farms (captive-bred approach). Unfortunately, cyanobacterial blooms in the breeder dams are a concern to farm owners, managers and veterinarians. The main objectives of this research project were to determine if microcystins were present in the contents of crocodile eggs and the liver and yolk of dead hatchlings, and to determine if the reduced hatchability on commercial farms might be caused by these toxins. Furthermore, the concentration of microcystins in the breeder dam was monitored on a monthly basis spanning the ovulation and egg laying period. During the hatching season microcystin concentrations in unfertilised eggs, egg shell membranes and in the yolk and liver of dead hatchlings were determined using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Microcystins were detected in Nile crocodile egg and hatchling samples. Microcystin (MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR) concentrations in the crocodile egg and hatchling samples collected from clutches with a good hatching rate (≥90%) ranged between 0 and 1.76 ng g -1 , with the highest concentration in the egg shell membranes. Microcystin concentrations in samples collected from clutches with a bad hatching rate (≤10%) ranged from 0 - 1.63 ng g -1 with the highest concentration detected in the hatchling yolk. However, the concentrations were probably underestimated as the percentage recovery from spiked samples was very low with the extraction method employed

  2. Socioeconomic dynamics of water quality in the Egyptian Nile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Maheen; Nisar, Zainab; Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    The Nile River remains the most important source of freshwater for Egypt as it accounts for nearly all of the country's drinking and irrigation water. About 95% of the total population is accounted to live along the Banks of the Nile(1). Therefore, water quality deterioration in addition to general natural scarcity of water in the region(2) is the main driver for carrying out this study. What further aggravates this issue is the water conflict in the Blue Nile region. The study evaluates different water quality parameters and their concentrations in the Egyptian Nile; further assessing the temporal dynamics of water quality in the area with (a) the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC)(3) and (b) the Jevons Paradox (JP)(4) in order to identify water quality improvements or degradations using selected socioeconomic variables(5). For this purpose various environmental indicators including BOD, COD, DO, Phosphorus and TDS were plotted against different economic variables including Population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Annual Fresh Water Withdrawal and Improved Water Source. Mathematically, this was expressed by 2nd and 3rd degree polynomial regressions generating the EKC and JP respectively. The basic goal of the regression analysis is to model and highlight the dynamic trend of water quality indicators in relation to their established permissible limits, which will allow the identification of optimal future water quality policies. The results clearly indicate that the dependency of water quality indicators on socioeconomic variables differs for every indicator; while COD was above the permissible limits in all the cases despite of its decreasing trend in each case, BOD and phosphate signified increasing concentrations for the future, if they continue to follow the present trend. This could be an indication of rebound effect explained by the Jevons Paradox i.e. water quality deterioration after its improvement, either due to increase of population or intensification

  3. Tracing of the defunct Canopic Nile branch using geoelectrical resistivity data around Itay El-Baroud area, Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Qady, G.; Shaaban, H.; El-Said, A.; Ghazala, H.; El-Shahat, A.

    2011-03-01

    Around the Nile Delta Branches, ancient settlements had been created and left their remains to be good witness for the paleoenvironment during the Holocene time. Therefore, tracing of the defunct Canopic branch and its distributaries as well as associated environments are of great importance. Using a Schlumberger electrode configuration, well-distributed 44 vertical electrical resistivity soundings were acquired. The 1D modelling technique was applied to estimate the depth and the apparent resistivity of the interpreted geoelectrical units. Then 2D inversion was applied for the same data set using the ABIC least-squares inversion scheme. The geoelectrical cross-sections and slice maps discriminate the Upper Quaternary sequence into three geoelectrical units. The Holocene Nile mud is represented by two units: the agricultural root zone (unit 1) that is underlain by relatively thick water-saturated mud (unit 2). The Upper Pleistocene sandy aquifer is represented by irregular surface (unit 3). Two generations of defunct channels were traced out. The older channels are characterized by low sinuosity compared with younger channels. This is probably attributed to river activity due to relatively low sea level and much higher Nile discharge. The system of younger channels is characterized by broad meanders, probably as a consequence of sea-level rise and decreased gradient since the Middle Holocene.

  4. Tracing of the defunct Canopic Nile branch using geoelectrical resistivity data around Itay El-Baroud area, Nile Delta, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Qady, G; Shaaban, H; El-Said, A; Ghazala, H; El-Shahat, A

    2011-01-01

    Around the Nile Delta Branches, ancient settlements had been created and left their remains to be good witness for the paleoenvironment during the Holocene time. Therefore, tracing of the defunct Canopic branch and its distributaries as well as associated environments are of great importance. Using a Schlumberger electrode configuration, well-distributed 44 vertical electrical resistivity soundings were acquired. The 1D modelling technique was applied to estimate the depth and the apparent resistivity of the interpreted geoelectrical units. Then 2D inversion was applied for the same data set using the ABIC least-squares inversion scheme. The geoelectrical cross-sections and slice maps discriminate the Upper Quaternary sequence into three geoelectrical units. The Holocene Nile mud is represented by two units: the agricultural root zone (unit 1) that is underlain by relatively thick water-saturated mud (unit 2). The Upper Pleistocene sandy aquifer is represented by irregular surface (unit 3). Two generations of defunct channels were traced out. The older channels are characterized by low sinuosity compared with younger channels. This is probably attributed to river activity due to relatively low sea level and much higher Nile discharge. The system of younger channels is characterized by broad meanders, probably as a consequence of sea-level rise and decreased gradient since the Middle Holocene

  5. Nile perch and the transformation of Lake Victoria | Taabu-Munyaho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sudden eutrophication of the lake was attributed to Nile perch, but evidence of eutrophication from 1950 onwards led some researchers to conclude that it was the result of climatic changes. We conclude that the haplochromine destruction disrupted the complex food webs that existed prior to the upsurge of Nile perch.

  6. Absence of Serological Evidence of West Nile Virus in Blood Donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus that circulates among avians, but can also affect other species, particularly humans and horses. The virus is transmissible via blood transfusion. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of the West Nile virus among blood donors in Nigeria. Materials and ...

  7. Distribution of Nile perch Lates niloticus in southern Lake Victoria is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, Nile perch were apparently driven away from these areas by hypoxic conditions in the rainy season. They apparently escaped the seasonally hypoxic layers in deep water by horizontal inshore migration and by vertical movement in upward direction. Sudden upwelling of these deep layers is a threat to the Nile ...

  8. West Nile Virus: What You Need to Know Now - August 2012

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-21

    This podcast lists the states where most of the 2012 West Nile viruses have been reported and explains how people can protect themselves from West Nile virus.  Created: 8/21/2012 by .   Date Released: 8/21/2012.

  9. Brachial plexitis preceding encephalomyelitis in a patient with West Nile virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Sonja; Kaas, Bonnie; Simpkins, Alexis; Lyons, Jennifer; Venkatesan, Arun; Probasco, John

    2013-12-05

    We describe the case of a 54-year-old woman with West Nile virus infection presenting with painful brachial plexitis and radiculitis that preceded the more typically associated symptoms of meningoencephalitis. Physicians should be aware that West Nile virus infection can present with painful brachial plexitis.

  10. Abundance, distribution and population trends of Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Gandiwa, E.; Jakarasi, J.; Westhuizen, van der H.; Muvengwi, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is an iconic or keystone species in many aquatic ecosystems. In order to understand the abundance, distribution, and population trends of Nile crocodiles in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), southeastern Zimbabwe, we carried out 4 annual aerial surveys, using

  11. Simulating impacts of climate change on river discharges in the Nile basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, Martijn J.; Tollenaar, Daniel; van Beek, Eelco; Kwadijk, Jacob Cornelis Jan; Kwadijk, Jaap C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to simulate present and future discharges of the Nile River upstream Lake Nasser. For this purpose a rainfall–runoff model (HBV) is integrated with a water distribution and allocation model (RIBASIM) for the upper Nile. The combination of the two models is referred to

  12. Fatty acid composition of muscle and heart tissue of Nile perch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fatty acid composition in the heart tissue and muscle tissue of the Nile perch, Lates niloticus, and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus populations from Lakes Kioga and Victoria was determined by methanolysis and gas chromatography of the resulting fatty acid methyl esters. The analytical data were treated by ...

  13. West Nile virus meningitis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pilalas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of West Nile virus lineage 2 in central Macedonia, Greece, in 2010 resulted in large outbreaks for 5 consecutive years. We report a case of viral meningitis in an individual infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, which preceded the recognition of the outbreak and was confirmed retrospectively as West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease.

  14. Longitudinal genetic analysis of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) body weight using a random regression model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.M.; Komen, J.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2005-01-01

    Genetic parameters for body weight at ages over approximately 120 days are scarce in Nile tilapia. In this study, genetic parameters for body weight in Nile tilapia were estimated for ages ranging from 100 to 326 days. To this end, five repeated observations of body weight were collected on 2483

  15. Whole body and egg amino acid composition of Nile perch, Lates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    0.05) between the amino acids (AA) composition in the eggs and tissue and amongst the four class sizes of juveniles was observed. Estimates of the amino acid dietary requirements revealed that Nile perch has high arginine, leucine, threonine, valine and isoleucine dietary requirements. Key words: Nile perch, amino acids ...

  16. Performance of beef steers on Smuts finger grass and Nile grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Literature where animal performance is quantified for. Smuts finger grass and Nile grass pastures in South Africa is limited. In some trials, animal performance on Smuts finger grass and/or Nile grass was reported (Rhind & Goodenough,. 1979, Dannhauser, 1982 Grunow, et al., 1984). The ADG achieved by .steers on Smuts ...

  17. The decline of the Nile crocodile population in Loskop Dam, Olifants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The apparent decline in the number of Nile crocodiles present in the Loskop Dam prompted a study to determine the number, size and distribution of Nile crocodiles now present in the reservoir. The number of crocodiles in the Loskop Dam was surveyed using aerial counts and spotlight counts. Surveys revealed the ...

  18. Virus-induced chalazion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, A M; Chan, C-C; Crawford, M A; Tabbarah, Z A; Shen, D; Haddad, W F; Salti, I; Ghazi, N G

    2006-02-01

    To investigate a viral etiology in certain chalazia. A prospective study over 7.5 years of all newly presenting chalazia associated with diffuse follicular conjunctivitis but without any other aetiological factors. Patients were investigated for ocular or systemic infections by history, physical exam, slit-lamp exam, and/or histology of conjunctival biopsy (including transmission electron microscopy). A total of 27 patients developed follicular conjunctivitis without meibomian gland dysfunction, blepharitis, or sexually transmitted diseases. Evidence for a viral aetiology included: recent systemic viral illness (15/27), recent contact with subjects with chalazia or follicular conjunctivitis (5/27), preauricular lymphadenopathy (4/27), viral corneal disease (4/27), or viral particles by ultrastructure (4/4). Chalazia may be associated with viral conjunctivitis. Intralesional corticosteroids should be considered with great caution for viral-induced chalazia.

  19. Copper sulfate affects Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cardiomyocytes structure and contractile function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade Waldemarin, Kátia Cristina; Alves, Rosiane Nascimento; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu; Kalinin, Ana Lúcia

    2012-04-01

    Copper sulfate (CuSO(4))is an inorganic chemical product worldwide used as an algaecide and a fungicide in aquaculture and agriculture and being discharged into freshwater environments where it can affect the freshwater fauna, especially fishes. The impact of copper on fish cardiac function was analyzed in two groups of Nile tilapias, Oreochromis niloticus (control group and group exposed to 1 mg l(-1) of CuSO(4) for 96 h). Structural and ultra-structural changes were studied and related to perturbations of the inotropic and chronotropic responses of ventricle strips. Fish of Cu exposed group did not show significant alterations in the medium diameter and in the percentage of collagen in the cardiac myocytes when evaluated through the light microscope. However, the ultrastructural analysis revealed cellular swelling followed by mitochondrial swelling. The myofibrils did not show significant variations among groups. Force contraction was significantly decreased, and rates of time to tension increase (contraction) and decrease (relaxation) were significantly augmented after copper exposure. The results suggest that the copper sulfate impairs the oxidative mitochondrial function and consequently alters the cardiac performance of this species.

  20. Inhibition of West Nile virus by calbindin-D28k.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatraman Siddharthan

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates that West Nile virus (WNV employs Ca(2+ influx for its replication. Moreover, calcium buffer proteins, such as calbindin D28k (CB-D28k, may play an important role mitigating cellular destruction due to disease processes, and more specifically, in some neurological diseases. We addressed the hypothesis that CB-D28k inhibits WNV replication in cell culture and infected rodents. WNV envelope immunoreactivity (ir was not readily co-localized with CB-D28k ir in WNV-infected Vero 76 or motor neuron-like NSC34 cells that were either stably or transiently transfected with plasmids coding for CB-D28k gene. This was confirmed in cultured cells fixed on glass coverslips and by flow cytometry. Moreover, WNV infectious titers were reduced in CB-D28k-transfected cells. As in cell culture studies, WNV env ir was not co-localized with CB-D28k ir in the cortex of an infected WNV hamster, or in the hippocampus of an infected mouse. Motor neurons in the spinal cord typically do not express CB-D28k and are susceptible to WNV infection. Yet, CB-D28k was detected in the surviving motor neurons after the initial phase of WNV infection in hamsters. These data suggested that induction of CB-D28k elicit a neuroprotective response to WNV infection.

  1. Cullin4 Is Pro-Viral during West Nile Virus Infection of Culex Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradkar, Prasad N; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard; Rodriguez-Andres, Julio; Trinidad, Lee; Walker, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Although mosquitoes serve as vectors of many pathogens of public health importance, their response to viral infection is poorly understood. It also remains to be investigated whether viruses deploy some mechanism to be able to overcome this immune response. Here, we have used an RNA-Seq approach to identify differentially regulated genes in Culex quinquefasciatus cells following West Nile virus (WNV) infection, identifying 265 transcripts from various cellular pathways that were either upregulated or downregulated. Ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway genes, comprising 12% of total differentially regulated genes, were selected for further validation by real time RT-qPCR and functional analysis. It was found that treatment of infected cells with proteasomal inhibitor, MG-132, decreased WNV titers, indicating importance of this pathway during infection process. In infection models, the Culex ortholog of mammalian Cul4A/B (cullin RING ubiquitin ligase) was found to be upregulated in vitro as well as in vivo, especially in midguts of mosquitoes. Gene knockdown using dsRNA and overexpression studies indicated that Culex Cul4 acts as a pro-viral protein by degradation of CxSTAT via ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway. We also show that gene knockdown of Culex Cul4 leads to activation of the Jak-STAT pathway in mosquitoes leading to decrease viral replication in the body as well as saliva. Our results suggest a novel mechanism adopted by WNV to overcome mosquito immune response and increase viral replication.

  2. Antibody prophylaxis and therapy against West Nile virus infection in wild-type and immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Michael J; Diamond, Michael S

    2003-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus that causes encephalitis in a subset of susceptible humans. Current treatment for WNV infections is supportive, and no specific therapy or vaccine is available. In this study, we directly tested the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of polyclonal antibodies against WNV. Passive administration of human gamma globulin or mouse serum prior to WNV infection protected congenic wild-type, B-cell-deficient ( micro MT), and T- and B-cell-deficient (RAG1) C57BL/6J mice. Notably, no increased mortality due to immune enhancement was observed. Although immune antibody completely prevented morbidity and mortality in wild-type mice, its effect was not durable in immunocompromised mice: many micro MT and RAG1 mice eventually succumbed to infection. Thus, antibody by itself did not completely eliminate viral reservoirs in host tissues, consistent with an intact cellular immune response being required for viral clearance. In therapeutic postexposure studies, human gamma globulin partially protected against WNV-induced mortality. In micro MT mice, therapy had to be initiated within 2 days of infection to gain a survival benefit, whereas in the wild-type mice, therapy even 5 days after infection reduced mortality. This time point is significant because between days 4 and 5, WNV was detected in the brains of infected mice. Thus, passive transfer of immune antibody improves clinical outcome even after WNV has disseminated into the central nervous system.

  3. Cullin4 Is Pro-Viral during West Nile Virus Infection of Culex Mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad N Paradkar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although mosquitoes serve as vectors of many pathogens of public health importance, their response to viral infection is poorly understood. It also remains to be investigated whether viruses deploy some mechanism to be able to overcome this immune response. Here, we have used an RNA-Seq approach to identify differentially regulated genes in Culex quinquefasciatus cells following West Nile virus (WNV infection, identifying 265 transcripts from various cellular pathways that were either upregulated or downregulated. Ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway genes, comprising 12% of total differentially regulated genes, were selected for further validation by real time RT-qPCR and functional analysis. It was found that treatment of infected cells with proteasomal inhibitor, MG-132, decreased WNV titers, indicating importance of this pathway during infection process. In infection models, the Culex ortholog of mammalian Cul4A/B (cullin RING ubiquitin ligase was found to be upregulated in vitro as well as in vivo, especially in midguts of mosquitoes. Gene knockdown using dsRNA and overexpression studies indicated that Culex Cul4 acts as a pro-viral protein by degradation of CxSTAT via ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway. We also show that gene knockdown of Culex Cul4 leads to activation of the Jak-STAT pathway in mosquitoes leading to decrease viral replication in the body as well as saliva. Our results suggest a novel mechanism adopted by WNV to overcome mosquito immune response and increase viral replication.

  4. Alterations in the Aedes aegypti transcriptome during infection with West Nile, dengue and yellow fever viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya M Colpitts

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available West Nile (WNV, dengue (DENV and yellow fever (YFV viruses are (reemerging, mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause human disease and mortality worldwide. Alterations in mosquito gene expression common and unique to individual flaviviral infections are poorly understood. Here, we present a microarray analysis of the Aedes aegypti transcriptome over time during infection with DENV, WNV or YFV. We identified 203 mosquito genes that were ≥ 5-fold differentially up-regulated (DUR and 202 genes that were ≥ 10-fold differentially down-regulated (DDR during infection with one of the three flaviviruses. Comparative analysis revealed that the expression profile of 20 DUR genes and 15 DDR genes was quite similar between the three flaviviruses on D1 of infection, indicating a potentially conserved transcriptomic signature of flaviviral infection. Bioinformatics analysis revealed changes in expression of genes from diverse cellular processes, including ion binding, transport, metabolic processes and peptidase activity. We also demonstrate that virally-regulated gene expression is tissue-specific. The overexpression of several virally down-regulated genes decreased WNV infection in mosquito cells and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Among these, a pupal cuticle protein was shown to bind WNV envelope protein, leading to inhibition of infection in vitro and the prevention of lethal WNV encephalitis in mice. This work provides an extensive list of targets for controlling flaviviral infection in mosquitoes that may also be used to develop broad preventative and therapeutic measures for multiple flaviviruses.

  5. Plasmonic Nanostructured Cellular Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhazraji, Emad; Ghalib, A.; Manzoor, K.; Alsunaidi, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we have investigated the scattering plasmonic resonance characteristics of silver nanospheres with a geometrical distribution that is modelled by Cellular Automata using time-domain numerical analysis. Cellular Automata are discrete mathematical structures that model different natural phenomena. Two binary one-dimensional Cellular Automata rules are considered to model the nanostructure, namely rule 30 and rule 33. The analysis produces three-dimensional scattering profiles of the entire plasmonic nanostructure. For the Cellular Automaton rule 33, the introduction of more Cellular Automata generations resulted only in slight red and blue shifts in the plasmonic modes with respect to the first generation. On the other hand, while rule 30 introduced significant red shifts in the resonance peaks at early generations, at later generations however, a peculiar effect is witnessed in the scattering profile as new peaks emerge as a feature of the overall Cellular Automata structure rather than the sum of the smaller parts that compose it. We strongly believe that these features that emerge as a result adopting the different 256 Cellular Automata rules as configuration models of nanostructures in different applications and systems might possess a great potential in enhancing their capability, sensitivity, efficiency, and power utilization.

  6. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  7. Shifting sediment sources in the world's longest river: A strontium isotope record for the Holocene Nile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Jamie; Macklin, Mark; Fielding, Laura; Millar, Ian; Spencer, Neal; Welsby, Derek; Williams, Martin

    2015-12-01

    We have reconstructed long-term shifts in catchment sediment sources by analysing, for the first time, the strontium (Sr) and neodymium (Nd) isotope composition of dated floodplain deposits in the Desert Nile. The sediment load of the Nile has been dominated by material from the Ethiopian Highlands for much of the Holocene, but tributary wadis and aeolian sediments in Sudan and Egypt have also made major contributions to valley floor sedimentation. The importance of these sources has shifted dramatically in response to global climate changes. During the African Humid Period, before c. 4.5 ka, when stronger boreal summer insolation produced much higher rainfall across North Africa, the Nile floodplain in northern Sudan shows a tributary wadi input of 40-50%. Thousands of tributary wadis were active at this time along the full length of the Saharan Nile in Egypt and Sudan. As the climate became drier after 4.5 ka, the valley floor shows an abrupt fall in wadi inputs and a stronger Blue Nile/Atbara contribution. In the arid New Kingdom and later periods, in palaeochannel fills on the margins of the valley floor, aeolian sediments replace wadi inputs as the most important secondary contributor to floodplain sedimentation. Our sediment source data do not show a measurable contribution from the White Nile to the floodplain deposits of northern Sudan over the last 8500 years. This can be explained by the distinctive hydrology and sediment delivery dynamics of the upper Nile basin. High strontium isotope ratios observed in delta and offshore records - that were previously ascribed to a stronger White Nile input during the African Humid Period - may have to be at least partly reassessed. Our floodplain Sr records also have major implications for bioarchaeologists who carry out Sr isotope-based investigations of ancient human remains in the Nile Valley because the isotopic signature of Nile floodplain deposits has shifted significantly over time.

  8. Nile behaviour and Late Palaeolithic humans in Upper Egypt during the Late Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Pierre M.; Van Neer, Wim

    2015-12-01

    The reconstruction of the environment and the human population history of the Nile Valley during the Late Pleistocene have received a lot of attention in the literature thus far. There seems to be a consensus that during MIS2 extreme dry conditions prevailed over north-eastern Africa, which was apparently not occupied by humans. The Nile Valley seems to be an exception; numerous field data have been collected suggesting an important population density in Upper Egypt during MIS2. The occupation remains are often stratified in, or at least related to, aeolian and Nile deposits at some elevation above the present-day floodplain. They are rich in lithics and animal bones, mainly fish, illustrating the exploitation of the Nile Valley by the Late Palaeolithic inhabitants. The fluvial processes active during that period have traditionally been interpreted as a continuously rising highly braided river. In this paper we summarize the evidence thus far available for the Late Pleistocene on the population densities in the Nile Valley, and on the models of Nilotic behaviour. In the discussion we include data on the environmental conditions in Eastern Africa, on the aeolian processes in the Western Desert of Egypt derived from satellite images, 14C and OSL dates, in order to formulate a new model that explains the observed high remnants of aeolian and Nilotic deposits and the related Late Palaeolithic sites. This model hypothesizes that, during the Late Pleistocene, and especially the LGM, dunes from the Western Desert invaded the Nile Valley at several places in Upper Egypt. The much reduced activity of the White Nile and the Blue Nile was unable to evacuate incoming aeolian sand and, as a consequence, several dams were created in the Upper Egyptian Nile Valley. Behind such dams the created lakes offered ideal conditions for human subsistence. This model explains the occurrence of Late Palaeolithic hunter-fisher-gatherers in a very arid environment with very low Nile flows

  9. Modeling cellular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matthäus, Franziska; Pahle, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume comprises research articles and reviews on topics connected to the mathematical modeling of cellular systems. These contributions cover signaling pathways, stochastic effects, cell motility and mechanics, pattern formation processes, as well as multi-scale approaches. All authors attended the workshop on "Modeling Cellular Systems" which took place in Heidelberg in October 2014. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  10. Cellular MR Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Modo; Mathias Hoehn; Jeff W.M. Bulte

    2005-01-01

    Cellular MR imaging is a young field that aims to visualize targeted cells in living organisms. In order to provide a different signal intensity of the targeted cell, they are either labeled with MR contrast agents in vivo or prelabeled in vitro. Either (ultrasmall) superparamagnetic iron oxide [(U)SPIO] particles or (polymeric) paramagnetic chelates can be used for this purpose. For in vivo cellular labeling, Gd3+- and Mn2+- chelates have mainly been used for targeted hepatobiliary imaging, ...

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatori, Tadatsugu

    1990-01-01

    There has been a renewal of interest in cellular automata, partly because they give an architecture for a special purpose computer with parallel processing optimized to solve a particular problem. The lattice gas cellular automata are briefly surveyed, which are recently developed to solve partial differential equations such as hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. A new model is given in the present paper to implement the magnetic Lorentz force in a more deterministic and local procedure than the previous one. (author)

  12. Interplay between inflammation and cellular stress triggered by Flaviviridae viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Chaves Valadão

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses, from Flaviviridae virus family, comprises several human pathogens, including Dengue, Zika, Yellow Fever, West Nile and Japanese Encephalitis viruses. Those are enveloped, single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses, and replicate mostly in intracellular compartments associated to endoplasmic reticulum (ER and Golgi complex. Virus replication results in abundant viral RNAs and proteins, which are recognized by cellular mechanisms evolved to prevent virus infection, resulting in inflammation and stress responses. Virus RNA molecules are sensed by Toll-like receptors (TLRs, RIG-I-like receptors (RIG-I and MDA5 and RNA-dependent protein kinases (PKR, inducing the production of inflammatory mediators and interferons. Simultaneously, the synthesis of virus RNA and proteins are distinguished in different compartments such as mitochondria, ER and cytoplasmic granules, triggering intracellular stress pathways, including oxidative stress, UPR pathway, and stress granules assembly. Here, we review the new findings that connect the inflammatory pathways to cellular stress sensors and the strategies of Flaviviridae members to counteract these cellular mechanisms and escape immune response.

  13. Interplay between Inflammation and Cellular Stress Triggered by Flaviviridae Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadão, Ana L C; Aguiar, Renato S; de Arruda, Luciana B

    2016-01-01

    The Flaviviridae family comprises several human pathogens, including Dengue, Zika, Yellow Fever, West Nile, Japanese Encephalitis viruses, and Hepatitis C Virus. Those are enveloped, single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses, which replicate mostly in intracellular compartments associated to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi complex. Virus replication results in abundant viral RNAs and proteins, which are recognized by cellular mechanisms evolved to prevent virus infection, resulting in inflammation and stress responses. Virus RNA molecules are sensed by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RIG-I and MDA5) and RNA-dependent protein kinases (PKR), inducing the production of inflammatory mediators and interferons. Simultaneously, the synthesis of virus RNA and proteins are distinguished in different compartments such as mitochondria, ER and cytoplasmic granules, triggering intracellular stress pathways, including oxidative stress, unfolded protein response pathway, and stress granules assembly. Here, we review the new findings that connect the inflammatory pathways to cellular stress sensors and the strategies of Flaviviridae members to counteract these cellular mechanisms and escape immune response.

  14. Monitoring of pesticides water pollution-The Egyptian River Nile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahshan, Hesham; Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy Abdel-Goad; Nabawy, Ehab; Elbana, Mariam Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants represent about 95 % of the industrial sector effluents in Egypt. Contamination of the River Nile water with various pesticides poses a hazardous risk to both human and environmental compartments. Therefore, a large scale monitoring study was carried on pesticides pollution in three geographical main regions along the River Nil water stream, Egypt. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by GC-ECD. Organochlorine pesticides mean concentrations along the River Nile water samples were 0.403, 1.081, 1.209, 3.22, and 1.192 μg L -1 for endrin, dieldrin, p, p'-DDD, p, p'-DDT, and p, p'-DDE, respectively. Dieldrin, p, p'-DDT, and p, p'-DDE were above the standard guidelines of the World Health Organization. Detected organophosphorus pesticides were Triazophos (2.601 μg L -1 ), Quinalphos (1.91 μg L -1 ), fenitrothion (1.222 μg L -1 ), Ethoprophos (1.076 μg L -1 ), chlorpyrifos (0.578 μg L -1 ), ethion (0.263 μg L -1 ), Fenamiphos (0.111 μg L -1 ), and pirimiphos-methyl (0.04 μg L -1 ). Toxicity characterization of organophosphorus pesticides according to water quality guidelines indicated the hazardous risk of detected chemicals to the public and to the different environmental compartments. The spatial distribution patterns of detected pesticides reflected the reverse relationship between regional temperature and organochlorine pesticides distribution. However, organophosphorus was distributed according to the local inputs of pollutant compounds. Toxicological and water quality standards data revealed the hazardous risk of detected pesticides in the Egyptian River Nile water to human and aquatic life. Thus, our monitoring data will provide viewpoints by which stricter legislation and regulatory controls can be admitted to avoid River Nile pesticide water pollution.

  15. The Efficacy of Water Treaties in the Eastern Nile Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuhibegezer Ferede

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to analyse the efficacy of the water treaties of the Nile in light of the principles of international law. The following critical examination of the treaties brings to light numerous legal defects associated with fraud, coercion, exclusivity and the deficiency of many of the precepts of the international law. Moreover, the lower riparian states’ advocacy for the succession of colonial treaties, which is branded as the re-affirmation of colonialism, is found to be incompatible with the principles of the clean-slate theory adopted by the upper riparian states. Therefore, the region lacks an efficacious regime that could address the interests of all riparian states.

  16. The Complex Epidemiological Scenario of West Nile Virusin Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Franchin, Elisa; Squarzon, Laura; Lavezzo, Enrico; Cattai, Margherita; Cusinato, Riccardo; Palù, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Entomological, veterinary, and human surveillance systems for West Nile virus (WNV) infection have been implemented in Italy since the first detection of the virus in 1998. These surveillance activities documented a progressive increase of WNV activity and spread in different regions and the emergence of new WNV lineages and strains. Italy is a paradigmatic example of the complex epidemiology of WNV in Europe, where sporadic cases of WNV infection, clusters, and small outbreaks have been reported in several regions. In addition, different strains of both WNV lineage 1 and lineage 2 have been identified, even co-circulating in the same area. PMID:24084676

  17. West nile virus encephalitis induced opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Chad J; Said, Sarmad

    2014-04-22

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod borne neurotropic single stranded RNA flavivirus with syndrome (OMS) induced by the WNV meningoencephalitis. She then received five consecutive days of plasmapheresis with a significant improvement in her neurological status. Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare neurological disorder associated with chaotic multidirectional eye movements, myoclonus and less frequently cerebellar ataxia. OMS affects as few as 1 in 10,000,000 people per year. The pathogenesis is not fully understood with the majority of cases of opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome being idiopathic. According to current medical literature there have only been two previous case reports of opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome associated with WNV encephalitis.

  18. Genetic susceptibility to West Nile virus and dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, M

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the host genetic predisposition to 2 viruses, West Nile virus and dengue virus, which belong to the genus Flavivirus. Although by definition these viruses have shared characteristics (e.g. similar size, single stranded, RNA viruses, both transmitted by the bite from an infected mosquito), they differ greatly in epidemiology and clinical manifestations. The text below not only summarizes the genetic factors that predispose to complications of these 2 important flaviviruses, but also illustrates the challenges in determining the genomic basis for complications to these viruses. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Natural equilibria and anthropic effects on sediment transport in big river systems: The Nile case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Padoan, Marta; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Villa, Igor

    2014-05-01

    The Nile River flows for ~ 6700 km, from Burundi and Rwanda highlands south of the Equator to the Mediterranean Sea at northern subtropical latitudes. It is thus the longest natural laboratory on Earth, a unique setting in which we are carrying out a continuing research project to investigate changes in sediment composition associated with a variety of chemical and physical processes, including weathering in equatorial climate and hydraulic sorting during transport and deposition. Petrographic, mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic fingerprints of sand and mud have been monitored along all Nile branches, from the Kagera and White Nile draining Archean, Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic basements uplifted along the western branch of the East African rift, to the Blue Nile and Atbara Rivers sourced in Ethiopian volcanic highlands made of Oligocene basalt. Downstream of the Atbara confluence, the Nile receives no significant tributary water and hardly any rainfall across the Sahara. After construction of the Aswan High Dam in 1964, the Nile ceased to be an active conveyor-belt in Egypt, where the mighty river has been tamed to a water canal; transported sediments are thus chiefly reworked from older bed and levee deposits, with minor contributions from widyan sourced in the Red Sea Hills and wind-blown desert sand and dust. Extensive dam construction has determined a dramatic sediment deficit at the mouth, where deltaic cusps are undergoing ravaging erosion. Nile delta sediments are thus recycled under the effect of dominant waves from the northwest, the longest Mediterranean fetch direction. Nile sands, progressively enriched in more stable minerals such as quartz and amphiboles relative to volcanic rock fragments and pyroxene, thus undergo multistep transport by E- and NE-directed longshore currents all along the coast of Egypt and Palestine, and are carried as far as Akko Bay in northern Israel. Nile mud reaches the Iskenderun Gulf in southern Turkey. A full

  20. Nile Red Staining for Oil Determination in Microalgal Cells: A New Insight through Statistical Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Halim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of global warming and rapid fossil fuel depletion, microalgae emerge as promising feedstocks for sustainable biofuel production. Nile red staining acts as a rapid diagnostic tool to measure the amount of biodiesel-convertible lipid that the cells accumulate. There is a need for the development of a more uniform staining procedure. In its first phase, this study examined the dependence of microalgal Nile red fluorescence (Tetraselmis suecica in terms of its most pertinent staining variables. A quadratic surface model that successfully described the Nile red fluorescence intensity as a composite function of its variables was generated (r2=0.86. Cell concentration was shown to have a significant effect on the fluorescence intensity. Up to a certain threshold, fluorescence intensity was shown to increase with Nile red dye concentration. In its second phase, the study reviewed findings from previous Nile red studies to elucidate some of the fundamental mechanism underlying the diffusion of Nile red dye molecules into the microalgal cells and their subsequent interaction with intracellular lipids. Through the review process, we were able to develop a simple framework that provided a set of guidelines for the standardization of the Nile red staining procedure across different microalgal species.

  1. Major and trace element distribution in soil and sediments from the Egyptian central Nile Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, W. M.; Ghanim, E. H.; Duliu, O. G.; El Samman, H.; Frontasyeva, M. V.

    2017-07-01

    The distributions of 32 major and trace elements in 72 surface soil and sediment samples collected from the Asyut to Cairo Nile river section were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis and compared with corresponding data for the Upper Continental Crust, North American Shale Composite, Average Soil and Average Sediment as well as suspended sediments from Congo and Upper Niger Rivers, in order to establish to which extent the Nile sedimentary material can be related to similar material all over the world as well as to local geology. Their relative distributions indicate the presence of detrital material of igneous origin, most probably resulting from weathering of the Ethiopian Highlands and transported by the Blue Nile, the Nile main tributary. The distributions of nickel, zinc, and arsenic contents suggest that the lower part of the Nile and its surroundings including the Nile Delta is not seriously polluted with heavy metals, so that, in spite of a human activity, which lasted four millennia, the Nile River continues to be less affected by any anthropogenic contamination.

  2. Modern Geophysical Techniques for Constructing a 3D Geological Model on the Nile Delta, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Barakat, Moataz Khairy Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The Nile Delta can be considered the earliest known delta in the world. It was described by Herodotus in the 5th Century AC. The Nile Delta (Ta-Mehet) in Hieroglyphic language means the land of the estuary water. It is one of the oldest intensely cultivated areas on the earth. The Nile Delta is illustrated to be an arcuate delta (arcshaped), as it resembles a triangle or lotus flower when seen from above. The name has been derived from the letter Thelta of the Greek alphabet. In comparison to...

  3. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc. is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well.

  4. Architected Cellular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Carter, William B.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing enables fabrication of materials with intricate cellular architecture, whereby progress in 3D printing techniques is increasing the possible configurations of voids and solids ad infinitum. Examples are microlattices with graded porosity and truss structures optimized for specific loading conditions. The cellular architecture determines the mechanical properties and density of these materials and can influence a wide range of other properties, e.g., acoustic, thermal, and biological properties. By combining optimized cellular architectures with high-performance metals and ceramics, several lightweight materials that exhibit strength and stiffness previously unachievable at low densities were recently demonstrated. This review introduces the field of architected materials; summarizes the most common fabrication methods, with an emphasis on additive manufacturing; and discusses recent progress in the development of architected materials. The review also discusses important applications, including lightweight structures, energy absorption, metamaterials, thermal management, and bioscaffolds.

  5. Assessment of macroseismic intensity in the Nile basin, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergany, Elsayed

    2018-01-01

    This work intends to assess deterministic seismic hazard and risk analysis in terms of the maximum expected intensity map of the Egyptian Nile basin sector. Seismic source zone model of Egypt was delineated based on updated compatible earthquake catalog in 2015, focal mechanisms, and the common tectonic elements. Four effective seismic source zones were identified along the Nile basin. The observed macroseismic intensity data along the basin was used to develop intensity prediction equation defined in terms of moment magnitude. Expected maximum intensity map was proven based on the developed intensity prediction equation, identified effective seismic source zones, and maximum expected magnitude for each zone along the basin. The earthquake hazard and risk analysis was discussed and analyzed in view of the maximum expected moment magnitude and the maximum expected intensity values for each effective source zone. Moderate expected magnitudes are expected to put high risk at Cairo and Aswan regions. The results of this study could be a recommendation for the planners in charge to mitigate the seismic risk at these strategic zones of Egypt.

  6. Ratiometric Alcohol Sensor based on a Polymeric Nile Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Ibrahim

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a sterilizable ratiometric fluorescent ethanol sensor with sensitivity over a wide range (0-100% of ethanol concentration v/v. The sensor is composed of a near infra red fluorescent solvatochromic dye, nile blue methacrylamide polymerized into a polyethylene (glycol dimethacrylate matrix. The dye can typically exhibit two or more wavelength dependent shifts in the fluorescence intensities based on its different micropolar environments. Two different concentrations of the nile blue methacrylamide dye were prepared and polymerized into homogenous films. The fluorescence properties of the two different films were investigated with a view to determining their ethanol sensing capabilities. The sensor was immersed in a water-ethanol solvent mixture. Excitation of the dye was performed at 470 nm. The range of emission wavelengths was 480-800 nm. The ratio of the fluorescence intensities at 620 nm and 554 nm was obtained for ethanol concentrations varying from 0-100% and the calibration curve of the ratiometric fluorescence intensities over the entire concentration range of ethanol was plotted. A ratiometric intensity change of over 33% has been obtained for pure ethanol compared to that obtained for pure water. The sensor response was rapid (≤10 minutes. The sterilizable ethanol sensor exhibits good potential for on-line monitoring of the ethanol generated in an LB fermentation chamber.

  7. West Nile in the Mediterranean basin: 1950-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgue, B; Murri, S; Triki, H; Deubel, V; Zeller, H G

    2001-12-01

    Recent West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks have occurred in the Mediterranean basin. In Algeria in 1994, about 50 human cases of WN encephalitis were suspected, including 8 fatal cases. In Morocco in 1996, 94 equines were affected of which 42 died. In Tunisia in 1997, 173 patients were hospitalized for encephalitis or meningoencephalitis. West Nile serology performed on 129 patients was positive in 111 cases (87%) including 5 fatal cases. In Italy in 1998, 14 horses located in Tuscany were laboratory confirmed for WNV infection; 6 animals died. In Israel in 1998, serum samples from horses suffering from encephalomyelitis had WNV antibodies and virus was isolated from the brain of a stork; in 1999 WNV was identified in commercial geese flocks, and in 2000 hundreds of human cases have been reported. In September 2000, WNV infection was detected in horses located in southern France, close to the Camargue National Park where a WNV outbreak occurred in 1962. By November 30, 76 cases were laboratory confirmed among 131 equines presenting with neurological disorders. No human case has been laboratory confirmed among clinically suspect patients. The virus isolated from a brain biopsy is closely related to the Morocco-1996 and Italy-1998 isolates from horses, to the Senegal-1993 and Kenya-1998 isolates from mosquitoes, and to the human isolate from Volgograd-1999. It is distinguishable from the group including the Israel-1998 and New York-1999 isolates, as well as the Tunisia-1997 human isolate.

  8. Masculinization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by immersion in androgens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, W.L.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Lucero, M.; Contreras-Sanchez, W.M.; Schreck, C. B.

    1999-01-01

    The use of all-male populations increases the efficiency and feasibility of tilapia aquaculture. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a short-term immersion procedure for masculinizing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Two synthetic androgens were evaluated: 17α-methyldihydrotestosterone (MDHT) and 17α-methyltestosterone (MT). Exposure (3 h) on 10 and again on 13 days post-fertilization to MDHT at 500 μg/1 successfully masculinized fry in all experiments, resulting in 100, 94 and 83 ± 2% males in Experiments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Immersions in MDHT or MT at 100 μg/1 resulted in significantly skewed sex ratios in Experiments 1 and 3 (MT resulted in 73 and 83 ± 3% males; and MDHT resulted in 72 and 91 ± 1% males) but not in Experiment 2. Immersion in MT at 500 μg/1 only caused masculinization in Experiment 3. Although further research and refinement is needed, immersion of Nile tilapia in MDHT may provide a practical alternative to the use of steroid-treated feed. Furthermore, when compared with current techniques for steroid-induced sex inversion of tilapia, short-term immersion reduces the period of time that workers are exposed to anabolic steroids.

  9. A regional approach to climate adaptation in the Nile Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Michael B.; Buontempo, Carlo; Lørup, Jens K.; Williams, Karina; Mathison, Camilla; Jessen, Oluf Z.; Riegels, Niels D.; Glennie, Paul; McSweeney, Carol; Wilson, Mark; Jones, Richard; Seid, Abdulkarim H.

    2016-10-01

    The Nile Basin is one of the most important shared basins in Africa. Managing and developing the water resources within the basin must not only address different water uses but also the trade-off between developments upstream and water use downstream, often between different countries. Furthermore, decision-makers in the region need to evaluate and implement climate adaptation measures. Previous work has shown that the Nile flows can be highly sensitive to climate change and that there is considerable uncertainty in climate projections in the region with no clear consensus as to the direction of change. Modelling current and future changes in river runoff must address a number of challenges; including the large size of the basin, the relative scarcity of data, and the corresponding dramatic variety of climatic conditions and diversity in hydrological characteristics. In this paper, we present a methodology, to support climate adaptation on a regional scale, for assessing climate change impacts and adaptation potential for floods, droughts and water scarcity within the basin.

  10. Efficiency of aquatic macrophytes to treat Nile tilapia pond effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry-Silva Gustavo Gonzaga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effluents from fish farming can increase the quantity of suspended solids and promote the enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of three species of floating aquatic macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia molesta to treat effluents from Nile tilapia culture ponds. The effluent originated from a 1,000-m² pond stocked with 2,000 male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The treatment systems consisted of 12 experimental tanks, three tanks for each macrophyte species, and three control tanks (without plants. Water samples were collected from the: (i fish pond source water, (ii effluent from fish pond and (iii effluents from the treatment tanks. The following water variables were evaluated: turbidity, total and dissolved nitrogen, ammoniacal-N, nitrate-N, nitrite-N, total phosphorus and dissolved phosphorus. E. crassipes and P. stratiotes were more efficient in total phosphorus removal (82.0% and 83.3%, respectively and total nitrogen removal (46.1% and 43.9%, respectively than the S. molesta (72.1% total phosphorus and 42.7% total nitrogen and the control (50.3% total phosphorus and 22.8% total nitrogen, indicating that the treated effluents may be reused in the aquaculture activity.

  11. Tolerance of Nile tilapia juveniles to highly acidic rearing water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Tomaz Rebouças

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed at determining the tolerance of Nile tilapia juveniles to highly acidic rearing waters and the effects of water acidity on the quality of tank effluents. The experimental design consisted of four treatments with different water pH values (4.12 ± 0.84; 5.13 ± 0.74; 6.14 ± 0.64 and 8.06 ± 0.48, with five replicates each. No exchange of water was performed throughout the study, only water replenishment to maintain the initial level. Variables of water quality, soil, growth performance, metabolism and effluents were monitored for eight weeks. Despite the lower total ammonia nitrogen (TAN concentration in the pH 8 tanks, their levels of non-ionized ammonia (NH3 were the highest ones. At the end, the lowest body weight of fish was observed in the pH 8 tanks. There was a significant improvement in feed conversion ratio (FCR and protein efficiency ratio (PER due to to water acidification. There were reduced concentrations of NH3 in the acidified tanks’ effluents. It was concluded that the gradual water acidification up to pH 4 can improve the Nile tilapia juveniles’ growth performance.

  12. A Cultural Herpetology of Nile Crocodiles in Africa

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    Simon Pooley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflict is a growing problem worldwide wherever humans share landscapes with large predators, and negative encounters with eight species of the crocodilians is particularly widespread. Conservationists' responses to these adverse encounters have focused on the ecological and behavioural aspects of predators, rather than on the social, political, and cultural contexts, which have threatened their existence in the first place. Few studies have thus far tried to understand the rich, varied, contradictory, and complex relations that exist between particular humans and human societies, and particular predators and groups of predators. It is in the spirit of Brian Morris's explorations of the interactional encounters and co-produced sociabilities that exist between humans and animals in specific places and regions that this paper offers a cultural herpetology (an account of human-crocodile interrelations of the Nile crocodile (Crocodilus niloticus and C. suchus in Africa. It draws on extensive historical documentation of the interactions of humans and crocodiles across Africa to examine how diverse and complex human responses to Nile crocodiles have been, and continue to be, and suggests some implications for improving human-crocodile relations.

  13. West Nile Virus workshop: scientific considerations for tissue donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Scott A; Robert Rigney, P

    2012-08-01

    This report contains selected excerpts, presented as a summary, from a public workshop sponsored by the American Association of Tissue Banks (AATB) held to discuss West Nile Virus (WNV) and scientific considerations for tissue donors. The daylong workshop was held 9 July 2010 at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel at Tyson's Corner in McLean, Virginia, United States (U.S.). The workshop was designed to determine and discuss scientific information that is known, and what is not known, regarding WNV infection and transmission. The goal is to determine how to fill gaps in knowledge of WNV and tissue donation and transplantation by pursuing relevant scientific studies. This information should ultimately support decisions leading to appropriate tissue donor screening and testing considerations. Discussion topics were related to identifying these gaps and determining possible solutions. Workshop participants included subject-matter experts from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Canada, the Public Health Agency of Canada, AATB-accredited tissue banks including reproductive tissue banks, accredited eye banks of the Eye Bank Association of America, testing laboratories, and infectious disease and organ transplantation professionals. After all presentations concluded, a panel addressed this question: "What are the scientific considerations for tissue donors and what research could be performed to address those considerations?" The slide presentations from the workshop are available at: http://www.aatb.org/2010-West-Nile-Virus-Workshop-Presentations.

  14. Risk mapping of West Nile virus circulation in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, Amaya; Amela, Carmen; Fernández-Carrión, Eduardo; Martínez-Avilés, Marta; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Sierra-Moros, María José

    2017-05-01

    West Nile fever is an emergent disease in Europe. The objective of this study was to conduct a predictive risk mapping of West Nile Virus (WNV) circulation in Spain based on historical data of WNV circulation. Areas of Spain with evidence of WNV circulation were mapped based on data from notifications to the surveillance systems and a literature review. A logistic regression-based spatial model was used to assess the probability of WNV circulation. Data were analyzed at municipality level. Mean temperatures of the period from June to October, presence of wetlands and presence of Special Protection Areas for birds were considered as potential predictors. Two predictors of WNV circulation were identified: higher temperature [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.07, 95% CI 1.82-2.35, pSpain. The importance of a comprehensive surveillance for WNF, including human, animal and potential vectors is highlighted, which could additionally result in model refinements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Visual communication stimulates reproduction in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, A L S; Gonçalves-de-Freitas, E; Volpato, G L; Oliveira, C

    2009-04-01

    Reproductive fish behavior is affected by male-female interactions that stimulate physiological responses such as hormonal release and gonad development. During male-female interactions, visual and chemical communication can modulate fish reproduction. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of visual and chemical male-female interaction on the gonad development and reproductive behavior of the cichlid fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Fifty-six pairs were studied after being maintained for 5 days under one of the four conditions (N = 14 for each condition): 1) visual contact (V); 2) chemical contact (Ch); 3) chemical and visual contact (Ch+V); 4) no sensory contact (Iso) - males and females isolated. We compared the reproductive behavior (nesting, courtship and spawning) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) of pairs of fish under all four conditions. Visual communication enhanced the frequency of courtship in males (mean +/- SEM; V: 24.79 +/- 3.30, Ch+V: 20.74 +/- 3.09, Ch: 0.1 +/- 0.07, Iso: 4.68 +/- 1.26 events/30 min; P communication did not affect the reproductive behavior of pairs nor did it enhance the effects of visual contact. Therefore, male-female visual communication is an effective cue, which stimulates reproduction among pairs of Nile tilapia.

  16. Growth and energy metabolism of Nile tilapia juveniles fed glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Vicente da Costa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of dietary glycerol in replacement to starch on the growth and energy metabolism of Nile tilapia juveniles. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with four treatments (0, 5, 10, and 15% purified glycerol and six replicates. Pelleted, isonitrogenous, and isocaloric diets were provided for 60 days. Growth performance parameters and muscle glucose and protein concentrations were not affected by dietary glycerol levels. The treatment with 15% glycerol presented higher levels of muscle and liver triglycerides. A quadratic effect of treatments on muscle and liver triglyceride concentrations was observed. The treatment with 0% glycerol presented higher hepatic glucose levels than the one with 15%. Treatments did not differ for concentrations of liver protein, as well as of plasma glucose, triglycerides, and protein. Treatments with 10 and 15% glycerol showed higher activity of the glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase enzyme than the treatment with 5%; however, there were no significant differences in the hepatic activities of the malic and glycerol kinase enzymes. A linear positive effect of treatments was observed on the activity of the glycerol kinase enzyme in liver. Levels of glycerol inclusion above 10% in the diet of Nile tilapia juveniles characterize it as a lipogenic nutrient.

  17. Endomembrane Ca2+-AtPases play a significant role in virus-induced adaptation to oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabala, Sergey; Bækgaard, Lone; Shabala, Lana

    2011-01-01

    in adaptive responses to oxidative stress by removing excessive Ca2+ from the cytosol, and that their functional expression is significantly altered in PVX-inoculated plants. These findings highlight the crucial role of Ca2+ efflux systems in acquired tolerance to oxidative stress and open up prospects...... for practical applications in agriculture, after in-depth comprehension of the fundamental mechanisms involved in common responses to environmental factors at the genomic, cellular and organismal levels....

  18. Investigation of the elemental contents of some environmental samples from the Blue Nile and White Nile around Khartoum area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, Kamal Khalifa

    1997-10-01

    This work was performed to evaluate the environmental pollution at the Blue Nile (BN) and White Nile (WN) around Khartoum state. Samples of soil, sediments, plants, fish and water were collected from the studied area and analyzed. The concentrations of some elements (K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Sr, Rb, Na, P, Zn, Br, Y, Zr, and Pb) were determined using the following analytical methods; atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), flame photometry, colorimetry and ultra violet spectrometry (UV). The data obtained was compared with the data from literature. The data was statistically analyzed to compare the results obtained by the different methods. The results of most elements determined by more than one method were significantly similar. The statistical analysis together with the chemical analysis revealed that the soil and sediments of the BN and WN are significantly different. The extent of pollution was determined by calculating the enrichment factors. The enrichment factors in sediments were calculated using both Fe and Ti as reference elements where values were almost equal. Some elements were slightly enriched at some sites but not to a degree to indicate a serious pollution. The accumulation of elements in plants as a clue for pollution was also calculated. Some elements; P, Cu and Zn were accumulated. The elemental concentrations in fish and water were not that high but water was still higher than the WHO recommended concentrations. (Author)

  19. Pesticide residues in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) from Southern Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, L. [Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam. PO Box 35061, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania); Kishimba, M.A. [Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam. PO Box 35061, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania)]. E-mail: kishimba@chem.udsm.ac.tz

    2006-03-15

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) samples were collected from fish landing stations in nine riparian districts on the Tanzanian side of Lake Victoria and screened for residues of 64 organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides. The residue levels in the fish fillet were up to 0.003, 0.03 and 0.2 mg/kg fresh weight (0.7, 3.8 and 42 mg/kg lipid weight) of fenitrothion, DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Mean levels within sites were up to 0.002, 0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg fresh weight (0.5, 0.5 and 16 mg/kg lipid weight), respectively. The detection of higher levels of p,p'-DDT than the degradation products (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE), and higher levels of endosulfan isomers ({alpha} and {beta}) than the sulphate, in fish samples, implied recent exposure of fish to DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Generally, most of the fish samples had residue levels above the average method detection limits (MDLs), but were within the calculated ADI. - Fish from Lake Victoria had relatively low pesticide levels.

  20. Pesticide residues in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) from Southern Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, L.; Kishimba, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) samples were collected from fish landing stations in nine riparian districts on the Tanzanian side of Lake Victoria and screened for residues of 64 organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides. The residue levels in the fish fillet were up to 0.003, 0.03 and 0.2 mg/kg fresh weight (0.7, 3.8 and 42 mg/kg lipid weight) of fenitrothion, DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Mean levels within sites were up to 0.002, 0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg fresh weight (0.5, 0.5 and 16 mg/kg lipid weight), respectively. The detection of higher levels of p,p'-DDT than the degradation products (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE), and higher levels of endosulfan isomers (α and β) than the sulphate, in fish samples, implied recent exposure of fish to DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Generally, most of the fish samples had residue levels above the average method detection limits (MDLs), but were within the calculated ADI. - Fish from Lake Victoria had relatively low pesticide levels

  1. The New Cellular Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claman, Henry N.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the nature of the immune response and traces many of the discoveries that have led to the present state of knowledge in immunology. The new cellular immunology is directing its efforts toward improving health by proper manipulation of the immune mechanisms of the body. (JR)

  2. Electromagnetic cellular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Michal; Fields, Jeremy Z; Farhadi, Ashkan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and electrical interaction within and between cells is well established. Just the opposite is true about cellular interactions via other physical fields. The most probable candidate for an other form of cellular interaction is the electromagnetic field. We review theories and experiments on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields generally, and if the cell-generated electromagnetic field can mediate cellular interactions. We do not limit here ourselves to specialized electro-excitable cells. Rather we describe physical processes that are of a more general nature and probably present in almost every type of living cell. The spectral range included is broad; from kHz to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We show that there is a rather large number of theories on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields and discuss experimental evidence on electromagnetic cellular interactions in the modern scientific literature. Although small, it is continuously accumulating. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic characterisation of four strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromie Niloticus L.) using microsatellite markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.M.; Komen, J.; Deerenberg, R.M.; Siwek-Gapinska, M.Z.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2004-01-01

    Four domesticated strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) were genetically characterized using 14 microsatellite markers and 64 animals per strain. Two strains, Chitralada (AIT) and International Development Research Centers (IDRC) were obtained from the AIT institute, Bangkok, Thailand.

  4. Normal haematology and blood biochemistry of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovely, C J; Pittman, J M; Leslie, A J

    2007-09-01

    Wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) of various size classes were captured in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Blood was collected from the post occipital sinus and used for the determination of a wide range of haematological and biochemical parameters. These values were compared between the sexes and between 3 size classes. The values were also compared with the limited data available from farmed Nile crocodiles, as well as from other wild Nile crocodiles. The Okavango crocodiles were comparatively anaemic, and had comparatively low total protein and blood glucose levels. There was a high prevalence of Hepatozoon pettiti infection, however, there was no significant difference in haematological values between the infected and uninfected crocodiles. The values reported here will be useful in diagnostic investigations in both zoo and farmed Nile crocodiles.

  5. Eutrophication, Nile perch and food-web interactions in south-east Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing eutrophication, the introduction of Nile perch (Lates niloticus) and the increasing fishing pressure has changed Lake Victoria tremendously the last century. Since the 1960s, eutrophication increased primary production, enabling an increase in fish production. However, eutrophication

  6. Reported Neuroinvasive Cases of West Nile Virus by State, 2002-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map shows the average annual incidence of neuroinvasive West Nile virus disease in each state, which is calculated as the average number of new cases per...

  7. Normal haematology and blood biochemistry of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Lovely

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus of various size classes were captured in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Blood was collected from the post occipital sinus and used for the determination of a wide range of haematological and biochemical parameters. These values were compared between the sexes and between 3 size classes. The values were also compared with the limited data available from farmed Nile crocodiles, as well as from other wild Nile crocodiles. The Okavango crocodiles were comparatively anaemic, and had comparatively low total protein and blood glucose levels. There was a high prevalence of Hepatozoon pettiti infection, however, there was no significant difference in haematological values between the infected and uninfected crocodiles. The values reported here will be useful in diagnostic investigations in both zoo and farmed Nile crocodiles.

  8. Water Scarcity as a Cause of Conflict in the Nile, Euphrates, and Jordan River Basins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Still, Douglas R

    2006-01-01

    The Euphrates, Nile, and Jordan Rivers are at center stage in the continued existence of the peoples in their basins where water scarcity serves as a source of conflict between the region's riparian...

  9. Apple latent spherical virus vectors for reliable and effective virus-induced gene silencing among a broad range of plants including tobacco, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucurbits, and legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Aki; Yamagata, Kousuke; Sugai, Tomokazu; Takahashi, Yukari; Sugawara, Emiko; Tamura, Akihiro; Yaegashi, Hajime; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Isogai, Masamichi; Takahashi, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors were evaluated for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of endogenous genes among a broad range of plant species. ALSV vectors carrying partial sequences of a subunit of magnesium chelatase (SU) and phytoene desaturase (PDS) genes induced highly uniform knockout phenotypes typical of SU and PDS inhibition on model plants such as tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana, and economically important crops such as tomato, legume, and cucurbit species. The silencing phenotypes persisted throughout plant growth in these plants. In addition, ALSV vectors could be successfully used to silence a meristem gene, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and disease resistant N gene in tobacco and RCY1 gene in A. thaliana. As ALSV infects most host plants symptomlessly and effectively induces stable VIGS for long periods, the ALSV vector is a valuable tool to determine the functions of interested genes among a broad range of plant species.

  10. CCR5 and CXCR3 are dispensable for liver infiltration, but CCR5 protects against virus-induced T-cell-mediated hepatic steatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, P J; Orskov, C; Qvortrup, K

    2007-01-01

    CCR5 and CXCR3 are important molecules in regulating the migration of activated lymphocytes. Thus, the majority of tissue-infiltrating T cells found in the context of autoimmune conditions and viral infections express CCR5 and CXCR3, and the principal chemokine ligands are expressed within inflamed...... tissues. Accordingly, intervention studies have pointed to nonredundant roles of these receptors in models of allograft rejection, viral infection, and autoimmunity. In spite of this, considerable controversy exists, with many studies failing to support a role for CCR5 or CXCR3 in disease pathogenesis....... One possible explanation is that different chemokine receptors may take over in the absence of any individual receptor, thus rendering individual receptors redundant. We have attempted to address this issue by analyzing CCR5(-/-), CXCR3(-/-), and CCR5/CXCR3(-/-) mice with regard to virus-induced liver...

  11. Suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 and 3 are up-regulated in brain resident cells in response to virus induced inflammation of the CNS via at least two distinctive pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Maria Abildgaard; Fenger, Christina; Christensen, Jeanette Erbo

    2014-01-01

    underlie a virus induced up-regulation of SOCS in the CNS. We found that i.c. infection with either lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) or yellow fever virus (YF) results in gradual up-regulation of SOCS1/3 mRNA expression peaking at day 7 post infection (p.i.). In the LCMV model, SOCS m...

  12. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Identifies an Important Role of the TaRSR1 Transcription Factor in Starch Synthesis in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyu Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The function of a wheat starch regulator 1 (TaRSR1 in regulating the synthesis of grain storage starch was determined using the barley stripe mosaic virus—virus induced gene-silencing (BSMV-VIGS method in field experiments. Chlorotic stripes appeared on the wheat spikes infected with barley stripe mosaic virus-virus induced gene-silencing- wheat starch regulator 1 (BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1 at 15 days after anthesis, at which time the transcription levels of the TaRSR1 gene significantly decreased. Quantitative real-time PCR was also used to measure the transcription levels of 26 starch synthesis-related enzyme genes in the grains of BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1-silenced wheat plants at 20, 27, and 31 days after anthesis. The results showed that the transcription levels of some starch synthesis-related enzyme genes were markedly induced at different sampling time points: TaSSI, TaSSIV, TaBEIII, TaISA1, TaISA3, TaPHOL, and TaDPE1 genes were induced at each of the three sampling time points and TaAGPS1-b, TaAGPL1, TaAGPL2, TaSSIIb, TaSSIIc, TaSSIIIb, TaBEI, TaBEIIa, TaBEIIb, TaISA2, TaPHOH, and TaDPE2 genes were induced at one sampling time point. Moreover, both the grain starch contents, one thousand kernel weights, grain length and width of BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1-infected wheat plants significantly increased. These results suggest that TaRSR1 acts as a negative regulator and plays an important role in starch synthesis in wheat grains by temporally regulating the expression of specific starch synthesis-related enzyme genes.

  13. Human case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease in Portugal, summer 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zé-Zé, Líbia; Proença, Paula; Osório, Hugo C; Gomes, Salomé; Luz, Teresa; Parreira, Paulo; Fevereiro, Miguel; Alves, Maria João

    2015-01-01

    A case of West Nile virus (WNV) infection was reported in the Algarve region, Portugal, in the first week of September 2015. WNV is known to circulate in Portugal, with occasional reports in horses and birds (2004 to 2011) and very sporadically human cases (in 2004 and in 2010). Here we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first human case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease reported in Portugal.

  14. CD8+ T cells mediate recovery and immunopathology in West Nile virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Lobigs, Mario; Lee, Eva; Müllbacher, Arno

    2003-12-01

    C57BL/6J mice infected intravenously with the Sarafend strain of West Nile virus (WNV) develop a characteristic central nervous system (CNS) disease, including an acute inflammatory reaction. Dose response studies indicate two distinct kinetics of mortality. At high doses of infection (10(8) PFU), direct infection of the brain occurred within 24 h, resulting in 100% mortality with a 6-day mean survival time (MST), and there was minimal destruction of neural tissue. A low dose (10(3) PFU) of infection resulted in 27% mortality (MST, 11 days), and virus could be detected in the CNS 7 days postinfection (p.i.). Virus was present in the hypogastric lymph nodes and spleens at days 4 to 7 p.i. Histology of the brains revealed neuronal degeneration and inflammation within leptomeninges and brain parenchyma. Inflammatory cell infiltration was detectable in brains from day 4 p.i. onward in the high-dose group and from day 7 p.i. in the low-dose group, with the severity of infiltration increasing over time. The cellular infiltrates in brain consisted predominantly of CD8(+), but not CD4(+), T cells. CD8(+) T cells in the brain and the spleen expressed the activation markers CD69 early and expressed CD25 at later time points. CD8(+) T-cell-deficient mice infected with 10(3) PFU of WNV showed increased mortalities but prolonged MST and early infection of the CNS compared to wild-type mice. Using high doses of virus in CD8-deficient mice leads to increased survival. These results provide evidence that CD8(+) T cells are involved in both recovery and immunopathology in WNV infection.

  15. West Nile virus differentially modulates the unfolded protein response to facilitate replication and immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Rebecca L; Mackenzie, Jason M

    2011-03-01

    For intracellular survival it is imperative that viruses have the capacity to manipulate various cellular responses, including metabolic and biosynthetic pathways. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is induced by various external and internal stimuli, including the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Our previous studies have indicated that the replication and assembly of the flavivirus West Nile virus strain Kunjin virus (WNV(KUN)) is intimately associated with the ER. Thus, we sought to determine whether the UPR was induced during WNV(KUN) infection. WNV(KUN) induces UPR signaling during replication, which is coordinated with peak replication. Interestingly, signaling is biased toward the ATF6/IRE-1 arm of the response, with high levels of Xbp-1 activation but negligible eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α phosphorylation and downstream transcription. We show that the PERK-mediated response may partially regulate replication, since external UPR stimulation had a limiting effect on early replication events and cells deficient for PERK demonstrated increased replication and virus release. Significantly, we show that the WNV(KUN) hydrophobic nonstructural proteins NS4A and NS4B are potent inducers of the UPR, which displayed a high correlation in inhibiting Jak-STAT signaling in response to alpha interferon (IFN-α). Sequential removal of the transmembrane domains of NS4A showed that reducing hydrophobicity decreased UPR signaling and restored IFN-α-mediated activation. Overall, these results suggest that WNV(KUN) can stimulate the UPR to facilitate replication and that the induction of a general ER stress response, regulated by hydrophobic WNV(KUN) proteins, can potentiate the inhibition of the antiviral signaling pathway.

  16. Investigations for heavy metals pollution in the Nile water in Khartoum area using XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Saadia Elsir

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform measurements for heavy metals pollution in the Nile water in Khartoum area. Ten locations were selected for the study on the white Nile, the Blue Nile and the Nile. Standard methods were used for samples collection and preparation for the measurements using XRF. Nine elements were observed and their concentrations determined in the various locations. These Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, Zr, and Se. From the performed measurements for heavy metals pollution in the Nile water in Khartoum area using the XRF method the following conclusions can be made: There is no heavy metal pollution in the Nile water in Khartoum area resulting from industrial activities. However, there are indications for possible Pb pollution resulting from automobile emission. - The concentrations for the observed heavy metals, except Fe, were much below the maximum permissible international levels provided by the USA, EEC and WHO. - The origin for the observed concentrations of heavy metals, except for Pb, was considered to be soil and silt carried by river in it's journey from the Ethiopian Highlands and lake Victoria. (Author)

  17. A distal 140 kyr sediment record of Nile discharge and East African monsoon variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Werner; Schmiedl, Gerhard; Seidel, Martin; Krüger, Stefan; Schulz, Hartmut

    2016-03-01

    Clay mineral assemblages in a sediment core from the distal Nile discharge plume off Israel have been used to reconstruct the late Quaternary Nile sediment discharge into the eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS). The record spans the last ca. 140 kyr. Smectite abundances indicate the influence of the Blue Nile and the Atbara River that have their headwaters in the volcanic rocks of the Ethiopian Highlands. Kaolinite abundances indicate the influence of wadis, which contribute periodically to the suspension load of the Nile. Due to the geographical position, the climate and the sedimentary framework of the EMS is controlled by two climate systems. The long-term climate regime was governed by the African monsoon that caused major African humid periods (AHPs) with enhanced sediment discharge at 132 to the formation of the related sapropel layers S5 (> 2 kyr), S4 (3.5 kyr), and S3 (5 kyr). During the last glacial period (Marine Isotope Stages (MISs) 4-2), the long-term changes in the monsoonal system were superimposed by millennial-scale changes in an intensified midlatitude glacial system. This climate regime caused short but pronounced drought periods in the Nile catchment, which are linked to Heinrich events and alternate with more humid interstadials. The clay mineral record further implies that feedback mechanisms between vegetation cover and sediment discharge of the Nile are detectable but of minor importance for the sedimentary record in the southeastern Mediterranean Sea during the investigated African humid periods.

  18. Mutually beneficial and sustainable management of Ethiopian and Egyptian dams in the Nile Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habteyes, Befekadu G.; Hasseen El-bardisy, Harb A. E.; Amer, Saud A.; Schneider, Verne R.; Ward, Frank A.

    2015-10-01

    Ongoing pressures from population growth, recurrent drought, climate, urbanization and industrialization in the Nile Basin raise the importance of finding viable measures to adapt to these stresses. Four tributaries of the Eastern Nile Basin contribute to supplies: the Blue Nile (56%), White Nile-Albert (14%), Atbara (15%) and Sobat (15%). Despite much peer reviewed work addressing conflicts on the Nile, none to date has quantitatively examined opportunities for discovering benefit sharing measures that could protect negative impacts on downstream water users resulting from new upstream water storage developments. The contribution of this paper is to examine the potential for mutually beneficial and sustainable benefit sharing measures from the development and operation of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam while protecting baseline flows to the downstream countries including flows into the Egyptian High Aswan Dam. An integrated approach is formulated to bring the hydrology, economics and institutions of the region into a unified framework for policy analysis. A dynamic optimization model is developed and applied to identify the opportunities for Pareto Improving measures to operate these two dams for the four Eastern Nile Basin countries: Ethiopia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Egypt. Results indicate a possibility for one country to be better off (Ethiopia) and no country to be worse off from a managed operation of these two storage facilities. Still, despite the optimism of our results, considerable diplomatic negotiation among the four riparians will be required to turn potential gains into actual welfare improvements.

  19. Synthesis and optical properties of pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid carrying a clicked Nile red label

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattawut Yotapan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available DNA or its analogues with an environment-sensitive fluorescent label are potentially useful as a probe for studying the structure and dynamics of nucleic acids. In this work, pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (acpcPNA was labeled at its backbone with Nile red, a solvatochromic benzophenoxazine dye, by means of click chemistry. The optical properties of the Nile red-labeled acpcPNA were investigated by UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy in the absence and in the presence of DNA. In contrast to the usual quenching observed in Nile red-labeled DNA, the hybridization with DNA resulted in blue shifting and an enhanced fluorescence regardless of the neighboring bases. More pronounced blue shifts and fluorescence enhancements were observed when the DNA target carried a base insertion in close proximity to the Nile red label. The results indicate that the Nile red label is located in a more hydrophobic environment in acpcPNA–DNA duplexes than in the single-stranded acpcPNA. The different fluorescence properties of the acpcPNA hybrids of complementary DNA and DNA carrying a base insertion are suggestive of different interactions between the Nile red label and the duplexes.

  20. Radiopharmaceutical cellular uptake mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Cipriana; Rusu, V.

    1996-01-01

    Cellular radiopharmaceutical specificity depends mainly of the uptake mechanisms. Usually, this can be one of the classical membrane transport type (a passive or active transport, a receptor mediated one or a combination of them). It can also be an electrochemical gradient dependent membrane transport in relation with Nernst equation, as in case of 99m Tc MIBI, the representative molecule of a widely studied family tracers, with applications in cardiac and oncological scintigraphy. Another mechanism can be an ATP dependent active transport, that results in the most important 201 Tl inflow. 201 Tl inflow is also an example of multiple mechanisms involved in cellular ionic inflow. Over 30% of 201 Tl transport imply other ways, like Na + - K + - Cl - co-transport. For a given tracer, the mechanism may depend also on the cell type. In conclusion, knowledge of the radiotracer uptake mechanisms allows finding the 'ideal' radiotracer with high specificity for the tissue to be visualized. (authors)

  1. Molecular and Cellular Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A small number of signaling pathways, no more than a dozen or so, form a control layer that is responsible for all signaling in and between cells of the human body. The signaling proteins belonging to the control layer determine what kinds of cells are made during development and how they function during adult life. Malfunctions in the proteins belonging to the control layer are responsible for a host of human diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancers. Most drugs target components in the control layer, and difficulties in drug design are intimately related to the architecture of the control layer. Molecular and Cellular Signaling provides an introduction to molecular and cellular signaling in biological systems with an emphasis on the underlying physical principles. The text is aimed at upper-level undergraduates, graduate students and individuals in medicine and pharmacology interested in broadening their understanding of how cells regulate and coordinate their core activities and how diseases ...

  2. Nested cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasthoff, U.

    1985-07-01

    Cellular automata by definition consist of a finite or infinite number of cells, say of unit length, with each cell having the same transition function. These cells are usually considered as the smallest elements and so the space filled with these cells becomes discrete. Nevertheless, large pictures created by such cellular automata look very fractal. So we try to replace each cell by a couple of smaller cells, which have the same transition functions as the large ones. There are automata where this replacement does not destroy the macroscopic structure. In these cases this nesting process can be iterated. The paper contains large classes of automata with the above properties. In the case of one dimensional automata with two states and next neighbour interaction and a nesting function of the same type a complete classification is given. (author)

  3. Radiolabeled cellular blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, M.L.; Ezikowitz, M.D.; Hardeman, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains papers delivered by guest lectures and participants at the Advanced Study Institute's colloquium on Radiolabeled Cellular Blood Elements at Maratea, Italy on August 29, to September 9, 1982. The book includes chapters on basic cell physiology and critical reviews of data and experience in the preparation and use of radiolabeled cells, as well as reports on very recent developments, from a faculty that included experts on cell physiology in health and disease and on the technology of in vivo labeling

  4. Experimental Infections of Wild Birds with West Nile Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pérez-Ramírez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Avian models of West Nile virus (WNV disease have become pivotal in the study of infection pathogenesis and transmission, despite the intrinsic constraints that represents this type of experimental research that needs to be conducted in biosecurity level 3 (BSL3 facilities. This review summarizes the main achievements of WNV experimental research carried out in wild birds, highlighting advantages and limitations of this model. Viral and host factors that determine the infection outcome are analyzed in detail, as well as recent discoveries about avian immunity, viral transmission, and persistence achieved through experimental research. Studies of laboratory infections in the natural host will help to understand variations in susceptibility and reservoir competence among bird species, as well as in the epidemiological patterns found in different affected areas.

  5. West Nile virus encephalomyelitis in horses in Ontario: 28 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, J. Scott; Baird, John D.; DeLay, Josepha; Kenney, Daniel G.; Staempfli, Henry R.; Viel, Laurent; Parent, Joane; Smith-Maxie, Laura; Poma, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    West Nile virus encephalomyelitis was diagnosed in 28 horses presented to the Ontario Veterinary College Veterinary Teaching Hospital between August 20 and October 15, 2002. The age range of affected horses was 5 months to 20 years (mean 6.9 years, median 6 years). Clinical signs were highly variable. Duration of hospitalization ranged from < 1 to 12 days (mean 5 days, median 5.4 days). Overall, 16 of the 28 (57%) horses were discharged and, of the 14 from which follow-up information was available, 13 (93%) were reported to be clinically normal 4 to 6 weeks following discharge, while the other horse had markedly improved. This pathogen is emerging as an important cause of neurological disease in Canada. PMID:12839240

  6. Blood cues induce antipredator behavior in Nile tilapia conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Egydio Barreto

    Full Text Available In this study, we show that the fish Nile tilapia displays an antipredator response to chemical cues present in the blood of conspecifics. This is the first report of alarm response induced by blood-borne chemical cues in fish. There is a body of evidence showing that chemical cues from epidermal 'club' cells elicit an alarm reaction in fish. However, the chemical cues of these 'club' cells are restricted to certain species of fish. Thus, as a parsimonious explanation, we assume that an alarm response to blood cues is a generalized response among animals because it occurs in mammals, birds and protostomian animals. Moreover, our results suggest that researchers must use caution when studying chemically induced alarm reactions because it is difficult to separate club cell cues from traces of blood.

  7. Globalization, land use and the invasion of West Nile virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, A. Marm

    2012-01-01

    Many invasive species that have been spread through the globalization of trade and travel are infectious pathogens. A paradigmatic case is the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America in 1999. A decade of research on the ecology and evolution of WNV includes three findings that provide insight into the outcome of future viral introductions. First, WNV transmission in North America is highest in urbanized and agricultural habitats, in part because the hosts and vectors of WNV are abundant in human-modified areas. Second, after its introduction, the virus quickly adapted to infect local mosquito vectors more efficiently than the originally introduced strain. Third, highly focused feeding patterns of the mosquito vectors of WNV result in unexpected host species being important for transmission. These findings provide a framework for predicting and preventing the emergence of foreign vector-borne pathogens. PMID:22021850

  8. Peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in White Nile State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Ishag

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eight outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats were reported in White Nile State, Sudan, between 2008 and 2009. A mortality rate of 4.2% was reported across the different outbreaks. Clinically the disease was characterised by high fever, ocular and nasal discharge, pneumonia, ulceration of the mucous membranes, diarrhoea and death. The postmortem findings included necrotic lesions in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, and swollen, oedematous lymph nodes associated with the lungs and intestine. Of the 209 serum samples tested by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 113 (54% were found positive. Peste des petits ruminants virus was confirmed in tissues, nasal swabs and blood samples by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and isolation of the virus in culture of lamb testicle cells.

  9. Fox squirrel (Sciurus niger) associations with West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, J Jeffrey; Oesterle, Paul T; Sullivan, Heather J; Hall, Jeffrey S; Marlenee, Nicole L; McLean, Robert G; Montenieri, John A; Clark, Larry

    2007-04-01

    Tree squirrels (Sciurus spp.) have been recently shown to be commonly exposed to West Nile virus (WNV). Many characteristics of WNV infections in tree squirrels are unknown. To better understand WNV associations in fox squirrels (S. niger), we conducted mark-recapture sampling (N = 72) and radio telemetry to study the longitudinal seroprevalence, seroconversions, and ectoparasites of these animals during 2005-2006 in northern Colorado. Five seroconversions were documented during this study. The majority of seroconversions occurred during the late summer/fall months. However, one seroconversion was documented over the time period of February to late March 2005. Fleas (Orchopeas howardi) were tested for WNV RNA using real-time PCR techniques. No WNV RNA positive fleas (N = 33) were detected. In addition, urine samples (N = 17) opportunistically collected from fox squirrels were negative for WNV RNA. Results indicate that seroconversions can be observed in fox squirrels during low WNV transmission years.

  10. Magnetic polymer microcapsules loaded with Nile Red fluorescent dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Marta; Wysocka, Barbara; Krug, Pamela; Kępińska, Daria; Kijewska, Krystyna; Blanchard, Gary J.; Kaczyńska, Katarzyna; Lubelska, Katarzyna; Wiktorska, Katarzyna; Głowala, Paulina; Wilczek, Marcin; Pisarek, Marcin; Szczytko, Jacek; Twardowski, Andrzej; Mazur, Maciej

    2018-04-01

    Fabrication of multifunctional smart vehicles for drug delivery is a fascinating challenge of multidisciplinary research at the crossroads of materials science, physics and biology. We demonstrate a prototypical microcapsule system that is capable of encapsulating hydrophobic molecules and at the same time reveals magnetic properties. The microcapsules are prepared using a templated synthesis approach where the molecules to be encapsulated (Nile Red) are present in the organic droplets that are suspended in the polymerization solution which also contains magnetic nanoparticles. The polymer (polypyrrole) grows on the surface of organic droplets encapsulating the fluorescent dye in the core of the formed microcapsule which incorporates the nanoparticles into its wall. For characterization of the resulting structures a range of complementary physicochemical methodology is used including optical and electron microscopy, magnetometry, 1H NMR and spectroscopy in the visible and X-ray spectral ranges. Moreover, the microcapsules have been examined in biological environment in in vitro and in vivo studies.

  11. West Nile virus infection in horses, Indian ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, E; Bernard, C; Lecollinet, S; Rakotoharinome, V M; Ravaomanana, J; Roger, M; Olive, M M; Meenowa, D; Jaumally, M R; Melanie, J; Héraud, J M; Zientara, S; Cêtre-Sossah, C

    2017-08-01

    The circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) in horses was investigated in the Southwest Indian ocean. In 2010, blood samples were collected from a total of 303 horses originating from Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion and the Seychelles and tested for WNV-specific antibodies. An overall seroprevalence of 27.39% was detected in the Indian Ocean with the highest WNV antibody prevalence of 46.22% (95% CI: [37.4-55.2%]) in Madagascar. The age and origin of the horses were found to be associated with the WNV infection risk. This paper presents the first seroprevalence study investigating WN fever in horses in the Southwest Indian Ocean area and indicates a potential risk of infection for humans and animals. In order to gain a better understanding of WN transmission cycles, WNV surveillance needs to be implemented in each of the countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Wavefront cellular learning automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradabadi, Behnaz; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes a new cellular learning automaton, called a wavefront cellular learning automaton (WCLA). The proposed WCLA has a set of learning automata mapped to a connected structure and uses this structure to propagate the state changes of the learning automata over the structure using waves. In the WCLA, after one learning automaton chooses its action, if this chosen action is different from the previous action, it can send a wave to its neighbors and activate them. Each neighbor receiving the wave is activated and must choose a new action. This structure for the WCLA is necessary in many dynamic areas such as social networks, computer networks, grid computing, and web mining. In this paper, we introduce the WCLA framework as an optimization tool with diffusion capability, study its behavior over time using ordinary differential equation solutions, and present its accuracy using expediency analysis. To show the superiority of the proposed WCLA, we compare the proposed method with some other types of cellular learning automata using two benchmark problems.

  13. Environmental predictors of West Nile fever risk in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Annelise; Sudre, Bertrand; Paz, Shlomit; Rossi, Massimiliano; Desbrosse, Annie; Chevalier, Véronique; Semenza, Jan C

    2014-07-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen of global public health importance. Transmission of WNV is determined by abiotic and biotic factors. The objective of this study was to examine environmental variables as predictors of WNV risk in Europe and neighboring countries, considering the anomalies of remotely sensed water and vegetation indices and of temperature at the locations of West Nile fever (WNF) outbreaks reported in humans between 2002 and 2013. The status of infection by WNV in relationship to environmental and climatic risk factors was analyzed at the district level using logistic regression models. Temperature, remotely sensed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) anomalies, as well as population, birds' migratory routes, and presence of wetlands were considered as explanatory variables. The anomalies of temperature in July, of MNDWI in early June, the presence of wetlands, the location under migratory routes, and the occurrence of a WNF outbreak the previous year were identified as risk factors. The best statistical model according to the Akaike Information Criterion was used to map WNF risk areas in 2012 and 2013. Model validations showed a good level of prediction: area under Receiver Operator Characteristic curve = 0.854 (95% Confidence Interval 0.850-0.856) for internal validation and 0.819 (95% Confidence Interval 0.814-0.823) (2012) and 0.853 (95% Confidence Interval 0.850-0.855) (2013) for external validations, respectively. WNF incidence is increasing in Europe and WNV is expanding into new areas where it had never been observed before. Our model can be used to direct surveillance activities and public health interventions for the upcoming WNF season.

  14. Diversification of West Nile virus in a subtropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mores Christopher N

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background West Nile virus (WNV has spread across North, Central, and South America since its introduction in 1999. At the start of this spread, Florida was considered a potentially important area with regards to transmission due to its geographic, climatological, and demographic conditions. Curiously, the anticipated high levels of transmission or disease outbreaks have not been observed. As other studies have predicted that the lack of intense WNV transmission is not due to vector incompetence, we sought to evaluate the role of viral strain diversity in WNV transmission in Florida. Therefore, a phylogentic analysis was carried out on several isolates collected from three distinct locations in Florida. Results Contrasting with a positive control collected in Indian River County, Florida during 2003 that contains the original NY99 genotype with valanine at amino acid 159 of the envelope region, all of the isolates collected in 2005 contain the WN02 genotype composed of a substation with alanine at that position indicating the window of introduction of the WN02 genotype occurred between 2003 and 2005. From the eight isolates collected in Duval, Indian River, and Manatee Counties; there is also a silent nucleotide substitution that differentiates the isolates collected on the Atlantic side of the state compared to the isolate collected on the Gulf side, which groups closer to isolates from other locations near the Gulf. Conclusion As a whole, the Florida isolates contained numerous variable nucleotide and amino acid sites from the reference sequences, as well as each other; indicating greater nucleotide diversity within the Florida 2005 isolates than within other regions. Finally, a series of three amino acid substitutions surrounding a set of histidines located in the envelope coding region that hypothesized to play a role in conformational changes was found in the isolate collected in Indian River County, perhaps changing the

  15. West Nile virus in Tunisia, 2014: First isolation from mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, F; Dachraoui, K; Cherni, S; Bosworth, A; Barhoumi, W; Dowall, S; Chelbi, I; Derbali, M; Zoghlami, Z; Beier, J C; Zhioua, E

    2016-07-01

    Several outbreaks of human West Nile virus (WNV) infections were reported in Tunisia during the last two decades. Serological studies on humans as well as on equine showed intensive circulation of WNV in Tunisia. However, no virus screening of mosquitoes for WNV has been performed in Tunisia. In the present study, we collected mosquito samples from Central Tunisia to be examined for the presence of flaviviruses. A total of 102 Culex pipiens mosquitoes were collected in September 2014 from Central Tunisia. Mosquitoes were pooled according to the collection site, date and sex with a maximum of 5 specimens per pool and tested for the presence of flaviviruses by conventional reverse transcription heminested PCR and by a specific West Nile virus real time reverse transcription PCR. Of a total of 21 pools tested, 7 were positive for WNV and no other flavivirus could be evidenced in mosquito pools. In addition, WNV was isolated on Vero cells. Phylogenetic analysis showed that recent Tunisian WNV strains belong to lineage 1 WNV and are closely related to the Tunisian strain 1997 (PAH 001). This is the first detection and isolation of WNV from mosquitoes in Tunisia. Some areas of Tunisia are at high risk for human WNV infections. WNV is likely to cause future sporadic and foreseeable outbreaks. Therefore, it is of major epidemiological importance to set up an entomological surveillance as an early alert system. Timely detection of WNV should prompt vector control to prevent future outbreaks. In addition, education of people to protect themselves from mosquito bites is of major epidemiological importance as preventive measure against WNV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrological characterization of watersheds in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Gebrehiwot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two watersheds (31–4350 km2, in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia, were hydrologically characterized with data from a study of water and land resources by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (USBR published in 1964. The USBR document contains data on flow, topography, geology, soil type, and land use for the period 1959 to 1963. The aim of the study was to identify watershed variables best explaining the variation in the hydrological regime, with a special focus on low flows. Moreover, this study aimed to identify variables that may be susceptible to management policies for developing and securing water resources in dry periods. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Partial Least Square (PLS were used to analyze the relationship between five hydrologic response variables (total flow, high flow, low flow, runoff coefficient, low flow index and 30 potential explanatory watershed variables. The explanatory watershed variables were classified into three groups: land use, climate and topography as well as geology and soil type. Each of the three groups had almost equal influence on the variation in hydrologic variables (R2 values ranging from 0.3 to 0.4. Specific variables from within each of the three groups of explanatory variables were better in explaining the variation. Low flow and low flow index were positively correlated to land use types woodland, dense wet forest and savannah grassland, whereas grazing land and bush land were negatively correlated. We concluded that extra care for preserving low flow should be taken on tuffs/basalts which comprise 52% of the Blue Nile Basin. Land use management plans should recognize that woodland, dense wet forest and savannah grassland can promote higher low flows, while grazing land diminishes low flows.

  17. Two Myxobolus spp. infecting the kidney of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the River Nile at Beni-Suef governorate, Egypt, and the associated renal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Abdel-Haleem, Heba M; Sakran, Thabet; Zayed, Eman; Ibrahim, Khalid E; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2015-03-01

    Two Myxobolus spp. are described from the kidney of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) collected from the River Nile, Egypt. The prevalence of infection was 61 % (47/77), with the infected fish in each case parasitized by the two Myxobolus species simultaneously. The infection was exhibited as free spores in Bowman capsules and renal glomeruli, which makes their original structures difficult to discern. In some cases, the infection appeared as a fibrous plasmodia-like structure containing degenerated developmental stages and spores in the interstitium. The paper identifies each species based on the morphological characteristics of its spores and identifies the histological impacts of Myxobolus infection in this species of fish.

  18. Molecular and cellular control of cell death and defense signaling in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyong Woo; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) provides a good experimental system for studying the molecular and functional genomics underlying the ability of plants to defend themselves against microbial pathogens. Cell death is a genetically programmed response that requires specific host cellular factors. Hypersensitive response (HR) is defined as rapid cell death in response to a pathogen attack. Pepper plants respond to pathogen attacks by activating genetically controlled HR- or disease-associated cell death. HR cell death, specifically in incompatible interactions between pepper and Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, is mediated by the molecular genetics and biochemical machinery that underlie pathogen-induced cell death in plants. Gene expression profiles during the HR-like cell death response, virus-induced gene silencing and transient and transgenic overexpression approaches are used to isolate and identify HR- or disease-associated cell death genes in pepper plants. Reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, cytosolic calcium ion and defense-related hormones such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene and abscisic acid are involved in the execution of pathogen-induced cell death in plants. In this review, we summarize recent molecular and cellular studies of the pepper cell death-mediated defense response, highlighting the signaling events of cell death in disease-resistant pepper plants. Comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the cellular functions of pepper cell death response genes will aid the development of novel practical approaches to enhance disease resistance in pepper, thereby helping to secure the future supply of safe and nutritious pepper plants worldwide.

  19. Environment Aware Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented rise of mobile user demand over the years have led to an enormous growth of the energy consumption of wireless networks as well as the greenhouse gas emissions which are estimated currently to be around 70 million tons per year. This significant growth of energy consumption impels network companies to pay huge bills which represent around half of their operating expenditures. Therefore, many service providers, including mobile operators, are looking for new and modern green solutions to help reduce their expenses as well as the level of their CO2 emissions. Base stations are the most power greedy element in cellular networks: they drain around 80% of the total network energy consumption even during low traffic periods. Thus, there is a growing need to develop more energy-efficient techniques to enhance the green performance of future 4G/5G cellular networks. Due to the problem of traffic load fluctuations in cellular networks during different periods of the day and between different areas (shopping or business districts and residential areas), the base station sleeping strategy has been one of the main popular research topics in green communications. In this presentation, we present several practical green techniques that provide significant gains for mobile operators. Indeed, combined with the base station sleeping strategy, these techniques achieve not only a minimization of the fossil fuel consumption but also an enhancement of mobile operator profits. We start with an optimized cell planning method that considers varying spatial and temporal user densities. We then use the optimal transport theory in order to define the cell boundaries such that the network total transmit power is reduced. Afterwards, we exploit the features of the modern electrical grid, the smart grid, as a new tool of power management for cellular networks and we optimize the energy procurement from multiple energy retailers characterized by different prices and pollutant

  20. The cytopathic 18f strain of Hepatitis A virus induces RNA degradation in FrhK4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulka, M; Chen, A; Ngo, D; Bhattacharya, S S; Cebula, T A; Goswami, B B

    2003-07-01

    The mechanism responsible for the induction of apoptosis by the rapidly replicating HM175/18f strain of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) was investigated. Full length HAV RNA and viral capsid protein VP1 were detected in 18f infected cells at earlier times post-infection than in HM175/clone 1 infected cells. Analysis of total cellular RNA from HM175/18f infected FrhK4 cells by denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis and Northern blot hybridization revealed extensive degradation of both the 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules. Similar degradation was observed when these cells were infected with Human coxsackievirus B1, a fast replicating enterovirus. In contrast, the parental strain of 18f, HM175/clone 1 did not induce RNA degradation. Inhibition of RNA degradation correlated with inhibition of virus replication. The pattern of rRNA degradation resembled degradation of rRNAs by RNase L, an enzyme activated in interferon-treated cells following infection with certain viruses. Ribosomal RNA degradation was accompanied by the reduction in the levels of several cellular RNAs including those for beta-actin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, while the levels of c-myc and c-jun were higher. Interferon mRNAs could not be detected in either infected or mock-infected control cells, and STAT1, a key regulator of interferon action was not phosphorylated following virus infection. These results reveal a heretofore-undescribed pathway that involves the regulation of RNA degradation and apoptosis following HAV/18f replication in FrhK4 cells.

  1. Evaluation of Structural Cellular Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. A.; Zwissler, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary design information presented. First report discusses state of structural-cellular-glass programs as of June 1979. Second report gives further details of program to develop improved cellular glasses and to characterize properties of glasses and commercially available materials.

  2. Cellular communication through light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fels

    Full Text Available Information transfer is a fundamental of life. A few studies have reported that cells use photons (from an endogenous source as information carriers. This study finds that cells can have an influence on other cells even when separated with a glass barrier, thereby disabling molecule diffusion through the cell-containing medium. As there is still very little known about the potential of photons for intercellular communication this study is designed to test for non-molecule-based triggering of two fundamental properties of life: cell division and energy uptake. The study was performed with a cellular organism, the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. Mutual exposure of cell populations occurred under conditions of darkness and separation with cuvettes (vials allowing photon but not molecule transfer. The cell populations were separated either with glass allowing photon transmission from 340 nm to longer waves, or quartz being transmittable from 150 nm, i.e. from UV-light to longer waves. Even through glass, the cells affected cell division and energy uptake in neighboring cell populations. Depending on the cuvette material and the number of cells involved, these effects were positive or negative. Also, while paired populations with lower growth rates grew uncorrelated, growth of the better growing populations was correlated. As there were significant differences when separating the populations with glass or quartz, it is suggested that the cell populations use two (or more frequencies for cellular information transfer, which influences at least energy uptake, cell division rate and growth correlation. Altogether the study strongly supports a cellular communication system, which is different from a molecule-receptor-based system and hints that photon-triggering is a fine tuning principle in cell chemistry.

  3. Cellular communication through light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fels, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Information transfer is a fundamental of life. A few studies have reported that cells use photons (from an endogenous source) as information carriers. This study finds that cells can have an influence on other cells even when separated with a glass barrier, thereby disabling molecule diffusion through the cell-containing medium. As there is still very little known about the potential of photons for intercellular communication this study is designed to test for non-molecule-based triggering of two fundamental properties of life: cell division and energy uptake. The study was performed with a cellular organism, the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. Mutual exposure of cell populations occurred under conditions of darkness and separation with cuvettes (vials) allowing photon but not molecule transfer. The cell populations were separated either with glass allowing photon transmission from 340 nm to longer waves, or quartz being transmittable from 150 nm, i.e. from UV-light to longer waves. Even through glass, the cells affected cell division and energy uptake in neighboring cell populations. Depending on the cuvette material and the number of cells involved, these effects were positive or negative. Also, while paired populations with lower growth rates grew uncorrelated, growth of the better growing populations was correlated. As there were significant differences when separating the populations with glass or quartz, it is suggested that the cell populations use two (or more) frequencies for cellular information transfer, which influences at least energy uptake, cell division rate and growth correlation. Altogether the study strongly supports a cellular communication system, which is different from a molecule-receptor-based system and hints that photon-triggering is a fine tuning principle in cell chemistry.

  4. Review of cellular mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning

    2017-06-01

    Living cells and tissues experience physical forces and chemical stimuli in the human body. The process of converting mechanical forces into biochemical activities and gene expression is mechanochemical transduction or mechanotransduction. Significant advances have been made in understanding mechanotransduction at the cellular and molecular levels over the last two decades. However, major challenges remain in elucidating how a living cell integrates signals from mechanotransduction with chemical signals to regulate gene expression and to generate coherent biological responses in living tissues in physiological conditions and diseases.

  5. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds...... of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation....

  6. Cellular mechanics and motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénon, Sylvie; Sykes, Cécile

    2015-10-01

    The term motility defines the movement of a living organism. One widely known example is the motility of sperm cells, or the one of flagellar bacteria. The propulsive element of such organisms is a cilium(or flagellum) that beats. Although cells in our tissues do not have a flagellum in general, they are still able to move, as we will discover in this chapter. In fact, in both cases of movement, with or without a flagellum, cell motility is due to a dynamic re-arrangement of polymers inside the cell. Let us first have a closer look at the propulsion mechanism in the case of a flagellum or a cilium, which is the best known, but also the simplest, and which will help us to define the hydrodynamic general conditions of cell movement. A flagellum is sustained by cellular polymers arranged in semi-flexible bundles and flagellar beating generates cell displacement. These polymers or filaments are part of the cellular skeleton, or "cytoskeleton", which is, in this case, external to the cellular main body of the organism. In fact, bacteria move in a hydrodynamic regime in which viscosity dominates over inertia. The system is thus in a hydrodynamic regime of low Reynolds number (Box 5.1), which is nearly exclusively the case in all cell movements. Bacteria and their propulsion mode by flagella beating are our unicellular ancestors 3.5 billion years ago. Since then, we have evolved to form pluricellular organisms. However, to keep the ability of displacement, to heal our wounds for example, our cells lost their flagellum, since it was not optimal in a dense cell environment: cells are too close to each other to leave enough space for the flagella to accomplish propulsion. The cytoskeleton thus developed inside the cell body to ensure cell shape changes and movement, and also mechanical strength within a tissue. The cytoskeleton of our cells, like the polymers or filaments that sustain the flagellum, is also composed of semi-flexible filaments arranged in bundles, and also in

  7. The natural history of West Nile virus infection presenting with West Nile virus meningoencephalitis in a man with a prolonged illness: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood James B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Estimates indicate that West Nile virus infects approximately one and a half million people in the United States of America. Up to 1% may develop West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease, in which infected patients develop any combination of meningitis, encephalitis, or acute paralysis. Case presentation A 56-year-old African-American man presented to our hospital with headache, restlessness, fever, myalgias, decreased appetite, and progressive confusion. A cerebrospinal fluid examination showed mild leukocytosis and an elevated protein level. Testing for routine infections was negative. Brain T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans showed marked enlargement of caudate nuclei and increased intensity within the basal ganglia and thalami. A West Nile virus titer was positive, and serial brain magnetic resonance imaging scans showed resolving abnormalities that paralleled his neurological examination. Conclusion This report is unusual as it portrays the natural history and long-term consequences of West Nile virus meningoencephalitis diagnosed on the basis of serial brain images.

  8. High- and low-latitude forcing of the Nile River regime during the Holocene inferred from laminated sediments of the Nile deep-sea fan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchet, C.; Tjallingii, R.; Frank, M.; Lorenzen, J.; Reitz, A.; Brown, K.; Feseker, T.; Brückmann, W.

    2013-01-01

    Sediments deposited on deep-sea fans are an excellent geological archive to reconstruct past changes in fluvial discharge. Here we present a reconstruction of changes in the regime of the Nile River during the Holocene obtained using bulk elemental composition, grain-size analyses and radiogenic

  9. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Using Tobacco Rattle Virus as a Tool to Study the Interaction between Nicotiana attenuata and Rhizophagus irregularis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Groten

    Full Text Available Most land plants live in a symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF that belong to the phylum Glomeromycota. Although a number of plant genes involved in the plant-AMF interactions have been identified by analyzing mutants, the ability to rapidly manipulate gene expression to study the potential functions of new candidate genes remains unrealized. We analyzed changes in gene expression of wild tobacco roots (Nicotiana attenuata after infection with mycorrhizal fungi (Rhizophagus irregularis by serial analysis of gene expression (SuperSAGE combined with next generation sequencing, and established a virus-induced gene-silencing protocol to study the function of candidate genes in the interaction. From 92,434 SuperSAGE Tag sequences, 32,808 (35% matched with our in-house Nicotiana attenuata transcriptome database and 3,698 (4% matched to Rhizophagus genes. In total, 11,194 Tags showed a significant change in expression (p2-fold change after infection. When comparing the functions of highly up-regulated annotated Tags in this study with those of two previous large-scale gene expression studies, 18 gene functions were found to be up-regulated in all three studies mainly playing roles related to phytohormone metabolism, catabolism and defense. To validate the function of identified candidate genes, we used the technique of virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS to silence the expression of three putative N. attenuata genes: germin-like protein, indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetase GH3.9 and, as a proof-of-principle, calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK. The silencing of the three plant genes in roots was successful, but only CCaMK silencing had a significant effect on the interaction with R. irregularis. Interestingly, when a highly activated inoculum was used for plant inoculation, the effect of CCaMK silencing on fungal colonization was masked, probably due to trans-complementation. This study demonstrates that

  10. Nile perch (Lates niloticus, L.) and cichlids (Haplochromis spp.) in Lake Victoria: could prey mortality promote invasion of tis predator?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Hille Ris Lambers, R.; Goudswaard, P.C.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Scheffer, M.

    2014-01-01

    The invasion of Nile perch into Lake Victoria is one of the iconic examples of the destructive effect of an introduced species on an ecosystem but no convincing explanation exists of why Nile perch only increased dramatically after a 25 year lag. Here, we consider this problem using a mathematical

  11. The invasion of an introduced predator, Nile perch (Lates niloticus, L.) in Lake Victoria (East Africa): chronology and causes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, P.C.; Witte, F.; Katunzi, E.F.B.

    2008-01-01

    Nile perch, a large predatory fish, was introduced into Lake Victoria in 1954. The upsurge of Nile perch in Lake Victoria was first observed in the Nyanza Gulf, Kenya, in 1979. In Ugandan waters this occurred 2¿3 years later and in the Tanzanian Mwanza Gulf 4¿5 years later. At the beginning of the

  12. European Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Mosquito Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Olivier; Savini, Giovanni; Papa, Anna; Figuerola, Jordi; Groschup, Martin H.; Kampen, Helge; Medlock, Jolyon; Vaux, Alexander; Wilson, Anthony J.; Werner, Doreen; Jöst, Hanna; Goffredo, Maria; Capelli, Gioia; Federici, Valentina; Tonolla, Mauro; Patocchi, Nicola; Flacio, Eleonora; Portmann, Jasmine; Rossi-Pedruzzi, Anya; Mourelatos, Spiros; Ruiz, Santiago; Vázquez, Ana; Calzolari, Mattia; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dottori, Michele; Schaffner, Francis; Mathis, Alexander; Johnson, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of arthropod-borne viruses threaten both human and animal health either through their presence in Europe or through risk of introduction. Prominent among these is West Nile virus (WNV), primarily an avian virus, which has caused multiple outbreaks associated with human and equine mortality. Endemic outbreaks of West Nile fever have been reported in Italy, Greece, France, Romania, Hungary, Russia and Spain, with further spread expected. Most outbreaks in Western Europe have been due to infection with WNV Lineage 1. In Eastern Europe WNV Lineage 2 has been responsible for human and bird mortality, particularly in Greece, which has experienced extensive outbreaks over three consecutive years. Italy has experienced co-circulation with both virus lineages. The ability to manage this threat in a cost-effective way is dependent on early detection. Targeted surveillance for pathogens within mosquito populations offers the ability to detect viruses prior to their emergence in livestock, equine species or human populations. In addition, it can establish a baseline of mosquito-borne virus activity and allow monitoring of change to this over time. Early detection offers the opportunity to raise disease awareness, initiate vector control and preventative vaccination, now available for horses, and encourage personal protection against mosquito bites. This would have major benefits through financial savings and reduction in equid morbidity/mortality. However, effective surveillance that predicts virus outbreaks is challenged by a range of factors including limited resources, variation in mosquito capture rates (too few or too many), difficulties in mosquito identification, often reliant on specialist entomologists, and the sensitive, rapid detection of viruses in mosquito pools. Surveillance for WNV and other arboviruses within mosquito populations varies between European countries in the extent and focus of the surveillance. This study reviews the current status of

  13. Unusual case of West Nile Virus flaccid paralysis in a 10-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Farouq I; Servinsky, Sarah E; Naz, Fareeha; Kovas, Teresa E; Raghib, Timur O

    2013-05-01

    West Nile virus infection is asymptomatic in most cases. West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease includes encephalitis, meningitis, and/or acute flaccid paralysis. In children, acute flaccid paralysis as the solo presentation of West Nile virus disease is rare. It develops abruptly and progresses rapidly early in the disease course. We report on a 10-year-old child who presented with a slowly progressive left leg flaccid paralysis over 4 weeks. He tested positive for West Nile virus in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Spinal MRI showed enhancement of the ventral nerve roots. This was also supported by electrophysiological studies. One week after the plateauing of his left leg paralysis, he was readmitted to the hospital with left hand weakness. Complete recovery of his recurrent weakness was observed after prompt 5-day course of intravenous immunoglobulin G therapy. However, no improvement was noticed in the left foot drop. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of West Nile virus disease in children presented with a slowly progressive flaccid paralysis, and a recurrent weakness recovered after intravenous immunoglobulin G administration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Egyptian mummies record increasing aridity in the Nile valley from 5500 to 1500 yr before present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzeau, Alexandra; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Amiot, Romain; Fourel, François; Martineau, François; Cockitt, Jenefer; Hall, Keith; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Lécuyer, Christophe

    2013-08-01

    Oxygen isotope compositions were measured in teeth (n=29) and bones (n=41) from Egyptian mummies of humans (n=48) in order to track the δ18O evolution of the Nile from 5500 to 1500 B.P. The combination of δ18O values of apatite carbonate and phosphate was used to filter the database for post mortem alteration of bioapatites, while 87Sr/86Sr ratios were used to detect potential allochthonous people buried in the various archeological sites located along the Nile. This approach led to only five apatite samples out of seventy to be discarded from the database. The remaining oxygen isotope compositions of both tooth and bone phosphates from ancient Egyptians were converted into the composition of ingested water ultimately originating from the Nile. It was found that δ18O of Nile waters increases progressively from -1.6 to +1.5 (‰ VSMOW) from the Predynastic (∼5500 B.P.) through the Late Period (∼2550 B.P.). This trend towards higher Nile δ18O values acquired in more recent times is coherent with a general drying trend in Northeast Africa, which was not limited to a drying spell at the end of the Nabtian Pluvial (ca. 12,000 B.P. -ca. 6000 B.P.), but extended far into the following millennia nearly to the beginning of the Common Era (1950 B.P.).

  15. Hydrology and empire: the Nile, water imperialism and the partition of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvedt, Terje

    2011-01-01

    Why did the British march up the Nile in the 1890s? The answers to this crucial question of imperial historiography have direct relevance for narratives and theories about imperialism, in general, and the partition of Africa in the nineteenth century, in particular. They will also influence our understanding of some of the main issues in the modern history of the whole region, including state developments and resource utilisation. This article presents an alternative to dominant interpretations of the partition of Africa and the role of British Nile policies in this context. It differs from mainstream diplomatic history, which dominates this research field, in its emphasis on how geographical factors and the hydrological characteristics of the Nile influenced and framed British thinking and actions in the region. Realising the importance of such factors and the specific character of the regional water system does not imply less attention to traditional diplomatic correspondence or to the role of individual imperial entrepreneurs. The strength of this analytical approach theoretically is that it makes it possible to locate the intentions and acts of historical subjects within specific geographical contexts. Empirically, it opens up a whole new set of source material, embedding the reconstruction of the British Nile discourse in a world of Nile plans, water works and hydrological discourses.

  16. Crystal Structure of West Nile Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Reveals Viral Surface Epitopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai,R.; Kar, K.; Anthony, K.; Gould, L.; Ledizet, M.; Fikrig, E.; Marasco, W.; Koski, R.; Modis, Y.

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus, a member of the Flavivirus genus, causes fever that can progress to life-threatening encephalitis. The major envelope glycoprotein, E, of these viruses mediates viral attachment and entry by membrane fusion. We have determined the crystal structure of a soluble fragment of West Nile virus E. The structure adopts the same overall fold as that of the E proteins from dengue and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. The conformation of domain II is different from that in other prefusion E structures, however, and resembles the conformation of domain II in postfusion E structures. The epitopes of neutralizing West Nile virus-specific antibodies map to a region of domain III that is exposed on the viral surface and has been implicated in receptor binding. In contrast, we show that certain recombinant therapeutic antibodies, which cross-neutralize West Nile and dengue viruses, bind a peptide from domain I that is exposed only during the membrane fusion transition. By revealing the details of the molecular landscape of the West Nile virus surface, our structure will assist the design of antiviral vaccines and therapeutics.

  17. Necrotizing herpetic retinopathies. A spectrum of herpes virus-induced diseases determined by the immune state of the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex-Crosier, Y; Rochat, C; Herbort, C P

    1997-12-01

    Necrotizing herpetic retinopathies (NHR), a new spectrum of diseases induced by viruses of the herpes family (herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus and cytomegalovirus), includes acute retinal necrosis (ARN) occurring in apparently immunocompetent patients and progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) described in severely immuno-compromised patients. Signs of impaired cellular immunity were seen in 16% of ARN patients in a review of 216 reported cases, indicating that immune dysfunction is not only at the origin of PORN but might also be at the origin of ARN. The aim of this study was to correlate clinical findings in NHR patients with their immunologic parameters. Charts from patients with the diagnosis of ARN or PORN seen from 1990 to 1995 were reviewed. Clinical characteristics and disease patterns were correlated with immunological parameters taking into account CD4 lymphocyte rate in AIDS patients and blood-lymphocyte subpopulation determination by flow cytometry, cutaneous delayed type hypersensitivity testing and lymphocytic proliferation rate to seven antigens in HIV-negative patients. During the period considered, 11 patients and 7 patients fulfilled the criteria of ARN and PORN respectively. Immune dysfunctions were identified in most patients. Mild type of ARN and classical ARN were associated with discrete immune dysfunctions, ARN with features of PORN was seen in more immunodepressed patients and classical PORN was always seen in severely immunodepressed HIV patients. Our findings suggest that NHR is a continuous spectrum of diseases induced by herpes viruses, whose clinical expression depends on the immune state of the host going from mild or classical ARN at one end in patients with non-detectable or slight immune dysfunction to PORN in severely immunodepressed patients at the other end and with intermediary forms between these extremes.

  18. Immunotherapy of murine leukemia. Efficacy of passive serum therapy of Friend leukemia virus-induced disease in immunocompromised mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genovesi, E.V.; Livnat, D.; Collins, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the passive therapy of Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV)-induced disease with chimpanzee anti-F-MuLV serum is accompanied by the development of host antiviral humoral and cellular immunity, the latter measurable in adoptive transfer protocols and by the ability of serum-protected mice to resist virus rechallenge. The present study was designed to further examine the contribution of various compartments of the host immune system to serum therapy itself, as well as to the acquired antiviral immunity that develops in serum-protected mice, through the use of naturally immunocompromised animals [e.g., nude athymic mice and natural killer (NK)-deficient beige mutant mice] or mice treated with immunoabrogating agents such as sublethal irradiation, cyclophosphamide [Cytoxan (Cy)], cortisone, and 89 Sr. The studies in nude mice indicate that while mature T-cells are not needed for effective serum therapy, they do appear to be necessary for the long-term resistance of serum-protected mice to virus rechallenge and for the generation of the cell population(s) responsible for adoptive transfer of antiviral immunity. Furthermore, this acquired resistance is not due to virus neutralization by serum antibodies since antibody-negative, Cy-treated, serum-protected mice still reject the secondary virus infection. Lastly, while the immunocompromise systems examined did effect various host antiviral immune responses, none of them, including the NK-deficient beige mutation, significantly diminished the efficacy of the passive serum therapy of F-MuLV-induced disease

  19. Cellular image classification

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xiang; Lin, Feng

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces new techniques for cellular image feature extraction, pattern recognition and classification. The authors use the antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in patient serum as the subjects and the Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) technique as the imaging protocol to illustrate the applications of the described methods. Throughout the book, the authors provide evaluations for the proposed methods on two publicly available human epithelial (HEp-2) cell datasets: ICPR2012 dataset from the ICPR'12 HEp-2 cell classification contest and ICIP2013 training dataset from the ICIP'13 Competition on cells classification by fluorescent image analysis. First, the reading of imaging results is significantly influenced by one’s qualification and reading systems, causing high intra- and inter-laboratory variance. The authors present a low-order LP21 fiber mode for optical single cell manipulation and imaging staining patterns of HEp-2 cells. A focused four-lobed mode distribution is stable and effective in optical...

  20. Cellular-scale hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abkarian, Manouk [Laboratoire des Colloides, Verres et Nanomateriaux, Universite de Montpellier, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Faivre, Magalie [CEA-LETI, Division of Technology for Biology and Health, 17, Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Horton, Renita; Stone, Howard A [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Smistrup, Kristian [MIC, Department of Micro and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Best-Popescu, Catherine A [Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Microfluidic tools are providing many new insights into the chemical, physical and physicochemical responses of cells. Both suspension-level and single-cell measurements have been studied. We review our studies of these kinds of problems for red blood cells with particular focus on the shapes of individual cells in confined geometries, the development and use of a 'differential manometer' for evaluating the mechanical response of individual cells or other objects flowing in confined geometries, and the cross-streamline drift of cells that pass through a constriction. In particular, we show how fluid mechanical effects on suspended cells can be studied systematically in small devices, and how these features can be exploited to develop methods for characterizing physicochemical responses and possibly for the diagnosis of cellular-scale changes to environmental factors.

  1. Cellular based cancer vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Met, Ö; Svane, I M

    2012-01-01

    -associated antigens introduced to dendritic cells (DCs) generated in vitro. This may in part result from suboptimal maturation of DCs leading to insufficient production of IL-12, a key driver of cellular immunity. Therefore, tremendous efforts have been put into the design of maturation cocktails that are able...... of tolerogenic molecules and activation-induced dendritic cell death should be avoided. Thus, compounds such as IFN-γ may initially induce immunity but later on tolerance. Maturation with PGE(2) obviously promotes migration via expression of CCR7 but on the down side PGE(2) limits the production of IL-12...... to transiently affect in vitro migration via autocrine receptor-mediated endocytosis of CCR7. In the current review, we discuss optimal design of DC maturation focused on pre-clinical as well as clinical results from standard and polarized dendritic cell based cancer vaccines....

  2. Novel IFNγ homologue identified in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) links with immune response in gills under different stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Janet; Acosta, Jannel; Herrera, Naylin; Morales, Antonio; González, Osmany; Herrera, Fidel; Estrada, Mario Pablo; Carpio, Yamila

    2017-12-01

    Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) has important roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. This cytokine plays a very important role in defining Th1 immune response in all vertebrates. In the present study, we identified and isolated for the first time the gene coding for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) IFNγ from spleen lymphocytes. The isolated tilapia IFNγ has between 24 and 62% of amino acid identity as compared to reported sequences for other teleost fishes. It has close phylogenetic relationships with IFNγ molecules belonging to the group of Perciforms and presents the typical structural characteristics of gamma interferon molecules. The tissue expression analysis showed that IFNγ is expressed constitutively in head kidney, skin, intestine, muscle and brain. Its expression was not detected in gills by conventional RT-PCR. However, under conditions of stimulation with Poly I:C and LPS, IFNγ expression was up-regulated in gills after 24 h post-stimulation. IFNγ expression was also induced in gills 24 h after Edwardsiella tarda infection suggesting its important role in immunity against intracellular bacteria. The recombinant protein produced in Escherichia coli induced Mx gene transcription in head kidney primary culture cells. These results are the first steps to characterize the role of tilapia IFNγ in the defense against pathogens in tilapia. Furthermore, the isolation of this molecule provides a new tool to characterize the cellular immune response to various stimuli in this organism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exon level transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1-infected CD4(+ T cells reveals virus-induced genes and host environment favorable for viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Imbeault

    Full Text Available HIV-1 is extremely specialized since, even amongst CD4(+ T lymphocytes (its major natural reservoir in peripheral blood, the virus productively infects only a small proportion of cells under an activated state. As the percentage of HIV-1-infected cells is very low, most studies have so far failed to capture the precise transcriptomic profile at the whole-genome scale of cells highly susceptible to virus infection. Using Affymetrix Exon array technology and a reporter virus allowing the magnetic isolation of HIV-1-infected cells, we describe the host cell factors most favorable for virus establishment and replication along with an overview of virus-induced changes in host gene expression occurring exclusively in target cells productively infected with HIV-1. We also establish that within a population of activated CD4(+ T cells, HIV-1 has no detectable effect on the transcriptome of uninfected bystander cells at early time points following infection. The data gathered in this study provides unique insights into the biology of HIV-1-infected CD4(+ T cells and identifies genes thought to play a determinant role in the interplay between the virus and its host. Furthermore, it provides the first catalogue of alternative splicing events found in primary human CD4(+ T cells productively infected with HIV-1.

  4. Development of tobacco ringspot virus-based vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing in a variety of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fumei; Lim, Seungmo; Igori, Davaajargal; Yoo, Ran Hee; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-05-01

    We report here the development of tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV)-based vectors for the transient expression of foreign genes and for the analysis of endogenous gene function in plants using virus-induced gene silencing. The jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was inserted between the TRSV movement protein (MP) and coat protein (CP) regions, resulting in high in-frame expression of the RNA2-encoded viral polyprotein. GFP was released from the polyprotein via an N-terminal homologous MP-CP cleavage site and a C-terminal foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2 A catalytic peptide in Nicotiana benthamiana. The VIGS target gene was introduced in the sense and antisense orientations into a SnaBI site, which was created by mutating the sequence following the CP stop codon. VIGS of phytoene desaturase (PDS) in N. benthamiana, Arabidopsis ecotype Col-0, cucurbits and legumes led to obvious photo-bleaching phenotypes. A significant reduction in PDS mRNA levels in silenced plants was confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Utilizing virus-induced gene silencing for the functional characterization of maize genes during infection with the fungal pathogen Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, Karina; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2013-01-01

    While in dicotyledonous plants virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is well established to study plant-pathogen interaction, in monocots only few examples of efficient VIGS have been reported so far. One of the available systems is based on the brome mosaic virus (BMV) which allows gene silencing in different cereals including barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and maize (Zea mays).Infection of maize plants by the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis leads to the formation of large tumors on stem, leaves, and inflorescences. During this biotrophic interaction, plant defense responses are actively suppressed by the pathogen, and previous transcriptome analyses of infected maize plants showed comprehensive and stage-specific changes in host gene expression during disease progression.To identify maize genes that are functionally involved in the interaction with U. maydis, we adapted a VIGS system based on the Brome mosaic virus (BMV) to maize at conditions that allow successful U. maydis infection of BMV pre-infected maize plants. This setup enables quantification of VIGS and its impact on U. maydis infection using a quantitative real-time PCR (q(RT)-PCR)-based readout.

  6. Optimization of automated segmentation of monkeypox virus-induced lung lesions from normal lung CT images using hard C-means algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marcelo A.; Thomasson, David; Avila, Nilo A.; Hufton, Jennifer; Senseney, Justin; Johnson, Reed F.; Dyall, Julie

    2013-03-01

    Monkeypox virus is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that results in up to 10% mortality in humans. Knowledge of clinical manifestations and temporal progression of monkeypox disease is limited to data collected from rare outbreaks in remote regions of Central and West Africa. Clinical observations show that monkeypox infection resembles variola infection. Given the limited capability to study monkeypox disease in humans, characterization of the disease in animal models is required. A previous work focused on the identification of inflammatory patterns using PET/CT image modality in two non-human primates previously inoculated with the virus. In this work we extended techniques used in computer-aided detection of lung tumors to identify inflammatory lesions from monkeypox virus infection and their progression using CT images. Accurate estimation of partial volumes of lung lesions via segmentation is difficult because of poor discrimination between blood vessels, diseased regions, and outer structures. We used hard C-means algorithm in conjunction with landmark based registration to estimate the extent of monkeypox virus induced disease before inoculation and after disease progression. Automated estimation is in close agreement with manual segmentation.

  7. Singapore grouper iridovirus, a large DNA virus, induces nonapoptotic cell death by a cell type dependent fashion and evokes ERK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Xu, Lixiao; Yan, Yang; Cui, Huachun; Han, Xin; Qin, Qiwei

    2011-08-01

    Virus induced cell death, including apoptosis and nonapoptotic cell death, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of viral diseases. Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), a novel iridovirus of genus Ranavirus, causes high mortality and heavy economic losses in grouper aquaculture. Here, using fluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy and biochemical assays, we found that SGIV infection in host (grouper spleen, EAGS) cells evoked nonapoptotic programmed cell death (PCD), characterized by appearance of cytoplasmic vacuoles and distended endoplasmic reticulum, in the absence of DNA fragmentation, apoptotic bodies and caspase activation. In contrast, SGIV induced typical apoptosis in non-host (fathead minnow, FHM) cells, as evidenced by caspase activation and DNA fragmentation, suggesting that SGIV infection induced nonapoptotic cell death by a cell type dependent fashion. Furthermore, viral replication was essential for SGIV induced nonapoptotic cell death, but not for apoptosis. Notably, the disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) were not detected in EAGS cells but in FHM cells after SGIV infection. Moreover, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling was involved in SGIV infection induced nonapoptotic cell death and viral replication. This is a first demonstration of ERK-mediated nonapoptotic cell death induced by a DNA virus. These findings contribute to understanding the mechanisms of iridovirus pathogenesis.

  8. Gene profiling of Graffi murine leukemia virus-induced lymphoid leukemias: identification of leukemia markers and Fmn2 as a potential oncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfi, Cyndia; Voisin, Véronique; Levros, Louis-Charles; Edouard, Elsy; Rassart, Eric

    2011-02-10

    The Graffi murine leukemia virus induces a large spectrum of leukemias in mice and thus provides a good model to compare the transcriptome of all types of leukemias. We analyzed the gene expression profiles of both T and B leukemias induced by the virus with DNA microarrays. Given that we considered that a 4-fold change in expression level was significant, 388 probe sets were associated to B, to T, or common to both leukemias. Several of them were not yet associated with lymphoid leukemia. We confirmed specific deregulation of Fmn2, Arntl2, Bfsp2, Gfra2, Gpm6a, and Gpm6b in B leukemia, of Nln, Fbln1, and Bmp7 in T leukemias, and of Etv5 in both leukemias. More importantly, we show that the mouse Fmn2 induced an anchorage-independent growth, a drastic modification in cell shape with a concomitant disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. Interestingly, we found that human FMN2 is overexpressed in approximately 95% of pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia with the highest expression levels in patients with a TEL/AML1 rearrangement. These results, surely related to the role of FMN2 in meiotic spindle maintenance, suggest its important role in leukemogenesis. Finally, we propose a new panel of genes potentially involved in T and/or B leukemias.

  9. Cutaneous RANK-RANKL Signaling Upregulates CD8-Mediated Antiviral Immunity during Herpes simplex Virus Infection by Preventing Virus-Induced Langerhans Cell Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenner, Lars; Hafezi, Wali; Clausen, Björn E; Lorentzen, Eva U; Luger, Thomas A; Beissert, Stefan; Kühn, Joachim E; Loser, Karin

    2015-11-01

    Herpes simplex virus-type 1 (HSV-1) causes the majority of cutaneous viral infections. Viral infections are controlled by the immune system, and CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) have been shown to be crucial during the clearance of HSV-1 infections. Although epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) are the first dendritic cells (DCs) to come into contact with the virus, it has been shown that the processing of viral antigens and the differentiation of antiviral CTLs are mediated by migratory CD103(+) dermal DCs and CD8α(+) lymph node-resident DCs. In vivo regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are implicated in the regulation of antiviral immunity and we have shown that signaling via the receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and its ligand RANKL mediates the peripheral expansion of Tregs. However, in addition to expanding Tregs, RANK-RANKL interactions are involved in the control of antimicrobial immunity by upregulating the priming of CD4(+) effector T cells in LCMV infection or by the generation of parasite-specific CD8(+) T cells in Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Here, we demonstrate that cutaneous RANK-RANKL signaling is critical for the induction of CD8-mediated antiviral immune responses during HSV-1 infection of the skin by preventing virus-induced LC apoptosis, improving antigen transport to regional lymph nodes, and increasing the CTL priming capacity of lymph node DCs.

  10. Enterovirus 71 antagonizes the antiviral activity of host STAT3 and IL-6R with partial dependence on virus-induced miR-124.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhangmei; Wang, Yan; Bian, Liang; Liu, Qingqing; Long, Jian-Er

    2017-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused major outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease. EV71 infections increase the production of many host cytokines and pro-inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and COX-2. Some of these molecules could stimulate the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which plays a key role in regulating host immune responses and several viral diseases. However, the role of STAT3 in EV71 infection remains unknown. This study found that the phosphorylation levels of STAT3 (p Y705 -STAT3) are closely related to EV71 infection. Further experiments revealed that STAT3 exerts an anti-EV71 activity. However, the antiviral activity of STAT3 is partially antagonized by EV71-induced miR-124, which directly targets STAT3 mRNA. Similarly, IL-6R, the α-subunit of the IL-6 receptor complex, exhibits anti-EV71 activity and is directly targeted by the virus-induced miR-124. These results indicate that EV71 can evade host IL-6R- and STAT3-mediated antiviral activities by EV71-induced miR-124. This suggests that controlling miR-124 and the downstream targets, IL-6R and STAT3, might benefit the antiviral treatment of EV71 infection.

  11. Differential Virulence and Pathogenesis of West Nile Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Donadieu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a neurotropic flavivirus that cycles between mosquitoes and birds but that can also infect humans, horses, and other vertebrate animals. In most humans, WNV infection remains subclinical. However, 20%–40% of those infected may develop WNV disease, with symptoms ranging from fever to meningoencephalitis. A large variety of WNV strains have been described worldwide. Based on their genetic differences, they have been classified into eight lineages; the pathogenic strains belong to lineages 1 and 2. Ten years ago, Beasley et al. (2002 found that dramatic differences exist in the virulence and neuroinvasion properties of lineage 1 and lineage 2 WNV strains. Further insights on how WNV interacts with its hosts have recently been gained; the virus acts either at the periphery or on the central nervous system (CNS, and these observed differences could help explain the differential virulence and neurovirulence of WNV strains. This review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge on factors that trigger WNV dissemination and CNS invasion as well as on the inflammatory response and CNS damage induced by WNV. Moreover, we will discuss how WNV strains differentially interact with the innate immune system and CNS cells, thus influencing WNV pathogenesis.

  12. West Nile virus surveillance in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiser, Raquel M; Mackay, Andrew J; Roy, Alma; Yates, Mathew M; Vaeth, Randy H; Faget, Guy M; Folsom, Alex E; Augustine, William F; Wells, Roderick A; Perich, Michael J

    2007-03-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was detected for the first time in Louisiana in the fall of 2001. Surveillance data collected from East Baton Rouge Parish in 2002 were examined to establish baseline data on WNV activity, to support the current design of disease surveillance programs, and to target vector control efforts in the parish. The first indications of WNV activity were from a dead Northern Cardinal collected in February and from a live male cardinal sampled on 14 March. In mosquito pools, WNV was first detected on June 11. The onset of the first human case and the first detection of WNV in sentinel chickens occurred concurrently on June 24. The number of reported human cases and minimum infection rates in mosquitoes peaked in July. WNV prevalence in wild birds increased in late August and was highest in December. WNV-positive wild birds and mosquito pools were detected an average of 31 and 59 days in advance of the onset date of reported human cases, respectively, within 5 km of the residence of a human case. Antibodies to WNV were detected in sera from 7 (Northern Cardinal, House Sparrow, Northern Mockingbird, Blue Jay, Hermit Thrush, Yellow-rumped Warbler, and White-throated Sparrow) of the 42 wild bird species tested. Wild bird serology indicated WNV activity during the winter. Out of 18 mosquito species tested, the only species found positive for WNV was Culex quinquefasciatus, a result suggesting that this species was the primary epizootic/epidemic vector.

  13. Use of Temperature to Improve West Nile Virus Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, J. L.; DeFelice, N.; Schneider, Z.; Little, E.; Barker, C.; Caillouet, K.; Campbell, S.; Damian, D.; Irwin, P.; Jones, H.; Townsend, J.

    2017-12-01

    Ecological and laboratory studies have demonstrated that temperature modulates West Nile virus (WNV) transmission dynamics and spillover infection to humans. Here we explore whether the inclusion of temperature forcing in a model depicting WNV transmission improves WNV forecast accuracy relative to a baseline model depicting WNV transmission without temperature forcing. Both models are optimized using a data assimilation method and two observed data streams: mosquito infection rates and reported human WNV cases. Each coupled model-inference framework is then used to generate retrospective ensemble forecasts of WNV for 110 outbreak years from among 12 geographically diverse United States counties. The temperature-forced model improves forecast accuracy for much of the outbreak season. From the end of July until the beginning of October, a timespan during which 70% of human cases are reported, the temperature-forced model generated forecasts of the total number of human cases over the next 3 weeks, total number of human cases over the season, the week with the highest percentage of infectious mosquitoes, and the peak percentage of infectious mosquitoes that were on average 5%, 10%, 12%, and 6% more accurate, respectively, than the baseline model. These results indicate that use of temperature forcing improves WNV forecast accuracy and provide further evidence that temperatures influence rates of WNV transmission. The findings help build a foundation for implementation of a statistically rigorous system for real-time forecast of seasonal WNV outbreaks and their use as a quantitative decision support tool for public health officials and mosquito control programs.

  14. The fluvial evolution of the Holocene Nile Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, B. T.; Sturt, F.; Wilson, P.; Rowland, J.; Brown, A. G.

    2017-08-01

    The evolution of the Nile Delta, the largest delta system in the Mediterranean Sea, has both high palaeoenvironmental and archaeological significance. A dynamic model of the landscape evolution of this delta system is presented for the period c.8000-4500 cal BP. Analysis of sedimentary data and chronostratigraphic information contained within 1640 borehole records has allowed for a redefinition of the internal stratigraphy of the Holocene delta, and the construction of a four-dimensional landscape model for the delta's evolution through time. The mid-Holocene environmental evolution is characterised by a transition from an earlier set of spatially varied landscapes dominated by swampy marshland, to better-drained, more uniform floodplain environments. Archaeologically important Pleistocene inliers in the form of sandy hills protruding above the delta plain surface (known as "turtlebacks"), also became smaller as the delta plain continued to aggrade, while the shoreline and coastal zone prograded north. These changes were forced by a decrease in the rate of relative sea-level rise under high rates of sediment-supply. This dynamic environmental evolution needs to be integrated within any discussion of the contemporary developments in the social sphere, which culminated in the emergence of the Ancient Egyptian State c.5050 cal BP.

  15. An animal model of spontaneous metabolic syndrome: Nile grass rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Kousuke; Melhorn, Mark I; Zandi, Souska; Frimmel, Sonja; Tayyari, Faryan; Hisatomi, Toshio; Almulki, Lama; Pronczuk, Andrzej; Hayes, K C; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali

    2010-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a prevalent and complex disease, characterized by the variable coexistence of obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinaemia, and hypertension. The alarming rise in the prevalence of metabolic disorders makes it imperative to innovate preventive or therapeutic measures for MetS and its complications. However, the elucidation of the pathogenesis of MetS has been hampered by the lack of realistic models. For example, the existing animal models of MetS, i.e., genetically engineered rodents, imitate certain aspects of the disease, while lacking other important components. Defining the natural course of MetS in a spontaneous animal model of the disease would be desirable. Here, we introduce the Nile grass rat (NGR), Arvicanthis niloticus, as a novel model of MetS. Studies of over 1100 NGRs in captivity, fed normal chow, revealed that most of these animals spontaneously develop dyslipidemia (P<0.01), and hyperglycemia (P<0.01) by 1 yr of age. Further characterization showed that the diabetic rats develop liver steatosis, abdominal fat accumulation, nephropathy, atrophy of pancreatic islets of Langerhans, fatty streaks in the aorta, and hypertension (P<0.01). Diabetic NGRs in the early phase of the disease develop hyperinsulinemia, and show a strong inverse correlation between plasma adiponectin and HbA1c levels (P<0.01). These data indicate that the NGR is a valuable, spontaneous model for exploring the etiology and pathophysiology of MetS as well as its various complications.

  16. West Nile Virus Encephalitis in a Patient with Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Deldar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Oftentimes, when patients with metastatic cancer present with acute encephalopathy, it is suspected to be secondary to their underlying malignancy. However, there are multiple causes of delirium such as central nervous system (CNS infections, electrolyte abnormalities, and drug adverse reactions. Because West Nile Virus (WNV neuroinvasive disease has a high mortality rate in immunosuppressed patients, a high index of suspicion is required in patients who present with fever, altered mental status, and other neurological symptoms. Observations. Our case report details a single patient with brain metastases who presented with unexplained fever, encephalopathy, and new-onset tremors. Initially, it was assumed that his symptoms were due to his underlying malignancy or seizures. However, because his unexplained fevers persisted, lumbar puncture was pursued. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis included WNV polymerase chain reaction and serologies were ordered which eventually led to diagnosis of WNV encephalitis. Conclusions and Relevance. Patients with metastatic cancer who present with encephalopathy are often evaluated with assumption that malignancy is the underlying etiology. This can lead to delays in diagnosis and possible mistreatment. Our case highlights the importance of maintaining a broad differential diagnosis and an important diagnostic consideration of WNV encephalitis in patients with cancer.

  17. Oxysterols and Their Cellular Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eija Nissilä

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxysterols are oxidized 27-carbon cholesterol derivatives or by-products of cholesterol biosynthesis, with a spectrum of biologic activities. Several oxysterols have cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities, the ability to interfere with the lateral domain organization, and packing of membrane lipids. These properties may account for their suggested roles in the pathology of diseases such as atherosclerosis, age-onset macular degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease. Oxysterols also have the capacity to induce inflammatory responses and play roles in cell differentiation processes. The functions of oxysterols as intermediates in the synthesis of bile acids and steroid hormones, and as readily transportable forms of sterol, are well established. Furthermore, their actions as endogenous regulators of gene expression in lipid metabolism via liver X receptors and the Insig (insulin-induced gene proteins have been investigated in detail. The cytoplasmic oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP homologues form a group of oxysterol/cholesterol sensors that has recently attracted a lot of attention. However, their mode of action is, as yet, poorly understood. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (ROR α and γ, and Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 2 (EBI2 have been identified as novel oxysterol receptors, revealing new physiologic oxysterol effector mechanisms in development, metabolism, and immunity, and evoking enhanced interest in these compounds in the field of biomedicine.

  18. Climate-based models for West Nile Culex mosquito vectors in the Northeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hongfei; Degaetano, Arthur T.; Harrington, Laura C.

    2011-05-01

    Climate-based models simulating Culex mosquito population abundance in the Northeastern US were developed. Two West Nile vector species, Culex pipiens and Culex restuans, were included in model simulations. The model was optimized by a parameter-space search within biological bounds. Mosquito population dynamics were driven by major environmental factors including temperature, rainfall, evaporation rate and photoperiod. The results show a strong correlation between the timing of early population increases (as early warning of West Nile virus risk) and decreases in late summer. Simulated abundance was highly correlated with actual mosquito capture in New Jersey light traps and validated with field data. This climate-based model simulates the population dynamics of both the adult and immature mosquito life stage of Culex arbovirus vectors in the Northeastern US. It is expected to have direct and practical application for mosquito control and West Nile prevention programs.

  19. Isolation and molecular identification of Naegleria fowleri from Nile river, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Herrawy, Ahmad Z; Gad, Mahmoud A

    2015-12-01

    Members of the genus Naegleria are free-living amoebae distributed in various aquatic environments. Naegleria fowleri is the only species that can cause fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in humans. A total of 48 Nile water samples were collected from the water stream passing though Cairo. The samples were processed for the detection of Naegleria spp. using non-nutrient agar at 45°C. The isolates of Naegleria spp. were identified based on the morphologic criteria of trophozoite, flagellated and cyst stages. Molecular characterization of the isolates was performed using PCR. The obtained results showed that Naegleria spp. were found in 45.8% of Nile water samples by means of microscopic examination. Seasonally, the highest prevalence of Naegleria spp. was recorded in summer (66.7%). Moreover, the highest prevalence of N. fowleri was recorded in summer (25%). The occurrence of heat-tolerant Naegleria spp., especially N. fowleri, in Nile water should be considered as a potential health threat.

  20. Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome attributable to West Nile encephalitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bîrluţiu, Victoria; Bîrluţiu, Rareş Mircea

    2014-06-26

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome is a very rare neurological disorder associated with some viral infections and exceptionally with the West Nile virus. A 57-year-old Caucasian woman presented with fever, dizziness, balance difficulties, vomiting, dancing eye, altered speech, tremor, generalized myoclonus and failure to rise or stand. Our objective is to describe a patient with West Nile infection, which was identified both in her serum and cerebrospinal fluid and was associated with encephalitis and opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome. Opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome continued for 4 weeks after onset, when she died. There was no evidence for any other etiology responsible for her opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. Her opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome appeared associated with West Nile encephalitis and had an unfavorable evolution despite treatment.

  1. Statistical mechanics of cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, S.

    1983-01-01

    Cellular automata are used as simple mathematical models to investigate self-organization in statistical mechanics. A detailed analysis is given of ''elementary'' cellular automata consisting of a sequence of sites with values 0 or 1 on a line, with each site evolving deterministically in discrete time steps according to p definite rules involving the values of its nearest neighbors. With simple initial configurations, the cellular automata either tend to homogeneous states, or generate self-similar patterns with fractal dimensions approx. =1.59 or approx. =1.69. With ''random'' initial configurations, the irreversible character of the cellular automaton evolution leads to several self-organization phenomena. Statistical properties of the structures generated are found to lie in two universality classes, independent of the details of the initial state or the cellular automaton rules. More complicated cellular automata are briefly considered, and connections with dynamical systems theory and the formal theory of computation are discussed

  2. Polymerized Nile Blue derivatives for plasticizer-free fluorescent ion optode microsphere sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeontae, Wittaya; Xu, Chao; Ye, Nan; Wygladacz, Katarzyna; Aeungmaitrepirom, Wanlapa; Tuntulani, Thawatchai; Bakker, Eric

    2007-09-05

    Lipophilic H+-selective fluorophores such as Nile Blue derivatives are widely used in ISE-based pH sensors and bulk optodes, and are commonly dissolved in a plasticized matrix such as PVC. Unfortunately, leaching of the active sensing ingredients and plasticizer from the matrix dictates the lifetime of the sensors and hampers their applications in vivo, especially with miniaturized particle based sensors. We find that classical copolymerization of Nile Blue derivatives containing an acrylic side group gives rise to multiple reaction products with different spectral and H+-binding properties, making this approach unsuitable for the development of reliable sensor materials. This limitation was overcome by grafting Nile Blue to a self-plasticized poly(n-butyl acrylate) matrix via an urea or amide linkage between the Nile Blue base structure and the polymer. Optode leaching experiments into methanol confirmed the successful covalent attachment of the two chromoionophores to the polymer matrix. Both polymerized Nile Blue derivatives have satisfactory pH response and appropriate optical properties that are suitable for use in ion-selective electrodes and optodes. Plasticizer-free Na+-selective microsphere sensors using the polymerized chromoionophores were fabricated under mild conditions with an in-house sonic microparticle generator for the measurement of sodium activities at physiological pH. The measuring range for sodium was found as 10(-1)-10(-4) M and 1-10(-3) M, for Nile Blue derivatives linked via urea and amide functionalities, respectively, at physiological pH. The observed ion-exchange constants of the plasticizer-free microsphere were log K(exch) = -5.6 and log K(exch) = -6.5 for the same two systems, respectively. Compared with earlier Na+-selective bulk optodes, the fabricated optical sensing microbeads reported here have agreeable selectivity patterns, reasonably fast response times, and more appropriate measuring ranges for determination of Na+ activity

  3. Purification and crystallization of dengue and West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Arcy, Allan; Chaillet, Maxime; Schiering, Nikolaus; Villard, Frederic; Lim, Siew Pheng; Lefeuvre, Peggy; Erbel, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Crystals of dengue serotype 2 and West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 protease complexes have been obtained and the crystals of both diffract to useful resolution. Sample homogeneity was essential for obtaining X-ray-quality crystals of the dengue protease. Controlled proteolysis produced a crystallizable fragment of the apo West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 and crystals were also obtained in the presence of a peptidic inhibitor. Both dengue and West Nile virus infections are an increasing risk to humans, not only in tropical and subtropical areas, but also in North America and parts of Europe. These viral infections are generally transmitted by mosquitoes, but may also be tick-borne. Infection usually results in mild flu-like symptoms, but can also cause encephalitis and fatalities. Approximately 2799 severe West Nile virus cases were reported this year in the United States, resulting in 102 fatalities. With this alarming increase in the number of West Nile virus infections in western countries and the fact that dengue virus already affects millions of people per year in tropical and subtropical climates, there is a real need for effective medicines. A possible therapeutic target to combat these viruses is the protease, which is essential for virus replication. In order to provide structural information to help to guide a lead identification and optimization program, crystallizations of the NS2B–NS3 protease complexes from both dengue and West Nile viruses have been initiated. Crystals that diffract to high resolution, suitable for three-dimensional structure determinations, have been obtained

  4. Analysis of YouTube as a source of information for West Nile Virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Amritphale, Amod; Sawhney, Anshudha; Dubey, Devashish; Srivastav, Nupur

    2014-12-01

    A major outbreak of West Nile Virus was seen last year in different parts of the United States. Adequate dissemination of correct information about the disease would have helped decrease its spread and the associated panic in the general population. In this study, we looked into the use of YouTube as a resource for providing information about West Nile Virus infection. This study aims to identify and evaluate YouTube as resource for providing information on West Nile Virus infection to the general public. YouTube was searched on November 25, 2012, using the keywords West Nile Virus epidemic, West Nile Virus infection, and West Nile Virus prevention for videos uploaded in the past 6 months containing relevant information about the disease. The videos were classified as useful, misleading, or as news updates based on the type of information contained. Total viewership, number of days since upload, total duration of videos, and source of upload were noted. A total of 106 videos with information on West Nile Virus infection were included in the study, with 79.24% having useful information about the disease. Among the useful videos, 51/84 (60.71%) had information on disease prevention, and 29/84 (34.52%) contained information on news and research updates. The majority of these videos were uploaded by individuals (54.6%) or news agencies (41.8 %). Healthcare agencies contributed only 3.4 % of the total videos. Even though the useful videos represented 72% of all videos, there was significantly higher total viewership and viewership per day for the non-useful videos (PYouTube may be a significant resource for dissemination of information on public health issues like West Nile virus infection and should be targeted by healthcare agencies for this use. The major drawback of this medium is lack of verification by authorized healthcare professionals before these videos are made available for viewing by the community. Hence, a strict caution should be exercised in obtaining

  5. FEEDING FREQUENCY OF NILE TILAPIA FED RATIONS SUPPLEMENTED WITH AMINO ACIDS

    OpenAIRE

    EDUARDO ARRUDA TEIXEIRA LANNA; MARCOS ANTONIO DELMONDES BOMFIM; FELIPE BARBOSA RIBEIRO; MOISÉS QUADROS

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the feeding frequency of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed low-protein diets (29% crude protein) supplemented with commercial amino acids (L-lysine-HCl, DL-methionine, and L-threonine). Sex-reversed Nile tilapia (240) of Thai origin, with initial body weight of 0.93 ± 0.03 g each, were allocated in a completely randomized design, to five groups with various feeding frequencies (2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 times a day). Six replications were conducted on separate exper...

  6. FEEDING FREQUENCY OF NILE TILAPIA FED RATIONS SUPPLEMENTED WITH AMINO ACIDS

    OpenAIRE

    LANNA, EDUARDO ARRUDA TEIXEIRA; BOMFIM, MARCOS ANTONIO DELMONDES; RIBEIRO, FELIPE BARBOSA; QUADROS, MOISÉS

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present study evaluated the feeding frequency of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed low-protein diets (29% crude protein) supplemented with commercial amino acids (L-lysine-HCl, DL-methionine, and L-threonine). Sex-reversed Nile tilapia (240) of Thai origin, with initial body weight of 0.93 ± 0.03 g each, were allocated in a completely randomized design, to five groups with various feeding frequencies (2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 times a day). Six replications were conducted on sepa...

  7. Age and origin of the Gezira alluvial fan between the Blue and White Nile rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, martin

    2014-05-01

    The Gezira is a low-angle alluvial fan bounded by the Blue Nile to the east and the White Nile to the west. It is the main agricultural region of Sudan and produces high quality long-staple cotton for export. Dark cracking clays (vertisols) cover much of the Gezira and range in age from 50 kyr to Holocene. The Gezira is traversed by a series of defunct sandy channels that originate between Sennar and Wad Medani on the present-day Blue Nile. With a radius of 300 km and an area of 40,000 km2 the Gezira is a mega-fan. The younger channels range in age from early Holocene to 100 kyr, while near surface channels filled with rolled quartz and carbonate gravels have ages back to >250 kyr. Boreholes in the Gezira reveal coarse alluvial sands and gravels in now buried channels overlain by alluvial clays, forming a repetitive sequence of fining-upwards alluvial units. that probably extend back to Pliocene times. The fan is up to 180 m thick with a volume of ~1,800 km3. The sandy or gravelly bed-load channels coincide with colder drier climates and sparse vegetation in the Ethiopian headwaters of the Blue Nile and the alluvial clays denote widespread flooding during times of stronger summer monsoon. The early stages of such flood events were often accompanied by mass burial of Nile oyster (Etheria elliptica) beds, such as the 45-50 kyr floods that deposited up to 5 m of clay in the northern Gezira. A unique feature of the eastern Gezira is a former Blue Nile channel at least 80 km long running parallel to the present river and entirely filled with volcanic ash. The channel was only 3-4 m deep and 20-30 m wide. Very fine laminations and cross-beds, together with locally abundant phytoliths and sponge spicules, suggest slow-moving water, with flow dispersed across many distributary channels. The ash geochemistry is similar to that in the lower part of the Kibish Formation in the lower Omo valley of southern Ethiopia and points to a minimum age of 100 kyr and a maximum age of

  8. Antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, Danelle M; Llizo, Shirley Yeo; Miller, Christine L; Glaser, Amy L

    2007-06-01

    West Nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the United States since 1999. Five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for West Nile virus: black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor), American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis), and Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). All birds were vaccinated intramuscularly at least twice with a commercially available inactivated whole virus vaccine (Innovator). Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species.

  9. Nile Red Detection of Bacterial Hydrocarbons and Ketones in a High-Throughput Format

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinzon, NM; Aukema, KG; Gralnick, JA; Wackett, LP

    2011-06-28

    A method for use in high-throughput screening of bacteria for the production of long-chain hydrocarbons and ketones by monitoring fluorescent light emission in the presence of Nile red is described. Nile red has previously been used to screen for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and fatty acid esters, but this is the first report of screening for recombinant bacteria making hydrocarbons or ketones. The microtiter plate assay was evaluated using wild-type and recombinant strains of Shewanella oneidensis and Escherichia coli expressing the enzyme OleA, previously shown to initiate hydrocarbon biosynthesis. The strains expressing exogenous Stenotrophomonas maltophilia oleA, with increased levels of ketone production as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were distinguished with Nile red fluorescence. Confocal microscopy images of S. oneidensis oleA-expressing strains stained with Nile red were consistent with a membrane localization of the ketones. This differed from Nile red staining of bacterial PHB or algal lipid droplets that showed intracellular inclusion bodies. These results demonstrated the applicability of Nile red in a high-throughput technique for the detection of bacterial hydrocarbons and ketones. IMPORTANCE In recent years, there has been renewed interest in advanced biofuel sources such as bacterial hydrocarbon production. Previous studies used solvent extraction of bacterial cultures followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect and quantify ketones and hydrocarbons (Beller HR, Goh EB, Keasling JD, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 1212-1223, 2010; Sukovich DJ, Seffernick JL, Richman JE, Gralnick JA, Wackett LP, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 3850-3862, 2010). While these analyses are powerful and accurate, their labor-intensive nature makes them intractable to high-throughput screening; therefore, methods for rapid identification of bacterial strains that are overproducing hydrocarbons are needed. The use of high

  10. Review of West Nile virus circulation and outbreak risk in Madagascar: Entomological and ornithological perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Tantely, Micha?l Luciano; Goodman, Steven M.; Rakotondranaivo, Tsirinaina; Boyer, S?bastien

    2016-01-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) is a zoonotic disease, occurring nearly globally. In Madagascar, West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in 1978 from wild birds and the virus is currently distributed across the island, but no epidemic or epizootic period has been recorded. One fatal human case of WNV infection was reported in 2011, suggesting a “tip of the iceberg” phenomenon of a possible WNF epidemic/epizootic on the island. The main objective of this literature-based survey is to review patterns of...

  11. COPPER FRACTIONATION IN PROTEINS FROM PLASMA, MUSCLE AND LIVER OF NILE TILAPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, RCF; Lima, PM; Baldassini, WA; Santos, FA; Moraes, PM; Castro, GR; Padilha, PM

    2012-01-01

    COPPER FRACTIONATION IN PROTEINS FROM PLASMA, MUSCLE AND LIVER OF NILE TILAPIA. Copper fractionation in plasma, muscle and liver of Nile tilapia was performed after protein separation by 2D-PAGE. SR XRF analysis indicated the presence of copper in three protein spots of plasma, and in two protein spots of muscle and liver, respectively. Copper ions were found to be distributed mostly in proteins that had a molar mass of less than 54 kDa and greater than 13 kat and a pI in the 5.3-9.3 range. T...

  12. Adult-onset opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome due to West Nile Virus treated with intravenous immunoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Julien; Armstrong, David; Daneman, Nick; Jain, Jennifer Deborah; Perry, James

    2017-02-01

    A 63-year-old female with no significant past medical history was presented with a 5-day history of progressive opsoclonus-myoclonus, headaches, and fevers. Her workup was significant only for positive West-Nile Virus serum serologies. She received a 2-day course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IvIG). At an 8-week follow up, she had a complete neurological remission. Adult-onset opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome is a rare condition for which paraneoplastic and infectious causes have been attributed. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported of opsoclonus-myoclonus secondary to West-Nile Virus treated with intravenous immunoglobulin monotherapy.

  13. Coordinating and Negotiating Blue Nile Water Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geressu, R. T.; Harou, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    Many countries are proposing new reservoirs in transboundary river basins world-wide that impact downstream regions. Failure to consider and incorporate multiple stakeholder interests in system design and decision making could contribute to regional disputes. Negotiated introduction of new assets and associated coordination strategies (e.g. cost and power sharing arrangements) could reduce conflict and help achieve consensus. In multi-stakeholders problems, parties are likely to prioritize performance targets differently and hence will often prefer different water system designs, stalling negotiations. An ideal solution is where individual and group benefits are maximized by allocating (exchanging) resources according to the relative preferences of stakeholders. Hence, a negotiation support mechanism should be able to incorporate stakeholder preference information. In this paper, we propose a three-step search & deliberate, elicit preferences, and search & negotiate approach for supporting negotiations in complex infrastructure-environmental systems. The approach seeks to find designs and coordination mechanisms that are more beneficial than non-cooperative actions. The proposed approach is applied to a stylized Blue Nile reservoir design problem in Ethiopia seeking to set reservoir capacity and operating rules. We consider cost and energy performance metrics for Ethiopia and energy and irrigation water supply in Sudan. We use example stakeholder (i.e., Ethiopian and Sudanese) priorities for demonstration purpose. The result is an agreed system design and coordination schemes (co-financing and power trade). The application results demonstrate that incorporating coordination strategies, such as energy trade, cost sharing, and financing in assessing transboundary reservoir development options could help find compromise designs that different parties can support.

  14. West nile virus surveillance in Romania: 1997-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceianu, C S; Ungureanu, A; Nicolescu, G; Cernescu, C; Nitescu, L; Tardei, G; Petrescu, A; Pitigoi, D; Martin, D; Ciulacu-Purcarea, V; Vladimirescu, A; Savage, H M

    2001-01-01

    In response to the 1996 West Nile (WN) fever epidemic that occurred in Bucharest and southeastern Romania, a surveillance program was established. The surveillance system detected 39 clinical human WN fever cases during the period 1997-2000: 14 cases in 1997, 5 cases in 1998, 7 cases in 1999, and 13 cases in 2000. Thirty-eight of the 39 case-patients lived in the greater Danube Valley of southern Romania, and 1 case-patient resided in the district of Vaslui, located on the Moldavian plateau. The estimated annual case incidence rate for the surveillance area during the period 1997-2000 was 0.95 cases per million residents. Thirty-four cases were serologically confirmed, and 5 cases were classified as probable. Twenty-four case-patients presented with clinical symptoms of meningitis (62%), 12 with meningoencephalitis (31%), 1 with encephalitis (3%), and 2 with febrile exanthema (5%). Five of the 39 cases were fatal (13%). Fourteen case-patients resided in rural areas, and 25 in urban and suburban areas, including 7 case-patients who resided in Bucharest. The ages of case-patients ranged from 8 to 76 years with a median age of 45 years. Twenty-four case-patients were males and 15 were females. Dates of onset of illness occurred from May 24 through September 25, with 82% of onset dates occurring in August and September. Limited entomological surveillance failed to detect WN virus. Retrospective sampling of domestic fowl in the vicinity of case-patient residences during the years 1997-2000 demonstrated seroprevalence rates of 7.8%-29%. Limited wild bird surveillance demonstrated seroprevalence rates of 5%-8%. The surveillance data suggest that WN virus persists focally for several years in poorly understood transmission cycles after sporadic introductions or that WN virus is introduced into Romania at relatively high rates, and persists seasonally in small foci.

  15. Hydrological studies in the White Nile State in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahim A.M. Salih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to study the hydrological system in the arid areas of White Nile State, Sudan using remote sensing and GIS tools. Information on topography and soils had been extracted using ASTR, Digital Elevation Model (DEM, with 90 m horizontal resolution and Sudan General Soil Map with scale 1:25,000 using digitized method to form the GIS database. Land use/cover information was derived from remotely sensed data of Land sat Thematic Mapper of the year 2014. The vegetation cover was estimated using the normalized different vegetation index (NDVI. One sub-basin was delineated using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM and the total acreage in different slope classes was estimated. These maps were used as input variables to derive a modified Soil Conservation Service (SCS runoff curve number. The SCS runoff curve number model was applied to estimate the runoff depth for individual storm as (return period event and summed up to derive the annual runoff potential for the sub-basin. All morphometric and hydrological characteristics for the elected sub-basin were extracted and illustrated and given in different tables, which include the stream numbers, the shape factor of the basin, the slope condition of the basin, the streams lengths, and the basin area and so on. The total surface water (runoff in depth and volume potential for harvesting is 1.507 mm (depth and 309,078.09 vol m3. The results demonstrate the capability of GIS and its application for water harvesting planning over larger semiarid areas.

  16. Dry weather induces outbreaks of human West Nile virus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belant Jerrold L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its first occurrence in the New York City area during 1999, West Nile virus (WNV has spread rapidly across North America and has become a major public health concern in North America. By 2002, WNV was reported in 40 states and the District of Columbia with 4,156 human and 14,539 equine cases of infection. Mississippi had the highest human incidence rate of WNV during the 2002 epidemic in the United States. Epidemics of WNV can impose enormous impacts on local economies. Therefore, it is advantageous to predict human WNV risks for cost-effective controls of the disease and optimal allocations of limited resources. Understanding relationships between precipitation and WNV transmission is crucial for predicting the risk of the human WNV disease outbreaks under predicted global climate change scenarios. Methods We analyzed data on the human WNV incidences in the 82 counties of Mississippi in 2002, using standard morbidity ratio (SMR and Bayesian hierarchical models, to determine relationships between precipitation and human WNV risks. We also entertained spatial autocorrelations of human WNV risks with conditional autocorrelative (CAR models, implemented in WinBUGS 1.4.3. Results We observed an inverse relationship between county-level human WNV incidence risk and total annual rainfall during the previous year. Parameters representing spatial heterogeneity in the risk of human exposure to WNV improved model fit. Annual precipitation of the previous year was a predictor of spatial variation of WNV risk. Conclusions Our results have broad implications for risk assessment of WNV and forecasting WNV outbreaks. Assessing risk of vector-born infectious diseases will require understanding of complex ecological relationships. Based on the climatologically characteristic drought occurrence in the past and on climate model predictions for climate change and potentially greater drought occurrence in the future, we suggest that the

  17. Exclusion of West Nile Virus Superinfection through RNA Replication▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Gang; Zhang, Bo; Lim, Pei-Yin; Yuan, Zhiming; Bernard, Kristen A.; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2009-01-01

    Superinfection exclusion is the ability of an established viral infection to interfere with a second viral infection. Using West Nile virus (WNV) as a model, we show that replicating replicons in BHK-21 cells suppress subsequent WNV infection. The WNV replicon also suppresses superinfections of other flaviviruses but not nonflaviviruses. Mode-of-action analysis indicates that the exclusion of WNV superinfection occurs at the step of RNA synthesis. The continuous culturing of WNV in the replicon-containing cells generated variants that could overcome the superinfection exclusion. The sequencing of the selected viruses revealed mutations in structural (prM S90R or envelope E138K) and nonstructural genes (NS4a K124R and peptide 2K V9M). Mutagenesis analysis showed that the mutations in structural genes nonselectively enhance viral infection in both naïve and replicon-containing BHK-21 cells; in contrast, the mutations in nonstructural genes more selectively enhance viral replication in the replicon-containing cells than in the naïve cells. Mechanistic analysis showed that the envelope mutation functions through the enhancement of virion attachment to BHK-21 cells, whereas the 2K mutation (and, to a lesser extent, the NS4a mutation) functions through the enhancement of viral RNA synthesis. Furthermore, we show that WNV superinfection exclusion is reversible by the treatment of the replicon cells with a flavivirus inhibitor. The preestablished replication of the replicon could be suppressed by infecting the cells with the 2K mutant WNV but not with the wild-type virus. These results suggest that WNV superinfection exclusion is a result of competition for intracellular host factors that are required for viral RNA synthesis. PMID:19726510

  18. MSAT and cellular hybrid networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowsky, Patrick W., II

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation is developing both the Communications Ground Segment and the Series 1000 Mobile Phone for American Mobile Satellite Corporation's (AMSC's) Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system. The success of the voice services portion of this system depends, to some extent, upon the interoperability of the cellular network and the satellite communication circuit switched communication channels. This paper will describe the set of user-selectable cellular interoperable modes (cellular first/satellite second, etc.) provided by the Mobile Phone and described how they are implemented with the ground segment. Topics including roaming registration and cellular-to-satellite 'seamless' call handoff will be discussed, along with the relevant Interim Standard IS-41 Revision B Cellular Radiotelecommunications Intersystem Operations and IOS-553 Mobile Station - Land Station Compatibility Specification.

  19. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Howard; Venkatesan, Sivarama

    2012-01-01

    As the theoretical foundations of multiple-antenna techniques evolve and as these multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques become essential for providing high data rates in wireless systems, there is a growing need to understand the performance limits of MIMO in practical networks. To address this need, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks presents a systematic description of MIMO technology classes and a framework for MIMO system design that takes into account the essential physical-layer features of practical cellular networks. In contrast to works that focus on the theoretical performance of abstract MIMO channels, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks emphasizes the practical performance of realistic MIMO systems. A unified set of system simulation results highlights relative performance gains of different MIMO techniques and provides insights into how best to use multiple antennas in cellular networks under various conditions. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks describes single-user,...

  20. AMPK-sensitive cellular transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dërmaku-Sopjani, Miribane; Abazi, Sokol; Faggio, Caterina; Kolgeci, Jehona; Sopjani, Mentor

    2014-03-01

    The energy sensing AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates cellular and whole-body energy balance through stimulating catabolic ATP-generating and suppressing anabolic ATP-consuming pathways thereby helping cells survive during energy depletion. The kinase has previously been reported to be either directly or indirectly involved in the regulation of several carriers, channels and pumps of high significance in cellular physiology. Thus AMPK provides a necessary link between cellular energy metabolism and cellular transport activity. Better understanding of the AMPK role in cellular transport offers a potential for improved therapies in various human diseases and disorders. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the role and function of AMPK in transport regulation under physiological and pathological states.

  1. Cellular automata analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hadeler, Karl-Peter

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on a coherent representation of the main approaches to analyze the dynamics of cellular automata. Cellular automata are an inevitable tool in mathematical modeling. In contrast to classical modeling approaches as partial differential equations, cellular automata are straightforward to simulate but hard to analyze. In this book we present a review of approaches and theories that allow the reader to understand the behavior of cellular automata beyond simulations. The first part consists of an introduction of cellular automata on Cayley graphs, and their characterization via the fundamental Cutis-Hedlund-Lyndon theorems in the context of different topological concepts (Cantor, Besicovitch and Weyl topology). The second part focuses on classification results: What classification follows from topological concepts (Hurley classification), Lyapunov stability (Gilman classification), and the theory of formal languages and grammars (Kůrka classification). These classifications suggest to cluster cel...

  2. Optimization of a Virus-Induced Gene Silencing System with Soybean yellow common mosaic virus for Gene Function Studies in Soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil Hyun Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS is an effective tool for the study of soybean gene function. Successful VIGS depends on the interaction between virus spread and plant growth, which can be influenced by environmental conditions. Recently, we developed a new VIGS system derived from the Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV. Here, we investigated several environmental and developmental factors to improve the efficiency of a SYCMV-based VIGS system to optimize the functional analysis of the soybean. Following SYCMV: Glycine max-phytoene desaturase (GmPDS infiltration, we investigated the effect of photoperiod, inoculation time, concentration of Agrobacterium inoculm, and growth temperature on VIGS efficiency. In addition, the relative expression of GmPDS between non-silenced and silenced plants was measured by qRT-PCR. We found that gene silencing efficiency was highest at a photoperiod of 16/8 h (light/dark at a growth temperature of approximately 27°C following syringe infiltration to unrolled unifoliolate leaves in cotyledon stage with a final SYCMV:GmPDS optimal density (OD₆₀₀ of 2.0. Using this optimized protocol, we achieved high efficiency of GmPDS-silencing in various soybean germplasms including cultivated and wild soybeans. We also confirmed that VIGS occurred in the entire plant, including the root, stem, leaves, and flowers, and could transmit GmPDS to other soybean germplasms via mechanical inoculation. This optimized protocol using a SYCMV-based VIGS system in the soybean should provide a fast and effective method to elucidate gene functions and for use in large-scale screening experiments.

  3. Impact of caspase-1/11, -3, -7, or IL-1β/IL-18 deficiency on rabies virus-induced macrophage cell death and onset of disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kip, E; Nazé, F; Suin, V; Vanden Berghe, T; Francart, A; Lamoral, S; Vandenabeele, P; Beyaert, R; Van Gucht, S; Kalai, M

    2017-01-01

    Rabies virus is a highly neurovirulent RNA virus, which causes about 59000 deaths in humans each year. Previously, we described macrophage cytotoxicity upon infection with rabies virus. Here we examined the type of cell death and the role of specific caspases in cell death and disease development upon infection with two laboratory strains of rabies virus: Challenge Virus Standard strain-11 (CVS-11) is highly neurotropic and lethal for mice, while the attenuated Evelyn–Rotnycki–Abelseth (ERA) strain has a broader cell tropism, is non-lethal and has been used as an oral vaccine for animals. Infection of Mf4/4 macrophages with both strains led to caspase-1 activation and IL-1β and IL-18 production, as well as activation of caspases-3, -7, -8, and -9. Moreover, absence of caspase-3, but not of caspase-1 and -11 or -7, partially inhibited virus-induced cell death of bone marrow-derived macrophages. Intranasal inoculation with CVS-11 of mice deficient for either caspase-1 and -11 or -7 or both IL-1β and IL-18 led to general brain infection and lethal disease similar to wild-type mice. Deficiency of caspase-3, on the other hand, significantly delayed the onset of disease, but did not prevent final lethal outcome. Interestingly, deficiency of caspase-1/11, the key executioner of pyroptosis, aggravated disease severity caused by ERA virus, whereas wild-type mice or mice deficient for either caspase-3, -7, or both IL-1β and IL-18 presented the typical mild symptoms associated with ERA virus. In conclusion, rabies virus infection of macrophages induces caspase-1- and caspase-3-dependent cell death. In vivo caspase-1/11 and caspase-3 differently affect disease development in response to infection with the attenuated ERA strain or the virulent CVS-11 strain, respectively. Inflammatory caspases seem to control attenuated rabies virus infection, while caspase-3 aggravates virulent rabies virus infection. PMID:28280602

  4. Virus-induced asthma attack: The importance of allergic inflammation in response to viral antigen in an animal model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skappak, Christopher; Ilarraza, Ramses; Wu, Ying-Qi; Drake, Matthew G; Adamko, Darryl J

    2017-01-01

    Asthma exacerbation can be a life-threatening condition, and is most often triggered by common respiratory viruses. Poor asthma control and worsening of respiratory function is associated with increased airway inflammation, including eosinophilia. Prevention of asthma exacerbation relies on treatment with corticosteroids, which preferentially inhibit allergic inflammation like eosinophils. Human studies demonstrate that inactivated virus can trigger eosinophil activation in vitro through antigen presentation and memory CD4+ lymphocytes. We hypothesized that animals with immunologic memory to a respiratory virus would also develop airway hyperresponsiveness in response to a UV-inactivated form of the virus if they have pre-existing allergic airway inflammation. Guinea pigs were ovalbumin-sensitized, infected with live parainfluenza virus (PIV), aerosol-challenged with ovalbumin, and then re-inoculated 60 days later with live or UV-inactivated PIV. Some animals were either treated with dexamethasone prior to the second viral exposure. Lymphocytes were isolated from parabronchial lymph nodes to confirm immunologic memory to the virus. Airway reactivity was measured and inflammation was assessed using bronchoalveolar lavage and lung histology. The induction of viral immunologic memory was confirmed in infected animals. Allergen sensitized and challenged animals developed airway hyperreactivity with eosinophilic airway inflammation when re-exposed to UV-inactivated PIV, while non-sensitized animals did not. Airway hyperreactivity in the sensitized animals was inhibited by pre-treatment with dexamethasone. We suggest that the response of allergic inflammation to virus antigen is a significant factor causing asthma exacerbation. We propose that this is one mechanism explaining how corticosteroids prevent virus-induced asthma attack.

  5. Improved apple latent spherical virus-induced gene silencing in multiple soybean genotypes through direct inoculation of agro-infiltratedNicotiana benthamianaextract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedling, C R; Ali, E M; Gunadi, A; Finer, J J; Xie, K; Liu, Y; Yoshikawa, N; Qu, F; Dorrance, A E

    2018-01-01

    Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful genomics tool for interrogating the function of plant genes. Unfortunately, VIGS vectors often produce disease symptoms that interfere with the silencing phenotypes of target genes, or are frequently ineffective in certain plant genotypes or tissue types. This is especially true in crop plants like soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr]. To address these shortcomings, we modified the inoculation procedure of a VIGS vector based on Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV). The efficacy of this new procedure was assessed in 19 soybean genotypes using a soybean Phytoene desaturase ( GmPDS1 ) gene as the VIGS target. Silencing of GmPDS1 was easily scored as photo-bleached leaves and/or stems. In this report, the ALSV VIGS vector was modified by mobilizing ALSV cDNAs into a binary vector compatible with Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated delivery, so that VIGS-triggering ALSV variants could be propagated in agro-infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Homogenate of these N. benthamiana leaves was then applied directly onto the unifoliate of young soybean seedlings to initiate systemic gene silencing. This rapid inoculation method bypassed the need for a particle bombardment apparatus. Among the 19 soybean genotypes evaluated with this new method, photo-bleaching indicative of GmPDS1 silencing was observed in nine, with two exhibiting photo-bleaching in 100% of the inoculated individuals. ALSV RNA was detected in pods, embryos, stems, leaves, and roots in symptomatic plants of four genotypes. This modified protocol allowed for inoculation of soybean plants via simple mechanical rubbing with the homogenate of N. benthamiana leaves agro-infiltrated with ALSV VIGS constructs. More importantly, inoculated plants showed no apparent virus disease symptoms which could otherwise interfere with VIGS phenotypes. This streamlined procedure expanded this functional genomics tool to nine soybean genotypes.

  6. Central nervous system Toll-like receptor expression in response to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelination disease in resistant and susceptible mouse strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turrin Nicolas P

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In immunopathological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS, genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the initiation and progression of the disease are often discussed. The Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelination disease (TMEV-IDD model used to study MS reflects this: genetically susceptible mice infected intra-cerebrally with TMEV develop a chronic demyelination disease. TMEV-IDD can be induced in resistant mouse strains by inducing innate immunity with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Interestingly, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 is the cognate receptor for LPS and its activation can induces up-regulation of other TLRs, such as TLR7 (the receptor for TMEV and 9, known to be involved in autoimmunity. Up-regulation of TLRs could be involved in precipitating an autoimmune susceptible state. Consequently, we looked at TLR expression in the susceptible (SJL/J and resistant (C57BL/6 strains of mice infected with TMEV. The resistant mice were induced to develop TMEV-IDD by two LPS injections following TMEV infection. Results Both strains were found to up-regulate multiple TLRs (TLR2, 7 and 9 following the TMEV infection. Expression of these TLRs and of viral mRNA was significantly greater in infected SJL/J mice. The susceptible SJL/J mice showed up-regulation of TLR3, 6 and 8, which was not seen in C57BL/6 mice. Conclusion Expression of TLRs by susceptible mice and the up-regulation of the TLRs in resistant mice could participate in priming the mice toward an autoimmune state and develop TMEV-IDD. This could have implications on therapies that target TLRs to prevent the emergence of conditions such as MS in patients at risk for the disease.

  7. Integrated network analysis reveals a novel role for the cell cycle in 2009 pandemic influenza virus-induced inflammation in macaque lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoemaker Jason E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annually, influenza A viruses circulate the world causing wide-spread sickness, economic loss, and death. One way to better defend against influenza virus-induced disease may be to develop novel host-based therapies, targeted at mitigating viral pathogenesis through the management of virus-dysregulated host functions. However, mechanisms that govern aberrant host responses to influenza virus infection remain incompletely understood. We previously showed that the pandemic H1N1 virus influenza A/California/04/2009 (H1N1; CA04 has enhanced pathogenicity in the lungs of cynomolgus macaques relative to a seasonal influenza virus isolate (A/Kawasaki/UTK-4/2009 (H1N1; KUTK4. Results Here, we used microarrays to identify host gene sequences that were highly differentially expressed (DE in CA04-infected macaque lungs, and we employed a novel strategy – combining functional and pathway enrichment analyses, transcription factor binding site enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction data – to create a CA04 differentially regulated host response network. This network describes enhanced viral RNA sensing, immune cell signaling and cell cycle arrest in CA04-infected lungs, and highlights a novel, putative role for the MYC-associated zinc finger (MAZ transcription factor in regulating these processes. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the enhanced pathology is the result of a prolonged immune response, despite successful virus clearance. Most interesting, we identify a mechanism which normally suppresses immune cell signaling and inflammation is ineffective in the pH1N1 virus infection; a dyregulatory event also associated with arthritis. This dysregulation offers several opportunities for developing strain-independent, immunomodulatory therapies to protect against future pandemics.

  8. Virus-induced gene silencing of Withania somnifera squalene synthase negatively regulates sterol and defence-related genes resulting in reduced withanolides and biotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anup Kumar; Dwivedi, Varun; Rai, Avanish; Pal, Shaifali; Reddy, Sajjalavarahalli Gangireddy Eswara; Rao, Dodaghatta Krishnarao Venkata; Shasany, Ajit Kumar; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2015-12-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is an important Indian medicinal plant that produces withanolides, which are triterpenoid steroidal lactones having diverse biological activities. To enable fast and efficient functional characterization of genes in this slow-growing and difficult-to-transform plant, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was established by silencing phytoene desaturase (PDS) and squalene synthase (SQS). VIGS of the gene encoding SQS, which provides precursors for triterpenoids, resulted in significant reduction of squalene and withanolides, demonstrating its application in studying withanolides biosynthesis in W. somnifera leaves. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression and sterol pathway intermediates in WsSQS-vigs plants revealed transcriptional modulation with positive feedback regulation of mevalonate pathway genes, and negative feed-forward regulation of downstream sterol pathway genes including DWF1 (delta-24-sterol reductase) and CYP710A1 (C-22-sterol desaturase), resulting in significant reduction of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. However, there was little effect of SQS silencing on cholesterol, indicating the contribution of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, but not of cholesterol, towards withanolides formation. Branch-point oxidosqualene synthases in WsSQS-vigs plants exhibited differential regulation with reduced CAS (cycloartenol synthase) and cycloartenol, and induced BAS (β-amyrin synthase) and β-amyrin. Moreover, SQS silencing also led to the down-regulation of brassinosteroid-6-oxidase-2 (BR6OX2), pathogenesis-related (PR) and nonexpressor of PR (NPR) genes, resulting in reduced tolerance to bacterial and fungal infection as well as to insect feeding. Taken together, SQS silencing negatively regulated sterol and defence-related genes leading to reduced phytosterols, withanolides and biotic stress tolerance, thus implicating the application of VIGS for functional analysis of genes related to withanolides

  9. Ecological Risk Assessment of Metal Pollution along Greater Cairo Sector of the River Nile, Egypt, Using Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, as Bioindicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael A. Omar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to evaluate seasonal metal pollution along Greater Cairo sector of the River Nile, Egypt, using wild Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, as bioindicator and to conduct a risk assessment for human consumers. Greater Cairo is the largest populated area along the whole course of River Nile with a wide range of anthropogenic activities. Effects of metal pollution on fish body indices were studied using condition factor (CF and scaled mass index (SMI. Metal pollution index (MPI showed that the total metal load in fish organs followed the follwoing order: kidney > liver > gill > muscle which gives a better idea about the target organs for metal accumulation. Metal concentrations in fish muscle (edible tissue showed the following arrangement: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. Metal’s bioaccumulation factor (BAF in fish muscle showed the following arrangement: Zn > Cu > Fe > Mn > Cd and Pb. The hazard index (HI as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption showed that adverse health effects are not expected to occur in most cases. However, the metals’ cumulative risk effects gave an alarming sign specifically at high fish consumption rates.

  10. West Nile Virus positive blood donation and subsequent entomological investigation, Austria, 2014

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolodziejek, J.; Seidel, B.; Jungbauer, C.; Dimmel, K.; Kolodziejek, M.; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Allerberger, F.; Nowotny, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2015), e0126381 E-ISSN 1932-6203 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile virus * Austria Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  11. The Impact of Soil Erosion in the Upper Blue Nile on Downstream Reservoir Sedimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Y.S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Population growth in the Blue Nile Basin has led to fast land-use changes from forest to agricultural land, which resulted in speeding up the soil erosion processes producing highly negative impacts on the local soil fertility and agricultural productivity. The eroded sediment is transported

  12. The impact of soil erosion in the upper Blue Nile on downstream reservoir sedimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Y.S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Population growth in the Blue Nile Basin has led to fast land-use changes from forest to agricultural land, which resulted in speeding up the soil erosion processes producing highly negative impacts on the local soil fertility and agricultural productivity. The eroded sediment is transported

  13. How to us Nile Red, a selective fluorescent stain for microalgal neutral lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alemán-Nava, Gibrán S.; Cuellar-Bermudez, Sara P.; Cuaresma, María; Bosma, Rouke; Muylaert, Koenraad; Ritmann, Bruce E.; Parra, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The use of Nile Red for rapid monitoring of the neutral lipid content in microalgae has gained interest over the last decade, since neutral lipids are feedstock for renewable transportation fuel. In this review, we discuss the main considerations needed to make an NR protocol reliable for

  14. Economic values of growth rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality and uniformity for Nile tilapia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omasaki, S.K.; Janssen, K.; Besson, M.; Komen, H.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to derive the economic value (s) (EVs) of growth rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality and uniformity for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A smallholder production system where fish are cultured in earthen ponds and oxygen is a limiting factor for

  15. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Nile Delta Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 1.8 billion barrels of recoverable oil, 223 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas, and 6 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in the Nile Delta Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  16. Modelling of fillet traits based on body measurements in three Nile tilapia strains (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

    2004-01-01

    In Nile tilapia, breeding programs focus mainly on growth, and information on genetic improvement of fillet yield is scarce. In this study, slaughter data were collected on 1215 tilapia and used to analyze the relationship between body measurements and fillet weight and fillet yield. Fish were

  17. West Nile Virus Outbreak in Houston and Harris County, Texas, USA, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Diana; Murray, Kristy O; Reyna, Martin; Arafat, Raouf R; Gorena, Roberto; Shah, Umair A; Debboun, Mustapha

    2017-08-01

    Since 2002, West Nile virus (WNV) has been detected every year in Houston and the surrounding Harris County, Texas. In 2014, the largest WNV outbreak to date occurred, comprising 139 cases and causing 2 deaths. Additionally, 1,286 WNV-positive mosquito pools were confirmed, the most reported in a single mosquito season.

  18. Research report: the Middle Stone Age of the Blue Nile Gorge, Ethiopia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří; Said, H.; Novák, Martin; Desse, A.; Sázelová, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2013), s. 431-436 ISSN 0323-1119 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0181 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : settlement archaeology * Middle Stone Age * Blue Nile * Oromia * Ethiopia Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  19. Nile perch fish processing waste along Lake Victoria in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... important contaminant having an impact on the environment. The recovery of value added products from these residues constitutes an important waste reduction strategy for the industry. In East Africa, Nile perch fish processing into chilled fish fillet for export along Lake Victoria generate large proportions of both solid and ...

  20. Quest for economic development in agrarian localities : Lessons from West Nile, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Enzama (Wilson)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper describes and analyzes the operational strategy of West Nile region, a typical low local capability community, in pursuit of local economic development. Special emphasis has been placed on the development of groups of survival beekeeping-enterprises and their integration in

  1. Importance of bird-to-bird transmission for the establishment of West Nile Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, N.A.; Davis, S.A.; Reiter, P.; Hubálek, Z.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2007-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is principally considered to be maintained in a mosquito–bird transmission cycle. Under experimental conditions, several other transmission routes have been observed, but the significance of these additional routes in nature is unknown. Here, we derive an expression for the

  2. The role of Culex pipiens mosquitoes in transmission of West Nile virus in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, Chantal B.F.

    2017-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is maintained in a natural transmission cycle between mosquito vectors and bird hosts. However, mosquitoes can also transmit WNV to mammals, such as humans and horses, which may result in disease. In Europe, such cases of WNV disease are yearly recurring in southern and

  3. DNA fingerprinting of salinity resistance of full-sib Nile tilapia, Blue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ******

    2012-05-01

    May 1, 2012 ... can be successfully used as a rapid and easy way for identification of the different selected genotypes of salinity resistance fish, which considers a great potential for the development and implementation of genetic improvement programs. Key words: RAPD fingerprinting, salinity resistance, Nile tilapia, Blue ...

  4. Screening for West Nile virus infections of susceptible animal species in Austria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weissenböck, H.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Halouzka, Jiří; Pichlmair, A.; Maderner, A.; Fragner, K.; Kolodziejek, J.; Loupal, G.; Kölbl, S.; Nowotny, N.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 131, c. 2 (2003), s. 1023-1027 ISSN 0950-2688 Grant - others:Hochschuljubiläumsstiftung der Stadt Wien(AT) - Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : West Nile virus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.509, year: 2003

  5. Significance of Algal Assemblages in Assessing Water Quality of the River Nile at Minia,Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shahed, A.M.; Ibrahim, H.A.

    1999-01-01

    A sector of the Nile system in the Providence Minia, has been studied for physicochemical properties of waters and characteristics of the inhabiting algal communities. Monthly samples in the period April, 1994-Marsh, 1995 were collected from three sites on the Nile and one site on a drainage canal connected to it. Samples were analysed for water temperature, ph, inorganic forms of nitrogen, inorganic phosphates, silicates, chemical oxygen demand, total carbohydrates, total proteins, and the major nutritive metal ions; Na +, K +, Ca + + a nd Mg + + . Algal samples, collected at the same intervals, were studied for the characteristics of algal communities including diversity of species, abundance of populations and species co,position. A total of 124 taxa were recorded during the period of study of which 27 cyanophytes, 34 chlorophyte, 6 euglenophytes and 57 bacillariophytes. Changes in water chemistry of the river Nile, on receiving discharges from domestic, agricultural and industrial effluents, have been shown to be accompanied with alterations in the algal communities including species composition, species diversity and abundance of populations. Water quality was assessed on the basis of both chemical and biological data and results have indicated that the Nile at the area of study is subjected to eutrophication and organic pollution. Bio indicator species have also used to distinguish polluted and relatively clean localities

  6. Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Wild Birds from Northern Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jourdain, E.; Olsen, B.; Lundkvist, A.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Šikutová, Silvie; Waldenström, J.; Karlsson, M.; Wahlström, M.; Jozan, M.; Falk, K. I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 77-79 ISSN 1530-3667 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Antibodies * Migratory birds * Sweden * West Nile Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.437, year: 2011

  7. West Nile virus equine serosurvey in the Czech and Slovak Republics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Ludvíková, E.; Jahn, P.; Treml, F.; Rudolf, Ivo; Svobodová, Petra; Šikutová, Silvie; Betášová, Lenka; Bíreš, J.; Mojžíš, M.; Tinák, M.; Boldižár, M.; Citsoňová, G.; Staššíková, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 10 (2013), s. 733-738 ISSN 1530-3667 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Flavivirus * Mosquito-borne virus * West Nile virus * Neutralizing antibodies * Horses Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.531, year: 2013

  8. West Nile virus isolated from a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in northwestern Missouri, USA, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica R; Lash, R Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry M; Godsey, Marvin S; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nicholson, William L; Brault, Aaron C; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-10-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology.

  9. West nile virus anti-body surveillance in three Sierra Nevada raptors of conservation concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Hull; J.J. Keane; L.A. Tell; H.B. Ernest

    2010-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection has caused high levels of mortality in North American hawks and owls. To investigate the extent of infection among raptors of conservation concern in the Sierra Nevada, we tested 62 Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), 209 Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis), and 22 Great Gray Owls (...

  10. Sea level rise and land loss in the Nile Delta | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-09

    Jun 9, 2016 ... Using the most recent predictions of sea level rise, total coastal land lost could be between 22 to 49%. ... of the Nile Delta coastal areas to inundation by sea level rise, M.A. Hassaan and Mohammad Abdrabo used GIS to identify areas and land use/cover that may be susceptible to sea level rise by 2100.

  11. Can reconstructed land surface temperature data from space predict a West Nile Virus outbreak?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreo, V.; Metz, J.C.M.; Neteler, M.; Rosà, R.; Marcantonio, M.; Billinis, C.; Rizzoli, A.; Papa, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Temperature is one of the main drivers of ecological processes. The availability of temporally and spatially continuous temperature time series is crucial in different research and application fields, such as epidemiology and control of zoonotic diseases. In 2010, several West Nile virus (WNV)

  12. First Case of West Nile Fever in a Child in Autonomous Republic of Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Rymarenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article shows a case report of West Nile fever in 11-year-old boy taken from own clinical experience. The duration of the diseases was typical, with fever, meningism, lymphadenitis, hyperemic of facial and chest skin, conjunctivitis, pain in muscles of low extremities.

  13. Drought and immunity determine the intensity of West Nile virus epidemics and climate change impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, Sara H; Horton, Daniel E; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Rastogi, Deeksha; Kramer, Laura D; Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2017-02-08

    The effect of global climate change on infectious disease remains hotly debated because multiple extrinsic and intrinsic drivers interact to influence transmission dynamics in nonlinear ways. The dominant drivers of widespread pathogens, like West Nile virus, can be challenging to identify due to regional variability in vector and host ecology, with past studies producing disparate findings. Here, we used analyses at national and state scales to examine a suite of climatic and intrinsic drivers of continental-scale West Nile virus epidemics, including an empirically derived mechanistic relationship between temperature and transmission potential that accounts for spatial variability in vectors. We found that drought was the primary climatic driver of increased West Nile virus epidemics, rather than within-season or winter temperatures, or precipitation independently. Local-scale data from one region suggested drought increased epidemics via changes in mosquito infection prevalence rather than mosquito abundance. In addition, human acquired immunity following regional epidemics limited subsequent transmission in many states. We show that over the next 30 years, increased drought severity from climate change could triple West Nile virus cases, but only in regions with low human immunity. These results illustrate how changes in drought severity can alter the transmission dynamics of vector-borne diseases. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Optimization of breeding schemes for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in smallholder production systems in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omasaki, Simion Kipkemboi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to develop a sustainable low cost breeding program for Nile tilapia that addresses both genetic and economic aspects of smallholder fish farmers in Kenya. First, Analytical Hierarchy Process Technique was used to define a breeding goal based on farmer’s preferences for

  15. Construction of phage antibody repertoires from the blood of West Nile virus-infected donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throsby, Mark; de Kruif, John

    2009-01-01

    A method for the construction of West Nile virus immune donor antibody repertoires is described. B cells are harvested from a suitable donor and the antibody variable genes are amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR fragments are cloned in a phage display vector to construct a repertoire that can be used in panning procedures to identify many unique monoclonal antibodies.

  16. Diurnal rainfall variability over the Upper Blue Nile Basin: a remote sensing based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rientjes, T.H.M.; Haile, A.T.; Fenta, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we aim to assess the diurnal cycle of rainfall across the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin using satellite observations from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Seven years (2002-2008) of Precipitation Radar (PR) and TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) data are used and analyses are based

  17. Inter-comparison of satellite rainfall products for representing rainfall diurnal cycle over the Nile basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haile, A.T.; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Habib, Emad; Elsaadani, Mohamed; Rientjes, T.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors inter-compared the performance of three satellite-rainfall products in representing the diurnal cycle of rain occurrence and rain rate over the Nile basin in eastern Africa. These products are the real time (RT) and post-real-time (PRT) (bias adjusted) versions of Tropical

  18. The diets of Nile perch ( Lates niloticus ) in Oyan Dam | Adeosun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of Nile perch (Lates niloticus L.) were collected for stomach analysis from artisanal fishermen using fishing gear such as, cast nets, gill nets, set nets, in Oyan dam, Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria. Frequency of Occurrence and Numerical methods was used to analyse the stomach contents of 60 specimens of Lates ...

  19. Evapotranspiration in the Nile Basin: Identifying dynamics and drivers, 2002–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Henok; Kaptue, Armel T.; Senay, Gabriel; Wimberly, Michael C.; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of the relationship between evapotranspiration (ET) and its natural and anthropogenic drivers is critical in water-limited basins such as the Nile. The spatiotemporal relationships of ET with rainfall and vegetation dynamics in the Nile Basin during 2002–2011 were analyzed using satellite-derived data. Non-parametric statistics were used to quantify ET-rainfall interactions and trends across land cover types and subbasins. We found that 65% of the study area (2.5 million km2) showed significant (p rainfall, whereas 7% showed significant negative correlations. As expected, positive ET-rainfall correlations were observed over natural vegetation, mixed croplands/natural vegetation, and croplands, with a few subbasin-specific exceptions. In particular, irrigated croplands, wetlands and some forests exhibited negative correlations. Trend tests revealed spatial clusters of statistically significant trends in ET (6% of study area was negative; 12% positive), vegetation greenness (24% negative; 12% positive) and rainfall (11% negative; 1% positive) during 2002–2011. The Nile Delta, Ethiopian highlands and central Uganda regions showed decline in ET while central parts of Sudan, South Sudan, southwestern Ethiopia and northeastern Uganda showed increases. Except for a decline in ET in central Uganda, the detected changes in ET (both positive and negative) were not associated with corresponding changes in rainfall. Detected declines in ET in the Nile delta and Ethiopian highlands were found to be attributable to anthropogenic land degradation, while the ET decline in central Uganda is likely caused by rainfall reduction.

  20. Co-circulation of Usutu virus and West Nile virus in a reed bed ecosystem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Bakonyi, T.; Šebesta, Oldřich; Mendel, Jan; Peško, Juraj; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; Venclíková, Kristýna; Straková, Petra; Nowotny, N.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 520 (2015), s. 520 ISSN 1756-3305 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Culex modestus * Usutu virus * West Nile virus * Flavivirus * Arbovirus * Surveillance * Mosquitoes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2015

  1. Possible adaptation measures of agriculture sector in the Nile Delta to climate change impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Attaher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The overall agricultural system in the Nile Delta region is considered as one of the highest intensive and complicated agriculture systems in the world. According to the recent studies, the Nile Delta region is one of the highly vulnerable regions in the world to climate change. Sea level rise, soil and water degradation, undiversified crop-pattern, yield reduction, pests and disease severity, and irrigation and drainage management were the main key factors that increased vulnerability of the agriculture sector in that region. The main objective of this study is to conduct a community-based multi-criteria adaptation assessment in the Nile Delta using a preset questionnaire. A list of possible adaptation measures for agriculture sector was evaluated. The results indicated that the Nile Delta growers have strong perceptions to act positively to reduce the impacts of climate change. They reflected the need to improve the their adaptive capacity based on clear scientific message with adequate governmental support to coop with the negative impacts of climate change.

  2. From holes to huts: reconstructing an extinct type of architecture at the Sixth Nile Cataract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Varadzin, Ladislav; Varadzinová, L.; Pacina, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 357 (2017), s. 589-604 ISSN 0003-598X Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : North Africa * Sudan * Sixth Nile Cataract * Mesolithic * architecture * drilled holes Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology Impact factor: 1.536, year: 2016

  3. Nile perch fish processing waste along Lake Victoria in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nile perch fish processing waste along Lake Victoria in East Africa: Auditing and characterization. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  4. Partial replacement of fish meal with Azolla meal in diets for Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The replacement of fishmeal (FM) with Azolla meal (AM) in diets on growth and fatty acid in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (initial mean weight: 16.4 g) was studied. Fish were fed with six isonitrogenous (29.2% CP) and isoenergetic (16.9 kJ.g-1) diets containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% AM respectively, ...

  5. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis Niloticus Linné

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balirwa, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of LalNile tilap'a was studied. Five wetland types were defined: papyrus, reed, bulrush, hippo grass, water hyacinth. Hydrology, vegetation and distance towards open water explained the variation in abiotic and biotic factors. Over 30 fish species were

  6. Optimization of Nile tilapia breeding schemes for monosex culture conditions in smallholder production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omasaki, S.K.; Janssen, K.; Komen, H.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the design of a nucleus Nile tilapia breeding program for harvest weight, growth rate and survival in the presence of genotype by environment interaction with monosex (MS) culture of all-male fish. A nucleus breeding program was deterministically simulated using

  7. Optimization of breeding schemes for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in smallholder production systems in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omasaki, Simion Kipkemboi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to develop a sustainable low cost breeding program for Nile tilapia that addresses both genetic and economic aspects of smallholder fish farmers in Kenya. First, Analytical Hierarchy Process Technique was used to define a breeding goal based on farmer’s preferences

  8. Genetic parameters for reproductive traits in female Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): II. Fecundity and fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trong, T.Q.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Komen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Harvest weight is the main trait in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) breeding programmes. The effects of selection for harvest weight on female reproductive traits are unknown. In this paper we estimate genetic parameters for reproductive traits and their correlation with harvest weight using

  9. Genetic analysis of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) selection line reared in two input environments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaw, H.L.; Bovenhuis, H.; Ponzoni, R.W.; Rezk, M.A.; Charo, H.; Komen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ascertaining the appropriate selection environment for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Africa is a critical issue. Two data sets derived from two selection lines originating from a common base population were analysed in this study. The lines were selected in two different input

  10. Epidemiology of West Nile in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Calistri, P.; Giovannini, A.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Ionescu, A.; Monaco, F.; Savini, G.; Lelli, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, - (2010), s. 29-37 ISSN 1874-3579 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Epidemiology * Europe * West Nile * Mediterranean Basin Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2878979/pdf/TOVJ-4-29.pdf

  11. Facing the tide: Weighing options to protect Egypt's Nile Delta coast ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-10-21

    Oct 21, 2011 ... In low-lying areas such as the Nile Delta coast, sea-level rise and other climate change effects threaten food security and livelihoods. These fragile coastal regions are already struggling with the effects of erosion, pollution, and ecosystem degradation. Pinpointing the threats. Researchers from the Coastal ...

  12. West Nile Virus RNA in Tissues from Donor Associated with Transmission to Organ Transplant Recipients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-11-19

    William Hale reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ dispatch, West Nile Virus RNA in Tissues from Donor Associated with Transmission to Organ Transplant Recipients.  Created: 11/19/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/21/2013.

  13. Genotype by production environment interaction in the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaw, H.L.; Ponzonia, R.W.; Hamzah, A.; Abu-Bakara, K.R.; Bijma, P.

    2012-01-01

    Three discrete generations of GIFT fish (Nile tilapia strain, Oreochromis niloticus; a total of 10,065 fish with pedigree and phenotypic information) were tested in pond and cage culture environments to determine genotype by production environment interaction between both environments in Malaysia.

  14. Water in the face of afforestation in the Nile Basin (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract The Nile is the longest river in the world with catchment area of more than 3 × 106 km2 that is home to a fast growing population of some 2 × 107 people. The specific runoff of the River Nile is far less than that of other major world rivers. Much of the rain falling on the catchment, ca 86%, is lost to evapotranspiration which in turn account for the relatively low specific runoff. Afforestation in the Nile Basin is one the major developmental activities in Africa with more than 80% the continent's tree plantation located in the basin. National and continental greening programs, biofuel production, land acquisition and carbon trade are some of the reasons behind the large scale afforestation. Given the complex relationship between forests and water availability, afforestation program needs to give proper consideration to their influence on water availability. Background studies in the Basin indicate that the low flow is highly dependent on the availability of grassland and woodland land covers; while the concurrent biofuel plantation and land investments have been carried out in the areas of grasslands and woodlands, as remote sensing analysis shown. The same studies on the Basin, as well as other studies from similar areas elsewhere in the world suggest that forest impacts on hydrology tend to be localized, where there may also be regional climatic impacts. So, afforestation programs in the Nile Basin need to embrace local impacts with special focus to grasslands and woodlands.

  15. Adaptation to the Impacts of Sea Level Rise in the Nile Delta Coastal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Extrants. Articles de revue. Facing the Tide - REVOLVE Magazine: Water Around the Mediterranean. Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. Adaptation to the impacts of sea level rise in the Nile Delta coastal zone, Egypt : final project report. Téléchargez le PDF ...

  16. Water cortisol and testosterone in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) recirculating aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mota, Vasco C.; Martins, Catarina I.M.; Eding, Ep H.; Canário, Adelino V.M.; Verreth, Johan A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of steroids released by fish in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) may potentially influence their physiology and behavior. The present study examined the release rate of cortisol and testosterone by Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, and their accumulation in six identical

  17. Comparison of assays for the detection of West Nile virus antibodies in chicken serum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weingartl, H. M.; Drebot, M. A.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Halouzka, Jiří; Andonova, M.; Dibernardo, A.; Cottam-Birt, C.; Larence, J.; Marszal, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2003), s. 128-132 ISSN 0830-9000 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : West Nile virus Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.101, year: 2003 http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=227040&blobtype=pdf

  18. A humane protocol for electro-stunning and killing of Nile tilapia in fresh water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Burggraaf, D.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural, neural and physiological parameters were scored after electro-stunning of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in three positions to an electric field in fresh water. An overall current density, 1.0 Arms/dm2, 50 Hz sinusoidal, applied for 1 s top-to-bottom in water (700 ¿S/cm), induced

  19. Optimizing fish meal-free commercial diets for Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed recirculating aquaculture system with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles (mean weight, 6.81 g) to examine the response to a practical diet containing protein primarily from menhaden fish meal (FM) and soybean meal (SBM) (control, Diet 1) or to diet...

  20. Eutrophication, Nile perch and food-web interactions in south-east Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing eutrophication, the introduction of Nile perch (Lates niloticus) and the increasing fishing pressure has changed Lake Victoria tremendously the last century. Since the 1960s, eutrophication increased primary production, enabling an increase in fish production. However,

  1. Genetic parameters for fillet traits and body measurements in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

    2005-01-01

    Fillet weight is an economically important trait in Nile tilapia production for the European market which asks for fish with average body weights of at least 700 g. Genetic parameters to design or optimize breeding programs for these body weights are lacking. In an earlier study we showed that high

  2. Natural mating in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) : implications for reproductive success, inbreeding and cannibalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fessehaye, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Niletilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus L.) is one of the most important species among the commercially farmed tilapias. Both small-scale and commercial production of tilapia is rapidly expanding in many countries of the world because

  3. The Nile valley of Egypt: A major active graben that magnifies seismic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Sayed, A.; Vaccari, F.; Panza, G.F.

    2002-08-01

    The Nile valley and the Nile delta are part of the active rift that is probably connected with the Red Sea tectonism. This zone is characterized by small to moderate size earthquakes that have caused extremely severe damage to recent and historical constructions. The most vulnerable area along the Nile valley is the one of Cairo-Faiyoum. Small local and large distant earthquakes could be a source of huge socio-economic damage in this area. The loose soft alluvial sediments of the Nile Canyon are the main factors behind this potential damage because they may greatly amplify the ground motion, as demonstrated by strong ground motion modelling. The largest amplification is generally concentrated along the edges of the graben and occurs at frequencies between 1 Hz and 2 Hz. This may explain the huge damage caused by distant earthquakes during recent and historical times. The distribution of intensity values during the events of 1926 and 1992 is well correlated with the modelled spatial distribution of the spectral amplification. (author)

  4. Assessing and managing water scarcity within the Nile River Transboundary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, M. B.; Wendi, D.; Jessen, O. Z.; Riegels, N. D.

    2012-04-01

    The Nile Basin is the main source of water in the North Eastern Region of Africa and is perhaps one of the most critical river basins in Africa as the riparian countries constitute 40% of the population on the continent but only 10% of the area. This resource is under considerable stress with rising levels of water scarcity, high population growth, watershed degradation, and loss of environmental services. The potential impacts of climate change may significantly exacerbate this situation as the water resources in the Nile Basin are critically sensitive to climate change (Conway, Hanson, Doherty, & Persechino, 2007). The motivation for this study is an assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation potential for floods and droughts within the UNEP project "Adapting to climate change induced water stress in the Nile River Basin", supported by SIDA. This project is being carried out as collaboration between DHI, the UK Met Office, and the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI). The Nile Basin exhibits highly diverse climatological and hydrological characteristics. Thus climate change impacts and adaptive capacity must be addressed at both regional and sub-basin scales. While the main focus of the project is the regional scale, sub-basin scale modelling is required to reflect variability within the basin. One of the major challenges in addressing this variability is the scarcity of data. This paper presents an initial screening modelling study of the water balance of the Nile Basin along with estimates of expected future impacts of climate change on the water balance. This initial study is focussed on the Ethiopian Highlands and the Lake Victoria regions, where the impact of climate change on rainfall is important. A robust sub-basin based monthly water balance model is developed and applied to selected sub-basins. The models were developed and calibrated using publicly available data. One of the major challenges in addressing this variability within the basin is the

  5. Ocean-color remote sensing of the Nile delta shelf and SE Levantine basin and possible linkage to some mesoscale circulation features and Nile river run-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moufaddal, Wahid; Lavender, Samantha

    To date, and despite the passage of more than 30 years since the launch of the first satellite based ocean-color sensor, no systematic study of the variability of chlorophyll in the Egyptian Mediterranean coast off the Nile delta has been undertaken using this kind of data. Meantime, available in-situ measurements on chlorophyll and other nutrient parameters along this coast are indeed very modest and scarce. The lack of data has in turn created a large gap in our knowledge on the biogeochemical characteristics of the coastal water and impacts of the Aswan High Dam and other land-use changes on the marine ecosystems and nutrient budget in the Nile delta shelf and the SE Mediterranean. The present study aims to fill part of this gap through application of ocean-color remote sensing and satellite retrieval of phytoplankton chlorophyll. For this purpose a 10-year (1997-2006) monthly satellite dataset from ESA Globcolour project (an ESA Data User Element project: http://www.globcolour.info) was retrieved and subjected to time-series analysis. Results of this analysis revealed that the oceanic and coastal parts off the Nile delta coast and SE Mediterranean manifest from time to time some of the most interesting and dynamical marine features including meso-scale gyres, coastal filaments, localized algal blooms and higher concentration of phytoplankton chlorophyll. These features together with certain physical pro-cesses and surface run-off from Nile mouthes and other land-based sources were found to exert pronounced effects on the nutrient supply and quality of the coastal and oceanic surface waters in this region. Results reveled also that there has been a general upward trend in concentration of surface chlorophyll during the 10-year period from 1997 to 2006 with a coincident rise of the coastal fisheries implying that improvement of nutrient supply is most likely responsible for this rise. Results confirmed also shift of the Nile phytoplankton bloom in space and time

  6. Molecular structure, distribution, and immunology function of TNFSF13B (BAFF) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongzhen; Zhang, Jiaxin; Li, Jianfeng; Song, Jinyun; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2016-04-01

    B cell-activating factor (BAFF)is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family and plays roles in B cell survival and maturation. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) BAFF (tBAFF) was amplified from the spleen by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The open reading frame of this cDNA encodes a protein of 261 amino acids containing a predicted transmembrane domain and a furin protease cleavage site, similar to mammalian, avian, and reptile BAFF. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that tBAFF is present in various tissues and is predominantly expressed in the spleen. The predicted three-dimensional (3D) structure of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) soluble BAFF (tsBAFF) monomer was determined by (3D) structure modeling monomeranalyzed by (3D) structure mouse counterpart. Both tsBAFF and EGFP/tsBAFF were efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), as confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. After purification, the EGFP/tsBAFF fusion protein showed a fluorescence spectrum similar to that of EGFP. Laser scanning confocal microscopy showed that EGFP/tsBAFF bound to its receptor. In vitro, tsBAFF promoted the proliferation of Nile tilapia and mouse splenic B cells together with/without a priming agent (Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, SAC) or anti-mouse IgM. Furthermore, tsBAFF showed a similar proliferation-stimulating effect on mouse B cells compared to msBAFF. These findings indicate that tsBAFF plays an important role in the proliferation of Nile tilapia B cells and has functional cross-reactivity among Nile tilapia and mammals. Therefore, BAFF may represent a useful factor for enhancing immunological efficacy in animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impacts of climate change on Blue Nile flows using bias-corrected GCM scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Elshamy

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the output of 17 general circulation models (GCMs included in the 4th IPCC assessment report. Downscaled precipitation and potential (reference crop evapotranspiration (PET scenarios for the 2081–2098 period were constructed for the upper Blue Nile basin. These were used to drive a fine-scale hydrological model of the Nile Basin to assess their impacts on the flows of the upper Blue Nile at Diem, which accounts for about 60% of the mean annual discharge of the Nile at Dongola. There is no consensus among the GCMs on the direction of precipitation change. Changes in total annual precipitation range between −15% to +14% but more models report reductions (10 than those reporting increases (7. Several models (6 report small changes within 5%. The ensemble mean of all models shows almost no change in the annual total rainfall. All models predict the temperature to increase between 2°C and 5°C and consequently PET to increase by 2–14%. Changes to the water balance are assessed using the Budyko framework. The basin is shown to belong to a moisture constrained regime. However, during the wet season the basin is largely energy constrained. For no change in rainfall, increasing PET thus leads to a reduced wet season runoff coefficient. The ensemble mean runoff coefficient (about 20% for baseline simulations is reduced by about 3.5%. Assuming no change or moderate changes in rainfall, the simulations presented here indicate that the water balance of the upper Blue Nile basin may become more moisture constrained in the future.

  8. Vulnerability of the Nile Delta coastal areas to inundation by sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassaan, M A; Abdrabo, M A

    2013-08-01

    Sea level changes are typically caused by several natural phenomena, including ocean thermal expansion, glacial melt from Greenland and Antarctica. Global average sea level is expected to rise, through the twenty-first century, according to the IPCC projections by between 0.18 and 0.59 cm. Such a rise in sea level will significantly impact coastal area of the Nile Delta, consisting generally of lowland and is densely populated areas and accommodates significant proportion of Egypt's economic activities and built-up areas. The Nile Delta has been examined in several previous studies, which worked under various hypothetical sea level rise (SLR) scenarios and provided different estimates of areas susceptible to inundation due to SLR. The paper intends, in this respect, to identify areas, as well as land use/land cover, susceptible to inundation by SLR based upon most recent scenarios of SLR, by the year 2100 using GIS. The results indicate that about 22.49, 42.18, and 49.22 % of the total area of coastal governorates of the Nile Delta would be susceptible to inundation under different scenarios of SLR. Also, it was found that 15.56 % of the total areas of the Nile Delta that would be vulnerable to inundation due to land subsidence only, even in the absence of any rise in sea level. Moreover, it was found that a considerable proportion of these areas (ranging between 32.32 and 53.66 %) are currently either wetland or undeveloped areas. Furthermore, natural and/or man-made structures, such as the banks of the International Coastal Highway, were found to provide unintended protection to some of these areas. This suggests that the inundation impact of SLR on the Nile Delta is less than previously reported.

  9. Novel Materials for Cellular Nanosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi

    The monitoring of cellular behavior is useful for the advancement of biomedical diagnostics, drug development and the understanding of a cell as the main unit of the human body. Micro- and nanotechnology allow for the creation of functional devices that enhance the study of cellular dynamics...... by providing platforms that offer biocompatible surfaces for the cell culturing in lab-on-chip devices integrated with optimized nanosensors with high specificities and sensitivities towards cellular analytes. In this project, novel materials were investigated with a focus on providing suitable surface...... modifications for electrochemical nanosensors for the detection of analytes released from cells. Two type of materials were investigated, each pertaining to the two different aspects of such devices: peptide nanostructures were studied for the creation of cellular sensing substrates that mimic in vivo surfaces...

  10. Systems biology of cellular rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbeter, A; Gérard, C; Gonze, D; Leloup, J-C; Dupont, G

    2012-08-31

    Rhythms abound in biological systems, particularly at the cellular level where they originate from the feedback loops present in regulatory networks. Cellular rhythms can be investigated both by experimental and modeling approaches, and thus represent a prototypic field of research for systems biology. They have also become a major topic in synthetic biology. We review advances in the study of cellular rhythms of biochemical rather than electrical origin by considering a variety of oscillatory processes such as Ca++ oscillations, circadian rhythms, the segmentation clock, oscillations in p53 and NF-κB, synthetic oscillators, and the oscillatory dynamics of cyclin-dependent kinases driving the cell cycle. Finally we discuss the coupling between cellular rhythms and their robustness with respect to molecular noise.

  11. A Course in Cellular Bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    1989-01-01

    Gives an overview of a course in chemical engineering entitled "Cellular Bioengineering," dealing with how chemical engineering principles can be applied to molecular cell biology. Topics used are listed and some key references are discussed. Listed are 85 references. (YP)

  12. Origami interleaved tube cellular materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Kenneth C; Tachi, Tomohiro; Calisch, Sam; Miura, Koryo

    2014-01-01

    A novel origami cellular material based on a deployable cellular origami structure is described. The structure is bi-directionally flat-foldable in two orthogonal (x and y) directions and is relatively stiff in the third orthogonal (z) direction. While such mechanical orthotropicity is well known in cellular materials with extruded two dimensional geometry, the interleaved tube geometry presented here consists of two orthogonal axes of interleaved tubes with high interfacial surface area and relative volume that changes with fold-state. In addition, the foldability still allows for fabrication by a flat lamination process, similar to methods used for conventional expanded two dimensional cellular materials. This article presents the geometric characteristics of the structure together with corresponding kinematic and mechanical modeling, explaining the orthotropic elastic behavior of the structure with classical dimensional scaling analysis. (paper)

  13. Optical properties of Nile red solid thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, V.I.; Marinina, L.P.; Savvina, L.E.; Zikirina, A.M.; Ibrayev, N.Kh.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The spectral and luminescent properties of new synthesized amphilic analog of nile red were investigated. The films of a pure dye and mixed monolayers of dye molecules and stearic acid were prepared on Langmuir-Blodgett technology. The dye concentration was changed from 2 mol. % to 100 mol. %. The deposition of monolayers on quartz substrates was carried out with vertical method on Z- and Y-types. The rate of substrate movement was 0.02 mm/s.The pressure of the deposition was π dep =27 dyn/cm. The transport factor of mixed films was (0.96±0.2). For molecules of dye it was much less. The maximum of an absorption spectrum is shifted from 485 nm in heptane to 555 nm in ethanol. Fluorescence spectrum in heptane has maximum at λ=530 nm, and in ethanol the maximum of luminescence at λ=640 nm. Observed solvate-chromic shifts of maximums of the absorption and fluorescence bands are connected with increase of the dipole moment of a molecule in an exited singlet state in polar mediums. In Langmuir-Blodgett films the absorption spectrum consists of two bands. The short-wave maximum for the least dye concentration is at λ=495 nm jt is shifted to λ=520 nm when the ratio of dye and stearic acid is 3:1. The long-wave maximum at λ=560 nm for the ratio 1:20 also has red shift in increasing of dye concentration. The ratio of long-wave maximum intensity to short-wave one grows with increase of dye concentration in a monolayer. The fluorescence spectrums of all the films represent one band with a maximum at 640 nm. The appearance of two maximums in absorption spectra points to presence in the films of two types of molecules with different conformations. The plane molecules give the short-wave maximum, and molecules with perpendicular orientation of diethylamine group do maximum at 580 nm. The long-wave shift of spectrums in films with respect to solution spectrums and their broadening point out to dispersion of S 1 -levels because of a local inhomogeneity of the film

  14. Temporal evolution of the Ethiopian monsoon intensity since the last 25,000 years from the Nile suspended discharges record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, M.; Combourieu Nebout, N.; Ducassou, E.; Migeon, S.; Ismail, M.; Bernasconi, S.; Peyron, O.

    2012-04-01

    Previous researches (7 oceanographic cruises) on the Nile margin conducted since 1998, have provided a large data set, including detailed bathymetry maps (Mascle et al. 2006), HR seismic reflection profiles and numerous piston cores (~ 862 m length). The sedimentological analysis of more than 70 sediment cores allowed to define the different sedimentary facies (hemipelagites, turbidities, slumps, debris flows and sapropeles) and their spatio-temporal distributions on the entire Nile margin, since the last 200.000 years (Migeon et al. 2010; Garziglia et al., 2009; Ducassou et al., 2007, 2009). One important conclusion is that the Nile Deep Sea Fan are also strongly controlled by climatic-monsoon variability of the Nile catchment (Ducassou 2006 thesis, Ducassou et al. 2009). Multi-proxy data set (micropaleontology, geochemistry, palynology) show that a continuous record of the Nile flood discharge can be obtained from the core MS27PT, located on the continental slope, closed to the Nile fluvial discharge (90 km outward of the Rosetta mouth of the Nile). It is thus possible to record with a great sensitivity the Nile fluvial detrital influence (Revel et al., 2010). In addition, Sr and Nd isotopes measurements allowed to i) show that sapropel deposition is only a short event within the time interval of monsoon intensification implying that sapropels are not an ideal record for precisely documenting the timing of the monsoon maxima (Caley et al. 2011), ii) identify the Ethiopian highland as the main detrital source in the Nile margin and imply that the Nd isotope variations can be interpreted as Ethiopian monsoon intensity fluctuation over the last 25 ka at high resolution (100 years during the early Holocene humid period). The detailed Fe record shows the Nabtian period from 14 to 8 ka cal BP attributed to strengthening of the African monsoon over Ethiopia. Pollen record from the same core highlights vegetation changes over the coastal neighboring area especially

  15. Myxoma Virus Induces Type I Interferon Production in Murine Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells via a TLR9/MyD88-, IRF5/IRF7-, and IFNAR-Dependent Pathway▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Peihong; Cao, Hua; Merghoub, Taha; Avogadri, Francesca; Wang, Weiyi; Parikh, Tanvi; Fang, Chee-Mun; Pitha, Paula M.; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Rahman, Masmudur M.; McFadden, Grant; Hu, Xiaoyu; Houghton, Alan N.; Shuman, Stewart; Deng, Liang

    2011-01-01

    Poxviruses are large DNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Myxoma virus is a rabbit poxvirus that belongs to the Leporipoxvirus genus. It causes a lethal disease called myxomatosis in European rabbits but cannot sustain any detectable infection in nonlagomorphs. Vaccinia virus is a prototypal orthopoxvirus that was used as a vaccine to eradicate smallpox. Myxoma virus is nonpathogenic in mice, whereas systemic infection with vaccinia virus can be lethal even in immunocompetent mice. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are potent type I interferon (IFN)-producing cells that play important roles in antiviral innate immunity. How poxviruses are sensed by pDCs to induce type I IFN production is not well understood. Here we report that infection of primary murine pDCs with myxoma virus, but not with vaccinia virus, induces IFN-α, IFN-β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin-12p70 (IL-12p70) production. Using pDCs derived from genetic knockout mice, we show that the myxoma virus-induced innate immune response requires the endosomal DNA sensor TLR9 and its adaptor MyD88, transcription factors IRF5 and IRF7, and the type I IFN positive-feedback loop mediated by IFNAR1. It is independent of the cytoplasmic RNA sensing pathway mediated by the mitochondrial adaptor molecule MAVS, the TLR3 adaptor TRIF, or the transcription factor IRF3. Using pharmacological inhibitors, we demonstrate that myxoma virus-induced type I IFN and IL-12p70 production in murine pDCs is also dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt. Furthermore, our results reveal that the N-terminal Z-DNA/RNA binding domain of vaccinia virulence factor E3, which is missing in the orthologous M029 protein expressed by myxoma virus, plays an inhibitory role in poxvirus sensing and innate cytokine production by murine pDCs. PMID:21835795

  16. Kaempferol ameliorates H9N2 swine influenza virus-induced acute lung injury by inactivation of TLR4/MyD88-mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihua; Ai, Xia; Duan, Yongjie; Xue, Man; He, Wenxiao; Wang, Cunlian; Xu, Tong; Xu, Mingju; Liu, Baojian; Li, Chunhong; Wang, Zhijun; Zhang, Ruihong; Wang, Guohua; Tian, Shufei; Liu, Huifeng

    2017-05-01

    Kaempferol, a very common type of dietary flavonoids, has been found to exert antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of kaempferol on H9N2 influenza virus-induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, BALB/C mice were infected intranasally with H9N2 influenza virus with or without kaempferol treatment to induce acute lung injury (ALI) model. In vitro, MH-S cells were infected with H9N2 influenza virus with or without kaempferol treatment. In vivo, kaempferol treatment attenuated pulmonary edema, the W/D mass ratio, pulmonary capillary permeability, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and the numbers of inflammatory cells. Kaempferol reduced ROS and Malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Kaempferol also reduced overproduction of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. In addition, kaempferol decreased the H9N2 viral titre. In vitro, ROS, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 was also reduced by kaempferol. Moreover, our data showed that kaempferol significantly inhibited the upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), phosphorylation level of IκBα and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity, and phosphorylation level of MAPKs, both in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that kaempferol exhibits a protective effect on H9N2 virus-induced inflammation via suppression of TLR4/MyD88-mediated NF-κB and MAPKs pathways, and kaempferol may be considered as an effective drug for the potential treatment of influenza virus-induced ALI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Pseudomine, an isoxazolidone with siderophoric activity from Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2 isolated from Lake Victorian Nile Perch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthoni, U.; Christophersen, C.; Nielsen, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    A siderophore, pseudomonine, and sodium salicylate were isolated from the culture broth of iron-deficient cultures of Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2 isolated from the surface of spoiled Nile Perch from Lake Victoria......A siderophore, pseudomonine, and sodium salicylate were isolated from the culture broth of iron-deficient cultures of Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2 isolated from the surface of spoiled Nile Perch from Lake Victoria...

  18. Clinical and pathologic features of lineage 2 West Nile virus infections in birds of prey in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdélyi, Károly; Ursu, Krisztina; Ferenczi, Emöke; Szeredi, Levente; Rátz, Ferenc; Skáre, József; Bakonyi, Tamás

    2007-01-01

    In the southeast of Hungary a sparrow hawk (Accipiter nisus) and several goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) fledglings succumbed to encephalitis manifesting as an acute neurological disease during the summers of 2004 and 2005. Both years the causative agent was identified as a lineage 2 West Nile virus. This is the first description of clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical findings of infection caused by a neuroinvasive, lineage 2 West Nile virus and the first evidence of its circulation in continental Europe.

  19. Role of the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature in shaping the natural variability in the flow of Nile River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siam, Mohamed S.; Wang, Guiling; Demory, Marie-Estelle; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2014-08-01

    A significant fraction of the inter-annual variability in the Nile River flow is shaped by El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Here, we investigate a similar role for the Indian Ocean (IO) sea surface temperature (SST) in shaping the inter-annual variability of the Nile River flow. Using observations of global SST distribution and river flow in addition to atmospheric general circulation model sensitivity experiments, we show that North and Middle IO SSTs play a significant intermediate role in the teleconnection between ENSO and the Nile flow. Applying partial coherency analyses, we demonstrate that the connection between North and Middle IO SSTs and Nile flow is strongly coupled to ENSO. During El Niño events, SST in the North and Middle IO increases in response to the warming in the Tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean and forces a Gill-type circulation with enhanced westerly low-level flow over East Africa and the Western IO. This anomalous low-level flow enhances the low-level flux of air and moisture away from the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin resulting in reduction of rainfall and river flow. SSTs in the South IO also play a significant role in shaping the variability of the Nile flow that is independent from ENSO. A warming over the South IO, generates a cyclonic flow in the boundary layer, which reduces the cross-equatorial meridional transport of air and moisture towards the UBN basin, favoring a reduction in rainfall and river flow. This independence between the roles of ENSO and South IO SSTs allows for development of new combined indices of SSTs to explain the inter-annual variability of the Nile flow. The proposed teleconnections have important implications regarding mechanisms that shape the regional impacts of climate change over the Nile basin.

  20. Tomato Infection by Whitefly-Transmitted Circulative and Non-Circulative Viruses Induce Contrasting Changes in Plant Volatiles and Vector Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereres, Alberto; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G V; Favaro, Carla F; Azevedo, Kamila E X; Landi, Carolina H; Maluta, Nathalie K P; Bento, José Mauricio S; Lopes, Joao R S

    2016-08-11

    , this type of virus-induced manipulation of vector behaviour was not observed for the semi persistent crinivirus, ToCV, which is not specifically transmitted by B. tabaci and has a much less intimate virus-vector relationship.

  1. Transcriptome Profiling of the Virus-Induced Innate Immune Response in Pteropus vampyrus and Its Attenuation by Nipah Virus Interferon Antagonist Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, Nicole B; Jabado, Omar; Lo, Michael K; Shaw, Megan L

    2015-08-01

    Bats are important reservoirs for several viruses, many of which cause lethal infections in humans but have reduced pathogenicity in bats. As the innate immune response is critical for controlling viruses, the nature of this response in bats and how it may differ from that in other mammals are of great interest. Using next-generation transcriptome sequencing (mRNA-seq), we profiled the transcriptional response of Pteropus vampyrus bat kidney (PVK) cells to Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus known to elicit a strong innate immune response in mammalian cells. The Pteropus genus is a known reservoir of Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV). Analysis of the 200 to 300 regulated genes showed that genes for interferon (IFN) and antiviral pathways are highly upregulated in NDV-infected PVK cells, including genes for beta IFN, RIG-I, MDA5, ISG15, and IRF1. NDV-infected cells also upregulated several genes not previously characterized to be antiviral, such as RND1, SERTAD1, CHAC1, and MORC3. In fact, we show that MORC3 is induced by both IFN and NDV infection in PVK cells but is not induced by either stimulus in human A549 cells. In contrast to NDV infection, HeV and NiV infection of PVK cells failed to induce these innate immune response genes. Likewise, an attenuated response was observed in PVK cells infected with recombinant NDVs expressing the NiV IFN antagonist proteins V and W. This study provides the first global profile of a robust virus-induced innate immune response in bats and indicates that henipavirus IFN antagonist mechanisms are likely active in bat cells. Bats are the reservoir host for many highly pathogenic human viruses, including henipaviruses, lyssaviruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and filoviruses, and many other viruses have also been isolated from bats. Viral infections are reportedly asymptomatic or heavily attenuated in bat populations. Despite their ecological importance to viral maintenance, research

  2. Immune- and Nonimmune-Compartment-Specific Interferon Responses Are Critical Determinants of Herpes Simplex Virus-Induced Generalized Infections and Acute Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Zachary M; Pasieka, Tracy Jo; Parker, George A; Leib, David A

    2016-12-01

    -inducing herpetic stromal keratitis, highly debilitating and lethal herpes simplex encephalitis, and generalized infections that can lead to herpes simplex virus-induced acute liver failure. While immune compromise is a known factor, the precise mechanisms that lead to generalized HSV infections are unknown. In this study, we used and developed a mouse model system in combination with real-time bioluminescence imaging to demonstrate the relative importance of the immune and nonimmune compartments for containing viral spread and promoting host survival after corneal infection. Our results shed light on the pathogenesis of HSV infections that lead to generalized infection and acute liver failure. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. A plant-produced vaccine protects mice against lethal West Nile virus infection without enhancing Zika or dengue virus infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Huafang; Paul, Amber M; Sun, Haiyan; He, Junyun; Yang, Ming; Bai, Fengwei; Chen, Qiang

    2018-03-27

    West Nile virus (WNV) has caused multiple global outbreaks with increased frequency of neuroinvasive disease in recent years. Despite many years of research, there are no licensed therapeutics or vaccines available for human use. One of the major impediments of vaccine development against WNV is the potential enhancement of infection by related flaviviruses in vaccinated subjects through the mechanism of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE). For instance, the recent finding of enhancement of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection by pre-exposure to WNV further complicates the development of WNV vaccines. Epidemics of WNV and the potential risk of ADE by current vaccine candidates demand the development of effective and safe vaccines. We have previously reported that the domain III (DIII) of the WNV envelope protein can be readily expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, purified to homogeneity, and promote antigen-specific antibody response in mice. Herein, we further investigated the in vivo potency of a plant-made DIII (plant-DIII) in providing protective immunity against WNV infection. Furthermore, we examined if vaccination with plant-DIII would enhance the risk of a subsequent infection by ZIKV and Dengue virus (DENV). Plant-DIII vaccination evoked antigen-specific cellular immune responses as well as humoral responses. DIII-specific antibodies were neutralizing and the neutralization titers met the threshold correlated with protective immunity by vaccines against multiple flaviviruses. Furthermore, passive administration of anti-plant DIII mouse serum provided full protection against a lethal challenge of WNV infection in mice. Notably, plant DIII-induced antibodies did not enhance ZIKV and DENV infection in Fc gamma receptor-expressing cells, addressing the concern of WNV vaccines in inducing cross-reactive antibodies and sensitizing subjects to subsequent infection by heterologous flavivirus. This study provides the first report of a WNV subunit vaccine

  4. Chemical composition of sediments, suspended matter, river water and ground water of the Nile (Aswan-Sohag traverse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekov, V M; Komy, Z; Araújo, F; Van Put, A; Van Grieken, R

    1997-08-18

    Sediment, suspended matter, river water and ground water samples were collected at twelve sites in the drainage valley of the Nile River, around Sohag (Central Egypt) and close to the Aswan High Dam. Elemental composition of the river water (27 elements), ground water (eight elements), suspended matter (12 elements) and sediments (12 elements) was studied. Aswan High Dam construction, agricultural and industrial human activities have led to dramatic changes in the Nile River chemistry. Nowadays, the Nile River has the highest dissolved salt content among the major African rivers. Dissolved transport is a major process for Ca, K, Sr, Zn, Cu, Ni and V. Manganese, Fe and Cr are mainly carried by suspended matter. The Nile suspended matter is exhausted in almost all elements studied (except for Mn) compared to the world average river suspended matter. Along the course of the river, the distribution of elements in the suspended matter and sediments is generally controlled by natural processes: the relative importance of elemental transport phases; and the oxidation, precipitation and sedimentation of mineral species through the varying physico-chemical conditions of the environment. Pollution input in the Nile particulate load is not major, as compared to the natural inputs. Eight genetic particle types describe the composition of the Nile suspended matter and sediments: (1) biogenous-aeolian (or silica); (2) terrigenous (Fe-aluminosilicate); (3) authigenic (calcium carbonate); (4) biogenous (apatite); (5) authigenous-terrigenous (Fe-oxyhydroxide-montmorillonite); (6) diagenetic (iron-sulfide); (7) terrigenous (titanium oxide); (8) authigenous (Mn-Fe-oxyhydroxide).

  5. Continuum representations of cellular solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, M.K.

    1993-09-01

    Cellular materials consist of interconnected struts or plates which form cells. The struts or plates are constructed from a variety of metals, polymers, ceramics and wood products. Cellular materials are often used in impact limiters for shipping containers to protect the contents from accidental impact events. These materials exhibit a variety of complex behavior when subjected to crushing loads. This research focuses on the development of continuum representations of cellular solids that can be used in the finite element analysis of shipping container accidents. A significant portion of this work is the development of a new methodology to relate localized deformations to appropriate constitutive descriptions. This methodology provides the insight needed to select constitutive descriptions for cellular solids that capture the localized deformations that are observed experimentally. Constitutive relations are developed for two different cellular materials, aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. These constitutive relations are based on plasticity and continuum damage theories. Plasticity is used to describe the permanent deformation exhibited by both aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. Continuum damage is needed to capture the change in elastic parameters due to cracking of the polyurethane cell wall materials. The new constitutive description of polyurethane foam is implemented in both static and dynamic finite element codes, and analytical and numerical predictions are compared with available experimental data.

  6. Aging, Cellular Senescence, and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Judith

    2014-01-01

    For most species, aging promotes a host of degenerative pathologies that are characterized by debilitating losses of tissue or cellular function. However, especially among vertebrates, aging also promotes hyperplastic pathologies, the most deadly of which is cancer. In contrast to the loss of function that characterizes degenerating cells and tissues, malignant (cancerous) cells must acquire new (albeit aberrant) functions that allow them to develop into a lethal tumor. This review discusses the idea that, despite seemingly opposite characteristics, the degenerative and hyperplastic pathologies of aging are at least partly linked by a common biological phenomenon: a cellular stress response known as cellular senescence. The senescence response is widely recognized as a potent tumor suppressive mechanism. However, recent evidence strengthens the idea that it also drives both degenerative and hyper-plastic pathologies, most likely by promoting chronic inflammation. Thus, the senescence response may be the result of antagonistically pleiotropic gene action. PMID:23140366

  7. Seasonal extension of the Nile River plume into the Mediterranean Sea measured by its optical properties from satellite products

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mezayen, M. M.; Rueda-Roa, D. T.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Otis, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed sea, considered oligotrophic except for the Levantine basin (LB) (30°-38° N, 28°-36° E) where the Nile River plays an important role in its water budget and biogeochemical properties. We studied the seasonality of the Nile River plume using ocean color satellite imagery. We analyzed 1 km resolution satellite chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) concentration estimates from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, 2002-2015). We used a threshold of 0.2 mg m-3 of Chl-a and 0.03 m-1 of CDOM as a proxy to mask out and calculate the extension of the Nile plume. The plume was always constrained to the coastal region of SE Mediterranean Sea over the 13-year period examined. The annual average surface area of the Nile plume estimated with Chl-a and CDOM was similar (26,245 and 21,195 Km2, respectively). The minimum Nile plume area occurred between April and December (21,329 and 19,177 Km2, for Chl-a and CDOM respectively). Maximum area extension was observed between January-March for both Chl-a and CDOM (40,993 and 27,251 Km2, respectively). There was a conspicuous difference in the maximum surface area of the Nile plume measured with the Chl-a product during February (54,053 Km2) relative to the CDOM proxy (30,749 Km2). During January-March the area of the Nile discharge measured with Chl-a was 1.3-1.8 larger than with the CDOM product, while they were similar the rest of the year. Correlation between Chl-a and CDOM results was high during April-December (R2=0.93, n=122, pNile water. Both satellite proxies are good indicators of the extent of the Nile plume. We will present further research on the seasonal extension of the Nile plume along the coast and in the LB.

  8. Cellular structures with interconnected microchannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaefer, Robert Shahram; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Williams, Brian

    2018-01-30

    A method for fabricating a cellular tritium breeder component includes obtaining a reticulated carbon foam skeleton comprising a network of interconnected ligaments. The foam skeleton is then melt-infiltrated with a tritium breeder material, for example, lithium zirconate or lithium titanate. The foam skeleton is then removed to define a cellular breeder component having a network of interconnected tritium purge channels. In an embodiment the ligaments of the foam skeleton are enlarged by adding carbon using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) prior to melt-infiltration. In an embodiment the foam skeleton is coated with a refractory material, for example, tungsten, prior to melt infiltration.

  9. Global properties of cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jen, E.

    1986-01-01

    Cellular automata are discrete mathematical systems that generate diverse, often complicated, behavior using simple deterministic rules. Analysis of the local structure of these rules makes possible a description of the global properties of the associated automata. A class of cellular automata that generate infinitely many aperoidic temporal sequences is defined,a s is the set of rules for which inverses exist. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived characterizing the classes of ''nearest-neighbor'' rules for which arbitrary finite initial conditions (i) evolve to a homogeneous state; (ii) generate at least one constant temporal sequence

  10. The Nile floodplain, hydroclimatic variability, and its relation with cultural dynamics in ancient Thebes (Luxor, Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Willem H. J.; Graham, Angus; Pennington, Ben; Hunter, Morag; Strutt, Kris; Barker, Dominic; Masson, Aurelia; Emery, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    The western bank of the river Nile in the Luxor region (Egypt) separates New Kingdom divine temple complexes in the central axis of the river valley from contemporaneous sites on the desert edge and limestone plateau. The intermediate Nile floodplain features relatively few known archaeological sites, but played an important role in the ancient ritual landscape by connecting the focal region of the living (floodplain) with that of the dead (desert). All Royal Funerary Temple Complexes of the New Kingdom period (1539-1077 BCE), which played a central role in the cosmogonical landscape, are positioned within a confined 3.5 km long strip of land on the western edge of the present floodplain. This preferential location, together with contemporary textual sources and tomb scenes suggesting the nearby presence of canals, have led to the hypothesis that natural and human-made waterways may have once connected the main channel of the Nile with the desert edge. Until the present research took place, no detailed study of pre-existing channel networks existed in the region, leaving a gap in current knowledge on the configuration and use of the ancient floodplain. This study presents the results of a multi-disciplinary study aimed at mapping and dating ancient waterways in the Theban region and aims to find evidence for the natural or human origin of such channels. Boreholes and Electric Resistivity Tomography (ERT) were carried out along a transect that connects the edge of the Holocene floodplain with the current position of the river Nile. Satellite imagery and textual sources were also used to augment the fieldwork. The data indicate the presence of an infilled abandoned channel of the Nile in the western distal part of the current floodplain, adjoining the Funerary Temple complexes. Over 2100 ceramic fragments were analysed from the sedimentary infilling of the silted-up river course, dating it to the end of the New Kingdom, and indicating that the channel and temples

  11. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on the reaction between Nile Blue A and hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA A. JANKOVIC

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate on the rate of the reaction between the cationic form of Nile Blue A and hydrogen peroxide was investigated in the pH range from 5 to 8.5. A retardation of the oxidation of Nile Blue A with hydrogen peroxide of three orders of magnitude was observed at pH 8.5 in the presence of anionic micelles compared to the kinetic data in water. The retardation effect was less pronounced at lower pH values. These effects were explained by the electrostatic interaction of the species involved in the reaction with the negatively charged micellar surface and their effective separation in the vicinity of the micellar surface.

  12. Economic and institutional incentives for managing the Ethiopean highlands of the Upper Blue Nile Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassahun, Habtamu Tilahun; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2015-01-01

    This article identifies incentives that motivate land users to participate in the management of private and communal lands in the Ethiopian highlands of the Upper Blue Nile Basin, where on-farm and offfarm impacts of soil erosion are threatening the livelihoods of millions of farmers and damaging...... water infrastructure across the Blue Nile River System. A choice experiment was set up requiring farmers to contribute with labour and to implement specific watershed management (WM) activities in exchange for subsidised credit facilities, better opportunities for livestock production in the form...... of grazing land reform, and an additional extension service. Thus, we address farmers’ combined choice of management of private and communal lands. We use a latent class model with attribute non-attendance for one class to accommodate the preferences of farmers who always select the status quo option without...

  13. Use of fish processing waste as protein source in diet for Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chotipuntu, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Five diets were prepared using fish processing waste meal (FMFP to replace fish meal (FM at inclusion levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Frog diet was used as a control diet. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were reared in laboratory conditions for 8 weeks. It was found that substitution levels of protein from FMFP in the tested diets reduced growth and feed efficiency of tilapia (p<0.05. However, the differences looks like significant trend especially that between the 100% substitution level and the frog diet. Substitution of FM by FMFD at 75% reduced cost of feed by 15.35%. It was concluded that up to 75% inclusion of FMFD in the diet of tilapia could support normal growth of Nile tilapia with the potential for substitution of FM.

  14. Essential oil of Lippia alba in the transport of Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Cumming Hohlenwerger

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to examine the action of the essential oil of Lippia alba (EOLA in the stress response for transport of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus . The fish were transported into three treatments (in triplicate: control, 10 and 20 µL L-1 EOLA, with loading density of 15 fish/plastic bags for 8h. Plasma glucose levels were significantly decreased in fish exposed to 20µL L-1 EOLA in comparison with the control group and fish exposed to 10µL L-1 EOLA, but the plasma cortisol, lactate and paraoxonase levels were similar. Un-ionized ammonia and ventilatory rate demonstrated a significant reduction in the treatments with the use of EOLA. In conclusion the use of 20µL L-1 EOLA is indicated for Nile tilapia transport.

  15. Circular DNA Intermediate in the Duplication of Nile Tilapia vasa Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Koji; Conte, Matthew A.; Kocher, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    vasa is a highly conserved RNA helicase involved in animal germ cell development. Among vertebrate species, it is typically present as a single copy per genome. Here we report the isolation and sequencing of BAC clones for Nile tilapia vasa genes. Contrary to a previous report that Nile tilapia have a single copy of the vasa gene, we find evidence for at least three vasa gene loci. The vasa gene locus was duplicated from the original site and integrated into two distant novel sites. For one of these insertions we find evidence that the duplication was mediated by a circular DNA intermediate. This mechanism of gene duplication may explain the origin of isolated gene duplicates during the evolution of fish genomes. These data provide a foundation for studying the role of multiple vasa genes in the development of tilapia gonads, and will contribute to investigations of the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and evolution in cichlid fishes. PMID:22216289

  16. Effects of Microcystis on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal-Liver Axis in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiazhang; Meng, Shunlong; Xu, Hai; Zhang, Zhen; Wu, Xiangyang

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were used to assess the endocrine disruption potential of Microcytis aeruginosa. Male Nile tilapia were exposed to lyophilized M. aeruginosa or purified microcystin-LR (8.3 μg/L) for 28 days. The levels of serum hormones (17β-estradiol and testosterone) and transcripts of selected genes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis were analyzed. The results showed that serum hormones were significantly up-regulated, and transcripts of 13 genes (GHRH, PACAP, GH, GHR1, GHR2, IGF1, IGF2, CYP19a, CYP19b, 3β-HSD1, 20β-HSD, 17β-HSD1 and 17β-HSD8) were significantly altered after Microcytis exposure. These results indicate that fish reproduction can be altered in a Microcystis bloom-contaminated aquatic environment.

  17. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of West Nile Virus in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan D. T. Barrett

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV was introduced to New York in 1999 and rapidly spread throughout North America and into parts of Central and South America. Displacement of the original New York (NY99 genotype by the North America/West Nile 2002 (NA/WN02 genotype occurred in 2002 with subsequent identification of a novel genotype in 2003 in isolates collected from the southwestern Unites States region (SW/WN03 genotype. Both genotypes co-circulate to date. Subsequent WNV surveillance studies have confirmed additional genotypes in the United States that have become extinct due to lack of a selective advantage or stochastic effect; however, the dynamic emergence, displacement, and extinction of multiple WNV genotypes in the US from 1999–2012 indicates the continued evolution of WNV in North America.

  18. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of West Nile virus in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Brian R; McMullen, Allison R; Swetnam, Daniele M; Barrett, Alan D T

    2013-10-16

    West Nile virus (WNV) was introduced to New York in 1999 and rapidly spread throughout North America and into parts of Central and South America. Displacement of the original New York (NY99) genotype by the North America/West Nile 2002 (NA/WN02) genotype occurred in 2002 with subsequent identification of a novel genotype in 2003 in isolates collected from the southwestern Unites States region (SW/WN03 genotype). Both genotypes co-circulate to date. Subsequent WNV surveillance studies have confirmed additional genotypes in the United States that have become extinct due to lack of a selective advantage or stochastic effect; however, the dynamic emergence, displacement, and extinction of multiple WNV genotypes in the US from 1999-2012 indicates the continued evolution of WNV in North America.

  19. Circular DNA intermediate in the duplication of Nile tilapia vasa genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Fujimura

    Full Text Available vasa is a highly conserved RNA helicase involved in animal germ cell development. Among vertebrate species, it is typically present as a single copy per genome. Here we report the isolation and sequencing of BAC clones for Nile tilapia vasa genes. Contrary to a previous report that Nile tilapia have a single copy of the vasa gene, we find evidence for at least three vasa gene loci. The vasa gene locus was duplicated from the original site and integrated into two distant novel sites. For one of these insertions we find evidence that the duplication was mediated by a circular DNA intermediate. This mechanism of gene duplication may explain the origin of isolated gene duplicates during the evolution of fish genomes. These data provide a foundation for studying the role of multiple vasa genes in the development of tilapia gonads, and will contribute to investigations of the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and evolution in cichlid fishes.

  20. Essential oils in the initial phase of broodstock diets of Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Freccia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of feed supplementation (at doses of 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg with SALUTO®, a microencapsulated blend of essential oils including carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, 1,8-cineol, and pepper oleoresin, in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus broodstock on reproductive and growth parameters during the initial phase of rearing. The growth parameters, somatic indexes and gonadal and hepatic parameters were analyzed. Quantitative parameters of growth, ovary fat and crude protein were not affected by supplementation of the additive. However, an increase in crude protein in the female liver was observed in correlation with increased essential oil levels. The female hepatosomatic index was also correlated with supplementation of essential oils. Feeding Nile tilapia broodstock diets containing an essential oil compound (SALUTO® affects only the females, promoting an increase in liver protein inclusion and hepatosomatic index without impairing performance.

  1. THE PASSAGE AND DURATION OF ANTIBODIES TO WEST NILE VIRUS IN HUMBOLDT PENGUINS (SPHENISCUS HUMBOLDTI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Andrew C; Dubovi, Edward; Erb, Hollis N; Georoff, Timothy A; Abou-Madi, Noha

    2017-03-01

    West Nile virus (genus Flavivirus) outbreaks and mortality events have been documented in both wild and captive avian species, including penguins. Serologic response to vaccination in avian species has varied and appears to be largely species dependent; however, Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) previously showed excellent rates of seroconversion. The goal of this study was to determine virus neutralization titers of 17 Humboldt penguin hens and their subsequent eggs, chicks, or both following vaccination with a killed West Nile vaccine. Chicks were also vaccinated at 56, 70, and 84 days old. Titers were measured from 10-346 days prior to lay as well as serially in seven chicks. Data collected showed positive rank correlation between maternal titers and yolk titers (ρ = 0.90, P penguin chicks based on a time-dependent decline in maternal antibody titers. Cell-mediated immunity and experimental challenge following vaccination have not yet been investigated in this species.

  2. Evaluating red-cockaded woodpeckers for exposure to West Nile Virus and blood parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; Richardson, D.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Heisey, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    A marked decline in the Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpecker [RCW]) population at Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge, MS, was observed in 2002. Demographic changes - including absence of hatch-year birds, decreases in size of known groups, and loss of known groups-were identified during annual fall surveys and are uncharacteristic of RCW populations. In 2003, a serosurvey of 28 adult RCWs was conducted to investigate the presence of West Nile virus (WNV) exposure in the population, possibly providing insight into whether WNV may have been responsible for this decline. Blood smears were also examined from these birds for blood parasites. We found no evidence of West Nile virus exposure or blood parasites in any of the RCWs sampled. Further monitoring of the RCW population and WNV activity in other species at Noxubee NWR is recommended to further evaluate the potential role of WNV and blood parasites in their decline.

  3. Volcanic suppression of Nile summer flooding triggers revolt and constrains interstate conflict in ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Joseph G.; Ludlow, Francis; Stine, Alexander R.; Boos, William R.; Sigl, Michael; Marlon, Jennifer R.

    2017-01-01

    PUBLISHED Volcanic eruptions provide tests of human and natural system sensitivity to abrupt shocks because their repeated occurrence allows the identification of systematic relationships in the presence of random variability. Here we show a suppression of Nile summer flooding via the radiative and dynamical impacts of explosive volcanism on the African monsoon, using climate model output, ice-core-based volcanic forcing data, Nilometer measurements, and ancient Egyptian writings. We then ...

  4. Serologic survey of humans for Flavivirus West Nile in southern Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Kříž, B.; Halouzka, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2011), s. 131-133 ISSN 1210-7778 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930611 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : West Nile virus * Flavivirus * Moravia * serosurvey Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology http://www.szu.cz/svi/cejph/show_en.php?kat=archiv/2011-3-03

  5. Persistence of Antibodies to West Nile Virus in Naturally Infected Rock Pigeons (Columba livia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Samantha E. J.; Hoffman, Douglas M.; Stark, Lillian M.; Marlenee, Nicole L.; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Beaty, Barry J.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Wild caught rock pigeons (Columba livia) with antibodies to West Nile virus were monitored for 15 months to determine antibody persistence and compare results of three serologic techniques. Antibodies persisted for the entire study as detected by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and plaque reduction neutralization test. Maternal antibodies in squabs derived from seropositive birds persisted for an average of 27 days. PMID:15879030

  6. Animal viral diseases and global change: Bluetongue and West Nile fever as paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel eJimenez-Clavero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes have an undoubted influence on the appearance, distribution and evolution of infectious diseases, and notably on those transmitted by vectors. Global change refers to environmental changes arising from human activities affecting the fundamental mechanisms operating in the biosphere. This paper discusses the changes observed in recent times with regard to some important arboviral (arthropod-borne viral diseases of animals, and the role global change could have played in these variations. Two of the most important arboviral diseases of animals, bluetongue and West Nile fever/encephalitis, have been selected as models. In both cases, in the last 15 years an important leap forward has been observed, which has lead to considering them emerging diseases in different parts of the world. Bluetongue, affecting domestic ruminants, has recently afflicted livestock in Europe in an unprecedented epizootic, causing enormous economic losses. West Nile fever/encephalitis affects wildlife (birds, domestic animals (equines and humans, thus, beyond the economic consequences of its occurrence, as a zoonotic disease, it poses an important public health threat. West Nile virus has expanded in the last 12 years worldwide, and particularly in the Americas, where it first occurred in 1999, extending throughout the Americas relentlessly since then, causing a severe epidemic of disastrous consequences for public health, wildlife and livestock. In Europe, West Nile virus is known long time ago, but it is since the last years of the XXth century that its incidence has risen substantially. Circumstances such as global warming, changes in land use and water management, increase in travel, trade of animals, and others, can have an important influence in the observed changes in both diseases. The following question is raised: What is the contribution of global changes to the current increase of these diseases in the world?

  7. Analyzing runoff processes through conceptual hydrological modeling in the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessie, M.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Pauwels, V. R. N.; Admasu, T.; Poesen, J.; Adgo, E.; Deckers, J.; Nyssen, J.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding runoff processes in a basin is of paramount importance for the effective planning and management of water resources, in particular in data-scarce regions such as the Upper Blue Nile. Hydrological models representing the underlying hydrological processes can predict river discharges from ungauged catchments and allow for an understanding of the rainfall-runoff processes in those catchments. In this paper, such a conceptual process-based hydrological model is developed and applied to the upper Gumara and Gilgel Abay catchments (both located within the Upper Blue Nile Basin, the Lake Tana sub-basin) to study the runoff mechanisms and rainfall-runoff processes in the basin. Topography is considered as a proxy for the variability of most of the catchment characteristics. We divided the catchments into different runoff production areas using topographic criteria. Impermeable surfaces (rock outcrops and hard soil pans, common in the Upper Blue Nile Basin) were considered separately in the conceptual model. Based on model results, it can be inferred that about 65% of the runoff appears in the form of interflow in the Gumara study catchment, and baseflow constitutes the larger proportion of runoff (44-48%) in the Gilgel Abay catchment. Direct runoff represents a smaller fraction of the runoff in both catchments (18-19% for the Gumara, and 20% for the Gilgel Abay) and most of this direct runoff is generated through infiltration excess runoff mechanism from the impermeable rocks or hard soil pans. The study reveals that the hillslopes are recharge areas (sources of interflow and deep percolation) and direct runoff as saturated excess flow prevails from the flat slope areas. Overall, the model study suggests that identifying the catchments into different runoff production areas based on topography and including the impermeable rocky areas separately in the modeling process mimics the rainfall-runoff process in the Upper Blue Nile Basin well and yields a useful

  8. Analyzing runoff processes through conceptual hydrological modelling in the Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessie, M.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Pauwels, V. R. N.; Admasu, T.; Poesen, J.; Adgo, E.; Deckers, J.; Nyssen, J.

    2014-05-01

    Understanding runoff processes in a basin is of paramount importance for the effective planning and management of water resources, in particular in data scarce regions of the Upper Blue Nile. Hydrological models representing the underlying hydrological processes can predict river discharges from ungauged catchments and allow for an understanding of the rainfall-runoff processes in those catchments. In this paper, such a conceptual process-based hydrological model is developed and applied to the upper Gumara and Gilgel Abay catchments (both located within the Upper Blue Nile basin, the Lake Tana sub-basin) to study the runoff mechanisms and rainfall-runoff processes in the basin. Topography is considered as a proxy for the variability of most of the catchment characteristics. We divided the catchments into different runoff production areas using topographic criteria. Impermeable surfaces (rock outcrops and hard soil pans, common in the Upper Blue Nile basin) were considered separately in the conceptual model. Based on model results, it can be inferred that about 65% of the runoff appears in the form of interflow in the Gumara study catchment, and baseflow constitutes the larger proportion of runoff (44-48%) in the Gilgel Abay catchment. Direct runoff represents a smaller fraction of the runoff in both catchments (18-19% for the Gumara, and 20% for the Gilgel Abay) and most of this direct runoff is generated through infiltration excess runoff mechanism from the impermeable rocks or hard soil pans. The study reveals that the hillslopes are recharge areas (sources of interflow and deep percolation) and direct runoff as saturated excess flow prevails from the flat slope areas. Overall, the model study suggests that identifying the catchments into different runoff production areas based on topography and including the impermeable rocky areas separately in the modeling process mimics well the rainfall-runoff process in the Upper Blue Nile basin and brings a useful result

  9. Clinical pathology results from cranes with experimental West Nile Virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    2011-01-01

    Sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) were vaccinated for and then challenged with West Nile virus. Resulting titers demonstrated protection in the vaccinated-challenged cranes as compared to the unvaccinated-challenged cranes. Clinical pathology results showed challenged cranes, whether vaccinated or not, had a decrease in their hematocrits and an elevation of 2.5-fold in their white blood cell counts as compared to unchallenged control sandhill cranes. No differences were apparent in the differential counts of heterophils and lymphocytes.

  10. Evapotranspiration in the Nile Basin: Identifying Dynamics and Drivers, 2002–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henok Alemu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the relationship between evapotranspiration (ET and its natural and anthropogenic drivers is critical in water-limited basins such as the Nile. The spatiotemporal relationships of ET with rainfall and vegetation dynamics in the Nile Basin during 2002–2011 were analyzed using satellite-derived data. Non-parametric statistics were used to quantify ET-rainfall interactions and trends across land cover types and subbasins. We found that 65% of the study area (2.5 million km2 showed significant (p < 0.05 positive correlations between monthly ET and rainfall, whereas 7% showed significant negative correlations.  As expected, positive ET-rainfall correlations were observed over natural vegetation, mixed croplands/natural vegetation, and croplands, with a few subbasin-specific exceptions. In particular, irrigated croplands, wetlands and some forests exhibited negative correlations. Trend tests revealed spatial clusters of statistically significant trends in ET (6% of study area was negative; 12% positive, vegetation greenness (24% negative; 12% positive and rainfall (11% negative; 1% positive during 2002–2011. The Nile Delta, Ethiopian highlands and central Uganda regions showed decline in ET while central parts of Sudan, South Sudan, southwestern Ethiopia and northeastern Uganda showed increases. Except for a decline in ET in central Uganda, the detected changes in ET (both positive and negative were not associated with corresponding changes in rainfall. Detected declines in ET in the Nile delta and Ethiopian highlands were found to be attributable to anthropogenic land degradation, while the ET decline in central Uganda is likely caused by rainfall reduction.

  11. Raccoons in San Diego County as Sentinels for West Nile Virus Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Marikos, Sarah C.; Ferran, Karen L.; Iniguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Gurfield, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential of utilizing raccoons as sentinels for West Nile Virus (WNV) in an effort to guide public health surveillance, prevention, and control efforts. Introduction Since its detection in 1999 in New York, WNV spread westward across the continent, and was first detected in California in 2003 in Imperial County (1). In California and in many states, birds, especially corvids, are used as sentinel animals to detect WNV activity. Recent seroprevalence studies have ...

  12. Sandstone columns of the 3rd Nile Cataract (Nubia, Northern Sudan)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cílek, Václav; Adamovič, Jiří; Suková, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 59, Supplement 1 (2015), s. 151-165 ISSN 0372-8854 Grant - others:Program interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100130902 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Nubian sandstone * column ar jointing * Voronoi fragmentation * 3rd Nile Cataract * Sudan Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.103, year: 2015

  13. Interferon-λ restricts West Nile virus neuroinvasion by tightening the blood-brain barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Lazear, Helen M.; Daniels, Brian P.; Pinto, Amelia K.; Huang, Albert C.; Vick, Sarah C.; Doyle, Sean E.; Gale, Michael; Klein, Robyn S.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Although interferon-λ [also known as type III interferon or interleukin-28 (IL-28)/IL-29] restricts infection by several viruses, its inhibitory mechanism has remained uncertain. We used recombinant interferon-λ and mice lacking the interferon-λ receptor (IFNLR1) to evaluate the effect of interferon-λ on infection with West Nile virus, an encephalitic flavivirus. Cell culture studies in mouse keratinocytes and dendritic cells showed no direct antiviral effect of exogenous interferon-λ, even t...

  14. Antibody Prophylaxis and Therapy against West Nile Virus Infection in Wild-Type and Immunodeficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Engle, Michael J.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2003-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus that causes encephalitis in a subset of susceptible humans. Current treatment for WNV infections is supportive, and no specific therapy or vaccine is available. In this study, we directly tested the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of polyclonal antibodies against WNV. Passive administration of human gamma globulin or mouse serum prior to WNV infection protected congenic wild-type, B-cell-deficient (μMT), and T- and B-cell-deficient (R...

  15. Interferon-λ restricts West Nile virus neuroinvasion by tightening the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazear, Helen M; Daniels, Brian P; Pinto, Amelia K; Huang, Albert C; Vick, Sarah C; Doyle, Sean E; Gale, Michael; Klein, Robyn S; Diamond, Michael S

    2015-04-22

    Although interferon-λ [also known as type III interferon or interleukin-28 (IL-28)/IL-29] restricts infection by several viruses, its inhibitory mechanism has remained uncertain. We used recombinant interferon-λ and mice lacking the interferon-λ receptor (IFNLR1) to evaluate the effect of interferon-λ on infection with West Nile virus, an encephalitic flavivirus. Cell culture studies in mouse keratinocytes and dendritic cells showed no direct antiviral effect of exogenous interferon-λ, even though expression of interferon-stimulated genes was induced. We observed no differences in West Nile virus burden between wild-type and Ifnlr1(-/-) mice in the draining lymph nodes, spleen, or blood. We detected increased West Nile virus infection in the brain and spinal cord of Ifnlr1(-/-) mice, yet this was not associated with a direct antiviral effect in mouse neurons. Instead, we observed an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability in Ifnlr1(-/-) mice. Treatment of mice with pegylated interferon-λ2 resulted in decreased blood-brain barrier permeability, reduced West Nile virus infection in the brain without affecting viremia, and improved survival against lethal virus challenge. An in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier showed that interferon-λ signaling in mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells increased transendothelial electrical resistance, decreased virus movement across the barrier, and modulated tight junction protein localization in a protein synthesis- and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)-independent manner. Our data establish an indirect antiviral function of interferon-λ in which noncanonical signaling through IFNLR1 tightens the blood-brain barrier and restricts viral neuroinvasion and pathogenesis. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Digestibility and performance of juvenile Nile tilapia fed with diets containing forage palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Bandeira Thame Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Supplying the nutritional needs of animals in an economical way is essential to the success of any type of production. The forage palm is a cactaceae well-adapted to semiarid regions and commonly used in the feeding of ruminants. However, studies assessing its use in fishes are scarce. We aimed to evaluate the digestibility of bran from five different forage palm cultivars (Opuntia fícus in juvenile Nile tilapia and the development of juveniles when receiving increasing levels of the cultivar with the best apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein (ADCCP (75.2%. We used 90 masculinized juvenile Nile tilapia (with an average weight of 6.02 ± 0.65 g in the digestibility experiment to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter (ADCDM, crude energy (ADCCP, and crude protein of the cultivars (Orelha de onça, Miúda, Gigante, Comum, and IPA 20. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD with five treatments and three repetitions. In the development experiment, 300 masculinized juvenile Nile tilapia (with average weight of 1.39 ± 0.12 g received feed with different inclusion levels (0, 72, 144, and 216 g Kg-1 of IPA 20 palm bran in a CRD with four treatments and five repetitions. We observed significant differences (P < 0.05 for ADCDM and ADCCP between the treatments. The cultivars that presented the highest ADCDM were IPA 20 (41.75%, Orelha de onça (36.41%, and Gigante (32.59%. For ADCCP, the best cultivar was IPA 20 with 75.2%, followed by Orelha de onça (61.5%, and Miúda (56.1%. As for the performance, the inclusion of IPA 20 palm bran at a rate of 113 g/kg-1 provided the best values in terms of weight gain and final weight in juvenile Nile tilapia.

  17. Selection for growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) in low-input environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charo-Karisa, H.

    2006-01-01

    Nile tilapia,Oreochromis niloticus,is one of the most important species farmed in the world and is the mainstay of many

  18. Evaluating the feeding preferences of West Nile virus mosquito vectors using bird-baited traps

    OpenAIRE

    Victoriano Llopis, Isis; Tomassone, Laura; Grego, Elena; Serrano, Emmanuel; Mosca, Andrea; Vaschetti, Gabriella; Andrade, Daniela; Rossi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Background The total contact rates (TCRs) between mosquito vectors and their potential hosts have a serious impact on disease transmission dynamics. Culex pipiens (sensu stricto) (s.s.) is considered the main vector of the West Nile Virus (WNV) in Europe and birds are the reservoir hosts. The results of our previous study showed that WNV seroreactors are significantly more prevalent among raptors compared to a range of other wild avian groups. The current study aims to assess the role of bird...

  19. It is possible to increase by over thirty per cent the Nile Water availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2011-01-01

    The population of the Nile catchment is presently 250 Million and will probably reach 400 Million in 2040. The catchment includes two parts of about same population but with a very different climate. - The upstream rainy part (most of this area is in Ethiopia, Uganda and South Sudan). - The downstream dry part i.e North Sudan and Egypt. The available water from the Nile runoff is evaluated as average as 72 Billion m 3 /year; it is quite totally coming from the upstream part and used in the downstream part. For their development the upstream populations (including also part of Tanzania, Kenya, Congo, Rwanda and Burundi) are now requiring a significant share of the run off generated from local rains when Egypt and North Sudan claim historic rights on the Nile Waters. The best way to avoid conflicts is to increase the water availability for keeping in Egypt and North Sudan at least the water volume presently used and to allow to upstream countries the water resources necessary for their development, possibly in the range of 100 m 3 / year / capita in 2030 or 2040. The average total runoff of the Nile is in fact close to 140 Billion m 3 / year but over 40 Billion evaporate in the South Sudan Swamps and 15 Billion in the reservoirs of Aswan and Northern Sudan. A solution for reducing by half these two main losses is presented in this paper: it is based upon a concrete knowledge of the local very specific data and upon a successful experience of adapted technical solutions

  20. Serologic survey of potential vertebrate hosts for West Nile Virus in Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Wegner, E.; Halouzka, Jiří; Tryjanowski, P.; Jerzak, L.; Šikutová, Silvie; Rudolf, Ivo; Kruszewicz, A. G.; Jaworski, Z.; Włodarczyk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2008), s. 247-254 ISSN 0882-8245 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930611 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : antibodies – West Nile virus – Usutu virus – Flavivirus * Poland * birds * horses Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.949, year: 2008