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Sample records for nile virus vectors

  1. Evaluating the feeding preferences of West Nile virus mosquito vectors using bird-baited traps

    OpenAIRE

    Victoriano Llopis, Isis; Tomassone, Laura; Grego, Elena; Serrano, Emmanuel; Mosca, Andrea; Vaschetti, Gabriella; Andrade, Daniela; Rossi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Background The total contact rates (TCRs) between mosquito vectors and their potential hosts have a serious impact on disease transmission dynamics. Culex pipiens (sensu stricto) (s.s.) is considered the main vector of the West Nile Virus (WNV) in Europe and birds are the reservoir hosts. The results of our previous study showed that WNV seroreactors are significantly more prevalent among raptors compared to a range of other wild avian groups. The current study aims to assess the role of bird...

  2. Vector competence of northern and southern European Culex pipiens pipiens mosquitoes for West Nile virus across a gradient of temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, C.B.F.; Göertz, G.P.; Pijlman, G.P.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In Europe, West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks have been limited to southern and central European countries. However, competent mosquito vectors and susceptible bird hosts are present in northern Europe. Differences in temperature and vector competence of mosquito populations may explain the absence

  3. West Nile virus surveillance in Europe: moving towards an integrated animal-human-vector approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossner, Céline M; Marrama, Laurence; Carson, Marianne; Allerberger, Franz; Calistri, Paolo; Dilaveris, Dimitrios; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Morgan, Dilys; Nowotny, Norbert; Paty, Marie-Claire; Pervanidou, Danai; Rizzo, Caterina; Roberts, Helen; Schmoll, Friedrich; Van Bortel, Wim; Gervelmeyer, Andrea

    2017-05-04

    This article uses the experience of five European countries to review the integrated approaches (human, animal and vector) for surveillance and monitoring of West Nile virus (WNV) at national and European levels. The epidemiological situation of West Nile fever in Europe is heterogeneous. No model of surveillance and monitoring fits all, hence this article merely encourages countries to implement the integrated approach that meets their needs. Integration of surveillance and monitoring activities conducted by the public health authorities, the animal health authorities and the authorities in charge of vector surveillance and control should improve efficiency and save resources by implementing targeted measures. The creation of a formal interagency working group is identified as a crucial step towards integration. Blood safety is a key incentive for public health authorities to allocate sufficient resources for WNV surveillance, while the facts that an effective vaccine is available for horses and that most infected animals remain asymptomatic make the disease a lesser priority for animal health authorities. The examples described here can support other European countries wishing to strengthen their WNV surveillance or preparedness, and also serve as a model for surveillance and monitoring of other (vector-borne) zoonotic infections. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  4. Regional and seasonal response of a West Nile virus vector to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Cory W; Comrie, Andrew C

    2013-09-24

    Climate change will affect the abundance and seasonality of West Nile virus (WNV) vectors, altering the risk of virus transmission to humans. Using downscaled general circulation model output, we calculate a WNV vector's response to climate change across the southern United States using process-based modeling. In the eastern United States, Culex quinquefasciatus response to projected climate change displays a latitudinal and elevational gradient. Projected summer population depressions as a result of increased immature mortality and habitat drying are most severe in the south and almost absent further north; extended spring and fall survival is ubiquitous. Much of California also exhibits a bimodal pattern. Projected onset of mosquito season is delayed in the southwestern United States because of extremely dry and hot spring and summers; however, increased temperature and late summer and fall rains extend the mosquito season. These results are unique in being a broad-scale calculation of the projected impacts of climate change on a WNV vector. The results show that, despite projected widespread future warming, the future seasonal response of C. quinquefasciatus populations across the southern United States will not be homogeneous, and will depend on specific combinations of local and regional conditions.

  5. West Nile virus vector competency of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in the Galapagos Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Gillian; Kramer, Laura D; Goodman, Simon J; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2011-09-01

    The mosquito-transmitted pathogen West Nile virus (WNV) is not yet present in the Galápagos Archipelago of Ecuador. However, concern exists for fragile endemic island fauna after population decreases in several North American bird species and pathology in certain reptiles. We examined WNV vector competency of a Galápagos strain of mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus Say). Field specimens were tested for their capacity to transmit the WN02-1956 strain of WNV after incubation at 27°C or 30°C. Rates of infection, dissemination, and transmission all increased with days post-exposure to WNV, and the highest rates were observed at 28 days. Infection rates peaked at 59% and transmission rates peaked at 44% (of mosquitoes tested). Vector efficiency increased after day 14. Rates of infection but not of transmission were significantly influence by temperature. No vertical transmission was detectable. We demonstrate that Galápagos Cx. quinquefasciatus are competent WNV vectors, and therefore should be considered an animal and public health risk for the islands and controlled wherever possible.

  6. Spatio-temporal patterns of distribution of West Nile virus vectors in eastern Piedmont Region, Italy

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    Bisanzio Donal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background West Nile Virus (WNV transmission in Italy was first reported in 1998 as an equine outbreak near the swamps of Padule di Fucecchio, Tuscany. No other cases were identified during the following decade until 2008, when horse and human outbreaks were reported in Emilia Romagna, North Italy. Since then, WNV outbreaks have occurred annually, spreading from their initial northern foci throughout the country. Following the outbreak in 1998 the Italian public health authority defined a surveillance plan to detect WNV circulation in birds, horses and mosquitoes. By applying spatial statistical analysis (spatial point pattern analysis and models (Bayesian GLMM models to a longitudinal dataset on the abundance of the three putative WNV vectors [Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas 1771, Culex pipiens (Linnaeus 1758 and Culex modestus (Ficalbi 1890] in eastern Piedmont, we quantified their abundance and distribution in space and time and generated prediction maps outlining the areas with the highest vector productivity and potential for WNV introduction and amplification. Results The highest abundance and significant spatial clusters of Oc. caspius and Cx. modestus were in proximity to rice fields, and for Cx. pipiens, in proximity to highly populated urban areas. The GLMM model showed the importance of weather conditions and environmental factors in predicting mosquito abundance. Distance from the preferential breeding sites and elevation were negatively associated with the number of collected mosquitoes. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI was positively correlated with mosquito abundance in rice fields (Oc. caspius and Cx. modestus. Based on the best models, we developed prediction maps for the year 2010 outlining the areas where high abundance of vectors could favour the introduction and amplification of WNV. Conclusions Our findings provide useful information for surveillance activities aiming to identify locations where the

  7. The distribution of potential West Nile virus vectors, Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), in Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Badillo, Alvaro; Bolling, Bethany G; Perez-Ramirez, Gerardo; Moore, Chester G; Martinez-Munoz, Jorge P; Padilla-Viveros, America A; Camacho-Nuez, Minerva; Diaz-Perez, Alfonso; Beaty, Barry J; de Lourdes Munoz, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Culex spp. mosquitoes are considered to be the most important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) detected in at least 34 species of mosquitoes in the United States. In North America, Culex pipiens pipiens, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, and Culex tarsalis are all competent vectors of WNV, which is considered to be enzootic in the United States and has also been detected in equines and birds in many states of Mexico and in humans in Nuevo Leon. There is potential for WNV to ...

  8. Transcriptomics of differential vector competence: West Nile virus infection in two populations of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus linked to ovary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongyoung; Civana, Ayse; Acevedo, Carolina; Smartt, Chelsea T

    2014-06-22

    Understanding mechanisms that contribute to viral dissemination in mosquito vectors will contribute to our ability to interfere with the transmission of viral pathogens that impact public health. The expression of genes in two Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus populations from Florida with known differences in vector competence to West Nile virus (WNV) were compared using high throughput sequencing. A total of 15,176 transcripts were combined for comparison of expression differences between the two populations and 118 transcripts were differentially expressed (p Culex populations in Florida. Both populations control energy allocations to reproduction as a response to WNV. This result provides novel insight into the defense mechanism used by Culex spp. mosquitoes against WNV.

  9. Vector Contact Rates on Eastern Bluebird Nestlings Do Not Indicate West Nile Virus Transmission in Henrico County, Virginia, USA

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    Kevin A. Caillouët

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive indicators of spatial and temporal variation in vector-host contact rates are critical to understanding the transmission and eventual prevention of arboviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV. Monitoring vector contact rates on particularly susceptible and perhaps more exposed avian nestlings may provide an advanced indication of local WNV amplification. To test this hypothesis we monitored WNV infection and vector contact rates among nestlings occupying nest boxes (primarily Eastern bluebirds; Sialia sialis, Turdidae across Henrico County, Virginia, USA, from May to August 2012. Observed host-seeking rates were temporally variable and associated with absolute vector and host abundances. Despite substantial effort to monitor WNV among nestlings and mosquitoes, we did not detect the presence of WNV in these populations. Generally low vector-nestling host contact rates combined with the negative WNV infection data suggest that monitoring transmission parameters among nestling Eastern bluebirds in Henrico County, Virginia, USA may not be a sensitive indicator of WNV activity.

  10. Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae as a potential West Nile virus vector in Tucson, Arizona: Blood meal analysis indicates feeding on both humans and birds

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    Margaret Zinser

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Most reports from the United States suggest Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes feed minimally on humans. Given the abundance of C. quinquefasciatus in residential Tucson and parts of metropolitan Phoenix, and the arrival of West Nile virus to this area, discovering the blood meal hosts of the local population is important. Using a sandwich ELISA technique, the local C. quinquefasciatus were found to feed on both humans and birds. This suggests they should be considered potential West Nile virus vectors.

  11. Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) as a potential West Nile virus vector in Tucson, Arizona: Blood meal analysis indicates feeding on both humans and birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinser, Margaret; Ramberg, Frank; Willott, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Most reports from the United States suggest Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes feed minimally on humans. Given the abundance of C. quinquefasciatus in residential Tucson and parts of metropolitan Phoenix, and the arrival of West Nile virus to this area, discovering the blood meal hosts of the local population is important. Using a sandwich ELISA technique, the local C. quinquefasciatus were found to feed on both humans and birds. This suggests they should be considered potential West Nile virus vectors. PMID:15861236

  12. Evaluating the feeding preferences of West Nile virus mosquito vectors using bird-baited traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoriano Llopis, Isis; Tomassone, Laura; Grego, Elena; Serrano, Emmanuel; Mosca, Andrea; Vaschetti, Gabriella; Andrade, Daniela; Rossi, Luca

    2016-08-31

    The total contact rates (TCRs) between mosquito vectors and their potential hosts have a serious impact on disease transmission dynamics. Culex pipiens (sensu stricto) (s.s.) is considered the main vector of the West Nile Virus (WNV) in Europe and birds are the reservoir hosts. The results of our previous study showed that WNV seroreactors are significantly more prevalent among raptors compared to a range of other wild avian groups. The current study aims to assess the role of bird type (raptor vs others) and bird size on mosquito feeding preferences in a free-choice experiment using bird-baited traps. From July to September 2014, a battery of six bird-baited traps was operated in twelve mosquito capture sessions. Eight bird species, belonging to five different orders, including raptors, were used. After each session, the trapped mosquitoes were collected and identified using standard keys. Two sets of independent generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to assess mosquito vector feeding preferences (MFp) among different bird species and types. A total of 304 mosquitoes belonging to seven taxa were collected, C. pipiens being by far the most abundant (84.2 % of the total mosquito catch). Most C. pipiens were engorged (83.59 %). The selected model showed that 25.6 % of the observed variability of MFp is explained by the interaction between bird size and bird type, with C. pipiens preferring to feed on large birds, especially raptors. The proportion of engorged mosquitoes was 1.9-fold higher in large (22.88 %; range 0-42 %) than in medium-sized raptors (11.71 %; range 0-33 %), and was nearly the same in medium-sized (9.08 %; range 0-26 %) and large (8.5 %; 6-24 %) non-raptor species. Culex pipiens showed an obvious preference for large raptors, which concurs with the higher seroprevalence to WNV in our previous study. The appreciable feeding by C. pipiens on large raptors makes them useful alternative sentinels to poultry for WNV surveillance. Thus

  13. Vector competence of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) for West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Michael S; Swope, Bethany N; Hogsette, Jerome A; Burkhalter, Kristen L; Savage, Harry M; Nasci, Roger S

    2011-05-01

    In 2006-2007, stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), were suspected of being enzootic vectors of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) during a die-off of American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin) (Pelecanidae) in Montana, USA. WNV-positive stable flies were observed feeding en masse on incapacitated, WNV-positive pelicans, arousing suspicions that the flies could have been involved in WNV transmission among pelicans, and perhaps to livestock and humans. We assessed biological transmission by infecting stable flies intrathoracically with WNV and testing them at 2-d intervals over 20 d. Infectious WNV was detected in fly bodies in decreasing amounts over time for only the first 6 d postinfection, an indication that WNV did not replicate within fly tissues and that stable flies cannot biologically transmit WNV. We assessed mechanical transmission using a novel technique. Specifically, we fed WNV-infected blood to individual flies by using a cotton swab (i.e., artificial donor), and at intervals of 1 min-24 h, we allowed flies to refeed on a different swab saturated with WNV-negative blood (i.e., artificial recipient). Flies mechanically transmitted viable WNV from donor to recipient swabs for up to 6 h postinfection, with the majority of the transmission events occurring within the first hour. Flies mechanically transmitted WNV RNA to recipient swabs for up to 24 h, mostly within the first 6 h. Given its predilection to feed multiple times when disturbed, these findings support the possibility that the stable fly could mechanically transmit WNV.

  14. West nile virus prevalence across landscapes is mediated by local effects of agriculture on vector and host communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Crowder

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses threaten the health of humans, livestock, and wildlife. West Nile virus (WNV, the world's most widespread arbovirus, invaded the United States in 1999 and rapidly spread across the county. Although the ecology of vectors and hosts are key determinants of WNV prevalence across landscapes, the factors shaping local vector and host populations remain unclear. Here, we used spatially-explicit models to evaluate how three land-use types (orchards, vegetable/forage crops, natural and two climatic variables (temperature, precipitation influence the prevalence of WNV infections and vector/host distributions at landscape and local spatial scales. Across landscapes, we show that orchard habitats were associated with greater prevalence of WNV infections in reservoirs (birds and incidental hosts (horses, while increased precipitation was associated with fewer infections. At local scales, orchard habitats increased the prevalence of WNV infections in vectors (mosquitoes and the abundance of mosquitoes and two key reservoir species, the American robin and the house sparrow. Thus, orchard habitats benefitted WNV vectors and reservoir hosts locally, creating focal points for the transmission of WNV at landscape scales in the presence of suitable climatic conditions.

  15. Culex pipiens, an Experimental Efficient Vector of West Nile and Rift Valley Fever Viruses in the Maghreb Region

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    Amraoui, Fadila; Krida, Ghazi; Bouattour, Ali; Rhim, Adel; Daaboub, Jabeur; Harrat, Zoubir; Boubidi, Said-Chawki; Tijane, Mhamed; Sarih, Mhammed; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2012-01-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) are emerging diseases causing epidemics outside their natural range of distribution. West Nile virus (WNV) circulates widely and harmlessly in the old world among birds as amplifying hosts, and horses and humans as accidental dead-end hosts. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) re-emerges periodically in Africa causing massive outbreaks. In the Maghreb, eco-climatic and entomologic conditions are favourable for WNV and RVFV emergence. Both viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. We evaluated the ability of different populations of Cx. pipiens from North Africa to transmit WNV and the avirulent RVFV Clone 13 strain. Mosquitoes collected in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia during the summer 2010 were experimentally infected with WNV and RVFV Clone 13 strain at titers of 107.8 and 108.5 plaque forming units/mL, respectively. Disseminated infection and transmission rates were estimated 14–21 days following the exposure to the infectious blood-meal. We show that 14 days after exposure to WNV, all mosquito st developed a high disseminated infection and were able to excrete infectious saliva. However, only 69.2% of mosquito strains developed a disseminated infection with RVFV Clone 13 strain, and among them, 77.8% were able to deliver virus through saliva. Thus, Cx. pipiens from the Maghreb are efficient experimental vectors to transmit WNV and to a lesser extent, RVFV Clone 13 strain. The epidemiologic importance of our findings should be considered in the light of other parameters related to mosquito ecology and biology. PMID:22693557

  16. West Nile virus: North American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  17. Modeled response of the West Nile virus vector Culex quinquefasciatus to changing climate using the dynamic mosquito simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Cory W; Comrie, Andrew C

    2010-09-01

    Climate can strongly influence the population dynamics of disease vectors and is consequently a key component of disease ecology. Future climate change and variability may alter the location and seasonality of many disease vectors, possibly increasing the risk of disease transmission to humans. The mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus is a concern across the southern United States because of its role as a West Nile virus vector and its affinity for urban environments. Using established relationships between atmospheric variables (temperature and precipitation) and mosquito development, we have created the Dynamic Mosquito Simulation Model (DyMSiM) to simulate Cx. quinquefasciatus population dynamics. The model is driven with climate data and validated against mosquito count data from Pasco County, Florida and Coachella Valley, California. Using 1-week and 2-week filters, mosquito trap data are reproduced well by the model (P climate projection data generated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research CCSM3 general circulation model, we applied temperature and precipitation offsets to the climate data at each location to evaluate mosquito population sensitivity to possible future climate conditions. We found that temperature and precipitation shifts act interdependently to cause remarkable changes in modeled mosquito population dynamics. Impacts include a summer population decline from drying in California due to loss of immature mosquito habitats, and in Florida a decrease in late-season mosquito populations due to drier late summer conditions.

  18. Vector competence of Culex neavei and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Senegal for lineages 1, 2, Koutango and a putative new lineage of West Nile virus.

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    Fall, Gamou; Diallo, Mawlouth; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Faye, Ousmane; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-04-01

    West Nile virus (WN virus) is one of the most widespread arbovirus and exhibits a great genetic diversity with 8 lineages, at least 4 (1, 2, Koutango, and putative new) are present in Africa. In West Africa, Culex neavei and Culex quinquefasciatus are considered as potential vectors for WN virus transmission in sylvatic or urban context. We analyzed the vector competence of these Culex species from Senegal for African lineages and envelope proteins sequences of viral strains used. We showed that lineage 1 is transmitted by both Culex mosquitoes, whereas the putative new lineage 8 is transmitted only by Cx. neavei. Our findings suggest that genetic variability can affect vector competence and depend on mosquito. However, when considering the infective life rate, the mosquito population seems to be inefficient for WN virus transmission in the field and could explain the low impact of WN virus in Africa.

  19. Modeled response of the West Nile virus vector Culex quinquefasciatus to changing climate using the dynamic mosquito simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Cory W.; Comrie, Andrew C.

    2010-09-01

    Climate can strongly influence the population dynamics of disease vectors and is consequently a key component of disease ecology. Future climate change and variability may alter the location and seasonality of many disease vectors, possibly increasing the risk of disease transmission to humans. The mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus is a concern across the southern United States because of its role as a West Nile virus vector and its affinity for urban environments. Using established relationships between atmospheric variables (temperature and precipitation) and mosquito development, we have created the Dynamic Mosquito Simulation Model (DyMSiM) to simulate Cx. quinquefasciatus population dynamics. The model is driven with climate data and validated against mosquito count data from Pasco County, Florida and Coachella Valley, California. Using 1-week and 2-week filters, mosquito trap data are reproduced well by the model ( P < 0.0001). Dry environments in southern California produce different mosquito population trends than moist locations in Florida. Florida and California mosquito populations are generally temperature-limited in winter. In California, locations are water-limited through much of the year. Using future climate projection data generated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research CCSM3 general circulation model, we applied temperature and precipitation offsets to the climate data at each location to evaluate mosquito population sensitivity to possible future climate conditions. We found that temperature and precipitation shifts act interdependently to cause remarkable changes in modeled mosquito population dynamics. Impacts include a summer population decline from drying in California due to loss of immature mosquito habitats, and in Florida a decrease in late-season mosquito populations due to drier late summer conditions.

  20. The distribution of potential West Nile virus vectors, Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Culex spp. mosquitoes are considered to be the most important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) detected in at least 34 species of mosquitoes in the United States. In North America, Culex pipiens pipiens, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, and Culex tarsalis are all competent vectors of WNV, which is considered to be enzootic in the United States and has also been detected in equines and birds in many states of Mexico and in humans in Nuevo Leon. There is potential for WNV to be introduced into Mexico City by various means including infected mosquitoes on airplanes, migrating birds, ground transportation and infected humans. Little is known of the geographic distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and hybrids in Mexico City. Culex pipiens pipiens preferentially feed on avian hosts; Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus have historically been considered to prefer mammalian hosts; and hybrids of these two species could theoretically serve as bridge vectors to transmit WNV from avian hosts to humans and other mammalian hosts. In order to address the potential of WNV being introduced into Mexico City, we have determined the identity and spatial distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and their hybrids. Results Mosquito larvae collected from 103 sites throughout Mexico City during 2004-2005 were identified as Culex, Culiseta or Ochlerotatus by morphological analysis. Within the genus Culex, specimens were further identified as Culex tarsalis or as belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. Members of the Culex pipiens complex were separated by measuring the ratio of the dorsal and ventral arms (DV/D ratio) of the male genitalia and also by using diagnostic primers designed for the Ace.2 gene. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus was the most abundant form collected. Conclusions Important WNV vectors species, Cx. p. pipiens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis, are all present in Mexico City. Hybrids of Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus were also

  1. The distribution of potential West Nile virus vectors, Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Badillo, Alvaro; Bolling, Bethany G; Perez-Ramirez, Gerardo; Moore, Chester G; Martinez-Munoz, Jorge P; Padilla-Viveros, America A; Camacho-Nuez, Minerva; Diaz-Perez, Alfonso; Beaty, Barry J; Munoz, Maria de Lourdes

    2011-05-09

    Culex spp. mosquitoes are considered to be the most important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) detected in at least 34 species of mosquitoes in the United States. In North America, Culex pipiens pipiens, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, and Culex tarsalis are all competent vectors of WNV, which is considered to be enzootic in the United States and has also been detected in equines and birds in many states of Mexico and in humans in Nuevo Leon. There is potential for WNV to be introduced into Mexico City by various means including infected mosquitoes on airplanes, migrating birds, ground transportation and infected humans. Little is known of the geographic distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and hybrids in Mexico City. Culex pipiens pipiens preferentially feed on avian hosts; Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus have historically been considered to prefer mammalian hosts; and hybrids of these two species could theoretically serve as bridge vectors to transmit WNV from avian hosts to humans and other mammalian hosts. In order to address the potential of WNV being introduced into Mexico City, we have determined the identity and spatial distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and their hybrids. Mosquito larvae collected from 103 sites throughout Mexico City during 2004-2005 were identified as Culex, Culiseta or Ochlerotatus by morphological analysis. Within the genus Culex, specimens were further identified as Culex tarsalis or as belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. Members of the Culex pipiens complex were separated by measuring the ratio of the dorsal and ventral arms (DV/D ratio) of the male genitalia and also by using diagnostic primers designed for the Ace.2 gene. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus was the most abundant form collected. Important WNV vectors species, Cx. p. pipiens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis, are all present in Mexico City. Hybrids of Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus were also collected and identified. The

  2. The distribution of potential West Nile virus vectors, Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae, in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz-Perez Alfonso

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culex spp. mosquitoes are considered to be the most important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV detected in at least 34 species of mosquitoes in the United States. In North America, Culex pipiens pipiens, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, and Culex tarsalis are all competent vectors of WNV, which is considered to be enzootic in the United States and has also been detected in equines and birds in many states of Mexico and in humans in Nuevo Leon. There is potential for WNV to be introduced into Mexico City by various means including infected mosquitoes on airplanes, migrating birds, ground transportation and infected humans. Little is known of the geographic distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and hybrids in Mexico City. Culex pipiens pipiens preferentially feed on avian hosts; Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus have historically been considered to prefer mammalian hosts; and hybrids of these two species could theoretically serve as bridge vectors to transmit WNV from avian hosts to humans and other mammalian hosts. In order to address the potential of WNV being introduced into Mexico City, we have determined the identity and spatial distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and their hybrids. Results Mosquito larvae collected from 103 sites throughout Mexico City during 2004-2005 were identified as Culex, Culiseta or Ochlerotatus by morphological analysis. Within the genus Culex, specimens were further identified as Culex tarsalis or as belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. Members of the Culex pipiens complex were separated by measuring the ratio of the dorsal and ventral arms (DV/D ratio of the male genitalia and also by using diagnostic primers designed for the Ace.2 gene. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus was the most abundant form collected. Conclusions Important WNV vectors species, Cx. p. pipiens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis, are all present in Mexico City. Hybrids of Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. p

  3. Asymmetric effects of native and exotic invasive shrubs on ecology of the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Allison M; Allan, Brian F; Frisbie, Lauren A; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2015-06-16

    Exotic invasive plants alter the structure and function of native ecosystems and may influence the distribution and abundance of arthropod disease vectors by modifying habitat quality. This study investigated how invasive plants alter the ecology of Culex pipiens, an important vector of West Nile virus (WNV) in northeastern and midwestern regions of the United States. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that three native leaf species (Rubus allegheniensis, blackberry; Sambucus canadensis, elderberry; and Amelanchier laevis, serviceberry), and three exotic invasive leaf species (Lonicera maackii, Amur honeysuckle; Elaeagnus umbellata, autumn olive; and Rosa multiflora, multiflora rose) alter Cx. pipiens oviposition site selection, emergence rates, development time, and adult body size. The relative abundance of seven bacterial phyla in infusions of the six leaf species also was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to test the hypothesis that variation in emergence, development, and oviposition site selection is correlated to differences in the diversity and abundance of bacteria associated with different leaf species, important determinants of nutrient quality and availability for mosquito larvae. Leaf detritus from invasive honeysuckle and autumn olive yielded significantly higher adult emergence rates compared to detritus from the remaining leaf species and honeysuckle alleviated the negative effects of intraspecific competition on adult emergence. Conversely, leaves of native blackberry acted as an ecological trap, generating high oviposition but low emergence rates. Variation in bacterial flora associated with different leaf species may explain this asymmetrical production of mosquitoes: emergence rates and oviposition rates were positively correlated to bacterial abundance and diversity, respectively. We conclude that the displacement of native understory plant species by certain invasive shrubs

  4. Winter Activity and Aboveground Hybridization Between the Two Biotypes of the West Nile Virus Vector Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogels, Chantal B F; van de Peppel, Lennart J J; van Vliet, Arnold J H; Westenberg, Marcel; Ibañez-Justicia, Adolfo; Stroo, Arjan; Buijs, Jan A; Visser, Tessa M; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M

    2015-10-01

    Culex (Cx.) pipiens mosquitoes are important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). In Europe, the species Cx. pipiens consists of two biotypes, pipiens and molestus, which are morphologically identical, but differ in behavior. Typical behavior of the molestus biotype is the ability to remain active during winter, whereas the pipiens biotype enters diapause. The current paradigm is that the two biotypes occur sympatrically in southern Europe, but occur in isolated above- and belowground populations in northern Europe. In northern Europe, hybridization between biotypes is considered to be low because of the barrier that exists between typical habitats. Data on the occurrence of the biotypes and hybrids in northern Europe, however, are scarce, because identification to the level of biotype is often not performed. Our objective was to clarify the distribution of the Cx. pipiens biotypes and to determine hybridization rates in The Netherlands. Cx. pipiens mosquitoes were collected using three different approaches. First, traps were deployed randomly throughout The Netherlands during the summers of 2011 and 2012 (active surveillance). Second, using a web-based reporting platform and media campaign, Dutch citizens were asked to send dead mosquitoes to our laboratory during the winter and summer of 2014 (passive surveillance). Third, larvae and adults were collected during the summer of 2014 from aboveground locations in Amsterdam to identify molestus larval habitats. Real-time PCR was used for identification to the level of biotype. We found that biotype molestus and hybrids were feeding indoors during winter and summer in The Netherlands and that hybridization rates ranged between 6% and 15%. Larval habitats of biotype molestus were found to occur aboveground. The high percentage of hybridization has implications for assessing the risk of WNV transmission, because hybrids are thought to have ideal characteristics for bridging WNV between birds and humans.

  5. Ecological niche modeling of mosquito vectors of West Nile virus in St. John's County, Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Mohamed F; Xue, Rui-De; Pereira, Roberto M; Koehler, Phillip G

    2016-06-29

    The lack of available vaccines and consistent sporadic transmission of WNV justify the need for mosquito vector control and prediction of their geographic distribution. However, the distribution of WNV transmission is dependent on the mosquito vector and the ecological requirements, which vary from one place to another. Presence/density data of two WNV mosquito vectors, Culex nigripalpus and Cx. quinquefasciatus, was extracted within 5 km buffer zones around seropositive records of sentinel chickens in order to delineate their predicting variables and model the habitat suitability of probable infective mosquito using MaxEnt software. Different correlations between density data of the extracted mosquito vectors and 27 climate, land use-land cover, and land surface terrain variables were analyzed using linear regression analysis. Accordingly, the correlated predicting variables were used in building up habitat suitability model for the occurrence records of both mosquito vectors using MaxEnt. The density of both WNV mosquito vectors showed variation in their ecological requirements. Eight predicting variables, out of 27, had significant influence on density of Cx. nigripalpus. Precipitation of driest months was shown to be the best predicting variable for the density of this vector (R (2) = 41.70). Whereas, two variables were proven to predict the distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus density. Vegetation showed the maximum predicting gain to the density of this mosquito vector (R (2) = 15.74), where nestling birds, in particular exotics, are found. Moreover, Jackknife analysis in MaxEnt demonstrated that urbanization and vegetation data layers significantly contribute in predicting habitat suitability of Cx. nigripalpus and Cx. quinquefasciatus occurrence, respectively, which justifies the contribution of the former in urban and the latter in epizootic transmission cycles of WNV. In addition, habitat suitability risk maps were produced for both vectors in

  6. Seasonal abundance and molecular identification of West Nile virus vectors, Culex pipens and Culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae) in Abeokuta, South-West, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motayo, Babatunde Olanrewaju; Onoja, Bernard Aneibe; Faneye, Adedayo Omotayo; Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle

    2016-03-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection, is an arbovirus infection with high morbidity and mortality, the vector responsible for both human and animal transmission is Culex pipens complex. To determine the species distribution and seasonal abundance of Culex pipens and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Mosquitoes belonging to the Culex pipens complex were captured in three different locations located within Abeokuta Metropolis between March 2012 and January 2013. Individual species were identified using morphometric methods. Amplification of the Ace2 gene by PCR confirmed morphormetric identification of the mosquitoes. A total of 751 mosquitoes were captured. Culex quinquefaciatus recorded the highest distribution of vectors with 56.6% and Culex pipens 43.4% (P > 0.05). Idi aba community recorded the highest distribution of mosquito vectors with 42.9% (n=322) and Culex quinqueaciatus was more abundantly distributed with 183 mosquitoes. Aro community recorded 32% (n=240) of captured mosquitoes with Culex quinquefaciatus having a higher level of abundance and lastly Kemta with a distribution of 25.1% (n=189). Results from this study show that potential vectors of WNV abound within Abeokuta, putting residents at high risk of West Nile infection. We advocate for introduction of routine testing of WNV in Abeokuta and Nigeria.

  7. Long term impacts of combined sewer overflow remediation on water quality and population dynamics of Culex quinquefasciatus, the main urban West Nile virus vector in Atlanta, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Andrea; McMillan, Joseph; Kelly, Rosmarie; Jabbarzadeh, Shirin; Mead, Daniel G; Burkot, Thomas R; Kitron, Uriel; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M

    2014-02-01

    Combined sewers are a significant source of urban water pollution due to periodic discharges into natural streams. Such events (called combined sewer overflows, or CSOs) contribute to the impairment of natural waterways and are associated with increased mosquito productivity and elevated risk of West Nile virus transmission. We investigated the impact of CSOs on water quality and immature mosquito productivity in the city of Atlanta, Georgia, one year before and four years after CSO facility remediation. Water quality (ammonia, phosphate, nitrate and dissolved oxygen concentrations), immature mosquitoes (larvae and pupae), water temperature and rainfall were quantified biweekly between June-October at two urban creeks during 2008-2012. A before-after control-intervention design tested the impact of remediation on mosquito productivity and water quality, whereas generalized linear mixed-effect models quantified the factors explaining the long term impacts of remediation on mosquito productivity. Ammonia and phosphate concentrations and late immature (fourth-instar and pupae) mosquito populations were significantly higher in CSO than in non-CSO creeks, while dissolved oxygen concentrations were lower. Remediation significantly improved water quality estimates (particularly ammonia and dissolved oxygen) and reduced the number of overflows, mosquito productivity and the overall contribution of CSO-affected streams as sources of vectors of West Nile virus. The quality of water in CSOs provided a suitable habitat for immature mosquitoes. Remediation of the CSO facility through the construction of a deep storage tunnel improved water quality indices and reduced the productivity of mosquito species that can serve as vectors of West Nile virus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mosquito politics: local vector control policies and the spread of West Nile Virus in the Chicago region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Carmen; Ruiz, Marilyn; McLafferty, Sara

    2010-11-01

    Differences in mosquito control practices at the local level involve the interplay of place, scale and politics. During the Chicago West Nile Virus (WNV) outbreak of 2002, mosquito abatement districts represent distinct suburban clusters of human WNV cases, independent of characteristics of the local population, housing and physical environment. We examine how the contrasting actions of four districts reveal a distinct local politics of mosquito control that may have contributed to local-scale geographic differences in WNV incidence. This politics is rooted in political, economic and philosophical differences within and between administrative boundaries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ovicidal and Larvicidal Effects of Garlic and Asafoetida Essential Oils Against West Nile Virus Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Ramirez, Jose L; Zilkowski, Bruce; Flor-Weiler, Lina B; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2018-01-01

    Abstract We examined the chemical composition of garlic and asafoetida essential oils and their individual and combined toxicity against larvae of Culex pipiens Linnaeus and Culex restuans Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae). The effect of the two essential oils on egg hatch was also examined. Ten and 12 compounds, respectively, were identified in garlic and asafoetida essential oils. Allyl disulfide (49.13%) and diallyl trisulfide (31.08%) were the most abundant compounds in garlic essential oil accounting for 80.2% of the total oil. In contrast, (E)-sec-butyl propenyl disulfide (30.03%), (Z)-sec-butyl propenyl disulfide (24.32%), and disulfide, methyl 1-(methylthio)propyl (21.87%) were the most abundant compounds in asafoetida essential oil. Allyl disulfide accounted for 7.38% of the total oil in asafoetida essential oil and was one of only three compounds found in both oils. For both mosquito species, garlic essential oil was more toxic than asafoetida essential oil with Cx. restuans (LC50: garlic = 2.7 ppm; asafoetida = 10.1 ppm) being more sensitive than Cx. pipiens (LC50: garlic = 7.5 ppm; asafoetida = 13.5 ppm). When combined, the two essential oils had antagonistic effects. The majority of Culex egg rafts exposed to garlic (73.1%) or asafoetida (55.8%) essential oils failed to hatch and larvae of the few that did hatch mostly died as first instars. Allyl disulfide exhibited strong ovicidal and larvicidal activity suggesting its important contribution to the overall toxicity of the two essential oils. Thus, garlic and asafoetida essential oils are potent mosquito ovicides and larvicides but if used jointly, they could undermine vector control programs.

  10. Vaccines in Development against West Nile Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Tangy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine.

  11. Culex pipiens and Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) populations as vectors for lineage 1 and 2 West Nile virus in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustolin, M; Talavera, S; Santamaría, C; Rivas, R; Pujol, N; Aranda, C; Marquès, E; Valle, M; Verdún, M; Pagès, N; Busquets, N

    2016-06-01

    The emerging disease West Nile fever is caused by West Nile virus (WNV), one of the most widespread arboviruses. This study represents the first test of the vectorial competence of European Culex pipiens Linnaeus 1758 and Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (both: Diptera: Culicidae) populations for lineage 1 and 2 WNV isolated in Europe. Culex pipiens and S. albopicta populations were susceptible to WNV infection, had disseminated infection, and were capable of transmitting both WNV lineages. This is the first WNV competence assay to maintain mosquito specimens under environmental conditions mimicking the field (day/night) conditions associated with the period of maximum expected WNV activity. The importance of environmental conditions is discussed and the issue of how previous experiments conducted in fixed high temperatures may have overestimated WNV vector competence results with respect to natural environmental conditions is analysed. The information presented should be useful to policymakers and public health authorities for establishing effective WNV surveillance and vector control programmes. This would improve preparedness to prevent future outbreaks. © 2016 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Entomological Society.

  12. Population genetic structure of the Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) complex, vectors of West Nile virus, in five habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Andrea L; Melese, Etienne; Ha, Phuong-Thao; Inman, Allan

    2018-01-04

    The Culex pipiens complex consists of several morphologically similar, closely related species. In the United States, Cx. pipiens L. is distributed North of 39° latitude, while Cx. quinquefasciatus Say occurs South of 36° latitude; a hybrid zone occurs between these two latitudes including in the Central Valley of California. Members of the Cx. pipiens complex and their hybrids are vectors for West Nile virus (WNv). Hybrid offspring of Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus have been found to have enhanced transmission rates of WNv over those of pure populations of each species. We investigated whether hybrids of Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus occurred more frequently in any of five habitats which were dairies, rural, suburban, and urban areas, and wetlands. In addition, the proportion of alleles unique to Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens found in each habitat-associated population were determined. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to compare the population structure of the Cx. pipiens complex from each habitat to geographically distant populations considered pure Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Structure analyses were used to assign individuals to either Cx. pipiens, Cx. quinquefasciatus, or hybrids of the Cx. pipiens complex. The ancestry of hybrids (F1, F2, or backcrossed) in relation to the two parent populations was estimated for each Central Valley population. Loci unique to the pure Cx. pipiens population and the pure Cx. quinquefasciatus population were determined. The proportion of loci unique to Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus populations were subsequently determined for each population from the five Merced habitats and from the Oroville California population. The unique loci found in Merced populations and not in Cx. pipiens or Cx. quinquefasciatus were also determined. A principal components analysis was run, as was an analysis to determine loci under putative selection. The Structure Harvester analysis

  13. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  14. Climate Change Influences on the Global Potential Distribution of the Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, Vector of West Nile Virus and Lymphatic Filariasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah M Samy

    Full Text Available Rapid emergence of most vector-borne diseases (VBDs may be associated with range expansion of vector populations. Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 is a potential vector of West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, and lymphatic filariasis. We estimated the potential distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus under both current and future climate conditions. The present potential distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus showed high suitability across low-latitude parts of the world, reflecting the current distribution of the species. Suitable conditions were identified also in narrow zones of North Africa and Western Europe. Model transfers to future conditions showed a potential distribution similar to that under present-day conditions, although with higher suitability in southern Australia. Highest stability with changing climate was between 30°S and 30°N. The areas present high agreement among diverse climate models as regards distributional potential in the future, but differed in anticipating potential for distribution in North and Central Africa, southern Asia, central USA, and southeastern Europe. Highest disparity in model predictions across representative concentration pathways (RCPs was in Saudi Arabia and Europe. The model predictions allow anticipation of changing distributional potential of the species in coming decades.

  15. Climate Change Influences on the Global Potential Distribution of the Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, Vector of West Nile Virus and Lymphatic Filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samy, Abdallah M; Elaagip, Arwa H; Kenawy, Mohamed A; Ayres, Constância F J; Peterson, A Townsend; Soliman, Doaa E

    2016-01-01

    Rapid emergence of most vector-borne diseases (VBDs) may be associated with range expansion of vector populations. Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 is a potential vector of West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, and lymphatic filariasis. We estimated the potential distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus under both current and future climate conditions. The present potential distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus showed high suitability across low-latitude parts of the world, reflecting the current distribution of the species. Suitable conditions were identified also in narrow zones of North Africa and Western Europe. Model transfers to future conditions showed a potential distribution similar to that under present-day conditions, although with higher suitability in southern Australia. Highest stability with changing climate was between 30°S and 30°N. The areas present high agreement among diverse climate models as regards distributional potential in the future, but differed in anticipating potential for distribution in North and Central Africa, southern Asia, central USA, and southeastern Europe. Highest disparity in model predictions across representative concentration pathways (RCPs) was in Saudi Arabia and Europe. The model predictions allow anticipation of changing distributional potential of the species in coming decades.

  16. Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) as a potential West Nile virus vector in Tucson, Arizona: Blood meal analysis indicates feeding on both humans and birds

    OpenAIRE

    Zinser, Margaret; Ramberg, Frank; Willott, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Most reports from the United States suggest Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes feed minimally on humans. Given the abundance of C. quinquefasciatus in residential Tucson and parts of metropolitan Phoenix, and the arrival of West Nile virus to this area, discovering the blood meal hosts of the local population is important. Using a sandwich ELISA technique, the local C. quinquefasciatus were found to feed on both humans and birds. This suggests they should be considered potential West Nile viru...

  17. Ecology of potential West Nile virus vectors in southeastern Louisiana: enzootic transmission in the relative absence of Culex quinquefasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsey, Marvin S.; King, Raymond J.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Delorey, Mark; Colton, Leah; Charnetzky, Dawn; Sutherland, Genevieve; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Wilson, Lawrence A.; Coffey, Michelle; Milheim, Lesley E.; Taylor, Viki G.; Palmisano, Charles; Wesson, Dawn M.; Guptill, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    A study of West Nile virus (WNV) ecology was conducted in St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, from 2002 to 2004. Mosquitoes were collected weekly throughout the year using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps placed at 1.5 and 6 m above the ground and gravid traps. A total of 379,466 mosquitoes was collected. WNV was identified in 32 pools of mosquitoes comprising four species; 23 positive pools were from Culex nigripalpus collected during 2003. Significantly more positive pools were obtained from Cx. nigripalpus collected in traps placed at 6 m than 1.5 m that year, but abundance did not differ by trap height. In contrast, Cx. nigripalpus abundance was significantly greater in traps placed at 6 m in 2002 and 2004. Annual temporal variation in Cx. nigripalpus peak seasonal abundance has important implications for WNV transmission in Louisiana. One WNV-positive pool, from Cx. erraticus, was collected during the winter of 2004, showing year-round transmission. The potential roles of additional mosquito species in WNV transmission in southeastern Louisiana are discussed. Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this article are the opinions of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This article has been peer reviewed and approved for publication consistent with U.S. Geological Survey Fundamental Science Practices (http//pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1367/). Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

  18. Host-feeding patterns of Culex pipiens and other potential mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) of West Nile virus (Flaviviridae) collected in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Hugo Costa; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Alves, Maria João

    2012-05-01

    The host blood-feeding patterns of mosquito vectors affects the likelihood of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens, including West Nile Virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV). In Portugal, data are unavailable regarding the blood-feeding habits of common mosquito species, including Culex pipiens L., considered the primary vector of WNV to humans. The sources of bloodmeals in 203 blood-fed mosquitoes of nine species collected from June 2007 to November 2010 in 34 Portuguese counties were analyzed by sequencing cytochrome-b partial fragments. Cx. pipiens was the most common species collected and successfully analyzed (n = 135/78). In addition, blood-fed females of the following species were analyzed: Ochlerotatus caspius Pallas (n = 20), Culex theileri Theobald (n = 16), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (n = 10), Culiseta longiareolata Macquart (n = 7), Aedes aegypti L. (n = 6), Culex perexiguus Theobald (n = 3), Culiseta annulata Schrank (n = 3), and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday (n = 3). The Cx. pipiens mosquitoes fed predominantly on birds (n = 55/78, 70.5%), with a high diversity of avian species used as hosts, although human blood was identified in 18 specimens (18/78, 23.1%). No significant differences were found between the host-feeding patterns of blood-fed Cx. pipiens collected in residential and nonresidential habitats. The occurrence of human derived blood meals and the presence of a mix avian-human bloodmeal accordingly suggest this species as a potential vector of WNV. Therefore, in Portugal, Cx. pipiens may play a role both in the avian-to-avian enzootic WNV cycle and in the avian-to-mammal transmission. In this context, the identity of Cx. pipiens (considering the forms molestus and pipiens) and the potential consequence on feeding behavior and WNV transmission are discussed.

  19. Early warning of West Nile virus mosquito vector: climate and land use models successfully explain phenology and abundance of Culex pipiens mosquitoes in north-western Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosà, Roberto; Marini, Giovanni; Bolzoni, Luca; Neteler, Markus; Metz, Markus; Delucchi, Luca; Chadwick, Elizabeth A; Balbo, Luca; Mosca, Andrea; Giacobini, Mario; Bertolotti, Luigi; Rizzoli, Annapaola

    2014-06-12

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is an emerging global health threat. Transmission risk is strongly related to the abundance of mosquito vectors, typically Culex pipiens in Europe. Early-warning predictors of mosquito population dynamics would therefore help guide entomological surveillance and thereby facilitate early warnings of transmission risk. We analysed an 11-year time series (2001 to 2011) of Cx. pipiens mosquito captures from the Piedmont region of north-western Italy to determine the principal drivers of mosquito population dynamics. Linear mixed models were implemented to examine the relationship between Cx. pipiens population dynamics and environmental predictors including temperature, precipitation, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the proximity of mosquito traps to urban areas and rice fields. Warm temperatures early in the year were associated with an earlier start to the mosquito season and increased season length, and later in the year, with decreased abundance. Early precipitation delayed the start and shortened the length of the mosquito season, but increased total abundance. Conversely, precipitation later in the year was associated with a longer season. Finally, higher NDWI early in the year was associated with an earlier start to the season and increased season length, but was not associated with abundance. Proximity to rice fields predicted higher total abundance when included in some models, but was not a significant predictor of phenology. Proximity to urban areas was not a significant predictor in any of our models. Predicted variations in start of the season and season length ranged from one to three weeks, across the measured range of variables. Predicted mosquito abundance was highly variable, with numbers in excess of 1000 per trap per year when late season temperatures were low (average 21°C) to only 150 when late season temperatures were high (average 30°C). Climate data collected early in the year, in conjunction with local land

  20. Comparative morphological and molecular analysis confirms the presence of the West Nile virus mosquito vector, Culex univittatus, in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixão, Verónica; Bravo Barriga, Daniel; Parreira, Ricardo; Novo, Maria Teresa; Sousa, Carla Alexandra; Frontera, Eva; Venter, Marietjie; Braack, Leo; Almeida, António Paulo Gouveia

    2016-11-25

    Culex univittatus and Culex perexiguus mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are competent arbovirus vectors, but with unclear morphological differentiation. In Europe, and in the Iberian Peninsula in particular, the presence of either or both species is controversial. However, in order to conduct adequate surveillance for arboviruses in this region, it is crucial to clarify whether Cx. univittatus is present or not, as well as to critically assess existing differentiation tools. This study aimed to clarify this situation, by morphological and molecular phylogenetic comparison of Iberian specimens deemed as Cx. univittatus, with others of South African origin, i.e. from the type-locality region. Thus, morphological characteristics useful to distinguish both species, such as midfemur pale line, hindfemur R ratio, seta g R 1 ratio, seta f shape, length of ventral arm of phalosome and number of setae on IX tergal abdominal segment, were observed. A phylogenetic analysis based on cox1 mtDNA, of which there were no sequences from Cx. univittatus yet available in the GenBank database, was performed. This analysis showed that Iberian and South African specimens are morphologically similar, except for the length of the ventral arm of the phalosome, which was higher in the Iberian specimens. Although the Iberian specimens could not be accurately identified using BOLD Systems, phylogenetic analysis still grouped these closer to South African Cx. univittatus, than to Cx. perexiguus from Turkey and Pakistan, despite the observed segregation of both taxa as two individual monophyletic clusters with shared common ancestry. This survey demonstrates that the West Nile virus vector Cx. univittatus is present in the Iberian Peninsula.

  1. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  2. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  3. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  4. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  5. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

  6. High Quality Bergamot Oil from Greece: Chemical Analysis Using Chiral Gas Chromatography and Larvicidal Activity against the West Nile Virus Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magiatis Prokopios

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Τhe essential oils contained in the rind of the fruit and the leaves of bergamot from Greece (Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia were studied. The bergamot trees in question were cultivated on Kefalonia Island. The plant material (leaves and fruits in different stages of maturity was collected between December and March for a two year period. The rind of the fruit was separated manually and the essential oil was obtained either by cold pressing or by hydrodistillation. The maximum yield calculated on a wet weight of fresh rinds basis was 1.8%. The essential oils were first analyzed by GC-MS with a DB-5 column and then with a β-Dex™ enantiomeric column. The main constituent of the cold pressed essential oil of the rind was (–-linalyl acetate with optical purity >99.9%. Other important constituents were (–-linalool, (+-limonene and γ-terpinene. The best value of linalool/linalyl acetate ratio was 0.38 and the maximum sum of linalool+linalyl acetate was found to be 55.8%. The larvacidal activities of the obtained essential oils and the compounds (±-linalyl acetate, (±-linalool and (–-linalool were evaluated against larvae of the mosquito species Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae, the West Nile virus vector, under laboratory conditions. The cold pressed essential oil showed an LC50 value of 58 mg/L, while the LC50 value of the corresponding essential oil obtained by hydrostillation was 106 mg/L. The essential oil of the leaves presented similar larvicidal toxicity with the cold pressed oil of the rind (LC50=68 mg/L.

  7. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Vector-Host Contact (VHC) Ratios and Ecological Niche Modeling of the West Nile Virus Mosquito Vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, in the City of New Orleans, LA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Mohamed F; Michaels, Sarah R; Riegel, Claudia; Pereira, Roberto M; Zipperer, Wayne; Lockaby, B Graeme; Koehler, Philip G

    2017-08-08

    The consistent sporadic transmission of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the city of New Orleans justifies the need for distribution risk maps highlighting human risk of mosquito bites. We modeled the influence of biophysical and socioeconomic metrics on the spatio-temporal distributions of presence/vector-host contact (VHC) ratios of WNV vector, Culex quinquefasciatus , within their flight range . Biophysical and socioeconomic data were extracted within 5-km buffer radii around sampling localities of gravid female Culex quinquefasciatus . The spatio-temporal correlations between VHC data and 33 variables, including climate, land use-land cover (LULC), socioeconomic, and land surface terrain were analyzed using stepwise linear regression models (RM). Using MaxEnt, we developed a distribution model using the correlated predicting variables. Only 12 factors showed significant correlations with spatial distribution of VHC ratios ( R ² = 81.62, p < 0.01). Non-forested wetland (NFWL), tree density (TD) and residential-urban (RU) settings demonstrated the strongest relationship. The VHC ratios showed monthly environmental resilience in terms of number and type of influential factors. The highest prediction power of RU and other urban and built up land (OUBL), was demonstrated during May-August. This association was positively correlated with the onset of the mosquito WNV infection rate during June. These findings were confirmed by the Jackknife analysis in MaxEnt and independently collected field validation points. The spatial and temporal correlations of VHC ratios and their response to the predicting variables are discussed.

  8. Interventions Against West Nile Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus: Where Are We?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, J.A.; Ergonul, O.; Moormann, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    ARBO-ZOONET is an international network financed by the European Commission's seventh framework program. The major goal of this initiative is capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases, with a clear focus on West Nile virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and

  9. Globalization, land use and the invasion of West Nile virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, A. Marm

    2012-01-01

    Many invasive species that have been spread through the globalization of trade and travel are infectious pathogens. A paradigmatic case is the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America in 1999. A decade of research on the ecology and evolution of WNV includes three findings that provide insight into the outcome of future viral introductions. First, WNV transmission in North America is highest in urbanized and agricultural habitats, in part because the hosts and vectors of WNV are abundant in human-modified areas. Second, after its introduction, the virus quickly adapted to infect local mosquito vectors more efficiently than the originally introduced strain. Third, highly focused feeding patterns of the mosquito vectors of WNV result in unexpected host species being important for transmission. These findings provide a framework for predicting and preventing the emergence of foreign vector-borne pathogens. PMID:22021850

  10. Seasonal abundance and molecular identification of West Nile virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion of the Ace2 gene by PCR confirmed morphormetric identification of the mosquitoes. Results: A total of 751 mosquitoes were ... WestNile virus, (WNV), Yellow fever virus. (YFV), Dengue virus (DNV) and Rift valley fever virus ..... West Nile virus in mosquitoes and febrile patients in a semi-arid zone in Nigeria. J Am Sci.

  11. Spatial Analysis of West Nile Virus: Predictive Risk Modeling of a Vector-borne Infectious Disease in Illinois by Means of NASA Earth Observation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneboog, Nathan; Gathings, David; Hemmings, Sarah; Makasa, Emmanuel; Omer, Wigdan; Tipre, Meghan; Wright, Catherine; McAllister, Marilyn; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile Virus is a mosquito-borne virus of the family Flaviviridae. It infects birds and various mammals, including humans, and can cause encephalitis that may prove fatal, notably among vulnerable populations. Since its identification in New York City in 1999, WNV has become established in a broad range of ecological settings throughout North America, infecting more than 25,300 people and killing 1133 as of 2008 (CDC,2009). WNV is transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on infected birds. As a result, the degree of human infection depends on local ecology and human exposure. This study hypothesizes that remote sensing and GIS can be used to analyze environmental determinants of WNV transmission, such as climate, elevation, land cover, and vegetation densities, to map areas of WNV risk for surveillance and intervention.

  12. Transmission dynamics of an insect-specific flavivirus in a naturally infected Culex pipiens laboratory colony and effects of co-infection on vector competence for West Nile virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Bethany G.; Olea-Popelka, Francisco J.; Eisen, Lars; Moore, Chester G.; Blair, Carol D.

    2012-01-01

    We established a laboratory colony of Culex pipiens mosquitoes from eggs collected in Colorado and discovered that mosquitoes in the colony are naturally infected with Culex flavivirus (CxFV), an insect-specific flavivirus. In this study we examined transmission dynamics of CxFV and effects of persistent CxFV infection on vector competence for West Nile virus (WNV). We found that vertical transmission is the primary mechanism for persistence of CxFV in Cx. pipiens, with venereal transmission potentially playing a minor role. Vector competence experiments indicated possible early suppression of WNV replication by persistent CxFV infection in Cx. pipiens. This is the first description of insect-specific flavivirus transmission dynamics in a naturally infected mosquito colony and the observation of delayed dissemination of superinfecting WNV suggests that the presence of CxFV may impact the intensity of enzootic transmission of WNV and the risk of human exposure to this important pathogen. PMID:22425062

  13. Why We Need West Nile Virus Testing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-27

    Dr. Rodrigo Hasbun, a professor of infectious diseases at McGovern Medical School at UT Health, discusses the need for West Nile virus testing in Texas.  Created: 9/27/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/27/2016.

  14. Climate-based models for West Nile Culex mosquito vectors in the Northeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hongfei; Degaetano, Arthur T.; Harrington, Laura C.

    2011-05-01

    Climate-based models simulating Culex mosquito population abundance in the Northeastern US were developed. Two West Nile vector species, Culex pipiens and Culex restuans, were included in model simulations. The model was optimized by a parameter-space search within biological bounds. Mosquito population dynamics were driven by major environmental factors including temperature, rainfall, evaporation rate and photoperiod. The results show a strong correlation between the timing of early population increases (as early warning of West Nile virus risk) and decreases in late summer. Simulated abundance was highly correlated with actual mosquito capture in New Jersey light traps and validated with field data. This climate-based model simulates the population dynamics of both the adult and immature mosquito life stage of Culex arbovirus vectors in the Northeastern US. It is expected to have direct and practical application for mosquito control and West Nile prevention programs.

  15. Migratory birds and West Nile virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rappole, J. H.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 94, s1 (2003), s. 47-58 ISSN 1364-5072. [Conference of Society for Applied Microbiology (U.K.) "Pathogens in the Environment and Changing Ecosystems". Nottingham, 08.07.2002-11.07.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : West Nile virus * bird migration Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.743, year: 2003

  16. Wild snakes harbor West Nile virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Dahlin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV has a complex eco-epidemiology with birds acting as reservoirs and hosts for the virus. Less well understood is the role of reptiles, especially in wild populations. The goal of our study was to determine whether a wild population of snakes in Pennsylvania harbored WNV. Six species of snakes were orally sampled in the summer of 2013 and were tested for the presence of WNV viral RNA using RT-PCR. Two Eastern Garter Snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis tested positive for viral RNA (2/123, 1.62%. These results indicate a possible role for snakes in the complex transmission cycle of WNV.

  17. Ecological differentiation of members of the Culex pipiens complex, potential vectors of West Nile virus and Rift Valley fever virus in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara Korba, Raouf; Alayat, Moufida Saoucen; Bouiba, Lazhari; Boudrissa, Abdelkarim; Bouslama, Zihad; Boukraa, Slimane; Francis, Frederic; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Boubidi, Saïd Chaouki

    2016-08-17

    We investigated the ecological differentiation of two members of the Culex pipiens complex, Cx. p. pipiens form pipiens and Cx. p. pipiens form molestus in three sites, El-Kala, M'Sila and Tinerkouk in Algeria. These two forms are the most widespread mosquito vectors in temperate regions exhibiting important behavioural and physiological differences. Nevertheless, this group of potential vectors has been poorly studied, particularly in North Africa. Ten larval populations of Cx. p. pipiens were sampled from various above- and underground habitats in three zones representing the three bioclimatic regions in Algeria. The reproduction characteristics were also investigated in the laboratory to define the rates of autogeny and stenogamy. Identification of Cx. p. pipiens members present in Algeria was achieved using a molecular analysis with the microsatellite CQ11 locus. We detected larvae of Cx. p. pipiens in all areas suggesting that the species is a ubiquitous mosquito well adapted to various environments. To our knowledge, this study provides the first molecular evidence of the presence of the Cx. p. pipiens form molestus and hybrids (molestus/pipiens) in Algeria with a high proportion of molestus form (48.3 %) in comparison with hybrids (36.8 %) and pipiens form (14.9 %). Some unexpected correlations between the proportion of forms pipiens, molestus and hybrids, and mosquito biological characteristics were observed suggesting some epigenetic effects controlling Cx. p. pipiens mating and reproduction. Consequences for pathogen transmission are discussed.

  18. West Nile virus ecology in a tropical ecosystem in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Betoulle, Maria E; Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A; Alvarez, Danilo; López, María R; Betoulle, Jean-Luc; Sosa, Silvia M; Müller, María L; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Lanciotti, Robert S; Johnson, Barbara W; Powers, Ann M; Cordón-Rosales, Celia

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus ecology has yet to be rigorously investigated in the Caribbean Basin. We identified a transmission focus in Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, and established systematic monitoring of avian abundance and infection, seroconversions in domestic poultry, and viral infections in mosquitoes. West Nile virus transmission was detected annually between May and October from 2005 to 2008. High temperature and low rainfall enhanced the probability of chicken seroconversions, which occurred in both urban and rural sites. West Nile virus was isolated from Culex quinquefasciatus and to a lesser extent, from Culex mollis/Culex inflictus, but not from the most abundant Culex mosquito, Culex nigripalpus. A calculation that combined avian abundance, seroprevalence, and vertebrate reservoir competence suggested that great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus) is the major amplifying host in this ecosystem. West Nile virus transmission reached moderate levels in sentinel chickens during 2007, but less than that observed during outbreaks of human disease attributed to West Nile virus in the United States.

  19. The role of Culex pipiens mosquitoes in transmission of West Nile virus in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, Chantal B.F.

    2017-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is maintained in a natural transmission cycle between mosquito vectors and bird hosts. However, mosquitoes can also transmit WNV to mammals, such as humans and horses, which may result in disease. In Europe, such cases of WNV disease are yearly recurring in southern and

  20. Construction of phage antibody repertoires from the blood of West Nile virus-infected donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throsby, Mark; de Kruif, John

    2009-01-01

    A method for the construction of West Nile virus immune donor antibody repertoires is described. B cells are harvested from a suitable donor and the antibody variable genes are amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR fragments are cloned in a phage display vector to construct a repertoire that can be used in panning procedures to identify many unique monoclonal antibodies.

  1. European Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Mosquito Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Olivier; Savini, Giovanni; Papa, Anna; Figuerola, Jordi; Groschup, Martin H.; Kampen, Helge; Medlock, Jolyon; Vaux, Alexander; Wilson, Anthony J.; Werner, Doreen; Jöst, Hanna; Goffredo, Maria; Capelli, Gioia; Federici, Valentina; Tonolla, Mauro; Patocchi, Nicola; Flacio, Eleonora; Portmann, Jasmine; Rossi-Pedruzzi, Anya; Mourelatos, Spiros; Ruiz, Santiago; Vázquez, Ana; Calzolari, Mattia; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dottori, Michele; Schaffner, Francis; Mathis, Alexander; Johnson, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of arthropod-borne viruses threaten both human and animal health either through their presence in Europe or through risk of introduction. Prominent among these is West Nile virus (WNV), primarily an avian virus, which has caused multiple outbreaks associated with human and equine mortality. Endemic outbreaks of West Nile fever have been reported in Italy, Greece, France, Romania, Hungary, Russia and Spain, with further spread expected. Most outbreaks in Western Europe have been due to infection with WNV Lineage 1. In Eastern Europe WNV Lineage 2 has been responsible for human and bird mortality, particularly in Greece, which has experienced extensive outbreaks over three consecutive years. Italy has experienced co-circulation with both virus lineages. The ability to manage this threat in a cost-effective way is dependent on early detection. Targeted surveillance for pathogens within mosquito populations offers the ability to detect viruses prior to their emergence in livestock, equine species or human populations. In addition, it can establish a baseline of mosquito-borne virus activity and allow monitoring of change to this over time. Early detection offers the opportunity to raise disease awareness, initiate vector control and preventative vaccination, now available for horses, and encourage personal protection against mosquito bites. This would have major benefits through financial savings and reduction in equid morbidity/mortality. However, effective surveillance that predicts virus outbreaks is challenged by a range of factors including limited resources, variation in mosquito capture rates (too few or too many), difficulties in mosquito identification, often reliant on specialist entomologists, and the sensitive, rapid detection of viruses in mosquito pools. Surveillance for WNV and other arboviruses within mosquito populations varies between European countries in the extent and focus of the surveillance. This study reviews the current status of

  2. Drought and immunity determine the intensity of West Nile virus epidemics and climate change impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, Sara H; Horton, Daniel E; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Rastogi, Deeksha; Kramer, Laura D; Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2017-02-08

    The effect of global climate change on infectious disease remains hotly debated because multiple extrinsic and intrinsic drivers interact to influence transmission dynamics in nonlinear ways. The dominant drivers of widespread pathogens, like West Nile virus, can be challenging to identify due to regional variability in vector and host ecology, with past studies producing disparate findings. Here, we used analyses at national and state scales to examine a suite of climatic and intrinsic drivers of continental-scale West Nile virus epidemics, including an empirically derived mechanistic relationship between temperature and transmission potential that accounts for spatial variability in vectors. We found that drought was the primary climatic driver of increased West Nile virus epidemics, rather than within-season or winter temperatures, or precipitation independently. Local-scale data from one region suggested drought increased epidemics via changes in mosquito infection prevalence rather than mosquito abundance. In addition, human acquired immunity following regional epidemics limited subsequent transmission in many states. We show that over the next 30 years, increased drought severity from climate change could triple West Nile virus cases, but only in regions with low human immunity. These results illustrate how changes in drought severity can alter the transmission dynamics of vector-borne diseases. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. West Nile virus in overwintering mosquitoes, central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, I.; Betášová, L.; Blažejová, H.; Venclíková, Kristýna; Straková, P.; Šebesta, O.; Mendel, J.; Bakonyi, T.; Schaffner, F.; Nowotny, N.; Hubálek, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 2 October (2017), s. 1-4, č. článku 452. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : West Nile fever * West Nile virus * Flavivirus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  4. NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000...

  5. Experimental infection of Hawai'i 'Amakihi (hemignathus virens) with West Nile virus and competence of a co-occurring vector, culex quinquefasciatus: potential impacts on endemic Hawaiian avifauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Dennis A; Hofmeister, Erik K; Atkinson, Carter T; Porter, Robert E; Dusek, Robert J

    2009-04-01

    Introduced mosquito-borne avian disease is a major limiting factor in the recovery and restoration of native Hawaiian forest birds. Annual epizootics of avian pox (Avipoxvirus) and avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) likely led to the extinction of some species and continue to impact populations of susceptible Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae). The introduction of a novel pathogen, such as West Nile virus (WNV), could result in further population declines and extinctions. During September and October 2004, we infected Hawai'i' Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) with a North American isolate of WNV by needle inoculation and mosquito bite to observe susceptibility, mortality, and illness in this endemic passerine, and to determine the vector competence of the co-occurring, introduced mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. All experimentally infected Hawai'i ;Amakihi became viremic, with a mean titer >10(5) plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml, and they experienced clinical signs ranging from anorexia and lethargy to ataxia. The fatality rate among needle-inoculated Hawai'i' Amakihi (n=16) was 31.3%, but mortality in free-ranging birds is likely to increase due to predation, starvation, thermal stress, and concomitant infections of avian malaria and pox. Surviving Hawai'i' Amakihi seem to clear WNV from the peripheral blood by 7-10 days postinfection (DPI), and neutralizing antibodies were detected from 9 to 46 DPI. In transmission trials, Hawaiian Cx. quinquefasciatus proved to be a competent vector and Hawai'i Amakihi an adequate amplification host of WNV, suggesting that epizootic WNV could readily become an additional limiting factor of some native Hawaiian bird populations.

  6. Experimental infection of Hawai'i 'Amakihi (hemignathus virens) with West Nile virus and competence of a co-occurring vector, culex quinquefasciatus: potential impacts on endemic Hawaiian avifauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Dennis; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Atkinson, C.T.; Porter, R.E.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduced mosquito-borne avian disease is a major limiting factor in the recovery and restoration of native Hawaiian forest birds. Annual epizootics of avian pox (Avipoxvirus) and avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) likely led to the extinction of some species and continue to impact populations of susceptible Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae). The introduction of a novel pathogen, such as West Nile virus (WNV), could result in further population declines and extinctions. During September and October 2004, we infected Hawai'i' Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) with a North American isolate of WNV by needle inoculation and mosquito bite to observe susceptibility, mortality, and illness in this endemic passerine, and to determine the vector competence of the co-occurring, introduced mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. All experimentally infected Hawai'i ;Amakihi became viremic, with a mean titer >10(5) plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml, and they experienced clinical signs ranging from anorexia and lethargy to ataxia. The fatality rate among needle-inoculated Hawai'i' Amakihi (n=16) was 31.3%, but mortality in free-ranging birds is likely to increase due to predation, starvation, thermal stress, and concomitant infections of avian malaria and pox. Surviving Hawai'i' Amakihi seem to clear WNV from the peripheral blood by 7-10 days postinfection (DPI), and neutralizing antibodies were detected from 9 to 46 DPI. In transmission trials, Hawaiian Cx. quinquefasciatus proved to be a competent vector and Hawai'i Amakihi an adequate amplification host of WNV, suggesting that epizootic WNV could readily become an additional limiting factor of some native Hawaiian bird populations.

  7. West Nile virus meningitis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pilalas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of West Nile virus lineage 2 in central Macedonia, Greece, in 2010 resulted in large outbreaks for 5 consecutive years. We report a case of viral meningitis in an individual infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, which preceded the recognition of the outbreak and was confirmed retrospectively as West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease.

  8. Risk mapping of West Nile virus circulation in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, Amaya; Amela, Carmen; Fernández-Carrión, Eduardo; Martínez-Avilés, Marta; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Sierra-Moros, María José

    2017-05-01

    West Nile fever is an emergent disease in Europe. The objective of this study was to conduct a predictive risk mapping of West Nile Virus (WNV) circulation in Spain based on historical data of WNV circulation. Areas of Spain with evidence of WNV circulation were mapped based on data from notifications to the surveillance systems and a literature review. A logistic regression-based spatial model was used to assess the probability of WNV circulation. Data were analyzed at municipality level. Mean temperatures of the period from June to October, presence of wetlands and presence of Special Protection Areas for birds were considered as potential predictors. Two predictors of WNV circulation were identified: higher temperature [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.07, 95% CI 1.82-2.35, pSpain. The importance of a comprehensive surveillance for WNF, including human, animal and potential vectors is highlighted, which could additionally result in model refinements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. West Nile virus in Tunisia, 2014: First isolation from mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, F; Dachraoui, K; Cherni, S; Bosworth, A; Barhoumi, W; Dowall, S; Chelbi, I; Derbali, M; Zoghlami, Z; Beier, J C; Zhioua, E

    2016-07-01

    Several outbreaks of human West Nile virus (WNV) infections were reported in Tunisia during the last two decades. Serological studies on humans as well as on equine showed intensive circulation of WNV in Tunisia. However, no virus screening of mosquitoes for WNV has been performed in Tunisia. In the present study, we collected mosquito samples from Central Tunisia to be examined for the presence of flaviviruses. A total of 102 Culex pipiens mosquitoes were collected in September 2014 from Central Tunisia. Mosquitoes were pooled according to the collection site, date and sex with a maximum of 5 specimens per pool and tested for the presence of flaviviruses by conventional reverse transcription heminested PCR and by a specific West Nile virus real time reverse transcription PCR. Of a total of 21 pools tested, 7 were positive for WNV and no other flavivirus could be evidenced in mosquito pools. In addition, WNV was isolated on Vero cells. Phylogenetic analysis showed that recent Tunisian WNV strains belong to lineage 1 WNV and are closely related to the Tunisian strain 1997 (PAH 001). This is the first detection and isolation of WNV from mosquitoes in Tunisia. Some areas of Tunisia are at high risk for human WNV infections. WNV is likely to cause future sporadic and foreseeable outbreaks. Therefore, it is of major epidemiological importance to set up an entomological surveillance as an early alert system. Timely detection of WNV should prompt vector control to prevent future outbreaks. In addition, education of people to protect themselves from mosquito bites is of major epidemiological importance as preventive measure against WNV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Recent progress in West Nile virus diagnosis and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Filette Marina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract West Nile virus (WNV is a positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, a large family with 3 main genera (flavivirus, hepacivirus and pestivirus. Among these viruses, there are several globally relevant human pathogens including the mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV, yellow fever virus (YFV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV and West Nile virus (WNV, as well as tick-borne viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV. Since the mid-1990s, outbreaks of WN fever and encephalitis have occurred throughout the world and WNV is now endemic in Africa, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe and the Unites States. This review describes the molecular virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and highlights recent progress regarding diagnosis and vaccination against WNV infections.

  11. West Nile virus in livestock and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, R.G.; Ubico, S.R.; Bourne, D.; Komar, N.

    2002-01-01

    WN virus is one of the most ubiquitous arboviruses occurring over a broad geographical range and in a wide diversity of vertebrate host and vector species. The virus appears to be maintained in endemic foci on the African continent and is transported annually to temperate climates to the north in Europe and to the south in South Africa. Reports of clinical disease due to natural WN virus infection in wild or domestic animals were much less common than reports of infection (virus isolation or antibody detection). Until recently, records of morbidity and mortality in wild birds were confined to a small number of cases and infections causing encephalitis, sometimes fatal, in horses were reported infrequently. In the period 1996-2001, there was an increase in outbreaks of illness due to WN virus in animals as well as humans. Within the traditional range of WN virus, encephalitis was reported in horses in Italy in 1998 and in France in 2000. The first report of disease and deaths caused by WN virus infection in domestic birds was reported in Israel in 1997-1999, involving hundreds of young geese. In 1999 WN virus reached North America and caused an outbreak of encephalitis in humans in the New York area at the same time as a number of cases of equine encephalitis and deaths in American crows and a variety of other bird species, both North American natives and exotics. Multi-state surveillance for WN virus has been in place since April 2000 and has resulted in the detection of WN virus in thousands of dead birds from an increasing number of species in North America, and also in several species of mammals. The surveillance system that has developed in North America because of the utility of testing dead birds for the rapid detection of WN virus presence has been a unique integration of public health and wildlife health agencies. It has been suggested that the recent upsurge in clinical WN virus infection in wild and domestic animals as well as in humans may be related to

  12. Diversification of West Nile virus in a subtropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mores Christopher N

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background West Nile virus (WNV has spread across North, Central, and South America since its introduction in 1999. At the start of this spread, Florida was considered a potentially important area with regards to transmission due to its geographic, climatological, and demographic conditions. Curiously, the anticipated high levels of transmission or disease outbreaks have not been observed. As other studies have predicted that the lack of intense WNV transmission is not due to vector incompetence, we sought to evaluate the role of viral strain diversity in WNV transmission in Florida. Therefore, a phylogentic analysis was carried out on several isolates collected from three distinct locations in Florida. Results Contrasting with a positive control collected in Indian River County, Florida during 2003 that contains the original NY99 genotype with valanine at amino acid 159 of the envelope region, all of the isolates collected in 2005 contain the WN02 genotype composed of a substation with alanine at that position indicating the window of introduction of the WN02 genotype occurred between 2003 and 2005. From the eight isolates collected in Duval, Indian River, and Manatee Counties; there is also a silent nucleotide substitution that differentiates the isolates collected on the Atlantic side of the state compared to the isolate collected on the Gulf side, which groups closer to isolates from other locations near the Gulf. Conclusion As a whole, the Florida isolates contained numerous variable nucleotide and amino acid sites from the reference sequences, as well as each other; indicating greater nucleotide diversity within the Florida 2005 isolates than within other regions. Finally, a series of three amino acid substitutions surrounding a set of histidines located in the envelope coding region that hypothesized to play a role in conformational changes was found in the isolate collected in Indian River County, perhaps changing the

  13. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  14. West Nile virus in overwintering mosquitoes, central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; Venclíková, Kristýna; Straková, Petra; Šebesta, Oldřich; Mendel, Jan; Bakonyi, T.; Schaffner, F.; Nowotny, N.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 452 (2017), č. článku 452. ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-20054S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile fever * West Nile virus * Flavivirus * Hibernation * Overwintering * Culex pipiens * Anopheles maculipennis * Culiseta annulata * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  15. West Nile virus surveillance in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiser, Raquel M; Mackay, Andrew J; Roy, Alma; Yates, Mathew M; Vaeth, Randy H; Faget, Guy M; Folsom, Alex E; Augustine, William F; Wells, Roderick A; Perich, Michael J

    2007-03-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was detected for the first time in Louisiana in the fall of 2001. Surveillance data collected from East Baton Rouge Parish in 2002 were examined to establish baseline data on WNV activity, to support the current design of disease surveillance programs, and to target vector control efforts in the parish. The first indications of WNV activity were from a dead Northern Cardinal collected in February and from a live male cardinal sampled on 14 March. In mosquito pools, WNV was first detected on June 11. The onset of the first human case and the first detection of WNV in sentinel chickens occurred concurrently on June 24. The number of reported human cases and minimum infection rates in mosquitoes peaked in July. WNV prevalence in wild birds increased in late August and was highest in December. WNV-positive wild birds and mosquito pools were detected an average of 31 and 59 days in advance of the onset date of reported human cases, respectively, within 5 km of the residence of a human case. Antibodies to WNV were detected in sera from 7 (Northern Cardinal, House Sparrow, Northern Mockingbird, Blue Jay, Hermit Thrush, Yellow-rumped Warbler, and White-throated Sparrow) of the 42 wild bird species tested. Wild bird serology indicated WNV activity during the winter. Out of 18 mosquito species tested, the only species found positive for WNV was Culex quinquefasciatus, a result suggesting that this species was the primary epizootic/epidemic vector.

  16. Genetic susceptibility to West Nile virus and dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, M

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the host genetic predisposition to 2 viruses, West Nile virus and dengue virus, which belong to the genus Flavivirus. Although by definition these viruses have shared characteristics (e.g. similar size, single stranded, RNA viruses, both transmitted by the bite from an infected mosquito), they differ greatly in epidemiology and clinical manifestations. The text below not only summarizes the genetic factors that predispose to complications of these 2 important flaviviruses, but also illustrates the challenges in determining the genomic basis for complications to these viruses. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Neuromuscular Manifestations of West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arturo eLeis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common neuromuscular manifestation of West Nile virus (WNV infection is a poliomyelitis syndrome with asymmetric paralysis variably involving one (monoparesis to four limbs (quadriparesis, with or without brainstem involvement and respiratory failure. This syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis may occur without overt fever or meningoencephalitis. Although involvement of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and motor neurons in the brainstem are the major sites of pathology responsible for neuromuscular signs, inflammation also may involve skeletal or cardiac muscle (myositis, myocarditis, motor axons (polyradiculitis, peripheral nerve (Guillain-Barré syndrome, brachial plexopathy. In addition, involvement of spinal sympathetic neurons and ganglia provides a plausible explanation for autonomic instability seen in some patients. Many patients also experience prolonged subjective generalized weakness and disabling fatigue. Despite recent evidence that WNV may persist long term in the central nervous system or periphery in animals, the evidence in humans is controversial. WNV persistence would be of great concern in immunosuppressed patients or in those with prolonged or recurrent symptoms. Support for the contention that WNV can lead to autoimmune disease arises from reports of patients presenting with various neuromuscular diseases that presumably involve autoimmune mechanisms (GBS, other demyelinating neu¬ropathies, myasthenia gravis, brachial plexopathies, stiff-person syndrome, and delayed or recurrent symptoms. Although there is no specific treatment or vaccine currently approved in humans, and the standard remains supportive care, drugs that can alter the cascade of immunobiochemical events leading to neuronal death may be potentially useful (high-dose corticosteroids, interferon preparations, and intravenous immune globulin containing WNV-specific antibodies. Human experience with these agents seems promising based on anecdotal

  18. Depression after Infection with West Nile Virus 1

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Kristy O.; Resnick, Melissa; Miller, Vicki

    2007-01-01

    Previous reports have noted depression after West Nile virus (WNV) infection. We further measured this outcome and found that 31% of patients reported new-onset depression and 75% of these had Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scores indicative of mild-to-severe depression. Physicians should be aware of neuropsychiatric consequences of WNV in patients.

  19. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., from individuals who have signs and symptoms consistent with viral meningitis/encephalitis. The detection aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of viral meningitis/encephalitis caused by West Nile virus. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special control is FDA's guidance entitled...

  20. The Buzz-z-z on West Nile Virus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-12

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about West Nile Virus and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 1/12/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/12/2012.

  1. Chronic West Nile virus infection in kea (Nestor notabilis)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakonyi, T.; Gaydon, G. K.; Schwing, R.; Vogl, W.; Häbich, A.-C.; Thaller, D.; Weissenböck, H.; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Nowotny, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 183, February (2016), s. 135-139 ISSN 0378-1135 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT; European Commission(XE) 261391 - EUROWESTNILE Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile virus * Lineage 2 * Kea * Nestor notabilis * Psittaciformes * Persistent infection * Austria Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.628, year: 2016

  2. Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in Greece, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Theocharopoulos, George; Dougas, Georgios; Athanasiou, Maria; Detsis, Marios; Baka, Agoritsa; Lytras, Theodoros; Mellou, Kassiani; Bonovas, Stefanos; Panagiotopoulos, Takis

    2011-01-01

    During 2010, an outbreak of West Nile virus infection occurred in Greece. A total of 197 patients with neuroinvasive disease were reported, of whom 33 (17%) died. Advanced age and a history of heart disease were independently associated with death, emphasizing the need for prevention of this infection in persons with these risk factors. PMID:22000357

  3. Absence of Serological Evidence of West Nile Virus in Blood Donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus that circulates among avians, but can also affect other species, particularly humans and horses. The virus is transmissible via blood transfusion. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of the West Nile virus among blood donors in Nigeria. Materials and ...

  4. Purpura fulminans associated with acute West Nile virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sheevam; Fite, Laura Paul; Lane, Natalie; Parekh, Palak

    2016-02-01

    Purpura fulminans is a progressive thrombotic disorder that presents with widespread purpura due to deficiency or dysfunction of protein C or protein S. Lesions present as well-demarcated erythematous macules that progress to irregular areas of hemorrhagic necrosis.West Nile virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family transmitted to humans through the bite of various mosquito species. It manifests as West Nile fever in 25% of those infected and less commonly as neuroinvasive disease. An African American man in his fortiespresented with altered mental status and was noted to have evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation according to his lab data. He then developed dusky skin discoloration and systemic flaccid bullae with desquamation. Biopsy was consistent with purpura fulminans and the patient eventually developed symmetric peripheral gangrene, requiring amputations of all four extremities. Infectious work up revealed positive testing for IgM and IgG antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid leading to the diagnosis of acute West Nile Virus encephalitis. We present this case to describe the rarely reported association of purpura fulminans with West Nile Virus infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. West Nile virus infection and diplopia: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahal U

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Udip Dahal,1 Neville Mobarakai,1 Dikshya Sharma,2 Bandana Pathak11Department of Medicine, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Nepalgunj Medical College, Banke, NepalAbstract: West Nile virus is a neurotropic virus transmitted to humans via an infected mosquito bite. The increase in the incidences and fatalities of West Nile virus disease has made West Nile virus an important pathogen. Here we describe a case of a 65-year-old man with fever and diplopia presenting to the emergency department during a fall season and who was later diagnosed with West Nile virus infection. Diplopia is an uncommon manifestation of West Nile virus and recognition of the different modes of presentation, especially the uncommon ones like diplopia, will aid in the diagnosis of this emerging infectious disease.Keywords: West Nile virus, diplopia, ocular manifestations, infectious disease, Flaviviridae

  6. Influence of Bloodmeal Source on Reproductive Output of the Potential West Nile Vector, Culex theileri (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Berna; Durmaz, Esra; Alten, Bulent

    2014-11-01

    Culex theileri Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) has a wide Afrotropical, southern Palaearctic, northern Oriental, and European distribution. It is mainly considered as a mammophilic mosquito and also feeds on birds and serves as a vector for various zoonotic diseases including West Nile virus. Despite its broad distribution and evidence indicating that Cx. theileri is a competent vector of human and domestic animal pathogens, basic biological and ecological features of this species have not been well investigated. We evaluated the impact of bloodmeal source (human, chicken, cow, and a double bloodmeal such as human and cow or chicken and cow and mixed bloodmeals [cow, chicken, and human] via artificial feeding) on fecundity, hatching rates, developmental times, and viability from egg to adult for laboratory colonized Cx. theileri. Fecundity in mosquitoes that took a chicken bloodmeal, a double bloodmeal and mixed bloodmeals was significantly higher than in females fed on a single cow or single human blood. This is the first study about the bloodmeal sources effect on laboratory-reared Cx. theileri populations and these findings contribute to our understanding of the impact of bloodmeal source on reproduction in Cx. theileri. As it is known that Cx. theileri is a vector for West Nile virus, the potential impacts of bloodmeal source on virus transmission are discussed. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  7. Subacute brachial diplegia associated with West Nile virus myelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Sahar F; Ubogu, Eroboghene E

    2012-06-01

    Brachial diplegia is a clinical term used to describe weakness restricted to the upper extremities. We report a case of brachial diplegia associated with West Nile virus infection. A 48-year-old man developed severe painless bilateral upper extremity weakness within a few weeks of a flu-like illness. Clinical examination revealed marked periscapular, shoulder girdle, and humeral muscle atrophy and bilateral scapular winging, with near symmetrical bilateral hypotonic upper extremity weakness. This was associated with clinical signs of an encephalomyelopathy without cognitive or sensory deficits. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated a subacute disorder of motor neurons, their axons or both, involving the cervical and thoracic myotomes, with ongoing denervation. Serological studies confirmed recent West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Gradual improvement occurred following conservative supportive therapies. Progressive brachial diplegia is a rare neuromuscular presentation of WNV neuroinvasive disease. This case report adds to the clinical spectrum of WNV-induced neurologic sequelae. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Alexander the Great and West Nile virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, John S; Calisher, Charles H

    2003-12-01

    Alexander the Great died in Babylon in 323 BC. His death at age 32 followed a 2-week febrile illness. Speculated causes of death have included poisoning; assassination, and a number of infectious diseases. One incident, mentioned by Plutarch but not considered by previous investigators, may shed light on the cause of Alexander's death. The incident, which occurred as he entered Babylon, involved a flock of ravens exhibiting unusual behavior and subsequently dying at his feet. The inexplicable behavior of ravens is reminiscent of avian illness and death weeks before the first human cases of West Nile virus infection were identified in the United States. We posit that Alexander may have died of West Nile virus encephalitis.

  9. A rapid and quantitative assay for measuring antibody-mediated neutralization of West Nile virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierson, Theodore C.; Sanchez, Melissa D.; Puffer, Bridget A.; Ahmed, Asim A.; Geiss, Brian J.; Valentine, Laura E.; Altamura, Louis A.; Diamond, Michael S.; Doms, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus within the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex that is responsible for causing West Nile encephalitis in humans. The surface of WNV virions is covered by a highly ordered icosahedral array of envelope proteins that is responsible for mediating attachment and fusion with target cells. These envelope proteins are also primary targets for the generation of neutralizing antibodies in vivo. In this study, we describe a novel approach for measuring antibody-mediated neutralization of WNV infection using virus-like particles that measure infection as a function of reporter gene expression. These reporter virus particles (RVPs) are produced by complementation of a sub-genomic replicon with WNV structural proteins provided in trans using conventional DNA expression vectors. The precision and accuracy of this approach stem from an ability to measure the outcome of the interaction between antibody and viral antigens under conditions that satisfy the assumptions of the law of mass action as applied to virus neutralization. In addition to its quantitative strengths, this approach allows the production of WNV RVPs bearing the prM-E proteins of different WNV strains and mutants, offering considerable flexibility for the study of the humoral immune response to WNV in vitro. WNV RVPs are capable of only a single round of infection, can be used under BSL-2 conditions, and offer a rapid and quantitative approach for detecting virus entry and its inhibition by neutralizing antibody

  10. Import of West Nile virus infection in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Lukáčová, L.; Halouzka, Jiří; Širůček, P.; Januška, J.; Přecechtělová, J.; Procházka, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2006), s. 323-324 ISSN 0393-2990 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : West Nile virus * CNS infection * Flavivirus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2006

  11. Serological evidence of West Nile virus circulation in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Sílvia C.; Ramos, Fernanda; Fagulha, Teresa; Duarte, Margarida; Henriques, Margarida; Luís, Tiago; Fevereiro, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The circulation of West Nile virus in Portugal was assessed by serological surveys conducted during 2004-2010 in horses and birds. The detection of WNV antibodies in both species in all the years covered by the study as well as the presence of anti-WNV IgM in symptomatic horses that had not traveled outside the country, support the notion that WNV circulates in Portugal. correspondence: Corresponding author. (Fevereiro, Miguel) ...

  12. Flaviviruses, an expanding threat in public health: focus on Dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daep, Carlo Amorin; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.; Eugenin, Eliseo Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The flaviviruses Dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis represent three major mosquito-borne viruses worldwide. These pathogens impact the lives of millions of individuals and potentially could affect non-endemic areas already colonized by mosquito vectors. Unintentional transport of infected vectors (Aedes and Culex sp), traveling within endemic areas, rapid adaptation of the insects into new geographic locations, climate change, and lack of medical surveillance have greatly contributed to the increase in flaviviral infections worldwide. The mechanisms by which flaviviruses alter the immune and the central nervous system have only recently been examined despite the alarming number of infections, related deaths, and increasing global distribution. In this review, we will discuss the expansion of the geographic areas affected by flaviviruses, the potential threats to previously unaffected countries, the mechanisms of pathogenesis, and the potential therapeutic interventions to limit the devastating consequences of these viruses. PMID:25287260

  13. Flaviviruses, an expanding threat in public health: focus on dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daep, Carlo Amorin; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Eugenin, Eliseo Alberto

    2014-12-01

    The flaviviruses dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis represent three major mosquito-borne viruses worldwide. These pathogens impact the lives of millions of individuals and potentially could affect non-endemic areas already colonized by mosquito vectors. Unintentional transport of infected vectors (Aedes and Culex spp.), traveling within endemic areas, rapid adaptation of the insects into new geographic locations, climate change, and lack of medical surveillance have greatly contributed to the increase in flaviviral infections worldwide. The mechanisms by which flaviviruses alter the immune and the central nervous system have only recently been examined despite the alarming number of infections, related deaths, and increasing global distribution. In this review, we will discuss the expansion of the geographic areas affected by flaviviruses, the potential threats to previously unaffected countries, the mechanisms of pathogenesis, and the potential therapeutic interventions to limit the devastating consequences of these viruses.

  14. Dry weather induces outbreaks of human West Nile virus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belant Jerrold L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its first occurrence in the New York City area during 1999, West Nile virus (WNV has spread rapidly across North America and has become a major public health concern in North America. By 2002, WNV was reported in 40 states and the District of Columbia with 4,156 human and 14,539 equine cases of infection. Mississippi had the highest human incidence rate of WNV during the 2002 epidemic in the United States. Epidemics of WNV can impose enormous impacts on local economies. Therefore, it is advantageous to predict human WNV risks for cost-effective controls of the disease and optimal allocations of limited resources. Understanding relationships between precipitation and WNV transmission is crucial for predicting the risk of the human WNV disease outbreaks under predicted global climate change scenarios. Methods We analyzed data on the human WNV incidences in the 82 counties of Mississippi in 2002, using standard morbidity ratio (SMR and Bayesian hierarchical models, to determine relationships between precipitation and human WNV risks. We also entertained spatial autocorrelations of human WNV risks with conditional autocorrelative (CAR models, implemented in WinBUGS 1.4.3. Results We observed an inverse relationship between county-level human WNV incidence risk and total annual rainfall during the previous year. Parameters representing spatial heterogeneity in the risk of human exposure to WNV improved model fit. Annual precipitation of the previous year was a predictor of spatial variation of WNV risk. Conclusions Our results have broad implications for risk assessment of WNV and forecasting WNV outbreaks. Assessing risk of vector-born infectious diseases will require understanding of complex ecological relationships. Based on the climatologically characteristic drought occurrence in the past and on climate model predictions for climate change and potentially greater drought occurrence in the future, we suggest that the

  15. A continental risk assessment of West Nile virus under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Ryan J; Thomassen, Henri A; Buermann, Wolfgang; Smith, Thomas B

    2014-08-01

    Since first introduced to North America in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across the continent, threatening wildlife populations and posing serious health risks to humans. While WNV incidence has been linked to environmental factors, particularly temperature and rainfall, little is known about how future climate change may affect the spread of the disease. Using available data on WNV infections in vectors and hosts collected from 2003-2011 and using a suite of 10 species distribution models, weighted according to their predictive performance, we modeled the incidence of WNV under current climate conditions at a continental scale. Models were found to accurately predict spatial patterns of WNV that were then used to examine how future climate may affect the spread of the disease. Predictions were accurate for cases of human WNV infection in the following year (2012), with areas reporting infections having significantly higher probability of presence as predicted by our models. Projected geographic distributions of WNV in North America under future climate for 2050 and 2080 show an expansion of suitable climate for the disease, driven by warmer temperatures and lower annual precipitation that will result in the exposure of new and naïve host populations to the virus with potentially serious consequences. Our risk assessment identifies current and future hotspots of West Nile virus where mitigation efforts should be focused and presents an important new approach for monitoring vector-borne disease under climate change. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Review of West Nile virus circulation and outbreak risk in Madagascar: Entomological and ornithological perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantely Michaël Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile fever (WNF is a zoonotic disease, occurring nearly globally. In Madagascar, West Nile virus (WNV was first detected in 1978 from wild birds and the virus is currently distributed across the island, but no epidemic or epizootic period has been recorded. One fatal human case of WNV infection was reported in 2011, suggesting a “tip of the iceberg” phenomenon of a possible WNF epidemic/epizootic on the island. The main objective of this literature-based survey is to review patterns of WNV circulation in Madagascar from the entomological and ornithological points of view. Among the 235 mosquito species described from Madagascar, 29 species are widely associated with WNV infection; 16 of them are found naturally infected with WNV on the island and categorized into major, candidate, and potential vectors of WNV according to their vector capacity. This study upholds the hypothesis that WNV enzooticity is independent of annual movements of migratory birds passing through Madagascar. Moreover, the lack of regular migratory bird flux between Africa and Madagascar would reduce the probability of transmission and the subsequent reintroduction of the virus into locally occurring mosquito species. Given that Palearctic migratory birds are strongly implicated in the transmission of WNV, we highlight notable differences in the movements and species diversity of these birds in Madagascar as compared to eastern and northern Africa. Risk factors from this two-pronged approach are presented for the emergence of WNF outbreak.

  17. Review of West Nile virus circulation and outbreak risk in Madagascar: Entomological and ornithological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Goodman, Steven M; Rakotondranaivo, Tsirinaina; Boyer, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) is a zoonotic disease, occurring nearly globally. In Madagascar, West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in 1978 from wild birds and the virus is currently distributed across the island, but no epidemic or epizootic period has been recorded. One fatal human case of WNV infection was reported in 2011, suggesting a "tip of the iceberg" phenomenon of a possible WNF epidemic/epizootic on the island. The main objective of this literature-based survey is to review patterns of WNV circulation in Madagascar from the entomological and ornithological points of view. Among the 235 mosquito species described from Madagascar, 29 species are widely associated with WNV infection; 16 of them are found naturally infected with WNV on the island and categorized into major, candidate, and potential vectors of WNV according to their vector capacity. This study upholds the hypothesis that WNV enzooticity is independent of annual movements of migratory birds passing through Madagascar. Moreover, the lack of regular migratory bird flux between Africa and Madagascar would reduce the probability of transmission and the subsequent reintroduction of the virus into locally occurring mosquito species. Given that Palearctic migratory birds are strongly implicated in the transmission of WNV, we highlight notable differences in the movements and species diversity of these birds in Madagascar as compared to eastern and northern Africa. Risk factors from this two-pronged approach are presented for the emergence of WNF outbreak. © M.L. Tantely et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  18. Co-circulation of Usutu virus and West Nile virus in a reed bed ecosystem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Bakonyi, T.; Šebesta, Oldřich; Mendel, Jan; Peško, Juraj; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; Venclíková, Kristýna; Straková, Petra; Nowotny, N.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 520 (2015), s. 520 ISSN 1756-3305 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Culex modestus * Usutu virus * West Nile virus * Flavivirus * Arbovirus * Surveillance * Mosquitoes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2015

  19. Culex Flavivirus During West Nile Virus Epidemic and Interepidemic Years in Chicago, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Christina M; Krebs, Bethany L; Anderson, Tavis K; Hamer, Gabriel L; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Brown, William M; Kitron, Uriel D; Goldberg, Tony L

    2017-08-01

    Culex flavivirus (CxFV) is an insect-specific flavivirus infecting Culex mosquitoes, which are important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). CxFV and WNV cocirculate in nature and coinfect Culex mosquitoes, including in a WNV "hotspot" in suburban Chicago. We previously identified a positive association between CxFV and WNV in mosquito pools collected from suburban Chicago in 2006. To further investigate this phenomenon, we compared the spatial and temporal distribution of CxFV during an interepidemic year (2011) and an epidemic year (2012) for WNV. Both viruses were more prevalent in mosquito pools in 2012 compared to 2011. During both years, the CxFV infection status of mosquito pools was associated with environmental factors such as habitat type and precipitation frequency rather than coinfection with WNV. These results support the idea that WNV and CxFV are ecologically associated, perhaps because both viruses respond to similar environmental drivers of mosquito populations.

  20. West Nile virus experimental evolution in vivo and the trade-off hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor R Deardorff

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In nature, arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses perpetuate through alternating replication in vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. The trade-off hypothesis proposes that these viruses maintain adequate replicative fitness in two disparate hosts in exchange for superior fitness in one host. Releasing the virus from the constraints of a two-host cycle should thus facilitate adaptation to a single host. This theory has been addressed in a variety of systems, but remains poorly understood. We sought to determine the fitness implications of alternating host replication for West Nile virus (WNV using an in vivo model system. Previously, WNV was serially or alternately passed 20 times in vivo in chicks or mosquitoes and resulting viruses were characterized genetically. In this study, these test viruses were competed in vivo in fitness assays against an unpassed marked reference virus. Fitness was assayed in chicks and in two important WNV vectors, Culex pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus. Chick-specialized virus displayed clear fitness gains in chicks and in Cx. pipiens but not in Cx. quinquefasciatus. Cx. pipiens-specialized virus experienced reduced fitness in chicks and little change in either mosquito species. These data suggest that when fitness is measured in birds the trade-off hypothesis is supported; but in mosquitoes it is not. Overall, these results suggest that WNV evolution is driven by alternate cycles of genetic expansion in mosquitoes, where purifying selection is weak and genetic diversity generated, and restriction in birds, where purifying selection is strong.

  1. The Risk of West Nile Virus Infection Is Associated with Combined Sewer Overflow Streams in Urban Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.; Vanden Eng, Jodi L.; Kelly, Rosmarie; Mead, Daniel G.; Kolhe, Priti; Howgate, James; Kitron, Uriel; Burkot, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    Background At present, the factors favoring transmission and amplification of West Nile Virus (WNV) within urban environments are poorly understood. In urban Atlanta, Georgia, the highly polluted waters of streams affected by combined sewer overflow (CSO) represent significant habitats for the WNV mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus. However, their contribution to the risk of WNV infection in humans and birds remains unclear. Objectives Our goals were to describe and quantify the spatial d...

  2. Mosquito-borne West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance in the Upper Rhine Valley, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Ute; Becker, Norbert

    2010-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) could be introduced into Germany via migratory birds originating from Africa or southern Europe and subsequently transmitted to indigenous birds, humans, or horses by mosquitoes. Neither the virus itself nor antibodies against WNV have yet to be found in mosquitoes and horses, whereas antibodies have been detected in migrating birds and in humans that were in close contact with birds. At present, the West Nile virus itself has yet to be detected in Germany. This investigation was conducted primarily in major bird breeding, resting, and roosting habitats (hotspots) in the Upper Rhine Valley. Adult mosquitoes were trapped using CO2-baited Encephalitis Vector Surveillance (EVS)-traps and were tested for WNV by the VecTest WNV Antigen Assay. In 2007 and 2008, a total of 11,073 host-seeking adult female mosquitoes (13 species) were tested, and all tests were negative for WNV. Statistical calculations could be performed only where sufficient numbers of mosquitoes were trapped. For these sites, WNV infection among mosquitoes could be ruled out with 80% certainty. For the evaluation of the WNV situation in Germany, the results of this investigation are a further indication that the virus has not yet arrived.

  3. An insight into the sialotranscriptome of the West Nile mosquito vector, Culex tarsalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Kenneth E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saliva of adult female mosquitoes help sugar and blood feeding by providing enzymes and polypeptides that help sugar digestion, control microbial growth and counteract their vertebrate host hemostasis and inflammation. Mosquito saliva also potentiates the transmission of vector borne pathogens, including arboviruses. Culex tarsalis is a bird feeding mosquito vector of West Nile Virus closely related to C. quinquefasciatus, a mosquito relatively recently adapted to feed on humans, and the only mosquito of the genus Culex to have its sialotranscriptome so far described. Results A total of 1,753 clones randomly selected from an adult female C. tarsalis salivary glands (SG cDNA library were sequenced and used to assemble a database that yielded 809 clusters of related sequences, 675 of which were singletons. Primer extension experiments were performed in selected clones to further extend sequence coverage, allowing for the identification of 283 protein sequences, 80 of which code for putative secreted proteins. Conclusion Comparison of the C. tarsalis sialotranscriptome with that of C. quinquefasciatus reveals accelerated evolution of salivary proteins as compared to housekeeping proteins. The average amino acid identity among salivary proteins is 70.1%, while that for housekeeping proteins is 91.2% (P Aedes genus have been identified in C. tarsalis. Interestingly, a protein family so far unique to C. quinquefasciatus, with 30 genes, is also found in C. tarsalis, indicating it was not a specific C. quinquefasciatus acquisition in its evolution to optimize mammal blood feeding.

  4. Clinical Manifestations and Outcomes of West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Sejvar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV in North America in 1999, understanding of the clinical features, spectrum of illness and eventual functional outcomes of human illness has increased tremendously. Most human infections with WNV remain clinically silent. Among those persons developing symptomatic illness, most develop a self-limited febrile illness. More severe illness with WNV (West Nile neuroinvasive disease, WNND is manifested as meningitis, encephalitis or an acute anterior (polio myelitis. These manifestations are generally more prevalent in older persons or those with immunosuppression. In the future, a more thorough understanding of the long-term physical, cognitive and functional outcomes of persons recovering from WNV illness will be important in understanding the overall illness burden.

  5. West Nile Virus: What You Need to Know Now - August 2012

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-21

    This podcast lists the states where most of the 2012 West Nile viruses have been reported and explains how people can protect themselves from West Nile virus.  Created: 8/21/2012 by .   Date Released: 8/21/2012.

  6. Brachial plexitis preceding encephalomyelitis in a patient with West Nile virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Sonja; Kaas, Bonnie; Simpkins, Alexis; Lyons, Jennifer; Venkatesan, Arun; Probasco, John

    2013-12-05

    We describe the case of a 54-year-old woman with West Nile virus infection presenting with painful brachial plexitis and radiculitis that preceded the more typically associated symptoms of meningoencephalitis. Physicians should be aware that West Nile virus infection can present with painful brachial plexitis.

  7. The role of temperature on the spatiotemporal distribution of West Nile virus in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, D. E.; Kilpatrick, A. M.; Ruybal, J.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2012-12-01

    Determining the relationship between climatological factors and vector-borne pathogens remains a critical challenge. The recent arrival of the West Nile virus (WNV) to the Americas, coupled with an extensive climatological and disease observation network, offers the potential to improve our mechanistic understanding of climate's influence on vector-borne disease transmission. Since its introduction to the Americas in the summer of 1999, the West Nile Virus (WNV) has rapidly spread from coastal New York State, across the North American continent, and into Central and South America. To date, 13,385 cases of WNV-induced human neuroinvasive disease have been reported to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, with approximately 1,267 fatalities attributed to viral infection (as of 31 July 2012). Of those infected, severe symptoms develop in only ~1 in 150 people, suggesting that the total U.S. population infected with WNV is on the order of 2 million. The transmission of WNV is predominantly vector-borne, with three mosquitoes of the Culex genus, pipiens, tarsalis, and quinquefasciatus, largely responsible for the spread of the pathogen between avian and human hosts and across the contiguous United States. In this contribution, we synthesize laboratory and local-scale field studies of the Culex vectors with observed and modeled climatological data in an attempt to determine the mechanistic influence of temperature on the spatiotemporal distribution of WNV incidence across the United States. Our preliminary results suggest that many of the physiological factors that determine the transmission intensity of WNV, including mosquito biting rate, vector competence, infection transition rate, and mosquito mortality rate, demonstrate direct temperature dependencies. Based on these results, we utilize bias-corrected outputs from late-20th and mid-21st century CMIP5 simulations to examine the influence of temperature on the distribution of WNV relative to other factors and to

  8. Ecology of West Nile Fever across four European countries: Review of weather profiles, vector population dynamics and vector control response

    Science.gov (United States)

    West Nile virus (WNV) represents a serious burden to human and animal health because of its capacity to cause large unforeseen epidemics. Until 2004, only lineage 1 and 3 WNV strains had been found in Europe. Lineage 2 strains were initially isolated in 2004 (Hungary), again in 2008 (Austria), and f...

  9. Transmission of West Nile virus by Culex quinquefasciatus say infected with Culex Flavivirus Izabal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah J Kent

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The natural history and potential impact of mosquito-specific flaviviruses on the transmission efficiency of West Nile virus (WNV is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not prior infection with Culex flavivirus (CxFV Izabal altered the vector competence of Cx. quinquefasciatus Say for transmission of a co-circulating strain of West Nile virus (WNV from Guatemala. METHODS AND FINDINGS: CxFV-negative Culex quinquefasciatus and those infected with CxFV Izabal by intrathoracic inoculation were administered WNV-infectious blood meals. Infection, dissemination, and transmission of WNV were measured by plaque titration on Vero cells of individual mosquito bodies, legs, or saliva, respectively, two weeks following WNV exposure. Additional groups of Cx. quinquefasciatus were intrathoracically inoculated with WNV alone or WNV+CxFV Izabal simultaneously, and saliva collected nine days post inoculation. Growth of WNV in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells or Cx. quinquefasciatus was not inhibited by prior infection with CxFV Izabal. There was no significant difference in the vector competence of Cx. quinquefasciatus for WNV between mosquitoes uninfected or infected with CxFV Izabal across multiple WNV blood meal titers and two colonies of Cx. quinquefasciatus (p>0.05. However, significantly more Cx. quinquefasciatus from Honduras that were co-inoculated simultaneously with both viruses transmitted WNV than those inoculated with WNV alone (p = 0.0014. Co-inoculated mosquitoes that transmitted WNV also contained CxFV in their saliva, whereas mosquitoes inoculated with CxFV alone did not contain virus in their saliva. CONCLUSIONS: In the sequential infection experiments, prior infection with CxFV Izabal had no significant impact on WNV replication, infection, dissemination, or transmission by Cx. quinquefasciatus, however WNV transmission was enhanced in the Honduras colony when mosquitoes were inoculated simultaneously with

  10. Experimental transmission of West Nile Virus and Rift Valley Fever Virus by Culex pipiens from Lebanon.

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    Renée Zakhia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV are two emerging arboviruses transmitted by Culex pipiens species that includes two biotypes: pipiens and molestus. In Lebanon, human cases caused by WNV and RVFV have never been reported. However, the introduction of these viruses in the country is likely to occur through the migratory birds and animal trades. In this study, we evaluated the ability of Cx. pipiens, a predominant mosquito species in urban and rural regions in Lebanon, to transmit WNV and RVFV. Culex egg rafts were collected in the West Bekaa district, east of Lebanon and adult females of Cx. pipiens were experimentally infected with WNV and RVFV Clone 13 strain at titers of 1.6×108 and 1.33×107 plaque forming units (PFU/mL, respectively. We estimated viral infection, dissemination and transmission at 3, 7, 14 and 19 days post infection (dpi. Results showed that infection was higher for WNV than for RVFV from 3 dpi to 19 dpi. Viral dissemination and transmission started from 3 dpi for WNV; and only from 19 dpi for RVFV. Moreover, Cx. pipiens were able to excrete in saliva a higher number of viral particles of WNV (1028 ± 405 PFU/saliva at 19 dpi than RVFV (42 PFU/saliva at 19 dpi. Cx. pipiens from Lebanon are efficient experimental vectors of WNV and to a lower extent, RVFV. These findings should stimulate local authorities to establish an active entomological surveillance in addition to animal surveys for both viruses in the country.

  11. Large Human Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in North-Eastern Italy in 2012

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    Luisa Barzon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Human cases of West Nile virus (WNV disease have been reported in Italy since 2008. So far, most cases have been identified in north-eastern Italy, where, in 2012, the largest outbreak of WNV infection ever recorded in Italy occurred. Most cases of the 2012 outbreak were identified in the Veneto region, where a special surveillance plan for West Nile fever was in place. In this outbreak, 25 cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease and 17 cases of fever were confirmed. In addition, 14 WNV RNA-positive blood donors were identified by screening of blood and organ donations and two cases of asymptomatic infection were diagnosed by active surveillance of subjects at risk of WNV exposure. Two cases of death due to WNND were reported. Molecular testing demonstrated the presence of WNV lineage 1 in all WNV RNA-positive patients and, in 15 cases, infection by the novel Livenza strain was ascertained. Surveillance in other Italian regions notified one case of neuroinvasive disease in the south of Italy and two cases in Sardinia. Integrated surveillance for WNV infection remains a public health priority in Italy and vector control activities have been strengthened in areas of WNV circulation.

  12. Dynamics of West Nile virus persistence in House Sparrows (Passer domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S Wheeler

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV is now endemic throughout North America, with annual recurrence dependent upon successful overwintering when cold temperatures drive mosquito vectors into inactivity and halt transmission. To investigate whether avian hosts may serve as an overwintering mechanism, groups of eight to ten House Sparrows were experimentally infected with a WN02 genotype of WNV and then held until necropsy at 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 15, or 18 weeks post-infection (pi when they were assessed for the presence of persistent infection. Blood was collected from all remaining birds every two weeks pi, and sera tested for WNV RNA and WNV neutralizing antibodies. West Nile virus RNA was present in the sera of some birds up to 7 weeks pi and all birds retained neutralizing antibodies throughout the experiment. The detection of persistently infected birds decreased with time, from 100% (n = 13 positive at 3 weeks post-infection (pi to 12.5% (n = 8 at 18 weeks pi. Infectious virus was isolated from the spleens of birds necropsied at 3, 5, 7 and 12 weeks pi. The current study confirmed previous reports of infectious WNV persistence in avian hosts, and further characterized the temporal nature of these infections. Although these persistent infections supported the hypothesis that infected birds may serve as an overwintering mechanism, mosquito-infectious recrudescent viremias have yet to be demonstrated thereby providing proof of principle.

  13. West nile virus encephalitis induced opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Chad J; Said, Sarmad

    2014-04-22

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod borne neurotropic single stranded RNA flavivirus with syndrome (OMS) induced by the WNV meningoencephalitis. She then received five consecutive days of plasmapheresis with a significant improvement in her neurological status. Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare neurological disorder associated with chaotic multidirectional eye movements, myoclonus and less frequently cerebellar ataxia. OMS affects as few as 1 in 10,000,000 people per year. The pathogenesis is not fully understood with the majority of cases of opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome being idiopathic. According to current medical literature there have only been two previous case reports of opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome associated with WNV encephalitis.

  14. On the potential roles of ticks and migrating birds in the ecology of West Nile virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Hagman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mosquitoes are the primary vectors of West Nile virus (WNV. Ticks have, however, been suggested to be potential reservoirs of WNV. To investigate their role in the spread of the virus, ticks, which had been collected from birds migrating northward from Africa to Europe, were analyzed for the potential presence of WNV RNA. Methods: On the Mediterranean islands of Capri and Antikythira, a total of 14,824 birds were captured and investigated from which 747 ticks were collected. Results and conclusions: Most of the identified ticks (93% were nymphs and larvae of Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato (s.l., most of which were or appear to be Hyalomma rufipes. Of these ticks, 729 were individually screened for WNV RNA. None of the ticks was found to be WNV positive. Thus, there was no evidence that H. marginatum s.l. ticks play a role in the spread of WNV from Africa to Europe.

  15. A Snapshot Avian Surveillance Reveals West Nile Virus and Evidence of Wild Birds Participating in Toscana Virus Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacioglu, Sabri; Dincer, Ender; Isler, Cafer Tayer; Karapinar, Zeynep; Ataseven, Veysel Soydal; Ozkul, Aykut; Ergunay, Koray

    2017-10-01

    Birds are involved in the epidemiology of several vector-borne viruses, as amplification hosts for viruses, dissemination vehicles for the vectors, and sources of emerging strains in cross-species transmission. Turkey provides diverse habitats for a variety of wild birds and is located along major bird migration routes. This study was undertaken to provide a cross-sectional screening of avian specimens for a spectrum of vector-borne viruses. The specimens were collected in Hatay province, in the Mediterranean coast of the Anatolian peninsula, located in the convergence zone of the known migration routes. Generic PCR assays were used for the detection of members of Nairovirus, Flavivirus, and Phlebovirus genera of Flaviviridae and Bunyaviridae families. The circulating viruses were characterized via sequencing and selected specimens were inoculated onto Vero cell lines for virus isolation. Specimens from 72 wild birds belonging in 8 orders and 14 species were collected. A total of 158 specimens that comprise 32 sera (20.3%) from 7 species and 126 tissues (79.7%) from 14 species were screened. Eight specimens (8/158, 5%), obtained from 4 individuals (4/72, 5.5%), were positive. West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 1 sequences were characterized in the spleen, heart, and kidney tissues from a lesser spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina), which distinctly clustered from sequences previously identified in Turkey. Toscana virus (TOSV) genotype A and B sequences were identified in brain and kidney tissues from a greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus), a great white pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus), and a black stork (Ciconia nigra), without successful virus isolation. Partial amino acid sequences of the viral nucleocapsid protein revealed previously unreported substitutions. This study documents the involvement of avians in WNV dispersion in Anatolia as well in TOSV life cycle.

  16. Potential for Waterborne and Invertebrate Transmission of West Nile Virus in the Great Salt Lake, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Melissa; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Dusek, Robert J; Shivers, Jan; Hofmeister, Erik

    2017-07-15

    In November and December of 2013, a large mortality event involving 15,000 to 20,000 eared grebes ( Podiceps nigricollis ) occurred at the Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT. The onset of the outbreak in grebes was followed by a mortality event in >86 bald eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ). During the die-off, West Nile virus (WNV) was detected by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) or viral culture in the carcasses of grebes and eagles submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center. However, no activity of mosquitoes, the primary vectors of WNV, was detected by the State of Utah's WNV monitoring program. The transmission of WNV has rarely been reported during the winter in North America in the absence of known mosquito activity; however, the size of this die-off, the habitat in which it occurred, and the species involved are unique. We experimentally investigated whether WNV could survive in water with a high salt content, as found at the GSL, and whether brine shrimp, the primary food of migrating eared grebes on the GSL, could have played a role in the transmission of WNV to feeding birds. We found that WNV can survive up to 72 h at 4°C in water containing 30 to 150 ppt NaCl, and brine shrimp incubated with WNV in 30 ppt NaCl may adsorb WNV to their cuticle and, through feeding, infect epithelial cells of their gut. Both mechanisms may have potentiated the WNV die-off in migrating eared grebes on the GSL. IMPORTANCE Following a major West Nile virus die-off of eared grebes and bald eagles at the Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT, in November to December 2013, this study assessed the survival of West Nile virus (WNV) in water as saline as that of the GSL and whether brine shrimp, the major food for migrating grebes, could have played a role as a vector for the virus. While mosquitoes are the major vector of WNV, under certain circumstances, transmission may occur through contaminated water and invertebrates as food. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. A recombinant influenza a virus expressing domain III of west nile virus induces protective immune responses against influenza and west nile virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E.E. Martina (Byron); P. van den Doel (Petra); P. Koraka (Penelope); G. van Amerongen (Geert); G. Spohn (Gunther); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); L.B.V. Provacia (Lisette); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWest Nile virus (WNV) continues to circulate in the USA and forms a threat to the rest of the Western hemisphere. Since methods for the treatment of WNV infections are not available, there is a need for the development of safe and effective vaccines. Here, we describe the construction of

  18. Larvicidal Activity of Nerium oleander against Larvae West Nile Vector Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Fouad El-Akhal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Outbreaks of the West Nile virus infection were reported in Morocco in 1996, 2003, and 2010. Culex pipiens was strongly suspected as the vector responsible for transmission. In the North center of Morocco, this species has developed resistance to synthetic insecticides. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to the insecticides as natural biocides. Objective. In this work, the insecticidal activity of the extract of the local plant Nerium oleander, which has never been tested before in the North center of Morocco, was studied on larval stages 3 and 4 of Culex pipiens. Methods. Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The mortality values were determined after 24 h of exposure and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. Results. The extract had toxic effects on the larvae of culicid mosquitoes. The ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander applied against the larvae of Culex pipiens has given the lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 in the order of 57.57 mg/mL and 166.35 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. This investigation indicates that N. oleander could serve as a potential larvicidal, effective natural biocide against mosquito larvae, particularly Culex pipiens.

  19. A Fatal Neuroinvasive West Nile Virus Infection in a Traveler Returning from Madagascar: Clinical, Epidemiological and Veterinary Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrieu, Sophie; Cardinale, Eric; Ocquidant, Philippe; Roger, Matthieu; Lepec, Richard; Delatte, Hélène; Camuset, Guillaume; Desprès, Philippe; Brottet, Elise; Charlin, Cyril; Michault, Alain

    2013-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman living in Reunion Island and returning from Madagascar was hospitalized for neuroinvasive encephalitis and died 1 month later. West Nile virus (WNV) infection was biologically confirmed by detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) reactive with WNV antigens in both cerebrospinal fluid and serum, and weak neutralizing activity was also detected. A veterinary survey performed in her traveling area showed a seroprevalence of WNV of 28.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.1–36.3) in adult poultry, confirming an active circulation of the virus. Development of a severe form could be related to a weak antibody response, because the patient presented low IgM and IgG titers. This case report underlines the constant risk of emergence of West Nile in Indian Ocean territories, including Reunion Island where competent vectors are widely present during the whole year. PMID:23751400

  20. West Nile Virus workshop: scientific considerations for tissue donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Scott A; Robert Rigney, P

    2012-08-01

    This report contains selected excerpts, presented as a summary, from a public workshop sponsored by the American Association of Tissue Banks (AATB) held to discuss West Nile Virus (WNV) and scientific considerations for tissue donors. The daylong workshop was held 9 July 2010 at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel at Tyson's Corner in McLean, Virginia, United States (U.S.). The workshop was designed to determine and discuss scientific information that is known, and what is not known, regarding WNV infection and transmission. The goal is to determine how to fill gaps in knowledge of WNV and tissue donation and transplantation by pursuing relevant scientific studies. This information should ultimately support decisions leading to appropriate tissue donor screening and testing considerations. Discussion topics were related to identifying these gaps and determining possible solutions. Workshop participants included subject-matter experts from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Canada, the Public Health Agency of Canada, AATB-accredited tissue banks including reproductive tissue banks, accredited eye banks of the Eye Bank Association of America, testing laboratories, and infectious disease and organ transplantation professionals. After all presentations concluded, a panel addressed this question: "What are the scientific considerations for tissue donors and what research could be performed to address those considerations?" The slide presentations from the workshop are available at: http://www.aatb.org/2010-West-Nile-Virus-Workshop-Presentations.

  1. Identifying environmental risk factors and mapping the risk of human West Nile virus in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, A.; Davis, J. K.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Human West Nile virus (WNV) first arrived in the USA in 1999 and has since then spread across the country. Today, the highest incidence rates are found in the state of South Dakota. The disease occurrence depends on the complex interaction between the mosquito vector, the bird host and the dead-end human host. Understanding the spatial domain of this interaction and being able to identify disease transmission hotspots is crucial for effective disease prevention and mosquito control. In this study we use geospatial environmental information to understand what drives the spatial distribution of cases of human West Nile virus in South Dakota and to map relative infection risk across the state. To map the risk of human West Nile virus in South Dakota, we used geocoded human case data from the years 2004-2016. Satellite data from the Landsat ETM+ and MODIS for the years 2003 to 2016 were used to characterize environmental patterns. From these datasets we calculated indices, such as the normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) and the normalized differenced water index (NDWI). In addition, datasets such as the National Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS), National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD), National Wetland inventory (NWI), National Elevation Dataset (NED) and Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) were utilized. Environmental variables were summarized for a buffer zone around the case and control points. We used a boosted regression tree model to identify the most important variables describing the risk of WNV infection. We generated a risk map by applying this model across the entire state. We found that the highest relative risk is present in the James River valley in northeastern South Dakota. Factors that were identified as influencing the transmission risk include inter-annual variability of vegetation cover, water availability and temperature. Land covers such as grasslands, low developed areas and wetlands were also found to be good predictors for human

  2. West Nile Virus in the United States — A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Roehrig

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to 1999, West Nile virus (WNV was a bit player in the screenplay of global vector-borne viral diseases. First discovered in the West Nile District of Uganda in 1937, this Culex sp.-transmitted virus was known for causing small human febrile outbreaks in Africa and the Middle East. Prior to 1995, the last major human WNV outbreak was in the 1950s in Israel. The epidemiology and ecology of WNV began to change in the mid-1990s when an epidemic of human encephalitis occurred in Romania. The introduction of WNV into Eastern Europe was readily explained by bird migration between Africa and Europe. The movement of WNV from Africa to Europe could not, however, predict its surprising jump across the Atlantic Ocean to New York City and the surrounding areas of the United States (U.S.. This movement of WNV from the Eastern to Western Hemisphere in 1999, and its subsequent dissemination throughout two continents in less than ten years is widely recognized as one of the most significant events in arbovirology during the last two centuries. This paper documents the early events of the introduction into and the spread of WNV in the Western Hemisphere.

  3. Detection of West Nile virus in wild birds in Tana River and Garissa Counties, Kenya

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    Doris Nyamwaya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background West Nile fever virus is a zoonotic arboviral infection maintained in a sylvatic cycle involving mosquito vectors and birds. It is one the arboviruses whose geographical range is expanding because of climate and land use changes that enhance the densities of mosquitoes and promote mosquito-bird-human interactions. We carried out a survey to determine the reservoirs of WNV among wild birds in Tana River and Garissa counties, Kenya. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 361 randomly trapped wild birds. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR, all samples were screened for WNV using gene specific primer sets amplifying a portion of the E region of the genome encoding the envelope protein. Results Sixty five (65 out of 361 birds screened tested positive for WNV on real-time PCR assay. Sequencing of the selected positive samples reveals that the isolated WNV were most closely related to strains isolated from China (2011. A regression analysis indicated that sampling location influenced the occurrence of WNV while species, age, weight and sex of the birds did not have any effect. Conclusions This study provides baseline information on the existing circulation of WNV in this region among wild bird reservoirs that could spill over to the human population and points to the need for implementation of surveillance programs to map the distribution of the virus among reservoirs. Awareness creation about West Nile fever in this region is important to improve its detection and management.

  4. Community diversity of mosquitoes and their microbes across different habitats endemic for West Nile Virus and other arthropod-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R.; Bennett, S. N.; Thongsripong, P.; Chandler, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Mosquitoes have long been vectors for disease, and humans, birds, and other vertebrates have served their role as hosts in the transmission cycle of arthropod-borne viruses. In California, there are several mosquito species that act as vectors, transmitting such disease agents as Western equine and St. Louis encephalitis viruses, filarial nematodes, Plasmodium (which causes malaria), and West Nile virus (WNV). Last year (2012-2013), California had over 450 reported cases of West Nile Virus in humans (http://westnile.ca.gov/). To begin to understand mosquitoes and their role in the bay area as vectors of diseases, including West Nile Virus, we trapped mosquitoes from various sites and examined their microbiomes, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and eukaryotes. Study sites were in Marin, San Mateo, and San Francisco counties, in areas that represented, respectively, rural, suburban, and urban habitats. The mosquitoes were identified through morphological characteristics, and verified molecularly by sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene extracted from a leg. Most mosquitoes were collected from San Mateo and Mill Valley and were identified as Culiseta incidens. Data from traditional culture-based and next-generation 454 sequencing methods applied to mosquito whole bodies, representing their microbiomes, will be discussed, to determine how mosquito and microbial diversity varies across sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay area.

  5. Predictive mapping of human risk for West Nile virus (WNV based on environmental and socioeconomic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia Rochlin

    Full Text Available A West Nile virus (WNV human risk map was developed for Suffolk County, New York utilizing a case-control approach to explore the association between the risk of vector-borne WNV and habitat, landscape, virus activity, and socioeconomic variables derived from publically available datasets. Results of logistic regression modeling for the time period between 2000 and 2004 revealed that higher proportion of population with college education, increased habitat fragmentation, and proximity to WNV positive mosquito pools were strongly associated with WNV human risk. Similar to previous investigations from north-central US, this study identified middle class suburban neighborhoods as the areas with the highest WNV human risk. These results contrast with similar studies from the southern and western US, where the highest WNV risk was associated with low income areas. This discrepancy may be due to regional differences in vector ecology, urban environment, or human behavior. Geographic Information Systems (GIS analytical tools were used to integrate the risk factors in the 2000-2004 logistic regression model generating WNV human risk map. In 2005-2010, 41 out of 46 (89% of WNV human cases occurred either inside of (30 cases or in close proximity (11 cases to the WNV high risk areas predicted by the 2000-2004 model. The novel approach employed by this study may be implemented by other municipal, local, or state public health agencies to improve geographic risk estimates for vector-borne diseases based on a small number of acute human cases.

  6. Reported Neuroinvasive Cases of West Nile Virus by State, 2002-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map shows the average annual incidence of neuroinvasive West Nile virus disease in each state, which is calculated as the average number of new cases per...

  7. Experimental Infections of Wild Birds with West Nile Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pérez-Ramírez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Avian models of West Nile virus (WNV disease have become pivotal in the study of infection pathogenesis and transmission, despite the intrinsic constraints that represents this type of experimental research that needs to be conducted in biosecurity level 3 (BSL3 facilities. This review summarizes the main achievements of WNV experimental research carried out in wild birds, highlighting advantages and limitations of this model. Viral and host factors that determine the infection outcome are analyzed in detail, as well as recent discoveries about avian immunity, viral transmission, and persistence achieved through experimental research. Studies of laboratory infections in the natural host will help to understand variations in susceptibility and reservoir competence among bird species, as well as in the epidemiological patterns found in different affected areas.

  8. West Nile virus encephalomyelitis in horses in Ontario: 28 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, J. Scott; Baird, John D.; DeLay, Josepha; Kenney, Daniel G.; Staempfli, Henry R.; Viel, Laurent; Parent, Joane; Smith-Maxie, Laura; Poma, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    West Nile virus encephalomyelitis was diagnosed in 28 horses presented to the Ontario Veterinary College Veterinary Teaching Hospital between August 20 and October 15, 2002. The age range of affected horses was 5 months to 20 years (mean 6.9 years, median 6 years). Clinical signs were highly variable. Duration of hospitalization ranged from < 1 to 12 days (mean 5 days, median 5.4 days). Overall, 16 of the 28 (57%) horses were discharged and, of the 14 from which follow-up information was available, 13 (93%) were reported to be clinically normal 4 to 6 weeks following discharge, while the other horse had markedly improved. This pathogen is emerging as an important cause of neurological disease in Canada. PMID:12839240

  9. Fox squirrel (Sciurus niger) associations with West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, J Jeffrey; Oesterle, Paul T; Sullivan, Heather J; Hall, Jeffrey S; Marlenee, Nicole L; McLean, Robert G; Montenieri, John A; Clark, Larry

    2007-04-01

    Tree squirrels (Sciurus spp.) have been recently shown to be commonly exposed to West Nile virus (WNV). Many characteristics of WNV infections in tree squirrels are unknown. To better understand WNV associations in fox squirrels (S. niger), we conducted mark-recapture sampling (N = 72) and radio telemetry to study the longitudinal seroprevalence, seroconversions, and ectoparasites of these animals during 2005-2006 in northern Colorado. Five seroconversions were documented during this study. The majority of seroconversions occurred during the late summer/fall months. However, one seroconversion was documented over the time period of February to late March 2005. Fleas (Orchopeas howardi) were tested for WNV RNA using real-time PCR techniques. No WNV RNA positive fleas (N = 33) were detected. In addition, urine samples (N = 17) opportunistically collected from fox squirrels were negative for WNV RNA. Results indicate that seroconversions can be observed in fox squirrels during low WNV transmission years.

  10. West Nile virus infection in horses, Indian ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, E; Bernard, C; Lecollinet, S; Rakotoharinome, V M; Ravaomanana, J; Roger, M; Olive, M M; Meenowa, D; Jaumally, M R; Melanie, J; Héraud, J M; Zientara, S; Cêtre-Sossah, C

    2017-08-01

    The circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) in horses was investigated in the Southwest Indian ocean. In 2010, blood samples were collected from a total of 303 horses originating from Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion and the Seychelles and tested for WNV-specific antibodies. An overall seroprevalence of 27.39% was detected in the Indian Ocean with the highest WNV antibody prevalence of 46.22% (95% CI: [37.4-55.2%]) in Madagascar. The age and origin of the horses were found to be associated with the WNV infection risk. This paper presents the first seroprevalence study investigating WN fever in horses in the Southwest Indian Ocean area and indicates a potential risk of infection for humans and animals. In order to gain a better understanding of WN transmission cycles, WNV surveillance needs to be implemented in each of the countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Growth characteristics of the veterinary vaccine candidate ChimeriVax-West Nile (WN) virus in Aedes and Culex mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B W; Chambers, T V; Crabtree, M B; Arroyo, J; Monath, T P; Miller, B R

    2003-09-01

    In 1999 West Nile (WN) virus was introduced to North America where this flavivirus has spread rapidly among wildlife (especially birds) transmitted by various species of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Increasing numbers of cases and deaths among humans, horses and other domestic animals require development of effective vaccines. 'ChimeriVax-West Nile(vet)' is being developed for use as a veterinary vaccine to protect against WN infection. This chimeric virus contains the pre-membrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes from the wild-type WN NY99 virus (isolated from a flamingo in New York zoo during the 1999 WN epidemic) in the backbone of yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine virus. Replication kinetics of ChimeriVax-WN(vet) virus were evaluated in mosquito cell culture (Aedes albopictus C6/36), in WN vector mosquitoes [Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Cx. nigripalpus Theobald and Cx. quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)] and in YF vectors [Aedes aegypti (L) and Ae. albopictus (Skuse)], to determine whether these mosquitoes become infected through feeding on a viraemic vaccine, and their potential infectivity to transmit the virus. Growth of ChimeriVax-WN(vet) virus was found to be restricted in mosquitoes, compared to WN virus in Ae. albopictus C6/36 cells. When inoculated intrathoracically, ChimeriVax-WN(vet) and YF 17D viruses did not replicate in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus or Cx. nigripalpus; replication was very restricted compared to the wild-type WN virus in Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. When fed on hanging drops with ChimeriVax-WN(vet) virus (7.7 log10 PFU/mL), none of the Culex mosquitoes became infected; one Ae. albopictus and 10% of the Ae. aegypti became infected, but the titre was very low and virus did not disseminate to head tissue. ChimeriVax-WN(vet) virus had a replication profile similar to that of the attenuated vaccine virus YF 17D, which is not transmitted by mosquitoes. These results suggest that the natural mosquito vectors of WN

  12. ANALYSIS OF BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE OCCURRENCE OF WEST NILE VIRUS INFECTION IN TUNISIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hassine, Th; Calistri, P; Ippoliti, C; Conte, A; Danzetta, M L; Bruno, R; Lelli, R; Bejaoui, M; Hammami, S

    2014-01-01

    Eco-climatic conditions are often associated with the occurrence of West Nile Disease (WND) cases. Among the complex set of biotic and abiotic factors influencing the emergence and spread of this vector-borne disease, two main variables have been considered to have a great influence on the probability of West Nile Virus (WNV) introduction and circulation in Tunisia: the presence of susceptible bird populations and the existence of geographical areas where the environmental and climatic conditions are more favourable to mosquito multiplications. The aim of this study was to identify and classify the climatic and environmental variables possibly associated with the occurrence of WNVhuman cases in Tunisia. The following environmental and climatic variables have been considered: wetlands and humid areas, Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), temperatures and elevation. A preliminary analysis for the characterization of main variables associated with areas with a history of WNV human cases in Tunisia between 1997 and 2011 has been made. This preliminary analysis clearly indicates the closeness to marshes ecosystem, where migratory bird populations are located, as an important risk factor for WNV infection. On the contrary the temperature absolute seems to be not a significant factor in Tunisian epidemiological situation. In relation to NDVI values, more complex considerations should be made.

  13. Detection of West Nile virus in stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) parasitizing juvenile American white pelicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gregory; Panella, Nicholas; Hale, Kristina; Komar, Nicholas

    2010-11-01

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), an economically important pest of livestock and humans, were observed parasitizing prefledged American white pelicans, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos (Pelecaniformes: Pelecanidae), in a pelican breeding colony in northeastern Montana where die-offs attributed to West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) have occurred since 2002. Engorged and unengorged flies were collected off nine moribund chicks. Of 29 blood-engorged flies testing positive for vertebrate DNA, all 29 contained pelican DNA. Virus isolation was performed on 60 pools (1,176 flies) of unengorged flies using Vero cell plaque assay. Eighteen pools were positive for WNV for an estimated infection rate of 18.0 per 1,000 flies. Fifty-four percent (36/67) of abdomens from blood-engorged flies tested positive for WNV. Pelican viremia levels from the blood-engorged fly abdomens revealed that at least one of the ill pelicans circulated a viremia capable of infecting Culex mosquito vectors. Stable flies may be involved in WNV transmission within the pelican breeding colony by serving as either a mechanical vector or as a source for oral infection if ingested by predators.

  14. Sentinel birds in wild-bird resting sites as potential indicators for West Nile virus infections in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ute; Seidowski, Diana; Globig, Anja; Fereidouni, Sasan R; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H

    2010-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus with wild birds as its natural hosts. Ravens, falcons and jays are highly susceptible for WNV and develop deadly encephalitis, while other bird species undergo only subclinical infections. Migratory birds are efficient vectors for geographic spreading of WNV. Until now, WNV infections have not been diagnosed in Germany, but infections in humans and horses have occurred recently in Austria, Hungary and Italy. To investigate potential WNV introduction by infected wild birds, we have monitored the serological status of ducks in three national sentinel stations. No WNV-positive reactions were found, whereas sera from coots from northern Iran were positive.

  15. Crystal Structure of West Nile Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Reveals Viral Surface Epitopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai,R.; Kar, K.; Anthony, K.; Gould, L.; Ledizet, M.; Fikrig, E.; Marasco, W.; Koski, R.; Modis, Y.

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus, a member of the Flavivirus genus, causes fever that can progress to life-threatening encephalitis. The major envelope glycoprotein, E, of these viruses mediates viral attachment and entry by membrane fusion. We have determined the crystal structure of a soluble fragment of West Nile virus E. The structure adopts the same overall fold as that of the E proteins from dengue and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. The conformation of domain II is different from that in other prefusion E structures, however, and resembles the conformation of domain II in postfusion E structures. The epitopes of neutralizing West Nile virus-specific antibodies map to a region of domain III that is exposed on the viral surface and has been implicated in receptor binding. In contrast, we show that certain recombinant therapeutic antibodies, which cross-neutralize West Nile and dengue viruses, bind a peptide from domain I that is exposed only during the membrane fusion transition. By revealing the details of the molecular landscape of the West Nile virus surface, our structure will assist the design of antiviral vaccines and therapeutics.

  16. Analysis of surveillance systems in place in European Mediterranean countries for West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever (RVF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cito, F; Narcisi, V; Danzetta, M L; Iannetti, S; Sabatino, D D; Bruno, R; Carvelli, A; Atzeni, M; Sauro, F; Calistri, P

    2013-11-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) represent an important group of viral agents responsible for vector-borne zoonotic diseases constituting an emerging sanitary threat for the Mediterranean Basin and the neighbouring countries. WNV infection is present in several Mediterranean countries, whereas RVF has never been introduced into Europe, but it is considered a major threat for North African countries. Being vector-borne diseases, they cannot be prevented only through an animal trade control policy. Several approaches are used for the surveillance of WNV and RVFV. With the aim of assessing the surveillance systems in place in Mediterranean countries, two disease-specific questionnaires (WNV, RVFV) have been prepared and submitted to Public Health and Veterinary Authorities of six EU countries. This study presents the information gathered through the questionnaires and describes some critical points in the prevention and surveillance of these diseases as emerged by the answers received. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Modeling dynamics of culex pipiens complex populations and assessing abatement strategies for West Nile Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelek, Kasia A; Niehaus, Patrick; Salmeron, Cristian; Hager, Elizabeth J; Hunt, Gregg J

    2014-01-01

    The primary mosquito species associated with underground stormwater systems in the United States are the Culex pipiens complex species. This group represents important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) throughout regions of the continental U.S. In this study, we designed a mathematical model and compared it with surveillance data for the Cx. pipiens complex collected in Beaufort County, South Carolina. Based on the best fit of the model to the data, we estimated parameters associated with the effectiveness of public health insecticide (adulticide) treatments (primarily pyrethrin products) as well as the birth, maturation, and death rates of immature and adult Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes. We used these estimates for modeling the spread of WNV to obtain more reliable disease outbreak predictions and performed numerical simulations to test various mosquito abatement strategies. We demonstrated that insecticide treatments produced significant reductions in the Cx. pipiens complex populations. However, abatement efforts were effective for approximately one day and the vector mosquitoes rebounded until the next treatment. These results suggest that frequent insecticide applications are necessary to control these mosquitoes. We derived the basic reproductive number (ℜ0) to predict the conditions under which disease outbreaks are likely to occur and to evaluate mosquito abatement strategies. We concluded that enhancing the mosquito death rate results in lower values of ℜ0, and if ℜ0control strategies of the vector populations and, consequently, a potential decrease in the risk of a WNV outbreak.

  18. Differential Virulence and Pathogenesis of West Nile Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Donadieu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a neurotropic flavivirus that cycles between mosquitoes and birds but that can also infect humans, horses, and other vertebrate animals. In most humans, WNV infection remains subclinical. However, 20%–40% of those infected may develop WNV disease, with symptoms ranging from fever to meningoencephalitis. A large variety of WNV strains have been described worldwide. Based on their genetic differences, they have been classified into eight lineages; the pathogenic strains belong to lineages 1 and 2. Ten years ago, Beasley et al. (2002 found that dramatic differences exist in the virulence and neuroinvasion properties of lineage 1 and lineage 2 WNV strains. Further insights on how WNV interacts with its hosts have recently been gained; the virus acts either at the periphery or on the central nervous system (CNS, and these observed differences could help explain the differential virulence and neurovirulence of WNV strains. This review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge on factors that trigger WNV dissemination and CNS invasion as well as on the inflammatory response and CNS damage induced by WNV. Moreover, we will discuss how WNV strains differentially interact with the innate immune system and CNS cells, thus influencing WNV pathogenesis.

  19. West Nile virus infection in American Robins: new insights on dose response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaci K VanDalen

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a vector-borne pathogen that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The natural transmission cycle of WNV involves mosquito vectors and avian hosts, which vary in their competency to transmit the virus. American robins are an abundant backyard species in the United States and appear to have an important role in the amplification and dissemination of WNV. In this study we examine the response of American robins to infection with various WNV doses within the range of those administered by some natural mosquito vectors. Thirty American robins were assigned a WNV dosage treatment and needle inoculated with 10(0.95 PFU, 10(1.26 PFU, 10(2.15 PFU, or 10(3.15 PFU. Serum samples were tested for the presence of infectious WNV and/or antibodies, while oral swabs were tested for the presence of WNV RNA. Five of the 30 (17% robins had neutralizing antibodies to WNV prior to the experiment and none developed viremia or shed WNV RNA. The proportion of WNV-seronegative birds that became viremic after WNV inoculation increased in a dose dependent manner. At the lowest dose, only 40% (2/5 of the inoculated birds developed productive infections while at the highest dose, 100% (7/7 of the birds became viremic. Oral shedding of WNV RNA followed a similar trend where robins inoculated with the lower two doses were less likely to shed viral RNA (25% than robins inoculated with one of the higher doses (92%. Viremia titers and morbidity did not increase in a dose dependent manner; only two birds succumbed to infection and, interestingly, both were inoculated with the lowest dose of WNV. It is clear that the disease ecology of WNV is a complex interplay of hosts, vectors, and viral dose delivered.

  20. The natural history of West Nile virus infection presenting with West Nile virus meningoencephalitis in a man with a prolonged illness: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood James B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Estimates indicate that West Nile virus infects approximately one and a half million people in the United States of America. Up to 1% may develop West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease, in which infected patients develop any combination of meningitis, encephalitis, or acute paralysis. Case presentation A 56-year-old African-American man presented to our hospital with headache, restlessness, fever, myalgias, decreased appetite, and progressive confusion. A cerebrospinal fluid examination showed mild leukocytosis and an elevated protein level. Testing for routine infections was negative. Brain T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans showed marked enlargement of caudate nuclei and increased intensity within the basal ganglia and thalami. A West Nile virus titer was positive, and serial brain magnetic resonance imaging scans showed resolving abnormalities that paralleled his neurological examination. Conclusion This report is unusual as it portrays the natural history and long-term consequences of West Nile virus meningoencephalitis diagnosed on the basis of serial brain images.

  1. Purification and crystallization of dengue and West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Arcy, Allan; Chaillet, Maxime; Schiering, Nikolaus; Villard, Frederic; Lim, Siew Pheng; Lefeuvre, Peggy; Erbel, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Crystals of dengue serotype 2 and West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 protease complexes have been obtained and the crystals of both diffract to useful resolution. Sample homogeneity was essential for obtaining X-ray-quality crystals of the dengue protease. Controlled proteolysis produced a crystallizable fragment of the apo West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 and crystals were also obtained in the presence of a peptidic inhibitor. Both dengue and West Nile virus infections are an increasing risk to humans, not only in tropical and subtropical areas, but also in North America and parts of Europe. These viral infections are generally transmitted by mosquitoes, but may also be tick-borne. Infection usually results in mild flu-like symptoms, but can also cause encephalitis and fatalities. Approximately 2799 severe West Nile virus cases were reported this year in the United States, resulting in 102 fatalities. With this alarming increase in the number of West Nile virus infections in western countries and the fact that dengue virus already affects millions of people per year in tropical and subtropical climates, there is a real need for effective medicines. A possible therapeutic target to combat these viruses is the protease, which is essential for virus replication. In order to provide structural information to help to guide a lead identification and optimization program, crystallizations of the NS2B–NS3 protease complexes from both dengue and West Nile viruses have been initiated. Crystals that diffract to high resolution, suitable for three-dimensional structure determinations, have been obtained

  2. Serosurvey Reveals Exposure to West Nile Virus in Asymptomatic Horse Populations in Central Spain Prior to Recent Disease Foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Cobo, A; Llorente, F; Barbero, M Del Carmen; Cruz-López, F; Forés, P; Jiménez-Clavero, M Á

    2017-10-01

    West Nile fever/encephalitis (WNF) is an infectious disease affecting horses, birds and humans, with a cycle involving birds as natural reservoirs and mosquitoes as transmission vectors. It is a notifiable disease, re-emerging in Europe. In Spain, it first appeared in horses in the south (Andalusia) in 2010, where outbreaks occur every year since. However, in 2014, an outbreak was declared in horses in central Spain, approximately 200 km away from the closest foci in Andalusia. Before that, evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) circulation in central Spain had been obtained only from wildlife, but never in horses. The purpose of this work was to perform a serosurvey to retrospectively detect West Nile virus infections in asymptomatic horses in central Spain from 2011 to 2013, that is before the occurrence of the first outbreaks in the area. For that, serum samples from 369 horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 in central Spain, were analysed by ELISA (blocking and IgM) and confirmed by virus neutralization, proving its specificity using parallel titration with another flavivirus (Usutu virus). As a result, 10 of 369 horse serum samples analysed gave positive results by competitive ELISA, 5 of which were confirmed as positive to WNV by virus neutralization (seropositivity rate: 1.35%). One of these WNV seropositive samples was IgM-positive. Chronologically, the first positive samples, including the IgM-positive, corresponded to sera collected in 2012 in Madrid province. From these results, we concluded that WNV circulated in asymptomatic equine populations of central Spain at least since 2012, before the first disease outbreak reported in this area. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. West nile virus surveillance in Romania: 1997-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceianu, C S; Ungureanu, A; Nicolescu, G; Cernescu, C; Nitescu, L; Tardei, G; Petrescu, A; Pitigoi, D; Martin, D; Ciulacu-Purcarea, V; Vladimirescu, A; Savage, H M

    2001-01-01

    In response to the 1996 West Nile (WN) fever epidemic that occurred in Bucharest and southeastern Romania, a surveillance program was established. The surveillance system detected 39 clinical human WN fever cases during the period 1997-2000: 14 cases in 1997, 5 cases in 1998, 7 cases in 1999, and 13 cases in 2000. Thirty-eight of the 39 case-patients lived in the greater Danube Valley of southern Romania, and 1 case-patient resided in the district of Vaslui, located on the Moldavian plateau. The estimated annual case incidence rate for the surveillance area during the period 1997-2000 was 0.95 cases per million residents. Thirty-four cases were serologically confirmed, and 5 cases were classified as probable. Twenty-four case-patients presented with clinical symptoms of meningitis (62%), 12 with meningoencephalitis (31%), 1 with encephalitis (3%), and 2 with febrile exanthema (5%). Five of the 39 cases were fatal (13%). Fourteen case-patients resided in rural areas, and 25 in urban and suburban areas, including 7 case-patients who resided in Bucharest. The ages of case-patients ranged from 8 to 76 years with a median age of 45 years. Twenty-four case-patients were males and 15 were females. Dates of onset of illness occurred from May 24 through September 25, with 82% of onset dates occurring in August and September. Limited entomological surveillance failed to detect WN virus. Retrospective sampling of domestic fowl in the vicinity of case-patient residences during the years 1997-2000 demonstrated seroprevalence rates of 7.8%-29%. Limited wild bird surveillance demonstrated seroprevalence rates of 5%-8%. The surveillance data suggest that WN virus persists focally for several years in poorly understood transmission cycles after sporadic introductions or that WN virus is introduced into Romania at relatively high rates, and persists seasonally in small foci.

  4. Exclusion of West Nile Virus Superinfection through RNA Replication▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Gang; Zhang, Bo; Lim, Pei-Yin; Yuan, Zhiming; Bernard, Kristen A.; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2009-01-01

    Superinfection exclusion is the ability of an established viral infection to interfere with a second viral infection. Using West Nile virus (WNV) as a model, we show that replicating replicons in BHK-21 cells suppress subsequent WNV infection. The WNV replicon also suppresses superinfections of other flaviviruses but not nonflaviviruses. Mode-of-action analysis indicates that the exclusion of WNV superinfection occurs at the step of RNA synthesis. The continuous culturing of WNV in the replicon-containing cells generated variants that could overcome the superinfection exclusion. The sequencing of the selected viruses revealed mutations in structural (prM S90R or envelope E138K) and nonstructural genes (NS4a K124R and peptide 2K V9M). Mutagenesis analysis showed that the mutations in structural genes nonselectively enhance viral infection in both naïve and replicon-containing BHK-21 cells; in contrast, the mutations in nonstructural genes more selectively enhance viral replication in the replicon-containing cells than in the naïve cells. Mechanistic analysis showed that the envelope mutation functions through the enhancement of virion attachment to BHK-21 cells, whereas the 2K mutation (and, to a lesser extent, the NS4a mutation) functions through the enhancement of viral RNA synthesis. Furthermore, we show that WNV superinfection exclusion is reversible by the treatment of the replicon cells with a flavivirus inhibitor. The preestablished replication of the replicon could be suppressed by infecting the cells with the 2K mutant WNV but not with the wild-type virus. These results suggest that WNV superinfection exclusion is a result of competition for intracellular host factors that are required for viral RNA synthesis. PMID:19726510

  5. The Immune Responses of the Animal Hosts of West Nile Virus: A Comparison of Insects, Birds, and Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. H. Ahlers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vector-borne diseases, including arboviruses, pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. Arboviruses of the flavivirus genus, such as Zika virus (ZIKV, dengue virus, yellow fever virus (YFV, and West Nile virus (WNV, are transmitted to humans from insect vectors and can cause serious disease. In 2017, over 2,000 reported cases of WNV virus infection occurred in the United States, with two-thirds of cases classified as neuroinvasive. WNV transmission cycles through two different animal populations: birds and mosquitoes. Mammals, particularly humans and horses, can become infected through mosquito bites and represent dead-end hosts of WNV infection. Because WNV can infect diverse species, research on this arbovirus has investigated the host response in mosquitoes, birds, humans, and horses. With the growing geographical range of the WNV mosquito vector and increased human exposure, improved surveillance and treatment of the infection will enhance public health in areas where WNV is endemic. In this review, we survey the bionomics of mosquito species involved in Nearctic WNV transmission. Subsequently, we describe the known immune response pathways that counter WNV infection in insects, birds, and mammals, as well as the mechanisms known to curb viral infection. Moreover, we discuss the bacterium Wolbachia and its involvement in reducing flavivirus titer in insects. Finally, we highlight the similarities of the known immune pathways and identify potential targets for future studies aimed at improving antiviral therapeutic and vaccination design.

  6. Equine seroprevalence rates as an additional indicator for a more accurate risk assessment of the West Nile virus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignjević, Goran; Vrućina, Ivana; Sestak, Ivana; Turić, Natasa; Bogojević, Mirta Sudarić; Merdić, Enrih

    2013-09-01

    The West Nile Virus (WNV) is a zoonotic arbovirus that has recently been causing outbreaks in many countries in southern and Central Europe. In 2012, for the first time, it caused an outbreak in eastern Croatia with total of 7 human clinical cases. With an aim of assisting public health personnel in order to improve survey protocols and vector control, the high risk areas of the WNV transmission were estimated and mapped. The study area included cities of Osijek and Slavonski Brod and 8 municipalities in Vukovarsko-Srijemska County. Risk estimation was based on seroprevalence of WNV infections in horses as an indicator of the virus presence, as well as the presence of possible WNV mosquito vectors with corresponding vector competences. Four mosquito species considered as possible WNV vectors are included in this study: Aedes vexans, Culex modestus, Culex pipiens and Ochlerotatus caspius. Mosquitoes were sampled using dry-ice baited CDC trap, twice a month, between May and October. This study suggests that the two mosquito species present the main risk of WNV transmission in eastern Croatia: the Culex pipiens--because of good vector competence and the Aedes vexans--because of the very high abundances. As a result, these two species should be focus of future mosquito surveillance and a vector control management.

  7. Antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, Danelle M; Llizo, Shirley Yeo; Miller, Christine L; Glaser, Amy L

    2007-06-01

    West Nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the United States since 1999. Five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for West Nile virus: black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor), American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis), and Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). All birds were vaccinated intramuscularly at least twice with a commercially available inactivated whole virus vaccine (Innovator). Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species.

  8. West Nile virus equine serosurvey in the Czech and Slovak Republics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Ludvíková, E.; Jahn, P.; Treml, F.; Rudolf, Ivo; Svobodová, Petra; Šikutová, Silvie; Betášová, Lenka; Bíreš, J.; Mojžíš, M.; Tinák, M.; Boldižár, M.; Citsoňová, G.; Staššíková, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 10 (2013), s. 733-738 ISSN 1530-3667 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Flavivirus * Mosquito-borne virus * West Nile virus * Neutralizing antibodies * Horses Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.531, year: 2013

  9. West Nile virus isolated from a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in northwestern Missouri, USA, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica R; Lash, R Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry M; Godsey, Marvin S; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nicholson, William L; Brault, Aaron C; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-10-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology.

  10. Unusual case of West Nile Virus flaccid paralysis in a 10-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Farouq I; Servinsky, Sarah E; Naz, Fareeha; Kovas, Teresa E; Raghib, Timur O

    2013-05-01

    West Nile virus infection is asymptomatic in most cases. West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease includes encephalitis, meningitis, and/or acute flaccid paralysis. In children, acute flaccid paralysis as the solo presentation of West Nile virus disease is rare. It develops abruptly and progresses rapidly early in the disease course. We report on a 10-year-old child who presented with a slowly progressive left leg flaccid paralysis over 4 weeks. He tested positive for West Nile virus in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Spinal MRI showed enhancement of the ventral nerve roots. This was also supported by electrophysiological studies. One week after the plateauing of his left leg paralysis, he was readmitted to the hospital with left hand weakness. Complete recovery of his recurrent weakness was observed after prompt 5-day course of intravenous immunoglobulin G therapy. However, no improvement was noticed in the left foot drop. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of West Nile virus disease in children presented with a slowly progressive flaccid paralysis, and a recurrent weakness recovered after intravenous immunoglobulin G administration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of Temperature to Improve West Nile Virus Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, J. L.; DeFelice, N.; Schneider, Z.; Little, E.; Barker, C.; Caillouet, K.; Campbell, S.; Damian, D.; Irwin, P.; Jones, H.; Townsend, J.

    2017-12-01

    Ecological and laboratory studies have demonstrated that temperature modulates West Nile virus (WNV) transmission dynamics and spillover infection to humans. Here we explore whether the inclusion of temperature forcing in a model depicting WNV transmission improves WNV forecast accuracy relative to a baseline model depicting WNV transmission without temperature forcing. Both models are optimized using a data assimilation method and two observed data streams: mosquito infection rates and reported human WNV cases. Each coupled model-inference framework is then used to generate retrospective ensemble forecasts of WNV for 110 outbreak years from among 12 geographically diverse United States counties. The temperature-forced model improves forecast accuracy for much of the outbreak season. From the end of July until the beginning of October, a timespan during which 70% of human cases are reported, the temperature-forced model generated forecasts of the total number of human cases over the next 3 weeks, total number of human cases over the season, the week with the highest percentage of infectious mosquitoes, and the peak percentage of infectious mosquitoes that were on average 5%, 10%, 12%, and 6% more accurate, respectively, than the baseline model. These results indicate that use of temperature forcing improves WNV forecast accuracy and provide further evidence that temperatures influence rates of WNV transmission. The findings help build a foundation for implementation of a statistically rigorous system for real-time forecast of seasonal WNV outbreaks and their use as a quantitative decision support tool for public health officials and mosquito control programs.

  12. West Nile Virus Encephalitis in a Patient with Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Deldar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Oftentimes, when patients with metastatic cancer present with acute encephalopathy, it is suspected to be secondary to their underlying malignancy. However, there are multiple causes of delirium such as central nervous system (CNS infections, electrolyte abnormalities, and drug adverse reactions. Because West Nile Virus (WNV neuroinvasive disease has a high mortality rate in immunosuppressed patients, a high index of suspicion is required in patients who present with fever, altered mental status, and other neurological symptoms. Observations. Our case report details a single patient with brain metastases who presented with unexplained fever, encephalopathy, and new-onset tremors. Initially, it was assumed that his symptoms were due to his underlying malignancy or seizures. However, because his unexplained fevers persisted, lumbar puncture was pursued. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis included WNV polymerase chain reaction and serologies were ordered which eventually led to diagnosis of WNV encephalitis. Conclusions and Relevance. Patients with metastatic cancer who present with encephalopathy are often evaluated with assumption that malignancy is the underlying etiology. This can lead to delays in diagnosis and possible mistreatment. Our case highlights the importance of maintaining a broad differential diagnosis and an important diagnostic consideration of WNV encephalitis in patients with cancer.

  13. Climate change projections of West Nile virus infections in Europe: implications for blood safety practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Jan C; Tran, Annelise; Espinosa, Laura; Sudre, Bertrand; Domanovic, Dragoslav; Paz, Shlomit

    2016-03-08

    West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted by mosquitoes in both urban as well as in rural environments and can be pathogenic in birds, horses and humans. Extrinsic factors such as temperature and land use are determinants of WNV outbreaks in Europe, along with intrinsic factors of the vector and virus. With a multivariate model for WNV transmission we computed the probability of WNV infection in 2014, with July 2014 temperature anomalies. We applied the July temperature anomalies under the balanced A1B climate change scenario (mix of all energy sources, fossil and non-fossil) for 2025 and 2050 to model and project the risk of WNV infection in the future. Since asymptomatic infections are common in humans (which can result in the contamination of the donated blood) we estimated the predictive prevalence of WNV infections in the blood donor population. External validation of the probability model with 2014 cases indicated good prediction, based on an Area Under Curve (AUC) of 0.871 (SD = 0.032), on the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC). The climate change projections for 2025 reveal a higher probability of WNV infection particularly at the edges of the current transmission areas (for example in Eastern Croatia, Northeastern and Northwestern Turkey) and an even further expansion in 2050. The prevalence of infection in (blood donor) populations in the outbreak-affected districts is expected to expand in the future. Predictive modelling of environmental and climatic drivers of WNV can be a valuable tool for public health practice. It can help delineate districts at risk for future transmission. These areas can be subjected to integrated disease and vector surveillance, outreach to the public and health care providers, implementation of personal protective measures, screening of blood donors, and vector abatement activities.

  14. Five-year surveillance of West Nile and eastern equine encephalitis viruses in Southeastern Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Karin C; Diallo, Alpha A; Herbert, Marcia W; Phaltankar, Priyarshadan G; Yuan, Christine; Grefe, Norman; Flemming, Agnes; Foley, Kirby; Williams, Jason; Fisher, Sandra L; Elberfeld, Michael; Constantine, Juan; Burcham, Mitchell; Stallings, Valerie; Xia, Dongxiang

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the occurrence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE) in southeastern Virginia, the Bureau of Laboratories at the Norfolk Department of Public Health (NDPH) analyzed mosquito pools and the sera of sentinel chickens from the southeastern Virginia area each year from 2000 to 2004. Mosquito pool supernatants were screened for the presence of viral RNA by conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Taqman RT-PCR with the i-Cycler. Mosquito pools were also tested for virus activity by Vero cell culture. The primary enzootic vector of WNV was Culex (Cx.) pipiens and that of EEE was Culiseta (Cs.) melanura. During the five-year surveillance period, the peak minimum infection rates (MIRs) of WNV and EEE in these mosquito species were 2.7 (2002) and 0.9 (2001), respectively. In 2003, the MIRs in Cs. melanura for WNV and EEE were 0.24 and 0.56, respectively; and the MIR for WNV in Cx. pipiens was 0.64. In 2004, Cs. melanura was less active in the WNV transmission cycle (MIR = 0.07) than was Cx. pipiens (MIR = 1.8), and Cs. melanura was the only vector for EEE (MIR = 0.37). The trend was for EEE activity to peak in July; WNV activity peaked in August. Sentinel-chicken sera were tested for IgM antibodies, and peak IgM seroconversions to these arboviruses were recorded in August 2003 for WNV and in July 2003 for EEE. In 2004, the highest IgM seroconversions to EEE occurred later in August. The overall trend of arbovirus activity was greater in 2003 than in 2004.

  15. Land cover variation and West Nile virus prevalence: Patterns, processes, and implications for disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Milheim, L.E.; Coffey, M.F.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    Identifying links between environmental variables and infectious disease risk is essential to understanding how human-induced environmental changes will effect the dynamics of human and wildlife diseases. Although land cover change has often been tied to spatial variation in disease occurrence, the underlying factors driving the correlations are often unknown, limiting the applicability of these results for disease prevention and control. In this study, we described associations between land cover composition and West Nile virus (WNV) infection prevalence, and investigated three potential processes accounting for observed patterns: (1) variation in vector density; (2) variation in amplification host abundance; and (3) variation in host community composition. Interestingly, we found that WNV infection rates among Culex mosquitoes declined with increasing wetland cover, but wetland area was not significantly associated with either vector density or amplification host abundance. By contrast, wetland area was strongly correlated with host community composition, and model comparisons suggested that this factor accounted, at least partially, for the observed effect of wetland area on WNV infection risk. Our results suggest that preserving large wetland areas, and by extension, intact wetland bird communities, may represent a valuable ecosystem-based approach for controlling WNV outbreaks. ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  16. Co-circulation of West Nile virus and distinct insect-specific flaviviruses in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergünay, Koray; Litzba, Nadine; Brinkmann, Annika; Günay, Filiz; Sarıkaya, Yasemen; Kar, Sırrı; Örsten, Serra; Öter, Kerem; Domingo, Cristina; Erisoz Kasap, Özge; Özkul, Aykut; Mitchell, Luke; Nitsche, Andreas; Alten, Bülent; Linton, Yvonne-Marie

    2017-03-20

    Active vector surveillance provides an efficient tool for monitoring the presence or spread of emerging or re-emerging vector-borne viruses. This study was undertaken to investigate the circulation of flaviviruses. Mosquitoes were collected from 58 locations in 10 provinces across the Aegean, Thrace and Mediterranean Anatolian regions of Turkey in 2014 and 2015. Following morphological identification, mosquitoes were pooled and screened by nested and real-time PCR assays. Detected viruses were further characterised by sequencing. Positive pools were inoculated onto cell lines for virus isolation. Next generation sequencing was employed for genomic characterisation of the isolates. A total of 12,711 mosquito specimens representing 15 species were screened in 594 pools. Eleven pools (2%) were reactive in the virus screening assays. Sequencing revealed West Nile virus (WNV) in one Culex pipiens (s.l.) pool from Thrace. WNV sequence corresponded to lineage one clade 1a but clustered distinctly from the Turkish prototype isolate. In 10 pools, insect-specific flaviviruses were characterised as Culex theileri flavivirus in 5 pools of Culex theileri and one pool of Cx. pipiens (s.l.), Ochlerotatus caspius flavivirus in two pools of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius, Flavivirus AV-2011 in one pool of Culiseta annulata, and an undetermined flavivirus in one pool of Uranotaenia unguiculata from the Aegean and Thrace regions. DNA forms or integration of the detected insect-specific flaviviruses were not observed. A virus strain, tentatively named as "Ochlerotatus caspius flavivirus Turkey", was isolated from an Ae. caspius pool in C6/36 cells. The viral genome comprised 10,370 nucleotides with a putative polyprotein of 3,385 amino acids that follows the canonical flavivirus polyprotein organisation. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses revealed the close relationship of this strain with Ochlerotatus caspius flavivirus from Portugal and Hanko virus from Finland. Several

  17. Cullin4 Is Pro-Viral during West Nile Virus Infection of Culex Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradkar, Prasad N; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard; Rodriguez-Andres, Julio; Trinidad, Lee; Walker, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Although mosquitoes serve as vectors of many pathogens of public health importance, their response to viral infection is poorly understood. It also remains to be investigated whether viruses deploy some mechanism to be able to overcome this immune response. Here, we have used an RNA-Seq approach to identify differentially regulated genes in Culex quinquefasciatus cells following West Nile virus (WNV) infection, identifying 265 transcripts from various cellular pathways that were either upregulated or downregulated. Ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway genes, comprising 12% of total differentially regulated genes, were selected for further validation by real time RT-qPCR and functional analysis. It was found that treatment of infected cells with proteasomal inhibitor, MG-132, decreased WNV titers, indicating importance of this pathway during infection process. In infection models, the Culex ortholog of mammalian Cul4A/B (cullin RING ubiquitin ligase) was found to be upregulated in vitro as well as in vivo, especially in midguts of mosquitoes. Gene knockdown using dsRNA and overexpression studies indicated that Culex Cul4 acts as a pro-viral protein by degradation of CxSTAT via ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway. We also show that gene knockdown of Culex Cul4 leads to activation of the Jak-STAT pathway in mosquitoes leading to decrease viral replication in the body as well as saliva. Our results suggest a novel mechanism adopted by WNV to overcome mosquito immune response and increase viral replication.

  18. Avian diversity and West Nile virus: testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of several high profile infectious diseases in recent years has focused attention on our need to understand the ecological factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases. West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The factors accounting for variation in the prevalence of WNV are poorly understood, but recentideas suggesting links between high biodiversity and reduced vector-borne disease risk may help account for distribution patterns of this disease. Since wild birds are the primary reservoir hosts for WNV, we tested associations between passerine (Passeriform) bird diversity, non-passerine (all other orders) bird diversity and virus infection rates in mosquitoes and humans to examine the extent to which bird diversity is associated with WNV infection risk. We found t h at non-passerine species richness (number of non-passerine species) was significantly negatively correlated with both mosquito and human infection rates, whereas there was no significant association between passerine species richness and any measure of infection risk. Our findings suggest that non-passerine diversity may play a role in dampening WNV amplification rates in mosquitoes, minimizing human disease risk.

  19. Susceptibility of fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) to West Nile virus by oral exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiawsirisup, Sonthaya; Blitvich, Bradley J; Tucker, Bradley J; Halbur, Patrick G; Bartholomay, Lyric C; Rowley, Wayne A; Platt, Kenneth B

    2010-03-01

    Fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) (five of eight) were infected with West Nile virus (WNV) when challenged by the oral route with 10(2.3) or 10(3.4) plaque forming units (PFU). The mean maximum serum WNV titer of infected fox squirrels was 10(5.1) PFU/mL and ranged from 10(4.6) to 10(5.6) PFU/mL. These levels of viremia are infectious for several mosquito vectors of WNV. This virus was also isolated from swabs of the oral and rectal cavities, and urine swabs between day 5 and 9 postexposure (p.e.) in amounts as high as 10(2.0), 10(2.8), and 10(2) PFU, respectively. WNV RNA was detected in salivary gland and/or kidney tissue of three squirrels between day 65 and 72 p.e. in the presence of WNV neutralizing antibody, suggesting that long-term persistent infection occurs in fox squirrels. These observations justify further studies to determine if nonarthropod transmission and long-term persistent infection occur naturally in fox squirrels and contribute to trans-seasonal maintenance of WNV.

  20. Cullin4 Is Pro-Viral during West Nile Virus Infection of Culex Mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad N Paradkar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although mosquitoes serve as vectors of many pathogens of public health importance, their response to viral infection is poorly understood. It also remains to be investigated whether viruses deploy some mechanism to be able to overcome this immune response. Here, we have used an RNA-Seq approach to identify differentially regulated genes in Culex quinquefasciatus cells following West Nile virus (WNV infection, identifying 265 transcripts from various cellular pathways that were either upregulated or downregulated. Ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway genes, comprising 12% of total differentially regulated genes, were selected for further validation by real time RT-qPCR and functional analysis. It was found that treatment of infected cells with proteasomal inhibitor, MG-132, decreased WNV titers, indicating importance of this pathway during infection process. In infection models, the Culex ortholog of mammalian Cul4A/B (cullin RING ubiquitin ligase was found to be upregulated in vitro as well as in vivo, especially in midguts of mosquitoes. Gene knockdown using dsRNA and overexpression studies indicated that Culex Cul4 acts as a pro-viral protein by degradation of CxSTAT via ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway. We also show that gene knockdown of Culex Cul4 leads to activation of the Jak-STAT pathway in mosquitoes leading to decrease viral replication in the body as well as saliva. Our results suggest a novel mechanism adopted by WNV to overcome mosquito immune response and increase viral replication.

  1. Stress hormones predict a host superspreader phenotype in the West Nile virus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, Stephanie; Burgan, Sarah; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Martin, Lynn B.

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoid stress hormones, such as corticosterone (CORT), have profound effects on the behaviour and physiology of organisms, and thus have the potential to alter host competence and the contributions of individuals to population- and community-level pathogen dynamics. For example, CORT could alter the rate of contacts among hosts, pathogens and vectors through its widespread effects on host metabolism and activity levels. CORT could also affect the intensity and duration of pathogen shedding and risk of host mortality during infection. We experimentally manipulated songbird CORT, asking how CORT affected behavioural and physiological responses to a standardized West Nile virus (WNV) challenge. Although all birds became infected after exposure to the virus, only birds with elevated CORT had viral loads at or above the infectious threshold. Moreover, though the rate of mortality was faster in birds with elevated CORT compared with controls, most hosts with elevated CORT survived past the day of peak infectiousness. CORT concentrations just prior to inoculation with WNV and anti-inflammatory cytokine concentrations following viral exposure were predictive of individual duration of infectiousness and the ability to maintain physical performance during infection (i.e. tolerance), revealing putative biomarkers of competence. Collectively, our results suggest that glucocorticoid stress hormones could directly and indirectly mediate the spread of pathogens.

  2. Wild Birds in Romania Are More Exposed to West Nile Virus Than to Newcastle Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Niculae, Mihaela; Páll, Emőke; Domşa, Cristian; Brudaşcă, Florinel Ghe; Spînu, Marina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in wild and domestic birds from Romania. During 2011-2014, 159 plasma samples from wild birds assigned to 11 orders, 27 families, and 61 species and from 21 domestic birds (Gallus gallus domesticus, Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) were collected. The sera were assayed by two commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) kits for antibodies against WNV and NDV. We found a high prevalence of WNV antibodies in both domestic (19.1%) and wild (32.1%) birds captured after the human epidemic in 2010. Moreover, the presence of anti-NDV antibodies among wild birds from Romania (5.4%) was confirmed serologically for the first time, as far as we are aware. Our findings provide evidence that wild birds, especially resident ones are involved in local West Nile and Newcastle disease enzootic and epizootic cycles. These may allow virus maintenance and spread and also enhance the chance of new outbreaks.

  3. Analysis of YouTube as a source of information for West Nile Virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Amritphale, Amod; Sawhney, Anshudha; Dubey, Devashish; Srivastav, Nupur

    2014-12-01

    A major outbreak of West Nile Virus was seen last year in different parts of the United States. Adequate dissemination of correct information about the disease would have helped decrease its spread and the associated panic in the general population. In this study, we looked into the use of YouTube as a resource for providing information about West Nile Virus infection. This study aims to identify and evaluate YouTube as resource for providing information on West Nile Virus infection to the general public. YouTube was searched on November 25, 2012, using the keywords West Nile Virus epidemic, West Nile Virus infection, and West Nile Virus prevention for videos uploaded in the past 6 months containing relevant information about the disease. The videos were classified as useful, misleading, or as news updates based on the type of information contained. Total viewership, number of days since upload, total duration of videos, and source of upload were noted. A total of 106 videos with information on West Nile Virus infection were included in the study, with 79.24% having useful information about the disease. Among the useful videos, 51/84 (60.71%) had information on disease prevention, and 29/84 (34.52%) contained information on news and research updates. The majority of these videos were uploaded by individuals (54.6%) or news agencies (41.8 %). Healthcare agencies contributed only 3.4 % of the total videos. Even though the useful videos represented 72% of all videos, there was significantly higher total viewership and viewership per day for the non-useful videos (PYouTube may be a significant resource for dissemination of information on public health issues like West Nile virus infection and should be targeted by healthcare agencies for this use. The major drawback of this medium is lack of verification by authorized healthcare professionals before these videos are made available for viewing by the community. Hence, a strict caution should be exercised in obtaining

  4. Review of West Nile virus circulation and outbreak risk in Madagascar: Entomological and ornithological perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Tantely, Micha?l Luciano; Goodman, Steven M.; Rakotondranaivo, Tsirinaina; Boyer, S?bastien

    2016-01-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) is a zoonotic disease, occurring nearly globally. In Madagascar, West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in 1978 from wild birds and the virus is currently distributed across the island, but no epidemic or epizootic period has been recorded. One fatal human case of WNV infection was reported in 2011, suggesting a “tip of the iceberg” phenomenon of a possible WNF epidemic/epizootic on the island. The main objective of this literature-based survey is to review patterns of...

  5. Adult-onset opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome due to West Nile Virus treated with intravenous immunoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Julien; Armstrong, David; Daneman, Nick; Jain, Jennifer Deborah; Perry, James

    2017-02-01

    A 63-year-old female with no significant past medical history was presented with a 5-day history of progressive opsoclonus-myoclonus, headaches, and fevers. Her workup was significant only for positive West-Nile Virus serum serologies. She received a 2-day course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IvIG). At an 8-week follow up, she had a complete neurological remission. Adult-onset opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome is a rare condition for which paraneoplastic and infectious causes have been attributed. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported of opsoclonus-myoclonus secondary to West-Nile Virus treated with intravenous immunoglobulin monotherapy.

  6. Culex pipiens and Culex torrentium populations from Central Europe are susceptible to West Nile virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayke Leggewie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV, a Flavivirus with an avian primary host, is already widespread in Europe and might also pose an infection risk to Germany, should competent mosquito vectors be present. Therefore, we analysed the ability of WNV to infect German Culex mosquitoes with special emphasis on field collected specimens of Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens biotype pipiens. We collected egg rafts of Culex mosquitoes over two subsequent seasons at two geographically distinct sampling areas in Germany and differentiated the samples by molecular methods. Adult females, reared from the various egg rafts, were challenged with WNV by feeding of artificial blood meals. WNV infection was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and virus titration. The results showed that field collected C. pipiens biotype pipiens and C. torrentium mosquitoes native to Germany are susceptible to WNV infection at 25 °C as well as 18 °C incubation temperature. C. torrentium mosquitoes, which have not been established as WNV vector so far, were the most permissive species tested with maximum infection rates of 96% at 25 °C. Furthermore, a disseminating infection was found in up to 94% of tested C. pipiens biotype pipiens and 100% of C. torrentium. Considering geographical variation of susceptibility, C. pipiens biotype pipiens mosquitoes from Southern Germany were more susceptible to WNV infection than corresponding populations from Northern Germany. All in all, we observed high infection and dissemination rates even at a low average ambient temperature of 18 °C. The high susceptibility of German Culex populations for WNV indicates that an enzootic transmission cycle in Germany could be possible.

  7. West Nile virus and greater sage-grouse: estimating infection rate in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brett L; Naugle, David E; Doherty, Kevin E; Cornish, Todd E

    2007-09-01

    Understanding impacts of disease on wild bird populations requires knowing not only mortality rate following infection, but also the proportion of the population that is infected. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in western North America are known to have a high mortality rate following infection with West Nile virus (WNv), but actual infection rates in wild populations remain unknown. We used rates of WNv-related mortality and seroprevalence from radiomarked females to estimate infection rates in a wild greater sage-grouse population in the Powder River basin (PRB) of Montana and Wyoming from 2003 to 2005. Minimum WNv-related mortality rates ranged from 2.4% to 13.3% among years and maximum possible rates ranged from 8.2% to 28.9%. All live-captured birds in 2003 and 2004 tested seronegative. In spring 2005 and spring 2006, 10.3% and 1.8% respectively, of newly captured females tested seropositive for neutralizing antibodies to WNv. These are the first documented cases of sage-grouse surviving infection with WNv. Low to moderate WNv-related mortality in summer followed by low seroprevalence the following spring in all years indicates that annual infection rates were between 4% and 29%. This suggests that most sage-grouse in the PRB have not yet been exposed and remain susceptible. Impacts of WNv in the PRB in the near future will likely depend more on annual variation in temperature and changes in vector distribution than on the spread of resistance. Until the epizootiology of WNv in sagebrush-steppe ecosystems is better understood, we suggest that management to reduce impacts of WNv focus on eliminating man-made water sources that support breeding mosquitoes known to vector the virus. Our findings also underscore problems with using seroprevalence as a surrogate for infection rate and for identifying competent hosts in highly susceptible species.

  8. Limited spillover to humans from West Nile Virus viremic birds in Atlanta, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Rebecca S; Mead, Daniel G; Kitron, Uriel D

    2013-11-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that impacts the health of its passerine bird hosts as well as incidentally infected humans in the United States. Intensive enzootic activity among the hosts and vectors does not always lead to human outbreaks, as is the situation throughout much of the southeastern United States. In Georgia, substantial yearly evidence of WNV in the mosquito vectors and avian hosts since 2001 has only led to 324 human cases. Although virus has been consistently isolated from mosquitoes trapped in Atlanta, GA, little is known about viral activity among the passerine hosts. A possible reason for the suppression of WNV spillover to humans is that viremic birds are absent from high human-use areas of the city. To test this hypothesis, multiseason, multihabitat, longitudinal WNV surveillance for active WNV viremia was conducted within the avian host community of urban Atlanta by collection of blood samples from wild passerine birds in five urban microhabitats. WNV was isolated from the serum of six blood samples collected from 630 (0.95%) wild passerine birds in Atlanta during 2010-2012, a proportion similar to that found in the Chicago, IL, area in 2005, when over 200 human cases were reported. Most of the viremic birds were Northern Cardinals, suggesting they may be of particular importance to the WNV transmission cycle in Georgia. Results indicated active WNV transmission in all microhabitats of urban Atlanta, except in the old-growth forest patches. The number of viremic birds was highest in Zoo Atlanta, where 3.5% of samples were viremic. Although not significant, these observations may suggest a possible transmission reduction effect of urban old-growth forests and a potential role in WNV amplification for Zoo Atlanta. Overall, spillover to humans remains a rare occurrence in urban Atlanta settings despite active WNV transmission in the avian population.

  9. Identification of Climatic Factors Affecting the Epidemiology of Human West Nile Virus Infections in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilianakis, Nikolaos I; Syrris, Vasileios; Petroliagkis, Thomas; Pärt, Peeter; Gewehr, Sandra; Kalaitzopoulou, Stella; Mourelatos, Spiros; Baka, Agoritsa; Pervanidou, Danai; Vontas, John; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Climate can affect the geographic and seasonal patterns of vector-borne disease incidence such as West Nile Virus (WNV) infections. We explore the association between climatic factors and the occurrence of West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND) in humans in Northern Greece over the years 2010-2014. Time series over a period of 30 years (1979-2008) of climatic data of air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, wind speed, and precipitation representing average climate were obtained utilising the ECMWF's (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) system allowing for a homogeneous set of data in time and space. We analysed data of reported human cases of WNF/WNND and Culex mosquitoes in Northern Greece. Quantitative assessment resulted in identifying associations between the above climatic variables and reported human cases of WNF/WNND. A substantial fraction of the cases was linked to the upper percentiles of the distribution of air and soil temperature for the period 1979-2008 and the lower percentiles of relative humidity and soil water content. A statistically relevant relationship between the mean weekly value climatic anomalies of wind speed (negative association), relative humidity (negative association) and air temperature (positive association) over 30 years, and reported human cases of WNF/WNND during the period 2010-2014 could be shown. A negative association between the presence of WNV infected Culex mosquitoes and wind speed could be identified. The statistically significant associations could also be confirmed for the week the WNF/WNND human cases appear and when a time lag of up to three weeks was considered. Similar statistically significant associations were identified with the weekly anomalies of the maximum and minimum values of the above climatic factors. Utilising the ERA-Interim re-analysis methodology it could be shown that besides air

  10. Identification of Climatic Factors Affecting the Epidemiology of Human West Nile Virus Infections in Northern Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos I Stilianakis

    Full Text Available Climate can affect the geographic and seasonal patterns of vector-borne disease incidence such as West Nile Virus (WNV infections. We explore the association between climatic factors and the occurrence of West Nile fever (WNF or West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND in humans in Northern Greece over the years 2010-2014. Time series over a period of 30 years (1979-2008 of climatic data of air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, wind speed, and precipitation representing average climate were obtained utilising the ECMWF's (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim system allowing for a homogeneous set of data in time and space. We analysed data of reported human cases of WNF/WNND and Culex mosquitoes in Northern Greece. Quantitative assessment resulted in identifying associations between the above climatic variables and reported human cases of WNF/WNND. A substantial fraction of the cases was linked to the upper percentiles of the distribution of air and soil temperature for the period 1979-2008 and the lower percentiles of relative humidity and soil water content. A statistically relevant relationship between the mean weekly value climatic anomalies of wind speed (negative association, relative humidity (negative association and air temperature (positive association over 30 years, and reported human cases of WNF/WNND during the period 2010-2014 could be shown. A negative association between the presence of WNV infected Culex mosquitoes and wind speed could be identified. The statistically significant associations could also be confirmed for the week the WNF/WNND human cases appear and when a time lag of up to three weeks was considered. Similar statistically significant associations were identified with the weekly anomalies of the maximum and minimum values of the above climatic factors. Utilising the ERA-Interim re-analysis methodology it could be shown that besides

  11. Integrated Human Surveillance Systems of West Nile Virus Infections in Italy: The 2012 Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Napoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, a West Nile virus (WNV surveillance plan was firstly implemented in 2008 and 2009 in two affected regions and, since 2010, according to a national plan, a WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND surveillance has to be carried out each year during the period 15 June–30 November, in those regions where WNV circulation has been demonstrated among humans, animals or vectors. Moreover, since WNV can be transmitted to humans even by blood transfusions and organ transplants obtained from infected donors, the national surveillance integrates the blood transfusions and organs transplant surveillances too. The paper describes the results of this integrated human surveillance in Italy in 2012. Overall, in 2012, 28 autochthonous confirmed cases of WNND were reported, 14 blood donations were found WNV positive by Nucleic Acid Amplification Test and no solid organ donors tested positive for WNV. Moreover, 17 cases of WNV fever were confirmed in Veneto region. When comparing the number of WNND cases reported to the surveillance system in previous 4 years (43 cases during the period 2008–2011, with those reported in 2012 an important increase was observed in 2012. The geographic distribution of human cases was consistent with the WNV circulation among animals and vectors. Moreover, the implementation of preventive measures for WNV transmission through blood components allowed the detection of blood donors positive for WNV, avoiding the further spread of the disease. Since surveillance strategies and preventive measures are based on the integration among human, animal and vector control activities, the Italian experience could be considered a good example of collaboration among different sectors of public health in a “one health” perspective.

  12. Evasion and disruption of innate immune signalling by hepatitis C and West Nile viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Mehul S; Gale, Michael; Owen, David M

    2009-06-01

    Signalling pathways leading to type I interferon production are the first line of defence employed by the host to combat viruses, and represent a barrier that an invading virus must overcome in order to establish infection. In this review we highlight the ability of two members of the Flaviviridae, a globally distributed family of RNA viruses that represent a significant public health concern, to disrupt and evade these defences. Hepatitis C virus is a hepatotropic virus, infecting greater than 170 million people worldwide, while West Nile virus is a neurotropic virus that causes encephalitis in humans and horses. While these viruses cause distinct disease phenotypes, the ability of pathogenic strains to modulate the innate immune response is a key factor in influencing disease outcome. Both viruses have evolved unique strategies to target various aspects of type I interferon induction and signalling in order to prevent viral clearance and to promote virus replication.

  13. Phenotypic Variation among Culex pipiens Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations from the Sacramento Valley, California: Horizontal and Vertical Transmission of West Nile Virus, Diapause Potential, Autogeny, and Host Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, Brittany M.; Kothera, Linda; Thiemann, Tara; Macedo, Paula A.; Savage, Harry M.; Reisen, William K.

    2013-01-01

    The vector competence and bionomics of Culex pipiens form pipiens L. and Cx. pipiens f. molestus Forskäl were evaluated for populations from the Sacramento Valley. Both f. pipiens and f. molestus females became infected, produced disseminated infections, and were able to transmit West Nile virus. Form molestus females also transmitted West Nile virus vertically to egg rafts and F1 progeny, whereas f. pipiens females only transmitted to egg rafts. Culex pipiens complex from urban Sacramento blood-fed on seven different avian species and two mammalian species. Structure analysis of blood-fed mosquitoes identified K = 4 genetic clusters: f. molestus, f. pipiens, a group of genetically similar hybrids (Cluster X), and admixed individuals. When females were exposed as larvae to midwinter conditions in bioenvironmental chambers, 85% (N = 79) of aboveground Cx. pipiens complex females and 100% (N = 34) of underground f. molestus females did not enter reproductive diapause. PMID:24043690

  14. West Nile Virus and Usutu Virus Monitoring of Wild Birds in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Michel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By systematically setting up a unique nation-wide wild bird surveillance network, we monitored migratory and resident birds for zoonotic arthropod-borne virus infections, such as the flaviviruses West Nile virus (WNV and Usutu virus (USUV. More than 1900 wild bird blood samples, from 20 orders and 136 different bird species, were collected between 2014 and 2016. Samples were investigated by WNV and USUV-specific real-time polymerase chain reactions as well as by differentiating virus neutralization tests. Dead bird surveillance data, obtained from organ investigations in 2016, were also included. WNV-specific RNA was not detected, whereas four wild bird blood samples tested positive for USUV-specific RNA. Additionally, 73 USUV-positive birds were detected in the 2016 dead bird surveillance. WNV neutralizing antibodies were predominantly found in long-distance, partial and short-distance migrants, while USUV neutralizing antibodies were mainly detected in resident wild bird species, preferentially with low seroprevalences. To date, WNV-specific RNA has neither been detected in wild birds, nor in mosquitoes, thus, we conclude that WNV is not yet present in Germany. Continued wild bird and mosquito monitoring studies are essential to detect the incursion of zoonotic viruses and to allow risk assessments for zoonotic pathogens.

  15. West Nile Virus and Usutu Virus Monitoring of Wild Birds in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Friederike; Fast, Christine; Reuschel, Maximilian; Müller, Kerstin; Urbaniak, Sylvia; Brandes, Florian; Schwehn, Rebekka; Groschup, Martin H.; Ziegler, Ute

    2018-01-01

    By systematically setting up a unique nation-wide wild bird surveillance network, we monitored migratory and resident birds for zoonotic arthropod-borne virus infections, such as the flaviviruses West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV). More than 1900 wild bird blood samples, from 20 orders and 136 different bird species, were collected between 2014 and 2016. Samples were investigated by WNV and USUV-specific real-time polymerase chain reactions as well as by differentiating virus neutralization tests. Dead bird surveillance data, obtained from organ investigations in 2016, were also included. WNV-specific RNA was not detected, whereas four wild bird blood samples tested positive for USUV-specific RNA. Additionally, 73 USUV-positive birds were detected in the 2016 dead bird surveillance. WNV neutralizing antibodies were predominantly found in long-distance, partial and short-distance migrants, while USUV neutralizing antibodies were mainly detected in resident wild bird species, preferentially with low seroprevalences. To date, WNV-specific RNA has neither been detected in wild birds, nor in mosquitoes, thus, we conclude that WNV is not yet present in Germany. Continued wild bird and mosquito monitoring studies are essential to detect the incursion of zoonotic viruses and to allow risk assessments for zoonotic pathogens. PMID:29361762

  16. West Nile Virus positive blood donation and subsequent entomological investigation, Austria, 2014

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolodziejek, J.; Seidel, B.; Jungbauer, C.; Dimmel, K.; Kolodziejek, M.; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Allerberger, F.; Nowotny, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2015), e0126381 E-ISSN 1932-6203 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile virus * Austria Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  17. West Nile Virus Outbreak in Houston and Harris County, Texas, USA, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Diana; Murray, Kristy O; Reyna, Martin; Arafat, Raouf R; Gorena, Roberto; Shah, Umair A; Debboun, Mustapha

    2017-08-01

    Since 2002, West Nile virus (WNV) has been detected every year in Houston and the surrounding Harris County, Texas. In 2014, the largest WNV outbreak to date occurred, comprising 139 cases and causing 2 deaths. Additionally, 1,286 WNV-positive mosquito pools were confirmed, the most reported in a single mosquito season.

  18. Importance of bird-to-bird transmission for the establishment of West Nile Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, N.A.; Davis, S.A.; Reiter, P.; Hubálek, Z.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2007-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is principally considered to be maintained in a mosquito–bird transmission cycle. Under experimental conditions, several other transmission routes have been observed, but the significance of these additional routes in nature is unknown. Here, we derive an expression for the

  19. Screening for West Nile virus infections of susceptible animal species in Austria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weissenböck, H.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Halouzka, Jiří; Pichlmair, A.; Maderner, A.; Fragner, K.; Kolodziejek, J.; Loupal, G.; Kölbl, S.; Nowotny, N.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 131, c. 2 (2003), s. 1023-1027 ISSN 0950-2688 Grant - others:Hochschuljubiläumsstiftung der Stadt Wien(AT) - Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : West Nile virus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.509, year: 2003

  20. Human Monoclonal Antibodies against West Nile Virus Induced by Natural Infection Neutralize at a Postattachment Step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Matthew R.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Goudsmit, Jaap; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Austin, S. Kyle; Oliphant, Theodore; Nelson, Steevenson; Pierson, Theodore C.; Wilschut, Jan; Throsby, Mark; Diamond, Michael S.

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that is now a primary cause of epidemic encephalitis in North America. Studies of mice have demonstrated that the humoral immune response against WNV limits primary infection and protects against a secondary challenge. The most-potent neutralizing

  1. Human monoclonal antibodies against West Nile virus induced by natural infection neutralize at a postattachment step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Matthew R.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Goudsmit, Jaap; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Austin, S. Kyle; Oliphant, Theodore; Nelson, Steevenson; Pierson, Theodore C.; Wilschut, Jan; Throsby, Mark; Diamond, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that is now a primary cause of epidemic encephalitis in North America. Studies of mice have demonstrated that the humoral immune response against WNV limits primary infection and protects against a secondary challenge. The most-potent neutralizing

  2. West nile virus anti-body surveillance in three Sierra Nevada raptors of conservation concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Hull; J.J. Keane; L.A. Tell; H.B. Ernest

    2010-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection has caused high levels of mortality in North American hawks and owls. To investigate the extent of infection among raptors of conservation concern in the Sierra Nevada, we tested 62 Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), 209 Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis), and 22 Great Gray Owls (...

  3. Can reconstructed land surface temperature data from space predict a West Nile Virus outbreak?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreo, V.; Metz, J.C.M.; Neteler, M.; Rosà, R.; Marcantonio, M.; Billinis, C.; Rizzoli, A.; Papa, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Temperature is one of the main drivers of ecological processes. The availability of temporally and spatially continuous temperature time series is crucial in different research and application fields, such as epidemiology and control of zoonotic diseases. In 2010, several West Nile virus (WNV)

  4. West Nile Virus RNA in Tissues from Donor Associated with Transmission to Organ Transplant Recipients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-11-19

    William Hale reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ dispatch, West Nile Virus RNA in Tissues from Donor Associated with Transmission to Organ Transplant Recipients.  Created: 11/19/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/21/2013.

  5. Comparison of assays for the detection of West Nile virus antibodies in chicken serum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weingartl, H. M.; Drebot, M. A.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Halouzka, Jiří; Andonova, M.; Dibernardo, A.; Cottam-Birt, C.; Larence, J.; Marszal, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2003), s. 128-132 ISSN 0830-9000 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : West Nile virus Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.101, year: 2003 http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=227040&blobtype=pdf

  6. New evidence for the potential role of Culex pipiens mosquitoes in the transmission cycle of West Nile virus in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krida, G; Rhim, A; Daaboub, J; Failloux, A-B; Bouattour, A

    2015-06-01

    Physiological and molecular characteristics of natural populations of Culex pipiens Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Culicidae) were investigated to elucidate how this species is potentially involved in the transmission of West Nile virus in Tunisia. A total of 215 Cx. pipiens females from 11 breeding habitats were analysed in the laboratory to estimate autogeny and stenogamy rates. They were tested individually for the locus CQ11 to distinguish between the two Cx. pipiens forms, pipiens and molestus. All tested Cx. pipiens populations were stenogamous. Females from underground breeding sites were all autogeneous, whereas females from above-ground habitats were mostly anautogeneous. Of all the females tested, 59.7% were identified as pipiens, 22.4% as molestus, and 17.9% as hybrid pipiens/molestus. Furthermore, both Cx. pipiens forms and their hybrids were found to co-occur in sympatry in all sites. The results of this study represent the first evidence that both Cx. pipiens forms and their hybrids are present in Tunisia. Because hybrids able to act as bridge vectors are present in all studied habitats, Tunisia can be considered to have a high degree of receptivity for the establishment of West Nile virus zoonotic cycles. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  7. Estimating the economic impact of a possible equine and human epidemic of West Nile virus infection in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humblet, Marie-France; Vandeputte, Sébastien; Fecher-Bourgeois, Fabienne; Léonard, Philippe; Gosset, Christiane; Balenghien, Thomas; Durand, Benoît; Saegerman, Claude

    2016-08-04

    This study aimed at estimating, in a prospective scenario, the potential economic impact of a possible epidemic of WNV infection in Belgium, based on 2012 values for the equine and human health sectors, in order to increase preparedness and help decision-makers. Modelling of risk areas, based on the habitat suitable for Culex pipiens, the main vector of the virus, allowed us to determine equine and human populations at risk. Characteristics of the different clinical forms of the disease based on past epidemics in Europe allowed morbidity among horses and humans to be estimated. The main costs for the equine sector were vaccination and replacement value of dead or euthanised horses. The choice of the vaccination strategy would have important consequences in terms of cost. Vaccination of the country's whole population of horses, based on a worst-case scenario, would cost more than EUR 30 million; for areas at risk, the cost would be around EUR 16-17 million. Regarding the impact on human health, short-term costs and socio-economic losses were estimated for patients who developed the neuroinvasive form of the disease, as no vaccine is available yet for humans. Hospital charges of around EUR 3,600 for a case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease and EUR 4,500 for a case of acute flaccid paralysis would be the major financial consequence of an epidemic of West Nile virus infection in humans in Belgium. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  8. High Prevalence of West Nile Virus in Domestic Birds and Detection in 2 New Mosquito Species in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquart, Marianne; Boyer, Sébastien; Rakotoharinome, Vincent Michel; Ravaomanana, Julie; Tantely, Michael Luciano; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Cardinale, Eric

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne zoonosis transmitted by a large number of mosquito species, and birds play a key role as reservoir of the virus. Its distribution is largely widespread over Africa, Asia, the Americas and Europe. Since 1978, it has frequently been reported in Madagascar. Studies described a high seroprevalence level of the virus in humans in different areas of the island and a human fatal case of WNV infection was reported in 2011. Despite these reports, the epidemiology of WNV in Madagascar, in particular, viral circulation remains unclear. To explore the transmission of WNV in two rural human populations of Madagascar, we investigated local mosquitoes and poultry for evidence of current infections, and determined seroprevalence of candidate sentinel species among the local poultry. These 2 areas are close to lakes where domestic birds, migratory wild birds and humans coexist. Serological analysis revealed WNV antibodies in domestic birds (duck, chicken, goose, turkey and guinea fowl) sampled in both districts (Antsalova 29.4% and Mitsinjo 16.7%). West Nile virus nucleic acid was detected in one chicken and in 8 pools of mosquitoes including 2 mosquito species (Aedeomyia madagascarica and Anopheles pauliani) that have not been previously described as candidate vectors for WNV. Molecular analysis of WNV isolates showed that all viruses detected were part of the lineage 2 that is mainly distributed in Africa, and were most closely matched by the previous Malagasy strains isolated in 1988. Our study showed that WNV circulates in Madagascar amongst domestic birds and mosquitoes, and highlights the utility of poultry as a surveillance tool to detect WNV transmission in a peri-domestic setting.

  9. High Prevalence of West Nile Virus in Domestic Birds and Detection in 2 New Mosquito Species in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Maquart

    Full Text Available West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne zoonosis transmitted by a large number of mosquito species, and birds play a key role as reservoir of the virus. Its distribution is largely widespread over Africa, Asia, the Americas and Europe. Since 1978, it has frequently been reported in Madagascar. Studies described a high seroprevalence level of the virus in humans in different areas of the island and a human fatal case of WNV infection was reported in 2011. Despite these reports, the epidemiology of WNV in Madagascar, in particular, viral circulation remains unclear. To explore the transmission of WNV in two rural human populations of Madagascar, we investigated local mosquitoes and poultry for evidence of current infections, and determined seroprevalence of candidate sentinel species among the local poultry. These 2 areas are close to lakes where domestic birds, migratory wild birds and humans coexist. Serological analysis revealed WNV antibodies in domestic birds (duck, chicken, goose, turkey and guinea fowl sampled in both districts (Antsalova 29.4% and Mitsinjo 16.7%. West Nile virus nucleic acid was detected in one chicken and in 8 pools of mosquitoes including 2 mosquito species (Aedeomyia madagascarica and Anopheles pauliani that have not been previously described as candidate vectors for WNV. Molecular analysis of WNV isolates showed that all viruses detected were part of the lineage 2 that is mainly distributed in Africa, and were most closely matched by the previous Malagasy strains isolated in 1988. Our study showed that WNV circulates in Madagascar amongst domestic birds and mosquitoes, and highlights the utility of poultry as a surveillance tool to detect WNV transmission in a peri-domestic setting.

  10. Viruses vector control proposal: genus Aedes emphasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Nogueira Reis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The dengue fever is a major public health problem in the world. In Brazil, in 2015, there were 1,534,932 cases, being 20,320 cases of severe form, and 811 deaths related to this disease. The distribution of Aedes aegypti, the vector, is extensive. Recently, Zika and Chikungunya viruses had arisen, sharing the same vector as dengue and became a huge public health issue. Without specific treatment, it is urgently required as an effective vector control. This article is focused on reviewing vector control strategies, their effectiveness, viability and economical impact. Among all, the Sterile Insect Technique is highlighted as the best option to be adopted in Brazil, once it is largely effectively used in the USA and Mexico for plagues related to agribusiness.

  11. Seroprevalence screening for the West Nile virus in Malaysia's Orang Asli population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlina, Suria; Radzi, Siti Fatimah Muhd; Lani, Rafidah; Sieng, Khor Chee; Rahim, Nurul Farhana Abdul; Hassan, Habibi; Li-Yen, Chang; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2014-12-17

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by an RNA virus of the genus Flavivirus. WNV is preserved in the environment through cyclic transmission, with mosquitoes, particularly Culex species, serving as a vector, birds as an amplifying host and humans and other mammals as dead-end hosts. To date, no studies have been carried out to determine the prevalence of the WNV antibody in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to screen for the seroprevalence of the WNV in Malaysia's Orang Asli population. Serum samples of 742 Orang Asli were collected in seven states in peninsular Malaysia. The samples were assessed to determine the seroprevalence of WNV immunoglobulin (Ig)G with the WNV IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. For each individual, we documented the demographic factors. Anti-dengue and anti-tick-borne encephalitis virus IgG ELISA were also performed to rule out a cross reaction. All statistical analyses were performed using the GraphPad Prism 6 (GraphPad Software, Inc.); p values of less than 0.05 were considered significant. The serosurvey included 298 men (40.16%) and 444 women (59.84%) of Malaysia's Orang Asli. Anti-WNV IgG was found in 9 of the 742 samples (1.21%). The seroprevalence was 0.67% (2 of 298) in men and 1.58% (7 of 444) in women. The presence of anti-WNV IgG was found not to be associated with gender but, however, did correlate with age. The peak seroprevalence was found to be 2.06% (2 of 97) in individuals between 30 to 42 years of age. No previous studies have examined the seroprevalence of the WNV antibody in the human population in Malaysia, and no clinical reports of infections have been made. Screening for the WNV seroprevalence is very significant because of many risk factors contribute to the presence of WNV in Malaysia, such as the abundance of Culex mosquitoes as the main vector and a high degree of biodiversity, including migratory birds that serve as a reservoir to the virus.

  12. Interferon-λ restricts West Nile virus neuroinvasion by tightening the blood-brain barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Lazear, Helen M.; Daniels, Brian P.; Pinto, Amelia K.; Huang, Albert C.; Vick, Sarah C.; Doyle, Sean E.; Gale, Michael; Klein, Robyn S.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Although interferon-λ [also known as type III interferon or interleukin-28 (IL-28)/IL-29] restricts infection by several viruses, its inhibitory mechanism has remained uncertain. We used recombinant interferon-λ and mice lacking the interferon-λ receptor (IFNLR1) to evaluate the effect of interferon-λ on infection with West Nile virus, an encephalitic flavivirus. Cell culture studies in mouse keratinocytes and dendritic cells showed no direct antiviral effect of exogenous interferon-λ, even t...

  13. Serologic survey of potential vertebrate hosts for West Nile Virus in Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Wegner, E.; Halouzka, Jiří; Tryjanowski, P.; Jerzak, L.; Šikutová, Silvie; Rudolf, Ivo; Kruszewicz, A. G.; Jaworski, Z.; Włodarczyk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2008), s. 247-254 ISSN 0882-8245 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930611 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : antibodies – West Nile virus – Usutu virus – Flavivirus * Poland * birds * horses Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.949, year: 2008

  14. Interferon-λ restricts West Nile virus neuroinvasion by tightening the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazear, Helen M; Daniels, Brian P; Pinto, Amelia K; Huang, Albert C; Vick, Sarah C; Doyle, Sean E; Gale, Michael; Klein, Robyn S; Diamond, Michael S

    2015-04-22

    Although interferon-λ [also known as type III interferon or interleukin-28 (IL-28)/IL-29] restricts infection by several viruses, its inhibitory mechanism has remained uncertain. We used recombinant interferon-λ and mice lacking the interferon-λ receptor (IFNLR1) to evaluate the effect of interferon-λ on infection with West Nile virus, an encephalitic flavivirus. Cell culture studies in mouse keratinocytes and dendritic cells showed no direct antiviral effect of exogenous interferon-λ, even though expression of interferon-stimulated genes was induced. We observed no differences in West Nile virus burden between wild-type and Ifnlr1(-/-) mice in the draining lymph nodes, spleen, or blood. We detected increased West Nile virus infection in the brain and spinal cord of Ifnlr1(-/-) mice, yet this was not associated with a direct antiviral effect in mouse neurons. Instead, we observed an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability in Ifnlr1(-/-) mice. Treatment of mice with pegylated interferon-λ2 resulted in decreased blood-brain barrier permeability, reduced West Nile virus infection in the brain without affecting viremia, and improved survival against lethal virus challenge. An in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier showed that interferon-λ signaling in mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells increased transendothelial electrical resistance, decreased virus movement across the barrier, and modulated tight junction protein localization in a protein synthesis- and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)-independent manner. Our data establish an indirect antiviral function of interferon-λ in which noncanonical signaling through IFNLR1 tightens the blood-brain barrier and restricts viral neuroinvasion and pathogenesis. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Quantifying the Risk of Introduction of West Nile Virus into Great Britain by Migrating Passerine Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessell, P R; Robinson, R A; Golding, N; Searle, K R; Handel, I G; Boden, L A; Purse, B V; Bronsvoort, B M de C

    2016-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito borne arbovirus that circulates within avian reservoirs. WNV can spill over into humans and Equidae that are dead-end hosts for WNV but suffer fever, acute morbidity and sometimes death. Outbreaks of WNV are common across Africa and Eastern Europe, and there have also been sporadic outbreaks in Spain and the Camargue Regional Park in France, but never in Great Britain (GB). These areas all fall along a major bird migration route. In this study, we analyse a scenario in which WNV is circulating in the Camargue or in other wetland areas in France and we estimate the risk of northward migrating passerine birds stopping in a WNV hotspot, becoming infected and carrying active infection to GB. If the disease were circulating in the Camargue during a single migratory season, the probability that one or more migrating birds becomes infected and lands in GB whilst still infected is 0.881 with 0.384 birds arriving in areas of suitable vector habitat. However, if WNV became established in the Grand Brière National Park or La Brenne Regional Park wetland areas further to the north, the model predicts that at least one infected bird will continue to GB. Thus, GB is at risk of WNV introduction from the Camargue, but the risk is considerably greater if WNV were to circulate further north than its previous focus in France, but this is highly sensitive to the force of infection in the infected area. However, the risk of establishment and infection of humans in GB is dependent upon a number of additional factors, in particular the vector and epidemiological situation in GB. © 2014 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. An Operational System for Surveillance and Ecological Forecasting of West Nile Virus Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Davis, J. K.; Vincent, G.; Hess, A.; Hildreth, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Mosquito-borne disease surveillance has traditionally focused on tracking human cases along with the abundance and infection status of mosquito vectors. For many of these diseases, vector and host population dynamics are also sensitive to climatic factors, including temperature fluctuations and the availability of surface water for mosquito breeding. Thus, there is a potential to strengthen surveillance and predict future outbreaks by monitoring environmental risk factors using broad-scale sensor networks that include earth-observing satellites. The South Dakota Mosquito Information System (SDMIS) project combines entomological surveillance with gridded meteorological data from NASA's North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) to generate weekly risk maps for West Nile virus (WNV) in the north-central United States. Critical components include a mosquito infection model that smooths the noisy infection rate and compensates for unbalanced sampling, and a human infection model that combines the entomological risk estimates with lagged effects of meteorological variables from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). Two types of forecasts are generated: long-term forecasts of statewide risk extending through the entire WNV season, and short-term forecasts of the geographic pattern of WNV risk in the upcoming week. Model forecasts are connected to public health actions through decision support matrices that link predicted risk levels to a set of phased responses. In 2016, the SDMIS successfully forecast an early start to the WNV season and a large outbreak of WNV cases following several years of low transmission. An evaluation of the 2017 forecasts will also be presented. Our experiences with the SDMIS highlight several important lessons that can inform future efforts at disease early warning. These include the value of integrating climatic models with recent observations of infection, the critical role of automated workflows to facilitate

  17. Short report: Changes in West Nile virus seroprevalence and antibody titers among Wisconsin mesopredators 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, D.E.; Samuel, M.D.; Egstad, K.F.; Griffin, K.M.; Nolden, C.A.; Karwal, L.; Ip, Hon S.

    2009-01-01

    After the 2001 occurrence of West Nile virus (WNV) in Wisconsin (WI), we collected sera, during 2003-2006, from south-central WI mesopredators. We tested these sera to determine WNV antibody prevalence and geometric mean antibody titer (GMAT). Four-fold higher antibody prevalence and 2-fold higher GMAT in 2003-2004 indicated greater exposure of mesopredators to WNV during the apparent epizootic phase. The period 2005-2006 was likely the enzootic phase because WNV antibody prevalence fell to a level similar to other flaviviruses. Our results suggest that, in mesopredators, vector-borne transmission is the primary route of infection and WNV antibodies persist for complement dead crow surveillance by providing additional data for the timing of public health interventions. Research is needed to clarify the dynamics of WNV infection in these mammals and their role as potential WNV amplifiers. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Clinical and pathologic features of lineage 2 West Nile virus infections in birds of prey in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdélyi, Károly; Ursu, Krisztina; Ferenczi, Emöke; Szeredi, Levente; Rátz, Ferenc; Skáre, József; Bakonyi, Tamás

    2007-01-01

    In the southeast of Hungary a sparrow hawk (Accipiter nisus) and several goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) fledglings succumbed to encephalitis manifesting as an acute neurological disease during the summers of 2004 and 2005. Both years the causative agent was identified as a lineage 2 West Nile virus. This is the first description of clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical findings of infection caused by a neuroinvasive, lineage 2 West Nile virus and the first evidence of its circulation in continental Europe.

  19. Plant Virus Expression Vector Development: New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hefferon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant made biologics have elicited much attention over recent years for their potential in assisting those in developing countries who have poor access to modern medicine. Additional applications such as the stockpiling of vaccines against pandemic infectious diseases or potential biological warfare agents are also under investigation. Plant virus expression vectors represent a technology that enables high levels of pharmaceutical proteins to be produced in a very short period of time. Recent advances in research and development have brought about the generation of superior virus expression systems which can be readily delivered to the host plant in a manner that is both efficient and cost effective. This review presents recent innovations in plant virus expression systems and their uses for producing biologics from plants.

  20. THE PASSAGE AND DURATION OF ANTIBODIES TO WEST NILE VIRUS IN HUMBOLDT PENGUINS (SPHENISCUS HUMBOLDTI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Andrew C; Dubovi, Edward; Erb, Hollis N; Georoff, Timothy A; Abou-Madi, Noha

    2017-03-01

    West Nile virus (genus Flavivirus) outbreaks and mortality events have been documented in both wild and captive avian species, including penguins. Serologic response to vaccination in avian species has varied and appears to be largely species dependent; however, Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) previously showed excellent rates of seroconversion. The goal of this study was to determine virus neutralization titers of 17 Humboldt penguin hens and their subsequent eggs, chicks, or both following vaccination with a killed West Nile vaccine. Chicks were also vaccinated at 56, 70, and 84 days old. Titers were measured from 10-346 days prior to lay as well as serially in seven chicks. Data collected showed positive rank correlation between maternal titers and yolk titers (ρ = 0.90, P penguin chicks based on a time-dependent decline in maternal antibody titers. Cell-mediated immunity and experimental challenge following vaccination have not yet been investigated in this species.

  1. Evaluating red-cockaded woodpeckers for exposure to West Nile Virus and blood parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; Richardson, D.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Heisey, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    A marked decline in the Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpecker [RCW]) population at Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge, MS, was observed in 2002. Demographic changes - including absence of hatch-year birds, decreases in size of known groups, and loss of known groups-were identified during annual fall surveys and are uncharacteristic of RCW populations. In 2003, a serosurvey of 28 adult RCWs was conducted to investigate the presence of West Nile virus (WNV) exposure in the population, possibly providing insight into whether WNV may have been responsible for this decline. Blood smears were also examined from these birds for blood parasites. We found no evidence of West Nile virus exposure or blood parasites in any of the RCWs sampled. Further monitoring of the RCW population and WNV activity in other species at Noxubee NWR is recommended to further evaluate the potential role of WNV and blood parasites in their decline.

  2. Persistence of Antibodies to West Nile Virus in Naturally Infected Rock Pigeons (Columba livia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Samantha E. J.; Hoffman, Douglas M.; Stark, Lillian M.; Marlenee, Nicole L.; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Beaty, Barry J.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Wild caught rock pigeons (Columba livia) with antibodies to West Nile virus were monitored for 15 months to determine antibody persistence and compare results of three serologic techniques. Antibodies persisted for the entire study as detected by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and plaque reduction neutralization test. Maternal antibodies in squabs derived from seropositive birds persisted for an average of 27 days. PMID:15879030

  3. Clinical pathology results from cranes with experimental West Nile Virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    2011-01-01

    Sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) were vaccinated for and then challenged with West Nile virus. Resulting titers demonstrated protection in the vaccinated-challenged cranes as compared to the unvaccinated-challenged cranes. Clinical pathology results showed challenged cranes, whether vaccinated or not, had a decrease in their hematocrits and an elevation of 2.5-fold in their white blood cell counts as compared to unchallenged control sandhill cranes. No differences were apparent in the differential counts of heterophils and lymphocytes.

  4. Raccoons in San Diego County as Sentinels for West Nile Virus Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Marikos, Sarah C.; Ferran, Karen L.; Iniguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Gurfield, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential of utilizing raccoons as sentinels for West Nile Virus (WNV) in an effort to guide public health surveillance, prevention, and control efforts. Introduction Since its detection in 1999 in New York, WNV spread westward across the continent, and was first detected in California in 2003 in Imperial County (1). In California and in many states, birds, especially corvids, are used as sentinel animals to detect WNV activity. Recent seroprevalence studies have ...

  5. Antibody Prophylaxis and Therapy against West Nile Virus Infection in Wild-Type and Immunodeficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Engle, Michael J.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2003-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus that causes encephalitis in a subset of susceptible humans. Current treatment for WNV infections is supportive, and no specific therapy or vaccine is available. In this study, we directly tested the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of polyclonal antibodies against WNV. Passive administration of human gamma globulin or mouse serum prior to WNV infection protected congenic wild-type, B-cell-deficient (μMT), and T- and B-cell-deficient (R...

  6. The Importance of Haematological and Biochemical Findings in Patients with West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević Aleksandar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease (WNND occurs in less than 1% of infected people. Leukocytosis with lymphocytopenia, mild anaemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver and muscle enzymes and hyponatremia are occasionally present in patients with WNND. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF findings resemble other viral neuroinfections. The purpose of this study is to present some of the most important laboratory findings of our patients with WNND and to evaluate their correlation with fatal outcome.

  7. Identifying the environmental conditions favouring West Nile Virus outbreaks in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Marcantonio

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV is a globally important mosquito borne virus, with significant implications for human and animal health. The emergence and spread of new lineages, and increased pathogenicity, is the cause of escalating public health concern. Pinpointing the environmental conditions that favour WNV circulation and transmission to humans is challenging, due both to the complexity of its biological cycle, and the under-diagnosis and reporting of epidemiological data. Here, we used remote sensing and GIS to enable collation of multiple types of environmental data over a continental spatial scale, in order to model annual West Nile Fever (WNF incidence across Europe and neighbouring countries. Multi-model selection and inference were used to gain a consensus from multiple linear mixed models. Climate and landscape were key predictors of WNF outbreaks (specifically, high precipitation in late winter/early spring, high summer temperatures, summer drought, occurrence of irrigated croplands and highly fragmented forests. Identification of the environmental conditions associated with WNF outbreaks is key to enabling public health bodies to properly focus surveillance and mitigation of West Nile virus impact, but more work needs to be done to enable accurate predictions of WNF risk.

  8. Distribution and abundance of host-seeking Culex species at three proximate locations with different levels of West Nile virus activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, I.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Campbell, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Culex species were monitored at three proximate sites with historically different West Nile virus (WNV) activities. The site with human WNV transmission (epidemic) had the lowest abundance of the putative bridge vectors, Culex pipiens and Cx. salinarius. The site with horse cases but not human cases (epizootic) had the highest percent composition of Cx. salinarius, whereas the site with WNV-positive birds only (enzootic) had the highest Cx. pipiens abundance and percent composition. A total of 29 WNV-positive Culex pools were collected at the enzootic site, 17 at the epidemic site, and 14 at the epizootic site. Published models of human risk using Cx. pipiens and Cx. salinarius as the primary bridge vectors did not explain WNV activity at our sites. Other variables, such as additional vector species, environmental components, and socioeconomic factors, need to be examined to explain the observed patterns of WNV epidemic activity.

  9. Fluid spatial dynamics of West Nile virus in the USA: Rapid spread in a permissive host environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giallonardo , Francesca; Geoghegan, Jemma L.; Docherty, Douglas E.; McLean, Robert G.; Zody, Michael C.; Qu, James; Yang, Xiao; Birren, Bruce W.; Malboeuf, Christine M.; Newman, R.; Ip, Hon S.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America in 1999 is a classical example of viral emergence in a new environment, with its subsequent dispersion across the continent having a major impact on local bird populations. Despite the importance of this epizootic, the pattern, dynamics and determinants of WNV spread in its natural hosts remain uncertain. In particular, it is unclear whether the virus encountered major barriers to transmission, or spread in an unconstrained manner, and if specific viral lineages were favored over others indicative of intrinsic differences in fitness. To address these key questions in WNV evolution and ecology we sequenced the complete genomes of approximately 300 avian isolates sampled across the USA between 2001-2012. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a relatively ‘star-like' tree structure, indicative of explosive viral spread in US, although with some replacement of viral genotypes through time. These data are striking in that viral sequences exhibit relatively limited clustering according to geographic region, particularly for those viruses sampled from birds, and no strong phylogenetic association with well sampled avian species. The genome sequence data analysed here also contain relatively little evidence for adaptive evolution, particularly on structural proteins, suggesting that most viral lineages are of similar fitness, and that WNV is well adapted to the ecology of mosquito vectors and diverse avian hosts in the USA. In sum, the molecular evolution of WNV in North America depicts a largely unfettered expansion within a permissive host and geographic population with little evidence of major adaptive barriers.

  10. Transcriptomic analyses reveal differential gene expression of immune and cell death pathways in the brains of mice infected with West Nile virus and chikungunya virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Lim (Stephanie); H.J. van den Ham; M. Oduber (Minoushka); Martina, E. (Eurydice); F. Zaaraoui-Boutahar (Fatiha); J.M. Roose (Jeroen M.); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A.C. Andeweg (Arno); P. Koraka (P.); B.E.E. Martina (Byron)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWest Nile virus (WNV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are arboviruses that are constantly (re-)emerging and expanding their territory. Both viruses often cause a mild form of disease, but severe forms of the disease can consist of neurological symptoms, most often observed in the elderly

  11. Understanding West Nile virus ecology in Europe: Culex pipiens host feeding preference in a hotspot of virus emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, Annapaola; Bolzoni, Luca; Chadwick, Elizabeth A; Capelli, Gioia; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Grisenti, Michela; de la Puente, Josue Martínez; Muñoz, Joaquin; Figuerola, Jordi; Soriguer, Ramon; Anfora, Gianfranco; Di Luca, Marco; Rosà, Roberto

    2015-04-09

    Understanding wildlife disease ecology is becoming an urgent need due to the continuous emergence and spread of several wildlife zoonotic diseases. West Nile Virus (WNV) is the most widespread arthropod-borne virus in the world, and in recent decades there has been an increase both in geographic range, and in the frequency of symptomatic infections in humans and wildlife. The principal vector for WNV in Europe is the common house Culex pipiens mosquito, which feeds on a wide variety of vertebrate host species. Variation in mosquito feeding preference has been described as one of the most influential parameters driving intensity and timing of WNV infection in the United States, but feeding preferences for this species have been little studied in Europe. Here, we estimated feeding preference for wild Cx. pipiens in northern Italy, using molecular analysis to identify the origin of blood meals, and avian census to control host abundance variations. Additionally, we used host bird odour extracts to test experimentally mosquito preferences in the absence of environmental variations. For the first time, we demonstrate a clear feeding preference for the common blackbird (Turdus merula), both for wild collected specimens and in the lab, suggesting a potential important role for this species in the WNV epidemiology in Europe. A seasonal decrease in abundance of blackbirds is associated with increased feeding on Eurasian magpies (Pica pica), and this may be linked to seasonal emergence of WNV in humans. Feeding preferences on blackbirds are more marked in rural areas, while preference for magpies is higher in peridomestic areas. Other species, such as the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) appear to be selected by mosquitoes opportunistically in relation to its abundance. Our findings provide new insights into the ecology of Cx. pipiens in Europe and may give useful indications in terms of implementing targeted WNV surveillance plans. However, a clearer understanding of

  12. Immune Responses to West Nile Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyelim Cho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV continues to cause outbreaks of severe neuroinvasive disease in humans and other vertebrate animals in the United States, Europe, and other regions of the world. This review discusses our understanding of the interactions between virus and host that occur in the central nervous system (CNS, the outcome of which can be protection, viral pathogenesis, or immunopathogenesis. We will focus on defining the current state of knowledge of WNV entry, tropism, and host immune response in the CNS, all of which affect the balance between injury and successful clearance.

  13. Seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in Feral Horses on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States

    OpenAIRE

    Franson, J. Christian; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Collins, Gail H.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    We screened 1,397 feral horses (Equus caballus) on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States, for IgM and IgG against flavivirus during 2004–2006, 2008, and 2009. Positive serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). One animal was positive for antibody against WNV in 2004, but all others tested in 2004–2006 were negative. In 2008 and 2009, we found evidence of increasing seropositive horses with age, whe...

  14. Data fusion and machine learning to identify threat vectors for the Zika virus and classify vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentle, J. N., Jr.; Kahn, A.; Pierce, S. A.; Wang, S.; Wade, C.; Moran, S.

    2016-12-01

    With the continued spread of the zika virus in the United States in both Florida and Virginia, increased public awareness, prevention and targeted prediction is necessary to effectively mitigate further infection and propagation of the virus throughout the human population. The goal of this project is to utilize publicly accessible data and HPC resources coupled with machine learning algorithms to identify potential threat vectors for the spread of the zika virus in Texas, the United States and globally by correlating available zika case data collected from incident reports in medical databases (e.g., CDC, Florida Department of Health) with known bodies of water in various earth science databases (e.g., USGS NAQWA Data, NASA ASTER Data, TWDB Data) and by using known mosquito population centers as a proxy for trends in population distribution (e.g., WHO, European CDC, Texas Data) while correlating historical trends in the spread of other mosquito borne diseases (e.g., chikungunya, malaria, dengue, yellow fever, west nile, etc.). The resulting analysis should refine the identification of the specific threat vectors for the spread of the virus which will correspondingly increase the effectiveness of the limited resources allocated towards combating the disease through better strategic implementation of defense measures. The minimal outcome of this research is a better understanding of the factors involved in the spread of the zika virus, with the greater potential to save additional lives through more effective resource utilization and public outreach.

  15. A thiopurine drug inhibits West Nile virus production in cell culture, but not in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Pei-Yin; Keating, Julie A; Hoover, Spencer; Striker, Rob; Bernard, Kristen A

    2011-01-01

    Many viruses within the Flavivirus genus cause significant disease in humans; however, effective antivirals against these viruses are not currently available. We have previously shown that a thiopurine drug, 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (6MMPr), inhibits replication of distantly related viruses within the Flaviviridae family in cell culture, including bovine viral diarrhea virus and hepatitis C virus replicon. Here we further examined the potential antiviral effect of 6MMPr on several diverse flaviviruses. In cell culture, 6MMPr inhibited virus production of yellow fever virus, dengue virus-2 (DENV-2) and West Nile virus (WNV) in a dose-dependent manner, and DENV-2 was significantly more sensitive to 6MMPr treatment than WNV. We then explored the use of 6MMPr as an antiviral against WNV in an immunocompetent mouse model. Once a day treatment of mice with 0.5 mg 6MMPr was just below the toxic dose in our mouse model, and this dose was used in subsequent studies. Mice were treated with 6MMPr immediately after subcutaneous inoculation with WNV for eight consecutive days. Treatment with 6MMPr exacerbated weight loss in WNV-inoculated mice and did not significantly affect mortality. We hypothesized that 6MMPr has low bioavailability in the central nervous system (CNS) and examined the effect of pre-treatment with 6MMPr on viral loads in the periphery and CNS. Pre-treatment with 6MMPr had no significant effect on viremia or viral titers in the periphery, but resulted in significantly higher viral loads in the brain, suggesting that the effect of 6MMPr is tissue-dependent. In conclusion, despite being a potent inhibitor of flaviviruses in cell culture, 6MMPr was not effective against West Nile disease in mice; however, further studies are warranted to reduce the toxicity and/or improve the bioavailability of this potential antiviral drug.

  16. A thiopurine drug inhibits West Nile virus production in cell culture, but not in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yin Lim

    Full Text Available Many viruses within the Flavivirus genus cause significant disease in humans; however, effective antivirals against these viruses are not currently available. We have previously shown that a thiopurine drug, 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (6MMPr, inhibits replication of distantly related viruses within the Flaviviridae family in cell culture, including bovine viral diarrhea virus and hepatitis C virus replicon. Here we further examined the potential antiviral effect of 6MMPr on several diverse flaviviruses. In cell culture, 6MMPr inhibited virus production of yellow fever virus, dengue virus-2 (DENV-2 and West Nile virus (WNV in a dose-dependent manner, and DENV-2 was significantly more sensitive to 6MMPr treatment than WNV. We then explored the use of 6MMPr as an antiviral against WNV in an immunocompetent mouse model. Once a day treatment of mice with 0.5 mg 6MMPr was just below the toxic dose in our mouse model, and this dose was used in subsequent studies. Mice were treated with 6MMPr immediately after subcutaneous inoculation with WNV for eight consecutive days. Treatment with 6MMPr exacerbated weight loss in WNV-inoculated mice and did not significantly affect mortality. We hypothesized that 6MMPr has low bioavailability in the central nervous system (CNS and examined the effect of pre-treatment with 6MMPr on viral loads in the periphery and CNS. Pre-treatment with 6MMPr had no significant effect on viremia or viral titers in the periphery, but resulted in significantly higher viral loads in the brain, suggesting that the effect of 6MMPr is tissue-dependent. In conclusion, despite being a potent inhibitor of flaviviruses in cell culture, 6MMPr was not effective against West Nile disease in mice; however, further studies are warranted to reduce the toxicity and/or improve the bioavailability of this potential antiviral drug.

  17. A review of the epidemiological and clinical aspects of West Nile virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray TJ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Timothy J Gray,1 Cameron E Webb2,31Department of Infectious Diseases, St Vincent's Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Medical Entomology, Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology and Pathology West - Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, Westmead, NSW, Australia; 3Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: The resurgence of West Nile virus (WNV in North America and Europe in recent years has raised the concerns of local authorities and highlighted that mosquito-borne disease is not restricted to tropical regions of the world. WNV is maintained in enzootic cycles involving, primarily, Culex spp. mosquitoes and avian hosts, with epizootic spread to mammals, including horses and humans. Human infection results in symptomatic illness in approximately one-fifth of cases and neuroinvasive disease in less than 1% of infected persons. The most consistently recognized risk factor for neuroinvasive disease is older age, although diabetes mellitus, alcohol excess, and a history of cancer may also increase risk. Despite the increasing public health concern, the current WNV treatments are inadequate. Current evidence supporting the use of ribavirin, interferon α, and WNV-specific immunoglobulin are reviewed. Nucleic acid detection has been an important diagnostic development, which is particularly important for the protection of the donated blood supply. While effective WNV vaccines are widely available for horses, no human vaccine has been registered. Uncertainty surrounds the magnitude of future risk posed by WNV, and predictive models are limited by the heterogeneity of environmental, vector, and host factors, even in neighboring regions. However, recent history has demonstrated that for regions where suitable mosquito vectors and reservoir hosts are present, there will be a risk of major epidemics. Given the potential for these outbreaks to

  18. Remote Sensing of Climatic Anomalies and West Nile Virus Risk in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Chuang, T.; Henebry, G. M.; Kimball, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widespread and important mosquito-borne pathogen in North America, and the national resurgence of human WNV cases during the summer of 2012 has highlighted the persistent threat posed by this potentially fatal disease. Advance warning of the timing and locations of WNV outbreaks can help public health officials to more effectively target WNV prevention and control efforts. To this end, we used environmental monitoring data from earth observing satellites to develop environmental indices of WNV risk and applied these indices to model seasonal and interannual patterns of mosquito populations and human disease cases. Our overarching hypothesis is that anomalies of cumulative temperature and moisture throughout the mosquito season affect the risk of WNV transmission to humans through their influences on mosquito populations, bird communities, and the extrinsic incubation period of the virus itself. In a preliminary study, we developed a model of WNV in the northern Great Plains using satellite optical-IR remote sensing products from MODIS, including land surface temperature, vegetation indices, and actual evapotranspiration computed using the simplified surface energy balance method. This model was applied in 2011 and 2012 to forecast spatial patterns of WNV relative risk prior to the main transmission season in July-September. We expanded this modeling approach to a national level using a daily global land surface parameter database developed from the NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E). This dataset provides several novel environmental variables that are potentially relevant to mosquito ecology, including near-surface air temperature, surface soil moisture, fractional open water cover, and estimates of vegetation canopy opacity to microwave emissions at three microwave frequencies. Preliminary analyses demonstrated that higher temperatures during the amplification season are consistently

  19. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of West Nile Virus in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan D. T. Barrett

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV was introduced to New York in 1999 and rapidly spread throughout North America and into parts of Central and South America. Displacement of the original New York (NY99 genotype by the North America/West Nile 2002 (NA/WN02 genotype occurred in 2002 with subsequent identification of a novel genotype in 2003 in isolates collected from the southwestern Unites States region (SW/WN03 genotype. Both genotypes co-circulate to date. Subsequent WNV surveillance studies have confirmed additional genotypes in the United States that have become extinct due to lack of a selective advantage or stochastic effect; however, the dynamic emergence, displacement, and extinction of multiple WNV genotypes in the US from 1999–2012 indicates the continued evolution of WNV in North America.

  20. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of West Nile virus in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Brian R; McMullen, Allison R; Swetnam, Daniele M; Barrett, Alan D T

    2013-10-16

    West Nile virus (WNV) was introduced to New York in 1999 and rapidly spread throughout North America and into parts of Central and South America. Displacement of the original New York (NY99) genotype by the North America/West Nile 2002 (NA/WN02) genotype occurred in 2002 with subsequent identification of a novel genotype in 2003 in isolates collected from the southwestern Unites States region (SW/WN03 genotype). Both genotypes co-circulate to date. Subsequent WNV surveillance studies have confirmed additional genotypes in the United States that have become extinct due to lack of a selective advantage or stochastic effect; however, the dynamic emergence, displacement, and extinction of multiple WNV genotypes in the US from 1999-2012 indicates the continued evolution of WNV in North America.

  1. Pathogenicity of West Nile virus and response to vaccination in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) using a killed vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.; Miller, Kimberli J.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Sileo, Louis

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus was introduced into the United States in the vicinity of New York, New York, USA in 1999. The virus has since killed large numbers of birds nationwide, especially, but not limited to, crows (Corvus brachyrhinchos). One sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) at the Bridgeport Zoo (Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA) reportedly died from West Nile virus, so sandhill cranes and endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana), both in the wild and in captive breeding colonies at United States Geological Service (USGS) Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Laurel, Maryland, USA) were considered at risk. A killed vaccine in sandhill cranes was evaluated by vaccinating and then challenging these cranes with live West Nile virus. No sandhill cranes inoculated with the killed vaccine developed significant titers when compared with unvaccinated controls. No sandhill cranes inoculated with the vaccine and challenged with the virus died from West Nile virus infection. In addition, no unvaccinated challenged sandhill cranes died. However, 2 days postchallenge, vaccinated cranes had significantly less viremia (P vaccinated cranes had significantly less cloacal shedding of the virus (P Vaccinated sandhill cranes developed significantly higher titers 14 days postchallenge and were viremic for shorter periods of time after challenge than unvaccinated individuals. Unvaccinated challenged cranes had glial cell aggregates in both the brain and brain stem areas, and this was not observed in vaccinated challenged cranes or in vaccinated unchallenged cranes.

  2. An Update on the Potential of North American Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to Transmit West Nile Virus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turell, Michael J; Dohm, David J; Sardelis, Michael R; O 'Guinn, Monica L; Andreadis, Theodore G; Blow, Jamie A

    2004-01-01

    .... To develop appropriate surveillance and control strategies, the identification of which mosquito species are competent vectors and how various factors influence their ability to transmit this virus must be determined...

  3. Equine Immunoglobulin and Equine Neutralizing F(ab′2 Protect Mice from West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiannan Cui

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is prevalent in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, West Asia, and North America, and causes epidemic encephalitis. To date, no effective therapy for WNV infection has been developed; therefore, there is urgent need to find an efficient method to prevent WNV disease. In this study, we prepared and evaluated the protective efficacy of immune serum IgG and pepsin-digested F(ab′2 fragments from horses immunized with the WNV virus-like particles (VLP expressing the WNV M and E proteins. Immune equine F(ab′2 fragments and immune horse sera efficiently neutralized WNV infection in tissue culture. The passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly accelerated the virus clearance in the spleens and brains of WNV infected mice, and reduced mortality. Thus, equine immunoglobulin or equine neutralizing F(ab′2 passive immunotherapy is a potential strategy for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of patients infected with WNV.

  4. Equine Immunoglobulin and Equine Neutralizing F(ab')₂ Protect Mice from West Nile Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiannan; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; Qiu, Boning; Cao, Zengguo; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yanbo; Yan, Feihu; Jin, Hongli; Wang, Tiecheng; Sun, Weiyang; Feng, Na; Gao, Yuwei; Sun, Jing; Wang, Yanqun; Perlman, Stanley; Zhao, Jincun; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-12-18

    West Nile virus (WNV) is prevalent in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, West Asia, and North America, and causes epidemic encephalitis. To date, no effective therapy for WNV infection has been developed; therefore, there is urgent need to find an efficient method to prevent WNV disease. In this study, we prepared and evaluated the protective efficacy of immune serum IgG and pepsin-digested F(ab')₂ fragments from horses immunized with the WNV virus-like particles (VLP) expressing the WNV M and E proteins. Immune equine F(ab')₂ fragments and immune horse sera efficiently neutralized WNV infection in tissue culture. The passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly accelerated the virus clearance in the spleens and brains of WNV infected mice, and reduced mortality. Thus, equine immunoglobulin or equine neutralizing F(ab')₂ passive immunotherapy is a potential strategy for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of patients infected with WNV.

  5. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome resulting from Guillain-Barré-like syndrome secondary to West Nile virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Alon; Ziv, Sari; Drory, Vivian E

    2011-03-01

    A 67-year-old woman developed hypertension, drowsiness, hemianopia, ascending flaccid tetraparesis, and areflexia. Nerve conduction studies revealed a demyelinating polyneuropathy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated hyperintense white matter lesions. IgM antibodies against West Nile virus were positive. She was treated for hypertension and with intravenous immunoglobulins and recovered completely within 2 months. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which West Nile virus infection presented as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome associated with Guillain-Barré-like syndrome.

  6. Archival Isolates Confirm a Single Topotype of West Nile Virus in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bixing Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus is globally wide-spread and causes significant disease in humans and animals. The evolution of West Nile virus Kunjin subtype in Australia (WNVKUN was investigated using archival samples collected over a period of 50 years. Based on the pattern of fixed amino acid substitutions and time-stamped molecular clock analyses, a single long-term lineage (or topotype was inferred. This implies that a bottleneck exists such that regional strains eventually die out and are replaced with strains from a single source. This was consistent with current hypotheses regarding the distribution of WNVKUN, whereby the virus is enzootic in northern Australia and is disseminated to southern states by water-birds or mosquitoes after flooding associated with above average rainfall. In addition, two previous amino acid changes associated with pathogenicity, an N-Y-S glycosylation motif in the envelope protein and a phenylalanine at amino acid 653 in the RNA polymerase, were both detected in all isolates collected since the 1980s. Changes primarily occurred due to stochastic drift. One fixed substitution each in NS3 and NS5, subtly changed the chemical environment of important functional groups, and may be involved in fine-tuning RNA synthesis. Understanding these evolutionary changes will help us to better understand events such as the emergence of the virulent strain in 2011.

  7. Assessing the impact of climate change on vector-borne viruses in the EU through the elicitation of expert opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P; Brouwer, A; Ramnial, V; Kelly, L; Kosmider, R; Fooks, A R; Snary, E L

    2010-02-01

    Expert opinion was elicited to undertake a qualitative risk assessment to estimate the current and future risks to the European Union (EU) from five vector-borne viruses listed by the World Organization for Animal Health. It was predicted that climate change will increase the risk of incursions of African horse sickness virus (AHSV), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) into the EU from other parts of the world, with African swine fever virus (ASFV) and West Nile virus (WNV) being less affected. Currently the predicted risks of incursion were lowest for RVFV and highest for ASFV. Risks of incursion were considered for six routes of entry (namely vectors, livestock, meat products, wildlife, pets and people). Climate change was predicted to increase the risk of incursion from entry of vectors for all five viruses to some degree, the strongest effects being predicted for AHSV, CCHFV and WNV. This work will facilitate identification of appropriate risk management options in relation to adaptations to climate change.

  8. Data-driven identification of potential Zika virus vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michelle V; Dallas, Tad A; Han, Barbara A; Murdock, Courtney C; Drake, John M

    2017-01-01

    Zika is an emerging virus whose rapid spread is of great public health concern. Knowledge about transmission remains incomplete, especially concerning potential transmission in geographic areas in which it has not yet been introduced. To identify unknown vectors of Zika, we developed a data-driven model linking vector species and the Zika virus via vector-virus trait combinations that confer a propensity toward associations in an ecological network connecting flaviviruses and their mosquito vectors. Our model predicts that thirty-five species may be able to transmit the virus, seven of which are found in the continental United States, including Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens. We suggest that empirical studies prioritize these species to confirm predictions of vector competence, enabling the correct identification of populations at risk for transmission within the United States. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22053.001 PMID:28244371

  9. West Nile Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro R. Winkelmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV, a neurotropic single-stranded flavivirus has been the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis worldwide.  Up to 50% of WNV convalescent patients in the United States were reported to have long-term neurological sequelae.  Neither antiviral drugs nor vaccines are available for humans.  Animal models have been used to investigate WNV pathogenesis and host immune response in humans.  In this review, we will discuss recent findings from studies in animal models of WNV infection, and provide new insights on WNV pathogenesis and WNV-induced host immunity in the central nervous system.

  10. Novel flavivirus or new lineage of West Nile Virus, central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakonyi, T.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Rudolf, Ivo; Nowotny, N.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2005), s. 225-231 ISSN 1080-6040. [International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases. Al Ain, 26.02.2005-01.03.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/03/0726 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : epidemiology * West Nile virus * Central Europe Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 5.308, year: 2005 http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol11no02/04-1028.htm

  11. Surveillance of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus in chicken eggs in South-West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börstler, Jessica; Engel, Dimitri; Petersen, Mathis; Poggensee, Claudia; Jansen, Stephanie; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Lühken, Renke

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in several European countries increases the risk of its introduction to Germany. This study evaluated a new method for WNV surveillance by testing for maternal antibodies in chicken eggs. A total of 1,990 eggs were collected in 35 sampling sites in the south-west of Germany and tested for WNV-specific antibodies. The results did not indicate evidence for WNV circulation in the study area. This work serves as a proof-of-concept that such a method is useful and a potential alternative to use of sentinel chicken for regular WNV surveillance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. West Nile Virus (WNV seroprevalence in a blood donors group of Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Lunghi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A seroprevalence study for anti West Nile virus was carried out among 864 healthy blood donors living in the metropolitan area of Milan by using a commercially available ELISA method. In addition, the performance of a novel ELISA assay for WNV antibodies was assessed. The sero-prevalence rate of WNV antibodies was 0.57% thus showing that WNV is likely circulating also in this up to now unknown area. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the novel ELISA were 99.9% and 45.4%, respectively, well comparable with that of the chosen reference immunoenzimatic method.

  13. First detection of West Nile virus in domestic pigeon in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C-Yoon; Oh, Hanseul; Song, Juha; Hur, Moonsuk; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Taek; Oh, Hong-Shik; Park, Jae-Hak

    2016-12-30

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen that has spread throughout Europe and the United States. Recently, WNV spread to East and Southeast Asia, and great efforts have been made in South Korea to prevent the spread of WNV from neighboring countries. In this study, we diagnosed the first case of WNV in pigeons ( Columba livia domestica ) residing in cities using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed it with nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis and sequencing. This is the first report to provide convincing evidence that WNV is present within South Korea.

  14. Antibodies to West Nile Virus in Wild and Farmed Crocodiles in Southeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machain-Williams, Carlos; Padilla-Paz, Sergio E.; Weber, Manuel; Cetina-Trejo, Rosa; Juarez-Ordaz, José Alfredo; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Ulloa, Armando; Wang, Chong; Garcia-Rejon, Julián; Blitvich, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance for evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Morelet’s crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) was conducted in Campeche State, Mexico, in 2007. Sera from 62 crocodiles (32 free-ranging and 30 captive) were assayed for antibodies to WNV by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies to WNV were detected in 13 (41%) wild and nine (30%) captive crocodiles, and the overall antibody prevalence was 35%. Although evidence of WNV infection in captive crocodiles has been reported in Mexico, we provide the first evidence of WNV exposure in wild crocodiles in Mexico. PMID:23778623

  15. West Nile virus lineage 2 infection in a blood donor from Vienna, Austria, August 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, C; Hourfar, M K; Stiasny, K; Aberle, S W; Cadar, D; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Mayr, W R

    2015-03-01

    Eastern Austria is neighbouring regions with ongoing West Nile virus (WNV) transmissions. Three human WNV infections had been diagnosed during the past decade in Austria. The Austrian Red Cross Blood Service (ARC-BS) started a first voluntary screening for WNV in blood donors from Eastern Austria by Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) in June 2014. This is also the most extensive WNV surveillance programme in humans in Austria so far. In August 2014, one autochthonous WNV infection was detected in a blood donor from Vienna. By now, one in 67,800 whole blood donations was found to be positive for WNV RNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Serological detection of West Nile virus in horses and chicken from Pantanal, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melandri, Vanessa; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Komar, Nicholas; Nogueira, Maurício L; Mondini, Adriano; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Alencar, Jeronimo; Bosch, Irene

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to detect West Nile virus (WNV) in Brazil, we sampled serum from horses and chickens from the Pantanal region of the state of Mato Grosso and tested for flavivirus-reactive antibodies by blocking ELISA. The positive samples were further confirmed for serological evidence of WNV infection in three (8%) of the 38 horses and one (3.2%) of the 31 chickens using an 80% plaque-reduction neutralisation test (PRNT80). These results provide evidence of the circulation of WNV in chickens and horses in Pantanal. PMID:23295763

  17. Experimental susceptibility of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) for West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik; Porter, Robert E; Franson, J Christian

    2015-04-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in a variety of wild ducks in the US, but little is known about the pathogenesis and outcome of exposure of the disease in these species. Previous experimental studies of WNV in ducks either have challenged a small number of ducks with WNV or have tested domesticated ducks. To determine susceptibility and immune response, we challenged 7-wk-old Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) with a 1999 American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) isolate of WNV. Wood Ducks were susceptible to infection with the virus, and, although clinical signs or mortality were not observed, microscopic lesions were noted, particularly in the heart and brain. West Nile virus viremia peaked on day 2 postinfection (pi) at 10(4.54) plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus/mL serum and WNV was shed orally (between 10(2) and 10(2.9) PFU per swab) and cloacally. Specific anti-WNV antibody response was rapid, with anti-WNV IgM detected on day 3 pi followed on day 5 pi by anti-WNV IgG. Neutralizing antibodies were detected by plaque-reduction neutralization assay in one duck on day 4 pi, and in all sampled ducks on day 5. These results indicate that Wood Ducks are susceptible to WNV, but it is unlikely that significant WNV mortality events occur in Wood Ducks or that they play a significant role in transmission. However, WNV viremia was sufficient, in theory, to infect mosquitoes, and oral and cloacal shedding of the virus may increase the risk of infection to other waterbirds.

  18. Experimental susceptibility of Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) for West Nile virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Porter, Robert E.; Franson, J. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in a variety of wild ducks in the US, but little is known about the pathogenesis and outcome of exposure of the disease in these species. Previous experimental studies of WNV in ducks either have challenged a small number of ducks with WNV or have tested domesticated ducks. To determine susceptibility and immune response, we challenged 7-wk-old Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) with a 1999 American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) isolate of WNV. Wood Ducks were susceptible to infection with the virus, and, although clinical signs or mortality were not observed, microscopic lesions were noted, particularly in the heart and brain. West Nile virus viremia peaked on day 2 postinfection (pi) at 104.54 plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus/mL serum and WNV was shed orally (between 102and 102.9 PFU per swab) and cloacally. Specific anti-WNV antibody response was rapid, with anti-WNV IgM detected on day 3 pi followed on day 5 pi by anti-WNV IgG. Neutralizing antibodies were detected by plaque-reduction neutralization assay in one duck on day 4 pi, and in all sampled ducks on day 5. These results indicate that Wood Ducks are susceptible to WNV, but it is unlikely that significant WNV mortality events occur in Wood Ducks or that ducks play a significant role in transmission. However, WNV viremia was sufficient, in theory, to infect mosquitoes, and oral and cloacal shedding of the virus may increase the risk of infection to other waterbirds.

  19. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of dengue virus serotypes 1-4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus by a combined reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Jianhua

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid identification and differentiation of mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in acute-phase sera of patients and field-caught vector mosquitoes are important for the prediction and prevention of large-scale epidemics. Results We developed a flexible reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP unit for the detection and differentiation of dengue virus serotypes 1-4 (DENV1-4, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, and West Nile virus (WNV. The unit efficiently amplified the viral genomes specifically at wide ranges of viral template concentrations, and exhibited similar amplification curves as monitored by a real-time PCR engine. The detection limits of the RT-LAMP unit were 100-fold higher than that of RT-PCR in 5 of the six flaviviruses. The results on specificity indicated that the six viruses in the assay had no cross-reactions with each other. By examining 66 viral strains of DENV1-4 and JEV, the unit identified the viruses with 100% accuracy and did not cross-react with influenza viruses and hantaviruses. By screening a panel of specimens containing sera of 168 patients and 279 pools of field-caught blood sucked mosquitoes, results showed that this unit is high feasible in clinical settings and epidemiologic field, and it obtained results 100% correlated with real-time RT-PCR. Conclusions The RT-LAMP unit developed in this study is able to quickly detect and accurately differentiate the six kinds of flaviviruses, which makes it extremely feasible for screening these viruses in acute-phase sera of the patients and in vector mosquitoes without the need of high-precision instruments.

  20. Noncoding Subgenomic Flavivirus RNA: Multiple Functions in West Nile Virus Pathogenesis and Modulation of Host Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin A. Roby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses are a large group of positive strand RNA viruses transmitted by arthropods that include many human pathogens such as West Nile virus (WNV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. All members in this genus tested so far are shown to produce a unique subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA derived from the 3' untranslated region (UTR. sfRNA is a product of incomplete degradation of genomic RNA by the cell 5'–3' exoribonuclease XRN1 which stalls at highly ordered secondary RNA structures at the beginning of the 3'UTR. Generation of sfRNA results in inhibition of XRN1 activity leading to an increase in stability of many cellular mRNAs. Mutant WNV deficient in sfRNA generation was highly attenuated displaying a marked decrease in cytopathicity in cells and pathogenicity in mice. sfRNA has also been shown to inhibit the antiviral activity of IFN-α/β by yet unknown mechanism and of the RNAi pathway by likely serving as a decoy substrate for Dicer. Thus, sfRNA is involved in modulating multiple cellular pathways to facilitate viral pathogenicity; however the overlying mechanism linking all these multiple functions of sfRNA remains to be elucidated.

  1. Spread of Zika virus: The key role of mosquito vector control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Benelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae represent a key threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for important parasites and pathogens, including malaria, filariasis and a wide number of arboviruses. The recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections occurring in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean, represent the most recent four arrivals of important arboviruses in the western hemisphere, over the last 20 years, namely dengue, West Nile virus, and chikungunya. Since there are no specific treatments for Zika virus and the other arboviruses mentioned above, it should be highlighted that the eco-friendly and effective control of mosquito vectors is of pivotal importance. Besides radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in presence of ultra-low quantities of green-synthesized nanoparticles, which magnify their predation efficiency. Furthermore, behaviour-based control tools relying on the employ of swarming behaviour manipulation (i.e. the “lure and kill” approach, pheromone traps, sound traps need further research attention. In particular, detailed basic information on the physical and chemical cues routing mosquito swarming and mating dynamics is urgently required.

  2. Identification of Suitable Areas for West Nile Virus Circulation in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hassine, T; Conte, A; Calistri, P; Candeloro, L; Ippoliti, C; De Massis, F; Danzetta, M L; Bejaoui, M; Hammami, S

    2017-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. It is transmitted primarily by the bite of infected mosquitoes, particularly Culex spp. and Aedes/Ochlerotatus spp., which acquire the virus by feeding on viraemic birds. Humans, horses and other mammals are regarded as incidental or dead-end hosts. In the last decades, an increasing number of cases of WNV infection in horses and humans have been notified in the Mediterranean basin. In Tunisia, human cases of WNV-related meningoencephalitis were detected in 1997, 2003, 2007, 2010, 2011 and 2012. Based on the analysis of climatic and environmental conditions found in the locations where human cases have been reported in 2012, the aim of this study was to identify similar areas in Tunisia potentially at risk of disease occurrence. Data related to 85 neuroinvasive West Nile fever (WNF) human cases were georeferenced and a set of environmental and climatic variables (wetlands and humid areas, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), temperatures and elevation, migratory bird settlements) were used in the analysis. Areas, ecologically similar to those where human cases were detected, were identified using the Mahalanobis distance statistic. A leave-one-out cross-validation was performed to validate the sensitivity of the model, and 78 of 85 points were correctly classified. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. When to Spray: a Time-Scale Calculus Approach to Controlling the Impact of West Nile Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV made its initial appearance in the New York City (NYC metropolitan area in 1999 and was implicated in cases of human encephalitis and the extensive mortality in crows (Corvus sp. and other avian species. Mosquitoes were found to be the primary vectors and NYC's current policy on control strategies involved an eradication program that depends on the synchronicity of the summer mosquito population's increases with the occurrence of cases in humans. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether this is the most effective control strategy because past mathematical models assumed discrete behavior that is modeled by difference equations for a single summer season was most important to the virus's life cycle. However, both surviving mosquito eggs and surviving migratory birds incubate the virus during the winter, leading to a continuation of infections in the following warmer spring and summer when the birds return and the eggs hatch. Additionally, the virulence of WNV has been observed to fluctuate with changes in temperature toward warmer conditions. Models are required that account for these multi-seasonal dynamics and time-scale calculus is a newly developed method for resolving the behavior of systems that exhibit both discrete and continuous behavior. We found that, although the static states of the new temperature delay model are no different from older models, simulations indicate that the rate of the infection is affected by avian recovery at a lower temperature threshold. Consequently, eradication strategies should consider that controlling mosquitoes during the fall when colder temperatures occur would cause a fast and efficient drop to a disease-free state. This could prove rather more effective than mosquito control in the warmer months.

  4. Virulence and Evolution of West Nile Virus, Australia, 1960-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prow, Natalie A; Edmonds, Judith H; Williams, David T; Setoh, Yin X; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Suen, Willy W; Hobson-Peters, Jody; van den Hurk, Andrew F; Pyke, Alyssa T; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Northill, Judith A; Johansen, Cheryl A; Warrilow, David; Wang, Jianning; Kirkland, Peter D; Doggett, Stephen; Andrade, Christy C; Brault, Aaron C; Khromykh, Alexander A; Hall, Roy A

    2016-08-01

    Worldwide, West Nile virus (WNV) causes encephalitis in humans, horses, and birds. The Kunjin strain of WNV (WNVKUN) is endemic to northern Australia, but infections are usually asymptomatic. In 2011, an unprecedented outbreak of equine encephalitis occurred in southeastern Australia; most of the ≈900 reported cases were attributed to a newly emerged WNVKUN strain. To investigate the origins of this virus, we performed genetic analysis and in vitro and in vivo studies of 13 WNVKUN isolates collected from different regions of Australia during 1960-2012. Although no disease was recorded for 1984, 2000, or 2012, isolates collected during those years (from Victoria, Queensland, and New South Wales, respectively) exhibited levels of virulence in mice similar to that of the 2011 outbreak strain. Thus, virulent strains of WNVKUN have circulated in Australia for >30 years, and the first extensive outbreak of equine disease in Australia probably resulted from a combination of specific ecologic and epidemiologic conditions.

  5. Seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in Feral Horses on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Collins, Gail H.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    We screened 1,397 feral horses (Equus caballus) on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States, for IgM and IgG against flavivirus during 2004–2006, 2008, and 2009. Positive serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). One animal was positive for antibody against WNV in 2004, but all others tested in 2004–2006 were negative. In 2008 and 2009, we found evidence of increasing seropositive horses with age, whereas seroprevalence of WNV decreased from 19% in 2008 to 7.2% in 2009. No horses were positive for antibody against SLEV. Being unvaccinated, feral horses can be useful for WNV surveillance. PMID:21460023

  6. Seroprevalence of West Nile virus in feral horses on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J Christian; Hofmeister, Erik K; Collins, Gail H; Dusek, Robert J

    2011-04-01

    We screened 1,397 feral horses (Equus caballus) on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States, for IgM and IgG against flavivirus during 2004-2006, 2008, and 2009. Positive serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). One animal was positive for antibody against WNV in 2004, but all others tested in 2004-2006 were negative. In 2008 and 2009, we found evidence of increasing seropositive horses with age, whereas seroprevalence of WNV decreased from 19% in 2008 to 7.2% in 2009. No horses were positive for antibody against SLEV. Being unvaccinated, feral horses can be useful for WNV surveillance.

  7. Vectors expressing chimeric Japanese encephalitis dengue 2 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y; Wang, S; Wang, X

    2014-01-01

    Vectors based on self-replicating RNAs (replicons) of flaviviruses are becoming powerful tool for expression of heterologous genes in mammalian cells and development of novel antiviral and anticancer vaccines. We constructed two vectors expressing chimeric viruses consisting of attenuated SA14-14-2 strain of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in which the PrM/M-E genes were replaced fully or partially with those of dengue 2 virus (DENV-2). These vectors, named pJED2 and pJED2-1770 were transfected to BHK-21 cells and produced chimeric viruses JED2V and JED2-1770V, respectively. The chimeric viruses could be passaged in C6/36 but not BHK-21 cells. The chimeric viruses produced in C6/36 cells CPE 4-5 days after infection and RT-PCR, sequencing, immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blot analysis confirmed the chimeric nature of produced viruses. The immunogenicity of chimeric viruses in mice was proved by detecting DENV-2 E protein-specific serum IgG antibodies with neutralization titer of 10. Successful preparation of infectious clones of chimeric JEV-DENV-2 viruses showed that JEV-based expression vectors are fully functional.

  8. Safety and efficacy in geese of a PER.C6-based inactivated West Nile virus vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samina, Itzchak; Havenga, Menzo; Koudstaal, Wouter; Khinich, Yevgeny; Koldijk, Martin; Malkinson, Mertyn; Simanov, Michael; Perl, Shmuel; Gijsbers, Linda; Weverling, Gerrit Jan; Uytdehaag, Fons; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2007-01-01

    Studies were performed with an inactivated vaccine against the mosquito-borne flavivirus, West Nile virus (WNV). The mammalian cell line, PER.C6, was selected as the platform for WNV growth since both the neurovirulent strains NY99 and ISR98 that cause epidemics in humans and high mortality in

  9. Comparison of assays for the detection of West Nile virus antibodies in equine serum after natural infection or vaccination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Joó, K.; Bakonyi, T.; Szenci, O.; Ferenczi, E.; Barna, M.; Malik, P.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Fehér, O.; Kutasi, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 183, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-6 ISSN 0165-2427 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile virus * Haemagglutination-inhibition test * Enzymelinked immunosorbent assay * Plaque reduction neutralization test * Vaccination * Natural infection Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology Impact factor: 1.718, year: 2016

  10. Potential for Co-Infection of a Mosquito-Specific Flavivirus, Nhumirim Virus, to Block West Nile Virus Transmission in Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenaga, Silvina; Kenney, Joan L.; Duggal, Nisha K.; Delorey, Mark; Ebel, Gregory D.; Zhang, Bo; Levis, Silvana C.; Enria, Delia A.; Brault, Aaron C.

    2015-01-01

    Nhumirim virus (NHUV) is an insect-specific virus that phylogenetically affiliates with dual-host mosquito-borne flaviviruses. Previous in vitro co-infection experiments demonstrated prior or concurrent infection of Aedes albopictus C6/36 mosquito cells with NHUV resulted in a 10,000-fold reduction in viral production of West Nile virus (WNV). This interference between WNV and NHUV was observed herein in an additional Ae. albopictus mosquito cell line, C7-10. A WNV 2K peptide (V9M) mutant capable of superinfection with a pre-established WNV infection demonstrated a comparable level of interference from NHUV as the parental WNV strain in C6/36 and C7-10 cells. Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens mosquitoes intrathoracically inoculated with NHUV and WNV, or solely with WNV as a control, were allowed to extrinsically incubate the viruses up to nine and 14 days, respectively, and transmissibility and replication of WNV was determined. The proportion of Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes capable of transmitting WNV was significantly lower for the WNV/NHUV group than the WNV control at seven and nine days post inoculation (dpi), while no differences were observed in the Cx. pipiens inoculation group. By dpi nine, a 40% reduction in transmissibility in mosquitoes from the dual inoculation group was observed compared to the WNV-only control. These data indicate the potential that infection of some Culex spp. vectors with NHUV could serve as a barrier for efficient transmissibility of flaviviruses associated with human disease. PMID:26569286

  11. Neutralizing activities of human immunoglobulin derived from donors in Japan against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunoki M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mikihiro Yunoki,1-3 Takeshi Kurosu,2 Ritsuko Kubota Koketsu,2,4 Kazuo Takahashi,5 Yoshinobu Okuno,4 Kazuyoshi Ikuta2,4 1Research and Development Division, Japan Blood Products Organization, Tokyo, 2Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka, 3Pathogenic Risk Evaluation, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Hokkaido, 4Research and Development Division, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kagawa, 5Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Osaka, Japan Abstract: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, West Nile virus (WNV, and dengue virus (DenV are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified. Furthermore, potential candidates for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis caused by JEV, WNV, or DenV have also not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the overall status of the donor population in Japan based on globulin products by evaluating anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralizing activities of intravenous immunoglobulin. Overall, intravenous immunoglobulin products showed stable neutralizing activity against JEV but showed no or only weak activity against WNV or DenV. These results suggest that the epidemiological level against WNV and DenV in the donor population of Japan is still low, suggesting that these viruses are not yet indigenized. In addition, JEV vaccinations and/or infections in the donor population do not induce a cross-reactive antibody against WNV. Keywords

  12. Landscape epidemiology and machine learning: A geospatial approach to modeling West Nile virus risk in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean Gregory

    The complex interactions between human health and the physical landscape and environment have been recognized, if not fully understood, since the ancient Greeks. Landscape epidemiology, sometimes called spatial epidemiology, is a sub-discipline of medical geography that uses environmental conditions as explanatory variables in the study of disease or other health phenomena. This theory suggests that pathogenic organisms (whether germs or larger vector and host species) are subject to environmental conditions that can be observed on the landscape, and by identifying where such organisms are likely to exist, areas at greatest risk of the disease can be derived. Machine learning is a sub-discipline of artificial intelligence that can be used to create predictive models from large and complex datasets. West Nile virus (WNV) is a relatively new infectious disease in the United States, and has a fairly well-understood transmission cycle that is believed to be highly dependent on environmental conditions. This study takes a geospatial approach to the study of WNV risk, using both landscape epidemiology and machine learning techniques. A combination of remotely sensed and in situ variables are used to predict WNV incidence with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.86. A novel method of mitigating the small numbers problem is also tested and ultimately discarded. Finally a consistent spatial pattern of model errors is identified, indicating the chosen variables are capable of predicting WNV disease risk across most of the United States, but are inadequate in the northern Great Plains region of the US.

  13. Mosquito larval habitat mapping using remote sensing and GIS: Implications of coalbed methane development and West Nile virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, L.; Miller, S.N.; Schmidtmann, E.T. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Renewable Resources

    2006-09-15

    Potential larval habitats of the mosquito Culex tarsalis (Coquillett), implicated as a primary vector of West Nile virus in Wyoming, were identified using integrated remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) analyses. The study area is in the Powder River Basin of north central Wyoming, an area that has been undergoing a significant increase in coalbed methane gas extractions since the late 1990s. Large volumes of water are discharged, impounded, and released during the extraction of methane gas, creating aquatic habitats that have the potential to support immature mosquito development. Landsat TM and ETM + data were initially classified into spectrally distinct water and vegetation classes, which were in turn used to identify suitable larval habitat sites. This initial habitat classification was refined using knowledge-based GIS techniques requiring spatial data layers for topography, streams, and soils to reduce the potential for overestimation of habitat. Accuracy assessment was carried out using field data and high-resolution aerial photography commensurate with one of the Landsat images. The classifier can identify likely habitat for ponds larger than 0.8 ha (2 acres) with generally satisfactory results (72.1%) with a lower detection limit of approximate to 0.4 ha (1 acre). Results show a 75% increase in potential larval habitats from 1999 to 2004 in the study area, primarily because of the large increase in small coalbed methane water discharge ponds. These results may facilitate mosquito abatement programs in the Powder River Basin with the potential for application throughout the state and region.

  14. Temporal and Spatial Variability of Entomological Risk Indices for West Nile Virus Infection in Northern Colorado: 2006–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauver, Joseph R.; Pecher, Lauren; Schurich, Jessica A.; Bolling, Bethany G.; Calhoon, Mike; Grubaugh, Nathan D.; Burkhalter, Kristen L.; Eisen, Lars; Andre, Barbara G.; Nasci, Roger S.; LeBailly, Adrienne; Ebel, Gregory D.; Moore, Chester G.

    2018-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is enzootic in northern Colorado. Annual surveillance activities in Fort Collins, CO, include collecting female Culex mosquitoes and testing them for the presence of WNV RNA in order to calculate 1) Culex female abundance, 2) WNV infection rate, and 3) the vector index (VI). These entomological risk indices inform public policy regarding the need for emergency adulticiding. Currently, these are calculated on a citywide basis. In this study, we present descriptive data from historical surveillance records spanning 2006–2013 to discern seasonal and yearly patterns of entomological risk for WNV infection. Also, we retrospectively test the hypothesis that entomological risk is correlated with human transmission risk and is heterogeneous within the City of Fort Collins. Four logistically relevant zones within the city were established and used to test this hypothesis. Zones in the eastern portion of the city consistently had significantly higher Culex abundance and VI compared with zones in the west, leading to higher entomological risk indicators for human WNV infection in the east. Moreover, the relative risk of a reported human case of WNV infection was significantly higher in the eastern zones of the city. Our results suggest that a more spatially targeted WNV management program may better mitigate human risk for WNV infection in Fort Collins, and possibly other cities where transmission is enzootic, while at the same time reducing pesticide use. PMID:26718715

  15. Remote sensing of climatic anomalies and West Nile virus incidence in the northern Great Plains of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Wimberly, Michael C

    2012-01-01

    The northern Great Plains (NGP) of the United States has been a hotspot of West Nile virus (WNV) incidence since 2002. Mosquito ecology and the transmission of vector-borne disease are influenced by multiple environmental factors, and climatic variability is an important driver of inter-annual variation in WNV transmission risk. This study applied multiple environmental predictors including land surface temperature (LST), the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and actual evapotranspiration (ETa) derived from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products to establish prediction models for WNV risk in the NGP. These environmental metrics are sensitive to seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in temperature and precipitation, and are hypothesized to influence mosquito population dynamics and WNV transmission. Non-linear generalized additive models (GAMs) were used to evaluate the influences of deviations of cumulative LST, NDVI, and ETa on inter-annual variations of WNV incidence from 2004-2010. The models were sensitive to the timing of spring green up (measured with NDVI), temperature variability in early spring and summer (measured with LST), and moisture availability from late spring through early summer (measured with ETa), highlighting seasonal changes in the influences of climatic fluctuations on WNV transmission. Predictions based on these variables indicated a low WNV risk across the NGP in 2011, which is concordant with the low case reports in this year. Environmental monitoring using remote-sensed data can contribute to surveillance of WNV risk and prediction of future WNV outbreaks in space and time.

  16. Remote sensing of climatic anomalies and West Nile virus incidence in the northern Great Plains of the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Wu Chuang

    Full Text Available The northern Great Plains (NGP of the United States has been a hotspot of West Nile virus (WNV incidence since 2002. Mosquito ecology and the transmission of vector-borne disease are influenced by multiple environmental factors, and climatic variability is an important driver of inter-annual variation in WNV transmission risk. This study applied multiple environmental predictors including land surface temperature (LST, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and actual evapotranspiration (ETa derived from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS products to establish prediction models for WNV risk in the NGP. These environmental metrics are sensitive to seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in temperature and precipitation, and are hypothesized to influence mosquito population dynamics and WNV transmission. Non-linear generalized additive models (GAMs were used to evaluate the influences of deviations of cumulative LST, NDVI, and ETa on inter-annual variations of WNV incidence from 2004-2010. The models were sensitive to the timing of spring green up (measured with NDVI, temperature variability in early spring and summer (measured with LST, and moisture availability from late spring through early summer (measured with ETa, highlighting seasonal changes in the influences of climatic fluctuations on WNV transmission. Predictions based on these variables indicated a low WNV risk across the NGP in 2011, which is concordant with the low case reports in this year. Environmental monitoring using remote-sensed data can contribute to surveillance of WNV risk and prediction of future WNV outbreaks in space and time.

  17. Wetlands Management and risk for West Nile Virus Circulation in Camargue, Southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Agnes; Pradier, Sophie; Paul, Mathilde; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Sandoz, Alain

    2016-04-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is a flavivirus transmitted between mosquitoes (mainly the genus Culex) and wild birds. Horses and humans are incidental hosts and can develop severe neurological disorders. During last decades, the number of WNV cases reported in Europe has increased dramatically. Large outbreaks of increased clinical severity have been reported in parts of Russia, Southern and Eastern Europe. In the Camargue area, WNV outbreaks have been reported in 2000, 2004 and more recently in 2015. We hypothesize that the management of Camargue wetlands could play a key role in the emergence of outbreaks in this area during recent years. WNV transmission requires competent vectors, receptive hosts, and environmental parameters which allow contact between the vectors and the different hosts. The Rhône Delta is known for its landscape of wetlands and its wealth of different bird species. It is also a region where mosquito populations are very abundant. Recent observations have shown that environmental changes, mainly resulting from anthropogenic practices, have had an impact on inter-annual variations in the wetlands and consequently on the abundance of mosquitoes. Water is provided either by rainfall or by a very tight canal network diverted from the river Rhone. Water management is under the control of individual field owners and dependent on its various uses (grazing, rice culture, hunting reserves). This specific management of water resources could play a role in the circulation of WNV in the area. Non-vaccinated horses (n = 1159 from 134 stables) were sampled in 2007 and 2008 in the Camargue area and a serological test was performed to identify a possible contact with the WNV. Environmental variables related to water resources and management were collected through fifteen Landsat images. Areas with open water and flooded vegetation and their variations within a year and between years (2007-08) were quantified for buffers of 2 km radius around the stables. Mean

  18. Generating West Nile Virus from an Infectious Clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergaast, Rianna; Fredericksen, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    WNV infectious clones are valuable tools for elucidating WNV biology. Nevertheless, relatively few infectious WNV clones have been generated because their construction is hampered by the instability of flaviviral genomes. More recently, advances in cloning techniques as well as the development of several two-plasmid WNV infectious clone systems have facilitated the generation of WNV infectious clones. Here we described a protocol for recovering WNV from a two-plasmid system. In this approach, large quantities of these constructs are digested with restriction enzymes to produce complementary restriction sites at the 3' end of the upstream fragment and the 5' end of the downstream fragment. These fragments are then annealed to produce linear template for in vitro transcription to synthesize infectious RNA. The resulting RNA is transfected into cells and after several days WNV is recovered in the culture supernatant. This method can be used to generate virus from infectious clones encoding high- and low-pathogenicity strains of WNV, as well as chimeric virues.

  19. Bioreactor production of recombinant herpes simplex virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, David R; Harrell, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Serotypical application of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors to gene therapy (type 1) and prophylactic vaccines (types 1 and 2) has garnered substantial clinical interest recently. HSV vectors and amplicons have also been employed as helper virus constructs for manufacture of the dependovirus adeno-associated virus (AAV). Large quantities of infectious HSV stocks are requisite for these therapeutic applications, requiring a scalable vector manufacturing and processing platform comprised of unit operations which accommodate the fragility of HSV. In this study, production of a replication deficient rHSV-1 vector bearing the rep and cap genes of AAV-2 (denoted rHSV-rep2/cap2) was investigated. Adaptation of rHSV production from T225 flasks to a packed bed, fed-batch bioreactor permitted an 1100-fold increment in total vector production without a decrease in specific vector yield (pfu/cell). The fed-batch bioreactor system afforded a rHSV-rep2/cap2 vector recovery of 2.8 x 10(12) pfu. The recovered vector was concentrated by tangential flow filtration (TFF), permitting vector stocks to be formulated at greater than 1.5 x 10(9) pfu/mL.

  20. Evolutionary dynamics of dengue virus populations within the mosquito vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Louis; Lequime, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    To date, dengue virus evolution has mainly been addressed by studies conducted at the between-host level. Like other pathogens with high mutation rate and rapid replication, dengue viruses also evolve during the course of an infection. Over the last few years, the advent of deep-sequencing technologies has facilitated studies of dengue virus populations at the within-host level. Here, we review recent advances on the evolutionary dynamics of dengue virus populations within their mosquito vector. We discuss how identifying the evolutionary forces acting on dengue virus populations within the mosquito can shed light on the processes underlying vector-virus interactions and the evolution of epidemiologically relevant traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Vaccinia virus as an expression vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, A; Rodriguez, J M

    1992-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (Vv) is a member of the genus Orthopoxvirus, one of seven genera included in the family Poxviridae. Most of these viruses infect vertebrates (Orthopoxvirus, Avipoxvirus, Capripoxvirus, Leporipoxvirus, Suipoxvirus, and Parapoxvirus), but one genus, Entomopoxvirus, infects insects. It is interesting to note that the Fibroma and Mixoma viruses of the leporipoxvirus genus cause tumors in their hosts (rabbits), these being the only tumorigenic viruses in the family (1,2).

  2. ISG15 facilitates cellular antiviral response to dengue and west nile virus infection in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Wen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue virus (DENV and West Nile virus (WNV, close siblings of the Flaviviridae family, are the causative agents of Dengue hemorraghic shock or West Nile meningoencephalitis respectively. Vaccines against these two flaviviruses are currently unavailable. Interferon- Stimulated Gene 15 (ISG15, encoding an ubiquitin-like protein, is significantly induced by type I interferons or viral infections. Its roles in viral infections, however, vary with viruses, being either anti- or pro-viral. The exact roles of ISG15 in DENV and WNV infections remain unknown. In the current study, we evaluated the relevancies of ISG15 to DENV and WNV infection of a mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Findings Quantitative PCR showed that mouse Isg15 was dramatically induced in DENV or WNV- infected RAW264.7 cells compared with non-infected cells. Isg15 and two other Jak-Stat related genes, Socs1 and Socs3, were silenced using siRNA mediated RNA interference. The intracellular DENV and WNV loads, as determined by quantitative PCR, were significantly higher in Isg15 silenced cells than control cells. The expression levels of interferon beta 1 (Ifnb1 were increased significantly in Isg15, Socs1 or Socs3 siRNA treated cells. Further investigation indicated that protein modification by ISG15, so called ISGylation, was significantly enhanced in DENV-infected cells compared to that in non-infected cells. Conclusions These findings suggest that ISG15 plays an anti-DENV/WNV function via protein ISGylation.

  3. A stable RNA virus-based vector for citrus trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folimonov, Alexey S.; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Bar-Joseph, Moshe; Dawson, William O.

    2007-01-01

    Virus-based vectors are important tools in plant molecular biology and plant genomics. A number of vectors based on viruses that infect herbaceous plants are in use for expression or silencing of genes in plants as well as screening unknown sequences for function. Yet there is a need for useful virus-based vectors for woody plants, which demand much greater stability because of the longer time required for systemic infection and analysis. We examined several strategies to develop a Citrus tristeza virus (CTV)-based vector for transient expression of foreign genes in citrus trees using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. These strategies included substitution of the p13 open reading frame (ORF) by the ORF of GFP, construction of a self-processing fusion of GFP in-frame with the major coat protein (CP), or expression of the GFP ORF as an extra gene from a subgenomic (sg) mRNA controlled either by a duplicated CTV CP sgRNA controller element (CE) or an introduced heterologous CE of Beet yellows virus. Engineered vector constructs were examined for replication, encapsidation, GFP expression during multiple passages in protoplasts, and for their ability to infect, move, express GFP, and be maintained in citrus plants. The most successful vectors based on the 'add-a-gene' strategy have been unusually stable, continuing to produce GFP fluorescence after more than 4 years in citrus trees

  4. Unique Safety Issues Associated with Virus Vectored Vaccines: Potential for and Theoretical Consequences of Recombination with Wild Type Virus Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condit, Richard C.; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Sheets, Rebecca; Seligman, Stephen J.; Monath, Thomas P.; Excler, Jean-Louis; Gurwith, Marc; Bok, Karin; Robertson, James S.; Kim, Denny; Hendry, Michael; Singh, Vidisha; Mac, Lisa M.; Chen, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    In 2003 and 2013, the World Health Organization convened informal consultations on characterization and quality aspects of vaccines based on live virus vectors. In the resulting reports, one of several issues raised for future study was the potential for recombination of virus-vectored vaccines with wild type pathogenic virus strains. This paper presents an assessment of this issue formulated by the Brighton Collaboration. To provide an appropriate context for understanding the potential for recombination of virus-vectored vaccines, we review briefly the current status of virus vectored vaccines, mechanisms of recombination between viruses, experience with recombination involving live attenuated vaccines in the field, and concerns raised previously in the literature regarding recombination of virus-vectored vaccines with wild type virus strains. We then present a discussion of the major variables that could influence recombination between a virus-vectored vaccine and circulating wild type virus and the consequences of such recombination, including intrinsic recombination properties of the parent virus used as a vector; sequence relatedness of vector and wild virus; virus host range, pathogenesis and transmission; replication competency of vector in target host; mechanism of vector attenuation; additional factors potentially affecting virulence; and circulation of multiple recombinant vectors in the same target population. Finally, we present some guiding principles for vector design and testing intended to anticipate and mitigate the potential for and consequences of recombination of virus-vectored vaccines with wild type pathogenic virus strains. PMID:27346303

  5. Detection of West Nile Virus and other common equine viruses in three locations from the Leeward Islands, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolfa, Pompei; Jeon, Isaac; Loftis, Amanda; Leslie, Teresa; Marchi, Silvia; Sithole, Fortune; Beck, Cecile; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Zientara, Stephan; Hans, Aymeric; Issel, Charles J

    2017-10-01

    Equines in the West Indies are used for recreational purposes, tourism industry, racing and agriculture or can be found in feral populations. Little is known in the Caribbean basin about the prevalence of some major equine infectious diseases, some with zoonotic potential, listed as reportable by the OIE. Our objective was to study the prevalence of antibodies for West Nile Virus (WNV), Equine Herpes Virus-1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), Equine Influenza (EI), Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) and Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) using a retrospective serological convenience study. We used 180 equine serum samples, 140 from horses and 40 from donkeys in St. Kitts, Nevis, and Sint Eustatius, collected between 2006 and 2015 that were tested with ELISA kits and virus neutralization (for WNV and EVA). Combining ELISA with virus neutralization testing, 25 (13.8%) equine sera were WNV positive (a mixture of indigenous and imported equines) and 3 sera (1.6%) showed doubtful results. For EHV-1, 41 equines (23.7%), mean age 6.7 years, were seropositive. For EHV-4, 138 equines were found seropositive (82.8%), mean age 6.3 years. For EI, 49 equines (27.2%), mean age 7.5 years, were seropositive on ELISA, some previously vaccinated horses. No antibodies against EAV were found on virus neutralization testing, although one animal (0.6%), was EAV positive on ELISA. All samples were EIAV negative. The seroprevalence for EHV-1 and EHV-4 is similar to other parts of the world. For the first time in the study location serologic evidence of antibodies against WNV and EI is reported. This was found in both indigenous and imported animals, highlighting the need for developing proper surveillance plans based on complementary methods of virus detection. Further studies will be needed to define the prevalence, rates of transmission, characterize local virus strains, and study their impact on these populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Further circulation of West Nile and Usutu viruses in wild birds in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis, Isis Victoriano; Rossi, Luca; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Mosca, Andrea; Teodori, Liana; Tomassone, Laura; Grego, Elena; Monaco, Federica; Lorusso, Alessio; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Usutu virus (USUV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are emerging pathogens that can cause neurological disease in humans. From March 2012 to June 2013, a sero-survey on wild birds was carried out to investigate the circulation of both viruses in Northwest (NW) Italy. Samples belonging to 47 different bird species have been collected using a volunteer based network and a wildlife rehabilitation center. Four of 297 serum samples had neutralizing antibodies against USUV (P=1.34%, IC 95% 0.36-3.4), while 10 of 233 samples tested positive for WNV (P=4.29%, IC 95% 2.07-7.75). Neutralizing antibodies for WNV were significantly more prevalent (p<0.001) in trans-Saharan migrants (P=21%, IC 95% 9.55-37.3) than in resident and short-distance birds, but no migratory habit-related differences were found for USUV. Antibodies in resident bird species suggest that both viruses are circulating in NW Italy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Large Animal Models for Foamy Virus Vector Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Horn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Foamy virus (FV vectors have shown great promise for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC gene therapy. Their ability to efficiently deliver transgenes to multi-lineage long-term repopulating cells in large animal models suggests they will be effective for several human hematopoietic diseases. Here, we review FV vector studies in large animal models, including the use of FV vectors with the mutant O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, MGMTP140K to increase the number of genetically modified cells after transplantation. In these studies, FV vectors have mediated efficient gene transfer to polyclonal repopulating cells using short ex vivo transduction protocols designed to minimize the negative effects of ex vivo culture on stem cell engraftment. In this regard, FV vectors appear superior to gammaretroviral vectors, which require longer ex vivo culture to effect efficient transduction. FV vectors have also compared favorably with lentiviral vectors when directly compared in the dog model. FV vectors have corrected leukocyte adhesion deficiency and pyruvate kinase deficiency in the dog large animal model. FV vectors also appear safer than gammaretroviral vectors based on a reduced frequency of integrants near promoters and also near proto-oncogenes in canine repopulating cells. Together, these studies suggest that FV vectors should be highly effective for several human hematopoietic diseases, including those that will require relatively high percentages of gene-modified cells to achieve clinical benefit.

  8. Absence of humoral response in flamingos and red-tailed hawks to experimental vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusbaum, Kenneth E; Wright, James C; Johnston, William B; Allison, Andrew B; Hilton, Clayton D; Staggs, Lydia A; Stallknecht, David E; Shelnutt, Joseph L

    2003-01-01

    Sixteen Chilean flamingos, Phoenicopterus chiles, and 10 red-tailed hawks, Buteo jamacensis, were vaccinated in the pectoral muscle with 0.2 ml of a commercially produced killed West Nile virus vaccine intended for use in horses. Half the birds of each species received a booster vaccination 3 weeks after the first injection. Three weeks after the booster vaccination, none of 13 birds surveyed had detectable antibody to West Nile virus.

  9. Prevalence and effects of West Nile virus on wild American kestrel (Falco sparverius) populations in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; Iko, William M.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Paul, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    To assess the potential impacts of West Nile virus (WNV) on a wild population of free-ranging raptors, we investigated the prevalence and effects of WNV on American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) breeding along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in northern Colorado. We monitored kestrel nesting activity at 131 nest boxes from March to August 2004. Of 81 nest attempts, we obtained samples from 111 adults and 250 young. We did not detect WNV in sera; however, 97.3% (108/111) of adults tested positive for WNV neutralizing antibodies, which possibly represented passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Clutch size, hatching, and fledging success in our study did not differ from that previously reported for this species, suggesting that previous WNV exposure in kestrels did not have an effect on reproductive parameters measured in the breeding populations we studied in 2004.

  10. Serologic survey of West Nile virus in horses from Central-West, Northeast and Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Raymondi Silva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV in North America in 1999, there have been several reports of WNV activity in Central and South American countries. To detect WNV in Brazil, we performed a serological survey of horses from different regions of Brazil using recombinant peptides from domain III of WNV. Positive samples were validated with the neutralisation test. Our results showed that of 79 ELISA-positive horses, nine expressed WNV-specific neutralising antibodies. Eight of the infected horses were from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and one was from the state of Paraíba. Our results provide additional evidence for the emergence of WNV in Brazil and for its circulation in multiple regions of the country.

  11. Parasitic Cowbirds have increased immunity to West Nile and other mosquitoborne encephalitis viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisen, W.K.; Hahn, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    The rapid geographic spread of West Nile Virus [WNV, Flaviviridae, Flavivirus] across the United States has stimulated interest in comparative host infection studies of avian species to delineate competent reservoir hosts critical for viral amplification. Striking taxonomic differences in avian susceptibility have been noted, offering the opportunity to strategically select species on the basis of life history traits to examine aspects of pathogen virulence or host immunity. We hypothesized that avian brood parasites would show increased resistance to pathogens compared to related taxa, because they have been exposed in their evolutionary history to a wide array of infectious organisms from their different parenting species. The Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) is a generalist brood parasite that parasitizes 200+ North American species. Elevated exposure to other species? parasites may have created an unusual degree of pathogen resistance. We compared the relative susceptibility of adult cowbirds to three closely-related non-parasitic species, Red-winged blackbirds, Tricolored blackbirds and Brewer?s blackbirds, to invading NY99 strain of WNV that is highly virulent for many passeriform birds. Previously we had experimentally infected these species with two North American mosquitoborne encephalitis viruses, western equine encephalomyelitis virus [WEEV, Togaviridae, Alphavirus] and St. Louis encephalitis virus [SLEV, Flaviviridae, Flavivirus]. Our results showed that cowbirds exhibited significantly lower viremia responses against all three viruses as well as after co-infection with both WEEV and WNV than did the three related, non-parasitic species. These data supported our hypothesis and indicated that cowbirds were more resistant to infection to both native and introduced viruses.

  12. Vector Borne Infections in Italy: Results of the Integrated Surveillance System for West Nile Disease in 2013

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    Christian Napoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response.

  13. Vector Borne Infections in Italy: Results of the Integrated Surveillance System for West Nile Disease in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Christian; Di Sabatino, Daria; Martini, Vanessa; Santucci, Vincenzo Ugo; Declich, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND) is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response. PMID:25874224

  14. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramini Jeff

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. Results A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. Conclusion This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS.

  15. Comparison between the clinical and laboratory features of enterovirus and West Nile virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Joanna; Lee, Bonita E; Fox, Julie D; Tilley, Peter A G; Robinson, Joan L

    2008-07-01

    The seasonality and clinical features of enterovirus (EV) infections overlap with those of West Nile virus (WNV). The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of EV detection in patients being tested for WNV and to look for features that could be used to distinguish between infections with these two viruses. Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) for EV was performed on all plasma samples submitted for WNV testing in 2003 and 2004. Demographics, clinical features, and laboratory results for patients with documented EV viremia were compared with those for patients with confirmed WNV infection (as diagnosed by NAT and/or serology). NAT for EV was positive on 50 of 1,784 serum or plasma samples submitted for WNV testing (2.8%). Clinical information was compared for 45 patients with EV viremia and 214 patients with WNV infection. Patients with EV viremia were younger and less likely to have heart disease or a travel history (Panorexia, dizziness, rash, and cranial nerve palsy (P<0.05). There are no consistent differences in the features of WNV infection and enteroviral viremia so diagnostic tests for both viruses should be performed when WNV is present in local mosquitoes.

  16. Seroconversion for west Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses among sentinel horses in Colombia

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    Salim Mattar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We prospectively sampled flavivirus-naïve horses in northern Colombia to detect West Nile virus (WNV and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV seroconversion events, which would indicate the current circulation of these viruses. Overall, 331 (34.1% of the 971 horses screened were positive for past infection with flaviviruses upon initial sampling in July 2006. During the 12-month study from July 2006-June 2007, 33 WNV seroconversions and 14 SLEV seroconversions were detected, most of which occurred in the department of Bolivar. The seroconversion rates of horses in Bolivar for the period of March-June 2007 reached 12.4% for WNV and 6.7% for SLEV. These results comprise the first serologic evidence of SLEV circulation in Colombia. None of the horses sampled developed symptoms of encephalitis within three years of initial sampling. Using seroconversions in sentinel horses, we demonstrated an active circulation of WNV and SLEV in northern Colombia, particularly in the department of Bolivar. The absence of WNV-attributed equine or human disease in Colombia and elsewhere in the Caribbean Basin remains a topic of debate and speculation.

  17. Surveillance potential of non-native Hawaiian birds for detection of West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Dusek, Robert J.; Brand, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in North America in 1999. Alaska and Hawaii (HI) remain the only U.S. states in which transmission of WNV has not been detected. Dead bird surveillance has played an important role in the detection of the virus geographically, as well as temporally. In North America, corvids have played a major role in WNV surveillance; however, the only corvid in HI is the endangered Hawaiian crow that exists only in captivity, thus precluding the use of this species for WNV surveillance in HI. To evaluate the suitability of alternate avian species for WNV surveillance, we experimentally challenged seven abundant non-native bird species present in HI with WNV and compared mortality, viremia, oral shedding of virus, and seroconversion. For detection of WNV in oral swabs, we compared viral culture, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and the RAMP® test. For detection of antibodies to WNV, we compared an indirect and a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. We found four species (house sparrow, house finch, Japanese white-eye, and Java sparrow) that may be useful in dead bird surveillance for WNV; while common myna, zebra dove, and spotted dove survived infection and may be useful in serosurveillance.

  18. First Serological Evidence of West Nile Virus in Horses and Dogs from Corsica Island, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquart, Marianne; Dahmani, Mustapha; Marié, Jean-Lou; Gravier, Patrick; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Davoust, Bernard

    2017-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is widely distributed over the world, including Europe, Africa, and Asia and spread over the past two decades to North and South America. In the south of France, sporadic cases are frequently described and the virus is endemic in Italy with frequent cases and outbreaks. The aim of this study was to identify a possible WNV circulation in Corsica (French island in the Mediterranean Sea) in sheep, horses, and dogs as sentinel animals for the virus surveillance. In 2014, 386 blood samples were collected from 219 sheep, 96 horses, and 71 dogs, in 12 localities in Corsica, in the oriental coast of Corsica. Each sample was systematically tested for WNV immunoglobulin G using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with inactivated WNV as antigen. The result of the ELISA for the WNV antibody test on the sheep sera was all negative, whereas 9 of 96 horses (9.4%) and 6 of 71 dogs (8.4%) presented WNV antibodies. All the positive samples from horses and dogs were confirmed by serum neutralization test. Although no clinical case in humans and horses was reported to date, this report highlights the necessity to improve WNV surveillance in animals and humans, as well as in blood donors in Corsica.

  19. Virus infection of a weed increases vector attraction to and vector fitness on the weed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Pan, Huipeng; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Fang, Yong; Shi, Xiaobin; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    Weeds are important in the ecology of field crops, and when crops are harvested, weeds often become the main hosts for plant viruses and their insect vectors. Few studies, however, have examined the relationships between plant viruses, vectors, and weeds. Here, we investigated how infection of the weed Datura stramonium L. by tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) affects the host preference and performance of the TYLCV vector, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Q. The results of a choice experiment indicated that B. tabaci Q preferentially settled and oviposited on TYLCV-infected plants rather than on healthy plants. In addition, B. tabaci Q performed better on TYLCV-infected plants than on healthy plants. These results demonstrate that TYLCV is indirectly mutualistic to B. tabaci Q. The mutually beneficial interaction between TYLCV and B. tabaci Q may help explain the concurrent outbreaks of TYLCV and B. tabaci Q in China. PMID:23872717

  20. A West Nile virus CD4 T cell epitope improves the immunogenicity of dengue virus serotype 2 vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Holly R; Crill, Wayne D; Davis, Brent S; Chang, Gwong-Jen J

    2012-03-15

    Flaviviruses, such as dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV), are among the most prevalent human disease-causing arboviruses world-wide. As they continue to expand their geographic range, multivalent flavivirus vaccines may become an important public health tool. Here we describe the immune kinetics of WNV DNA vaccination and the identification of a CD4 epitope that increases heterologous flavivirus vaccine immunogenicity. Lethal WNV challenge two days post-vaccination resulted in 90% protection with complete protection by four days, and was temporally associated with a rapid influx of activated CD4 T cells. CD4 T cells from WNV vaccinated mice could be stimulated from epitopic regions in the envelope protein transmembrane domain. Incorporation of this WNV epitope into DENV-2 DNA and virus-like particle vaccines significantly increased neutralizing antibody titers. Incorporating such potent epitopes into multivalent flavivirus vaccines could improve their immunogenicity and may help alleviate concerns of imbalanced immunity in multivalent vaccine approaches. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Vector competence of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes for Zika virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany L. Dodson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus is a newly emergent mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the new world, leading to dramatic increases in serious disease pathology including Guillain-Barre syndrome, newborn microcephaly, and infant brain damage. Although Aedes mosquitoes are thought to be the primary mosquito species driving infection, the virus has been isolated from dozens of mosquito species, including Culex and Anopheles species, and we lack a thorough understanding of which mosquito species to target for vector control. We exposed Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to blood meals supplemented with two Zika virus strains. Mosquito bodies, legs, and saliva were collected five, seven, and 14 days post blood meal and tested for infectious virus by plaque assay. Regardless of titer, virus strain, or timepoint, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were refractory to Zika virus infection. We conclude that Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes likely do not contribute significantly to Zika virus transmission to humans. However, future studies should continue to explore the potential for other novel potential vectors to transmit the virus.

  2. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies to West Nile virus in flamingo chicks (Phoenicopterus chilensis and Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baitchman, Eric J; Tlusty, Michael F; Murphy, Hayley W

    2007-06-01

    Passive transfer of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) was studied in a captive population of Chilean (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber). Transfer of WNV antibodies from hens to chicks was documented and measured by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Hen titers were significantly correlated to chick titers. Mean half-life of maternal WNV antibodies was 13.4 days in chicks for which half-life was measurable.

  3. West Nile Virus Lineage 2 in Horses and Other Animals with Neurologic Disease, South Africa, 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Marietjie; Pretorius, Marthi; Fuller, James A; Botha, Elizabeth; Rakgotho, Mpho; Stivaktas, Voula; Weyer, Camilla; Romito, Marco; Williams, June

    2017-12-01

    During 2008-2015 in South Africa, we conducted West Nile virus surveillance in 1,407 animals with neurologic disease and identified mostly lineage 2 cases in horses (7.4%, 79/1,069), livestock (1.5%, 2/132), and wildlife (0.5%, 1/206); 35% were fatal. Geographic correlation of horse cases with seropositive veterinarians suggests disease in horses can predict risk in humans.

  4. CD8+ T cells mediate recovery and immunopathology in West Nile virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Lobigs, Mario; Lee, Eva; Müllbacher, Arno

    2003-12-01

    C57BL/6J mice infected intravenously with the Sarafend strain of West Nile virus (WNV) develop a characteristic central nervous system (CNS) disease, including an acute inflammatory reaction. Dose response studies indicate two distinct kinetics of mortality. At high doses of infection (10(8) PFU), direct infection of the brain occurred within 24 h, resulting in 100% mortality with a 6-day mean survival time (MST), and there was minimal destruction of neural tissue. A low dose (10(3) PFU) of infection resulted in 27% mortality (MST, 11 days), and virus could be detected in the CNS 7 days postinfection (p.i.). Virus was present in the hypogastric lymph nodes and spleens at days 4 to 7 p.i. Histology of the brains revealed neuronal degeneration and inflammation within leptomeninges and brain parenchyma. Inflammatory cell infiltration was detectable in brains from day 4 p.i. onward in the high-dose group and from day 7 p.i. in the low-dose group, with the severity of infiltration increasing over time. The cellular infiltrates in brain consisted predominantly of CD8(+), but not CD4(+), T cells. CD8(+) T cells in the brain and the spleen expressed the activation markers CD69 early and expressed CD25 at later time points. CD8(+) T-cell-deficient mice infected with 10(3) PFU of WNV showed increased mortalities but prolonged MST and early infection of the CNS compared to wild-type mice. Using high doses of virus in CD8-deficient mice leads to increased survival. These results provide evidence that CD8(+) T cells are involved in both recovery and immunopathology in WNV infection.

  5. West Nile virus differentially modulates the unfolded protein response to facilitate replication and immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Rebecca L; Mackenzie, Jason M

    2011-03-01

    For intracellular survival it is imperative that viruses have the capacity to manipulate various cellular responses, including metabolic and biosynthetic pathways. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is induced by various external and internal stimuli, including the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Our previous studies have indicated that the replication and assembly of the flavivirus West Nile virus strain Kunjin virus (WNV(KUN)) is intimately associated with the ER. Thus, we sought to determine whether the UPR was induced during WNV(KUN) infection. WNV(KUN) induces UPR signaling during replication, which is coordinated with peak replication. Interestingly, signaling is biased toward the ATF6/IRE-1 arm of the response, with high levels of Xbp-1 activation but negligible eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α phosphorylation and downstream transcription. We show that the PERK-mediated response may partially regulate replication, since external UPR stimulation had a limiting effect on early replication events and cells deficient for PERK demonstrated increased replication and virus release. Significantly, we show that the WNV(KUN) hydrophobic nonstructural proteins NS4A and NS4B are potent inducers of the UPR, which displayed a high correlation in inhibiting Jak-STAT signaling in response to alpha interferon (IFN-α). Sequential removal of the transmembrane domains of NS4A showed that reducing hydrophobicity decreased UPR signaling and restored IFN-α-mediated activation. Overall, these results suggest that WNV(KUN) can stimulate the UPR to facilitate replication and that the induction of a general ER stress response, regulated by hydrophobic WNV(KUN) proteins, can potentiate the inhibition of the antiviral signaling pathway.

  6. Development and validation of a climate-based ensemble prediction model for West Nile Virus infection rates in Culex mosquitoes, Suffolk County, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Eliza; Campbell, Scott R; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2016-08-09

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is an endemic public health concern in the United States that produces periodic seasonal epidemics. Underlying these outbreaks is the enzootic cycle of WNV between mosquito vectors and bird hosts. Identifying the key environmental conditions that facilitate and accelerate this cycle can be used to inform effective vector control. Here, we model and forecast WNV infection rates among mosquito vectors in Suffolk County, New York using readily available meteorological and hydrological conditions. We first validate a statistical model built with surveillance data between 2001 and 2009 (m09) and specify a set of new statistical models using surveillance data from 2001 to 2012 (m12). This ensemble of new models is then used to make predictions for 2013-2015, and multimodel inference is employed to provide a formal probabilistic interpretation across the disparate individual model predictions. The findings of the m09 and m12 models align; with the ensemble of m12 models indicating an association between warm, dry early spring (April) conditions and increased annual WNV infection rates in Culex mosquitoes. This study shows that real-time climate information can be used to predict WNV infection rates in Culex mosquitoes prior to its seasonal peak and before WNV spillover transmission risk to humans is greatest.

  7. Dengue and West Nile Virus Transmission in Children and Adults in Coastal Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, David M; Banda, Tamara; Teng, Crystal Y; Heimbaugh, Chelsea; Muchiri, Eric M; Mungai, Peter L; Mutuku, Francis M; Brichard, Julie; Gildengorin, Ginny; Borland, Erin M; Powers, Ann M; Kitron, Uriel; King, Charles H; LaBeaud, A Desiree

    2017-01-11

    Dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are important reemerging arboviruses that are under-recognized in many parts of Africa due to lack of surveillance. As a part of a study on flavivirus, alphavirus, and parasite exposure in coastal Kenya, we measured neutralizing antibody against DENV and, to evaluate assay specificity, WNV in serum samples that tested positive for serum anti-DENV IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 830 anti-DENV IgG-positive samples that were tested for neutralizing activity, 488 (58.8%) neutralized DENV and 94 (11.3%) neutralized WNV. Of children ≤ 10 years of age, 23% and 17% had serum neutralizing antibody to DENV and WNV, respectively, indicating that DENV and WNV transmission has occurred in this region within the past decade. The results suggest that ongoing DENV and WNV transmission continues on the coast of Kenya and supports a need for routine arboviral surveillance in the area to detect and respond to future outbreaks. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Survey for West Nile virus antibodies in wild ducks, 2004-06, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Jankowski, Mark D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) in ducks has been reported in North America in isolated cases of mortality in wild waterbirds and following outbreaks in farmed ducks. Although the virus has been noted as an apparent incidental finding in several species of ducks, little is known about the prevalence of exposure or the outcome of infection with WNV in wild ducks in North America. From 2004–06, we collected sera from 1,406 wild-caught American Wigeon (Anas americana), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) ducks at national wildlife refuges (NWRs) in North Dakota and Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) at NWRs in South Carolina and Tennessee. We measured the prevalence of previous exposure to WNV in these ducks by measuring WNV antibodies and evaluated variation in exposure among species, age, and year. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of a commercial antibody to wild bird immunoglobulin in duck species that varied in their phylogenetic relatedness to the bird species the antibody was directed against. As determined by a screening immunoassay and a confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization assay, the prevalence of WNV antibody was 10%. In light of experimental studies that show ducks to be relatively resistant to mortality caused by WNV, the antibody prevalence we detected suggests that wild ducks may be less-frequently exposed to WNV than expected for birds inhabiting wetlands where they may acquire infection from mosquitoes.

  9. Oral and parenteral immunization of chickens (Gallus gallus) against West Nile virus with recombinant envelope protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbinder-Orth, C. A.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Weeks-Levy, C.; Karasov, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes morbidity and mortality in humans, horses, and in more than 315 bird species in North America. Currently approved WNV vaccines are designed for parenteral administration and, as yet, no effective oral WNV vaccines have been developed. WNV envelope (E) protein is a highly antigenic protein that elicits the majority of virus-neutralizing antibodies during a WNV immune response. Leghorn chickens were given three vaccinations (each 2 wk apart) of E protein orally (20 ??g or 100 ??g/dose), of E protein intramuscularly (IM, 20 ??g/dose), or of adjuvant only (control group) followed by a WNV challenge. Viremias were measured post-WNV infection, and three new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed for quantifying IgM, IgY, and IgA-mediated immune response of birds following WNV infection. WNV viremia levels were significantly lower in the IM group than in both oral groups and the control group. Total WNV E protein-specific IgY production was significantly greater, and WNV nonstructural 1-specific IgY was significantly less, in the IM group compared to all other treatment groups. The results of this study indicate that IM vaccination of chickens with E protein is protective against WNV infection and results in a significantly different antibody production profile as compared to both orally vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds. ?? 2009 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  10. Raptor mortality due to West Nile virus in the United States, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Emi K; Sileo, Louis; Green, D Earl; Meteyer, Carol U; McLaughlin, Grace S; Converse, Kathryn A; Docherty, Douglas E

    2007-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has affected many thousands of birds since it was first detected in North America in 1999, but the overall impact on wild bird populations is unknown. In mid-August 2002, wildlife rehabilitators and local wildlife officials from multiple states began reporting increasing numbers of sick and dying raptors, mostly red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus). Commonly reported clinical signs were nonspecific and included emaciation, lethargy, weakness, inability to perch, fly or stand, and nonresponse to danger. Raptor carcasses from 12 states were received, and diagnostic evaluation of 56 raptors implicated WNV infection in 40 (71%) of these cases. Histologically, nonsuppurative encephalitis and myocarditis were the salient lesions (79% and 61%, respectively). Other causes of death included lead poisoning, trauma, aspergillosis, and Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. infections. The reason(s) for the reported increase in raptor mortality due to WNV in 2002 compared with the previous WNV seasons is unclear, and a better understanding of the epizootiology and pathogenesis of the virus in raptor populations is needed.

  11. Enhanced West Nile Virus Surveillance in a Dengue-Endemic Area—Puerto Rico, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Aponte, Jomil M.; Luce, Richard R.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge L.; Beltrán, Manuela; Vergne, Edgardo; Argüello, D. Fermín; García, Enid J.; Sun, Wellington; Tomashek, Kay M.

    2013-01-01

    In June of 2007, West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in sentinel chickens and blood donors in Puerto Rico, where dengue virus (DENV) is hyperendemic. Enhanced human surveillance for acute febrile illness (AFI) began in eastern Puerto Rico on July 1, 2007. Healthcare providers submitted specimens from AFI cases for WNV and DENV virology and serology testing. Over 6 months, 385 specimens were received from 282 cases; 115 (41%) specimens were DENV laboratory-positive, 86 (31%) specimens were laboratory-indeterminate, and 32 (11%) specimens were laboratory-negative for WNV and DENV. One WNV infection was detected by anti-WNV immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody and confirmed by a plaque reduction neutralization test. DENV and WNV infections could not be differentiated in 27 cases (10%). During a period of active WNV transmission, enhanced human surveillance identified one case of symptomatic WNV infection. Improved diagnostic methods are needed to allow differentiation of WNV and DENV in dengue-endemic regions. PMID:23478583

  12. A CRISPR-Based Screen Identifies Genes Essential for West-Nile-Virus-Induced Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongming; Dang, Ying; Wu, Yonggan; Jia, Gengxiang; Anaya, Edgar; Zhang, Junli; Abraham, Sojan; Choi, Jang-Gi; Shi, Guojun; Qi, Ling; Manjunath, N; Wu, Haoquan

    2015-07-28

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes an acute neurological infection attended by massive neuronal cell death. However, the mechanism(s) behind the virus-induced cell death is poorly understood. Using a library containing 77,406 sgRNAs targeting 20,121 genes, we performed a genome-wide screen followed by a second screen with a sub-library. Among the genes identified, seven genes, EMC2, EMC3, SEL1L, DERL2, UBE2G2, UBE2J1, and HRD1, stood out as having the strongest phenotype, whose knockout conferred strong protection against WNV-induced cell death with two different WNV strains and in three cell lines. Interestingly, knockout of these genes did not block WNV replication. Thus, these appear to be essential genes that link WNV replication to downstream cell death pathway(s). In addition, the fact that all of these genes belong to the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway suggests that this might be the primary driver of WNV-induced cell death. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatio-temporal epidemiology of human West Nile virus disease in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, Michael C; Giacomo, Paolla; Kightlinger, Lon; Hildreth, Michael B

    2013-10-29

    Despite a cold temperate climate and low human population density, the Northern Great Plains has become a persistent hot spot for human West Nile virus (WNV) disease in North America. Understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of WNV can provide insights into the epidemiological and ecological factors that influence disease emergence and persistence. We analyzed the 1,962 cases of human WNV disease that occurred in South Dakota from 2002-2012 to identify the geographic distribution, seasonal cycles, and interannual variability of disease risk. The geographic and seasonal patterns of WNV have changed since the invasion and initial epidemic in 2002-2003, with cases shifting toward the eastern portion of South Dakota and occurring earlier in the transmission season in more recent years. WNV cases were temporally autocorrelated at lags of up to six weeks and early season cumulative case numbers were correlated with seasonal totals, indicating the possibility of using these data for short-term early detection of outbreaks. Epidemiological data are likely to be most effective for early warning of WNV virus outbreaks if they are integrated with entomological surveillance and environmental monitoring to leverage the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of each information source.

  14. Superiority of West Nile Virus RNA Detection in Whole Blood for Diagnosis of Acute Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Yaniv; Mannasse, Batya; Koren, Ravit; Katz-Likvornik, Shiri; Hindiyeh, Musa; Mandelboim, Michal; Dovrat, Sara; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-09-01

    The current diagnosis of West Nile virus (WNV) infection is primarily based on serology, since molecular identification of WNV RNA is unreliable due to the short viremia and absence of detectable virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recent studies have shown that WNV RNA can be detected in urine for a longer period and at higher concentrations than in plasma. In this study, we examined the presence of WNV RNA in serum, plasma, whole-blood, CSF, and urine samples obtained from patients diagnosed with acute WNV infection during an outbreak which occurred in Israel in 2015. Our results demonstrate that 33 of 38 WNV patients had detectable WNV RNA in whole blood at the time of diagnosis, a higher rate than in any of the other sample types tested. Overall, whole blood was superior to all other samples, with 86.8% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 83.9% negative predictive value. Interestingly, WNV viral load in urine was higher than in whole blood, CSF, serum, and plasma despite the lower sensitivity than that of whole blood. This study establishes the utility of whole blood in the routine diagnosis of acute WNV infection and suggests that it may provide the highest sensitivity for WNV RNA detection in suspected cases. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Potential for biological control of rice yellow mottle virus vectors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insect pests and disease infestations are the primary constraints in rice (Oryza sativa) production systems in Africa and Asia. ... Unfortunately, 2002 - 2004, two sampling methods were combined to assess the population of insects vectors of rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) in the three major irrigated rice ecosystems in ...

  16. Construction of self-replicating subgenomic West Nile virus replicons for screening antiviral compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L; Reichert, Erin Donohue; Padmanabhan, Radhakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito-borne flavivirus RNA genomes encode one long open reading frame flanking 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (5'- and 3'-UTRs) which contain cis-acting RNA elements playing important roles for viral RNA translation and replication. The viral RNA encodes a single polyprotein, which is processed into three structural proteins and seven nonstructural (NS) proteins. The regions coding for the seven NS proteins are sufficient for replication of the RNA. The sequences encoding the structural genes can be deleted except for two short regions. The first one encompasses 32 amino acid (aa) residues from the N-terminal coding sequence of capsid (C) and the second, 27 aa region from the C-terminus of envelope (E) protein. The deleted region can be substituted with a gene coding for a readily quantifiable reporter to give rise to a subgenomic reporter replicon. Replicons containing a variety of reporter genes and marker genes for construction of stable mammalian cell lines are valuable reagents for studying the effects of mutations in translation and/or replication in isolation from processes like the entry and assembly of the virus particles. Here we describe the construction of two West Nile virus (WNV) replicons by overlap extension PCR and standard recombinant DNA techniques. One has a Renilla luciferase (Rluc) reporter gene followed by an internal ribosome entry site (element) for cap-independent translation of the open reading frame encompassing the carboxy-terminal sequence of E to NS5. The second replicon has in tandem the Rluc gene, foot and mouth disease virus 2A, and neomycin phosphotransferase gene that allows establishment of a stable mammalian cell line expressing the Rluc reporter in the presence of the neomycin analog, G418. The stable replicon-expressing Vero cell line has been used for cell-based screening and determination of EC50 values for antiviral compounds that inhibited WNV replication.

  17. West Nile virus serosurveillance in pigs, wild boars, and roe deer in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Romero, Estela; Lupulović, Diana; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Lazić, Gospava; Lazić, Sava; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Petrović, Tamaš

    2015-04-17

    West Nile virus (WNV) is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between birds and mosquitoes, but it also infects many other vertebrates, including humans and horses, in which it can induce severe neurological diseases; however, data about virus circulation in other mammals is scarce. WNV has a history of recent outbreaks in Europe, including Serbia, where it was identified for the first time in 2010 in mosquitoes and in 2012 in birds and humans, being responsible for over 300 confirmed human cases and 35 deaths there along 2013. To assess WNV circulation among mammals in the country, 688 samples obtained from 279 farm pigs, 318 wild boars, and 91 roe deer were investigated for the presence of antibodies to WNV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and viral neutralization test (VNT), and the specificity of their reactivity was assayed against Usutu virus (USUV). ELISA-reactive sera were identified in 43 (15.4%) pigs, 56 (17.6%) wild boars, and 17 (18.7%) roe deer. Of these, 6 (14%), 33 (59%), and 4 (23.5%) respectively, neutralized WNV. One out of the 45 ELISA negative sera tested, from a roe deer, neutralized WNV. Cross-reactivity neutralization test indicated that all deer and pigs neutralizing sera were WNV specific, while in 5 (15.2%) of the wild boar samples the specificity could not be established. Four wild boar sera showed USUV specificity. All these data confirm the circulation of both flaviviruses in Serbia, and highlight the need for the implementation of global coordinated surveillance programs in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Interleukin-17A Promotes CD8+ T Cell Cytotoxicity To Facilitate West Nile Virus Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Dhiraj; Wang, Penghua; Paul, Amber M; Dai, Jianfeng; Gate, David; Lowery, Jordan E; Stokic, Dobrivoje S; Leis, A Arturo; Flavell, Richard A; Town, Terrence; Fikrig, Erol; Bai, Fengwei

    2017-01-01

    CD8 + T cells are crucial components of immunity and play a vital role in recovery from West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Here, we identify a previously unrecognized function of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) in inducing cytotoxic-mediator gene expression and promoting CD8 + T cell cytotoxicity against WNV infection in mice. We find that IL-17A-deficient (Il17a -/- ) mice are more susceptible to WNV infection and develop a higher viral burden than wild-type (WT) mice. Interestingly, the CD8 + T cells isolated from Il17a -/- mice are less cytotoxic and express lower levels of cytotoxic-mediator genes, which can be restored by supplying recombinant IL-17A in vitro and in vivo Importantly, treatment of WNV-infected mice with recombinant IL-17A, as late as day 6 postinfection, significantly reduces the viral burden and increases survival, suggesting a therapeutic potential for IL-17A. In conclusion, we report a novel function of IL-17A in promoting CD8 + T cell cytotoxicity, which may have broad implications in other microbial infections and cancers. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and CD8 + T cells regulate diverse immune functions in microbial infections, malignancies, and autoimmune diseases. IL-17A is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by diverse cell types, while CD8 + T cells (known as cytotoxic T cells) are major cells that provide immunity against intracellular pathogens. Previous studies have demonstrated a crucial role of CD8 + T cells in recovery from West Nile virus (WNV) infection. However, the role of IL-17A during WNV infection remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that IL-17A protects mice from lethal WNV infection by promoting CD8 + T cell-mediated clearance of WNV. In addition, treatment of WNV-infected mice with recombinant IL-17A reduces the viral burden and increases survival of mice, suggesting a potential therapeutic. This novel IL-17A-CD8 + T cell axis may also have broad implications for immunity to other microbial infections and cancers, where CD8 + T cell

  19. Identification and characterization of a virus-specific continuous B-cell epitope on the PrM/M protein of Japanese Encephalitis Virus: potential application in the detection of antibodies to distinguish Japanese Encephalitis Virus infection from West Nile Virus and Dengue Virus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen-Xin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differential diagnose of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV infection from other flavivirus especially West Nile virus (WNV and Dengue virus (DV infection was greatly hindered for the serological cross-reactive. Virus specific epitopes could benefit for developing JEV specific antibodies detection methods. To identify the JEV specific epitopes, we fully mapped and characterized the continuous B-cell epitope of the PrM/M protein of JEV. Results To map the epitopes on the PrM/M protein, we designed a set of 20 partially overlapping fragments spanning the whole PrM, fused them with GST, and expressed them in an expression vector. Linear epitope M14 (105VNKKEAWLDSTKATRY120 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. By removing amino acid residues individually from the carboxy and amino terminal of peptide M14, we confirmed that the minimal unit of the linear epitope of PrM/M was M14-13 (108KEAWLDSTKAT118. This epitope was highly conserved across different JEV strains. Moreover, this epitope did not cross-react with WNV-positive and DENV-positive sera. Conclusion Epitope M14-13 was a JEV specific lineal B-cell epitpe. The results may provide a useful basis for the development of epitope-based virus specific diagnostic clinical techniques.

  20. A Foxtail mosaic virus Vector for Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Maize1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yu; Kernodle, Bliss M.; Hill, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Plant viruses have been widely used as vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). A limited number of viruses have been developed into viral vectors for the purposes of gene expression or VIGS in monocotyledonous plants, and among these, the tripartite viruses Brome mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus have been shown to induce VIGS in maize (Zea mays). We describe here a new DNA-based VIGS system derived from Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV), a monopartite virus that is able to establish systemic infection and silencing of endogenous maize genes homologous to gene fragments inserted into the FoMV genome. To demonstrate VIGS applications of this FoMV vector system, four genes, phytoene desaturase (functions in carotenoid biosynthesis), lesion mimic22 (encodes a key enzyme of the porphyrin pathway), iojap (functions in plastid development), and brown midrib3 (caffeic acid O-methyltransferase), were silenced and characterized in the sweet corn line Golden × Bantam. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the FoMV infectious clone establishes systemic infection in maize inbred lines, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and green foxtail (Setaria viridis), indicating the potential wide applications of this viral vector system for functional genomics studies in maize and other monocots. PMID:27208311

  1. A Foxtail mosaic virus Vector for Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yu; Zhang, Chunquan; Kernodle, Bliss M; Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A

    2016-06-01

    Plant viruses have been widely used as vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). A limited number of viruses have been developed into viral vectors for the purposes of gene expression or VIGS in monocotyledonous plants, and among these, the tripartite viruses Brome mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus have been shown to induce VIGS in maize (Zea mays). We describe here a new DNA-based VIGS system derived from Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV), a monopartite virus that is able to establish systemic infection and silencing of endogenous maize genes homologous to gene fragments inserted into the FoMV genome. To demonstrate VIGS applications of this FoMV vector system, four genes, phytoene desaturase (functions in carotenoid biosynthesis), lesion mimic22 (encodes a key enzyme of the porphyrin pathway), iojap (functions in plastid development), and brown midrib3 (caffeic acid O-methyltransferase), were silenced and characterized in the sweet corn line Golden × Bantam. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the FoMV infectious clone establishes systemic infection in maize inbred lines, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and green foxtail (Setaria viridis), indicating the potential wide applications of this viral vector system for functional genomics studies in maize and other monocots. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Vectors of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakkyeh Telmadarraiy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ticks are important vectors and reservoirs of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF virus. Human beings may be infected whenever the normal life cycle of the infected ticks on non- human vertebrate hosts is interrupted by the undesirable presence of humans in the cycle. A total of 26 species of Argasid and Ixodid ticks have been recorded in Iran; including nine Hyalomma, two Rhipicephalus, two Dermacentor, five Haemaphysalis, two Boophilus, one Ixodes and two Argas as well as three Ornithodoros species as blood sucking ectoparasites of livestock and poultries. The present paper reviews tick vectors of CCHF virus in Iran, focusing on the role of ticks in different provinces of Iran using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay.Methods: During ten years study, 1054 tick specimens; including two species of Argasidae and 17 species of Ixodidae were examined for their infection to CCHF virus genome. The output of all studies as well as related publications were discussed in the current paper.Results: The results show that Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma marginatum, H. anatolicum, H. asiaticum and H. dromedarii were known as the most frequent species which were positive for CCHF virus.Conclusion: The status of ticks which were positive for CCHF virus revealed that unlike the most common idea that Hyalomma species are the most important vectors of CCHF virus, other ticks including Rhipicephalus,Haemaphysalis and Dermacentor can be reservoir of this virus; thus, considering geographical distribution, type of host and environmental conditions, different tick control measurements should be carried out in areas with high incidence of CCHF disease.

  3. Vírus do Nilo Ocidental: nova ameaça à segurança transfusional? West Nile virus: a new threat to transfusion safety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey K. Zeinad

    2004-01-01

    community. Efforts have been made in an attempt to obtain accurate diagnostic tests, to search for an effective therapy, to control the vectors (insects and to develop a vaccine. Cases of West Nile infection have already been reported in Central America. Due the ideal climatic conditions for the spread of this virus in Brazil, we should be aware of the risks of an epidemic here. This article presents the current worldwide picture of West Nile Virus dissemination, ways of transmission, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment with some preventive measures for the control of this infection.

  4. Nonreciprocal Pseudotyping: Murine Leukemia Virus Proteins Cannot Efficiently Package Spleen Necrosis Virus-Based Vector RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Certo, Jeanine L.; Shook, Betsy F.; Yin, Philip D.; Snider, John T.; Hu, Wei-Shau

    1998-01-01

    It has been documented that spleen necrosis virus (SNV) can package murine leukemia virus (MLV) RNA efficiently and propagate MLV vectors to the same titers as it propagates SNV-based vectors. Although the SNV packaging signal (E) and MLV packaging signal (Ψ) have little sequence homology, similar double-hairpin RNA structures were predicted and supported by experimental evidence. To test whether SNV RNA can be packaged by MLV proteins, we modified an SNV vector to be expressed in an MLV-base...

  5. Overwintering of Uranotaenia unguiculata adult females in central Europe: a possible way of persistence of the putative new lineage of West Nile virus?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šebesta, Oldřich; Straková, Petra; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; Venclíková, Kristýna; Seidel, B.; Tóth, S.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schaffner, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2015), s. 364-365 ISSN 8756-971X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : mosquito * mosquito-borne virus es * overwintering * Uranotaenia unguiculata * West Nile virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.824, year: 2015

  6. A plant-produced vaccine protects mice against lethal West Nile virus infection without enhancing Zika or dengue virus infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Huafang; Paul, Amber M; Sun, Haiyan; He, Junyun; Yang, Ming; Bai, Fengwei; Chen, Qiang

    2018-03-27

    West Nile virus (WNV) has caused multiple global outbreaks with increased frequency of neuroinvasive disease in recent years. Despite many years of research, there are no licensed therapeutics or vaccines available for human use. One of the major impediments of vaccine development against WNV is the potential enhancement of infection by related flaviviruses in vaccinated subjects through the mechanism of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE). For instance, the recent finding of enhancement of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection by pre-exposure to WNV further complicates the development of WNV vaccines. Epidemics of WNV and the potential risk of ADE by current vaccine candidates demand the development of effective and safe vaccines. We have previously reported that the domain III (DIII) of the WNV envelope protein can be readily expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, purified to homogeneity, and promote antigen-specific antibody response in mice. Herein, we further investigated the in vivo potency of a plant-made DIII (plant-DIII) in providing protective immunity against WNV infection. Furthermore, we examined if vaccination with plant-DIII would enhance the risk of a subsequent infection by ZIKV and Dengue virus (DENV). Plant-DIII vaccination evoked antigen-specific cellular immune responses as well as humoral responses. DIII-specific antibodies were neutralizing and the neutralization titers met the threshold correlated with protective immunity by vaccines against multiple flaviviruses. Furthermore, passive administration of anti-plant DIII mouse serum provided full protection against a lethal challenge of WNV infection in mice. Notably, plant DIII-induced antibodies did not enhance ZIKV and DENV infection in Fc gamma receptor-expressing cells, addressing the concern of WNV vaccines in inducing cross-reactive antibodies and sensitizing subjects to subsequent infection by heterologous flavivirus. This study provides the first report of a WNV subunit vaccine

  7. Virusoverdracht en vectorbestrijding in pootaardappelgewassen = Virus transmission and vector control in seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.P.M.

    1961-01-01

    The extensive literature concerning leafroll virus, virus Y and their vector Myzus persicae Sulz. was surveyed. The relations between virus, aphid and plant were discussed. In virus spread, endogenous infection (spread of virus within the field whereby virus diseased plants act as sources of

  8. Blood group A and Rh(D)-negativity are associated with symptomatic West Nile virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidarova, Zhanna; Bravo, Marjorie D.; Kamel, Hany T.; Custer, Brian S; Busch, Michael P.; Lanteri, Marion C.

    2016-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) infection is mostly asymptomatic but 20% of subjects report WNV fever and 1% of patients experience neurological diseases with higher rates in elderly and immunosuppressed persons. With no treatment and no vaccine to prevent the development of symptomatic infections, it is essential to understand prognostic factors influencing symptomatic disease outcome. Host genetic background has been linked to the development of WNV neuroinvasive disease. The present study investigates the association between the ABO and Rh(D) blood group status and WNV disease outcome. Study Design and Methods The distribution of blood groups was investigated within a cohort of 374 WNV+ blood donors including 244 asymptomatic (AS) and 130 symptomatic (S) WNV+ blood donors. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between A, B, O and Rh(D) blood groups and WNV clinical disease outcome. Results Symptomatic WNV+ donors exhibited increased frequencies of blood group A (S 47.6% AS 36.8%, P=0.04, OR [95%CI] 1.56 [1.01–2.40]) and Rh(D)-negative individuals (S 21.5% AS 13.1%, P=0.03, OR [95%CI] 1.82 [1.04–3.18]). Conclusion The findings suggest a genetic susceptibility placing blood group A and Rh(D)-negative individuals at risk for the development of symptomatic disease outcome after WNV infection. PMID:27189860

  9. Paraparesis in a polar bear (Ursus maritimus) associated with West Nile virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Christopher J; Quinnell, Mark; Lindsay, Robbin; DeLay, Josepha; Barker, Ian K

    2009-09-01

    A polar bear (Ursus maritimus) housed at the Toronto Zoo presented with acute-onset, nonambulatory paraparesis. Physical examination 24 hr after onset was otherwise unremarkable, spinal radiographs looked normal, and blood tests indicated mild dehydration. With continued deterioration in its general condition, euthanasia was elected a day later. Necropsy did not reveal a cause for the major presenting clinical signs. Serum collected at the time of initial examination was positive for West Nile virus (WNV) antibodies in a serum neutralization assay and at the time of euthanasia was positive in both a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and in a plaque reduction neutralization assay. The major microscopic finding was a mild-to-moderate nonsuppurative meningoencephalomyelitis. WNV was not detected by immunohistochemistry in brain or spinal cord or by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cell culture of brain and kidney, but it was isolated and identified by RT-PCR in second passage cell culture of spleen. Retrospective immunohistochemistry on spleen revealed rare antigen-positive cells, probably macrophages. Prevention of exposure to potentially WNV-infected mosquitoes or vaccination of captive bears against WNV should be considered.

  10. Preliminary results of the research on the West Nile Virus from the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINOV E. Mihai

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Since 2004, we have started to study the role of birds in transmission of West Nile Virus (WNV in Danube Delta and Dobrogea Tableland (Fig. 1 and Fig. 6. Same, we want to understand the mechanism of the virus’ transmission, to know which environmental factors induce the emergence of WNV. The work was focusedon three main issues: monitoring of relevant environmental factors (biotic and abiotic and gathering data on the factors from the past and correlate them with WNV human cases; harvesting ectoparasites of birds (lice and ticks for testing, and verifying the hypothesis of their vectorial role; sampling a large number of wild and domestic birds and horses and testing to find out their seroprevalence. All our results will be integrated into the laboratory work of thecolleagues from the Cantacuzino Institute (they deal especially with mosquitoes research - positive species, qualitative and quantitative composition. Up to now we detected seroprevalence in birds and horses, the increasing the number of the species involved on WNV transmission and gathered relevant information on environmental factors. Sampling of birds and horses will continue for another two years in order to clarify the mechanism of emergence and dissemination of WNV.

  11. Inhibition of West Nile virus by calbindin-D28k.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatraman Siddharthan

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates that West Nile virus (WNV employs Ca(2+ influx for its replication. Moreover, calcium buffer proteins, such as calbindin D28k (CB-D28k, may play an important role mitigating cellular destruction due to disease processes, and more specifically, in some neurological diseases. We addressed the hypothesis that CB-D28k inhibits WNV replication in cell culture and infected rodents. WNV envelope immunoreactivity (ir was not readily co-localized with CB-D28k ir in WNV-infected Vero 76 or motor neuron-like NSC34 cells that were either stably or transiently transfected with plasmids coding for CB-D28k gene. This was confirmed in cultured cells fixed on glass coverslips and by flow cytometry. Moreover, WNV infectious titers were reduced in CB-D28k-transfected cells. As in cell culture studies, WNV env ir was not co-localized with CB-D28k ir in the cortex of an infected WNV hamster, or in the hippocampus of an infected mouse. Motor neurons in the spinal cord typically do not express CB-D28k and are susceptible to WNV infection. Yet, CB-D28k was detected in the surviving motor neurons after the initial phase of WNV infection in hamsters. These data suggested that induction of CB-D28k elicit a neuroprotective response to WNV infection.

  12. Nucleic Acid Amplification Test For Detection Of West Nile Virus Infection In Pakistani Blood Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Saifullah Khan; Alam, Maqbool; Yazdani, Muhammad Sajid; Ghani, Eijaz; Rathore, Muhammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    The study was planned to determine the presence of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in Pakistani blood donors, using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAT). The blood donors for study were selected on the basis of the standard questionnaire and routine screening results. Six donors were pooled using an automated pipettor and NAT for WNV was performed on Roche Cobas s 201 NAT system. The reactive pools were resolved in Individual Donation-NAT (ID-NAT) format and a sample from FFP bags of reactive donations was retrieved. NAT was again performed on retrieved plasma bag (RPB) sample to confirm the reactive donations. The donors were also recalled and interviewed about history of illness related to recent WNV infection. After serological screening of 1929 donors during the study period, 1860 donors were selected for NAT test for WNV detection. The mean age of the donors was 28±8.77 (range: 18-57 years). 1847 (99.3%) donors were male and 13 (0.7%) were female. NAT for WNV identified six initially reactive pools (0.32%). On follow-up testing with RPB samples, 4 donors (0.21%) were found confirmed reactive for WNV RNA (NAT yield of 1 in 465 blood donors). WNV is a threat to safety of blood products in Pakistan. A screening strategy can be implemented after a large-scale study and financial considerations. One of the reduced cost screening strategies is seasonal screening of blood donors for WNV, with pooling of samples.

  13. Exposure of resident sparrows to West Nile virus evidenced in South Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, A; Lecollinet, S; Hamza, F; Nasri, I; Neb, A; Selmi, S

    2015-12-01

    During the last few years, several cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in humans have been reported in Tunisia. However, detailed information on WNV infection in wild birds, the primary amplifying host of WNV, are lacking. In this work, we investigated the exposure of wild sparrows (hybrid Passer domesticus × hispaniolensis) living in two oases in southern Tunisia (Gabès and Kébili oases) to WNV, through the detection of WNV-specific antibodies by using ELISA and microneutralization tests. In total, 208 birds were sampled (54 from Kébili, 154 from Gabès). Anti-WNV antibodies were detected in two birds, corresponding to an overall seroprevalence of 1%. There was no significant difference between the two sampled populations [1·85% (1/54) in Kébili, 0·65% (1/154) in Gabès]. These data provide indirect evidence of the exposure of resident sparrows in southern Tunisia to WNV.

  14. Exposure to West Nile Virus Increases Bacterial Diversity and Immune Gene Expression in Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Steven D; Van Slyke, Greta A; Palumbo, Michael J; Kramer, Laura D; Ciota, Alexander T

    2015-10-27

    Complex interactions between microbial residents of mosquitoes and arboviruses are likely to influence many aspects of vectorial capacity and could potentially have profound effects on patterns of arbovirus transmission. Such interactions have not been well studied for West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We utilized next-generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA bacterial genes derived from Culex pipiens Linnaeus following WNV exposure and/or infection and compared bacterial populations and broad immune responses to unexposed mosquitoes. Our results demonstrate that WNV infection increases the diversity of bacterial populations and is associated with up-regulation of classical invertebrate immune pathways including RNA interference (RNAi), Toll, and Jak-STAT (Janus kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription). In addition, WNV exposure alone, without the establishment of infection, results in similar alterations to microbial and immune signatures, although to a lesser extent. Multiple bacterial genera were found in greater abundance inWNV-exposed and/or infected mosquitoes, yet the most consistent and notable was the genus Serratia.

  15. The effect of exogenous corticosterone on West Nile virus infection in Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Jennifer C

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relationship between stress and disease is thought to be unambiguous: chronic stress induces immunosuppression, which likely increases the risk of infection. However, this link has not been firmly established in wild animals, particularly whether stress hormones affect host responses to zoonotic pathogens, which can be transmitted to domesticated animal, wildlife and human populations. Due to the dynamic effects of stress hormones on immune functions, stress hormones may make hosts better or poorer amplifying hosts for a pathogen contingent on context and the host species evaluated. Using an important zoonotic pathogen, West Nile virus (WNV and a competent host, the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis, we tested the effects of exogenous corticosterone on response to WNV infection. Corticosterone was administered at levels that individuals enduring chronic stressors (i.e., long-term inclement weather, food shortage, anthropogenic pollution might experience in the wild. Corticosterone greatly impacted mortality: half of the corticosterone-implanted cardinals died between five - 11 days post-inoculation whereas only one of nine empty-implanted (control birds died. No differences were found in viral titer between corticosterone- and empty-implanted birds. However, cardinals that survived infections had significantly higher average body temperatures during peak infection than individuals that died. In sum, this study indicates that elevated corticosterone could affect the survival of WNV-infected wild birds, suggesting that populations may be disproportionately at-risk to disease in stressful environments.

  16. Experimental infection of cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) with varying doses of West Nile virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, P.T.; Nemeth, N.M.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Sullivan, H.; Bentler, K.T.; Young, G.R.; McLean, R.G.; Clark, L.; Smeraski, C.; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) were inoculated with differing doses of West Nile virus (WNV) to evaluate their potential role as reservoir hosts in nature. Swallows often nest in large colonies in habitats and months associated with high mosquito abundance and early WNV transmission in North America. Additionally, cliff swallow diet consists of insects, including mosquitoes, leading to an additional potential route of WNV infection. The average peak viremia titer among infected cliff swallows was 106.3 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL serum and the reservoir competence index was 0.34. There was no correlation between dose and probability of becoming infected or viremia peak and duration. Oral shedding was detected from 2 to 14 days post-inoculation with an average peak titer of 1044 PFU/swab. These results suggest that cliff swallows are competent reservoir hosts of WNV and therefore, they may play a role in early seasonal amplification and maintenance of WNV. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Evaluation of Nucleic Acid Preservation Cards for West Nile Virus Testing in Dead Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Foss

    Full Text Available The California West Nile virus (WNV Dead Bird Surveillance Program (DBSP is an important component of WNV surveillance in the state. We evaluated FTA™ and RNASound™ cards as an alternative method for sampling dead birds for WNV molecular testing as these cards allow for more cost effective, rapid, and safer diagnostic sampling than the shipment of bird carcasses. To evaluate accuracy of results among avian sampling regimes, Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR results from FTA™ and RNASound™ cards were compared with results from kidney tissue, brain tissue, or oral swabs in lysis buffer in 2012-2013. In addition, RT-PCR results were compared with results from oral swabs tested by rapid antigen tests (RAMP™ and VecTOR™. While test results from the cards were not as sensitive as kidney tissue testing, they were more likely to provide accurate results than rapid antigen tests, and detected WNV in corvids as well as in other passerines, raptors, and waterfowl. Overall, WNV RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct scores from the cards were higher than those from tissue testing, but both card products displayed high sensitivity and specificity. American Crow samples provided the highest sensitivity. The cards also proved to be easier and more convenient vehicles for collecting and shipping samples, and in 2014 our program launched use of RNASound™ cards in the DBSP. Both FTA™ and RNASound™ products displayed 96% agreement with tissue results and are an adequate alternative sampling method for WNV dead bird testing.

  18. Geographic Variability in Geocoding Success for West Nile Virus Cases in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Christine L.; Griesse, Jennifer; Kightlinger, Lon; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Geocoding, the process of assigning each case a set of coordinates that closely approximates its true location, is an important component of spatial epidemiological studies. The failure to accurately geocode cases adversely affects the validity and strength of conclusions drawn from the analysis. We investigated whether there were differences among geographic locations and demographic classes in the ability to successfully geocode West Nile virus (WNV) cases in South Dakota. We successfully geocoded 1,354 cases (80.8%) to their street address locations and assigned all 1,676 cases to ZIP code tabulation areas (ZCTAs). Using spatial scan statistics, significant clusters of non-geocoded cases were identified in central and western South Dakota. Geocoding success rates were lower in areas of low population density and on Indian reservations than in other portions of the state. Geocoding success rates were lower for Native Americans than for other races. Spatial epidemiological studies should consider the potential biases that may result from excluding non-geocoded cases, particularly in rural portions of the Great Plains that contain large Native American populations. PMID:19577505

  19. The effect of exogenous corticosterone on West Nile virus infection in Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jennifer C; Nakamura, Ayaka; Coon, Courtney Ac; Martin, Lynn B

    2012-04-21

    The relationship between stress and disease is thought to be unambiguous: chronic stress induces immunosuppression, which likely increases the risk of infection. However, this link has not been firmly established in wild animals, particularly whether stress hormones affect host responses to zoonotic pathogens, which can be transmitted to domesticated animal, wildlife and human populations. Due to the dynamic effects of stress hormones on immune functions, stress hormones may make hosts better or poorer amplifying hosts for a pathogen contingent on context and the host species evaluated. Using an important zoonotic pathogen, West Nile virus (WNV) and a competent host, the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), we tested the effects of exogenous corticosterone on response to WNV infection. Corticosterone was administered at levels that individuals enduring chronic stressors (i.e., long-term inclement weather, food shortage, anthropogenic pollution) might experience in the wild. Corticosterone greatly impacted mortality: half of the corticosterone-implanted cardinals died between five - 11 days post-inoculation whereas only one of nine empty-implanted (control) birds died. No differences were found in viral titer between corticosterone- and empty-implanted birds. However, cardinals that survived infections had significantly higher average body temperatures during peak infection than individuals that died. In sum, this study indicates that elevated corticosterone could affect the survival of WNV-infected wild birds, suggesting that populations may be disproportionately at-risk to disease in stressful environments.

  20. Antibody prophylaxis and therapy against West Nile virus infection in wild-type and immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Michael J; Diamond, Michael S

    2003-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus that causes encephalitis in a subset of susceptible humans. Current treatment for WNV infections is supportive, and no specific therapy or vaccine is available. In this study, we directly tested the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of polyclonal antibodies against WNV. Passive administration of human gamma globulin or mouse serum prior to WNV infection protected congenic wild-type, B-cell-deficient ( micro MT), and T- and B-cell-deficient (RAG1) C57BL/6J mice. Notably, no increased mortality due to immune enhancement was observed. Although immune antibody completely prevented morbidity and mortality in wild-type mice, its effect was not durable in immunocompromised mice: many micro MT and RAG1 mice eventually succumbed to infection. Thus, antibody by itself did not completely eliminate viral reservoirs in host tissues, consistent with an intact cellular immune response being required for viral clearance. In therapeutic postexposure studies, human gamma globulin partially protected against WNV-induced mortality. In micro MT mice, therapy had to be initiated within 2 days of infection to gain a survival benefit, whereas in the wild-type mice, therapy even 5 days after infection reduced mortality. This time point is significant because between days 4 and 5, WNV was detected in the brains of infected mice. Thus, passive transfer of immune antibody improves clinical outcome even after WNV has disseminated into the central nervous system.

  1. Osteopontin facilitates West Nile virus neuroinvasion via neutrophil "Trojan horse" transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Amber M; Acharya, Dhiraj; Duty, Laurel; Thompson, E Ashley; Le, Linda; Stokic, Dobrivoje S; Leis, A Arturo; Bai, Fengwei

    2017-07-05

    West Nile virus (WNV) can cause severe human neurological diseases including encephalitis and meningitis. The mechanisms by which WNV enters the central nervous system (CNS) and host-factors that are involved in WNV neuroinvasion are not completely understood. The proinflammatory chemokine osteopontin (OPN) is induced in multiple neuroinflammatory diseases and is responsible for leukocyte recruitment to sites of its expression. In this study, we found that WNV infection induced OPN expression in both human and mouse cells. Interestingly, WNV-infected OPN deficient (Opn -/- ) mice exhibited a higher survival rate (70%) than wild type (WT) control mice (30%), suggesting OPN plays a deleterious role in WNV infection. Despite comparable levels of viral load in circulating blood cells and peripheral organs in the two groups, WNV-infected polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) infiltration and viral burden in brain of Opn -/- mice were significantly lower than in WT mice. Importantly, intracerebral administration of recombinant OPN into the brains of Opn -/- mice resulted in increased WNV-infected PMN infiltration and viral burden in the brain, which was coupled to increased mortality. The overall results suggest that OPN facilitates WNV neuroinvasion by recruiting WNV-infected PMNs into the brain.

  2. Importance of Wetlands Management for West Nile Virus Circulation Risk, Camargue, Southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Pradier

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To assess environmental and horse-level risk factors associated with West Nile Virus (WNV circulation in Camargue, Southern France, a serosurvey was conducted on non-vaccinated horses (n = 1159 from 134 stables in 2007 and 2008. Fifteen Landsat images were examined to quantify areas with open water and flooded vegetation around sampled horses. Mean percentages of areas of open water and flooded vegetation, as well as variations in these percentages between 3 periods (November to February = NOT, March to July = END and August to October = EPI, were calculated for buffers of 2 km radius around the stables. Results of the final logistic regression showed that the risk of WNV seropositivity in horses decreased with their date of acquisition and age. Results also demonstrated the significant role of environmental variables. Horse serological status was associated with variations of open water areas between the NOT (November to February and END (March to July periods, as well as between END and EPI (August to October. WNV spillover was found more intense in areas where water level decreased strongly from winter to spring and from spring to summer.

  3. Occurrence of avian Plasmodium and West Nile virus in culex species in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, T.; Irwin, P.; Hofmeister, E.; Paskewitz, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of multiple pathogens in mosquitoes and birds could affect the dynamics of disease transmission. We collected adult Culex pipiens and Cx. restuans (Cx. pipiens/restuans hereafter) from sites in Wisconsin and tested them for West Nile virus (WNV) and for avian malaria (Plasmodium). Gravid Cx. pipiens/restuans were tested for WNV using a commercial immunoassay, the RAMP?? WNV test, and positive results were verified by reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction. There were 2 WNV-positive pools of Cx. pipiens/restuans in 2006 and 1 in 2007. Using a bias-corrected maximum likelihood estimation, the WNV infection rate for Cx. pipiens/restuans was 5.48/1,000 mosquitoes in 2006 and 1.08/1,000 mosquitoes in 2007. Gravid Cx. pipiens or Cx. restuans were tested individually for avian Plasmodium by a restriction enzymebased assay. Twelve mosquitoes were positive for avian Plasmodium (10.0), 2 were positive for Haemoproteus, and 3 were positive for Leucocytozoon. There were 4 mixed infections, with mosquitoes positive for >1 of the hemosporidian parasites. This work documents a high rate of hemosporidian infection in Culex spp. and illustrates the potential for co-infections with other arboviruses in bird-feeding mosquitoes and their avian hosts. In addition, hemosporidian infection rates may be a useful tool for investigating the ecological dynamics of Culex/avian interactions. ?? 2010 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.

  4. Experimental infection of fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) with West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, J Jeffrey; Oesterle, Paul T; Nemeth, Nicole M; Klenk, Kaci; Gould, Daniel H; McLean, Robert G; Clark, Larry; Hall, Jeffrey S

    2006-10-01

    Tree squirrels (Sciurus spp.) have exhibited high seroprevalence rates, suggesting that they are commonly exposed to West Nile virus (WNV). Many characteristics of WNV infections in tree squirrels, such as the durations and levels of viremia, remain unknown. To better understand WNV infections in fox squirrels (S. niger), we subcutaneously inoculated fourteen fox squirrels with WNV. Peak viremias ranged from 10(4.00) plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL of serum on day 2 post-infection (DPI) to 10(4.98) PFU/mL on 3 DPI, although viremias varied between individuals. Oral secretions of some fox squirrels were positive for WNV viral RNA, occasionally to moderate levels (10(3.2) PFU equivalent/swab). WNV PFU equivalents in organs were low or undetectable on 12 DPI; gross and histologic lesions were rare. The viremia profiles of fox squirrels indicate that they could serve as amplifying hosts in nature. In addition, viral RNA in the oral cavity and feces indicate that this species could contribute to alternative WNV transmission in suburban communities.

  5. Experimental infection of eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) with West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Andrés; Kramer, Laura D; Dupuis, Alan P; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Davis, Lauren J; Jones, Matthew J; Daszak, Peter; Aguirre, A Alonso

    2008-09-01

    Eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) have shown high West Nile virus (WNV) seroprevalence, and WNV infection has been suggested as a cause of morbidity and mortality in this species. We experimentally infected nine eastern gray squirrels with WNV to determine the clinical effects of infection and to assess their potential role as amplifying hosts. We observed no morbidity or mortality attributable to WNV infection, but lesions were apparent in several organs. We detected mean viremias of 10(5.1) and 10(4.8) plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL on days 3 and 4 post-infection (DPI) and estimated that approximately 2.1% of Culex pipiens feeding on squirrels during 1-5 DPI would become infectious. Thus, S. carolinensis are unlikely to be important amplifying hosts and may instead dampen the intensity of transmission in most host communities. The low viremias and lack of mortality observed in S. carolinensis suggest that they may be useful as sentinels of spillover from the enzootic amplification cycle.

  6. West Nile Virus State of the Art Report of MALWEST Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriani Marka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last three years Greece is experiencing the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV epidemics. Within this framework, an integrated surveillance and control programme (MALWEST project with thirteen associate partners was launched aiming to investigate the disease and suggest appropriate interventions. One out of seven work packages of the project is dedicated to the State of the Art report for WNV. Three expert working groups on humans, animals and mosquitoes were established. Medical databases (PubMed, Scopus were searched together with websites: e.g., WHO, CDC, ECDC. In total, 1,092 relevant articles were initially identified and 258 of them were finally included as references regarding the current knowledge about WNV, along with 36 additional sources (conference papers, reports, book chapters. The review is divided in three sections according to the fields of interest: (1 WNV in humans (epidemiology, molecular characteristics, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, surveillance; (2 WNV in animals (epidemiological and transmission characteristics concerning birds, horses, reptiles and other animal species and (3 WNV in mosquitoes (control, surveillance. Finally, some examples of integrated surveillance programmes are presented. The introduction and establishment of the disease in Greece and other European countries further emphasizes the need for thorough research and broadening of our knowledge on this viral pathogen.

  7. Alterations in the Aedes aegypti transcriptome during infection with West Nile, dengue and yellow fever viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya M Colpitts

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available West Nile (WNV, dengue (DENV and yellow fever (YFV viruses are (reemerging, mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause human disease and mortality worldwide. Alterations in mosquito gene expression common and unique to individual flaviviral infections are poorly understood. Here, we present a microarray analysis of the Aedes aegypti transcriptome over time during infection with DENV, WNV or YFV. We identified 203 mosquito genes that were ≥ 5-fold differentially up-regulated (DUR and 202 genes that were ≥ 10-fold differentially down-regulated (DDR during infection with one of the three flaviviruses. Comparative analysis revealed that the expression profile of 20 DUR genes and 15 DDR genes was quite similar between the three flaviviruses on D1 of infection, indicating a potentially conserved transcriptomic signature of flaviviral infection. Bioinformatics analysis revealed changes in expression of genes from diverse cellular processes, including ion binding, transport, metabolic processes and peptidase activity. We also demonstrate that virally-regulated gene expression is tissue-specific. The overexpression of several virally down-regulated genes decreased WNV infection in mosquito cells and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Among these, a pupal cuticle protein was shown to bind WNV envelope protein, leading to inhibition of infection in vitro and the prevention of lethal WNV encephalitis in mice. This work provides an extensive list of targets for controlling flaviviral infection in mosquitoes that may also be used to develop broad preventative and therapeutic measures for multiple flaviviruses.

  8. Acute flaccid paralysis due to West nile virus infection in adults: A paradigm shift entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby Varkey Maramattom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP with preceding fever are described. One patient had a quadriparesis with a florid meningoencephalitic picture and the other two had asymmetric flaccid paralysis with fasciculations at the onset of illness. Magnetic resonance imaging in two cases showed prominent hyperintensitities in the spinal cord and brainstem with prominent involvement of the grey horn (polio-myelitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF polymerase chain reaction was positive for West Nile virus (WNV in the index patient. All three cases had a positive WNV immunoglobulin M antibody in serum/CSF and significantly high titer of WNV neutralizing antibody in serum, clearly distinguishing the infection from other Flaviviridae such as Japanese encephalitis. WNV has been recognized in India for many decades; however, AFP has not been adequately described. WNV is a flavivirus that is spread by Culex mosquitoes while they take blood meals from humans and lineage 1 is capable of causing a devastating neuro-invasive disease with fatal consequences or severe morbidity. We describe the first three laboratory confirmed cases of WNV induced AFP from Kerala and briefly enumerate the salient features of this emerging threat.

  9. West nile virus infection in the Mesopotamia region, Syria border of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoç, Zehra Çağla; Tüzüner, Bora Mete; Ergonul, Onder; Pierro, Anna; Di Fonzo, Eugenio; Koruk, İbrahim; Sambri, Vittorio

    2013-10-01

    We described the serological prevalence of West Nile Virus (WNV) antibodies among the human population in a historical and strategic region of Turkey. A serologic survey was conducted based on suspected cases in April, 2009, in the Mesopotamia region of Turkey, in the villages that were located alongside the Zergan River. All the sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA (Euroimmune™), and the positive samples were tested by immunofluorescent assay (IFA; Euroimmune™). As confirmation, neutralizing antibodies against WNV were tested by microneutralization assay (MNTA). In total, 307 individuals were included. The MNTA test was found to be positive among 52 individuals out of 307 (17%). In multivariate analysis, age >50 [odds ratio (OR)=5.2, confidence interval (CI) 2.76-9.97, p<0.001) and being in an occupational risk group (OR=2.02, CI 1.02-4.04, p=0.044) were found to be the risk factors for WNV seropositivity with the MNTA test. The physicians in the region should be aware of the risk of WNV infection and should be alerted to detect the clinical cases.

  10. West Nile virus: an overview of its spread in Europe and the Mediterranean basin in contrast to its spread in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, H G; Schuffenecker, I

    2004-03-01

    West Nile (WN) virus is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus. It is widely distributed in Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and southern Europe and was recently introduced to North America. Birds are involved in the cycle of transmission as amplifying hosts. Humans and horses are considered accidental dead-end hosts. WN fever was initially considered a minor arbovirosis, usually inducing a nonsymptomatic or a mild flu-like illness in humans, but some cases of encephalitis associated with fatalities were reported in Israel in the 1950s. After two silent decades, several human and equine outbreaks of fatal encephalitis occurred from 1996 to 2000 in Romania, Morocco, Tunisia, Italy, Russia, Israel, and France. In Romania, a few cases of WN encephalitis in humans are noticed every year, and in France, recent WN infections have been detected in monitored sentinel birds in 2001 and 2002. Phylogenetic studies have shown two main lineages of WN strains. Strains from lineage I are present in Africa, India, and Australia and are responsible for the outbreaks in Europe and in the Mediterranean basin, and strains from lineage II have been reported only in sub-Saharan Africa. In 1998, a virulent WN strain from lineage I was identified in dying migrating storks and domestic geese showing clinical symptoms of encephalitis and paralysis in Israel. A nearly identical WN strain suddenly emerged in New York in 1999, killing thousands of native birds and causing fatal cases in humans. The virus is now well established in the New World, and it disseminates rapidly. New modes of transmission through blood donations, organ transplants, and the intrauterine route have been reported. In Europe, an enhanced surveillance of WN infection in humans, horses, birds, and vectors may reveal the presence of the virus in different locations. Nevertheless, outbreaks of WN virus remain unpredictable. Further coordinated studies are needed for a better understanding of the ecology and the pathogenicity of

  11. Field-based estimates of avian mortality from West Nile virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael P; Beveroth, Tara A; Lampman, Richard; Raim, Arlo; Enstrom, David; Novak, Robert

    2010-11-01

    One of the unique characteristics of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America is the large number of bird species for which the virus can be fatal. WNV mortality has been documented through experimental infections of captive birds and necropsies of free-ranging birds. Investigations of WNV-related mortality in wild birds often focus on species with dramatic population declines (e.g., American Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos); however, few studies have addressed WNV-related mortality in species not exhibiting marked population declines since the arrival of WNV. We conducted a mark-recapture study of 204 Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) in an area with endemic WNV activity to estimate WNV-related mortality. Previous research has shown that once a bird is infected and recovers from WNV it develops antibodies making it resistant to future infection. Assuming that mortality risks from non-WNV causes were the same for individuals with (had been exposed to WNV) and without antibodies (had not been exposed to WNV), we compared the survival rates of birds with and without WNV antibodies to estimate the impact of WNV on wild birds. An information theoretic approach was used, and the apparent survival was found to be 34.6% lower for individuals without antibodies during the period when WNV was most active (July-September). However, the apparent survival rate was 9.0% higher for individuals without antibodies over the rest of the year. These differences in apparent survival suggest that WNV increases mortality during the WNV season and that chronic effects of WNV infection may also be contributing to mortality. Although WNV appears to have increased mortality rates within the population, population trend data do not indicate declines, suggesting that some cardinal populations can compensate for WNV-related mortality.

  12. The Australian public is still vulnerable to emerging virulent strains of West Nile virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie A. Prow

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito-borne West Nile virus (WNV is responsible for outbreaks of viral encephalitis in humans and horses with particularly virulent strains causing recent outbreaks in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and North America. In Australia, a strain of WNV, Kunjin (WNVKUN, is endemic in the north and infection with this virus is generally asymptomatic. However, in early 2011, following extensive flooding, an unprecedented outbreak of WNVKUN encephalitis in horses occurred in south-eastern Australia, resulting in more than 1,000 cases and a mortality of 10-15%. Despite widespread evidence of equine infections, there was only a single mild human case reported during this outbreak. To understand why clinical disease was seen in horses without similar observations in the human population, a serosurvey was conducted using blood donor samples from areas where equine cases were reported to assess level of flavivirus exposure. The seroprevalence to WNVKUN in humans was low before the outbreak (0.7%, and no significant increase was demonstrated after the outbreak period (0.6%. Due to unusual epidemiological features during this outbreak, a serosurvey was also conducted in rabbits, a potential reservoir host. Out of 675 animals, sampled across Australia between April 2011 and November 2012, 86 (12.7% were seropositive for WNVKUN, with the highest prevalence during February of 2012 (28/145; 19.3%. As this is the first serological survey for WNVKUN in Australian feral rabbits, it remains to be determined whether wild rabbits are able to develop a high enough viraemia to actively participate in WNV transmission in Australia. However, they may constitute a sentinel species for arbovirus activity, and this is the focus of ongoing studies. Collectively this study provides little evidence of human exposure to WNVKUN during the 2011 outbreak and indicates that the Australian population remains susceptible to the emergence of virulent strains of WNV.

  13. The West Nile virus assembly process evades the conserved antiviral mechanism of the interferon-induced MxA protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenen, Antje [School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Gillespie, Leah [Department of Microbiology, La Trobe University, Melbourne (Australia); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Morgan, Garry; Heide, Peter van der [Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Khromykh, Alexander [School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Mackenzie, Jason, E-mail: jason.mackenzie@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Microbiology, La Trobe University, Melbourne (Australia); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-01-05

    Flaviviruses have evolved means to evade host innate immune responses. Recent evidence suggests this is due to prevention of interferon production and signaling in flavivirus-infected cells. Here we show that the interferon-induced MxA protein can sequester the West Nile virus strain Kunjin virus (WNV{sub KUN}) capsid protein in cytoplasmic tubular structures in an expression-replication system. This sequestering resulted in reduced titers of secreted WNV{sub KUN} particles. We show by electron microscopy, tomography and 3D modeling that these cytoplasmic tubular structures form organized bundles. Additionally we show that recombinant ER-targeted MxA can restrict production of infectious WNV{sub KUN} under conditions of virus infection. Our results indicate a co-ordinated and compartmentalized WNV{sub KUN} assembly process may prevent recognition of viral components by MxA, particularly the capsid protein. This recognition can be exploited if MxA is targeted to intracellular sites of WNV{sub KUN} assembly. This results in further understanding of the mechanisms of flavivirus evasion from the immune system. - Highlights: • We show that the ISG MxA can recognize the West Nile virus capsid protein. • Interaction between WNV C protein and MxA induces cytoplasmic fibrils. • MxA can be retargeted to the ER to restrict WNV particle release. • WNV assembly process is a strategy to avoid MxA recognition.

  14. Experimental infection of Tilapia Lake Virus (TiLV) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattiyapong, Puntanat; Dachavichitlead, Worawan; Surachetpong, Win

    2017-08-01

    Since 2015, a novel orthomyxo-like virus, tilapia lake virus (TiLV) has been associated with outbreaks of disease and massive mortality of cultured Nile and red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and Oreochromis spp., respectively) in Thailand. In this study, TiLV was isolated from field samples and propagated in the permissive E-11 cell line, with cytopathic effect (CPE) development within 3-5days post-inoculation. Electron micrographs of infected E-11 cells and fish tissues confirmed the rounded, enveloped virions of 60 to 80nm with characteristics very similar to those of Orthomyxoviridae. In vivo challenge studies showed that high mortality in Nile (86%) and red tilapia (66%) occurred within 4-12days post-infection. The virus was re-isolated from challenged fish tissues in the permissive cell line, and PCR analysis confirmed TiLV as a causative pathogen. The distinct histopathology of challenged fish included massive degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver and brain as well as the presence of eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions in hepatocytes and splenic cells. Our results fulfilled Koch's postulates and confirmed that TiLV is an etiologic agent of mass mortality of tilapia in Thailand. The emergence of this virus in many countries has helped increase awareness that it is a potential threat to tilapia aquacultured in Thailand, Asia, and worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The West Nile virus assembly process evades the conserved antiviral mechanism of the interferon-induced MxA protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenen, Antje; Gillespie, Leah; Morgan, Garry; Heide, Peter van der; Khromykh, Alexander; Mackenzie, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Flaviviruses have evolved means to evade host innate immune responses. Recent evidence suggests this is due to prevention of interferon production and signaling in flavivirus-infected cells. Here we show that the interferon-induced MxA protein can sequester the West Nile virus strain Kunjin virus (WNV KUN ) capsid protein in cytoplasmic tubular structures in an expression-replication system. This sequestering resulted in reduced titers of secreted WNV KUN particles. We show by electron microscopy, tomography and 3D modeling that these cytoplasmic tubular structures form organized bundles. Additionally we show that recombinant ER-targeted MxA can restrict production of infectious WNV KUN under conditions of virus infection. Our results indicate a co-ordinated and compartmentalized WNV KUN assembly process may prevent recognition of viral components by MxA, particularly the capsid protein. This recognition can be exploited if MxA is targeted to intracellular sites of WNV KUN assembly. This results in further understanding of the mechanisms of flavivirus evasion from the immune system. - Highlights: • We show that the ISG MxA can recognize the West Nile virus capsid protein. • Interaction between WNV C protein and MxA induces cytoplasmic fibrils. • MxA can be retargeted to the ER to restrict WNV particle release. • WNV assembly process is a strategy to avoid MxA recognition

  16. The seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in Israel: A nationwide cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravit Bassal

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV is endemic in Israel, affecting yearly 40-160 individuals. Israel is located on a central migratory path between Africa and Eurasia and most West Nile Fever (WNF cases reported in recent years were among residents of the coastal plain. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of WNV among the Israeli population and to assess correlates for WNV infection. A cross-sectional nationwide serologic survey was conducted using 3,145 serum samples collected by the national Israeli serum bank during 2011-2014, representing all age and population groups in Israel. Prevalence rates of WNV IgG antibodies were determined. Logistic regressions models were applied to assess the associations between demographic characteristics and WNV seropositivity. 350 samples were positive to WNV (11.1%; 95%CI: 10.0-12.3%. In the multivariable analysis, there was a significant association between seropositivity and the Arab population group vs. Jews and others (OR = 1.86, 95%CI: 1.37-2.52, the time lived in Israel [50-59 years vs. 0-9 years; OR = 10.80 (95%CI: 1.03-113.46 and ≥60 years vs. 0-9 years; OR = 14.00 (1.32-148.31] residence area] Coastal Plain, Inland Plain (Shfela and Great Rift Valley vs. Upper Galilee; OR = 2.24 (95%CI: 1.37-3.65, OR = 2.18 (95%CI: 1.18-4.03, OR = 1.90 (95%CI: 1.10-3.30, respectively [and rural vs. urban settlement (OR = 1.65, 95%CI: 1.26-2.16. People, who reside in the Coastal Plain, Inland Plain and Great Rift Valley, should be aware of the risk of contracting WNV and reduce exposure to mosquito bites, using insect repellents, and wearing protective clothing. The Ministry of Environmental Protection should be active in reducing the mosquito population by eliminating sources of standing water, a breeding ground for mosquitoes.

  17. The seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in Israel: A nationwide cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassal, Ravit; Shohat, Tamy; Kaufman, Zalman; Mannasse, Batya; Shinar, Eilat; Amichay, Doron; Barak, Mira; Ben-Dor, Anat; Bar Haim, Adina; Cohen, Daniel; Mendelson, Ella; Lustig, Yaniv

    2017-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in Israel, affecting yearly 40-160 individuals. Israel is located on a central migratory path between Africa and Eurasia and most West Nile Fever (WNF) cases reported in recent years were among residents of the coastal plain. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of WNV among the Israeli population and to assess correlates for WNV infection. A cross-sectional nationwide serologic survey was conducted using 3,145 serum samples collected by the national Israeli serum bank during 2011-2014, representing all age and population groups in Israel. Prevalence rates of WNV IgG antibodies were determined. Logistic regressions models were applied to assess the associations between demographic characteristics and WNV seropositivity. 350 samples were positive to WNV (11.1%; 95%CI: 10.0-12.3%). In the multivariable analysis, there was a significant association between seropositivity and the Arab population group vs. Jews and others (OR = 1.86, 95%CI: 1.37-2.52), the time lived in Israel [50-59 years vs. 0-9 years; OR = 10.80 (95%CI: 1.03-113.46) and ≥60 years vs. 0-9 years; OR = 14.00 (1.32-148.31)] residence area] Coastal Plain, Inland Plain (Shfela) and Great Rift Valley vs. Upper Galilee; OR = 2.24 (95%CI: 1.37-3.65), OR = 2.18 (95%CI: 1.18-4.03), OR = 1.90 (95%CI: 1.10-3.30), respectively [and rural vs. urban settlement (OR = 1.65, 95%CI: 1.26-2.16). People, who reside in the Coastal Plain, Inland Plain and Great Rift Valley, should be aware of the risk of contracting WNV and reduce exposure to mosquito bites, using insect repellents, and wearing protective clothing. The Ministry of Environmental Protection should be active in reducing the mosquito population by eliminating sources of standing water, a breeding ground for mosquitoes.

  18. Chikungunya Virus Vaccines: Viral Vector-Based Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsauer, Katrin; Tangy, Frédéric

    2016-12-15

    In 2013, a major chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic reached the Americas. In the past 2 years, >1.7 million people have been infected. In light of the current epidemic, with millions of people in North and South America at risk, efforts to rapidly develop effective vaccines have increased. Here, we focus on CHIKV vaccines that use viral-vector technologies. This group of vaccine candidates shares an ability to potently induce humoral and cellular immune responses by use of highly attenuated and safe vaccine backbones. So far, well-described vectors such as modified vaccinia virus Ankara, complex adenovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, alphavirus-based chimeras, and measles vaccine Schwarz strain (MV/Schw) have been described as potential vaccines. We summarize here the recent data on these experimental vaccines, with a focus on the preclinical and clinical activities on the MV/Schw-based candidate, which is the first CHIKV-vectored vaccine that has completed a clinical trial. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Synergized resmethrin and corticosterone alter the chicken's response to west nile virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, Mark David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Franson, J Christian [US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY; Mostl, Erich [UNIV OF VIENNA; Porter, Warren P [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Hofmeister, Erik K [US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

    2009-01-01

    Debate concerning arbovirus control strategies remains contentious because concern regarding the relative risk of viral infection and environmental toxicant exposure is high but inadequately characterized. Taking this into account, mosquito control agencies employ aerial insecticides only after arbovirus surveillance data indicate high local mosquito-infection-rates. Successfully mitigating the risk of adult-mosquito-control insecticides ('adulticides') to non-target species such as humans, domestic animals, fish, beneficial insects and wildlife, while increasing their efficacy to reduce arbovirus outbreak intensity requires targeted scientific data from animal toxicity studies and environmental monitoring activities. Wild birds are an important reservoir host for WNv and are potentially exposed to insecticides used for mosquito control. However, no risk assessments have evaluated whether insecticides augment or extend the potential transmissibility of West Nile virus (WNv) in birds. In order to augment existing resmethrin risk assessments, we aimed to determine whether synergized resmethrin (SR) may cause chickens to develop an elevated or extended WN viremia and if subacute stress may affect its immunotoxicity. We distributed 40 chickens into four groups then exposed them prior to and during WNv infection with SR (50 {mu}g/l resmethrin + 150 {mu}g/l piperonyl butoxide) and/or 20 mg/I corticosterone (CORT) in their drinking-water. Corticosterone was given for 10 continuous days and SR was given for 3 alternate days starting the 3rd day of CORT exposure, then chickens were subcutaneously inoculated with WNv on the 5th day of CORT treatment. Compared to controls, CORT treatment extended and elevated viremia, enhanced WNv-specific antibody and increased the percentage of birds that shed oral virus, whereas SR treatment extended viremia, depressed WNv-specific IgG, and increased the percentage of CORT-treated birds that shed oral virus. Corticosterone and SR

  20. A note on outbreak of cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) in common bean in the River Nile State, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, A. A.; Elkhair, J.; Elfaha, A.

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of a devastating virus disease occurred in common ben (phaseolus vulgaris) in Berber area, the River Nile State, during the 2004/2005 cropping season, with symptoms of stunting and yellowing. The disease incidence reached a level of more than 85% in all visited fields. One hundred fifty symptomatic samples, collected from different fields at Hudeiba, Berber and Shendi were blotted on nitrocellulose membranes and tested for the presence of different viruses, using the tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA) technique. The results of the serological tests revealed that 95% of the samples were positive for cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV). Among the common bean genotypes screened for resistance to CPMMV, only RO/2/1 and Giza 3 were resistant to the disease.(Author)

  1. Vaccinia virus vectors: new strategies for producing recombinant vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, D E

    1990-01-01

    The development and continued refinement of techniques for the efficient insertion and expression of heterologous DNA sequences from within the genomic context of infectious vaccinia virus recombinants are among the most promising current approaches towards effective immunoprophylaxis against a variety of protozoan, viral, and bacterial human pathogens. Because of its medical relevance, this area is the subject of intense research interest and has evolved rapidly during the past several years. This review (i) provides an updated overview of the technology that exists for assembling recombinant vaccinia virus strains, (ii) discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches, (iii) outlines the areas of outgoing research directed towards overcoming the limitations of current techniques, and (iv) provides some insight (i.e., speculation) about probable future refinements in the use of vaccinia virus as a vector. PMID:2187593

  2. An examination of the effect of aerosolized permanone insecticide on zebra finch susceptibility to West Nile virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Mark D.; Murray, E. Moore; Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2017-01-01

    West Nile virus is primarily maintained cryptically primarily in avian (Passerine) populations where it is transmitted by Culex spp. mosquitoes. Mosquito control measures currently include physical activities to reduce mosquito breeding sites, the application of mosquito larvicides, or aerosolized insecticides to kill adults (adulticides) when arboviral diseases such as West Nile virus (WNV) or Zika virus are detected in mosquito populations. Organochlorine, organohosphorus, carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides are often used. Previous work suggests an effect of pyrethroids on the immune system in a variety of vertebrates. We examined the effects of exposure to aerosolized Permanone® 30:30 insecticide (permethrin and piperonyl butoxide in soy oil vehicle) at ∼103−106x potential environmental concentrations on the response of captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to experimental challenge with WNV. Compared to vehicle control birds, WNV outcome was unchanged (65% of birds produced a viremia) in the ‘low’ exposure (9.52 mg/m3±3.13 SD permethrin) group, but reduced in the ‘high’ exposure (mean 376.5 mg/m3±27.9 SD permethrin) group (30% were viremic) (p < 0.05). After clearing WNV infection, birds treated with Permanone regained less body mass than vehicle treated birds (p < 0.001). Our study suggests that exposure to aerosolized Permanone insecticide at levels exceeding typical application rates has the potential to not change or mildly enhance a bird's resistance to WNV.

  3. Alpha/Beta Interferon Protects against Lethal West Nile Virus Infection by Restricting Cellular Tropism and Enhancing Neuronal Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, Melanie A.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is neurotropic in humans, birds, and other animals. While adaptive immunity plays an important role in preventing WNV spread to the central nervous system (CNS), little is known about how alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) protects against peripheral and CNS infection. In this study, we examine the virulence and tropism of WNV in IFN-α/β receptor-deficient (IFN- α/βR−/−) mice and primary neuronal cultures. IFN-α/βR−/− mice were acutely su...

  4. Vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bicout, Dominique; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    After a request from the Europea n Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Animal Health and Welfaresummarised the main characteristics of 36 vector-borne disease s (VBDs) in 36 web-based storymaps.The risk of introduction in the EU through movement of livestock or pets was assessed for eac h of the36 VBDs...... individually, using a semiquantitative Metho d to INTegrate all relevant RISK aspects(MINTRI SK model), which was further modified to a European scale into the EFSA-VBD-RISK-m odel .Only eight of the 36 VBD-agents had an overall rate of introduction in the EU (being the combinationof the rate of entry, vector...... transmission and establishment) which was estimated to be above 0.001introductions per year. These were Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, bluetongue virus, WestNile virus, Schmallenberg virus, Hepatozoon canis, Leishmania infantum, Bunyamwera virus andHighlands J. virus. For these eight dise ases...

  5. Antiviral Properties of the Natural Polyphenols Delphinidin and Epigallocatechin Gallate against the Flaviviruses West Nile Virus, Zika Virus, and Dengue Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Calvo, Ángela; Jiménez de Oya, Nereida; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Garcia-Moruno, Emilia; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The Flavivirus genus contains important pathogens, such as West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and Dengue virus (DENV), which are enveloped plus-strand RNA viruses transmitted by mosquitoes and constitute a worrisome threat to global human and animal health. Currently no licensed drugs against them are available, being, thus, still necessary the search for effective antiviral molecules. In this line, a novel antiviral approach (economical, simple to use, and environmental friendly) is the use of natural compounds. Consequently, we have tested the antiviral potential of different polyphenols present in plants and natural products, such as wine and tea, against WNV, ZIKV, and DENV. So that, we assayed the effect of a panel of structurally related polyphenols [delphinidin (D), cyanidin (Cy), catechin (C), epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)] on WNV infection, and found that D and EGCG inhibited more effectively the virus production. Further analysis with both compounds indicated that they mainly affected the attachment and entry steps of the virus life cycle. Moreover, D and EGCG showed a direct effect on WNV particles exerting a virucidal effect. We showed a similar inhibition of viral production of these compounds on WNV variants that differed on acidic pH requirements for viral fusion, indicating that their antiviral activity against WNV is produced by a virucidal effect rather than by an inhibition of pH-dependent viral fusion. Both polyphenols also reduced the infectivity of ZIKV and DENV. Therefore, D and EGCG impair the infectivity in cell culture of these three medically relevant flaviviruses.

  6. Antiviral Properties of the Natural Polyphenols Delphinidin and Epigallocatechin Gallate against the Flaviviruses West Nile Virus, Zika Virus, and Dengue Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Vázquez-Calvo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Flavivirus genus contains important pathogens, such as West Nile virus (WNV, Zika virus (ZIKV, and Dengue virus (DENV, which are enveloped plus-strand RNA viruses transmitted by mosquitoes and constitute a worrisome threat to global human and animal health. Currently no licensed drugs against them are available, being, thus, still necessary the search for effective antiviral molecules. In this line, a novel antiviral approach (economical, simple to use, and environmental friendly is the use of natural compounds. Consequently, we have tested the antiviral potential of different polyphenols present in plants and natural products, such as wine and tea, against WNV, ZIKV, and DENV. So that, we assayed the effect of a panel of structurally related polyphenols [delphinidin (D, cyanidin (Cy, catechin (C, epicatechin (EC, epigallocatechin (EGC, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG] on WNV infection, and found that D and EGCG inhibited more effectively the virus production. Further analysis with both compounds indicated that they mainly affected the attachment and entry steps of the virus life cycle. Moreover, D and EGCG showed a direct effect on WNV particles exerting a virucidal effect. We showed a similar inhibition of viral production of these compounds on WNV variants that differed on acidic pH requirements for viral fusion, indicating that their antiviral activity against WNV is produced by a virucidal effect rather than by an inhibition of pH-dependent viral fusion. Both polyphenols also reduced the infectivity of ZIKV and DENV. Therefore, D and EGCG impair the infectivity in cell culture of these three medically relevant flaviviruses.

  7. [Effects of plant viruses on vector and non-vector herbivorous arthropods and their natural enemies: a mini review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Chan; Xu, Hong-Xing; Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Zheng, Xu-Song; Sun, Yu-Jian; Yang, Ya-Jun; Tian, Jun-Ce; Lü, Zhong-Xian

    2014-05-01

    Plant viruses transmitted by arthropods, as an important biotic factor, may not only directly affect the yield and quality of host plants, and development, physiological characteristics and ecological performances of their vector arthropods, but also directly or indirectly affect the non-vector herbivorous arthropods and their natural enemies in the same ecosystem, thereby causing influences to the whole agro-ecosystem. This paper reviewed the progress on the effects of plant viruses on herbivorous arthropods, including vector and non-vector, and their natural enemies, and on their ecological mechanisms to provide a reference for optimizing the management of vector and non-vector arthropod populations and sustainable control of plant viruses in agro-ecosystem.

  8. Comparison of the neuropathology induced by two West Nile virus strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Donadieu

    Full Text Available Some strains of West Nile virus (WNV are neuroinvasive and may induce fatal encephalitis/meningitis in a variety of animal species including humans. Whether, however, there is a strain-specific signature in the brain is as yet unknown. Here we investigated the neuropathogenesis induced by two phylogenetically distant WNV strains of lineage 1, WNV(IS98 and WNV(KUN35 911. While four-week old C57Bl/6J mice were susceptible to both strains and succumbed rapidly after intraperitoneal inoculation, differences were observed in virulence and clinical disease. WNV(KUN35 911, the less virulent strain as judged by determination of LD50, induced typical signs of encephalitis. Such signs were not observed in WNV(IS98-infected mice, although they died more rapidly. Histological examination of brain sections also revealed differences, as the level of apoptosis and inflammation was higher in WNV(KUN35 911- than WNV(IS98-infected mice. Moreover, staining for cleaved caspase 3 showed that the two WNV strains induced apoptotic death through different molecular mechanisms in one particular brain area. Finally, the two strains showed similar tropism in cortex, striatum, brainstem, and cerebellum but a different one in hippocampus. In summary, our data show that, upon peripheral administration, WNV(IS98 and WNV(KUN35 911 strains induce partially distinct lesions and tissue tropism in the brain. They suggest that the virulence of a WNV strain is not necessarily correlated with the severity of apoptotic and inflammatory lesions in the brain.

  9. Second International Diagnostic Accuracy Study for the Serological Detection of West Nile Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Sambri, Vittorio; Teichmann, Anette; Niedrig, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent decades, sporadic cases and outbreaks in humans of West Nile virus (WNV) infection have increased. Serological diagnosis of WNV infection can be performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence assay (IFA) neutralization test (NT) and by hemagglutination-inhibition assay. The aim of this study is to collect updated information regarding the performance accuracy of WNV serological diagnostics. Methodology/Principal findings In 2011, the European Network for the Diagnostics of Imported Viral Diseases-Collaborative Laboratory Response Network (ENIVD-CLRN) organized the second external quality assurance (EQA) study for the serological diagnosis of WNV infection. A serum panel of 13 samples (included sera reactive against WNV, plus specificity and negative controls) was sent to 48 laboratories involved in WNV diagnostics. Forty-seven of 48 laboratories from 30 countries participated in the study. Eight laboratories achieved 100% of concurrent and correct results. The main obstacle in other laboratories to achieving similar performances was the cross-reactivity of antibodies amongst heterologous flaviviruses. No differences were observed in performances of in-house and commercial test used by the laboratories. IFA was significantly more specific compared to ELISA in detecting IgG antibodies. The overall analytical sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests for IgM detection were 50% and 95%, respectively. In comparison, the overall sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests for IgG detection were 86% and 69%, respectively. Conclusions/Significance This EQA study demonstrates that there is still need to improve serological tests for WNV diagnosis. The low sensitivity of IgM detection suggests that there is a risk of overlooking WNV acute infections, whereas the low specificity for IgG detection demonstrates a high level of cross-reactivity with heterologous flaviviruses. PMID:23638205

  10. Second international diagnostic accuracy study for the serological detection of West Nile virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sanchini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent decades, sporadic cases and outbreaks in humans of West Nile virus (WNV infection have increased. Serological diagnosis of WNV infection can be performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, immunofluorescence assay (IFA neutralization test (NT and by hemagglutination-inhibition assay. The aim of this study is to collect updated information regarding the performance accuracy of WNV serological diagnostics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2011, the European Network for the Diagnostics of Imported Viral Diseases-Collaborative Laboratory Response Network (ENIVD-CLRN organized the second external quality assurance (EQA study for the serological diagnosis of WNV infection. A serum panel of 13 samples (included sera reactive against WNV, plus specificity and negative controls was sent to 48 laboratories involved in WNV diagnostics. Forty-seven of 48 laboratories from 30 countries participated in the study. Eight laboratories achieved 100% of concurrent and correct results. The main obstacle in other laboratories to achieving similar performances was the cross-reactivity of antibodies amongst heterologous flaviviruses. No differences were observed in performances of in-house and commercial test used by the laboratories. IFA was significantly more specific compared to ELISA in detecting IgG antibodies. The overall analytical sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests for IgM detection were 50% and 95%, respectively. In comparison, the overall sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests for IgG detection were 86% and 69%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This EQA study demonstrates that there is still need to improve serological tests for WNV diagnosis. The low sensitivity of IgM detection suggests that there is a risk of overlooking WNV acute infections, whereas the low specificity for IgG detection demonstrates a high level of cross-reactivity with heterologous flaviviruses.

  11. Respiratory insufficiency correlated strongly with mortality of rodents infected with West Nile virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Morrey

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV disease can be fatal for high-risk patients. Since WNV or its antigens have been identified in multiple anatomical locations of the central nervous system of persons or rodent models, one cannot know where to investigate the actual mechanism of mortality without careful studies in animal models. In this study, depressed respiratory functions measured by plethysmography correlated strongly with mortality. This respiratory distress, as well as reduced oxygen saturation, occurred beginning as early as 4 days before mortality. Affected medullary respiratory control cells may have contributed to the animals' respiratory insufficiency, because WNV antigen staining was present in neurons located in the ventrolateral medulla. Starvation or dehydration would be irrelevant in people, but could cause death in rodents due to lethargy or loss of appetite. Animal experiments were performed to exclude this possibility. Plasma ketones were increased in moribund infected hamsters, but late-stage starvation markers were not apparent. Moreover, daily subcutaneous administration of 5% dextrose in physiological saline solution did not improve survival or other disease signs. Therefore, infected hamsters did not die from starvation or dehydration. No cerebral edema was apparent in WNV- or sham-infected hamsters as determined by comparing wet-to-total weight ratios of brains, or by evaluating blood-brain-barrier permeability using Evans blue dye penetration into brains. Limited vasculitis was present in the right atrium of the heart of infected hamsters, but abnormal electrocardiograms for several days leading up to mortality did not occur. Since respiratory insufficiency was strongly correlated with mortality more than any other pathological parameter, it is the likely cause of death in rodents. These animal data and a poor prognosis for persons with respiratory insufficiency support the hypothesis that neurological lesions affecting respiratory

  12. Identification of class I HLA T cell control epitopes for West Nile virus.

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    Saghar Kaabinejadian

    Full Text Available The recent West Nile virus (WNV outbreak in the United States underscores the importance of understanding human immune responses to this pathogen. Via the presentation of viral peptide ligands at the cell surface, class I HLA mediate the T cell recognition and killing of WNV infected cells. At this time, there are two key unknowns in regards to understanding protective T cell immunity: 1 the number of viral ligands presented by the HLA of infected cells, and 2 the distribution of T cell responses to these available HLA/viral complexes. Here, comparative mass spectroscopy was applied to determine the number of WNV peptides presented by the HLA-A*11:01 of infected cells after which T cell responses to these HLA/WNV complexes were assessed. Six viral peptides derived from capsid, NS3, NS4b, and NS5 were presented. When T cells from infected individuals were tested for reactivity to these six viral ligands, polyfunctional T cells were focused on the GTL9 WNV capsid peptide, ligands from NS3, NS4b, and NS5 were less immunogenic, and two ligands were largely inert, demonstrating that class I HLA reduce the WNV polyprotein to a handful of immune targets and that polyfunctional T cells recognize infections by zeroing in on particular HLA/WNV epitopes. Such dominant HLA/peptide epitopes are poised to drive the development of WNV vaccines that elicit protective T cells as well as providing key antigens for immunoassays that establish correlates of viral immunity.

  13. Nucleic acid amplification test for detection of west nile virus infection in pakistani blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niazi, S.K.; Alam, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The study was planned to determine the presence of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in Pakistani blood donors, using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAT). Methods: The blood donors for study were selected on the basis of the standard questionnaire and routine screening results. Six donors were pooled using an automated pipettor and NAT for WNV was performed on Roche Cobas s 201 NAT system. The reactive pools were resolved in Individual Donation-NAT (ID-NAT) format and a sample from FFP bags of reactive donations was retrieved. NAT was again performed on retrieved plasma bag (RPB) sample to confirm the reactive donations. The donors were also recalled and interviewed about history of illness related to recent WNV infection. Results: After serological screening of 1929 donors during the study period, 1860 donors were selected for NAT test for WNV detection. The mean age of the donors was 28±8.77 (range: 18–57 years). 1847 (99.3%) donors were male and 13 (0.7%) were female. NAT for WNV identified six initially reactive pools (0.32%). On follow-up testing with RPB samples, 4 donors (0.21%) were found confirmed reactive for WNV RNA (NAT yield of 1 in 465 blood donors). Conclusion: WNV is a threat to safety of blood products in Pakistan. A screening strategy can be implemented after a large-scale study and financial considerations. One of the reduced cost screening strategies is seasonal screening of blood donors for WNV, with pooling of samples. (author)

  14. Cost effectiveness of a targeted age-based West Nile virus vaccination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Manjunath B; Staples, J Erin; Meltzer, Martin I; Fischer, Marc

    2017-05-25

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically-acquired arboviral disease in the United States. Several WNV vaccines are in various stages of development. We estimate the cost-effectiveness of WNV vaccination programs targeting groups at increased risk for severe WNV disease. We used a mathematical model to estimate costs and health outcomes of vaccination with WNV vaccine compared to no vaccination among seven cohorts, spaced at 10year intervals from ages 10 to 70years, each followed until 90-years-old. U.S. surveillance data were used to estimate WNV neuroinvasive disease incidence. Data for WNV seroprevalence, acute and long-term care costs of WNV disease patients, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and vaccine characteristics were obtained from published reports. We assumed vaccine efficacy to either last lifelong or for 10years with booster doses given every 10years. There was a statistically significant difference in cost-effectiveness ratios across cohorts in both models and all outcomes assessed (Kruskal-Wallis test pVaccinating 70-year-olds had the lowest cost per death averted in both models at around $4.7 million (95%CI $2-$8 million). Cost per disease case averted was lowest among 40- and 50-year-old cohorts and cost per QALY saved lowest among 60-year cohorts in lifelong immunity model. The models were most sensitive to disease incidence, vaccine cost, and proportion of persons developing disease among infected. Age-based WNV vaccination program targeting those at higher risk for severe disease is more cost-effective than universal vaccination. Annual variation in WNV disease incidence, QALY weights, and vaccine costs impact the cost effectiveness ratios. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Status and prospects of plant virus control through interference with vector transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bragard, C.; Caciagli, P.; Lemaire, O.; Lopez-Moya, J.J.; MacFarlane, S.; Peters, D.; Susi, P.; Torrance, L.

    2013-01-01

    Most plant viruses rely on vector organisms for their plant-to-plant spread. Although there are many different natural vectors, few plant virus–vector systems have been well studied. This review describes our current understanding of virus transmission by aphids, thrips, whiteflies, leafhoppers,

  16. Diagnosis of West Nile Virus Human Infections: Overview and Proposal of Diagnostic Protocols Considering the Results of External Quality Assessment Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vázquez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus, genus Flavivirus, is transmitted between birds and occasionally other animals by ornithophilic mosquitoes. This virus also infects humans causing asymptomatic infections in about 85% of cases and <1% of clinical cases progress to severe neuroinvasive disease. The virus also presents a threat since most infections remain unapparent. However, the virus contained in blood and organs from asymptomatically infected donors can be transmitted to recipients of these infectious tissues. This paper reviews the presently available methods to achieve the laboratory diagnosis of West Nile virus infections in humans, discussing the most prominent advantages and disadvantages of each in light of the results obtained during four different External Quality Assessment studies carried out by the European Network for ‘Imported’ Viral Diseases (ENIVD.

  17. An application of remotely derived climatological fields for risk assessment of vector-borne diseases : a spatial study of filariasis prevalence in the Nile Delta, Egypt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crombie, M. K.; Gillies, R. R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Brookmeyer, P.; Weil, G. J.; Sultan, M.; Harb, M.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Utah State Univ.; Egyptian Ministry of Health

    1999-12-01

    This paper applies a relatively straightforward remote sensing method that is commonly used to derive climatological variables. Measurements of surface reflectance and surface radiant temperature derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper data were used to create maps of fractional vegetation and surface soil moisture availability for the southern Nile delta in Egypt. These climatological variables were subsequently used to investigate the spatial distribution of the vector borne disease Bancroftian filariasis in the Nile delta where it is focally endemic and a growing problem. Averaged surface soil moisture values, computed for a 5-km border area around affected villages, were compared to filariasis prevalence rates. Prevalence rates were found to be negligible below a critical soil moisture value of 0.2, presumably because of a lack of appropriate breeding sites for the Culex Pipiens mosquito species. With appropriate modifications to account for local conditions and vector species, this approach should be useful as a means to map, predict, and control insect vector-borne diseases that critically depend on wet areas for propagation. This type of analysis may help governments and health agencies that are involved in filariasis control to better focus limited resources to identifiable high-risk areas.

  18. Association of spring-summer hydrology and meteorology with human West Nile virus infection in West Texas, USA, 2002-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukawuba, Israel; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2018-04-04

    The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Western Hemisphere has motivated research into the processes contributing to the incidence and persistence of the disease in the region. Meteorology and hydrology are fundamental determinants of vector-borne disease transmission dynamics of a region. The availability of water influences the population dynamics of vector and host, while temperature impacts vector growth rates, feeding habits, and disease transmission potential. Characterization of the temporal pattern of environmental factors influencing WNV risk is crucial to broaden our understanding of local transmission dynamics and to inform efforts of control and surveillance. We used hydrologic, meteorological and WNV data from west Texas (2002-2016) to analyze the relationship between environmental conditions and annual human WNV infection. A Bayesian model averaging framework was used to evaluate the association of monthly environmental conditions with WNV infection. Findings indicate that wet conditions in the spring combined with dry and cool conditions in the summer are associated with increased annual WNV cases. Bayesian multi-model inference reveals monthly means of soil moisture, specific humidity and temperature to be the most important variables among predictors tested. Environmental conditions in March, June, July and August were the leading predictors in the best-fitting models. The results significantly link soil moisture and temperature in the spring and summer to WNV transmission risk. Wet spring in association with dry and cool summer was the temporal pattern best-describing WNV, regardless of year. Our findings also highlight that soil moisture may be a stronger predictor of annual WNV transmission than rainfall.

  19. Serological evidence of widespread circulation of West Nile virus and other flaviviruses in equines of the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Campos, Zilca; Juliano, Raquel; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-02-01

    A recent study reported neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) in horses from four ranches of southern Pantanal. To extend that study, a serosurvey for WNV and 11 Brazilian flaviviruses was conducted with 760 equines, 238 sheep and 61 caimans from 17 local cattle ranches. Among the tested equines, 32 were collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. The sera were initially screened by using a blocking ELISA and then titrated by 90% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) for 12 flaviviruses. Employing the criterion of 4-fold greater titer, 78 (10.3%) equines were seropositive for Ilheus virus, 59 (7.8%) for Saint Louis encephalitis virus, 24 (3.2%) for WNV, two (0.3%) for Cacipacore virus and one (0.1%) for Rocio virus. No serological evidence was found linking the neurological disease that affected local equines to WNV. All caimans and sheep were negative by blocking ELISA for flaviviruses. There were no seropositive equines for Bussuquara, Iguape, Yellow fever and all four Dengue virus serotypes. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in ten ranches and ILHV and SLEV-seropositive equines in fourteen ranches of two different sub-regions of Pantanal is strong evidence of widespread circulation of these flaviviruses in the region.

  20. The mosquito borne West Nile virus infection: is it threating to Egypt or a neglected endemic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Khater, Mai Khater M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. The virus is found in temperate and tropical regions worldwide, but first identified in the West Nile sub-region in the East African nation of Uganda in 1937. Prior to the mid-1990s WNV infection was sporadically and considered a minor risk for humans, until an outbreak in Algeria in 1994, with cases of WNV-caused encephalitis, and the first large outbreak in Romania in 1996; with a high number of cases with neuroinvasive disease. WNV has now spread globally to Europe beyond the Mediterranean Basin and the United States, is now considered to be an endemic pathogen in worldwide especially in Africa The WNV transmission is mainly b y v a rious mosquitoes species, also tickswere incriminated The birds especially passerines are the most commonly infected animal and serving as the prime reservoir host In Egypt more than 110 mosquito species and subspecies and more than 32 genera of ticks were identified. Besides, not less than 150 species of migratory birds visit Egypt annually in addition to 350 resident ones. This review provided an overview of the current understanding flaviviruses mainly WNFV. Primary care physician and senior nurse should be able to include the disaster diseases in differential diagnosis of various clinical conditions. They should take a thorough history to request specific dependable laboratory test(s) as soon as possible, and positive patient should be transferred to the fever hospital.

  1. Spatial distribution of West Nile virus in humans and mosquitoes in Israel, 2000–2014

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    Yaniv Lustig

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Israel has a long history of West Nile virus (WNV morbidity, and the rate of detection of WNV in mosquitoes has been high since 2000. The aim of this study was to integrate several WNV datasets in order to gain an insight into the geographical distribution of WNV in Israel. Methods: Three choropleth maps were generated showing WNV human morbidity, WNV prevalence in mosquitoes, and the results of a nationwide serological survey, based on the division of Israel into 15 sub-districts. Results: The maps show a high endemicity of WNV in Israel. In respect to the morbidity map, the population residing in the central part of the country and in Arava Region is at higher risk of developing the disease than the population of the rest of Israel. Interestingly, high prevalence rates of both WNV serology and WNV-infected mosquitoes were detected in Arava Region, but lower prevalence rates were detected in most areas of the coastal region, suggesting that other factors might also be important in the development of symptomatic WNV infections. Conclusions: These results underline the high prevalence of WNV in Israel and point to specific risk areas for WNV infections across the country. Keywords: West Nile virus, Prevalence, Mosquitoes, WNV infection, Spatial distribution, Israel

  2. Use of genetically modified viruses and genetically engineered virus-vector vaccines: environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vivian S W

    2006-11-01

    Despite major therapeutic advances, infectious diseases remain highly problematic. Recent advancements in technology in producing DNA-based vaccines, together with the growing knowledge of the immune system, have provided new insights into the identification of the epitopes needed to target the development of highly targeted vaccines. Genetically modified (GM) viruses and genetically engineered virus-vector vaccines possess significant unpredictability and a number of inherent harmful potential hazards. For all these vaccines, safety assessment concerning unintended and unwanted side effects with regard to targeted vaccinees has always been the main focus. Important questions concerning effects on nontargeted individuals within the same species or other species remain unknown. Horizontal transfer of genes, though lacking supportive experimental or epidemiological investigations, is well established. New hybrid virus progenies resulting from genetic recombination between genetically engineered vaccine viruses and their naturally occurring relatives may possess totally unpredictable characteristics with regard to host preferences and disease-causing potentials. Furthermore, when genetically modified or engineered virus particles break down in the environment, their nuclei acids are released. Appropriate risk management is the key to minimizing any potential risks to humans and environment resulting from the use of these GM vaccines. There is inadequate knowledge to define either the probability of unintended events or the consequences of genetic modifications. The objective of this article is to highlight the limitations in environmental risk assessment and raise awareness of the potential risks involving the use of genetically modified viruses and genetically engineered virus-vector vaccines.

  3. West Nile virus adaptation to ixodid tick cells is associated with phenotypic trade-offs in primary hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciota, Alexander T; Payne, Anne F; Kramer, Laura D

    2015-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) is the most geographically widespread arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the world and is found in multiple ecologically distinct settings. Despite the likelihood of frequent exposure to novel hosts, studies evaluating the capacity and correlates of host range expansions or shifts of WNV and other arboviruses are generally lacking. We utilized experimental evolution of WNV in an Amblyomma americanum tick cell line to model an invertebrate host shift and evaluate the adaptive potential of WNV outside of its primary transmission cycle. Our results demonstrate that highly significant gains in replicative ability in ixodid tick cells are attainable for WNV but are also associated with widespread genetic change and significant phenotypic costs in vitro. Decreased fitness in primary hosts could represent a barrier to frequent exploitation of hard ticks by WNV in nature. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors (AAV Expressing Phenylalanine Hydroxylase (PAH

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    Ayşegül Akbay Yarpuzlu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent articles have appeared in the literature reporting use of adeno-associated virus vectors (AAV expressing phenylalanine hydroxylase in animal trials and suggesting its use in treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU as a form of gene therapy However, agents used in gene therapy to deliver genes are not site-specific and DNA is may be put in the wrong place, causing damage to the organism. The adverse immunogenicity of AAVs also needs to be reconsidered. This letter is written to discuss present unreadiness for Phase 1 clinical trials of gene therapy of PKU. Turk Jem 2009; 13: 18-9

  5. The effect of West Nile virus perceptions and knowledge on protective behavior and mosquito breeding in residential yards in Upstate New York

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuiten, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; McComas, K.; Harrington, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    A knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) questionnaire combined with entomological surveys of residential mosquito-breeding sites were conducted in two Upstate New York neighborhoods. We tested the hypothesis that “correct” West Nile virus (WNV) knowledge and perceptions correspond with the use

  6. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of DNA derived from the West Nile virus genome using magnetic capture of Raman-active gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model paramagnetic nanoparticle (MNP) assay is demonstrated for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of DNA oligonucleotides derived from the West Nile virus (WNV) genome. Detection is based on the capture of WNV target sequences by hybridization with complementary oligonucleotide pr...

  7. West Nile virus lineage 2 isolated from Culex modestus mosquitoes in the Czech Republic, 2013: expansion of the European WNV endemic area to the North?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Bakonyi, T.; Šebesta, Oldřich; Mendel, Jan; Peško, Juraj; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; Venclíková, Kristýna; Straková, Petra; Nowotny, N.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 31 (2014), pii=20867 ISSN 1560-7917 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile virus * mosquitoes * Czech Republic Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 5.722, year: 2014 http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=20867

  8. Satellite panicum mosaic virus coat protein enhances the performance of plant virus gene vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Anthany L; Scholthof, Herman B; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G

    2010-01-05

    The coat protein of satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPCP) is known to effectively protect its cognate RNA from deleterious events, and here, we tested its stabilizing potential for heterologous virus-based gene vectors in planta. In support of this, a Potato virus X (PVX) vector carrying the SPMV capsid protein (PVX-SPCP) gene was stable for at least three serial systemic passages through Nicotiana benthamiana. To test the effect of SPCP in trans, PVX-SPCP was co-inoculated onto N. benthamiana together with a Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) vector carrying a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene that normally does not support systemic GFP expression. In contrast, co-inoculation of TBSV-GFP plus PVX-SPCP resulted in GFP accumulation and concomitant green fluorescent spots in upper, non-inoculated leaves in a temperature-responsive manner. These results suggest that the multifaceted SPMV CP has intriguing effects on virus-host interactions that surface in heterologous systems.

  9. The Widespread use of Methoprene for the Prevention and Control of West Nile Virus in Ontario, Canada: Is it Impairing our Streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, R.; Baker, S. L.; Hayton, A.

    2005-05-01

    Catch basins have been identified as a major breeding location for the mosquito Culex pipiens, a primary vector for the spread of West Nile Virus in Ontario. Methoprene, an insect growth regulator, has been applied extensively in catch basins to combat the spread of mosquito populations. Since 2003, an estimated 1 million catch basins located around the Canadian shores of Lake Ontario were treated with 0.7g of 30-day, slow release methoprene pellets (4.25% active ingredient). Although studies have shown that methoprene breaks down quickly in the environment and is relatively non-toxic to mammals and fish, the large quantities being applied across Ontario raise concerns over the effects methoprene and its metabolites may have on non-target aquatic insects. The receiving streams of selected catch basins where methoprene was applied regularly were studied to assess the effects of methoprene application on stream macroinvertebrates. Although methoprene was not detected in the receiving waters, some changes in the community assemblages were observed. Many of the observed changes could be attributed to seasonality, however, percent Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) tended to be lower downstream of the storm sewer discharge compared to upstream and pre-application.

  10. Anticuerpos frente a virus West nile y otros virus transmitidos por artropodos en la poblacion del Delta del Ebro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano Alvaro

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: El virus West Nile (VWN es un Flavivirus que se transmite al hombre a través de distintas especies de mosquitos y produce brotes y casos esporádicos de enfermedad en distintas regiones del Viejo Mundo, incluída la Cuenca Mediterránea. Las zonas húmedas europeas que acogen aves migratorias procedentes de África constituyen áreas de alto riesgo para esta infección, así como para otras infecciones víricas transmitidas por artrópodos. MÉTODOS: Con objeto de investigar la prevalencia de la infección por el VWN y otros virus de transmisión similar en la población humana del Delta del Ebro, se estudiaron 1037 muestras de suero, obtenidas en 10 localidades de la zona, para presencia de anticuerpos frente a VWN y otros 12 virus transmitidos por artrópodos (3 Alfavirus, 8 Flaviviridae y 1 Bunyaviridae mediante titulación por inhibición de la hemaglutinación (IHA. En algunos casos se estudió la presencia de IgM específica por IHA tras fraccionar el suero por centrifugación en gradientes de sacarosa. RESULTADOS: En total, se encontró reactividad significativa frente a alguno de los virus probados en 130 casos (12.5%; 4.1% frente a Alfavirus, 8.0% frente a Flaviviridae y 0.4% frente a Bunyaviridae. El análisis de los títulos de anticuerpos reveló porcentajes significativos de muestras con títulos elevados frente a antígenos de VWN y otros. La distribución de la seroprevalencia fue muy desigual, concentrándose fundamentalmente en 3 localidades del interior del Delta (Ampolla, San Jaime y Montells, donde la prevalencia de anticuerpos frente a Flaviviridae llegó a alcanzar el 30% y se observaron niveles residuales de IgM frente a VWN en algunos sueros. CONCLUSIONES: Estos resultados y los obtenidos previamente en otras regiones de la Península Ibérica sugieren que el VWN circula en la población humana de las zonas de riesgo y produce brotes epidémicos periódicos. Habida cuenta del alto porcentaje de

  11. A perspective on targeting non-structural proteins to combat neglected tropical diseases: Dengue, West Nile and Chikungunya viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakat, Soumendranath; Karubiu, Wilson; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2014-11-24

    Neglected tropical diseases are major causes of fatality in poverty stricken regions across Africa, Asia and some part of America. The combined potential health risk associated with arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses); Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile Virus (WNV) and Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) is immense. These arboviruses are either emerging or re-emerging in many regions with recent documented outbreaks in the United States. Despite several recent evidences of emergence, currently there are no approved drugs or vaccines available to counter these diseases. Non-structural proteins encoded by these RNA viruses are essential for their replication and maturation and thus may offer ideal targets for developing antiviral drugs. In recent years, several protease inhibitors have been sourced from plant extract, synthesis, computer aided drug design and high throughput screening as well as through drug reposition based approaches to target the non-structural proteins. The protease inhibitors have shown different levels of inhibition and may thus provide template to develop selective and potent drugs against these devastating arboviruses. This review seeks to shed light on the design and development of antiviral drugs against DENV, WNV and CHIKV to date. To the best of our knowledge, this review provides the first comprehensive update on the development of protease inhibitors targeting non-structural proteins of three most devastating arboviruses, DENV, WNV and CHIKV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Antiviral activity of the adenosine analogue BCX4430 against West Nile virus and tick-borne flaviviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Luděk; Zouharová, Darina; Širmarová, Jana; Fojtíková, Martina; Štefánik, Michal; Haviernik, Jan; Nencka, Radim; de Clercq, Erik; Růžek, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    There are currently no approved antiviral therapies against medically important human flaviviruses. The imino-C-nucleoside BCX4430 shows broad-spectrum antiviral activity against a wide range of RNA viruses. Here, we demonstrate that BCX4430 inhibits tick-borne species of the genus Flavivirus; however, the antiviral effect varies against individual species. Micro-molar BCX4430 levels inhibited tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV); while, approximately 3-8-fold higher concentrations were needed to inhibit louping ill virus and Kyasanur Forest disease virus. Moreover, the compound strongly inhibited in vitro replication of West Nile virus, a typical mosquito-transmitted flavivirus. Two chemical forms of the compound, i.e. BCX4430 and BCX4430 hydrochloride, were compared and both exerted similar inhibitory profiles in our in vitro antiviral assay systems and no or negligible cytotoxicity in porcine kidney stable and Vero cells. The obtained data indicate that, in addition to mosquito-borne flaviviruses, the compound has strong antiviral activity against members of the TBEV serocomplex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhancers Are Major Targets for Murine Leukemia Virus Vector Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ravin, Suk See; Su, Ling; Theobald, Narda; Choi, Uimook; Macpherson, Janet L.; Poidinger, Michael; Symonds, Geoff; Pond, Susan M.; Ferris, Andrea L.; Hughes, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retroviral vectors have been used in successful gene therapies. However, in some patients, insertional mutagenesis led to leukemia or myelodysplasia. Both the strong promoter/enhancer elements in the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based vectors and the vector-specific integration site preferences played an important role in these adverse clinical events. MLV integration is known to prefer regions in or near transcription start sites (TSS). Recently, BET family proteins were shown to be the major cellular proteins responsible for targeting MLV integration. Although MLV integration sites are significantly enriched at TSS, only a small fraction of the MLV integration sites (integration map of more than one million integration sites from CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells transduced with a clinically relevant MLV-based vector. The integration sites form ∼60,000 tight clusters. These clusters comprise ∼1.9% of the genome. The vast majority (87%) of the integration sites are located within histone H3K4me1 islands, a hallmark of enhancers. The majority of these clusters also have H3K27ac histone modifications, which mark active enhancers. The enhancers of some oncogenes, including LMO2, are highly preferred targets for integration without in vivo selection. IMPORTANCE We show that active enhancer regions are the major targets for MLV integration; this means that MLV preferentially integrates in regions that are favorable for viral gene expression in a variety of cell types. The results provide insights for MLV integration target site selection and also explain the high risk of insertional mutagenesis that is associated with gene therapy trials using MLV vectors. PMID:24501411

  14. Potato virus X and Tobacco mosaic virus-based vectors compatible with the Gateway-TM cloning system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacorte, C.C.; Ribeiro, S.G.; Lohuis, H.; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Virus-based expression vectors are important tools for high-level production of foreign proteins and for gene function analysis through virus induced gene silencing. To exploit further their advantages as fast, high yield replicons, a set of vectors was produced by converting and adapting Potato

  15. Global research trends in West Nile virus from 1943 to 2016: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jabi, Samah W

    2017-08-03

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging infectious disease which is most commonly transmitted to humans through mosquito, and is considered a major public-health problem worldwide. The aim of the current study is to bibliometrically analyze the quantity and quality of publications indexed in Scopus from different countries to reveal the characteristics of global research output regarding WNV. This study is a bibliometric analysis based on the Scopus database. This study focused on identifying WNV publication trends with regard to publication year, publication type, prolific countries, language of publication, as well as, prolific journals, citations, and collaboration patterns. A total of 4729 publications were considered in this study, which were published between 1943 and 2016. The annual quantity of literature published before 2000 followed a low rate of research growth; while the quantity of publications after 2000 were published in a stage of rapid development. The country with the greatest number of publications in WNV research field was the USA with 2304 (48.7%) publications, followed by France with 224 (4.7%) publications, and Canada with 222 (4.7%) publications. Contributions from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) were considerably small, that is, (n = 519 publications; 11%). All publications related to WNV achieved h-index of 140 and were cited 124,222 times. The median [interquartile range] number of citations per article thus amounts to 9 [2-28]. The USA had the highest h-index of 131. Emerging Infectious Diseases is the most productive journal with 227 articles, followed by Journal of Virology with 162 publications. The result designated that Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was ranked the first in terms of publication output, followed by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases. There is an obvious trend of WNV research after 2000, and countries with high income have more contributions in WNV research field. The

  16. CCR5 limits cortical viral loads during West Nile virus infection of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Douglas M; Daniels, Brian P; Pasieka, TracyJo; Dorsey, Denise; Klein, Robyn S

    2015-12-15

    Cell-mediated immunity is critical for clearance of central nervous system (CNS) infection with the encephalitic flavivirus, West Nile virus (WNV). Prior studies from our laboratory have shown that WNV-infected neurons express chemoattractants that mediate recruitment of antiviral leukocytes into the CNS. Although the chemokine receptor, CCR5, has been shown to play an important role in CNS host defense during WNV infection, regional effects of its activity within the infected brain have not been defined. We used CCR5-deficient mice and an established murine model of WNV encephalitis to determine whether CCR5 activity impacts on WNV levels within the CNS in a region-specific fashion. Statistical comparisons between groups were made with one- or two-way analysis of variance; Bonferroni's post hoc test was subsequently used to compare individual means. Survival was analyzed by the log-rank test. Analyses were conducted using Prism software (GraphPad Prism). All data were expressed as means ± SEM. Differences were considered significant if P ≤ 0.05. As previously shown, lack of CCR5 activity led to increased symptomatic disease and mortality in mice after subcutaneous infection with WNV. Evaluation of viral burden in the footpad, draining lymph nodes, spleen, olfactory bulb, and cerebellum derived from WNV-infected wild-type, and CCR5(-/-) mice showed no differences between the genotypes. In contrast, WNV-infected, CCR5(-/-) mice exhibited significantly increased viral burden in cortical tissues, including the hippocampus, at day 8 post-infection. CNS regional studies of chemokine expression via luminex analysis revealed significantly increased expression of CCR5 ligands, CCL4 and CCL5, within the cortices of WNV-infected, CCR5(-/-) mice compared with those of similarly infected WT animals. Cortical elevations in viral loads and CCR5 ligands in WNV-infected, CCR5(-/-) mice, however, were associated with decreased numbers of infiltrating mononuclear cells

  17. Fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) develop West Nile virus viremias sufficient for infecting select mosquito species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Kenneth B; Tucker, Brad J; Halbur, Patrick G; Blitvich, Bradley J; Fabiosa, Flor G; Mullin, Kathleen; Parikh, Grishma R; Kitikoon, Pravina; Bartholomay, Lyric C; Rowley, Wayne A

    2008-04-01

    The West Nile virus (WNV) viremia and shedding profiles of 11 adult fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) infected by needle inoculation or mosquito bite were characterized. Daily mean titers (95% confidence intervals) for all squirrels on days 1 through 6 postexposure (p.e.) were: 10(1.7 (1.32.1)), 10(4.4 (4.04.8)), 10(5.3 (5.05.6)), 10(4.4 (3.94.9)), 10(2.7 (2.03.4)), and 10(1.1 (0.52.1)) plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL. The highest WNV serum titers of individual squirrels infected by needle inoculation or mosquito bite ranged from 10(4.5) to 10(6.1) and from 10(5.1) to 10(5.3) PFU/mL, respectively. Nine (82%) squirrels, including all 4 squirrels infected by mosquito bite, had WNV serum titers > or =10(5.1) PFU/mL that persisted on average for 1.6 +/- 0.3 days. Infection and dissemination rates of Culex pipiens (L.) that fed on squirrels with serum titers of 10(4.4 +/- 0.1) PFU/mL were 56% and 13%, respectively. Both of these rates increased to over 80% when fed on squirrels with a mean WNV titer of 10(5.5 +/- 0.1) PFU/mL. Infection and dissemination also occurred in Aedes triseriatus (Say) but at a much lower rate. WNV was isolated from the oral and rectal cavities of all squirrels and from urine that was opportunistically collected from 5 squirrels. The largest quantity of WNV recovered from swabs of the oral cavity and urine was 10(3.1) PFU. The longest periods after exposure that WNV was isolated from the oral cavity and urine from a squirrel were 22 and 17 days p.e., respectively. WNV RNA was also detected in kidney tissue in 1 squirrel 29 days p.e., suggesting that fox squirrels can be persistently infected. Collectively these observations provide further evidence that squirrels can contribute to the natural history and epidemiology of WNV, especially in peridomestic environments.

  18. Comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant epitopes in the West Nile virus nonstructural protein 1 recognized by avian antibody responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encheng Sun

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that primarily infects birds but occasionally infects humans and horses. Certain species of birds, including crows, house sparrows, geese, blue jays and ravens, are considered highly susceptible hosts to WNV. The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 of WNV can elicit protective immune responses, including NS1-reactive antibodies, during infection of animals. The antigenicity of NS1 suggests that NS1-reactive antibodies could provide a basis for serological diagnostic reagents. To further define serological reagents for diagnostic use, the antigenic sites in NS1 that are targeted by host immune responses need to be identified and the potential diagnostic value of individual antigenic sites also needs to be defined. The present study describes comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes in the WNV NS1 using avian WNV NS1 antisera. We screened antisera from chickens, ducks and geese immunized with purified NS1 for reactivity against 35 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire WNV NS1. This study identified twelve, nine and six peptide epitopes recognized by chicken, duck and goose antibody responses, respectively. Three epitopes (NS1-3, 14 and 24 were recognized by antibodies elicited by immunization in all three avian species tested. We also found that NS1-3 and 24 were WNV-specific epitopes, whereas the NS1-14 epitope was conserved among the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV serocomplex viruses based on the reactivity of avian WNV NS1 antisera against polypeptides derived from the NS1 sequences of viruses of the JEV serocomplex. Further analysis showed that the three common polypeptide epitopes were not recognized by antibodies in Avian Influenza Virus (AIV, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV, Duck Plague Virus (DPV and Goose Parvovirus (GPV antisera. The knowledge and reagents generated in this study have potential applications in differential diagnostic approaches and

  19. Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Wild Birds from Northern Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jourdain, E.; Olsen, B.; Lundkvist, A.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Šikutová, Silvie; Waldenström, J.; Karlsson, M.; Wahlström, M.; Jozan, M.; Falk, K. I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 77-79 ISSN 1530-3667 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Antibodies * Migratory birds * Sweden * West Nile Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.437, year: 2011

  20. Virus-based transient expression vectors for woody crops: a new frontier for vector design and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, William O; Folimonova, Svetlana Y

    2013-01-01

    Virus-based expression vectors are commonplace tools for the production of proteins or the induction of RNA silencing in herbaceous plants. This review considers a completely different set of uses for viral vectors in perennial fruit and nut crops, which can be productive for periods of up to 100 years. Viral vectors could be used in the field to modify existing plants. Furthermore, with continually emerging pathogens and pests, viral vectors could express genes to protect the plants or even to treat plants after they become infected. As technologies develop during the life span of these crops, viral vectors can be used for adding new genes as an alternative to pushing up the crop and replanting with transgenic plants. Another value of virus-based vectors is that they add nothing permanently to the environment. This requires that effective and stable viral vectors be developed for specific crops from endemic viruses. Studies using viruses from perennial hosts suggest that these objectives could be accomplished.

  1. DNA-immunisation with dengue virus E protein domains I/II, but not domain III, enhances Zika, West Nile and Yellow Fever virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slon Campos, Jose L; Poggianella, Monica; Marchese, Sara; Mossenta, Monica; Rana, Jyoti; Arnoldi, Francesca; Bestagno, Marco; Burrone, Oscar R

    2017-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV), the causative agent of dengue disease, is among the most important mosquito-borne pathogens worldwide. DENV is composed of four closely related serotypes and belongs to the Flaviviridae family alongside other important arthropod-borne viral pathogens such as Zika virus (ZIKV), West Nile virus (WNV) and Yellow Fever virus (YFV). After infection, the antibody response is mostly directed to the viral E glycoprotein which is composed of three structural domains named DI, DII and DIII that share variable degrees of homology among different viruses. Recent evidence supports a close serological interaction between ZIKV and DENV. The possibility of worse clinical outcomes as a consequence of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE) due to cross-reactive antibodies with poor neutralisation activity is a matter of concern. We tested polyclonal sera from groups of female Balb/C mice vaccinated with DNA constructs expressing DI/DII, DIII or the whole sE from different DENV serotypes and compared their activity in terms of cross-reactivity, neutralisation of virus infection and ADE. Our results indicate that the polyclonal antibody responses against the whole sE protein are highly cross-reactive with strong ADE and poor neutralisation activities due to DI/DII immunodominance. Conversely, anti-DIII polyclonal antibodies are type-specific, with no ADE towards ZIKV, WNV and YFV, and strong neutralisation activity restricted only to DENV.

  2. West Nile Virus Infection in American Singer Canaries: An Experimental Model in a Highly Susceptible Avian Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K; Lund, Melissa; Shearn Bochsler, Valerie

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the susceptibility of American singer canaries ( Serinus canaria) to West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Adult canaries were inoculated with 10 5 , 10 2 , and 10 1 plaque forming units (PFU) of WNV. All birds became infected and mortality occurred by 5 days postinoculation. The load of viral RNA as determined by RT-qPCR was dose dependent, and was higher at all doses than the level of viral RNA detected in American crows ( Corvus brachyrhynchos) challenged with 10 5 PFU of WNV. In a subset of birds, viremia was detected by virus isolation; canaries inoculated with 10 1 PFU of WNV developed viremia exceeding 10 10 PFU/mL serum, a log higher than American crows inoculated with 10 5 PFU of virus. In canaries euthanized at 3 days postinoculation, WNV was isolated at >10 7 PFU of virus/100 mg of lung, liver, heart, spleen, and kidney tissues. Pallor of the liver and splenomegaly were the most common macroscopic observations and histologic lesions were most severe in liver, spleen, and kidney, particularly in canaries challenged with 10 2 and 10 1 PFU. Immunoreactivity to WNV was pronounced in the liver and spleen. IgG antibodies to WNV were detected in serum by enzyme immunoassay in 11 of 21 (52%) challenged canaries and, in 4 of 5 (20%) of these sera, neutralization antibodies were detected at a titer ≥ 1:20. American singer canaries provide a useful model as this bird species is highly susceptible to WNV infection.

  3. West Nile virus noncoding subgenomic RNA contributes to viral evasion of the type I interferon-mediated antiviral response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuessler, Andrea; Funk, Anneke; Lazear, Helen M; Cooper, Daphne A; Torres, Shessy; Daffis, Stephane; Jha, Babal Kant; Kumagai, Yutaro; Takeuchi, Osamu; Hertzog, Paul; Silverman, Robert; Akira, Shizuo; Barton, David J; Diamond, Michael S; Khromykh, Alexander A

    2012-05-01

    We previously showed that a noncoding subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) is required for viral pathogenicity, as a mutant West Nile virus (WNV) deficient in sfRNA production replicated poorly in wild-type mice. To investigate the possible immunomodulatory or immune evasive functions of sfRNA, we utilized mice and cells deficient in elements of the type I interferon (IFN) response. Replication of the sfRNA mutant WNV was rescued in mice and cells lacking interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and IRF-7 and in mice lacking the type I alpha/beta interferon receptor (IFNAR), suggesting a contribution for sfRNA in overcoming the antiviral response mediated by type I IFN. This was confirmed by demonstrating rescue of mutant virus replication in the presence of IFNAR neutralizing antibodies, greater sensitivity of mutant virus replication to IFN-α pretreatment, partial rescue of its infectivity in cells deficient in RNase L, and direct effects of transfected sfRNA on rescuing replication of unrelated Semliki Forest virus in cells pretreated with IFN-α. The results define a novel function of sfRNA in flavivirus pathogenesis via its contribution to viral evasion of the type I interferon response.

  4. Clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical findings in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) naturally infected with West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünschmann, Arno; Timurkaan, Necati; Armien, Aníbal G; Bueno Padilla, Irene; Glaser, Amy; Redig, Patrick T

    2014-09-01

    Fifteen bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 3 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) were diagnosed with West Nile disease based on 1) presence of lesions in brain, eyes, and heart, 2) viral antigen detection in brain, eyes, heart, kidney, and/or liver by immunohistochemical staining, 3) detection of viral RNA in tissue samples and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction, and/or 4) detection of West Nile virus (WNV)-specific antibodies in CSF by serum neutralization assay. West Nile virus-associated gross lesions included cerebral pan-necrosis with hydrocephalus ex vacuo (7/15 bald eagles), fibrin exudation into the fundus in 1 golden eagle, retinal scarring in 1 bald eagle, and myocardial pallor and rounded heart apex in 4 bald eagles. Histologic lesions included lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis, most prominently in the cerebrum (17 eagles), lymphoplasmacytic pectenitis and choroiditis (15 and 8 eagles, respectively), and myocarditis (12 eagles). West Nile virus antigen was detected in the majority of the eagles in neurons of the brain (cerebrum and cerebellum), and less commonly present in neurons of the retina, tubular epithelial cells of the kidney, and cardiomyocytes. West Nile disease was diagnosed in 2 bald eagles based on the presence of cerebral pan-necrosis and WNV-specific antibodies in the CSF despite lacking viral antigen and RNA. In conclusion, WNV infection causes a fatal disease in bald and golden eagles. A variety of gross and histologic lesions are highly suggestive of WN disease in most eagles. A combination of detection of viral antigen and/or RNA or virus-specific antibodies proved useful in confirming the diagnosis. © 2014 The Author(s).

  5. Use of Insecticide-Treated House Screens to Reduce Infestations of Dengue Virus Vectors, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Che-Mendoza, Azael; Barrera-Perez, Mario; Guillermo-May, Guillermo; Herrera-Bojorquez, Josue; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Lenhart, Audrey; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Sommerfeld, Johannes; McCall, Philip J.; Kroeger, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Dengue prevention efforts rely on control of virus vectors. We investigated use of insecticide-treated screens permanently affixed to windows and doors in Mexico and found that the screens significantly reduced infestations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in treated houses. Our findings demonstrate the value of this method for dengue virus vector control. PMID:25625483

  6. Use of insecticide-treated house screens to reduce infestations of dengue virus vectors, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Che-Mendoza, Azael; Barrera-Perez, Mario; Guillermo-May, Guillermo; Herrera-Bojorquez, Josue; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Lenhart, Audrey; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Sommerfeld, Johannes; McCall, Philip J; Kroeger, Axel; Arredondo-Jimenez, Juan I

    2015-02-01

    Dengue prevention efforts rely on control of virus vectors. We investigated use of insecticide-treated screens permanently affixed to windows and doors in Mexico and found that the screens significantly reduced infestations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in treated houses. Our findings demonstrate the value of this method for dengue virus vector control.

  7. The Integrated System for Public Health Monitoring of West Nile Virus (ISPHM-WNV: a real-time GIS for surveillance and decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebel Germain

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After its first detection in North America in New York in 1999, West Nile virus was detected for the first time in 2002 in the province of Quebec, Canada. This situation forced the Government of Quebec to adopt a public health protection plan against the virus. The plan comprises several fields of intervention including the monitoring of human cases, Corvidae and mosquitoes in order to ensure the early detection of the presence of the virus in a particular area. To help support the monitoring activities, the Integrated System for Public Health Monitoring of West Nile Virus (ISPHM-WNV has been developed. Results The ISPHM-WNV is a real-time geographic information system for public health surveillance of West Nile virus and includes information on Corvidae, mosquitoes, humans, horses, climate, and preventive larvicide interventions. It has been in operation in the province of Quebec, Canada, since May 2003. The ISPHM-WNV facilitates the collection, localization, management and analysis of monitoring data; it also allows for the display of the results of analyses on maps, tables and statistical diagrams. Conclusion The system is very helpful for field workers in all regions of the province, as well as for central authorities. It represents the common authoritative source of data for analysis, exchange and decision-making.

  8. The Role of Bacterial Chaperones in the Circulative Transmission of Plant Viruses by Insect Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Ghanim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Persistent circulative transmission of plant viruses involves complex interactions between the transmitted virus and its insect vector. Several studies have shown that insect vector proteins are involved in the passage and the transmission of the virus. Interestingly, proteins expressed by bacterial endosymbionts that reside in the insect vector, were also shown to influence the transmission of these viruses. Thus far, the transmission of two plant viruses that belong to different virus genera was shown to be facilitated by a bacterial chaperone protein called GroEL. This protein was shown to be implicated in the transmission of Potato leafroll virus (PLRV by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae, and the transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV by the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci. These tri-trophic levels of interactions and their possible evolutionary implications are reviewed.

  9. Induction of virus-specific neutralizing immune response against West Nile and Japanese encephalitis viruses by chimeric peptides representing T-helper and B-cell epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Roopesh Singh; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N; Khan, Siraj A; Gore, Milind M

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the members of JEV serocomplex group are pathogens of global health concern. The co-circulation of these viruses poses challenges in effective diagnostics due to antigenic similarity between the E-protein of these viruses. The present study aimed to design chimeric peptides and study the immune response against the same. B-cell epitopes were predicted on structural proteins of WNV and JEV based on bioinformatics tools. The peptides representing to these B-cell epitopes were synthesized and subjected to ELISA. Two peptides, one each from WNV (named WE147) and JEV (named JE40) E-protein, showed virus-specific and strong reactivity to the immune mice sera and human clinical samples. The chimeric peptides for WNV and JEV were constructed by synthesizing the B-cell epitope of WNV (WE147) or JEV (JE40) with T-helper epitope (JM17) separated by diglycine spacer in between. The immune response generated against these chimeric peptides was found to be specific to the respective B-cell epitopes. The anti-peptide sera showed virus-specific reactivity in ELISA and in immunofluorescence assay with no cross-reactivity. Also, the anti-peptide sera could neutralize JE and WN viruses in an in vitro virus neutralization assay. The B-cell epitopes identified in the present study may be used as diagnostic markers for differentiating between WN and JE virus infections. The present study can form a basis for future design of vaccines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Declining malaria, rising of dengue and Zika virus: insights for mosquito vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2016-05-01

    The fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. To our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the Nobel Prize to Youyou Tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S)], and the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are major challenges that still deserve attention, in order to boost malaria prevention and control. Indeed, parasite strains resistant to artemisinin have been detected, and RTS,S vaccine does not offer protection against Plasmodium vivax malaria, which predominates in many countries outside of Africa. Furthermore, the recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections, occurring in South America, Central America and the Caribbean, represent the most recent of four arrivals of important arboviruses in the Western Hemisphere, over the last 20 years. Zika virus follows dengue (which slyly arrived in the hemisphere over decades and became more aggressive in the 1990s), West Nile virus (emerged in 1999) and chikungunya (emerged in 2013). Notably, there are no specific treatments for these arboviruses. The emerging scenario highlights that the effective and eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, with special reference to highly invasive species such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, is crucial. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as elucidated by the Y. Tu's example. Notably, plant-borne molecules are often effective at few parts per million against Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Anopheles and Culex young instars, can be used for the rapid synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoformulations and even employed to prepare cheap repellents with low human toxicity. In addition, behaviour-based control tools relying to the employ of sound traps and the

  11. Infodemiological data of West-Nile virus disease in Italy in the study period 2004–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Luigi Bragazzi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Google Trends (GT was mined from 2004 to 2015, searching for West-Nile virus disease (WNVD in Italy. GT-generated data were modeled as a time series and were analyzed using classical time series analyses. In particular, correlation between GT-based Relative Search Volumes (RSVs related to WNVD and “real-world” epidemiological cases in the same study period resulted r=0.76 (p<0.0001 on a monthly basis and r=0.80 (p<0.0001 on a yearly basis. The partial autocorrelation analysis and the spectral analysis confirmed that a 1-year regular pattern could be detected. Correlation between GT-based RSVs related to WNVD yielded a r=0.54 (p<0.05 on a regional basis. Summarizing, GT-generated data concerning WNVD well correlated with epidemiology and could be exploited for complementing traditional surveillance.

  12. West Nile and st. Louis encephalitis viruses antibodies surveillance in captive and free-ranging birds of prey from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglia, Agustin I; Diaz, Luis A; Argibay, Hernan; Contigiani, Marta S; Saggese, Miguel D

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of WNV and SLEV neutralizing antibodies in captive and free-ranging raptors from Argentina by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Eighty plasma samples from 12 species were analyzed. Only one captive adult Crowned Eagle (Harpyhaliaetus coronatus) was WNV seropositive (prevalence: 1.25%; antibody titer of 1:80). Two captive Crowned Eagles were SLEV seropositive (prevalence: 2.50%; antibody titers: 1:80 and 1:40).These findings expand the geographic distribution of WNV and SLEV and confirm their activity in central and northeastern Argentina. West Nile virus activity in Argentina may represent a potential threat to Crowned Eagles and other endangered raptors in this country.

  13. A mutation in the envelope protein fusion loop attenuates mouse neuroinvasiveness of the NY99 strain of West Nile virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuliu; Li Li; Woodson, Sara E.; Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Kinney, Richard M.; Barrett, Alan D.T.; Beasley, David W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Substitutions were engineered individually and in combinations at the fusion loop, receptor-binding domain and a stem-helix structure of the envelope protein of a West Nile virus strain, NY99, and their effects on mouse virulence and presentation of epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were assessed. A single substitution within the fusion loop (L107F) attenuated mouse neuroinvasiveness of NY99. No substitutions attenuated NY99 neurovirulence. The L107F mutation also abolished binding of a non-neutralizing MAb, 3D9, whose epitope had not been previously identified. MAb 3D9 was subsequently shown to be broadly cross-reactive with other flaviviruses, consistent with binding near the highly conserved fusion loop

  14. Interaction of measles virus vectors with Auger electron emitting radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingli, David; Peng, K.-W.; Harvey, Mary E.; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Bergert, Elizabeth R.; Kyle, Robert A.; Cattaneo, Roberto; Morris, John C.; Russell, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    A recombinant measles virus (MV) expressing the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is being considered for therapy of advanced multiple myeloma. Auger electrons selectively damage cells in which the isotope decays. We hypothesized that the Auger electron emitting isotope 125 I can be used to control viral proliferation. MV was engineered to express both carcinoembryonic antigen and NIS (MV-NICE). Cells were infected with MV-NICE and exposed to 125 I with appropriate controls. MV-NICE replication in vitro is inhibited by the selective uptake of 125 I by cells expressing NIS. Auger electron damage is partly mediated by free radicals and abrogated by glutathione. In myeloma xenografts, control of MV-NICE with 125 I was not possible under the conditions of the experiment. MV-NICE does not replicate faster in the presence of radiation. Auger electron emitting isotopes effectively stop propagation of MV vectors expressing NIS in vitro. Additional work is necessary to translate these observations in vivo

  15. Landscape, demographic, entomological, and climatic associations with human disease incidence of West Nile virus in the state of Iowa, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker Brad J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background West Nile virus (WNV emerged as a threat to public and veterinary health in the Midwest United States in 2001 and continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality annually. To investigate biotic and abiotic factors associated with disease incidence, cases of reported human disease caused by West Nile virus (WNV in the state of Iowa were aggregated by census block groups in Iowa for the years 2002–2006. Spatially explicit data on landscape, demographic, and climatic conditions were collated and analyzed by census block groups. Statistical tests of differences between means and distributions of landscape, demographic, and climatic variables for census block groups with and without WNV disease incidence were carried out. Entomological data from Iowa were considered at the state level to add context to the potential ecological events taking place. Results Numerous statistically significant differences were shown in the means and distributions of various landscape and demographic variables for census block groups with and without WNV disease incidence. Census block groups with WNV disease incidence had significantly lower population densities than those without. Landscape variables showing differences included stream density, road density, land cover compositions, presence of irrigation, and presence of animal feeding operations. Statistically significant differences in the annual means of precipitations, dew point, and minimum temperature for both the year of WNV disease incidence and the prior year, were detected in at least one year of the analysis for each parameter. However, the differences were not consistent between years. Conclusion The analysis of human WNV disease incidence by census block groups in Iowa demonstrated unique landscape, demographic, and climatic associations. Our results indicate that multiple ecological WNV transmission dynamics are most likely taking place in Iowa. In 2003 and 2006, drier

  16. Highly efficient virus-induced gene silencing in apple and soybean by apple latent spherical virus vector and biolistic inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective tool for the analysis of the gene function in plants within a short time. However, in woody fruit tree like apple, some of Solanum crops, and soybean, it is generally difficult to inoculate virus vector by conventional inoculation methods. Here, we show efficient VIGS in apple and soybean by Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector and biolistic inoculation. The plants inoculated with ALSV vectors by particle bombardment showed uniform silenced phenotypes of target genes within 2-3 weeks post inoculation.

  17. TMV-Gate vectors: Gateway compatible tobacco mosaic virus based expression vectors for functional analysis of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagale, Sateesh; Uzuhashi, Shihomi; Wigness, Merek; Bender, Tricia; Yang, Wen; Borhan, M. Hossein; Rozwadowski, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Plant viral expression vectors are advantageous for high-throughput functional characterization studies of genes due to their capability for rapid, high-level transient expression of proteins. We have constructed a series of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) based vectors that are compatible with Gateway technology to enable rapid assembly of expression constructs and exploitation of ORFeome collections. In addition to the potential of producing recombinant protein at grams per kilogram FW of leaf tissue, these vectors facilitate either N- or C-terminal fusions to a broad series of epitope tag(s) and fluorescent proteins. We demonstrate the utility of these vectors in affinity purification, immunodetection and subcellular localisation studies. We also apply the vectors to characterize protein-protein interactions and demonstrate their utility in screening plant pathogen effectors. Given its broad utility in defining protein properties, this vector series will serve as a useful resource to expedite gene characterization efforts. PMID:23166857

  18. Effects of NS2B-NS3 protease and furin inhibition on West Nile and Dengue virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouretova, Jenny; Hammamy, M Zouhir; Epp, Anton; Hardes, Kornelia; Kallis, Stephanie; Zhang, Linlin; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Steinmetzer, Torsten

    2017-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) and Dengue virus (DENV) replication depends on the viral NS2B-NS3 protease and the host enzyme furin, which emerged as potential drug targets. Modification of our previously described WNV protease inhibitors by basic phenylalanine analogs provided compounds with reduced potency against the WNV and DENV protease. In a second series, their decarboxylated P1-trans-(4-guanidino)cyclohexylamide was replaced by an arginyl-amide moiety. Compound 4-(guanidinomethyl)-phenylacetyl-Lys-Lys-Arg-NH 2 inhibits the NS2B-NS3 protease of WNV with an inhibition constant of 0.11 µM. Due to the similarity in substrate specificity, we have also tested the potency of our previously described multibasic furin inhibitors. Their further modification provided chimeric inhibitors with additional potency against the WNV and DENV proteases. A strong inhibition of WNV and DENV replication in cell culture was observed for the specific furin inhibitors, which reduced virus titers up to 10,000-fold. These studies reveal that potent inhibitors of furin can block the replication of DENV and WNV.

  19. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Maize with a Foxtail mosaic virus Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yu; Whitham, Steven A

    2018-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful technology for rapidly and transiently knocking down the expression of plant genes to study their functions. A VIGS vector for maize derived from Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV), a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus, was recently developed. A cloning site created near the 3' end of the FoMV genome enables insertion of 200-400 nucleotide fragments of maize genes targeted for silencing. The recombinant FoMV clones are inoculated into leaves of maize seedlings by biolistic particle delivery, and silencing is typically observed within 2 weeks after inoculation. This chapter provides a protocol for constructing FoMV VIGS clones and inoculating them into maize seedlings.

  20. Eilat virus displays a narrow mosquito vector range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Farooq; Haddow, Andrew D; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2014-12-17

    Most alphaviruses are arthropod-borne and utilize mosquitoes as vectors for transmission to susceptible vertebrate hosts. This ability to infect both mosquitoes and vertebrates is essential for maintenance of most alphaviruses in nature. A recently characterized alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), isolated from a pool of Anopheles coustani s.I. is unable to replicate in vertebrate cell lines. The EILV host range restriction occurs at both attachment/entry as well as genomic RNA replication levels. Here we investigated the mosquito vector range of EILV in species encompassing three genera that are responsible for maintenance of other alphaviruses in nature. Susceptibility studies were performed in four mosquito species: Aedes albopictus, A. aegypti, Anopheles gambiae, and Culex quinquefasciatus via intrathoracic and oral routes utilizing EILV and EILV expressing red fluorescent protein (-eRFP) clones. EILV-eRFP was injected at 10(7) PFU/mL to visualize replication in various mosquito organs at 7 days post-infection. Mosquitoes were also injected with EILV at 10(4)-10(1) PFU/mosquito and virus replication was measured via plaque assays at day 7 post-infection. Lastly, mosquitoes were provided bloodmeals containing EILV-eRFP at doses of 10(9), 10(7), 10(5) PFU/mL, and infection and dissemination rates were determined at 14 days post-infection. All four species were susceptible via the intrathoracic route; however, replication was 10-100 fold less than typical for most alphaviruses, and infection was limited to midgut-associated muscle tissue and salivary glands. A. albopictus was refractory to oral infection, while A. gambiae and C. quinquefasciatus were susceptible only at 10(9) PFU/mL dose. In contrast, A. aegypti was susceptible at both 10(9) and 10(7) PFU/mL doses, with body infection rates of 78% and 63%, and dissemination rates of 26% and 8%, respectively. The exclusion of vertebrates in its maintenance cycle may have facilitated the adaptation of EILV to a single

  1. Tubular structure induced by a plant virus facilitates viral spread in its vector insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen

    Full Text Available Rice dwarf virus (RDV replicates in and is transmitted by a leafhopper vector in a persistent-propagative manner. Previous cytopathologic and genetic data revealed that tubular structures, constructed by the nonstructural viral protein Pns10, contain viral particles and are directly involved in the intercellular spread of RDV among cultured leafhopper cells. Here, we demonstrated that RDV exploited these virus-containing tubules to move along actin-based microvilli of the epithelial cells and muscle fibers of visceral muscle tissues in the alimentary canal, facilitating the spread of virus in the body of its insect vector leafhoppers. In cultured leafhopper cells, the knockdown of Pns10 expression due to RNA interference (RNAi induced by synthesized dsRNA from Pns10 gene strongly inhibited tubule formation and prevented the spread of virus among insect vector cells. RNAi induced after ingestion of dsRNA from Pns10 gene strongly inhibited formation of tubules, preventing intercellular spread and transmission of the virus by the leafhopper. All these results, for the first time, show that a persistent-propagative virus exploits virus-containing tubules composed of a nonstructural viral protein to traffic along actin-based cellular protrusions, facilitating the intercellular spread of the virus in the vector insect. The RNAi strategy and the insect vector cell culture provide useful tools to investigate the molecular mechanisms enabling efficient transmission of persistent-propagative plant viruses by vector insects.

  2. Varroa destructor, a potential vector of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus in honey bees, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the role of the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, as a vector in transmission of viruses between honey bees is well established, no study has shown that it can similarly transmit Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV), a virus that was found to be associated with Colony Collapse Disorder (CC...

  3. A Thiopurine Drug Inhibits West Nile Virus Production in Cell Culture, but Not in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Pei-Yin; Keating, Julie A.; Hoover, Spencer; Striker, Rob; Bernard, Kristen A.

    2011-01-01

    Many viruses within the Flavivirus genus cause significant disease in humans; however, effective antivirals against these viruses are not currently available. We have previously shown that a thiopurine drug, 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (6MMPr), inhibits replication of distantly related viruses within the Flaviviridae family in cell culture, including bovine viral diarrhea virus and hepatitis C virus replicon. Here we further examined the potential antiviral effect of 6MMPr on several dive...

  4. Epidemic Spread of Usutu Virus in Southwest Germany in 2011 to 2013 and Monitoring of Wild Birds for Usutu and West Nile Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ute; Jöst, Hanna; Müller, Kerstin; Fischer, Dominik; Rinder, Monika; Tietze, Dieter Thomas; Danner, Klaus-Jürgen; Becker, Norbert; Skuballa, Jasmin; Hamann, Hans-Peter; Bosch, Stefan; Fast, Christine; Eiden, Martin; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Groschup, Martin H

    2015-08-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses are becoming an increasing threat for Europe. One of these viruses is Usutu virus (USUV), a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis virus group within the family Flaviviridae. Since the occurrence of USUV among wild birds in June, 2011, infected Blackbirds (Turdus merula) have frequently been found dead in southwest Germany, cumulating in a massive die-off. Moreover, other bird species (Strigiformes) in this region have been affected. In a first study, 209 of over 600 dead birds (wild birds and birds kept in aviaries) collected from 2011 to 2013 carried USUV, more than 88% of them Blackbirds. USUV had already been detected in 2010, one year before the epizooty, in a mosquito-based surveillance program in Germany. The main epidemic area of the USUV outbreak in wild birds in southwest Germany has been similar for the last three years. In a second study during 2011 to 2013, 902 live migratory and resident birds (representing 87 bird species belonging to 14 bird orders) from four different sampling sites were bled and tested serologically and by qPCR for West Nile virus (WNV) and USUV infections. No USUV or WNV genomes were detected. Some migratory birds (mainly long-distance migrants and some partial migrants) carried neutralizing antibodies against WNV as discriminated by USUV and WNV cross-neutralization tests. Only few resident birds showed relevant USUV-specific neutralizing antibodies. The occurrence of USUV in the Upper Rhine valley area of southwest Germany is a proof of principle for the incursion and spread of other arthropod-borne (arbo)-viruses along these routes. Therefore, monitoring studies in birds and mosquitoes for the presence of arboviruses in these areas are indispensable.

  5. Simultaneous detection and quantitation of Chikungunya, dengue and West Nile viruses by multiplex RT-PCR assays and dengue virus typing using high resolution melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naze, F; Le Roux, K; Schuffenecker, I; Zeller, H; Staikowsky, F; Grivard, P; Michault, A; Laurent, P

    2009-12-01

    Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DENV) and West Nile (WNV) viruses are arthropod-borne viruses that are able to emerge or re-emerge in many regions due to climatic changes and increase in travel. Since these viruses produce similar clinical signs it is important for physicians and epidemiologists to differentiate them rapidly. A molecular method was developed for their detection and quantitation in plasma samples and a DENV typing technique were developed. The method consisted in performing two multiplex real-time one-step RT-PCR assays, to detect and quantify the three viruses. Both assays were conducted in a single run, from a single RNA extract containing a unique coextracted and coamplified composite internal control. The quantitation results were close to the best detection thresholds obtained with simplex RT-PCR techniques. The differentiation of DENV types was performed using a High Resolution Melting technique. The assays enable the early diagnosis of the three arboviruses during viremia, including cases of coinfection. The method is rapid, specific and highly sensitive with a potential for clinical diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance. A DENV positive sample can be typed conveniently using the High Resolution Melting technique using the same apparatus.

  6. ¿Ha oído hablar del West Nile Virus? - PSA (:30) (The Buzz About West Nile Virus PSA [:30])

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-21

    Este Anuncio de Servicio Público de 30 segundos explica cómo protegerse del Virus del Nilo Occidental. Creado: 8/21/2012 por los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC).  Created: 8/21/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/21/2012.

  7. The Function of Herpes Simplex Virus Genes: A Primer for Genetic Engineering of Novel Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roizman, Bernard

    1996-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus vectors are being developed for delivery and expression of human genes to the central nervous system, selective destruction of cancer cells, and as carriers for genes encoding antigens that induce protective immunity against infectious agents. Vectors constructed to meet these objectives must differ from wild-type virus with respect to host range, reactivation from latency, and expression of viral genes. The vectors currently being developed are (i) helper free amplicons, (ii) replication defective viruses, and (iii) genetically engineered replication competent viruses with restricted host range. Whereas the former two types of vectors require stable, continuous cell lines expressing viral genes for their replication, the replication competent viruses will replicate on approved primary human cell strains.

  8. Enhancing Remotely Sensed TIR Data for Public Health Applications: Is West Nile Virus Heat-Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Q.; Liu, H.; Jiang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Public health studies often require thermal infrared (TIR) images at both high temporal and spatial resolution to retrieve LST. However, currently, no single satellite sensors can deliver TIR data at both high temporal and spatial resolution. This technological limitation prevents the wide usage of remote sensing data in epidemiological studies. To solve this issue, we have developed a few image fusion techniques to generate high temporally-resolved image data. We downscaled GOES LST data to 15-minute 1-km resolution to assess community-based heat-related risk in Los Angeles County, California and simulated ASTER datasets by fusing ASTER and MODIS data to derive biophysical variables, including LST, NDVI, and normalized difference water index, to examine the effects of those environmental characteristics on WNV outbreak and dissemination. A spatio-temporal analysis of WNV outbreak and dissemination was conducted by synthesizing the remote sensing variables and mosquito surveillance data, and by focusing on WNV risk areas in July through September due to data sufficiency of mosquito pools. Moderate- and high-risk areas of WNV infections in mosquitoes were identified for five epidemiological weeks. These identified WNV-risk areas were then collocated in GIS with heat hazard, exposure, and vulnerability maps to answer the question of whether WNV is a heat related virus. The results show that elevation and built-up conditions were negatively associated with the WNV propagation, while LST positively correlated with the viral transmission. NDVI was not significantly associated with WNV transmission. San Fernando Valley was found to be the most vulnerable to mosquito infections of WNV. This research provides important insights into how high temporal resolution remote sensing imagery may be used to study time-dependant events in public health, especially in the operational surveillance and control of vector-borne, water-borne, or other epidemic diseases.

  9. Efficient Strategy to Generate a Vectored Duck Enteritis Virus Delivering Envelope of Duck Tembusu Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV is a recently emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has resulted in a huge economic loss in the duck industry. However, no vaccine is currently available to control this pathogen. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against this pathogen should be determined. In this study, duck enteritis virus (DEV was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the envelope (E of DTMUV. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the SORF3 and US2 gene junctions of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE. The envelope (E gene of DTMUV was inserted into the C-KCE genome through the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC strategy, resulting in the recombinant vector, pBAC-C-KCE-E. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-E was generated by eliminating the BAC backbone. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis results indicated that the E proteins were vigorously expressed in C-KCE-E-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs. Duck experiments demonstrated that the insertion of the E gene did not alter the protective efficacy of C-KCE. Moreover, C-KCE-E-immunized ducks induced neutralization antibodies against DTMUV. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant C-KCE-E can serve as a potential bivalent vaccine against DEV and DTMUV.

  10. West Nile virus infection in American singer canaries: An experimental model in a highly susceptible avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Lund, Melissa; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the susceptibility of American singer canaries (Serinus canaria) to West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Adult canaries were inoculated with 105, 102, and 101plaque forming units (PFU) of WNV. All birds became infected and mortality occurred by 5 days postinoculation. The load of viral RNA as determined by RT-qPCR was dose dependent, and was higher at all doses than the level of viral RNA detected in American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) challenged with 105 PFU of WNV. In a subset of birds, viremia was detected by virus isolation; canaries inoculated with 101 PFU of WNV developed viremia exceeding 1010 PFU/mL serum, a log higher than American crows inoculated with 105 PFU of virus. In canaries euthanized at 3 days postinoculation, WNV was isolated at >107 PFU of virus/100 mg of lung, liver, heart, spleen, and kidney tissues. Pallor of the liver and splenomegaly were the most common macroscopic observations and histologic lesions were most severe in liver, spleen, and kidney, particularly in canaries challenged with 102 and 101 PFU. Immunoreactivity to WNV was pronounced in the liver and spleen. IgG antibodies to WNV were detected in serum by enzyme immunoassay in 11 of 21 (52%) challenged canaries and, in 4 of 5 (20%) of these sera, neutralization antibodies were detected at a titer ≥ 1:20. American singer canaries provide a useful model as this bird species is highly susceptible to WNV infection.

  11. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus Vaccinia modificado de Ankara (MVA) como vacunas contra la leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Jiménez, Eva; Larraga, Vicente; Esteban, Mariano

    2005-01-01

    Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus vaccinia modificado de Ankara (MVA) como vacunas contra la leishmaniasis. Los vectores de la invención contienen secuencias codificantes de la proteína LACK, preferentemente insertadas en el locus de hemaglutinina del virus y bajo el control de un promotor que permite su expresión a lo largo del ciclo de infección del virus. Son vectores seguros, estables, que dan lugar a una potente respuesta inmune que confiere protección frente a la leishmaniasis,...

  12. Use of wild bird surveillance, human case data and GIS spatial analysis for predicting spatial distributions of West Nile virus in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiakos, George; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Birtsas, Periklis; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Hutchings, Michael R; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Pervanidou, Danai; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsokana, Constantina; Baka, Agoritsa; Manolakou, Katerina; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Artois, Marc; Yon, Lisa; Hannant, Duncan; Petrovska, Liljana; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Billinis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS). Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density). Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723-1,386). Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace) western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841-6,189) and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence.

  13. Rapid communication. New incursions of West Nile virus lineage 2 in Italy in 2013: the value of the entomological surveillance as early warning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Calzolari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is one of the most serious public health threats that Europe and the Mediterranean countries are currently facing. In Italy, WNV emerged in 1998 and has been circulating since 2008. To tackle its continuous incursions, Italian national and regional institutions set up a surveillance program, which includes the serological screening of sentinel horses, sentinel-chickens and backyard poultry flocks and the surveillance on all equine neurological cases, resident captured and wild dead birds, and vectors. This communication aims to assess the importance of the entomological surveillance program as an early warning system for WNV circulation. In the province of Modena, the circulation of WNV lineage 2 strains was first detected in pools of Culex pipiens on July the 3rd, 42 days prior to the onset of the first 2013 human WNV neuroinvasive case reported in the same province. Similarly in Veneto, WNV was first detected on July 3rd in a pool of Cx. pipiens collected in the province of Venezia. The first human neuroinvasive case in this region occurred in the Rovigo province on July the 24th, seven days after the detection of WNV lineage 2 in a mosquito pool collected in the same province. Up to the end of July 2013, WNV circulation was further detected in several other pools of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes collected in Emilia-Romagna, Veneto and Lombardia. According to the NS3 partial sequence alignments including all recent European and Italian Lineage 2 strains, the new circulating WNV lineage 2 strains share high nt homology with the Hungarian and with the previous lineage 2 strains isolated in Veneto and Sardegna in 2011 and 2012. These data provide a clear and practical demonstration of the relevance of a reliable entomological surveillance program to early detect WNV in Italy.

  14. Use of wild bird surveillance, human case data and GIS spatial analysis for predicting spatial distributions of West Nile virus in Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Valiakos

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS. Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density. Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723-1,386. Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841-6,189 and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence.

  15. Use of Wild Bird Surveillance, Human Case Data and GIS Spatial Analysis for Predicting Spatial Distributions of West Nile Virus in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiakos, George; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Birtsas, Periklis; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Hutchings, Michael R.; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Pervanidou, Danai; Athanasiou, Labrini V.; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsokana, Constantina; Baka, Agoritsa; Manolakou, Katerina; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Artois, Marc; Yon, Lisa; Hannant, Duncan; Petrovska, Liljana; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Billinis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS). Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density). Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723–1,386). Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace) western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841–6,189) and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence. PMID:24806216

  16. Immunization with Culex tarsalis Mosquito Salivary Gland Extract Modulates West Nile Virus Infection and Disease in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machain-Williams, Carlos; Reagan, Krystle; Wang, Tian; Zeidner, Nordin S

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Mosquito salivary proteins inoculated during blood feeding modulate the host immune response, which can contribute to the pathogenesis of viruses transmitted by mosquito bites. Previous studies with mosquito bite-naïve mice indicated that exposure to arthropod salivary proteins resulted in a shift toward a Th2-type immune response in flavivirus-susceptible mice but not flavivirus-resistant animals. In the study presented here, we tested the hypothesis that immunization with high doses of Culex tarsalis salivary gland extracts (SGE) with an adjuvant would prevent Th2 polarization after mosquito bite and enhance resistance to mosquito-transmitted West Nile virus (WNV). Our results indicate that mice immunized with Cx. tarsalis SGE produced increased levels of Th1-type cytokines (IFNγ and TNFα) after challenge with mosquito-transmitted WNV and exhibited both a delay in infection of the central nervous system (CNS) and significantly lower WNV brain titers compared to mock-immunized mice. Moreover, mortality was significantly reduced in the SGE-immunized mice, as none of these mice died, compared to mortality of 37.5% of mock-vaccinated mice by 8 days after infected mosquito bite. These results suggest that development of a mosquito salivary protein vaccine might be a strategy to control arthropod-borne viral pathogens such as WNV. PMID:23362833

  17. Protection of mice deficient in mature B cells from West Nile virus infection by passive and active immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draves, Kevin E.; Young, Lucy B.; Bryan, Marianne A.; Dresch, Christiane; Diamond, Michael S.; Gale, Michael

    2017-01-01

    B cell activating factor receptor (BAFFR)-/- mice have a profound reduction in mature B cells, but unlike μMT mice, they have normal numbers of newly formed, immature B cells. Using a West Nile virus (WNV) challenge model that requires antibodies (Abs) for protection, we found that unlike wild-type (WT) mice, BAFFR-/- mice were highly susceptible to WNV and succumbed to infection within 8 to 12 days after subcutaneous virus challenge. Although mature B cells were required to protect against lethal infection, infected BAFFR-/- mice had reduced WNV E-specific IgG responses and neutralizing Abs. Passive transfer of immune sera from previously infected WT mice rescued BAFFR-/- and fully B cell-deficient μMT mice, but unlike μMT mice that died around 30 days post-infection, BAFFR-/- mice survived, developed WNV-specific IgG Abs and overcame a second WNV challenge. Remarkably, protective immunity could be induced in mature B cell-deficient mice. Administration of a WNV E-anti-CD180 conjugate vaccine 30 days prior to WNV infection induced Ab responses that protected against lethal infection in BAFFR-/- mice but not in μMT mice. Thus, the immature B cells present in BAFFR-/- and not μMT mice contribute to protective antiviral immunity. A CD180-based vaccine may promote immunity in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:29176765

  18. Novel strategy for generation and titration of recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Ai-Li; Liu, Pu-Ste; Wu, Chao-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors have many advantages for gene therapeutic applications compared with other vector systems. Several methods that use plasmids or helper viruses have been reported for the generation of rAAV vectors. Unfortunately, the preparation of large-scale rAAV stocks is labor-intensive. Moreover, the biological titration of rAAV is still difficult, which may limit its preclinical and clinical applications. For this study, we developed a novel strategy to generate and biologically titrate rAAV vectors. A recombinant pseudorabies virus (PrV) with defects in its gD, gE, and thymidine kinase genes was engineered to express the AAV rep and cap genes, yielding PS virus, which served as a packaging and helper virus for the generation of rAAV vectors. PS virus was useful not only for generating high-titer rAAV vectors by cotransfection with an rAAV vector plasmid, but also for amplifying rAAV stocks. Notably, the biological titration of rAAV vectors was also feasible when cells were coinfected with rAAV and PS virus. Based on this strategy, we produced an rAAV that expresses prothymosin alpha (ProT). Expression of the ProT protein in vitro and in vivo mediated by rAAV/ProT gene transfer was detected by immunohistochemistry and a bioassay. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the PrV vector-based system is useful for generating rAAV vectors carrying various transgenes.

  19. An Improved Brome mosaic virus Silencing Vector: Greater Insert Stability and More Extensive VIGS1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is used extensively for gene function studies in plants. VIGS is inexpensive and rapid compared with silencing conducted through stable transformation, but many virus-silencing vectors, especially in grasses, induce only transient silencing phenotypes. A major reason for transient phenotypes is the instability of the foreign gene fragment (insert) in the vector during VIGS. Here, we report the development of a Brome mosaic virus (BMV)-based vector that better maintains inserts through modification of the original BMV vector RNA sequence. Modification of the BMV RNA3 sequence yielded a vector, BMVCP5, that better maintained phytoene desaturase and heat shock protein70-1 (HSP70-1) inserts in Nicotiana benthamiana and maize (Zea mays). Longer maintenance of inserts was correlated with greater target gene silencing and more extensive visible silencing phenotypes displaying greater tissue penetration and involving more leaves. The modified vector accumulated similarly to the original vector in N. benthamiana after agroinfiltration, thus maintaining a high titer of virus in this intermediate host used to produce virus inoculum for grass hosts. For HSP70, silencing one family member led to a large increase in the expression of another family member, an increase likely related to the target gene knockdown and not a general effect of virus infection. The cause of the increased insert stability in the modified vector is discussed in relationship to its recombination and accumulation potential. The modified vector will improve functional genomic studies in grasses, and the conceptual methods used to improve the vector may be applied to other VIGS vectors. PMID:29127260

  20. An ImprovedBrome mosaic virusSilencing Vector: Greater Insert Stability and More Extensive VIGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xin Shun; Mannas, Stephen W; Bishop, Bethany A; Rao, Xiaolan; Lecoultre, Mitchell; Kwon, Soonil; Nelson, Richard S

    2018-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is used extensively for gene function studies in plants. VIGS is inexpensive and rapid compared with silencing conducted through stable transformation, but many virus-silencing vectors, especially in grasses, induce only transient silencing phenotypes. A major reason for transient phenotypes is the instability of the foreign gene fragment (insert) in the vector during VIGS. Here, we report the development of a Brome mosaic virus (BMV)-based vector that better maintains inserts through modification of the original BMV vector RNA sequence. Modification of the BMV RNA3 sequence yielded a vector, BMVCP5, that better maintained phytoene desaturase and heat shock protein70-1 ( HSP70-1 ) inserts in Nicotiana benthamiana and maize ( Zea mays ). Longer maintenance of inserts was correlated with greater target gene silencing and more extensive visible silencing phenotypes displaying greater tissue penetration and involving more leaves. The modified vector accumulated similarly to the original vector in N. benthamiana after agroinfiltration, thus maintaining a high titer of virus in this intermediate host used to produce virus inoculum for grass hosts. For HSP70 , silencing one family member led to a large increase in the expression of another family member, an increase likely related to the target gene knockdown and not a general effect of virus infection. The cause of the increased insert stability in the modified vector is discussed in relationship to its recombination and accumulation potential. The modified vector will improve functional genomic studies in grasses, and the conceptual methods used to improve the vector may be applied to other VIGS vectors. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Virus-induced gene silencing in diverse maize lines using the Brome Mosaic virus-based silencing vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a widely used tool for gene function studies in many plant species, though its use in monocots has been limited. Using a Brome mosaic virus (BMV) vector designed to silence the maize phytoene desaturase gene, a genetically diverse set of maize inbred lines was ...

  2. Detection of West Nile virus using formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues in crows and horses: quantification of viral transcripts by real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Deepanker; Kim, Hyun; Feria, Willard; Russo, Brigite; Acland, Helen

    2004-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) RNA was quantified in WNV infected crows and horses with the help of a real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. A 5' nuclease assay, based on NS5 gene detection with a fluorescent probe was used for quantifying WNV RNA using formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue specimens. Quantitative detection of WNV RNA showed the presence of a higher amount of the viral RNA in crow tissues compared to equine tissues and these results correlated well with the detection of WNV antigen by immunostaining. In crows, the highest amount of virus was seen in the intestine and in horses in the brain.

  3. Competence of Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes as Zika Virus Vectors, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuanzhuan; Zhou, Tengfei; Lai, Zetian; Zhang, Zhenhong; Jia, Zhirong; Zhou, Guofa; Williams, Tricia; Xu, Jiabao; Gu, Jinbao; Zhou, Xiaohong; Lin, Lifeng; Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2017-07-01

    In China, the prevention and control of Zika virus disease has been a public health threat since the first imported case was reported in February 2016. To determine the vector competence of potential vector mosquito species, we experimentally infected Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes and determined infection rates, dissemination rates, and transmission rates. We found the highest vector competence for the imported Zika virus in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, some susceptibility of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, but no transmission ability for Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Considering that, in China, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are widely distributed but Ae. aegypti mosquito distribution is limited, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are a potential primary vector for Zika virus and should be targeted in vector control strategies.

  4. Competence of Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes as Zika Virus Vectors, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuanzhuan; Zhou, Tengfei; Lai, Zetian; Zhang, Zhenhong; Jia, Zhirong; Zhou, Guofa; Williams, Tricia; Xu, Jiabao; Gu, Jinbao; Zhou, Xiaohong; Lin, Lifeng; Yan, Guiyun

    2017-01-01

    In China, the prevention and control of Zika virus disease has been a public health threat since the first imported case was reported in February 2016. To determine the vector competence of potential vector mosquito species, we experimentally infected Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes and determined infection rates, dissemination rates, and transmission rates. We found the highest vector competence for the imported Zika virus in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, some susceptibility of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, but no transmission ability for Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Considering that, in China, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are widely distributed but Ae. aegypti mosquito distribution is limited, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are a potential primary vector for Zika virus and should be targeted in vector control strategies. PMID:28430562

  5. A single amino acid substitution in the core protein of West Nile virus increases resistance to acidotropic compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Martín-Acebes

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a worldwide distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus that naturally cycles between birds and mosquitoes, although it can infect multiple vertebrate hosts including horses and humans. This virus is responsible for recurrent epidemics of febrile illness and encephalitis, and has recently become a global concern. WNV requires to transit through intracellular acidic compartments at two different steps to complete its infectious cycle. These include fusion between the viral envelope and the membrane of endosomes during viral entry, and virus maturation in the trans-Golgi network. In this study, we followed a genetic approach to study the connections between viral components and acidic pH. A WNV mutant with increased resistance to the acidotropic compound NH4Cl, which blocks organelle acidification and inhibits WNV infection, was selected. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that this mutant displayed a single amino acid substitution (Lys 3 to Glu on the highly basic internal capsid or core (C protein. The functional role of this replacement was confirmed by its introduction into a WNV infectious clone. This single amino acid substitution also increased resistance to other acidification inhibitor (concanamycin A and induced a reduction of the neurovirulence in mice. Interestingly, a naturally occurring accompanying mutation found on prM protein abolished the resistant phenotype, supporting the idea of a genetic crosstalk between the internal C protein and the external glycoproteins of the virion. The findings here reported unveil a non-previously assessed connection between the C viral protein and the acidic pH necessary for entry and proper exit of flaviviruses.

  6. A single amino acid substitution in the core protein of West Nile virus increases resistance to acidotropic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; de Oya, Nereida Jiménez; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Shi, Pei-Yong; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a worldwide distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus that naturally cycles between birds and mosquitoes, although it can infect multiple vertebrate hosts including horses and humans. This virus is responsible for recurrent epidemics of febrile illness and encephalitis, and has recently become a global concern. WNV requires to transit through intracellular acidic compartments at two different steps to complete its infectious cycle. These include fusion between the viral envelope and the membrane of endosomes during viral entry, and virus maturation in the trans-Golgi network. In this study, we followed a genetic approach to study the connections between viral components and acidic pH. A WNV mutant with increased resistance to the acidotropic compound NH4Cl, which blocks organelle acidification and inhibits WNV infection, was selected. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that this mutant displayed a single amino acid substitution (Lys 3 to Glu) on the highly basic internal capsid or core (C) protein. The functional role of this replacement was confirmed by its introduction into a WNV infectious clone. This single amino acid substitution also increased resistance to other acidification inhibitor (concanamycin A) and induced a reduction of the neurovirulence in mice. Interestingly, a naturally occurring accompanying mutation found on prM protein abolished the resistant phenotype, supporting the idea of a genetic crosstalk between the internal C protein and the external glycoproteins of the virion. The findings here reported unveil a non-previously assessed connection between the C viral protein and the acidic pH necessary for entry and proper exit of flaviviruses.

  7. Differential profiles of direct and indirect modification of vector feeding behaviour by a plant virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Bo; Li, Jie; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Plant viruses interact with their insect vectors directly and indirectly via host plants, and this tripartite interaction may produce fitness benefits to both the vectors and the viruses. Our previous studies show that the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex improved its performance on tobacco plants infected by the Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV), which it transmits, although virus infection of the whitefly per se reduced its performance. Here, we use electrical penetration graph recording to investigate the direct and indirect effects of TYLCCNV on the feeding behaviour of MEAM1. When feeding on either cotton, a non-host of TYLCCNV, or uninfected tobacco, a host of TYLCCNV, virus-infection of the whiteflies impeded their feeding. Interestingly, when viruliferous whiteflies fed on virus-infected tobacco, their feeding activities were no longer negatively affected; instead, the virus promoted whitefly behaviour related to rapid and effective sap ingestion. Our findings show differential profiles of direct and indirect modification of vector feeding behaviour by a plant virus, and help to unravel the behavioural mechanisms underlying a mutualistic relationship between an insect vector and a plant virus that also has features reminiscent of an insect pathogen. PMID:25567524

  8. Vector-Borne Transmission Imposes a Severe Bottleneck on an RNA Virus Population

    OpenAIRE

    Forrester, Naomi L.; Guerbois, Mathilde; Seymour, Robert L.; Spratt, Heidi; Weaver, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    RNA viruses typically occur in genetically diverse populations due to their error-prone genome replication. Genetic diversity is thought to be important in allowing RNA viruses to explore sequence space, facilitating adaptation to changing environments and hosts. Some arboviruses that infect both a mosquito vector and a mammalian host are known to experience population bottlenecks in their vectors, which may constrain their genetic diversity and could potentially lead to extinction events via...

  9. Replication of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus in Its Whitefly Vector, Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakkianathan, Britto Cathrin; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Lebedev, Galina; Mahadav, Assaf; Zeidan, Muhammad; Czosnek, Henryk; Ghanim, Murad

    2015-10-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a begomovirus transmitted exclusively by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in a persistent, circulative manner. Replication of TYLCV in its vector remains controversial, and thus far, the virus has been considered to be nonpropagative. Following 8 h of acquisition on TYLCV-infected tomato plants or purified virions and then transfer to non-TYLCV-host cotton plants, the amounts of virus inside whitefly adults significantly increased (>2-fold) during the first few days and then continuously decreased, as measured by the amounts of genes on both virus DNA strands. Reported alterations in insect immune and defense responses upon virus retention led us to hypothesize a role for the immune response in suppressing virus replication. After virus acquisition, stress conditions were imposed on whiteflies, and the levels of three viral gene sequences were measured over time. When whiteflies were exposed to TYLCV and treatment with two different pesticides, the virus levels continuously increased. Upon exposure to heat stress, the virus levels gradually decreased, without any initial accumulation. Switching of whiteflies between pesticide, heat stress, and control treatments caused fluctuating increases and decreases in virus levels. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed these results and showed virus signals inside midgut epithelial cell nuclei. Combining the pesticide and heat treatments with virus acquisition had significant effects on fecundity. Altogether, our results demonstrate for the first time that a single-stranded DNA plant virus can replicate in its hemipteran vector. Plant viruses in agricultural crops are of great concern worldwide. Many of them are transmitted from infected to healthy plants by insects. Persistently transmitted viruses often have a complex association with their vectors; however, most are believed not to replicate within these vectors. Such replication is important, as it contributes to the

  10. NMR analysis of the dynamic exchange of the NS2B cofactor between open and closed conformations of the West Nile virus NS2B-NS3 protease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun-Cheng Su

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The two-component NS2B-NS3 proteases of West Nile and dengue viruses are essential for viral replication and established targets for drug development. In all crystal structures of the proteases to date, the NS2B cofactor is located far from the substrate binding site (open conformation in the absence of inhibitor and lining the substrate binding site (closed conformation in the presence of an inhibitor. METHODS: In this work, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy of isotope and spin-labeled samples of the West Nile virus protease was used to investigate the occurrence of equilibria between open and closed conformations in solution. FINDINGS: In solution, the closed form of the West Nile virus protease is the predominant conformation irrespective of the presence or absence of inhibitors. Nonetheless, dissociation of the C-terminal part of the NS2B cofactor from the NS3 protease (open conformation occurs in both the presence and the absence of inhibitors. Low-molecular-weight inhibitors can shift the conformational exchange equilibria so that over 90% of the West Nile virus protease molecules assume the closed conformation. The West Nile virus protease differs from the dengue virus protease, where the open conformation is the predominant form in the absence of inhibitors. CONCLUSION: Partial dissociation of NS2B from NS3 has implications for the way in which the NS3 protease can be positioned with respect to the host cell membrane when NS2B is membrane associated via N- and C-terminal segments present in the polyprotein. In the case of the West Nile virus protease, discovery of low-molecular-weight inhibitors that act by breaking the association of the NS2B cofactor with the NS3 protease is impeded by the natural affinity of the cofactor to the NS3 protease. The same strategy can be more successful in the case of the dengue virus NS2B-NS3 protease.

  11. Spread of the West Nile virus vector Culex modestus and the potential malaria vector Anopheles hyrcanus in central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votýpka, Jan; Šeblová, V.; Rádrová, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 2 (2008), s. 269-277 ISSN 1081-1710 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/05/P045; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : mosquitoes * WNV * Czech Republic * climate change Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.057, year: 2008

  12. Parainfluenza virus 5-vectored vaccines against human and animal infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhai

    2018-03-01

    Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), known as canine parainfluenza virus in the veterinary field, is a negative-sense, nonsegmented, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. Parainfluenza virus 5 is an excellent viral vector and has been used as a live vaccine for kennel cough for many years in dogs without any safety concern. It can grow to high titers in many cell types, and its genome is stable even in the presence of foreign gene insertions. So far, PIV5 has been used to develop vaccines against influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rabies virus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, demonstrating its ability to elicit robust and protective immune responses in preclinical animal models. Parainfluenza virus 5-based vaccines can be administered intranasally, intramuscularly, or orally. Interestingly, prior exposure of PIV5 does not prevent a PIV5-vectored vaccine from generating robust immunity, indicating that the vector can be used more than once. Here, these encouraging results are reviewed together along with discussion of the desirable advantages of the PIV5 vaccine vector to aid future vaccine design and to accelerate progression of PIV5-based vaccines into clinical trials. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Economics of One Health: Costs and benefits of integrated West Nile virus surveillance in Emilia-Romagna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternoster, Giulia; Babo Martins, Sara; Mattivi, Andrea; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Santi, Annalisa; Galletti, Giorgio; Pupella, Simonetta; Marano, Giuseppe; Copello, Francesco; Rushton, Jonathan; Stärk, Katharina D C; Tamba, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Since 2013 in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, surveillance information generated in the public health and in the animal health sectors has been shared and used to guide public health interventions to mitigate the risk of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission via blood transfusion. The objective of the current study was to identify and estimate the costs and benefits associated with this One Health surveillance approach, and to compare it to an approach that does not integrate animal health information in blood donations safety policy (uni-sectoral scenario). Costs of human, animal, and entomological surveillance, sharing of information, and triggered interventions were estimated. Benefits were quantified as the averted costs of potential human cases of WNV neuroinvasive disease associated to infected blood transfusion. In the 2009-2015 period, the One Health approach was estimated to represent a cost saving of €160,921 compared to the uni-sectoral scenario. Blood donation screening was the main cost for both scenarios. The One Health approach further allowed savings of €1.21 million in terms of avoided tests on blood units. Benefits of the One Health approach due to short-term costs of hospitalization and compensation for transfusion-associated disease potentially avoided, were estimated to range from €0 to €2.98 million according to the probability of developing WNV neuroinvasive disease after receiving an infected blood transfusion.

  14. Genetic Analysis of West Nile Virus Isolates from an Outbreak in Idaho, United States, 2006–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rios

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV appeared in the U.S. in 1999 and has since become endemic, with yearly summer epidemics causing tens of thousands of cases of serious disease over the past 14 years. Analysis of WNV strains isolated during the 2006–2007 epidemic seasons demonstrates that a new genetic variant had emerged coincidentally with an intense outbreak in Idaho during 2006. The isolates belonging to the new variant carry a 13 nt deletion, termed ID-Δ13, located at the variable region of the 3′UTR, and are genetically related. The analysis of deletions and insertions in the 3′UTR of two major lineages of WNV revealed the presence of conserved repeats and two indel motifs in the variable region of the 3′UTR. One human and two bird isolates from the Idaho 2006–2007 outbreaks were sequenced using Illumina technology and within-host variability was analyzed. Continued monitoring of new genetic variants is important for public health as WNV continues to evolve.

  15. Economics of One Health: Costs and benefits of integrated West Nile virus surveillance in Emilia-Romagna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Paternoster

    Full Text Available Since 2013 in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, surveillance information generated in the public health and in the animal health sectors has been shared and used to guide public health interventions to mitigate the risk of West Nile virus (WNV transmission via blood transfusion. The objective of the current study was to identify and estimate the costs and benefits associated with this One Health surveillance approach, and to compare it to an approach that does not integrate animal health information in blood donations safety policy (uni-sectoral scenario. Costs of human, animal, and entomological surveillance, sharing of information, and triggered interventions were estimated. Benefits were quantified as the averted costs of potential human cases of WNV neuroinvasive disease associated to infected blood transfusion. In the 2009-2015 period, the One Health approach was estimated to represent a cost saving of €160,921 compared to the uni-sectoral scenario. Blood donation screening was the main cost for both scenarios. The One Health approach further allowed savings of €1.21 million in terms of avoided tests on blood units. Benefits of the One Health approach due to short-term costs of hospitalization and compensation for transfusion-associated disease potentially avoided, were estimated to range from €0 to €2.98 million according to the probability of developing WNV neuroinvasive disease after receiving an infected blood transfusion.

  16. A comparison of least squares regression and geographically weighted regression modeling of West Nile virus risk based on environmental parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Abhishek K; Tiwari, Chetan; Mikler, Armin R; Atkinson, Samuel F

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of the study reported here was to determine the effectiveness of utilizing local spatial variations in environmental data to uncover the statistical relationships between West Nile Virus (WNV) risk and environmental factors. Because least squares regression methods do not account for spatial autocorrelation and non-stationarity of the type of spatial data analyzed for studies that explore the relationship between WNV and environmental determinants, we hypothesized that a geographically weighted regression model would help us better understand how environmental factors are related to WNV risk patterns without the confounding effects of spatial non-stationarity. We examined commonly mapped environmental factors using both ordinary least squares regression (LSR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR). Both types of models were applied to examine the relationship between WNV-infected dead bird counts and various environmental factors for those locations. The goal was to determine which approach yielded a better predictive model. LSR efforts lead to identifying three environmental variables that were statistically significantly related to WNV infected dead birds (adjusted R 2  = 0.61): stream density, road density, and land surface temperature. GWR efforts increased the explanatory value of these three environmental variables with better spatial precision (adjusted R 2  = 0.71). The spatial granularity resulting from the geographically weighted approach provides a better understanding of how environmental spatial heterogeneity is related to WNV risk as implied by WNV infected dead birds, which should allow improved planning of public health management strategies.

  17. The in vitro and in vivo antiviral properties of combined monoterpene alcohols against West Nile virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliego Zamora, Adriana; Edmonds, Judith H; Reynolds, Maxwell J; Khromykh, Alexander A; Ralph, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that can cause neuroinvasive disease in humans and animals for which no therapies are currently available. We studied an established combination of monoterpene alcohols (CMA) derived from Melaleuca alternifolia, against WNV infection. The in vitro results show that CMA exhibits virucidal activity, as well as reduces the viral titres and percentage of infected cells. The antiviral mechanism of action of CMA was studied. We found that CMA did not alter the intracellular pH, neither induced apoptosis, but did induce cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1-phase although that was not the antiviral mechanism. Furthermore, we tested CMA in vivo using IRF 3(-)(/)(-)/7(-/-)mice and it was found that CMA treatment significantly delayed morbidity due to WNV infection, reduced the loss of body weight and reduced the viral titres in brain. These findings suggest that CMA could be a therapeutic agent against WNV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. IS-98-ST1 West Nile virus derived from an infectious cDNA clone retains neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence properties of the original virus.

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    Céline Bahuon

    Full Text Available Infectious clones of West Nile virus (WNV have previously been generated and used to decipher the role of viral proteins in WNV virulence. The majority of molecular clones obtained to date have been derived from North American, Australian, or African isolates. Here, we describe the construction of an infectious cDNA clone of a Mediterranean WNV strain, IS-98-ST1. We characterized the biological properties of the recovered recombinant virus in cell culture and in mice. The growth kinetics of recombinant and parental WNV were similar in Vero cells. Moreover, the phenotype of recombinant and parental WNV was indistinguishable as regards viremia, viral load in the brain, and mortality in susceptible and resistant mice. Finally, the pathobiology of the infectious clone was examined in embryonated chicken eggs. The capacity of different WNV strains to replicate in embryonated chicken eggs closely paralleled their ability to replicate in mice, suggesting that inoculation of embryonated chicken eggs could provide a practical in vivo model for the study of WNV pathogenesis. In conclusion, the IS-98-ST1 infectious clone will allow assessment of the impact of selected mutations and novel genomic changes appearing in emerging European strains pathogenicity and endemic or epidemic potential. This will be invaluable in the context of an increasing number of outbreaks and enhanced severity of infections in the Mediterranean basin and Eastern Europe.

  19. Protection of horses from West Nile virus Lineage 2 challenge following immunization with a whole, inactivated WNV lineage 1 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Richard A; Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Syvrud, Kevin; Thomas, Anne; Meinert, Todd R; Ludlow, Deborah R; Cook, Corey; Salt, Jeremy; Ons, Ellen

    2014-09-22

    Over the last years West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 has spread from the African to the European continent. This study was conducted to demonstrate efficacy of an inactivated, lineage 1-based, WNV vaccine (Equip WNV) against intrathecal challenge of horses with a recent isolate of lineage 2 WNV. Twenty horses, sero-negative for WNV, were enrolled and were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups: an unvaccinated control group (T01, n=10) and a group administered with Equip WNV (T02, n=10). Horses were vaccinated at Day 0 and 21 and were challenged at day 42 with WNV lineage 2, Nea Santa/Greece/2010. Personnel performing clinical observations were blinded to treatment allocation. Sixty percent of the controls had to be euthanized after challenge compared to none of the vaccinates. A significantly lower percentage of the vaccinated animals showed clinical disease (two different clinical observations present on the same day) on six different days of study and the percentage of days with clinical disease was significantly lower in the vaccinated group. A total of 80% of the non-vaccinated horses showed viremia while only one vaccinated animal was positive by virus isolation on a single occasion. Vaccinated animals started to develop antibodies against WNV lineage 2 from day 14 (2 weeks after the first vaccination) and at day 42 (the time of onset of immunity) they had all developed a strong antibody response. Histopathology scores for all unvaccinated animals ranged from mild to very severe in each of the tissues examined (cervical spinal cord, medulla and pons), whereas in vaccinated horses 8 of 10 animals had no lesions and 2 had minimal lesions in one tissue. In conclusion, Equip WNV significantly reduced the number of viremic horses, the duration and severity of clinical signs of disease and mortality following challenge with lineage 2 WNV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Using avian surveillance in Ecuador to assess the imminence of West Nile virus incursion to Galápagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Gillian; Goodman, Simon J; Hilgert, Nancy; Cruz, Marilyn; Kramer, Laura D; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2014-01-01

    Infectious disease emergence represents a global threat to human, agricultural animal and wildlife health. West Nile virus (WNV) first emerged in the Americas in 1999 following its introduction to New York from the Old World. This flavivirus rapidly spread across much of North America, causing human, equine and avian mortalities and population declines of multiple wild bird species. It has now spread to Central and South America, and there is concern that the virus will reach the Galápagos Islands, a UNESCO World Heritage Site famous for its unique biodiversity, with potentially catastrophic results. Here, we use wild bird surveillance to examine the current WNV status in the Galapagos Islands and around the Ecuadorian city of Guayaquil (the main air and sea port serving Galápagos). We conducted serosurveys of wild birds on three Galápagos Islands (Baltra, San Cristobal and Santa Cruz) with direct transport links to the South American continent. In addition, dead birds killed by car collisions on Santa Cruz were tested for WNV infection. On mainland Ecuador, serosurveys of wild birds were conducted at three sites around Guayaquil. No evidence of WNV seropositivity or infection was detected. Although wider testing is recommended on the mainland, the study highlights a limit of WNV spread within South America. Our results indicate the continued absence of WNV on Galápagos and suggest the current likelihood of human-mediated transport of WNV to Galápagos to be low. The risk of emergence will almost certainly increase over time, however, and stringent biosecurity and surveillance measures should be put in place to minimise the risk of the introduction of WNV (and other alien pathogens) to Galápagos.

  1. A temporal role of type I interferon signaling in CD8+ T cell maturation during acute West Nile virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia K Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A genetic absence of the common IFN-α/β signaling receptor (IFNAR in mice is associated with enhanced viral replication and altered adaptive immune responses. However, analysis of IFNAR(-/- mice is limited for studying the functions of type I IFN at discrete stages of viral infection. To define the temporal functions of type I IFN signaling in the context of infection by West Nile virus (WNV, we treated mice with MAR1-5A3, a neutralizing, non cell-depleting anti-IFNAR antibody. Inhibition of type I IFN signaling at or before day 2 after infection was associated with markedly enhanced viral burden, whereas treatment at day 4 had substantially less effect on WNV dissemination. While antibody treatment prior to infection resulted in massive expansion of virus-specific CD8(+ T cells, blockade of type I IFN signaling starting at day 4 induced dysfunctional CD8(+ T cells with depressed cytokine responses and expression of phenotypic markers suggesting exhaustion. Thus, only the later maturation phase of anti-WNV CD8(+ T cell development requires type I IFN signaling. WNV infection experiments in BATF3(-/- mice, which lack CD8-α dendritic cells and have impaired priming due to inefficient antigen cross-presentation, revealed a similar effect of blocking IFN signaling on CD8(+ T cell maturation. Collectively, our results suggest that cell non-autonomous type I IFN signaling shapes maturation of antiviral CD8(+ T cell response at a stage distinct from the initial priming event.

  2. Analysis of climatic and environmental variables associated with the occurrence of West Nile virus in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calistri, Paolo; Ippoliti, Carla; Candeloro, Luca; Benjelloun, Abdennasser; El Harrak, Mehdi; Bouchra, Belkadi; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Di Sabatino, Daria; Conte, Annamaria

    2013-07-01

    West Nile disease (WND) is one of the most widespread mosquito-borne infectious diseases in the World. In Morocco the first WND cases were reported in equines in 1996. After an apparent epidemiological silence, WND re-occurred in 2003 and in 2010, when the disease was reported in equines living in the central and north-western part of the country. Eco-climatic variables are known to influence the mosquito presence and abundance and, therefore, the probability of occurrence of mosquito-borne infections. The remote sensed values of Land Surface Temperature (LST), Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and rainfall registered from 2001 to 2010 were evaluated for a possible association with the occurrence of WND cases in 2003 and in 2010. In the zones where WND cases occurred, NDVI values recorded in 2003 and 2010, from June to November, were significantly higher than those registered during the same months in the rest of the decade. Rainfall data showed higher peaks in 2003 and 2010, when the number of days with extreme rainfall was significantly higher during 1-2 months before the occurrence of WND cases. Temperature does not seem to play an important role in Moroccan epidemiological conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of West Nile virus DNA-plasmid vaccination on response to live virus challenge in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redig, Patrick T; Tully, Thomas N; Ritchie, Branson W; Roy, Alma F; Baudena, M Alexandra; Chang, Gwong-Jen J

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of an experimental adjuvanted DNA-plasmid vaccine against West Nile virus (WNV) in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). 19 permanently disabled but otherwise healthy red-tailed hawks of mixed ages and both sexes without detectable serum antibodies against WNV. Hawks were injected IM with an experimental WNV DNA-plasmid vaccine in an aluminum-phosphate adjuvant (n = 14) or with the adjuvant only (control group; 5). All birds received 2 injections at a 3-week interval. Blood samples for serologic evaluation were collected before the first injection and 4 weeks after the second injection (day 0). At day 0, hawks were injected SC with live WNV. Pre- and postchallenge blood samples were collected at intervals for 14 days for assessment of viremia and antibody determination; oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected for assessment of viral shedding. Vaccination was not associated with morbidity or deaths. Three of the vaccinated birds seroconverted after the second vaccine injection; all other birds seroconverted following the live virus injection. Vaccinated birds had significantly less severe viremia and shorter and less-intense shedding periods, compared with the control birds. Use of the WNV DNA-plasmid vaccine in red-tailed hawks was safe, and vaccination attenuated but did not eliminate both the viremia and the intensity of postchallenge shedding following live virus exposure. Further research is warranted to conclusively determine the efficacy of this vaccine preparation for protection of red-tailed hawks and other avian species against WNV-induced disease.

  4. Transcriptomic Analyses Reveal Differential Gene Expression of Immune and Cell Death Pathways in the Brains of Mice Infected with West Nile Virus and Chikungunya Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Lim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV and chikungunya virus (CHIKV are arboviruses that are constantly (re-emerging and expanding their territory. Both viruses often cause a mild form of disease, but severe forms of the disease can consist of neurological symptoms, most often observed in the elderly and young children, respectively, for which the mechanisms are poorly understood. To further elucidate the mechanisms responsible for end-stage WNV and CHIKV neuroinvasive disease, we used transcriptomics to compare the induction of effector pathways in the brain during the early and late stage of disease in young mice. In addition to the more commonly described cell death pathways such as apoptosis and autophagy, we also found evidence for the differential expression of pyroptosis and necroptosis cell death markers during both WNV and CHIKV neuroinvasive disease. In contrast, no evidence of cell dysfunction was observed, indicating that cell death may be the most important mechanism of disease. Interestingly, there was overlap when comparing immune markers involved in neuroinvasive disease to those seen in neurodegenerative diseases. Nonetheless, further validation studies are needed to determine the activation and involvement of these effector pathways at the end stage of disease. Furthermore, evidence for a strong inflammatory response was found in mice infected with WNV and CHIKV. The transcriptomics profile measured in mice with WNV and CHIKV neuroinvasive disease in our study showed strong overlap with the mRNA profile described in the literature for other viral neuroinvasive diseases. More studies are warranted to decipher the role of cell inflammation and cell death in viral neuroinvasive disease and whether common mechanisms are active in both neurodegenerative and brain infectious diseases.

  5. West Nile virus activity in Latin America and the Caribbean La actividad del virus del Nilo occidental en América Latina y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Komar

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: West Nile virus (Flavivirus: Flaviviridae; WNV has spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean Basin since its initial detection there in 2001. This report summarizes our current knowledge of WNV transmission in tropical America. METHODS: We reviewed the published literature and consulted with key public health officials to obtain unpublished data. RESULTS: West Nile virus infections first appeared in human residents of the Cayman Islands and the Florida Keys in 2001, and in apparently healthy Jamaican birds sampled early in 2002. Serologic evidence of WNV infection in 2002 was detected in horses, chickens and resident free-ranging birds in Guadeloupe, the Dominican Republic, and eastern Mexico. In 2003, WNV spread in Mexico and northern Central America, and serologic evidence was detected in the Bahamas, Puerto Rico and Cuba. In 2004, the first serologic evidence of WNV activity in South American ecosystems surfaced in September-October in Colombia and Trinidad, where domestic animals circulated WNV-neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: The sparse reports of equine, human and avian disease in Latin America and the Caribbean is puzzling. Isolates are needed to evaluate viral attenuation or other possible explanations for reduced disease burden in tropical ecosystems.OBJETIVOS: El virus del Nilo occidental (VNO, familia Flaviviridae, género Flavivirus se ha propagado rápidamente por toda la cuenca del Caribe desde que se detectó por primera vez en 2001. En este informe se resumen nuestros conocimientos actuales acerca de la transmisión del VNO en zonas tropicales del continente americano. MÉTODOS: Revisamos todo lo que se ha publicado sobre el tema y consultamos a autoridades de salud clave para obtener datos inéditos. RESULTADOS: Las infecciones por el virus del Nilo occidental aparecieron por primera vez en seres humanos residentes de las Islas Caimán y de los Cayos de la Florida en 2001, y en pájaros de aspecto sano de los

  6. 78 FR 16505 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Chimeric West Nile/Dengue Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... place of business in San Diego, California. The patent rights in these inventions have been assigned to... WN/DEN virus exhibits much more robust viral replication in cell cultures, compared to the slow.... These applications are highly important to public health by offering improvements in DEN diagnostics and...

  7. Detection and molecular analysis of West Nile virus infections in birds of prey in the eastern part of Austria in 2008 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodak, Eveline; Richter, Susanne; Bagó, Zoltán; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert; Winter, Petra

    2011-05-05

    The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) was expected in Austria since the initial discovery of the infection in neighbouring Hungary in 2003/2004. In 2008 six cases of West Nile disease were diagnosed at the Institute for Veterinary Disease Control Mödling, Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES), involving five goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) and one gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus), which were found dead in the eastern Austrian federal states of Lower Austria, Vienna and Styria, respectively. Pathomorphological and immunohistochemical findings suggested a WNV infection. Virus was isolated in embryonated specific pathogen free chicken eggs and propagated in mouse neuroblastoma cells (NA), in which a cytopathic effect occurred. The virus was identified and characterised by electron microscopic examination and molecular detection using RT-PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. The Austrian WNV sequences exhibited nucleotide identities of 99.9% to the lineage 2 WNV sequences described in Hungary since 2004. In addition, 71 sera of 14 different bird species were screened for the presence of WNV antibodies using a commercial ELISA: 43.7% of the tested samples showed antibody titers. Selected positive sera were also subjected to WNV neutralisation tests, in which the ELISA results were verified in 66%. The results of this study confirm unambiguously the presence of a lineage 2 WNV infection in birds of prey in the eastern part of Austria. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ebola virus and arthropods: a literature review and entomological consideration on the vector role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, M; Bertero, M; Petrosillo, N; Pombi, M; Otranto, D

    2016-10-01

    Ebola virus is a pathogen responsible for a severe disease that affects humans and several animal species. To date, the natural reservoir of this virus is not known with certainty, although it is believed that fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) play an important role in maintaining the virus in nature. Although information on viral transmission from animals to humans is not clear, the role of arthropods has come under suspicion. In this article, we review the potential role of arthropods in spreading Ebola virus, acting as mechanical or biological vectors.

  9. West Nile Virus transmission in winter: the 2013 Great Salt Lake Bald Eagle and Eared Grebes Mortality event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S.; Van Wettere, Arnaud J.; McFarlan, Leslie; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Dickson, Sammie L.; Baker, JoDee; Hatch, Gary; Cavender, Kimberly; Long, Renee Romaine; Bodenstein, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) infection has been reported in over 300 species of birds and mammals. Raptors such as eagles, hawks and falcons are remarkably susceptible, but reports of WNV infection in Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are rare and reports of WNV infection in grebes (Podicipediformes) even rarer. We report an unusually large wild bird mortality event involving between 15,000-20,000 Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) and over 40 Bald Eagles around the Great Salt Lake, Utah, in November-December 2013. Mortality in grebes was first reported in early November during a period when the area was unseasonably warm and the grebes were beginning to gather and stage prior to migration. Ten out of ten Eared Grebes collected during this period were WNV RT-PCR and/or isolation positive. This is the first report of WNV infection in Eared Grebes and the associated mortality event is matched in scale only by the combined outbreaks in American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) colonies in the north central states in 2002-2003. We cannot be sure that all of the grebes were infected by mosquito transmission; some may have become infected through contact with WNV shed orally or cloacally from other infected grebes. Beginning in early December, Bald Eagles in the Great Salt Lake area were observed to display neurological signs such as body tremors, limb paralysis and lethargy. At least 43 Bald Eagles had died by the end of the month. Nine of nine Bald Eagles examined were infected with WNV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest single raptor mortality event since WNV became endemic in the USA. Because the majority of the eagles affected were found after onset of below-freezing temperatures, we suggest at least some of the Bald Eagles were infected with WNV via consumption of infected Eared Grebes or horizontal transmission at roost sites.

  10. A Retrospective Summary of Raptor Mortality in Ontario, Canada (1991-2014), Including the Effects of West Nile Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn A; Campbell, G Douglas; Pearl, David L; Jardine, Claire M; Salgado-Bierman, Fernando; Nemeth, Nicole M

    2017-11-20

    The causes of mortality of free-ranging raptors range from anthropogenic (e.g., trauma) to dynamic environmental conditions that may affect habitat suitability and prey availability. The province of Ontario, Canada, is vulnerable to anthropogenic and environmental changes because of its northern latitudes and expanding human populations, both of which may impact wildlife. We retrospectively evaluated diagnostic data from raptors submitted to the Ontario-Nunavut node of the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative (CWHC) from 1991 to 2014 (n=1,448). Submissions encompassed 29 species, most commonly the Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis; n=308) and Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus; n=237). Trauma (n=716) accounted for the majority of deaths among all species, followed by emaciation (n=241). Traumatic deaths were most commonly attributed to collisions with stationary objects, and the odds of a diagnosis of trauma were significantly higher in adult versus immature raptors. The odds of being diagnosed with emaciation were significantly higher in males than in females but not in any age class or season. Mortality was less commonly attributed to infectious diseases (n=214), for which West Nile virus (WNV) was the most common etiology, making up 53.1% of infectious diagnoses after its 2001 arrival in Ontario. The odds of a raptor being diagnosed with an infectious disease were significantly greater in summer and fall versus spring. Immature Red-tailed Hawks had significantly greater odds of being diagnosed with WNV compared to adults. These results reveal that human- and potentially environmentally associated deaths (e.g., trauma and emaciation, respectively) are commonly diagnosed among Ontario raptors submitted to the CWHC. Infectious diseases are less commonly diagnosed, but WNV may have underlying, ongoing impacts on the health of some raptor species.

  11. Efficacy of wildlife rehabilitation centers in surveillance and monitoring of pathogen activity: a case study with West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Natalie J; Blitvich, Bradley J; Blanchong, Julie A

    2012-07-01

    Surveillance is critical for identifying and monitoring pathogen activity in wildlife populations, but often is cost- and time-prohibitive and logistically challenging. We tested the hypothesis that wildlife rehabilitation centers are useful for monitoring pathogen activity using West Nile virus (WNV) as a case study. We hypothesized that birds submitted to wildlife rehabilitation centers would have a similar prevalence of antibody to WNV as free-ranging birds. From 2008 to 2010, we collected sera from peridomestic birds submitted to the Wildlife Care Clinic (WCC), a wildlife rehabilitation center in central Iowa, and tested them for antibodies to WNV. We also collected and tested sera from free-ranging peridomestic birds in the area from which approximately 50% of WCC submissions historically originated. Prevalences of WNV antibodies in free-ranging birds and in peridomestic WCC birds were 2.3% (44/1,936) and 2.8% (2/72), respectively. However, none of the birds submitted to the WCC from the area where we captured free-ranging birds had antibodies (0/29). Our results indicate that rehabilitation facilities are not likely to be useful for monitoring WNV activity at small spatial scales or over short-time periods due to the low endemic prevalence of WNV, and low and variable submission rates. However, at larger spatial scales (ca. nine Iowa counties) WNV antibody prevalence in peridomestic birds submitted to the WCC was similar to that of free-ranging birds. Although limitations to using rehabilitation birds to monitor WNV must be considered, testing these birds could be useful for monitoring WNV activity regionally, especially with many states limiting surveillance due to budgetary constraints.

  12. Alpha/beta interferon protects against lethal West Nile virus infection by restricting cellular tropism and enhancing neuronal survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Melanie A; Diamond, Michael S

    2005-11-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is neurotropic in humans, birds, and other animals. While adaptive immunity plays an important role in preventing WNV spread to the central nervous system (CNS), little is known about how alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) protects against peripheral and CNS infection. In this study, we examine the virulence and tropism of WNV in IFN-alpha/beta receptor-deficient (IFN- alpha/betaR-/-) mice and primary neuronal cultures. IFN-alpha/betaR-/- mice were acutely susceptible to WNV infection through subcutaneous inoculation, with 100% mortality and a mean time to death (MTD) of 4.6 +/- 0.7 and 3.8+/- 0.5 days after infection with 10(0) and 10(2) PFU, respectively. In contrast, congenic wild-type 129Sv/Ev mice infected with 10(2) PFU showed 62% mortality and a MTD of 11.9 +/- 1.9 days. IFN-alpha/betaR-/- mice developed high viral loads by day 3 after infection in nearly all tissues assayed, including many that were not infected in wild-type mice. IFN-alpha/betaR-/- mice also demonstrated altered cellular tropism, with increased infection in macrophages, B cells, and T cells in the spleen. Additionally, treatment of primary wild-type neurons in vitro with IFN-beta either before or after infection increased neuronal survival independent of its effect on WNV replication. Collectively, our data suggest that IFN-alpha/beta controls WNV infection by restricting tropism and viral burden and by preventing death of infected neurons.

  13. The Neurocognitive and MRI Outcomes of West Nile Virus Infection: Preliminary Analysis Using an External Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy O. Murray

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand the long-term neurological outcomes resultant of West Nile virus (WNV infection, participants from a previously established, prospective WNV cohort were invited to take part in a comprehensive neurologic and neurocognitive examination. Those with an abnormal exam finding were invited for MRI to evaluate cortical thinning and regional brain atrophy following infection. Correlations of presenting clinical syndrome with neurologic and neurocognitive dysfunctions were evaluated, as well as correlations of neurocognitive outcomes with MRI results. From 2002 to 2012, a total of 262 participants with a history of WNV infection were enrolled as research participants in a longitudinal cohort study, and 117 completed comprehensive neurologic and neurocognitive evaluations. Abnormal neurological exam findings were identified in 49% (57/117 of participants, with most abnormalities being unilateral. The most common abnormalities included decreased strength (26%; 30/117, abnormal reflexes (14%; 16/117, and tremors (10%; 12/117. Weakness and decreased reflexes were consistent with lower motor neuron damage in a significant proportion of patients. We observed a 22% overall rate of impairment on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS, with impairments observed in immediate (31% and delayed memory (25%. On MRI, participants showed significant cortical thinning as compared to age- and gender-matched controls in both hemispheres, with affected regions primarily occurring in the frontal and limbic cortices. Regional atrophy occurred in the cerebellum, brain stem, thalamus, putamen, and globus pallidus. This study provides valuable new information regarding the neurological outcomes following WNV infection, with MRI evidence of significant cortical thinning and regional atrophy; however, it is important to note that the results may include systemic bias due to the external control group. Considering no effective

  14. Effects of Zika Virus Strain and Aedes Mosquito Species on Vector Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialosuknia, Sean M.; Zink, Steven D.; Brecher, Matthew; Ehrbar, Dylan J.; Morrissette, Madeline N.; Kramer, Laura D.

    2017-01-01

    In the Western Hemisphere, Zika virus is thought to be transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. To determine the extent to which Ae. albopictus mosquitoes from the United States are capable of transmitting Zika virus and the influence of virus dose, virus strain, and mosquito species on vector competence, we evaluated multiple doses of representative Zika virus strains in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Virus preparation (fresh vs. frozen) significantly affected virus infectivity in mosquitoes. We calculated 50% infectious doses to be 6.1–7.5 log10 PFU/mL; minimum infective dose was 4.2 log10 PFU/mL. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were more susceptible to infection than Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, but transmission efficiency was higher for Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, indicating a transmission barrier in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Results suggest that, although Zika virus transmission is relatively inefficient overall and dependent on virus strain and mosquito species, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes could become major vectors in the Americas. PMID:28430564

  15. Plant virus expression vectors set the stage as production platforms for biopharmaceutical proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferon, Kathleen Laura

    2012-11-10

    Transgenic plants present enormous potential as a cost-effective and safe platform for large-scale production of vaccines and other therapeutic proteins. A number of different technologies are under development for the production of pharmaceutical proteins from plant tissues. One method used to express high levels of protein in plants involves the employment of plant virus expression vectors. Plant virus vectors have been designed to carry vaccine epitopes as well as full therapeutic proteins such as monoclonal antibodies in plant tissue both safely and effectively. Biopharmaceuticals such as these offer enormous potential on many levels, from providing relief to those who have little access to modern medicine, to playing an active role in the battle against cancer. This review describes the current design and status of plant virus expression vectors used as production platforms for biopharmaceutical proteins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lo que dicen del virus del Nilo Occidental (The Buzz-z-z on West Nile Virus)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-12

    En este podcast para niños, los chicos de Kidtastics hablan sobre el virus del Nilo Occidental y cómo protegerse de él.  Created: 1/12/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/30/2012.

  17. Foamy virus vectors expressing anti-HIV transgenes efficiently block HIV-1 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jason A; Vojtech, Lucia; Bahner, Ingrid; Kohn, Donald B; Laer, Dorothee Von; Russell, David W; Richard, Robert E

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy has the potential to control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patients who do not respond to traditional antiviral therapy. In this study, we tested foamy virus (FV) vectors expressing three anti-HIV transgenes, both individually and in a combination vector. The transgenes tested in this study are RevM10, a dominant negative version of the viral rev protein, Sh1, a short hairpin RNA directed against a conserved overlapping sequence of tat and rev, and membrane-associated C46 (maC46), a membrane-attached peptide that blocks HIV cell entry. FV vectors efficiently transduce hematopoietic stem cells and, unlike lentivirus (LV) vectors, do not share viral proteins with HIV. The titers of the FV vectors described in this study were not affected by anti-HIV transgenes. On a direct comparison of FV vectors expressing the individual transgenes, entry inhibition using the maC46 transgene was found to be the most effective at blocking HIV replication. A clinically relevant FV vector expressing three anti-HIV transgenes effectively blocked HIV infection in primary macrophages derived from transduced, peripheral blood CD34-selected cells and in a cell line used for propagating HIV, CEMx174. These results suggest that there are potential benefits of using FV vectors in HIV gene therapy.

  18. West Nile virus/dengue type 4 virus chimeras that are reduced in neurovirulence and peripheral virulence without loss of immunogenicity or protective efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletnev, Alexander G.; Putnak, Robert; Speicher, Jim; Wagar, Eric J.; Vaughn, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A candidate live attenuated vaccine strain was constructed for West Nile virus (WN), a neurotropic flavivirus that has recently emerged in the U.S. Considerable attenuation for mice was achieved by chimerization with dengue virus type 4 (DEN4). The genes for the structural premembrane and envelope proteins of DEN4 present in an infectious cDNA clone were replaced by the corresponding genes of WN strain NY99. Two of 18 cDNA clones of a WN/DEN4 chimera yielded full-length RNA transcripts that were infectious when transfected into susceptible cells. The two infectious clones shared a motif in the transmembrane signal domain located immediately downstream of the NS2B-NS3 protease cleavage site that separates the DEN4 capsid protein and the WN premembrane protein of the chimera. This motif, Asp and Thr at a position 3 and 6 amino acids downstream of the cleavage site, respectively, was not present in the 16 noninfectious cDNA clones. The WN/DEN4 chimera was highly attenuated in mice compared with its WN parent; the chimera was at least 28,500 times less neurovirulent in suckling mice inoculated intracerebrally and at least 10,000 times less virulent in adult mice inoculated intraperitoneally. Nonetheless, the WN/DEN4 chimera and a deletion mutant derived from it were immunogenic and provided complete protection against lethal WN challenge. These observations provide the basis for pursuing the development of a live attenuated WN vaccine. PMID:11880643

  19. Gene therapy model of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency using a modified foamy virus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horino, Satoshi; Uchiyama, Toru; So, Takanori; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Sun, Shu-Lan; Sato, Miki; Asao, Atsuko; Haji, Yoichi; Sasahara, Yoji; Candotti, Fabio; Tsuchiya, Shigeru; Kure, Shigeo; Sugamura, Kazuo; Ishii, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) is an inherited genetic immunodeficiency associated with mutations in the common cytokine receptor γ chain (γc) gene, and characterized by a complete defect of T and natural killer (NK) cells. Gene therapy for SCID-X1 using conventional retroviral (RV) vectors carrying the γc gene results in the successful reconstitution of T cell immunity. However, the high incidence of vector-mediated T cell leukemia, caused by vector insertion near or within cancer-related genes has been a serious problem. In this study, we established a gene therapy model of mouse SCID-X1 using a modified foamy virus (FV) vector expressing human γc. Analysis of vector integration in a human T cell line demonstrated that the FV vector integration sites were significantly less likely to be located within or near transcriptional start sites than RV vector integration sites. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy, bone marrow cells from γc-knockout (γc-KO) mice were infected with the FV vector and transplanted into γc-KO mice. Transplantation of the FV-treated cells resulted in the successful reconstitution of functionally active T and B cells. These data suggest that FV vectors can be effective and may be safer than conventional RV vectors for gene therapy for SCID-X1.

  20. Gene therapy model of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency using a modified foamy virus vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Horino

    Full Text Available X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1 is an inherited genetic immunodeficiency associated with mutations in the common cytokine receptor γ chain (γc gene, and characterized by a complete defect of T and natural killer (NK cells. Gene therapy for SCID-X1 using conventional retroviral (RV vectors carrying the γc gene results in the successful reconstitution of T cell immunity. However, the high incidence of vector-mediated T cell leukemia, caused by vector insertion near or within cancer-related genes has been a serious problem. In this study, we established a gene therapy model of mouse SCID-X1 using a modified foamy virus (FV vector expressing human γc. Analysis of vector integration in a human T cell line demonstrated that the FV vector integration sites were significantly less likely to be located within or near transcriptional start sites than RV vector integration sites. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy, bone marrow cells from γc-knockout (γc-KO mice were infected with the FV vector and transplanted into γc-KO mice. Transplantation of the FV-treated cells resulted in the successful reconstitution of functionally active T and B cells. These data suggest that FV vectors can be effective and may be safer than conventional RV vectors for gene therapy for SCID-X1.

  1. Vector competence of Brazilian Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus for a Brazilian yellow fever virus isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barbara W; Chambers, Trudy V; Crabtree, Mary B; Filippis, Ana M B; Vilarinhos, Paulo T R; Resende, Marcelo C; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes G; Miller, Barry R

    2002-01-01

    Because the potential urban yellow fever (YF) mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are at historical highs in Brazil, both in terms of density and geographical range, we assessed the risk of an urban YF epidemic in Brazil. We evaluated and confirmed in a laboratory setting the vector competence of Brazilian Ae. aegypti for a currently circulating strain of YF virus, and investigated the potential for Brazilian Ae. albopictus to transmit YF.

  2. Genetic specificity and potential for local adaptation between dengue viruses and mosquito vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Jason H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several observations support the hypothesis that vector-driven selection plays an important role in shaping dengue virus (DENV genetic diversity. Clustering of DENV genetic diversity at a particular location may reflect underlying genetic structure of vector populations, which combined with specific vector genotype × virus genotype (G × G interactions may promote adaptation of viral lineages to local mosquito vector genotypes. Although spatial structure of vector polymorphism at neutral genetic loci is well-documented, existence of G × G interactions between mosquito and virus genotypes has not been formally demonstrated in natural populations. Here we measure G × G interactions in a system representative of a natural situation in Thailand by challenging three isofemale families from field-derived Aedes aegypti with three contemporaneous low-passage isolates of DENV-1. Results Among indices of vector competence examined, the proportion of mosquitoes with a midgut infection, viral RNA concentration in the body, and quantity of virus disseminated to the head/legs (but not the proportion of infected mosquitoes with a disseminated infection strongly depended on the specific combinations of isofemale families and viral isolates, demonstrating significant G × G interactions. Conclusion Evidence for genetic specificity of interactions in our simple experimental design indicates that vector competence of Ae. aegypti for DENV is likely governed to a large extent by G × G interactions in genetically diverse, natural populations. This result challenges the general relevance of conclusions from laboratory systems that consist of a single combination of mosquito and DENV genotypes. Combined with earlier evidence for fine-scale genetic structure of natural Ae. aegypti populations, our finding indicates that the necessary conditions for local DENV adaptation to mosquito vectors are met.

  3. Vector-borne transmission imposes a severe bottleneck on an RNA virus population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Naomi L; Guerbois, Mathilde; Seymour, Robert L; Spratt, Heidi; Weaver, Scott C

    2012-09-01

    RNA viruses typically occur in genetically diverse populations due to their error-prone genome replication. Genetic diversity is thought to be important in allowing RNA viruses to explore sequence space, facilitating adaptation to changing environments and hosts. Some arboviruses that infect both a mosquito vector and a mammalian host are known to experience population bottlenecks in their vectors, which may constrain their genetic diversity and could potentially lead to extinction events via Muller's ratchet. To examine this potential challenge of bottlenecks for arbovirus perpetuation, we studied Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) enzootic subtype IE and its natural vector Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus, as an example of a virus-vector interaction with a long evolutionary history. Using a mixture of marked VEEV clones to infect C. taeniopus and real-time RT-PCR to track these clones during mosquito infection and dissemination, we observed severe bottleneck events that resulted in a significant drop in the number of clones present. At higher initial doses, the midgut was readily infected and there was a severe bottleneck at the midgut escape. Following a lower initial dose, the major bottleneck occurred at initial midgut infection. A second, less severe bottleneck was identified at the salivary gland infection stage following intrathoracic inoculation. Our results suggest that VEEV consistently encounters bottlenecks during infection, dissemination and transmission by its natural enzootic vector. The potential impacts of these bottlenecks on viral fitness and transmission, and the viral mechanisms that prevent genetic drift leading to extinction, deserve further study.

  4. Immunogenic Subviral Particles Displaying Domain III of Dengue 2 Envelope Protein Vectored by Measles Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira S. Harahap-Carrillo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines against dengue virus (DV are commercially nonexistent. A subunit vaccination strategy may be of value, especially if a safe viral vector acts as biologically active adjuvant. In this paper, we focus on an immunoglobulin-like, independently folded domain III (DIII from DV 2 envelope protein (E, which contains epitopes that elicits highly specific neutralizing antibodies. We modified the hepatitis B small surface antigen (HBsAg, S in order to display DV 2 DIII on a virus-like particle (VLP, thus generating the hybrid antigen DIII-S. Two varieties of measles virus (MV vectors were developed to express DIII-S. The first expresses the hybrid antigen from an additional transcription unit (ATU and the second additionally expresses HBsAg from a separate ATU. We found that this second MV vectoring the hybrid VLPs displaying DIII-S on an unmodified HBsAg scaffold were immunogenic in MV-susceptible mice (HuCD46Ge-IFNarko, eliciting robust neutralizing responses (averages against MV (1:1280 NT90, hepatitis B virus (787 mIU/mL, and DV2 (1:160 NT50 in all of the tested animals. Conversely, the MV vector expressing only DIII-S induced immunity against MV alone. In summary, DV2 neutralizing responses can be generated by displaying E DIII on a scaffold of HBsAg-based VLPs, vectored by MV.

  5. Rapid Active Assay for the Detection of Antibodies to West Nile Virus in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    virus activity in Latin America and the Caribbean. Rev Panam Salud Publica 19: 112–117. 8. Campbell GL, Marfin AA, Lanciotti RS, Gubler DJ, 2002. West...Born and T. Y . Morozova. Financial support: This study was supported by DOE Grant DE-F C52-04NA25455. Disclaimer: In conducting research using animals...M, Ru- binshtein E, Itzhaki A, Mishal J, Siegman-Igra Y , Kitzes R, Pick N, Landau Z, Wolf D, Bin H, Mendelson E, Pitlik SD, Weinberger M, 2001

  6. Immunogenicity in African Green Monkeys of M Protein Mutant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vectors and Contribution of Vector-Encoded Flagellin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena M. Westcott

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV is a promising platform for vaccine development. M51R VSV, an attenuated, M protein mutant strain, is an effective inducer of Type I interferon and dendritic cell (DC maturation, which are desirable properties to exploit for vaccine design. We have previously evaluated M51R VSV (M51R and M51R VSV that produces flagellin (M51R-F as vaccine vectors using murine models, and found that flagellin enhanced DC activation and VSV-specific antibody production after low-dose vaccination. In this report, the immunogenicity of M51R vectors and the adjuvant effect of virus-produced flagellin were evaluated in nonhuman primates following high-dose (108 pfu and low-dose (105 pfu vaccination. A single intramuscular vaccination of African green monkeys with M51R or M51R-F induced VSV-specific, dose-dependent humoral immune responses. Flagellin induced a significant increase in antibody production (IgM, IgG and neutralizing antibody at the low vaccination dose. A VSV-specific cellular response was detected at 6 weeks post-vaccination, but was neither dose-dependent nor enhanced by flagellin; similar numbers of VSV-specific, IFNγ-producing cells were detected in lymph node and spleen of all animals. These results indicate that virus-directed, intracellular flagellin production may improve VSV-based vaccines encoding heterologous antigens by lowering the dose required to achieve humoral immunity.

  7. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccine vectors expressing filovirus glycoproteins lack neurovirulence in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad E Mire

    Full Text Available The filoviruses, Marburg virus and Ebola virus, cause severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality in humans and nonhuman primates. Among the most promising filovirus vaccines under development is a system based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV that expresses an individual filovirus glycoprotein (GP in place of the VSV glycoprotein (G. The main concern with all replication-competent vaccines, including the rVSV filovirus GP vectors, is their safety. To address this concern, we performed a neurovirulence study using 21 cynomolgus macaques where the vaccines were administered intrathalamically. Seven animals received a rVSV vector expressing the Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV GP; seven animals received a rVSV vector expressing the Lake Victoria marburgvirus (MARV GP; three animals received rVSV-wild type (wt vector, and four animals received vehicle control. Two of three animals given rVSV-wt showed severe neurological symptoms whereas animals receiving vehicle control, rVSV-ZEBOV-GP, or rVSV-MARV-GP did not develop these symptoms. Histological analysis revealed major lesions in neural tissues of all three rVSV-wt animals; however, no significant lesions were observed in any animals from the filovirus vaccine or vehicle control groups. These data strongly suggest that rVSV filovirus GP vaccine vectors lack the neurovirulence properties associated with the rVSV-wt parent vector and support their further development as a vaccine platform for human use.

  8. A comparison of West Nile virus surveillance using survival analyses of dead corvid and mosquito pool data in Ontario, 2002-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Bachli, Andrea L; Pearl, David L; Berke, Olaf; Parmley, Elizabeth Jane; Barker, Ian K

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to improve understanding of the relative performance of the use of dead wild corvids and mosquito pools infected with West Nile virus (WNv) in surveillance for WNv activity in the environment. To this end, all records on dead corvid submissions and mosquito pools tested in Public Health Units (PHUs) in Ontario, from 2002 to 2008, were explored. Survival analyses were employed using the first-WNv-positive cases detected each year for each PHU, and censored observations for PHUs which did not detect WNv during a given year using each data source (504 observations). Survival analyses were employed to compare the number of surveillance weeks before WNv was detected by either data source, and the influence of temporal, geographic and sociodemographic factors on these data. The outcome measurement for the final accelerated failure time (AFT) model with log-logistic distribution was a time ratio, which represents the ratio of the survival time of one group relative to another. Dead corvid surveillance was faster at detecting WNv than testing mosquito pools during the early years of WNv incursion into Ontario, while mosquito testing found WNv more quickly later in the study period. There was also regional variation in time-to-detection of WNv, by modality, as well as for various types of urban/rural settings. In comparison to mosquito surveillance, West Nile virus was detected more quickly using dead corvid surveillance in sparsely populated regions. These areas may benefit from collection of dead corvids to optimize detection and direct early surveillance efforts. When we compared the time-to-detection of WNv using dead corvids and the onset of human cases in PHUs, we found that dead corvid surveillance was predictive of West Nile activity in health units that reported human cases during the first 3 years of the incursion into Ontario. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. High-efficiency protein expression in plants from agroinfection-compatible Tobacco mosaic virus expression vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindbo John A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants are increasingly being examined as alternative recombinant protein expression systems. Recombinant protein expression levels in plants from Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-based vectors are much higher than those possible from plant promoters. However the common TMV expression vectors are costly, and at times technically challenging, to work with. Therefore it was a goal to develop TMV expression vectors that express high levels of recombinant protein and are easier, more reliable, and more cost-effective to use. Results We have constructed a Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter-driven TMV expression vector that can be delivered as a T-DNA to plant cells by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Co-introduction (by agroinfiltration of this T-DNA along with a 35S promoter driven gene for the RNA silencing suppressor P19, from Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV resulted in essentially complete infection of the infiltrated plant tissue with the TMV vector by 4 days post infiltration (DPI. The TMV vector produced between 600 and 1200 micrograms of recombinant protein per gram of infiltrated tissue by 6 DPI. Similar levels of recombinant protein were detected in systemically infected plant tissue 10–14 DPI. These expression levels were 10 to 25 times higher than the most efficient 35S promoter driven transient expression systems described to date. Conclusion These modifications to the TMV-based expression vector system have made TMV vectors an easier, more reliable and more cost-effective way to produce recombinant proteins in plants. These improvements should facilitate the production of recombinant proteins in plants for both research and product development purposes. The vector should be especially useful in high-throughput experiments.

  10. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse): a potential vector of Zika virus in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pei-Sze Jeslyn; Li, Mei-zhi Irene; Chong, Chee-Seng; Ng, Lee-Ching; Tan, Cheong-Huat

    2013-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a little known arbovirus until it caused a major outbreak in the Pacific Island of Yap in 2007. Although the virus has a wide geographic distribution, most of the known vectors are sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes from Africa where the virus was first isolated. Presently, Ae. aegypti is the only known vector to transmit the virus outside the African continent, though Ae. albopictus has long been a suspected vector. Currently, Ae. albopictus has been shown capable of transmitting more than 20 arboviruses and its notoriety as an important vector came to light during the recent chikungunya pandemic. The vulnerability of Singapore to emerging infectious arboviruses has stimulated our interest to determine the competence of local Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV. To determine the competence of Ae. albopictus to ZIKV, we orally infected local mosquito strains to a Ugandan strain virus. Fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29°C and 80-85%RH. Twelve mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day one to seven and on day 10 and 14 post infection (pi). Zika virus titre in the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using tissue culture infectious dose50 assay, while transmissibility of the virus was determined by detecting viral antigen in the mosquito saliva by qRT-PCR. High dissemination and transmission rate of ZIKV were observed. By day 7-pi, all mosquitoes have disseminated infection and 73% of these mosquitoes have ZIKV in their saliva. By day 10-pi, all mosquitoes were potentially infectious. The study highlighted the potential of Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV and the possibility that the virus could be established locally. Nonetheless, the threat of ZIKV can be mitigated by existing dengue and chikungunya control program being implemented in Singapore.

  11. Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse: a potential vector of Zika virus in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Sze Jeslyn Wong

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a little known arbovirus until it caused a major outbreak in the Pacific Island of Yap in 2007. Although the virus has a wide geographic distribution, most of the known vectors are sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes from Africa where the virus was first isolated. Presently, Ae. aegypti is the only known vector to transmit the virus outside the African continent, though Ae. albopictus has long been a suspected vector. Currently, Ae. albopictus has been shown capable of transmitting more than 20 arboviruses and its notoriety as an important vector came to light during the recent chikungunya pandemic. The vulnerability of Singapore to emerging infectious arboviruses has stimulated our interest to determine the competence of local Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV.To determine the competence of Ae. albopictus to ZIKV, we orally infected local mosquito strains to a Ugandan strain virus. Fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29°C and 80-85%RH. Twelve mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day one to seven and on day 10 and 14 post infection (pi. Zika virus titre in the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using tissue culture infectious dose50 assay, while transmissibility of the virus was determined by detecting viral antigen in the mosquito saliva by qRT-PCR. High dissemination and transmission rate of ZIKV were observed. By day 7-pi, all mosquitoes have disseminated infection and 73% of these mosquitoes have ZIKV in their saliva. By day 10-pi, all mosquitoes were potentially infectious.The study highlighted the potential of Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV and the possibility that the virus could be established locally. Nonetheless, the threat of ZIKV can be mitigated by existing dengue and chikungunya control program being implemented in Singapore.

  12. Impact of Ultraviolet-Blocking Plastic Films on Insect Vectors of Virus Diseases Infesting Crisp Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Desani, Beatriz M.; Biurrun, R.; Moreno, Aránzazu; Nebreda, Miguel; Fereres, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing plastic films are being used as a photoselective barrier to control insect vectors and associated virus diseases in different horticultural crops. A 2-year experiment was carried out in northeastern Spain (Navarra) to evaluate the impact of a UV-blocking film (AD-IR AV) on the population density of insect pests and the spread of insect-transmitted virus diseases associated with head lettuce [Lactuca sativa (L.)]. Results showed that the UV-absorbing plastic film did...

  13. Ability of herpes simplex virus vectors to boost immune responses to DNA vectors and to protect against challenge by simian immunodeficiency virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amitinder; Sanford, Hannah B.; Garry, Deirdre; Lang, Sabine; Klumpp, Sherry A.; Watanabe, Daisuke; Bronson, Roderick T.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Rosati, Margherita; Pavlakis, George N.; Felber, Barbara K.; Knipe, David M.; Desrosiers, Ronald C.

    2007-01-01

    The immunogenicity and protective capacity of replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector-based vaccines were examined in rhesus macaques. Three macaques were inoculated with recombinant HSV vectors expressing Gag, Env, and a Tat-Rev-Nef fusion protein of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Three other macaques were primed with recombinant DNA vectors expressing Gag, Env, and a Pol-Tat-Nef-Vif fusion protein prior to boosting with the HSV vectors. Robust anti-Gag and anti-Env cellular responses were detected in all six macaques. Following intravenous challenge with wild-type, cloned SIV239, peak and 12-week plasma viremia levels were significantly lower in vaccinated compared to control macaques. Plasma SIV RNA in vaccinated macaques was inversely correlated with anti-Rev ELISPOT responses on the day of challenge (P value < 0.05), anti-Tat ELISPOT responses at 2 weeks post challenge (P value < 0.05) and peak neutralizing antibody titers pre-challenge (P value 0.06). These findings support continued study of recombinant herpesviruses as a vaccine approach for AIDS

  14. Comparison of immune responses of brown-headed cowbird and related blackbirds to West Nile and other mosquito-borne encephalitis viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisen, W.K.; Hahn, D.C.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid geographic spread of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) across the United States has stimulated interest in comparative host infection studies to delineate competent avian hosts critical for viral amplification. We compared the host competence of four taxonomically related blackbird species (Icteridae) after experimental infection with WNV and with two endemic, mosquito-borne encephalitis viruses, western equine encephalomyelitis virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, WEEV), and St, Louis encephalitis virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, SLEV). We predicted differences in disease resistance among the blackbird species based on differences in life history, because they differ in geographic range and life history traits that include mating and breeding systems. Differences were observed among the response of these hosts to all three viruses, Red-winged Blackbirds were more susceptible to SLEV than Brewer's Blackbirds, whereas Brewer's Blackbirds were more susceptible to WEEV than Red-winged Blackbirds. In response to WNV infection, cowbirds showed the lowest mean viremias, cleared their infections faster, and showed lower antibody levels than concurrently infected species. Brown-headed Cowbirds also exhibited significantly lower viremia responses after infection with SLEV and WEEV as well as coinfection with WEEV and WNV than concurrently infected icterids. We concluded that cowbirds may be more resistant to infection to both native and introduced viruses because they experience heightened exposure to a variety of pathogens of parenting birds during the course of their parasitic life style.

  15. [Rapid selection of recombinant orf virus expression vectors using green fluorescent protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiachun; Guo, Xianfeng; Zhang, Min; Wu, Feifan; Peng, Yongzheng

    2016-01-01

    To construct a universal, highly attenuated orf virus expression vector for exogenous genes using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as the reporter gene. The flanking regions of the ORFV132 of orf virus DNA were amplified by PCR to construct the shuttle plasmid pSPV-132LF-EGFP-132RF. The shuttle plasmid was transfected into OFTu cells and GFP was incorporated into orf virus IA82Delta 121 by homologous recombination. The recombinant IA82Delta121-V was selected by green fluorescent signal. The deletion gene was identified by PCR and sequencing. The effects of ORFV132 knockout were evaluated by virus titration and by observing the proliferation of the infected vascular endothelial cells in vitro. The recombinant orf virus IA82Delta121-V was obtained successfully and quickly, and the deletion of ORFV132 did not affect the replication of the virus in vitro but reduced its virulence. Green fluorescent protein is a selectable marker for rapid, convenient and stable selection of the recombinant viruses. Highly attenuated recombinant orf virus IA82Delta121-V can serve as a new expression vector for exogenous genes.

  16. Virus infection mediates the effects of elevated CO2 on plants and vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trębicki, Piotr; Vandegeer, Rebecca K.; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A.; Powell, Kevin S.; Dader, Beatriz; Freeman, Angela J.; Yen, Alan L.; Fitzgerald, Glenn J.; Luck, Jo E.

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased significantly and is projected to double by 2100. To increase current food production levels, understanding how pests and diseases respond to future climate driven by increasing CO2 is imperative. We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on the interactions among wheat (cv. Yitpi), Barley yellow dwarf virus and an important pest and virus vector, the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi), by examining aphid life history, feeding behavior and plant physiology and biochemistry. Our results showed for the first time that virus infection can mediate effects of eCO2 on plants and pathogen vectors. Changes in plant N concentration influenced aphid life history and behavior, and N concentration was affected by virus infection under eCO2. We observed a reduction in aphid population size and increased feeding damage on noninfected plants under eCO2 but no changes to population and feeding on virus-infected plants irrespective of CO2 treatment. We expect potentially lower future aphid populations on noninfected plants but no change or increased aphid populations on virus-infected plants therefore subsequent virus spread. Our findings underscore the complexity of interactions between plants, insects and viruses under future climate with implications for plant disease epidemiology and crop production.

  17. First detection of co-circulation of West Nile and Usutu viruses in equids in the south-west of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hassine, T; De Massis, F; Calistri, P; Savini, G; BelHaj Mohamed, B; Ranen, A; Di Gennaro, A; Sghaier, S; Hammami, S

    2014-10-01

    In the last fifteen years, West Nile Virus (WNV) has dramatically expanded its geographic range and is now considered the most widespread arbovirus in the world. In Tunisia, West Nile Fever (WNF) outbreaks were reported in humans in 1997, 2003 and 2012. Usutu Virus (USUV), which is a 'new' emerging Flavivirus antigenically close to WNV, has never been reported in Tunisia. A serological investigation in 284 equids was conducted in 2012 in the southern west region of the country to assess the presence and prevalence of the WNV and USUV infection. Of the 284 samples tested by competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay, 129 were positive. Of these, 120 (42.3%) had WNV-specific neutralizing antibodies. The prevalence was significantly higher in areas closer to the oasis compared with that of the surrounding arid areas. Antibody titres against USUV were also reported in 10 equids. This was the first evidence of USUV circulation in Tunisia. Data recorded by this study indicate that WNV and USUV have circulated/are circulating in the region and that there is an urgent need to adapt the current surveillance programmes to this new scenario. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Detection of tilapia lake virus (TiLV) infection by PCR in farmed and wild Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Lake Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugimba, K K; Chengula, A A; Wamala, S; Mwega, E D; Kasanga, C J; Byarugaba, D K; Mdegela, R H; Tal, S; Bornstein, B; Dishon, A; Mutoloki, S; David, L; Evensen, Ø; Munang'andu, H M

    2018-02-23

    Tilapia lake virus disease (TiLVD) has emerged to be an important viral disease of farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) having the potential to impede expansion of aquaculture production. There is a need for rapid diagnostic tools to identify infected fish to limit the spread in individual farms. We report the first detection of TiLV infection by PCR in farmed and wild Nile tilapia from Lake Victoria. There was no difference in prevalence between farmed and wild fish samples (p = .65), and of the 442 samples examined from 191 fish, 28 were positive for TiLV by PCR. In terms of tissue distribution, the head kidney (7.69%, N = 65) and spleen (10.99%, N = 191), samples had the highest prevalence (p < .0028) followed by heart samples (3.45%, N = 29). Conversely, the prevalence was low in the liver (0.71%, N = 140) and absent in brain samples (0.0%, N = 17), which have previously been shown to be target organs during acute infections. Phylogenetic analysis showed homology between our sequences and those from recent outbreaks in Israel and Thailand. Given that these findings were based on nucleic acid detection by PCR, future studies should seek to isolate the virus from fish in Lake Victoria and show its ability to cause disease and virulence in susceptible fish. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Replication of West Nile virus, Rabensburg lineage in mammalian cells is restricted by temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliota Matthew T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Flavivirus currently consists of approximately 80 single-strand positive-sense RNA viruses. These replicate in a range of hosts including myriad vertebrate, insect, and tick species. As a consequence of this broad host range, the majority of flaviviruses can be propagated in most vertebrate and insect cell cultures. This ability to infect arthropods and vertebrates usually is essential for maintenance of these viruses in nature. But recently, there has been the discovery of a number of flaviviruses that infect mosquitoes but not vertebrates. It remains largely unknown why certain flaviviruses infect vertebrates and mosquitoes while others infect mosquitoes or vertebrates exclusively. Methods Here, we initiated in vitro host range studies of Rabensburg virus (RABV, an intermediate between the mosquito-specific and horizontally transmitted flaviviruses, to provide information on the factor(s that underlie the varying host range of flaviviruses. RABV is an intermediate between the mosquito-specific and horizontally transmitted flaviviruses because it does not infect mammalian or avian cell cultures, house sparrows, or chickens, but it does share genetic characteristics with the Japanese Encephalitis serogroup of flaviviruses. Results In vitro growth kinetic assays revealed the complete abrogation of RABV growth on Vero and E6 cells incubated at temperatures 35°C and higher, but surprisingly RABV infected, replicated efficiently, and displayed overt cytopathic effects (CPE on Vero and E6 cell cultures incubated below 35°C. In contrast, RABV was fully viable, replicated efficiently, and displayed overt CPE on C6/36 cells incubated at 28°C or 37°C, thus implicating temperature as an important factor limiting the host range of RABV. Conclusions These data are critical for further study to more fully identify the determinants that mediate the evolution of biological transmission among flaviviruses. It also will be

  20. Pseudacteon decapitating flies: Potential vectors of a fire ant virus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valles, S.M.; Porter, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Solenopsis invicta virus (SINV-1) is a positive-stranded RNA virus recently found to infect all stages of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Valles et al. 2004; Valles and Strong 2005). SINV-1 and a second genotype have been tentatively assigned to the Dicistroviridae (Mayo 2002). Infected individuals or colonies did not exhibit any immediate, discernible symptoms in the field. However, under stress from introduction into the laboratory, brood death was often observed among infected colonies, ultimately leading to the death of the entire colony (Valles et al. 2004). These characteristics are consistent with other insect-infecting positive-stranded RNA viruses. They often persist as inapparent, asymptomatic infections that, under certain conditions, induce replication within the host, resulting in observable symptoms and often death (Christian and Scotti 1998; Fernandez et al. 2002). The SINV infection rate among colonies was reported to be around 25% in Gainesville, Florida (Valles et al. 2004; Valles and Strong 2005). SINV vertical and horizontal transmission were inferred based on RT-PCR detection of virus genome in eggs and successful colony to colony transfer under lab conditions (Valles et al. 2004). However, the exact mechanisms by which the virus is spread from nest to nest in the field are unknown. Our results indicate that SINV does not replicate within Pseudacteon decapitating flies that parasitize S. invicta. Flies appeared to develop normally from SINV-infected S. invicta workers. Mechanical transmission of SINV to uninfected ants by oviposition appears unlikely

  1. Construction of PVX virus-expression vector to express enterotoxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato X potyvirus (PVX)-based vector has been comprehensively applied in transient expression system. In order to produce the heterologous proteins more quickly and stably, the ClaI and NotI enzyme sites were introduced into the Enterotoxin fusion gene LTB-ST by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the LTB-ST ...

  2. potential for biological control of rice yellow mottle virus vectors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    irrigated fields, samplings occurred between December and April. Rearing using dead insects was conducted simultaneously in the laboratory to identify the parasitoid insect species. From samples obtained at different sites: (i) the dominant structure of the RYMV insect vectors was analysed according to the rice phenology; ...

  3. Experimental infection of rock pigeons (Columba livia) with three West Nile virus lineage 1 strains isolated in Italy between 2009 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spedicato, M; Carmine, I; Bellacicco, A L; Marruchella, G; Marini, V; Pisciella, M; Di Francesco, G; Lorusso, A; Monaco, F; Savini, G

    2016-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) circulation dynamics in the context of the urban environment is not yet elucidated. In this perspective, three groups of eight rock pigeons (Columbia livia) were inoculated with three WNV lineage 1 strains isolated in Italy between 2009 and 2012. The pigeons did not develop any clinical signs consistent with WNV acute infection. All animals seroconverted and shed virus up to 15 days post-infection by the oral or cloacal routes. In all infected groups viraemia lasted for 4 days post-infection. No WNV-specific gross or histological lesions were found in infected birds compared to control birds and immunohistochemistry remained constantly negative from all tissues. The reservoir competence index was also assessed and it ranged between 0·11 and 0·14. This study demonstrates that pigeons are competent reservoir hosts for Italian WNV lineage 1 circulating strains thus potentially posing a risk to the public health system.

  4. Research Advances: DNA Computing Targets West Nile Virus, Other Deadly Diseases, and Tic-Tac-Toe; Marijuana Component May Offer Hope for Alzheimer's Disease Treat