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Sample records for niigata prefecture earthquake

  1. Relationship of the 2004 Mid-Niigata prefecture earthquake with geological structure. Evaluation of earthquake source fault in active folding zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Yasuhira; Abe, Shintaro

    2007-01-01

    We compile the important points to evaluate earthquake source fault in active folding zone through a temporary aftershock observation of the 2004 Mid-Niigata Prefecture earthquake. The aftershock distribution shows spindle shape whose middle part is wide and both ends are narrow in NNE-SSW trending. The range of seismic activity corresponds well to the distribution of fold axes in this area, whose middle part is anticlinorium (some anticlines) and both ends are single anticline. In the middle part, the west dipping aftershock plane including the mainshock (M6.8) is located under the Higashiyama anticline. Another west dipping aftershock plane including the largest aftershock (M6.5) is located under the Tamugiyama and Komatsugura anticlines, and the east margin of the aftershock distribution corresponds well with Suwa-toge flexure. Therefore the present fold structure should have been formed by an accumulation of the same faults movement. In other words, it is important to refer the fold axes distribution pattern, especially with flexure, for the evaluation of earthquake source fault. In addition, we performed FEM analyses to investigate the relation of fold structure to the thickness of the sedimentary layer and the dip angle of the fault. Reverse fault movement forms asymmetric fold above the fault, which steeper slope is formed just above the upper end of the fault. As the sedimentary layer became thicker, anticline axis moved to hanging wall side in the fold structure. As the dip angle became smaller, the wavelength of the fold became longer and the fold structure grew highly asymmetric. Thus the shape of the fold structure is useful as an index to estimate the blind thrust below it. (author)

  2. June 1964 Niigata, Japan Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 7.4 earthquake killed 26 and destroyed 3,018 houses and moderately or severely damaged 9,750 in Niigata prefecture.

  3. Psychological recovery 5 years after the 2004 Niigata-Chuetsu earthquake in Yamakoshi, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Kitamura, Kaori; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    The 2004 Niigata-Chuetsu earthquake of Japan caused considerable damage. We assessed long-term changes in psychological distress among earthquake victims during the period 5 years after the earthquake. The participants were people aged 18 years or older living in Yamakoshi, a community in Niigata Prefecture near the epicenter. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted annually for 5 consecutive years after the earthquake. Response rates were 1316/1841 (71.5%) in 2005, 667/1381 (48.3%) in 2006, 753/1451 (51.9%) in 2007, 541/1243 (43.5%) in 2008, and 814/1158 (70.3%) in 2009. The questionnaire asked about demographic characteristics, including sex, age, employment status, social network, and psychological status. Psychological distress was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and was defined as a total score of 4 or higher. The overall prevalence of psychological distress decreased (P earthquake but appeared to increase thereafter. The earthquake victims are still reestablishing their lives. Thus, continued attention should be focused on maintaining and further assessing their mental health.

  4. Geoengineering and seismological aspects of the Niigata-Ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake of 16 July 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.; Brandenberg, S.J.; CoIlins, B.D.; Dickenson, S.; Ashford, S.; Kawamata, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Koumoto, H.; Abrahamson, N.; Cluff, L.; Tokimatsu, K.

    2009-01-01

    The M6.6 Niigata-Ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake of 16 July 2007 occurred off the west coast of Japan with a focal depth of 10 km, immediately west of Kashiwazaki City and Kariwa Village in southern Niigata Prefecture. Peak horizontal ground accelerations of 0.68 g were measured in Kashiwazaki City, as well as at the reactor floor level of the world's largest nuclear reactor, located on the coast at Kariwa Village. Liquefaction of historic and modern river deposits, aeolian dune sand, and manmade fill was widespread in the coastal region nearest the epicenter and caused ground deformations that damaged bridges, embankments, roadways, buildings, ports, railways and utilities. Landslides along the coast of southern Niigata Prefecture and in mountainous regions inland of Kashiwazaki were also widespread affecting transportation infrastructure. Liquefaction and a landslide also damaged the nuclear power plant sites. This paper, along with a companion digital map database available at http://walrus.wr.usgs.gOv/infobank/n/nii07jp/html/n-ii-07-jp.sites.kmz, describes the seismological and geo-engineering aspects of the event. ?? 2009, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  5. Assessment of landslide distribution map reliability in Niigata prefecture - Japan using frequency ratio approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahardianto, Trias; Saputra, Aditya; Gomez, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Research on landslide susceptibility has evolved rapidly over the few last decades thanks to the availability of large databases. Landslide research used to be focused on discreet events but the usage of large inventory dataset has become a central pillar of landslide susceptibility, hazard, and risk assessment. Indeed, extracting meaningful information from the large database is now at the forth of geoscientific research, following the big-data research trend. Indeed, the more comprehensive information of the past landslide available in a particular area is, the better the produced map will be, in order to support the effective decision making, planning, and engineering practice. The landslide inventory data which is freely accessible online gives an opportunity for many researchers and decision makers to prevent casualties and economic loss caused by future landslides. This data is advantageous especially for areas with poor landslide historical data. Since the construction criteria of landslide inventory map and its quality evaluation remain poorly defined, the assessment of open source landslide inventory map reliability is required. The present contribution aims to assess the reliability of open-source landslide inventory data based on the particular topographical setting of the observed area in Niigata prefecture, Japan. Geographic Information System (GIS) platform and statistical approach are applied to analyze the data. Frequency ratio method is utilized to model and assess the landslide map. The outcomes of the generated model showed unsatisfactory results with AUC value of 0.603 indicate the low prediction accuracy and unreliability of the model.

  6. Questionnaire-based analysis of the current level of asthma control and management in Niigata Prefecture, Japan: Changes from 1998 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hasegawa

    2004-01-01

    Conclusion: These results indicate that antiinflammatory agents, including inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene receptor antagonists, contributed to improved asthma control, whereas oral theophylline is characteristically used in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. However, not all asthma-related problems, such as satisfaction in daily life, improved and self-evaluation of asthma control by patients may play a key role in improving their satisfaction in daily life.

  7. Determination of rare earth elements, thorium and uranium in seaweed samples on the coast in Niigata Prefecture by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Nobuo [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Ikarashi 2-nocho 8050, Niigata (Japan); Kano, Naoki [Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University, Ikarashi 2-nocho 8050, Niigata (Japan)], E-mail: kano@eng.niigata-u.ac.jp; Imaizumi, Hiroshi [Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University, Ikarashi 2-nocho 8050, Niigata (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    The determination of rare earth elements (REEs), Th and U in seaweeds of various species and in ambient surface seawater were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The seaweeds and the seawater samples were collected at 10 different coastal areas of Niigata Prefecture in Japan twice a year (spring and autumn) in 2004 and 2005. Results showed that concentration of REEs in seaweed species from Niigata Prefecture were about 10{sup 3} times higher than those in seawater, and the enrichment factors of REEs were larger in heavy REE than light REE. A significant concentration difference of REEs, Th and U was found among species even in the same phylum. Undaria pinnatifida had the highest concentration of U. Considering that U. pinnatifida has low concentrations of REEs among typical brown algae, different REEs and U uptake mechanisms are suggested. The concentration of REEs, Th and U did not vary remarkably between sampling points and/or seasons.

  8. Impaired psychological recovery in the elderly after the Niigata-Chuetsu Earthquake in Japan:a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Someya Toshiyuki

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An earthquake measuring 6.8 on the Richter scale struck the Niigata-Chuetsu region of Japan at 5.56 P.M. on the 23rd of October, 2004. The earthquake was followed by sustained occurrence of numerous aftershocks, which delayed reconstruction of community lifelines. Even one year after the earthquake, 9,160 people were living in temporary housing. Such a devastating earthquake and life after the earthquake in an unfamiliar environment should cause psychological distress, especially among the elderly. Methods Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 in 2,083 subjects (69% response rate who were living in transient housing five months after the earthquake. GHQ-12 was scored using the original method, Likert scoring and corrected method. The subjects were asked to assess their psychological status before the earthquake, their psychological status at the most stressful time after the earthquake and their psychological status at five months after the earthquake. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was used to reveal the factor structure of GHQ12. Multiple regression analysis was performed to analyze the relationship between various background factors and GHQ-12 score and its subscale. Results GHQ-12 scores were significantly elevated at the most stressful time and they were significantly high even at five months after the earthquake. Factor analysis revealed that a model consisting of two factors (social dysfunction and dysphoria using corrected GHQ scoring showed a high level of goodness-of-fit. Multiple regression analysis revealed that age of subjects affected GHQ-12 scores. GHQ-12 score as well as its factor 'social dysfunction' scale were increased with increasing age of subjects at five months after the earthquake. Conclusion Impaired psychological recovery was observed even at five months after the Niigata-Chuetsu Earthquake in the elderly. The elderly were more

  9. Spatial distribution of landslides triggered from the 2007 Niigata Chuetsu–Oki Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Kayen, Robert E.; Tanaka, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution of earthquake-induced landslides from specific earthquakes provides an opportunity to recognize what to expect from future events. The July 16, 2007 Mw 6.6 (MJMA 6.8) Niigata Chuetsu–Oki Japan earthquake triggered hundreds of landslides in the area surrounding the coastal city of Kashiwazaki and provides one such opportunity to evaluate the impacts of an offshore, magnitude 6 + earthquake on a steep coastal region. As part of a larger effort to document all forms of geotechnical damage from this earthquake, we performed landslide inventory mapping throughout the epicentral area and analyzed the resulting data for spatial, seismic-motion, and geologic correlations to describe the pattern of landsliding. Coupled with examination of a third-party, aerial-photo-based landslide inventory, our analyses reveal several areas of high landslide concentration that are not readily explained by either traditional epicentral and fault–plane-distance metrics or by recorded and inferred ground-motions. Whereas average landslide concentrations averaged less than 1 landslide per square kilometer (LS/km2), some areas reached up to 2 LS/km2 in the Nishiyama Hills to the northeast of Kashiwazaki and between 2 and 11 LS/km2 in coastal areas to the north and south of the city. Correlation with seismometer-based and monument overturning back-calculated ground motions suggests that a minimum peak ground acceleration (PGA) of approximately 0.2 g was necessary for landsliding throughout the region, but does not explain the subregional areas of high landslide concentration. However, analysis of topographic slope and the distribution of generally weak, dip-slope, geologic units does sufficiently explain why, on a sub-regional scale, high landslide concentrations occurred where they did. These include: (1) an inland region of steep, dip-slope, anticlinal sedimentary strata with associated fold belt compression and uplift of the anticline and (2

  10. Studies on {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U levels in marine algae collected from the coast of Niigata Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Kenji; Tonouchi, Shigemasa; Maruta, Fumiyuki; Ebata, Hidekazu [Niigata Prefectural Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Sciences (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    To evaluate the properties of algae to concentrate radioactive elements, 14 species of algae like Sargassum were collected in the Prefecture and analyzed for their {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U levels with Yokogawa HP4500 ICP-MS apparatus. The places of collection included those near the water discharge of an atomic power station. Mean {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U levels were found to be 120 and 260 ng/g dry wt, respectively, and Phaeophyta showed more than several times higher {sup 238}U level than Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta. There was no clear difference in {sup 232}Th levels. No difference between places of collection was observed in Sargassum {sup 232}Th or {sup 238}U level. Adsorption of {sup 232}Th particle to and incorporation of soluble {sup 238}U into algae body were suggested. Mean {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U radioactivities were found 73 and 510 {mu}Bq/g wet wt, respectively, and the respective annual committed effective doses, 0.2 and 0.3 {mu}Sv, calculated from those values were confirmed to be enough lower than the annual public dose limit, 1 mSv. (K.H.)

  11. Studies on 232Th and 238U levels in marine algae collected from the coast of Niigata Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kenji; Tonouchi, Shigemasa; Maruta, Fumiyuki; Ebata, Hidekazu

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the properties of algae to concentrate radioactive elements, 14 species of algae like Sargassum were collected in the Prefecture and analyzed for their 232 Th and 238 U levels with Yokogawa HP4500 ICP-MS apparatus. The places of collection included those near the water discharge of an atomic power station. Mean 232 Th and 238 U levels were found to be 120 and 260 ng/g dry wt, respectively, and Phaeophyta showed more than several times higher 238 U level than Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta. There was no clear difference in 232 Th levels. No difference between places of collection was observed in Sargassum 232 Th or 238 U level. Adsorption of 232 Th particle to and incorporation of soluble 238 U into algae body were suggested. Mean 232 Th and 238 U radioactivities were found 73 and 510 μBq/g wet wt, respectively, and the respective annual committed effective doses, 0.2 and 0.3 μSv, calculated from those values were confirmed to be enough lower than the annual public dose limit, 1 mSv. (K.H.)

  12. Comparisons of Source Characteristics between Recent Inland Crustal Earthquake Sequences inside and outside of Niigata-Kobe Tectonic Zone, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somei, K.; Asano, K.; Iwata, T.; Miyakoshi, K.

    2012-12-01

    After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, many M7-class inland earthquakes occurred in Japan. Some of those events (e.g., the 2004 Chuetsu earthquake) occurred in a tectonic zone which is characterized as a high strain rate zone by the GPS observation (Sagiya et al., 2000) or dense distribution of active faults. That belt-like zone along the coast in Japan Sea side of Tohoku and Chubu districts, and north of Kinki district, is called as the Niigata-Kobe tectonic zone (NKTZ, Sagiya et al, 2000). We investigate seismic scaling relationship for recent inland crustal earthquake sequences in Japan and compare source characteristics between events occurring inside and outside of NKTZ. We used S-wave coda part for estimating source spectra. Source spectral ratio is obtained by S-wave coda spectral ratio between the records of large and small events occurring close to each other from nation-wide strong motion network (K-NET and KiK-net) and broad-band seismic network (F-net) to remove propagation-path and site effects. We carefully examined the commonality of the decay of coda envelopes between event-pair records and modeled the observed spectral ratio by the source spectral ratio function with assuming omega-square source model for large and small events. We estimated the corner frequencies and seismic moment (ratio) from those modeled spectral ratio function. We determined Brune's stress drops of 356 events (Mw: 3.1-6.9) in ten earthquake sequences occurring in NKTZ and six sequences occurring outside of NKTZ. Most of source spectra obey omega-square source spectra. There is no obvious systematic difference between stress drops of events in NKTZ zone and others. We may conclude that the systematic tendency of seismic source scaling of the events occurred inside and outside of NKTZ does not exist and the average source scaling relationship can be effective for inland crustal earthquakes. Acknowledgements: Waveform data were provided from K-NET, KiK-net and F-net operated by

  13. Factor structure of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in subjects who had suffered from the 2004 Niigata-Chuetsu Earthquake in Japan: a community-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Toyabe, Shin-ichi; Shioiri, Toshiki; Kobayashi, Kuriko; Kuwabara, Hideki; Koizumi, Masataka; Endo, Taro; Ito, Miki; Honma, Hiroko; Fukushima, Noboru; Someya, Toshiyuki; Akazawa, Kouhei

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Factor structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was studied by a survey of subjects who had experienced the 2004 Niigata-Chuetsu earthquake (6.8 on the Richter scale) in Japan. Methods Psychological distress was measured at two years after the earthquake by using GHQ-12 in 2,107 subjects (99.0% response rate) who suffered the earthquake. GHQ-12 was scored by binary, chronic and Likert scoring method. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to reveal the...

  14. Factor structure of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in subjects who had suffered from the 2004 Niigata-Chuetsu Earthquake in Japan: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyabe, Shin-ichi; Shioiri, Toshiki; Kobayashi, Kuriko; Kuwabara, Hideki; Koizumi, Masataka; Endo, Taro; Ito, Miki; Honma, Hiroko; Fukushima, Noboru; Someya, Toshiyuki; Akazawa, Kouhei

    2007-07-24

    Factor structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was studied by a survey of subjects who had experienced the 2004 Niigata-Chuetsu earthquake (6.8 on the Richter scale) in Japan. Psychological distress was measured at two years after the earthquake by using GHQ-12 in 2,107 subjects (99.0% response rate) who suffered the earthquake. GHQ-12 was scored by binary, chronic and Likert scoring method. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to reveal the factor structure of GHQ-12. Categorical regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between various background factors and GHQ-12 scores. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the model consisting of the two factors and using chronic method gave the best goodness-of-fit among the various models for factor structure. Recovery in the scale for the factor 'social dysfunction' was remarkably impaired compared with that of the factor 'dysphoria'. Categorical regression analysis revealed that various factors, including advanced age, were associated with psychological distress. Advanced age affected the impaired recovery of factor 'social dysfunction' score as well as total GHQ score. The two-factor structure of GHQ-12 was conserved between the survey at five month and that at two years after the earthquake. Impaired recovery in the ability to cope with daily problems in the subjects who had experienced the earthquake was remarkable even at two years after the earthquake.

  15. On seismic intensities of questionnaires for 1996 earthquake near Akita-Miyagi prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogoshi, M.; Sasaki, N. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education; Nakamura, M. [Nippon Geophysical Prospecting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    The earthquake occurred in 1996 near the border of Akita and Miyagi Prefectures was a seismic activity in mountainous area with low population density. However, since a necessity was felt to make a seismic intensity survey, a questionnaire investigation was carried out. The investigation placed a focus on the following points: (1) to learn seismic intensity distribution in the vicinity of the epicenter by using replies to the questionnaire and (2) to learn what evacuation activities the residents have taken to avoid disasters from the earthquake, which is an inland local earthquake occurred first since the Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake in 1995. Because the main shock has occurred in the Akita prefecture side, the shocks were concentrated at Akinomiya, Takamatsu, Sugawa and Koyasu areas where the intensities were 4.0 to 4.5 in most cases. The largest aftershocks were concentrated to the Miyagi prefecture side, with an intensity of 6.0 felt most, followed by 5.5. The questionnaire on evacuation actions revealed a result of about 37% of the reply saying, ``I have jumped out of my house before I knew what has happened`` and ``I remember nothing about what I did because I was acting totally instinctively``. The answers show how intense the experience was. This result indicates how to make the unconscious actions turned into conscious actions is an important issue in preventing disasters. 11 figs.

  16. Earthquake Preparedness Among Japanese Hemodialysis Patients in Prefectures Heavily Damaged by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Shimizu, Yumiko; Kumagai, Tamaki; Sugisaki, Hiroaki; Ohira, Seiji; Shinoda, Toshio

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors related to earthquake preparedness in Japanese hemodialysis patients. We focused on three aspects of the related factors: health condition factors, social factors, and the experience of disasters. A mail survey of all the members of the Japan Association of Kidney Disease Patients in three Japanese prefectures (N = 4085) was conducted in March, 2013. We obtained 1841 valid responses for analysis. The health factors covered were: activities of daily living (ADL), mental distress, primary renal diseases, and the duration of dialysis. The social factors were: socioeconomic status, family structure, informational social support, and the provision of information regarding earthquake preparedness from dialysis facilities. The results show that the average percentage of participants that had met each criterion of earthquake preparedness in 2013 was 53%. Hemodialysis patients without disabled ADL, without mental distress, and requiring longer periods of dialysis, were likely to meet more of the earthquake preparedness criteria. Hemodialysis patients who had received informational social support from family or friends, had lived with spouse and children in comparison to living alone, and had obtained information regarding earthquake preparedness from dialysis facilities, were also likely to meet more of the earthquake preparedness criteria. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  17. Social network disruption as a major factor associated with psychological distress 3 years after the 2004 Niigata-Chuetsu earthquake in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Mari; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Suda, Yuko; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2012-03-01

    The 2004 Niigata-Chuetsu earthquake of Japan caused a great deal of damage, and people living in the affected region are still struggling to reconstruct their lives. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with psychological distress in people living in a town at the epicenter 3 years after the earthquake. We conducted a cross-sectional study from June 2007 to January 2008. Participants included 225 individuals living in Kawaguchi (age ≥20 years) who reported psychological symptoms. Information on family structure, employment status, alcohol use, social network, and extent of house damage was elicited by public health nurses conducting structured interviews. Levels of psychological distress were assessed with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), with a K10 score ≥25 defined as psychological distress. The mean age of participants was 66.1 ± 12.9 years. The prevalence of psychological distress varied among different employment classes, being 5/73 (6.8%) for participants with paid employment, 12/50 (24.0%) for full-time housewives, and 11/101 (10.9%) for those who were unemployed (χ(2) = 8.42, P = 0.015). It also varied between participants who had lost contact with people in the community and those who had no change in social contact [9/20 (45.0%) vs. 19/189 (10.1%), respectively; χ(2) = 19.04, P earthquake psychological distress and require appropriate care.

  18. On results of aseismatic safety examination for atomic energy facilities based on Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission received the report on the results of examination from the ad hoc examination committee. There was no particular effect to atomic energy facilities in the Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake, however, from the viewpoint of perfecting the safety confirmation for atomic energy facilities, the Nuclear Safety Commission set up the aseismatic safety examination committee to investigate the validity of the guidelines related to aseismatic design used for safety examination. The basic plan of the investigation, the outline of the guidelines related to aseismatic design, the state of Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake and the obtained knowledge and the investigation of the validity of the guidelines related to aseismatic design based on the state of Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake are reported. The extraction of the items to be investigated, the evaluation of earthquakes and earthquake motion, vertical earthquake force and active faults, and the way of thinking on right under type earthquakes in the guideline for aseismatic design examination are reported. It was confirmed that the validity of guidelines is not impaired by the earthquake. (K.I.)

  19. Peptic Ulcers in Fukushima Prefecture Related to the Great East Japan Earthquake, Tsunami and Nuclear Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikichi, Takuto; Sato, Masaki; Watanabe, Ko; Nakamura, Jun; Kikuchi, Hitomi; Ejiri, Yutaka; Ishihata, Ryoichi; Irisawa, Atsushi; Takahashi, Yuta; Saito, Hironobu; Takagi, Tadayuki; Suzuki, Rei; Sugimoto, Mitsuru; Konno, Naoki; Waragai, Yuichi; Asama, Hiroyuki; Takasumi, Mika; Sato, Yuki; Ohira, Hiromasa; Obara, Katsutoshi

    2018-04-01

    Objective Due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred in March 2011, many residents of Fukushima Prefecture were affected by a radiation accident in addition to suffering loss or damage from the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami. The aim of this study was to evaluate the actual condition of patients with peptic ulcers related to the disaster. Methods Patients with peptic ulcers at six hospitals in three different regions of Fukushima Prefecture during the two months following the disaster and the corresponding period of the year before and the year after the disaster were enrolled in this study. Changes by period and region in the number of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) examinations and the number of peptic ulcer patients were evaluated as the primary endpoints. Changes in the frequencies of hemorrhagic ulcers were evaluated by period and by region as secondary endpoints. Results The numbers of EGDs and peptic ulcer cases compared to the previous year decreased in 2011 and then increased in 2012. However, the ratio of hemorrhagic ulcers to peptic ulcers was higher in 2011 (51.9%) than in 2010 (38.1%) and 2012 (31.1%), and the 2011 hemorrhagic ulcer ratio was the highest at 63.6% in the coastal area. Regarding bleeding cases during 2011, the rate at 1 month after the disaster (64.1%) was higher than the rate at 2 months after the disaster (40.5%) (p=0.033). Conclusion The number of patients with peptic ulcers did not increase immediately following the disaster in Fukushima Prefecture. However, the rate of bleeding patients increased soon after the disaster, especially in the coastal area.

  20. Radioactivity measurement of tsunami sediments due to the Great East Japan Earthquake in Miyagi prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Chihiro; Joe, Seongjin

    2014-01-01

    The tsunami sediments and their directly under soils from 25 tsunami flooded areas in Miyagi prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake were analyzed quantitatively for radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) concentrations. It was found that the radiocesium released in the reactor accidents of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant stayed for at least 6 months in the tsunami sediments layer of a few centimeter thickness. On the other hand, from the results of the radiocesium extraction test using the tsunami sediments and 3 kinds of inorganic solvents, it was also found that the radiocesium in the tsunami sediments passed ca. 6 months after fall was hardly eluted with rain water (pH 5.6 ∼ 7.0) and combined strongly with clay minerals in the tsunami sediments. (K. Kato)

  1. Supports for libraries'restoration from the Great East Japan Earthquake : Challenges we address at Miyagi Prefectural Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Shinichiro

    This article overviews the situations of damage and reconstruction of mainly public libraries in Miyagi Prefecture about 9 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Serious damage of library buildings was due not only to the tsunami or seismic sea wave but to violent shaking, the latter less reported by the media. We at the Miyagi Prefectural Library implemented reconstruction assistance for regional public libraries in both direct and indirect ways. Among them, we report in detail on the support we offered until the Minami-sanriku Town Library reopened its service. We highlight a prefectural library's role, acting between supporters and those supportees, to consider the necessity of middle organizations. We clarify what challenges we face and examine how best to provide assistance in case of large-scale disasters.

  2. An Outbreak of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Yamagata Prefecture Following the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Iseki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake, most of the areas in Yamagata prefecture experienced a serious power failure lasting for approximately 24 hours. A number of households were subsequently poisoned with carbon monoxide (CO due to various causes. In this study, we conducted a survey of CO poisoning during the disaster. Methods: A questionnaire regarding CO poisoning associated with the disaster was sent to 37 emergency hospitals in Yamagata prefecture. Results: A total of 51 patients were treated for unintentional CO poisoning in 7 hospitals (hyperbaric oxygen chambers were present in 3 of the hospitals. The patients (18 men, 33 women ranged in age from 0 to 90 years. The source of CO exposure was charcoal briquettes (23 cases; 45%, gasoline-powered electric generators (18 cases; 35%, electric generators together with oil stoves (8 cases; 16%, oil stoves (1 cases; 2%, and automobile exhaust (1 cases; 2%. Blood carboxyhemoglobin levels ranged from 0.5% to 41.6% in 49 cases. Of these, 41 patients were treated by normobaric oxygen therapy, while one was intubated for artificial respiration. Additionally, 5 patients (10% were treated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and 3 patients (6% experienced delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae. Conclusion: CO sources included gasoline-powered electric generators and charcoal briquettes during the disaster. Storm-related CO poisoning is well recognized as a disaster-associated accident in the United States, but not in Japan. We emphasize that public education is needed to make people aware of the dangers of CO poisoning after a disaster. In addition, a pulse CO-oximeter should be set up in hospitals.  

  3. Indoor Temperature and Humidity in Temporary Housing built at Miyako City in Iwate Prefecture following the Great East Japan Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    TAKAHASHI, Nobuto; IWAFUNE, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Indoor temperature and humidity were observed for almost two years, from March 2012, in tempo rary housing built at Miyako City in Iwate Prefecture following the Great East Japan Earthquake. Average diurnal variations in temperature and humidity were compared between different types of vacanttemporary housing and were examined in temporary housing an elderly person lives. Indoor daytime temperatures in temporary housing of light-gauge steel structure with exposed and non-insulated iron beams ...

  4. Pregnancy and birth survey after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Fukushima prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Keiya; Kyozuka, Hyo; Yasuda, Shun; Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji; Ota, Misao; Ohtsuru, Akira; Nomura, Yasuhisa; Hata, Kenichi; Suzuki, Kouta; Nakai, Akihito; Sato, Mieko; Matsui, Shiro; Nakano, Kyoko; Abe, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake followed by a powerful tsunami hit the Pacific Coast of Northeast Japan and damaged Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, causing a radiation hazard in Fukushima Prefecture. The objective of this report is to describe some results of a questionnaire-based pregnancy and birth survey conducted by the Radiation Medical Science Center for the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Questionnaires were sent to women who received maternal and child health handbooks from municipal officers in Fukushima Prefecture between 1 August 2010 and 31 July 2011, with the aim of reaching those who were pregnant at the time of the disaster. Mailing began 18 January 2012. Data were analyzed separately for six geographic areas in Fukushima Prefecture. The total number of women meeting survey criteria was 15,972. The number of responses received to date is 9,298 (58.2%). Data from 8602 respondents were analyzed after excluding 634 invalid responses and 5 induced and 57 spontaneous abortions (less than 22 gestational weeks). The incidences of stillbirth (over 22 completed gestational weeks), preterm birth, low birth weight and congenital anomalies were 0.25%, 4.4%, 8.7% and 2.72%, respectively. These incidences are similar to recent averages elsewhere in Japan. Considering the pregnancy and birth survey data in aggregate, our disaster seemed to provoke no significant adverse outcomes over the whole of Fukushima prefecture. But post-disaster prenatal care and support intended for patients' safety and security should be coupled with ongoing surveillance and rigorous data analysis.

  5. On an outline of investigation results of earthquake damage estimation for Akita prefecture; Akitaken jishin higai sotei chosa kekka no gaiyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogoshi, M. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education

    1997-05-27

    This paper reports an outline of investigation results of earthquake damage estimation carried out in Akita Prefecture. The basic policy for this investigation consists of the following: (1) an indication on existence of a blank area in the Akita off-coast earthquake shall be viewed so importantly that a fault model is set to estimate damages; (2) because most of the earthquakes in history of Akita Prefecture are inland earthquakes with magnitude of about M=7, four earthquakes in the past shall be adopted as the set model; and (3) the central Sea of Japan earthquake in 1983 was an earthquake occurred in the Sea of Japan side and caused a great deal of damages to Akita Prefecture, and its epicenter model and damages were investigated in detail, hence these data shall be utilized in verifying the procedure and method for estimating damages studied in the present investigation. This paper reports finally estimated human damages. With an assumed earthquake as strong as the Tencho earthquake in the year of 830, more than 1000 deaths will occur in the city of Akita; with an earthquake in the scale of the Noshiro earthquake in 1694, more than 50 deaths will be counted in the city of Noshiro; one as strong as the Rikuu earthquake in 1896 will cause about 300 deaths in the cities of Yokote and Omagari, respectively; one with the scale of the 1914 Goushu earthquake will result in about 300 people to be killed in the city of Omagari and about 200 people in the city of Yuzawa; and an earthquake estimated to occur in the blank area off the Akita coast will force 33% of the residents of the Kisakata town to be evacuated from their homes. 1 fig.

  6. The 2011 Great East Japan earthquake: a report of a regional hospital in Fukushima Prefecture coping with the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisawa, Atsushi

    2012-05-01

    A catastrophic undersea megathrust earthquake of magnitude 9.0 off the coast of Japan occurred at 14:46 JST on Friday, 11 March 2011. The earthquake triggered powerful tsunami waves, and the tsunami precipitated Fukushima nuclear accidents. After the terrible earthquake, many people fled from the nuclear accident and arrived at places far from the nuclear power plant. In this article, I present a story of one measure devised to deal with the problem of the Fukushima nuclear accident at a regional hospital of Fukushima prefecture, Aizu General Hospital, which is located far from the Fukushima nuclear plant. In addition, I briefly report the current situation of Fukushima prefecture after the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake. In our hospital, the countermeasure headquarters was established to supply medical care for those who had been injured by tsunami waves and the Fukushima nuclear accident. Especially, the screening for radioactive exposure using a dosimeter to take decontamination measures for cases of external exposure was extremely important task. Nevertheless, because the accurate knowledge related to radioactive contamination didn't provide, most medical staff fell into confusion. Fukushima prefecture has been 'shrinking' since the nuclear accident. However, today, although some hot spots remain in residential areas, the radioactive contamination is decreasing little by little. Many people in Fukushima Prefecture advance as one, facing forward. Recently, decontamination projects started. Efforts must be continued over a long period. © 2012 The Author. Digestive Endoscopy © 2012 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  7. Incidence of Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Females After the Great East Japan Earthquake in Miyagi Prefecture: The Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kasumi; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Toshie; Mizuno, Satoshi; Obara, Taku; Iwama, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Zen; Ishikuro, Mami; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Nishijima, Ichiko; Sugawara, Junichi; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Arima, Takahiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Metoki, Hirohito; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Nakai, Kunihiko; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to clarify the correlation between the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and domestic violence (DV) against pregnant females after the disaster in Miyagi Prefecture, an area damaged by the earthquake and tsunami. We analyzed 7600 pregnant females from June to December 2011. The incidence of physical and mental DV and the proportions in the inland, north coastal, and south coastal areas of Miyagi Prefecture and nationwide were calculated, and a chi-square test was conducted for comparison. The risk factors for DV were estimated with multivariate logistic regression analyses on a prefecture-wide basis. The incidence levels for physical DV were found to be 5.9% in the north coastal area, which was significantly higher than in the inland area (1.3%, P=0.0007) and nationwide (1.5%, P<0.0001). There were no significant differences in the incidence of mental DV between the 3 areas in Miyagi Prefecture (inland 15.2%, north coast 15.7%, and south coast 18.8%) or nationwide (13.8%). Experiencing disease or injury in someone close and changes in the family structure were significantly associated with mental DV in Miyagi Prefecture. Continuous monitoring and support for pregnant females may be necessary to address this issue in disaster-affected areas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:216-226).

  8. Application of passive type radon detectors to find fissures in banks caused by the southern Hyogo prefectural earthquake in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, J.; Yamasaki, K.; Tsujimoto, T.; Morishima, H.; Shimo, M.; Murakami, A.; Hasegawa, T.

    1996-01-01

    Innumerable fissures were formed widely in Hanshin area in Japan by the former southern Hyogo prefectural earthquake occurred on Jan.17, 1995. In this study, as a preliminary investigation, we applied passive type radon detector Pico-Rad (U.S. Packard Instrument Co. Ltd.) with hemispheric plastic cover over them around the fissure along on the bank of two reservoirs to examine whether there is possibility to find fissures using the characteristics of 222 Rn migration. One of the reservoir, Taniyamakami-ike, is located at the north of the Awaji-shima island at a distance of about 4 km from the seismic center of this earthquake. On the whole, 222 Rn exhalation rates were high on a line of 2 m below the edge of the bank and got lower in proportion to the distance from this line. Those top of the bank had middle values among the lines. The mean 222 Rn exhalation rate was 4.7 mBq m -2 s -1 , and in these data we found some singularly high 222 Rn points. The other reservoir named Hosho-ike is located at northwestern Nagaokakyo city of Kyoto prefecture and the Komyoji active faulting runs from north to south parallel with the bank about 120 m to the west. In this bank, a fissure about 50 m in length and 0.1 m in width was taken shape. 222 Rn exhalation rates were relatively high on the top of the bank compared with on the slope of the bank. The mean 222 Rn exhalation rate of 5 points which were measured on the fissure was 16 mBq m -2 s -1 , and that which were measured on about 1 m to the east from the fissure was 4.9 mBq m -2 s -1 and in case about 1 m to the west was 4.2 mBq m -2 s -1 . From these results we concluded that there is a possibility to find fissures inside the bank using the characteristics of 222 Rn migration. Our future objective is to find fissures inside banks non-destructively. (author)

  9. On southern Hyogo-prefecture earthquake and some related activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper consists of three parts. At first the reporter discusses on the earthquake event on January 17, 1995, and then on the summary of the report of examining the adequacy of the guideline of seismic design of nuclear power plants in Japan by the task group, Nuclear Safety Commission. And also on the activity of 'the sub-committee on the research of seismic safety' for the future research subjects during 1996-2000 F.Y. (author)

  10. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on health, medical care and public health systems in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Nohara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The Great East Japan Earthquake was one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded in global history. The damage was spread over a wide area, with the worst-hit areas being Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures. In this paper we report on the damage and the impact of the damage to describe the health consequences among disaster victims in Iwate Prefecture.Context: In Iwate Prefecture the tsunami claimed 4659 lives, with 1633 people missing. In addition to electricity, water and gas being cut off following the disaster, communication functions were paralysed and there was a lack of gasoline.Action: Medical and public health teams from Iwate Prefecture and around the country, including many different specialists, engaged in a variety of public health activities mainly at evacuation centres, including medical and mental health care and activities to prevent infectious diseases.Outcome: Given the many fatalities, there were relatively few patients who required medical treatment for major injuries. However, there were significant medical needs in the subacute and chronic phases of care in evacuation centres, with great demand for medical treatment and public health assistance, measures to counteract infection and mental health care.Discussion: By referring to past experiences of national and international large-scale disasters, it was possible to respond effectively to the health-related challenges. However, there are still challenges concerning how to share information and coordinate overall activities among multiple public health response teams. Further examination will be required to ensure better preparedness in response to future disasters.

  11. Relationships between mental health distress and work-related factors among prefectural public servants two months after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, Maiko; Suzuki, Yuriko; Obara, Akiko; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2015-02-01

    In times of disaster, public servants face multiple burdens as they engage in a demanding and stressful disaster-response work while managing their own needs caused by the disaster. We investigated the effects of work-related factors on the mental health of prefectural public servants working in the area devastated by the Great East Japan Earthquake to identify some ideas for organizational work modifications to protect their mental health. Two months after the earthquake, Miyagi prefecture conducted a self-administered health survey of prefectural public servants and obtained 4,331 (82.8%) valid responses. We investigated relationships between mental health distress (defined as K6 ≥ 13) and work-related variables (i.e., job type, overwork, and working environment) stratified by level of earthquake damage experienced. The proportion of participants with mental health distress was 3.0% in the group that experienced less damage and 5.9% in the group that experienced severe damage. In the group that experienced less damage, working >100 h of overtime per month (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-3.82) and poor workplace communication (adjusted OR, 10.96; 95% CI, 6.63-18.09) increased the risk of mental health distress. In the group that experienced severe damage, handling residents' complaints (adjusted OR, 4.79; 95% CI, 1.55-14.82) and poor workplace communication (adjusted OR, 9.14; 95% CI, 3.34-24.97) increased the risk, whereas involvement in disaster-related work (adjusted OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.86) decreased the risk. Workers who have experienced less disaster-related damage might benefit from working fewer overtime hours, and those who have experienced severe damage might benefit from avoiding contact with residents and engaging in disaster-related work. Facilitating workplace communication appeared important for both groups of workers.

  12. Influence of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster on the birth weight of newborns in Fukushima Prefecture: Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Shun; Kyozuka, Hyo; Nomura, Yasuhisa; Fujimori, Keiya; Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji; Hata, Kennichi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Abe, Masafumi

    2017-12-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster occurred on 11 March 2011. We investigated the incidence of SGA (small for gestational age) in the Fukushima Prefecture in newborns delivered by women who were pregnant at the time of the disasters and identified any risk factors for SGA. Subjects were women who were pregnant at the time of the disasters. Questionnaires were sent to the women who lived in the Hamadori area (seaside and near to the nuclear power plant) at the time of the disasters as well as to a control group of women who lived outside the Hamadori area. The incidence of SGA was compared. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for SGA. In total, 325(5.6%) women had infants with SGA. Neither area nor the trimester of pregnancy at the time of the disasters influenced the incidence of SGA. Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) was higher in the SGA group. PIH was found to be an independent risk factor for SGA. We found no evidence that the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster increased the incidence of SGA in the Fukushima Prefecture.

  13. Time-Dependent Crustal Deformation Associated With the 2004 Chuetsu and the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses Gutierrez, A.; Sagiya, T.

    2013-12-01

    There is an ongoing concentrated deformation along the Japan Sea coast, which has been identified as Niigata Kobe Tectonic Zone (Sagiya et al., 2000). Large historical earthquakes have occurred in this area, and in recent years, Niigata has suffered the impact of two important events, known as the 2004 Mid-Niigata Prefecture earthquake (M 6.8) and The 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake (M 6.6), which considerately affected the crustal deformation pattern. For this reason, we review temporal variation of crustal deformation pattern in the mid Niigata region based on daily coordinates of 28 GPS sites from the GEONET network for three time windows: before 2004, 2004-2007 and after 2007 until March 2011, to avoid effects of crustal deformation associated with the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. We observed a migration of the deformation pattern in the East-West direction through the contraction belts for the above time windows. Before 2004, we recognize a clear shortening of 0.3ppm/yr in the area between the source regions of 2004 and 2007 quakes. After the 2004 Chuetsu earthquake, this shortening rate decreased. On the other hand, an accelerated contraction occurred to the east of this region, around the source region of the 2004 earthquake. After the 2007 earthquake, another contraction zone appeared to the northwest, near the 2007 source region. These time-dependent behaviors suggest there exists strong interaction between parallel fault segments in this area. It is crucially important to reveal such interaction to understand crustal deformation and seismogenesis in this region. We construct kinematic deformation models to interpret the time-dependent deformation pattern for each time period and to investigate mechanical interaction of coseismic as well as probably aseismic fault slips. Optimal faults parameters were established using a grid search, and computing the 95% confidence interval for each model parameter using the normalized Chi-squared distribution to

  14. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident on Assisted Reproductive Technology in Fukushima Prefecture: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masako; Fujimori, Keiya; Yasumura, Seiji; Nakai, Akihito

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidences and obstetric outcomes of women who conceived using assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures in Fukushima Prefecture before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Information was collected and analyzed from 12,070 women who conceived with or without ART in Fukushima Prefecture during the 9 months before and after the disaster. During the 9 months before and after the disaster, 138 (2.0%) and 102 (1.9%) women conceived with in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET), respectively. The proportion of women who conceived with IVF-ET decreased during the 2 months immediately after the disaster, but returned to pre-disaster levels 3 months after the disaster. In the case of women who conceived without IVF-ET, the incidences of preterm birth and low birth weight increased after the disaster. In contrast, women who conceived with IVF-ET did not differ significantly in obstetric outcomes before and after the disaster but had a higher incidence of cesarean section and low birth weight compared to those conceived without IVF-ET, regardless of the study period. The influence of the disaster on woman who conceived using ART procedures was minimal.

  15. Rocking motion of structures under earthquakes. Overturning of 2-DOF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Kihachiro; Tomoda, Akinori

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, huge earthquakes happen, for example, The South Hyogo prefecture Earthquake in 1995, The Mid Niigata Prefecture Earthquake in 2004, The Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake in 2008. In The Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007, hundreds of drums fell down and water spilled out. A lot of studies about rocking behavior of rigid body had been performed from 1960's. However, these studies were only for a specific condition of the structure size or input vibration characteristics. Therefore, generalizes fall condition for earthquake is required. This paper deals with the analytical and the experimental study of the rocking vibration of 1-DOF rocking system, 2-DOF vibration-rocking system and 2-DOF rocking system under earthquakes. In this study, the equation of motion for each rocking systems are developed. The numerical model of 2-DOF rocking system is evaluated by free rocking experiment. In this paper, 'Overturning Map' which can distinguish whether structures falls or not is proposed. The overturning map of each rocking systems excited by the artificial earthquake wave calculated from the design spectrum is shown. As the result, overturning condition of structures is clarified. (author)

  16. Assessing the Mental Health Impact of the 2011 Great Japan Earthquake, Tsunami, and Radiation Disaster on Elementary and Middle School Children in the Fukushima Prefecture of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Mark

    2017-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred off of Japan's Pacific coast, which was followed by huge tsunamis that destroyed many coastal cities in the area. Due to the earthquake and subsequent tsunami, malfunctions occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi (Fukushima I) nuclear power plant, resulting in the release of radioactive material in the region. While recent studies have investigated the effects of these events on the mental health of adults in the region, no studies have yet been performed investigating similar effects among children. This study aims to fill that gap by: 1) assessing the mental health of elementary and middle school children living within the Fukushima prefecture of Japan, and 2) identifying risk and protective factors that are associated with the children's mental health scores. These factors were quantified using an original demographics survey, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the latter two of which have been previously validated in a Japanese setting. The surveys were distributed to approximately 3,650 elementary and middle school students during the months of February and March, 2012. The data suggests that those children who had been relocated to the city of Koriyama had significantly higher SDQ scores than those children who were native to Koriyama (p natural disasters, younger children and those with parents suffering from trauma-related distress are particularly vulnerable to the onset of pediatric mental disturbances.

  17. AN ANALYSIS OF THE POLICY TO PROVIDE THE TRAFFIC INFORMATION IN THE CASE OF EARTHQUAKES AN EXAMPLE ON THE NOTO PENINSULA EARTHQUAKE, ISHIKAWA PREFECTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masanori; Takayama, Jun-Ichi; Nakayama, Shoichiro

    Noto Peninsula earthquake occurred in Ishikawa Pref., in March, 2007, and the Noto Yuryo, and many arterial roads were damaged. This led to the conosiderable confusion of the road traffic in Noto Peninsula area and gave the influence on all kinds of social/economic activities. Therefore, an method of providing the traffic information for drivers is important in the case of disasters such as earthquakes. We carried out a questionnaire survey for local inhabitants and investigated the road use situation at the time of the Noto Peninsula earthquake and the information acquisition situation about it. We also analyzed whether or not the method of providing the traffic information was appropriate. In addition, we examined the best traffic information in the case of earthquakes.

  18. Pregnant Women's Awareness of Social Capital in the Great East Japan Earthquake-Affected Areas of Miyagi Prefecture: The Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Toshie; Sakurai, Kasumi; Mizuno, Satoshi; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Watanabe, Zen; Iwama, Noriyuki; Ishikuro, Mami; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Nishijima, Ichiko; Sugawara, Junichi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Arima, Takahiro; Nakai, Kunihiko; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to clarify the correlation between the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and pregnant women's awareness of social capital 3 to 9 months after the tsunami disaster. We analyzed data on responses to a questionnaire by 7451 pregnant women in their second to third trimesters. The proportions of social capital-related items were calculated in the north and south coastal areas of Miyagi Prefecture and were compared with national samples. The factors associated with social capital were estimated by use of multivariate logistic regression analyses. The proportion of women feeling that they had helpful neighbors was higher (69.0% vs 56.7%, P=0.0005), the proportion of women regarding their communities as safe and secure was lower (51.7% vs 62.4%, P=0.002), and the proportion of women feeling that most people were trustworthy was lower (23.7% vs 32.9%, P=0.006) in the north coastal area than nationwide. Such differences were not observed in the less severely affected south coastal area. Age of 35 years or older, extended family, college or university graduation, and being multiparous were associated with the feeling of having helpful neighbors. The current status of pregnant women's awareness of social capital in disaster-affected areas was revealed. Continuous monitoring and support may be necessary to address this issue.(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:355-364).

  19. Snowboarding and ski boarding injuries in Niigata, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yuko; Sakuraba, Keishoku

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the injury patterns and incidence of snowboarding and ski boarding injuries with that of alpine skiing in 2000 to 2005, as there are few previous studies comparing these 3 sports, especially in Asia. The injury patterns are different among the 3 snow sports. Descriptive epidemiology study. The subjects were alpine skiers (1240 cases), snowboarders (2220 cases), and ski boarders (132 cases) who were injured in 2 ski resorts located in Niigata prefecture in Japan and visited the authors' clinics in these ski resorts between 2000 and 2005. On visiting the clinics, patients completed a questionnaire reviewing the circumstances surrounding the injury event, and physicians documented the diagnosis. The injury rate, which was based on all purchased lift tickets, in snowboarding decreased gradually, although it was still 2 times higher than that of alpine skiing. Snowboarding and ski boarding had a higher fracture and dislocation rate. Both sports also had a 4 times higher rate of injuries because of jumping. The characteristics of ski boarding were a lower head and neck injury rate and collision injury rate than those of the other 2 snow sports, as well as a 2 times higher rate of fractures compared with alpine skiing injuries and a 1.4 times higher incidence than that of snowboarding injuries. Of the fractures caused by ski boarding accidents, 39.6% affected the lower leg bones. Injury prevention strategies should focus on jumps for snowboarders and ski boarders.

  20. Onsite medical rounds and fact-finding activities conducted by Nippon Medical School in Miyagi prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Akira; Igarashi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Kim, Shiei; Tsujii, Atsuko; Kawai, Makoto; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    This report describes our onsite medical rounds and fact-finding activities conducted in the acute phase and medical relief work conducted in the subacute phase in Miyagi prefecture following the Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami that occurred off northeastern Honshu on March 11, 2011. As part of the All-Japan Hospital Association medical team deployed to the disaster area, a Nippon Medical School team conducted fact-finding and onsite medical rounds and evaluated basic life and medical needs in the affected areas of Shiogama and Tagajo. We performed triage for more than 2,000 casualties, but in our medical rounds of hospitals, clinics, and nursing homes, we found no severely injured person but did find 1 case of hyperglycemia. We conducted medical rounds at evacuation shelters in Kesennuma City during the subacute phase of the disaster, from March 17 through June 1, as part of the Tokyo Medical Association medical teams deployed. Sixty-seven staff members (17 teams), including 46 physicians, 11 nurses, 3 pharmacists, and 1 clinical psychotherapist, joined this mission. Most patients complained of a worsening of symptoms of preexisting conditions, such as hypertension, respiratory problems, and diabetes, rather than of medical problems specifically related to the tsunami. In the acute phase of the disaster, the information infrastructure was decimated and we could not obtain enough information about conditions in the affected areas, such as how many persons were severely injured, how severely lifeline services had been damaged, and what was lacking. To start obtaining this information, we conducted medical rounds. This proved to be a good decision, as we found many injured persons in evacuation shelters without medication, communication devices, or transportation. Also, basic necessities for life, such as water and food, were lacking. We were able to evaluate these basic needs and inform local disaster headquarters of them. In Kesennuma City, we

  1. Extent of flood damage increased cerebrovascular disease incidences in Iwate prefecture after the great East Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omama, Shinichi; Yoshida, Yuki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Ogawa, Akira; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Tanno, Kozo; Ohsawa, Masaki; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Sakata, Kiyomi

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have reported on increases in the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases after huge earthquakes. An increase in the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases was observed after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of 2011. To assess whether tsunami damage or the earthquake was responsible for this trend, we assessed the relative impact of earthquake magnitude and flood damage on cerebrovascular disease. A total of 12 coastal municipalities facing the epicenter were divided into 4 flood severity groups according to the percentage of people living in the flooded areas (earthquake severity group. Odds ratios (ORs) of disease incidence and the adjusted ORs for seismic intensity (using the Mantel-Haenszel method) between the higher (≥40%) and the lower flooded area (Earthquake and Tsunami of 2011 increased because of tsunami damage and not because of the earthquake magnitude. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. DAMAGE ASSESSMENT ON WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM AND SEWERAGE SYSTEM AT THE 2011 OFF THE PACIFIC COAST OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE - CASE STUDY FOR THE DATA AT IBARAKI AND CHIBA PREFECTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naba, Satoshi; Tsukiji, Takuya; Shoji, Gaku; Nagata, Shigeru

    We evaluate the dependency of damage and restoration of water supply systems and sewerage system on the seismic hazards in the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake focusing on the damage at Ibaraki and Chiba prefectures. We use the damage data of the systems by carrying out field survey, interviews for related local government sectors and surveying the information in web sites. We quantify two damage ratios defined by the ratio of number of physical damage points Np with the related pipeline lengths L and that of disrupted lengths Ld with L. In addition, we discuss relation between restoration periods with the seismic hazards. Finally, we verify the fitting of the damage data with previous seismic fragility curves on sewerage pipelines.

  3. Questionnaire investigation for the earthquake in Honjo city and Yazawa city, Akita Prefecture; Jishin ni kansuru ishiki chosa (Akitaken Honjoshi oyobi Yuzawashi ni okeru anketo kara)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogoshi, M. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education; Kabutoya, S.

    1996-05-01

    Consciousness for the earthquake was investigated by questionnaire surveys made in Honjo City and Yuzawa City, Akita Pref. in October 1995 twelve years after the Nihonkai Chubu Earthquake (M=7.7) in May 1983. The survey was conducted in terms of 27 items including personality, memory, knowledge/interest, psychology/action, mental attitude/preparations, wishes for researchers and administration, etc. Also included were the items on the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake and the earthquake blank areas. The number of distributed questionnaires and the recovery rate of them are 1500 and 79.2% in Honjo City, and 1700 and 84.7% in Yuzawa City. From the survey, it was found that people have a lot of knowledge of and high interest in the earthquake and well remember it, and a lot of people know of tsunami, liquefaction phenomena, and the earthquake blank area. Further, they are afraid of earthquakes and think of their actions to be taken in case of earthquake. However, most people are little prepared for earthquakes. Important future subjects were suggested for the study of disaster prevention measures. 13 figs.

  4. 1996 IASPEI・第30回万国地質学会および四川省・広東省の地震と地熱活動の日中共同研究現地検討会

    OpenAIRE

    大木, 靖衛; 徐, 輝竜; 渡部, 直喜; 佐藤, 修; 鈴木, 幸治; 何, 熙平; 馮, 絢敏; 張, 虎男; Oki, Y.; Xu, H.; Watanabe, N.; Sato, O.; Suzuki, K.; He, X.; Feng, X.

    1997-01-01

    In the 1996 Tangshan IASPEI regional assembly and the 30th IGC, Beijing, we had red three papers, 1) on a geochemistry of groundwaters in the Matsunoyama landslide, Niigata prefecture, 2) a seismo-geological inspection on the distribution of seismic intensity of the1995 northern Niigata earthquake of M6.0, which indicates the presence of a buried active fault beneath flat plain, northern Niigata prefecture and 3) the occurrences of historical destructive earthquakes in the Niigata plain are w...

  5. Radiology diagnostic devices under emergency electric power at disaster base hospitals during the acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake: results of a survey of all disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maezawa, Shota; Kudo, Daisuke; Furukawa, Hajime; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Matsumura, Takashi; Egawa, Shinichi; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the management of emergency electric power and the operation of radiology diagnostic devices after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Timing of electricity restoration, actual emergency electric power generation, and whether radiology diagnostic devices were operational and the reason if not were investigated through a questionnaire submitted to all 14 disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture in February and March 2013. Commercial electricity supply resumed within 3 days after the earthquake at 13 of 14 hospitals. Actual emergency electric power generation was lower than pre-disaster estimates at most of the hospitals. Only 4 of 11 hospitals were able to generate 60% of the power normally consumed. Under emergency electric power, conventional X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scanners worked in 9 of 14 (64%) and 8 of 14 (57%) hospitals, respectively. The main reason conventional X-ray and CT scanners did not operate was that hospitals had not planned to use these devices under emergency electric power. Only 2 of the 14 hospitals had a pre-disaster plan to allocate emergency electric power, and all devices operated at these 2 hospitals. Pre-disaster plans to allocate emergency electric power are required for disaster base hospitals to effectively operate radiology diagnostic devices after a disaster. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;8:548-552).

  6. Reliability of telecommunications systems following a major disaster: survey of secondary and tertiary emergency institutions in Miyagi Prefecture during the acute phase of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Daisuke; Furukawa, Hajime; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Abe, Yoshiko; Washio, Toshikatsu; Arafune, Tatsuhiko; Sato, Dai; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Ochi, Sae; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2014-04-01

    Telecommunication systems are important for sharing information among health institutions to successfully provide medical response following disasters. The aim of this study was to clarify the problems associated with telecommunication systems in the acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake (March 11, 2011). All 72 of the secondary and tertiary emergency hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture were surveyed to evaluate the telecommunication systems in use during the 2011 Great Japan Earthquake, including satellite mobile phones, multi-channel access (MCA) wireless systems, mobile phones, Personal Handy-phone Systems (PHS), fixed-line phones, and the Internet. Hospitals were asked whether the telecommunication systems functioned correctly during the first four days after the earthquake, and, if not, to identify the cause of the malfunction. Each telecommunication system was considered to function correctly if the hospital staff could communicate at least once in every three calls. Valid responses were received from 53 hospitals (73.6%). Satellite mobile phones functioned correctly at the highest proportion of the equipped hospitals, 71.4%, even on Day 0. The MCA wireless system functioned correctly at the second highest proportion of the equipped hospitals. The systems functioned correctly at 72.0% on Day 0 and at 64.0% during Day 1 through Day 3. The main cause of malfunction of the MCA wireless systems was damage to the base station or communication lines (66.7%). Ordinary (personal or general communication systems) mobile phones did not function correctly at any hospital until Day 2, and PHS, fixed-line phones, and the Internet did not function correctly at any area hospitals that were severely damaged by the tsunami. Even in mildly damaged areas, these systems functioned correctly at telecommunications systems do not function.

  7. A comparison of different fractal analyses for VHF electromagnetic emissions and their self-organization for the off-sea Miyagi-prefecture earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yonaiguchi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The VHF electromagnetic noise intensity data at several stations in the Tohoku area of Japan during the period of a rather large (with magnitude of 7.2 earthquake (Miyagi-ken oki earthquake taken place on 16 August 2005, are analyzed by means of different fractal analysis methods, including (1 spectral slope estimation, (2 multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis and (3 multi-fractal wavelet transform modulus maxima method. It seems to the authors that there is no definite analysis method for the analysis of any seismogenic phenomenon, so that the only way we have to take, is to apply different methods to the same data for the detailed comparison of the results. This comparison enables us to deduce the properties commonly observed by the above methods. Because the most important feature common to these three methods, is that significant changes in fractal scaling characteristics are observed just during the earthquake (mainly before the earthquake only at one station of Kunimi. Finally, we can come to the definite conclusion on the self-organization of VHF emissions only at one station in the present case.

  8. Delayed increase in male suicide rates in tsunami disaster-stricken areas following the great east japan earthquake: a three-year follow-up study in Miyagi Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orui, Masatsugu; Sato, Yasuhiro; Tazaki, Kanako; Kawamura, Ikuko; Harada, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Mizuho

    2015-03-01

    Devastating natural disasters and their aftermath are known to cause psychological distress. However, little information is available regarding suicide rates following tsunami disasters that destroy regional social services and networks. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the tsunami disaster following the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 has influenced suicide rates. The study period was from March 2009 to February 2014. Tsunami disaster-stricken areas were defined as the 16 municipalities facing the Pacific Ocean in Miyagi Prefecture. Inland areas were defined as other municipalities in Miyagi that were damaged by the earthquake. Suicide rates in the tsunami disaster-stricken areas were compared to national averages, using a time-series analysis and the Poisson distribution test. In tsunami disaster-stricken areas, male suicide rates were significantly lower than the national average during the initial post-disaster period and began to increase after two years. Likewise, male suicide rates in the inland areas decreased for seven months, and then increased to exceed the national average. In contrast, female post-disaster suicide rates did not change in both areas compared to the national average. Importantly, the male suicide rates in the inland areas started to increase earlier compared to the tsunami-stricken areas, which may reflect the relative deficiency of mental healthcare services in the inland areas. Considering the present status that many survivors from the tsunami disaster still live in temporary housing and face various challenges to rebuild their lives, we should continue intensive, long-term mental healthcare services in the tsunami-stricken areas.

  9. Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause ...

  10. Landslide Distribution, Damage and Land Use Interactions During the 2004 Chuetsu Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, R. C.; Trandafir, A. C.; Kamai, T.

    2005-05-01

    A series of earthquakes struck Niigata Prefecture, Japan, on 23 October 2004 killing about 40 people and injuring about 3000. These earthquakes were characterized by a shallow focal depth (13 km) that generated strong levels of ground motion, resulting in extensive damage and thousands of landslides throughout the region. Most landslides on natural slopes occurred in the regional geological structure consisting of sandy siltstone and thin-bedded alternations of sandstone and siltstone. Earthquakes exacerbate such potential instabilities by the ground motion induced and the enhancement of pore water pressure in wet regoliths. The three strongest earthquakes occurred within a period of less than 40 minutes, and had sequential magnitudes (JMA) of 6.8, 6.3, and 6.5. The highest density of landslides (12/km2) was mapped within a 2.9 km radius of the M6.5 epicenter near Yamakoshi village; about 4 times higher density compared to the other epicenters located to the east and west. This higher density may be a consequence of the cumulative shaking effects associated with the two earlier earthquakes of M6.8 and 6.5, in addition to the topographic and geologic factors controlling the stability of the region. Roads, residential fills, agricultural terraces on hillslopes, and other earthworks increased the susceptibility of sites to slope failure. Numerous earthquake-induced failures in terraces and adjacent hillslopes around rice paddy fields occurred near Yamakoshi village. A housing development in Nagaoka city constructed on an old earthflow suffered from severe damage to fill slopes during the earthquake. Nearly saturated conditions in these deep fills together with poor drainage systems contributed to the landslide damages. Clearly, land use activities in rural and urban areas exacerbated the extent of earthquake-triggered landslides.

  11. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on Hotel Industry in Pacific Tohoku Prefectures ---From Spatio-Temporal Dependence of Hotel Availability---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, A.

    This paper investigates the impact of the Great Japan Earthquake(and subsequent tsunami turmoil) on socio-economic activities by using data on hotel opportunities collected from an electronic hotel booking service. A method to estimate both primary and secondary regional effects of a natural disaster on human behavior is proposed. It is confirmed that temporal variation in the regional share of available hotels before and after a natural disaster may be an indicator to measure the socio-economic impact at each district.

  12. Earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakiser, Louis C.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in earthquakes with an introduction to the subject. Following a section presenting an historical look at the world's major earthquakes, the booklet discusses earthquake-prone geographic areas, the nature and workings of earthquakes, earthquake…

  13. Change in and long-term investigation of neuro-otologic disorders in disaster-stricken Fukushima prefecture: retrospective cohort study before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hasegawa

    Full Text Available On March 11, 2011, Japan's northeast Pacific coast was hit by a gigantic earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Soma City in Fukushima Prefecture is situated approximately 44 km north of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Soma General Hospital is the only hospital in Soma City that provides full-time otolaryngological medical care. We investigated the changes in new patients from one year before to three years after the disaster. We investigated 18,167 new patients treated at our department during the four years from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2014. Of the new patients, we categorized the diagnoses into Meniere's disease, acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo, sudden deafness, tinnitus, and facial palsy as neuro-otologic symptoms. We also investigated the changes in the numbers of patients whom we examined at that time concerning other otolaryngological disorders, including epistaxis, infectious diseases of the laryngopharynx, and allergic rhinitis. The total number of new patients did not change remarkably on a year-to-year basis. Conversely, cases of vertigo, Meniere's disease, and acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss increased in number immediately after the disaster, reaching a plateau in the second year and slightly decreasing in the third year. Specifically, 4.8% of patients suffering from these neuro-otologic diseases had complications from depression and other mental diseases. With regard to new patients in our department, there was no apparent increase in the number of patients suffering from diseases other than neuro-otologic diseases, including epistaxis, and allergic rhinitis. Patients suffering from vertigo and/or dizziness increased during the first few years after the disaster. These results are attributed to the continuing stress and tension of the inhabitants. This investigation of those living in the disaster area highlights the need for long-term support.

  14. The trial edition of historical earthquake data base in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, A.; Satake, K.; Yata, T.; Urabe, A.; Maejima, Y.

    2012-04-01

    There are many historical documents in Japan and these are analyzed by historical researchers. The descriptions of the occurrence times and damage of historical earthquakes in and around Japan are included in these historical documents. However, the analyses of these historical documents require technical knowledge and therefore, it is not straightforward for unprofessional researchers to directly utilize these historical documents. A historical earthquake document data base was made by Ishibashi et al. for ancient and medieval ages (until around AD 1600). For early modern, or Edo, period, the amount of historical documents is significantly larger and quality of documents is variable, hence quality check is important. We are making historical earthquake data base, which is composed of the historical earthquake document data base and seismic intensity data base, for a few earthquakes in Edo period. The 1751 Echigo-Takada and 1828 Echigo-Sanjo earthquakes, which occurred in Echigo (the present Niigata Prefecture) and caused extensive damage, were selected for the trial edition of historical earthquake data base. We selected historical records with high reliability, formatted them as XML data, and created historical earthquake record data base. Incidentally, pictures which describe damage of these historical earthquakes are also contained in this data base, and the damage can be visually shown. From the reliable documents, we estimated a ratio of collapsed houses and seismic intensity, and created the trial edition of seismic intensity data base by using Google Earth as a platform. We selected historical records which describe both the total number of houses and the number of collapsed houses in each village or town at the occurrence time of these earthquakes because the number of houses varies in time. Then, we calculated the ratio of collapsed houses and estimated seismic intensities in the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) scale based on Usami (1986)'s table as

  15. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH IN DISASTER RESTORATION ACTIVITY AFTER SOME MAJOR EARTHQUAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyosawa, Yasuo; Itoh, Kazuya; Kikkawa, Naotaka

    Occupational safety and health in disaster restoration activity following the Great Hanshin Earthquake (1995), Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake (2004), Niigata Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (2007) Great East Japan Earthquake (2011) were analyzed and characterized in order to raise awareness on the risks and hazards in such work. In this scenario, the predominant type of accident is a "fall" which increases mainly due to the fact that labourers are working to repair houses and buildings. On the other hand, landslides were prevalent in the Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake, resulting in more accidents occurring during geotechnical works rather than in buildings construction works. In the abnormal conditions that characterize recovery activities, when safety and health measures have a tendency to be neglected, it is important to reinstate adequate measures as soon as possible by carrying out the usial risk assessments.

  16. Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Evacuation Center Play Areas Animals in Public Evacuation Centers Pet Shelters Interim Guidelines for Animal Health and Control of Disease Transmission in Pet Shelters Protect Your Pets Earthquakes Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  17. Seismic Observation in Deep Boreholes and Its Applications - Workshop Proceedings, Niigata Institute of Technology, Kashiwazaki, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Kashiwazaki WS was held to develop the recommendations made at the Tsukuba WS entitled 'Seismic Input Motions Incorporating Recent Geological Studies' which was held in November 2004 in Tsukuba City in Japan (hereinafter, the 'Tsukuba WS'). At the Tsukuba WS, the state of the art in defining realistic seismic input for the design and re-evaluation of nuclear facilities as well as advances in seismic source characterization of fault zones using data from deep geological investigations and their possible contribution to improving seismic input definitions were reviewed. Further, the importance and necessity of cooperation between seismology and geology in order to decrease uncertainty in seismic input definition were emphasized. After the Tsukuba WS, the Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (NCOE, M=6.8) occurred near the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP site. In this earthquake, a focusing effect of ground motion was observed at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP site, which caused locally amplified ground motion. Units 1 and 2 showed significantly higher responses of more than 50 percent compared to Units 3 to 7. This was thought to be caused by the fact that seismic waves were focused on Units 1 and 2 due to the irregular structure under the site. A similar effect was observed at the Hamaoka site in the earthquake that occurred in Suruga Bay in 2009. Only Unit 5 showed a double or larger response to this earthquake, and similar phenomena were found only for events with hypocenter in the narrow direction from the site. This was also thought to be caused by the irregular geological structure under the site. In the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake, the peak ground accelerations (PGA) of the Dai-ichi NPP site were about twice as large as those of the Dai-ni NPP site, although the distance between these sites is only slightly more than 10 km. Further, large differences in the PGAs were found among each of the units of the Dai-ichi NPP site. For example, the PGA of Unit

  18. Optimization of Causative Factors for Landslide Susceptibility Evaluation Using Remote Sensing and GIS Data in Parts of Niigata, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Jie; Tien Bui, Dieu; Yunus, Ali P; Jia, Kun; Song, Xuan; Revhaug, Inge; Xia, Huan; Zhu, Zhongfan

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the potentiality of certainty factor models (CF) for the best suitable causative factors extraction for landslide susceptibility mapping in the Sado Island, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. To test the applicability of CF, a landslide inventory map provided by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) was split into two subsets: (i) 70% of the landslides in the inventory to be used for building the CF based model; (ii) 30% of the landslides to be used for the validation purpose. A spatial database with fifteen landslide causative factors was then constructed by processing ALOS satellite images, aerial photos, topographical and geological maps. CF model was then applied to select the best subset from the fifteen factors. Using all fifteen factors and the best subset factors, landslide susceptibility maps were produced using statistical index (SI) and logistic regression (LR) models. The susceptibility maps were validated and compared using landslide locations in the validation data. The prediction performance of two susceptibility maps was estimated using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC). The result shows that the area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the LR model (AUC = 0.817) is slightly higher than those obtained from the SI model (AUC = 0.801). Further, it is noted that the SI and LR models using the best subset outperform the models using the fifteen original factors. Therefore, we conclude that the optimized factor model using CF is more accurate in predicting landslide susceptibility and obtaining a more homogeneous classification map. Our findings acknowledge that in the mountainous regions suffering from data scarcity, it is possible to select key factors related to landslide occurrence based on the CF models in a GIS platform. Hence, the development of a scenario for future planning of risk mitigation is achieved in an efficient manner.

  19. Optimization of Causative Factors for Landslide Susceptibility Evaluation Using Remote Sensing and GIS Data in Parts of Niigata, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Jie; Tien Bui, Dieu; P. Yunus, Ali; Jia, Kun; Song, Xuan; Revhaug, Inge; Xia, Huan; Zhu, Zhongfan

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the potentiality of certainty factor models (CF) for the best suitable causative factors extraction for landslide susceptibility mapping in the Sado Island, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. To test the applicability of CF, a landslide inventory map provided by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) was split into two subsets: (i) 70% of the landslides in the inventory to be used for building the CF based model; (ii) 30% of the landslides to be used for the validation purpose. A spatial database with fifteen landslide causative factors was then constructed by processing ALOS satellite images, aerial photos, topographical and geological maps. CF model was then applied to select the best subset from the fifteen factors. Using all fifteen factors and the best subset factors, landslide susceptibility maps were produced using statistical index (SI) and logistic regression (LR) models. The susceptibility maps were validated and compared using landslide locations in the validation data. The prediction performance of two susceptibility maps was estimated using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC). The result shows that the area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the LR model (AUC = 0.817) is slightly higher than those obtained from the SI model (AUC = 0.801). Further, it is noted that the SI and LR models using the best subset outperform the models using the fifteen original factors. Therefore, we conclude that the optimized factor model using CF is more accurate in predicting landslide susceptibility and obtaining a more homogeneous classification map. Our findings acknowledge that in the mountainous regions suffering from data scarcity, it is possible to select key factors related to landslide occurrence based on the CF models in a GIS platform. Hence, the development of a scenario for future planning of risk mitigation is achieved in an efficient manner. PMID:26214691

  20. Decontamination measures for Fukushima prefecture. Fukushima prefecture measures for promoting decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Kouzou

    2013-01-01

    For Fukushima prefecture having suffered from significant damage associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake and the nuclear power plant accident, the decontamination work is the most urgent issue. The paper reports the present situation of the remediation acts of Fukushima Government done since the accident, particular emphasis on the removal of radioactive substances due to cesium 137 in the residential area. Government supports to promote the decontamination work and its operators, and encourages employers and employees in their efforts, to set up temporary storages of the produced radioactive wastes, to cultivate and improve technical supports for decontamination work and strengthen understanding and support of the local resident, thus providing the training course for the site supervisors, the person engaged in the work and management. (S. Ohno)

  1. Social impacts induced by radiation risk in Fukushima prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    An accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant induced by an earthquake of M9.0 and subsequent tsunami gave various kinds of impacts around the plant. After reviewing arguments of local governments for low dose radiation risk, this paper analyzed social impacts by the risk in terms of a gap of emergency response between national and local governments, corruption of communities in various levels induced by plural statements for risk levels in low level radiation, and economic impacts for agricultural crops made in Fukushima prefecture. Afterwards, clues for improving the situation were discussed, which include understanding of characteristics of public perception, attitudes of experts and interactive risk communication. (author)

  2. Temporal Characteristics of Recent Aftershock Sequences from Moderate-sized Earthquakes of Onshore Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial and temporal distributions of aftershocks were studied for 9 recent moderate earthquakes that occurred at shallow depth onshore of Japan and were well recorded by the regional networks. These events are the 2000 Western Tottori (Mw 6.7), 2004 Niigata Chuetsu (Mw 6.6), 2005 Fukuoka (Mw 6.6), 2007 Noto Peninsula (Mw 6.7), 2007 Niigata Chuetsu-oki (Mw 6.8), 2008 Iwate-Miyagi-ken (Mw 6.8), and 2017 Kumamoto (Mw6.2). All of these earthquakes are approximately of similar size, however, the rates of aftershock activity are quite different. The 2004 Niigata and 2008 Iwate-Miyagi earthquakes have significantly more aftershocks than the other 7 events. In the spatial locations of the aftershocks, these two earthquakes have more complex spatial distributions with more aftershocks occurring away from the mainshock fault plane. There appears to be a correlation between the rate of aftershock activity and the spatial complexity of the locations. The sequences with higher rates of aftershock occurrence may be associated with aftershocks triggered in a volume around the mainshock. In contrast, for the other sequences, aftershocks occur mainly in a planar pattern close to the mainshock fault plane. The early time sequence of the aftershocks for these events were also examined. Using continuously recorded seismograms from nearby borehole stations of Hi-net, aftershocks were identified and counted. From about one minute following the mainshock origin time, we estimate that we can identify aftershocks with magnitudes down to Mj 3.5. For the first few minutes the rate of aftershocks is quite similar for all of the mainshocks. The higher rate of aftershocks for the 2004 Niigata and 2008 Iwate-Miyagi earthquakes appears to begin about 10 minutes after the mainshock. This suggests that the enhanced triggering of aftershock for these two earthquakes may be caused by some changes in the aftershock region several minutes after the mainshock.

  3. Pre injection characterisation and evaluation of CO{sub 2} sequestration potential in the Haizume formation, Niigata basin, Japan; Caracterisation avant injection et evaluation du potentiel de sequestration de CO{sub 2} dans la formation de Haizume, bassin de Niigata, Japon. Modelisation geochimique des interactions eau-mineraux-CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwingmann, N. [CSIRO Petroleum, ARRC, Bentley, WA (Australia); Mito, S.; Sorai, M.; Ohsumi, T. [RITE, Kyoto (Japan); Zwingmann, N. [Western, Univ. (Australia); Sorai, M. [Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. (Japan)

    2005-03-15

    The Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) is carrying out a small-scale CO{sub 2} injection field experiment to investigate the feasibility of geological sequestration of CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas in the south-west of Nagaoka City, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Prior to the injection geochemical reactions caused by CO{sub 2} injections were investigated using the geochemical modelling code (EQ3/6). The injection formation is the sedimentary marine Haizume Formation (Pleistocene) in the Uonuma Group, which is covered by a mud-stone seal. The formation is mainly composed of quartz, plagioclase, feldspar, pyroxene, and clays (smectite, chlorite). The sandstone shows minor consolidation and grain size is medium to coarse sand. The total dissolved solid (TDS) of the formation water is approximately 6100 mg/l and the water contains a high Ca{sup 2+} ({>=} 20% of Na{sup +} concentration). The geochemical model was used for an initial adjustment of the formation water chemistry to the formation conditions and a modelling of the formation water-mineral-CO{sub 2} reactions. The modelling results showed a high reactivity of the minerals in the CO{sub 2} rich environment and high mineral conversion rate within the formation. At the final state, approximately 23 mol of CO{sub 2} were taken into 1 kg of formation water and more than 90% of this was stored within carbonate minerals. In this simulation, some uncertainty is associated with the time scale and a more detailed investigation is planned and will address accurate evaluation. (authors)

  4. Great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake and earthquake insurance on dwelling risks in Japan; Hanshin Awaji daishinsai to jishin hoken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawa, J. [The Marine and Fire Insurance Association of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-02-15

    Japan is well-known as one of the earthquake countries. Although necessity of the earthquake insurance has been pointed out vigorously, it has not come out into the world due to the specialty of earthquake risk. Since the Great Niigata Earthquake in 1964, it has become a matter of concern of public interest and a law on the earthquake insurance was established in 1966. After that, drawing up of the maximum amount of earthquake insurance contract, extension of items applicable to the earthquake insurance, and drawing up of the maximum total payment for one earthquake disaster has been realized with the progress of social economy. With the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake as a turning point, the law was revised again. Namely, dwelling houses and household effects have become the objects for insurance, which are belonged to the fire insurance of dwelling house (a main contract), and the earthquake insurance is set up in a range from 30% to 50% of the main contract. The maximum total payment for one earthquake disaster has been drawn to 3.1 trillion yen, in which the burden ratio between nonlife insurance companies and the government is decided according to the total amount. Additionally, this paper introduces the response of nonlife insurance trade to the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, and the damages evaluation by various nonlife insurance companies in the paralysis of traffic network. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Niigata S3’ is a new strawberry cultivar suitable for forcing culture under low temperature and insolation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamato, Naonori; Kotake, Osamu; Ono, Nagaaki; Kurashima, Hiroshi; Nakano, Masaru; Iwamoto, Yuzuri; Takahashi, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Niigata S3’ is a new strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) cultivar that is early flowering and possesses high soluble solid content and good coloration. It was selected from a cross between Kei812 (seed parent) and ‘Asuka-Ruby’ (pollen parent). The first harvest date of ‘Niigata S3’ was December 27, 34 days earlier than ‘Echigohime’ and 9 days earlier than ‘Asuka-Ruby’ (means of 2007 and 2008). The marketable yield of ‘Niigata S3’ was 85% of ‘Echigohime’, 107% of ‘Asuka-Ruby’, while the early yield was 145% of ‘Echigohime’, 85% of ‘Asuka-Ruby’ (based on 2007 and 2008 means). The shape of the fruit is long conical, and its skin color medium-red. The fruit skin hardness of ‘Niigata S3’ was 31.5 g/mm2, which was harder than ‘Echigohime’, and its average soluble solid content was 11.4%, which was higher than the values for ‘Echigohime’ and ‘Asuka-Ruby’ (2008). Furthermore, ‘Niigata S3’ did not bear apical overripe fruit. This new cultivar is adaptable to the climatic conditions of Niigata, as well as other regions that experience low winter temperatures and insolation. PMID:25914600

  6. Identification of Legionella rubrilucens isolated from a hot spring for foot-soaking in Niigata, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Edagawa, Akiko; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Morimoto, Yo; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2012-06-01

    In May 2011, strain HYNE-20 (=JCM 17837) was isolated from a sample of hot spring water from a foot spa in Niigata, Japan, by a plating method using glycine vancomycin polymyxin B cycloheximide α-ketoglutarate (GVPCα) medium at 36°C for 7 d. The 16S rDNA sequences (1,469bp) of this strain (accession number: AB638719) had high (99.7%) similarity to Legionella rubrilucens, and we identified that this strain was indeed Legionella rubrilucens. When this strain was cultured on buffered charcoal yeast extract α-ketoglutarate (BCYEα) agar at 36°C for 7 d, it exhibited red autofluorescence under UV light (365 nm) . The dominant cellular fatty acids of the strain HYNE-20 were 16:1ω7c (29.9%) , and the guanine-plus-cytosine (G+C) content of DNA was 49.0 mol%. This is the first report that Legionella rubrilucens was isolated from a hot spring for foot soaking.

  7. Estimation of Effective Dose from External Exposure in The Six Prefectures adjacent to Fukushima Prefecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyatake Hirokazu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident caused a release of radionuclides. Radionuclides were deposited on the ground not only in Fukushima prefecture but also in nearby prefectures. Since the accident, measurement of radiation in environment such as air dose rate and deposition density of radionuclides has been performed by many organizations and universities. In particular, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA has been performing observations of air dose rate using a car-borne survey system continuously and over wide areas. In our study, using the data measured by JAEA, we estimated effective dose from external exposure in the six prefectures adjacent to Fukushima prefecture. Since car-borne survey was started a few months later after the accident, measured air dose rate in this method is mainly contributed by 137Cs and 134Cs whose half-lives are relatively long. Therefore, based on air dose rate of 137Cs and 134Cs and the ratio of deposition density of short-half-life nuclides to that of 137Cs and 134Cs, we also estimated effective dose contributed from not only 137Cs and 134Cs but also other short-half-life nuclides. We compared the effective dose estimated by the method above with that of UNSCEAR and measured data using personal dosimeters in some areas.

  8. Estimation of Effective Dose from External Exposure in The Six Prefectures adjacent to Fukushima Prefecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Hirokazu; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Hirakawa, Sachiko; Murakami, Kana; Takizawa, Mari; Kawai, Masaki; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Shunji; Suzuki, Gen

    2017-09-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident caused a release of radionuclides. Radionuclides were deposited on the ground not only in Fukushima prefecture but also in nearby prefectures. Since the accident, measurement of radiation in environment such as air dose rate and deposition density of radionuclides has been performed by many organizations and universities. In particular, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been performing observations of air dose rate using a car-borne survey system continuously and over wide areas. In our study, using the data measured by JAEA, we estimated effective dose from external exposure in the six prefectures adjacent to Fukushima prefecture. Since car-borne survey was started a few months later after the accident, measured air dose rate in this method is mainly contributed by 137Cs and 134Cs whose half-lives are relatively long. Therefore, based on air dose rate of 137Cs and 134Cs and the ratio of deposition density of short-half-life nuclides to that of 137Cs and 134Cs, we also estimated effective dose contributed from not only 137Cs and 134Cs but also other short-half-life nuclides. We compared the effective dose estimated by the method above with that of UNSCEAR and measured data using personal dosimeters in some areas.

  9. Follow-up IAEA mission in relation to the findings and lessons learned from the 16 July 2007 earthquake at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP - 'The Niigataken Chuetsu-oki earthquake', Tokyo and Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP, Japan, 28 January - 1 February 2008. Mission report. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    On 16 July 2007, a strong earthquake, the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki earthquake, with a moment magnitude of 6.6 (M JMA =6.8 according to the Japanese Meteorological Agency), occurred at 10:13 h local time with its hypocentre below the seabed of the Jo-chuetsu area in Niigata prefecture (37 deg. 33' N, 138 deg. 37'E) in Japan, affecting the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) located approximately 16 km south of its epicentre. Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP is the biggest nuclear power plant site in the world. It is located in the Niigata prefecture, in the northwest coast of Japan, and it is operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The site has seven units with a total of 7965 MW net installed capacity. Five reactors are of BWR type and two reactors are of ABWR type. The five BWR units entered commercial operation between 1985 and 1994 and the two ABWRs in 1996 and 1997, respectively. Following this event, the Government of Japan through the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) requested the IAEA to carry out a fact finding mission with the main purpose of identifying the preliminary findings and lessons learned from this event in order to share them with the international nuclear community. This first mission took place from 6 - 10 August 2007 and the mission report of the August 2007 mission is available on the IAEA web page http://www.iaea.org. The purpose of the second IAEA mission was to conduct - six months after the event - a follow-up of the preliminary findings of the August 2007 mission on the basis of the results available in January 2008 of the related studies and investigations performed. In accordance with the terms of reference for the follow-up mission and the availability of results from the performed studies and investigations, the scope of the follow-up mission focussed on three subject areas: (1) seismic design basis - design basis ground motions, including the evaluation of the seismic hazard ; (2) plant behaviour - integrity

  10. Non-linear transient behavior during soil liquefaction based on re-evaluation of seismic records

    OpenAIRE

    Kamagata, S.; Takewaki, Izuru

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on soil liquefaction, the seismic records during the Niigata-ken earthquake in 1964, the southern Hyogo prefecture earthquake in 1995 and the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake are analyzed by the non-stationary Fourier spectra. The shift of dominant frequency in the seismic record of Kawagishi-cho during the Niigata-ken earthquake is evaluated based on the time-variant property of dominant frequencies. The reduction ratio of the soil stiffness is evaluated from the shif...

  11. Current status of radiotherapy in Kumamoto Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Noriharu

    1987-01-01

    As of December 1985, Kumamoto Prefecture had 14 facilities for radiotherapy, and 8 of them had capabilities of intracavitary radiotherapy. However, the computers for radiotherapy were installed in only 14 %, the simulators were installed in 36 %, and radiotherapy by radiologist was carried out in 64 % of these facilities. In Kumamoto, 1120 patients were treated by external radiotherapy and 83 patients by intracavitary radiotherapy per year. Two-hundred and thirty-one cases of them were lung cancer, 142 uterine cervical carcinoma, 92 esophageal cancer, and 79 breast cancer. The radiotherapeutic rate of patients which were estimated as neoplasms was only 23 % for all sites, but it was 77 % for the larynx, 65 % for the esophagus, 61 % for the uterus, and 42 % for the lung. The results of this study suggest that radiotherapists must make an effort to carry out more precise radiotherapy and also to extend the indication of radiotherapy. (author)

  12. Impact of the great east Japan earthquake on the body mass index of preschool children: a nationwide nursery school survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Zheng, Wei; Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kato, Noriko; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the 2011 great east Japan earthquake on body mass index (BMI) of preschool children. Design Retrospective cohort study and ecological study. Setting Affected prefectures (Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate) and unaffected prefectures in northeast Japan. Participants The cohort study assessed 2033 and 1707 boys and 1909 and 1658 girls in 3 affected prefectures and unaffected prefectures, respectively, all aged 3–4 years at the time of the earthquake. The ecological study examined random samples of schoolchildren from the affected prefectures. Primary and secondary outcome measures The cohort study compared postdisaster changes in BMIs and the prevalence of overweight and obese children. The ecological study evaluated postdisaster changes in the prevalence of overweight children. Results 1 month after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were observed among girls (+0.087 kg/m2 vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima and among boys and girls (+0.165 and +0.124 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Iwate. 19 months after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were detected among boys and girls (+0.137 and +0.200 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima, whereas significantly decreased BMIs were observed among boys and girls (−0.218 and −0.082 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Miyagi. 1 month after the earthquake, Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate had a slightly increased prevalence of overweight boys, whereas Fukushima had a slightly decreased prevalence of overweight girls, compared with the unaffected prefectures. The ecological study detected increases in the prevalence of overweight boys and girls in Fukushima who were 6–11 and 6–10 years of age, respectively. Conclusions These results suggest that in the affected prefectures, preschool children gained weight immediately after the earthquake. The long-term impact of the earthquake on early childhood

  13. Impact of the great east Japan earthquake on the body mass index of preschool children: a nationwide nursery school survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Zheng, Wei; Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kato, Noriko; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-04-07

    To evaluate the impact of the 2011 great east Japan earthquake on body mass index (BMI) of preschool children. Retrospective cohort study and ecological study. Affected prefectures (Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate) and unaffected prefectures in northeast Japan. The cohort study assessed 2033 and 1707 boys and 1909 and 1658 girls in 3 affected prefectures and unaffected prefectures, respectively, all aged 3-4 years at the time of the earthquake. The ecological study examined random samples of schoolchildren from the affected prefectures. The cohort study compared postdisaster changes in BMIs and the prevalence of overweight and obese children. The ecological study evaluated postdisaster changes in the prevalence of overweight children. 1 month after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were observed among girls (+0.087 kg/m(2) vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima and among boys and girls (+0.165 and +0.124 kg/m(2), respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Iwate. 19 months after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were detected among boys and girls (+0.137 and +0.200 kg/m(2), respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima, whereas significantly decreased BMIs were observed among boys and girls (-0.218 and -0.082 kg/m(2), respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Miyagi. 1 month after the earthquake, Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate had a slightly increased prevalence of overweight boys, whereas Fukushima had a slightly decreased prevalence of overweight girls, compared with the unaffected prefectures. The ecological study detected increases in the prevalence of overweight boys and girls in Fukushima who were 6-11 and 6-10 years of age, respectively. These results suggest that in the affected prefectures, preschool children gained weight immediately after the earthquake. The long-term impact of the earthquake on early childhood growth was more variable among the affected prefectures, possibly as a result of different speeds of

  14. Plan of disaster prevention in district of Shizuoka Prefecture countermeasures to nuclear power. 1984 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Based on the basic act for disaster countermeasures, this plan aimes at establishing the necessary system concerning the countermeasures for preventing the disaster due to the release of a large quantity of radioactive substances from the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., determining the measures to be taken for disaster prevention, and striving for the safety of inhabitants by executing the deskworks and services of the disaster prevention related to nuclear power synthetically and purposefully. The general matters concerning the disaster prevention in the district of Shizuoka Prefecture are determined in the ''Plan of disaster prevention in the district of Shizuoka Prefecture (General countermeasures)'', but in view of the peculiarity of nuclear power disaster, the peculiar matters are to be determined in this plan. The general rules on the works of respective disaster prevention organizations, the countermeasures for preventing nuclear power disaster, the emergency countermeasures to nuclear power disaster, the countermeasures to Tokai earthquakes and the countermeasures for restoration after nuclear power disaster are stipulated. (Kako, I.)

  15. A survey on the public opinion regarding nuclear power and energy issues in Fukui prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosugi, Motoko; Tsuchiya, Tomoko

    2007-01-01

    To 2000 people who were randomly sampled from the basic register of residents in Fukui prefecture, we conducted a questionnaire survey asking their interest in, knowledge of and attitude toward nuclear power, to analyze which perceptions and opinions they had and factors influencing them. The ratios of respondents in Fukui prefecture who think nuclear power is safe, necessary, and should be developed more, are higher than those of surveyed residents who live in other regions where nuclear power plants had been in operation. Differences in gender and age are nearly the same as those found in the nation-wide surveys has shown. The respondents in 'Tsuruga' region, one of the centers of nuclear power research and development, are more acceptive and affirmative to the nuclear power than those in other regions, although they have less knowledge and credibility for nuclear power safety measures, such as regulation and monitoring by government, countermeasure of earthquake, training of workers and so on. We analyzed the perception of risk and the sense of security for nuclear power, and the opinions for necessity and development of nuclear power, using a regression model. According to the estimated 'Tsuruga' model, risk perception of Tsuruga respondents does not affect their opinion if nuclear power should be developed. No influence of the risk perception on their opinion for nuclear power suggest a possibility that residents have strong trust in nuclear power technology and electric power companies based on their long term experience. (author)

  16. Atmospheric Signals Associated with Major Earthquakes. A Multi-Sensor Approach. Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Hattori, Katsumi; Kafatos, Menas; Taylor, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    We are studying the possibility of a connection between atmospheric observation recorded by several ground and satellites as earthquakes precursors. Our main goal is to search for the existence and cause of physical phenomenon related to prior earthquake activity and to gain a better understanding of the physics of earthquake and earthquake cycles. The recent catastrophic earthquake in Japan in March 2011 has provided a renewed interest in the important question of the existence of precursory signals preceding strong earthquakes. We will demonstrate our approach based on integration and analysis of several atmospheric and environmental parameters that were found associated with earthquakes. These observations include: thermal infrared radiation, radon! ion activities; air temperature and humidity and a concentration of electrons in the ionosphere. We describe a possible physical link between atmospheric observations with earthquake precursors using the latest Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling model, one of several paradigms used to explain our observations. Initial results for the period of2003-2009 are presented from our systematic hind-cast validation studies. We present our findings of multi-sensor atmospheric precursory signals for two major earthquakes in Japan, M6.7 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki of July16, 2007 and the latest M9.0 great Tohoku earthquakes of March 11,2011

  17. The Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) in Fukushima Prefecture-A progress report on the enrollment stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Koichi; Yasumura, Seiji; Fujimori, Keiya; Kyozuka, Hyo; Wakaki, Yu; Sato, Akiko; Hanzawa, Haruko; Yokoyama, Tadahiko; Sato, Testushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2017-08-09

    The Japan Environment and Children's Study is an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study that is being conducted at 15 regional centers throughout Japan. The recruitment of subjects in the study area within Fukushima Prefecture, which includes Fukushima City, Minami Soma City and Futaba County, was begun on January 31, 2011 with the cooperation of the obstetrics and gynecology departments of local medical institutions. On March 11, soon after the start of recruitment, the Tohoku region was hit by an unprecedented disaster in the shape of the Great East Japan Earthquake, which was closely followed by the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. As a result of the disaster, the study area in Fukushima Prefecture was expanded on October 1, 2012 to include 59 municipalities across Fukushima Prefecture. Three points are seen as particularly important: 1) Radiation risk communication, 2) The motto is "Be attentive. Be supportive.", and 3) Establishing cooperating partnerships. With the cooperation of all concerned, the recruitment period ended on March 31, 2014. The tentative total number of the participants enrolled at the Fukushima Regional Center was 34,666 (13,134 pregnant mothers, 8,695 fathers and 12,837 children born before November 30, 2014 as of June 2016).

  18. The Role of Toyama Prefectural Archives : Comprehensive Conservation and Use of Administrative Information in the Prefectural Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yasushi

    Toyama Prefectural Archives which was opened in April, 1987 is a facility to conserve and utilize record information concerning prefectural administration comprehensively. The chapter 2 describes request for its establishment, the plan, the construction and details to the opening. The chapter 3 explains functions of archives, that is information disclosing function in relation to Information Disclosure Act, organization methods such as classification to conserve and utilize historical archival records, the management system to conserve and utilize current archival records. The chapter 4 deals with record management system which supports the Archives. The chapter 5 is concerned with future subjects such as office automation for clerical works of record management.

  19. Earthquake prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    The state of the art of earthquake prediction is summarized, the possible responses to such prediction are examined, and some needs in the present prediction program and in research related to use of this new technology are reviewed. Three basic aspects of earthquake prediction are discussed: location of the areas where large earthquakes are most likely to occur, observation within these areas of measurable changes (earthquake precursors) and determination of the area and time over which the earthquake will occur, and development of models of the earthquake source in order to interpret the precursors reliably. 6 figures

  20. Epidemiological Survey of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration in Tottori Prefecture, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Wada-Isoe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD in Japan is unknown. An epidemiological survey study of FTLD was undertaken in Tottori Prefecture, a district in the western region of Japan. Methods: Hospitals in Tottori Prefecture were surveyed by a two-step questionnaire in 2010, and the prevalence of FTLD per 100,000 inhabitants was calculated using the actual number of patients and inhabitants in Tottori Prefecture on the prevalence day of October 1, 2010. Results: In this survey, 66 patients were diagnosed with FTLD. The subtypes of FTLD were as follows: 62 cases of frontotemporal dementia (FTD, 3 cases of progressive nonfluent aphasia, and 1 case of semantic dementia. Among the FTD cases, 5 cases were FTD with motor neuron disease and 1 case was FTD with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. The prevalence of FTD in the total population of Tottori Prefecture was 11.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. Based on these results, the prevalence of FTLD in Japan in 2008 was estimated to be 9.5 per 100,000 individuals. Conclusions: Our epidemiological survey results suggest that there are at least 12,000 FTLD patients in Japan, indicating that FTLD is not a rare disease.

  1. Lessons learned from the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake: Building damages and behavior of seismically isolated buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Keiko; Takayama, Mineo

    2017-10-01

    Powerful earthquakes stuck Kumamoto and Oita Prefectures in Kyushu, Japan. It began with the Magnitude 6.5 foreshock at 21:26 JST 14 April, followed by the Magnitude 7.3 mainshock at 1:25 JST 16 April, 2016. The sequence earthquakes also involved more than 1700 perceptible earthquakes as of 13 June. The entire sequence was named the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Thousands of buildings and many roads were damaged, and landslides occurred. The Japanese building standard law is revised in 1981. Structural damages were concentrated on buildings constructed prior to 1981. The area of Mashiki and Southern Aso were most badly affected, especially wooden houses extremely damaged. In Japan, Prof. Hideyuki Tada (title at the time) undertook research on laminated rubber bearings in 1978, and put it into practical use in 1981. The single family house at Yachiyodai, Chiba Prefecture is completed in 1983, it's the first seismically isolated building which is installed laminated rubber bearings in Japan. Afterward, this system is gradually adopted to mainly office buildings, like a research laboratory, a hospital, a computer center and other offices. In the 1994 Northridge earthquake, the 1995 Kobe earthquake and 2011 Tohoku earthquake, seismically isolated buildings improve these good performances, and recently number of the buildings have increased, mainly high risk area of earthquakes. Many people believed that Kumamoto was a low risk area. But there were 24 seismically isolated buildings in Kumamoto Prefecture at the time. The seismically isolated buildings indicated excellent performances during the earthquakes. They protected people, buildings and other important facilities from damages caused by the earthquake. The purpose of this paper is to discuss lessons learned from the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake and behavior of seismically isolated buildings in the earthquake.

  2. Mass balance and long-term fate of PCDD/Fs in a lagoon sediment and paddy soil, Niigata, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Mizuki [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Science, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)], E-mail: mizukis@affrc.go.jp; Seike, Nobuyasu [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Science, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)], E-mail: seike@niaes.affrc.go.jp; Kobayashi, Jun [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)], E-mail: kobayashi.jun@nies.go.jp; Kajihara, Hideo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)], E-mail: kajihara.hideo@aist.go.jp; Takahashi, Yukio [Academic Assembly Institute of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Niigata City 950-2181 (Japan)], E-mail: yukitak@eng.niigata-u.ac.jp

    2008-12-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in a sediment core and in samples of surface sediment and paddy soil collected from the Toyano lagoon and Kameda basin in Niigata, Japan, were analyzed to elucidate the temporal trends of their concentrations in the lagoon sediment and the relationship between the sediment and the paddy soil. The mass balance of these pollutants was also estimated to determine their long-term fate in surface waters. An analysis by chemical mass balance identified the agrochemicals pentachlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenyl 4-nitrophenyl ether as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. On the basis of the findings regarding the mass balance in the Kameda basin over the last 40 years, we estimate that more than half the input of PCDD/Fs to the Kameda basin has disappeared. We suggest that the PCDD/Fs that flowed out from the paddy fields have been transferred to the lower basin. - The long-term mass balance of PCDD/Fs in sediments from paddy soil is elucidated.

  3. An overview of the geotechnical damage brought by the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanta Hazarika,; Takaji Kokusho,; Kayen, Robert E.; Dashti, Shideh; Yutaka Tanoue,; Shuuichi Kuroda and Kentaro Kuribayashi,; Daisuke Matsumoto,; Furuichi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake with a moment magnitude of 7.0 (Japanese intensity = 7) that struck on April 16 brought devastation in many areas of Kumamoto Prefecture and partly in Oita Prefecture in Kyushu Region, Japan. The earthquake succeeds a foreshock of magnitude 6.5 (Japanese intensity = 7) on April 14. The authors conducted two surveys on the devastated areas: one during April 16-17, and the other during May 11-14. This report summarizes the damage brought to geotechnical structures by the two consecutive earthquakes within a span of twenty-eight hours. This report highlights some of the observed damage and identifies reasons for such damage. The geotechnical challenges towards mitigation of losses from such earthquakes are also suggested.

  4. Nowcasting Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Donnellan, A.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Turcotte, D. L.; Luginbuhl, M.; Gail, G.

    2016-12-01

    Nowcasting is a term originating from economics and finance. It refers to the process of determining the uncertain state of the economy or markets at the current time by indirect means. We apply this idea to seismically active regions, where the goal is to determine the current state of the fault system, and its current level of progress through the earthquake cycle. In our implementation of this idea, we use the global catalog of earthquakes, using "small" earthquakes to determine the level of hazard from "large" earthquakes in the region. Our method does not involve any model other than the idea of an earthquake cycle. Rather, we define a specific region and a specific large earthquake magnitude of interest, ensuring that we have enough data to span at least 20 or more large earthquake cycles in the region. We then compute the earthquake potential score (EPS) which is defined as the cumulative probability distribution P(nearthquakes in the region. From the count of small earthquakes since the last large earthquake, we determine the value of EPS = P(nearthquake cycle in the defined region at the current time.

  5. Earthquake Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... estimated 830,000 people. In 1976 another deadly earthquake struck in Tangshan, China, where more than 250,000 people were killed. Florida and North Dakota have the smallest number of earthquakes in the United States. The deepest earthquakes typically ...

  6. A complex rupture image of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake revealed by the MeSO-net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ryou; Yukutake, Yohei; Ito, Hiroshi; Harada, Masatake; Aketagawa, Tamotsu; Yoshida, Akio; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Hirata, Naoshi; Obara, Kazushige; Kimura, Hisanori

    2011-07-01

    Strong ground motions from the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, the most powerful earthquake to have occurred in and around Japan after the installation of a modern seismic network, were recorded for more than 300 seconds by a dense and wide-span seismic network, the Metropolitan Seismic Observation Network (MeSO-net), installed around the Tokyo metropolitan area about 200 km away from the epicenter. We investigate the rupture process of the earthquake in space and time by performing semblance-enhanced stacking analysis of the waveforms in a frequency range of 0.05 to 0.5 Hz. By projecting the power of the stacked waveforms to an assumed fault plane, the rupture propagation image of the large and complex earthquake has been successfully obtained. The seismic energy was mainly generated from the off-shore areas of about 100 km away from the coast in Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures. The shallow and eastern part of the fault along the Japan trench off Miyagi Prefecture released strong seismic energy which might have been related to the excitation of gigantic tsunami. In contrast, the southern shallow part of the fault plane, off Ibaraki Prefecture, released only minor seismic energy. Our analysis suggests that the focal areas combining both the officially-forecasted Miyagi-oki earthquake and those of historical earthquakes that occurred off the coast of Fukushima Prefecture in 1938 were broken, resulting in the 2011 great M 9 earthquake.

  7. Effect of earthquake and tsunami. Ground motion and tsunami observed at nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijikata, Katsuichirou

    2012-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Stations (NPSs) were struck by the earthquake off the pacific coast in the Tohoku District, which occurred at 14:46 on March 11, 2011. Afterwards, tsunamis struck the Tohoku District. In terms of the earthquake observed at the Fukushima NPSs, the acceleration response spectra of the earthquake movement observed on the basic board of reactor buildings exceeded the acceleration response spectra of the response acceleration to the standard seismic ground motion Ss for partial periodic bands at the Fukushima Daiichi NPS. As for the Fukushima Daini NPS, the acceleration response spectra of the earthquake movement observed on the basic board of the reactor buildings was below the acceleration response spectra of the response acceleration to the standard seismic ground motion Ss. Areas inundated by Tsunami at each NPS were investigated and tsunami inversion analysis was made to build tsunami source model to reproduce tide record, tsunami height, crustal movement and inundated area, based on tsunami observation records in the wide areas from Hokkaido to Chiba prefectures. Tsunami heights of Fukushima Daiichi and Daini NPSs were recalculated as O.P. +13m and +9m respectively and tsunami peak height difference was attributed to the extent of superposition of tsunami waves of tsunami earthquake type of wave source in the area along interplane trench off the coast in the Fukushima prefecture and interplane earthquake type of wave source in rather deep interplate area off the coast in the Miyagi prefecture. (T. Tanaka)

  8. Radiation measurement of apples produced in Aomori prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarusawa, Kohetsu; Kudo, Kohsei; Yamadera, Akira

    2003-01-01

    The activities of seven kinds of apples produced in Aomori prefecture were measured with a high pure Ge detector set in a 15 cm-thick lead shield. The activities of 40 K were detected in all samples, but an artificial radioactive nuclide was not detected. The slices of an apple were contacted to an imaging plate for 15 days in a 15 cm-thick lead shield and cross sectional activity distributions were measured. By using the distribution map, the activities of skin, flesh and lead portion of an apple 'Ohrin' were calculated to 0.041, 0.032 and 0.046 Bq/g, respectively. This measuring system will be used for the activity estimations of the farm products, specially apples, because of that many atomic institutions are in operation and in the planning stage on Aomori prefecture. (author)

  9. The Archives of Prefectures: from dematerialization to document management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annantonia Martorano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This item analyses the key role that IT management of document workflow plays in the implementation of the administrative functions of the Prefectures. After presenting the history and the organization of the Prefecture, which is the most important decentralized office of the Ministry of the Interior, the dissertation analyses the effectiveness and economy of its administrative actions, now characterized by the wide use of IT tools and aiming at the complete dematerialization of its documents, with the complete abandonment of the paper form. This process, now irreversible, uses the methods of traditional archival discipline and it is strengthened by new technological devises, for a proper processing and storage of the digital or paper documents.

  10. Fact sheet on thyroid test in Fukushima prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    Fukushima Prefecture chose about 360,000 people who were 18 years old or younger at the time of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi NPS on March 11, 2011, and started thyroid test as part of the prefectural health survey on October 9, 2011. The survey is entrusted to Fukushima Medical University of Medicine from Fukushima Prefecture. This fact sheet summarizes the current state of thyroid test in Fukushima Prefecture. A considerable amount of data and related information have been accumulated in the seventh year from the beginning. However, especially the information disclosed in English by people concerned combined the results of the second round, which was not analyzed properly, with those of the first round. This fact gives a suspicion of intention to deny the possibility of radiation influence in such a way as to make it invisible even if there was the influence. This study firstly prepared an English fact sheet to convey the actual situation in English. However, since some official information/views were contained in papers only available in English, this study also prepared the Japanese version for enabling to grasp the current situation. The Japanese version is supplemented with explanation rather than the Japanese translation of the English version, in order to make it easier to understand. The future of thyroid test is a topic that is causing controversy. Now that the transparency, scientific fairness, and the data integrity of Fukushima Medical University are suspected, it is extremely important that an independent analysis in the true sense is to be performed by qualified experts based on the latest evidence. (A.O.)

  11. Evaluation of environmental radiation dose in Ibaraki Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Ryoji

    1977-01-01

    In Ibaraki Prefecture, there is Environmental Radioactivity Surveillance Committee in order to ensure the safety around nuclear power facilities. Environmental radioactivity data are collected every three months, and the grasp of the present situation, the clarification of causes, the evaluation of dose and the publication of results are made. Two instances in particular are described: of contamination paddies due to 14 C contained in drainage; contamination of rivers due to U contained in drainage. (Mori, K.)

  12. Ultrasonography survey and thyroid cancer in the Fukushima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Peter; Kaiser, Jan Christian; Ulanovsky, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is one of the major health concerns after the accident in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station (NPS). Currently, ultrasonography surveys are being performed for persons residing in the Fukushima Prefecture at the time of the accident with an age of up to 18 years. Here, the expected thyroid cancer prevalence in the Fukushima Prefecture is assessed based on an ultrasonography survey of Ukrainians, who were exposed at an age of up to 18 years to 131 I released during the Chernobyl NPS accident, and on differences in equipment and study protocol in the two surveys. Radiation risk of thyroid cancer incidence among survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and preliminary estimates of thyroid dose due to the Fukushima accident were used for the prediction of baseline and radiation-related thyroid cancer risks. We estimate a prevalence of thyroid cancer of 0.027 % (95 % CI 0.010 %; 0.050 %) for the first screening campaign in the Fukushima Prefecture. Compared with the incidence rate in Japan in 2007, the ultrasonography survey is predicted to increase baseline thyroid cancer incidence by a factor of 7.4 (95 % CI 0.95; 17.3). Under the condition of continued screening, thyroid cancer during the first fifty years after the accident is predicted to be detected for about 2 % of the screened population. The prediction of radiation-related thyroid cancer in the most exposed fraction (a few ten thousand persons) of the screened population of the Fukushima Prefecture has a large uncertainty with the best estimates of the average risk of 0.1-0.3 %, depending on average dose. (orig.)

  13. The way that Ibaraki Prefecture has tackled atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hirokatsu; Hirai, Yasuo; Tsuji, Tadashi.

    1996-01-01

    First, the development of the district centering around Tokai Village is mentioned, where at present Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Japan Atomic Power Co. and others are located. Ibaraki Prefecture investigated the effects that atomic energy facilities exerted economically and socially to the district. As to the social environment investigation related to atomic energy facilities, its purpose, the objects of investigation, the contents and the method of investigation are reported. As to the progress of the development and utilization of atomic energy in Ibaraki Prefecture, 23 establishments are located in the district. Also there are 16 power reactors and research reactors, one fuel reprocessing plant, 4 nuclear fuel fabrication facilities, 86 nuclear fuel using facilities and 28 radioisotope using facilities. Their situations are reported. As to the atomic energy administration of Ibaraki Prefecture, the safety administration and the countermeasures for surrounding areas are explained. The effects exerted to the society and the economy of the district are reported. The results of the investigation of the conscience concerning atomic energy of residents are shown about energy and atomic energy, atomic energy administration, and the relation of atomic energy facilities with the district. (K.I.)

  14. The present state of the diabetic clinic in the first department of internal medicine of Niigata University Hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Osamu; Oyama, Yasuro; Suzuki, Katsunori [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    1998-10-01

    The treatment of diabetic complications in Niigata University were reported. Of all patients, 23.6% were treated by diabetic therapy alone, 37.8% were administered with SU drug and, in addition, about 50% were treated by a glucosidase inhibitor ({alpha}GI) or troglitazone. Insulin was used in 26.2% of the patients. Patients with NIDDM in whom the onset of simple retinopathy could be specified, were divided into 2 groups; Group S, with simple retinopathy without progression and Group P, with progression to preproliferative or proliferative retinopathy. Between the 2 groups, there were significant differences in the period of suffering from simple retinopathy, HbA1c and TC b. The association of the retinopathy with the short period would mean that HbA1c and TC were poorly controlled in these patients. In attention to silent myocardial ischemia and significance of cerebral blood flow scintigraphy, there was no significant difference regarding the presence or absence of angina pain or incidence of abnormal findings of scintigraphy or coronary angiography. It was difficult to predict the presence of silent myocardial ischemia from the presence or absence of diabetic neuropathy. Cerebral blood flow scintigraphy was performed in 37 diabetic patients, 25 patients were allocated to a group having uneven distribution of RI which never detected normally and an ununiform drop of peripheral blood flow (Micro group) and 12 cases without these findings to another group (Non-micro group). In the Micro group, HbA1c was significantly higher and the incidence of diabetic nephropathy was also higher. {alpha}GI was used to improve postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with NIDDM. It was more effective when being used concomitantly with a SU agent although the effect tended to decrease relatively in the cases of long term use. Improvement was observed in 90% of the patients which showed BMI of 24.2 or above. (K.H.)

  15. Study on post-earthquake plant evaluation and communication (Annual safety research report, JFY 2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Toru; Taoka, Hideto; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Sano, Kyoko

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study are to establish a post-earthquake plant evaluation method and to develop a communication system for the improving seismic safety regulations as well as encouraging public communication. The Miyagiken-oki earthquake in 2005, Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant shut down automatically. Subsequently, JNES started development of post-earthquake plant evaluation and communication system based on the experience of the cross-check analysis for Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant. The Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007, the plant situation was not transmitted promptly. The loss of information sharing between local community and related organizations caused the public anxiety. The importance of plant information transmission as well as seismic information gathering were recognized. The proposal for the solution of the information issues were performed by government committee. In this study, the evaluation method for soundness of the main structure and equipment after earthquake event were updated. Moreover, procedure of the post-earthquake plant soundness evaluation and multi-functional seismic information system were developed. In addition, the implementation strategy of the easy-to -understand information dissemination to the public and transparent communication methodology was examined by the Industry-Academia-Government cooperation in the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa region. (author)

  16. Undead earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musson, R. M. W.

    This short communication deals with the problem of fake earthquakes that keep returning into circulation. The particular events discussed are some very early earthquakes supposed to have occurred in the U.K., which all originate from a single enigmatic 18th century source.

  17. Analog earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository

  18. Facts learnt from the Hanshin-Awaji disaster and consideration on design basis earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Heki [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    This paper will deal with how to establish the concept of the design basis earthquake for critical industrial facilities such as nuclear power plants in consideration of disasters induced by the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake (Southern Hyogo-prefecture Earthquake-1995), so-called Kobe earthquake. The author once discussed various DBEs at 7 WCEE. At that time, the author assumed that the strongest effective PGA would be 0.7 G, and compared to the values of accelerations to a structure obtained by various codes in Japan and other countries. The maximum PGA observed by an instrument at the Southern Hyogo-pref. Earthquake-1995 exceeded the previous assumption of the author, even though the evaluation results of the previous paper had been pessimistic. According to the experience of Kobe event, the author will point out the necessity of the third earthquake S{sub s} adding to S{sub 1} and S{sub 2}, previous DBEs. (author)

  19. Facts learnt from the Hanshin-Awaji disaster and consideration on design basis earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Heki

    1997-01-01

    This paper will deal with how to establish the concept of the design basis earthquake for critical industrial facilities such as nuclear power plants in consideration of disasters induced by the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake (Southern Hyogo-prefecture Earthquake-1995), so-called Kobe earthquake. The author once discussed various DBEs at 7 WCEE. At that time, the author assumed that the strongest effective PGA would be 0.7 G, and compared to the values of accelerations to a structure obtained by various codes in Japan and other countries. The maximum PGA observed by an instrument at the Southern Hyogo-pref. Earthquake-1995 exceeded the previous assumption of the author, even though the evaluation results of the previous paper had been pessimistic. According to the experience of Kobe event, the author will point out the necessity of the third earthquake S s adding to S 1 and S 2 , previous DBEs. (author)

  20. Historical extreme wave and landslide deposits on the Shirasuka coastal lowlands, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Ed; Riedesel, Svenja; Fujiwara, Osamu; Walstra, Jan; Deforce, Koen; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Schmidt, Sabine; Brill, Dominik; Roberts, Helen; Duller, Geoff; Brückner, Hulmut; De Batist, Marc; Heyvaert, Vanessa

    2017-04-01

    Future megathrust earthquakes and consequential tsunamis pose exceptional hazards to densely populated and highly industrialised coastlines facing the Nankai-Suruga Trough, south central Japan. Geological investigations of coastal sedimentary sequences play a key role in understanding megathrust behaviour and developing seismic and tsunami hazard assessments. In this study, we revisit a previously published palaeoseismic site at Shirasuka, located on the Enshu-nada coastline of Shizuoka Prefecture, seeking both to provide further information on past earthquakes and tsunamis and to explore the prospects and limitations of geological data with respect to assessing seismic and tsunami hazards. At Shirasuka, six closely-spaced vibrocores reveal four sand layers interbedded with organic muds. Photographs, X-ray CT scans and grain size analysis reveal a variety of sedimentary structures within these layers, including abrupt contacts, massive sands, rip-up clasts, internal mud drapes and cross bedding. Microfossil assemblages (diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs) and optically stimulated luminescence overdispersion values of single grain feldspars highlight varying sediment sources and transport mechanisms. We suggest that the uppermost sand layer records a landslide from the landward margin of the site, while the remaining three sand layers reflect at least four extreme wave events, some of which are overprinted. We refine the published chronology using AMS radiocarbon, radionuclide and infrared stimulated luminescence approaches. Our Bayesian age models suggest that the oldest two sand layers relate to historically documented tsunamis in AD 1361 and 1498. The second youngest sand layer provides ages consistent with tsunamis in AD 1605 and 1707 and potentially also storm surges in 1680 and/or 1699. The modelled age of the landslide sand layer is consistent with the AD 1944 earthquake. The presence of a fresh scarp in US military aerial photographs from 1947 and

  1. State of damage of radiation facilities in great Hanshin earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The southern Hyogo Prefecture earthquake of magnitude 7.2 occurred in the early morning of January 17, 1995. The outline of the earthquake and dead and injured, the damages of buildings, life lines, roads, railways and harbors, liquefaction phenomena, the state of occurrence of fires and so on are reported. The districts where the earthquakes of magnitude 5 or stronger occurred, and the radiation facilities in those districts are shown. The state of damage of radiation facilities in past earthquakes is summarized. From January 17 to 19 after the earthquake, Science and Technology Agency gave necessary instruction to and heard the state of damage from 79 permitted facilities in the areas of magnitude 7 or 6 by telephone, and received the report that there was not the fear of radiation damage in all facilities. Also the state of damage of radiation facilities was investigated at the actual places, and the questionnaires on the state of radiation facilities and the action at the time of the earthquake were performed. The state of radiation facilities accompanying the earthquake is reported. The matters to be reflected to the countermeasures to earthquakes anew for the protection of facilities, communication system, facility checkup system and the resumption of use are pointed out. (K.I.)

  2. The Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Tatsuo; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Satoshi; Sakata, Yasuhiko; Ito, Kenta; Takahashi, Jun; Miyata, Satoshi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2012-11-01

    While previous studies reported a short-term increase in individual cardiovascular disease (CVD) after great earthquakes, mid-term occurrences of all types of CVDs after great earthquakes are unknown. We addressed this important issue in our experience with the Great East Japan Earthquake (11 March 2011). We retrospectively examined the impact of the Earthquake on the occurrences of CVDs and pneumonia by comparing the ambulance records made by doctors in our Miyagi Prefecture, the centre of the disaster area, during the periods of 2008-11 (n = 124,152). The weekly occurrences of CVDs, including heart failure (HF), acute coronary syndrome (ACS), stroke, cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA), and pneumonia were all significantly increased after the Earthquake compared with the previous 3 years. The occurrences of ACS and CPA showed the rapid increase followed by a sharp decline, whereas those of HF and pneumonia showed a prolonged increase for more than 6 weeks and those of stroke and CPA showed a second peak after the largest aftershock (7 April 2011). Furthermore, the occurrence of CPA was increased in the first 24 h after the Earthquake, followed by other diseases later on. These increases were independent of age, sex, or residence area (seacoast vs. inland). These results indicate that the occurrences of all types of CVDs and pneumonia were increased in somewhat different time courses after the Earthquake, including the first observation of the marked and prolonged increase in HF, emphasizing the importance of intensive medical management of all types of CVDs after great earthquakes.

  3. Alterations in physique among young children after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Results from a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuya, Masahiro; Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Sato, Yuki; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Kato, Noriko; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kure, Shigeo; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2017-10-01

    Data for earthquake-related alterations in physique among young children in developed countries is lacking. The Great East Japan Earthquake caused severe damage in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures in northeastern Japan. We retrospectively obtained anthropometric measurements in nursery school from 40,046 (cohort 1, historical control) and 53,492 (cohort 2) children aged 3.5-4.5 years without overweight in October 2008, and in October 2010, respectively. At the time of the earthquake in March, 2011, children in cohort 1 had already graduated from nursery school; however, children in cohort 2 were still enrolled in nursery school at this time. We compared the onset of overweight at 1 year after the baseline between children enrolled in their school located in one of the three target prefectures versus those in other prefectures using a logistic regression model, with adjustment for sex, age, history of disease, and obesity index at baseline. Overweight was defined as an obesity index of >+15%, which was calculated as (weight minus sex- and height-specific standard weight)/sex- and height-specific standard weight. The odds ratio (OR) for the onset of overweight in the three target prefectures was significant in cohort 2 (OR 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.55) but not in cohort 1. When the two cohort were pooled (n = 93,538), the OR of the interaction term for school location × cohort was significant (OR 1.56; 95% CI, 1.09-2.23). Incident overweight in young children was significantly more common in the three prefectures affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake than in other prefectures after the disaster. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Study on post-earthquake plant evaluation and communication (Annual safety research report, JFY 2011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study are to establish a post-earthquake plant evaluation method and to develop a communication system for the improving seismic safety regulations as well as encouraging public communication. The Miyagiken-oki earthquake in 2005, Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant shut down automatically. Subsequently, JNES started development of post-earthquake plant evaluation and communication system based on the experience of the cross-check analysis for Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant. The Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007, the plant situation was not transmitted promptly. The loss of information sharing between local community and related organizations caused the public anxiety. The importance of plant information transmission as well as seismic information gathering were recognized. The proposal for the solution of the information issues were performed by government committee, In this study the evaluation method for soundness of the main structure and equipment after earthquake event were updated. Moreover, information dissemination to the public and transparent communication methodology was examined by the Industry-Academia-Government cooperation in the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa region. (author)

  5. Radon concentration in dwellings in Aomori Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, T.; Ueda, S.; Hisamatsu, S.; Kondo, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Tsuji, N.; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe

    2002-01-01

    To obtain an average dose from 222 Rn to the people in Aomori Prefecture where the first Japan's nuclear fuel cycling facilities are now under construction, we surveyed 222 Rn concentrations in 109 dwellings in the Prefecture from 1992 to 1996. The outdoor 222 Rn concentrations were also measured in gardens of 15 dwellings. The 222 Rn concentrations were measured with passive 222 Rn detectors which used a polycarbonate film for counting α-ray and could separate concentrations of 222 Rn from 220 Rn. Counting efficiencies of the detectors were calibrated with a standard 222 Rn chamber in the Environmental Measurement Laboratory in USA and in the National Radiological Protection Board in UK. Geometric means of 222 Rn concentration were 13 and 4.4 Bq x m -3 in the dwellings and outdoor, respectively. These values were consistent to nationwide survey results in Japan. The 222 Rn concentrations in the dwellings depended on their age. The concentrations were higher in recent dwellings than in older ones. The radiation dose from 222 Rn was estimated, taking into account the occupancy factor for inside and outside of dwellings. The annual dose was 0.32 mSv x y -1 , and 99% of the dose came from the exposure to 222 Rn inside the dwelling. (author)

  6. Environmental radiation monitoring around waste are disposal site in Tottori prefecture for fiscal year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    This document is the compilation of environment monitoring around waste uranium are disposal site, near Ningyo-toge mine in Tottori prefecture. This result have been to reported to Okayama and Tottori prefectures. The objects for monitoring were river water, drinking water, river sediments, paddy field sediments, air, rice, vegetables, and fruits. (author)

  7. Environmental radiation monitoring around waste ore disposal site in Tottori prefecture: fiscal year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This document is the compilation of environmental monitoring around waste uranium ore disposal site, near Ningyo-toge mine in Tottori prefecture. The results have been reported to Okayama and Tottori prefectures. The objects for monitoring were river water, drinking water, river sediments, paddy field sediments, air, rice, vegetables, and fruits. (A. Yamamoto)

  8. On the torbernite from Kakinoki Mine, Hyogo Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiji, Michio

    1982-01-01

    Upon visiting Kakinoki Mine, Hyogo Prefecture, in August, 1980, the author collected the green-colored mineral in square plate form adhering on the surfaces of waste ore. It was discovered that this was torbernite, the first uranium-containing mineral discovered in the area. Its deposit classified as hydatogenetic deposit, since the Kakinoki Mine being an abandoned copper mine. Torbernite exists only in blackish pelite (waste ore), and adheres on the surface and the cleavage, either as small platy crystals or their aggregate. In the blackish pelite, numerous quartz veins were observed, where torbernite occasionally appeared. The torbernite adhering on the surface and cleavage was grass-green and translucent, and the one in the quartz veins was emerald-green and transparent or translucent. The detection of torbernite in the waste ore suggests the potentiality of finding uranium in the Kakinoki Mine. (J.P.N.)

  9. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-01-01

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of th...

  10. Earthquake behavior at deep underground observed by three-dimensional array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komada, Hiroya; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Aoyama, Shigeo.

    1989-01-01

    The earthquake observation has been carried out using an eight point three-dimensional array between on-ground and the depth of about 400 m at Hosokura Mine in Miyagi prefecture, for the purpose of obtaining the basic datum on the characteristics of the seismic waves for the earthquake resistance design of the deep underground disposal facility of high level waste. The following results ware obtained. (1) The maximum accelerations at the underground are damped to about 60 % of those at on-ground horizontal and to about 70 % vertical. (2) Although the frequency characteristics of the seismic waves varies for each earthquake, the transfer characteristics of seismic waves from deep underground to on-ground is the same for each earthquake. (3) The horizontal dirrections of seismic wave incidence are similar to the directions from epicenters of each earthquake. The vertical directions of seismic wave incidence are in the range of about 3deg to 35deg from vertical line. (author)

  11. Earthquake Source Spectral Study beyond the Omega-Square Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchide, T.; Imanishi, K.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquake source spectra have been used for characterizing earthquake source processes quantitatively and, at the same time, simply, so that we can analyze the source spectra for many earthquakes, especially for small earthquakes, at once and compare them each other. A standard model for the source spectra is the omega-square model, which has the flat spectrum and the falloff inversely proportional to the square of frequencies at low and high frequencies, respectively, which are bordered by a corner frequency. The corner frequency has often been converted to the stress drop under the assumption of circular crack models. However, recent studies claimed the existence of another corner frequency [Denolle and Shearer, 2016; Uchide and Imanishi, 2016] thanks to the recent development of seismic networks. We have found that many earthquakes in areas other than the area studied by Uchide and Imanishi [2016] also have source spectra deviating from the omega-square model. Another part of the earthquake spectra we now focus on is the falloff rate at high frequencies, which will affect the seismic energy estimation [e.g., Hirano and Yagi, 2017]. In June, 2016, we deployed seven velocity seismometers in the northern Ibaraki prefecture, where the shallow crustal seismicity mainly with normal-faulting events was activated by the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. We have recorded seismograms at 1000 samples per second and at a short distance from the source, so that we can investigate the high-frequency components of the earthquake source spectra. Although we are still in the stage of discovery and confirmation of the deviation from the standard omega-square model, the update of the earthquake source spectrum model will help us systematically extract more information on the earthquake source process.

  12. Status of the activities for disseminating the knowledge concerning radiation at Osaka Prefecture University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, S.

    2007-01-01

    Research facilities for using radioisotopes and accelerators are installed in Radiation Research Center, Organization of University-Industry-Government (U-I-G) Cooperation, Osaka Prefecture University. These facilities were first built in 1959 in Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture and were then succeeded to Osaka Prefecture University in 1990 along with advanced radiation technologies. Until now, they have been used by many users in universities, research institutes and companies for about 50 years. In this period one of the important activities is the dissemination of the knowledge concerning radiation for the people in the society, especially for young people. The status of the activity is reported. (author)

  13. Support activities of radioactivity monitoring by a group of Tohoku University through rehabilitation from disaster of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Tomoo; Shirasaki, Kenji; Satoh, Isamu

    2013-01-01

    Radioactivity monitoring facility of Miyagi prefectural government sited in Onagawa town, which had served a detailed monitoring information for Onagawa Nuclear Power Station of Tohoku Electric Co. Ltd., has been annihilated by the tsunami induced by the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. This report is to describe how the radioactivity monitoring function was destroyed and how our Tohoku University started to support the monitoring in the standpoint of a member of the monitoring committee of Miyagi prefectural government. Also, the damage and reconstruction in our facility, Laboratory of Alpha-Emitters Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, were described. (author)

  14. Understanding Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amanda; Gray, Ron

    2018-01-01

    December 26, 2004 was one of the deadliest days in modern history, when a 9.3 magnitude earthquake--the third largest ever recorded--struck off the coast of Sumatra in Indonesia (National Centers for Environmental Information 2014). The massive quake lasted at least 10 minutes and devastated the Indian Ocean. The quake displaced an estimated…

  15. INVESTIGATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTS RELATED TO THE TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE (THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE) CONDUCTED IN FUKUSHIMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Masayuki; Ohno, Kikuo; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    On March 11(th) 2011, the Tohoku region of Japan was struck by catastrophic disasters. Thousands of people were killed due to a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and its subsequent tsunami. Furthermore, a serious nuclear crisis occurred in Fukushima Prefecture as a result of the disasters, and an emergency evacuation was ordered to people living near the nuclear power plants. There was a lot of anxiety regarding lost families as well as the influences of radioactivity on the health of people and their children. Based on these urgent and uncertain situations, a number of research projects were developed at many institutes both inside and outside Fukushima. We herein report the investigative research projects related to the Tohoku Earthquake (The Great East Japan Earthquake) conducted after the disasters. The research projects were reviewed by the Institutional Review Board in Fukushima Medical University during the two years following the disasters. The research projects conducted in universities other than Fukushima Medical University were also examined using questionnaire analysis. Among the research projects conducted in Fukushima Medical University (n=424), 7% (n=32) were disaster-related investigative research. The mean duration planned to pursue the projects was 25.5 months. Among these projects, those focusing on the health of Fukushima citizens were most common (n=9), followed by the influence of chronic exposure of radiation on chronic inflammatory disorders (n=6), and the mental health of Fukushima citizens (n=5). They were carefully reviewed for the purpose, suitability, and necessity from ethical as well as scientific viewpoints. The majority of the research projects focused on the effects of the Tohoku Earthquake and/or chronic exposure to low-dose radioactivity on the health of children and pregnant women, as well as on various disorders, such as mental health and chronic inflammatory diseases. On the other hand, among 58 projects we collected from 22

  16. Problems in Compulsory Postgraduate Clinical Training : Evaluation for Niigata University Postgraduate Clinical Training Program by Postgraduate Clinical Training Doctors on This Program(Present State and Problems in the New Postgraduate Training Program)

    OpenAIRE

    長谷川, 隆志; 鈴木, 栄一; Hasegawa, Takashi; Suzuki, Eiichi

    2007-01-01

    It was about one year and ten months after a program for compulsory postgraduate clinical training, Niigata University Postgraduate Clinical Training Program was carried out. In this program, questionnaire surveys by the postgraduate clinical training doctors for evaluation of this program were performed at each change of training course. To improve this program, the evaluation of this program by the training doctors was examined on the bases of these questionnaire surveys. An important probl...

  17. Public Acceptance Activities Concerning Nuclear Fuel Cycle Project in Amour Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akizuki, Harumi; Manager, Deputy

    1993-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, a campaign against the use of nuclear power was staged throughout the prefecture. However, after a series of elections, including the Amour Prefecture elections held in February 1991, opposition against the use of nuclear power has gradually diminished. According to an opinion poll conducted by a local paper prior to the Upper House elections of July last year, over 60% of Amour residents approved of the construction of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. In July last year, the project management organization was incorporated and the head office moved to Amour Prefecture. Prompted by this, the company, intends to show Amour residents that it is committed to living in harmony with the prefecture

  18. Neogene echinoid fossils from the northern part of Ibaraki Prefecture, Northeastern Kanto, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Yoshibumi

    2004-01-01

    Neogene echinoid fossils occurred from the northern part of Ibaraki Prefecture are identified, as a whole, as 39 species of 11 families and 15 genera. They are as following; Shizasteridae gen. et sp. ...

  19. Whereabouts of process and the processing over the issue earthquake disaster waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Tomomi

    2011-01-01

    The generation amount of earthquake disaster waste due to the Great East Japan Earthquake amounts to totally about 22,720,000 tons by only counting the wreckage generated in the coast areas of three prefectures of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima, which suffered especially large damage, while waste treatment facilities have suffered a great blow. This paper introduces the countermeasures for emergency taken by the government and local governments under such circumstances. First, the government, under leadership of the Ministry of the Environment, promptly drew up guidelines and standards with the cooperation of government-related organizations and academic societies, and issued various guidelines including 'Guidelines for the Removal of Fallen Houses Damaged by the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake.' In addition, the Ministry of the Environment formulated 'Guidelines (master plan) for Disaster Waste Management after the Great East Japan Earthquake' that shows the procedure for waste treatment. In addition, 'The Act on Special Measures concerning the Handling of Radioactive Pollution by Radioactive Materials Discharged by the Nuclear Power Station' was enacted in order to treat radioactive pollutants discharged from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company, and the pollutants are to be treated based on this act. As for the countermeasures by local governments, since the local governments themselves suffered damage, management entrustment is being used for treatment, based on the Local Autonomy Act. As for the situation of treatment, Iwate Prefecture uses mainly cement plants as the treatment center, and Miyagi Prefecture uses mainly general contractors' treatment projects. However, Fukushima Prefecture is under difficult situation for treatment due to pollution problems of radioactive substances. This paper also describes the related budget in the third supplementary budget and the

  20. Survey of environmental radiation dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga prefectures, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamia, Kazuyuki; Shimo, Michikuni; Oka, Mitsuaki; Ejiri, Kazutaka; Sugino, Masato; Minato, Susumu; Hosoda, Masahiro; Yamada, Junya; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    We have measured environmental radiation dose rates in several Prefectures, such as Ai chi Prefecture, Gifu Prefecture, and Mie Prefecture, in central Japan. Recently, we measured the environmental radiation dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures that are also located in central Japan with a car-borne survey system. At the time of measurement, Kyoto Prefecture (area: 4,613 km 2 ) had a total of 36 districts, and Shiga Prefecture (area: 3,387 km 2 ) a total of 26. Terrestrial gamma ray dose rates and secondary cosmic ray dose rates were measured by a 2 inches ψ x 2 inches NaI(Tl) scintillation counter and a handy-type altimeter (GPS eTrex Legend by Gamin), respectively. The following factors were taken into consideration the shielding effect of the car body, the effect of the road pavement, radon progeny borne by precipitation, and increases in tunnels and near the walls. Terrestrial gamma ray dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures were estimated to be 51.7 ± 6.0 n Gy/h (district average: 52.4 ± 4.7 n Gy/h), 52.2 ± 10.5 n Gy/h (district average: 51.9 ± 8.1 n Gy/h), respectively. Secondary cosmic ray dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures were 30.0 ± 0.6 n Gy/h (district average: 29.9 ±0.3 n Gy/h), 30.1 ± 0.3 n Gy/h (district average: 30.0 ± 0.2 n Gy/h), respectively. The environmental radiation dose rates due to the sum dose rates of terrestrial gamma ray and secondary cosmic ray in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures were 81.7 ± 6.2 n Gy/h (district average: 82.3 ± 4.8 n Gy/h), 82.3 ± 10.6 n Gy/h (district average: 82.0 ± 8.1 n Gy/h), respectively. We confirmed that the environmental radiation dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures mainly depended on the change of the terrestrial gamma ray dose rates, since the secondary cosmic ray dose rates had little change. Therefore, radiation dose-rate maps of the terrestrial gamma rays as well as maps of the environmental radiation dose-rate were drawn. (author)

  1. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010?2014

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Pengwei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xueliang; Xu, Jiabo; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV) model with periodic t...

  2. Networking possibilities for waste recycling in Miyagi prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, M; Qin, C Y; Ohtani, H; Iwasaki, R; Shigeno, Y; Yu, J S; Nakazawa, S

    2007-01-01

    Successful case studies for waste recycling in Japan have not been evaluated. The evaluation of economic efficiency and environmental effects were lacking at the time the actual network was established. A waste/resource input/output (I/O) coincidence retrieval system called ZENESYS was developed to examine the usefulness of a waste-exchange network in a nonmanufacturing district. We analyzed data from the Miyagi prefecture, a region without heavy industry. The data were collected from 77 companies using a questionnaire and interviews. A total of 33 possible waste exchange links arose after analysis using ZENESYS. However, these were frail networks that relied heavily on the construction industry. Two waste recycling technologies were selected from the ZENESYS database: reclaiming fuel from waste plastic and making construction materials from bottom ash. Evaluation of the environmental effects and economics of these two technologies showed they were both suitable for the environment, but no profit was made from reclaiming fuel from waste plastics. We concluded that in an area with no heavy industry, it may be difficult to adopt recycling technologies that have high environmental and economic performance. Materials are difficult to circulate among manufacturing industries even if a waste-exchange network exists, and resources are consumed during transportation and recycling.

  3. Isotopic and chemical features of hot springs in Akita Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubaya, Osamu

    1997-01-01

    All over the Akita Prefecture, many hot springs are located. Most of them are of meteoric water, fossil sea water and volcanic gas origins. In the Ohdate-Kazuno area, moderate temperature hot springs of meteoric water origin are found, which may exist as rather shallow formation water in the Green Tuff formations. On the contrary, high temperature geothermal waters of meteoric origin, which are used for power generation, are obtained in two volcanic area of Hachimantai and Oyasu. Those geothermal waters are expected to come up through vertical fissures from depth deeper than 2 km. The difference of these two manners of meteoric water circulation should be necessarily explained to understand the relationship of shallow and deep geothermal systems. About some hot springs of fossil sea water origin, the relationships of δ D and Cl - don't agree to the mixing relation of sea water and meteoric water. This may be explained by two different processes, one of which is mixing of sea water with saline meteoric water (Cl - ca. 12 g/kg). The other is modification of δD by hydrogen isotopic exchange with hydrous minerals underground, or by exchange with atmospheric vapor during a relic lake before burying. (author)

  4. Correspondence and challenges as neurologists to Kumamoto Earthquakes in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Makoto; Nakane, Nozomi; Takamatsu, Kotaro; Yamashita, Satoshi; Nakane, Shunya; Yamashita, Taro; Ando, Yukio

    2016-12-28

    Kumamoto Earthquakes in 2016 severely affected medical circumstances and condition of each patient with neuro-muscular diseases, in addition to having destroyed life circumstances of local residence. Number of neuro-muscular disease patients admitted to the Department of Neurology, Kumamoto University, the only university hospital in the prefecture, increased approximately twice compared to usual years. Most of the related facilities were able to admit emergency patients with neuro-muscular diseases although the hospital buildings were damaged in various degrees. A number of issues remained unsolved as to emergency contact system, securement of emergency beds for severe neuro-muscular diseases, and information system for these patients.

  5. Estimates of HIV prevalence in a highly endemic area of China: Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yujiang; Sun, Jiangping; Fan, Lu; Song, Duan; Tian, Shuming; Yang, Yuecheng; Jia, Manhong; Lu, Lin; Sun, Xinhua; Zhang, Sanguo; Kulczycki, Andrzej; Vermund, Sten H

    2008-12-01

    Dehong Prefecture in Yunnan Province, China, borders Myanmar. Its proximity to the 'Golden Triangle', one of the world's largest illicit drug production and distribution centre, contributes to drug trafficking and ready availability of heroin. Dehong's 1.1 million people confront a serious HIV problem fuelled by injection drug use. The aim of this study is to improve the 2005 estimates of the true status of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Dehong Prefecture. We estimated the HIV prevalence by synthesizing the results from several data sources (HIV/AIDS case reports, surveys, surveillance activities and epidemiological studies). We applied three different statistical procedures for estimations: (i) The Workbook method, adapted to meet the estimation needs in Dehong Prefecture; (ii) An estimate based on antenatal clinical data; and (iii) a dynamic model based on the local epidemic pattern. We estimated that the population prevalence for HIV infections in Dehong Prefecture is 1.3% (likely range from low/high of three estimates: 0.9-1.7%) such that 13 500 people were living with HIV/AIDS in Dehong Prefecture (likely range: 8,200-18,300) in 2005. Infections remain concentrated among injection drug users, female sex workers and their clients with an uneven geographical distribution of estimated cases. More reliable estimates of HIV prevalence can be made by synthesizing multiple data sources using several procedures. Current HIV prevention, care and treatment challenges are judged substantial in Dehong Prefecture, regardless of what modelling strategy is used.

  6. Darwin's earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard V

    2010-07-01

    Charles Darwin experienced a major earthquake in the Concepción-Valdivia region of Chile 175 years ago, in February 1835. His observations dramatically illustrated the geologic principles of James Hutton and Charles Lyell which maintained that the surface of the earth was subject to alterations by natural events, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and the erosive action of wind and water, operating over very long periods of time. Changes in the land created new environments and fostered adaptations in life forms that could lead to the formation of new species. Without the demonstration of the accumulation of multiple crustal events over time in Chile, the biologic implications of the specific species of birds and tortoises found in the Galapagos Islands and the formulation of the concept of natural selection might have remained dormant.

  7. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. DAMAGE ASSESSMENT ON ELECTRIC POWER FAILURES DURING THE 2011 OFF THE PACIFIC COAST OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Gaku; Takahashi, Dai; Tsukiji, Takuya; Naba, Satoshi

    Damage on electric power failures at Ibaraki, Tochigi, Chiba, Saitama and Kanagawa prefectures and Tokyo Metropolitan government during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake is analyzed. We collect the related data by surveying the information in web sites, and interviewing to the local government sectors and TEPCO branch office sectors by phone investigation. We quantify a damage ratio defined by the ratio of number of electric power failures with number of the related households, and the dependency of the index on induced seismic hazards due to the earthquake is revealed for subject cities.

  9. Multiple Spectral Ratio Analyses Reveal Earthquake Source Spectra of Small Earthquakes and Moment Magnitudes of Microearthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchide, T.; Imanishi, K.

    2016-12-01

    Spectral studies for macroscopic earthquake source parameters are helpful for characterizing earthquake rupture process and hence understanding earthquake source physics and fault properties. Those studies require us mute wave propagation path and site effects in spectra of seismograms to accentuate source effect. We have recently developed the multiple spectral ratio method [Uchide and Imanishi, BSSA, 2016] employing many empirical Green's function (EGF) events to reduce errors from the choice of EGF events. This method helps us estimate source spectra more accurately as well as moment ratios among reference and EGF events, which are useful to constrain the seismic moment of microearthquakes. First, we focus on earthquake source spectra. The source spectra have generally been thought to obey the omega-square model with single corner-frequency. However recent studies imply the existence of another corner frequency for some earthquakes. We analyzed small shallow inland earthquakes (3.5 multiple spectral ratio analyses. For 20000 microearthquakes in Fukushima Hamadori and northern Ibaraki prefecture area, we found that the JMA magnitudes (Mj) based on displacement or velocity amplitude are systematically below Mw. The slope of the Mj-Mw relation is 0.5 for Mj 5. We propose a fitting curve for the obtained relationship as Mw = (1/2)Mj + (1/2)(Mjγ + Mcorγ)1/γ+ c, where Mcor is a corner magnitude, γ determines the sharpness of the corner, and c denotes an offset. We obtained Mcor = 4.1, γ = 5.6, and c = -0.47 to fit the observation. The parameters are useful for characterizing the Mj-Mw relationship. This non-linear relationship affects the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter law. Quantitative discussions on b-values are affected by the definition of magnitude to use.

  10. Longitudinal changes in body mass index of children affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W; Yokomichi, H; Matsubara, H; Ishikuro, M; Kikuya, M; Isojima, T; Yokoya, S; Tanaka, T; Kato, N; Chida, S; Ono, A; Hosoya, M; Tanaka, S; Kuriyama, S; Kure, S; Yamagata, Z

    2017-04-01

    The evacuation and disruption in housing caused by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and following nuclear radiation may have influenced child health in many respects. However, studies regarding longitudinal childhood growth are limited. Therefore, in this study we aimed to explore the influence of the earthquake on longitudinal changes in body mass index in preschool children. Participants were children from nursery schools who cooperated with the study in the Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures. The exposed group consisted of children who experienced the earthquake during their preschool-age period (4-5 years old). The historical control group included children who were born 2 years earlier than the exposed children in the same prefectures. Trajectories regarding body mass index and prevalence of overweight/obesity were compared between the two groups using multilevel analysis. Differences in the changes in BMI between before and after the earthquake, and proportion of overweight/obesity was compared between the two groups. We also conducted subgroup analysis by defining children with specific personal disaster experiences within the exposed group. A total of 9722 children were included in the study. Children in the exposed group had higher body mass indices and a higher proportion of overweight after the earthquake than the control group. These differences were more obvious when confined to exposed children with specific personal disaster experiences. Children's growth and development-related health issues such as increased BMI after natural disasters should evoke great attention.

  11. Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Because of Taiwan’s unique geographical environment, earthquake disasters occur frequently in Taiwan. The Central Weather Bureau collated earthquake data from between 1901 and 2006 (Central Weather Bureau, 2007) and found that 97 earthquakes had occurred, of which, 52 resulted in casualties. The 921 Chichi Earthquake had the most profound impact. Because earthquakes have instant destructive power and current scientific technologies cannot provide precise early warnings in advance, earthquake ...

  12. Predictable earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, D.

    2002-12-01

    acceleration) and global number of earthquake for this period from published literature which give us a great picture about the dynamical geophysical phenomena. Methodology: The computing of linear correlation coefficients gives us a chance to quantitatively characterise the relation among the data series, if we suppose a linear dependence in the first step. The correlation coefficients among the Earth's rotational acceleration and Z-orbit acceleration (perpendicular to the ecliptic plane) and the global number of the earthquakes were compared. The results clearly demonstrate the common feature of both the Earth's rotation and Earth's Z-acceleration around the Sun and also between the Earth's rotational acceleration and the earthquake number. This fact might means a strong relation among these phenomena. The mentioned rather strong correlation (r = 0.75) and the 29 year period (Saturn's synodic period) was clearly shown in the counted cross correlation function, which gives the dynamical characteristic of correlation, of Earth's orbital- (Z-direction) and rotational acceleration. This basic period (29 year) was also obvious in the earthquake number data sets with clear common features in time. Conclusion: The Core, which involves the secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field, is the only sufficiently mobile part of the Earth with a sufficient mass to modify the rotation which probably effects on the global time distribution of the earthquakes. Therefore it might means that the secular variation of the earthquakes is inseparable from the changes in Earth's magnetic field, i.e. the interior process of the Earth's core belongs to the dynamical state of the solar system. Therefore if the described idea is real the global distribution of the earthquakes in time is predictable.

  13. Defeating Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra earthquake claimed what seemed an unfathomable 228,000 lives, although because of its size, we could at least assure ourselves that it was an extremely rare event. But in the short space of 8 years, the Sumatra quake no longer looks like an anomaly, and it is no longer even the worst disaster of the Century: 80,000 deaths in the 2005 M=7.6 Pakistan quake; 88,000 deaths in the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan, China quake; 316,000 deaths in the M=7.0 Haiti, quake. In each case, poor design and construction were unable to withstand the ferocity of the shaken earth. And this was compounded by inadequate rescue, medical care, and shelter. How could the toll continue to mount despite the advances in our understanding of quake risk? The world's population is flowing into megacities, and many of these migration magnets lie astride the plate boundaries. Caught between these opposing demographic and seismic forces are 50 cities of at least 3 million people threatened by large earthquakes, the targets of chance. What we know for certain is that no one will take protective measures unless they are convinced they are at risk. Furnishing that knowledge is the animating principle of the Global Earthquake Model, launched in 2009. At the very least, everyone should be able to learn what his or her risk is. At the very least, our community owes the world an estimate of that risk. So, first and foremost, GEM seeks to raise quake risk awareness. We have no illusions that maps or models raise awareness; instead, earthquakes do. But when a quake strikes, people need a credible place to go to answer the question, how vulnerable am I, and what can I do about it? The Global Earthquake Model is being built with GEM's new open source engine, OpenQuake. GEM is also assembling the global data sets without which we will never improve our understanding of where, how large, and how frequently earthquakes will strike, what impacts they will have, and how those impacts can be lessened by

  14. Seismic waveform analyses for the 1938 Off Fukushima earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murotani, S.; Satake, K.

    2016-12-01

    The 1938 Off Fukushima (Shioya-oki) earthquakes sequence, which consists of five earthquakes of Mjmaranging from 6.9 to 7.5, occurred in the southern part of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake source area. In this region, the 1938 sequence was the only known M 7 earthquakes until the 2011 Tohoku earthquake occurred. Abe (1977, Tectonophysics) estimated the focal mechanisms and seismic moments of these events. The source parameters of the earthquake sequence are shown in the following table. However, the slip distributions are not known. Murotani et al. (2004, SSJ Fall Meeting) estimated slip distributions for event 1 (Mw 7.6, Fault size 60 km x 70 km), event 2 (Mw 7.9, Fault size 80 km x 60 km), and event 3 (Mw 7.8, Fault size 90 km x 60 km) from inversion of near-field seismic waveforms at Sendai, Niigata, Maebashi, Mito, and Hongo (Tokyo). We compared the observed teleseismic waveforms at Christchurch (CHR), De Bilt (DBN), Pasadena (PAS), and Pulkovo (PUL) with the calculated waveforms from these slip distributions. The result showed that the computed waveforms fairly reproduced the phases of the observation but the amplitudes for all events were several to several tens of times larger than the observations. It means that the slip amount and Mwobtained from the near field seismic waveforms inversion were over-estimated. For event 3, the slip distribution estimated from near-field data has two large slip areas (asperities) to the north and south of the hypocenter, although only the southern asperity was able to reproduce the observed near-field seismic waveforms. When we calculate the teleseismic waveforms using one asperity model, the amplitudes become small and the phases are reproduced better compared to two asperities model. Event 3 therefore seemed to have only one asperity. In addition to the re-analysis of near field seismic data, tsunami waveforms will be also computed and compared with the observations. This study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16H

  15. Tritium concentrations of environmental waters in Aichi Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Shoko; Chaya, Kunio

    1992-01-01

    Tritium concentrations of environmental waters in Aichi Prefecture were determined from 1973 to 1989. They are rain water, river waters and sea waters. In 1970's, tritium concentrations of environmental waters were more than the natural levels under the influence of the atmospheric nuclear tests. However, atmospheric nuclear tests have not been carried out after Oct. 1980 and the tritium concentrations are going to return to the natural levels. Annual means of tritium concentration in 1989 were as follows: 0.67 Bq/l for rain water, 1.1 Bq/l for Kiso river and Shonai river, 0.85 Bq/l for Yahagi river, 0.70 Bq/l for Toyo river, and 0.41 Bq/l for surface sea water. Also tritium concentration of sea bottom water was 0.50±0.28 Bq/l and rather constant yearly. Among environmental waters, only rain water was previously having seasonal variation of tritium concentration and it was showing 'spring peak' when the troposphere and the stratosphere were mixed actively. At present, tritium concentration of rain water has a little seasonal variation, and is slightly lower in summer under the influence of the atmosphere coming over from the ocean. With regard to the direct influence of rain water to river waters, it was found by means of time series analysis that Kiso river was the least affected of river waters and Yahagi river was the most. The apparent residence time, in which rain water stayed in the underground before it flowed out as river water, was presumed to be 4.9 years for Kiso river, 3.6 years for Yahagi river, 2.0 years for Toyo river, respectively. (author)

  16. Surveillance of radioactivity in imported foods marketed in Aichi Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, Shoko; Kosako, Maki; Tomita, Banichi [Aichi Prefectural Inst. of Public Health, Nagoya (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    To assess the effects of radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident, the authors examined imported foods marketed in Aichi Prefecture from 1988 to 1999 for residual radioactivity. The concentration of both {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs was determined with an NaI(Tl) detector in 940 samples, including cereals and processed cereals (23%), vegetables and processed vegetables (19%), fruits and processed fruits (17%), including wines (6%), cheese and dairy products (12%), drinking water (11%), confections (6%), and other foods (12%). The countries of origin were Italy (35%), France (2%), Germany (5%), Denmark (4%), the Netherlands (4%), other European Countries (21%), the United States (5%), and other Countries (5%). None of the imported foods tested contained a total residual {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs radioactivity exceeding 370 Bq/Kg, the preliminary limit set by the government, but 1.3% of the imported foods contained more than 5 Bq/Kg, the lower limit of detection. Both the numbers and rates of imported foods containing radioactivity have clearly been decreasing since the accident, but it was noteworthy that raspberry juice produced in the Netherlands in 1998, 12 years after the accident, contained the highest level of residual radioactivity in this survey (94 Bq/Kg). If it were processed to enriched juice and jam, its radioactivity might exceed the preliminary limit. Since processed and enriched fruits are not currently included among inspected foods, fruits in them whose radioactivity exceeds the limit can be marketed, and thus the present inspection system should be assessed. The preliminary radioactivity limit was determined based on the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant, and it will be necessary to set new preliminary limits if a new, unexpected nuclear accident occurs. This surveillance data is expected to served as reference data. (K.H.)

  17. Surveillance of radioactivity in imported foods marketed in Aichi Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Shoko; Kosako, Maki; Tomita, Banichi

    2002-01-01

    To assess the effects of radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident, the authors examined imported foods marketed in Aichi Prefecture from 1988 to 1999 for residual radioactivity. The concentration of both 134 Cs and 137 Cs was determined with an NaI(Tl) detector in 940 samples, including cereals and processed cereals (23%), vegetables and processed vegetables (19%), fruits and processed fruits (17%), including wines (6%), cheese and dairy products (12%), drinking water (11%), confections (6%), and other foods (12%). The countries of origin were Italy (35%), France (2%), Germany (5%), Denmark (4%), the Netherlands (4%), other European Countries (21%), the United States (5%), and other Countries (5%). None of the imported foods tested contained a total residual 134 Cs and 137 Cs radioactivity exceeding 370 Bq/Kg, the preliminary limit set by the government, but 1.3% of the imported foods contained more than 5 Bq/Kg, the lower limit of detection. Both the numbers and rates of imported foods containing radioactivity have clearly been decreasing since the accident, but it was noteworthy that raspberry juice produced in the Netherlands in 1998, 12 years after the accident, contained the highest level of residual radioactivity in this survey (94 Bq/Kg). If it were processed to enriched juice and jam, its radioactivity might exceed the preliminary limit. Since processed and enriched fruits are not currently included among inspected foods, fruits in them whose radioactivity exceeds the limit can be marketed, and thus the present inspection system should be assessed. The preliminary radioactivity limit was determined based on the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant, and it will be necessary to set new preliminary limits if a new, unexpected nuclear accident occurs. This surveillance data is expected to served as reference data. (K.H.)

  18. Lack of resources a major obstacle in program implementation. Niigata declaration. Parliamentarians pledge to translate commitment into support for population policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the reaffirmation of the 96 parliamentarians from 28 countries during the international conference in Niigata, Japan, concerning their pledge in translating their commitment into supporting the population policies and development. The Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and the Cairo Declaration on Population and Development were embraced by the parliamentarians. The ICPD+5 process and the International Forum of Parliamentarians on ICPD Review were utilized in the guideline implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action. The governments were solicited to implement and monitor the progress of the ICPD Programme of Action in addressing the need for water, food, natural resources, environment and population, reproductive health and gender equality. Recognizing the inseparable relationship between population and sustainable development, governments were urge to ensure that international understanding and conventions must be consistent with the provision of food security and human survival. The organization implores the UN and the UN Population Fund to pursue its role in the formulation and implementation of population policies in different countries and regional organizations like the Association of South-East Asian Nations and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. The goal of the Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development is to address the population and developmental problems in a comprehensive and integral fashion and the development of a worldwide network of concerned parliamentarians for the promotion of peace, prosperity and equality.

  19. High Mortality Rate of Stomach Cancer Caused Not by High Incidence but Delays in Diagnosis in Aomori Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuzaka, Masashi; Tanaka, Rina; Sasaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are substantial differences in the mortality rates of stomach cancer among the 47 prefectures in Japan, and Aomori prefecture is one of the most severely impacted. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and mortality rates of stomach cancer in Aomori prefecture in comparison with Japan as a whole and cast light on reasons underlying variation. Methods: Data on stomach cancer cases were extracted from the Aomori Cancer Registry Database. Incidence rates for sp...

  20. Actual status and future outlook of Fukushima prefecture for accepting power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Origasa, Yoshiro

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental attitude of Fukushima prefecture to wrestle with nuclear power generation is explained after having described the details of inviting nuclear power plants. The prefecture intends to promote the nuclear power development in cooperation with the government, related cities, towns and villages, and electric power companies, and to develop the Futaba area, the coastal region of Pacific Ocean belonging to the low-developed area, by turning it to the base of nuclear power generation. The prefecture has improved its organization to strengthen to nuclear power administration. The prefecture also has concluded the convention on the security for nuclear power plants with Tokyo Electric Power Co. It takes care of the propagation of knowledge concerning nuclear energy and is endeavoring to provide the accurate and impartial information. The problem in promoting nuclear power generation is nothing but to obtain the consensus of inhabitants for the location of nuclear power plants. Problems on warm water discharge, employment, and of enterprises in the area inroad are to be considered on the basis of the coexistence and coprosperity of local community and power stations. The prefecture needs more powerful public relations on nuclear power, security, and fulfillment of the policy for environmental preservation, and enforcement of environmental assessment, by the government. It also demands that the enterprises complete the system that they can have their own function of the environment control. The abundant related reference are added at the end. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. [Epidemiological surveillance for viral pollution of rivers in Toyama Prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Masae; Yoshida, Hiromu; Matsuura, Kumiko

    2007-03-01

    Virus pollution of three rivers in Toyama Prefecture was surveyed over a long period in order to predict and to prevent water-born infection. Water samples were collected from three rivers (Itachi, Sembo, Oyabe), then concentrated and inoculated into cultured cells to isolate viruses. The survey at Itachi River was carried out 4 times: in 1979-1981, 1983-1985, 1993-1995, and 2002-2003. The surveys at Sembo and Oyabe Rivers were carried out twice (together with the 3rd and 4th surveys of Itachi River). 1) Various species of enteric viruses, i.e., poliovirus, human enteroviruses B (HEV-B), and reovirus were isolated from Itachi River. Since polioviruses were isolated at the same time as the oral vaccination of babies, these isolates appeared to be derived from vaccine strains. Consistently, isolates in the 3rd and the 4th surveys had only 0-2 base differences in the 480 or 474 nucleotide sequences of the VP3-VP1 region, compared with vaccine strains. The poliovirus detection rates, defined as the ratios of times viruses were detected to the total investigation times, were 33.3%, 41.7%, 2.1% and 0% for the Itachi River from the 1st to 4th surveys, respectively. The lowering between the 2nd and the 3rd surveys was significant (PRivers were similar to those from Itachi River. The detection rates of poliovirus and reovirus in the river water during 2002 to 2003 were lower than during 1979 to 1981. This may be due to the improvement of sewerage system or sewerage and the increase in use of paper diapers for babies. The reason that the detection rate of HEV-B did not similarly decrease, and the fact that various types of HEV-B were isolated every year seemed to reflect the epidemic status of HEV-B among inhabitants. Thus, while virus pollution of river water has generally decreased, there is still a possibility of outbreak of water-born infections, since rivers continue to be contaminated with various species of viruses.

  2. Distribution of background radiation and radioactive materials in Aomori Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hisamatsu, Shunichi; Inaba, Jiro [Inst. for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan is now being constructed in Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture and large amounts of Pu and U will be treated in the plant. Therefore, we made a plan for getting background levels of Pu, U and other related radionuclides in soil samples around the plant beginning with plowed fields, then rice fields, orchards, forests and un-cultivated fields, ie a different field type, year by year. This is the first report of results for plowed fields. The soil samples were collected at 13 plowed fields in Rokkasho and three control sites in Tohoku Town, Hachinohe City and Hirosaki City. Five core samples of 75 mm{phi}, down to approximately 1 m deep, were taken in each field in 2001. Three to five layers were distinguished by a visual inspection, and the same layers from each of the five cores were combined. When depth profiles of layers for some cores were different from those of others, those cores were separately treated. Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 210}Pb in the sample were measured with {gamma}-ray spectrometers using Ge detectors. Pu, U and Th in the soil samples were analyzed with a ICP-MS. Since fields under yam (Dioscorea babatus) cultivation are dug up to approximately 1 m deep at harvesting, depth profiles of fallout radionuclides were heavily disturbed for most fields in Rokkasho. The mean and standard deviation of inventory of Pu ({sup 239+240}Pu) in three fields where have not cultivated yam in Rokkasho was 120 {+-} 50 Bq m{sup -2}. The mean inventory was similar to that in Hachinohe City. However, the inventory was approximately a half of that in Hirosaki City. The Pu concentrations very well correlated with {sup 137}Cs (r=0.97), and the ratio of Pu/{sup 137}Cs was 0.037 {+-} 0.007, which is a typical value for global fallout. This showed that the movements of Pu and {sup 137}Cs in soil were similar in spite of heavy soil disturbance, and the ratio could be used for distinguishing the plant

  3. Epidemiological survey for visna-maedi among sheep in northern prefectures of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giangaspero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovine sera collected from the northern Prefectures of Hokkaido, Iwate and Aomori in Japan, were examined for the presence of antibodies against visna-maedi virus using the agar gel immunodiffusion test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Three animals (1.12%, out of 267 samples tested, were found to be seropositive to the visna-maedi antigens in both tests. Levels of infection were found in flocks from Hokkaido and Iwate Prefectures, but not in the Aomori Prefecture. Nucleic acid detection by polymerase chain reaction on serum samples did not give positive results. Although no diagnostic measures were in place, the infection could not be related to losses in sheep production or to reduced survival rates. The very limited visna-maedi distribution indicates a highly favourable condition for the application of eradication strategies in this area.

  4. [Current status of bacteriological studies at prefectural and municipal public health institutes in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, Hiroto; Seto, Kazuko; Kawase, Jun; Arikawa, Kentaro; Funatogawa, Keiji; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kubota, Hiroaki; Shirabe, Komei

    2015-01-01

    Prefectural and municipal public health institutes are located in prefectures and ordinance-designated cities in Japan, and play a vital role in the regional surveillance of infectious diseases and foodborne illnesses. These institutes, in close cooperation with national institutes such as the National Institute of Infectious Diseases and the National Institute of Health Sciences, construct the national surveillance network for infectious diseases and their causative agents. Bacteriological examinations and studies on a variety of infectious diseases and foodborne illnesses are core activities of prefectural and municipal public health institutes, through which novel and important bacteriological findings have been acquired. In this article, we report the latest findings regarding bacteriological examinations/studies and interesting cases at these institutes, especially concerning foodborne illnesses, tuberculosis, and antimicrobial resistances.

  5. Simulation and monitoring tools to protect disaster management facilities against earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Taiki

    2017-10-01

    The earthquakes that hit Kumamoto Prefecture in Japan on April 14 and 16, 2016 severely damaged over 180,000 houses, including over 8,000 that were completely destroyed and others that were partially damaged according to the Cabinet Office's report as of November 14, 2016 [1]. Following these earthquakes, other parts of the world have been struck by earthquakes including Italy and New Zealand as well as the central part of Tottori Prefecture in October, where the earthquake-induced collapse of buildings has led to severe damage and casualties. The earthquakes in Kumamoto Prefecture, in fact, damaged various disaster management facilities including Uto City Hall, which significantly hindered the city's evacuation and recovery operations. One of the most crucial issues in times of disaster is securing the functions of disaster management facilities such as city halls, hospitals and fire stations. To address this issue, seismic simulations are conducted on the East and the West buildings of Toyohashi City Hall using the analysis tool developed by the author, STERA_3D, with the data of the ground motion waveform prediction for the Nankai Trough earthquake provided by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. As the result, it was found that the buildings have sufficient earthquake resistance. It turned out, however, that the west building is at risk for wall cracks or ceiling panel's collapse while in the east building, people would not be able to stand through the strong quakes of 7 on the seismic intensity scale and cabinets not secured to the floors or walls would fall over. Additionally, three IT strong-motion seismometers were installed in the city hall to continuously monitor vibrations. Every five minutes, the vibration data obtained by the seismometers are sent to the computers in Toyohashi University of Technology via the Internet for the analysis tools to run simulations in the cloud. If an earthquake strikes, it is able to use the results

  6. [Epidemic of infectious disease with echovirus type 16--epidemic in Tono area, Gifu Prefecture in 1984].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, C; Watanabe, Y

    1990-07-01

    During the period from May to August, 1984, an epidemic of infectious disease with echovirus type 16 occurred in Tono area of southeast in Gifu prefecture. This virus caused children to have different clinical symptoms, one was a exanthem disease and another was aseptic meningitis. These cases confirmed by virological and serological methods were 48 cases, that is, patients with aseptic meningitis were 24 cases and patients with exanthem disease were 24 cases. By serological examination of antibody against echovirus type 16, it was confirmed that this virus type invaded Gifu Prefecture before 1984.

  7. Mortality statistics by causes of death among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima prefecture, 1973 - 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru

    1985-01-01

    The standardized mortality ratios of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture between 1973 and 1977 were compared with those of non-exposed population in this prefecture. In the malignant neoplasms, the ratios for leukemia, liver, breast, lung, larynx, brain, bone, skin, uterus, bladder and colon were higher than non-exposed. Other than the neoplasms, the ratios for cirrhosis of liver, diabetes, hypertensive diseases and blood and blood-forming organs were higher than nonexposed, while those for heart diseases, cerebro-vascular diseases, senility, gastro-enteritis and accidents were lower than non-exposed. (author)

  8. Policy of Ibaraki Prefecture utilizing the industrial use of neutron to regional promotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imase, Hajime; Ohashi, Yuji; Morii, Yukio

    2009-01-01

    The science frontier 21 conception of Ibaraki Prefecture is described, that is, a pilot center of the research and development on the atomic science region was constructed in Tokai-mura area which was developed to a large frontier industrial region. The two neutron beam lines of Ibaraki Prefecture's own have been consolidated and are promoting the industrial applications of neutron beams. The new neutron diffraction facilities (Ibaraki biological crystal diffractometer (iBIX), Ibaraki materials design diffractometer (iMATERIA)) are illustrated in detail, which are expected to the materials appreciation and the creation of medicine. (M.H.)

  9. Study on tsunami damage mechanism in Fukushima Prefecture focusing on the generation of bores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuma, Shohei; Sato, Shinji; Yamanaka, Yusuke; Sanuki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Destruction mechanisms of coastal structures due to the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami were investigated on the basis of field surveys in Fukushima Prefecture. Severe destruction appeared to be developed by the action of breaking bores. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that the angle of the tsunami front was an essential parameter for the generation of breaking bores. Larger wave force was observed as the angle of the tsunami front became steeper. Numerical simulation revealed that such a steep tsunami was developed in the central part of Fukushima Prefecture, where the reflection of the preceding tsunami by coastal cliff enhanced the steepness of the largest tsunami. (author)

  10. The effects of the Kumamoto earthquake on the clinical symptoms of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hiroko; Kuratomi, Aki; Ishizaki, Masatoshi; Sakamoto, Tetsuro; Nishida, Yasuto; Ando, Yukio

    2017-08-31

    Our hospital is the designated treatment base for intractable neurological diseases in the Kumamoto Prefecture. It is located in the center of the prefecture where the major 7.3-magnitude Kumamoto earthquake was recorded in 2016. In order to examine whether this earthquake affected the clinical symptoms of patients with Parkinson's disease in this hospital, we investigated outpatients examined up to 4 weeks after the earthquake. The subjects were 26 consecutive patients without any changes in anti-Parkinson's disease treatment or their attending physician during the examination period. All of the items in Part III of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), which is a clinician-scored scale for monitoring and evaluating motor function, were confirmed with the subjects before and after the earthquakes. After the earthquakes, worsened symptoms were found in 7 patients and 7 patients felt better. On the UPDRS, worsened symptoms were most commonly found among the items examining "muscle rigidity" and "slowness of movement and decreased movement" among the 7 patients with exacerbated symptoms. After the earthquake, clinical symptoms worsened significantly in women (P = 0.0188), patients with mild symptoms (P = 0.0111), and those who suffered a high degree of personal loss, such as those whose homes were damaged, who were forced to take refuge, or who had to sleep in their car (P = 0.0184). The mental and emotional burden due to the earthquake might be particularly high in the group of patients with worsened symptoms, suggestive of a relationship between stress and the exacerbation of parkinsonian symptoms.

  11. Re-examination on the 1891 M8.0 Nobi Earthquake, Japan: Collspse rate distributions in cities, towns and villages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, F.; Matta, N.

    2014-12-01

    The 1891 M8.0 Nobi Earthquake is the greatest inland earthquakes in Japan. The Neodani Fault was slipped for 80 km length at the earthquake. Over 7000 peoples was perished around Gifu prefecture, central Japan by the earthquake. It was passed 20 years to be established a constitutional monarchy in Japan, and Meiji government modernized oneself after the West. The cities, towns and villages were decreasing to 15,859 from 71,314 by the community integration in 1888-1889. And yet, there were 61 towns and villages in Motosu county located in the hypocenter of the Nobi earthquake at the time, and there were 33,000 people. The 61 towns and villages were consisting with populations of 114 -3506, and households of 14-3508. Gifu prefecture published a disaster report on the numbers of collapsed house and casualties by the earthquake, including the populations and households on all cities, towns in a week after the earthquake. Already Muramatsu (1983) and Iida (1985) discussed the Gifu prefecture disaster report, and they calculated the collapse rate and estimated the seismic intensities in the towns and villages. However, they never discuss precisely the disaster in each city, town and village. Firstly, we make a distribution map of the completely-collapse rates of the cities, towns and villages in Gifu and Aichi prefectures using GIS software. As Muramatsu already pointed out that there are two regions over 90% of collapse rates precisely. One is located along the Neodani fault, and it is a very narrow area. The other is located wide area in north Nobi Plain. Some research groups suggest another fault named Gifu-Ichinomiya line, because the region of seismic intensity 7 is estimated from Gifu to south Nagoya. However high collapse rate over 90% is not distributed as zones. It is suggested that collapsed houses are increased by shallow ground structures such as alluvium. Surely, alluvium is distributed with thick with 50 m maximally in the region. However, more local

  12. Cross-prefecture expansion of regional banks in Japan and its effects on lending-based income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumine Kondo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether Japanese regional banks entering the banking market in other prefectures, including neighboring prefectures, can increase their lending-based income. To stimulate local economies and support local small- and medium-sized enterprises, the current Japanese Government’s policies for regional banks require these banks to engage in region-based relationship banking practices. In this study, three lending-based income measures were used as dependent variables, and estimation was made using panel data from Japanese regional banks. As a result, it was determined that regional banks that enter markets in other prefectures experience positive effects in all three lending-based income measures. Moreover, it was determined that regional banks whose headquarters are located in non-urban areas derive greater benefit from their loan businesses upon entry into other prefectures, including neighboring prefectures, where economic activity is more vibrant than regional banks whose headquarters are located in urban areas.

  13. Disaster mental health service at Fukushima after 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuno, Taku

    2013-01-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake was the most powerful earthquake ever to have hit Japan, which triggered the devastating tsunami sweeping through the cities, and caused the nuclear crisis in Fukushima. Due to the disaster, numerous people in Fukushima had to be in emergency evacuation, which also must have influenced people's mental states. After the earthquake, department of psychiatry, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, organized the disaster mental health service teams, and participated in psychological aid at Fukushima prefecture during March, May and June 2011. Our teams visited the shelters, schools and healthcare center, to evaluate psychological condition of the evacuees, and provide counseling to the people who had psychological problems. Many people at the disaster site who have prolonged psychological symptoms, also had some problems related to the social situations. Therefore, managing social support of evacuees is equally an important role of the disaster mental health service team as caring acute symptoms of stress and helping damaged psychiatric service network. In addition, the earthquake made the people aware of importance of sharing information in the time of disaster, especially via internet. We should take this opportunity to think more about information exchange for medical support, such as collaboration of medical teams and provision of expert knowledge to sufferers. (author)

  14. Geographical structures and the cholera epidemic in modern Japan: Fukushima prefecture in 1882 and 1895

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukui Hiromichi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease diffusion patterns can provide clues for understanding geographical change. Fukushima, a rural prefecture in northeast Japan, was chosen for a case study of the late nineteenth century cholera epidemic that occurred in that country. Two volumes of Cholera Ryu-ko Kiji (Cholera Epidemic Report, published by the prefectural government in 1882 and 1895, provide valuable records for analyzing and modelling diffusion. Text descriptions and numerical evidence culled from the reports were incorporated into a temporal-spatial study framework using geographic information system (GIS and geo-statistical techniques. Results Changes in diffusion patterns between 1882 and 1895 reflect improvements in the Fukushima transportation system and growth in social-economic networks. The data reveal different diffusion systems in separate regions in which residents of Fukushima and neighboring prefectures interacted. Our model also shows that an area in the prefecture's northern interior was dominated by a mix of diffusion processes (contagious and hierarchical, that the southern coastal region was affected by a contagious process, and that other infected areas experienced relocation diffusion. Conclusion In addition to enhancing our understanding of epidemics, the spatial-temporal patterns of cholera diffusion offer opportunities for studying regional change in modern Japan. By highlighting the dynamics of regional reorganization, our findings can be used to better understand the formation of an urban hierarchy in late nineteenth century Japan.

  15. Neoergasilus japonicus, a parasitic copepod from redbelly tilapia Tilapia zillii in Okinawa Prefecture, southern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    長澤, 和也; 上野, 大輔

    2015-01-01

    The ergasilid copepod Neoergasilus japonicus (Harada, 1930) is described using a gravid female from the dorsal fin of a redbelly tilapia, Tilapia zillii (Gervais, 1848), in Haebaru Reservoir, Okinawa-jima Island, Okinawa Prefecture, southern Japan. The morphology of the first and fourth thoracic legs is reported in detail.

  16. Earthquake friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Laboratory friction slip experiments on rocks provide firm evidence that the static friction coefficient μ has values ∼0.7. This would imply large amounts of heat produced by seismically active faults, but no heat flow anomaly is observed, and mineralogic evidence of frictional heating is virtually absent. This stands for lower μ values ∼0.2, as also required by the observed orientation of faults with respect to the maximum compressive stress. We show that accounting for the thermal and mechanical energy balance of the system removes this inconsistence, implying a multi-stage strain release process. The first stage consists of a small and slow aseismic slip at high friction on pre-existent stress concentrators within the fault volume but angled with the main fault as Riedel cracks. This introduces a second stage dominated by frictional temperature increase inducing local pressurization of pore fluids around the slip patches, which is in turn followed by a third stage in which thermal diffusion extends the frictionally heated zones making them coalesce into a connected pressurized region oriented as the fault plane. Then, the system enters a state of equivalent low static friction in which it can undergo the fast elastic radiation slip prescribed by dislocation earthquake models.

  17. Seismic PSA. Evaluation of nuclear power plant building and ground and recent earthquake examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    Relation between seismic design and seismic PSA, and seismic fragility are described. Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant was damaged by the Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007. The seismic design of this plant and the values of the maximum acceleration observed at the control point were compared. The maximum accelerations of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa 1 to 6 showed larger values than the design values. However, main important buildings were not damaged and three necessary conditions, cut off, cooling and containment, are satisfied. The standard seismic ground motion Ss of seismic design, and restoration and reoperation of nuclear power plant are important. Flow of seismic design, estimation of input seismic ground motion using the standard seismic ground motion, the analytical model of nuclear power plant building, image of real proof stress and response, fire of transformer in Kashiwazaki-Kariwa 3, leakage of water with radioactive substances, subsidence of ground, comparison between acceleration response spectrum and standard seismic ground motion at Onagawa and Shiga Nuclear Power Plant, the fault model, the deep ground structure model, the wave velocities observed by some earthquakes are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  18. [The evolution of pharmaceutical schools in Toyama Prefecture since the Meiji era.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Kiyonobu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the author attempts to generalize the evolution of pharmaceutical schools in Toyama since the Meiji Era. The copy of a petition drafted by pill peddlers of Toyama in 1873 suggests that there were expectations that a "Semi (chemicals)" school was going to be established; however, this was not realized. In 1877, the Ishikawa Prefectural Government established a small-scale pharmaceutical school associated with the public hospitals of Kanazawa, Toyama and Kukui. In 1883, Toyama Prefecture became isolated from Ishikawa Prefecture, and the above-mentioned pharmaceutical school continued operations until 1887, when the government closed it due to financial problems. Persuaded through a lecture given by Dr. Keizo Tampa, a professor of Tokyo University, volunteers in Toyama Prefecture established an independent pharmaceutical school in 1894. However, student enrollment was too low to maintain operation, and the administration started planning to relocate the school to the city of Toyama. This was realized in 1897. In 1900, a massive fire burnt down much of the city, severely damaging the school building and much of the equipment inside. Restoration would be costly. As a solution to the problem, the administration of the school was transferred from Toyama City to Toyama Prefecture. With money from the prefecture, the school facilities were repaired and teaching staff recruited. In 1909, the school ranking was promoted to college status, and it became one of the first academic institutions to issue a pharmacist licence to graduates without requiring them to take the national examination (i.e., with the exception of medical colleges). Subsequently, in 1920, the administration of the college was transferred from the Toyama Prefectural Government to Japan's Central Government, at which time the facilities were improved and a wider range of education subjects were introduced.The college was again relocated to the city suburbs, where the facilities included the

  19. The way of the report in the Great East Japan Earthquake and the nuclear plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Nearly four years pass from the Great East Japan Earthquake. Fukushima has a big influence of the nuclear plant accident, and more than 120,000 citizens of the prefecture are still forced to refuge. The citizens of Fukushima feel that the present conditions do not come outside a prefecture and have dissatisfaction for media. A gap occurs in what media convey and thinking that inhabitants want you to tell. One of the causes is a news value point of reference. The other is that the news is carried out in a viewpoint of Tokyo. Is there not the cancellation method? I consider it from the viewpoint of a reporter living in Fukushima city. (author)

  20. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  1. Tokyo Metropolitan Earthquake Preparedness Project - A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H.

    2010-12-01

    Munich Re once ranked that Tokyo metropolitan region, the capital of Japan, is the most vulnerable area for earthquake disasters, followed by San Francisco Bay Area, US and Osaka, Japan. Seismologists also predict that Tokyo metropolitan region may have at least one near-field earthquake with a probability of 70% for the next 30 years. Given this prediction, Japanese Government took it seriously to conduct damage estimations and revealed that, as the worst case scenario, if a7.3 magnitude earthquake under heavy winds as shown in the fig. 1, it would kill a total of 11,000 people and a total of direct and indirect losses would amount to 112,000,000,000,000 yen(1,300,000,000,000, 1=85yen) . In addition to mortality and financial losses, a total of 25 million people would be severely impacted by this earthquake in four prefectures. If this earthquake occurs, 300,000 elevators will be stopped suddenly, and 12,500 persons would be confined in them for a long time. Seven million people will come to use over 20,000 public shelters spread over the impacted area. Over one millions temporary housing units should be built to accommodate 4.6 million people who lost their dwellings. 2.5 million people will relocate to outside of the damaged area. In short, an unprecedented scale of earthquake disaster is expected and we must prepare for it. Even though disaster mitigation is undoubtedly the best solution, it is more realistic that the expected earthquake would hit before we complete this business. In other words, we must take into account another solution to make the people and the assets in this region more resilient for the Tokyo metropolitan earthquake. This is the question we have been tackling with for the last four years. To increase societal resilience for Tokyo metropolitan earthquake, we adopted a holistic approach to integrate both emergency response and long-term recovery. There are three goals for long-term recovery, which consists of Physical recovery, Economic

  2. Redefining Earthquakes and the Earthquake Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenthal, Michael; Braile, Larry; Taber, John

    2008-01-01

    The Earthquake Machine (EML), a mechanical model of stick-slip fault systems, can increase student engagement and facilitate opportunities to participate in the scientific process. This article introduces the EML model and an activity that challenges ninth-grade students' misconceptions about earthquakes. The activity emphasizes the role of models…

  3. Children's Ideas about Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Canan Lacin

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  4. Prefectural difference in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage incidence in Japan analyzed with publically accessible diagnosis procedure combination data: possibilities and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Fukuhara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Annually reported, publically accessible Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC data from the Japanese government is a part of the total DPC database of the Japanese medical reimbursement system for hospitalization. Although medical issues can be evaluated with these data promptly, the applicability of these data in epidemiological analyses has not been assessed. METHODS: We performed analyses using only statistical indices reported on the a government website. As a preliminary step, the prefectural consistency of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH was examined with prefectural mortality over 20 years. Then the prefectural incidence of sICH for four years was calculated, utilizing publically accessible DPC data. To determine its reliability, the consistency was examined, and correlations were analyzed with three prefectural factors expected to have an effect: the elderly rate, mortality due to sICH, and the non-DPC bed rate. In addition, a comparison model between prefectures with this method was developed by analyzing other prefecture-specific factors. RESULTS: Prefectural mortality due to sICH and prefectural sICH incidence in the DPC database were both consistent over the years. Prefectural sICH incidence had a constant positive correlation with the elderly rate, a partial correlation with mortality due to sICH, but no correlation with the non-DPC bed rate, which is one of the major biases when utilizing the DPC database. In the comparison model, the factors of low income and alcohol consumption showed increased sICH incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Although careful attention to its limitations is required, publically accessible DPC data will provide insights into epidemiological issues.

  5. Operational earthquake forecasting can enhance earthquake preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, T.H.; Marzocchi, W.; Michael, A.J.; Gerstenberger, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We cannot yet predict large earthquakes in the short term with much reliability and skill, but the strong clustering exhibited in seismic sequences tells us that earthquake probabilities are not constant in time; they generally rise and fall over periods of days to years in correlation with nearby seismic activity. Operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) is the dissemination of authoritative information about these time‐dependent probabilities to help communities prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes. The goal of OEF is to inform the decisions that people and organizations must continually make to mitigate seismic risk and prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes on time scales from days to decades. To fulfill this role, OEF must provide a complete description of the seismic hazard—ground‐motion exceedance probabilities as well as short‐term rupture probabilities—in concert with the long‐term forecasts of probabilistic seismic‐hazard analysis (PSHA).

  6. Eradication of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, by mass release of sterile flies in Okinawa prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakinohana, H.; Kuba, H.; Kohama, T.; Kinjo, K.; Taniguchi, M.; Nakamori, H.; Tanahara, A.; Sokei, Y.

    1997-01-01

    In 1972, MAFF, Japan and the Okinawa Prefectural Government initiated an experimental eradication project of the melon fly from Kume Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Following the successful eradication on Kume Island in 1978, large scale SIT was started to eradicate the melon fly on the 3 groups of islands, Miyako, Okinawa and Yaeyama of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan in 1984, 1986 and 1989, and eradication was achieved in 1987, 1990 and 1993, respectively. For the successful eradication on Miyako, Okinawa and Yaeyama groups of islands, about 6,340, 30,940 and 15,440 million sterile melon flies were released, respectively

  7. Fukushima after the Great East Japan Earthquake: lessons for developing responsive and resilient health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, Shingo; Ahmed, Shahira; Goto, Rei; Inui, Thomas S; Atun, Rifat; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2017-06-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake, followed by a tsunami and nuclear-reactor meltdowns, produced one of the most severe disasters in the history of Japan. The adverse impact of this 'triple disaster' on the health of local populations and the health system was substantial. In this study we examine population-level health indicator changes that accompanied the disaster, and discuss options for re-designing Fukushima's health system, and by extension that of Japan, to enhance its responsiveness and resilience to current and future shocks. We used country-level (Japan-average) or prefecture-level data (2005-2014) available from the portal site of Official Statistics of Japan for Fukushima, Miyagi, and Iwate, the prefectures that were most affected by the disaster, to compare trends before (2005-2010) and after (2011-2014) the 'disaster'. We made time-trend line plots to describe changes over time in age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates in each prefecture. All three prefectures, and in particular Fukushima, had lower socio-economic indicators, an older population, lower productivity and gross domestic product per capita, and less higher-level industry than the Japan average. All three prefectures were 'medically underserved', with fewer physicians, nurses, ambulance calls and clinics per 100 000 residents than the Japan average. Even before the disaster, age-adjusted all-cause mortality in Fukushima was in general higher than the national rates. After the triple disaster we found that the mortality rate due to myocardial infarction increased substantially in Fukushima while it decreased nationwide. Compared to Japan average, spikes in mortality due to lung disease (all three prefectures), stroke (Iwate and Miyagi), and all-cause mortality (Miyagi and Fukushima) were also observed post-disaster. The cause-specific mortality rate from cancer followed similar trends in all three prefectures to those in Japan as a whole. Although we found a sharp

  8. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  9. Earthquake forecasting and warning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rikitake, T.

    1983-01-01

    This review briefly describes two other books on the same subject either written or partially written by Rikitake. In this book, the status of earthquake prediction efforts in Japan, China, the Soviet Union, and the United States are updated. An overview of some of the organizational, legal, and societal aspects of earthquake prediction in these countries is presented, and scientific findings of precursory phenomena are included. A summary of circumstances surrounding the 1975 Haicheng earthquake, the 1978 Tangshan earthquake, and the 1976 Songpan-Pingwu earthquake (all magnitudes = 7.0) in China and the 1978 Izu-Oshima earthquake in Japan is presented. This book fails to comprehensively summarize recent advances in earthquake prediction research.

  10. Classification of M~7 earthquakes in Tokyo Metropolitan area since 1885 - The 1921 Ibaraki-ken Nambu and 1922 Uraga channel earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibe, T.; Satake, K.; Shimazaki, K.; Murotani, S.; Nishiyama, A.

    2011-12-01

    S-P times, focal mechanism solutions from initial motion, and seismic intensity distribution show that the 1921 Ibaraki-ken Nambu earthquake (M 7.0) and the 1922 Uraga channel earthquake (M 6.8) both occurred within the subducting Philippine Sea plate beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area. The Tokyo Metropolitan area is situated in a tectonically complex region; The Philippine Sea plate (PHS) subducts from south, while the Pacific plate (PAC) subducts from east below PHS. As a result, various types of earthquakes occur in this region. They are classified into: shallow crustal earthquakes, intraplate (slab) earthquakes within PHS, within PAC, and interplate earthquakes between continental plate and PHS, and between PHS and PAC. The probability of the large earthquakes with magnitude (M)~7 is high; Earthquake Research Committee calculated the probability of occurrence during the next 30 years as 70 %, based on the fact that five M~7 earthquakes (the 1894 Meiji Tokyo, 1895 and 1921 Ibaraki-ken Nambu, 1922 Uraga Channel, and 1987 Chiba-ken Toho-oki earthquakes) occurred since 1885. However, types of these earthquakes except for the 1987 earthquake are not well known due to low quality of data. It is important to classify these earthquakes into above-described intraplate or interplate earthquakes. The Ibaraki-ken Nambu earthquake occurred on 8 December, 1921 and caused damage such as fissures on road, tumble of gravestones especially in the northwestern Chiba and southwestern Ibaraki prefectures. The focal depth was estimated to be around 55 km using S-P times of old seismograms or JMA reports, suggesting that this earthquake was probably a slab earthquake within PHS. Seismic intensity distribution supports this result; seismic intensity anomalies characterizing the PAC slab earthquakes are not recognized. Furthermore, initial motion focal mechanisms using HASH algorithm (Hardebeck and Shearer, 2002) are strike-slip types, even if the uncertainty of hypocenter locations

  11. Immediate effects of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster on depressive symptoms among mothers with infants: a prefectural-wide cross-sectional study from the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Aya; Bromet, Evelyn J; Fujimori, Kenya

    2015-03-26

    Mothers of young children are at high-risk for developing adverse mental health effects following a nuclear accident. Using the Japanese pregnancy registration system, the prefecture of Fukushima launched a population-based survey of women who were pregnant at the time of the Fukushima nuclear accident in order to assess their and their newborns' health. In this paper, we focus on the results of a screen for depressive symptoms among new mothers and its association with geographical region and interruption of obstetrical care after the Fukushima nuclear accident, which occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. The survey targeted women who lived in Fukushima prefecture and who had registered their pregnancies between August 1, 2010 and July 31, 2011. Among the 16,001 women targeted, 9,321 returned the questionnaires (response proportion = 58.3%) and data from 8,196 women with singleton live births were analyzed. The main outcome measure was a standard two-item depression screen. Regional radiation levels were determined from the prefecture's periodical reports, and interruption in obstetrical care after the Fukushima nuclear accident was determined from mothers' individual responses to the questionnaire. Among the 8,196 women, 2,262 (28%) screened positive for depressive symptoms. After adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics, both mothers in Soso, the region in which the nuclear power plant is located, and mothers that had changed obstetrical care facilities were significantly more likely to screen positive for depression. In contrast, mothers in Iwaki and Aizu, regions with relatively low radiation levels, were significantly less likely to screen positive for depression. Our findings suggest that improving mental health support for mothers with infants should be a high priority in the acute phase of nuclear disaster response. We further recommend that in the strategic provisioning of parental support, close attention should

  12. Dynamic Source Rupture Process of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiangwei; Zhang, Wenbo

    2017-04-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes are a series of earthquakes occurred in the Kumamoto Prefecture in Kyushu Region of Japan, including a magnitude 7.0 mainshock which struck at 01:25 JST on April 16, 2016 beneath Kumamoto City, at a depth of about 10 km, and a foreshock earthquake with a magnitude 6.2 at 21:26 JST on April 14, 2016, at a depth of about 11 km. This series earthquake killed at least 50 people and injured about 3,000 others in total. Severe damage occurred in Kumamoto and Oita Prefectures, with numerous structures collapsing and catching fire. More than 44,000 people were evacuated from their homes due to the disaster. Kumamoto Prefecture lies at the southern end of the Japan Median Tectonic Line, Japan's longest, where a system of active faults forks in two directions at the Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone. Specifically, the series of quakes ruptured the 81-km-long Hinagu Fault and 64-km-long Futagawa Fault to its north, as well as lesser but discernable interaction with the farther flung Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone. A 27-km section of the Futagawa Fault Zone slid 3.5 meters. The earthquakes are occurring along the Beppu-Shimabara graben, with epicenters moving from west to east over time. In this study, we analyze the dynamic rupture process of this earthquake. Our analyzing procedure is as follows, 1) Obtain the spatial-temporal stress distribution on the fault surface from the kinematic source model inverted from strong motion data (Zhang & Zhen, the abstract of this meeting, No. EGU2017ASC20162770). Estimate the strength excess (yielding stress) and the frictional stress level for each subfault; 2) Estimate the critical slip-weakening distance Dc for each subfault assuming a simple slip-weakening law and according to the method of Mikumo et al. (2003); 3) Reconstruct the dynamic source rupture process using those dynamic source parameters with the slip-weakening friction law; and 4) Simultaneously, simulate the near source ground motions based on the

  13. Ibaraki prefecture's neutron beam lines in J-PARC and outline of industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    The outlines of J-PARC and Ibaraki Prefecture's two neutron facilities for the structural analysis of materials and living materials in J-PARC/MLF (Materials and Life Science Facility) are described. The status of the industrial use of these facilities is also mentioned. The building of J-PARC/MLF was completed and about ten sets of neutron apparatuses have been in preparation. The round-table conference of MLF users started in the beginning of September and is in progress toward the public use scheduled in December, 2008. The detailed design of these two neutron facilities for industrial use was completed and its greater part has been produced. The uses of Ibaraki Prefecture's beam lines will produce the materials with highly additional values and with highly reliable structures by the measurement of residual stresses, etc. Furthermore, these uses may be connected to the development of medicine for incurable diseases. (M.H.)

  14. Monogeneans of Cichlidogyrus Paperna, 1960 (Dactylogyridae), gill parasites of tilapias, from Okinawa Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Maneepitaksanti, Worawit; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    Three species of the monogenean genus Cichlidogyrus Paperna, 1960 (C. sclerosus Paperna & Thurston, 1969, C. halli (Price & Kirk, 1967) and C. tilapiae Paperna, 1960) are reported for the first time from Japan based on specimens from the gills of tilapias (Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Mozambique tilapia O. mossambicus) in Okinawa Prefecture. These host species are of African origin, and the monogeneans found are definitely alien parasites that were introduced along with th...

  15. A Study of the Tuition of Middle Schools in Prwear Tokyo Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    Karasuda, Naoya

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarifying the tuition in middle schools at the prewar Tokyo prefecture. The tuition differed between the public schools and the private schools. In the 1890s, most expenses required for management of middle schools was provided with tuition in both private amd public schools. At this time, the tuition of public schools was higher than the private schools. After 1900 tuition of public schools became cheaper than private schools. As expenses of public schools, i...

  16. Consumers' Attitudes towards Edible Wild Plants: A Case Study of Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bixia; Qiu, Zhenmian

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the rural revitalizing strategy in FAO's Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS) site in Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture of Japan, using a case study of edible wild plants. This study assessed the current and possible future utilization of edible wild plants as one important NTFP by clarifying the attitudes of consumers and exploring the challenges of harvesting edible wild plants. Traditional ecological knowledge associated with edible wild plants and ...

  17. Flora and vegetation in Mikazukiike-Awara moor in northern Nagano prefecture, central Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    井田, 秀行; 湯本, 茂; 湯本, 静江

    2003-01-01

    Flora and vegetation were investigated in Mikazukiike-Awara moor in northern Nagano prefecture, central Japan. The vegetation was chiefly characterized by the Sphagnum-sedge community. We recorded 242 species of vascular plants and 4 sphagnum species in this area. Population of some Liliaceae and Orchidaceae species have decreased over the past 12 years. It may be caused by drought associated with human impacts. Additionally, conservation of peripheral environments (e.g. secondary beech fores...

  18. Curriculum Structure at Super Science High School (SSH) : In Case of Kumamoto Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    中山, 玄三; ナカヤマ, ゲンゾウ; Nakayama, Genzo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, two cases of curriculum structure at super science high school in Kumamoto prefecture were characterized from three viewpoints, that is, (1) target, such as for excellence, for interested students, or for all, (2) development of school-based subjects with special emphasis on doing science, and (3) interrelationships among science subjects and school-based subjects. The structure of SSH curriculum were then compared with the one of model curriculum that had been drafted by Nakay...

  19. Increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Results from the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yasumura, Seiji; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Sakai, Akira; Ohtsuru, Akira; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that control of cardiovascular risk factors deteriorates among residents after a natural disaster. This study assessed the hypothesis that the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) increased among residents in the evacuation zone of Fukushima prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake. This longitudinal study examined subjects aged 40-90 years using data collected from 26,163 participants (11,628 men and 14,535 women) sourced from general health checkups conducted in twelve communities, including the evacuation zone specified by the government, between 2008 and 2010. The study obtained 12-lead ECG tracings and conducted follow-up examinations from June 2011 to the end of March 2013. A total of 12,410 participants (5704 men and 6706 women, follow-up proportion: 47%) received follow-up examinations after the earthquake, with an average follow-up of 1.4 years. The prevalence of AF increased among participants after the earthquake (before: 1.9% vs. after: 2.4%, Pearthquake, with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of 3.07 (1.55-6.08) and 1.87 (1.19-2.94), respectively. The prevalence of AF increased among residents in the evacuation zone of Fukushima prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake, with excess alcohol intake and obesity associated with an increased risk of AF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Production and distribution of livestock products in Aomori prefecture: Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    We have collected natural and sociological environmental data related to the estimation of radiation dose by radionuclides which will be released from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Published data concerning production and distribution of livestock products in Aomori Prefecture were collected and compiled. We tried to estimate market dilution coefficient, which is the ratio of local products to total consumption by people in a target area, for the livestock products from the compiled data under some assumptions. Production weight per unit field area (production density) and consumption rates of grass and feed by the domestic animals were also estimated by using the collected data. Estimated means of the market dilution coefficients for livestock products and production density of grass were lower than those used in the environmental assessment for a reprocessing plant now under construction in Rokkasho Village. Consumption rates of grass and feed by milk cows and beef cattle were higher than those used in the assessment. Since we assumed that milk cows and beef cattle of Aomori Prefecture consume only grass and feed produced in Aomori Prefecture, the rates may be overestimated. Further study is required to clarify this point. We collected 52 reports in the literature related to transfer reduction of radionuclides to livestock products and decontamination of the radionuclides. (author)

  1. Studies on population change of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima prefecture 1965-1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueoka, Hiroshi; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru

    1984-01-01

    Studies of population change of Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors from 1965 to 1979 in Hiroshima prefecture of which registered in Data Base of Atomic Bomb Survivors of RINMB were conducted, and following were obtained: 1. Population change of Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors showed increasing trend until 1976 and diminishing trend from 1977. It would be estimated that reason of increasing trend of Atomic Bomb Survivors was correlated the same trend to get register card of ''Atomic Bomb Treatment Law'', and decreasing trend of them was related so much death of the elderly generations. 2. Analysing by residential place the survivors who make a living in Hiroshima city was almost 110,000, and those who make a living in Hiroshima prefecture (except Hiroshima city) was 65,000. Considering exposed distance of the survivors in Hiroshima city, those survivors exposed within 2 km showed diminishing trend; and those who make a living in Hiroshima prefecture (except Hiroshima city), exposed within 2 km showed increasing trend. 3. In 1979, the ratio of male and female survivors by age level showed difference. Those male survivors over 50 years old in Hiroshima city showed much lower percentage than female. 4. In 1979, the population trends of survivors who get the ''card'' before 1964 showed rapid decrease, and those who get the ''card'' after 1965 showed mild decrease. (author)

  2. Dose reconstruction for birds species exposed to ionizing radiations highlights risk for species reproducing in the Fukushima Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam-Guillermin, C.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Sternalski, A.; Bonzom, J.M.; Garnier-Laplace, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France); Brown, J.E. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Giraudeau, M. [Arizona state university (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (FDNPS) in Japan following the earthquake in March 2011 led to a massive release of radioactive isotopes into the environment. The atmospheric releases have created a footprint of radioactive contamination in the terrestrial ecosystems around the site, with a hot spot area that extends up to 80-km northwest. Despite some data are available on medium and biota contamination, there is still a lack of knowledge on possible ecological consequences due to the complexity of the exposure situation. Few papers were published using data observed in situ, reporting a reduction of bird and invertebrate abundance (Moeller et al., 2012, 2013) and morphological effects in butterflies (Hiyama et al., 2012). But as for any contaminant, the biological effects are dependent on the dose received, and an accurate dose estimation is needed to be able to correctly predict ecological risk. An early study has published preliminary radiological dose reconstruction from Fukushima wildlife signaling potential ecological consequences, but without using any quantitative data relating to biological samples (Garnier-Laplace et al., 2011). In this general framework, the work presented here aims at refining the first assessment conducted to evaluate possible consequences of the FDNPS radioactive releases, focusing on some bird species, studied in Fukushima but also in Chernobyl. Public data available on bird and soil contamination were used to check the bird contamination model used, showing that radioactive contamination predictions were within the range of variation of measured data. This model was then applied to estimate doses in bird species living in the Fukushima prefecture and known to reproduce during the period just after the nuclear power plant accident, based on ecological maps established for Japan. The influence of life stages and species ecological characteristics was taken into account on the dose estimates. The heterogeneity of

  3. Mental health and psychosocial support after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yutaka; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Mimura, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    Since the Great East Japan Earthquake, Keio University School of Medicine has, at the request of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, provided mental health and psychosocial support to those living in Soma City in Fukushima Prefecture. This report covers the types of support provided in Soma City and discusses previous studies that were used as the model for current support practice and the results gained from actual performance. Also included is a summary of the objectives that were or were not achieved for medical support compared with recommendations from previous studies. Furthermore, future directions for medical support are also discussed.

  4. Learning from Earthquakes: 2014 Napa Valley Earthquake Reconnaissance Report

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Structural damage was observed during reconnaissance after the 2014 South Napa Earthquake, and included damage to wine storage and fermentation tanks, collapse of wine storage barrel racks, unreinforced masonry building partial or full collapse, and residential building damage. This type of damage is not unique to the South Napa Earthquake, and was observed after other earthquakes such as the 1977 San Juan Earthquake, and the 2010 Maule Earthquake. Previous research and earthquakes have demon...

  5. Encyclopedia of earthquake engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis; Patelli, Edoardo; Au, Siu-Kui

    2015-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering is designed to be the authoritative and comprehensive reference covering all major aspects of the science of earthquake engineering, specifically focusing on the interaction between earthquakes and infrastructure. The encyclopedia comprises approximately 265 contributions. Since earthquake engineering deals with the interaction between earthquake disturbances and the built infrastructure, the emphasis is on basic design processes important to both non-specialists and engineers so that readers become suitably well-informed without needing to deal with the details of specialist understanding. The content of this encyclopedia provides technically inclined and informed readers about the ways in which earthquakes can affect our infrastructure and how engineers would go about designing against, mitigating and remediating these effects. The coverage ranges from buildings, foundations, underground construction, lifelines and bridges, roads, embankments and slopes. The encycl...

  6. Earthquake at 40 feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G. J.

    1976-01-01

    The earthquake that struck the island of Guam on November 1, 1975, at 11:17 a.m had many unique aspects-not the least of which was the experience of an earthquake of 6.25 Richter magnitude while at 40 feet. My wife Bonnie, a fellow diver, Greg Guzman, and I were diving at Gabgab Beach in teh outer harbor of Apra Harbor, engaged in underwater phoyography when the earthquake struck. 

  7. Geotechnical aspects of the 2016 MW 6.2, MW 6.0, and MW 7.0 Kumamoto earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, Robert E.; Dashti, Shideh; Kokusho, T.; Hazarika, H.; Franke, Kevin; Oettle, N. K.; Wham, Brad; Ramirez Calderon, Jenny; Briggs, Dallin; Guillies, Samantha; Cheng, Katherine; Tanoue, Yutaka; Takematsu, Katsuji; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Morinaga, Takayuki; Furuichi, Hideo; Kitano, Yuuta; Tajiri, Masanori; Chaudhary, Babloo; Nishimura, Kengo; Chu, Chu

    2017-01-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes are a series of events that began with an earthquake of moment magnitude 6.2 on the Hinagu Fault on April 14, 2016, followed by another foreshock of moment magnitude 6.0 on the Hinagu Fault on April 15, 2016, and a larger moment magnitude 7.0 event on the Futagawa Fault on April 16, 2016 beneath Kumamoto City, Kumamoto Prefecture on Kyushu, Japan. These events are the strongest earthquakes recorded in Kyushu during the modern instrumental era. The earthquakes resulted in substantial damage to infrastructure, buildings, cultural heritage of Kumamoto Castle, roads and highways, slopes, and river embankments due to earthquake-induced landsliding and debris flows. Surface fault rupture produced offset and damage to roads, buildings, river levees, and an agricultural dam. Surprisingly, given the extremely intense earthquake motions, liquefaction occurred only in a few districts of Kumamoto City and in the port areas indicating that the volcanic soils were less susceptible to liquefying than expected given the intensity of earthquake shaking, a significant finding from this event.

  8. The Impact of Japan's 2004 Postgraduate Training Program on Intra-Prefectural Distribution of Pediatricians in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Rie; Wang, Wei; Yamaguchi, Norihiro; Tamura, Hiroshi; Goto, Rei; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objective Inequity in physician distribution poses a challenge to many health systems. In Japan, a new postgraduate training program for all new medical graduates was introduced in 2004, and researchers have argued that this program has increased inequalities in physician distribution. We examined the trends in the geographic distribution of pediatricians as well as all physicians from 1996 to 2010 to identify the impact of the launch of the new training program. Methods The Gini coefficient was calculated using municipalities as the study unit within each prefecture to assess whether there were significant changes in the intra-prefectural distribution of all physicians and pediatricians before and after the launch of the new training program. The effect of the new program was quantified by estimating the difference in the slope in the time trend of the Gini coefficients before and after 2004 using a linear change-point regression design. We categorized 47 prefectures in Japan into two groups: 1) predominantly urban and 2) others by the definition from OECD to conduct stratified analyses by urban-rural status. Results The trends in physician distribution worsened after 2004 for all physicians (p valuepediatricians (p value = 0.0057). For all physicians, the trends worsened after 2004 both in predominantly urban prefectures (p value = 0.0012) and others (p valuepediatricians, the distribution worsened in others (p value = 0.0343), but not in predominantly urban prefectures (p value = 0.0584). Conclusion The intra-prefectural distribution of physicians worsened after the launch of the new training program, which may reflect the impact of the new postgraduate program. In pediatrics, changes in the Gini trend differed significantly before and after the launch of the new training program in others, but not in predominantly urban prefectures. Further observation is needed to explore how this difference in trends affects the health status of the child

  9. Design of the health examination survey on early childhood physical growth in the Great East Japan Earthquake affected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Chida, Shoichi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ono, Atsushi; Kato, Noriko; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on preschool children's physical growth in the disaster-affected areas, the three medical universities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures conducted a health examination survey on early childhood physical growth. The survey was conducted over a 3-year period to acquire data on children who were born in different years. Our targets were as follows: 1) children who were born between March 1, 2007 and August 31, 2007 and experienced the disaster at 43-48 months of age, 2) children who were born between March 1, 2009 and August 31, 2009 and experienced the disaster at 19-24 months of age, and 3) children who were born between June 1, 2010 and April 30, 2011 and were under 10 months of age or not born yet when the disaster occurred. We collected their health examination data from local governments in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures. We also collected data from Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures to use as a control group. The survey items included birth information, anthropometric measurements, and methods of nutrition during infancy. Eighty municipalities from Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures and 21 from the control prefectures participated in the survey. As a result, we established three retrospective cohorts consisting of 13,886, 15,474, and 32,202 preschool children. The large datasets acquired for the present survey will provide valuable epidemiological evidence that should shed light on preschool children's physical growth in relation to the disaster. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Japanese Experience with Long-term Recovery from the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H.

    2015-12-01

    On March 11, 2011, a huge tsunami disaster hit Pacific coast of Tohoku region due to a magnitude of 9.0 earthquake, and killed almost 20,000 people. It was also the beginning of long-term recovery to prepare for next tsunami attack in the future. In this presentation, I would like to review the recovery process from the following five elements: quantification of tsunami hazards, public education, evacuation model, land-use planning, and real-time tsunami warning. It should be noted that there are lessons from the 2011 event at two different levels: national level and prefecture levels. In relation to the quantification of tsunami hazard and real-time tsunami warning, it followed a big change in tsunami policy at national level such as setting up two levels of tsunami scenarios for tsunami preparedness and mitigation: Level 1 tsunami (L1) and Level 2 tsunami (L2). L1 is the tsunami risk with 50 year return period, and L2 is the one with 1,000 year return period. As for public education, evacuation model, and land-use planning, There existed a big difference for what happened in the northern half of the coast and the southern half. Northern half of the coast belongs to Iwate Prefecture whose geography is rias coast. People in the Rias coast of Iwate Prefecture has been hit many times by tsunami on the average of about 50 years. With these many experiences, they succeeded in reducing the number of mortality down to 4,000 in comparison with 20,000 at the 1886 tsunami disaster. Most of the Southern half belongs to Miyagi Prefecture whose geography is coastal plain. People in the coastal plain in Miyagi Prefecture has little experience with tsunami disaster and end up with 14,000 deaths due to tsunami attack. The differences in the past tsunami experiences in these two prefectures resulted in big differences in public education, evacuation model, and land-use planning.

  11. Earthquakes and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes are low-probability, high-consequence events. Though they may occur only once in the life of a school, they can have devastating, irreversible consequences. Moderate earthquakes can cause serious damage to building contents and non-structural building systems, serious injury to students and staff, and disruption of building operations.…

  12. The Antiquity of Earthquakes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Earth. Sciences, University of. Roorkee. Her interest is in computer based solutions to geophysical and other earth science problems. If we adopt the definition that an earthquake is shaking of the earth due to natural causes, then we may argue that earthquakes have been occurring since the very beginning.

  13. Bam Earthquake in Iran

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Following their request for help from members of international organisations, the permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran has given the following bank account number, where you can donate money to help the victims of the Bam earthquake. Re: Bam earthquake 235 - UBS 311264.35L Bubenberg Platz 3001 BERN

  14. Tradable Earthquake Certificates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Dulleman, Minne

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a market-based idea to compensate for earthquake damage caused by the extraction of natural gas and applies it to the case of Groningen in the Netherlands. Earthquake certificates give homeowners a right to yearly compensation for both property damage and degradation of living

  15. The Antiquity of Earthquakes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    there are few estimates about this earthquake as it probably occurred in that early period of the earth's history about which astronomers, physicists, chemists and earth scientists are still sorting out their ideas. Yet, the notion of the earliest earthquake excites interest. We explore this theme here partly also because.

  16. Historic Eastern Canadian earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmis, G.J.K.; Atchinson, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear power plants licensed in Canada have been designed to resist earthquakes: not all plants, however, have been explicitly designed to the same level of earthquake induced forces. Understanding the nature of strong ground motion near the source of the earthquake is still very tentative. This paper reviews historical and scientific accounts of the three strongest earthquakes - St. Lawrence (1925), Temiskaming (1935), Cornwall (1944) - that have occurred in Canada in 'modern' times, field studies of near-field strong ground motion records and their resultant damage or non-damage to industrial facilities, and numerical modelling of earthquake sources and resultant wave propagation to produce accelerograms consistent with the above historical record and field studies. It is concluded that for future construction of NPP's near-field strong motion must be explicitly considered in design

  17. [Questionnaire survey on medical care for male urethritis in community clinics in Shiga prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hiroto; Araki, Isao; Kageyama, Susumu; Baba, Masato; Nakano, Etsuji; Okada, Yusaku

    2014-01-01

    Six regional medical associations in Shiga prefecture agreed to cooperate in an investigation of medical care for male gonococcal and chlamydial urethritis. In June 2011, we sent a questionnaire to 372 medical offices in Shiga prefecture, and analyzed replies of respondents. Ten urologists and 175 non-urologists responded to the survey (response rate 49.7%). Among 185 physicians, 52 (10 urologists and 42 nonurologists) have treated male patients with gonococcal and chlamydial urethritis. More than 20% (42/175) of non-urological clinics are involved in the medical management. At initial diagnosis for sexually transmitted male urethritis, all urologists select the nucleic acid amplification method (100%), whereas many non-urologists do not (35%). For the treatment of chlamydial urethritis, non-urologists select levofloxacin (LVFX, 52.8%) rather than azithromycin (AZM, 22.0%), whereas urologists use AZM (78.0%) mostly but do not use LVFX (0%) (p = 0.023). For the treatment of gonococcal urethritis, non-urologists prefer oral new quinolones (53.1%) compared to urologists (25.0%) (p = 0. 74). For cure judgment of gonoccocal and chlamydial urethritis, many non-urologists rely on the improvement of subjective symptoms (50 and 47%), but urologists do not (10 and 0%) (p = 0.022 and 0.026, respectively). As for recognition of the clinical guideline for sexually transmitted disease, most urologists (90%) know it, but few non-urologists (13%) do (p urethritis in Shiga prefecture. It is important to standardize the medical care for sexually transmitted male urethritis by familiarizing non-urological practitioners with the clinical guideline.

  18. Assessing cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Despite the enormous cost of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, it is not clear what levels of reduction in external radiation exposure are possible in the Special Decontamination Area, the Intensive Contamination Survey Areas and the whole of Fukushima. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture in its entirety. Using a geographic information system, we calculated the costs of removal, storage containers, transport, and temporary and interim storage facilities as well as the reduction in air dose rate for a cumulative external exposure for 9000 1 km × 1 km mesh units incorporating 51 municipalities. The decontamination cost for the basic scenario, for which forested areas within 20 m of habitation areas were decontaminated, was JPY2.53–5.12 trillion; the resulting reduction in annual external dose was about 2500 person-Sv. The transport, storage, and administrative costs of decontamination waste and removed soil reached JPY1.55–2.12 trillion under this scenario. Although implementing decontamination of all forested areas provides some major reductions in the external radiation dose for the average inhabitant, decontamination costs could potentially exceed JPY16 trillion. These results indicate that technologies for reducing the volume of decontamination waste and removed soil should be considered to reduce storage costs and that further discussions about forest decontamination policies are needed. - Highlights: • Evaluation of cost and effectiveness of decontaminating Fukushima Prefecture. • Reductions in external exposure under various decontamination scenarios were similar. • Decontamination costs for the basic scenario were estimated at JPY2.53–5.12 trillion.

  19. The efficient enhancement of solar energy utilization in Lasithi prefecture, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xydis, G.; Moustakas, K.; Koroneos, C.; Loizidou, M.; Tzempelikos, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presented a study on maximizing the use of solar energy in the Prefecture of Lasithi on the island of Crete in southern Greece, followed by an investigation of the possible replacement of diesel and heavy fuel oil. While renewable energy sources such as solar, wind and geothermal energy are abundant on the Greek Islands, their use is limited. This presentation emphasized that solar energy could play a key role in meeting Greece's objective of satisfying 8.6 per cent of its electricity needs using renewable sources by 2010. An optimization methodology was applied to the prefecture in order to exploit the island's solar energy and to satisfy part of its energy needs. In 2001, the population of Lasithi was 76,318. From 1997 to 2002, the total energy consumption in Lasithi increased by an average of 6.4 per cent. The technologies that were considered for the exploitation of solar energy were thermal solar systems (solar radiation into water heating); photovoltaics solar systems (solar radiation into electricity); and, inverted absorber solar stills (solar radiation into drinkable water). A mathematical model was developed to optimize each energy scenario. The basis for analysis was the total amount of diesel, heavy fuel oil and electricity consumed in Lasithi from 1997 to 2002 in correlation with the solar exploitation potential in the prefecture. This paper also presented a review of photovoltaic systems (PV modules, batteries, power conditioning, generators, and pumps), solar air heating systems on buildings and solar water heating systems. It was noted that the extent to which the energy demands will be satisfied by the use of these systems will depend on both financial and environmental criteria. It was determined that for heating and domestic use, the energy from solar collectors, photovoltaics, solar stills and concentrators could meet 97.3 per cent of the energy needs for the prefecture. The remaining energy could be supplied by liquid fuels and the

  20. [Structure and characteristics of technical support that psychiatric social workers of prefectural governments provide for municipalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The support to municipalities by prefectural governments has become necessary in the fields of mental health and welfare. Therefore, psychiatric social workers (PSW) ordered from the prefectural governor has been providing technical support (TS) that promote community activities of the municipality and improve staff support for persons with mental disabilities. The purpose of this study was to identify empirical structure and characteristics of TS that PSW provide for municipality staff.Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven certified PSW randomly selected from the membership list of the National Psychiatric Social Worker Organization. Inclusion criteria required participants to have more than 10 years of experience at the prefectural government and experience providing TS in the last five years. Interviews focused on two situations: a casework and a project related to mental health. Interview data were analyzed using a qualitative content method, setting a framework for the consultation process.Results The analysis included five categories and 15 subcategories [ ], which consisted of 37 concepts. In category with municipalities consisted of [complementary relationship] and [partnership]. The category included two subcategories, [analyze/judgment from the conditions spread in front of] and [analyze/judgment be the accumulated skills and knowledge in person]. In category support policy>, six policies were considered as important, including [problem solving and promoting action], [fostering person centered care perspective], [promoting the understanding of residents], [provide psychological support to the staff], [clarify responsibility as the municipal officials], and [coordinate to improve the environment]. Category support techniques> consisted of both [support indirectly] and [support cooperatively]. The last category, support> included three subcategories, [lead to the maintenance and improvement of the system], [have the

  1. On freak minor octopus, Octopus minor, found out in Imabari Fish Market, Ehime Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    Higashide, Ryosuke; Sakai, Yoichi; Hashimoto, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    The three male freak minor octopus, Octopus minor were found out on Fish Market of Imabari Fisheries Cooperative, Ehime Prefecture, Japan. One of them was the octopus landed on May 25, 2006, which had two hectocotilized arms on both of the third right and left, though male octopus usually has only one hectocotilized arm on the third right arm. It was seemed to be arisen from the abnormal generation. Another ones were landed on the Fish Market on April 16 and June 26, 2007, respectively. Both ...

  2. Spatiotermporal correlations of earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Kun, F.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. At the present technological level, earthquakes of magnitude larger than three can be recorded all over the world. In spite of the apparent randomness of earthquake occurrence, long term measurements have revealed interesting scaling laws of earthquake characteristics: the rate of aftershocks following major earthquakes has a power law decay (Omori law); the magnitude distribution of earthquakes exhibits a power law behavior (Gutenberg-Richter law), furthermore, it has recently been pointed out that epicenters form fractal networks in fault zones (Kagan law). The theoretical explanation of earthquakes is based on plate tectonics: the earth's crust has been broken into plates which slowly move under the action of the flowing magma. Neighboring plates touch each other along ridges (fault zones) where a large amount of energy is stored in deformation. Earthquakes occur when the stored energy exceeds a material dependent threshold value and gets released in a sudden jump of the plate. The Burridge-Knopoff (BK) model of earthquakes represents earth's crust as a coupled system of driven oscillators where nonlinearity occurs through a stick-slip frictional instability. Laboratory experiments have revealed that under a high pressure the friction of rock interfaces exhibits a weakening with increasing velocity. In the present project we extend recent theoretical studies of the BK model by taking into account a realistic velocity weakening friction force between tectonic plates. Varying the strength of weakening a broad spectrum of interesting phenomena is obtained: the model reproduces the Omori and Gutenberg-Richter laws of earthquakes, furthermore, it provides information on the correlation of earthquake sequences. We showed by computer simulations that the spatial and temporal correlations of consecutive earthquakes are very

  3. Earthquakes, November-December 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    Two major earthquakes occurred in the last 2 months of the year. A magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck San Juan Province, Argentina, on November 23, causing fatalities and damage. The second major earthquake was a magnitude 7.0 in the Bonin Islands region, an unpopulated area. On December 19, Iran experienced a destructive earthquake, which killed over 500.

  4. How Should Disaster Base Hospitals Prepare for Dialysis Therapy after Earthquakes? Introduction of Double Water Piping Circuits Provided by Well Water System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegaya, Naoki; Seki, George; Ohta, Nobutaka

    2016-01-01

    After earthquakes, continuing dialysis for patients with ESRD and patients suffering from crush syndrome is the serious problem. In this paper, we analyzed the failure of the provision of dialysis services observed in recent disasters and discussed how to prepare for disasters to continue dialysis therapy. Japan has frequently experienced devastating earthquakes. A lot of dialysis centers could not continue dialysis treatment owing to damage caused by these earthquakes. The survey by Japanese Society for Dialysis Treatment (JSDT) after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 showed that failure of lifelines such as electric power and water supply was the leading cause of the malfunction of dialysis treatment. Our hospital is located in Shizuoka Prefecture, where one of the biggest earthquakes is predicted to occur in the near future. In addition to reconstructing earthquake-resistant buildings and facilities, we therefore have adopted double electric and water lifelines by introducing emergency generators and well water supply systems. It is very important to inform politicians, bureaucrats, and local water departments that dialysis treatment, a life sustaining therapy for patients with end stage renal diseases, requires a large amount of water. We cannot prevent an earthquake but can curb the extent of a disaster by preparing for earthquakes.

  5. The Challenge of Centennial Earthquakes to Improve Modern Earthquake Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saragoni, G. Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    The recent commemoration of the centennial of the San Francisco and Valparaiso 1906 earthquakes has given the opportunity to reanalyze their damages from modern earthquake engineering perspective. These two earthquakes plus Messina Reggio Calabria 1908 had a strong impact in the birth and developing of earthquake engineering. The study of the seismic performance of some up today existing buildings, that survive centennial earthquakes, represent a challenge to better understand the limitations of our in use earthquake design methods. Only Valparaiso 1906 earthquake, of the three considered centennial earthquakes, has been repeated again as the Central Chile, 1985, Ms = 7.8 earthquake. In this paper a comparative study of the damage produced by 1906 and 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes is done in the neighborhood of Valparaiso harbor. In this study the only three centennial buildings of 3 stories that survived both earthquakes almost undamaged were identified. Since for 1985 earthquake accelerogram at El Almendral soil conditions as well as in rock were recoded, the vulnerability analysis of these building is done considering instrumental measurements of the demand. The study concludes that good performance of these buildings in the epicentral zone of large earthquakes can not be well explained by modern earthquake engineering methods. Therefore, it is recommended to use in the future of more suitable instrumental parameters, such as the destructiveness potential factor, to describe earthquake demand

  6. Earthquake hazard assessment and small earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, L.

    1987-01-01

    The significance of small earthquakes and their treatment in nuclear power plant seismic hazard assessment is an issue which has received increased attention over the past few years. In probabilistic studies, sensitivity studies showed that the choice of the lower bound magnitude used in hazard calculations can have a larger than expected effect on the calculated hazard. Of particular interest is the fact that some of the difference in seismic hazard calculations between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies can be attributed to this choice. The LLNL study assumed a lower bound magnitude of 3.75 while the EPRI study assumed a lower bound magnitude of 5.0. The magnitudes used were assumed to be body wave magnitudes or their equivalents. In deterministic studies recent ground motion recordings of small to moderate earthquakes at or near nuclear power plants have shown that the high frequencies of design response spectra may be exceeded. These exceedances became important issues in the licensing of the Summer and Perry nuclear power plants. At various times in the past particular concerns have been raised with respect to the hazard and damage potential of small to moderate earthquakes occurring at very shallow depths. In this paper a closer look is taken at these issues. Emphasis is given to the impact of lower bound magnitude on probabilistic hazard calculations and the historical record of damage from small to moderate earthquakes. Limited recommendations are made as to how these issues should be viewed

  7. What caused a large number of fatalities in the Tohoku earthquake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, M.; Ishida, M.; Nishikawa, Y.; Mizuki, C.; Hayashi, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Mw9.0 earthquake caused 20,000 deaths and missing persons in northeastern Japan. 115 years prior to this event, there were three historical tsunamis that struck the region, one of which is a "tsunami earthquake" resulted with a death toll of 22,000. Since then, numerous breakwaters were constructed along the entire northeastern coasts and tsunami evacuation drills were carried out and hazard maps were distributed to local residents on numerous communities. However, despite the constructions and preparedness efforts, the March 11 Tohoku earthquake caused numerous fatalities. The strong shaking lasted three minutes or longer, thus all residents recognized that this is the strongest and longest earthquake that they had been ever experienced in their lives. The tsunami inundated an enormous area at about 560km2 over 35 cities along the coast of northeast Japan. To find out the reasons behind the high number of fatalities due to the March 11 tsunami, we interviewed 150 tsunami survivors at public evacuation shelters in 7 cities mainly in Iwate prefecture in mid-April and early June 2011. Interviews were done for about 30min or longer focused on their evacuation behaviors and those that they had observed. On the basis of the interviews, we found that residents' decisions not to evacuate immediately were partly due to or influenced by earthquake science results. Below are some of the factors that affected residents' decisions. 1. Earthquake hazard assessments turned out to be incorrect. Expected earthquake magnitudes and resultant hazards in northeastern Japan assessed and publicized by the government were significantly smaller than the actual Tohoku earthquake. 2. Many residents did not receive accurate tsunami warnings. The first tsunami warning were too small compared with the actual tsunami heights. 3. The previous frequent warnings with overestimated tsunami height influenced the behavior of the residents. 4. Many local residents above 55 years old experienced

  8. Earthquakes and emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthquakes and emerging infections may not have a direct cause and effect relationship like tax evasion and jail, but new evidence suggests that there may be a link between the two human health hazards. Various media accounts have cited a massive 1993 earthquake in Maharashtra as a potential catalyst of the recent outbreak of plague in India that has claimed more than 50 lives and alarmed the world. The hypothesis is that the earthquake may have uprooted underground rat populations that carry the fleas infected with the bacterium that causes bubonic plague and can lead to the pneumonic form of the disease that is spread through the air.

  9. Retrospect and prospect of “Traffic Safety Education” in Kagawa Prefecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Ihara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain why we have conducted “Traffic Safety Education” in the Kagawa Prefecture during the past ten years so as to clarify the important factors for preventing painful traffic accidents in advance. To meet this aim, we firstly clarify the reason why we eventually decided to conduct “Traffic Safety Education” in the Kagawa Prefecture. In other words, the organization of powerful actors and/or leaders to cope with traffic accidents plays a very important role in “Traffic Safety Education.” Then, we specifically describe the essential parts of our “Traffic Safety Education”. In this respect, we have decided to select the following two aims: to reduce the number of traffic accidents, and to improve traffic manners, respectively. Thirdly, we evaluate various measures, such as teaching materials, teaching methods, and other activities of our “Traffic Safety Education” in detail. Lastly, we summarize the remaining tasks, which have been revealed so far, together with some concluding remarks.

  10. Network organization in research and medicare of refractory cancers in Chiba prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) specified for Chiba Cancer Center (CCC) to be one of base hospitals for cooperative medicare of cancers in Japanese prefectures in 2006. Even before and after that, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) and CCC had worked together without the official agreement, but they made the arrangement with the organization in the title to cooperate and promote the research and medicare of refractory cancers in Chiba Prefecture on October 27, 2009. This paper is a record of the 1st joint symposium (Mar. 13, 2010) of the two facilities, open to the public, describing the mutual introduction of them, genome studies, and treatment of refractory cancers of brain, lungs and pancreas conducted hitherto. Documents actually concerns: the introduction of NIRS including its division of the Res. Center for Charged Particle Therapy with Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), its Hospital, Molecular Imaging Center, Res. Center for Radiation Protection and for Radiation Emergency Medicine, and Fundamental Technology Center; introduction of CCC including its routine clinical practice, palliative medicare, basic and clinical researches, and works as the base hospital; NIRS basic researches for the heavy ion therapy (approach from the genomic science and development of risk assessment with use of genome information); treatment outcome of glioblastoma (GBM) by intensity modified radiotherapy (IMRT) in CCC; NIRS heavy ion (C ion) therapy for malignant glioma; and surgical outcomes of lung and pancreatic cancers in CCC and heavy ion therapy for the cancers in NIRS. (T.T.)

  11. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengwei Lou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920–18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R0=2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129–2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic.

  12. Nuclear accident-derived (3)H in river water of Fukushima Prefecture during 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Shinji; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Ochiai, Shinya; Akata, Naofumi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2015-08-01

    During 2011-2014, we measured (3)H concentrations in river water samples collected during base flow conditions and during several flood events from two small rivers in a mountainous area in Fukushima Prefecture, which received deposition of (137)Cs from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. (3)H concentrations above background levels were found in water samples collected during both base flow conditions and flood events in 2011. The (3)H concentrations during flood events were generally higher than those during base flow conditions. The (3)H concentrations in both rivers during base flow conditions and flood events decreased with time after the accident and reached almost background levels in 2013. We also measured (3)H concentrations in freshwater samples from 16 other rivers and one dam in eastern Fukushima Prefecture from 2012 to 2014 during base flow conditions. The measured (3)H concentrations were higher than the background level in 2012 and decreased with time. The (137)Cs inventory in the catchment area at each sampling point was estimated from air-borne monitoring results in the literature and compared with the (3)H concentrations. We found surprisingly good correlations between (137)Cs inventories in the catchment areas and (3)H concentrations in the water samples. Further studies will be necessary to clarify the reason for the good correlation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CERN CERTIFICATE REQUIRED FOR AN APPLICATION FOR A FRENCH RESIDENCE PERMIT ISSUED BY A PREFECTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    All non-French nationals who reside in France for more than three consecutive months or who, in the case of intermittent periods of residence, are effectively present in France for more than three months in any six-month period must obtain a residence or stay permit (titre de séjour). If members of the CERN personnel and members of their families fulfil those conditions inter alia, they normally receive a legitimation document, which is valid as a residence or stay permit, from the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Carte spéciale FI or AT, Carte d'assimilé à un membre de mission diplomatique). However, members of the personnel with permanent resident status (résident permanent) are not, by virtue of that status, entitled to a legitimation document and must obtain a residence permit issued by a Prefecture. For the latter purpose, with the agreement of the Prefecture de l'Ain, CERN (i.e. the Personnel Records Office, Human Resources Division, office 33/1-...

  14. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Pengwei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xueliang; Xu, Jiabo; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV) model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920-18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R 0 = 2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129-2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R 0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic.

  15. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Pengwei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xueliang; Xu, Jiabo

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV) model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920–18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R 0 = 2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129–2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R 0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic. PMID:27872852

  16. Prefecture-level economic conditions and risk of suicide in Japan: a repeated cross-sectional analysis 1975-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Kashima, Saori; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V

    2014-12-01

    Geographical inequalities in suicide have risen dramatically across 47 prefectures in Japan since 1995. We sought to examine temporal changes in the associations between prefecture-level economic conditions and completed suicide during the recent 35 years, controlling for individual composition in each prefecture. Based on quinquennial vital statistics and census data from 1975 to 2010, we analysed the entire population aged 25-64 years. The total number of suicides was 87 553 men and 34 559 women. As indicators of prefecture-level economic conditions, we used average yearly income, average savings and income inequality (measured by Gini coefficients for yearly income). For each sex, we estimated odds ratios and 95% credible intervals for suicide using multilevel logistic regression models, with cells at level 1, years at level 2 and prefectures at level 3. Even after adjusting for individual age, occupation and time trends, low average savings at prefecture level were associated with a higher risk of suicide among men (odds ratio in low vs. high savings: 1.13, 95% credible interval: 1.05-1.21), whereas no clear patterns were observed with other economic indicators. When we further examined the associations in year-specific models by conducting a two-level analysis, both average yearly income and average savings were inversely associated with suicide risk in recent years. No clear association was found between income inequality and suicide risk for either sex. The present findings suggest that low area socioeconomic status may be driving the growing geographical inequalities in suicide in Japan, primarily among men. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of tree thinning and litter removal on the radiocesium (Cs-134, 137) discharge rates in the Kawauchi forest plantation (Fukushima Prefecture, northern Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Takahashi, Junko; Kato, Hiroaki; Hisadome, Keigo

    2016-04-01

    On 11 March 2011 a 9.0 earthquake and the resulting tsunami occurred in central-eastern Japan triggering, one day after, the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (DNPP) accident. Despite the bulk of radionuclides (ca. 80%) were transported offshore and out over the Pacific Ocean, significant wet and dry deposits of those radionuclides occurred mainly in the Fukushima Prefecture and in a minor way in the Miyagi, Tochigi, Gunma and Ibaraki Prefectures. As a consequence and among other radionuclides, a total of 511,000 TBq of I-131, 13,500 TBq of Cs-134 and 13,600 TBq of Cs-137 were released into the atmosphere and the ocean, contaminating cultivated soils, rivers, settlements and forested areas. This accident caused severe environmental and economic damages. Several decontamination practices have done, including tree thinning and litter removal within the forests and tree plantations. In this study we analysed the effect of eight different management practices on the radiocesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) discharge rates during 20 months (May'2013 - Dec'2014) in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation (stand age of 57 years), located in a hillslope near the Kawauchi village, Fukushima Prefecture, northern Japan. This study area (37⁰ 20' 04" N, 140⁰ 53' 13.5" E) is located 16 km southwestern from the DNPP and within the evacuation area. The soils are Andosols. Ten runoff plots (5 x 2 meters) were installed and measurements started on May 2013. Two plots remained without any treatment as control plots and the other eight plots represented the following management practices: Mng1) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng2) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng3) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng4) Litter removal; Mng5) Thinning (logged area); Mng6) Thinning (under remnant trees); Mng7) Litter removal + thinning (logged area); Mng8) Litter removal + thinning (under remnant trees). Each plot had a gauging station and sediment samples

  18. Misconceptions about Ebola seriously affect the prevention efforts: KAP related to Ebola prevention and treatment in Kouroussa Prefecture, Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Buli, Benti Geleta; Mayigane, Landry Ndriko; Oketta, Julius Facki; Soumouk, Aguide; Sandouno, Tamba Emile; Camara, Bole; Toure, Mory Saidou; Conde, Aissata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Guinea is the third hardest hit country in the region with 2,806 cases and 1,814 deaths as of January 11, 2015 after Sierra Leone and Liberia respectively. This KAP study was conducted in three sub-prefectures of Kouroussa in the Kankan region of Guinea from 15 December 2014 to 15 January 2015. It was conducted with the general objective of examining the knowledge, attitude and practice related to Ebola prevention and care among the public of Kouroussa Prefecture. Methods A cross...

  19. Effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake on Secondary Sex Ratio and Perinatal Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohta Suzuki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of natural disasters on secondary sex ratio (SSR and perinatal outcomes has been suggested. This study aimed to examine effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake on perinatal outcomes using vital statistics of Japan. Methods: Birth registration data from vital statistics of Japan between March 2010 and March 2012 were used. Pregnant women who experienced the earthquake were categorized according to their gestational period as of March 11, 2011, as follows: gestational weeks 4–11, 12–19, 20–27, and 28–36 (2011 group. Similarly, pregnant women who did not experience the earthquake were categorized according to their gestational period as of March 11, 2010 and used as controls (2010 group. We also categorized prefectures as “extremely affected”, “moderately affected”, and “slightly or unaffected” regions. SSR, birth weight, and gestational period were compared between both groups. Results: The number of singleton births was 688 479 in the 2010 group and 679 131 in the 2011 group. In the extremely affected region, the SSR among women at 4–11 weeks of gestation was significantly lower in the 2011 group compared with the 2010 group (49.8% vs 52.1%, P = 0.009. In the extremely affected region, children born to women who experienced the earthquake at 28–36 weeks of gestation had significantly lower birth weights. Conclusions: The SSR declined among women who experienced the earthquake during early pregnancy, particularly in the extremely affected region. However, no apparent negative effect of the earthquake on perinatal outcomes was observed, although birth weight of infants who were born to women who experienced the earthquake at 28–36 weeks of gestation were lower.

  20. Earthquake Ground Motion Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Nonlinear analyses of soils, structures, and soil-structure systems offer the potential for more accurate characterization of geotechnical and structural response under strong earthquake shaking. The increasing use of advanced performance-based desig...

  1. 1988 Spitak Earthquake Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1988 Spitak Earthquake database is an extensive collection of geophysical and geological data, maps, charts, images and descriptive text pertaining to the...

  2. The Great East-Japan Earthquake and devastating tsunami: an update and lessons from the past Great Earthquakes in Japan since 1923.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Akemi; Higashi, Hikari; Sakamoto, Takako; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2013-04-01

    Japan has a long history of fighting against great earthquakes that cause structural damage/collapses, fires and/or tsunami. On March 11, 2011 at 14:46 (Friday), the Great East-Japan Earthquake (magnitude 9.0) attacked the Tohoku region (northeastern Japan), which includes Sendai City. The earthquake generated a devastating tsunami, leading to unprecedented disasters (~18,500 victims) in coastal areas of Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, despite the fact that people living in the Tohoku region are well trained for tsunami-evacuation procedures, with the mindset of "Tsunami, ten-den-ko." This code means that each person should evacuate individually upon an earthquake. Sharing this rule, children and parents can escape separately from schools, houses or workplaces, without worrying about each other. The concept of ten-den-ko (individual evacuation) is helpful for people living in coastal areas of earthquake-prone zones around the world. It is also important to construct safe evacuation centers, because the March 11(th) tsunami killed people who had evacuated to evacuation sites. We summarize the current conditions of people living in the disaster-stricken areas, including the consequences of the Fukushima nuclear accident. We also describe the disaster responses as the publisher of the Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (TJEM), located in Sendai, with online support from Tokyo. In 1923, the Great Kanto Earthquake (magnitude 7.9) evoked a massive fire that destroyed large areas of Tokyo (~105,000 victims), including the print company for TJEM, but the Wistar Institute printed three TJEM issues in 1923 in Philadelphia. Mutual aid relationships should be established between distant cities to survive future disasters.

  3. The Great East-Japan Earthquake and devastating tsunami. An update and lessons from the past great earthquakes in Japan since 1923

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigaki, Akemi; Higashi, Hikari; Sakamoto, Takako; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2013-01-01

    Japan has a long history of fighting against great earthquakes that cause structural damage/collapses, fires and/or tsunami. On March 11, 2011 at 14:46 (Friday), the Great East-Japan Earthquake (magnitude 9.0) attacked the Tohoku region (northeastern Japan), which includes Sendai City. The earthquake generated a devastating tsunami, leading to unprecedented disasters (∼18,500 victims) in coastal areas of Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, despite the fact that people living in the Tohoku region are well trained for tsunami-evacuation procedures, with the mindset of ''Tsunami, ten-den-ko.'' This code means that each person should evacuate individually upon an earthquake. Sharing this rule, children and parents can escape separately from schools, houses or workplaces, without worrying about each other. The concept of ten-den-ko (individual evacuation) is helpful for people living in coastal areas of earthquake-prone zones around the world. It is also important to construct safe evacuation centers, because the March 11 th tsunami killed people who had evacuated to evacuation sites. We summarize the current conditions of people living in the disaster-stricken areas, including the consequences of the Fukushima nuclear accident. We also describe the disaster responses as the publisher of the Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (TJEM), located in Sendai, with online support from Tokyo. In 1923, the Great Kanto Earthquake (magnitude 7.9) evoked a massive fire that destroyed large areas of Tokyo (∼105,000 victims), including the print company for TJEM, but the Wistar Institute printed three TJEM issues in 1923 in Philadelphia. Mutual aid relationships should be established between distant cities to survive future disasters. (author)

  4. Earthquake education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCabe, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    In a survey of community response to the earthquake threat in southern California, Ralph Turner and his colleagues in the Department of Sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles, found that the public very definitely wants to be educated about the kinds of problems and hazards they can expect during and after a damaging earthquake; and they also want to know how they can prepare themselves to minimize their vulnerability. Decisionmakers, too, are recognizing this new wave of public concern. 

  5. Electromagnetic Manifestation of Earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Uvarov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    In a joint analysis of the results of recording the electrical component of the natural electromagnetic field of the Earth and the catalog of earthquakes in Kamchatka in 2013, unipolar pulses of constant amplitude associated with earthquakes were identified, whose activity is closely correlated with the energy of the electromagnetic field. For the explanation, a hypothesis about the cooperative character of these impulses is proposed.

  6. Electromagnetic Manifestation of Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a joint analysis of the results of recording the electrical component of the natural electromagnetic field of the Earth and the catalog of earthquakes in Kamchatka in 2013, unipolar pulses of constant amplitude associated with earthquakes were identified, whose activity is closely correlated with the energy of the electromagnetic field. For the explanation, a hypothesis about the cooperative character of these impulses is proposed.

  7. Injection-induced earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-07-12

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  8. Charles Darwin's earthquake reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    As it is the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth, 2009 has also been marked as 170 years since the publication of his book Journal of Researches. During the voyage Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great earthquake, which demolished hundreds of buildings, killing and injuring many people. Land was waved, lifted, and cracked, volcanoes awoke and giant ocean waves attacked the coast. Darwin was the first geologist to observe and describe the effects of the great earthquake during and immediately after. These effects sometimes repeated during severe earthquakes; but great earthquakes, like Chile 1835, and giant earthquakes, like Chile 1960, are rare and remain completely unpredictable. This is one of the few areas of science, where experts remain largely in the dark. Darwin suggested that the effects were a result of ‘ …the rending of strata, at a point not very deep below the surface of the earth…' and ‘…when the crust yields to the tension, caused by its gradual elevation, there is a jar at the moment of rupture, and a greater movement...'. Darwin formulated big ideas about the earth evolution and its dynamics. These ideas set the tone for the tectonic plate theory to come. However, the plate tectonics does not completely explain why earthquakes occur within plates. Darwin emphasised that there are different kinds of earthquakes ‘...I confine the foregoing observations to the earthquakes on the coast of South America, or to similar ones, which seem generally to have been accompanied by elevation of the land. But, as we know that subsidence has gone on in other quarters of the world, fissures must there have been formed, and therefore earthquakes...' (we cite the Darwin's sentences following researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). These thoughts agree with results of the last publications (see Nature 461, 870-872; 636-639 and 462, 42-43; 87-89). About 200 years ago Darwin gave oneself airs by the

  9. Nowcasting Earthquakes and Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The term "nowcasting" refers to the estimation of the current uncertain state of a dynamical system, whereas "forecasting" is a calculation of probabilities of future state(s). Nowcasting is a term that originated in economics and finance, referring to the process of determining the uncertain state of the economy or market indicators such as GDP at the current time by indirect means. We have applied this idea to seismically active regions, where the goal is to determine the current state of a system of faults, and its current level of progress through the earthquake cycle (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016EA000185/full). Advantages of our nowcasting method over forecasting models include: 1) Nowcasting is simply data analysis and does not involve a model having parameters that must be fit to data; 2) We use only earthquake catalog data which generally has known errors and characteristics; and 3) We use area-based analysis rather than fault-based analysis, meaning that the methods work equally well on land and in subduction zones. To use the nowcast method to estimate how far the fault system has progressed through the "cycle" of large recurring earthquakes, we use the global catalog of earthquakes, using "small" earthquakes to determine the level of hazard from "large" earthquakes in the region. We select a "small" region in which the nowcast is to be made, and compute the statistics of a much larger region around the small region. The statistics of the large region are then applied to the small region. For an application, we can define a small region around major global cities, for example a "small" circle of radius 150 km and a depth of 100 km, as well as a "large" earthquake magnitude, for example M6.0. The region of influence of such earthquakes is roughly 150 km radius x 100 km depth, which is the reason these values were selected. We can then compute and rank the seismic risk of the world's major cities in terms of their relative seismic risk

  10. A new species of the genus Pontogeneia (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from Matsukawa-ura Inlet, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirayama, Akira

    1990-01-01

    A new species of the genus Pontogeneia taken from a shallow inlet of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, is described and figured. The new species is closely related to P. intermedia from Japan Sea and California but is distinguished from it by a slightly dilated propod of gnathopod 1, the presence of

  11. An epidemiological analysis of drunk driving accidents in Kagawa Prefecture - comparison of 1997-2000 and 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yoshitsugu; Inoue, Ken; Sakuta, Akira; Seki, Nobuhiko; Miyazawa, Teruomi; Eguchi, Kenji

    2008-10-01

    In this study, we examined the number of drunk driving accidents and drunk driving accident toll in 1997-2000 and 2003-2006 for Kagawa Prefecture, which had Japan's highest number of traffic accident fatalities per 100,000 population.

  12. Indoor radon and earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghatelyan, E.; Petrosyan, L.; Aghbalyan, Yu.; Baburyan, M.; Araratyan, L.

    2004-01-01

    For the first time on the basis of the Spitak earthquake of December 1988 (Armenia, December 1988) experience it is found out that the earthquake causes intensive and prolonged radon splashes which, rapidly dispersing in the open space of close-to-earth atmosphere, are contrastingly displayed in covered premises (dwellings, schools, kindergartens) even if they are at considerable distance from the earthquake epicenter, and this multiplies the radiation influence on the population. The interval of splashes includes the period from the first fore-shock to the last after-shock, i.e. several months. The area affected by radiation is larger vs. Armenia's territory. The scale of this impact on population is 12 times higher than the number of people injured in Spitak, Leninakan and other settlements (toll of injured - 25 000 people, radiation-induced diseases in people - over 300 000). The influence of radiation directly correlates with the earthquake force. Such a conclusion is underpinned by indoor radon monitoring data for Yerevan since 1987 (120 km from epicenter) 5450 measurements and multivariate analysis with identification of cause-and-effect linkages between geo dynamics of indoor radon under stable and conditions of Earth crust, behavior of radon in different geological mediums during earthquakes, levels of room radon concentrations and effective equivalent dose of radiation impact of radiation dose on health and statistical data on public health provided by the Ministry of Health. The following hitherto unexplained facts can be considered as consequences of prolonged radiation influence on human organism: long-lasting state of apathy and indifference typical of the population of Armenia during the period of more than a year after the earthquake, prevalence of malignant cancer forms in disaster zones, dominating lung cancer and so on. All urban territories of seismically active regions are exposed to the threat of natural earthquake-provoked radiation influence

  13. Social Capital Enhanced Disaster Preparedness and Health Consultations after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Nuclear Power Station Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Murakami, Michio; Takebayashi, Yoshitake; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ohto, Hitoshi

    2018-03-14

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in 2011, there was a strong demand to promote disaster preparedness approaches and health checkups for the prevention of lifestyle diseases. This study examined the yearly change in the percentage of those who prepared for disasters and who utilized health checkups in Fukushima Prefecture, and identified the factors governing disaster preparedness and utilization of health checkups. We used the public opinion survey from 2011 to 2015 ( n = 677-779 each year) on prefectural policies that is conducted every year by the Fukushima Prefecture government Public Consultation Unit. We found that the percentage of those who prepare for disasters decreased, while that for health checkups did not significantly change. With regard to disaster preparedness, experiences of disaster enhance disaster preparedness, while bonds with other local people help to maintain preparedness. For health checkups, familiarity with the welfare service was the most important factor governing such consultations. The findings suggest that social capital should be promoted in order to improve disaster preparedness. The findings also suggest that residents' accessibility to medical and welfare services is also important in promoting the utilization of health checkups.

  14. Social Capital Enhanced Disaster Preparedness and Health Consultations after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Nuclear Power Station Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Hasegawa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available After the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in 2011, there was a strong demand to promote disaster preparedness approaches and health checkups for the prevention of lifestyle diseases. This study examined the yearly change in the percentage of those who prepared for disasters and who utilized health checkups in Fukushima Prefecture, and identified the factors governing disaster preparedness and utilization of health checkups. We used the public opinion survey from 2011 to 2015 (n = 677–779 each year on prefectural policies that is conducted every year by the Fukushima Prefecture government Public Consultation Unit. We found that the percentage of those who prepare for disasters decreased, while that for health checkups did not significantly change. With regard to disaster preparedness, experiences of disaster enhance disaster preparedness, while bonds with other local people help to maintain preparedness. For health checkups, familiarity with the welfare service was the most important factor governing such consultations. The findings suggest that social capital should be promoted in order to improve disaster preparedness. The findings also suggest that residents’ accessibility to medical and welfare services is also important in promoting the utilization of health checkups.

  15. Zero-truncated panel Poisson mixture models: Estimating the impact on tourism benefits in Fukushima Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa, Masaki; Nohara, Katsuhito

    2018-04-01

    This study proposes an estimation approach to panel count data, truncated at zero, in order to apply a contingent behavior travel cost method to revealed and stated preference data collected via a web-based survey. We develop zero-truncated panel Poisson mixture models by focusing on respondents who visited a site. In addition, we introduce an inverse Gaussian distribution to unobserved individual heterogeneity as an alternative to a popular gamma distribution, making it possible to capture effectively the long tail typically observed in trip data. We apply the proposed method to estimate the impact on tourism benefits in Fukushima Prefecture as a result of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant No. 1 accident. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of Histamine in Fish and Fishery Products in Osaka Prefecture (Fiscal 2015 Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awazu, Kaoru; Takatori, Satoshi; Kakimoto, Sachiko; Nomura, Chie; Masayama, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Kakimoto, You; Kajimura, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    Histamine food poisoning is caused by ingestion of spoiled fish containing high levels of histamine. This paper reports cases in which histamine was detected in Osaka prefecture in fiscal year 2015 in a survey of fish and fishery products on the market and the food poisoning. A suspected case of histamine food poisoning was also evaluated to investigate the cause and minimize further problems. Histamine in food was separated on SPE cartridge columns, and analyzed after derivatization with fluorescamine by means of HPLC-FL. Histamine was detected in some fishery products on the market and in food that had caused poisoning. The samples in which histamine was detected were semi-dried whole round herring (Urumeiwashi-maruboshi), mackerel (Saba) and sardine dumpling (Iwashi-tsumire). These foods were the main causes of histamine food poisoning according to the report of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Government of Japan.

  17. Statistical report on lung cancer irradiated in three hospital in Gunma Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Mikio; Saito, Yoshihiro; Ikeda, Hajime

    1982-01-01

    The data on 158 cases of lung cancer treated with radiotherapy at three hospitals (Hospital of School of Med., Gunma Univ., National Takasaki Hospital and Gunma Cancer Center Hospital) were analized. 1. Seventy one cases (44.9%) of all patients were more than 70 years old. As the histological type, epidermoid carcinoma was recognized in 44% of male patients, and adenocarcinoma in 51.5% of female. The number of patients with epidermoid carcinoma tended to increase with age. 2. Gunma Cancer Center was different from other hospitals in that half of the female patients (6/12) were stage I, adenocarcinoma. 3. The dwelling area of patients in Gunma Cancer Center Hospital distributed over towns and counties at the east district in Gunma prefecture, whereas in other hospitals concentrated in Maebashi and Takasaki cities. (author)

  18. Radiocarbon-dating of earthenware of the Earliest Jomon period from Obihiro city, in Hokkaido prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigated radiocarbon dating of earthenware of the Earliest Jomon period from Obihiro City, in Hokkaido Prefecture. The authors investigated radiocarbon age differences among charred woods and charred residues on the surface of potteries. Results of radiocarbon dates of URAHORO-type pottery adhesions showed ca. 7560-7987 14 C BP, and that of charcoals were ca. 7180 14 C BP and 7285 14 C BP. The age of charred residues on the inside surface of potteries show 300-800 yrs older than the 14 C age of the charred woods, which corresponded to the actual age of the archaeological site, respectively. It becomes a cause to have cooked the salmon by earthenware and I think that the marine reservoir effect occurred. (author)

  19. The size distribution of 210Po in the atmosphere around Mt. Sakurajima in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashikawa, N.; Matsuoka, N.; Takashima, Y.; Syojo, N.; Imamura, H.; Fujisaki, M.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration and size distribution of 210 Po in particulate matters in the atmosphere were measured around the active volcano, Mt. Sakurajima in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. The samples were collected eight times at four sampling points for the period from June 1994 to January 1996. The highest concentration of 210 Po was 2940 μBq/m 3 at Akamizu located 2 km away from the crater of Mt. Sakurajima. The 210 Po concentrations decreased with the increase of distance form Mt. Sakurajima. The size distribution curves of 210 Po in the particulate matters showed that 210 Po is usually condensed to fine particles smaller than 2 μm in diameter. In addition, it was suggested that the 210 Po concentration in particulate matters collected at Akamizu was affected by the wind direction over Mt. Sakurajima. (author)

  20. Studies on the Neogene Tertiary strata distributed in the central part of Tottori prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitani, Akihiko; Yoshizawa, Junko.

    1978-01-01

    The Neogene Tertiary strata, distributed in the central part of Tottori Prefecture, are volcano-stratigraphically classified, as shown in Figure 3. The Miocene strata are divided into Ojika formation and Mitoku formation in ascending order. Ojika formation, composed of plagio-rhyolitic pyroclastics and lavas, abuts against the basement rocks. Furthermore, some breaccias derived from the talus basal conglomerate beds are found in Ojika formation. Mitoku formation abuts both against the basement rocks and Ojika formation, and sometimes overlaps on the basement rocks. From the investigation into the Miocene strata, it is clarified that the depression took place prior to the volcanic activities at the earliest stage of the present Miocene sedimentary basin. (author)

  1. Relation of occupations to the regional differences of lung cancer motality in Fukuoka Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, T; Yamasaki, M

    1977-07-01

    Geographic pattern of lung cancer mortality in Fukuoka Prefecture showed elevated mortalities among males in the Chikuho district where many coal-mines had long been operated as one of the biggest coal-mining areas in Japan. The analysis in relations of occupations to lung cancer mortality revealed that consistently significant correlations exist between lung cancer mortality, and mining and quarrying occupations in every census year after World War II. No other occupations showed consistent relations to lung cancer though a few significant correlations were found only in the recent years. The results appear to suggest that elevated risk of lung cancer among coal-mining workers may exist and deserve further analytical study.

  2. [Administrative-based outreach activities in Gunma Prefecture: preventative crisis intervention via a "compulsory transfer center"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashina, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Part of the Gunma Mental Health Center (a mental health welfare center), the Gunma Psychiatric Emergency Information Center (IC) is a de facto compulsory transfer center that centrally handles the compulsory transfer to medical examinations and hospitals of people with psychiatric issues who are detained by the police within Gunma Prefecture and conducts outreach activities for people with various social difficulties. The dichotomy in compulsory transfer is the conflict between the medical benefit to the patient and the demand for safety by the family and local residents. A triage system focusing on both the degree of risk to others and the necessity of treatment was thus implemented by Gunma Prefecture in the late 1990s, with the IC established as a compulsory transfer center. IC outreach activities commenced due to requests from healthcare centers and local authorities. For those patients deemed by the IC as requiring treatment, voluntary psychiatric examination is promoted where possible. However, the potential for and methods of crisis intervention through involuntary treatment via compulsory transfer are also explained to patients, families and local residents. Support for relapse prevention can also be provided following involuntary hospitalization via compulsory transfer. In this way, the IC, which is in charge of compulsory transfer and conducts outreach activities in cooperation with healthcare centers and local authorities, considers the demand for safety by the local community while respecting the medical benefit to the patient. Furthermore, as the IC is an administrative body rather than a hospital, a treatment contract with the patient is not always necessary and involvement can continue even in the face of patient resistance. We present herein the case of a patient who, together with his family, strongly rejected medical and welfare involvement. The changing situation surrounding the patient and family was appropriately handled through continued

  3. Trends in forensic autopsy in Chiba prefecture over the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Go; Ishihara, Kenji; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Yajima, Daisuke; Makino, Yohsuke; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Torimitsu, Suguru; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2014-09-01

    The death investigation system in Japan is in the midst of a great transformation. As part of efforts to revise this system, in this study we analyzed the reasons the police refer unnatural death cases for forensic autopsy and, from an understanding of the trends of such referrals, we discuss the future direction of handling unnatural deaths in our country. For 1618 forensic autopsy cases handled by the First Investigation Division of Chiba Prefectural Police that were referred to our institution for forensic autopsy between 2003 and 2012, we tallied the number of autopsies by sex, age group, and reason for forensic autopsy for each year and investigated trends in the referrals over time. The results revealed that the number of autopsies increased annually from 2003 to 2012, with a marked increase from 2010. The number of autopsies increased particularly for cases of suspected criminal deaths, where it was unclear to the police before the forensic autopsy whether or not the death resulted from a criminal act. Our findings suggest that the number of forensic autopsies will continue to increase into the future in Chiba prefecture, and is a trend that is inevitable if we are to prevent criminal death cases from being overlooked. Although referrals for forensic autopsy in Japan are made only when criminal activity is suspected, the original purpose of death investigations is not only to avoid overlooking crimes, but also to flag public health issues. Therefore, together with the police, we need to review the original purpose and conduct more in-depth discussions about when referrals are necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Earthquake impact scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of the USGS prompt assessment of global earthquakes for response (PAGER) system, which rapidly assesses earthquake impacts, U.S. and international earthquake responders are reconsidering their automatic alert and activation levels and response procedures. To help facilitate rapid and appropriate earthquake response, an Earthquake Impact Scale (EIS) is proposed on the basis of two complementary criteria. On the basis of the estimated cost of damage, one is most suitable for domestic events; the other, on the basis of estimated ranges of fatalities, is generally more appropriate for global events, particularly in developing countries. Simple thresholds, derived from the systematic analysis of past earthquake impact and associated response levels, are quite effective in communicating predicted impact and response needed after an event through alerts of green (little or no impact), yellow (regional impact and response), orange (national-scale impact and response), and red (international response). Corresponding fatality thresholds for yellow, orange, and red alert levels are 1, 100, and 1,000, respectively. For damage impact, yellow, orange, and red thresholds are triggered by estimated losses reaching $1M, $100M, and $1B, respectively. The rationale for a dual approach to earthquake alerting stems from the recognition that relatively high fatalities, injuries, and homelessness predominate in countries in which local building practices typically lend themselves to high collapse and casualty rates, and these impacts lend to prioritization for international response. In contrast, financial and overall societal impacts often trigger the level of response in regions or countries in which prevalent earthquake resistant construction practices greatly reduce building collapse and resulting fatalities. Any newly devised alert, whether economic- or casualty-based, should be intuitive and consistent with established lexicons and procedures. Useful alerts should

  5. Earthquake number forecasts testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Yan Y.

    2017-10-01

    We study the distributions of earthquake numbers in two global earthquake catalogues: Global Centroid-Moment Tensor and Preliminary Determinations of Epicenters. The properties of these distributions are especially required to develop the number test for our forecasts of future seismic activity rate, tested by the Collaboratory for Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP). A common assumption, as used in the CSEP tests, is that the numbers are described by the Poisson distribution. It is clear, however, that the Poisson assumption for the earthquake number distribution is incorrect, especially for the catalogues with a lower magnitude threshold. In contrast to the one-parameter Poisson distribution so widely used to describe earthquake occurrences, the negative-binomial distribution (NBD) has two parameters. The second parameter can be used to characterize the clustering or overdispersion of a process. We also introduce and study a more complex three-parameter beta negative-binomial distribution. We investigate the dependence of parameters for both Poisson and NBD distributions on the catalogue magnitude threshold and on temporal subdivision of catalogue duration. First, we study whether the Poisson law can be statistically rejected for various catalogue subdivisions. We find that for most cases of interest, the Poisson distribution can be shown to be rejected statistically at a high significance level in favour of the NBD. Thereafter, we investigate whether these distributions fit the observed distributions of seismicity. For this purpose, we study upper statistical moments of earthquake numbers (skewness and kurtosis) and compare them to the theoretical values for both distributions. Empirical values for the skewness and the kurtosis increase for the smaller magnitude threshold and increase with even greater intensity for small temporal subdivision of catalogues. The Poisson distribution for large rate values approaches the Gaussian law, therefore its skewness

  6. Earthquakes and Earthquake Engineering. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buydos, John F., Comp.

    An earthquake is a shaking of the ground resulting from a disturbance in the earth's interior. Seismology is the (1) study of earthquakes; (2) origin, propagation, and energy of seismic phenomena; (3) prediction of these phenomena; and (4) investigation of the structure of the earth. Earthquake engineering or engineering seismology includes the…

  7. Transplant Procurement Management Model Training: Marked Improvement in the Mindset of In-Hospital Procurement Coordinators at Hyogo Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, M; Yoshinaga, K; Imamura, Y; Hayashi, T; Osako, T; Takahashi, K; Kaneko, M; Fujisawa, M; Kamidono, S

    2016-09-01

    The organ donation rate in Japan is much lower than that in other developed countries for several reasons. An advanced educational program for in-hospital procurement coordinators is a possible solution for this. We introduced a Transplant Procurement Management (TPM) educational program at Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Ten healthcare professionals at Hyogo Prefecture participated in the Advanced International TPM course to educate themselves on TPM and held 2 TPM Model Organ Procurement Training Workshops at Hyogo Prefecture for in-hospital procurement coordinators. Furthermore, we held 2 workshops outside Hyogo Prefecture and at the same time undertook a pre-workshop questionnaire survey to evaluate the ability and motivation with respect to organ donation. To evaluate the effectiveness of the workshops, we conducted post-workshop and 3-months-after workshop questionnaire surveys. The results of the pre-workshop survey revealed that in-hospital procurement coordinators lacked the knowledge regarding the entire organ donation process, the current status of organ donation in Japan, and the definition of brain death. Moreover, they did not completely understand the meaning of "organ donation." The results of the post-workshop questionnaire survey showed that the educational program was effective to improve the knowledge and skills of organ donation and motivated behavioral changes among the participants. The survey results showed that our TPM model educational program offered sufficient knowledge and skills to increase organ donation at Hyogo Prefecture. We will continue this program and make an effort to further contribute to the Japanese organ donation activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rupture, waves and earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but "extraordinary" phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable.

  9. Earthquake-related water-level changes at 16 closely clustered wells in Tono, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C.-Y.; Azuma, S.; Igarashi, G.; Ohno, M.; Saito, H.; Wakita, H.

    1999-06-01

    Water-level/pressure data recorded at a dense network of 16 wells of depths ranging from 23 to 201 m within 400 m of the Tono Mine in Gifu prefecture, central Japan, have been studied in search of possible earthquake-related changes. The study area is traversed by the east-west trending Tsukiyoshi fault, which is ordinarily impermeable, sustaining a significantly higher groundwater pressure on the north side of the fault than the south side. On March 16, 1997, a local earthquake of magnitude 5.8 occurred about 50 km south of Tono. The related water-level/pressure changes recorded at different sites showed different features. At three deeper wells on the north side of the fault the water level and pressure showed large coseismic drops (up to 29 cm) followed by larger rises (of as much as 1.8 m). Two days before the earthquake the water level at another deeper well began to show a total drop of about 3 m during the next 2 months. Most of the shallow wells on the north side of the fault showed water-level drops after the earthquake. On the south side, however, only a small delayed surge and a subsequent gradual increase were recorded at a deeper well. Long-term data since 1989 at one of the deeper wells on the north side showed coseismic drops and recoveries for 25 moderate local and large distant earthquakes up to about 1000 km away. The different observed earthquake-related water-level/pressure changes cannot be explained by the static strain field calculated on the basis of poroelastic dislocation models; the changes require earthquake-related permeability changes at the monitoring sites. The high sensitivity of some of the water wells to seismic shaking may be due to the near-critical condition of the tapped aquifer/barrier system beginning several years prior to the March 16 earthquake, such that the local seismic shaking caused by each of the above mentioned earthquakes was sufficient to produce some quickly recoverable fissures in the system, resulting in the

  10. Hemorrhagic gastric and duodenal ulcers after the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Kenichi; Miyatani, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Yukio; Asabe, Shinichi; Yoshida, Toru; Nakano, Misaki; Obara, Shin; Endo, Hidehiko

    2013-11-14

    To elucidate the characteristics of hemorrhagic gastric/duodenal ulcers in a post-earthquake period within one medical district. Hemorrhagic gastric/duodenal ulcers in the Iwate Prefectural Kamaishi Hospital during the 6-mo period after the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster were reviewed retrospectively. The subjects were 27 patients who visited our hospital with a chief complaint of hematemesis or hemorrhagic stool and were diagnosed as having hemorrhagic gastric/duodenal ulcers by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy during a 6-mo period starting on March 11, 2011. This period was divided into two phases: the acute stress phase, comprising the first month after the earthquake disaster, and the chronic stress phase, from the second through the sixth month. The following items were analyzed according to these phases: age, sex, sites and number of ulcers, peptic ulcer history, status of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and degree of impact of the earthquake disaster. In the acute stress phase from 10 d to 1 mo after the disaster, the number of patients increased rapidly, with a nearly equal male-to-female ratio, and the rate of multiple ulcers was significantly higher than in the previous year (88.9% vs 25%, P stress phase starting 1 mo after the earthquake disaster, the number of patients decreased to a level similar to that of the previous year. There were more male patients during this period, and many patients tended to have a solitary ulcer. All patients with duodenal ulcers found in the acute stress phase were negative for serum H. pylori antibodies, and this was significantly different from the previous year's positive rate of 75% (P stress caused by an earthquake disaster may have affected the characteristics of hemorrhagic gastric/duodenal ulcers.

  11. Turkish Children's Ideas about Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Canan Lacin

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  12. Organizational changes at Earthquakes & Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Primary responsibility for the preparation of Earthquakes & Volcanoes within the Geological Survey has shifted from the Office of Scientific Publications to the Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering (OEVE). As a consequence of this reorganization, Henry Spall has stepepd down as Science Editor for Earthquakes & Volcanoes(E&V).

  13. Sensing the earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichisao, Marta; Stallone, Angela

    2017-04-01

    Making science visual plays a crucial role in the process of building knowledge. In this view, art can considerably facilitate the representation of the scientific content, by offering a different perspective on how a specific problem could be approached. Here we explore the possibility of presenting the earthquake process through visual dance. From a choreographer's point of view, the focus is always on the dynamic relationships between moving objects. The observed spatial patterns (coincidences, repetitions, double and rhythmic configurations) suggest how objects organize themselves in the environment and what are the principles underlying that organization. The identified set of rules is then implemented as a basis for the creation of a complex rhythmic and visual dance system. Recently, scientists have turned seismic waves into sound and animations, introducing the possibility of "feeling" the earthquakes. We try to implement these results into a choreographic model with the aim to convert earthquake sound to a visual dance system, which could return a transmedia representation of the earthquake process. In particular, we focus on a possible method to translate and transfer the metric language of seismic sound and animations into body language. The objective is to involve the audience into a multisensory exploration of the earthquake phenomenon, through the stimulation of the hearing, eyesight and perception of the movements (neuromotor system). In essence, the main goal of this work is to develop a method for a simultaneous visual and auditory representation of a seismic event by means of a structured choreographic model. This artistic representation could provide an original entryway into the physics of earthquakes.

  14. PAGER--Rapid assessment of an earthquake?s impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.; Hearne, M.

    2010-01-01

    PAGER (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response) is an automated system that produces content concerning the impact of significant earthquakes around the world, informing emergency responders, government and aid agencies, and the media of the scope of the potential disaster. PAGER rapidly assesses earthquake impacts by comparing the population exposed to each level of shaking intensity with models of economic and fatality losses based on past earthquakes in each country or region of the world. Earthquake alerts--which were formerly sent based only on event magnitude and location, or population exposure to shaking--now will also be generated based on the estimated range of fatalities and economic losses.

  15. The 1976 Tangshan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wang

    1979-01-01

    The Tangshan earthquake of 1976 was one of the largest earthquakes in recent years. It occurred on July 28 at 3:42 a.m, Beijing (Peking) local time, and had magnitude 7.8, focal depth of 15 kilometers, and an epicentral intensity of XI on the New Chinese Seismic Intensity Scale; it caused serious damage and loss of life in this densely populated industrial city. Now, with the help of people from all over China, the city of Tangshan is being rebuild. 

  16. Earthquake Culture: A Significant Element in Earthquake Disaster Risk Assessment and Earthquake Disaster Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrion, Mihaela

    2018-01-01

    This book chapter brings to attention the dramatic impact of large earthquake disasters on local communities and society and highlights the necessity of building and enhancing the earthquake culture. Iran was considered as a research case study and fifteen large earthquake disasters in Iran were investigated and analyzed over more than a century-time period. It was found that the earthquake culture in Iran was and is still conditioned by many factors or parameters which are not integrated and...

  17. The mechanism of earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kunquan; Cao, Zexian; Hou, Meiying; Jiang, Zehui; Shen, Rong; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Gang; Liu, Jixing

    2018-03-01

    The physical mechanism of earthquake remains a challenging issue to be clarified. Seismologists used to attribute shallow earthquake to the elastic rebound of crustal rocks. The seismic energy calculated following the elastic rebound theory and with the data of experimental results upon rocks, however, shows a large discrepancy with measurement — a fact that has been dubbed as “the heat flow paradox”. For the intermediate-focus and deep-focus earthquakes, both occurring in the region of the mantle, there is not reasonable explanation either. This paper will discuss the physical mechanism of earthquake from a new perspective, starting from the fact that both the crust and the mantle are discrete collective system of matters with slow dynamics, as well as from the basic principles of physics, especially some new concepts of condensed matter physics emerged in the recent years. (1) Stress distribution in earth’s crust: Without taking the tectonic force into account, according to the rheological principle of “everything flows”, the normal stress and transverse stress must be balanced due to the effect of gravitational pressure over a long period of time, thus no differential stress in the original crustal rocks is to be expected. The tectonic force is successively transferred and accumulated via stick-slip motions of rock blocks to squeeze the fault gouge and then exerted upon other rock blocks. The superposition of such additional lateral tectonic force and the original stress gives rise to the real-time stress in crustal rocks. The mechanical characteristics of fault gouge are different from rocks as it consists of granular matters. The elastic moduli of the fault gouges are much less than those of rocks, and they become larger with increasing pressure. This peculiarity of the fault gouge leads to a tectonic force increasing with depth in a nonlinear fashion. The distribution and variation of the tectonic stress in the crust are specified. (2) The

  18. [Effects of quantity of Japanese cedar pollen, air pollution and urbanization on allergic rhinitis morbidity in Ibaraki prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunling, Wu; Tamura, Kenji; Matsumoto, Yukio; Endo, Tomohiko; Watari, Chisato; Arai, Takashi; Murakami, Masataka

    2002-07-01

    It has been reported that morbidity from allergic rhinitis in the National Health Insurance records in Ibaraki Prefecture for May correlated with the quantity of Japan cedar pollen scattered in each year. The purpose of the present investigation was to clarify the Japanese cedar pollinosis contribution to morbidity, and also clarifying the influence of air pollution and medical resources on the crisis and symptoms of allergic rhinitis. The charts in four otolaryngology facilities were used for analyzing the Japan cedar pollinosis content with reference to the allergic rhinitis during the pollen season. The age-adjusted morbidity of allergic rhinitis was annually compared employing data of National Health Insurance records for medical examinations made in May during the period between 1988 and 1996 in Ibaraki Prefecture. The quantity of Japanese cedar pollen was measured at seven area points in Ibaraki Prefecture during the three-year period from 1994 to 1996, and was compared with the degree of Japan cedar wood occupation in each municipality. Traffic volume according to municipalities in Ibaraki Prefecture was taken as a surrogate indicator of air pollution. The area otolaryngology facilities and doctors were taken as medical resources. Values were thus compared with allergic rhinitis morbidity. Sixty to eighty percent of the allergic rhinitis patients examined in May were found to be suffering from pollinosis. The quantities of Japanese cedar pollen scatter at the seven points in Ibaraki Prefecture varied in concert every year, the quantities correlating well with the area of Japanese cedar woods stands in each municipality in some but not in other years. The morbidity in the records of allergic rhinitis according to municipalities correlated negatively with the proportion of the population occupied in farming (r = -0.38) and with the area of Japanese cedar woods in each municipality (r = -0.40). The traffic volume calculated according to municipalities in

  19. Early detection and response for measles and rubella cases through the (Nursery) School Absenteeism Surveillance System in Ibaraki Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Miki; Kurita, Junko; Takagi, Takeshi; Nagata, Noriko; Nagasu, Natsuki; Sugawara, Tamie; Ohkusa, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In Ibaraki Prefecture, all (nursery) schools have joined the (Nursery) School Absenteeism Surveillance System (hereafter denoted as (N)SASSy), which is operated by the Japan School Health Association to monitor the prevalence of infectious diseases, the early detection and response for outbreaks, and prevention of large outbreaks. Prefectural government officers also utilize it as a control measure for infectious diseases. In particular, when cases of measles or rubella are registered, (N)SASSy sends e-mails automatically to prefectural government officers to activate control measures. This paper summarizes administrative responses by prefectural government officers for measles or rubella cases using (N)SASSy and discusses the future challenges.Methods We summarized registration, detection, and first response data for measles or rubella cases in (N)SASSy and compared the number of detected and reported cases enforced by the Infectious Diseases Control Law from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014.Results The public health center questioned hospitals/clinics and (nursery) schools about all registered measles or rubella cases in (N)SASSy on the same day to check the entered information. In the past 2 years, there were 5 measles and 56 rubella cases in 2013 and 1 measles and 19 rubella cases in 2014 registered with (N)SASSy. All cases were checked and investigated by the public health center. Of all cases detected by (N)SASSy, 7 rubella cases in 2013 and 1 rubella case in 2014 were reported based on the law. No measles cases were reported in the 2 years. The results of investigations and laboratory tests were given as feedback to the (nursery) schools. If the case did not case definition determined by the law, we changed the status in (N)SASSy to suspected or discarded cases.Conclusion Since (N)SASSy assists prefectural government officers with earlier detection of and response for infectious diseases, it definitely contributes to infection control

  20. Homogeneous catalogs of earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopoff, L; Gardner, J K

    1969-08-01

    The usual bias in earthquake catalogs against shocks of small magnitudes can be removed by testing the randomness of the magnitudes of successive shocks. The southern California catalog, 1933-1967, is found to be unbiased in the sense of the test at magnitude 4 or above; the cutoff is improved to M = 3 for the subcatalog 1953-1967.

  1. HOMOGENEOUS CATALOGS OF EARTHQUAKES*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopoff, Leon; Gardner, J. K.

    1969-01-01

    The usual bias in earthquake catalogs against shocks of small magnitudes can be removed by testing the randomness of the magnitudes of successive shocks. The southern California catalog, 1933-1967, is found to be unbiased in the sense of the test at magnitude 4 or above; the cutoff is improved to M = 3 for the subcatalog 1953-1967. PMID:16578700

  2. Earthquake in Haiti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Isak Winkel

    2012-01-01

    In the vocabulary of modern disaster research, Heinrich von Kleist's seminal short story "The Earthquake in Chile" from 1806 is a tale of disaster vulnerability. The story is not just about a natural disaster destroying the innocent city of Santiago but also about the ensuing social disaster...

  3. Earthquake-proof plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francescutti, P.

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of the damage suffered by the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant as a result of an earthquake last July, this article looks at the seismic risk affecting the Spanish plants and the safety measures in place to prevent it. (Author)

  4. Earthquakes and market crashes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We find prominent similarities in the features of the time series for the (model earthquakes or) overlap of two Cantor sets when one set moves with uniform relative velocity over the other and time series of stock prices. An anticipation method for some of the crashes have been proposed here, based on these observations.

  5. Transfer pathways of radiocesium to edible wild plants (Sansai) collected from forests in Fukushima Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, M.; Muramatsu, Y.; Ohno, T. [Gakushuin University (Japan); Sato, M. [Fukushima Agricultural Technology Center (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Large quantities of radionuclides were released from the accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 and farmlands and forests in Fukushima Prefecture were contaminated.The most significant radionuclides related to the contamination of vegetation are {sup 134}Cs (half-life: 2 y) and {sup 137}Cs (half-life: 30 y).Concentrations of radiocesium in vegetables and rice decreased over time to values markedly lower than the guideline (100 Bq/kg). However, radiocesium concentrations in some edible wild plants and mushrooms have still shown very high level. Therefore, it is important to identify plants which accumulate cesium and to clarify the transfer mechanism of radiocesium. In this study, we analyzed both radiocesium and stable cesium in edible wild plants (Sansai) collected from forests in Fukushima Prefecture. Possible mechanisms of high radiocesium transfer into the plants in forest ecosystems were considered. Wild plants were collected from forests in Iitate-mura, Fukushima Prefecture, in 2012 and 2013. We have focused on Koshiabura (Acanthopanaxsciadophylloides) a plant related to Araliaceae and collected their leaves from four different trees in May and July 2013.Radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) concentrations were measured with a Ge-detector. For elemental analysis, the samples were freeze-dried and milled with a mixer. Powdered samples (0.1 g) were digested in teflon vessels with an acid mixture (HNO{sub 3}, HF and HClO{sub 4}) on a hot plate. After digestion, each sample was evaporated to dryness. Then, the sample residue was dissolved in 2% HNO{sub 3}. The concentrations of major and minor elements were determined by ICP-MS. Leaves of Koshiabura showed very high radiocesium concentrations up to 60,000 Bq/kg on a dry weight basis, or 10,000 Bq/kg on a wet weight basis.Root uptake and translocation of radiocesium from other parts of the plants to the leaves were expected to occur. Koshiabura plants tend to be shallowly

  6. The HayWired earthquake scenario—Earthquake hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    The HayWired scenario is a hypothetical earthquake sequence that is being used to better understand hazards for the San Francisco Bay region during and after an earthquake of magnitude 7 on the Hayward Fault. The 2014 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities calculated that there is a 33-percent likelihood of a large (magnitude 6.7 or greater) earthquake occurring on the Hayward Fault within three decades. A large Hayward Fault earthquake will produce strong ground shaking, permanent displacement of the Earth’s surface, landslides, liquefaction (soils becoming liquid-like during shaking), and subsequent fault slip, known as afterslip, and earthquakes, known as aftershocks. The most recent large earthquake on the Hayward Fault occurred on October 21, 1868, and it ruptured the southern part of the fault. The 1868 magnitude-6.8 earthquake occurred when the San Francisco Bay region had far fewer people, buildings, and infrastructure (roads, communication lines, and utilities) than it does today, yet the strong ground shaking from the earthquake still caused significant building damage and loss of life. The next large Hayward Fault earthquake is anticipated to affect thousands of structures and disrupt the lives of millions of people. Earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region has been greatly reduced as a result of previous concerted efforts; for example, tens of billions of dollars of investment in strengthening infrastructure was motivated in large part by the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. To build on efforts to reduce earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region, the HayWired earthquake scenario comprehensively examines the earthquake hazards to help provide the crucial scientific information that the San Francisco Bay region can use to prepare for the next large earthquake, The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Earthquake Hazards volume describes the strong ground shaking modeled in the scenario and the hazardous movements of

  7. The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Earthquake Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    The HayWired scenario is a hypothetical earthquake sequence that is being used to better understand hazards for the San Francisco Bay region during and after an earthquake of magnitude 7 on the Hayward Fault. The 2014 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities calculated that there is a 33-percent likelihood of a large (magnitude 6.7 or greater) earthquake occurring on the Hayward Fault within three decades. A large Hayward Fault earthquake will produce strong ground shaking, permanent displacement of the Earth’s surface, landslides, liquefaction (soils becoming liquid-like during shaking), and subsequent fault slip, known as afterslip, and earthquakes, known as aftershocks. The most recent large earthquake on the Hayward Fault occurred on October 21, 1868, and it ruptured the southern part of the fault. The 1868 magnitude-6.8 earthquake occurred when the San Francisco Bay region had far fewer people, buildings, and infrastructure (roads, communication lines, and utilities) than it does today, yet the strong ground shaking from the earthquake still caused significant building damage and loss of life. The next large Hayward Fault earthquake is anticipated to affect thousands of structures and disrupt the lives of millions of people. Earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region has been greatly reduced as a result of previous concerted efforts; for example, tens of billions of dollars of investment in strengthening infrastructure was motivated in large part by the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. To build on efforts to reduce earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region, the HayWired earthquake scenario comprehensively examines the earthquake hazards to help provide the crucial scientific information that the San Francisco Bay region can use to prepare for the next large earthquake, The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Earthquake Hazards volume describes the strong ground shaking modeled in the scenario and the hazardous movements of

  8. Simulated earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, E.H.; Gasparini, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews current methods for generating synthetic earthquake ground motions. Emphasis is on the special requirements demanded of procedures to generate motions for use in nuclear power plant seismic response analysis. Specifically, very close agreement is usually sought between the response spectra of the simulated motions and prescribed, smooth design response spectra. The features and capabilities of the computer program SIMQKE, which has been widely used in power plant seismic work are described. Problems and pitfalls associated with the use of synthetic ground motions in seismic safety assessment are also pointed out. The limitations and paucity of recorded accelerograms together with the widespread use of time-history dynamic analysis for obtaining structural and secondary systems' response have motivated the development of earthquake simulation capabilities. A common model for synthesizing earthquakes is that of superposing sinusoidal components with random phase angles. The input parameters for such a model are, then, the amplitudes and phase angles of the contributing sinusoids as well as the characteristics of the variation of motion intensity with time, especially the duration of the motion. The amplitudes are determined from estimates of the Fourier spectrum or the spectral density function of the ground motion. These amplitudes may be assumed to be varying in time or constant for the duration of the earthquake. In the nuclear industry, the common procedure is to specify a set of smooth response spectra for use in aseismic design. This development and the need for time histories have generated much practical interest in synthesizing earthquakes whose response spectra 'match', or are compatible with a set of specified smooth response spectra

  9. Proposal of great eastern Japan earthquake. Message from Fukushima Medical University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shin-ichi

    2012-01-01

    Described are what Fukushima Medical University (FMU) faced and how FMU responded at Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant (FDPP) Accident by hydrogen explosions (Mar. 12 and 14, 2011) following the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake (Mar. 11). The Accident accompanying the forced evacuation of resident in the area 20 km afar from FDPP brought about the concern, fear and anger, different from those in the neighboring Miyagi Prefecture; and strong psychosomatic stress; as well as the significant alteration of composition of generation in population and in sickness proportion in the whole Prefecture. Under these circumstances, FMU decided to hold information in common and make a service window single, to give the top leadership with rough-and-ready practice and a flexible policy, which all were the president's responsibility for making staff work relieved and united. For holding information in common, frequent meetings of the whole FMU personnel were held (42 times from Mar. 11 to Nov.) and of managing staff (81 times until Nov.). During the period, FMU took measures to meet with the situation of patient receiving and transporting, measures against rumor, and cooperation with related medical institutions. Medicare support included the acute phase medicare, and planning and practice of healthcare management for >30 years onward in the Prefecture. The author summarizes 9 lessons proposed from the Disaster to be considered hereafter, like the system perfection at an emergency, more education about radiation for the resident and medicare staff, measures for aging of engineers and scientists related to atomic energy, and so on. As well, 6 lessons are summarized for the next generation using old aphorism and recent commentary in media. The people should follow the excellent leader at crisis; but it's the problem whether there is such a leader on site or in administration at the very time. (T.T.)

  10. Characteristics of Physician Outflow from Disaster Areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Kashima

    Full Text Available The shortage of physicians after a major disaster is a crucial issue. We aimed to evaluate the characteristics of physicians who left affected areas following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011.Using data from a physician census conducted in 2010 (pre-disaster and 2012 (post-disaster, we evaluated changes in the number of physicians in affected areas. We then calculated the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using a logistic regression model to evaluate the association between physician characteristics and outflow. We also conducted stratified analyses based on physician characteristics.The number of physicians decreased in Fukushima Prefecture (-5.3% and increased in Miyagi Prefecture (2.8%. The decrease in Fukushima and increase in Miyagi were evident even after taking the prefecture's population change into account (change in physician to population ratios: -1.9% and 3.2%, respectively. Compared with physicians who lived in areas >100 km from the nuclear power plant, physicians living 20-50 km and 50-100 km were, respectively, 3.9 times (95% confidence interval, 2.6-5.7 and 2.6 times (95% confidence interval, 1.7-3.8 more likely to migrate to distant areas. In the stratified analysis, younger physicians and those earlier in their careers had higher odds ratios for outflow than other physicians (P for interaction = 0.02 and <0.01, respectively.The risk of outflow was greater among younger and early-career physicians in areas around the power plant. Political support may be necessary to recruit and retain such physicians, who will be responsible for future community health in the disaster area.

  11. Relationship between the seismic scale of the 2011 northeast Japan earthquake and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Fumitaka; Makita, Shinji; Ito, Tomonori; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Sakata, Kiyomi; Nakamura, Motoyuki

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have reported a relationship between large earthquakes and acute coronary events, but have yielded conflicting results. On March 11, 2011, a massive magnitude 9.0 earthquake hit the northeastern coast of Japan and generated repeated aftershocks. The aim of this study is to clarify the influence of this earthquake on the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) including sudden cardiac death based on the data from a population-based analysis. The study subjects were residents in the northeast of Iwate prefecture, Japan. Cases corresponding to the definition of AMI according to the criteria of the World Health Organization MONICA project were registered from 4 weeks before to 8 weeks after the disaster and in the corresponding periods in 2009 and 2010. The relative risk of AMI was 2.03 (95% CI 1.55-2.66) for the 4-week period after the disaster compared with the corresponding periods in the preceding years. The number of events peaked within the first week after the earthquake decreased to levels seen in the preceding years and then increased again after high-magnitude aftershocks. The incidence of AMI was positively correlated with the seismic scale of the earthquake (r = 0.75, P earthquake varies depending on the seismic scale of the initial shock and each aftershock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Infectious disease surveillance in Miyagi after the Great East Japan Earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mihyun; Kamigaki, Taro; Mimura, Satoshi; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-10-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred on March 11, 2011, damaged many health facilities and compelled many inhabitants to live in evacuation centers. For the purpose of monitoring infectious disease outbreaks, infectious disease surveillance targeted at evacuation centers was established in Miyagi Prefecture. In this study, we summarized the monitoring activities of infectious diseases through this surveillance after the earthquake. Infectious disease surveillance was implemented from March 18 to November 6, 2011. The surveillance consisted of two phases (hereafter, surveillance 1 and 2) reflecting the difference in frequencies of reporting as well as the number of targeted diseases. Surveillance 1 operated between March 18 and May 13, 2011, and Surveillance 2 operated between May 10 and November 6, 2011. We reviewed the number of cases reported, the number of evacuation centers, and demographic information of evacuees with the surveillance. In Surveillance 1, there were 8,737 reported cases; 84% of them were acute respiratory symptoms, and 16% were acute digestive symptoms. Only 4.4% of evacuation centers were covered by the surveillance one week after the earthquake. In Surveillance 2, 1,339 cases were reported; 82% of them were acute respiratory symptoms, and 13% were acute digestive symptoms. Surveillance 2 revealed that the proportion of children aged 5 years and younger was lower than that of other age groups in all targeted diseases. No particular outbreaks were detected through those surveillances. Infectious disease surveillance operated from one week after the earthquake to the closure of all evacuation centers in Miyagi Prefecture. No outbreaks were detected in that period. However, low coverage of evacuation centers just after the earthquake as well as skewed frequencies of reported syndromes draw attention to the improvement of the early warning system. It is important to coordinate with the medical aid team that visits the evacuation centers

  13. TSUNAMIGENIC SOURCE MECHANISM AND EFFICIENCY OF THE MARCH 11, 2011 SANRIKU EARTHQUAKE IN JAPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The great Tohoku earthquake of March 11, 2011 generated a very destructive and anomalously high tsunami. To understand its source mechanism, an examination was undertaken of the seismotectonics of the region and of the earthquake’ focal mechanism, energy release, rupture patterns and spatial and temporal sequencing and clustering of major aftershocks. It was determined that the great tsunami resulted from a combination of crustal deformations of the ocean floor due to up-thrust tectonic motions, augmented by additional uplift due to the quake’s slow and long rupturing process, as well as to large coseismic lateral movements which compressed and deformed the compacted sediments along the accretionary prism of the overriding plane. The deformation occurred randomly and non-uniformly along parallel normal faults and along oblique, en-echelon faults to the earthquake’s overall rupture direction – the latter failing in a sequential bookshelf manner with variable slip angles. As the 1992 Nicaragua and the 2004 Sumatra earthquakes demonstrated, such bookshelf failures of sedimentary layers could contribute to anomalously high tsunamis. As with the 1896 tsunami, additional ocean floor deformation and uplift of the sediments was responsible for the higher waves generated by the 2011 earthquake. The efficiency of tsunami generation was greater along the shallow eastern segment of the fault off the Miyagi Prefecture where most of the energy release of the earthquake and the deformations occurred, while the segment off the Ibaraki Prefecture – where the rupture process was rapid – released less seismic energy, resulted in less compaction and deformation of sedimentary layers and thus to a tsunami of lesser offshore height. The greater tsunamigenic efficiency of the 2011 earthquake and high degree of the tsunami’s destructiveness along Honshu’s coastlines resulted from vertical crustal displacements of more than 10 meters due to up

  14. Allele frequencies of 18 autosomal STR loci in the Uyghur population living in Kashgar Prefecture, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Zhenghui; Mo, Xiaoting; Ma, Wenhua; Zhang, Hantao; Lin, Ziqing; Ye, Jian

    2018-03-10

    There is currently no large population data-based data set in Kashgar Prefecture Uyghur. The allele frequencies of 18 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in the DNATyper™ 19 kit were evaluated in 2600 Uyghur individuals living in Kashgar Prefecture, Northwest China. The values of combined power of discrimination (CPD) and combined probability of exclusion (CPE) of all 18 autosomal STR loci were 0.99999999999999999998235 and 0.99999998670, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Uyghur population has a closer relationship with the Xinjiang-Kazakh, Inner Mongolia-Mongolian, and other three Uyghur populations. In addition, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that Uyghur population is an admixture of Eastern Asian and European populations.

  15. The Growth Path of Agricultural Labor Productivity in China: A Latent Growth Curve Model at the Prefectural Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Bin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the shrinking proportion of agriculture output and the growing mobility of the labor force in China, how agricultural labor productivity develops has become an increasingly attractive topic for researchers and policy makers. This study aims to depict the development trajectory of agricultural labor productivity in China after its WTO entry. Based on a balanced panel data containing 287 Chinese prefectures from 2000 to 2013, this study applies the Latent Growth Curve Model (LGCM and finds that the agricultural labor productivity follows a piecewise growth path with two breaking points in the years of 2004 and 2009. This may stem from some exogenous stimulus, such as supporting policies launched in the breaking years. Further statistical analysis shows an expanding gap of agricultural labor productivity among different Chinese prefectures.

  16. Impact of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake on community health: ecological time series on transient increase in indirect mortality and recovery of health and long-term-care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimura, Mari; Kizuki, Masashi; Takano, Takehito; Morita, Ayako; Seino, Kaoruko

    2014-09-01

    The objectives were to clarify the trend in the cause-specific mortality rate and changes in health and long-term-care use after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. We obtained the following data from national sources: the number of deaths by cause, age and month; the amount of healthcare insurance expenditures by type of services, age and month; the amount of long-term-care insurance expenditures by type of services, age, care need and month. We estimated increase in standardised mortality rate postearthquake compared with pre-earthquake, and change in the standardised amount of health and long-term-care insurance expenditures post-earthquake compared with pre-earthquake in three severely affected prefectures, Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima, by the adjustment for trends in the other prefectures. The risk of indirect mortality increased in the month of the earthquake (relative risk (RR) with 95% CI 1.20 (1.13 to 1.28) for those 60-69 years of age, 1.25 (1.17 to 1.32) for 70-79 years, and 1.33 (1.27 to 1.38) for 80 years and older). The amount of health and long-term-care insurance expenditures decreased among elderly persons in the month of the earthquake, and recovered to 95% of usual level within 1-5 months. Among cities and towns hit by tsunami, higher percentage of households flooded was associated with higher risk of indirect mortality (pincrease in indirect mortality and recovery of health and long-term-care system after the earthquake. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Historical earthquake research in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Christa

    2017-12-01

    Austria has a moderate seismicity, and on average the population feels 40 earthquakes per year or approximately three earthquakes per month. A severe earthquake with light building damage is expected roughly every 2 to 3 years in Austria. Severe damage to buildings ( I 0 > 8° EMS) occurs significantly less frequently, the average period of recurrence is about 75 years. For this reason the historical earthquake research has been of special importance in Austria. The interest in historical earthquakes in the past in the Austro-Hungarian Empire is outlined, beginning with an initiative of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the development of historical earthquake research as an independent research field after the 1978 "Zwentendorf plebiscite" on whether the nuclear power plant will start up. The applied methods are introduced briefly along with the most important studies and last but not least as an example of a recently carried out case study, one of the strongest past earthquakes in Austria, the earthquake of 17 July 1670, is presented. The research into historical earthquakes in Austria concentrates on seismic events of the pre-instrumental period. The investigations are not only of historical interest, but also contribute to the completeness and correctness of the Austrian earthquake catalogue, which is the basis for seismic hazard analysis and as such benefits the public, communities, civil engineers, architects, civil protection, and many others.

  18. Foreign Visitor's Evaluation of Lasithi prefecture and Spinalonga as a Tourism destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nicolaides

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A tourism environment which is educational and exciting, safe, clean, relatively cheap to access and where transportation is readily available, contributes immensely to a tourist’s travel satisfaction. Given these factors, this study seeks to interrogate two aspects of relevance, namely the relative importance of the items that define the tourism environment, and how foreign visitors evaluate tourism to Lasithi prefecture and Spinalonga island in Crete. It is abundantly clear from the research conducted that what tourists prize the most is a safe environment which is easily accessible, and cheap to visit. Competition among tourist destinations is today more severe than ever before, due to the large increase in international tourists globally. Spinalonga island, like every destination has an image which must be transmitted to the potential market so as to obtain a competitive position. Consequently, the destination marketers need to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of their tourism area so as to make it more marketable. They must position Spinalonga island in such a way as to make it recognisable as an important and interesting place to visit while in Crete. How tourists evaluate a destination subjectively and a quantitative analysis on the evaluation system of the tourism environment are thus also considered. Effective strategic destination image management is critical for attracting tourists and other resources that are capable of creating value-add for a destination.

  19. Radiation education by means of the measurement of natural environmental radiation in Tono region, Gifu prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Haruo; Yoshida, Yasuo [Plasma Research Committee of Toki, Gifu (Japan); Uda, Tatsuhiko; Obayashi, Haruo

    1999-09-01

    The Tono region is placed in the south-east of Gifu prefecture. In this region, there is a plan of construction of the Research and Education Park. As the center facility of the park, the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) has started their research activities. The Plasma Research Committee of Toki-city has been organized by the board of education of Toki-city for about 20 years. The committee is mainly composed of science teachers of elementary school, junior high school and high school in the area. The committee has measured continuously the natural environmental background radiations in cooperation with NIFS. Its activities started before constructing the NIFS laboratory buildings. Now, the new measuring points in Tajimi-city and Mizunami-city are added to the points in Toki-city area, therefore, some teachers join as the new members of the committee. In this conference, we present. (1) Plasma Research Committee of Toki-city; its history, organization and activities. (2) Obtained data of the natural environmental radiation in Toki-city. (3) Example lecture taken in natural radiation, its results and the farther issues. (author)

  20. Mortality statistics among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture. 1968-1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, M.; Munaka, M.; Hayakawa, N.; Yamamoto, H.; Ueoka, H.; Ohtaki, M. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1981-12-01

    In a comparative analysis of mortality among atomic bomb survivors versus the non-exposed, both resident in Hiroshima Prefecture, it was found that in addition to leukaemia, malignant lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the thyroid gland, breast, lung, esophagus, stomach, urinary organs and salivary gland which have been reported from the past to be elevated in risk among atomic bomb survivors, cancers of the colon, larynx, accessory sinuses, uterus, ovary and testis, diseases of the blood, cirrhosis of liver, hypertensive disease and diabetes mellitus were elevated in risk, but the risk of cerebrovascular disease, heart disease, peptic ulcer, gastroenteritis, senility, and accidents was lower than the non-exposed. The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to the relative risk of cancers of the lung, breast, uterus, and testis could be readily explained, but the relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the relative risk of cancers of many other sites, diseases of the blood, and other causes of death was inconsistent. One of the reasons why the risk of senility was low and the risk of diseases of the blood, malignant neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, and hypertensive disease was high is considered to be the higher diagnostic accuracy in atomic bomb survivors.

  1. Study of radiation-induced tumors in the Ohita Prefectural Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masahiro; Kawase, Yoshihisa; Shikuwa, Saburo

    1989-01-01

    An epidemiological study on radiation induced tumor was carried out in the Ohita Prefectural Hospital in 1989. Radiation induced tumors were chosen among 62,831 surgical or biopsy specimens examined since 1968 to 1988. These tumors were defined as following conditions such as having a history of radiation therapy, occurring in the same field of irradiation, and having a latent period over five years. Total of eleven malignant tumors were selected with the average age of 64.2 years old, and the average latency of 16.4 years. All of them were female and seven cases belonged to A-1 group according to the reliability classification. The first tumor was all malignant and consisted of 9 uterus cancers and one rectal cancer. The second tumor included three rectal cancers, three vaginal cancers, two ureto-bladder cancers, one uterine body cancer, and one lymphangiosarcoma. Histological study showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in two rectal cancers in which this type was unusual as rectal cancer. Others were common histological types identical to the location. Delayed effects of irradiation was confirmed in a background of some tumors. For instance, marked fibrosis, atypical fibroblast, and thickening of blood vessel were nominated. Total amount of irradiation ranged form 24 to 92 grey, and the year of irradiation concentrated in 1969 to 1973 (75%) and the year of discovery concentrated in 1983 to 1988 (75%). This study suggested the necessity of further investigation in other medical institutions and accumulation of the tumors. (author)

  2. Detection of Legionella spp. from Domestic Water in the Prefecture of Arta, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Dimitriadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was the isolation of Legionella spp. from domestic water supply networks in the Prefecture of Arta. A total of 100 water samples, from 25 houses, were collected. Half of the samples concerned the cold water and half the hot water supply. Purpose was to detect colonization of the water networks with Legionella spp. >500 cfu/L by using the method of filtration (ISO 11731. Out of 100 samples, 6 samples from 3 houses were positive for Legionella spp. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2–14 was isolated in 5 of 6 samples, whereas in the sixth sample Legionella anisa was identified. Only three of the samples had residual chloride over 0.2 mg/L, rate which is necessary for potable water, according to the Greek hygienic practice. Concerning the temperature of hot water, the mean temperature of the negative for Legionella samples was higher compared to the mean temperature of the positive for Legionella samples (49.9°C versus 45.5°C. It is estimated that there is risk of infection through the use of showers. The low concentration of chloride and the temperature, which was found within the limits favorable to developing Legionella spp. (20–45°C, provide fertile ground for proliferation of the bacteria.

  3. Radiation education by means of the measurement of natural environmental radiation in Tono region, Gifu prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Haruo; Yoshida, Yasuo; Uda, Tatsuhiko; Obayashi, Haruo

    1999-01-01

    The Tono region is placed in the south-east of Gifu prefecture. In this region, there is a plan of construction of the Research and Education Park. As the center facility of the park, the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) has started their research activities. The Plasma Research Committee of Toki-city has been organized by the board of education of Toki-city for about 20 years. The committee is mainly composed of science teachers of elementary school, junior high school and high school in the area. The committee has measured continuously the natural environmental background radiations in cooperation with NIFS. Its activities started before constructing the NIFS laboratory buildings. Now, the new measuring points in Tajimi-city and Mizunami-city are added to the points in Toki-city area, therefore, some teachers join as the new members of the committee. In this conference, we present. (1) Plasma Research Committee of Toki-city; its history, organization and activities. (2) Obtained data of the natural environmental radiation in Toki-city. (3) Example lecture taken in natural radiation, its results and the farther issues. (author)

  4. Deposition in Chiba prefecture, Japan, of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Tagami, Keiko; Takata, Hyoe; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Kawaguchi, Isao; Watanabe, Yoshito; Uchida, Shigeo

    2013-02-01

    Radioactivity from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F-1NPP) accident in deposition samples has been monitored at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, located about 220 km south-southwest of the F-1NPP. Sampling was carried out from 15 March 2011, two to three times a day for 10 d and then once a day until 22 April 2011. Gamma-ray spectrometry of fallout deposition samples revealed the presence of (131)I, (132)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs. The largest deposition was observed during 7:00-16:00 on 21 March. The estimated total deposition densities at NIRS were 1.40 × 10(5) Bq m(-2) for (131)I, 4.12 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) for (132)Te, 1.45 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) for (134)Cs, and 1.48 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) for (137)Cs (corrected to 11 March 2011). The obtained densities of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were also supported by the accumulated amount of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in soil near the deposition sampling site. For the vertical profile of those radionuclides in soil at NIRS, about 94% of the total deposition was distributed in the top 10 mm depth on 26 April 2011.

  5. [Retinitis pigmentosa and color vision deficiency in Kamigoto island, Nagasaki Prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, S

    1997-08-01

    I studied two genetic diseases, retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and color vision anomaly, in Kamigoto, one of the off-shore islands in Nagasaki Prefecture. The Prevalance of RP patients in this island was estimated to be one in 473 persons. Among the RP patients observed, familial cases whose disorders are transmitted through successive generations comprised 25.7%. Although it seems that the inheritance mode of RP in these familial cases is autosomal dominant, an autosomal recessive fashion showing quasi-dominance cannot be ruled out, because inbreeding frequently occurs on this island. There were at least two types of RP, one with late onset (40 years of age or later) and the other with early onset, and patients with the latter RP tended to have a poor prognosis. Only a few RP patients had posterior subcapsular cataract, and none had pseudexfoliation in spite of advanced age. Color vision anomalies were found in 3.86% of high-school boys and in 0.41% of girls in this island, and they included protanopia (4.2%), protanomaly (10.4%), deuteranopia (37.5%), and deuteranomaly (47.9%). The prevalence in boys was comparable to that in the general Japanese population, but the prevalence in girls was higher in Kamigoto than in other districts. It is most likely that the unique findings regarding the two disorders reflect geographical and/or social features in Kamigoto island.

  6. Lymantria mathura nucleopolyhedrovirus: Identification, occurrence and genetic diversity in Iwate Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuka, Jun

    2016-07-01

    A high prevalence of nuclear polyhedrosis has been observed in larval outbreaks of Lymantria mathura in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. However, the virus responsible has not been identified. Here the virus was designated Lymantria mathura nucleopolyhedrovirus (LymaNPV), based on partial sequence results of the lef-8, lef-9, and polh genes and transmission electron microscopic observations. Diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction targeting of the partial polh gene and a subsequent restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis indicated that LymaNPV was an exclusive causative agent for the nuclear polyhedrosis of the L. mathura larvae. LymaNPV was also detected from a very small fraction of L. dispar larvae that co-occurred with L. mathura larvae where the prevalence of LymaNPV-caused disease was high. A bioassay using LymaNPV against L. dispar larvae produced infection with the inoculated virus. This finding was consistent with the results of the field sample analysis. LymaNPV contained six genome types in the L. mathura populations sampled, as determined by RFLP of LymaNPV genomic DNA and southern blot hybridization analyses. None of the genome types was unique to any sampling site, indicating that some flow had occurred among sites. However, genome-type composition seemed to differ among sites. This study provides basic information about the interaction between L. mathura and LymaNPV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumers' Attitudes towards Edible Wild Plants: A Case Study of Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bixia Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the rural revitalizing strategy in FAO's Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS site in Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture of Japan, using a case study of edible wild plants. This study assessed the current and possible future utilization of edible wild plants as one important NTFP by clarifying the attitudes of consumers and exploring the challenges of harvesting edible wild plants. Traditional ecological knowledge associated with edible wild plants and the related attitudes of consumers towards wild plants was documented. A questionnaire survey found that a majority of the respondents held positive attitude towards edible wild plants as being healthy, safe food, part of traditional dietary culture. Increasing demand of edible wild plants from urban residents aroused conflicts with local residents’ interest given that around 86% of the forested hills are private in Noto Region. Non timber forest products (NTFP extraction can be seen as a tool for creating socioeconomic relationships that are dependent on healthy, biodiverse ecosystems. It was suggested that Japanese Agricultural Cooperatives (JA and Forestry Cooperatives (FCA could be involved with GIAHS process. As important traditional dietary and ecological system, edible wild plants should be a part of GIAHS project for rural revitalization.

  8. Measurement of radioactive contamination and decontamination on wooden exteriors and garden trees in Northern Fukushima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Hiroyuki; Kawano, Keisuke; Kayama, Yukihiko

    2012-01-01

    Measurement and decontamination of surface of trees and surrounding wooden structures contaminated by radioactive substance were studied in the gardens and public parks of Northern Fukushima Prefecture which experienced radioactive contamination due to the accident at the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The counts per minute (CPM) above the centre surface of wooden garden tables in open air were 1.5 times higher than those of garden benches and 9 times higher than that of a garden bench in the square gazebo. Decontamination of wooden garden benches by high-pressure washing was more effective than planing. The counts per minute (CPM) above the soil around garden trees increased by 1.2 times after high-pressure washing. Radioactivity counting rate did not decrease when the leaves fallen from zelocova trees were removed; however, they decreased by about half when soil cover was installed at the base of the trees. Clearly, the upper surfaces of garden trees and wooden surrounding structures were strongly contaminated by radioactive substances, and they should be decontaminated by high-pressure washing before removing the surface soil. (author)

  9. Annual incidences of visual impairment during 10-year period in Mie prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikesugi, Kengo; Ichio, Takako; Tsukitome, Hideyuki; Kondo, Mineo

    2017-07-01

    To determine the annual incidence of visual impairment in a Japanese population during a 10-year period. We examined the physical disability certificates issued yearly between 2004 and 2013 in Mie prefecture, Japan. During this period 2468 visually impaired people were registered under the newly defined Act on Welfare of the Physically Disabled Persons' criteria. The age, sex distribution, and causes of visual impairment were determined from the certificates. The major causes of visual impairment during the ten-year period were glaucoma (23.3%), diabetic retinopathy (17.3%), retinitis pigmentosa (12.2%), macular degeneration (9.0%), chorioretinal degeneration or high myopia (7.4%), optic atrophy (5.8%), stroke or brain tumor (5.4%) and cataracts (3.7%). The incidence of glaucoma was significantly higher throughout the period (2004-2013), and that of diabetic retinopathy was lower between 2007 and 2013. The incidence of retinitis pigmentosa did not change significantly during the 10-year period. The incidence of macular degeneration tended to increase between 2004 and 2007, but it decreased significantly between 2007 and 2013. The results indicate that in Japan, the rates of the major causes of visual impairment altered in the most recent 10-year period reflecting the recent changes in the social background and advances in ocular and systemic treatment.

  10. The Fukushima Health Management Survey: estimation of external doses to residents in Fukushima Prefecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Yasumura, Seiji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kobashi, Gen; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Makoto; Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Sakata, Ritsu; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Health Management Survey (including the Basic Survey for external dose estimation and four detailed surveys) was launched after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The Basic Survey consists of a questionnaire that asks Fukushima Prefecture residents about their behavior in the first four months after the accident; and responses to the questionnaire have been returned from many residents. The individual external doses are estimated by using digitized behavior data and a computer program that included daily gamma ray dose rate maps drawn after the accident. The individual external doses of 421,394 residents for the first four months (excluding radiation workers) had a distribution as follows: 62.0%, <1 mSv; 94.0%, <2 mSv; 99.4%, <3 mSv. The arithmetic mean and maximum for the individual external doses were 0.8 and 25 mSv, respectively. While most dose estimation studies were based on typical scenarios of evacuation and time spent inside/outside, the Basic Survey estimated doses considering individually different personal behaviors. Thus, doses for some individuals who did not follow typical scenarios could be revealed. Even considering such extreme cases, the estimated external doses were generally low and no discernible increased incidence of radiation-related health effects is expected. PMID:26239643

  11. A survey of radioactive levels of agricultural products in Saitama prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motegi, Misako; Miyake, Sadaaki; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki

    1997-01-01

    Past atmospheric nuclear testing which have been conducted frequently, have caused environmental pollution due to the diffusion of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and from the radioactive fallout. The environmental pollution from nuclear testing into the atmosphere has resulted in the radioactive contamination in agricultural products and has continued for a long time. The radioactive contamination of agricultural products occurs through air, water and soil which were contaminated by radioactive fallout. In this paper, for the purpose of analyzing the extent of the radioactive contamination levels in the agricultural products of Saitama Prefecture, spinach, green soybeans, dried shiitake and welsh onion, were selected among products, as the amount of the harvest is abundant in all of Japan. Radioactivity concentration was investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry and radiochemical analysis. The radioactivity concentrations of artificial radioactive nuclides, cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and strontium-90 ( 90 Sr), were detected in the range which is considered to be the result of radioactive fallout. Moreover, in order to examine the effect on radioactivity concentrations in agricultural products by culinary processing, the raw agricultural products were boiled, and their radioactivity concentrations were compared with the raw produce. The radioactivity concentrations in the boiled were lower than those in the raw produce. (author)

  12. Radon and thoron concentrations in offices and dwellings of the Gunma prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, M.; Tokonami, S.; Zhuo, W.

    2005-01-01

    A one year survey of indoor radon and thoron concentrations was carried out in offices and dwellings of the Gunma prefecture, Japan. A passive integrating radon and thoron discriminative monitor was used in the survey. The annual mean radon concentration was 22±14 Bq x m -3 , and ranged from 12 to 93 Bq x m -3 among the 56 surveyed rooms. Radon concentration in offices was generally higher than that in the dwellings, with the arithmetic averages of 29 and 17 Bq x m -3 , respectively. Radon concentrations were generally lower in the traditional Japanese wooden houses than those houses built with other building materials. Seasonal variation of indoor radon was also observed in this survey. Compared to summer and autumn, radon concentrations were generally higher in spring and winter. The mean value of thoron to radon ratio was estimated to be 1.3, higher values were observed in the dwellings than in the offices. The annual effective dose from the exposure to indoor radon was estimated to be 0.47 mSv after taking the occupancy factors of offices and dwellings into account. (author)

  13. Incidence of Legionella and heterotrophic bacteria in household rainwater tanks in Azumino, Nagano prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Oana, Kozue; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Many administrative agencies in Japan are encouraging installation of household rainwater-storage tanks for more effective use of natural rainwater. Water samples were collected periodically from 43 rainwater tanks from 40 households and tested for the presence of Legionella species and the extent of heterotrophic bacteria in Azumino city, Nagano prefecture, Japan. PCR assays indicated the presence of Legionella spp. in 12 (30%) of the 43 tank water samples. Attempts were made to identify correlations between PCR positive samples, topography, pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), atmospheric temperature and the numbers of heterotrophic bacteria. Between June and October, 2012, the numbers of heterotrophic bacteria in rainwater tanks and the values of COD positively correlated with the presence of Legionella species. In most of the Legionella-positive cases, heterotrophic bacterial cell counts were >10(4) CFU/mL. Moreover, Legionella species were less frequently detected when the COD value was >5 mg KMnO(4)/L. Therefore, at least in Azumino, Japan between June and October 2012, both heterotrophic bacterial counts and COD values may be considered index parameters for the presence of Legionella cells in rainwater tanks. Much more accumulation of such data is needed to verify the accuracy of these findings. © 2013 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Earthquake hazard evaluation for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruettener, E.

    1995-01-01

    Earthquake hazard analysis is of considerable importance for Switzerland, a country with moderate seismic activity but high economic values at risk. The evaluation of earthquake hazard, i.e. the determination of return periods versus ground motion parameters, requires a description of earthquake occurrences in space and time. In this study the seismic hazard for major cities in Switzerland is determined. The seismic hazard analysis is based on historic earthquake records as well as instrumental data. The historic earthquake data show considerable uncertainties concerning epicenter location and epicentral intensity. A specific concept is required, therefore, which permits the description of the uncertainties of each individual earthquake. This is achieved by probability distributions for earthquake size and location. Historical considerations, which indicate changes in public earthquake awareness at various times (mainly due to large historical earthquakes), as well as statistical tests have been used to identify time periods of complete earthquake reporting as a function of intensity. As a result, the catalog is judged to be complete since 1878 for all earthquakes with epicentral intensities greater than IV, since 1750 for intensities greater than VI, since 1600 for intensities greater than VIII, and since 1300 for intensities greater than IX. Instrumental data provide accurate information about the depth distribution of earthquakes in Switzerland. In the Alps, focal depths are restricted to the uppermost 15 km of the crust, whereas below the northern Alpine foreland earthquakes are distributed throughout the entire crust (30 km). This depth distribution is considered in the final hazard analysis by probability distributions. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  15. Contribution of soil sciences for recovering from damages by the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Eitaro; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi; Nanzyo, Masami

    2014-01-01

    This symposium was held in September 2013, under the joint hosting of Science Council of Japan, Agricultural Academy of Japan, and Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, as one of the programs of the Nagoya convention of Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. The theme was the contribution of soil science to the restoration from the Great East Japan Earthquake and the issues involved in this. As the restoration from the tsunami, the following two topics were presented: 'Situation of Miyagi Prefecture and challenge of soil science', and 'Technological measures for the resumption of farming in tsunami-hit areas in Soma City, Fukushima Prefecture.' As the restoration from the radiation damage caused by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident, the following four topics were presented: 'Cooperation between villagers and scholars at Iitate Village; efforts for survey and decontamination with the hands of villagers,' 'Cesium fixation related to on-site soil,' 'Concentration and separation of cesium,' and 'Volume reduction of contaminated soil.' This paper summarizes these six topics of lectures, keynote comments by other specialists and relevant persons, and the atmosphere of the convention on the day. (A.O)

  16. Anesthesia department preparedness for a multiple-casualty incident: lessons learned from the Fukushima earthquake and the Japanese nuclear power disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakawa, Masahiro

    2013-03-01

    In the Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred on March 11, 2011, many lives were lost in the accompanying giant tsunami. Fukushima prefecture was widely contaminated with radioactive substances emitted by the accident at the nuclear power plant. Only a few trauma and emergency patients were brought to our hospital by ambulance, and an unexpectedly small number of emergency surgeries performed. There were patients with radiation-induced sickness and injury, but no cases of severe exposure requiring surgery or intensive care. As a logistic support hospital, we should prepare for and simulate these cases to respond to any such future occurrence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Earthquake likelihood model testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorlemmer, D.; Gerstenberger, M.C.; Wiemer, S.; Jackson, D.D.; Rhoades, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) project aims to produce and evaluate alternate models of earthquake potential (probability per unit volume, magnitude, and time) for California. Based on differing assumptions, these models are produced to test the validity of their assumptions and to explore which models should be incorporated in seismic hazard and risk evaluation. Tests based on physical and geological criteria are useful but we focus on statistical methods using future earthquake catalog data only. We envision two evaluations: a test of consistency with observed data and a comparison of all pairs of models for relative consistency. Both tests are based on the likelihood method, and both are fully prospective (i.e., the models are not adjusted to fit the test data). To be tested, each model must assign a probability to any possible event within a specified region of space, time, and magnitude. For our tests the models must use a common format: earthquake rates in specified “bins” with location, magnitude, time, and focal mechanism limits.Seismology cannot yet deterministically predict individual earthquakes; however, it should seek the best possible models for forecasting earthquake occurrence. This paper describes the statistical rules of an experiment to examine and test earthquake forecasts. The primary purposes of the tests described below are to evaluate physical models for earthquakes, assure that source models used in seismic hazard and risk studies are consistent with earthquake data, and provide quantitative measures by which models can be assigned weights in a consensus model or be judged as suitable for particular regions.In this paper we develop a statistical method for testing earthquake likelihood models. A companion paper (Schorlemmer and Gerstenberger 2007, this issue) discusses the actual implementation of these tests in the framework of the RELM initiative.Statistical testing of hypotheses is a common task and a

  18. [Human Resource Development for Tohoku Region after Great East Japan Earthquake: Remarks of the Chairperson].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    In order to promote further advances of medical systems in the Tohoku region where the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant occurred, the requirement of human resources in clinical laboratory medicine has increased. Therefore, the symposium entitled "Human resource development for Tohoku region after Great East Japan Earthquake" was held in The 47th Tohoku Regional Congress of Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine. In Fukushima Prefecture, the Thyroid Ultrasound Examination program has been conducted since Oct. 2011. Educational courses and certification programs for thyroid ultrasound examiners were established for medical doctors and technologists in Fukushima. The need for certified sonographers has also increased because deep venous thrombosis is also one of the health problems in the earthquake-hit area. Human resource development of sonographers was discussed in this symposium. In addition, further advances in clinical laboratory medicine are dependent on the development of specified medical technologists and certified physicians. Projects of human resource development currently performed in the Tohoku region were introduced and future actions were discussed.

  19. Reactor experiments, workshops, and human resource development education simulating the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Tomosada

    2012-01-01

    Kinki University Atomic Energy Research Institute has been implementing a social education program such as reactor experiments and training sessions for junior and senior high school teachers since 1987, and in recent years, it has been implementing an education program for common citizens. However, the Great East Japan Earthquake has made it necessary to consider not only the dissemination of accurate knowledge, but also responding to the anxiety on nuclear power. This paper explains the contents of the social contribution activities and workshops conducted at Kinki University Atomic Energy Research Institute, after the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident. As the activities that are carried out in addition to training sessions, it introduces the implementation state of telephone consultation about nuclear power, and earthquake reconstruction assistance advisory at Kawamata Town, Date-gun, Fukushima Prefecture. As workshop support, it reports human resource development education in the nuclear field at the university, activities at the workshops for junior/senior high school teachers and general public, and questionnaire survey at the time of the workshops. (A.O.)

  20. Report on maternal anxiety 16 months after the great East Japan earthquake disaster: anxiety over radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Hatsumi; Saito, Hidemitsu; Kikuchi, Saya; Ueno, Takashi; Sato, Kineko

    2014-06-25

    The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011. The tsunami caused extensive damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, resulting in a level 7 nuclear accident. Among those affected by this combined disaster were many pregnant and parturient women. Sixteen months after the earthquake, we conducted a questionnaire survey on anxiety among 259 women who gave birth around the time of the earthquake in Miyagi Prefecture, one of the affected areas. Participants reported 12 categories of anxiety, including anxiety over radioactivity. This study aimed to determine anxiety over radioactivity among this specific population and to record measures for future study. Anxiety over radiation was classified into seven subcategories: food safety, outdoor safety, effects on the fetuses of pregnant women, effects on children, radiation exposure, economic problems, and distrust of information disclosed. This study confirmed that concrete types of anxiety over radiation were keenly felt by mothers who had experienced the disaster who were currently raising children. The findings suggest the need to provide accurate information to these mothers, who are otherwise inundated with miscellaneous confusing information.

  1. Geophysical Anomalies and Earthquake Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D. D.

    2008-12-01

    Finding anomalies is easy. Predicting earthquakes convincingly from such anomalies is far from easy. Why? Why have so many beautiful geophysical abnormalities not led to successful prediction strategies? What is earthquake prediction? By my definition it is convincing information that an earthquake of specified size is temporarily much more likely than usual in a specific region for a specified time interval. We know a lot about normal earthquake behavior, including locations where earthquake rates are higher than elsewhere, with estimable rates and size distributions. We know that earthquakes have power law size distributions over large areas, that they cluster in time and space, and that aftershocks follow with power-law dependence on time. These relationships justify prudent protective measures and scientific investigation. Earthquake prediction would justify exceptional temporary measures well beyond those normal prudent actions. Convincing earthquake prediction would result from methods that have demonstrated many successes with few false alarms. Predicting earthquakes convincingly is difficult for several profound reasons. First, earthquakes start in tiny volumes at inaccessible depth. The power law size dependence means that tiny unobservable ones are frequent almost everywhere and occasionally grow to larger size. Thus prediction of important earthquakes is not about nucleation, but about identifying the conditions for growth. Second, earthquakes are complex. They derive their energy from stress, which is perniciously hard to estimate or model because it is nearly singular at the margins of cracks and faults. Physical properties vary from place to place, so the preparatory processes certainly vary as well. Thus establishing the needed track record for validation is very difficult, especially for large events with immense interval times in any one location. Third, the anomalies are generally complex as well. Electromagnetic anomalies in particular require

  2. Re-examination of the original questionnaire documents for the 1944 Tonankai, 1945 Mikawa, and 1946 Nanaki earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Furumura, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    With the object of estimating seismic intensity, the Earthquakes Research Institute (ERI) of the University of Tokyo performed questionnaire surveys for the significant (destructive or large/great) earthquakes from 1943 to 1988 (Kayano, 1990, BERI). In these surveys, Kawasumi (1943)'s 12-class seismic intensity scale similar to the Modified Mercalli scale (MM-scale) was used. Survey results for earthquakes after 1950 were well investigated and published (e.g. Kayano and Komaki, 1977, BERI; Kayano and Sato, 1975, BERI), but the survey results for earthquakes in the 1940s have not been published and original documents of the surveys was missing. Recently, the original sheets of the surveys for the five earthquakes in the 1940s with more than 1,000 casualties were discovered in the ERI warehouse, although they are incomplete (Tsumura et al, 2010). They are from the 1943 Tottori (M 7.2), 1944 Tonankai (M 7.9), 1945 Mikawa (M 6.8), 1946 Nankai (M 8.0), and 1948 Fukui (M 7.1) earthquakes. In this study, we examined original questionnaire and summary sheets for the 1944 Tonankai, 1945 Mikawa, and 1946 Nanaki earthquakes, and estimated the distributions of seismic intensity, various kinds of damage, and human behaviors in detail. Numbers of the survey points for the 1944, 1945, and 1946 event are 287, 145, and 1,014, respectively. The numbers for the 1944 and 1945 earthquakes are much fewer than that of the 1946 event, because they occurred during the last years of World War II. The 1944 seismic intensities in the prefectures near the source region (Aichi, Mie, Shizuoka, and Gifu Pref.) tend to be high. However, the 1944 intensities are also high and damage is serious at the Suwa Lake shore in Nagano Pref. which is about 240 km far from the source region because seismic waves are amplified dramatically in the thick sediment in the Suwa Basin. Seismic intensities of the 1945 Mikawa earthquake near the source region in Aichi Pref. were very high (X-XI). However, the

  3. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  4. Pain after earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeletti Chiara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction On 6 April 2009, at 03:32 local time, an Mw 6.3 earthquake hit the Abruzzi region of central Italy causing widespread damage in the City of L Aquila and its nearby villages. The earthquake caused 308 casualties and over 1,500 injuries, displaced more than 25,000 people and induced significant damage to more than 10,000 buildings in the L'Aquila region. Objectives This observational retrospective study evaluated the prevalence and drug treatment of pain in the five weeks following the L'Aquila earthquake (April 6, 2009. Methods 958 triage documents were analysed for patients pain severity, pain type, and treatment efficacy. Results A third of pain patients reported pain with a prevalence of 34.6%. More than half of pain patients reported severe pain (58.8%. Analgesic agents were limited to available drugs: anti-inflammatory agents, paracetamol, and weak opioids. Reduction in verbal numerical pain scores within the first 24 hours after treatment was achieved with the medications at hand. Pain prevalence and characterization exhibited a biphasic pattern with acute pain syndromes owing to trauma occurring in the first 15 days after the earthquake; traumatic pain then decreased and re-surged at around week five, owing to rebuilding efforts. In the second through fourth week, reports of pain occurred mainly owing to relapses of chronic conditions. Conclusions This study indicates that pain is prevalent during natural disasters, may exhibit a discernible pattern over the weeks following the event, and current drug treatments in this region may be adequate for emergency situations.

  5. Do Earthquakes Shake Stock Markets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Susana; Karali, Berna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how major earthquakes affected the returns and volatility of aggregate stock market indices in thirty-five financial markets over the last twenty years. Results show that global financial markets are resilient to shocks caused by earthquakes even if these are domestic. Our analysis reveals that, in a few instances, some macroeconomic variables and earthquake characteristics (gross domestic product per capita, trade openness, bilateral trade flows, earthquake magnitude, a tsunami indicator, distance to the epicenter, and number of fatalities) mediate the impact of earthquakes on stock market returns, resulting in a zero net effect. However, the influence of these variables is market-specific, indicating no systematic pattern across global capital markets. Results also demonstrate that stock market volatility is unaffected by earthquakes, except for Japan.

  6. Earthquake engineering for nuclear facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Kuno, Michiya

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive compilation of earthquake- and tsunami-related technologies and knowledge for the design and construction of nuclear facilities. As such, it covers a wide range of fields including civil engineering, architecture, geotechnical engineering, mechanical engineering, and nuclear engineering, for the development of new technologies providing greater resistance against earthquakes and tsunamis. It is crucial both for students of nuclear energy courses and for young engineers in nuclear power generation industries to understand the basics and principles of earthquake- and tsunami-resistant design of nuclear facilities. In Part I, "Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants", the design of nuclear power plants to withstand earthquakes and tsunamis is explained, focusing on buildings, equipment's, and civil engineering structures. In Part II, "Basics of Earthquake Engineering", fundamental knowledge of earthquakes and tsunamis as well as the dynamic response of structures and foundation ground...

  7. Report on Disaster Medical Operations with Acupuncture/Massage Therapy after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Takayama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake inflicted immense damage over a wide area of eastern Japan with the consequent tsunami. Department of Traditional Asian Medicine, Tohoku University, started providing medical assistance to the disaster-stricken regions mainly employing traditional Asian therapies. We visited seven evacuation centers in Miyagi and Fukushima Prefecture and provided acupuncture/massage therapy. While massage therapy was performed manually, filiform needles and press tack needles were used to administer acupuncture. In total, 553 people were treated (mean age, 54.0 years; 206 men, 347 women. Assessment by interview showed that the most common complaint was shoulder/back stiffness. The rate of therapy satisfaction was 92.3%. Many people answered that they experienced not only physical but also psychological relief. At the time of the disaster, acupuncture/massage therapy, which has both mental and physical soothing effects, may be a therapeutic approach that can be effectively used in combination with Western medical practices.

  8. Sleep duration among children 8 months after the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Usami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To elucidate relationships between disaster damage conditions and sleep duration among children who survived the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami. METHODS: The subjects comprised 12,524 children in kindergartens, elementary schools, and junior high schools in Ishinomaki City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. The Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms for Children 15 items (PTSSC-15, a self-completion questionnaire on traumatic symptoms, and a sleep questionnaire were distributed to them. A questionnaire regarding disaster damage conditions of the children's homes was distributed to their teachers. Of 12,524, an effective response was obtained from 11,692 (93.3%. RESULTS: Relationships between sleep duration and traumatic symptoms were displayed low correlations. Children with house damage and/or evacuation experiences slept for a significantly shorter time than children without these experiences. CONCLUSION: It is critical not only to examine traumatic symptoms in children but also to collect sleep duration and disaster damage conditions following natural disasters.

  9. Earthquake resistant design of structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Geun; Kim, Gyu Seok; Lee, Dong Geun

    1990-02-01

    This book tells of occurrence of earthquake and damage analysis of earthquake, equivalent static analysis method, application of equivalent static analysis method, dynamic analysis method like time history analysis by mode superposition method and direct integration method, design spectrum analysis considering an earthquake-resistant design in Korea. Such as analysis model and vibration mode, calculation of base shear, calculation of story seismic load and combine of analysis results.

  10. Earthquake Forecasting System in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, G.; Marzocchi, W.; Murru, M.; Taroni, M.; Faenza, L.

    2017-12-01

    In Italy, after the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake, a procedure was developed for gathering and disseminating authoritative information about the time dependence of seismic hazard to help communities prepare for a potentially destructive earthquake. The most striking time dependency of the earthquake occurrence process is the time clustering, which is particularly pronounced in time windows of days and weeks. The Operational Earthquake Forecasting (OEF) system that is developed at the Seismic Hazard Center (Centro di Pericolosità Sismica, CPS) of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) is the authoritative source of seismic hazard information for Italian Civil Protection. The philosophy of the system rests on a few basic concepts: transparency, reproducibility, and testability. In particular, the transparent, reproducible, and testable earthquake forecasting system developed at CPS is based on ensemble modeling and on a rigorous testing phase. Such phase is carried out according to the guidance proposed by the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP, international infrastructure aimed at evaluating quantitatively earthquake prediction and forecast models through purely prospective and reproducible experiments). In the OEF system, the two most popular short-term models were used: the Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequences (ETAS) and the Short-Term Earthquake Probabilities (STEP). Here, we report the results from OEF's 24hour earthquake forecasting during the main phases of the 2016-2017 sequence occurred in Central Apennines (Italy).

  11. Earthquake forecasting and its verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Holliday

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available No proven method is currently available for the reliable short time prediction of earthquakes (minutes to months. However, it is possible to make probabilistic hazard assessments for earthquake risk. In this paper we discuss a new approach to earthquake forecasting based on a pattern informatics (PI method which quantifies temporal variations in seismicity. The output, which is based on an association of small earthquakes with future large earthquakes, is a map of areas in a seismogenic region ('hotspots'' where earthquakes are forecast to occur in a future 10-year time span. This approach has been successfully applied to California, to Japan, and on a worldwide basis. Because a sharp decision threshold is used, these forecasts are binary--an earthquake is forecast either to occur or to not occur. The standard approach to the evaluation of a binary forecast is the use of the relative (or receiver operating characteristic (ROC diagram, which is a more restrictive test and less subject to bias than maximum likelihood tests. To test our PI method, we made two types of retrospective forecasts for California. The first is the PI method and the second is a relative intensity (RI forecast based on the hypothesis that future large earthquakes will occur where most smaller earthquakes have occurred in the recent past. While both retrospective forecasts are for the ten year period 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2009, we performed an interim analysis 5 years into the forecast. The PI method out performs the RI method under most circumstances.

  12. Study of electrical power facilities and measures for planned outages in Japanese hemodialysis clinics after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kai; Sawa, Manami; Fujiwara, Kousaku; Hirose, Minoru; Tsuruta, Harukazu; Takeuchi, Akihiro; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2013-02-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 caused major damage in northeastern Japan. The Kanto region experienced a massive electrical power shortage in the summer of 2011. A questionnaire was submitted to 354 hemodialysis clinics in Kanagawa prefecture and the Tokyo metropolitan area, excluding isolated islands, and 176 responses were analyzed (49.7%). The questions included evaluation of the availability of a private electricity generator, countermeasures in case of a planned outage, awareness of saving electricity, and improvement of safety of medical devices or electrical facilities after the earthquake. Only 12% of the clinics had private electricity generators and many clinics had no plans to introduce this facility. However, 96% of the clinics had established countermeasures to deal with a planned outage. Many clinics planned to provide dialysis on a different day or at a different time. All clinics had tried hard to establish procedures to save electricity in the summer of 2011, and 84% of the clinics had reconsidered and improved the safety of medical devices or electricity facilities after the earthquake. These results show that the awareness of crisis management was greatly improved in the wake of the earthquake. © 2012 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2012 International Society for Apheresis.

  13. A case study of liquefaction risk analysis based on the thickness and depth of the liquefaction layer using CPT and electric resistivity data in the Hinode area, Itako City, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinguuji, Motoharu; Toprak, Selcuk

    2017-12-01

    The Hinode area of Itako City in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, suffered some of the most severe liquefaction damage of any areas in the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake in 2011. This liquefaction damage has been investigated by Itako City, as well as by universities and research institutes in Japan. The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) has carried out numerous investigations along the Tone River, and in particular, intensive surveys were done in the Hinode area. We have conducted a risk analysis based on the thickness and depth of the liquefaction layer measured using cone penetration testing (CPT) data and electric resistivity data obtained in the Hinode area. The distribution of the risk estimated from CPT at 143 points, and that obtained from analysis of the resistivity survey data, agreed with the distribution of actual damage. We also carried out conventional risk analyses method using the liquefaction resistance factor (FL) and liquefaction potential index (PL) methods with CPT data. The results show high PL values over the entire area, but their distribution did not agree well with actual damage in some parts of the study area. Because the analysis of the thickness and depth of the liquefaction layer, using geophysical prospecting methods, can cover a widespread area, this method will be very useful in investigating liquefaction risk, especially for gas and water pipelines.

  14. Factors relating to the mental health of women who were pregnant at the time of the Great East Japan earthquake: analysis from month 10 to month 48 after the earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kineko; Oikawa, Maki; Hiwatashi, Mai; Sato, Mari; Oyamada, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred at 2:46 p.m. on March 11, 2011. The epicenter was off the coast of Miyagi prefecture, and the magnitude of the earthquake was 9.0 with a maximum seismic intensity of 7.0. Although it has already been four years, victims continue to have complex problems. In the stricken areas of Miyagi prefecture, almost ten percent of the residents continue to live in temporary housing. Life altering events that force relocation and a change of living environment are known to adversely affect mental health. The purpose of this study was to examine the mental health of mothers of infants who experienced this disaster in Miyagi prefecture. We conducted a survey using The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (10 months) and The General Health Questionnaire-28, an efficient screening tool for psychiatric distress. Eight hundred eighty-six mothers of children born from February to October, 2011 in Miyagi prefecture were surveyed 10, 16, 24, 36 and 48 months after the disaster. Data were analyzed with the use of SPSS 21.0 J for Windows. The study was approval by the review board of ethics at Tohoku University. The questionnaire was answered by the following number of mothers at the specified months after the disaster: 677 at 10 months, 384 at 16 months, 351 at 24 months, 250 at 36 months and 193 at 48 months. Results at all time periods indicated a high prevalence of psychiatric distress among the mothers surveyed. The percentage of Japanese adults with high-risk GHQ-28 scores is 14 %, thus psychological distress among the subjects in the present study is considerably more widespread. General Health Questionnaire-28 scores were significantly higher for those mothers experiencing dissatisfaction in their marital relationships. We found that mothers have experienced severe mental distress since the disaster, which we think is a possible cause of depression that is leading to poor mental health. The results indicate that the upheaval

  15. Prevalence of Legionella species isolated from shower water in public bath facilities in Toyama Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatani, Jun-Ichi; Isobe, Junko; Norimoto, Shiho; Kimata, Keiko; Mitsui, Chieko; Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Kura, Fumiaki; Sata, Tetsutaro; Watahiki, Masanori

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence of Legionella spp. isolated from shower water in public bath facilities in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. In addition, we analyzed the genetic diversity among Legionella pneumophila isolates from shower water as well as the genetic relationship between isolates from shower water and from stock strains previously analyzed from sputum specimens. The isolates were characterized using serogrouping, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and sequence-based typing. Legionella spp. were isolated from 31/91 (34.1%) samples derived from 17/37 (45.9%) bath facilities. Isolates from shower water and bath water in each public bath facility were serologically or genetically different, indicating that we need to isolate several L. pneumophila colonies from both bath and shower water to identify public bath facilities as sources of legionellosis. The 61 L. pneumophila isolates from shower water were classified into 39 sequence types (STs) (index of discrimination = 0.974), including 19 new STs. Among the 39 STs, 12 STs match clinical isolates in the European Working Group for Legionella Infections database. Notably, ST505 L. pneumophila SG 1, a strain frequently isolated from patients with legionellosis and from bath water in this area, was isolated from shower water. Pathogenic L. pneumophila strains including ST505 strain were widely distributed in shower water in public bath facilities, with genetic diversity showing several different origins. This study highlights the need to isolate several L. pneumophila colonies from both bath water and shower water to identify public bath facilities as infection sources in legionellosis cases. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Vaccination coverage of foreign children and their parents' views on immunization services in Gunma Prefecture, Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukui, Satoshi; Negishi, Yoshio; Sato, Yumi; Kashiwase, Mariko; Kawashima, Saeko; Fukuda, Takahiro

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate vaccination coverage among foreign children living in an urban area of Gunma Prefecture, Japan and to examine their parents' views concerning the local immunization services. A total of 321 foreign children aged 6 to 18 years in five international schools participated in school health examinations and provided vaccination information. Among the parents, 304 completed a questionnaire on their views about the immunization services. Another questionnaire survey was conducted in nursery schools for parents of 4629 Japanese children aged 0 to 6 years. Of the total, 3811 (82.3%) responded, and 2911 questionnaires answered by the parents who had children aged 3 years and older were eligible for the analysis. The study found a vaccination coverage of 86.2% for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis (DTP), 86.5% for poliovirus vaccine, and 87.7% for BCG among the foreign children. Of their parents, 84% were born in Brazil. One third of the foreign children vaccinated for DTP, poliovirus and/or BCG had received each vaccine in Japan, while the others children had been vaccinated in their home countries. Among 162 parents with children immunized in Japan, 77% received the necessary information about immunization services from the local municipal office, and 80% had no major problems. However, 15% felt the language barrier. Among the Japanese children, non-vaccination rates for DTP, poliovirus vaccine, and BCG were 18.5%, 9.9%, and 3.5%, respectively. Of the Japanese parents, 85% knew immunization schedules from the municipal office, and 51% asked for night-time and holiday vaccination sites. These results suggest that vaccination coverage for DTP, poliovirus vaccine or BCG is relatively high among foreign children living in Japan. To promote higher rates of vaccination for those residents, however, accessibility of the municipal consultation services in foreign languages should be im-proved.

  17. Estimation of Regional-Scale Actual Evapotranspiration in Okayama prefecture in Japan using Complementary Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroizumi, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Miura, T.

    2008-12-01

    It is important to estimate accurately a water balance in watershed for proposing a reuse of water resources and a proper settlement of water utilization. Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important factor of water balance. Therefore, it is needed to estimate accurately the actual ET. The objective of this study is to estimate accurately monthly actual ET in Yoshii, Asahi, and Takahashi River watersheds in Okayama prefecture from 1999 to 2000. The monthly actual ET was calculated by a Morton and a modified Brutsaert and Stricker (B&S) method, using Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition Systems (AMeDAS) in the basin. The actual ET was estimated using land covers which were classified in 11 categories. The land covers includes the effects of albedo. The actual ET was related to the elevation at each AMeDAS station. Using this relationship, the actual ET at the 1 or 5 km grid-interval mesh in the basin was calculated, and finally, the distribution of actual ET was mapped. The monthly ET estimated by the modified B&S method were smaller than that by Morton method which showed a same tendency as the Penman potential ET (PET). The annual values of Morton"fs ET, modified B&S"fs ET, and PET were estimated as 796, 645, and 800 mm, respectively. The ET by the modified B&S was larger in hilly and mountainous areas than in settlement or city. In general, it was a reasonable result because city or settlement areas were covered with concrete and asphalt and the ET was controlled.

  18. Use of rice seedlings to estimate uptake of radiocesium from soil to plants in Fukushima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Suzuki, Yasukazu; Ohno, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    The uptake of radiocesium to plants from the soil is affected by many environmental factors, and it is difficult to determine the contribution of uptake among these factors. In addition, these environmental factors should be investigated independently for each field. The aim of this study was to develop a practical and simple method for the estimate of uptake of radiocesium from soil to plants. Rice seedlings were used to estimate the root uptake of radiocesium from seven different soils. To confirm that the seedlings were the effective indicator, the concentration of 137 Cs in the seedlings was compared with that in brown rice and sunflower. The seedlings were cultivated for a week from germination in a phytotron and the concentrations of 137 Cs in the seedlings above ground were determined. To obtain brown rice and sunflower, rice and sunflower were cultivated either in a pot (1/5000 a Wagner pot, 4000 cm 3 ) placed in a glasshouse or in a paddy field in Fukushima prefecture for two to four months. The concentration of 137 Cs in the rice seedlings ranged from 150 to 1900 Bq kg -1 , and that in brown rice and sunflower ranged from 2 to 880 Bq kg -1 and from 580 to 3900 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between the measured concentration of 137 Cs in rice seedlings and the measured concentration of 137 Cs in brown rice and sunflower was 1.0 (p < 0.001 and p = 0.09, respectively). This suggests that the use of rice seedlings in this experiment over a period of two weeks provides an effective indicator for the uptake of 137 Cs from soil to plants over a longer period of time. (author)

  19. Life cycle assessment of woody biomass energy utilization: Case study in Gifu Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, Tomohiro; Okuda, Takaaki

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the effectiveness of a woody biomass utilization system that would result in increased net energy production through wood pellet production, along with energy recovery processes as they relate to household energy demand. The direct environmental load of the system, including wood pellet production and utilization processes, was evaluated. Furthermore, the indirect load, including the economic impact of converting the existing fossil-fuel-based energy system into a woody biomass-based system, on the entire society was also evaluated. Gifu Prefecture in Japan was selected for a case study, which included a comparative evaluation of the environmental load and costs both with and without coordination with the wood pellet production process and the waste-to-energy of municipal solid waste process, using the life cycle assessment methodology. If the release of greenhouse gases from the combustion of wood pellets is included in calculations, then burning wood pellets results in unfavorable environmental consequences. However, when the reduced indirect environmental load due to the utilization of wood pellets versus petroleum is included in calculations, then favorable environmental consequences result, with a net reduction of greenhouse gases emissions by 14,060 ton-CO 2eq . -- Highlights: ► We evaluate economic and environmental impact of woody biomass utilization in household. ► Wood pellet utilization for house heating is advantageous to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. ► Reduction effect of greenhouse gas will be canceled out if carbon neutrality were considered. ► Net greenhouse gas emissions considering conversion of an ordinal energy system will be minus. ► Wood pellet utilization is advantageous not only in global warming but also for resource conservation.

  20. Helicobacter pylori infection and its related factors in junior high school students in Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yoshiko; Lin, Yingsong; Hongo, Minoru; Hidaka, Hiroya; Kikuchi, Shogo

    2017-04-01

    There have been few reports on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in asymptomatic Japanese children and adolescents. We hypothesized that the prevalence of H. pylori infection is very low among Japanese children and that clinical variables such as serum pepsinogen and iron levels are associated with H. pylori infection. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 454 junior high school students aged 12-15 years in four areas in Nagano Prefecture. A commercial ELISA kit (E-plate Eiken H. pylori antibody) was used to measure IgG antibody against H. pylori. Serum pepsinogen and iron levels were also measured using standard methods. A urea breath test was performed for seropositive students. The overall prevalence of H. pylori was 3.1% (14/454). There were no significant differences in H. pylori prevalence among mountain, rural, and urban areas. The mean level of both serum pepsinogen (PG I) and PG II was significantly increased in the seropositive subjects compared with the seronegative subjects. When the cutoff values for adults (PG I: 70 ng/mL and PG I/II ratio: 3) were used, 4 of 14 subjects had PG I ≤70 ng/mL and PG I/II ratio ≤3. The results of a logistic regression analysis showed that low serum iron levels were significantly associated with H. pylori infection (P=.02). The prevalence of H. pylori infection is as low as 3% among junior high school students aged 12-15 years in Japan. The disappearance of H. pylori is accelerating in Japanese children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Distribution of Aeromonas species in environmental water used in daily life in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Hirai, Itaru; Sano, Kouichi

    2016-09-01

    The genus Aeromonas is known to causes diseases such as food poisoning, sepsis, and wound infection. However, the mode of Aeromonas transmission from environment to humans is not clearly understood. To evaluate the health risks of Aeromonas spp. in environmental freshwater, the number, proportion and putative virulence factors of Aeromonas species were investigated in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Environmental freshwater samples were collected from three dams, two springs and three private wells. Aeromonas strains were identified by the biochemical method and the viable count was calculated. The production of extracellular enzymes and the virulence genes were investigated for possessing putative virulence factors using representative isolates. At least seven species of already-known Aeromonas isolates as well as unidentified Aeromonas spp. with/without arginin dehydrolase (ADH) exist in water at these sites. Aeromonas spp. was found to exist at over 1000 CFU/100 ml in one spring and two wells. A. veronii biovar sobria and A. jandaei were the predominant species in dams, and A. hydrophila and/or A. eucrenophila were predominant in wells. Almost all the sampled Aeromonas species produced protease, gelatinase, lipase, esterase and DNase, but A. caviae, A. caviae-like bacteria, and A. eucrenophila had low hemolytic activity. Most sampled A. hydrophila strains possessed both aerolysin gene (aer) and hemolysin gene (hlyA), but A. caviae and A. eucrenophila strains did not possess either gene. Since these results indicated that several Aeromonas species having potential pathogenicity exist in environmental water in Okinawa, surveys are recommended as a public health measure.

  2. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan - Result of recent two years -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, T.; Doi, K.; Kiyomoto, M.; Hoshiba, M.

    2009-12-01

    Japan Meteorological Agency(JMA) started to provide Earthquake Early Warning(EEW) to the general public in October 2007. It was followed by provision of EEW to a limited number of users who understand the technical limit of EEW and can utilize it for automatic control from August 2006. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan definitely means information of estimated amplitude and arrival time of a strong ground motion after fault rupture occurred. In other words, the EEW provided by JMA is defined as a forecast of a strong ground motion before the strong motion arrival. EEW of JMA is to enable advance countermeasures to disasters caused by strong ground motions with providing a warning message of anticipating strong ground motion before the S wave arrival. However, due to its very short available time period, there should need some measures and ideas to provide rapidly EEW and utilize it properly. - EEW is issued to general public when the maximum seismic intensity 5 lower (JMA scale) or greater is expected. - EEW message contains origin time, epicentral region name, and names of areas (unit is about 1/3 to 1/4 of one prefecture) where seismic intensity 4 or greater is expected. Expected arrival time is not included because it differs substantially even in one unit area. - EEW is to be broadcast through the broadcasting media(TV, radio and City Administrative Disaster Management Radio), and is delivered to cellular phones through cell broadcast system. For those who would like to know the more precise estimation and smaller earthquake information at their point of their properties, JMA allows designated private companies to provide forecast of strong ground motion, in which the estimation of a seismic intensity as well as arrival time of S-wave are contained, at arbitrary places under the JMA’s technical assurance. From October, 2007 to August, 2009, JMA issued 11 warnings to general public expecting seismic intensity “5 lower” or greater, including M=7.2 inland

  3. Regional differences in population-based cancer survival between six prefectures in Japan: application of relative survival models with funnel plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuri; Ioka, Akiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Ajiki, Wakiko; Sugimoto, Tomoyuki; Rachet, Bernard; Coleman, Michel P

    2009-07-01

    We used new methods to examine differences in population-based cancer survival between six prefectures in Japan, after adjustment for age and stage at diagnosis. We applied regression models for relative survival to data from population-based cancer registries covering each prefecture for patients diagnosed with stomach, lung, or breast cancer during 1993-1996. Funnel plots were used to display the excess hazard ratio (EHR) for each prefecture, defined as the excess hazard of death from each cancer within 5 years of diagnosis relative to the mean excess hazard (in excess of national background mortality by age and sex) in all six prefectures combined. The contribution of age and stage to the EHR in each prefecture was assessed from differences in deviance-based R(2) between the various models. No significant differences were seen between prefectures in 5-year survival from breast cancer. For cancers of the stomach and lung, EHR in Osaka prefecture were above the upper 95% control limits. For stomach cancer, the age- and stage-adjusted EHR in Osaka were 1.29 for men and 1.43 for women, compared with Fukui and Yamagata. Differences in the stage at diagnosis of stomach cancer appeared to explain most of this excess hazard (61.3% for men, 56.8% for women), whereas differences in age at diagnosis explained very little (0.8%, 1.3%). This approach offers the potential to quantify the impact of differences in stage at diagnosis on time trends and regional differences in cancer survival. It underlines the utility of population-based cancer registries for improving cancer control.

  4. Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment based on the long-term evaluation of subduction-zone earthquakes along the Sagami Trough, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, K.; Fujiwara, H.; Nakamura, H.; Osada, M.; Ohsumi, T.; Morikawa, N.; Kawai, S.; Maeda, T.; Matsuyama, H.; Toyama, N.; Kito, T.; Murata, Y.; Saito, R.; Takayama, J.; Akiyama, S.; Korenaga, M.; Abe, Y.; Hashimoto, N.; Hakamata, T.

    2017-12-01

    For the forthcoming large earthquakes along the Sagami Trough where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting beneath the northeast Japan arc, the Earthquake Research Committee(ERC) /Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, Japanese government (2014a) assessed that M7 and M8 class earthquakes will occur there and defined the possible extent of the earthquake source areas. They assessed 70% and 0% 5% of the occurrence probability within the next 30 years (from Jan. 1, 2014), respectively, for the M7 and M8 class earthquakes. First, we set possible 10 earthquake source areas(ESAs) and 920 ESAs, respectively, for M8 and M7 class earthquakes. Next, we constructed 125 characterized earthquake fault models (CEFMs) and 938 CEFMs, respectively, for M8 and M7 class earthquakes, based on "tsunami receipt" of ERC (2017) (Kitoh et al., 2016, JpGU). All the CEFMs are allowed to have a large slip area for expression of fault slip heterogeneity. For all the CEFMs, we calculate tsunamis by solving a nonlinear long wave equation, using FDM, including runup calculation, over a nesting grid system with a minimum grid size of 50 meters. Finally, we re-distributed the occurrence probability to all CEFMs (Abe et al., 2014, JpGU) and gathered excess probabilities for variable tsunami heights, calculated from all the CEFMs, at every observation point along Pacific coast to get PTHA. We incorporated aleatory uncertainties inherent in tsunami calculation and earthquake fault slip heterogeneity. We considered two kinds of probabilistic hazard models; one is "Present-time hazard model" under an assumption that the earthquake occurrence basically follows a renewal process based on BPT distribution if the latest faulting time was known. The other is "Long-time averaged hazard model" under an assumption that earthquake occurrence follows a stationary Poisson process. We fixed our viewpoint, for example, on the probability that the tsunami height will exceed 3 meters at coastal points in next

  5. Earthquakes Threaten Many American Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nancy E.

    2010-01-01

    Millions of U.S. children attend schools that are not safe from earthquakes, even though they are in earthquake-prone zones. Several cities and states have worked to identify and repair unsafe buildings, but many others have done little or nothing to fix the problem. The reasons for ignoring the problem include political and financial ones, but…

  6. Earthquake Preparedness Checklist for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    A brochure provides a checklist highlighting the important questions and activities that should be addressed and undertaken as part of a school safety and preparedness program for earthquakes. It reminds administrators and other interested parties on what not to forget in preparing schools for earthquakes, such as staff knowledge needs, evacuation…

  7. Make an Earthquake: Ground Shaking!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda

    2011-01-01

    The main purposes of this activity are to help students explore possible factors affecting the extent of the damage of earthquakes and learn the ways to reduce earthquake damages. In these inquiry-based activities, students have opportunities to develop science process skills and to build an understanding of the relationship among science,…

  8. Earthquake Loss Estimation Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, Nina; Bonnin, Jean; Larionov, Valery; Ugarov, Aleksander

    2013-04-01

    The paper addresses the reliability issues of strong earthquakes loss assessment following strong earthquakes with worldwide Systems' application in emergency mode. Timely and correct action just after an event can result in significant benefits in saving lives. In this case the information about possible damage and expected number of casualties is very critical for taking decision about search, rescue operations and offering humanitarian assistance. Such rough information may be provided by, first of all, global systems, in emergency mode. The experience of earthquakes disasters in different earthquake-prone countries shows that the officials who are in charge of emergency response at national and international levels are often lacking prompt and reliable information on the disaster scope. Uncertainties on the parameters used in the estimation process are numerous and large: knowledge about physical phenomena and uncertainties on the parameters used to describe them; global adequacy of modeling techniques to the actual physical phenomena; actual distribution of population at risk at the very time of the shaking (with respect to immediate threat: buildings or the like); knowledge about the source of shaking, etc. Needless to be a sharp specialist to understand, for example, that the way a given building responds to a given shaking obeys mechanical laws which are poorly known (if not out of the reach of engineers for a large portion of the building stock); if a carefully engineered modern building is approximately predictable, this is far not the case for older buildings which make up the bulk of inhabited buildings. The way population, inside the buildings at the time of shaking, is affected by the physical damage caused to the buildings is not precisely known, by far. The paper analyzes the influence of uncertainties in strong event parameters determination by Alert Seismological Surveys, of simulation models used at all stages from, estimating shaking intensity

  9. Generation of earthquake signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjell, G.

    1994-01-01

    Seismic verification can be performed either as a full scale test on a shaker table or as numerical calculations. In both cases it is necessary to have an earthquake acceleration time history. This report describes generation of such time histories by filtering white noise. Analogue and digital filtering methods are compared. Different methods of predicting the response spectrum of a white noise signal filtered by a band-pass filter are discussed. Prediction of both the average response level and the statistical variation around this level are considered. Examples with both the IEEE 301 standard response spectrum and a ground spectrum suggested for Swedish nuclear power stations are included in the report

  10. Earthquake Catalogue of the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoladze, T.; Gok, R.; Tvaradze, N.; Tumanova, N.; Gunia, I.; Onur, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Caucasus has a documented historical catalog stretching back to the beginning of the Christian era. Most of the largest historical earthquakes prior to the 19th century are assumed to have occurred on active faults of the Greater Caucasus. Important earthquakes include the Samtskhe earthquake of 1283 (Ms˜7.0, Io=9); Lechkhumi-Svaneti earthquake of 1350 (Ms˜7.0, Io=9); and the Alaverdi earthquake of 1742 (Ms˜6.8, Io=9). Two significant historical earthquakes that may have occurred within the Javakheti plateau in the Lesser Caucasus are the Tmogvi earthquake of 1088 (Ms˜6.5, Io=9) and the Akhalkalaki earthquake of 1899 (Ms˜6.3, Io =8-9). Large earthquakes that occurred in the Caucasus within the period of instrumental observation are: Gori 1920; Tabatskuri 1940; Chkhalta 1963; Racha earthquake of 1991 (Ms=7.0), is the largest event ever recorded in the region; Barisakho earthquake of 1992 (M=6.5); Spitak earthquake of 1988 (Ms=6.9, 100 km south of Tbilisi), which killed over 50,000 people in Armenia. Recently, permanent broadband stations have been deployed across the region as part of the various national networks (Georgia (˜25 stations), Azerbaijan (˜35 stations), Armenia (˜14 stations)). The data from the last 10 years of observation provides an opportunity to perform modern, fundamental scientific investigations. In order to improve seismic data quality a catalog of all instrumentally recorded earthquakes has been compiled by the IES (Institute of Earth Sciences/NSMC, Ilia State University) in the framework of regional joint project (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, USA) "Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) in the Caucasus. The catalogue consists of more then 80,000 events. First arrivals of each earthquake of Mw>=4.0 have been carefully examined. To reduce calculation errors, we corrected arrivals from the seismic records. We improved locations of the events and recalculate Moment magnitudes in order to obtain unified magnitude

  11. Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies

    KAUST Repository

    Page, Morgan T.

    2011-01-01

    Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data and the complex rupture process at depth. The resulting earthquake source models quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of ruptures. They are also used to provide a rapid assessment of the severity of an earthquake and to estimate losses. However, because of uncertainties in the data, assumed fault geometry and velocity structure, and chosen rupture parameterization, it is not clear which features of these source models are robust. Improved understanding of the uncertainty and reliability of earthquake source inversions will allow the scientific community to use the robust features of kinematic inversions to more thoroughly investigate the complexity of the rupture process and to better constrain other earthquakerelated computations, such as ground motion simulations and static stress change calculations.

  12. Early Earthquakes of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, James

    2004-11-01

    Robert Kovach's second book looks at the interplay of earthquake and volcanic events, archeology, and history in the Americas. Throughout history, major earthquakes have caused the deaths of millions of people and have damaged countless cities. Earthquakes undoubtedly damaged prehistoric cities in the Americas, and evidence of these events could be preserved in archeological records. Kovach asks, Did indigenous native cultures-Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas-document their natural history? Some events have been explicitly documented, for example, in Mayan codices, but many may have been recorded as myth and legend. Kovach's discussions of how early cultures dealt with fearful events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are colorful, informative, and entertaining, and include, for example, a depiction of how the Maya would talk to maize plants in their fields during earthquakes to reassure them.

  13. Are Earthquakes a Critical Phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, O.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes, granular avalanches, superconducting vortices, solar flares, and even stock markets are known to evolve through power-law distributed events. During decades, the formalism of equilibrium phase transition has coined these phenomena as critical, which implies that they are also unpredictable. This work revises these ideas and uses earthquakes as the paradigm to demonstrate that slowly driven systems evolving through uncorrelated and power-law distributed avalanches (UPLA) are not necessarily critical systems, and therefore not necessarily unpredictable. By linking the correlation length to the pdf of the distribution, and comparing it with the one obtained at a critical point, a condition of criticality is introduced. Simulations in the classical Olami-Feder-Christensen (OFC) earthquake model confirm the findings, showing that earthquakes are not a critical phenomenon. However, one single catastrophic earthquake may show critical properties and, paradoxically, the emergence of this temporal critical behaviour may eventually carry precursory signs of catastrophic events.

  14. The CATDAT damaging earthquakes database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Daniell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes.

    Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used in analyses was a major shortcoming in the view of the authors which needed to be improved upon.

    Over 17 000 sources of information have been utilised, primarily in the last few years, to present data from over 12 200 damaging earthquakes historically, with over 7000 earthquakes since 1900 examined and validated before insertion into the database. Each validated earthquake includes seismological information, building damage, ranges of social losses to account for varying sources (deaths, injuries, homeless, and affected, and economic losses (direct, indirect, aid, and insured.

    Globally, a slightly increasing trend in economic damage due to earthquakes is not consistent with the greatly increasing exposure. The 1923 Great Kanto ($214 billion USD damage; 2011 HNDECI-adjusted dollars compared to the 2011 Tohoku (>$300 billion USD at time of writing, 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes show the increasing concern for economic loss in urban areas as the trend should be expected to increase. Many economic and social loss values not reported in existing databases have been collected. Historical GDP (Gross Domestic Product, exchange rate, wage information, population, HDI (Human Development Index, and insurance information have been collected globally to form comparisons.

    This catalogue is the largest known cross-checked global historic damaging earthquake database and should have far-reaching consequences for earthquake loss estimation, socio-economic analysis, and the global

  15. The CATDAT damaging earthquakes database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.; Vervaeck, A.

    2011-08-01

    The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture) database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes. Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used in analyses was a major shortcoming in the view of the authors which needed to be improved upon. Over 17 000 sources of information have been utilised, primarily in the last few years, to present data from over 12 200 damaging earthquakes historically, with over 7000 earthquakes since 1900 examined and validated before insertion into the database. Each validated earthquake includes seismological information, building damage, ranges of social losses to account for varying sources (deaths, injuries, homeless, and affected), and economic losses (direct, indirect, aid, and insured). Globally, a slightly increasing trend in economic damage due to earthquakes is not consistent with the greatly increasing exposure. The 1923 Great Kanto (214 billion USD damage; 2011 HNDECI-adjusted dollars) compared to the 2011 Tohoku (>300 billion USD at time of writing), 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes show the increasing concern for economic loss in urban areas as the trend should be expected to increase. Many economic and social loss values not reported in existing databases have been collected. Historical GDP (Gross Domestic Product), exchange rate, wage information, population, HDI (Human Development Index), and insurance information have been collected globally to form comparisons. This catalogue is the largest known cross-checked global historic damaging earthquake database and should have far-reaching consequences for earthquake loss estimation, socio-economic analysis, and the global reinsurance field.

  16. Rationale, design, and profile of the Three-Prefecture Cohort in Japan: A 15-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Sado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: We reutilized the existing Three-Prefecture Cohort to evaluate the relationship between lifestyle factors and the incidence or mortality from non-communicable diseases. Methods: This study was a prospective population-based observation conducted from the 1980s to 2000 in three prefectures (Miyagi, Aichi, and Osaka in Japan. The study subjects were residents aged ≥40 years who received a questionnaire. The follow-up period was 15 years from the baseline survey in each study area. A self-administered questionnaire, which included items on participants' demographic factors and lifestyle characteristics, was administered. Vital status and date of death were collected from residence certificates by the local government, and cause of death was identified using vital statistics. Cancer incidence and the date of diagnosis were collected from local cancer registry data. Results: A total of 46,421 men and 54,189 women were eligible for our analysis. The person-years of follow-up for cancer incidence were 464,664 and 567,271 for men and women, respectively, and those for death were 527,940 and 648,601 for men and women, respectively. There were 8479 cancer incidences (5106 men and 3373 women and 20,240 total deaths (11,156 men and 9084 women. The stomach was the most common cancer incidence site for both men (25.6% and women (18.6%. The leading cause of death was cancer among men (35.0% and cardiovascular disease among women (41.0%. Conclusions: The Three-Prefecture Cohort Study enabled us to reveal the association of multiphasic lifestyle factors with cancer incidence and mortality. The study will also allow us to conduct a pooled analysis in combination with other large-scale cohorts.

  17. Effective educational practice of river learning by using of Hiikawa-river of elementary school, Shimane prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoyuki, U.; Matsumoto, I.

    2012-12-01

    The importance of field learning has been increasing at elementary school and junior high school in Japan. However, In Japan, it is little actual situation that there is in an opportunity for the field learning enforced in the school science lesson. This tendency is strong as much as school of the city and that circumference. I think that this cause is that there are few suitable places for educational tool to observe geological field near the school. Children learn about "Function of running water" in Grade 5 of elementary school in Japan. Therefore, In this study, We remark the river called "Hiikawa-river" which flow in Izumo city, Shimane prefecture as the science teaching materials. Hiikawa is the river which flowing through the granitic rock district. Therefore We can observe granitic rock from in the upper stream, midstream, to the down stream. That is, we can observe the function of running water and diameter (size) of granitic boulders. It is mean that Hiikawa is the one of good educational tool for Children to learn the function of running water. Though it is the place where nature is comparatively rich even in Japan, it can't be said that field learning is relatively popular in Shimane prefecture. I think that teacher has to learning experience at field, because teacher should settle confidence to guide to the student at the field. That is, if it is not, you can not teach children with truly important of curriculum view point of natural and field science. In this research, we introduce practice of geological field learning at the public elementary school of the Shimane prefecture by using of Hiikawa as educational tool which children learn about the function of running water in grade 5, elementary school. In addition, we hope that this study contribute to teachers teaching method and to children natural science literacy.

  18. 14C specific activity of farm products and marine products collected from the Rokkasho area in Aomori prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muranaka, Takeshi; Honda, Kazuya

    1996-01-01

    We investigated 14 C specific activity of farm products and marine products which were collected from the Rokkasho area in Aomori prefecture from 1988 to 1990. The measured 14 C specific activity of farm products was almost equal to one another with the averaged 14 C specific activity of 0.261 [Bq/g·C]. On the other hand, 14 C specific activity of marine products was slightly lower than those of farm products. Especially that of squid was the lowest among studied marine products. This may be due to the low 14 C specific activity of the sea water surrounding squid. (author)

  19. Time variation of concentrations of radioactive cesium-134, 137 and iodine-129 in the Ohori River, Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibayama, Nao; Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive nuclides emitted from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant were observed for the long term in Ohori River, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. In this presentation, we report time variation of concentrations of 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 129 I in the suspended soils (SS) and dissolved matter (DM) from the flow of the river were measured. The concentrations of radioactive cesium 134 and 137 in SS were gradually decreasing in long term observation and rising on the rainy day. The DM/SS ratios of 137 Cs were almost constant over time. In the DM, the 129 I data showed strong correlation with cesium data. (author)

  20. K-Ar age for alunite-bearing rock from the Iwato gold deposit, Kagoshima Prefecture, southern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, Yukio; Shibata, Ken

    1984-01-01

    K-Ar age determination was made on a whole rock sample of the alunite-bearing silicified rock from the Iwato gold deposit, Kagoshima Prefecture, southern Japan. The sample is from one of the Nansatsu-type gold deposits, whose mineralization is characterized by the occurrence of leaching-type massive silicified rocks with gold dissemination. The result, 4.15 +- 0.78 Ma, is interpreted to be the age of the mineralization at the Iwato gold deposit. It also suggests that the Nansatsu-type deposits were formed in close association with andesitic volcanism in the early Pliocene age. (author)

  1. Survey of damage to 602 MR scanners after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Toshiharu; Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Tsuchihashi, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    An earthquake of 9.0 magnitude, the largest in modern Japanese history, struck east Japan on March 11, 2011. We investigated hazards and observations related to magnetic resonance (MR) scanners in this earthquake to evaluate potential risks and consider further prevention or minimization of damage from and injury of patients in such large earthquakes. The investigation team funded by MHLW sent questionnaires to the 984 facilities with installed MR scanners in the 7 prefectures of east Japan (Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima, Ibaraki, Chiba, Tokyo, Saitama) and collected 458 responses (46.6%) with information on 602 MR scanners (144 units≤0.5 tesla; 31 one-T units; 371 1.5-T units; and 56 units≥3 T). Significant differences in damage were observed between seismic scale 5 and 6 (χ 2 test, P<0.001 for all items of damage checked). The frequencies of typical damage were displacement of magnets (12.4%), failure of the chiller or air conditioning (9.6%), rapid decrease in liquid helium (8.4%), damage to magnet enclosure and its equipment (7.6%), damage to shielding of the MR scanner room (6.1%), damage to the quench duct (4.5%), breakage of devices anchoring system cabinets (4.4%), damage to the magnet base (3.9%), and flying of metal components (1.5%). Twelve facilities reported flooding by the subsequent tsunami, and quench was confirmed in 19 facilities. No fire damage was reported. It was confirmed that no one was severely injured in MR scanners, and base isolation of the building was very useful in completely preventing damage even at seismic scale 7. In the future, training for evacuation and establishment of a standard protocol for emergency shutdown of MR scanners, onsite checking by MR operators, and emergency power plant equipment to maintain chiller for MR scanners will further ensure MR safety in an earthquake. (author)

  2. Earthquake Emergency Education in Dushanbe, Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Bendick, Rebecca; Halvorson, Sarah J.; Saydullaev, Umed; Hojiboev, Orifjon; Stickler, Christine; Adam, Zachary R.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a middle school earthquake science and hazards curriculum to promote earthquake awareness to students in the Central Asian country of Tajikistan. These materials include pre- and post-assessment activities, six science activities describing physical processes related to earthquakes, five activities on earthquake hazards and mitigation…

  3. Determination of Design Basis Earthquake ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Muneaki

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes principle of determining of Design Basis Earthquake following the Examination Guide, some examples on actual sites including earthquake sources to be considered, earthquake response spectrum and simulated seismic waves. In sppendix of this paper, furthermore, seismic safety review for N.P.P designed before publication of the Examination Guide was summarized with Check Basis Earthquake. (J.P.N.)

  4. Determination of Design Basis Earthquake ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Muneaki [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes principle of determining of Design Basis Earthquake following the Examination Guide, some examples on actual sites including earthquake sources to be considered, earthquake response spectrum and simulated seismic waves. In sppendix of this paper, furthermore, seismic safety review for N.P.P designed before publication of the Examination Guide was summarized with Check Basis Earthquake. (J.P.N.)

  5. Designing plants to withstand earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedderman, J.

    1995-01-01

    The approach used in Japan to design nuclear plants capable of withstanding earthquakes is described. Earthquakes are classified into two types S 1 and S 2 . In an S 1 earthquake a nuclear plant must be capable of surviving essentially undamaged. In the more severe S 2 earthquake, some damage may occur but there should be no release of radioactivity to the outside world. The starting point for the designer is the ground response spectrum of the earthquake which shows both the ground acceleration and the frequencies of the vibrations. From the ground response spectra synthetic seismic waves for S 1 and S 2 earthquakes are developed which can then be used to analyse a ''lumped-mass'' model of the reactor building to arrive at floor response spectra. These spectra are then used in further analyses of the design of reactor equipment, piping systems and instrument racks and supports. When a plant is constructed, results from tests with a vibration exciter are used to verify the floor response spectra and principle building resonances. Much of the equipment can be tested on vibrating tables. One large table with a maximum loading capacity of 1000 t is used to test large-scale models of containment vessels, pressure vessels and steam generators. Such tests have shown that the plants have considerable safety margins in their ability to withstand the design basis earthquakes. (UK)

  6. Ionospheric phenomena before strong earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Silina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A statistical analysis of several ionospheric parameters before earthquakes with magnitude M > 5.5 located less than 500 km from an ionospheric vertical sounding station is performed. Ionospheric effects preceding "deep" (depth h > 33 km and "crust" (h 33 km earthquakes were analysed separately. Data of nighttime measurements of the critical frequencies foF2 and foEs, the frequency fbEs and Es-spread at the middle latitude station Dushanbe were used. The frequencies foF2 and fbEs are proportional to the square root of the ionization density at heights of 300 km and 100 km, respectively. It is shown that two days before the earthquakes the values of foF2 averaged over the morning hours (00:00 LT–06:00 LT and of fbEs averaged over the nighttime hours (18:00 LT–06:00 LT decrease; the effect is stronger for the "deep" earthquakes. Analysing the coefficient of semitransparency which characterizes the degree of small-scale turbulence, it was shown that this value increases 1–4 days before "crust" earthquakes, and it does not change before "deep" earthquakes. Studying Es-spread which manifests itself as diffuse Es track on ionograms and characterizes the degree of large-scale turbulence, it was found that the number of Es-spread observations increases 1–3 days before the earthquakes; for "deep" earthquakes the effect is more intensive. Thus it may be concluded that different mechanisms of energy transfer from the region of earthquake preparation to the ionosphere occur for "deep" and "crust" events.

  7. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  8. Developing a long-term local society design methodology towards a low-carbon economy: An application to Shiga Prefecture in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Koji; Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Gomi, Kei; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    2007-01-01

    To tackle global climate stabilization concretely, we have developed a method formulating long-term scenarios towards a low-carbon economy at local level. As a result of the pioneering application of this method to Shiga Prefecture, we have found the following: (i) it is possible to design scenarios for moving towards a low-carbon economy in which CO 2 emission is lowered by 30-50% from the 1990 level by 2030, while the prefecture's gross production continues to grow by 1.6% annually; (ii) in order to halve the emission by 2030, socio-economic structural changes as well as technological measures are essential; and (iii) innovative measures at the prefectural level, such as land planning, renewable energy promotion and lifestyle change, play an increasingly important role as the target reduction rate gets higher

  9. Earthquakes, July-August 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    There were two major earthquakes (7.0≤Mearthquake occurred in Kyrgyzstan on August 19 and a magnitude 7.0 quake struck the Ascension Island region on August 28. In southern California, aftershocks of the magnitude 7.6 earthquake on June 28, 1992, continued. One of these aftershocks caused damage and injuries, and at least one other aftershock caused additional damage. Earthquake-related fatalities were reportred in Kyrgzstan and Pakistan. 

  10. Earthquake Zoning Maps of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pampal, S.

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake Zoning Maps (1945, 1947, 1963, 1972 and 1996) and Specifications for Construction in Disaster Areas (1947, 1953, 1962, 1968, 1975, 1996, 1997 and 2006) have been changed many times following the developments in engineering seismology, tectonic and seismo-tectonic invention and improved earthquake data collection. The aim of this study is to give information about this maps, which come into force at different dates since the introduction of the firs official Earthquake Zoning Map published in 1945 and is to assist for better understanding of the development phases of these maps

  11. Seismology: dynamic triggering of earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Johnson, Paul

    2005-10-06

    After an earthquake, numerous smaller shocks are triggered over distances comparable to the dimensions of the mainshock fault rupture, although they are rare at larger distances. Here we analyse the scaling of dynamic deformations (the stresses and strains associated with seismic waves) with distance from, and magnitude of, their triggering earthquake, and show that they can cause further earthquakes at any distance if their amplitude exceeds several microstrain, regardless of their frequency content. These triggering requirements are remarkably similar to those measured in the laboratory for inducing dynamic elastic nonlinear behaviour, which suggests that the underlying physics is similar.

  12. First Observation of Coseismic Seafloor Crustal Deformation due to M7 Class Earthquakes in the Philippine Sea Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadokoro, K.; Ikuta, R.; Ando, M.; Okuda, T.; Sugimoto, S.; Besana, G. M.; Kuno, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Mw7.3 and 7.5 earthquakes (Off Kii-Peninsula Earthquakes) occurred close to the source region of the anticipated Tonankai Trough in September 5, 2004. The focal mechanisms of the two earthquakes have no low angle nodal planes, which shows that the earthquakes are intraplate earthquakes in the Philippine Sea Plate. We observed coseismic horizontal displacement due to the Off Kii-Peninsula Earthquakes by means of a system for observing seafloor crustal deformation, which is the first observation of coseismic seafloor displacement in the world. We have developed a system for observing seafloor crustal deformation. The observation system is composed of 1) acoustic measurement between a ship transducer and sea-bottom transponders, and 2) kinematic GPS positioning of the observation vessel. We have installed a seafloor benchmark close to the epicenters of the Off Kii-Peninsula Earthquakes. The benchmark is composed of three sea-bottom transponders. The location of benchmark is defined as the weight center of the three transponders. We can determine the location of benchmark with an accuracy of about 5 cm at each observation. We have repeatedly measured the seafloor benchmark six times up to now: 1) July 12-16 and 21-22, 2004, 2) November 9-10, 3) January 19, 2005, 4) May 18-20, 5) July 19-20, and 6) August 18-19 and 29-30. The Off Kii-Peninsula Earthquakes occurred during the above monitoring period. The coseismic horizontal displacement of about 21 cm toward SSE was observed at our seafloor benchmark. The displacement is 3.5 times as large as the maximum displacement observed by on land GPS network in Japan, GEONET. The monitoring of seafloor crustal deformation is effective to detect the deformations associated with earthquakes occurring in ocean areas. This study is promoted by "Research Revolution 2002" of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. We are grateful to the captain and crews of Research Vessel, Asama, of Mie Prefectural

  13. USGS Earthquake Program GPS Use Case : Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    USGS GPS receiver use case. Item 1 - High Precision User (federal agency with Stafford Act hazard alert responsibilities for earthquakes, volcanoes and landslides nationwide). Item 2 - Description of Associated GPS Application(s): The USGS Eart...

  14. Fuel-based inventory of NOx and SO2 emissions from motor vehicles in the Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurrohim, Agus; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    In order to attain the 2010 target of reducing national greenhouse gases by 6% to the 1990 level, with reference to the Kyoto Protocol, the Government of Japan has planned and implemented some measures, as well as related policies. This paper discusses the possible impact of these measures on the nitrogen-oxide and sulfur-dioxide emissions from road vehicles in the Hiroshima Prefecture (ca. 3 million population). The number of road vehicles based on vehicle and fuel types in the Hiroshima Prefecture for 1990-2000 are presented, as well as projections for the years 2005 and 2010 using the Gompertz model. Three scenarios were developed to assess the emissions, referring to the possible achievement of related measures and policies as well as new vehicle technologies. Prediction results show that nitrogen-oxide emissions may be decreased from 14.7 kton in 1990 to 9.3 kton in 2010 if Japanese energy-policy and new vehicle developments are successfully implemented. If they are less successfully implemented, the emissions will decrease slightly to 14 kton, in which the decrease of emissions was mostly from gasoline vehicle. The emission of sulfur dioxide was projected to decrease from 1.2 kton in 1990 to within the range 0.45-0.49 kton by 2010, as a result of measures to reduce sulfur content in diesel oil

  15. Guide to the effective use of cogeneration and fuel cell (Akita Prefecture); Cogeneration nenryo denchi katsuyo guide (Akitaken)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    General cogeneration and fuel cells are separately described in this guidebook. There is a view that a fuel cell is a highly efficient energy system in which both electric power and heat are effectively utilized, and it regards the fuel cell as representative of one of the utilization modes of cogeneration. Following this view, a fuel cell is given a position in parallel with general cogeneration. This guidebook expects that it will be read at private businesses and factories and various public departments within the prefecture where the introduction and utilization of general cogeneration and fuel cells are under study, and describes the procedures to follow when using the energy systems and names the offices to which the readers should refer as need arises. It also expects that people at large in the prefecture who are interested in general cogeneration and fuel cells will be among the readers, and various information is stated for them outlining the energy systems, explaining their merits, and mentioning cases of their application in the past. (NEDO)

  16. Field report-Iidate village and Minamisoma city in Fukushima prefecture and Onagawa Nuclear Power Plants of Tohoku Electric Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Etsuji

    2011-01-01

    Although the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. was foreseen to be an end with bringing the reactor a stable cooling condition and mitigating the release of radioactive materials, there would be various uncertainties and risks. The public was turned to 'nuclear power phase-out ' or 'nuclear power reduced' and Fukushima prefecture launched a restoration vision not dependent on nuclear power. In July editors joined the visit on Iidate village and Minamisoma city in Fukushima prefecture and Onagawa Nuclear Power Plants of Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc., which was organized by Energy and Environmental Email Forum. This feature consisted of six articles based on interviews with respective mayor and discussion meeting of participants. Nuclear world would be responsible for the cooperation and support of Fukushima moving toward restoration with the same stance. Development of renewable energy utilizing damaged fields might be promoted. Respective district was tried to restore based on the trademark of 'Iidate-village in the world' or introduction of central facilities of decommission technology or medical care against radiation hazards. Onagawa Nuclear Power Plants of Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc., which was 14.8 m above sea level, was not damaged so much by the tsunami of 13 m high and after the disaster many residents in a neighboring area came to the nuclear power plant office for the refuge. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Seismic reflection survey in Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture; Gunma Omama senjochi ni okeru hanshaho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, K.; Kano, N.; Yokokura, T.; Kiguchi, T.; Yokota, T.; Matsushima, J. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Seismic reflection survey was performed for the Medial Tectonic Line, an important geological tectonic line in the Kanto plains, at Kushibiki district, Saitama prefecture in the north-western part of the Kanto plains. It was estimated that movements of the basement were different in the individual sides of the active fault. In this study, the seismic reflection survey was performed at the Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture, which is located at the north-eastern extension of the Kushibiki plateau, to grasp the structure of basement to the depth of about 1.0 s of return travel time, and the upper sediments. Two traverse lines passing Ota city, Kiryu city, and Nitta town were used. Southern part of the traverse line-1 was in the bottom land in the middle of Tone river, and northern part was in the Omama fan area. The ground surface along the traverse line was flat. Hachioji heights are the heights elongating in the NW-SE direction and having relative height of 100 to 200 m against the surrounding plain. Another traverse line-2 was set on the steep slope having relative height more than 100 m. The Brute stack time section of each traverse line was characterized by the gradient reflection surface AA of the traverse line-1. It was suggested that the AA or intermittent parts of reflection surfaces deeper than AA may relate to the tectonic lines in the more ancient geological ages. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. [Analysis on HIV-1 genetics and threshold of drug resistance in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanling; Wang, Jibao; Xing, Hui; Chen, Min; Yao, Shitang; Chen, Huichao; Yang, Jin; Li, Yanling; Duan, Song; Jia, Manhong

    2015-06-01

    To study the HIV-1 genotypes and transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province in 2013. Referring to the guidelines for HIV drug resistance threshold survey (HIVDR-TS), 54 plasma samples of recently reported HIV-infected individuals, aged between 16 and 25 years, were collected in Dehong prefecture from January to August 2013. Genotyping of partial pol gene was performed by using reverse transcriptional PCR. HIV-1 genotype. Prevalent levels of HIV-1 drug resistance transmission were analyzed. Forty-eight plasma samples were successfully sequenced and analyzed. Among them, 45.8% were Chinese and the rest 54.2% were all Burmese. Based on pol sequences, identified HIV genotypes included subtype C (41.7%), URF (31.3%), CRF01_AE (12.5%), CRF07_BC (10.4%), CRF08_BC (2.1%) and subtype B (2.1%), C subtype appeared dominated in Chinese while URF was dominated in Burmese. One drug resistant mutation to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) was detected in one sequence from Burmese. Based on the statistical method of HIVDR-TS, the prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance was adjusted as scientific management for people living with HIV/AIDS should be strictly followed. Meanwhile, relevant surveillance, including drug resistance surveillance should also be performed among cross-border migrant population.

  19. A correlation between increases in suicide rates and increases in male unemployment rates in Mie prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Ken; Tanii, Hisashi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige; Abe, Shuntaro; Nishimura, Yukika; Kaiya, Hisanobu; Nata, Masayuki; Okazaki, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    The number of suicides in Japan has increased from approximately 22,000 per year in 1988-1997 to over 30,000 per year since then. It has also increased in Mie prefecture during that period. In the present study, we investigated the correlation between annual suicide rates in Mie prefecture, Japan from 1996-2002 and the annual unemployment rate in Japan from 1996-2002 among males. Among the results, annual suicide rates in total correlated with the unemployment rate in Japan, but the relation was not statistically significant: r(7)=0.76, r(2)(7)=0.58, p=0.05 (y=3.54x+6.37); the rates in males, however, correlated significantly with the unemployment rate in Japan: r(7)=0.85, r(2)(7)=0.73, p=0.01 (y=5.72x+4.49). In addition, we found that annual suicide rates in total correlated significantly with the male unemployment rates. When a patient is unemployed and in a bad situation, the medical staff and the family should be aware of the correspondence between suicide rates and unemployment.

  20. Twitter earthquake detection: Earthquake monitoring in a social world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Paul S.; Bowden, Daniel C.; Guy, Michelle R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets) with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word "earthquake" clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  1. Extreme value statistics and thermodynamics of earthquakes. Large earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavenda, B. [Camerino Univ., Camerino, MC (Italy); Cipollone, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). National Centre for Research on Thermodynamics

    2000-06-01

    A compound Poisson process is used to derive a new shape parameter which can be used to discriminate between large earthquakes and aftershocks sequences. Sample exceedance distributions of large earthquakes are fitted to the Pareto tail and the actual distribution of the maximum to the Frechet distribution, while the sample distribution of aftershocks are fitted to a Beta distribution and the distribution of the minimum to the Weibull distribution for the smallest value. The transition between initial sample distributions and asymptotic extreme value distributions show that self-similar power laws are transformed into non scaling exponential distributions so that neither self-similarity nor the Gutenberg-Richter law can be considered universal. The energy-magnitude transformation converts the Frechet distribution into the Gumbel distribution, originally proposed by Epstein and Lomnitz, and not the Gompertz distribution as in the Lomnitz-Adler and Lomnitz generalization of the Gutenberg-Richter law. Numerical comparison is made with the Lomnitz-Adler and Lomnitz analysis using the same catalogue of Chinese earthquakes. An analogy is drawn between large earthquakes and high energy particle physics. A generalized equation of state is used to transform the Gamma density into the order-statistic Frechet distribution. Earthquake temperature and volume are determined as functions of the energy. Large insurance claims based on the Pareto distribution, which does not have a right endpoint, show why there cannot be a maximum earthquake energy.

  2. EVALUATION METHOD OF SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF CABLE IN SUPERANNUATED TELECOMMUNICATION CONDUITS REINFORCED BY PVC LINING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Koji; Okutsu, Masaru; Yamazaki, Yasushi; Katagiri, Shin; Suzuki, Takanobu; Sugiyama, Toshiyuki

    The telecommunication conduits are needed to protect underground cables from damages due to earthquakes.However, the seismic capacity is being degraded due to the superannuated conduits that were constructed during the high-growth economic period.To sustain the reliability of the conduits efficiently through maintenance is the current challenge. In this paper, we have evaluated to determine whether the seismic capacity can be improved by reinforcing inside tube wall of conduit with PVC lining by grasping as well as analyzing the damages of the telecommunication conduit due to the Chuetsu Offshore Earthquake in Niigata Prefecture through field study and using seismic deformation method. As the result, it was confirmed that the enhancement of the seismic capacity is indeed possible by applying PVC lining to the superannuated conduits.

  3. Overland flow connectivity in a forest plantation before and after tree thinning (Tochigi Prefecture, central Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Sun, Xinchao; Kato, Hiroaki; Gomi, Takashi; Hiraoka, Marino

    2016-04-01

    Overland flow connectivity is a key factor to understand the redistribution dynamics of sediments, nutrients, radiotracers, etc., in the different compartments at channel, hillslope and catchment scales. Human organization of landscape elements has a significant control on runoff and soil redistribution processes. Construction of trails, forest roads and firewalls influence runoff connectivity (RC) in forested catchments. In this study we simulated RC in two forested catchments, called K2 (19.3 ha) and K3 (13.6 ha), located on the Mount Karasawa, in the Tochigi Prefecture in central Japan. Forest plantation includes Japanese cypress and cedar and covers 59% of the total area. Native broad-leaved trees (28%) and mixed forest occupy the rest of the study area. We selected the Index of runoff and sediment Connectivity (IC) of Borselli et al. (2008) to simulate three temporal scenarios: i) Sc-2011, before tree thinning (TT); ii) Sc-2012 after TT in most part of the forest plantation in K2 (32% of the total area); and iii) Sc-2013 after TT in some areas of the K3 catchment, affecting 38% of the total area. The study areas were defined from the coalescence point (139⁰ 36' 04" E, 36⁰ 22' 03" N) of both catchments upslope. Elevation ranges from 75 to 287 m a.s.l. and the mean slope steepness is of 67 and 65% in K2 and K3. Three different high resolution DEM-LiDAR maps at 0.5 x 0.5 m of cell size were used to run the IC model in each scenario. The permanent streams in the study area have a total length of 2123 m. The mean C-RUSLE factor was of 0.0225 in Sc-2011 and 21% and 25% higher in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013. The total length of the landscape linear elements incremented from 2482 m in Sc-2011 to 3151 m in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013 due to the construction of new skid trails in K2. The mean RC in the study area was of -4.536 in Sc-2011 and increased 7.4% and 8.9% in the Sc-2012 and Sc-2013, respectively, due to the tree thinning operations and the construction of new skid trails

  4. The GIS and analysis of earthquake damage distribution of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng-Tan; Jin, Xue-Shen; An, Wei-Ping; Lü, Xiao-Jian

    2004-07-01

    The geography information system of the 1303 Hongton M=8 earthquake has been established. Using the spatial analysis function of GIS, the spatial distribution characteristics of damage and isoseismal of the earthquake are studies. By comparing with the standard earthquake intensity attenuation relationship, the abnormal damage distribution of the earthquake is found, so the relationship of the abnormal distribution with tectonics, site condition and basin are analyzed. In this paper, the influence on the ground motion generated by earthquake source and the underground structures near source also are studied. The influence on seismic zonation, anti-earthquake design, earthquake prediction and earthquake emergency responding produced by the abnormal density distribution are discussed.

  5. Haiti Earthquake: Crisis and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    years ago, in 1860. Haitian ministries are addressing issues such as long-term housing for those left homeless by the earthquake as they operate out...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Haiti Earthquake: Crisis and Response Rhoda Margesson... Crisis and Response 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK

  6. Earthquake Triggering in the September 2017 Mexican Earthquake Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, E. J.; Gombert, B.; Duputel, Z.; Huang, M. H.; Liang, C.; Bekaert, D. P.; Moore, A. W.; Liu, Z.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Southern Mexico was struck by four earthquakes with Mw > 6 and numerous smaller earthquakes in September 2017, starting with the 8 September Mw 8.2 Tehuantepec earthquake beneath the Gulf of Tehuantepec offshore Chiapas and Oaxaca. We study whether this M8.2 earthquake triggered the three subsequent large M>6 quakes in southern Mexico to improve understanding of earthquake interactions and time-dependent risk. All four large earthquakes were extensional despite the the subduction of the Cocos plate. The traditional definition of aftershocks: likely an aftershock if it occurs within two rupture lengths of the main shock soon afterwards. Two Mw 6.1 earthquakes, one half an hour after the M8.2 beneath the Tehuantepec gulf and one on 23 September near Ixtepec in Oaxaca, both fit as traditional aftershocks, within 200 km of the main rupture. The 19 September Mw 7.1 Puebla earthquake was 600 km away from the M8.2 shock, outside the standard aftershock zone. Geodetic measurements from interferometric analysis of synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and time-series analysis of GPS station data constrain finite fault total slip models for the M8.2, M7.1, and M6.1 Ixtepec earthquakes. The early M6.1 aftershock was too close in time and space to the M8.2 to measure with InSAR or GPS. We analyzed InSAR data from Copernicus Sentinel-1A and -1B satellites and JAXA ALOS-2 satellite. Our preliminary geodetic slip model for the M8.2 quake shows significant slip extended > 150 km NW from the hypocenter, longer than slip in the v1 finite-fault model (FFM) from teleseismic waveforms posted by G. Hayes at USGS NEIC. Our slip model for the M7.1 earthquake is similar to the v2 NEIC FFM. Interferograms for the M6.1 Ixtepec quake confirm the shallow depth in the upper-plate crust and show centroid is about 30 km SW of the NEIC epicenter, a significant NEIC location bias, but consistent with cluster relocations (E. Bergman, pers. comm.) and with Mexican SSN location. Coulomb static stress

  7. Swedish earthquakes and acceleration probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunga, R.

    1979-03-01

    A method to assign probabilities to ground accelerations for Swedish sites is described. As hardly any nearfield instrumental data is available we are left with the problem of interpreting macroseismic data in terms of acceleration. By theoretical wave propagation computations the relation between seismic strength of the earthquake, focal depth, distance and ground accelerations are calculated. We found that most Swedish earthquake of the area, the 1904 earthquake 100 km south of Oslo, is an exception and probably had a focal depth exceeding 25 km. For the nuclear power plant sites an annual probability of 10 -5 has been proposed as interesting. This probability gives ground accelerations in the range 5-20 % for the sites. This acceleration is for a free bedrock site. For consistency all acceleration results in this study are given for bedrock sites. When applicating our model to the 1904 earthquake and assuming the focal zone to be in the lower crust we get the epicentral acceleration of this earthquake to be 5-15 % g. The results above are based on an analyses of macrosismic data as relevant instrumental data is lacking. However, the macroseismic acceleration model deduced in this study gives epicentral ground acceleration of small Swedish earthquakes in agreement with existent distant instrumental data. (author)

  8. Building with Earthquakes in Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangieri, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Earthquakes are some of the most elusive and destructive disasters humans interact with on this planet. Engineering structures to withstand earthquake shaking is critical to ensure minimal loss of life and property. However, the majority of buildings today in non-traditional earthquake prone areas are not built to withstand this devastating force. Understanding basic earthquake engineering principles and the effect of limited resources helps students grasp the challenge that lies ahead. The solution can be found in retrofitting existing buildings with proper reinforcements and designs to deal with this deadly disaster. The students were challenged in this project to construct a basic structure, using limited resources, that could withstand a simulated tremor through the use of an earthquake shake table. Groups of students had to work together to creatively manage their resources and ideas to design the most feasible and realistic type of building. This activity provided a wealth of opportunities for the students to learn more about a type of disaster they do not experience in this part of the country. Due to the fact that most buildings in New York City were not designed to withstand earthquake shaking, the students were able to gain an appreciation for how difficult it would be to prepare every structure in the city for this type of event.

  9. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A. Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository.

  10. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository

  11. Global earthquake fatalities and population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Savage, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Modern global earthquake fatalities can be separated into two components: (1) fatalities from an approximately constant annual background rate that is independent of world population growth and (2) fatalities caused by earthquakes with large human death tolls, the frequency of which is dependent on world population. Earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (and 50,000) have increased with world population and obey a nonstationary Poisson distribution with rate proportional to population. We predict that the number of earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (50,000) will increase in the 21st century to 8.7±3.3 (20.5±4.3) from 4 (7) observed in the 20th century if world population reaches 10.1 billion in 2100. Combining fatalities caused by the background rate with fatalities caused by catastrophic earthquakes (>100,000 fatalities) indicates global fatalities in the 21st century will be 2.57±0.64 million if the average post-1900 death toll for catastrophic earthquakes (193,000) is assumed.

  12. Twitter earthquake detection: earthquake monitoring in a social world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Bowden

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word “earthquake” clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  13. Do earthquakes exhibit self-organized criticality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaosong; Ma Jin; Du Shuming

    2004-01-01

    If earthquakes are phenomena of self-organized criticality (SOC), statistical characteristics of the earthquake time series should be invariant after the sequence of events in an earthquake catalog are randomly rearranged. In this Letter we argue that earthquakes are unlikely phenomena of SOC because our analysis of the Southern California Earthquake Catalog shows that the first-return-time probability P M (T) is apparently changed after the time series is rearranged. This suggests that the SOC theory should not be used to oppose the efforts of earthquake prediction

  14. Comparison of two large earthquakes: the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake and the 2011 East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Yuki; Ando, Takayuki; Atobe, Kaori; Haiden, Akina; Kao, Sheng-Yuan; Saito, Kohei; Shimanuki, Marie; Yoshimoto, Norifumi; Fukunaga, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Between August 15th and 19th, 2011, eight 5th-year medical students from the Keio University School of Medicine had the opportunity to visit the Peking University School of Medicine and hold a discussion session titled "What is the most effective way to educate people for survival in an acute disaster situation (before the mental health care stage)?" During the session, we discussed the following six points: basic information regarding the Sichuan Earthquake and the East Japan Earthquake, differences in preparedness for earthquakes, government actions, acceptance of medical rescue teams, earthquake-induced secondary effects, and media restrictions. Although comparison of the two earthquakes was not simple, we concluded that three major points should be emphasized to facilitate the most effective course of disaster planning and action. First, all relevant agencies should formulate emergency plans and should supply information regarding the emergency to the general public and health professionals on a normal basis. Second, each citizen should be educated and trained in how to minimize the risks from earthquake-induced secondary effects. Finally, the central government should establish a single headquarters responsible for command, control, and coordination during a natural disaster emergency and should centralize all powers in this single authority. We hope this discussion may be of some use in future natural disasters in China, Japan, and worldwide.

  15. Extreme value statistics and thermodynamics of earthquakes: large earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Lavenda

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A compound Poisson process is used to derive a new shape parameter which can be used to discriminate between large earthquakes and aftershock sequences. Sample exceedance distributions of large earthquakes are fitted to the Pareto tail and the actual distribution of the maximum to the Fréchet distribution, while the sample distribution of aftershocks are fitted to a Beta distribution and the distribution of the minimum to the Weibull distribution for the smallest value. The transition between initial sample distributions and asymptotic extreme value distributions shows that self-similar power laws are transformed into nonscaling exponential distributions so that neither self-similarity nor the Gutenberg-Richter law can be considered universal. The energy-magnitude transformation converts the Fréchet distribution into the Gumbel distribution, originally proposed by Epstein and Lomnitz, and not the Gompertz distribution as in the Lomnitz-Adler and Lomnitz generalization of the Gutenberg-Richter law. Numerical comparison is made with the Lomnitz-Adler and Lomnitz analysis using the same Catalogue of Chinese Earthquakes. An analogy is drawn between large earthquakes and high energy particle physics. A generalized equation of state is used to transform the Gamma density into the order-statistic Fréchet distribution. Earthquaketemperature and volume are determined as functions of the energy. Large insurance claims based on the Pareto distribution, which does not have a right endpoint, show why there cannot be a maximum earthquake energy.

  16. Earthquake fault superhighways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. P.; Das, S.; Searle, M. P.

    2010-10-01

    Motivated by the observation that the rare earthquakes which propagated for significant distances at supershear speeds occurred on very long straight segments of faults, we examine every known major active strike-slip fault system on land worldwide and identify those with long (> 100 km) straight portions capable not only of sustained supershear rupture speeds but having the potential to reach compressional wave speeds over significant distances, and call them "fault superhighways". The criteria used for identifying these are discussed. These superhighways include portions of the 1000 km long Red River fault in China and Vietnam passing through Hanoi, the 1050 km long San Andreas fault in California passing close to Los Angeles, Santa Barbara and San Francisco, the 1100 km long Chaman fault system in Pakistan north of Karachi, the 700 km long Sagaing fault connecting the first and second cities of Burma, Rangoon and Mandalay, the 1600 km Great Sumatra fault, and the 1000 km Dead Sea fault. Of the 11 faults so classified, nine are in Asia and two in North America, with seven located near areas of very dense populations. Based on the current population distribution within 50 km of each fault superhighway, we find that more than 60 million people today have increased seismic hazards due to them.

  17. Laboratory generated M -6 earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaskey, Gregory C.; Kilgore, Brian D.; Lockner, David A.; Beeler, Nicholas M.

    2014-01-01

    We consider whether mm-scale earthquake-like seismic events generated in laboratory experiments are consistent with our understanding of the physics of larger earthquakes. This work focuses on a population of 48 very small shocks that are foreshocks and aftershocks of stick–slip events occurring on a 2.0 m by 0.4 m simulated strike-slip fault cut through a large granite sample. Unlike the larger stick–slip events that rupture the entirety of the simulated fault, the small foreshocks and aftershocks are contained events whose properties are controlled by the rigidity of the surrounding granite blocks rather than characteristics of the experimental apparatus. The large size of the experimental apparatus, high fidelity sensors, rigorous treatment of wave propagation effects, and in situ system calibration separates this study from traditional acoustic emission analyses and allows these sources to be studied with as much rigor as larger natural earthquakes. The tiny events have short (3–6 μs) rise times and are well modeled by simple double couple focal mechanisms that are consistent with left-lateral slip occurring on a mm-scale patch of the precut fault surface. The repeatability of the experiments indicates that they are the result of frictional processes on the simulated fault surface rather than grain crushing or fracture of fresh rock. Our waveform analysis shows no significant differences (other than size) between the M -7 to M -5.5 earthquakes reported here and larger natural earthquakes. Their source characteristics such as stress drop (1–10 MPa) appear to be entirely consistent with earthquake scaling laws derived for larger earthquakes.

  18. Factors used for the estimation of radioactive nuclide intake through foodstuffs by inhabitants in coastal area of Ibaraki Prefecture, (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Misako; Nemoto, Yohko; Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1978-01-01

    The consumption of eight categories of marine foods was surveyed on two kinds of families in Oarai town, one of the famous fishing towns in Ibaraki prefecture. The average daily intake of whole marine foods through a year of 1973 was 255 g/d/p for fisherman's families and 166 g/d/p for nonfisherman's, respectively. Fisherman's families showed higher consumption of all categories of marine foods except algae than non-fisherman's. Seasonal variation of marine food consumption was observed for both families, i.e., the consumption in spring was less than that in the other seasons. One half of the total marine foods consumption was occupied by fishes. And among three kinds of fishes, high consumption of pelagic fish was recognized. These consumption aspects were almost similar to those observed in Kuji, Tokai and Nakaminato as reported previously. (auth.)

  19. Investigation of scientific literacy on understanding of ionizing radiations in elementary and junior high school students in Kagoshima prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutoku, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Recently in Japan, many investigations to grasp the ways of thinking in the national layers for energy, environment and radiation applications have been carried out. In the investigations for radiation applications, there is a pointing out that the age which the knowledge on radiations and their related matters is formed is predominantly in elementary school years. Therefore, in order to find out the future way of proceeding with the education of nuclear power and radiations in the curriculums of elementary and junior high schools, the questionnaire survey on radiations and their related matters was carried out for the public elementary and junior high school students in Kagoshima prefecture. The results of the questionnaire survey are summarized in the present paper. (K. Kato)

  20. Determinants of Electricity Consumption Intensity in China: Analysis of Cities at Subprovince and Prefecture Levels in 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, X. H.; Hu, Yi

    2012-01-01

    China has experienced great social and economic vicissitudes that caused the vast complexity and uncertainty for electricity consumption. This paper attempts to identify the main determinants of the electricity consumption intensity by using the data from Chinese cities at subprovince and prefecture levels in 2009. The key category factors, including urban morphology, industrial structure, regulation context, urbanization degree, price, natural condition, and resource endowment, are abstracted and the influence of these determinants is evaluated by adopting the finite mixture models. The variation of each determinant across regions, the comparative weights of all the factors, and the detailed classifications of the cities are reported for facilitating the understanding of electricity consumption in China. The corresponding policies for electricity administration are addressed as well. PMID:22927781

  1. Misconceptions about Ebola seriously affect the prevention efforts: KAP related to Ebola prevention and treatment in Kouroussa Prefecture, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buli, Benti Geleta; Mayigane, Landry Ndriko; Oketta, Julius Facki; Soumouk, Aguide; Sandouno, Tamba Emile; Camara, Bole; Toure, Mory Saidou; Conde, Aissata

    2015-01-01

    Guinea is the third hardest hit country in the region with 2,806 cases and 1,814 deaths as of January 11, 2015 after Sierra Leone and Liberia respectively. This KAP study was conducted in three sub-prefectures of Kouroussa in the Kankan region of Guinea from 15 December 2014 to 15 January 2015. It was conducted with the general objective of examining the knowledge, attitude and practice related to Ebola prevention and care among the public of Kouroussa Prefecture. A cross-sectional study design was employed to collect quantitative data to examine knowledge, attitude and practice related to Ebola. Structured questionnaire was administered by trained data collectors who were supervised by doctors and epidemiologists from WHO and Africa Union. Data were collected from 358 individuals (93% response rate) and analyzed in STATA 13 while tables and graphs are used to display results. Over 96% of the respondents have ever heard about Ebola while only 76.2% believed the disease existed in Kouroussa. Avoiding physical contacts including hand shaking and contacts with body fluids, and early treatment of persons sick from Ebola were the two important prevention methods frequently mentioned (96.8% and 93.9%). Only 35.7% of respondents were found to have comprehensive knowledge about Ebola (composite of correctly accepting three methods of prevention (85%) and rejecting misconceptions (55.7%)). The high level of knowledge about modes of transmission and prevention methods has not positively affected the level of comprehensive knowledge about Ebola. In contrast, the prevailing high level of misconceptions surrounding Ebola was found to be responsible for a low comprehensive knowledge.

  2. The rise and fall of rabies in Japan: A quantitative history of rabies epidemics in Osaka Prefecture, 1914–1933

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Aiko; Tojinbara, Kageaki; Kadowaki, Hazumu; Hampson, Katie; Yamada, Akio

    2017-01-01

    Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0), the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated. A total of 4,632 animal rabies cases were reported, mainly in dogs (99.0%, 4,584 cases) during two epidemics from 1914 to 1921, and 1922 to 1933 respectively. The second epidemic was larger (3,705 cases) than the first (879 cases), but had a lower R0 (1.50 versus 2.42). The first epidemic was controlled through capture of stray dogs and tethering of pet dogs. Dog mass vaccination began in 1923, with campaigns to capture stray dogs. Rabies in Osaka Prefecture was finally eliminated in 1933. A total of 3,805 rabid dog-bite injuries, and 75 human deaths were reported. The relatively low incidence of human rabies, high ratio of post-exposure vaccines (PEP) and bite injuries by rabid dogs (minimum 6.2 to maximum 73.6, between 1924 and 1928), and a decline in the proportion of bite victims that developed hydrophobia over time (slope = -0.29, se = 3, p dog rabies cases were detected at higher human population densities (slope = 0.66, se = 0.03, p dog rabies cases detected per capita (slope = -0.34, se = 0.03, p dog movement enabled by strong legislation was key to eliminate rabies. Moreover, the prominent role of the media in both reporting rabies cases and efforts to control the disease likely contributed to promoting the successful participation required to achieve rabies elimination. PMID:28333929

  3. The rise and fall of rabies in Japan: A quantitative history of rabies epidemics in Osaka Prefecture, 1914-1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Aiko; Tojinbara, Kageaki; Kadowaki, Hazumu; Hampson, Katie; Yamada, Akio; Makita, Kohei

    2017-03-01

    Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0), the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated. A total of 4,632 animal rabies cases were reported, mainly in dogs (99.0%, 4,584 cases) during two epidemics from 1914 to 1921, and 1922 to 1933 respectively. The second epidemic was larger (3,705 cases) than the first (879 cases), but had a lower R0 (1.50 versus 2.42). The first epidemic was controlled through capture of stray dogs and tethering of pet dogs. Dog mass vaccination began in 1923, with campaigns to capture stray dogs. Rabies in Osaka Prefecture was finally eliminated in 1933. A total of 3,805 rabid dog-bite injuries, and 75 human deaths were reported. The relatively low incidence of human rabies, high ratio of post-exposure vaccines (PEP) and bite injuries by rabid dogs (minimum 6.2 to maximum 73.6, between 1924 and 1928), and a decline in the proportion of bite victims that developed hydrophobia over time (slope = -0.29, se = 3, p dog rabies cases were detected at higher human population densities (slope = 0.66, se = 0.03, p dog rabies cases detected per capita (slope = -0.34, se = 0.03, p dog movement enabled by strong legislation was key to eliminate rabies. Moreover, the prominent role of the media in both reporting rabies cases and efforts to control the disease likely contributed to promoting the successful participation required to achieve rabies elimination.

  4. Geological field study for science education on Elementary and Junior high school student, in Shimane prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, I.

    2011-12-01

    The importance of learning at field has been increasing in the elementary and the junior high school in Japan. And, an environmental education is one of the important subjects even in the school education, too. It was important, as for science education, understanding with actual feeling and learning were specified as for the Teaching outlines (the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) of the new science textbook of the elementary and the junior high school as well. However, It is a little actual situation that there is in an opportunity for the field learning enforced in the school lesson by the investigation of JST (Japan Science and Tecnology Agency). This tendency is strong as much as school of the city and that circumference. I have this cause think that there are a few suitable places for learning to observe geological and biological field near school. In addition, below two is pointed out as a big problem to obstruct the execution of field learning. 1) A natural experience isn't being done sufficient as much as a teacher can teach to the student. 2) It doesn't have the confidence that a teacher teaches a student geology and biology at the field. I introduce the practical example of geological field learning at the public elementary school of the Shimane prefecture by this research. Though it is the place where nature is comparatively rich even in Japan, it can't be said that field learning is popular in Shimane prefecture. A school teacher has to learning experience at field, and he must settle confidence to guide a student at the field. A specialist in the university and the museum must support continuous learning for that to the school teacher.

  5. Indonesian earthquake: earthquake risk from co-seismic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, John; Nalbant, Suleyman S; Steacy, Sandy

    2005-03-17

    Following the massive loss of life caused by the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake in Indonesia and its tsunami, the possibility of a triggered earthquake on the contiguous Sunda trench subduction zone is a real concern. We have calculated the distributions of co-seismic stress on this zone, as well as on the neighbouring, vertical strike-slip Sumatra fault, and find an increase in stress on both structures that significantly boosts the already considerable earthquake hazard posed by them. In particular, the increased potential for a large subduction-zone event in this region, with the concomitant risk of another tsunami, makes the need for a tsunami warning system in the Indian Ocean all the more urgent.

  6. Using earthquake intensities to forecast earthquake occurrence times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Holliday

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that earthquakes do not occur randomly in space and time. Foreshocks, aftershocks, precursory activation, and quiescence are just some of the patterns recognized by seismologists. Using the Pattern Informatics technique along with relative intensity analysis, we create a scoring method based on time dependent relative operating characteristic diagrams and show that the occurrences of large earthquakes in California correlate with time intervals where fluctuations in small earthquakes are suppressed relative to the long term average. We estimate a probability of less than 1% that this coincidence is due to random clustering. Furthermore, we show that the methods used to obtain these results may be applicable to other parts of the world.

  7. The music of earthquakes and Earthquake Quartet #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquake Quartet #1, my composition for voice, trombone, cello, and seismograms, is the intersection of listening to earthquakes as a seismologist and performing music as a trombonist. Along the way, I realized there is a close relationship between what I do as a scientist and what I do as a musician. A musician controls the source of the sound and the path it travels through their instrument in order to make sound waves that we hear as music. An earthquake is the source of waves that travel along a path through the earth until reaching us as shaking. It is almost as if the earth is a musician and people, including seismologists, are metaphorically listening and trying to understand what the music means.

  8. Evacuation of a Tertiary Neonatal Centre: Lessons from the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Osuke; Kawase, Akihiko; Iwai, Masanori; Wada, Kazuko

    2017-01-01

    Newborn infants hospitalised in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are vulnerable to natural disasters. However, publications on evacuation from NICUs are sparse. The 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes caused serious damage to Kumamoto City Hospital and its level III regional core NICU. Local/neighbour NICU teams and the disaster-communication team of a neonatal academic society cooperated to evacuate 38 newborn infants from the ward. The aim of this paper was to highlight potential key factors to improve emergency NICU evacuation and coordination of hospital transportation following natural disasters. Background variables including clinical risk scores and timing/destination of transportation were compared between infants, who subsequently were transferred to destinations outside of Kumamoto Prefecture, and their peers. All but 1 of the infants were successfully evacuated from their NICU within 8 h. One very-low-birth-weight infant developed moderate hypothermia following transportation. Fourteen infants were transferred to NICUs outside of Kumamoto Prefecture, which was associated with the diagnosis of congenital heart disease, dependence on respiratory support, higher risk scores, and longer elapsed time from the decision to departure. There was difficulty in arranging helicopter transportation because the coordination office of the Disaster Medical Assistance Team had requisitioned most air/ground ambulances and only helped arrange ground transportations for 13 low-risk infants. Transportation for all 10 high-risk infants (risk scores greater than or equal to the upper quartile) was arranged by local/neighbour NICUs. Although the overall evacuation process was satisfactory, potential risks of relying on the adult-based emergency transportation system were highlighted. A better system needs to be developed urgently to put appropriate priority on vulnerable infants. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Design of the Nationwide Nursery School Survey on Child Health Throughout the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Matsubara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Great East Japan Earthquake inflicted severe damage on the Pacific coastal areas of northeast Japan. Although possible health impacts on aged or handicapped populations have been highlighted, little is known about how the serious disaster affected preschool children’s health. We conducted a nationwide nursery school survey to investigate preschool children’s physical development and health status throughout the disaster. Methods: The survey was conducted from September to December 2012. We mailed three kinds of questionnaires to nursery schools in all 47 prefectures in Japan. Questionnaire “A” addressed nursery school information, and questionnaires “B1” and “B2” addressed individuals’ data. Our targets were children who were born from April 2, 2004, to April 1, 2005 (those who did not experience the disaster during their preschool days and children who were born from April 2, 2006, to April 1, 2007 (those who experienced the disaster during their preschool days. The questionnaire inquired about disaster experiences, anthropometric measurements, and presence of diseases. Results: In total, 3624 nursery schools from all 47 prefectures participated in the survey. We established two nationwide retrospective cohorts of preschool children; 53 747 children who were born from April 2, 2004, to April 1, 2005, and 69 004 children who were born from April 2, 2006, to April 1, 2007. Among the latter cohort, 1003 were reported to have specific personal experiences with the disaster. Conclusions: With the large dataset, we expect to yield comprehensive study results about preschool children’s physical development and health status throughout the disaster.

  10. Earthquake and Tsunami booklet based on two Indonesia earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Y.; Aci, M.

    2014-12-01

    Many destructive earthquakes occurred during the last decade in Indonesia. These experiences are very important precepts for the world people who live in earthquake and tsunami countries. We are collecting the testimonies of tsunami survivors to clarify successful evacuation process and to make clear the characteristic physical behaviors of tsunami near coast. We research 2 tsunami events, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and 2010 Mentawai slow earthquake tsunami. Many video and photographs were taken by people at some places in 2004 Indian ocean tsunami disaster; nevertheless these were few restricted points. We didn't know the tsunami behavior in another place. In this study, we tried to collect extensive information about tsunami behavior not only in many places but also wide time range after the strong shake. In Mentawai case, the earthquake occurred in night, so there are no impressive photos. To collect detail information about evacuation process from tsunamis, we contrived the interview method. This method contains making pictures of tsunami experience from the scene of victims' stories. In 2004 Aceh case, all survivors didn't know tsunami phenomena. Because there were no big earthquakes with tsunami for one hundred years in Sumatra region, public people had no knowledge about tsunami. This situation was highly improved in 2010 Mentawai case. TV programs and NGO or governmental public education programs about tsunami evacuation are widespread in Indonesia. Many people know about fundamental knowledge of earthquake and tsunami disasters. We made drill book based on victim's stories and painted impressive scene of 2 events. We used the drill book in disaster education event in school committee of west Java. About 80 % students and teachers evaluated that the contents of the drill book are useful for correct understanding.

  11. Book review: Earthquakes and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    It is really nice to see assembled in one place a discussion of the documented and hypothesized hydrologic effects of earthquakes. The book is divided into chapters focusing on particular hydrologic phenomena including liquefaction, mud volcanism, stream discharge increases, groundwater level, temperature and chemical changes, and geyser period changes. These hydrologic effects are inherently fascinating, and the large number of relevant publications in the past decade makes this summary a useful milepost. The book also covers hydrologic precursors and earthquake triggering by pore pressure. A natural need to limit the topics covered resulted in the omission of tsunamis and the vast literature on the role of fluids and pore pressure in frictional strength of faults. Regardless of whether research on earthquake-triggered hydrologic effects ultimately provides insight into the physics of earthquakes, the text provides welcome common ground for interdisciplinary collaborations between hydrologists and seismologists. Such collaborations continue to be crucial for investigating hypotheses about the role of fluids in earthquakes and slow slip. 

  12. Unbonded Prestressed Columns for Earthquake Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Modern structures are able to survive significant shaking caused by earthquakes. By implementing unbonded post-tensioned tendons in bridge columns, the damage caused by an earthquake can be significantly lower than that of a standard reinforced concr...

  13. Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution - Peak Ground Acceleration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution-Peak Ground Acceleration is a 2.5 by 2.5 minute grid of global earthquake hazards developed using Global Seismic Hazard Program...

  14. Global Earthquake Hazard Frequency and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Frequency and Distribution is a 2.5 by 2.5 minute global utilizing Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) Earthquake Catalog data of actual...

  15. Extreme value distribution of earthquake magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Jun Gan; Tung, C. C.

    1983-07-01

    Probability distribution of maximum earthquake magnitude is first derived for an unspecified probability distribution of earthquake magnitude. A model for energy release of large earthquakes, similar to that of Adler-Lomnitz and Lomnitz, is introduced from which the probability distribution of earthquake magnitude is obtained. An extensive set of world data for shallow earthquakes, covering the period from 1904 to 1980, is used to determine the parameters of the probability distribution of maximum earthquake magnitude. Because of the special form of probability distribution of earthquake magnitude, a simple iterative scheme is devised to facilitate the estimation of these parameters by the method of least-squares. The agreement between the empirical and derived probability distributions of maximum earthquake magnitude is excellent.

  16. Global Earthquake Hazard Frequency and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Frequency and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid utilizing Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) Earthquake Catalog data of actual...

  17. Global Earthquake Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of earthquake hazard economic loss as proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per...

  18. Global Earthquake Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global earthquake total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross...

  19. Global Earthquake Mortality Risks and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Mortality Risks and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global earthquake mortality risks. Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3) data...

  20. Global Earthquake Mortality Risks and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Frequency and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid utilizing Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) Earthquake Catalog data of actual...

  1. Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution - Peak Ground Acceleration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution-peak ground acceleration is a 2.5 minute grid of global earthquake hazards developed using Global Seismic Hazard Program...

  2. PRECURSORS OF EARTHQUAKES: VLF SIGNALSIONOSPHERE IONOSPHERE RELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ULAS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available lot of people have died because of earthquakes every year. Therefore It is crucial to predict the time of the earthquakes reasonable time before it had happed. This paper presents recent information published in the literature about precursors of earthquakes. The relationships between earthquakes and ionosphere are targeted to guide new researches in order to study further to find novel prediction methods.

  3. The lack of antiepileptic drugs and worsening of seizures among physically handicapped patients with epilepsy during the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Satoru; Endo, Wakaba; Inui, Takehiko; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Tanaka, Soichiro; Onuma, Akira; Haginoya, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Takuto Rehabilitation Center for Children is located in Sendai, the capital of the Miyagi prefecture, and faces the Pacific Ocean. The tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake resulted in tremendous damage to this region. Many physically handicapped patients with epilepsy who are treated at our hospital could not obtain medicine. We surveyed patients with epilepsy, using a questionnaire to identify the problems during the acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake. After the earthquake, we mailed questionnaires to physically handicapped patients with epilepsy who are treated and prescribed medications at our hospital, or to their parents. A total of 161 respondents completed the questionnaire. Overall, 68.4% of patients had seven days or less of stockpiled medication when the earthquake initially struck, and 28.6% of patients had no medication or almost no medication during the acute phase after the earthquake. Six patients were forced to stop taking their medication and nine patients experienced a worsening of seizures. Most (93.6%) patients stated they require a stockpile of medication for more than seven days: 20months after the earthquake, 76.9% patients a supply of drugs for more than seven days. We suggest that physically handicapped patients with epilepsy are recommended to prepare for natural disasters by stockpiling additional medication. Even if the stock of antiepileptic drugs is sufficient, stress could cause worsening of seizures. Specialized support is required after a disaster among physically handicapped patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fault geometry and earthquake mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Andrews

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake mechanics may be determined by the geometry of a fault system. Slip on a fractal branching fault surface can explain: 1 regeneration of stress irregularities in an earthquake; 2 the concentration of stress drop in an earthquake into asperities; 3 starting and stopping of earthquake slip at fault junctions, and 4 self-similar scaling of earthquakes. Slip at fault junctions provides a natural realization of barrier and asperity models without appealing to variations of fault strength. Fault systems are observed to have a branching fractal structure, and slip may occur at many fault junctions in an earthquake. Consider the mechanics of slip at one fault junction. In order to avoid a stress singularity of order 1/r, an intersection of faults must be a triple junction and the Burgers vectors on the three fault segments at the junction must sum to zero. In other words, to lowest order the deformation consists of rigid block displacement, which ensures that the local stress due to the dislocations is zero. The elastic dislocation solution, however, ignores the fact that the configuration of the blocks changes at the scale of the displacement. A volume change occurs at the junction; either a void opens or intense local deformation is required to avoid material overlap. The volume change is proportional to the product of the slip increment and the total slip since the formation of the junction. Energy absorbed at the junction, equal to confining pressure times the volume change, is not large enongh to prevent slip at a new junction. The ratio of energy absorbed at a new junction to elastic energy released in an earthquake is no larger than P/µ where P is confining pressure and µ is the shear modulus. At a depth of 10 km this dimensionless ratio has th value P/µ= 0.01. As slip accumulates at a fault junction in a number of earthquakes, the fault segments are displaced such that they no longer meet at a single point. For this reason the

  5. Historical earthquake investigations in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Makropoulos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The active tectonics of the area of Greece and its seismic activity have always been present in the country?s history. Many researchers, tempted to work on Greek historical earthquakes, have realized that this is a task not easily fulfilled. The existing catalogues of strong historical earthquakes are useful tools to perform general SHA studies. However, a variety of supporting datasets, non-uniformly distributed in space and time, need to be further investigated. In the present paper, a review of historical earthquake studies in Greece is attempted. The seismic history of the country is divided into four main periods. In each one of them, characteristic examples, studies and approaches are presented.

  6. Subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization in man-made strata around Tokyo bay, Japan: from geological survey on damaged part at the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kazaoka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Geological disaster by liquefaction-fluidization happened on southern part of the Quaternary Paleo-Kanto submarine basin at the 2011 Earthquake off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku. Liquefaction-fluidization phenomena occurred mainly in man-made strata over shaking 5+ intensity of Japan Meteorological Agency scale. Many subsided spots, 10–50 m width, 20–100 m length and less than 1 m depth, by liquefaction-fluidization distributed on reclaimed land around northern Tokyo bay. Large amount of sand and groundwater spouted out in the terrible subsided parts. But there are little subsidence and no jetted sand outside the terrible subsided part. Liquefaction-fluidization damaged part at the 1987 earthquake east off Chiba prefecture re-liquefied and fluidized in these parts at the 2011 great earthquake. The damaged area were more wide on the 2011 earthquake than the 1987 quake. Detailed classification maps of subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization on the 2011 grate earthquake were made by fieldwork in Chiba city around Tokyo bay. A mechanism of subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization in man-made strata was solved by geological survey with continuous large box cores on the ACE Liner and large relief peals of the cores at a typical subsided part.

  7. Subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization in man-made strata around Tokyo bay, Japan: from geological survey on damaged part at the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazaoka, O.; Kameyama, S.; Shigeno, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Morisaki, M.; Kagawa, A.; Yoshida, T.; Kimura, M.; Sakai, Y.; Ogura, T.; Kusuda, T.; Furuno, K.

    2015-11-01

    Geological disaster by liquefaction-fluidization happened on southern part of the Quaternary Paleo-Kanto submarine basin at the 2011 Earthquake off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku. Liquefaction-fluidization phenomena occurred mainly in man-made strata over shaking 5+ intensity of Japan Meteorological Agency scale. Many subsided spots, 10-50 m width, 20-100 m length and less than 1 m depth, by liquefaction-fluidization distributed on reclaimed land around northern Tokyo bay. Large amount of sand and groundwater spouted out in the terrible subsided parts. But there are little subsidence and no jetted sand outside the terrible subsided part. Liquefaction-fluidization damaged part at the 1987 earthquake east off Chiba prefecture re-liquefied and fluidized in these parts at the 2011 great earthquake. The damaged area were more wide on the 2011 earthquake than the 1987 quake. Detailed classification maps of subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization on the 2011 grate earthquake were made by fieldwork in Chiba city around Tokyo bay. A mechanism of subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization in man-made strata was solved by geological survey with continuous large box cores on the ACE Liner and large relief peals of the cores at a typical subsided part.

  8. Associating an ionospheric parameter with major earthquake ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With time, ionospheric variation analysis is gaining over lithospheric monitoring in serving precursors for earthquake forecast. The current paper highlights the association of major (Ms ≥ 6.0) and medium (4.0 ≤ Ms > 6.0) earthquake occurrences throughout the world in different ranges of the Ionospheric Earthquake ...

  9. Earthquakes: A Teacher's Package for K-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.

    Like rain, an earthquake is a natural occurrence which may be mild or catastrophic. Although an earthquake may last only a few seconds, the processes that cause it have operated within the earth for millions of years. Until recently, the cause of earthquakes was a mystery and the subject of fanciful folklore to people all around the world. This…

  10. Earthquakes in the New Zealand Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cleland

    1995-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of earthquakes in New Zealand, discussing plate tectonics, seismic measurement, and historical occurrences. Includes 10 figures illustrating such aspects as earthquake distribution, intensity, and fissures in the continental crust. Tabular data includes a list of most destructive earthquakes and descriptive effects…

  11. Earthquakes in Zimbabwe | Clark | Zimbabwe Science News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Earthquakes are one of the most destructive natural forces, in both human and economic terms. For example, since 1900, 10 earthquakes have occurred that each killed over 50 000 people. Earthquakes in modern industrialized areas can be also be very costly, even if well designed and constructed buildings save many ...

  12. Can Dams and Reservoirs Cause Earthquakes?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indirect investigations of these regions are subject to inevitable multiple interpretations. Still, a measure of understanding about reservoir induced earthquakes has been achieved. It is my aim to put the phenomenon in a perspective on this basis. I saw the Koyna Earthquake Recorded. Koyna earthquake of December 10, ...

  13. 13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174... Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake..., the construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (“NEHRP...

  14. Fault failure with moderate earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.J.S.; Linde, A.T.; Gladwin, M.T.; Borcherdt, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    High resolution strain and tilt recordings were made in the near-field of, and prior to, the May 1983 Coalinga earthquake (ML = 6.7, ?? = 51 km), the August 4, 1985, Kettleman Hills earthquake (ML = 5.5, ?? = 34 km), the April 1984 Morgan Hill earthquake (ML = 6.1, ?? = 55 km), the November 1984 Round Valley earthquake (ML = 5.8, ?? = 54 km), the January 14, 1978, Izu, Japan earthquake (ML = 7.0, ?? = 28 km), and several other smaller magnitude earthquakes. These recordings were made with near-surface instruments (resolution 10-8), with borehole dilatometers (resolution 10-10) and a 3-component borehole strainmeter (resolution 10-9). While observed coseismic offsets are generally in good agreement with expectations from elastic dislocation theory, and while post-seismic deformation continued, in some cases, with a moment comparable to that of the main shock, preseismic strain or tilt perturbations from hours to seconds (or less) before the main shock are not apparent above the present resolution. Precursory slip for these events, if any occurred, must have had a moment less than a few percent of that of the main event. To the extent that these records reflect general fault behavior, the strong constraint on the size and amount of slip triggering major rupture makes prediction of the onset times and final magnitudes of the rupture zones a difficult task unless the instruments are fortuitously installed near the rupture initiation point. These data are best explained by an inhomogeneous failure model for which various areas of the fault plane have either different stress-slip constitutive laws or spatially varying constitutive parameters. Other work on seismic waveform analysis and synthetic waveforms indicates that the rupturing process is inhomogeneous and controlled by points of higher strength. These models indicate that rupture initiation occurs at smaller regions of higher strength which, when broken, allow runaway catastrophic failure. ?? 1987.

  15. Fault failure with moderate earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. J. S.; Linde, A. T.; Gladwin, M. T.; Borcherdt, R. D.

    1987-12-01

    High resolution strain and tilt recordings were made in the near-field of, and prior to, the May 1983 Coalinga earthquake ( ML = 6.7, Δ = 51 km), the August 4, 1985, Kettleman Hills earthquake ( ML = 5.5, Δ = 34 km), the April 1984 Morgan Hill earthquake ( ML = 6.1, Δ = 55 km), the November 1984 Round Valley earthquake ( ML = 5.8, Δ = 54 km), the January 14, 1978, Izu, Japan earthquake ( ML = 7.0, Δ = 28 km), and several other smaller magnitude earthquakes. These recordings were made with near-surface instruments (resolution 10 -8), with borehole dilatometers (resolution 10 -10) and a 3-component borehole strainmeter (resolution 10 -9). While observed coseismic offsets are generally in good agreement with expectations from elastic dislocation theory, and while post-seismic deformation continued, in some cases, with a moment comparable to that of the main shock, preseismic strain or tilt perturbations from hours to seconds (or less) before the main shock are not apparent above the present resolution. Precursory slip for these events, if any occurred, must have had a moment less than a few percent of that of the main event. To the extent that these records reflect general fault behavior, the strong constraint on the size and amount of slip triggering major rupture makes prediction of the onset times and final magnitudes of the rupture zones a difficult task unless the instruments are fortuitously installed near the rupture initiation point. These data are best explained by an inhomogeneous failure model for which various areas of the fault plane have either different stress-slip constitutive laws or spatially varying constitutive parameters. Other work on seismic waveform analysis and synthetic waveforms indicates that the rupturing process is inhomogeneous and controlled by points of higher strength. These models indicate that rupture initiation occurs at smaller regions of higher strength which, when broken, allow runaway catastrophic failure.

  16. Earthquake Education in Prime Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, R.; Abbott, P.; Benthien, M.

    2004-12-01

    Since 2001, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has collaborated on several video production projects that feature important topics related to earthquake science, engineering, and preparedness. These projects have also fostered many fruitful and sustained partnerships with a variety of organizations that have a stake in hazard education and preparedness. The Seismic Sleuths educational video first appeared in the spring season 2001 on Discovery Channel's Assignment Discovery. Seismic Sleuths is based on a highly successful curriculum package developed jointly by the American Geophysical Union and The Department of Homeland Security Federal Emergency Management Agency. The California Earthquake Authority (CEA) and the Institute for Business and Home Safety supported the video project. Summer Productions, a company with a reputation for quality science programming, produced the Seismic Sleuths program in close partnership with scientists, engineers, and preparedness experts. The program has aired on the National Geographic Channel as recently as Fall 2004. Currently, SCEC is collaborating with Pat Abbott, a geology professor at San Diego State University (SDSU) on the video project Written In Stone: Earthquake Country - Los Angeles. Partners on this project include the California Seismic Safety Commission, SDSU, SCEC, CEA, and the Insurance Information Network of California. This video incorporates live-action demonstrations, vivid animations, and a compelling host (Abbott) to tell the story about earthquakes in the Los Angeles region. The Written in Stone team has also developed a comprehensive educator package that includes the video, maps, lesson plans, and other supporting materials. We will present the process that facilitates the creation of visually effective, factually accurate, and entertaining video programs. We acknowledge the need to have a broad understanding of the literature related to communication, media studies, science education, and

  17. Computational methods in earthquake engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Plevris, Vagelis; Lagaros, Nikos

    2017-01-01

    This is the third book in a series on Computational Methods in Earthquake Engineering. The purpose of this volume is to bring together the scientific communities of Computational Mechanics and Structural Dynamics, offering a wide coverage of timely issues on contemporary Earthquake Engineering. This volume will facilitate the exchange of ideas in topics of mutual interest and can serve as a platform for establishing links between research groups with complementary activities. The computational aspects are emphasized in order to address difficult engineering problems of great social and economic importance. .

  18. Impact of the 11 March, 2011, Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on the chemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausmann, E.; Cruz, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    An earthquake of magnitude 9.0 occurred off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan, on March 11, 2011, at 14:46:23 Japan Standard Time (5:46:23 UTC). It generated a tsunami 130 km off the coast of Miyagi Prefecture in northeast Japan, which inundated over 400 km2 of land. The death toll has reached >15,800 according to the Japan National Policy Agency with over 3,700 still missing as of 26 October 2011. Significant damage to or complete collapse of houses also resulted. The earthquake generated strong ground motion; nevertheless most damage was caused by the tsunami, which is a tribute to the effectiveness of Japan's earthquake damage reduction measures in saving lives and property. Nonetheless, the direct losses amount to more than 200 billion US dollars (not counting the costs of the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant). The earthquake and tsunami had a significant impact on all types of industry, and in particular on the petrochemical and chemical industry in the affected areas, resulting in hazardous-materials releases, fires and explosions and forcing businesses to interrupt production. These so-called Natech accidents pose an immediate or even long-term threat to the population and the environment, and can also interrupt the supply chain. Overall, the earthquake and tsunami took over 30% of Japan's oil production offline, and two refineries are still not or only partially in operation to repair the damage caused by the fires and explosions. The fire-fighting efforts could only be started 4 days after the disaster due to the absence of personnel that had been evacuated and because of the continuing tsunami alerts. In one of the affected refineries the fires could only be extinguished 10 days after the disasters. Many petrochemical and chemical companies reported problems either due to damage to facilities or because of power outages. In fact, in facilities that suffered no or only minor damage the resuming of operations was hampered by continuous

  19. Dancing Earthquake Science Assists Recovery from the Christchurch Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Candice J.; Quigley, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    The 2010-2012 Christchurch (Canterbury) earthquakes in New Zealand caused loss of life and psychological distress in residents throughout the region. In 2011, student dancers of the Hagley Dance Company and dance professionals choreographed the performance "Move: A Seismic Journey" for the Christchurch Body Festival that explored…

  20. Cs-134 and Cs-137 radioactivity in river waters in Fukushima, Miyagi, Ibaraki and Gunma Prefectures in August 2012 after the Fukuhsima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, S.; Ochiai, S.; Yamamoto, M. [Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Wake, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1224(Japan); Kanamori, M. [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 921-1192 (Japan); Tomihara, S. [Environmental Aquarium Aquamarine Fukushima, 50 Tatsumi, Onahama, Iwaki, Fukushima 971-8101(Japan); Suzuki, K. [Gunma Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Station, 13 Shikishima, Maebashi, Gunma 371-1036 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    About 15 PBq from both {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) because of venting operations and hydrogen explosions. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan reported total surface deposition of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in Japan. To estimate short-term and long-term impacts of the radiation dose in Japan, it is important to understand the dynamics of radionuclides, especially those of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, on river watershed environments. This study investigated {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in river systems in Fukushima, Miyagi, Ibaraki and Gunma prefectures, Japan. The secondary radioactive dispersion of radiocesium from the contaminated watershed to the river waters is reported for research areas with widely various radiocesium deposition on ground surfaces at 18 months after the accident. Field experiments were conducted at a fixed station in four rivers (the Uta, Niida, Natsui, and Same Rivers) in Fukushima Prefecture, and the Kuji River, and Naka River in Ibaraki Prefecture in August 2012. The Abukuma River was set up one site at the upper, two sites in the middle reach in Fukushima Prefecture and at one site in the lower area in Miyagi Prefecture. The Tone River system has three stations at the upper river area in Gunma Prefecture and one site at the lower reach in Ibaraki Prefecture. Surface deposition results reveals significant external radioactivity in a zone extending northwest from the NPP. However, a mountainous area in Gunma Prefecture, located about 220 km from Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP south of Fukushima Prefecture, shows similar accumulation of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs. The 20 L of surface river waters were collected at the station using buckets. The radioactivity of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in the river waters was measured with gamma-ray spectrometry using ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP)/Cs compound method with a low background Ge

  1. Testing hypotheses of earthquake occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Y. Y.; Jackson, D. D.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gerstenberger, M.

    2003-12-01

    We present a relatively straightforward likelihood method for testing those earthquake hypotheses that can be stated as vectors of earthquake rate density in defined bins of area, magnitude, and time. We illustrate the method as it will be applied to the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) project of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). Several earthquake forecast models are being developed as part of this project, and additional contributed forecasts are welcome. Various models are based on fault geometry and slip rates, seismicity, geodetic strain, and stress interactions. We would test models in pairs, requiring that both forecasts in a pair be defined over the same set of bins. Thus we offer a standard "menu" of bins and ground rules to encourage standardization. One menu category includes five-year forecasts of magnitude 5.0 and larger. Forecasts would be in the form of a vector of yearly earthquake rates on a 0.05 degree grid at the beginning of the test. Focal mechanism forecasts, when available, would be also be archived and used in the tests. The five-year forecast category may be appropriate for testing hypotheses of stress shadows from large earthquakes. Interim progress will be evaluated yearly, but final conclusions would be made on the basis of cumulative five-year performance. The second category includes forecasts of earthquakes above magnitude 4.0 on a 0.05 degree grid, evaluated and renewed daily. Final evaluation would be based on cumulative performance over five years. Other types of forecasts with different magnitude, space, and time sampling are welcome and will be tested against other models with shared characteristics. All earthquakes would be counted, and no attempt made to separate foreshocks, main shocks, and aftershocks. Earthquakes would be considered as point sources located at the hypocenter. For each pair of forecasts, we plan to compute alpha, the probability that the first would be wrongly rejected in favor of

  2. Analysis of 1856 inpatients and 33 deaths in the West China Hospital of Sichuan University from the Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Juan; Du, Liang; Xia, Tian; Wang, Miye; Diao, Xiang; Li, Youping

    2008-11-01

    To describe the 1861 injured inpatients and deaths in the West China Hospital of Sichuan University after the Wenchuan earthquake, to provide evidence to help improve emergency plans for earthquake, and the establishment of state-level regional medical centers. The analyses use, data provided by the Department of Information of the hospital up until 23 July 2008. Microsoft Excel for data input and SPSS 11.5 for statistical analysis were used. By 23 July, 2728 people from the disaster areas had been treated in the hospital, of whom 872 were admitted to the emergency department and 1856 to the inpatient department (974 men, median age 43 years; 882 women, median age 46 years). Most (82.4%) patients were sent to the hospital within the first two weeks after the earthquake, and the number of inpatients reached its peak on day 8 (976 cases). Most (60.2%) of the inpatients were discharged between day 9 and day 18. The injured patients came mainly from Deyang, Aba Prefecture and Dujiangyan. On admission, the diagnoses were mainly fracture (54.8%), craniocerebral injury (9.8%), and thoracoabdominal injury (7.5%). Thirty-three patients died, including five who were dead on arrival at the hospital, one death in the emergency department, and 27 inpatient deaths. The development of an emergency plan for medical rescue after an earthquake disaster is an essential step to enhance emergency response capability, to improve the scientific process of field triage, transport and transfer, and to ensure the rational allocation and application of healthcare resources after large disasters in the future. © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  3. A critical history of British earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    R. M. W. Musson

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of the study of historical British earthquakes. The publication of compendia of British earthquakes goes back as early as the late 16th Century. A boost to the study of earthquakes in Britain was given in the mid 18th Century as a result of two events occurring in London in 1750 (analogous to the general increase in earthquakes in Europe five years later after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake). The 19th Century saw a number of significant studies, culminating in th...

  4. Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisternas, Marco; Atwater, Brian F; Torrejón, Fernando; Sawai, Yuki; Machuca, Gonzalo; Lagos, Marcelo; Eipert, Annaliese; Youlton, Cristián; Salgado, Ignacio; Kamataki, Takanobu; Shishikura, Masanobu; Rajendran, C P; Malik, Javed K; Rizal, Yan; Husni, Muhammad

    2005-09-15

    It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended.

  5. Summary of earthquake experience database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Strong-motion earthquakes frequently occur throughout the Pacific Basin, where power plants or industrial facilities are included in the affected areas. By studying the performance of these earthquake-affected (or database) facilities, a large inventory of various types of equipment installations can be compiled that have experienced substantial seismic motion. The primary purposes of the seismic experience database are summarized as follows: to determine the most common sources of seismic damage, or adverse effects, on equipment installations typical of industrial facilities; to determine the thresholds of seismic motion corresponding to various types of seismic damage; to determine the general performance of equipment during earthquakes, regardless of the levels of seismic motion; to determine minimum standards in equipment construction and installation, based on past experience, to assure the ability to withstand anticipated seismic loads. To summarize, the primary assumption in compiling an experience database is that the actual seismic hazard to industrial installations is best demonstrated by the performance of similar installations in past earthquakes

  6. Earthquake design for controlled structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos G. Pnevmatikos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An alternative design philosophy, for structures equipped with control devices, capable to resist an expected earthquake while remaining in the elastic range, is described. The idea is that a portion of the earthquake loading is under¬taken by the control system and the remaining by the structure which is designed to resist elastically. The earthquake forces assuming elastic behavior (elastic forces and elastoplastic behavior (design forces are first calculated ac¬cording to the codes. The required control forces are calculated as the difference from elastic to design forces. The maximum value of capacity of control devices is then compared to the required control force. If the capacity of the control devices is larger than the required control force then the control devices are accepted and installed in the structure and the structure is designed according to the design forces. If the capacity is smaller than the required control force then a scale factor, α, reducing the elastic forces to new design forces is calculated. The structure is redesigned and devices are installed. The proposed procedure ensures that the structure behaves elastically (without damage for the expected earthquake at no additional cost, excluding that of buying and installing the control devices.

  7. Control rod behaviour in earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, S.; Akiyama, H.; Shibata, H.; Watabe, M.; Ichikawa, T.; Fujita, K.

    1990-01-01

    For some years the Japanese have been working on a major research programme to determine the likely effects of an earthquake on nuclear plant internals. One aspect of this was a study of the behaviour of Pressurized Water Reactor control rods as they are being inserted in the core, which is reported here. (author)

  8. Building Resilient Mountain Communities: Earthquake ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-04-25

    A powerful 7.8 Richter magnitude earthquake hit central Nepal on April 25, 2015, causing over 8,700 deaths and more than 22,000 injuries. Hundreds of thousands of homes were flattened, some 15,000 government buildings and 288,797 residential buildings were destroyed, and some 8,000 schools and 1,000 health ...

  9. Explanation of earthquake response spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, John

    2017-01-01

    This is a set of five slides explaining how earthquake response spectra are derived from strong-motion records and simple models of structures and their purpose within seismic design and assessment. It dates from about 2002 and I have used it in various introductory lectures on engineering seismology.

  10. Earthquake swarms in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, S. G.; Pritchard, M. E.; Lohman, R. B.

    2011-10-01

    We searched for earthquake swarms in South America between 1973 and 2009 using the global Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) catalogue. Seismicity rates vary greatly over the South American continent, so we employ a manual search approach that aims to be insensitive to spatial and temporal scales or to the number of earthquakes in a potential swarm. We identify 29 possible swarms involving 5-180 earthquakes each (with total swarm moment magnitudes between 4.7 and 6.9) within a range of tectonic and volcanic locations. Some of the earthquake swarms on the subduction megathrust occur as foreshocks and delineate the limits of main shock rupture propagation for large earthquakes, including the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile and 2007 Mw 8.1 Pisco, Peru earthquakes. Also, subduction megathrust swarms commonly occur at the location of subduction of aseismic ridges, including areas of long-standing seismic gaps in Peru and Ecuador. The magnitude-frequency relationship of swarms we observe appears to agree with previously determined magnitude-frequency scaling for swarms in Japan. We examine geodetic data covering five of the swarms to search for an aseismic component. Only two of these swarms (at Copiapó, Chile, in 2006 and near Ticsani Volcano, Peru, in 2005) have suitable satellite-based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations. We invert the InSAR geodetic signal and find that the ground deformation associated with these swarms does not require a significant component of aseismic fault slip or magmatic intrusion. Three swarms in the vicinity of the volcanic arc in southern Peru appear to be triggered by the Mw= 8.5 2001 Peru earthquake, but predicted static Coulomb stress changes due to the main shock were very small at the swarm locations, suggesting that dynamic triggering processes may have had a role in their occurrence. Although we identified few swarms in volcanic regions, we suggest that particularly large volcanic swarms (those that

  11. Evaluation of awareness and preparedness of school Principals and teachers on earthquake reduction effects issues - State's actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourou, Assimina; Ioakeimidou, Anastasia; Mokos, Vasileios; Bakas, Konstantinos

    2013-04-01

    primary and secondary schools of 9 different prefectures of Greece. Approximately 1.100 responses have been gathered. The analysis of the results indicated that approximately 60% of the surveyed teachers have experienced at least one earthquake at school, which is expected due to Greece's high seismicity (50% of the released seismic energy in Europe). Additionally, the level of knowledge of surveyed teachers on earthquake protection measures is very high. A significant majority of the teachers, were reported being familiar with the identification and reduction of non structural hazards at their home, and the development of School's Emergency Plans. On the other hand, approximately the 25% of the responders were not aware of their school emergency plan or they claimed that such a plan does not exist at their schools. These teachers have not participated in any earthquake school drill. Thus, even though a lot of State's initiatives have been implemented till now to build awareness towards earthquakes and establish a preparedness status for prospective earthquakes in school community, there are still proposed actions to be taken in order to improve the teachers' ability to plan or implement activities concerning earthquake management issues.

  12. Earthquake sources near Uturuncu Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyson, L.; West, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Uturuncu, located in southern Bolivia near the Chile and Argentina border, is a dacitic volcano that was last active 270 ka. It is a part of the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex, which spans 50,000 km2 and is comprised of a series of ignimbrite flare-ups since ~23 ma. Two sets of evidence suggest that the region is underlain by a significant magma body. First, seismic velocities show a low velocity layer consistent with a magmatic sill below depths of 15-20 km. This inference is corroborated by high electrical conductivity between 10km and 30km. This magma body, the so called Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB) is the likely source of volcanic activity in the region. InSAR studies show that during the 1990s, the volcano experienced an average uplift of about 1 to 2 cm per year. The deformation is consistent with an expanding source at depth. Though the Uturuncu region exhibits high rates of crustal seismicity, any connection between the inflation and the seismicity is unclear. We investigate the root causes of these earthquakes using a temporary network of 33 seismic stations - part of the PLUTONS project. Our primary approach is based on hypocenter locations and magnitudes paired with correlation-based relative relocation techniques. We find a strong tendency toward earthquake swarms that cluster in space and time. These swarms often last a few days and consist of numerous earthquakes with similar source mechanisms. Most seismicity occurs in the top 10 kilometers of the crust and is characterized by well-defined phase arrivals and significant high frequency content. The frequency-magnitude relationship of this seismicity demonstrates b-values consistent with tectonic sources. There is a strong clustering of earthquakes around the Uturuncu edifice. Earthquakes elsewhere in the region align in bands striking northwest-southeast consistent with regional stresses.

  13. The rise and fall of rabies in Japan: A quantitative history of rabies epidemics in Osaka Prefecture, 1914-1933.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Kurosawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0, the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated. A total of 4,632 animal rabies cases were reported, mainly in dogs (99.0%, 4,584 cases during two epidemics from 1914 to 1921, and 1922 to 1933 respectively. The second epidemic was larger (3,705 cases than the first (879 cases, but had a lower R0 (1.50 versus 2.42. The first epidemic was controlled through capture of stray dogs and tethering of pet dogs. Dog mass vaccination began in 1923, with campaigns to capture stray dogs. Rabies in Osaka Prefecture was finally eliminated in 1933. A total of 3,805 rabid dog-bite injuries, and 75 human deaths were reported. The relatively low incidence of human rabies, high ratio of post-exposure vaccines (PEP and bite injuries by rabid dogs (minimum 6.2 to maximum 73.6, between 1924 and 1928, and a decline in the proportion of bite victims that developed hydrophobia over time (slope = -0.29, se = 3, p < 0.001, indicated that increased awareness and use of PEP might have prevented disease. Although significantly more dog rabies cases were detected at higher human population densities (slope = 0.66, se = 0.03, p < 0.01, there were fewer dog rabies cases detected per capita (slope = -0.34, se = 0.03, p < 0.01. We suggest that the combination of mass vaccination and restriction of dog movement enabled by strong legislation was key to eliminate rabies. Moreover, the prominent role of the media in both reporting rabies cases and efforts to control the disease likely contributed

  14. Observation of radionuclides in marine biota off the coast of Fukushima prefecture after TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aono, Tatsuo; Ito, Yukari; Kanda, Jyota; Ishimaru, Takashi; Saotome, Tadahiro; Mizuno, Takuji; Igarashi, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring and surveying radioactivity in seawater and biota in the marine environment off the coast of Fukushima prefecture in the Pacific are important for understanding the dispersion of artificial radionuclides after TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident. Marine biota were collected in the coastal area of Fukushima prefecture after this accident due to investigate the activities of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 110m Ag in marine biota, including not only fish and shellfish but also benthos. It is well known that 108m Ag, one of the radioactive isotopes of Ag, was observed in some kinds of squid and octopus before this accident. As the results, 110m Ag was observed in many kinds of marine biota off the coastal area of Fukushima. It is suggested that rapid change in the radioactivities in seawater, resuspension of particles from sediments and food chain effects led to high radionuclide activities in marine biota after this accident. (author)

  15. The Epidemic History of HIV-1 CRF07_BC in Hetian Prefecture and the Role of It on HIV Spreading in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianjun; Guo, Hongxiong; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Xiaoming; Ayoupu, Aideaierli; Shen, Yuelan; Miao, Lifeng; Tang, Jihai; Lei, Yanhua; Su, Bin

    2017-04-01

    CRF07_BC is one of the most prevalent HIV-1 strains in China, and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region has ever been considered to be a second epidemic center after Yunnan Province in previous studies. Here we use HIV-1 pol gene sequences identified from Hetian Prefecture located in Xinjiang Autonomous Region to reconstruct the epidemic history of HIV CRF07_BC strain circulating in this region. We found that CRF07_BC is the predominant HIV-1 form in Hetian Prefecture, and the estimated tMRCA analysis shows that there is no enough evidence supporting Xinjiang Autonomous Region as a second epidemic center of spreading HIV-1. It may imply that every city may be only a point among the HIV spreading network because of the frequent migration of population in the whole country nowadays.

  16. Table of written agreements on securing safety of nuclear power plants (Saga, Shimane, Fukushima, Ehime, Miyagi, Ibaraki, Fukui and Shizuoka prefectures)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A table collecting the written agreements concluded between local city, town and village offices, prefectural governments and the local nuclear enterprises on securing nuclear power safety is given, which was prepared by the study committee on local development and finance problems in Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. The prefectures, with each of which the agreement was concluded are Saga, Shimane, Fukushima, Ehime, Miyagi, Ibaraki, Fukui and Shizuoka. The local nuclear enterprises are Kyushu, Chugoku, Tokyo, Shikoku, Tohoku, Chubu and Kansai Electric Power Companies, Japan Atomic Power Company, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, etc. The contents of the agreements are as follows: radioactive waste and material control, understanding in advance of plans, environmental radioactivity measurement, presentation of measured results, hazard countermeasures, communication in normal plant operation and others, on the spot inspection, damage compensation, etc. (J.P.N.)

  17. Sufferers divided by the prefectural border. Too different measures corresponding to the disaster. Is this really 'no problem'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuyama, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    The series reports how general people, who are not radiological experts, have faced and understood the problems and tasks of radiation by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 11, 2011). The section 4 is reported by a mother having 3 school children living in Kosugo, Shiroishi City, Miyagi Prefecture, localizing at the border to Fukushima Prefecture, 65 km distant from the Plant. Just after the Accident, the author was first eased by the government view, no immediate radiation effects by the Accident, and then became anxious, particularly about children, by the similar Miyagi prefectural view despite American recommendation for evacuation to the area 80 km far from the Plant and Kosugo's enrollment in the contaminated region. Major trend in the town was against the interest in radiation problems as the region was not in Fukushima and there were fears about the reputational risk. Under these circumstances, dosimeters and surveymeters, which had been lent by neither Miyagi nor Shiroishi, were lent thanks to the favor of Tohoku University, and have been used to measure the radiation doses in the school zone. Decontamination of Kosugo primary school garden of which dose had been 0.95 mc-Sv/hr in April, 2011, was conducted as lately as in July, 2012. The exposure dose to pupils was conceivably higher than that in the neighboring Fukushima school whose decontamination had been conducted in July, 2011. Is this really 'No problem'? Differing from Fukushima where the prefectural health project started already, Kosugo children have come to receive the pay thyroid echo examination since January, 2014, and 64% of pupils wish to have the diagnosis. The author prays for science to let children be safe for their bright future beyond the border. (T.T.)

  18. The bases of development and characteristics of market gardening in tokyo metropolis : a case study of kanahori area of tomisato town, chiba prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Gui-Min

    1994-01-01

    In this paper an attempt is made by focussing on the farming at the urban fringe of Tokyo, to consider the bases of development and the characteristics of the formation of market gardening and examine the internal farming factors in Kanahori area of Tomisato Town, Chiba Prefecture. The results are summarized as follows. In Kanahori area, there are many full-time farms. The farms make an intensive farming and establish market gardening farming in group. Numerous family farming workers are full...

  19. Countermeasures to earthquakes in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kazuhide

    1979-01-01

    The contribution of atomic energy to mankind is unmeasured, but the danger of radioactivity is a special thing. Therefore in the design of nuclear power plants, the safety has been regarded as important, and in Japan where earthquakes occur frequently, the countermeasures to earthquakes have been incorporated in the examination of safety naturally. The radioactive substances handled in nuclear power stations and spent fuel reprocessing plants are briefly explained. The occurrence of earthquakes cannot be predicted effectively, and the disaster due to earthquakes is apt to be remarkably large. In nuclear plants, the prevention of damage in the facilities and the maintenance of the functions are required at the time of earthquakes. Regarding the location of nuclear plants, the history of earthquakes, the possible magnitude of earthquakes, the properties of ground and the position of nuclear plants should be examined. After the place of installation has been decided, the earthquake used for design is selected, evaluating live faults and determining the standard earthquakes. As the fundamentals of aseismatic design, the classification according to importance, the earthquakes for design corresponding to the classes of importance, the combination of loads and allowable stress are explained. (Kako, I.)

  20. Napa earthquake: An earthquake in a highly connected world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, R.; Steed, R.; Mazet-Roux, G.; Roussel, F.

    2014-12-01

    The Napa earthquake recently occurred close to Silicon Valley. This makes it a good candidate to study what social networks, wearable objects and website traffic analysis (flashsourcing) can tell us about the way eyewitnesses react to ground shaking. In the first part, we compare the ratio of people publishing tweets and with the ratio of people visiting EMSC (European Mediterranean Seismological Centre) real time information website in the first minutes following the earthquake occurrence to the results published by Jawbone, which show that the proportion of people waking up depends (naturally) on the epicentral distance. The key question to evaluate is whether the proportions of inhabitants tweeting or visiting the EMSC website are similar to the proportion of people waking up as shown by the Jawbone data. If so, this supports the premise that all methods provide a reliable image of the relative ratio of people waking up. The second part of the study focuses on the reaction time for both Twitter and EMSC website access. We show, similarly to what was demonstrated for the Mineral, Virginia, earthquake (Bossu et al., 2014), that hit times on the EMSC website follow the propagation of the P waves and that 2 minutes of website traffic is sufficient to determine the epicentral location of an earthquake on the other side of the Atlantic. We also compare with the publication time of messages on Twitter. Finally, we check whether the number of tweets and the number of visitors relative to the number of inhabitants is correlated to the local level of shaking. Together these results will tell us whether the reaction of eyewitnesses to ground shaking as observed through Twitter and the EMSC website analysis is tool specific (i.e. specific to Twitter or EMSC website) or whether they do reflect people's actual reactions.

  1. Estimation of source parameters of Chamoli Earthquake, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan, Krishtel eMaging Solutions

    experienced two more devastating earthquakes of magnitude greater than 6.0 in the last decade namely the Uttarkashi earthquake in 1991 and the Chamoli earthquake in 1999 (Rajendran et al 2000, Rastogi. 2000). The effect of these earthquakes was felt up to approx. 300 km. in the city of Delhi. In the recent earthquake ...

  2. Regulatory point of view on Hengchun earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, H.C.; Hsu, M.T.; Chen, Y.B.

    2008-01-01

    At the night of December 26th, 2006, a series of earthquakes struck Hengchun area where Maanshan NPS (MNPS) is located. Two main earthquakes with magnitude of 7.0 (Richters scale) occurred at 20:26 and 20:34 respectively. The epicenter of 20:34 earthquake, which was closer to the seashore than 20:26 earthquake, located at 33.5 Km west from MNPS and 50.2 Km depth down the surface. Before the earthquake, both MNPS units were at rated power operation. The unit no.2 operators tripped Reactor manually due to high vibration alarms from reactor coolant pumps and main turbine. While unit no.1 operators had decided to take the same action, the intensity of earthquake became less and less, so the shift supervisor made decision to keep unit no.1 in operation. The maximum peak ground acceleration recorded by MNPS seismic monitoring system was 0.16g which was still under MNPS seismic design basis, safe shutdown earthquake (SEE: 0.4g) and operating basis earthquake (OBE: 0.2g). The post-earthquake inspection of both units showed that there was no major damage on all SSCs. It still was the strongest earthquake which have ever been recorded in Taiwan's NPS site area since 1978, the first nuclear power station declared commercial operation. From regulatory point of view, it is important by taking account of the experience and lessons learned from Hengchun Earthquake. Especially, the training requirements of operators, the standard operating procedures during and after the earthquake need to be re-evaluated to enhance the ability to prevent the hazard during an earthquake event. (author)

  3. Update earthquake risk assessment in Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2017-07-01

    The Cairo earthquake (12 October 1992; m b = 5.8) is still and after 25 years one of the most painful events and is dug into the Egyptians memory. This is not due to the strength of the earthquake but due to the accompanied losses and damages (561 dead; 10,000 injured and 3000 families lost their homes). Nowadays, the most frequent and important question that should rise is "what if this earthquake is repeated today." In this study, we simulate the same size earthquake (12 October 1992) ground motion shaking and the consequent social-economic impacts in terms of losses and damages. Seismic hazard, earthquake catalogs, soil types, demographics, and building inventories were integrated into HAZUS-MH to produce a sound earthquake risk assessment for Cairo including economic and social losses. Generally, the earthquake risk assessment clearly indicates that "the losses and damages may be increased twice or three times" in Cairo compared to the 1992 earthquake. The earthquake risk profile reveals that five districts (Al-Sahel, El Basateen, Dar El-Salam, Gharb, and Madinat Nasr sharq) lie in high seismic risks, and three districts (Manshiyat Naser, El-Waily, and Wassat (center)) are in low seismic risk level. Moreover, the building damage estimations reflect that Gharb is the highest vulnerable district. The analysis shows that the Cairo urban area faces high risk. Deteriorating buildings and infrastructure make the city particularly vulnerable to earthquake risks. For instance, more than 90 % of the estimated buildings damages are concentrated within the most densely populated (El Basateen, Dar El-Salam, Gharb, and Madinat Nasr Gharb) districts. Moreover, about 75 % of casualties are in the same districts. Actually, an earthquake risk assessment for Cairo represents a crucial application of the HAZUS earthquake loss estimation model for risk management. Finally, for mitigation, risk reduction, and to improve the seismic performance of structures and assure life safety

  4. Evaluation of earthquake vibration on aseismic design of nuclear power plant judging from recent earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The Regulatory Guide for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Reactor Facilities was revised on 19 th September, 2006. Six factors for evaluation of earthquake vibration are considered on the basis of the recent earthquakes. They are 1) evaluation of earthquake vibration by method using fault model, 2) investigation and approval of active fault, 3) direct hit earthquake, 4) assumption of the short active fault as the hypocentral fault, 5) locality of the earthquake and the earthquake vibration and 6) remaining risk. A guiding principle of revision required new evaluation method of earthquake vibration using fault model, and evaluation of probability of earthquake vibration. The remaining risk means the facilities and people get into danger when stronger earthquake than the design occurred, accordingly, the scattering has to be considered at evaluation of earthquake vibration. The earthquake belt of Hyogo-Nanbu earthquake and strong vibration pulse in 1995, relation between length of surface earthquake fault and hypocentral fault, and distribution of seismic intensity of off Kushiro in 1993 are shown. (S.Y.)

  5. Preliminary analysis of the rupture process of 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilotte, J.; Satriano, C.; Dionicio, V.; Lancieri, M.; Bernard, P.

    2011-12-01

    The great 11 March 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.1) ruptured a ~ 200 km wide mega-thrust fault, with average displacement of ~15-20 m. The earthquake triggered a large devastating tsunami as well as strong ground motion along the east Honshu coastline. Seismic activity in this area is characterized by a number of large earthquakes with Mw ~7.2-7.9 along the down-dip portion of the mega-thrust seaward of Miyagi prefecture, with only few events of magnitude greater than 8 in last hundred years. This region was also recognized to have had a large tsunami earthquake in 869 with a source area estimated further offshore. The rupture process of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake is investigated here combining teleseismic short period P-waves back-projection imaging and broadband P-wave finite fault inversions, together with a preliminary broadband analysis of the Kik-net strong motion recordings across Japan. The main features of the Tohoku-Oki rupture process imaged by the short period (1s) back-projection are: an initial 70-80s radiation phase eastward of the epicenter, with a slow (~1-1.5 km/s) along-dip rupture propagation; a short radiation phase northward of the epicenter; and ultimately a southward radiation phase with a relatively faster rupture propagation. These features are robust and consistent using both the North American and European arrays configurations. At lower periods, the back-projection analysis reveals a shift in the radiation centroid seaward toward the trench. In contrast, the broadband (1-200s) P-waves finite fault inversion exhibits a quite complementary image with a first long period radiation phase up-dip of the epicenter followed by down-dip late southwestward radiation phase that remains however poorly constraint. The robustness and the resolution of both the back-projection and the finite fault inversion analysis are carefully assessed through bootstrap analysis, and the analysis of some of the main foreshocks and aftershocks

  6. Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcik, H.; Mert, A.; Ozel, O.; Erdik, M.

    2007-12-01

    As part of the preparations for the future earthquake in Istanbul a Rapid Response and Early Warning system in the metropolitan area is in operation. For the Early Warning system ten strong motion stations were installed as close as possible to the fault zone. Continuous on-line data from these stations via digital radio modem provide early warning for potentially disastrous earthquakes. Considering the complexity of fault rupture and the short fault distances involved, a simple and robust Early Warning algorithm, based on the exceedance of specified threshold time domain amplitude levels is implemented. The band-pass filtered accelerations and the cumulative absolute velocity (CAV) are compared with specified threshold levels. When any acceleration or CAV (on any channel) in a given station exceeds specific threshold values it is considered a vote. Whenever we have 2 station votes within selectable time interval, after the first vote, the first alarm is declared. In order to specify the appropriate threshold levels a data set of near field strong ground motions records form Turkey and the world has been analyzed. Correlations among these thresholds in terms of the epicenter distance the magnitude of the earthquake have been studied. The encrypted early warning signals will be communicated to the respective end users. Depending on the location of the earthquake (initiation of fault rupture) and the recipient facility the alarm time can be as high as about 8s. The first users of the early warning signal will be the Istanbul gas company (IGDAS) and the metro line using the immersed tube tunnel (MARMARAY). Other prospective users are power plants and power distribution systems, nuclear research facilities, critical chemical factories, petroleum facilities and high-rise buildings. In this study, different algorithms based on PGA, CAV and various definitions of instrumental intensity will be discussed and triggering threshold levels of these parameters will be studied

  7. [Nutritional status and related factors of Tujia and Miao minority primary school students in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fulan; Zhang, Tiancheng; Zhang, Tianwei

    2014-01-01

    To understand the nutritional status and related factors of Tujia and Miao minority primary school students in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture and to provide refrence for the improvement of minority students' nutritional status. By the method of layered and random sampling, physique test and questionnaire survey were taken to 682 Tujia students and 420 Miao students, the nutritional level of students were estimated by the method of height with standard weight. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of nutritional status. The moderate malnutrition rate was 4.54% and the obesity rate was 11.43%. Logistic regression analysis showed that monthly income per capita (OR = 1.368, 95% CI 1.135-1.648) and culture level of fathers (OR = 1.332, 95% CI 1.108-1.602) were independent risk factors of malnutrition, children with family obesity history (OR =7.688, 95% C15. 134-11.513), monthly income per capita (OR = 1.516, 95% CI 1.204-1.910) and culture level of fathers (OR = 1.466, 95% CI 1.164-1.846 ) were independent risk factors of overnutrition. Malnutrition and overnutrition exist in Tujia and Miao students at the same time, family obesity history, monthly income per capita and culture level of fathers are factors of malnutrition and overnutrition. Nutritional education should be taken universal to students and their guardians.

  8. Discharge of perfluorinated compounds from rivers and their influence on the coastal seas of Hyogo prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemine, Shusuke; Matsumura, Chisato; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Suzuki, Motoharu; Tsurukawa, Masahiro; Imaishi, Hiromasa; Nakano, Takeshi; Kondo, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 12 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including perfluorinated carboxylates (C4-C12) and perfluorinated alkyl sulfonates (C4, C6, and C8) in river and seawater samples to determine contamination levels in the aquatic environment of Hyogo prefecture, Japan. High levels of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA; 2300-16,000 ng/L) were detected in the Samondogawa River at Tatsumi Bridge downstream of a PFC production facility; this location also had the highest mass flow rate of PFCs (3900-29,000 kg/y). Widespread contamination of coastal waters was confirmed with PFHxA as the dominant compound. Perfluorooctanoic acid was also prevalent in coastal waters. The concentration of PFHxA in coastal seawater and the distance from the mouth of the Samondogawa River were inversely related. This discharge of high concentrations of PFHxA from the Samondogawa River may have affected concentrations of PFCs in Osaka Bay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on environmental radioactivity in Aomori Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, S; Igarashi, K; Kimura, H

    2015-11-01

    Radioactive nuclides with a short half-life, such as (131)I and (134)Cs, were detected in environmental samples collected in Aomori Prefecture after the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. In addition, the observed (137)Cs concentration was increased over the background level. The gaseous (131)I concentration in air observed in April was higher than that observed in March immediately after the accident. Using a backward trajectory analysis, the authors found that the air mass had passed the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant when the gaseous (131)I concentration in air was increasing. Maximum (131)I and radioactive Cs concentrations in daily fallout samples collected in Aomori city were observed on 28 April, when (131)I was also detected in air. (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentration ratios in pine needles and pasture grass were nearly equal to 1, which indicates that the source of these radionuclides was the nuclear power plant accident. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Mortality statistics of major causes of death among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture from 1968 to 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Ohtaki, Megu; Matsuura, Masaaki; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology); Ueoka, Hiroshi

    1989-06-01

    A comparative study was made on mortality during a 15-year period from 1968 to 1982 between atomic bomb survivors resident in Hiroshima Prefecture and non-exposed controls. The mortality rate for all causes of death was lower in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but the rate was higher among those directly exposed within about 1 km than in the non-exposed. The mortality rate for malignant neoplasms was higher in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but that for cerebrovascular disease and heart disease was lower. In examining the rate for malignant neoplasms by site, the sites showing a high mortality rate among atomic bomb survivors were almost identical to the results of the Life Span Study. For these sites, the shorter the exposure distance the higher was the mortality rate. The rate for malignant neoplasms of the uterus and stomach, and leukemia was unnaturally high among early entrants whose period after issuance of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook was short. In observing the atomic bomb survivors by the level of family destruction due to the bombing as a socio-economic factor, a tendency was observed for the mortality rate for malignant neoplasms, diseases of blood and blood-forming organs, and peptic ulcer, to be higher among survivors with severe family destruction. (author).

  11. An Improved Neural Network for Regional Giant Panda Habitat Suitability Mapping: A Case Study in Ya’an Prefecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Song

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Expert knowledge is a combination of prior information and subjective opinions based on long-experience; as such it is often not sufficiently objective to produce convincing results in animal habitat suitability index mapping. In this study, an animal habitat assessment method based on a learning neural network is proposed to reduce the level of subjectivity in animal habitat assessments. Based on two hypotheses, this method substitutes habitat suitability index with apparent density and has advantages over conventional ones such as those based on analytical hierarchy process or multivariate regression approaches. Besides, this method is integrated with a learning neural network and is suitable for building non-linear transferring functions to fit complex relationships between multiple factors influencing habitat suitability. Once the neural network is properly trained, new earth observation data can be integrated for rapid habitat suitability monitoring which could save time and resources needed for traditional data collecting approaches through extensive field surveys. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca natural habitat in Ya’an prefecture and corresponding landsat images, DEM and ground observations are tested for validity of using the methodology reported. Results show that the method scores well in key efficiency and performance indicators and could be extended for habitat assessments, particularly of other large, rare and widely distributed animal species.

  12. First fossil occurrence of a filefish (Tetraodontiformes; Monacanthidae) in Asia, from the Middle Miocene in Nagano Prefecture, central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Yusuke; Koike, Hakuichi; Matsuoka, Hiroshige

    2014-04-10

    A new fossil filefish, Aluterus shigensis sp. nov., with a close resemblance to the extant Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck), is described from the Middle Miocene Bessho Formation in Nagano Prefecture, central Japan. It is characterized by: 21 total vertebrae; very slender and long first dorsal spine with tiny anterior barbs; thin and lancet-shaped basal pterygiophore of the spiny dorsal fin, with its ventral margin separated from the skull; proximal tip of moderately slender first pterygiophore of the soft dorsal fin not reaching far ventrally; soft dorsal-fin base longer than anal-fin base; caudal peduncle having nearly equal depth and length; and tiny, fine scales with slender, straight spinules. The occurrence of this fossil filefish from the Bessho Formation is consistent with the influence of warm water currents suggested by other fossils, but it is inconsistent with the deep-water sedimentary environment of this Formation. This is the first fossil occurrence of a filefish in Asia; previously described fossil filefishes are known from the Pliocene and Pleistocene of Italy, the Pliocene of Greece, and the Miocene and Pliocene of North America. These fossil records suggest that the genus Aluterus had already been derived and was widely distributed during the Middle Miocene with taxa closely resembling Recent species.

  13. A project for increasing the rate of participation in mammographic breast cancer screening in Kyoto prefecture to 50%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Fujiwara, Ikuya; Mizuta, Naruhiko; Sakaguchi, Koichi; Hachimine, Yasushi; Kageyama, Norio; Sawai, Kiyoshi; Nishida, Naoko

    2007-01-01

    The rate of participation in breast cancer screening carried out by inspection and palpation associated with mammography in Kyoto Prefecture has been still low. In order to decrease the rate of breast cancer death, a high rate of screening participation must be achieved. We have organized the Kyoto Executive Committee of Pink Ribbon Activity aiming at the goal of achieving a 50% rate of participation in mammography screening by the end of 2010, and undertaken the following campaign activities: performing free screening, distribution and display of posters and leaflets about breast cancer screening, cooperation with various media to spread educational and informative messages, cooperation with a commercial institute in Kyoto City to distribute useful information, performing free breast cancer screening, and holding public lecture meetings, distribution of leaflets at student festivals at universities and colleges in Kyoto, and holding a ''Pink Ribbon symposium'' in a cosponsored company. All the above projects were performed successfully and many participants attended. We will continue these activities until the 50% participation rate is achieved. (author)

  14. Dominant incidence of multidrug and extensively drug-resistant specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis clones in Osaka Prefecture, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Tamaru

    Full Text Available Infection and transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-Mtb and extensively drug-resistant M. tuberculosis (XDR-Mtb is a serious health problem. We analyzed a total of 1,110 Mtb isolates in Osaka Prefecture and neighboring areas from April 2000 to March 2009. A total of 89 MDR-Mtb were identified, 36 (48.5% of which were determined to be XDR-Mtb. Among the 89 MDR-Mtb isolates, 24 (27.0% phylogenetically distributed into six clusters based on mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-various number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing. Among these six clusters, the MIRU-VNTR patterns of four (OM-V02, OM-V03, OM-V04, and OM-V06 were only found for MDR-Mtb. Further analysis revealed that all isolates belonging to OM-V02 and OM-V03, and two isolates from OM-V04 were clonal. Importantly such genotypes were not observed for drug-sensitive isolates. These suggest that few but transmissible clones can transmit after acquiring multidrug resistance and colonize even in a country with a developed, well-organized healthcare system.

  15. Construction and evaluation of two computational models for predicting the incidence of influenza in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Hu, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Wen-Chang; Cai, Lin; Cai, Guo-Xi; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    2017-08-03

    It remains challenging to forecast local, seasonal outbreaks of influenza. The goal of this study was to construct a computational model for predicting influenza incidence. We built two computational models including an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model and a hybrid model integrating ARDL with a Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN), to assess meteorological factors associated with temporal trends in influenza incidence. The modelling and forecasting performance of these two models were compared using observations collected between 2006 and 2015 in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. In both the training and forecasting stages, the hybrid model showed lower error rates, including a lower residual mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) than the ARDL model. The lag of log-incidence, weekly average barometric pressure, and weekly average of air temperature were 4, 1, and 3, respectively in the ARDL model. The ARDL-GRNN hybrid model can serve as a tool to better understand the characteristics of influenza epidemic, and facilitate their prevention and control.

  16. Catheter replacement structure in home medical care settings and regional characteristics in Tokyo and three adjoining prefectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takuma; Yoshie, Satoru; Tsuchiya, Rumiko; Kawagoe, Shohei; Hirahara, Satoshi; Iijima, Katsuya; Akahoshi, Toru; Tsuji, Tetsuo

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the association between the structure of catheter replacement services in home medical care settings and regional characteristics. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was carried out from August to September 2013. Participants were physicians from 5338 clinics that provided medical care services at home, and nurses from 1619 home-visit nursing stations in Tokyo and three adjoining prefectures. The questionnaire covered catheter replacement (gastrostomy tubes, nasogastric tubes, tracheal cannulas) during home medical care, and the professions of those who replaced urethral catheters for male and female patients. Regions were divided into two groups (higher- and lower-density regions) based on the number of clinics, number of home-visit nursing stations and the ratio of the population aged ≥65 years. The rates of respondents that reported catheter replacement was usually executed, and those who reported catheters were replaced by "physicians in principle" were compared between the groups. Responses were received from 842 clinics (16.3%) and 499 home-visit nursing stations (31.4%). In the higher-density regions, the rate of physicians who reported urethral catheters for male patients were replaced by "physicians in principle" was significantly higher than in the lower-density regions (P home medical care settings, urethral catheters for male patients are replaced by nurses in regions where physician resources are limited. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 628-636. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Internal radiation exposure dose in Iwaki city, Fukushima prefecture after the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Orita

    Full Text Available As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1-86 years old underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1-86 years old underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01-0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01-0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks.

  18. Evaluation of environmental contamination and estimated radiation doses for the return to residents' homes in Kawauchi Village, Fukushima prefecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Taira

    Full Text Available To evaluate the environmental contamination and radiation exposure dose rates due to artificial radionuclides in Kawauchi Village, Fukushima Prefecture, the restricted area within a 30-km radius from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP, the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples, tree needles, and mushrooms were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Nine months have passed since samples were collected on December 19 and 20, 2011, 9 months after the FNPP accident, and the prevalent dose-forming artificial radionuclides from all samples were (134Cs and (137Cs. The estimated external effective doses from soil samples were 0.42-7.2 µSv/h (3.7-63.0 mSv/y within the 20-km radius from FNPP and 0.0011-0.38 µSv/h (0.010-3.3 mSv/y within the 20-30 km radius from FNPP. The present study revealed that current levels are sufficiently decreasing in Kawauchi Village, especially in areas within the 20- to 30-km radius from FNPP. Thus, residents may return their homes with long-term follow-up of the environmental monitoring and countermeasures such as decontamination and restrictions of the intake of foods for reducing unnecessary exposure. The case of Kawauchi Village will be the first model for the return to residents' homes after the FNPP accident.

  19. Illicit Heroin and Methamphetamine Use among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Patients in Dehong Prefecture of Yunnan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Wang

    Full Text Available Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT was introduced to China in 2004 to reduce the harm of injecting drug users (IDUs. However, little is known about continued drug use, especially methamphetamine (MAMP, among MMT patients.A survey was conducted among patients attending five major MMT clinics in Dehong Prefecture in 2014 to investigate the heroin and MAMP use and their associated risk factors. Participants were administered with face-to-face interviews, and urine tests for morphine and MAMP.A total of 2,121 were eligible and participated in the study. Among them, 220 (10.4% were only positive for morphine, 12.9% were only positive for MAMP, and 196 (9.2% were positive for both morphine and MAMP. Compared with neither use of heroin nor MAMP during MMT, heroin use (not using MAMP was associated with ethnicity, shorter duration of MMT, lower dose of methadone, and having had no more than two sex partners in the past year; MAMP use (not using heroin was associated with ethnicity, longer duration of MMT, higher dose of methadone and being aged <30 years (vs. ≥50 years; use of both heroin and MAMP was associated with being Dai minority (vs. Han, a marital status of divorced or widowed, having used drugs for ≥10 years and shorter duration of MMT.These findings indicate the complexity in the treatment of heroin users and underscore the importance in prescribing appropriate methadone dosages in order to reduce both heroin and MAMP use.

  20. The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in horses in Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Lei Wang

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which can infect warm-blooded animals and humans. The present study was performed to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii in horses in Xinjiang, northwestern China. A total of 637 blood samples were collected from seven regions in Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang in 2011 and assayed for T. gondiiantibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Risk factors (age, gender, and region related to seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 200 horses (31.4%, 95% CI 27.79–35.00 were seropositive for T. gondii. Age, gender, and region present no association with seroprevalence (p>0.05 in the logistic regression analysis. The results indicated that T. gondii is widely prevalent in horses in Xinjiang, northwestern China, representing a serious threat to animal and human health. Therefore, more careful measures should be performed to control and prevent T. gondii infection in horses from Xinjiang, northwestern China.

  1. Internal radiation exposure dose in Iwaki city, Fukushima prefecture after the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nukui, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Naoko; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuda, Naoki; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Takamura, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1-86 years old) underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1-86 years old) underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01-0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01-0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks.

  2. Effect of age and social connection on perceived anxiety over radiation exposure among decontamination workers in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Tomoo; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Jinnouchi, Takanobu; Sato, Sei; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Nakano, Shinichi; Koyama, Kikuo; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2016-05-25

    To reveal the effect of age and other factors on perceived anxiety over radiation exposure among decontamination workers in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. A survey questionnaire was sent to 1505 workers, with questions regarding age, presence of a written employment contract, previous residence, radiation passbook ownership, presence of close persons for consultation, knowledge of how to access public assistance, and a four-point scale of radiation-related anxiety (1= "Very much," 2= "Somewhat," 3= "A little bit," and 4= "None" ). The relationships between the degree of anxiety and variables were analyzed using the chi-square test and residual analysis. In all, 512 participants responded to the questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 46.2 years (SD: 13.1, range: 18-77). Of them, 50, 233, 168, and 61 workers chose "Very much," "Somewhat," "A little bit," and "None," respectively, on the anxiety scale. Chi-square test showed that participants aged 61 years and over had higher degrees of anxiety (p<0.001). Ordinal logistic regression showed that the degree of anxiety increased if they did not have a written contract (p=0.042) or persons to consult (p=0.034) and if they routinely checked the dose rate (p=0.046). Decontamination workers who do not have a written contract or who are in socially isolated situations have greater anxiety over radiation exposure. Thus, it is important to both create supportive human relationships for consultation and enhance labor management in individual companies.

  3. Combined effects of working hours, income, and leisure time on suicide in all 47 prefectures of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akito; Sakano, Noriko; Miyatake, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    This study describes an ecological study that evaluated the combined effects of working hours, income, and leisure time on suicide in all 47 prefectures of Japan. In men, the age-adjusted rate of suicide (per 100,000 population) was significantly correlated with working hours (r=0.587, pincome (r=-0.517, p=0.0002) and times for the leisure activities of self-education (r=-0.447, p=0.0016) and hobbies (r=-0.511, p=0.0002). In addition, a stepwise multiple regression analysis identified time for leisure social activities as a determining factor in suicide rate, even after adjusting for working hours and income. However, the impact of time for leisure social activities on suicide rate was smaller than that of working hours and income. In contrast, none of these factors affected suicide rate in women. These results suggest that increasing leisure time may be useful for preventing suicide among men in Japan.

  4. Social factors of mental disorder and suicide in Japan-for understanding circumstance of suicides in each prefecture-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Hideyuki; Fujimoto, Atsuko; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira; Yano, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there have been over 30000 suicides annually in Japan. This is one of the most serious problems for Japanese society. Because mental disorder is closely associated with suicide, factors related to the increase in mental disorders and suicides should be clarified. In this study, various data regarding social factors were evaluated to assess the correlation of the number of patients with mental disorders and suicides among the 47 prefectures of Japan. Various data regarding social factors, such as income, savings, or rate of divorce, were obtained from the database of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. Among the factors, the annual income and the amount of savings were significantly correlated with the number of patients with mental disorder. On the other hand, while the annual income did not have a significant correlation with suicides, the amount of savings had a significant correlation with suicides. In conclusion, the annual income and amount of savings may both be one of the important factors involved in mental disorders, and the savings may also be a factor affecting suicides. These analyses are valuable in helping to clarify the causes of mental disease, and can hopefully contribute to the health and welfare of Japanese.

  5. Research report for fiscal 1998 on regional new energy vision drawn up for Tokushima Prefecture; 1998 nendo Tokushimaken shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The amount of energy in existence is theoretically the amount of energy that exists in a given region while the available amount is an amount of energy worked out with technological, economic, and social conditions taken into consideration. The total of the amount in existence and that of the available amount are mentioned in a table, and the available amount is further shown in terms of calorie. It totals 11,120Tcal per year, which is equivalent to approximately 55% of the whole amount of energy that Tokushima Prefecture demands. The availability of each type of new energy and the state of development of related technologies are studied to determine what priority is to be given to what energy. The group that is given the highest priority consists of photovoltaic power generation, passive solar systems, refuse fueled power generation, and heat from wastes (this group occupying more than 80% of the available amount in Tokushima Prefecture). The second group consists of wind power generation, clean energy vehicles, cogeneration, and small and medium scale hydroelectric power generation. The third group consists of fuel cells, ocean energy, biomass, and temperature difference energy. Natural conditions surrounding new energy in existence in Tokushima Prefecture are rather favorable, but social conditions are not. (NEDO)

  6. Pharmaceutical supply for disaster victims who need chronic disease management in region with aging population based on lessons learned from the Noto Peninsula Earthquake in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Junko; Nishita, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Kazuko

    2008-09-01

    The lessons from the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake and Chuuetsu Earthquake showed us how difficult it is to keep chronic disease management for survivors of such large-scale earthquakes, particularly for elderly people. To solve the problem, an ordinance for enforcement on exceptional practices was issued for the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law Article 49 Clause 1. The law allows selling prescription medicines for patients with chronic diseases who have difficulties to continue their medications due to a large-scale disaster. To make it work, the patient should demonstrate that he or she continuously received the medication by presenting either Medication Notebook or prescription book recorded by the pharmacist. However, the Separation Rate of Prescription and Dispensing in Japan is still low; in particular, that in Ishikawa prefecture, where the Noto Peninsula Earthquake (M 6.9) occurred on March 25, 20007, is very low. It means that few victims hold a Medication Notebook. In consideration of this situation, we conducted a questionnaire survey of elderly victims of the Noto Peninsula Earthquake with a key-informant-interview during the period from July through August, 2007. This study revealed that: 1) Only 16% (18/110) of respondents kept a Medication Notebook; 2) 75% (82/110) had chronic diseases and received medication regularly; 3) Of 81 who had chronic diseases, 42% (34/91) were dispensed at the same pharmacy always, (The rest received from either clinic or changing pharmacy according to clinic location); and 4) Diseases that the respondents had were hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and so on. Based on these results, we discuss the establishment of a pharmaceutical supply system that can effectively distribute appropriate medicines to patients under difficult situations following a large-scale disaster in Japan.

  7. Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by

  8. The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Aitaro; Nakamura, Kouji; Hiyama, Yohei

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in April 2016, a series of shallow, moderate to large earthquakes with associated strong aftershocks struck the Kumamoto area of Kyushu, SW Japan. An M j 7.3 mainshock occurred on 16 April 2016, close to the epicenter of an M j 6.5 foreshock that occurred about 28 hours earlier. The intense seismicity released the accumulated elastic energy by right-lateral strike slip, mainly along two known, active faults. The mainshock rupture propagated along multiple fault segments with different geometries. The faulting style is reasonably consistent with regional deformation observed on geologic timescales and with the stress field estimated from seismic observations. One striking feature of this sequence is intense seismic activity, including a dynamically triggered earthquake in the Oita region. Following the mainshock rupture, postseismic deformation has been observed, as well as expansion of the seismicity front toward the southwest and northwest.

  9. Earthquake lights and rupture processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Losseva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A physical model of earthquake lights is proposed. It is suggested that the magnetic diffusion from the electric and magnetic fields source region is a dominant process, explaining rather high localization of the light flashes. A 3D numerical code allowing to take into account the arbitrary distribution of currents caused by ground motion, conductivity in the ground and at its surface, including the existence of sea water above the epicenter or (and near the ruptured segments of the fault have been developed. Simulations for the 1995 Kobe earthquake were conducted taking into account the existence of sea water with realistic geometry of shores. The results do not contradict the eyewitness reports and scarce measurements of the electric and magnetic fields at large distances from the epicenter.

  10. The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    KATO, Aitaro; NAKAMURA, Kouji; HIYAMA, Yohei

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in April 2016, a series of shallow, moderate to large earthquakes with associated strong aftershocks struck the Kumamoto area of Kyushu, SW Japan. An Mj 7.3 mainshock occurred on 16 April 2016, close to the epicenter of an Mj 6.5 foreshock that occurred about 28 hours earlier. The intense seismicity released the accumulated elastic energy by right-lateral strike slip, mainly along two known, active faults. The mainshock rupture propagated along multiple fault segments with different geometries. The faulting style is reasonably consistent with regional deformation observed on geologic timescales and with the stress field estimated from seismic observations. One striking feature of this sequence is intense seismic activity, including a dynamically triggered earthquake in the Oita region. Following the mainshock rupture, postseismic deformation has been observed, as well as expansion of the seismicity front toward the southwest and northwest. PMID:27725474

  11. Dim prospects for earthquake prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Robert J.

    I was misquoted by C. Lomnitz's [1998] Forum letter (Eos, August 4, 1998, p. 373), which said: [I wonder whether Sasha Gusev [1998] actually believes that branding earthquake prediction a ‘proven nonscience’ [Geller, 1997a] is a paradigm for others to copy.”Readers are invited to verify for themselves that neither “proven nonscience” norv any similar phrase was used by Geller [1997a].

  12. Data base pertinent to earthquake design basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Mitigation of earthquake risk from impending strong earthquakes is possible provided the hazard can be assessed, and translated into appropriate design inputs. This requires defining the seismic risk problem, isolating the risk factors and quantifying risk in terms of physical parameters, which are suitable for application in design. Like all other geological phenomena, past earthquakes hold the key to the understanding of future ones. Quantificatio n of seismic risk at a site calls for investigating the earthquake aspects of the site region and building a data base. The scope of such investigations is il lustrated in Figure 1 and 2. A more detailed definition of the earthquake problem in engineering design is given elsewhere (Sharma, 1987). The present document discusses the earthquake data base, which is required to support a seismic risk evaluation programme in the context of the existing state of the art. (author). 8 tables, 10 figs., 54 refs

  13. On the plant operators performance during earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Y.; Yoshimura, S.; Abe, M.; Niwa, H.; Yoneda, T.; Matsunaga, M.; Suzuki, T.

    1994-01-01

    There is little data on which to judge the performance of plant operators during and after strong earthquakes. In order to obtain such data to enhance the reliability on the plant operation, a Japanese utility and a power plant manufacturer carried out a vibration test using a shaking table. The purpose of the test was to investigate operator performance, i.e., the quickness and correctness in switch handling and panel meter read-out. The movement of chairs during earthquake as also of interest, because if the chairs moved significantly or turned over during a strong earthquake, some arresting mechanism would be required for the chair. Although there were differences between the simulated earthquake motions used and actual earthquakes mainly due to the specifications of the shaking table, the earthquake motions had almost no influence on the operators of their capability (performance) for operating the simulated console and the personal computers

  14. Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Strategy in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnawati, D.; Anderson, R.; Pramumijoyo, S.

    2008-05-01

    Because of the active tectonic setting of the region, the risks of geological hazards inevitably increase in Indonesian Archipelagoes and other ASIAN countries. Encouraging community living in the vulnerable area to adapt with the nature of geology will be the most appropriate strategy for earthquake risk reduction. Updating the Earthquake Hazard Maps, enhancement ofthe existing landuse management , establishment of public education strategy and method, strengthening linkages among stake holders of disaster mitigation institutions as well as establishement of continues public consultation are the main strategic programs for community resilience in earthquake vulnerable areas. This paper highlights some important achievements of Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Programs in Indonesia, together with the difficulties in implementing such programs. Case examples of Yogyakarta and Bengkulu Earthquake Mitigation efforts will also be discussed as the lesson learned. The new approach for developing earthquake hazard map which is innitiating by mapping the psychological aspect of the people living in vulnerable area will be addressed as well.

  15. Deviant Earthquakes: Data-driven Constraints on the Variability in Earthquake Source Properties and Seismic Hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Trugman, Daniel T

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of the earthquake rupture process makes earthquakes inherently unpredictable. Seismic hazard forecasts often presume that the rate of earthquake occurrence can be adequately modeled as a space-time homogenenous or stationary Poisson process and that the relation between the dynamical source properties of small and large earthquakes obey self-similar scaling relations. While these simplified models provide useful approximations and encapsulate the first-order statistical feature...

  16. 3. Waveform and Spectral Features of Earthquake Swarms and Foreshocks : in Special Reference to Earthquake Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Tsujiura, Masaru

    1983-01-01

    Through the analyses of waveforms and spectra for the earthquake swarm, foreshock and ordinary seismic activities, some differences in the activity mode are found among those activities. The most striking difference is the ""similarity of waveform"". The earthquake swarm activity which occurred in a certain short time interval mainly consists of events with similar waveforms, belonging to the event group called ""similar earthquakes"" or an ""earthquake family"". On the other hand, the foresh...

  17. Local earthquake tomography of Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Richard; Baptie, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Scotland is a relatively aseismic region for the use of local earthquake tomography, but 40 yr of earthquakes recorded by a good and growing network make it possible. A careful selection is made from the earthquakes located by the British Geological Survey (BGS) over the last four decades to provide a data set maximising arrival time accuracy and ray path coverage of Scotland. A large number of 1-D velocity models with different layer geometries are considered and differentiated by employing quarry blasts as ground-truth events. Then, SIMULPS14 is used to produce a robust 3-D tomographic P-wave velocity model for Scotland. In areas of high resolution the model shows good agreement with previously published interpretations of seismic refraction and reflection experiments. However, the model shows relatively little lateral variation in seismic velocity except at shallow depths, where sedimentary basins such as the Midland Valley are apparent. At greater depths, higher velocities in the northwest parts of the model suggest that the thickness of crust increases towards the south and east. This observation is also in agreement with previous studies. Quarry blasts used as ground truth events and relocated with the preferred 3-D model are shown to be markedly more accurate than when located with the existing BGS 1-D velocity model.

  18. Pre-earthquake Magnetic Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoville, J.; Heraud, J. A.; Freund, F. T.

    2015-12-01

    A semiconductor model of rocks is shown to describe unipolar magnetic pulses, a phenomenon that has been observed prior to earthquakes. These pulses are suspected to be generated deep in the Earth's crust, in and around the hypocentral volume, days or even weeks before earth quakes. Their extremely long wavelength allows them to pass through kilometers of rock. Interestingly, when the sources of these pulses are triangulated, the locations coincide with the epicenters of future earthquakes. We couple a drift-diffusion semiconductor model to a magnetic field in order to describe the electromagnetic effects associated with electrical currents flowing within rocks. The resulting system of equations is solved numerically and it is seen that a volume of rock may act as a diode that produces transient currents when it switches bias. These unidirectional currents are expected to produce transient unipolar magnetic pulses similar in form, amplitude, and duration to those observed before earthquakes, and this suggests that the pulses could be the result of geophysical semiconductor processes.

  19. Earthquake-protective pneumatic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustov, Valentin

    2000-04-01

    The main objective of the research in progress is to evaluate the applicability of an innovative earthquake-protective system called pneumatic foundation to building construction and industrial equipment. The system represents kind of seismic soil isolation. The research is analytical and accompanied with limited testing on a shake table. The concept of partial suppression of seismic energy flow inside a structure is known as a seismic or base isolation. Normally, this technique needs some pads to be inserted into all major load-carrying elements in a base of the building. It also requires creating additional rigidity diaphragms in the basement and a moat around the building, as well as making additional provisions against overturning and/or P-(Delta ) effect. Besides, potential benefits of base isolation techniques should not be taken for granted: they depend on many internal and external factors. The author developed a new earthquake protective technique called pneumatic foundation. Its main components are: a horizontal protective layer located under the footing at a certain depth, and a vertical one installed along the horizontal protective layer perimeter. The first experiments proved a sizable screening effect of pneumatic foundation: two identical models of a steel frame building, put simultaneously on the same vibrating support simulating an earthquake, performed in a strikingly different manner: while the regular building model shook vigorously, the model on a pneumatic foundation just slightly trembled.

  20. The improvement of the fire protections system for nuclear cycle facilities. Formulation of a fire protection guideline for nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-04-01

    The private side Fire Protection Guideline was investigated with respect to the fire having taken place at the nuclear reactor site followed by the Chuetsu-Oki earthquake in Niigata Prefecture in 2007. To improve the fire protection system especially applicable to MOX fuel fabrication facilities, JNES (Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization) investigated private guidelines adopted in Japanese Light Water cooled Reactors, the standardized guidelines used in Nuclear Facilities in other countries including USA, and the standards in the chemical plants. The content of the guideline concerns the prevention of the fire breakout, the prevention of fire extension, the reduction of the fire effects, as well as the facility-characteristic protection countermeasures and the fire effect evaluations. (S. Ohno)

  1. Understanding Great Earthquakes in Japan's Kanto Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Reiji; Curewitz, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Third International Workshop on the Kanto Asperity Project; Chiba, Japan, 16-19 February 2008; The 1703 (Genroku) and 1923 (Taisho) earthquakes in Japan's Kanto region (M 8.2 and M 7.9, respectively) caused severe damage in the Tokyo metropolitan area. These great earthquakes occurred along the Sagami Trough, where the Philippine Sea slab is subducting beneath Japan. Historical records, paleoseismological research, and geophysical/geodetic monitoring in the region indicate that such great earthquakes will repeat in the future.

  2. If pandas scream. an earthquake is coming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magida, P.

    Feature article:Use of the behavior of animals to predict weather has spanned several ages and dozens of countries. While animals may behave in diverse ways to indicate weather changes, they all tend to behave in more or less the same way before earthquakes. The geophysical community in the U.S. has begun testing animal behavior before earthquakes. It has been determined that animals have the potential of acting as accurate geosensors to detect earthquakes before they occur. (5 drawings)

  3. Methodology to determine the parameters of historical earthquakes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Lin, Guoliang; Zhang, Zhe

    2017-12-01

    China is one of the countries with the longest cultural tradition. Meanwhile, China has been suffering very heavy earthquake disasters; so, there are abundant earthquake recordings. In this paper, we try to sketch out historical earthquake sources and research achievements in China. We will introduce some basic information about the collections of historical earthquake sources, establishing intensity scale and the editions of historical earthquake catalogues. Spatial-temporal and magnitude distributions of historical earthquake are analyzed briefly. Besides traditional methods, we also illustrate a new approach to amend the parameters of historical earthquakes or even identify candidate zones for large historical or palaeo-earthquakes. In the new method, a relationship between instrumentally recorded small earthquakes and strong historical earthquakes is built up. Abundant historical earthquake sources and the achievements of historical earthquake research in China are of valuable cultural heritage in the world.

  4. Global Significant Earthquake Database, 2150 BC to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Significant Earthquake Database is a global listing of over 5,700 earthquakes from 2150 BC to the present. A significant earthquake is classified as one that...

  5. The 2015 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake: unfinished business Large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    jaj2

    The 2015 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake: unfinished business. Large earthquakes in the Himalaya and India. James Jackson, Bullard Laboratories, University of Cambridge ... Jackson, GSA Today, 2002; Sloan et al GJI, 2011. Moho depth. Earthquake depth ...

  6. Smoking prevalence increases following Canterbury earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Nick; Daley, Vivien; Stevenson, Sue; Rhodes, Bronwen; Beckert, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit Canterbury in September 2010. This earthquake and associated aftershocks took the lives of 185 people and drastically changed residents' living, working, and social conditions. To explore the impact of the earthquakes on smoking status and levels of tobacco consumption in the residents of Christchurch. Semistructured interviews were carried out in two city malls and the central bus exchange 15 months after the first earthquake. A total of 1001 people were interviewed. In August 2010, prior to any earthquake, 409 (41%) participants had never smoked, 273 (27%) were currently smoking, and 316 (32%) were ex-smokers. Since the September 2010 earthquake, 76 (24%) of the 316 ex-smokers had smoked at least one cigarette and 29 (38.2%) had smoked more than 100 cigarettes. Of the 273 participants who were current smokers in August 2010, 93 (34.1%) had increased consumption following the earthquake, 94 (34.4%) had not changed, and 86 (31.5%) had decreased their consumption. 53 (57%) of the 93 people whose consumption increased reported that the earthquake and subsequent lifestyle changes as a reason to increase smoking. 24% of ex-smokers resumed smoking following the earthquake, resulting in increased smoking prevalence. Tobacco consumption levels increased in around one-third of current smokers.

  7. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  8. Impact- and earthquake- proof roof structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohara, Ryoichi.

    1990-01-01

    Building roofs are constituted with roof slabs, an earthquake proof layer at the upper surface thereof and an impact proof layer made of iron-reinforced concrete disposed further thereover. Since the roofs constitute an earthquake proof structure loading building dampers on the upper surface of the slabs by the concrete layer, seismic inputs of earthquakes to the buildings can be moderated and the impact-proof layer is formed, to ensure the safety to external conditions such as earthquakes or falling accidents of airplane in important facilities such as reactor buildings. (T.M.)

  9. Evaluation and cataloging of Korean historical earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kew Hwa; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Jun Hui; Park, Ji Eok; Na, Kwang Wooing; Shin, Byung Ju [The Reaearch Institute of Basic Sciences, Seoul Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    In order to systematically collect and analyze the historical earthquake data of the Korean peninsula which are very important in analyzing the seismicity and seismic risk of the peninsula by seismologist and historian, extensive governmental and private historical documents are investigated and relative reliabilities of these documents are examined. This research unearthed about 70 new earthquake records and revealed the change in the cultural, political and social effects of earthquakes with time in Korea. Also, the results of the vibration test of the Korean traditional wooden house are obtained in order to better estimate intensities of the historical earthquakes.

  10. Smoking Prevalence Increases following Canterbury Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Erskine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit Canterbury in September 2010. This earthquake and associated aftershocks took the lives of 185 people and drastically changed residents’ living, working, and social conditions. Aim. To explore the impact of the earthquakes on smoking status and levels of tobacco consumption in the residents of Christchurch. Methods. Semistructured interviews were carried out in two city malls and the central bus exchange 15 months after the first earthquake. A total of 1001 people were interviewed. Results. In August 2010, prior to any earthquake, 409 (41% participants had never smoked, 273 (27% were currently smoking, and 316 (32% were ex-smokers. Since the September 2010 earthquake, 76 (24% of the 316 ex-smokers had smoked at least one cigarette and 29 (38.2% had smoked more than 100 cigarettes. Of the 273 participants who were current smokers in August 2010, 93 (34.1% had increased consumption following the earthquake, 94 (34.4% had not changed, and 86 (31.5% had decreased their consumption. 53 (57% of the 93 people whose consumption increased reported that the earthquake and subsequent lifestyle changes as a reason to increase smoking. Conclusion. 24% of ex-smokers resumed smoking following the earthquake, resulting in increased smoking prevalence. Tobacco consumption levels increased in around one-third of current smokers.

  11. Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congxin Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1 There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of “time-frequency relative power spectrum.” (2 There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3 Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4 Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  12. A minimalist model of characteristic earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vázquez-Prada

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In a spirit akin to the sandpile model of self-organized criticality, we present a simple statistical model of the cellular-automaton type which simulates the role of an asperity in the dynamics of a one-dimensional fault. This model produces an earthquake spectrum similar to the characteristic-earthquake behaviour of some seismic faults. This model, that has no parameter, is amenable to an algebraic description as a Markov Chain. This possibility illuminates some important results, obtained by Monte Carlo simulations, such as the earthquake size-frequency relation and the recurrence time of the characteristic earthquake.

  13. A minimalist model of characteristic earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vázquez-Prada, M.; González, Á.; Gómez, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    In a spirit akin to the sandpile model of self- organized criticality, we present a simple statistical model of the cellular-automaton type which simulates the role of an asperity in the dynamics of a one-dimensional fault. This model produces an earthquake spectrum similar to the characteristic-earthquake...... behaviour of some seismic faults. This model, that has no parameter, is amenable to an algebraic description as a Markov Chain. This possibility illuminates some important results, obtained by Monte Carlo simulations, such as the earthquake size-frequency relation and the recurrence time...... of the characteristic earthquake....

  14. Statistical tests of simple earthquake cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Phoebe M. R.; Evans, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    A central goal of observing and modeling the earthquake cycle is to forecast when a particular fault may generate an earthquake: a fault late in its earthquake cycle may be more likely to generate an earthquake than a fault early in its earthquake cycle. Models that can explain geodetic observations throughout the entire earthquake cycle may be required to gain a more complete understanding of relevant physics and phenomenology. Previous efforts to develop unified earthquake models for strike-slip faults have largely focused on explaining both preseismic and postseismic geodetic observations available across a few faults in California, Turkey, and Tibet. An alternative approach leverages the global distribution of geodetic and geologic slip rate estimates on strike-slip faults worldwide. Here we use the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for similarity of distributions to infer, in a statistically rigorous manner, viscoelastic earthquake cycle models that are inconsistent with 15 sets of observations across major strike-slip faults. We reject a large subset of two-layer models incorporating Burgers rheologies at a significance level of α = 0.05 (those with long-term Maxwell viscosities ηM ~ 4.6 × 1020 Pa s) but cannot reject models on the basis of transient Kelvin viscosity ηK. Finally, we examine the implications of these results for the predicted earthquake cycle timing of the 15 faults considered and compare these predictions to the geologic and historical record.

  15. Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Congxin; Guo, Xiao; Qin, Manzhong

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of “time-frequency relative power spectrum.” (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

  16. Bayesian inference and interpretation of centroid moment tensors of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence, Kyushu, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallo, Miroslav; Asano, Kimiyuki; Gallovič, František

    2017-09-01

    On April 16, 2016, Kumamoto prefecture in Kyushu region, Japan, was devastated by a shallow M JMA7.3 earthquake. The series of foreshocks started by M JMA6.5 foreshock 28 h before the mainshock. They have originated in Hinagu fault zone intersecting the mainshock Futagawa fault zone; hence, the tectonic background for this earthquake sequence is rather complex. Here we infer centroid moment tensors (CMTs) for 11 events with M JMA between 4.8 and 6.5, using strong motion records of the K-NET, KiK-net and F-net networks. We use upgraded Bayesian full-waveform inversion code ISOLA-ObsPy, which takes into account uncertainty of the velocity model. Such an approach allows us to reliably assess uncertainty of the CMT parameters including the centroid position. The solutions show significant systematic spatial and temporal variations throughout the sequence. Foreshocks are right-lateral steeply dipping strike-slip events connected to the NE-SW shear zone. Those located close to the intersection of the Hinagu and Futagawa fault zones are dipping slightly to ESE, while those in the southern area are dipping to WNW. Contrarily, aftershocks are mostly normal dip-slip events, being related to the N-S extensional tectonic regime. Most of the deviatoric moment tensors contain only minor CLVD component, which can be attributed to the velocity model uncertainty. Nevertheless, two of the CMTs involve a significant CLVD component, which may reflect complex rupture process. Decomposition of those moment tensors into two pure shear moment tensors suggests combined right-lateral strike-slip and normal dip-slip mechanisms, consistent with the tectonic settings of the intersection of the Hinagu and Futagawa fault zones.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Insurance Stock Prices Following the 1994 Los Angeles Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas A. Aiuppa; Thomas M. Krueger

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the changes in insurance firm value following the 1994 Los Angeles earthquake. While prior studies found that the 1989 San Francisco earthquake was associated with an increase in earthquake insurers’ firm value, the findings of this study indicate that earthquake firms sustained their value following the 1994 earthquake. These results and their implications provide insight for investors, regulators, and other policymakers as regards future earthquakes.

  18. Experiences of municipal public health nurses following Japan's earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayama, Mami; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Ohashi, Akiko; Horikoshi, Naoko; Kido, Yoshifumi; Murakata, Tazuko; Kawakami, Norito

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of municipal public health nurses in the wake of the March 2011 massive earthquake and tsunami and resulting nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan, from the time of the disaster until December 2013. Thirty-two public health nurses working in three cities in Fukushima prefecture were divided into four focus groups and took part in interviews, which were analyzed using a qualitative descriptive method. Two major themes were extracted: (1) experiences of difficulties and dilemmas, and (2) professional challenges and the meaning of excellence as a public health nurse. Subjects recounted their experiences based on the timeline of events. The process of overcoming various dilemmas--between prescribed roles and actual needs on the ground, being both civil servants and private citizens with families, and having to be publicly accountable while lacking adequate information--caused participants to reexamine the meaning of excellence in the practice of public health. The strenuous and complex demands of extended disaster management caused subjects to grow professionally. Helping them process their emotions should also help these nurses give focus to their posttraumatic growth, and strengthen their sense of professionalism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Great East Japan Earthquake: Analyses of Disaster Impacts on Health Care Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Sae; Kato, Shigeaki; Kobayashi, Ken-Ichi; Kanatani, Yasuhiro

    2017-08-29

    Local health facilities play a critical role in mitigating the deterioration of health after catastrophic disasters. However, limited information is available on clinic damage. Therefore, the National Institute of Public Health conducted surveillance on clinic damage after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) to identify risk factors. A cross-sectional study using a paper-based questionnaire was conducted that targeted 728 clinics located in coastal areas in the 3 prefectures most affected by the GEJE. The risk of building damage was inversely correlated with distance from the coast, whereas the risk of ceasing operations was significantly correlated with building damage and some specialties of clinics, namely, internal medicine and pediatrics. Discussion In mountainous countries like Japan, clinics often need to be built in coastal areas, where the majority of residents live. This surveillance revealed that clinics built in readily accessible locations and that provide care with high needs are more likely to get damaged by tsunamis. As clinics are often the frontline health facilities in disaster settings, local disaster plans need to include plans to reinforce disaster preparedness among clinics. For effective planning and resource allocation, nationwide hazard vulnerability analysis using a global standard will be helpful. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 5).

  20. [Spatial-temporal distribution of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Liangshan Yi autonomous prefecture, Sichuan province, 2011-2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; Yang, C H; He, J G; Li, Y K; Xiao, Y; Li, J; Wang, D X; Chen, C; Wu, J L

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Liangshan Yi autonomous prefecture in Sichuan province from 2011 to 2016. Methods: The registration data of PTB in 618 townships of Liangshan from 2011 to 2016 were collected from "Tuberculosis Management Information System of National Disease Prevention and Control Information System" . Software ArcGIS 10.2 was used to establish the geographic information database and realize the visualization of the analysis results. Software OpenGeoda 1.2.0 was used to conduct the analyses on global indication of spatial autocorrelation (GISA) and local indication of spatial autocorrelation (LISA). Software SaTScan 9.4.1 was used for spatio-temporal scanning analysis. Results: From 2011 to 2016, the registration rate of smear positive PTB in Liangshan declined from 56.97/100 000 (2 666 cases) to 21.11/100 000 (1 038 cases). The global spatial autocorrelation coefficient Moran's I ranged from 0.25 to 0.45 and the difference was significant (all P =0.000). Local autocorrelation analysis showed that "high-high" area covered 43, 34, 37, 34, 42 and 61 townships from 2011 to 2016, respectively, mainly in Leibo county. Spatial temporal clustering analysis found one class Ⅰ clustering in the area around Bagu township of Meigu county and two class Ⅱ clustering in the areas around Liumin and Hekou township of Huili county, respectively (all P =0.000). Conclusion: Obvious spatial temporal clustering of smear positive PTB distribution was found in Liangshan from 2011-2016. Hot spot areas with serious smear positive PTB epidemic and high spread risk were mainly found in northeastern Liangshan, including townships in Leibo and Meigu counties. Targeted TB prevention and control should be conducted in these areas.