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Sample records for nigra var henenis

  1. The effect of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra var. henenis Strapf) leaf extract on epidermal melanocytes in ultraviolet B-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae June; Chae, Se Lim; Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    We induced the activation of melanocytes in the epidermis of C57BL/6 mice by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation and observed the effect of bamboo (phyllostachys nigra var. henenis strapf) Leaf Extract (BLE) on the formation, and decrease of UVB-induced epidermal melanocytes. C57BL/6 mice were irradiated by UVB 80 mJ/cm{sup 2} (0.5 mW/sec) daily for 7 days, and BLE was intraperitoneally or topically applied pre- or post-irradiation. For the estimation of change of epidermal melanocytes, light microscopic observation with DihydrOxyPhenylAlanine (DOPA) stain was performed. Split epidermal sheets prepared from the ear of untreated mice exhibited 11-16 melanocytes/mm{sup 2}, and one week after UV irradiation, the applied areas show an increased number of strongly DOPA-positive melanocytes with stout dendrites. But intraperitoneal or topical treatment with BLE before each irradiation interrupted UVB-induced pigmentation and resulted in a marked reduction in the number of epidermal melanocytes as compared to radiation control skin. The number and size of DOPA-positive epidermal melanocytes were also significantly decreased in intraperitoneally injected or topically applicated group after irradiation with BLE at 3rd and 6th weeks after irradiation. The results of present study indicate that BLE is likely to be useful as inhibitor of UVB-induced pigmentation and depigmenting agent.

  2. Callus induction of leaf explant Piper betle L. Var Nigra with combination of plant growth regulators indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), benzyl amino purin (BAP) and kinetin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junairiah, Zuraidassanaaz, Nabilah Istighfari; Izdihar, Fairuz Nabil; Manuhara, Yosephine Sri Wulan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the combination of plant growth regulators IAA, BAP and kinetin towards callus induction and growth of leaf explants Piper betle L. VarNigra. Explants from leaf of Piper betle L. VarNigra was cultured on MS medium with 24 treatment combinations of plant growth regulators IAA and BAP and 24 treatment combinations of plant growth regulators IAA and kinetin with 0.0;0.5;1.0;1.5;2.0 mg/L concentration respectively, the observed variable were the length of time the formation of callus, callus morphology, fresh and dry weight of callus. The results of this research showed that the combination of growth regulators IAA with BAP and kinetin had effects on leaf growth of Piper betle L. VarNigra. During 8 weeks observation, it indicated that the combination of concentration IAA 0.5 mg/L and BAP 2.0 mg/L showed fastest callus formation at 8.5 days. Combination of concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and BAP 1.5 mg/L showed the highest of fresh weight at 0.6596 grams, and the highest dry weight was obtained from the combination of concentration IAA 0.5 mg/L and BAP 0.5 mg/L at 0.0727 grams. Combination of concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and kinetin 1.5 mg/L had the highest of fresh weight at 0.2972 grams and the highest dry weight at 0.1660 grams. Callus of Piper betle L. VarNigra had two textures, that were compact and friable, and also showed various kind of colors, like white, greenish white, yellowish white, tanned white, brown and black. Based on this research, that concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and 1.5 mg/L kinetin was the best combination for induction of callus from leaf of Piper betle L. Var Nigra.

  3. The effects of heat treatment on physical and technological properties and surface roughness of Camiyani Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana var. pallasiana) wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Gökhan; Korkut, Süleyman; Korkut, Derya Sevim

    2008-05-01

    Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of Camiyani Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana var. pallasiana) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Yenice-Zonguldak Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures and for varying durations. The physical properties of heat-treated and control samples were tested, and oven-dry density, air-dry density, and swelling properties were determined. The mechanical properties of heat-treated and control samples were tested, and compression strength, and Janka-hardness were determined. A stylus method was employed to evaluate the surface characteristics of the samples. Roughness measurements by the stylus method were made in the direction perpendicular to the fiber. Four main roughness parameters, mean arithmetic deviation of profile (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), root mean square roughness (Rq), and maximum roughness (Ry) obtained from the surface of wood were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of the specimens. Significant difference was determined (p=0.05) between physical and technological properties, and surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, Ry, Rq) for three temperatures and three durations of heat treatment. Based on the findings in this study, the results showed that density, swelling, compression strength, Janka-hardness and surface roughness values decreased with increasing treatment temperature and treatment times. Increase in temperature and duration further diminished technological strength values of the wood specimens. Camiyani Black Pine wood could be utilized by using proper heat treatment techniques without any losses in strength values in areas where working, stability, and surface smoothness, such as in window frames, are important factors.

  4. Application of DPS software in light response curve fitting of P.deltoides ×(P.nigra var.thevestina ×P.nigra)%DPS 软件在中绥12杨光响应曲线拟合中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓宇; 杨成超; 于雷; 彭建东; 韩兆伟

    2015-01-01

    The light response data of P.deltoides × (P.nigra var.thevestina ×P.nigra) was measured by Li -6400 portable photosynthesis system.In order to discuss applicability of different photosynthetic light-response models for P.deltoides × (P.nigra var.thevestina ×P.nigra),rectangular hyperbola model,nonrectangular hyperbola model, modified rectangular hyperbola model and exponential mode were respectively used to simulate the light response curve.The operation steps were introduced in data processing system.The results showed that maximum net photosynthetic rates which got form rectangular hyperbola model,nonrectangular hyperbola model and exponential model were greater than the measured values;light saturation points that got form rectangular hyperbola model,nonrectangular hyperbola model were far less than the measured values;exponential mode couldn’ t calculate the light saturation point (if 0.9Pn max or 0.99Pn max corresponding to light intensity as the light saturation point);the photosynthetic parameters which got form modified rectangular hyperbola modle were consistent with actuality.Modified rectangular hyperbola modle was the most suitable model for P.deltoides × (P.nigra var.thevestina ×P.nigra).%采用 Li -6400光合仪测定了中绥12杨的光响应数据。分别采用直角双曲线模型、非直角双曲线模型、直角双曲线修正模型及指数模型对光响应曲线进行拟合,以探讨几种模型对中绥12杨的适用性并介绍在 DPS数据处理系统中的操作步骤。结果表明,直角双曲线、非直角双曲线及指数模型得到的最大净光合速率大于实测值;直角双曲线和非直角双曲线模型得到的光饱和点远小于实测值;应用指数模型时(假设0.9Pn max 或0.99Pn max所对应的光强为 Isat)则无法求解光饱和点;直角双曲线修正模型拟合得到的各项光合参数均与实际相符,是中绥12杨光合光响应的最适宜模型。

  5. Growth Model and Process of Populus nigra var.thevestina in the Junggar Basin%准噶尔盆地箭杆杨生长模型及生长进程动态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施翔; 唐翠平; 周方龙

    2013-01-01

    Research on dynamic process of the growth of tree height,diameter at breast height (DBH) and timber volume of poplar plantation is of great significance in the further understanding of growth laws and establishing the corresponding foster and management measures.The whole growth process of 19 a-old Populus nigra var.thevestina plantation in the Junggar Basin,including the growth of tree height,DBH and timber volume,was studied using the trunk analysis methOd,and five models related to the growth of tree height,DBH and timber volume,including the power function type,quadratic and cubic polynomial regression model,Logistic model and Richards model,were developed and compared.The results showed that the rapid growth of tree height occurred at the 3-14 a-old trees,that of DBH at the 2-19 a-old ones,and that of timber volume at the 2-18 a-old ones.The rapid growth duration of tree height occurred later than that of DBH and timber volume,and timber volume grew rapidly at the early stage.The maturity age for the highest timber volume of P.nigra varied in a range of 27-30 a.The statistical significance of five models used to describe the growth of tree height,DBH and timber volume were all lower than 0.01,which means that all the five models were fitted well.Richards model was the optimal one to describe the growth process of tree height,DBH and timber volume of P.nigra,and their correlation coefficients were as high as 0.983,0.999 and 0.998 respectively.%揭示树高、胸径和材积的动态变化过程,对掌握树木个体生长的基本规律和制定相应的抚育管理措施具有重要的现实意义.以准噶尔盆地防护林树种箭杆杨为研究对象,运用树干解析法,对19 a生箭杆杨的树高、胸径、材积的生长规律进行调查研究.结果表明:箭杆杨的树高速生阶段集中在第3~14 a,胸径速生期为第2~19 a,材积速生期为第2~18a.树高早期生长缓慢,其速生期比胸径和材积晚,材积表现为早期速

  6. Chemical constituents of the extraction of bamboo leaves from Phyllostachys nigra (Lodd. ex Lindl. ) Munro var. henonis (Mitf.) Stepf. ex Rendle%毛金竹叶提取物化学成分的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙武兴; 李铣; 李宁; 孟大利

    2008-01-01

    目的 分离、鉴定毛金竹(Phyllostachys nigra(Lodd.exLindl.)Munro var.henonis(Mitf.)Stepf ex Rendle)竹叶提取物的化学成分.方法 采用反复硅胶柱色谱、Sephdex LH-20柱色谱、开放ODS柱色谱、制备薄层色谱等方法进行分离纯化,并通过理化性质和光谱数据鉴定其化学结构.结果 从其乙酸乙酯萃取层和正丁醇萃取层分离得到12个化合物,分别鉴定为β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol,1)、苜蓿素(tricin,2)、胡萝卜苷(daucosterol,3)、丁二酸(butanedioic acid,4)、胸腺嘧啶(5-methyluracil,5)、苜蓿素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(tricin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,6)、牡荆苷(vitexin,7)、苜蓿素-7-O-新橙皮糖苷(tricin-7-O-neohesperidoside,8)、荭草苷(orientin,9)、异荭草苷(isoorientin,10)、尿嘧啶(uracil,11)、胸腺嘧啶脱氧核苷(thymidine,12).结论 化合物4~6、8、11、12为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  7. Biological activity of Pinus nigra terpenes--evaluation of FtsZ inhibition by selected compounds as contribution to their antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, Zorica; Matejić, Jelena S; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z; Veselinović, Jovana B; Džamić, Ana M; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar D

    2014-11-01

    In the current work, in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activites of the needle terpenes of three taxa of Pinus nigra from Serbia (ssp. nigra, ssp. pallasiana, and var. banatica) were analyzed. The black pine essential oils showed generally weak antioxidative properties tested by two methods (DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays), where the highest activity was identified in P. nigra var. banatica (IC50=25.08 mg/mL and VitC=0.67 mg (vitamin C)/g when tested with the DPPH and ABTS reagents, respectively). In the antimicrobial assays, one fungal (Aspergilus niger) and two bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) showed sensitivity against essential oils of all three P. nigra taxa. The tested oils have been shown to possess inhibitory action in the range from 20.00 to 0.62 mg/mL, where var. banatica exhibited the highest and ssp. nigra the lowest antimicrobial action. In order to determine potential compounds that are responsible for alternative mode of action, molecular docking simulations inside FtsZ (a prokaryotic homolog of tubulin) were performed. Tested compounds were the most abundant terpenoid (germacrene D-4-ol) and its structurally similar terpene (germacrene D), both present in all three essential oils. It was determined that the oxygenated form of the molecule creates stable bonds with investigated enzyme FtsZ, and that this compound, through this mechanism of action participates in the antimicrobial activity.

  8. Anticancer activity of Morus nigra leaves extract

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    Muhammad Imran Qadir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are screened for treatment of many ailments including cancer because they possess certain potential constituents which are effective for treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of Morus nigra leaves against human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa. n-Hexane and aqueous methanolic extract of plant’s leaves were made by maceration. Anticancer activity was estimated by methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT assay and percentage inhibition of cells was calculated. Results of MTT showed that 100 µg/ml aqueous methanol extract of M. nigra inhibited 89.5-31.99% of HeLa cell line. It was concluded that M. nigra possess anticancer activity.

  9. Antiinflammatory properties of Morus nigra leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Marina M; Vilela, Fabiana C; Rocha, Cláudia Q; Dias, Marcelo J; Soncini, Roseli; dos Santos, Marcelo H; Alves-da-Silva, Geraldo; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate antiinflammatory activity of the methylene chloride extract of Morus nigra in animal models. Carrageenan-induced paw edema as well as fibrovascular tissue growth induced by s.c. cotton pellet implantation were used to investigate the antiinflammatory activity of Morus nigra extract (MnE) in rats. A HPLC fingerprint was used for phytochemical analysis of the extracts. The MnE at test doses of 100-300 mg/kg p.o. clearly demonstrated antiinflammatory effects by reduced paw edema induced by carragenan and significantly inhibited the formation of granulomatous tissue. In addition, chemical compounds isolated from Morus nigra, including betulinic acid, β-sitosterol and germanicol, may be responsible for the antiinflammatory effect of the extract. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Specific vulnerability of substantia nigra compacta neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidt, M.P.; Giovanni, G.; Di Matteo, V.; Esposito, E.

    2009-01-01

    The specific loss of substantia nigra compacta (SNc) neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been the main driving force in initiating research efforts to unravel the apparent SNc-specific vulnerability. Initially, metabolic constraints due to high dopamine turnover have been the main focus in the a

  11. Anticancer activity of Morus nigra leaves extract

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Imran Qadir; Muhammad Ali; Zubair Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Plants are screened for treatment of many ailments including cancer because they possess certain potential constituents which are effective for treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of Morus nigra leaves against human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). n-Hexane and aqueous methanolic extract of plant’s leaves were made by maceration. Anticancer activity was estimated by methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT) assay and percentage inhibition of cells was calculated...

  12. dbVar

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — dbVar is a database of genomic structural variation. It accepts data from all species and includes clinical data. It can accept diverse types of events, including...

  13. Three new compounds from Morus nigra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Yan; Liu, Chao; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2010-06-01

    A new 2-arylbenzofuran derivative, mornigrol D (1), along with two new flavones, mornigrol G (2) and mornigrol H (3), and six known compounds, norartocarpetin (4), dihydrokaempferol (5), albanin A (6), albanin E (7), moracin M (8), and albafuran C (9), were isolated from the barks of Morus nigra. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1 and 9 showed antioxidative activities in vitro with inhibition ratios of 98 and 99% at the concentration of 10(-4) mol/l, and of 74 and 75% at the concentration of 10(-5) mol/l. In addition, compounds 1 and 4 showed potent anti-inflammatory activities (inhibition of release of beta-glucuronidase from rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes induced by platelet activating factor) with inhibitory ratios of 65.9% (P < 0.01) and 67.7% (P < 0.01) at a concentration of 10(-5) mol/l.

  14. Palmar lichen planus mimicking tinea nigra

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    Bhushan Madke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus (LP is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by polygonal, violaceous papules commonly involving flexural areas of the wrists, legs, and oral and genital mucous membranes. This report describes a patient who presented with asymptomatic black colored patches on both palms simulating Tinea nigra, a superficial fungal infection. She was previously diagnosed as allergic contact dermatitis and was being treated with potent topical steroid i.e. clobetasol propionate 0.05% and white soft paraffin. Dermatoscopy of the lesion showed brownish pigmentation along ridges of the dermatoglyphics. A biopsy from the lesional skin showed findings of lichen planus. Our case highlights the potential diagnostic confusion that can occur with unusual variants of palmoplantar lichen planus and importance of histopathology in diagnosis of such unusual lesions.

  15. Hvem var morderen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene Vinther

    2014-01-01

    Folkemindesamleren og forfatteren Helene Strange (1874-1943) skrev flere gange om et giftmord på en præst på Nordfalster i 1755. Hun satte spørgsmålstegn ved højesteretsdommen og hævdede, at en uskyldig pige blev dømt, mens den virkelige morder slap fri. Det var folkets uskrevne dom, som i over...

  16. [Studies on chemical constituents from bark of Morus nigra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Hong-Qing; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents in the barks of Morus nigra. The nine compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography over silica gel, LH -20 and preparative HPLC and their structures were identified by various spectroscopic methods. The nine compounds were isolated and identified as olcancolic acid , apigenin, cyclocommunol, morusin, cyclomorusin, kuwanon C, daucosterol, ursolic acid, 63-sitosterol. Olcancolic acid, apingenin, cyclocommunol, morusin, cyclomorusin, kuwanon C, daucosterol were firstly isolated from the M. nigra.

  17. Substantia nigra echogenicity in Friedreich's ataxia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, María; Infante, Jon; Berciano, José

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the presence of substantia nigra (SN) hypoechogenicity in a cohort of Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) patients and its possible association with restless syndrome (RLS). Fourteen genetically confirmed FRDA patients and 14 sex- and age-matched healthy controls underwent transcranial sonography examination to evaluate the area of echogenicity of the SN. Both groups were clinically assessed with the essential and additional diagnostic criteria for RLS established by the International RLS Study Group. Ataxia was evaluated using the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia. We did not find significant differences between the mean sum area of SN echogenicity in FRDA patients and in controls. Only one patient in the FDRA group and two control subjects showed SN hypoechogenicity. Two out of the 14 FDRA patients and one of the controls fulfilled diagnostic criteria for RLS. The areas of SN echogenicity in the two FRDA patients with RLS were the lowest found in this group. We conclude that our data do not support the notion that SN hypoechogenicity is related to FRDA itself, although it might be associated with RLS.

  18. Substantia nigra osmoregulation: taurine and ATP involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Ingrid; Dopico, Jose G; Sabate, Magdalena; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Tomas; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2007-05-01

    An extracellular nonsynaptic taurine pool of glial origin was recently reported in the substantia nigra (SN). There is previous evidence showing taurine as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the SN, but the physiological role of this nonsynaptic pool of taurine has not been explored. By using microdialysis methods, we studied the action of local osmolarity on the nonsynaptic taurine pool in the SN of the rat. Hypoosmolar pulses (285-80 mosM) administered in the SN by the microdialysis probe increased extrasynaptic taurine in a dose-dependent way, a response that was counteracted by compensating osmolarity with choline. The opposite effect (taurine decrease) was observed when osmolarity was increased. Under basal conditions, the blockade of either the AMPA-kainate glutamate receptors with 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dionine disodium or the purinergic receptors with pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid modified the taurine concentration, suggesting that both receptors modulate the extrasynaptic pool of taurine. In addition, these drugs decreased the taurine response to hypoosmolar pulses, suggesting roles for glutamatergic and purinergic receptors in the taurine response to osmolarity. The participation of purinergic receptors was also supported by the fact that ATP (which, under basal conditions, increased the extrasynaptic taurine in a dose-dependent way) administered in doses saturating purinergic receptors also decreased the taurine response to hypoosmolarity. Taken together, present data suggest osmoregulation as a role of the nonsynaptic taurine pool of the SN, a function that also involves glutamate and ATP and that could influence the nigral cell vulnerability in Parkinson's disease.

  19. A VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sungwa, Matondo; Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    to make a, post expression, dual antigen conjugate vaccine, comprising two clinically tested antigen candidates (CSP and VAR2CSA).  Methods: The DBL1x-DBL2x-ID2a region of VAR2CSA was genetically fused with SpyTag at N-terminus. The full-length CSP antigen was genetically fused to C-terminal Spy......Catcher peptide. The covalent interaction between SpyTag/SpyCatcher enables the formation of DBL1x-DBL2x-ID2a:CSP conjugate vaccine. Immunogenicity and quality of antibody responses induced by the conjugate vaccine, as well as a control CSP-SpyCatcher vaccine, was tested in BALB/c mice.  Results: Serum samples...... obtained from mice immunized with the conjugate vaccine were able to recognize both untagged DBL1x-DBL2x-ID2a as well as CSP antigen. Moreover, the geometric mean anti-CSP antibody titer was 1.9-fold higher in serum (at day 35 and 55 post-first immunization) from mice immunized with the conjugate vaccine...

  20. PINUS NIGRA (ARN OLD SUBSP. NIGRA V AR. CARAMANICA (LOUDON REHDER TÜRÜNÜN Y APRAKLARINDA KURŞUN BİRİKİMİNİN ARAŞTIRILMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kültiğin Çavuşoğlu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Kınkkale il ve ilçelerinde yaydış gösteren Pinus nigra subsp. nigra var. caramanica türününyapraklarında taşıtlardan yayılan kurşun birikiminin miktarı araştırılmıştır. Örnek toplanıa işlemi Kırıkkale il merkezive ilçelerinde yol kenarlarında belirlenen dokuz istasyondan gerçekleştirilmiştir. Her bir istasyondan toplanan yaprakörneklerindeki kurşun miktarlan elektron dağılım spektroskopi (EDS yardımı ile belirlenmiştir. En fazla kurşunbirikimine Kırıkkale il merkezinden (o/o44.169 toplanan yaprak örneklerinde rastlanılın ı ştır. Farklı ilçelerden toplananyapraklardaki kurşun miktarları karşılaştınldığında ise en fazla kurşun birikimi Bahşılı ilçesinden (%38.917, en azbirikim ise Karakeçili ilçesinden (%22.883 toplanan yaprak örneklerinde ölçülmüştür. Bu çalışma sonuçlarıyapraklardaki kurşun birikiminin trafık yoğunluğu ile arttığını ve P. nigra türünün bu birikimin tespitinde biyolojik birbelirleyici olarak kullanılabileceğini göstermiştir.

  1. Extraction and antioxidant activity of flavonoids of Morus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui-Zhang; Wang, Qin; Tong, Wen-Zhi; Xiong, Juan; Wei, Qin; Zhou, Wan-Hai; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Yin, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Li-Ying; Chen, Ya-Qin; Lai, Yong-Hong; Huang, Hong-Yan; Luo, Qiao-Li; Wang, Lu; Jia, Ren-Yong; Song, Xu; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Li, Li-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Morus nigra has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese medicine, but the study on it is limited, the flavonoids are one of the main biological active substances. In this study, the Morus nigra flavonoids were extracted by ultrasonic and antioxidant activities both in vitro and in vivo were measured. The results showed that hydroxyl radicals clearance rate and superoxide radical anion clearance rate in vitro increased with the concentration of the total flavonoids in the range of 0-1.05 mg/mL and the maximum clearance rate was 80.33% and 87.69%, respectively. After mice were treated with flavonoids, the content of malonaldehyde (MDA) in serum and liver decreased; the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum and liver, catalase (CAT) in liver and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in blood and liver increased; Langhans cells increased in spleen. These results revealed that the Morus nigra flavonoids possessed strong antioxidant activity.

  2. Brazilian Morus nigra Attenuated Hyperglycemia, Dyslipidemia, and Prooxidant Status in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ivanildo I. da S. Júnior; Humberto de Moura Barbosa; Débora C. R. Carvalho; Ruideglan de Alencar Barros; Flávia Peixoto Albuquerque; Dionísio Henrique Amaral da Silva; Grasielly R. Souza; Nathália A. C. Souza; Larissa A. Rolim; Flaviane M. M. Silva; Glória I. B. P. Duarte; Jackson R. G. da S. Almeida; Flávio Monteiro de Oliveira Júnior; Dayane A. Gomes; Eduardo C. Lira

    2017-01-01

      Morus nigra has been used popularly for several proposes, including diabetic. In an attempt to support medicinal value, the acute hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects of the ethanolic extract of Morus nigra...

  3. Tinea nigra na cidade de Santos: relato de cinco casos Tinea nigra in the City of Santos: five case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lopes Mattos e Dinato

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Relato de cinco casos de tinea nigra palmaris observados em quatro crianças, do sexo feminino, e um adolescente, do sexo masculino, em Santos, litoral de São Paulo. Discutem-se os aspectos históricos, epidemiológicos, diagnósticos, terapêuticos e prognósticos embasados em revisão de literatura.Five cases are reported of tinea nigra palmaris in four female children and one male teenager in Santos, São Paulo's littoral. The history, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are discussed in a review of the literature.

  4. Isoprenylated flavonoids and adipogenesis-promoting constituents from Morus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Wu, Jin-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Qin-Shi; Huang, Jian-Ming; Wang, He-Yao; Hou, Ai-Jun

    2011-04-25

    Ten new isoprenylated flavonoids, nigrasins A-J (1-10), and three known compounds were isolated from the twigs of Morus nigra. Compounds 8 and 9 promoted adipogenesis, characterized by increased lipid droplet and triglyceride content in 3T3L1 cells, and induced up-regulation of the expression of adipocyte-specific genes, aP2 and GLUT4.

  5. KARAKTERISASI SENYAWA FENOL DARI KAYU BATANG MORUS NIGRA

    OpenAIRE

    Ferlinahayati; Euis Holisotan Hakim; Yana Maolana Syah; Lia Dewi Juliawaty

    2013-01-01

    Tumbuhan Morus merupakan salah satu genus utama dalam famili Moraceae. Senyawa-senyawa turunan fenol merupakan kandungan utama dari genus ini, diantaranya kelompok stilben, 2-arilbenzofuran, flavonoid dan adduct Diels Alder. Penelitian ini merupakan bagian dari penelitian mengenai kajian fitokimia terhadap tumbuhan Morus. Ekstraksi dilakukan secara maserasi terhadap kayu batang Morus nigra menggunakan pelarut metanol yang dilanjutkan dengan pemisahan menggunakan berbagai teknik kromatografi s...

  6. Three new compounds from the barks of Morus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Cui, Xi-Qiang; Gong, Ting; Yan, Ren-Yi; Tan, Yong-Xia; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2008-01-01

    Three new compounds including two flavonoids and a new 2-phenylbenzofuran, named morunigrols A-C (1-3), together with three known compounds albafuran A (4), albafuran B (5), and mulberrofuran L (6), have been isolated from the barks of Morus nigra. Their structures have been elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  7. Temperature Dependent Seed Germination of Dalbergia nigra Allem (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda G. A. Ferraz-Grande

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The germination of endangered species Dalbergia nigra was studied and 30.5° C was found as optimum temperature, although the species presented a broad temperature range where germination occurs and light had no effect. The analysis of kinetics of seed germination confirmed the asynchronized germination below and above the optimum temperature. The light insensitive seed and germination also at high temperatures indicated that D. nigra could occur both in understories and gaps where the mean temperature was high.A germinação de sementes de Dalbergia nigra Allem, comumente conhecida como jacarandá-da-Bahia, caviúna, jacarandá, uma espécie em extinção, foi estudada e determinamos a temperatura ótima de 30,5° C. A espécie apresenta uma ampla faixa de temperatura onde a germinação ocorre e a luz branca não influenciou o processo. A análise da cinética da germinação de sementes confirma a germinação não sincronizada acima e abaixo da temperatura ótima de germinação. A semente insensível à luz e a germinação também em altas temperaturas indicam que D. nigra pode ocorrer tanto na sombra da vegetação bem como em clareiras.

  8. Do Substantia Nigra Dopaminergic Neurons Differentiate Between Reward and Punishment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael J. Frank; D. James Surmeier

    2009-01-01

    The activity of dopaminergic neurons are thought to be increased by stimuli that predict reward and decreased by stimuli that predict aversive outcomes. Recent work by Matsumoto and Hikosaka challenges this model by asserting that stimuli associated with either rewarding or aversive outcomes increase the activity of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta.

  9. [Tinea nigra. 1st clinical case in Uruguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Díaz, I A; Burgoa, F; Civila, E; Bonasse, J; Miller, A

    1984-08-30

    The first case in Uruguay of 'tinea nigra' is described in a 44-year-old male patient with a maculous pigmented lesion on the right foot. It represents the most meridional case of the disease yet recorded in South America. Exophiala werneckii was isolated in cultures (strain 1905 IHM).

  10. var. puiggarianum (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Gauna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionó Batrachospermum atrum var. puiggarianum por primera vez en la provincia de Buenos Aires. La identificación de las muestras se basó en el análisis de la morfología microscópica y en el número cromosómico de cada una de las generaciones de su ciclo de vida bajo cultivo. Los talos se estudiaron con microscopio óptico, y la cariología, por medio de la técnica de carmín acético. El ciclo de vida presentó tres generaciones: una gametofítica haploide, una carposporófitica diploide que originó la última fase Chantransia diploide. Los talos gametófitos estuvieron formados por verticilos separados por zonas internodales, cada uno de ellos constituidos por ramas primarias densamente comprimidas. Entre éstas se observaron ramas portadoras de espermatangios y de carpogonios. Las zonas internodales estuvieron constituidas por células corticales y axiales. Los carposporófitos ovoideos estuvieron formados por filamentos gonimoblásticos portadores de carposporangios terminales. El estado Chantransia se caracterizó por presentar filamentos cortos con pocas células. El material estudiado presentó un número haploide n = 4 y diploide 2n = 8.

  11. BRASSICA NIGRA AND CUMINUM CYMINUM: INHIBITORS OF FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Bhatia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dried seeds of spices namely Brassica nigra (mustard and Cuminum cyminum (cumin were screened independently, in culture media, in their different forms (aqueous extracts, essential oils and powders against some bacterial strains of spoilage and health significance. Test microorganisms included one gram+ve bacterial strain i.e. Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430 and three gram-ve bacterial strains viz. Enterococcus faecalis (MTCC 439, Psuedomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 1688 and Shigella sonnei (MTCC 2957. Spice agar method was opted for screening antibacterial activities of powdered forms of aforementioned spices at their different concentration levels (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 (% (w/v. B.nigra more effectively inhibited bacterial strains in culture media. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of powdered form of B.nigra were also determined. It was the concentration of spice which arrested the growth of bacterial strain upto 80% level of the total incubation period of 30 days. Agar-well assay was followed for antibacterial screening of aqueous extracts and essential oils of test spices. Aqueous extracts of reference spice samples did not exhibit growth inhibitory zones towards any test bacterial strains. On the other hand, essential oils of B.nigra and C.cyminum showed distinct growth inhibitory zones against all the bacterial strains under observation. Results obtained from agar well assay revealed that essential oil of B.nigra was more potent in inhibiting bacterial strains followed by C. cyminum . It was also noticed that B. cereus (gram+ve was inhibited at lower concentrations of test substances as compared to all the other three gram-ve bacterial strains under investigation.

  12. VAR, SVAR and SVEC Models: Implementation Within R Package vars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Pfaff

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the package vars and its implementation of vector autoregressive, structural vector autoregressive and structural vector error correction models are explained in this paper. In addition to the three cornerstone functions VAR(, SVAR( and SVEC( for estimating such models, functions for diagnostic testing, estimation of a restricted models, prediction, causality analysis, impulse response analysis and forecast error variance decomposition are provided too. It is further possible to convert vector error correction models into their level VAR representation. The different methods and functions are elucidated by employing a macroeconomic data set for Canada. However, the focus in this writing is on the implementation part rather than the usage of the tools at hand.

  13. Antioxidant activity of three extracts of Morus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Gholam Ali; Asgary, Seddigheh; Sarraf-Zadegan, Nizal; Oroojy, Heshmatallah; Afshin-Nia, Farsad

    2004-05-01

    The antioxidant effect of three different extracts of Morus nigra fruit (fruit juice, hydroalcoholic and polyphenolic) on haemoglobin glycosylation, peroxidative damage to human erythrocytes, liver hepatooytes of rats and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were studied. The results show that all three extracts inhibited haemoglobin glycosylation induced by glucose to differing degrees. The haemolysis of human erythrocytes induced by hydrogen peroxide was also inhibited. The production of malondialdehyde (MDA) during peroxidative damage to plasma membranes of isolated rat hepatocytes induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBH) was also inhibited. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation of LDL induced by copper (II) ion was achieved during the study. The results suggest that Morus nigra fruit has a protective action against peroxidative damage to biomembranes and biomolecules. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Pharmacognostical Investigations on Sambucus ebulus L. and Sambucus nigra L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. A. R. Ghannadi

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Several species of the genus Sambucus have been used in treating symptoms of the common cold and some skin ailments. Four species of this plant are growing extensively in Iran. One of these species is S.ebulus. In this study, S. ebulus was examined botanically and phytochemicatly in comparison to S. nigra."nMorphological as well as microscopical characteristics of S. ebulus and S. nigra were examined. By means of TLC in comparison to authentic samples, Rutin, Hyperin. Apigenin and Chlorogenic acid were identified in these plants. By preparative TLC method, Rutin is isolated and then purified from these plants. The structure of Rutin was determined by the UV-Vis. Techniques in methanol and by addition of the shift reagents and hydrolysis. The quantitative determinations of fiavonoids in these plants were also performed by using an UV-Vis. Spectroscopy method.

  15. Bidirectional modulation of substantia nigra activity by motivational state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Rossi

    Full Text Available A major output nucleus of the basal ganglia is the substantia nigra pars reticulata, which sends GABAergic projections to brainstem and thalamic nuclei. The GABAergic (GABA neurons are reciprocally connected with nearby dopaminergic neurons, which project mainly to the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical nuclei critical for goal-directed behaviors. Here we examined the impact of motivational states on the activity of GABA neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the neighboring dopaminergic (DA neurons in the pars compacta. Both types of neurons show short-latency bursts to a cue predicting a food reward. As mice became sated by repeated consumption of food pellets, one class of neurons reduced cue-elicited firing, whereas another class of neurons progressively increased firing. Extinction or pre-feeding just before the test session dramatically reduced the phasic responses and their motivational modulation. These results suggest that signals related to the current motivational state bidirectionally modulate behavior and the magnitude of phasic response of both DA and GABA neurons in the substantia nigra.

  16. Tinea nigra: relato de seis casos no Estado do Paraná Tinea nigra: six cases in Parana state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Giraldi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Seis casos de Tinea nigra diagnosticados no Serviço de Dermatopediatria do Hospital de Clínicas de Curitiba, UFPR, no período entre 1978 e 2001 são descritos. Trata-se de quatro crianças em idade escolar que tiveram contato com areia da praia e dois adolescentes. Em um dos casos as lesões são de localização plantar bilateral, configurando o primeiro desse tipo relatado na literatura nacional.Six cases of Tinea nigra attended at our Pediatric Dermatology Clinic in Hospital de Clínicas de Curitiba - UFPR from 1978 to 2001 are presented. Four cases are schoolchildren and had contact with sand on a beach and two are adolescents. One with bilateral plantar lesions represents the first case reported in national literature.

  17. Thermal and pressure stability of myrosinase enzymes from black mustard (Brassica nigra L. W.D.J. Koch. var. nigra), brown mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern. var. juncea) and yellow mustard (Sinapsis alba L. subsp. maire) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunade, Olukayode Adediran; Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-11-15

    This study investigates the effects of temperature and pressure on inactivation of myrosinase extracted from black, brown and yellow mustard seeds. Brown mustard had higher myrosinase activity (2.75 un/mL) than black (1.50 un/mL) and yellow mustard (0.63 un/mL). The extent of enzyme inactivation increased with pressure (600-800 MPa) and temperature (30-70° C) for all the mustard seeds. However, at combinations of lower pressures (200-400 MPa) and high temperatures (60-80 °C), there was less inactivation. For example, application of 300 MPa and 70 °C for 10 min retained 20%, 80% and 65% activity in yellow, black and brown mustard, respectively, whereas the corresponding activity retentions when applying only heat (70° C, 10 min) were 0%, 59% and 35%. Thus, application of moderate pressures (200-400 MPa) can potentially be used to retain myrosinase activity needed for subsequent glucosinolate hydrolysis.

  18. Tinea versicolor, tinea nigra, white piedra, and black piedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gómez-Daza, Fernando; Paredes, Vanessa; Ponce, Rosa María

    2010-03-04

    Superficial mycoses are fungal infections limited to the stratum corneum and its adnexal structures. The most frequent types are dermatophytoses or tineas. Tinea versicolor involves the skin in the form of hypochromic or hyperchromic plaques, and tinea nigra affects the skin of the palms with dark plaques. White piedra and black piedra are parasitic infections of scalp hairs in the form of concretions caused by fungal growth. Diagnosis of these mycoses is made from mycologic studies, direct examination, stains, and isolation, and identification of the fungi. Treatment includes systemic antifungals, topical antifungals, and keratolytics.

  19. KARAKTERISASI SENYAWA FENOL DARI KAYU BATANG MORUS NIGRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferlinahayati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tumbuhan Morus merupakan salah satu genus utama dalam famili Moraceae. Senyawa-senyawa turunan fenol merupakan kandungan utama dari genus ini, diantaranya kelompok stilben, 2-arilbenzofuran, flavonoid dan adduct Diels Alder. Penelitian ini merupakan bagian dari penelitian mengenai kajian fitokimia terhadap tumbuhan Morus. Ekstraksi dilakukan secara maserasi terhadap kayu batang Morus nigra menggunakan pelarut metanol yang dilanjutkan dengan pemisahan menggunakan berbagai teknik kromatografi sehingga diperoleh senyawa murni. Berdasarkan data-data spektroskopi yang meliputi spektrum UV, IR dan NMR maka senyawa murni hasil isolasi tersebut merupakan senyawa fenol yaitu b-resorsilaldehid

  20. FLAVANONES FROM THE WOOD OF Morus nigra WITH CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferlinahayati Ferlinahayati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two flavanone derivatives, norartocarpanone (1 and euchrenone a7 (2 had been isolated for the first time from the methanol extract of the wood of Morus nigra. The structures of these compounds were determined base on spectral evidence, including UV, IR, and NMR. The first compound also confirmed by comparison with the reported data. Cytotoxic properties of these compounds were evaluated against murine leukemia P-388 cells. Euchrenone a7 (2 was found more cytotoxic than norartocarpanone (1 with their IC50 7.8 and 12.7 mg/mL respectively.

  1. Chalcone dimethylallyltransferase from Morus nigra cell cultures. Substrate specificity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Alberto; Giardina, Bruno; Delle Monache, Giuliano; Rocca, Filippo; Silvestrini, Andrea; Tafi, Andrea; Botta, Bruno

    2004-01-16

    A new prenyltransferase (PT) enzyme derived from the microsomal fractions of cell cultures of Morus nigra was shown to be able to prenylate exclusively chalcones with a 2',4'-dihydroxy substitution and the isoflavone genistein. Computational studies were performed to shed some light on the relationship between the structure of the substrate and the enzymatic activity. PT requires divalent cations, particularly Mg(2+), to be effective. The apparent K(m) values for gamma,gamma-dimethylallyldiphosphate and 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone were 63 and 142 microM, respectively. The maximum activity of the enzyme was expressed during the first 10 days of cell growth.

  2. Recovery Plan for Chamaesyce Skottsbergii var. Skottsbergi and Achranthes Splendens var. Rotundata

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the completed recovery plan for Chamaesyce Skottsbergii var. Skottsbergii and Achymnthes Splendens var. Rotunpata. It delineates reasonable actions that are...

  3. Paraneoplastic degeneration of the substantia nigra with dystonia and parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbe, L I; Miller, D C; Duvoisin, R C

    1989-01-01

    A 42-year-old woman suffered unexplained weight loss followed by action tremor and difficulty initiating gait. Three months after onset of symptoms, infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast, metastatic to liver and lymph nodes, was diagnosed and treated briefly with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-flourouracil (5FU). Severe symmetric action and postural tremor with a myoclonic component developed, with minimal rest tremor, severe dysarthria and dysphagia, small-stepped and slightly ataxic gait progressing to a bedbound state, and severe widespread dystonic posturing. The latter began as a typical parkinsonian posture of trunk and upper extremities and progressed to a fixed and painful flexion of the elbows and wrists and extension of fingers and neck. Sinemet, anticholinergics, baclofen, diazepam, and plasmapheresis gave no benefit. The patient died of complications of immobility 5 months after neurologic symptom onset. Autopsy revealed many pigment-laden macrophages in substantia nigra and moderate loss of pigmented neurons. Inflammation, Lewy bodies, and tumor were absent. Cerebellar Purkinje cells were moderately depleted. Mild neuronal loss and gliosis were present in globus pallidus and cerebellar cortex. Stains for anti-human IgG, IgM, kappa, and lambda were negative. This, to our knowledge, is the first report of paraneoplastic degeneration of substantia nigra or paraneoplastic parkinsonism.

  4. Determination of trace elements in the human substantia nigra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morawski, M. [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: morm@medizin.uni-leipzig.de; Meinecke, Ch. [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04105 Leipzig (Germany); Reinert, T. [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04105 Leipzig (Germany); Doerffel, A.C. [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany); Riederer, P. [Klin. Neurochemie, Abt. Psychiatrie, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Fuechsleinstrasse 15, 97080 Wuerzburg (Germany); Arendt, T. [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany); Butz, T. [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04105 Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    'The gain in brain is mainly in the stain' was long time a key sentence for research in neurodegenerative disease. However, for a quantification of the element concentrations (especially iron) in brain tissue, standard staining methods are insufficient. Advanced physical methods allow a quantitative elemental analysis of brain tissue. The sophisticated ion beam analysis provides a quantitative determination of elemental concentrations with a subcellular spatial resolution using a scanning proton beam focussed down to below 1 {mu}m that induces characteristic X-rays in the specimen (PIXE - particle induced X-ray emission). Histochemical and biochemical determinations of total iron content in brain regions from idiopathic Parkinson's disease have demonstrated an increase of iron in parkinsonian substantia nigra pars compacta but not in the pars reticulata, however without a clear cellular classification. For the first time, we have differentially investigated the intra- and extraneuronal elemental concentrations (especially iron) of the human substantia nigra pars compacta versus pars reticulata with detection limits in the range of 50 {mu}mol/l. Thus, we could compare the neuronal iron concentration in human brain sections of healthy and parkinsonian brain tissue. Clear differences in the iron concentration and distribution could be disclosed. Additionally, we could show in situ that the increased intraneuronal iron content is linked to neuromelanin.

  5. Tinea nigra by Hortaea werneckii, a report of 22 cases from Mexico.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifaz, A.; Badali, H.; de Hoog, G.S.; Cruz, M.A.; Araiza, J.; Fierro, L.; Ponce, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Tinea nigra is a superficial mycosis caused by Hortaea werneckii. It is an infrequent asymptomatic infection that affects human palms and soles, and is mostly observed in tropical countries. We evaluate retrospectively twenty-two confirmed cases of tinea nigra from a total of eleven yr (1997-2007) a

  6. Tinea nigra by Hortaea werneckii, a report of 22 cases from Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifaz, A.; Badali, H.; de Hoog, G.S.; Cruz, M.; Araiza, J.; Cruz, M.A.; Fierro, L.; Ponce, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Tinea nigra is a superficial mycosis caused by Hortaea werneckii. It is an infrequent asymptomatic infection that affects human palms and soles, and is mostly observed in tropical countries. We evaluate retrospectively twenty-two confirmed cases of tinea nigra from a total of eleven yr (1997-2007) a

  7. Tinea nigra by Hortaea werneckii, a report of 22 cases from Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifaz, A.; Badali, H.; de Hoog, G.S.; Cruz, M.; Araiza, J.; Cruz, M.A.; Fierro, L.; Ponce, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Tinea nigra is a superficial mycosis caused by Hortaea werneckii. It is an infrequent asymptomatic infection that affects human palms and soles, and is mostly observed in tropical countries. We evaluate retrospectively twenty-two confirmed cases of tinea nigra from a total of eleven yr (1997-2007) a

  8. Tinea nigra by Hortaea werneckii, a report of 22 cases from Mexico.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifaz, A.; Badali, H.; de Hoog, G.S.; Cruz, M.A.; Araiza, J.; Fierro, L.; Ponce, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Tinea nigra is a superficial mycosis caused by Hortaea werneckii. It is an infrequent asymptomatic infection that affects human palms and soles, and is mostly observed in tropical countries. We evaluate retrospectively twenty-two confirmed cases of tinea nigra from a total of eleven yr (1997-2007) a

  9. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous methanolic extract of Morus nigra against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Morus nigra (Family Moraceae is traditionally used injaundice, diabetes, hypertension, cough, fever and cancer. The current study was conducted to determine hepatoprotective activity of aqueous methanolic extract of leaves of M. nigra. Two doses of 250 mg/kg p.o and 500 mg/kg p.o showed that extract of M. nigra produced significant (p<0.001 reduction in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP and total bilirubin induced by paracetamol and the results are comparable to silymarin (p<0.001. Results were supported by histopathologi-cal investigations, phytochemical screening and detection of active consti-tuents by HPLC. The current study showed that aqueous methanolic extract of M. nigra possess hepatoprotective activity that might be due to quercetin, luteolin and isorhamnetin. It was concluded from this study that M. nigra has hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced liver injury in mice.

  10. Acute larvicidal toxicity of five essential oils (Pinus nigra, Hyssopus officinalis, Satureja montana, Aloysia citrodora and Pelargonium graveolens) against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: Synergistic and antagonistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Ciaschetti, Giampiero; Conti, Fabio; Nicoletti, Marcello; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    Mosquito vector control is facing a number of important and timely challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance and environmental concerns. In this scenario, screening of botanical resources for their mosquitocidal activity may offer effective and eco-friendly tools against Culicidae vectors. Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of lymphatic filariasis and of dangerous arboviral diseases, such as West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis. In this study, the chemical composition of five essential oils obtained from different plants, namely Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold var. italica (Pinaceae), Hyssopus officinalis L. subsp. aristatus (Lamiaceae), Satureja montana L. subsp. montana (Lamiaceae), Aloysia citriodora Palau (Verbenaceae) and Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér (Geraniaceae), was investigated by GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, it was evaluated their acute toxicity on larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. Then, the most effective oils were selected, in order to focus on the potential synergistic and antagonistic effects, testing them in binary mixtures on C. quinquefasciatus larvae. Results showed that the higher effectiveness was obtained by S. montana subsp. montana essential oil (LC50=25.6μL·L(-1)), followed by P. nigra var. italica (LC50=49.8μL·L(-1)) and A. citriodora (LC50=65.6μL·L(-1)), while the other essential oils showed LC50 values higher than 90μL·L(-1). The larvicidal effectiveness can be enhanced by preparing simple binary mixtures of essential oils, such as S. montana+A. citriodora (ratio 1:1), which showed higher larvicidal toxicity (LC50=18.3μL·L(-1)). On the other hand, testing S. montana+P. nigra (1:1) an antagonistic effect was detected, leading to a LC50 (72.5μL·L(-1)) higher than the LC50 values calculated for the two oils tested separately. Overall, our results add useful knowledge to allow the employ of synergistic essential oil blends as effective, cheap and eco-friendly mosquito larvicides.

  11. New cytotypes of Pteris ensiformis var. victoriae from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Efendi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New cytotypes of Pteris ensiformis var. victoriae and one cytotype of var. ensiformis are recorded from Indonesia: var. victoriae with 2n=58 (sexual diploid from Gorontalo, North       Sulawesi, and 2n=87 (triploid from Lombok Island and Bogor, West Java; and var. ensiformis with 2n=116 (sexual tetraploid. The diploid is smaller than the triploid in plant size. Results indicate a cytological variation in var. victoriae, like in var. ensiformis.

  12. Proteome analysis of human substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Cornelius J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease (PD is the most common neurodegenerative disorder involving the motor system. Although not being the only region involved in PD, affection of the substantia nigra and its projections is responsible for some of the most debilitating features of the disease. To further advance a comprehensive understanding of nigral pathology, we conducted a tissue based comparative proteome study of healthy and diseased human substantia nigra. Results The gross number of differentially regulated proteins in PD was 221. In total, we identified 37 proteins, of which 16 were differentially expressed. Identified differential proteins comprised elements of iron metabolism (H-ferritin and glutathione-related redox metabolism (GST M3, GST P1, GST O1, including novel redox proteins (SH3BGRL. Additionally, many glial or related proteins were found to be differentially regulated in PD (GFAP, GMFB, galectin-1, sorcin, as well as proteins belonging to metabolic pathways sparsely described in PD, such as adenosyl homocysteinase (methylation, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 and cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (aldehyde metabolism. Further differentially regulated proteins included annexin V, beta-tubulin cofactor A, coactosin-like protein and V-type ATPase subunit 1. Proteins that were similarly expressed in healthy or diseased substantia nigra comprised housekeeping proteins such as COX5A, Rho GDI alpha, actin gamma 1, creatin-kinase B, lactate dehydrogenase B, disulfide isomerase ER-60, Rab GDI beta, methyl glyoxalase 1 (AGE metabolism and glutamine synthetase. Interestingly, also DJ-1 and UCH-L1 were expressed similarly. Furthermore, proteins believed to serve as internal standards were found to be expressed in a constant manner, such as 14-3-3 epsilon and hCRMP-2, thus lending further validity to our results. Conclusion Using an approach encompassing high sensitivity and high resolution, we show that alterations of SN in PD include many

  13. Var der noget kapløb?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Denise; Nielsen, Bent

    2006-01-01

    . Som en af 1900-tallets største sinologer A. C. Graham skriver i sin bog Disputers of the Tao (La Salle, Ill., 1989) var den videnskabelige revolution »en unik og kompleks begivenhed, som var afhængig af en mangfoldighed af sociale og andre betingelser, herunder et sammenfald af opdagelser (græske...

  14. Microstimulation of the human substantia nigra alters reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramayya, Ashwin G; Misra, Amrit; Baltuch, Gordon H; Kahana, Michael J

    2014-05-14

    Animal studies have shown that substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic (DA) neurons strengthen action-reward associations during reinforcement learning, but their role in human learning is not known. Here, we applied microstimulation in the SN of 11 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery for the treatment of Parkinson's disease as they performed a two-alternative probability learning task in which rewards were contingent on stimuli, rather than actions. Subjects demonstrated decreased learning from reward trials that were accompanied by phasic SN microstimulation compared with reward trials without stimulation. Subjects who showed large decreases in learning also showed an increased bias toward repeating actions after stimulation trials; therefore, stimulation may have decreased learning by strengthening action-reward associations rather than stimulus-reward associations. Our findings build on previous studies implicating SN DA neurons in preferentially strengthening action-reward associations during reinforcement learning.

  15. High-resolution quantitative imaging of the substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Paula; Smith, Alex K; Summers, Paul E; Mainardi, Luca M; Cerutti, Sergio; Smith, Seth A; Costa, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in identifying neuroimaging-based biomarkers for Parkinson's disease (PD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in which the major pathologic substrate is the loss of pigmented dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Recently, an MRI technique dubbed "neuromelanin-sensitive MRI" (NM-MRI), has been found to provide notable contrast between the SN and surrounding brain tissues with potential applications as biomarker of PD. The contrast in NM-MRI has been associated with magnetization transfer (MT) effects, and thus the goal of this study was to characterize the impact of MT on NM-MRI, and to demonstrate the feasibility of performing quantitative MT (qMT) imaging in human SN. The results of this study demonstrate that high-resolution rapid qMT imaging of the SN can be reliably obtained within reasonable scan times, thereby can be translatable into clinical practice.

  16. Sonographic substantia nigra hypoechogenicity in polyneuropathy and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godau, Jana; Manz, Almut; Wevers, Anne-Kathrin; Gaenslen, Alexandra; Berg, Daniela

    2009-01-15

    Substantia nigra (SN) hypoechogenicity assessed by transcranial B-mode sonography (TCS) is typical for idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS). Here, we investigated whether SN hypoechogenicity may differentiate between polyneuropathy (PNP) patients with and without RLS. Seventy-five patients with PNP, 65 healthy controls, and 75 patients with idiopathic RLS were investigated. A total of 41.2% patients with PNP additionally suffered from RLS. A total of 44.1% patients with PNP, 10.2% of healthy controls, and 91.2% of patients with idiopathic RLS exhibited SN hypoechogenicity. SN echogenicity did not differ significantly between PNP patients with and without RLS. Thus, TCS seems not suitable for the diagnosis of RLS in patients with PNP.

  17. Substantia nigra hypoechogenicity: definition and findings in restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godau, Jana; Schweitzer, Katherine J; Liepelt, Inga; Gerloff, Christian; Berg, Daniela

    2007-01-15

    Pathological studies demonstrate a decreased iron content in the substantia nigra (SN) contributing to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS). SN echogenicity as measured by transcranial sonography (TCS) correlates with the SN iron content. The objective of this study was to determine a critical value to define SN hypoechogenicity as a potential marker for RLS. There were 49 RLS patients (39 idiopathic, 10 secondary) and 49 age- and sex-matched controls who underwent TCS by 2 independent and blinded examiners to determine the area of SN echogenicity. We found that SN echogenicity is significantly decreased in RLS patients compared to healthy controls (P hypoechogenicity (sum area of SN echogenicity of both sides hypoechogenicity (SN sum area < 0.2 cm(2)), which is supposed to indicate a decreased SN iron content, is a marker for RLS. Further studies are needed to investigate its significance for the pathophysiology of this frequent movement disorder and possible clinical applications.

  18. [Application of Populus Nigra preparations at experimental parodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipiani, N V; Kuchukhidze, Dzh K; Chichua, Z Dzh; Kipiani, V A; Datunashvili, I V

    2007-09-01

    Severe oxidative stress, developed under experimental periodontitis is accompanied by disturbances in mitochondrial respiration in tissue cells of gingiva, membrane damage and release of Fe(2+) and Mn(2+), leading to the worsening of inflammation process and gingival tissue necrosis. Reduction of free nitric oxide in gingival tissue appeared to be characteristic for experimental parodontitis: decreases local immunity, antimicrobial resistance, and tissue regeneration, disturbs blood supply and tissue trophism, which forwards important role in deepening of inflammation process and wasting of gingival tissue. Application of preparations derived from black poplar (Populus Nigra) gemma standardizes mitochondrial respiration, reduces presentation of inflammation, and considerably improves EPR-spectrum of gingival tissue. Though the complete normalization is not achieved--hazard of peroxidation still remains, the applied preparations, due to their strong anti- oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities is as an effective and rehabilitative means to tackle gingivitis and peiodontitis.

  19. THE STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STEMS OF MORUS NIGRA

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. A. Vakhrusheva; I. I. Kharchenko; A. S. Nikitina; E. T. Oganesyan

    2015-01-01

    Until now, plants have been the main source of new drugs. Morus nigra, which contains a rich complex of biologically active substances necessary for an organism (vitamins, anthocyanins, macro- and microelements, organic acids) is of great interest. We have conducted morphological and anatomical studies of stems of Morus nigra, identified the main diagnostic characters of the studied medicinal plants. Experimental studies have shown that the stems of Morus nigra are characterized by the presen...

  20. arXiv Observation of the $\\varXi^{-}_{b}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, P H; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Tenglin; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nogay, Alla; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevens, Holger; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The observation of the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is reported, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb detector in $pp$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ and $8~\\mathrm{TeV}$. The production rate of $\\varXi_{b}^{-}$ baryons detected in the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is measured relative to that of $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}$ baryons using the decay $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda$. Integrated over the $b$-baryon transverse momentum $p_{\\rm T}<25~\\mathrm{GeV/}c $ and rapidity $2.0 < y < 4.5$, the measured ratio is \\begin{equation*} \\frac{f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}}{f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}}\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-})}{\\mathcal{B}(\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda)}=(4.19\\pm 0.29~(\\mathrm{stat})\\pm0.14~(\\mathrm{syst}))\\times 10^{-2}, \\end{equation*}where $f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}$ and $f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}$ are the fragmentation fractions of $b\\to\\varXi_{...

  1. Effect of geographical distributions on the nutrient composition, phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of Morus nigra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima; Rahman, Tajur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    .... The current study was carried out to see the effect of geographical locations on the nutrient composition, mineral contents, phytochemical profile and free radical scavenging activity of Morus nigra fruit...

  2. Down-regulation of Bcl-2 in rat substantia nigra after focal cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Dávila, Cesar A; Cardona-Gomez, Gloria P; Gallego-Gomez, Juan C; Garcia-Segura, Luis M; Pimienta, Hernán J

    2004-06-28

    After occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats, a robust neuronal loss occurs in the ipsilateral substantia nigra reticulata. In this study we have assessed whether degeneration of the substantia nigra is accompanied by changes in the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Neuronal loss was assessed by neuronal nuclei (NeuN) immunoreactivity. A significant decrease of Bcl-2 expression was observed in the substantia nigra 12, 24 and 72 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion. These results suggest that the secondary neuronal loss in the substantia nigra could be related with the modification of proteins regulating programmed cell death. Exo-focal cell death may explain the appearance of neuropsychiatric symptoms that are not correlated with the primary site of lesion.

  3. Illicit stimulant use is associated with abnormal substantia nigra morphology in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Todd

    Full Text Available Use of illicit stimulants such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy is an increasing health problem. Chronic use can cause neurotoxicity in animals and humans but the long-term consequences are not well understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the long-term effect of stimulant use on the morphology of the human substantia nigra. We hypothesised that history of illicit stimulant use is associated with an abnormally bright and enlarged substantia nigra (termed 'hyperechogenicity' when viewed with transcranial sonography. Substantia nigra morphology was assessed in abstinent stimulant users (n = 36; 31±9 yrs and in two groups of control subjects: non-drug users (n = 29; 24±5 yrs and cannabis users (n = 12; 25±7 yrs. Substantia nigra morphology was viewed with transcranial sonography and the area of echogenicity at the anatomical site of the substantia nigra was measured at its greatest extent. The area of substantia nigra echogenicity was significantly larger in the stimulant group (0.273±0.078 cm(2 than in the control (0.201±0.054 cm(2; P<0.001 and cannabis (0.202±0.045 cm(2; P<0.007 groups. 53% of stimulant users exhibited echogenicity that exceeded the 90(th percentile for the control group. The results of the current study suggest that individuals with a history of illicit stimulant use exhibit abnormal substantia nigra morphology. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity is a strong risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease later in life and further research is required to determine if the observed abnormality in stimulant users is associated with a functional deficit of the nigro-striatal system.

  4. Stroke of the substance nigra and parkinsonism as first manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta Daniel, San-Juan; Ulises, Rodríguez-Ortiz

    2008-01-01

    The authors report one case of parkinsonism associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): a 45-year-old woman, who presented with a strategic infarct of the right substance nigra secondary to vasculitis, and contralateral symptoms. Other causes of parkinsonism were excluded. She had a partial response to therapy with levodopa. Parkinsonism as the first manifestation of lupus is extremely rare. This is the first reported case with strategic infarction in the substance nigra secondary to vasculitis in a patient with SLE.

  5. Natuurlijke verjonging en hybridisatie bij populieren (Populus nigra en P. x canadensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Beringen, Ruud

    1998-01-01

    Untill 20 years ago seedlings of poplars were rarely found in the Netherlands. Nowadays, however, they are increasingly numerous, especially in the riverine area. This is probably due to poplar-planting activities, resulting in greater clonal diversity and better mixing of ♂ and ♀ clones with overlapping flowering periods as well for P. x canadensis as for P. nigra. Because backcrossess between P. nigra and P. x canadensis can be formed at sites with spontaneous regeneration, the identificati...

  6. FCH_Enveliopsis_nudicaulis_var_corrugata_19850520

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows sunray (Enceliopsis nudicaulis var. corrugata) occur.

  7. Variable cosmological term \\varLambda(t)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, J.; D'oleire, M.; Pimentel, Luis O.

    2015-11-01

    We present the case of time-varying cosmological term \\varLambda(t). The main idea arises by proposing that as in the cosmological constant case, the scalar potential is identified as V(φ)=2\\varLambda, with \\varLambda a constant, this identification should be kept even when the cosmological term has a temporal dependence, i.e., V(φ(t))=2\\varLambda(t). We use the Lagrangian formalism for a scalar field φ with standard kinetic energy and arbitrary potential V(φ) and apply this model to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by a special ansatz to solve the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equation and a particular potential for the scalar field and barotropic perfect fluid. We present the evolution on this cosmological term with different scenarios.

  8. Renal biochemical and histopathological alterations of diabetic rats under treatment with hydro alcoholic Morus nigra extrac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Madiseh, Mohammad; Naimi, Azar; Heydarian, Esfandiar; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Morus nigra fruit is known to have antioxidant effects and used to control the blood sugar level in traditional medicine. Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the biochemical and histopathological changes in the serum and kidneys of diabetic rats treated with hydroalcoholic M. nigra extract. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 12 each. After induction of diabetes with alloxan, the diabetic rats were treated with hydroalcoholic extract of M. nigra at different concentrations. Then, the animals were anesthetized and the serum levels of glucose, creatinine, and urea as well as kidney tissue catalase level measured. The kidney tissue was also histopathologically examined. Results: Milder glomerular damage was seen in the group treated with 800 mg/kg of the M. nigra extract compared with diabetic and positive controls, and no difference in the expansion of mesenchymal tissue into renal glomerular vessels observed between the group treated with 800 mg/kg of M. nigra extract and diabetic and positive controls. Furthermore, creatinine levels were significantly higher and urea levels significantly lower in the group treated with 800 mg/kg of M. nigra extract than healthy and positive control groups (Pnigra extract at 800 mg/kg can prevent kidney tissue damage in diabetic rats and this fruit seems to be beneficial to patients with diabetes.

  9. Postnatal development of neurons, interneurons and glial cells in the substantia nigra of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Manami; Kimoto, Hiroki; Eto, Risa; Sasaki, Taeko; Kato, Hiroyuki; Kasahara, Jiro; Araki, Tsutomu

    2010-08-01

    We investigated postnatal alterations of neurons, interneurons and glial cells in the mouse substantia nigra using immunohistochemistry. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neuronal nuclei (NeuN), parvalbumin (PV), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba 1), CNPase (2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) immunoreactivity were measured in 1-, 2-, 4- and 8-week-old mice. In the present study, the maturation of NeuN-immunopositive neurons preceded the production of TH in the substantia nigra during postnatal development in mice. Furthermore, the maturation of nNOS-immunopositive interneurons preceded the maturation of PV-immunopositive interneurons in the substantia nigra during postnatal development. Among astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes, in contrast, the development process of oligodendrocytes is delayed in the substantia nigra. Our double-labeled immunohistochemical study suggests that the neurotrophic factors such as BDNF and GDNF secreted by GFAP-positive astrocytes may play some role in maturation of neurons, interneurons and glial cells of the substantia nigra during postnatal development in mice. Thus, our findings provide valuable information on the development processes of the substantia nigra.

  10. [Introduction trial of medicine mulberry (Morus nigra) in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qi-Wei; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Hong-Yu; Ding, Tian-Long; Zhao, Ai-Chun; Xiang, Zhong-Huai; He, Ning-Jia

    2016-04-01

    Medicine mulberry (Morus nigra) mainly distributed in southern areas of Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region and introduced by grafting, is a unique Morus species, whose plant number is little. As a traditional herbal medicine, medicine mulberry with high levels of secondary metabolites has important values of scientific research and utilization. In order to solve the introduction problems for medicine mulberry, we have established its rapid propagation system through tissue culture since 2011. The shoots of medicine mulberry through tissue culture were transplanted into the field to carry out an introduction experiment. Here, we firstly reported that the growth status and pest and disease occurrence of medicine mulberry in the field of Chongqing and found that the medicine mulberry through tissue culture had well-developed root system, it showed better growth than medicine mulberry by grafting technique, and Pseudodendrothrips moil was a major pest of medicine mulberry. The introduction technique for medicine mulberry established successfully in this study could lay the foundation for large-scale cultivation and high efficiency utilization of medicine mulberry. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. In vivo imaging markers of neurodegeneration of the substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Dorothee P

    2009-01-01

    Non invasive detection and monitoring of substantia nigra degeneration is a long sought aim for neuroscientists, clinicians and pharmaceutical companies with an interest in Parkinson's disease (PD). Functional imaging techniques are established tools to assess the extent of striatal dopaminergic denervation that indirectly reflects nigral degeneration. They allow characterization of the dopaminergic denervation during the premotor phase of PD and have clinical value to establish the diagnosis in parkinsonism, but have proven to be unsatisfactory as surrogate markers in recent treatment trials. There is strong research interest in developing new imaging tests for nigral degeneration using a variety of structural brain imaging techniques. Nigral hyperechogenicity assessed by transcranial sonography emerges as a robust and low cost test to diagnose PD. Additionally, various advanced magnetic resonance imaging contrasts and high field magnetic resonance spectroscopy show promising sensitivity to nigral pathology in PD. Qualification of these emerging imaging tests against defined biomarker criteria is a complex and challenging task ahead. More systematic validation studies analogous to clinical trials are needed to meet the expectations and criteria defined by regulatory bodies before imaging biomarkers can be used as surrogate endpoints for neuroprotective or restorative trials.

  12. Antiplasmodial Alkaloids from the Bark of Cryptocarya nigra (Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalijah Awang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A dichloromethane extract of the stem bark of Cryptocarya nigra showed strong in vitro inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum growth, with an IC50 value of 2.82 μg/mL. The phytochemical study of this extract has led to the isolation and characterization of four known alkaloids: (+-N-methylisococlaurine (1, atherosperminine (2, 2-hydroxyathersperminine (3, and noratherosperminine (4. Structural elucidation of all alkaloids was accomplished by means of high field 1D- and 2D-NMR, IR, UV and LCMS spectral data. The isolated extract constituents (+-N-methylisococlaurine (1, atherosperminine (2 and 2-hydroxy-atherosperminine (3 showed strong antiplasmodial activity, with IC50 values of 5.40, 5.80 and 0.75 μM, respectively. In addition, (+-N-methylisocolaurine (1 and atherosperminine (2 showed high antioxidant activity in a DPPH assay with IC50 values of 29.56 ug/mL and 54.53 ug/mL respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 also both showed high antioxidant activity in the FRAP assay, with percentages of 78.54 and 70.66 respectively and in the metal chelating assay, with IC50 values of 50.08 ug/mL and 42.87 ug/mL, respectively.

  13. Genetic diversity in Populus nigra plantations from west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Alimohamadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to adopt strategies for forest conservation and development,it is necessary to estimate the amount and distribution of genetic diversity in existing populations of poplar in Iran. In this study, the genetic diversity between eight stands of Populus nigra established in Kermanshah province was evaluated on the basis of molecular and morphological markers. To amplify microsatellite loci (WPMS09, WPMS16 and WPMS18, DNA extraction from young and fresh leaveswas done. Various conditions of the PCR assay were examined and to evaluate the morphological variation of the morphological characters leaves (consist of 19 traits were measured. In addition, height growth was measured, to evaluate the growth function of the stands in homogeneous conditions. Genetic diversity in termof polymorphic loci was 0%, because three investigated microsatellite loci were monomorphic. The total number of alleles for 3 microsatellite loci was 6 (na = 2, ne = 2, heo = 1, hee = 0.51. Genetic identity based on Nei was 100%, so genetic distance was 0%. The whole sampled trees represented the same thus the genotype. No significant differences between the mean values of all morphological characters and height growth were revealed. Observed genetic similarity gave indication that same ramets had been selected to plant in poplar plantation established in Kermanshah province.These results suggest the need for an initial evaluation of the genetic diversity in selected ramets for planting in plantation to avoid repetition.

  14. Genetic diversity in Populus nigra plantations from west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Alimohamadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to adopt strategies for forest conservation and development, it is necessary to estimate the amount and distribution of genetic diversity in existing populations of poplar in Iran. In this study, the genetic diversity between eight stands of Populus nigra established in Kermanshah province was evaluated on the basis of molecular and morphological markers. To amplify microsatellite loci (WPMS09, WPMS16 and WPMS18, DNA extraction from young and fresh leaveswas done. Various conditions of the PCR assay were examined and to evaluate the morphological variation of the morphological characters leaves (consist of 19 traits were measured. In addition, height growth was measured, to evaluate the growth function of the stands in homogeneous conditions. Genetic diversity in term of polymorphic loci was 0%, because three investigated microsatellite loci were monomorphic. The total number of alleles for 3 microsatellite loci was 6 (na = 2, ne = 2, heo = 1, hee = 0.51. Genetic identity based on Nei was 100%, so genetic distance was 0%. The whole sampled trees represented the same thus the genotype. No significant differences between the mean values of all morphological characters and height growth were revealed. Observed genetic similarity gave indication that same ramets had been selected to plant in poplar plantation established in Kermanshah province. These results suggest the need for an initial evaluation of the genetic diversity in selected ramets for planting in plantation to avoid repetition.  

  15. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of Brassica nigra introgression lines from somatic hybridization: a resource for cauliflower improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixiang Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Broad phenotypic variations were obtained previously in derivatives from the asymmetric somatic hybridization of cauliflower ‘Korso’ (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, 2n = 18, CC genome and black mustard ‘G1/1’ (Brassica nigra, 2n = 16, BB genome. However, the mechanisms underlying these variations were unknown. In this study, 28 putative introgression lines (ILs were pre-selected according to a series of morphological (leaf shape and color, plant height and branching, curd features, and flower traits and physiological (black rot/club root resistance characters. Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that these plants contained 18 chromosomes derived from ‘Korso’. Molecular marker (65 simple sequence repeats and 77 amplified fragment length polymorphisms analysis identified the presence of ‘G1/1’ DNA segments (average 7.5%. Additionally, DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences among the ILs, including sequence alterations, deletions, and variation in patterns of cytosine methylation. The frequency of fragments lost (5.1% was significantly higher than presence of novel bands (1.4%, and the presence of fragments specific to B. carinata (BBCC 2n = 34 were common (average 15.5%. Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis indicated that methylation changes were common and that hypermethylation (12.4% was more frequent than hypomethylation (4.8%. Our results suggested that asymmetric somatic hybridization and alien DNA introgression induced genetic and epigenetic alterations. Thus, these ILs represent an important, novel germplasm resource for cauliflower improvement that can be mined for diverse traits of interest to breeders and researchers.

  16. Molluscicidal activity of Morus nigra against the freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farheen Hanif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of Morus nigra fruit, bark and leaf powder against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was time and concentration dependent. Toxicity of fruit powder (96h LC50: 166.92 mg/L was more pronounced in comparison to bark powder (96h LC50: 173.17 mg/L and leaf powder (96h LC50: 173.69 mg/L. Ethanolic extracts of M. nigra fruit, bark and leaf was more toxic than their other organic solvent extracts. The molluscicidal activity of ethanolic extract of M. nigra fruit powder (24h LC50: 116.23 mg/L was more effective than the ethanolic extract of bark powder (24h LC50: 154.41 mg/L and leaf powder (24h LC50: 139.80 mg/L. The 96h LC50 of column-purified fraction of M. nigra fruit powder was, 10.03 mg/L whereas that of bark and leaf powder was 8.69 mg/L and 4.97 mg/L, respectively. Column and thin layer chromatography analysis demonstrates that the active molluscicidal component in M. nigra is quercetin (96h LC50: 1.11 mg/L, apigenin (96h LC50: 1.92 mg/L and morusin (96h LC50: 2.12 mg/L, respectively. Co-migration of quercetin (Rf 0.49, apigenin (Rf 0.51 and morusin (Rf 0.52 with column-purified fruit, bark and leaf of M. nigra on thin layer chromatography demonstrates same Rf value. The present study indicates that M. nigra may be used as potent source of molluscicides against the snail Lymnaea acuminata.

  17. [(18)F]AV-1451 binding to neuromelanin in the substantia nigra in PD and PSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakeley, Sarah; Cho, Sang Soo; Koshimori, Yuko; Rusjan, Pablo; Ghadery, Christine; Kim, Jinhee; Lang, Anthony E; Houle, Sylvain; Strafella, Antonio P

    2017-09-07

    This study investigated binding of [(18)F]AV-1451 to neuromelanin in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). [(18)F]AV-1451 is a positron emission tomography radiotracer designed to bind pathological tau. A post-mortem study using [(18)F]AV-1451 discovered off-target binding properties to neuromelanin in the substantia nigra. A subsequent clinical study reported a 30% decrease in [(18)F]AV-1451 binding in the midbrain of PD patients. A total of 12 patients and 10 healthy age-matched controls were recruited. An anatomical MRI and a 90-min PET scan, using [(18)F]AV-1451, were acquired from all participants. The standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) from 60 to 90 min post-injection was calculated for the substantia nigra, using the cerebellar cortex as the reference region. The substantia nigra was delineated using automated region of interest software. An independent samples ANOVA and LSD post hoc testing were used to test for differences in [(18)F]AV-1451 SUVR between groups. Substantia nigra SUVR from 60 to 90 min was significantly greater in HC compared to both PSP and PD groups. Although the PD group had the lowest SUVR, there was no significant difference in substantia nigra uptake between PD and PSP. [(18)F]AV-1451 may be the first PET radiotracer capable of imaging neurodegeneration of the substantia nigra in parkinsonisms. Further testing must be done in PD and atypical parkinsonian disorders to support this off-target use of [(18)F]AV-1451.

  18. Intrinsic and integrative properties of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fu-Ming; Lee, Christian R.

    2011-01-01

    The GABA projection neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) are output neurons for the basal ganglia and thus critical for movement control. Their most striking neurophysiological feature is sustained, spontaneous high frequency spike firing. A fundamental question is: what are the key ion channels supporting the remarkable firing capability in these neurons? Recent studies indicate that these neurons express tonically active TRPC3 channels that conduct a Na-dependent inward current even at hyperpolarized membrane potentials. When the membrane potential reaches −60 mV, a voltage-gated persistent sodium current (INaP) starts to activate, further depolarizing the membrane potential. At or slightly below −50 mV, the large transient voltage-activated sodium current (INaT) starts to activate and eventually triggers the rapid rising phase of action potentials. SNr GABA neurons have a higher density of (INaT), contributing to the faster rise and larger amplitude of action potentials, compared with the slow-spiking dopamine neurons. INaT also recovers from inactivation more quickly in SNr GABA neurons than in nigral dopamine neurons. In SNr GABA neurons, the rising phase of the action potential triggers the activation of high-threshold, inactivation-resistant Kv3-like channels that can rapidly repolarize the membrane. These intrinsic ion channels provide SNr GABA neurons with the ability to fire spontaneous and sustained high frequency spikes. Additionally, robust GABA inputs from direct pathway medium spiny neurons in the striatum and GABA neurons in the globus pallidus may inhibit and silence SNr GABA neurons, whereas glutamate synaptic input from the subthalamic nucleus may induce burst firing in SNr GABA neurons. Thus, afferent GABA and glutamate synaptic inputs sculpt the tonic high frequency firing of SNr GABA neurons and the consequent inhibition of their targets into an integrated motor control signal that is further fine-tuned by neuromodulators

  19. The Portfolio Decision Under the VaR Constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChunfengWang; XinshuTu

    2004-01-01

    The VaR, a new appearing financial risk-manage tool, have been applied widely. Many financial setups have accustomed to measure the risk of a portfolio with the VaR. So it is very necessary to discuss the portfolio choice problem under the VaR constraint. In this paper, by setting and solving the portfolio choice model under the VaR constraint, we illustrate that the use of the VaR constraint reduces the array of choice to a more manageable range. The probability of traget VaR, therefore, can be thought of as a risk tolerance assessment tool (when coupled with another measure of risk).

  20. 药桑椹花青素的体外抗氧化作用%Antioxidant Activity of Anthocyanins from Morus nigra L. in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江岩; 郑力; 克热木江·吐尔逊江

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from Morus nigra L.(AMNL) in vitro was determined and compared with that of anthocyanins from Morus alba L.(AMAL) and Morus alba Linn.var.tatarica.(AMALV).The antioxidant evaluation was performed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl(DPPH),superoxide anion,hydroxyl and alkyl free radical scavenging assays and total antioxidant capacity(TOA) assay using rutin and VC as controls.The results showed that AMNL had stronger scavenging effect on DPPH free radicals with IC50 of 9.07 mg/L than AMAL and AMALV,but weaker scavenging effect on DPPH free radicals than rutin and vitamin C.Similarly,AMNL had more powerful scavenging effect on superoxide anion free radicals with IC50 of 2.82 mg/L and hydroxyl free radicals with IC50 of 7.77 mg/L than AMAL,AMALV,rutin and VC.However,anthocyanins from all the three cultivars of mulberry had a scavenging rate of less than 50% against alkyl free radicals.The total antioxidant capacity of AMNL revealed 11.8-,2.6-and 1.3-fold enhancement when compared with AMAL,AMALV and rutin,but was lower than that of vitamin C.%研究药桑椹花青素(anthocyanins from Morus nigra L.,AMNL)的体外抗氧化作用,并与白桑椹花青素(anthocyanins from Morus alba L.,AMAL)和黑桑椹花青素(anthocyanins from Morus alba Linn.var.tatarica,AMALV)的体外抗氧化作用进行比较。以芦丁和VC为对照,测定AMNL对二苯代苦味酰肼自由基(DPPH自由基)、超氧阴离子自由基(O2.)、羟自由基(.OH)和烷基自由基的清除能力,同时测定其体外

  1. Hybrid VAR compensator with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Burlaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern electrical networks thyristor-switched capacitors (TSC are most used devices for VAR compensation. These devices don’t contain rotating parts and mechanical contacts, provide a stepwise control of reactive power and no generation of harmonics to the network. However, with the help of TSC it’s not possible to ensure smooth control of reactive power and capacitor banks (CB are exposed to the negative impact of higher harmonic components of the network voltage. Hybrid VAR compensator don’t have such drawbacks. It consists of active filter (AF and capacitor bank with discrete regulation. The main drawback of such systems is the necessity of accessing all six terminals of CB, while most of them are manufactured with three terminals, internally delta-connected. In the article, the topology and control system of hybrid VAR compensator free from beforementioned drawback, is proposed. The control system provides operating modes of overcompensation or undercompensation reactive power. VAR distribution regulator performs redistribution of reactive power between active filter and capacitor banks with the condition to minimize active filter’s power. Scheme of the hybrid VAR compensator, which includes a three-phase three-terminal delta-connected capacitor banks, is shown. Proposed approach allows to provide smooth control of reactive power, isolate the capacitor bank from harmonic currents and use a more effective low-voltage power components

  2. VaR BASED RISK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Bohdalová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the Value–at–Risk concept and we analyse the market risk by using EWMA approach. EWMA (exponentially weighted moving average forecasting technique is a popular measure of various risks in financial risk management. We will compare standard EWMA, robust EWMA and skewed EWMA forecast of VaR. JP Morgan standard EWMA is derived from Gaussian distribution. Robust EWMA is based on Laplace distribution and skewed EWMA is a new approach derived from an asymmetric Laplace distribution. Asymmetric Laplace distribution takes into account both skewness and heavy tails in return distribution and the time varying nature of them in practice. Skewed EWMA VaR is a generalization of the standard EWMA method. Using these approaches we will analyse selected financial series (three European market indexes and one exchange rate. We have found andconfirmed that skewed EWMA forecasting of VaR outperforms the standard EWMA method.

  3. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    Some key econometric concepts and problems addressed by Trygve Haavelmo and Ragnar Frisch are discussed within the general frame- work of a cointegrated VAR. The focus is on problems typical of time- series data such as multicollinearity, spurious correlation and regres- sion results, time......) the plausibility of the multivari- ate normality assumption underlying the VAR, (3) cointegration as a solution to the problem of spurious correlation and multicollinearity when data contain deterministic and stochastic trends, (4) the exis- tence of a universe, (5) the association between Frisch’s con...

  4. THE STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STEMS OF MORUS NIGRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Vakhrusheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now, plants have been the main source of new drugs. Morus nigra, which contains a rich complex of biologically active substances necessary for an organism (vitamins, anthocyanins, macro- and microelements, organic acids is of great interest. We have conducted morphological and anatomical studies of stems of Morus nigra, identified the main diagnostic characters of the studied medicinal plants. Experimental studies have shown that the stems of Morus nigra are characterized by the presence of thick-walled epidermal cells with slightly convoluted walls and a large number of ordinary thick-walled fuzz.

  5. The complete chloroplast genome of two Brassica species, Brassica nigra and B. Oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Young-Joo; Kim, Kyunghee; Kang, Sang-Ho; Perumal, Sampath; Lee, Jonghoon; Kim, Chang-Kug

    2017-03-01

    The two Brassica species, Brassica nigra and Brassica oleracea, are important agronomic crops. The chloroplast genome sequences were generated by de novo assembly using whole genome next-generation sequences. The chloroplast genomes of B. nigra and B. oleracea were 153 633 bp and 153 366 bp in size, respectively, and showed conserved typical chloroplast structure. The both chloroplast genomes contained a total of 114 genes including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that B. oleracea is closely related to B. rapa and B. napus but B. nigra is more diverse than the neighbor species Raphanus sativus.

  6. Distribution of nitric oxide synthase positive neurons in the substantia nigra of rats with liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Nitrogen monoxide plays an important role in the physiological activity and pathological process of striatum in substantia nigra, and the nitric oxide synthase in substantia nigra may have characteristic changes after liver cirrhosis.OBJECTIYE: To observe the distribution and forms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) positive neurons and fibers in substantia nigra of rats with liver cirrhosis.DESIGN: A comparative observational experiment.SETTINGS: Beijing Friendship Hospital; Capital Medical University.MATERIALS: Twenty 4-month-old male Wistar rats (120 - 150 g) of clean grade, were maintained in a 12-hour light/dark cycle at a constant temperature with free access to standard diet and water. Cryostat microtome (LEICA, Germany); All the reagents were purchased from Sigma Company.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Department of Anatomy (key laboratory of Beijing city),Capital Medical University from July 2000 to March 2002. The rats were randomly divided into normal group (n=10) and liver fibrosis group (n=10). Rats in the liver fibrosis group were subcutaneously injected with 60% CCl4 oil at a dose of 5 mL/kg for the first time, and 3 mL/kg for the next 14 times, twice a week,totally 15 times. Liver fibrosis of grades 5 - 6 was taken as successful models. Whereas rats in the normal group were not given any treatment. Four months after CCl4 treatment, all the rats were anesthetized to remove brain, and frontal frozen serial sections were prepared. The expressions of nitric oxide synthase positive neurons in substantia nigra of rats were observed under inverted microscope. The number and gray scale of cell body of nitric oxide synthase positive neurons in substantia nigra were detected with NADPH-diaphorase staining.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ①Number and gray scale of cell body of nitric oxide synthase positive neurons in substantia nigra; ②Expressions of nitric oxide synthase positive neurons in substantia nigra.RESULTS: All the 20 rats were

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haixia Ding; Meijiang Feng; Xinsheng Ding

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive neurodegenerative central nervous system disease which occurs in the substantia nigra-corpus striatum system. The main pathological feature of PD is selective dopaminergic neuronal loss with distinctive Lewy bodies in populations of surviving dopaminergic neurons. In the clinical and neuropathological diagnosis of PD, brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in the substantia nigra pars compacta is reduced by 70%, and surviving dopaminergic neurons in the PD substantia nigra pars compacta express less brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA (20%) than their normal counterparts. In recent years, knowledge surrounding the relationship between neurotrophic factors and PD has increased, and detailed pathogenesis of the role of neurotrophic factors in PD becomes more important.

  8. Insights into some physiological and biochemical responses of Populus alba and Populus nigra to lead contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Etemadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of lead (PbCl2 increment, under hydroponic conditions up to 15, 45 and 90 mg/l in presence of EDTA, on some physiological and biochemical traits of one year old saplings of P. nigra and P. alba, were investigated. Six weeks after establishing in target concentration, the amount of lead, biomass, water, soluble sugars, proline, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde, and pigments were assessed in different organs. The results revealed that with increasing lead concentration in culture medium in the studied period, the amount of lead in saplings increased, but no effect was observed on their biomass. In both species the magnitude of lead accumulation in root was higher than leaf. P. nigra had more water and less soluble sugars than P. alba. The concentration of soluble sugars increased up to 1.5 times with lead increment in both species, but proline content increased only in P. nigra up to 2 times and remained constant in P. alba. Elevation of electrolyte leakage in saplings of P. nigra in excess lead treatment was accompanied by no change in malondialdehyde content. Concentrations of pigments were not affected by lead, and only the ratio of chlorophyll a to b in P. nigra increased in high lead concentration. In general both species accumulated high extent of lead in their organs. But it seems that P. nigra, at least with respect of enhancing plasma membrane permeability, increasing proline and the ratio of chlorophyll a to b, was more sensitive to this toxic metal in compare with P. alba.

  9. Comparison Between in Vivo and in Vitro Metabolite Production of Morus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, F; Monacelli, B; Messana, I

    1999-02-01

    Nine flavonoids and seven Diels-Alder type adducts were isolated from the acetonic extract of MORUS NIGRA I. root bark, and three flavonoids and six Diels-Alder type adducts were isolated from the acetonic extract of M. NIGRA L. callus. However, none of the metabolites isolated from the root bark was found in the cell culture. Moreover, adducts isolated from the plant and cell culture showed not only a different cyclohexene ring substitution but also a different stereochemistry, that was found CIS-TRONS in the metabolites isolated from callus, and TRANS-TRANS in those isolated from the root bark.

  10. Age and Parkinson's disease-related neuronal death in the substantia nigra pars compacta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Nina; Stark, Anette Kirstine; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2009-01-01

    of this system, Parkinson's disease, is characterized by a selective, progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. This review includes studies quantifying age and Parkinson's-related changes of the substantia nigra, with emphasis on stereological studies performed......During aging, decline in memory and cognitive abilities as well as motor weakening is of great concern. The dopaminergic system mediates some aspects of manual dexterity, in addition to cognition and emotion, and may be especially vulnerable to aging. A common neurodegenerative disorder...

  11. Age and Parkinson's disease-related neuronal death in the substantia nigra pars compacta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Nina; Stark, Anette Kirstine; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2009-01-01

    During aging, decline in memory and cognitive abilities as well as motor weakening is of great concern. The dopaminergic system mediates some aspects of manual dexterity, in addition to cognition and emotion, and may be especially vulnerable to aging. A common neurodegenerative disorder...... of this system, Parkinson's disease, is characterized by a selective, progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. This review includes studies quantifying age and Parkinson's-related changes of the substantia nigra, with emphasis on stereological studies performed...

  12. A comparison of yield-related traits of Coriandrum sativum var. microcarpum DC. and Coriandrum sativum var. sativum

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolay Dyulgerov; Boryana Dyulgerova

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation we studied how yield-related traits of large-fruited (var. sativum) and small-fruited (var. microcarpum DC.) coriander differ at the Southeastern Bulgaria climatic conditions during 2010-2012. For this purpose, 20 genotypes from var. microcarpum and 20 genotypes from var. sativum were tested using a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat. Plant height, number of primary branches per plant, number of umbels per ...

  13. A Structured VAR under Changing Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    The empirical analysis is mainly concerned with the aggregate demand for money relation as part of a small macroeconomic system. Using the theory of cointegrated VAR models for I(2) data the long-run relationships in the data are first investigated, and the ML-estimates of the corresponding coint...

  14. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    dependent residuals, normalization, reduced rank, model selection, missing variables, simultaneity, autonomy and iden- ti…cation. Speci…cally the paper discusses (1) the conditions under which the VAR model represents a full probability formulation of a sample of time-series observations, (2...

  15. Bacterial endosymbionts of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, Ma Patricia V; Azanza, Rhodora V; Vargas, Vanessa Mercee D; Hedreyda, Cynthia T

    2006-11-01

    The study presents evidence in support of the bacterial theory associated with the toxicity of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum. Bacterial endosymbionts from Philippine P. bahamense var. compressum strain Pbc MZRVA 042595 were isolated and identified via 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Taxonomic diversity of the identified culturable intracellular microbiota associated with Philippine P. bahamense var. compressum was established to be limited to the Phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Major endosymbionts identified included Moraxella spp., Erythrobacter spp., and Bacillus spp., whereas Pseudomonas putida, Micrococcus spp., and Dietzia maris were identified as minor isolates. All identified strains except D. maris, P. putida, and Micrococcus spp. were shown to contain either saxitoxin or neo saxitoxin or both at levels < or =73 ng/10(7) bacterial cells based on high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Paralytic shellfish poisoning-like physiologic reactions in test animals used in the mouse assay were recorded for the endosymbionts except for P. putida. The study is the first to elucidate the possible contribution of bacterial endosymbionts in the toxicity of P. bahamense var. compressum isolated in the Philippines.

  16. Is Solanum ferox var. ferox (Solanaceae) extinct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiser, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 I wrote letters to over 50 people (botanists, agricultural scientists, and former students of Indiana University) in south-eastern Asia trying to obtain a few seeds of Solanumferox L. var. ferox (S. involucratum Blume). I had over 25 replies, five of which included seeds, but none of the

  17. Is Solanum ferox var. ferox (Solanaceae) extinct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiser, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 I wrote letters to over 50 people (botanists, agricultural scientists, and former students of Indiana University) in south-eastern Asia trying to obtain a few seeds of Solanumferox L. var. ferox (S. involucratum Blume). I had over 25 replies, five of which included seeds, but none of the see

  18. Detoxification of Benzoxazolinone Allelochemicals from Wheat by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, G. graminis var. graminis, G. graminis var. avenae, and Fusarium culmorum

    OpenAIRE

    Friebe, A.; Vilich, V.; Hennig, L.; Kluge, M.; Sicker, D.

    1998-01-01

    The ability of phytopathogenic fungi to overcome the chemical defense barriers of their host plants is of great importance for fungal pathogenicity. We studied the role of cyclic hydroxamic acids and their related benzoxazolinones in plant interactions with pathogenic fungi. We identified species-dependent differences in the abilities of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. avenae, and Fusarium culmorum to detoxify these all...

  19. Morus nigra leaf extract improves glycemic response and redox profile in the liver of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Carolina Morais; Lúcio, Karine de Pádua; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Isoldi, Mauro César; de Souza, Gustavo Henrique Bianco; Brandão, Geraldo Célio; Schulz, Richard; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and alterations in the carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. DM is associated with increased oxidative stress and pancreatic beta cell damage, which impair the production of insulin and the maintenance of normoglycemia. Inhibiting oxidative damage and controlling hyperglycemia are two important strategies for the prevention of diabetes. The pulp and leaf extracts of mulberry (Morus nigra L.) have abundant total phenolics and flavonoids, and its antioxidant potential may be an important factor for modulating oxidative stress induced by diabetes. In this study, DM was induced by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (135 mg kg(-1)). Female Fischer rats were divided into four groups: control, diabetic, diabetic pulp, and diabetic leaf extract. Animals in the diabetic pulp and diabetic leaf extract groups were treated for 30 days with M. nigra L. pulp or leaf extracts, respectively. At the end of treatment, animals were euthanized and, liver and blood samples were collected for analysis of biochemical and metabolic parameters. Our study demonstrated that treatment of diabetic rats with leaf extracts decreased the superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase (CAT) ratio and carbonylated protein levels by reducing oxidative stress. Moreover, the leaf extract of M. nigra L. decreased the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity, increased insulinemia, and alleviated hyperglycemia-induced diabetes. In conclusion, our study found that the leaf extract of M. nigra L. improved oxidative stress and complications in diabetic rats, suggesting the utility of this herbal remedy in the prevention and treatment of DM.

  20. Wood Anatomical Structure of Morus alba L. and Morus nigra L., Native to Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham KARAMI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Iran is a wast country with many different tree species. Among those there are two species of Morus genus including alba and nigra. Since long time ago, white mulberrys wood (Morus alba has been used for making musical instruments especially bowl shaped instruments in Iran.. In contrast, black mulberrys wood (Morus nigra has never been used for these types of applications. In order to investigate the possible replacement choices, this study has been carried out to investigate the anatomical differences and similarities between these two species. Wood samples of the two species have been collected from same site and microsections for light microscopic studies and maceration samples have been prepared. The anatomical characteristics were studied according to the IAWA List of Hardwoods. The most important similarities between them are: vessel solitary in short radial multiples or irregular clusters, fiber nonseptate, rays uniseriate and multiseriate type, paratracheal parenchyma, varying from vasicentric to aliform confluent, apotracheal as marginal bands, Rhombic crystals present in rays and sometimes in parenchyma. The main differences are: semi-ring porous distribution of vessels in M. alba, fewer number of vessels and presence of aliform parenchyma in M. nigra. Taking these results into consideration, the most important features of both species are similar and it could be recommended to use the nigra species as well as the alba for making musical instruments.

  1. Efficacy of Morus nigra L. on reproduction in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Graziela Tonioni; Santos, Tatianne Rosa; Macedo, Renato; Peters, Vera Maria; Leite, Magda Narciso; de Cássia da Silveira e Sá, Rita; de Oliveira Guerra, Martha

    2012-03-01

    Morus nigra L. is a plant employed as a substitute for the conventional hormonal replacement therapy. This work analyzes the estrogenic effect of M. nigra on the reproductive system and embryonic development of Wistar rats. Female rats were orally treated with M. nigra hydroalcoholic extract (MnHE) at the dose levels of 25, 50, 75, 350 and 700 mg/kg of body weight over 15 days, and continued through mating until the 14th day of gestation. Vaginal smears were performed daily and the body weight of the females was recorded at 5 days intervals. On day 15 of gestation, the females were killed and their kidneys, liver, spleen and ovaries were removed and weighed. The number of implants, resorptions, and live and dead fetuses were evaluated. Histological sections of ovaries, measurement of the height of the uterine epithelium and vaginal smears were performed to assess the estrogenic activity. The results showed that the administration of MnHE did not significantly alter the analyzed variables. Therefore, considering the experimental model used in this study, the data obtained indicate that M. nigra did not exhibit any estrogenic activity nor did exert a toxic effect on the female reproductive system and on the embryonic development of rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antioxidant and anxiolytic activities of Crataegus nigra Wald. et Kit. berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic-Milenkovic, Marija T; Tomovic, Marina T; Brankovic, Snezana R; Ljujic, Biljana T; Jankovic, Slobodan M

    2014-01-01

    Hawthorn has been present for a long time in traditional medicine as antihypertensive, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, antimicrobial agent. Hawthorn can be used for the cure of stress, nervousness but there is no published paper about actions of Crataegus nigra Wald. et Kit. fruits. The present study was carried out to test free-radical-scavenging and anxiolytic activity of C. nigra fruits. DPPH (alpha,alpha-diphenyl-beta-picrylhydrazyl) assay was used to measure antioxidant activity. BHT, BHA, PG, quercetin and rutin were used as standards. The total amount of phenolic compounds, procyanidins, and flavonoids in the extracts, was determined spectrophotometrically. Results were expressed as equivalents of gallic acid, cyanidin chloride and quercetin equivalents, respectively. LC-MS/MS was used for identification and quantification of phenolic composition. The anxiety effect, expressed as the difference in time spent in the open and closed arms, was measured and compared between groups. Phenolic compound content of Crataegus nigra fruits was 72.7 mg/g. Yield of total flavonoid aglycones was 0.115 mg/g. Procyanidins were 5.6 mg/g. DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the extracts showed linear concentration dependency, IC50 value were 27.33 microg/mL. Anxiolytic effect was observed. Species Crataegus nigra fruits hydroalcoholic extract showed antioxidant and anxiolytic activity.

  3. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaling, E.; Papazian, S.; Poelman, E.H.; Holopainen, J.K.; Albrectsen, B.R.; Blande, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under eleva

  4. Wood Anatomical Structure of Morus alba L. and Morus nigra L., Native to Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham KARAMI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Iran is a wast country with many different tree species. Among those there are two species of Morus genus including alba and nigra. Since long time ago, white mulberry�s wood (Morus alba has been used for making musical instruments especially bowl shaped instruments in Iran.. In contrast, black mulberry�s wood (Morus nigra has never been used for these types of applications. In order to investigate the possible replacement choices, this study has been carried out to investigate the anatomical differences and similarities between these two species. Wood samples of the two species have been collected from same site and microsections for light microscopic studies and maceration samples have been prepared. The anatomical characteristics were studied according to the IAWA List of Hardwoods. The most important similarities between them are: vessel solitary in short radial multiples or irregular clusters, fiber nonseptate, rays uniseriate and multiseriate type, paratracheal parenchyma, varying from vasicentric to aliform confluent, apotracheal as marginal bands, Rhombic crystals present in rays and sometimes in parenchyma. The main differences are: semi-ring porous distribution of vessels in M. alba, fewer number of vessels and presence of aliform parenchyma in M. nigra. Taking these results into consideration, the most important features of both species are similar and it could be recommended to use the nigra species as well as the alba for making musical instruments.

  5. Retinoic acid counteracts developmental defects in the substantia nigra caused by Pitx3 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Frank M. J.; Smits, Simone M.; Noorlander, Cornelle W.; von Oerthel, Lars; van der Linden, Annemarie J. A.; Burbach, J. Peter H.; Smidt, Marten P.

    2007-01-01

    Selective neuronal loss in the substantia nigra (SNc), as described for Parkinson's disease (PD) in humans and for Pitx3 deficiency in mice, highlights the existence of neuronal subpopulations. As yet unknown subset-specific gene cascades might underlie the observed differences in neuronal vulnerabi

  6. Substantia nigra lesions attenuate the development of hypertension and behavioural hyperreactivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Buuse, M; Veldhuis, H D; Versteeg, D H; De Jong, W

    1986-01-01

    The possible relation between changes in behaviour and the development of hypertension was investigated. Depletion of striatal dopamine by lesions in the substantia nigra of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) was associated with an inhibition of the development of hypertension. In the open field

  7. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF TISSUE CULTURE-RAISED BALLOTA NIGRA L. PLANTS GROWN EX VITRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowczyńska, Joanna; Grzegorczyk-KAROLAK, Izabela; Wysokińska, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were evaluated in methanolic extracts of shoots from Ballota nigra plants initiated in vitro (from nodal explants) and in vivo (from seeds). The plants were grown in greenhouse and in the field, and were analyzed at the vegetative and flowering stages. The shoot extract of wild-grown plants of B. nigra was also investigated. The results indicate that antioxidant potential of the B. nigra extracts seems to be due to their scavenging of free radicals (DPPH assay) and metal reducing (FRAP test), while they were less effective at the prevention of linoleic acid peroxidation (LPO test). The extracts from shoots of in vitro derived plants were found to exhibit the greatest antioxidant properties. The extracts were also characterized by the highest content of phenolic compounds and their level was affected by plant developmental stage. The extracts of shoots collected at the flowering period exhibited higher amounts of phenolics and flavonoids than in the extracts of immature plants. A close correlation between the total phenolic content and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity using the DPPH and FRAP assays was obtained. The results of the present study suggest the use in vitro-derived plants of B. nigra instead of using wild plants for pharmaceutical purposes.

  8. Forebrain Ischemia Triggers GABAergic System Degeneration in Substantia Nigra at Chronic Stages in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-term consequences of forebrain ischemia include delayed Parkinson's syndrome. This study revealed delayed neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra 8 weeks after 12.5 minutes of global ischemia in rat brain. Following neuronal loss of 30–40% in central and dorsolateral striatum at day 3, neuronal damage in the substantia nigra (SN was assessed at 4–8 weeks using immunohistochemistry for glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67, vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT, and calretinin (CR. At day 56, the optical density of GAD67-, but not VGAT-, immunoreactivity in substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR—significantly decreased. CR-neurons concentrated in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC were reduced by 27% from day 3 (n=5 to day 56 (n=7, ANOVA, p<.01. Movement coordination was impaired at day 56, as evaluated using beam-walking test (time-to-traverse 5.6±1.2 sec versus 11.8±5.4 sec; sham versus ischemia, p<.05, n=5, and 7, resp.. Our results demonstrate delayed impairment of the GABAergic system components in SN and associated with movement deficits after global ischemia.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACELLULAR GABA IN THE SUBSTANTIA-NIGRA-RETICULATA BY MEANS OF BRAIN MICRODIALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TIMMERMAN, W; ZWAVELING, J; WESTERINK, BHC

    1992-01-01

    Brain microdialysis was used to characterize extracellular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNR) of freely moving rats. The extracellular GABA in the SNR was characterized using acutely implanted probes (4-8 h after surgery; day 1) and chronically implanted probes (

  10. Stimulation of the substantia nigra influences the specification of memory-guided saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamed, Safraaz; Garrison, Tiffany J; Shires, Joel; Basso, Michele A

    2014-02-01

    In the absence of sensory information, we rely on past experience or memories to guide our actions. Because previous experimental and clinical reports implicate basal ganglia nuclei in the generation of movement in the absence of sensory stimuli, we ask here whether one output nucleus of the basal ganglia, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (nigra), influences the specification of an eye movement in the absence of sensory information to guide the movement. We manipulated the level of activity of neurons in the nigra by introducing electrical stimulation to the nigra at different time intervals while monkeys made saccades to different locations in two conditions: one in which the target location remained visible and a second in which the target location appeared only briefly, requiring information stored in memory to specify the movement. Electrical manipulation of the nigra occurring during the delay period of the task, when information about the target was maintained in memory, altered the direction and the occurrence of subsequent saccades. Stimulation during other intervals of the memory task or during the delay period of the visually guided saccade task had less effect on eye movements. On stimulated trials, and only when the visual stimulus was absent, monkeys occasionally (∼20% of the time) failed to make saccades. When monkeys made saccades in the absence of a visual stimulus, stimulation of the nigra resulted in a rotation of the endpoints ipsilaterally (∼2°) and increased the reaction time of contralaterally directed saccades. When the visual stimulus was present, stimulation of the nigra resulted in no significant rotation and decreased the reaction time of contralaterally directed saccades slightly. Based on these measurements, stimulation during the delay period of the memory-guided saccade task influenced the metrics of saccades much more than did stimulation during the same period of the visually guided saccade task. Because these effects

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of black mustard (Brassica nigra; BB) and comparison with Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Terachi, Toru

    2014-11-01

    Crop species of Brassica (Brassicaceae) consist of three monogenomic species and three amphidiploid species resulting from interspecific hybridizations among them. Until now, mitochondrial genome sequences were available for only five of these species. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the sixth species, Brassica nigra (nuclear genome constitution BB), and compared it with those of Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC). The genome was assembled into a 232 145 bp circular sequence that is slightly larger than that of B. oleracea (219 952 bp). The genome of B. nigra contained 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 17 tRNA genes. The cox2-2 gene present in B. oleracea was absent in B. nigra. Although the nucleotide sequences of 52 genes were identical between B. nigra and B. carinata, the second exon of rps3 showed differences including an insertion/deletion (indel) and nucleotide substitutions. A PCR test to detect the indel revealed intraspecific variation in rps3, and in one line of B. nigra it amplified a DNA fragment of the size expected for B. carinata. In addition, the B. carinata lines tested here produced DNA fragments of the size expected for B. nigra. The results indicate that at least two mitotypes of B. nigra were present in the maternal parents of B. carinata.

  12. Bolívar y Blanco White

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pons, André

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Este estudio procura poner de manifiesto la influencia de Blanco White, redactor de El Español (Londres, 1810-1814, en el ideario político de Bolívar, comparando el Manifiesto de Cartagena, la Carta de Jamaica y el Discurso de Angostura con los artículos de Blanco. Después de precisar las relaciones personales del periodista con el Libertador en Londres, se cotejan los textos y se muestra cómo Bolívar se inspiró en el periódico y lo utilizó en un doble sentido: subversivo, con objeto de justificar la lucha anticolonialista, y conservador, para analizar las dificultades de la independencia y de la democracia e imaginar el tipo de gobierno de los nacientes estados.

  13. Bioactive constituents of Cirsium japonicum var. australe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wan-Chun; Wu, Yang-Chang; Dankó, Balázs; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Hsieh, Chi-Ting; Tsai, Yu-Chi; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Martins, Ana; Hohmann, Judit; Hunyadi, Attila; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2014-07-25

    Cirsium japonicum var. australe, used as a folk medicine in Taiwan, has been employed traditionally in the treatment of diabetes and inflammatory symptoms. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of its ethanolic extract, utilizing centrifugal partition chromatography monitored by DPPH-TLC analysis, led to the isolation of three new acetylenic phenylacrylic acid esters (1-3) and two new polyacetylenes (4 and 5), together with seven known compounds (6-12). The structures of 1-5 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The absolute configurations of 4 and 7 were determined utilizing Mosher's method and ECD/CD experiments. The DPPH scavenging activity of the constituents isolated from the C. japonicum var. australe ethanolic extract was evaluated. The potential antidiabetic activity of some of the isolates was evaluated using in vitro cellular glucose uptake and oil red staining assays.

  14. Mutation studies in Cymbopogon nardus var. Confertiflorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, D.K.; Kak, S.N.; Kaul, B.L. (Regional Research Lab., Jammu (India))

    1981-09-01

    Vegetative slips of Cymbopogon nardus var, confertiflorus after irradiation with various doses of X-rays left a clone among the surviving plants that showed mutation resulting in a higher content of geranyl acetate. From its progeny, raised after selfing a fresh clone, possessing about 60% geranyl acetate in the oil without any effect on the herb yield, has been isolated. This mutant has a significant commercial importance as a new source of geranyl acetate, an important aroma chemical.

  15. Analysis list: Su(var)205 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)205 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)205.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)205.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(v...ar)205.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience

  16. Detoxification of Benzoxazolinone Allelochemicals from Wheat by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, G. graminis var. graminis, G. graminis var. avenae, and Fusarium culmorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebe; Vilich; Hennig; Kluge; Sicker

    1998-07-01

    The ability of phytopathogenic fungi to overcome the chemical defense barriers of their host plants is of great importance for fungal pathogenicity. We studied the role of cyclic hydroxamic acids and their related benzoxazolinones in plant interactions with pathogenic fungi. We identified species-dependent differences in the abilities of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. avenae, and Fusarium culmorum to detoxify these allelochemicals of gramineous plants. The G. graminis var. graminis isolate degraded benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) and 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (MBOA) more efficiently than did G. graminis var. tritici and G. graminis var. avenae. F. culmorum degraded BOA but not MBOA. N-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)-malonamic acid and N-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-malonamic acid were the primary G. graminis var. graminis and G. graminis var. tritici metabolites of BOA and MBOA, respectively, as well as of the related cyclic hydroxamic acids. 2-Amino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one was identified as an additional G. graminis var. tritici metabolite of BOA. No metabolite accumulation was detected for G. graminis var. avenae and F. culmorum by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungi was inhibited more by BOA and MBOA than by their related fungal metabolites. The tolerance of Gaeumannomyces spp. for benzoxazolinone compounds is correlated with their detoxification ability. The ability of Gaeumannomyces isolates to cause root rot symptoms in wheat (cultivars Rektor and Astron) parallels their potential to degrade wheat allelochemicals to nontoxic compounds.

  17. Transport of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki Via Fomites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Special Feature: Remediation Transport of Bacillus Thuringiensis var. Kurstaki Via Fomites Sheila Van Cuyk, Lee Ann B. Veal, Beverley Simpson, and...evaluate biodefense concepts of operations using routine spraying of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). Btk is dispersed in large quantities as...used is a water-based slurry containing Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). This bacterium produces a toxin that is lethal to gypsy moth

  18. Extracts of Morus nigra L. Leaves Standardized in Chlorogenic Acid, Rutin and Isoquercitrin: Tyrosinase Inhibition and Cytotoxicity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Freitas, Marcela Medeiros; Fontes, Pedro Ribeiro; Souza, Paula Monteiro; William Fagg, Christopher; Neves Silva Guerra, Eliete; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla; Silveira, Damaris; Fonseca-Bazzo, Yris; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Homem-de-Mello, Maurício; Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola

    2016-01-01

    .... Thus, this project aimed to study the inhibitory activity of tyrosinase by extracts from Morus nigra leaves as well as the characterization of its chromatographic profile and cytotoxicity in order...

  19. Reproductive biology and food habits of Pseudoboa nigra (Serpentes: Dipsadidae from the Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Paula Orofino

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein we provide data on body size, sexual size dimorphism,reproductive cycle, and food habits of the pseudoboini snake Pseudoboa nigra, which is distributed mainly in central South America throughout the Cerrado domain. Based on dissections of 147 preserved specimens, it is shown that females attain, and mature at,larger body sizes than males. There is no significant sexual dimorphism in head length, but males have longer tails relative to their body sizes. Vitellogenesis, egg-laying, and sperm production occur throughout the year, but males do not exhibit long-term sperm storage. The main prey of P. nigra is lizards; there is no evidence of ontogenetic change or sex differences in the diet of this species.

  20. Tinea nigra by Hortaea werneckii, a report of 22 cases from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, A; Badali, H; de Hoog, G S; Cruz, M; Araiza, J; Cruz, M A; Fierro, L; Ponce, R M

    2008-01-01

    Tinea nigra is a superficial mycosis caused by Hortaea werneckii. It is an infrequent asymptomatic infection that affects human palms and soles, and is mostly observed in tropical countries. We evaluate retrospectively twenty-two confirmed cases of tinea nigra from a total of eleven yr (1997-2007) and discuss the epidemiology, clinical features and treatment of this disease. In twelve cases, adults were involved, in 10, children. In nineteen cases the disorder was located on palms of hands and in three on soles of feet. In all cases, the obtained isolates were morphologically identified as Hortaea werneckii and the identification of ten isolates was retrospectively confirmed with the help of sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal DNA. The patients received topical treatment with Whitfield ointment, ketoconazole, bifonazole, or terbinafine. Treatment with keratolytic agents and topical antifungals was effective.

  1. Tinea nigra by Hortaea werneckii, a report of 22 cases from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, A.; Badali, H.; de Hoog, G.S.; Cruz, M.; Araiza, J.; Cruz, M.A.; Fierro, L.; Ponce, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Tinea nigra is a superficial mycosis caused by Hortaea werneckii. It is an infrequent asymptomatic infection that affects human palms and soles, and is mostly observed in tropical countries. We evaluate retrospectively twenty-two confirmed cases of tinea nigra from a total of eleven yr (1997–2007) and discuss the epidemiology, clinical features and treatment of this disease. In twelve cases, adults were involved, in 10, children. In nineteen cases the disorder was located on palms of hands and in three on soles of feet. In all cases, the obtained isolates were morphologically identified as Hortaea werneckii and the identification of ten isolates was retrospectively confirmed with the help of sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal DNA. The patients received topical treatment with Whitfield ointment, ketoconazole, bifonazole, or terbinafine. Treatment with keratolytic agents and topical antifungals was effective. PMID:19287529

  2. Antinociceptive effect of the extract of Morus nigra leaves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mesquita Padilha, Marina; Vilela, Fabiana Cardoso; da Silva, Marcelo José Dias; dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Alves-da-Silva, Geraldo; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2009-12-01

    Morus nigra has been used to relieve pain in Brazilian folk medicine. This study was conducted to establish the antinociceptive properties of dichloromethane extract from leaves of M. nigra. The formalin, hot plate, and tail immersion tests as well as acetic acid-induced writhing were used to investigate the antinociceptive activity in mice. The extract at test doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o. clearly demonstrated antinociceptive activity in all tests. The extract administered at 300 mg/kg, p.o. had a stronger antinociceptive effect than indomethacin (5 mg/kg, p.o.) and morphine (10 mg/kg, p.o.), which supports previous claims for its traditional use.

  3. Electrophysiological localization of distinct calcium potentials at selective somatodendritic sites in the substantia nigra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J; Nedergaard, S; Greenfield, S A

    1992-01-01

    in the rostral substantia nigra, the dendrites are shown to be the origin of classic low-threshold and high-threshold type calcium potentials: indeed the high-threshold conductance appears to be exclusively dendritic. By contrast, in a second, more caudally located cell type, which discharges rhythmically......, a high-threshold calcium spike is located principally in the cell body. The differential localization of these calcium conductances in sub-populations of neurons is likely to determine the functions for the calcium responses in each type of neuron, and moreover highlight the dendrites as dynamic...... and selective components in the physiology of the substantia nigra. The presence, for example, of the high-threshold calcium conductance in the dendrites of only one class of neuron suggests that this sub-population plays a prominent role in non-classical phenomena of dendritic release of a variety of chemical...

  4. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from seed extract of Brassica nigra and its antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAKSHA PANDIT

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pandit R. 2015. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from seed extract of Brassica nigra and its antibacterial activity. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 15-19. We report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed extract of Brassica nigra. UV-visible spectroscopic analysis showed the absorbance peak at 432 nm which indicated the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticles Tracking and Analysis (NTA was used to determine the size of synthesized silver nanoparticles. Zeta potential analysis was carried out to study the stability of nanoparticles while FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of proteins as capping agents that provided stability to nanoparticles in colloid. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated against Propionibacterium acnes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The activity of Vancomycin was significantly increased in combination with silver nanoparticles showing synergistic activity against all bacteria while the maximum activity was noted against P. acnes.

  5. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of Morus nigra extract on human prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Turan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morus nigra L. belongs to the family Moraceae and is frequently used in traditional medicine. Numerous studies have investigated the antiproliferative effects of various extracts of different Morus species, but studies involving the in vitro cytotoxic effect of M. nigra extract are very limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of dimethyl sulfoxide extract of M. nigra (DEM and to investigate, for the first time, the probable cytotoxic effect in human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3 cells together with the mechanism involved. Methods: Total polyphenolic contents (TPC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and phenolic compounds of DEM were evaluated using spectrophotometric procedures and HPLC. The cytotoxic effect of DEM on PC-3 cells was revealed using the MTT assay. Mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic effect of DEM on PC-3 cells were then investigated in terms of apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle using flow cytometry, while caspase activity was investigated using luminometric analysis. Results: TPC and FRAP values were 20.7 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalents and 48.8 ± 1.6 mg trolox equivalents per g sample, respectively. Ascorbic acid and chlorogenic acid were the major phenolic compounds detected at HPLC analysis. DEM arrested the cell cycle of PC-3 cells at the G1 phase, induced apoptosis via increased caspase activity and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusions: Our results indicate that M. nigra may be a novel candidate for the development of new natural product based therapeutic agents against prostate cancer.

  6. Antinociceptive properties of morusin, a prenylflavonoid isolated from Morus nigra root bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, M M; Bittar, M; Cechinel-Filho, V; Yunes, R A; Messana, I; Delle Monache, F; Ferrari, F

    2000-01-01

    The antinociceptive effects of morusin (1), the main prenylflavonoid present in the Morus nigra root barks have been investigated in classical models of pain in mice. The results showed that 1 exhibits a promising antinociceptive or analgesic profile by the intraperitoneal route, being more potent than some standard drugs used as reference. The mechanism by which the morusin exerts antinociceptive activity still remains undetermined, but our results strongly suggest that it involves the participation of the opioid system.

  7. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of Morus nigra extract on human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Ibrahim; Demir, Selim; Kilinc, Kagan; Burnaz, Nesibe Arslan; Yaman, Serap Ozer; Akbulut, Kubra; Mentese, Ahmet; Aliyazicioglu, Yuksel; Deger, Orhan

    2017-02-01

    Background: Morus nigra L. belongs to the family Moraceae and is frequently used in traditional medicine. Numerous studies have investigated the antiproliferative effects of various extracts of different Morus species, but studies involving the in vitro cytotoxic effect of M. nigra extract are very limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of dimethyl sulfoxide extract of M. nigra (DEM) and to investigate, for the first time, the probable cytotoxic effect in human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) cells together with the mechanism involved. Methods: Total polyphenolic contents (TPC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and phenolic compounds of DEM were evaluated using spectrophotometric procedures and HPLC. The cytotoxic effect of DEM on PC-3 cells was revealed using the MTT assay. Mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic effect of DEM on PC-3 cells were then investigated in terms of apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle using flow cytometry, while caspase activity was investigated using luminometric analysis. Results: TPC and FRAP values were 20.7 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalents and 48.8 ± 1.6 mg trolox equivalents per g sample, respectively. Ascorbic acid and chlorogenic acid were the major phenolic compounds detected at HPLC analysis. DEM arrested the cell cycle of PC-3 cells at the G1 phase, induced apoptosis via increased caspase activity and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusions: Our results indicate that M. nigra may be a novel candidate for the development of new natural product based therapeutic agents against prostate cancer.

  8. Effects of Inflammation on Hippocampus and Substantia Nigra Responses to Novelty in Healthy Human Participants

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Humans are naturally inquisitive. This tendency is adaptive, aiding identification of potentially valuable novel outcomes. The dopaminergic substantia nigra (SN) is implicated in the drive to explore novel stimuli and situations. However, infection and inflammation inhibit the motivation to seek out novelty. This likely serves to limit exposure to uncertain, potentially detrimental outcomes when metabolic resources are limited. Nevertheless, the neural mechanisms through which inflammation co...

  9. Bilateral Tinea Nigra of palm: A rare case report from Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sarangi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14 year old girl from a coastal district of Odisha presented with a six month history of asymptomatic brownish patches on the palm of the both hands. Epidermal scrape from these patches showed brown septate hyphae with occasional yeast like cells. Hortaea wernekii was isolated from the fungal culture. A diagnosis of Tinea nigra was made. The patches resolved completely after treatment with topical 1% clotrimazole cream.

  10. Phytosanitation Methods Influence Posttreatment Colonization of Juglans nigra Logs by Pityophthorus juglandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audley, J; Mayfield, A E; Myers, S W; Taylor, A; Klingeman, W E

    2016-02-01

    Several North American walnut species (Juglans spp.) are threatened by thousand cankers disease which is caused by the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman) and its associated fungal plant pathogen, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarík, E. Freeland, C. Utley and N. Tisserat sp. nov. Spread of this disease may occur via movement of infested black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) wood. This study evaluated the ability of P. juglandis to colonize J. nigra wood previously treated with various phytosanitation methods. Steam-heated and methyl bromide-fumigated J. nigra logs, as well as kiln-dried natural wane J. nigra lumber (with and without bark) were subsequently exposed to P. juglandis colonization pressure in two exposure scenarios. Following a pheromone-mediated, high-pressure scenario in the canopy of infested trees, beetles readily colonized the bark of steam-heated and methyl bromide-fumigated logs, and were also recovered from kiln-dried lumber on which a thin strip of bark was retained. In the simulated lumberyard exposure experiment, during which samples were exposed to lower P. juglandis populations, beetles were again recovered from bark-on steam-heated logs, but were not recovered from kiln-dried bark-on lumber. These data suggest logs and bark-on lumber treated with phytosanitation methods should not be subsequently exposed to P. juglandis populations. Further beetle exclusion efforts for phytosanitized, bark-on walnut wood products transported out of quarantined areas may be necessary to ensure that these products do not serve as a pathway for the spread of P. juglandis and thousand cankers disease.

  11. Identification and in vivo functional analysis of a virginiamycin S resistance gene (varS) from Streptomyces virginiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C K; Kamitani, Y; Nihira, T; Yamada, Y

    1999-05-01

    BarA of Streptomyces virginiae is a specific receptor protein for virginiae butanolide (VB), one of the gamma-butyrolactone autoregulators of the Streptomyces species, and acts as a transcriptional regulator controlling both virginiamycin production and VB biosynthesis. The downstream gene barB, the transcription of which is under the tight control of the VB-BarA system, was found to be transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA with its downstream region, and DNA sequencing revealed a 1,554-bp open reading frame (ORF) beginning at 161 bp downstream of the barB termination codon. The ORF product showed high homology (68 to 73%) to drug efflux proteins having 14 transmembrane segments and was named varS (for S. virginiae antibiotic resistance). Heterologous expression of varS with S. lividans as a host resulted in virginiamycin S-specific resistance, suggesting that varS encoded a virginiamycin S-specific transport protein. Northern blot analysis indicated that the bicistronic transcript of barB-varS appeared 1 to 2 h before the onset of virginiamycin M1 and S production, at which time VB was produced, while exogenously added virginiamycin S apparently induced the monocistronic varS transcript.

  12. Tyrosinase inhibitory constituents from the roots of Morus nigra: a structure-activity relationship study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zong-Ping; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Zhu, Qin; Wang, Xia-Chang; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Wang, Mingfu

    2010-05-12

    The phytochemical profiles of Morus nigra roots and twigs were compared by HPLC with those of the old and young twigs of Morus alba which are known to contain oxyresveratrol and mulberroside A as major components. It was found that M. nigra root extract contains some unknown natural products with potential tyrosinase inhibitory activity. The extract (95% ethanol) of the roots of M. nigra was further investigated in this study. One new compound, 5'-geranyl-5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone, and twenty-eight known phenolic compounds were isolated. Their structures were identified by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Nine compounds, 5'-geranyl-5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone, steppogenin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside, 2,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone, moracin N, kuwanon H, mulberrofuran G, morachalcone A, oxyresveratrol-3'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and oxyresveratrol-2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, showed better tyrosinase inhibitory activities than kojic acid. It was noteworthy that the IC(50) values of 2,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone and morachalcone A were 757-fold and 328-fold lower than that of kojic acid, respectively, suggesting a great potential for their development as effective natural tyrosinase inhibitors.

  13. Quali-quantitative analyses of Flavonoids of Morus nigra L. and Morus alba L. (Moraceae) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowska, Agata Maria; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Braca, Alessandra

    2008-05-14

    Morus nigra L., belonging to the Moraceae family, is a decidious tree widely cultivated in Europe and West Asia. It has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese medicine, as a remedy for many kinds of diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the profile of the phenolic constituents of M. nigra fruits and to compare their content with the fruits of another species of Morus, Morus alba, which is also very well known in folklore medicine. The fruits of black and white mulberries have been studied, and five compounds from the methanol extract have been identified by means of HPLC/PDA/ESI-MS. Four compounds (quercetin 3- O-glucoside, quercetin 3- O-rutinoside, kaempferol 3- O-rutinoside, and 5- O-caffeoylquinic acid) have been isolated by use of Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and HPLC and characterized by means of NMR and ESI-MS. Furthermore, HPLC/PDA/ESI-MS analysis of the red pigment of M. nigra fruits revealed the presence of four anthocyanins recognized as cyanidin 3- O-glucoside, cyanidin 3- O-rutinoside, pelargonidin 3- O-glucoside, and pelargonidin 3- O-rutinoside. All of the compounds were quantified.

  14. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF LEAF TEAS BLACKBERRY (MORUS NIGRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zanco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has a long tradition in the use of plants, and is the same used in different ways, such as in the form of infusions and decoctions, for therapeutic purposes. Morus nigra species is a plant that has been used in different parts of the world as phytotherapy. This plant is known as mulberry, black, blackberry black or blackberry and various parts of the plant, such as leaves, fruit, bark and roots are used by the population, demonstrating anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, among others. Because of the interest in research on the bioactivity of plant products and use of blackberry tea in the population, present study evaluated the antibacterial activity of teas M. nigra leaves obtained by infusion and decoction against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium, as well as the antioxidant potential of preparations by DPPH technique. Results revealed that the infusions and decoctions prepared with Morus nigra leaves showed no ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria tested. However, all preparations (decoctions and infusions obtained from the leaves showed antioxidant potential, demonstrated ability to reduce DPPH radical. Despite infusions and decoctions evaluated in this study do not show antimicrobial activity, both had significant antioxidant property. Considering the use of different plants, including mulberry tree, by the people, it is considered always important proof of their biological activities.

  15. Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Characterization of Wound Healer Compounds from Morus nigra L. (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Küpeli Akkol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaves and fruits of Morus nigra L. (Moraceae are used for the treatment of wounds especially mouth sore in Turkish traditional medicine. The present study was designed to investigate wound healing activity of M. nigra by using incision and excision wound models. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by Whittle method. Lyophilized fruit extract (MNF displayed significant wound healing activity, while aqueous leaf extract of M. nigra (MNL did not. Through biological activity guided fractionation technique, MNF was subjected to successive solvent extraction. Among the subextracts obtained, n-butanol (MNF-n-BuOH subextract was found to possess wound healing activity. MNF -n-BuOH was subjected Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to obtain three fractions, which then applied to the same biological activity tests. Compounds 1 and 2 were isolated from the active fraction and their structures were identified as quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, respectively. The isolates were investigated for their in vitro enzyme inhibitory activities.

  16. Transcriptional responses of Brassica nigra to feeding by specialist insects of different feeding guilds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colette Broekgaarden; Roeland E. Voorrips; Marcel Dicke; Ben Vosman

    2011-01-01

    Plants show phenotypic changes when challenged with herbivorous insects. The mechanisms underlying these changes include the activation of transcriptional responses, which are dependent on the attacking insect. Most transcriptomic studies on crucifer-insect interactions have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, a species that faces low herbivore pressure in nature. Here, we study the transcriptional responses of plants from a wild black mustard (Brassica nigra) population to herbivores of different feeding guilds using an A. thaliana-bused whole-genome microarray that has previously been shown to be suitable for transcriptomic analyses in Brassica. Transcriptional responses of 5. nigra after infestation with either Pieris rapae caterpillars or Brevicoryne brassicae aphids are analyzed and compared. Additionally, the insect-induced expression changes of some individual genes are analyzed through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results show that feeding by both insect species results in the accumulation of transcripts encoding proteins involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, defensive proteins and glucosinolates and this is correlated with experimental evidence in the literature on such biochemical effects. Although genes encoding proteins involved in similar processes are regulated by both insects, there was little overlap in the induction or repression of individual genes. Furthermore, P. rapae and B. brassicae seem to affect different phytohormone signaling pathways. In conclusion, our results indicate that B. nigra activates several defense-related genes in response to P. rapae or B. brassicae feeding, but that the response is dependent on the attacking insect species.

  17. Determination of Antioxidant Activity and Toxicity of Sambucus nigra Fruit Extract Using Alternative Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Doroftei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to measure the in vitro antioxidant activity of elderberry (Sambucus nigra fruit extract and to study its toxicity in a plant model system with regard to its possible application in food and agricultural industry. The antioxidant capacity of Sambucus nigra fruit powder was quantified by a photochemiluminescence method. The study of phytotoxicity of aqueous solutions of powder extract was performed using Allium cepa as a test organism. Photochemiluminescence determinations showed a very high antioxidant capacity of the product but also revealed its cytotoxic effect, along with mitodepressive activity and even inhibiton of mitosis at the preprophase stage when the fruit extract was used at higher concentrations. Aqueous solutions of the fruit powder have a reasonably expressed mutagenic activity in vivo on the radicles of Allium cepa, especially when they are used at a concentration of 1 g/dL for a prolonged time (48 h. At lower concentrations (0.1 g/dL, however, the mutagenic effect was not observed any more. The conclusion of our study is that Sambucus nigra fruit extract powder has a very high in vitro antioxidant activity and no mutagenic effects at low concentrations, which makes it recommendable for applications in the food industry.

  18. Chemical Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Black Elder (Sambucus Nigra L. - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana PETRUT

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: All plant parts of elderberry (leaves, berries, inflorescences, roots, shoots, bark have a long history of use in herbal remedy or lots of culinary uses, widespread in almost every continent of the world (1. Pro-health properties indicated a role of elderberry products intake in the prevention of cancer and diabetes. Aims: This paper presents an overview of the evaluation of biochemical compounds (sugars, organic acids, total phenolics, antioxidative activity, flavonoids, flavor and volatile compounds, found in flowers, berries and leaves of Sambucus nigra L. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic profiling, spectrophotometric evaluation, DPPH antioxidant assay, ABTS radical scavenging activity. Results: The variability of concentration compounds are found by uniform maturity of each phenophase of elderberry, hence the need varieties improve the quantity and quality of its yield. Elderberry has food industry properties associated with the presence of increased nutritive and decreased caloric value at fruits best correlated with the content of sugars and organic acids of flower, organic acids as a important metabolic pathway of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates. Several studies have confirmed that Sambucus nigra L. is a valuable raw material with many nutrients and bioactive substances, being extraordinarily rich in antioxidants, and the leaves are remarked as easily available source of antioxidant preparations in different domains (food products, pharmaceutics, or cosmetics. Conclusion: A bush of Sambucus nigra L. in the garden is our true handy pharmacy, a food market like as functional ingredient, a spot of color with unmistakable smell.

  19. Bioactive proifle of Plakortis nigra, a sea sponge from Mauritius Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandrine Tangman; Joyce Govinden Soulange; Daniel Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the in vitro antibacterial and antioxidant activities of crude and fractionated extracts of the Plakortis nigra (P. nigra) sea sponge from Mauritius sea waters. Methods:Preliminary qualitative chemical screening of the sponge extracts was conducted by using standard methods while the total phenolic content (TPC) was estimated through the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antibacterial activity was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the broth microdilution method. All sponge extracts were assessed for antioxidant activity via the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging in vitro model. Results:Alkaloids, phenols, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins were detected in the sponge extracts and TPC varied from (2.280±0.072) mg to (12.790±0.236) mg gallic acid equivalents per gram extract (P Conclusions:The present study validates the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of marine sponge (P. nigra) extracts and depicts the sea sponge as a potential source of pharmaceutical leads against infectious and degenerative diseases.

  20. Iron accumulation in the substantia nigra of patients with Alzheimer disease and parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Sonia; Henderson, David; Schenck, John; Zimmerman, Earl A

    2009-03-01

    Preliminary studies have shown an increase in iron accumulation in the substantia nigra but not in the hippocampus in patients with Parkinson disease without dementia and the reverse in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and no parkinsonism. To determine whether iron levels (measured as T2 shortening on magnetic resonance images) are greater in the substantia nigra of patients with AD who have parkinsonism than in those with AD alone. Case-control study. Albany Medical College, Albany, New York. Fifteen patients with only AD (controls) and 18 with AD as well as parkinsonism, aged 56 to 89 years, and with a total Clinical Dementia Rating of 5.0 to 11.5. Patients were selected according to the purity of their disease; patients with a Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score of 15 or greater were considered to have parkinsonism. Main Outcome Measure Area under the curve for short T2 (30 milliseconds) in patients with only AD vs patients with AD who developed parkinsonism. Patients who developed parkinsonism along with their existing dementia had significantly more iron in their substantia nigra than did patients with AD alone (P = .03, 2-sample t test). Iron accumulation may be a predictor of parkinsonism. The development of parkinsonism during the course of AD appears to be associated with the accumulation of iron, which in turn may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurologic decline.

  1. Acaricidal activity of leaves of Morus nigra against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.S. Dantas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The acaricidal activity of crude ethanolic extract and fractions from the leaves of Morus nigra (Moraceae was carried out on female cattle ticks Rhipicephalus microplus, using the adult immersion test. The mortality and fertility of females exposed to different concentrations of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions, as well as ethanolic extract of M. nigra with concentrations of 5, 10 and 25mg/ml were evaluated using three treatment groups, two control groups and triplicate tests. The study also identified the main phenolic compounds of the extract and fractions of this species by HPLC. The chloroform fraction of leaves of M. nigra (25mg/mL showed the best results for this species, obtaining 62.6% of inhibition of oviposition, 39.3% of eggs eclosion average and 65.4% of effectiveness. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, which may be related to biological activity shown by the extracts, which can be used as an alternative control against R. microplus adult tick.

  2. Bilateral upregulation of α-synuclein expression in the mouse substantia nigra by intracranial rotenone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, Candace H; Kang, Na Hyea; Niles, Lennard P

    2017-02-01

    The pesticide rotenone has been shown to cause systemic inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity, with consequent degeneration of dopamine neurons along the nigrostriatal pathway, as observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, intracranial infusion of rotenone was found to increase the protein levels of the Lewy body constituents, α-synuclein and small ubiquitin-related modifier-1(SUMO-1), in the lesioned hemisphere of the mouse brain. These findings are supportive of a mouse model of PD, but information about the dopamine-synthesizing enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), an essential marker of dopaminergic status, was not reported. Clarification of this issue is important because an intracranial rotenone mouse model of Parkinson's disease has not been established. Towards this end, the present study examined the effects of intracranial rotenone treatment on TH and α-synuclein immunohistochemistry in addition to forelimb motor function. Mice were unilaterally infused with either vehicle or rotenone (2μg/site) in both the medial forebrain bundle and the substantia nigra. The forelimb asymmetry (cylinder) test indicated a significant decrease in use of the contralateral forelimb in lesioned animals as compared to the sham group. Densitometric analysis revealed a significant depletion of TH immunofluorescence within the ipsilateral striatum and substantia nigra of lesioned animals. Moreover, a significant bilateral increase in α-synuclein immunofluorescence was found in the substantia nigra of lesioned mice, as compared to control animals. These findings indicate that this intracranial rotenone mouse model will be useful for studies of neurodegenerative disorders such as PD.

  3. Lignans from Schisandra propinqua var. propinqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chun; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Chen, Ji-Jun; Pu, Jian-Xin; Yang, Li-Bin; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Jin-Ping; Gao, Xue-Mei; Xiao, Wei-Lie; Sun, Han-Dong

    2007-08-01

    Two new dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans angeloyl-(+)-gomisin K(3) (1) and methylisogomisin O (2), together with six known ones, isogomisin O, angeloylisogomisin O, gomisin O, angeloygomisin O, benzoylgomisin O, epigomisin O, and four 1,4-bis(phenyl)-2,3-dimethylbutane type lignans, pregomisin, meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid, isoanwulignan, and sphenanlignan were isolated from the aerial parts of Schisandra propinqua var. propinqua. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques.

  4. Validation of the name Callicarpa bodinieri var.iteophylla (Lamiaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ming PENG; Nan JIANG; Wen-Bin YU

    2011-01-01

    Callicarpa bodinieri H.Léveillé var.iteophylla C.Y.Wu,var.nov.Type:China.Yunnan:Mengla,1953-06-03,Yong-Shu Wang 27 (holotype,KUN 0484466!;isotype,KUN 0484467!).Validating diagnosis:Those ofCallicarpa bodinieri H.Léveillé var.iteophylla C.Y.Wu,Fl.Yunnan.1:406.1977.Callicarpa bodinieri H.Léveillé var.iteophylla C.Y.Wu is endemic to southern Yunnan province of China,and it occurs in mixed forests at altitudes between 600 and 1600 m.This new variety is easily distinguished from var.bodinieri and var.rosthornii (Diels)Rehder in that the leaf blade is lanceolate,oblanceolate,or obovateoblong,and 2-4 cm wide (vs.narrowly elliptic,elliptic,or ovateelliptic,and 4-7 cm wide in var.bodinieri),and subglabrous on both surfaces (vs.abaxially grayish stellate pubescent in var.rosthornii).

  5. VaR Methodology Application for Banking Currency Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armeanu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available VaR has become the standard measure that financial analysts use to quantify market risk. VaR measures can have many applications, such as in risk management, to evaluate the performance of risk takers and for regulatory requirements, and hence it is very important to develop methodologies that provide accurate estimates. In particular, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank for International Settlements imposes to financial institutions such as banks and investment firms to meet capital requirements based on VaR estimates. In this paper we determine VaR for a banking currency portfolio and respect rules of National Bank of Romania regarding VaR report.

  6. AAV Vector-Mediated Gene Delivery to Substantia Nigra Dopamine Neurons: Implications for Gene Therapy and Disease Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Albert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gene delivery using adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors is a widely used method to transduce neurons in the brain, especially due to its safety, efficacy, and long-lasting expression. In addition, by varying AAV serotype, promotor, and titer, it is possible to affect the cell specificity of expression or the expression levels of the protein of interest. Dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra projecting to the striatum, comprising the nigrostriatal pathway, are involved in movement control and degenerate in Parkinson′s disease. AAV-based gene targeting to the projection area of these neurons in the striatum has been studied extensively to induce the production of neurotrophic factors for disease-modifying therapies for Parkinson′s disease. Much less emphasis has been put on AAV-based gene therapy targeting dopamine neurons in substantia nigra. We will review the literature related to targeting striatum and/or substantia nigra dopamine neurons using AAVs in order to express neuroprotective and neurorestorative molecules, as well as produce animal disease models of Parkinson′s disease. We discuss difficulties in targeting substantia nigra dopamine neurons and their vulnerability to stress in general. Therefore, choosing a proper control for experimental work is not trivial. Since the axons along the nigrostriatal tract are the first to degenerate in Parkinson′s disease, the location to deliver the therapy must be carefully considered. We also review studies using AAV-a-synuclein (a-syn to target substantia nigra dopamine neurons to produce an α-syn overexpression disease model in rats. Though these studies are able to produce mild dopamine system degeneration in the striatum and substantia nigra and some behavioural effects, there are studies pointing to the toxicity of AAV-carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP, which is often used as a control. Therefore, we discuss the potential difficulties in overexpressing proteins in general in

  7. Effect of Morus nigra aqueous extract treatment on the maternal-fetal outcome, oxidative stress status and lipid profile of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos; Sinzato, S. [UNESP; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha [UNESP; Damasceno,Débora Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Morus nigra, commonly known as black mulberry, is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the diabetes treatment.Aim of this study: To evaluate the effect of Morus nigra aqueous extract treatment on maternal lipid and oxidative stress profile, reproductive outcomes, and also fetal anomaly incidence from diabetic and non-diabetic rats.Materials and methods: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) in virgin female Wistar rats. Morus nigra leaf aqueou...

  8. Comparative analysis of growth and photosynthetic characteristics of (Populus simonii × P. nigra × (P. nigra × P. simonii hybrid clones of different ploidides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyang Zhao

    Full Text Available To evaluate differences among poplar clones of various ploidies, 12 hybrid poplar clones (P. simonii × P. nigra × (P. nigra × P. simonii with different ploidies were used to study phenotypic variation in growth traits and photosynthetic characteristics. Analysis of variance showed remarkable differences for each of the investigated traits among these clones (P < 0.01. Coefficients of phenotypic variation (PCV ranged from 2.38% to 56.71%, and repeatability ranged from 0.656 to 0.987. The Pn (photosynthetic rate photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD curves of the 12 clones were S-shaped, but the Pn-ambient CO2 (Ca curves were shaped like an inverted "V". The stomatal conductance (Gs-PPFD and transpiration rate (Tr-PPFD curves had an upward tendency; however, with increasing PFFD, the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci-PPFD curves had a downward tendency in all of the clones. The Pn-PPFD and Pn-Ca curves followed the pattern of a quadratic equation. The average light saturation point and light compensation point of the triploid clones were the highest and lowest, respectively, among the three types of clones. For Pn-Ca curves, diploid clones had a higher average CO2 saturation point and average CO2 compensation point compared with triploid and tetraploid clones. Correlation analyses indicated that all investigated traits were strongly correlated with each other. In future studies, molecular methods should be used to analyze poplar clones of different ploidies to improve our understanding of the growth and development mechanisms of polyploidy.

  9. Chemical diversity of volatiles of Teucrium orientale L. var. orientale, var. puberulens, and var. glabrescens determined by simultaneous GC-FID and GC/MS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozek, Gulmira; Ozek, Temel; Dinç, Muhittin; Doǧu, Süleyman; Başer, Kemal H C

    2012-06-01

    In the present work, three varieties of Teucrium orientale, var. orientale, var. puberulens, and var. glabrescens, were collected and investigated for chemical composition of the oils. Subsequent gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed high abundance of sesquiterpenes in the essential oils analyzed. All the oils contained β-caryophyllene (22.6, 8.5, and 6.3%, resp.) and hexadecanoic acid (7.9, 12.8, and 13.1%). Germacrene D (24.6 and 33.4%) and bicyclogermacrene (6.7 and 8.5%) were found to be the main constituents of var. orientale and var. puberulens, respectively. The high percentages of β-cubebene (26.9%), α-cubebene (9.0%), and α-copaene (7.2%) established the diversity of var. glabrescens. The qualitative difference between the essential oils allowed the differentiation between the varieties in agreement with the morphological observations described in Flora of Turkey for each variety studied. In addition, a cluster analysis of twelve Teucrium taxa based on the essential-oil composition has been carried out. Hovewer, the analysis did not clearly reflect the infrageneric classification of the genus, it largely confirmed the relationships between the infraspecific taxa of Teucrium orientale and T. chamaedrys.

  10. CooVar: Co-occurring variant analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara Ismael A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating the impact of genomic variations (GV on protein-coding transcripts is an important step in identifying variants of functional significance. Currently available programs for variant annotation depend on external databases or annotate multiple variants affecting the same transcript independently, which limits program use to organisms available in these databases or results in potentially incorrect or incomplete annotations. Findings We have developed CooVar (Co-occurring Variant Analyzer, a database-independent program for assessing the impact of GVs on protein-coding transcripts. CooVar takes GVs, reference genome sequence, and protein-coding exons as input and provides annotated GVs and transcripts as output. Other than similar programs, CooVar considers the combined impact of all GVs affecting the same transcript, generating biologically more accurate annotations. CooVar is operated from the command-line and supports standard file formats VCF, GFF/GTF, and GVF, which makes it easy to integrate into existing computational pipelines. We have extensively tested CooVar on worm and human data sets and demonstrate that it generates correct annotations in only a short amount of time. Conclusions CooVar is an easy-to-use and lightweight variant annotation tool that considers the combined impact of GVs on protein-coding transcripts. CooVar is freely available at http://genome.sfu.ca/projects/coovar/.

  11. In vitro antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activities, phytochemical screening and heavy metals toxicity of different parts of Ballota nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Najeeb; Ahmad, Ijaz; Ayaz, Sultan

    2014-01-01

    The study was done to assess the phytochemicals (flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannin, alkaloids, and phenol) in different parts (root, stem, and leaves) of Ballota nigra and correlated it to inhibition of microbes (bacteria and fungi), protozoan (Leishmania), and heavy metals toxicity evaluation. In root and stem flavonoids, terpenes and phenols were present in ethanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate soluble fraction; these were found to be the most active inhibiting fractions against all the tested strains of bacteria, fungi, and leishmania. While in leaves flavonoids, terpenes, and phenols were present in ethanol, chloroform, and n-butanol fractions which were the most active fractions against both types of microbes and protozoan (leishmania) in in vitro study. Ethanol and chloroform fractions show maximum inhibition against Escherichia coli (17 mm). The phytochemical and biological screenings were correlated with the presence of heavy metals in selected plant Ballota nigra. Cr was found above permissible value (above 1.5 mg/kg) in all parts of the plant. Ni was above WHO limit in B. nigra root and leaves (3.35 ± 1.20 mg/kg and 5.09 ± 0.47 mg/kg, respectively). Fe was above permissible value in all parts of B. nigra (above 20 mg/kg). Cd was above permissible value in all parts of the plant (above 0.3 mg/kg). Pb was above WHO limit (above 2 mg/kg) in all parts of Ballota nigra.

  12. Near-Infrared Confocal Laser Reflectance Cytoarchitectural Imaging of the Substantia Nigra and Cerebellum in the Fresh Human Cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyuo, Cletus; Grand, Walter; Balos, Lucia L

    2017-01-01

    Cytoarchitectural neuroimaging remains critical for diagnosis of many brain diseases. Fluorescent dye-enhanced, near-infrared confocal in situ cellular imaging of the brain has been reported. However, impermeability of the blood-brain barrier to most fluorescent dyes limits clinical utility of this modality. The differential degree of reflectance from brain tissue with unenhanced near-infrared imaging may represent an alternative technique for in situ cytoarchitectural neuroimaging. We assessed the utility of unenhanced near-infrared confocal laser reflectance imaging of the cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra in 2 fresh human cadaver brains using a confocal near-infrared laser probe. Cellular images based on near-infrared differential reflectance were captured at depths of 20-180 μm from the brain surface. Parts of the cerebellum and substantia nigra imaged using the probe were subsequently excised and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic correlation. Near-infrared reflectance imaging revealed the 3-layered cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum, with Purkinje cells appearing hyperreflectant. In the substantia nigra, neurons appeared hyporeflectant with hyperreflectant neuromelanin cytoplasmic inclusions. Cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra revealed on near-infrared imaging closely correlated with the histology on hematoxylin-eosin staining. We showed that unenhanced near-infrared reflectance imaging of fresh human cadaver brain can reliably identify and distinguish neurons and detailed cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced spreading depression in the Substantia Nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunasinghe, Rashika N; Lipski, Janusz

    2013-08-21

    Spreading depression (SD) is a profound depolarization of neurons and glia that propagates in a wave-like manner across susceptible brain regions, and can develop during periods of compromised cellular energy such as ischemia, when it influences the severity of acute neuronal damage. Although SD has been well characterized in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, little is known of this event in the Substantia Nigra (SN), a brainstem nucleus engaged in motor control and reward-related behavior. Transverse brain slices (250 μm; P21-23 rats) containing the SN were subject to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) tests, modeling brain ischemia. SD developed in lateral aspects of the SN within 3.3±0.2 min of OGD onset, and spread through the Substantia Nigra pars reticulata (SNr), as indicated by fast-occurring and propagating increased tissue light transmittance and negative shift of extracellular DC potential. These events were associated with profound mitochondrial membrane depolarization (ΔΨm) throughout the SN, as demonstrated by increased Rhodamine 123 fluorescence. Extracellular recordings from individual SNr neurons indicated rapid depolarization followed by depolarizing block, while dopaminergic neurons in the Substantia Nigra pars compacta (SNc) showed inhibition of firing associated with hyperpolarization. SD evoked in the SNr was similar to OGD-induced SD in the CA1 region in hippocampal slices. In the hippocampus, SD also developed during anoxia or aglycemia alone (associated with less profound ΔΨm than OGD), while these conditions rarely led to SD in the SNr. Our results demonstrate that OGD consistently evokes SD in the SN, and that this phenomenon only involves the SNr. It remains to be established whether nigral SD contributes to neuronal damage associated with a sudden-onset form of Parkinson's disease known as 'vascular parkinsonism'.

  14. Functional recovery of supersensitive dopamine receptors after intrastriatal grafts of fetal substantia nigra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, T.M.; Dawson, V.L.; Gage, F.H.; Fisher, L.J.; Hunt, M.A.; Wamsley, J.K. (Univ. of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Interruption of the ascending dopamine neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway, by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion in rats, produced a significant loss of the dopamine transport complexes labeled with the phencyclidine derivative (3H)BTCP. This loss of dopamine innervation in the striatum was present at least 12 to 14 months after lesioning and was functionally manifested by ipsilateral rotation of the animals in response to amphetamine. In these same animals, in comparison to controls, there was a significant increase in the number (Bmax) of (3H)SCH 23390-labeled D-1 receptors in the striatum (36.7%) and the substantia nigra (35.1%) and a 54.4% increase in the number (Bmax) of (3H)sulpiride-labeled striatal D-2 receptors without an apparent change in affinity (Kd). Ten to twelve months after the transplantation of homologous fetal substantia nigra into the denervated striatum, there was a significant decrease in amphetamine-induced turning behavior. In these animals, there was an ingrowth of dopamine nerve terminals in the striatum as demonstrated by a return of (3H)BTCP binding. Accompanying this reinnervation was the normalization of D-1 and D-2 receptors to control values in the striatum as well as the return of D-1 receptors to prelesion densities in the substantia nigra. In a subgroup of transplanted rats, amphetamine continued to induce ipsilateral turning. In these animals both D-1 and D-2 receptors remained supersensitive. These results support the hypothesis that the functional recovery of transplanted animals is due, in part, to reinnervation of the striatum. In addition, long-term alterations in receptor density may be related to the behavioral deficits that are associated with the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat.

  15. Brainstem raphe and substantia nigra echogenicity in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder with comorbid depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Dolores; Iranzo, Alex; Pont-Sunyer, Claustre; Serradell, Mónica; Gaig, Carles; Santamaria, Joan; Tolosa, Eduardo

    2015-07-01

    In Parkinson disease (PD), REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and depression may occur before the onset of parkinsonism. Transcranial sonography (TCS) shows that hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN+) and hypoechogenicity of the brainstem raphe (BR+) are frequent in PD, particularly when depression is associated. Combined SN+ and BR+ identify PD subjects in whom depression antedates parkinsonism onset. It can be speculated that SN+ and BR+ may also identify idiopathic RBD (IRBD) subjects with comorbid depression, supporting the clinical diagnosis of this mood disorder. We aimed to study the brainstem raphe and substantia nigra echogenicity and their ability to predict comorbid depression in IRBD. Seventy-two IRBD patients and 71 age and sex-matched controls underwent TCS. Depression was diagnosed by means of DSM-IV criteria. Depression was more frequent in IRBD patients than in controls (44.4 vs. 18.3 %; p = 0.001). BR+ was more frequent in depressed than in nondepressed IRBD patients (32.0 vs. 11.4 %; p = 0.050). Sensitivity of BR+ to predict depression in IRBD was 32.0 %, specificity was 88.6 %, and relative risk was 1.88. Sensitivity of SN+ to predict depression in IRBD was 72.0 %, specificity was 44.1 %, and relative risk was 1.53. Sensitivity of combined BR+ and SN+ to predict depression in IRBD was 23.1 %, specificity 97.1 %, and relative risk was 2.31. Hypoechogenicity of the brainstem raphe, particularly when combined with hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra, detects comorbid depression in IRBD. This finding suggests that dysfunction of the serotonergic dorsal raphe may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression in IRBD.

  16. Isatin decreases Bax protein expression in the substantia nigra of a mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiguo Zhang; Fang Zhang; Yanlong Qiu; Wang Yue

    2011-01-01

    The present study observed the action of 1H-indole-2, 3-dione (isatin) on Bax protein expression in the substantia nigra of a Parkinson's disease animal model. Parkinson's disease-like behaviors were induced in C57BL/6J mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Bax protein expression was significantly reduced in isatin (100, 200 mg/kg)-pretreated mice. Results demonstrate that isatin plays a neuroprotective role in mice treated with MPTP by down-regulating Bax protein expression.

  17. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of prenylated substances isolated from Morus alba and Morus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelová, Hana; Hanáková, Zuzana; Čermáková, Zuzana; Šmejkal, Karel; Dalĺ Acqua, Stefano; Babula, Petr; Cvačka, Josef; Hošek, Jan

    2014-06-27

    Chromatographic separation of root extracts of Morus alba and M. nigra led to the identification of the 2-arylbenzofurans moracin C (1), mulberrofuran Y (2), and mulberrofuran H (3), and the prenylated flavonoids kuwanon E (4), kuwanon C (5), sanggenon H (6), cudraflavone B (7), and morusinol (8), and the Diels-Alder adducts soroceal (9), and sanggenon E (10). The cytotoxicity and their antiphlogistic activity, determined as the attenuation of the secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β and the inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation in LPS-stimulated macrophages, were evaluated for compounds 1-10.

  18. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF LEAF TEAS BLACKBERRY (MORUS NIGRA)

    OpenAIRE

    P. Zanco; de Souza, E F; Bonacorsi,C.

    2017-01-01

    Brazil has a long tradition in the use of plants, and is the same used in different ways, such as in the form of infusions and decoctions, for therapeutic purposes. Morus nigra species is a plant that has been used in different parts of the world as phytotherapy. This plant is known as mulberry, black, blackberry black or blackberry and various parts of the plant, such as leaves, fruit, bark and roots are used by the population, demonstrating anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant, hypoglyce...

  19. Erfassung, Identifizierung, Vermehrung und Wiederansiedlung der Schwarzpappel Populus nigra in Sachsen-Anhalt

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Durch den Flußlauf der Elbe und ihre Nebenflüsse sind in Sachsen-Anhalt aktuelle und potentielle Vorkommensgebiete der Schwarzpappel (Populus nigra) vorhanden. Die natürlichen Standorte der Schwarzpappel sind die Übergangszonen von Weichholzund Hartholzaue (ELLENBERG 1996), wie sie an naturnahen Flußufern zu finden sind. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Baumarten erträgt die Schwarzpappel wie auch Baumweidenarten Hochwasserstände von bis zu 90 Tagen und damit mittlere Hochwässer. Auf Grund der Konkurr...

  20. High levels of mitochondrial DNA deletions in substantia nigra neurons in aging and Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andreas; Krishnan, Kim J; Morris, Christopher M; Taylor, Geoffrey A; Reeve, Amy K; Perry, Robert H; Jaros, Evelyn; Hersheson, Joshua S; Betts, Joanne; Klopstock, Thomas; Taylor, Robert W; Turnbull, Douglass M

    2006-05-01

    Here we show that in substantia nigra neurons from both aged controls and individuals with Parkinson disease, there is a high level of deleted mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (controls, 43.3% +/- 9.3%; individuals with Parkinson disease, 52.3% +/- 9.3%). These mtDNA mutations are somatic, with different clonally expanded deletions in individual cells, and high levels of these mutations are associated with respiratory chain deficiency. Our studies suggest that somatic mtDNA deletions are important in the selective neuronal loss observed in brain aging and in Parkinson disease.

  1. The actions of antipsychotic drugs on dopamine receptors in the rat substantia nigra.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The activity of neurones in the zona compacta of the rat substantia nigra was recorded extracellularly in vitro. Dopamine produced a dose-dependent depression of firing, threshold doses being in the 3 microM range. The inhibitory effects of dopamine were antagonized by (-)-sulpiride (pA2 7.5), haloperidol (pA2 8.4) and cis-flupenthixol (pA2 6.9). The actions of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were not affected by these compounds. The gradients of Schild plots of data for (-)-sulpiride were les...

  2. Some tests for parameter constancy in cointegrated VAR-models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johansen, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations, and anot...... be applied to test the constancy of the long-run parameters in the cointegrated VAR-model. All results are illustrated using a model for the term structure of interest rates on US Treasury securities. ...

  3. Colorability of Wood Material with Punica granatum and Morus nigra Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan Özen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the development of an eco-friendly dye that may be used in furniture, woodworking, and upper surface treatment, with no ill effects to human health. The plant dyestuff was extracted from pomegranate skin (Punica granatum and black mulberry (Morus nigra using an ultrasonic method at different rates. The extraction percentage ratios were, by weight in distilled water, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50% and were applied to Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L. through an immersion method. After that, the determination of color change under the accelerated weathering conditions and the feasibility as the upper surface stain of this dyestuff were studied. The values of total color change of the natural dye samples that were applied to the test material were determined after accelerated weathering processes lasting 50, 100, and 150 h, according to ISO 2470. The results showed the best color stability in Oriental beech wood that was treated with 30% pomegranate skin or black mulberry extract as well as Scotch pine wood that was treated with 25% pomegranate skin extract or 50% black mulberry extract. Exactly the same ΔE* values were obtained with the same dyestuff and same wood type, indicating close color stability behaviors. According to the results, both pomegranate skin (Punica granatum and black mulberry (Morus nigra can be used to color wood materials.

  4. Morus nigra plant leaves as biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, M.; Khalid, N.; Waheed, S.; Wasim, M.; Arif, M.; Zaidi, J.H. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Chemistry Div.

    2011-07-01

    The present paper deals with the determination of 36 elements in 120 leaf samples of Morus nigra plant to assess their potential as biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring. The elemental quantification was made by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) techniques. The leaf samples were collected in spring, summer and winter seasons from various sites in Islamabad with different types of anthropogenic activities as well as from a reference site with minimum of such activities. Twenty four soil samples from the respective sites were also analyzed. The reliability of the adopted procedures was established by analyzing the certified reference materials, i.e., citrus leaves-1572 and soil-7, from NIST and IAEA, respectively, under identical experimental conditions and comparing the results obtained with the certified values which are in quite good agreement with each other. The enrichment values and Pollution Load Index (PLI) of the determined elements were computed and discussed accordingly. The elemental translocation from soil to roots, stem and leaves has also been studied by analyzing these parts of the same plant. The results indicated that the leaves of Morus nigra plant have promising potential to monitor the extent of air pollution in the vicinity of industrial as well as in high traffic areas. (orig.)

  5. Brazilian Morus nigra Attenuated Hyperglycemia, Dyslipidemia, and Prooxidant Status in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, Ivanildo I da S; Barbosa, Humberto de Moura; Carvalho, Débora C R; Barros, Ruideglan de Alencar; Albuquerque, Flávia Peixoto; da Silva, Dionísio Henrique Amaral; Souza, Grasielly R; Souza, Nathália A C; Rolim, Larissa A; Silva, Flaviane M M; Duarte, Glória I B P; Almeida, Jackson R G da S; de Oliveira Júnior, Flávio Monteiro; Gomes, Dayane A; Lira, Eduardo C

    2017-01-01

    Morus nigra has been used popularly for several proposes, including diabetic. In an attempt to support medicinal value, the acute hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects of the ethanolic extract of Morus nigra (EEMn 200 or 400 mg/kg b.w.) were evaluated in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic treated for 14 days. Serum biochemical and antioxidant analysis were performed at the end of experiment. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed at 10th and 15th days. Chromatographic analysis by HPLC-DAD of EEMn was performed. Insulin was used as positive control to glycemic metabolism as well as fenofibrate to lipid metabolism. EEMn (400 mg/kg/day) reduced fasting and postprandial glycaemia, improved oral glucose tolerance, and reduced lipolysis and proteolysis in diabetic rats. EEMn decreased the blood levels of total cholesterol and increased HDL level when compared to the diabetic control rats. At higher levels, EEMn reduced triglycerides and VLDL levels in diabetic rats. Also, EEMn reduced malondialdehyde and increased the reduced glutathione levels in liver of diabetic rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the presence of the flavonoids rutin, isoquercetin, and kaempferitrin. Acute EEMn treatment reduced hyperglycemia, improved oral glucose tolerance, and minimized dyslipidemia and oxidative stress leading to a reduction in atherogenic index in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  6. Brazilian Morus nigra Attenuated Hyperglycemia, Dyslipidemia, and Prooxidant Status in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo I. da S. Júnior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Morus nigra has been used popularly for several proposes, including diabetic. In an attempt to support medicinal value, the acute hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects of the ethanolic extract of Morus nigra (EEMn 200 or 400 mg/kg b.w. were evaluated in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic treated for 14 days. Serum biochemical and antioxidant analysis were performed at the end of experiment. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed at 10th and 15th days. Chromatographic analysis by HPLC-DAD of EEMn was performed. Insulin was used as positive control to glycemic metabolism as well as fenofibrate to lipid metabolism. EEMn (400 mg/kg/day reduced fasting and postprandial glycaemia, improved oral glucose tolerance, and reduced lipolysis and proteolysis in diabetic rats. EEMn decreased the blood levels of total cholesterol and increased HDL level when compared to the diabetic control rats. At higher levels, EEMn reduced triglycerides and VLDL levels in diabetic rats. Also, EEMn reduced malondialdehyde and increased the reduced glutathione levels in liver of diabetic rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the presence of the flavonoids rutin, isoquercetin, and kaempferitrin. Acute EEMn treatment reduced hyperglycemia, improved oral glucose tolerance, and minimized dyslipidemia and oxidative stress leading to a reduction in atherogenic index in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  7. Sambucus nigra L. as a reservoir of beneficial insects (Diptera, Syrphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowicz-Żytko Elżbieta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Black elder (Sambucus nigra L. commonly occurs throughout the country – it can be found in forests, thickets, parks, balks or in home gardens. It is a valuable reservoir of food for beneficial insects and a place of refuge or wintering. Almost every part of the elderberry plant has some uses: the fruits, flowers, leaves, roots, pith and bark. Its fruits and flowers are used in herbal medicine and in the kitchen. S. nigra is a primary host of Aphis sambuci L. feeding, which weakens plant growth, reduces flowering and fruiting, and decreases the ornamental value of these shrubs. Aphid populations are limited by a group of predatory and parasitic organisms, among which an important role is played by predatory Syrphidae. Observations were conducted in the years 2009 and 2010 in Krakow (south Poland, 19°57’E, 50°03’N. Significantly more numerous A. sambuci colonies were observed in 2009 – in the maximum of their abundance, 960 specimens per shoot were noted. Seven syrphid species were noted in A. sambuci colonies: Episyrphus balteatus (Deg., Epistrophe eligans (Harr., Sphaerophoria scripta (L., Syrphus ribesii (L., Syrphus vitripennis Meig., Scaeva pyrastri (L. and Eupeodes corollae (Fabr.. E. balteatus dominated in both years of research. Research on the effectiveness of Syrphidae was performed on four commonly occurring species – the most voracious were Epistrophe eligans (Harr. larvae, eating up to 676 A. sambuci aphids during their development.

  8. Culturable heterotrophic bacteria from the marine sponge Dendrilla nigra: isolation and phylogenetic diversity of actinobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvin, Joseph; Gandhimathi, R.; Kiran, G. Seghal; Priya, S. Shanmugha; Ravji, T. Rajeetha; Hema, T. A.

    2009-09-01

    Culturable heterotrophic bacterial composition of marine sponge Dendrilla nigra was analysed using different enrichments. Five media compositions including without enrichment (control), enriched with sponge extract, with growth regulator (antibiotics), with autoinducers, and complete enrichment containing sponge extract, antibiotics, and autoinducers were developed. DNA hybridization assay was performed to explore host specific bacteria and ecotypes of culturable sponge-associated bacteria. Enrichment with selective inducers (AHLs and sponge extract) and regulators (antibiotics) considerably enhanced the cultivation potential of sponge-associated bacteria. It was found that Marinobacter (MSI032), Micromonospora (MSI033), Streptomyces (MSI051), and Pseudomonas (MSI057) were sponge-associated obligate symbionts. The present findings envisaged that “ Micromonospora-Saccharomonospora-Streptomyces” group was the major culturable actinobacteria in the marine sponge D. nigra. The DNA hybridization assay was a reliable method for the analysis of culturable bacterial community in marine sponges. Based on the culturable community structure, the sponge-associated bacteria can be grouped (ecotypes) as general symbionts, specific symbionts, habitat flora, and antagonists.

  9. The substantia nigra and ventral tegmental dopaminergic neurons from development to degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, YuHong; Paxinos, George; Watson, Charles; Halliday, Glenda M

    2016-10-01

    The pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterised by the loss of neurons in the substantia nigra parcompacta (A9), which results in the insufficient release of dopamine, and the appearance of motor symptoms. Not all neurons in the A9 subregions degenerate in PD, and the dopaminergic (DA) neurons located in the neighboring ventral tegmental area (A10) are relatively resistant to PD pathogenesis. An increasing number of quantitative studies using human tissue samples of these brain regions have revealed important biological differences. In this review, we first describe current knowledge on the multi-segmental neuromere origin of these DA neurons. We then compare the continued transcription factor and protein expression profile and morphological differences distinguishing subregions within the A9 substantia nigra, and between A9 and A10 DA neurons. We conclude that the expression of three types of factors and proteins contributes to the diversity observed in these DA neurons and potentially to their differential vulnerability to PD. In particular, the specific axonal structure of A9 neurons and the way A9 neurons maintain their DA usage makes them easily exposed to energy deficits, calcium overload and oxidative stress, all contributing to their decreased survival in PD. We highlight knowledge gaps in our understanding of the cellular biomarkers for and their different functions in DA neurons, knowledge which may assist to identify underpinning disease mechansims that could be targeted for the treatment of any subregional dysfunction and loss of these DA neurons.

  10. Defective mitochondrial DNA homeostasis in the substantia nigra in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölle, Christian; Flønes, Irene; Nido, Gonzalo S; Miletic, Hrvoje; Osuagwu, Nelson; Kristoffersen, Stine; Lilleng, Peer K; Larsen, Jan Petter; Tysnes, Ole-Bjørn; Haugarvoll, Kristoffer; Bindoff, Laurence A; Tzoulis, Charalampos

    2016-11-22

    Increased somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutagenesis causes premature aging in mice, and mtDNA damage accumulates in the human brain with aging and neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson disease (PD). Here, we study the complete spectrum of mtDNA changes, including deletions, copy-number variation and point mutations, in single neurons from the dopaminergic substantia nigra and other brain areas of individuals with Parkinson disease and neurologically healthy controls. We show that in dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons of healthy individuals, mtDNA copy number increases with age, maintaining the pool of wild-type mtDNA population in spite of accumulating deletions. This upregulation fails to occur in individuals with Parkinson disease, however, resulting in depletion of the wild-type mtDNA population. By contrast, neuronal mtDNA point mutational load is not increased in Parkinson disease. Our findings suggest that dysregulation of mtDNA homeostasis is a key process in the pathogenesis of neuronal loss in Parkinson disease.

  11. Increased frequency of alpha-synuclein in the substantia nigra in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanlou, Negar; Moore, David J; Chana, Gursharan; Cherner, Mariana; Lazzaretto, Deborah; Dawes, Sharron; Grant, Igor; Masliah, Eliezer; Everall, Ian P

    2009-04-01

    The frequency of neurodegenerative markers among long surviving human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is unknown, therefore, the present study investigated the frequency of alpha-synuclein, beta-amyloid, and HIV-associated brain pathology in the brains of older HIV-infected individuals. We examined the substantia nigra of 73 clinically well-characterized HIV-infected individuals aged 50 to 76 years from the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium. We also examined the frontal and temporal cortical regions of a subset of 36 individuals. Neuritic alpha-synuclein expression was found in 16% (12/73) of the substantia nigra of the HIV+cases and none of the older control cases (0/18). beta-Amyloid deposits were prevalent and found in nearly all of the HIV+cases (35/36). Despite these increases of degenerative pathology, HIV-associated brain pathology was present in only 10% of cases. Among older HIV+adults, HIV-associated brain pathology does not appear elevated; however, the frequency of both alpha-synuclein and beta-amyloid is higher than that found in older healthy persons. The increased prevalence of alpha-synuclein and beta-amyloid in the brains of older HIV-infected individuals may predict an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative disease.

  12. Alpha-synuclein suppression by targeted small interfering RNA in the primate substantia nigra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L McCormack

    Full Text Available The protein alpha-synuclein is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Its toxic potential appears to be enhanced by increased protein expression, providing a compelling rationale for therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing neuronal alpha-synuclein burden. Here, feasibility and safety of alpha-synuclein suppression were evaluated by treating monkeys with small interfering RNA (siRNA directed against alpha-synuclein. The siRNA molecule was chemically modified to prevent degradation by exo- and endonucleases and directly infused into the left substantia nigra. Results compared levels of alpha-synuclein mRNA and protein in the infused (left vs. untreated (right hemisphere and revealed a significant 40-50% suppression of alpha-synuclein expression. These findings could not be attributable to non-specific effects of siRNA infusion since treatment of a separate set of animals with luciferase-targeting siRNA produced no changes in alpha-synuclein. Infusion with alpha-synuclein siRNA, while lowering alpha-synuclein expression, had no overt adverse consequences. In particular, it did not cause tissue inflammation and did not change (i the number and phenotype of nigral dopaminergic neurons, and (ii the concentrations of striatal dopamine and its metabolites. The data represent the first evidence of successful anti-alpha-synuclein intervention in the primate substantia nigra and support further development of RNA interference-based therapeutics.

  13. Mechanism by Sambucus nigra Extract Improves Bone Mineral Density in Experimental Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Badescu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polyphenols extracted from Sambucus nigra fruit were studied in streptozotocin- (STZ- induced hyperglycemic rats to evaluate its possible antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiglycosylation activity, and antiosteoporosis effects in diabetes. DEXA bone mineral density tests were performed in order to determine bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and fat (%Fat in control and diabetic animals, before and after polyphenol delivery. As compared to the normoglycemic group, the rats treated with STZ (60 mg/kg body weight revealed a significant malondialdehyde (MDA increase, as an index of the lipid peroxidation level, by 69%, while the total antioxidant activity (TAS dropped by 36%, with a consistently significant decrease (<0.05 in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX. Also, the treatment of rats with STZ revealed a significant increase of IL-6, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and osteopenia detected by DEXA bone mineral density tests. The recorded results highlight a significant improvement (<0.001 in the antioxidative capacity of the serum in diabetic rats treated with natural polyphenols, bringing back to normal the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH, as well as an important decrease in the serum concentration of MDA, with improved osteoporosis status. Knowing the effects of polyphenols could lead to the use of the polyphenolic extract of Sambucus nigra as a dietary supplement in diabetic osteoporosis.

  14. Verbascoside promotes the regeneration of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-qing Liang; Li Wang; Jian-cheng He; Xian-dong Hua

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase is a key enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis. Change in tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the nigrostriatal system is closely related to the occurrence and development of Parkinson’s disease. Verbascoside, an extract from Radix Rehmanniae Praeparata has been shown to be clinically effective in treating Parkinson’s disease. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. It is hypothesized that the effects of verbascoside on Parkinson’s disease are related to tyrosine hydroxylase expression change in the nigrostriatal system. Rat models of Parkinson’s disease were established and verbascoside (60 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally once a day. After 6 weeks of verbascoside treatment, rat rotational behavior was alleviated; tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein expression and the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the rat right substantia nigra were signiifcantly higher than the Parkinson’s model group. These ifndings suggest that the mechanism by which verbascoside treats Parkinson’s disease is related to the regeneration of tyrosine hy-droxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra.

  15. Investigation of in vivo neuropharmacological effect of Alpinia nigra leaf extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farjana Sharmen; Adnan Mannan; Md Mominur Rahman; Md Ashraf Uddin Chowdhury; Muhammad Erfan Uddin; A M Abu Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze in vivo neuro-pharmacological effects of Alpinia nigra as anxiety is a particular form of behavioral inhibition that occurs in response to novel environmental events.Methods:In present study, the extract of Alpinia nigra was evaluated for its central nervous system depressant effect using mice behavioral models, such as hole cross, open field and thiopental sodium induced sleeping time tests for its sedative properties and an elevated plus-maze test for its anxiolytic potential, respectively.Results:In anxiolytic study, the extract displayed increased percentage of entry into open arm at the dose of 400 and 200 mg/kg. The extract produced a significant (P<0.01) increase in sleeping duration and reduction of onset of sleep compared to sodium thiopental at both doses (200 and 400 mg/kg). The extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) also showed a dose-dependent suppression of motor activity and exploratory activity of the mice in both open field and hole cross test.Conclusion:This study demonstrates that the treated extract has significant central nervous system depressant effect. Further studies on active constituent of the extract can provide approaches for therapeutic intervention.

  16. Pitfalls in VAR based return decompositions: A clarification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard; Tanggaard, Carsten

    Based on Chen and Zhao's (2009) criticism of VAR based return de- compositions, we explain in detail the various limitations and pitfalls involved in such decompositions. First, we show that Chen and Zhao's interpretation of their excess bond return decomposition is wrong: the residual component...... in their analysis is not "cashflow news" but "inter- est rate news" which should not be zero. Consequently, in contrast to what Chen and Zhao claim, their decomposition does not serve as a valid caution against VAR based decompositions. Second, we point out that in order for VAR based decompositions to be valid....... In a properly specified VAR, it makes no difference whether return news and dividend news are both computed directly or one of them is backed out as a residual....

  17. Recovery plan for Chorizanthe robusta var. robusta (Robust Spineflower)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Current Status: Chorizanthe robusta var. robusta (robust spineflower), which is federally endangered, is restricted to sandy soils along the coast and near-coastal...

  18. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    a VAr management system are proposed and analyzed. Such a reactive power reserve may be provided by the wind power plant since the amount of reactive power installed for most active power working points exceeds the demand required by the grid operator. Basically, this overrated reactive power capacity......Larger percentages of wind power penetration translate into more demanding requirements from the grid codes; for example voltage support at the point of connection has been introduced recently by several grid codes from around the world, making it important to analyze this control when applied...... to wind power plants. This paper proposes two different VAr reserve control strategies for a wind power plant. The amount of dynamic VAr available most of the operation time, makes the wind power plant (WPP) a good candidate to include a VAr reserve management system. Two different ways of implementing...

  19. Puccinia jaceae var.solstitialis teliospore priming on yellow starthistle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the introduction of Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis to California for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, Asteraceae), teliospores, pycnia, and multiple urediniospore generations have been observed in the field. Because urediniospores have a relatively short...

  20. Effects of SO/sub 2/ on the germination of conifer pollen. [Pinus mugo; Pinus nigra; Pinus sylvestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, T.; Beda, H.

    1984-01-01

    Collections on agar of fresh and stored pollen grains of Pinus mugo, P. nigra and P. sylvestris were fumigated with SO/sub 2/ for 16 or 24 h. The ability of pollen of P. mugo and P. sylvestris to germinate was decreased by storage but sensitivities to SO/sub 2/ were not greatly altered. Germination was inhibited consistently by atmospheres with 0.225 ppm SO/sub 2/. At 0.075 ppm - a typical ambient concentration during temperature inversions - P. nigra and P. sylvestris were more sensitive than P. mugo which responded in the same way as pollen of Abies alba.

  1. Tree rings, Populus nigra L., as mercury data logger in aquatic environments: case study of an historically contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, S N; Soares, A M V M; Nogueira, A J A; Morgado, F

    2008-03-01

    In this study, a tree (Populus nigra L.) has been presented as data logger of mercury release in aquatic environments using tree rings chemistry to provide chronological historical monitoring of mercury discharge from a chlor-alkali industrial effluent to a coastal lagoon. Tree rings (Populus nigra L.) as mercury data logger is suggested by mercury accumulation trends in the tree rings reflecting the industrial plant capacity increments in the early stages of mercury discharges and enhancing industrial plant controls to minimize mercury discharges in the last two decades after imposed global regulations on mercury emissions.

  2. Atividade antinociceptiva do extrato etanólico das folhas de Morus nigra L. (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielly Rocha Souza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available O extrato etanólico bruto das folhas de M. nigra (Mn-EtOH foi avaliado quanto à atividade antinociceptiva em modelos experimentais em camundongos. Foram usados os métodos de contorções abdominais induzidas pelo ácido acético, teste da formalina e placa quente. No teste de contorções abdominais induzidas pelo ácido acético, Mn-EtOH (100, 200 e 400 mg/kg, i.p. reduziu o número de contorções em 38,82, 97,65 e 100%, respectivamente. O extrato também produziu uma significativa inibição de ambas as fases do teste da formalina, sendo que o efeito foi mais significativo na segunda fase (dor inflamatória. O extrato diminuiu em 42,19, 56,96 e 40,50%, respectivamente, o tempo de lambida da pata na primeira fase do teste de formalina, assim como 84,04, 77,20 e 61,07%, respectivamente, na segunda fase. Além disso, não apresentou efeito no teste da placa quente. Os dados obtidos sugerem que o extrato tem efeito antinociceptivo, provavelmente mediado através de mecanismos periféricos. Novos estudos estão sendo realizados para caracterizar o mecanismo responsável por esse efeito.Palavras-chave: Morus nigra. Moraceae. Atividade antinociceptiva. Dor. ABSTRACTAntinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Morus nigra L. (MoraceaeThe crude ethanolic extract of the leaves of M. nigra (Mn-EtOH was evaluated for antinociceptive activity in mice using models of nociception. The evaluation of antinociceptive activity was carried out by the acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and hot plate tests. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, the Mn-EtOH (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p. reduced the number of writhing by 38.82, 97.65 and 100%, respectively. The extract also produced a significant inhibition of both phases of the formalin test, and the effect was more significant in the second phase (inflammatory pain. The extract decreased by 42.19, 56.96 and 40.50%, respectively, the paw licking time in the first phase of

  3. Natural hybridization between Populus nigra L. and P. x canadensis Moench. Hybrid offspring competes for niches along the Rhine river in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Beringen, R.; Volosyanchuk, R.; Vanden Broeck, A.; Schoot, van der J.; Arens, P.F.P.; Vosman, B.

    2008-01-01

    Black poplar (Populus nigra L.) is a major species for European riparian forests but its abundance has decreased over the decades due to human influences. For restoration of floodplain woodlands, the remaining black poplar stands may act as source population. A potential problem is that P. nigra and

  4. Effect of Morus nigra aqueous extract treatment on the maternal-fetal outcome, oxidative stress status and lipid profile of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, G T; Calderon, I M P; Sinzato, S; Campos, K E; Rudge, M V C; Damasceno, D C

    2011-12-08

    Morus nigra, commonly known as black mulberry, is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the diabetes treatment. To evaluate the effect of Morus nigra aqueous extract treatment on maternal lipid and oxidative stress profile, reproductive outcomes, and also fetal anomaly incidence from diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) in virgin female Wistar rats. Morus nigra leaf aqueous extract (400 mg/kg) was administered from day 0 to 20 of pregnancy. At day 21 of pregnancy, all rats were anesthetized and killed to obtain blood samples and maternal-fetal data. After treatment with Morus nigra extract, non-diabetic and diabetic rats presented no glycemic changes. Fetuses from diabetic dams, regardless of Morus nigra treatment, were small for pregnancy age. In diabetic dams, plant treatment caused reduced MDA, cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL levels, and decreased placental index and weight as compared to diabetic group. The fetuses from diabetic rats treated with Morus nigra extract had lower frequency of skeletal and visceral anomalies as compared to diabetic group. Thus, Morus nigra leaf aqueous extract failed to control hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. However, Morus nigra treatment had antioxidant effect, contributing to reduce incidence of internal anomalies in offspring from diabetic dams. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Orientation of the Fiscal Policy in Tunisia: Structural VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Khanfir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to indicate the orientation of fiscal policy in Tunisia, using the structural budget balance, during the period 1972-2014. For this purpose, we estimate a structural VAR model consisting of the fiscal deficit to current GDP ratio and the volume of economic activity represented by the real GDP. We estimate bivariate structural VAR in order to decompose fiscal deficit fluctuations into different disturbances.

  6. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  7. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MANGIFERA INDICA L. VAR. THOTAPURI AND MANGIFERA INDICA L. VAR. NEELAM ROOT CRUDE EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Latha, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Pet ether, ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts of Mangifera indica L. Var. Thotapuri and Mangifera indica L. Var. Neelam were taken for anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for evoked response, paralysis and time for death of worms. Piperazine citrate was used as a reference standard and distilled water as a control group. Dose dependent activity was observed in both ...

  9. Complement activation in the Parkinson's disease substantia nigra: an immunocytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conant Stephanie B

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory processes are increased in the Parkinson's disease (PD brain. The long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been associated, in retrospective studies, with decreased risk for PD, suggesting that inflammation may contribute to development of this disorder. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of complement activation, a major inflammatory mechanism, in PD. Methods Substantia nigra specimens from young normal subjects (n = 11–13, aged normal subjects (n = 24–28, and subjects with PD (n = 19–20, Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 12–13, and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; n = 9 were stained for iC3b and C9, representing early- and late-stage complement activation, respectively. Numbers of iC3b+, C9+, and total melanized neurons in each section were counted in a blinded fashion. Nonparametric analyses were used to evaluate differences between groups and to evaluate correlations between complement staining, numbers of melanized neurons, and the duration of PD. Results Lewy bodies in both PD and DLB specimens stained for iC3b and C9. Staining was also prominent on melanized neurons. The percentage of iC3b+ neurons was significantly increased in PD vs. aged normal and AD specimens, and in young normal vs. aged normal specimens. C9 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in PD vs. AD specimens, but unlike iC3b, the increased C9 staining in PD and young normal specimens did not achieve statistical significance vs. aged normal specimens. iC3b and C9 staining in PD specimens was not correlated with the numbers of remaining melanized neurons, nor with the duration of PD. Conclusion Complement activation occurs on Lewy bodies and melanized neurons in the PD substantia nigra. Early complement activation (iC3b is increased on melanized neurons in PD vs. aged normal specimens, and late-stage complement activation (C9 also tends to increase. This latter finding suggests that complement

  10. Transition of a Sambucus nigra L. dominated woody vegetation into grassland by a self regulating multi-species herbivore assemblage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, P.; Gresnigt, M.C.; Vermeulen, R.A.; Bokdam, J.; Smit, R.

    2014-01-01

    We describe and analyse how large herbivores strongly diminished a woody vegetation, dominated by the unpalatable shrub Sambucus nigra L. and changed it into grassland. Density of woody species and cover of vegetation were measured in 1996, 2002 and 2012 in the grazed Oostvaardersplassen. In 2002 an

  11. CHARACTERIZATION AND PHARMACOLOGICAL RESPONSIVENESS OF DOPAMINE RELEASE RECORDED BY MICRODIALYSIS IN THE SUBSTANTIA-NIGRA OF CONSCIOUS RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SANTIAGO, M; WESTERINK, BHC

    1991-01-01

    The extracellular concentration of dopamine (DA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the substantia nigra (SN) and striatum was estimated by microdialysis. The dialysate content of DA from the SN was recorded during infusion of a DA uptake blocker (nomifensine; 5-mu-mol/L) dissolved in the perfusi

  12. Oxidative stress-dependent changes in immune responses and cell death in the substantia nigra after ozone exposure in rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Arancibia, Selva; Zimbrón, Luis Fernando Hernández; Rodríguez-Martínez, Erika; Maldonado, Perla D.; Borgonio Pérez, Gabino; Sepúlveda-Parada, María

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease has been associated with the selective loss of neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role. The resulting increase in reactive oxygen species triggers a sequence of events that leads to cell damage, activation of microglia cells and neuroinflammatory responses. Our objective was to study whether chronic exposure to low doses of ozone, which produces oxidative stress itself, induces progressive cell death in conjunction with glial alterations in the substantia nigra. Animals were exposed to an ozone-free air stream (control) or to low doses of ozone for 7, 15, 30, 60, or 90 days. Each group underwent (1) spectrophotometric analysis for protein oxidation; (2) western blot testing for microglia reactivity and nuclear factor kappa B expression levels; and (3) immunohistochemistry for cytochrome c, GFAP, Iba-1, NFkB, and COX-2. Our results indicate that ozone induces an increase in protein oxidation levels, changes in activated astrocytes and microglia, and cell death. NFkB and cytochrome c showed an increase until 30 days of exposure, while cyclooxygenase 2 in the substantia nigra increased from 7 days up to 90 days of repetitive ozone exposure. These results suggest that oxidative stress caused by ozone exposure induces changes in inflammatory responses and progressive cell death in the substantia nigra in rats, which could also be occurring in Parkinson's disease. PMID:25999851

  13. Sapflow of hybrid poplar (Populus nigra L. x P. maximowiczii A. Henry 'NM6') during phytoremediation of landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Edmund O. Bauer; Don E. Riemenschneider

    2006-01-01

    Poplars are ideal for phytoremediation because of their high water usage, fast growth, and deep root systems. We measured in 2002 and 2003 the sapflow of hybrid poplars (Populus nigra L. x P. maximowiczii A. Henry 'NM6') planted in 1999 for phytoremediation of a landfill in Rhinelander, WI, USA (45.6?N, 89.4?W).

  14. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF EXTRACELLULAR GABA IN THE SUBSTANTIA-NIGRA OF THE RAT DURING SEIZURES AND ANTICONVULSANT TREATMENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SAYIN, U; TIMMERMAN, W; WESTERINK, BHC

    1995-01-01

    The effects of the anti-epileptic drugs valproic acid and gamma-vinyl-GABA (vigabatrin) on the extracellular content of GABA was determined by microdialysis. Probes were implanted in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNR) of rats. It was found that gamma-vinyl-GABA (1000 mg/kg) induced a 4-6-fold

  15. Development of a reliable method for determining sex for a primitive rodent, the Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristine L. Pilgrim; William J. Zielinski; Fredrick V. Schlexer; Michael K. Schwartz

    2012-01-01

    The mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) is a primitive species of rodent, often considered a living fossil. The Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra) is an endangered subspecies that occurs in a very restricted range in northern California. Efforts to recover this taxon have been limited by the lack of knowledge on their demography, particularly sex and age...

  16. Seed development in Phaseolus vulgaris L., Populus nigra L., and Ranunculus sceleratus L. with special reference to the microtubular cytoskeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    XuHan, X.

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, seed development is investigated in celery-leafed buttercup ( Ranunculus sceleratus L.), bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and poplar ( Populus nigra L.). Developing embryos, endosperms and seed coats are investigate

  17. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF EXTRACELLULAR GABA IN THE SUBSTANTIA-NIGRA OF THE RAT DURING SEIZURES AND ANTICONVULSANT TREATMENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SAYIN, U; TIMMERMAN, W; WESTERINK, BHC

    1995-01-01

    The effects of the anti-epileptic drugs valproic acid and gamma-vinyl-GABA (vigabatrin) on the extracellular content of GABA was determined by microdialysis. Probes were implanted in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNR) of rats. It was found that gamma-vinyl-GABA (1000 mg/kg) induced a 4-6-fold inc

  18. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chaenomeles japonica, Cornus mas, Morus nigra fruits characteristics and their processing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarko, Tomasz; Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra; Satora, Paweł; Sroka, Paweł; Pogoń, Piotr; Machalica, Justyna

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica), cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) and black mulberry (Morus nigra) fruits as raw materials for processing. All analyzed fruits were characterized by high antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Fruits of Japanese quince and cornelian cherry had also high acidity. Products such as fruit wines and liquors were prepared from the tested fruits. In respect of soluble solid content and reducing sugars content the obtained wine should be classified as dry wines. All analyzed liquors were characterized by similar alcohol content and the soluble solid content. Moreover, liquors made from Japanese quince and cornelian cherry were characterized by high total acidity and antioxidant capacity. The results of sensory analysis showed high commercial potential of the examined fruits.

  20. Kara Dut (Morus nigra L.) Bitkisinin In Vitro Çoğaltımı

    OpenAIRE

    KALKIŞIM, Özgün; Turan, Ali; AZERİ, Fatma Nur; ÖZDEŞ, Duygu

    2014-01-01

    Karadutun (Morus nigra L.) doku kültürü ile çoğaltılabilme imkanlarını belirlemek amacıyla yapılan bu çalışmada, erişkin ağaçların obur dallarından alınan nodal eksplantlardan çoklu sürgün teşvikini sağlamaya yönelik etkili bir protokol standardize edilmek üzere, bitki büyüme düzenleyicilerin farklı konsantrasyon ve kombinasyonu ile zenginleştirilmiş MS ortamları denenmiştir. Beş ayrı konsantrasyonda BAP (6-enzylaminopurine; 1,0, 2,0, 3,0, 4,0, 5,0 mg/L) ile desteklenmiş ve ayrıca BAP, NAA (...

  1. Bowel movement frequency in late-life and substantia nigra neuron density at death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovitch, Helen; Abbott, Robert D; Ross, G Webster; Nelson, James; Masaki, Kamal H; Tanner, Caroline M; Launer, Lenore J; White, Lon R

    2009-02-15

    Constipation is associated with future risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) and with incidental Lewy bodies (LB) in the locus ceruleus or substantia nigra (SN). Our purpose is to examine the independent association between bowel movement frequency in late-life and postmortem SN neuron density. Bowel movement frequency was assessed in the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study from 1991 to 1993 in 414 men aged 71 to 93 years with later postmortem evaluations. Brains were examined for LB in the SN and locus ceruleus and neurons were counted in four quadrants from a transverse section of SN. In nonsmokers, neuron densities (counts/mm(2)) for men with >1, 1, and coffee drinking, tricep skinfold thickness, excessive daytime sleepiness, cognitive function, PD, and incidental LB, density ratios in nonsmokers with 1 or more bowel movement(s) daily were significantly higher compared to those with <1 daily. Constipation is associated with low SN neuron density independent of the presence of LB.

  2. Fermentation of an Aromatized Wine-Based Beverage with Sambucus nigra L. Syrup (after Champenoise Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Emilia Coldea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower (Sambucus nigra L. syrup presented improved sensorial characteristics. White wine used was Fetească regală variety, obtained in Micro winery of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca. Elderflower syrup was prepared without thermal treatment, but was pasteurised before its addition to wine. Elderflower have many health benefits, such as diuretic, diaphoretic, or antioxidant activity. In this study it was used elderflower syrup both to improve the product s sensorial properties, and for their multiple benefits to health. The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower syrup was produced by fermentation in the bottle (after Champenoise method, with the addition of wine yeast. The novelty brought by this paper is the use of elderflower syrup in alcoholic-beverage industry.

  3. Genomic convergence to identify candidate genes for Parkinson disease: SAGE analysis of the substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureddine, Maher A; Li, Yi-Ju; van der Walt, Joelle M; Walters, Robert; Jewett, Rita M; Xu, Hong; Wang, Tianyuan; Walter, Jeffrey W; Scott, Burton L; Hulette, Christine; Schmechel, Don; Stenger, Judith E; Dietrich, Fred; Vance, Jeffery M; Hauser, Michael A

    2005-10-01

    Genomic convergence is a multistep approach that combines gene expression with genomic linkage to identify and prioritize susceptibility genes for complex disease. As a first step, we previously performed linkage analysis on 174 multiplex Parkinson's disease (PD) families, identifying five peaks for PD risk and two for genes affecting age at onset (AAO) in PD [Hauser et al., Hum Mol Genet 2003;12:671-677]. We report here the next step: serial analysis of gene expression [SAGE; Scott et al., JAMA 2001;286:2239-2242] to analyze substantia nigra tissue from three PD patients and two age-matched controls. We find 933 differentially expressed genes (Pgenetic effects on AAO. Copyright (c) 2005 Movement Disorder Society.

  4. Stomata morphological traits in two different genotypes of Populus nigra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Populus nigra L. (black poplar possesses amphistomatic leaves, with large (giant and normal sized stomata. The role of giant stomata in leaf development, and the consequences on stomatal density in adult leaves remains elusive. This paper describes the characteristics of ordinary and giant stomata in leaves of two black poplar genotypes (58-861 with large leaves from northern Italy, and Poli with small leaves from southern Italy. Stomatal traits in both genotypes were studied using light microscopy on mature leaf adaxial and abaxial epidermal impressions. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy was applied to study giant and normal stomata in early, young, and mature leaves. Leaf abaxial surfaces in the two genotypes revealed variable sizes and patterns of stomata related to differences in intrinsic water use efficiency (Wi. These observations provided evidence of different stomatal types in mature black poplar leaves, and new information regarding the presence and potential role of giant stomata in black poplar leaves.

  5. Biomonitorization of iron accumulation in the substantia nigra from Lewy body disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Belén; Ferrer, Isidro; Gil, Fernando; Hilfiker, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Iron levels in the healthy human brain are known to be high in certain areas such as the substantia nigra (SN), and increase further with age. In addition, there is some evidence for a further increase in iron load in the SN of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients as compared to controls, which correlates with motor disability. Here, we have analyzed total iron levels in cells as well as mouse and human brain samples by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Our data indicate that iron load is more pronounced in cells with dopaminergic features. Moreover, region-specific differences in iron load reflecting those in the human brain were detected in rodent brains as well. Whilst altered iron load was not observed in other regions also affected in PD patients, we report a significant increase in iron load in the SN of Lewy body disease patients as compared to Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients or controls, which correlates with neurodegeneration in this brain area. PMID:28529891

  6. Mimetic Muscles in a Despotic Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Differ from Those in a Closely Related Tolerant Macaque (M. nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    Facial displays (or expressions) are a primary means of visual communication among conspecifics in many mammalian orders. Macaques are an ideal model among primates for investigating the co-evolution of facial musculature, facial displays, and social group size/behavior under the umbrella of "ecomorphology". While all macaque species share some social behaviors, dietary, and ecological parameters, they display a range of social dominance styles from despotic to tolerant. A previous study found a larger repertoire of facial displays in tolerant macaque species relative to despotic species. The present study was designed to further explore this finding by comparing the gross morphological features of mimetic muscles between the Sulawesi macaque (Macaca nigra), a tolerant species, and the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), a despotic species. Five adult M. nigra heads were dissected and mimetic musculature was compared to those from M. mulatta. Results showed that there was general similarity in muscle presence/absence between the species as well as muscle form except for musculature around the external ear. M. mulatta had more musculature around the external ear than M. nigra. In addition, M. nigra lacked a zygomaticus minor while M. mulatta is reported to have one. These morphological differences match behavioral observations documenting a limited range of ear movements used by M. nigra during facial displays. Future studies focusing on a wider phylogenetic range of macaques with varying dominance styles may further elucidate the roles of phylogeny, ecology, and social variables in the evolution of mimetic muscles within Macaca Anat Rec, 299:1317-1324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. SAXS and other spectroscopic analysis of 12S cruciferin isolated from the seeds of Brassica nigra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Binish; Falke, Sven; Negm, Amr; Buck, Friedrich; Munawar, Aisha; Saqib, Maria; Mahmood, Seema; Ahmad, Malik Shoaib; Betzel, Christian; Akrem, Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Oilseeds of the plant family Brassicaceae are important for providing both lipid and protein contents to human nutrition. Cruciferins (12S globulins) are seed storage proteins, which are getting attention due to their allergenic and pathogenicity related nature. This study describes the purification and characterization of a trimeric (∼190 kDa) cruciferin protein from the seeds of Brassica nigra (L.). Cruciferin was first partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation (30% saturation constant) and further purified by size exclusion chromatography. The N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis showed 82% sequence homology with cruciferin from Arabidopsis thaliana. The 50-55 kDa monomeric cruciferin produced multiple bands of two major molecular weight ranges (α-polypeptides of 28-32 kDa and β-polypeptides of 17-20 kDa) under reduced conditions of SDS-PAGE. The 2D gel electrophoretic analysis showed the further separation of the bands into their isoforms with major pI ranges between 5.7 and 8.0 (α-polypeptides) and 5.5-8.5 (β-polypeptides). The Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) showed the monodisperse nature of the cruciferin with hydrodynamic radius of 5.8 ± 0.1 nm confirming the trimeric nature of the protein. The Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra showed both α-helices and β-sheets in the native conformation of the trimeric protein. The pure cruciferin protein (40 mg/ml) was successfully crystallized; however, the crystals diffracted only to low resolution data (8 Å). Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) was applied to gain insights into the three-dimensional structure in solution. SAXS showed that the radius of gyration is 4.24 ± 0.25 nm and confirmed the nearly globular shape. The SAXS based ab initio dummy model of B. nigra cruciferin was compared with 11S globulins (PDB ID: pdb:3KGL)

  8. Induction of Biologically Active Flavonoids in Cell Cultures of Morus nigra and Testing their Hypoglycemic Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M A; Mohamed, Khaled M; Mostafa, Ashraf M

    2011-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of both leaves and MJ-treated cell cultures of Morus nigra was evaluated after their oral administration to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic activity of extracts from leaves given to streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats for 10 days increased with increasing doses of leaves extract up to 500 mg/kg/day. The administration of 500 mg/kg/day of leaves extract reduced the concentration of glucose from 370 ± 7.31 mg/dl (control) to 154 ± 6.27 mg/dl, and a significant increase in the insulin level from 11.3 ± 0.31 μU/ml (control) to 14.6 ± 0.43 μU/ml was recorded. Cell suspension cultures were established from the young leaves of Morus nigra cultivated on modified MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 0.2 mg/l 6-(furfurylamino)purine (kinetin). The changes in cell weight and flavonoid content were monitored between day zero and 12. The linear increase in fresh weight was found to be parallel to flavonoids production. Cell cultures treated with 100 μM methyl jasmonate for 24 hours showed a noticeable increase in level of flavonoids and significant and more effective hypoglycemic activity than that for extract from leaves. The major flavonoids were isolated by TLC and HPLC and identified as rutin, quercetin, Morusin and cyclomorusin by co-chromatography and mass spectrometry in comparison to samples of authentic reference compounds.

  9. Striatal Infarction Elicits Secondary Extrafocal MRI Changes in Ipsilateral Substantia Nigra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Winter

    Full Text Available Focal ischemia may induce pathological alterations in brain areas distant from the primary lesion. In animal models, exofocal neuron death in the ipsilateral midbrain has been described after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA. Using sequential magnetic resonance imaging (T2- and diffusion-weighted at 3 Tesla, we investigated acute ischemic stroke patients on days 1, 2, 6, 8, and 10 after stroke onset. Sixteen consecutive patients who had suffered a stroke involving the caudate nucleus and/or putamen of either hemisphere were recruited into the study. Four additional patients with strokes sparing the caudate nucleus and putamen but encompassing at least one-third of the MCA territory served as controls. Ischemic lesions involving striatal structures resulted in hyperintense lesions in ipsilateral midbrain that emerged between days 6 and 10 after stroke and were not present on the initial scans. In contrast, none of the control stroke patients developed secondary midbrain lesions. Hyperintense lesions in the pyramidal tract or the brain stem caused by degeneration of the corticospinal tract could be clearly distinguished from these secondary midbrain gray matter lesions and were detectable from day 2 after ischemia. Co-registration of high-resolution images with a digitized anatomic atlas revealed localization of secondary lesions primarily in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values in the secondary lesions showed a delayed sharp decline through day 10. Normalization of ADC values was observed at late measurements. Taken together, our study demonstrates that striatal infarction elicits delayed degenerative changes in ipsilateral substantia nigra pars compacta.

  10. Experimental Study of Serum Substantia Nigra Neuron Autoantibody and Its Effect in Parkinson Disease Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Jixiang(

    2001-01-01

    [1]Naoi M Maruyama W.Cell death of dopamine neurons in aging and Parkinson's disease.Mech Ageing Dev 1999 111 (2-3):175[2]McRae-Degueurce A Rosengren L Haglid K et al.Immunocytochemical investigations on the presence of neuron- specific antibodies in the CSF of Parkinson's disease cases.Neurochem Res 1988 13(7):679[3]Hao R Norgren R B Jr Lau R S et al.Cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinson's disease patients inhibits the growth and function of dopaminergic neruons in culture.Neurology 1995 45(1) :138[4]Chen S Le W D Xie W J et al.Experimental destruction of substantia nigra initiated by Parkinson disease immunoglobulins.Arch Neurol 1998 55(8):1075[5]Engelhardt J I Le W D Siklos L et al.Stereotaxic injection of IgG from patients with Alzheimer disease initiates injury of cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain.Arch Neurol 2000 57 (6):681[6]Herrera A J Castano A Venero J L et al.The single intranigral injection of LPS as a new model for studying the selective effects of inflammatory reactions on dopaminergic system.Neurobiol Dis 2000 7 (4):429[7]Czlonkowska A Kurkowska-Jastrzebska I Czlonkowski A.Inflammatory changes in the substantia nigra and striatum following MPTP intoxication.Ann Neurol 2000 48(1):127[8]Ulvestad E Williams K Vedeler C et al.Fc receptors for lgG on cultured human microglia mediate cytotoxicity and phagocytosis of antibody-coated targets.J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1994 53 ( 1 ):27[9]Kreutzberg G W.Microglia:a sensor for pathological events in the CNS.Trends Neurosci 1996 19(8):312

  11. The results of cataract nigra cases operated with the mini-nuc technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzbasioglu, Erdal; Helvacioglu, Firat; Tugcu, Betul; Terzi, Nazire; Keskinbora, Kadircan

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the mini-nuc technique for the removal of brunescent and black cataracts. A prospective study was carried out in 33 eyes of 33 patients with cataract nigra operated with the mini-nuc technique between April 2002 and June 2003. Slit-lamp examinations, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were assessed pre- and postoperatively. Accompanying systemic diseases were noted. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were evaluated. Unilateral eyes of 33 patients (18 male [54.5%], 15 female [45.5%]) aged between 65 and 90 years (mean 72 years) were operated with the mini-nuc technique. Preoperative BCVA values varied between light perception and 0.2 in the Snellen chart. Intraocular lenses (IOL) were implanted into all of the patients (27 in-the-bag [81.8%], four to sulcus [12.1%], and two with scleral fixation [6.1%]). During the surgery, five patients (15.15%) had zonular dialysis and two (6.1%) had posterior capsule rupture and vitreous loss. Postoperatively, three (9.1%) rises in IOP, two (6.1%) hyphema, and one (3%) IOL subluxation were observed. At the first day visit, the mean of the uncorrected visual acuities (UCVA) was 0.5 in the Snellen chart. At the third month visit, the mean BCVA was observed to be 0.8. The residual mean astigmatism was 0.75 D against the rule. The mini-nuc technique was effective in removing brunescent and black cataracts with a low rate of serious complications. The mini-nuc technique, which is also performed with a small incision and without sutures, might be an alternative to phacoemulsification in cases of cataract nigra.

  12. Gastroprotective Value of Berries: Evidences from Methanolic Extracts of Morus nigra and Rubus niveus Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Angela Nottar Nesello

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the gastroprotective value of the methanol extracts from fruits of Morus nigra L. (black mulberry (MEMN and Rubus niveus Thunb (raspberry (MERN. The total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were measured, as well as the in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenger activity. The gastroprotective effects of the extracts against 60% ethanol/0.3 M HCl were evaluated in mice. After that, the lipid hydroperoxides and reduced glutathione levels at ulcerated tissue were determined. The effects of extracts on H+/K+-ATPase activity were also verified. The extracts exhibited high contents of polyphenols; however, MERN presented 1.5-fold higher levels. The presence of flavonoids also was confirmed. In addition, MEMN (IC50 = 13.74 μg/mL and MERN (IC50 = 14.97 μg/mL scavenged DPPH radical. The MEMN reduced the ulcer area only at 300 mg/kg (p.o. by 64.06%. Interestingly, MERN decreased the ulcer area in a superior potency (ED50 = 20.88 mg/kg, reducing the ulcer area by 81.86% at 300 mg/kg, and increased the gastric mucin levels. The antioxidant effects of extracts were evidenced by reduced lipoperoxides and increased reduction of glutathione amount in the gastric mucosa. However, MEMN or MERN did not change the H+/K+-ATPase activity. These results confirm that M. nigra and R. niveus are berries with a gastroprotective value by strengthening of gastric protective factors.

  13. The Fungicide Phosphonate Disrupts the Phosphate-Starvation Response in Brassica nigra Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, C.; Grant, B. R.; Theodorou, M. E.; Harris, J.; Niere, J. O.; Plaxton, W. C.

    1996-01-01

    The development of Brassica nigra seedlings over 20 d of growth was disrupted by the fungicide phosphonate (Phi) in a manner inversely correlated with nutritional inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels. The growth of Pi-sufficient (1.25 mM Pi) seedlings was suppressed when 10, but not 5, mM Phi was added to the nutrient medium. In contrast, the fresh weights and root:shoot ratios of Pi-limited (0.15 mM) seedlings were significantly reduced at 1.5 mM Phi, and they progressively declined to about 40% of control values as medium Phi concentration was increased to 10 mM. Intracellular Pi levels generally decreased in Phi-treated seedlings, and Phi accumulated in leaves and roots to levels up to 6- and 16-fold that of Pi in Pi-sufficient and Pi-limited plants, respectively. Extractable activities of the Pi-starvation-inducible enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase and inorganic pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase were unaltered in Pi-sufficient seedlings grown on 5 or 10 mM Phi. However, when Pi-limited seedlings were grown on 1.5 to 10 mM Phi (a) the induction of phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase and inorganic pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase activities by Pi limitation was reduced by 40 to 90%, whereas (b) soluble protein concentrations and the activities of the ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase were unaffacted. It is concluded that Phi specifically interrupts processes involved in regulation of the Pi-starvation response in B. nigra.

  14. Functional heterogeneity of NMDA receptors in rat substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, F; Zhao, Q; Monaghan, D T; Jane, D E; Jones, S; Gibb, A J

    2010-08-01

    The nigra substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and substantia pars reticulata (SNr) form two major basal ganglia components with different functional roles. SNc dopaminergic (DA) neurones are vulnerable to cell death in Parkinson's disease, and NMDA receptor activation is a potential contributing mechanism. We have investigated the sensitivity of whole-cell and synaptic NMDA responses to intracellular ATP and GTP application in the SNc and SNr from rats on postnatal day (P) 7 and P28. Both NMDA current density (pA/pF) and desensitization to prolonged or repeated NMDA application were greater in the SNr than in the SNc. When ATP levels were not supplemented, responses to prolonged NMDA administration desensitized in P7 SNc DA neurones but not at P28. At P28, SNr neurones desensitized more than SNc neurones, with or without added ATP. Responses to brief NMDA applications and synaptic NMDA currents were not sensitive to inclusion of ATP in the pipette solution. To investigate these differences between the SNc and SNr, NR2 subunit-selective antagonists were tested. NMDA currents were inhibited by ifenprodil (10 microM) and UBP141 (4 microM), but not by Zn(2+) (100 nm), in both the SNr and SNc, suggesting that SNc and SNr neurones express similar receptor subunits; NR2B and NR2D, but not NR2A. The different NMDA response properties in the SNc and SNr may be caused by differences in receptor modulation and/or trafficking. The vulnerability of SNc DA neurones to cell death is not correlated with NMDA current density or receptor subtypes, but could in part be related to inadequate NMDA receptor desensitization.

  15. Acondicionamiento de reproductores, desove y cultivo larval de Graus nigra (Philippi, 1887 (Kyphosidae: Girellinae Broodstock conditioning, spawning and larval culture of Graus nigra (Philippi, 1887 (Kyphosidae: Girellinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino Muñoz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describen resultados sobre acondicionamiento reproductivo, desove y cultivo larval de Graus nigra ("vieja negra", "mulata". Peces adultos silvestres se recolectaron y se utilizaron como reproductores, los que al final del período de acondicionamiento alcanzaron el estado de maduración gonadal y desovaron en forma natural y espontánea. Los huevos fueron recolectados y después de 36 h de incubación eclosionaron, con una tasa de eclosión promedio de 60%. Las larvas recién eclosionadas midieron 2,9 ± 0,23 mm y alcanzaron el día 50 post-eclosión (PE una longitud total de 12,6 ± 0,37 mm. La sobrevivencia larval posterior a la eclosión fue entre 50,9 y 79,1% y al día 30 PE fue de 12,1%. El cultivo larval se desarrolló en estanques con suministro de agua de mar filtrada y esterilizada. Después de la reabsorción del saco vitelino se produjo el desarrollo del tracto digestivo y las larvas se alimentaron con dieta viva enriquecida con emulsión de ácidos grasos altamente insaturados. A los 35 días de cultivo se ofreció alimento artificial a las larvas cuyo tamano fue aumentando progresivamente a medida que progresó su desarrollo ontogénico. Se describe la evolución anatómica de las larvas y las relaciones morfométricas que representan su desarrollo; se caracteriza el patrón de crecimiento de las larvas hasta los 50 días post-eclosión y se discuten aspectos relacionados con la sobrevivencia larval y la introducción de mejoras para optimizar la producción de larvas y juveniles.In this study results related to reproductive conditioning, spawning and larval culture of Graus nigra ("vieja negra", "mulata" are given. Wild adult fishes were collected and used as brooders which at the end of the conditioning period reached gonadal maturation state and spawned naturally and spontaneously. Eggs were collected and after 36 hours of incubation they hatched at average rate of 60%. The hatched larvae measured 2.9 ± 0.23 mm and at day 50

  16. Effect of black mulberry (Morus nigra) extract treatment on cognitive impairment and oxidative stress status of D-galactose-induced aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Nergiz Hacer; Mert, Derya Guliz; Kara, Haki; Egilmez, Hatice Reyhan; Arslanbas, Emre; Tepe, Bektas; Gungor, Huseyin; Yilmaz, Nese; Tuncel, Necati Baris

    2016-01-01

    Morus nigra L. (Moraceae) has various uses in traditional medicine. However, the effect of M. nigra on cognitive impairment has not been investigated yet. The objective of this study is to determine the phenolic acid content and DNA damage protection potential of M. nigra leaf extract and to investigate the extract effect on cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in aging mice. Phenolic acid content was determined by quantitative chromatographic analysis. DNA damage protection potential was evaluated on pBR322 plasmid DNA. Thirty-two Balb-C mice were randomly divided into four groups (control, d-galactose, d-galactose + M. nigra 50, and d-galactose + M. nigra 100). Mice were administered d-galactose (100 mg/kg, subcutaneous) and M. nigra (50 or 100 mg/kg, orally) daily for 8 weeks. Behavioral responses were evaluated with Morris water maze. Activities of antioxidant enzymes and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were assayed in serum, brain, and liver. In extract, vanillic (632.093 μg/g) and chlorogenic acids (555.0 μg/g) were determined. The extract between 0.02 and 0.05 mg/mL effectively protected all DNA bands against the hazardous effect of UV and H2O2. Morus nigra significantly improved learning dysfunctions (p nigra has the potential in improving cognitive deficits in mice and that M. nigra may be useful to suppress aging, partially due to its scavenging activity of free radicals and high antioxidant capacity.

  17. Identification of the varR gene as a transcriptional regulator of virginiamycin S resistance in Streptomyces virginiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namwat, W; Lee, C K; Kinoshita, H; Yamada, Y; Nihira, T

    2001-03-01

    A gene designated varR (for virginiae antibiotic resistance regulator) was identified in Streptomyces virginiae 89 bp downstream of a varS gene encoding a virginiamycin S (VS)-specific transporter. The deduced varR product showed high homology to repressors of the TetR family with a conserved helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif. Purified recombinant VarR protein was present as a dimer in vitro and showed clear DNA binding activity toward the varS promoter region. This binding was abolished by the presence of VS, suggesting that VarR regulates transcription of varS in a VS-dependent manner. Northern blot analysis revealed that varR was cotranscribed with upstream varS as a 2.4-kb transcript and that VS acted as an inducer of bicistronic transcription. Deletion analysis of the varS promoter region clarified two adjacent VarR binding sites in the varS promoter.

  18. Bootstrap determination of the cointegration rank in heteroskedastic VAR models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Guiseppe; Rahbæk, Anders; Taylor, A.M. Robert

    2014-01-01

    -integrated VAR model with i.i.d. innovations. In this paper we investigate the properties of their bootstrap procedures, together with analogous procedures based on a wild bootstrap resampling scheme, when time-varying behavior is present in either the conditional or unconditional variance of the innovations. We...... the asymptotic PLR test or an alternative bootstrap method (where the short run dynamics in the VAR model are estimated unrestrictedly) for a variety of conditionally and unconditionally heteroskedastic innovation processes...... of the underlying vector autoregressive (VAR) model which obtain under the reduced rank null hypothesis. They propose methods based on an independent and individual distributed (i.i.d.) bootstrap resampling scheme and establish the validity of their proposed bootstrap procedures in the context of a co...

  19. EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA - A VAR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how monetary policy decisions affect inflation and other economic variables is particularly important. In this paper we consider the implications of monetary policy under the inflation targeting regime in Romania, based on an autoregressive vector method including recursive VAR and structural VAR (SVAR. Therefore, we focus on assessing the extent and persistence of monetary policy effects on gross domestic product (GDP, price level, extended monetary aggregate (M3 and exchange rate. The main results of VAR analysis reflect a negative response of consumer price index (CPI, GDP and M3 and positive nominal exchange rate behaviour to a monetary policy shock, and also a limited impact of a short-term interest rate shock in explaining the consumer prices, production and exchange rate fluctuations.

  20. [Trichophyton tonsurans var. sulfureum subvar. perforans in Tinea gladiatorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasch, J; Rüther, T; Harmsen, D

    1999-05-01

    This is the first report on an isolation of Trichophyton tonsurans var.sulfureum subvar.perforans in Germany. In our patient, the strain had caused typical tinea corporis, which was most likely acquired during a wrestling competition. Based on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology and on the physiologic properties occurring under various growth conditions, the identification of Trichophyton tonsurans and the particular characteristics of its var.sulfureum subvar.perforans are described. Partial 18S and 23S nuclear ribosomal RNA sequences and the internal transcribed spacer region I sequences of our strain were completely identical with those of a Trichophyton tonsurans reference strain. The epidemiology of Trichophyton tonsurans var.sulfureum subvar.perforans and a possible association of this variety with tinea in wrestlers (tinea gladiatorum) have not yet been investigated.

  1. Extremum Seeking Control of Smart Inverters for VAR Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Daniel; Negrete-Pincetic, Matias; Stewart, Emma; Auslander, David, M; Callaway, Duncan

    2015-09-04

    Reactive power compensation is used by utilities to ensure customer voltages are within pre-defined tolerances and reduce system resistive losses. While much attention has been paid to model-based control algorithms for reactive power support and Volt Var Optimization (VVO), these strategies typically require relatively large communications capabilities and accurate models. In this work, a non-model-based control strategy for smart inverters is considered for VAR compensation. An Extremum Seeking control algorithm is applied to modulate the reactive power output of inverters based on real power information from the feeder substation, without an explicit feeder model. Simulation results using utility demand information confirm the ability of the control algorithm to inject VARs to minimize feeder head real power consumption. In addition, we show that the algorithm is capable of improving feeder voltage profiles and reducing reactive power supplied by the distribution substation.

  2. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O.T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  3. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  4. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  5. Meiotic chromosome pairing in Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertten, D; Tsang, G K; Manako, K I; McNeilage, M A; Datson, P M

    2012-12-01

    Polyploids are defined as either autopolyploids or allopolyploids, depending on their mode of origin and/or chromosome pairing behaviour. Autopolyploids have chromosome sets that are the result of the duplication or combination of related genomes (e.g., AAAA), while allopolyploids result from the combination of sets of chromosomes from two or more different taxa (e.g., AABB, AABBCC). Allopolyploids are expected to show preferential pairing of homologous chromosomes from within each parental sub-genome, leading to disomic inheritance. In contrast, autopolyploids are expected to show random pairing of chromosomes (non-preferential pairing), potentially leading to polysomic inheritance. The two main cultivated taxa of Actinidia (kiwifruit) are A. chinensis (2x and 4x) and A. chinensis var. deliciosa (6x). There is debate whether A. chinensis var. deliciosa is an autopolyploid derived solely from A. chinensis or whether it is an allopolyploid derived from A. chinensis and one or two other Actinidia taxa. To investigate whether preferential or non-preferential chromosome pairing occurs in A. chinensis var. deliciosa, the inheritance of microsatellite alleles was analysed in the tetraploid progeny of a cross between A. chinensis var. deliciosa and the distantly related Actinidia eriantha Benth. (2x). The frequencies of inherited microsatellite allelic combinations in the hybrids suggested that non-preferential chromosome pairing had occurred in the A. chinensis var. deliciosa parent. Meiotic chromosome analysis showed predominantly bivalent formation in A. chinensis var. deliciosa, but a low frequency of quadrivalent chromosome formations was observed (1 observed in 20 pollen mother cells).

  6. [Iridoid glycosides from buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-qin; Yin, Zhi-feng; Liu, Yu-cui; Li, Hong-bo

    2011-10-01

    The study on the buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum was carried out to look for anti-HBV constituents. The isolation and purification were performed by HPLC and chromatography on silica gel, polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 column. The structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six iridoid glycosides were identified as jasgranoside B (1), 6-O-methy-catalpol (2), deacetyl asperulosidic acid (3), aucubin (4), 8-dehydroxy shanzhiside (5), and loganin (6). Jasgranoside B (1) is a new compound. Compounds 2-6 were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  7. Typification of Blechnum spicant var. fallax Lange (Blechnaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Wąsowicz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Blechnum spicant var. fallax Lange is a fern taxon endemic to Iceland where it occurs in the vicinity of hot springs on geothermally heated soils. The taxon was first described by a Danish botanist Johan Martin Christian Lange in 1880 on the basis of plant material collected by Christian Grønlund in Iceland. Because its holotype was not designated in the protologue, we examined the extant original material including illustrations from Flora Danica and a single plant on sheet C10021769 (deposited in C that was the basis for the respective plate. We select this specimen as the lectotype of Blechnum spicant var. fallax.

  8. 4-D-Var or ensemble Kalman filter?

    OpenAIRE

    Kalnay, Eugenia; LI, HONG; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Yang, Shu-Chih; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim

    2007-01-01

    We consider the relative advantages of two advanced data assimilation systems, 4-D-Var and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), currently in use or under consideration for operational implementation. With the Lorenz model, we explore the impact of tuning assimilation parameters such as the assimilation window length and background error covariance in 4-D-Var, variance inflation in EnKF, and the effect of model errors and reduced observation coverage. For short assimilation windows EnKF gives more a...

  9. ROM Simulation: Applications to Stress Testing and VaR

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Alexander; Daniel Ledermann

    2012-01-01

    Most banks employ historical simulation for Value-at-Risk (VaR) calculations, where VaR is computed from a lower quantile of a forecast distribution for the portfolio’s profit and loss (P&L) that is constructed from a single, multivariate historical sample on the portfolio’s risk factors. The implicit assumption is that history will repeat itself for certain over the forecast horizon. Until now, the only alternative is to assume the historical sample is generated by a multivariate, parametric...

  10. High level of var2csa transcription by Plasmodium falciparum isolated from the placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise G; Salanti, Ali; Bertin, Gwladys;

    2005-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites that bind to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) express unique variant surface antigens that are involved in the placental sequestration that precipitates pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM). Two var gene subfamilies, var1csa and var2csa, have been associated with CSA bin...

  11. Conducta alimenticia, supervivencia y crecimiento de juveniles silvestres de Graus nigra Philippi, 1887 en cautiverio (Perciformes: Kyphosidae Feeding behavior, survival, and growth of wild Graus nigra Philippi, 1887 juveniles in captivity (Perciformes: Kyphosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Flores

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron juveniles silvestres de Graus nigra, que fueron aclimatados durante 30 días en estanques con flujo de agua abierto y a temperatura ambiente, siendo alimentados con alimento formulado. Los peces fueron separados en seis grupos que se mantuvieron en experimentación por 196 días. La supervivencia promedio fue de 80%. El crecimiento en longitud total mostró un incremento promedio del 93,3% para los juveniles grandes (grupos 4, 5 y 6 y 125% para los pequeños (grupos 1, 2 y 3. El crecimiento en peso total mostró un incremento promedio de 434% para los peces grandes (grupos 4, 5 y 6 y de 707% para los pequeños (grupos 1, 2 y 3. Se concluyó que G. nigra toleró el cautiverio y el manejo, con una supervivencia relativamente alta, lo que hace de ella una especie atractiva para la acuicultura chilena.Wild juveniles of Graus nigra were collected and acclimated for 30 days in ponds with open-water flow and ambient temperature; the specimens were given a formulated feed. Fish individuals were separated into six groups that were studied for 196 days. The average survival was 80%. The total length increased an average of 93.3% for large individuals (groups 4, 5, 6 and 125% for small ones (groups 1, 2, 3. The total weight showed an average increase of 434% for large fishes (groups 4, 5, 6 and 707% for small ones (groups 1, 2, 3. Graus nigra was found to tolerate captivity and handling, with a relatively high survival rate, making it an attractive species for aquaculture in Chile.

  12. Assessment of extracts of Helichrysum arenarium, Crataegus monogyna, Sambucus nigra in photoprotective UVA and UVB; photostability in cosmetic emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzycka, Anna; Lewińska, Agnieszka; Gancarz, Roman; Wilk, Kazimiera A

    2013-11-05

    The aim of our study was to investigate the photoprotective activity and photostability efficacy of sunscreen formulations containing Helichrysum arenarium, Sambucus nigra, Crataegus monogyna extracts and their combination. UV transmission of the emulsion films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection and photostability efficacy were evaluated according to the following parameters: sun protection factor (SPF), UVA protection factor (PF-UVA), UVA/UVB ratio and critical wavelength (λc) before and after UV irradiation. The results obtained show that the formulations containing polyphenols fulfill the official requirements for sunscreen products due to their broad spectrum of UV protection combined with their high photostability and remarkable antioxidant properties. Therefore H. arenarium, S. nigra, C. monogyna extracts represent useful additives for cosmetic formulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. PSEUDOSYMMETRY OF THE LEAF BLADE SHAPE IN РОPULUS NIGRA L. UNDER INDUSTRIAL DUMP CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Shtirts

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of variability of pseudosymmetry index of the leaf blade shape in Роpulus nigra L. in different ecosystems. This index varied from 0,5485 to 0,9796. Leaf blades with indices of pseudosymmetry more than 0,9000 were typical for overwhelming part of analyzed samplings. The index values were significantly lower for the leaf blades of overburden rock dumps. We did not registered differences of index when compared sampling of Р. nigra blades of urban park with sampling of the blades of coalmine dumps. The index of pseudosymmetry of leaf blade shape was characterized by low variation (CV was less than 10,0%.

  14. Electroacupuncture-regulated neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in the substantia nigra of Parkinson’s disease rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuju Wang; Jianqiao Fang; Jun Ma; Yanchun Wang; Shaorong Liang; Dan Zhou; Guojie Sun

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture for the treatment of Parkinson's disease has a precise clinical outcome. This study investigated the effect of electroacupuncture at Fengfu (GV16) and Taichong (LR3) acupoints in rat models of Parkinson's disease induced by subcutaneous injection of rotenone into rat neck and back. Reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression was significantly increased in the substantia nigra of rat models of Parkinson's disease, and that abnormal behavior of rats was significantly improved following electroacupuncture treatment. These results indicated that electroacupuncture treatment upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in the substantia nigra of rat models of Parkinson's disease. Thus, electroacupuncture may be useful in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  15. Electroacupuncture-regulated neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuju; Fang, Jianqiao; Ma, Jun; Wang, Yanchun; Liang, Shaorong; Zhou, Dan; Sun, Guojie

    2013-02-25

    Acupuncture for the treatment of Parkinson's disease has a precise clinical outcome. This study investigated the effect of electroacupuncture at Fengfu (GV16) and Taichong (LR3) acupoints in rat models of Parkinson's disease induced by subcutaneous injection of rotenone into rat neck and back. Reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression was significantly increased in the substantia nigra of rat models of Parkinson's disease, and that abnormal behavior of rats was significantly improved following electroacupuncture treatment. These results indicated that electroacupuncture treatment upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in the substantia nigra of rat models of Parkinson's disease. Thus, electroacupuncture may be useful in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  16. Molecular and functional differences in voltage-activated sodium currents between GABA projection neurons and dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Shengyuan; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Fu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    GABA projection neurons (GABA neurons) in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and dopamine projection neurons (DA neurons) in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) have strikingly different firing properties. SNc DA neurons fire low-frequency, long-duration spikes, whereas SNr GABA neurons fire high-frequency, short-duration spikes. Since voltage-activated sodium (NaV) channels are critical to spike generation, the different firing properties raise the possibility that, compared with DA...

  17. Dopamine reduction in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease patients confirmed by in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Gröger

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Metabolic changes in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease were previously investigated in different molecular-pathological examinations. The aim of our study was the in vivo measurement of these alterations using three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. METHODS: 21 patients with Parkinson's disease and 24 controls were examined using magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at 3 Tesla. The spectra of rostral and caudal substantia nigra regions were analyzed using LCModel. For spectral fitting, an adjusted basis data set with pathology-specific metabolites and macromolecules was used to better reproduce the in vivo spectra. To assess differences between both groups more accurately, especially in metabolites at lower concentrations, group-averaged spectra were evaluated in addition to the analysis of individual data. RESULTS: We found significantly decreased N-acetylaspartate, choline, creatine, myo-inositol, glutathione and dopamine concentrations in patients with Parkinson's disease compared to controls, whereas glutamine+glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, and homovanillic acid were slightly increased. According to anatomical features, clear differences in the biochemical profiles were found between rostral and caudal substantia nigra voxels in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced N-acetylaspartate and dopamine concentrations result from progressive degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta. Decreased creatine levels can be interpreted as impaired energy metabolism due to mitochondrial dysfunction. Lower glutathione concentrations might be a cause or consequence of oxidative stress. Furthermore, slightly increased glutamine+glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid levels are expected based on post mortem data in Parkinson's disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first non-invasive confirmation of these metabolic changes.

  18. The Prokinetic, Laxative, and Antidiarrheal Effects of Morus nigra: Possible Muscarinic, Ca(2+) Channel Blocking, and Antimuscarinic Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaq, Anam; Mehmood, Malik Hassan; Rehman, Abdul; Ashraf, Zohaib; Syed, Sadia; Bawany, Samira Ahmed; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Ilyas, Maimoona; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen

    2016-08-01

    Morus nigra Linn. (black mulberry) is used in gastrointestinal ailments. This study demonstrates gut modulatory properties of M. nigra. The prokinetic, laxative, and antidiarrheal activities of M. nigra were assessed in mice, while isolated rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum were used to explore insight into mechanism(s). At 30 and 70 mg/kg, the crude extract of M. nigra (Mn.Cr) exhibited atropine-sensitive prokinetic and laxative effects, similar to carbachol (CCh). While at higher doses (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg), Mn.Cr offered protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea. In rabbit jejunum, Mn.Cr and its chloroform fraction inhibited CCh-induced contractions more potently compared with high K(+) (80 mm). Conversely, petroleum fraction was more potent against high-K(+) -induced contractions. At 0.01 mg/mL, Mn.Cr caused a parallel shift in acetylcholine concentration-response curves (CRCs) followed by a non-parallel shift at 0.03 mg/mL, similar to dicyclomine. At further tested concentrations, Mn.Cr (0.1 and 0.3 mg/mL) and petroleum fraction suppressed Ca(2+) CRCs, similar to verapamil. In guinea-pig ileum, Mn.Cr, its aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited atropine-sensitive gut stimulant activity along with additional uncharacterized excitatory response in the aqueous fraction only. These results suggest that black mulberry possesses prokinetic, laxative, and antidiarrheal effects, putatively mediated through cholinomimetic, antimuscarinic, and Ca(2+) antagonist mechanisms, respectively. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Comparative study on bioremediation of heavy metals by solitary ascidian, Phallusia nigra, between Thoothukudi and Vizhinjam ports of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Jaffar Ali, H; Tamilselvi, M; Akram, A Soban; Kaleem Arshan, M L; Sivakumar, V

    2015-11-01

    Ascidians belonging to the sub-phylum Uro-chordata are used as potential model organisms in various parts of the world for biosorption of metals. The sedentary nature, filter feeding habits, presence of vanadocytes and the absence of kidneys cause them to accumulate metals. The present study was aimed to compare biosorption of metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, mercury and vanadium in test and mantle body of solitary ascidian Phallusia nigra between two ecologically significant stations such as Thoothukudi (Station 1) and Vizhinjam (Station 2) ports of India. Monthly samplings of water and P. nigra were done for a period of one year from September 2010 to August 2011 and subjected to analysis of metal accumulation. The average metal concentrations except mercury in the Thoothukudi water were found to be higher of comparable magnitudes than the Vizhinjam water. One-way ANOVA showed significant differences between the stations. A comparison of average metal concentrations in the test and mantle body of P. nigra between two stations showed that the enrichment of V, Cd, Pb, Cu and Hg in the Thoothukudi samples may be due to high bioaccumulation factors of these elements as compared to other species of ascidians. The bioaccumulation factors were in the order of V>Pb>Cd>Cu> Hg for the test and mantle body in stations 1 and 2. Application of one-way ANOVA for the concentration of these metals between test and mantle body showed significant differences in both stations. Similarly, ANOVA for biosorption of these trace metals by P. nigra showed significant difference between stations. Metal concentrations recorded in this ascidian could effectively be used as good reference material for monitoring metal contamination in Indian sea waters.

  20. Direct monitoring of dopamine and 5-HT release in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rice, M E; Richards, C D; Nedergaard, S;

    1994-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry with carbon fibre microelectrodes was used to detect endogenous dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release from three distinct regions of guinea-pig mid-brain in vitro: rostral and caudal substantia nigra (SN) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Previous...... these regions with in situ electrodes and demonstrates the utility of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to investigate the mechanisms and possible non-classical functions of somato-dendritic DA release....

  1. Controle de Qualidade e triagem fitoquímica da droga vegetal das folhas de Morus nigra L. (MORACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luis Guizzo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Uma rigorosa análise de controle de qualidade é uma das etapas na produção de fitoterápicos. Devido a escassez de estudos sobre Morus nigra L. (MORACEAE, mais conhecida como amora, este trabalho teve como objetivo o controle de qualidade das folhas da amoreira, incluindo uma análise Fitoquímica preliminar, controle de qualidade físico-químico e microbiológico utilizando metodologias farmacopeicas e não farmacopeicas. Os testes fitoquímicos evidenciaram a presença de isoflavonas, taninos hidrolisáveis e alcaloides. Os resultados do controle físico-químico e microbiológico mostraram-se de acordo com as especificações. Isso destaca a importância do estabelecimento de normas para o controle da qualidade para as plantas, a fim de que sejam utilizadas como fitoterápicos.Palavras-chave: Controle de qualidade. Droga vegetal. Fitoquímica. Morus nigra. ABSTRACT A rigorous quality control analysis is one of the steps in the production of herbal medicines. Due to lack of studies on Morus nigra L. (Moraceae, better known as mulberry, this study had as objective the quality control of mulberry leaves, including a preliminary Phytochemical analysis of physical-chemical and microbiological quality control methodologies, using pharmacopoeic and non pharmacopoeic. Phytochemicals tests revealed the presence of isoflavones, hydrolysable tannins and alkaloids. The results of the physic-chemical and microbiological control shown in accordance with the specifications. This shows the importance of establishing standards for quality control for plants, to be used as herbal medicines.Keywords: Quality control. vegetal drug. Phytochemistry. Morus nigra.

  2. Dopaminergic presynaptic modulation of nigral afferents: its role in the generation of recurrent bursting in substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Jose De Jesus Aceves; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E.; Ricardo eHernandez; Victor ePlata; Osvaldo eIbanez-Sandoval; Elvira eGalarraga; Jose eBargas

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has shown the functions associated with activation of dopamine presynaptic receptors in some substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) afferents: i) striatonigral terminals (direct pathway) posses presynaptic dopamine D1-class receptors whose action is to enhance inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and GABA transmission. ii) Subthalamonigral terminals posses D1- and D2-class receptors where D1-class receptor activation enhances and D2-class receptor activation decreases excita...

  3. Dopaminergic Presynaptic Modulation of Nigral Afferents: Its Role in the Generation of Recurrent Bursting in Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Aceves, José de Jesús; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E.; Hernández, Ricardo; Plata, Víctor; Ibañez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, José

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has shown the functions associated with activation of dopamine presynaptic receptors in some substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) afferents: (i) striatonigral terminals (direct pathway) posses presynaptic dopamine D1-class receptors whose action is to enhance inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and GABA transmission. (ii) Subthalamonigral terminals posses D1- and D2-class receptors where D1-class receptor activation enhances and D2-class receptor activation decreases exci...

  4. A New Cyclohexene Oxide from Uvaria tonkinensis var. subglabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An LIU; Zhong Mei ZOU; Li Zhen XU; Shi Lin YANG

    2003-01-01

    A new compound, subglain B, was isolated from the stems of Uvaria tonkinensis var. subglabra and its structure was identified as 1S, 2R, 3S, 6R-1-benzoyloxymethylene-1,2- dihydroxy-3-benzoyloxy-6-chlorocyclohex-4-ene (1), by spectral evidences.

  5. Indolizidine, Antiinfective and Antiparasitic Compounds from Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosopilosidine, a new potent antiinfective and antiparasitic 2,3-dihydro-1H-indolizinium chloride, (1), was isolated from Prosopis glandulosa Torr. var. glandulosa. Furthermore, three additional new and one known indolizidines, prosopilosine (2), isoprosopilosine (3), isoprosopilosidine (4) and jul...

  6. A Bootstrap Cointegration Rank Test for Panels of VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent

    functions of the individual Cointegrated VARs (CVAR) models. A bootstrap based procedure is used to compute empirical distributions of the trace test statistics for these individual models. From these empirical distributions two panel trace test statistics are constructed. The satisfying small sample...

  7. New diterpenes from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Y H; Chen, C H; Huang, S L

    1998-06-26

    An abietane diterpene, 11,14-dihydroxy-8,11,13-abietatrien-7-one (1); a seco-abietane diterpene, obtuanhydride (2); and an isopimarane diterpene, 18,19-O-isopropylidene-18, 19-dihydroxyisopimara-8(14),15-diene (3) were isolated from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  8. Two New Abietane Quinones from Isodon lophanthoides var. Micranthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The structures of two new abietane quinones, named micranthins A and B, weredetermined to be 7α-methoxy-14, 16-epoxy-8, 13-abietadiene-11, 12-dione (1) and 16-acetoxy-6,7-dehydroroyleanone (2) respectively, which were isolated from Isodon lophanthoides var.micranthus.

  9. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divan, Deepak [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Moghe, Rohit [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Tholomier, Damien [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  10. Protective effects of kidney-tonifying Chinese herbal preparation on substantia nigra neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Cai; Yun Tian; Ruhui Lin; Xuzheng Chen; Zhizhen Liu; Jindong Xie

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese herbs Herba Epimedii, Fructus Ligustri Lucidi and Rhizoma Polygonati were injected into Parkinson's disease mice established via intraperitoneal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride. The selective monoamine oxidase B inhibitor selegiline was used as a positive control drug. After successive administration for 4 weeks, Herba Epimedii could downregulate the expression of caspase-3 and increase the brain-derived neurotrophic factor level, as well as increase tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease mouse models. Rhizoma Polygonati could downregulate the expression of caspase-3 and FasL, and increase neural growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Fructus Ligustri Lucidi could downregulate caspase-3 expression. Rhizoma Polygonati and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi did not produce obvious effects on tyrosine hydroxylase activity. Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi yielded similar effects on apoptosis-promoting factors to those elicited by selegiline. Herba Epimedii and Rhizoma Polygonati significantly increased the levels of neurotrophic factors compared with selegiline. Herba Epimedii significantly increased tyrosine hydroxylase activity compared with selegiline. It is indicated that the kidney-tonifying Chinese herbal preparation can downregulate the expression of apoptosis-promoting factors, increase neurotrophic factors levels in the substantia nigra and striatum, as well as increase tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease mouse models, thereby exerting a stronger or similar neuroprotective effects compared with selegiline.

  11. Morus nigra and its major phenolic, syringic acid, have antidepressant-like and neuroprotective effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmagro, Ana Paula; Camargo, Anderson; Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello

    2017-08-18

    Depression is a disorder with a high incidence that has been increasing worldwide although the pathophysiology remains unclear. Moreover, some studies revealed a higher concentration of glutamate and oxidative stress in the patients' brain, which causes cell death by excitotoxicity. Morus nigra L. is known as black mulberry and its leaves are popularly used to treat affections related to menopause, obesity and high cholesterol. M. nigra leaves are a rich fount of phenolics which well-known by the antioxidant property. Herein, we examined the phenolic profile and the antidepressant-like effect of the Morus nigra aqueous extract (MN) and its major phenolic constituent, syringic acid (SA). Furthermore, the involvement of antioxidant and neuroprotective activities were further evaluated. Our results show that acute and subchronic MN or SA administration exerted antidepressant-like property in the behavioral testes in mice. The results suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of MN, at least in part, could be due to the SA influence. Moreover, the observed effect involves the nitro-oxidative system modulation in both the serum and brain of mice. Furthermore, MN or SA was able to contain the glutamate-induced cell death in the hippocampal and cortical slices implicating the neuroprotection activity in the antidepressant-like effect.

  12. Convection-enhanced delivery of MANF--volume of distribution analysis in porcine putamen and substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, N U; Bienemann, A S; Woolley, M; Wyatt, M J; Johnson, D; Lewis, O; Irving, C; Pritchard, G; Gill, S

    2015-10-15

    Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is a 20kDa human protein which has both neuroprotective and neurorestorative activity on dopaminergic neurons and therefore may have application for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease. The aims of this study were to determine the translational potential of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of MANF for the treatment of PD by studying its distribution in porcine putamen and substantia nigra and to correlate histological distribution with co-infused gadolinium-DTPA using real-time magnetic resonance imaging. We describe the distribution of MANF in porcine putamen and substantia nigra using an implantable CED catheter system using co-infused gadolinium-DTPA to allow real-time MRI tracking of infusate distribution. The distribution of gadolinium-DTPA on MRI correlated well with immunohistochemical analysis of MANF distribution. Volumetric analysis of MANF IHC staining indicated a volume of infusion (Vi) to volume of distribution (Vd) ratio of 3 in putamen and 2 in substantia nigra. This study confirms the translational potential of CED of MANF as a novel treatment strategy in PD and also supports the co-infusion of gadolinium as a proxy measure of MANF distribution in future clinical studies. Further study is required to determine the optimum infusion regime, flow rate and frequency of infusions in human trials.

  13. Proteomic analysis of human substantia nigra identifies novel candidates involved in Parkinson's disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licker, Virginie; Turck, Natacha; Kövari, Enikö; Burkhardt, Karim; Côte, Mélanie; Surini-Demiri, Maria; Lobrinus, Johannes A; Sanchez, Jean-Charles; Burkhard, Pierre R

    2014-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology spreads throughout the brain following a region-specific process predominantly affecting the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta. SN exhibits a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons responsible for the major cardinal motor symptoms, along with the occurrence of Lewy bodies in the surviving neurons. To gain new insights into the underlying pathogenic mechanisms in PD, we studied postmortem nigral tissues dissected from pathologically confirmed PD cases (n = 5) and neurologically intact controls (n = 8). Using a high-throughput shotgun proteomic strategy, we simultaneously identified 1795 proteins with concomitant quantitative data. To date, this represents the most extensive catalog of nigral proteins. Of them, 204 proteins displayed significant expression level changes in PD patients versus controls. These were involved in novel or known pathogenic processes including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, or cytoskeleton impairment. We further characterized four candidates that might be relevant to PD pathogenesis. We confirmed the differential expression of ferritin-L and seipin by Western blot and demonstrated the neuronal localization of gamma glutamyl hydrolase and nebulette by immunohistochemistry. Our preliminary findings suggest a role for nebulette overexpression in PD neurodegeneration, through mechanisms that may involve cytoskeleton dynamics disruption. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000427 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000427).

  14. Pharmacological potential of Populus nigra extract as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular and hepatoprotective agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadjet Debbache-Benaida; Dina Atmani-Kilani; Valrie Barbara Schini-Keirth; Nouredine Djebbli; Djebbar Atmani

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and vasorelaxant activities of Populus nigra flower buds ethanolic extract. Methods: Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extract were assessed using respectively the ABTS test and the animal model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. Protection from hepatic toxicity caused by aluminum was examined by histopathologic analysis of liver sections. Vasorelaxant effect was estimated in endothelium-intact and-rubbed rings of porcine coronary arteries precontracted with high concentration of U46619. Results:The results showed a moderate antioxidant activity (40%), but potent anti-inflammatory activity (49.9%) on carrageenan-induced mice paw edema, and also as revealed by histopathologic examination, complete protection against AlCl3-induced hepatic toxicity. Relaxant effects of the same extract on vascular preparation from porcine aorta precontracted with high concentration of U46619 were considerable at 10-1 g/L, and comparable (P>0.05) between endothelium-intact (67.74%, IC50=0.04 mg/mL) and-rubbed (72.72%, IC50=0.075 mg/mL) aortic rings. Conclusions: The extract exerted significant anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and vasorelaxant activities, the latter being endothelium-independent believed to be mediated mainly by the ability of components present in the extract to exert antioxidant properties, probably related to an inhibition of Ca2+influx.

  15. Effect of geographical distributions on the nutrient composition, phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of Morus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima; Rahman, Tajur Rahman

    2015-09-01

    Recent worldwide inclination for the consumption of natural compounds has extremely augmented the significance of persistent quality of plant materials. Consequently, there is an escalating scientific concern in the impact of geographical distributions of the plants on their chemical constituents, physical characteristics and biological activities. The current study was carried out to see the effect of geographical locations on the nutrient composition, mineral contents, phytochemical profile and free radical scavenging activity of Morus nigra fruit. The samples were collected from five different locations of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, which included districts of D. I. Khan, Karak, Peshawar, Swabi and Swat. The results revealed the considerable impact of geographical locations on the levels of proximate nutrient and selected minerals. Likewise, the concentrations of phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin and alkaloidal contents varied significantly (p<0.05) with respect to their geographical distributions. The physicochemical characteristic, extraction yields and DPPH scavenging activity of the samples also showed strong link with the sites of their cultivation. The data suggest that geographical distributions affect the levels of phytochemicals and conversely their biological activities. These variations must be taken into consideration while utilizing raw plant materials for industrial applications and traditional therapies.

  16. Phytochemical Content of Some Black (Morus nigra L. and Purple (Morus rubra L. Mulberry Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tosun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bright black (Morus nigra and purple mulberry (Morus rubra are particularly desirable fruits in Turkey. More recently, the interest in these bright black and purple mulberry fruits has also increased because of the popularization of healthy properties of these fruits. The study was carried out in 2008 aiming to determine the antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, FRAP, total phenolic, total anthocyanin, mineral, soluble solid, vitamin C, and total acid content of four black and four purple mulberry genotypes grown in Turkey. The results show that black mulberry genotypes have a higher bioactive content than purple mulberry genotypes. The average total phenolic content and total anthocyanins of black mulberry genotypes were 2149 μg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE per g and 719 μg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent (Cy 3-glu per g of fresh mass. In purple mulberry, these values were for GAE 1690 μg/g and for Cy 3-glu 109 μg/g on fresh mass basis. The average antioxidant activity of black mulberry genotypes was also found to be higher than that of the purple ones according to FRAP assay (Trolox equivalent (TE per fresh mass of black and purple mulberries was 13.35 and 6.87 μmol/g, respectively.

  17. Assessment of the antibacterial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Morus nigra L. (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, G R; Oliveira-Junior, R G; Diniz, T C; Branco, A; Lima-Saraiva, S R G; Guimarães, A L; Oliveira, A P; Pacheco, A G M; Silva, M G; Moraes-Filho, M O; Costa, M P; Pessoa, C Ó; Almeida, J R G S

    2017-08-17

    This study was carried out to assess the antibacterial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of extracts of Morus nigra L. HPLC was used to determine the fingerprint chromatogram of the crude ethanolic extract (Mn-EtOH). The antibacterial effect was assessed through the method of microdilution. The cytotoxicity was tested against human tumour cell lines using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also assessed through the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching methods. The presence of phenolic compounds in Mn-EtOH was confirmed using HPLC. The extracts showed activity against most microorganisms tested. The extracts did not show any expressive antiproliferative effect in the assessment of cytotoxicity. The most significant total phenolic content was 153.00 ± 11.34 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g to the ethyl acetate extract (AcOEt). The total flavonoid content was 292.50 ± 70.34 mg of catechin equivalent/g to the AcOEt extract, which presented the best antioxidant activity (IC50 50.40 ± 1.16 μg/mL) for DPPH scavenging. We can conclude that this species shows strong antibacterial and antioxidant activities, as well as weak cytotoxic effects.

  18. A new antioxidant stilbene and other constituents from the stem bark of Morus nigra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ghada M; Abdel Bar, Fatma M; Baraka, Hany N; Gohar, Ahmed A; Lahloub, Mohammed-Farid

    2014-01-01

    A new stilbene, 2',3,4',5,5'-pentahydroxy-cis-stilbene (1), along with 13 known compounds, resveratrol (2), oxyresveratrol (3), norartocarpetin (4), kuwanon C (5), morusin (6), cudraflavone A (7), kuwanon G (8), albafurane C (9), mulberrofuran G (10), 3-O-acetyl-α-amyrin (11), 3-O-acetyl-β-amyrin (12) ursolic acid-3-O-acetate (13) and uvaol (14), were isolated from the barks of Morus nigra. Compounds 2, 8, 10, 12 and 14 are reported for the first time from this plant. The isolated compounds were elucidated by means of 1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR and MS, as well as by comparison with the literature data. The isolated compounds and the different extracts were evaluated for their potential antioxidant activity using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)(+) radical-scavenging capacity assay and compared with ascorbic acid. The new stilbene (1) exhibited remarkable antioxidant capacity with IC50 of 4.69 μM.

  19. Voltammetric determination of antioxidant character in Berberis lycium Royel, Zanthoxylum armatum and Morus nigra Linn plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Safeer; Shakeel, Faria

    2012-07-01

    The antioxidant activity potential of three different plant extracts was investigated against superoxide anion radical while employing cyclic voltammetry technique. The plants Berberis lyceum Royle, Morus nigra Linn and Zanthoxylum armatum were selected because of their potential use in the traditional medicine. The voltammetric response of the electrochemically generated superoxide anion radial in DMSO was monitored in the absence and presence of the plat extracts. The decrease in the current was interpreted in terms of antiradical activity of the added extract. The thermodynamic feasibility of the radical scavenging by extracts was accounted in terms of antioxidant activity coefficient (K(ao)) and standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG(o)). The values of K(ao) and ΔG(o) ranged from 1.0 x 102 to 57 x 102 L(-1) and -18 to -27 kJmol(-1), respectively. The possible mechanism of the antioxidant reaction was regarded as E(r)C(i) mechanism i.e. reversible electron transfer followed by hydrogen atom transfer- an irreversible chemical reaction.

  20. Operant self-stimulation of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Rossi

    Full Text Available We examined the contribution of the nigrostriatal DA system to instrumental learning and behavior using optogenetics in awake, behaving mice. Using Cre-inducible channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 in mice expressing Cre recombinase driven by the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter (Th-Cre, we tested whether selective stimulation of DA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC, in the absence of any natural rewards, was sufficient to promote instrumental learning in naive mice. Mice expressing ChR2 in SNC DA neurons readily learned to press a lever to receive laser stimulation, but unlike natural food rewards the lever pressing did not decline with satiation. When the number of presses required to receive a stimulation was altered, mice adjusted their rate of pressing accordingly, suggesting that the rate of stimulation was a controlled variable. Moreover, extinction, i.e. the cessation of action-contingent stimulation, and the complete reversal of the relationship between action and outcome by the imposition of an omission contingency, rapidly abolished lever pressing. Together these results suggest that selective activation of SNC DA neurons can be sufficient for acquisition and maintenance of a new instrumental action.

  1. Isoforms of the Erythropoietin receptor in dopaminergic neurons of the Substantia Nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuzzi, Federica; Zucchelli, Silvia; Bertuzzi, Maria; Santoro, Claudio; Tell, Gianluca; Carninci, Piero; Gustincich, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) regulates erythrocytes differentiation in blood. In the brain, EpoR has been shown to protect several neuronal cell types from cell death, including the A9 dopaminergic neurons (DA) of the Substantia Nigra (SN). These cells form the nigrostriatal pathway and are devoted to the control of postural reflexes and voluntary movements. Selective degeneration of A9 DA neurons leads to Parkinson's disease. By the use of nanoCAGE, a technology that allows the identification of Transcription Start Sites (TSSs) at a genome-wide level, we have described the promoter-level expression atlas of mouse A9 DA neurons purified with Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM). Here, we identify mRNA variants of the Erythropoietin Receptor (DA-EpoR) transcribed from alternative TSSs. Experimental validation and full-length cDNA cloning is integrated with gene expression analysis in the FANTOM5 database. In DA neurons, the EpoR gene encodes for a N-terminal truncated receptor. Based on STAT5 phosphorylation assays, we show that the new variant of N-terminally truncated EpoR acts as decoy when co-expressed with the full-length form. A similar isoform is also found in human. This work highlights new complexities in the regulation of Erythropoietin (EPO) signaling in the brain.

  2. Optimization of the pretreatment of Prosopis nigra sawdust for the production of fermentable sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana P. Dagnino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The black carob tree (Prosopis nigra is a particularly valued species in Chaco, Argentina on account of its hard wood. Finding a use for the sawdust, the main industrial residue of wood, could be useful within the furniture industry of any country in the tropics seeking to apply the biorefinery concept. For the conversion of wood carbohydrates to bioethanol, a pretreatment stage is necessary. The objective of this work was to find the acid pretreatment conditions that maximize the extraction of xylose with minimum degradation, while maximizing the concentration of glucans in the pretreated solid to obtain better enzymatic accessibility, using black carob tree sawdust as the raw material. The optimization was carried out by use of a central composite design (CCD with two independent variables: the concentration of the sulfuric acid solution and the heating time. Optimal enzymatic hydrolysis occurred at the mean values of the tested acid solution concentration (1.2% and after shorter heating times (10.2 min. The concentration of sugars after the enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated solid over a time period of 72 h was three times higher than the untreated solid.

  3. ENRAIZAMENTO IN VITRO DE BROTOS DE JACARANDÁ-DA-BAHIA (DALBERGIA NIGRA VELLOZO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Tintori Mantovani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A espécie Dalbergia nigra é conhecida popularmente como jacarandá-da-bahia. Devido ao seu destaque e importância econômica, a exploração para uso madeireiro e a pecuária acarretou devastação no seu ambiente natural o que a incluiu na lista de espécies da flora brasileira ameaçadas de extinção e apesar disso, pouco tem sido feito para a multiplicação desta espécie devido ao seu crescimento lento. A micropropagação é uma alternativa para obtenção de grande quantidade de mudas sadias em curto espaço de tempo. Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar as condições mais favoráveis ao enraizamento de brotos in vitro, possibilitando a produção de plântulas viáveis. Foram utilizados meristemas apicais e cotiledonares de plântulas de jacarandá-da-bahia, cultivadas em condições assépticas nos tratamentos compostos por meio de cultura MS e concentrações de ANA (0 e 1 µM. O meio de cultura contendo 1 μM ANA após 30 dias de cultivo induziu a formação de raízes, apresentando melhores resultados.

  4. Clinical features and treatment of dermatosis papulosa nigra in migrants to Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcaterra, Roberta; Franco, Gennaro; Valenzano, Mariacarla; Fazio, Raffaella; Morrone, Aldo

    2010-01-01

    Dermatosis papulosa nigra (DPN) is a benign epithelial tumor that is common in dark-skinned people. Although the diagnosis is easily made on medical examination, DPN is characterized by a chronic and worsening course. Therefore, even if DPN is a benign disease, the lesions are unaesthetic and the therapeutic options are quite inefficient. A prospective study was carried out during a period of 24 months (January 2006 to December 2007) at the Department for Preventive Medicine for Migration, Tourism and Tropical Dermatology of San Gallicano Dermatological Institute in Rome. Among 58 patients, 41 (71%) were women and 17 (29%) were men. The mean age was 33.5 years (range, 8-45 years). One pediatric patient was observed. This study is the first in Italy that, in recent years, has observed an important growth of the migration. The classic female predominance, family predisposition, and photodistribution of the lesion were found. DPN is frequently associated with patient discomfort, therefore the education of patients to reduce self-treatment is important.

  5. Elevated Ozone Modulates Herbivore-Induced Volatile Emissions of Brassica nigra and Alters a Tritrophic Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaling, Eliezer; Li, Tao; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Blande, James D

    2016-05-01

    Plants damaged by herbivores emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are used by parasitoids for host location. In nature, however, plants are exposed to multiple abiotic and biotic stresses of varying intensities, which may affect tritrophic interactions. Here, we studied the effects of ozone exposure and feeding by Pieris brassicae larvae on the VOCs emitted by Brassica nigra and the effects on oriented flight of the parasitoid Cotesia glomerata. We also investigated the oriented flight of C. glomerata in a wind-tunnel with elevated ozone levels. Herbivore-feeding induced the emission of several VOCs, while ozone alone had no significant effect. However, exposure to 120 ppb ozone, followed by 24 hr of herbivore-feeding, induced higher emissions of all VOCs as compared to herbivore-feeding alone. In accordance, herbivore-damaged plants elicited more oriented flights than undamaged plants, whereas plants exposed to 120 ppb ozone and 24 hr of herbivore-feeding elicited more oriented flights than plants subjected to herbivore-feeding alone. Ozone enrichment of the wind-tunnel air appeared to negatively affect orientation of parasitoids at 70 ppb, but not at 120 ppb. These results suggest that the combination of ozone and P. brassicae-feeding modulates VOC emissions, which significantly influence foraging efficiency of C. glomerata.

  6. Impact of expected value on neural activity in rat substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, Daniel W; Johnson, Emily E; Diao, Xiayang; Roesch, Matthew R

    2011-06-01

    The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is thought to serve as the output of the basal ganglia, whereby associative information from striatum influences behavior via disinhibition of downstream motor areas to motivate behavior. Unfortunately, few studies have examined activity in SNr in rats making decisions based on the value of predicted reward similar to those conducted in primates. To fill this void, we recorded from single neurons in SNr while rats performed a choice task in which different odor cues indicated what reward was available on the left or on the right. The value of reward associated with a leftward or rightward movement was manipulated by varying the size of and delay to reward in separate blocks of trials. Rats were faster or slower depending on whether the expected reward value was high or low, respectively. The number of neurons that increased firing during performance of the task outnumbered those that decreased firing. Both increases and decreases were modulated by expected value and response direction. Neurons that fired more or less strongly for larger reward tended to fire, respectively, more or less strongly for immediate reward, reflecting their common motivational output. Finally, value selectivity was present prior to presentation of cues indicating the nature of the upcoming behavioral response for both increasing- and decreasing-type neurons, reflecting the internal bias or preparatory set of the rat. These results emphasize the importance of increasing-type neurons on behavioral output when animals are making decisions based on predicted reward value.

  7. Metamorphic changes in abdominal spines of Forcipomyia nigra pupae (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Aleksandra; Richert, Malwina; Kapusta, Małgorzata

    2015-11-01

    Pupae of Forcipomyia nigra biting midges bear double rows of dorsal and lateral spines. Their arrangement corresponds to the distribution of larval mechanosensory setae. They are serrated simple cuticular structures with tubercles but, in contrast to larval secretory mechanoreceptors, they are not innervated and do not exhibit any pores. The ultrastructure of abdominal spines varies among different pupal stages. They are produced by epidermal cells which fill the interior of the spine. In the youngest pupae epidermal cells are tightly packed and adhere to the cuticle. Then, the cells withdraw from the spinal cavity and the beginning of autophagy is observed. The last stage represents abdominal spines without any cellular material and then apoptosis probably proceeds in the withdrawn epidermal cells. Since the pupal spines occupied the same region of the segment as the larval setae, we consider that the same genes are responsible for their formation as for the formation of epidermal cells but that their mechanosensory and secretory function is no longer needed.

  8. Interactive effects of substrate, hydroperiod, and nutrients on seedling growth of Salix nigra and Taxodium distichum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R.H.; Doyle, T.W.; Draugelis-Dale, R. O.

    2006-01-01

    The large river swamps of Louisiana have complex topography and hydrology, characterized by black willow (Salix nigra) dominance on accreting alluvial sediments and vast areas of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) deepwater swamps with highly organic substrates. Seedling survival of these two wetland tree species is influenced by their growth rate in relation to the height and duration of annual flooding in riverine environments. This study examines the interactive effects of substrate, hydroperiod, and nutrients on growth rates of black willow and baldcypress seedlings. In a greenhouse experiment with a split-split-plot design, 1-year seedlings of black willow and baldcypress were subjected to two nutrient treatments (unfertilized versus fertilized), two hydroperiods (continuously flooded versus twice daily flooding/draining), and two substrates (sand versus commercial peat mix). Response variables included height, diameter, lateral branch count, biomass, and root:stem ratio. Black willow growth in height and diameter, as well as all biomass components, were significantly greater in peat substrate than in sand. Black willow showed a significant hydroperiod-nutrient interaction wherein fertilizer increased stem and root biomass under drained conditions, but flooded plants did not respond to fertilization. Baldcypress diameter and root biomass were higher in peat than in sand, and the same two variables increased with fertilization in flooded as well as drained treatments. These results can be used in Louisiana wetland forest models as inputs of seedling growth and survival, regeneration potential, and biomass accumulation rates of black willow and baldcypress.

  9. Restless legs and substantia nigra hypoechogenicity are common features in Friedreich's ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synofzik, Matthis; Godau, Jana; Lindig, Tobias; Schöls, Ludger; Berg, Daniela

    2011-03-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FA) is a multisystemic degenerative disease, but the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is unknown. FA patients might be particularly susceptible to develop RLS as FA presents with features commonly associated with RLS, e.g. multisystemic network dysfunction, peripheral neuropathy and disturbances in subcellular brain iron homeostasis. In this work, we assessed the following: (1) the prevalence of RLS; (2) the prevalence of sonographic hypoechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN), which is known to be associated with idiopathic RLS; and (3) the relation between both in 28 FA patients. Thirty-two percent of the patients suffered from RLS, thus clearly exceeding the prevalence rate in the general population. SN hypoechogenicity was more frequent in FA patients (61%) compared to healthy controls (7%) and was significantly associated with RLS. However, as SN echogenicity also correlated inversely with disease severity, it seems to be related not only to RLS, but also to the neurodegenerative process in FA itself. The high prevalence of RLS in FA patients warrants specific assessment by neurologists involved in the care of FA patients as treatments are readily available. Similar to patients with idiopathic RLS, reduced SN echogenicity is a frequent finding in FA, possibly indicating regional changes in subcellular brain iron regulation in FA.

  10. Dissociation between iron accumulation and ferritin upregulation in the aged substantia nigra: attenuation by dietary restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thomas; Michaelides, Christos; Ekonomou, Antigoni; Geraki, Kalotina; Parkes, Harold G; Suessmilch, Maria; Herlihy, Amy H; Crum, William R; So, Po-Wah

    2016-01-01

    Despite regulation, brain iron increases with aging and may enhance aging processes including neuroinflammation. Increases in magnetic resonance imaging transverse relaxation rates, R2 and R2*, in the brain have been observed during aging. We show R2 and R2* correlate well with iron content via direct correlation to semi-quantitative synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence iron mapping, with age-associated R2 and R2* increases reflecting iron accumulation. Iron accumulation was concomitant with increased ferritin immunoreactivity in basal ganglia regions except in the substantia nigra (SN). The unexpected dissociation of iron accumulation from ferritin-upregulation in the SN suggests iron dyshomeostasis in the SN. Occurring alongside microgliosis and astrogliosis, iron dyshomeotasis may contribute to the particular vulnerability of the SN. Dietary restriction (DR) has long been touted to ameliorate brain aging and we show DR attenuated agerelated in vivo R2 increases in the SN over ages 7 – 19 months, concomitant with normal iron-induction of ferritin expression and decreased microgliosis. Iron is known to induce microgliosis and conversely, microgliosis can induce iron accumulation, which of these may be the initial pathological aging event warrants further investigation. We suggest iron chelation therapies and anti-inflammatory treatments may be putative ‘antibrain aging’ therapies and combining these strategies may be synergistic. PMID:27743512

  11. Identification of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta as a target of manganese accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Gregory; Sullivan, Brendan; Cannon, Jason R.; Pushkar, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    Manganese serves as a cofactor to a variety of proteins necessary for proper bodily development and function. However, an overabundance of Mn in the brain can result in manganism, a neurological condition resembling Parkinson’s disease (PD). Bulk sample measurement techniques have identified the globus pallidus and thalamus as targets of Mn accumulation in the brain, however smaller structures/cells cannot be measured. Here, X-ray fluorescence microscopy determined the metal content and distribution in the substantia nigra (SN) of the rodent brain. In vivo retrograde labeling of dopaminergic cells (via FluoroGold™) of the SN pars compacta (SNc) subsequently allowed for XRF imaging of dopaminergic cells in situ at subcellular resolution. Chronic Mn exposure resulted in a significant Mn increase in both the SN pars reticulata (>163%) and the SNc (>170%) as compared to control; no other metal concentrations were significantly changed. Subcellular imaging of dopaminergic cells demonstrated that Mn is located adjacent to the nucleus. Measured intracellular manganese concentrations range between 40–200 μM; concentrations as low as 100 μM have been observed to cause cell death in cell cultures. Direct observation of Mn accumulation in the SNc could establish a biological basis for movement disorders associated with manganism, specifically Mn caused insult to the SNc. Accumulation of Mn in dopaminergic cells of the SNc may help clarify the relationship between Mn and the loss of motor skills associated with manganism. PMID:25695229

  12. Influence of lanthanum level and interactions with nitrogen source on early development of Juglans nigra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicodemus; Michael A; Salifu; K Francis; Jacobs; Douglass F

    2009-01-01

    Rare earth elements have been used for 30 years in Chinese agriculture to improve growth and yield. Numerous scientific studies have shown improvements in physiology, mineral nutrition, and growth, though deleterious effects may also occur. Very few studies have been performed on woody species. We exponentially fertilized one-year old black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) seedlings with 0, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 mg lanthanum (La) and 800 mg nitrogen (N) as NaNO3, (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, or no N. One month following final fertilization, growth, mineral nutrition, photosynthesis, chlorophyll, and nitrate reductase activity were assessed. Plants fertilized with the highest level of La had reduced fine root growth, concentrations of magnesium, calcium, nickel, and phosphorus, photosynthesis levels, and chlorophyll a content. Foliar La concentration showed an interaction effect, with three to four times greater concentration in plants fed at 100 mg La to those given 10 mg La for (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3 treatments. The results suggested no beneficial effects of La addition at levels used in this study and interactions between N source and La levels did not have an important impact on the growth, mineral nutrition, or physiology of black walnut seedlings.

  13. Targeted inhibition of RAGE in substantia nigra of rats blocks 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Ribeiro, Camila Tiefensee; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Somensi, Nauana; Rabelo, Thallita Kelly; Kunzler, Alice; Souza, Natália Cabral; Pasquali, Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2017-08-18

    The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a pattern-recognition receptor associated with inflammation in most cell types. RAGE up-regulates the expression of proinflammatory mediators and its own expression via activation of NF-kB. Recent works have proposed a role for RAGE in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we used the multimodal blocker of RAGE FPS-ZM1, which has become available recently, to selectively inhibit RAGE in the substantia nigra (SN) of rats intracranially injected with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). FPS-ZM1 (40 μg per rat), injected concomitantly with 6-OHDA (10 μg per rat) into the SN, inhibited the increase in RAGE, activation of ERK1/2, Src and nuclear translocation of NF-kB p65 subunit in the SN. RAGE inhibition blocked glial fibrillary acidic protein and Iba-1 upregulation as well as associated astrocyte and microglia activation. Circulating cytokines in serum and CSF were also decreased by FPS-ZM1 injection. The loss of tyrosine hydroxylase and NeuN-positive neurons was significantly inhibited by RAGE blocking. Finally, FPS-ZM1 attenuated locomotory and exploratory deficits induced by 6-OHDA. Our results demonstrate that RAGE is an essential component in the neuroinflammation and dopaminergic denervation induced by 6-OHDA in the SN. Selective inhibition of RAGE may offer perspectives for therapeutic approaches.

  14. In vitro shoot regeneration from leaf mesophyll protoplasts of hybrid poplar (Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y G; Son, S H

    1992-02-01

    Protoplasts were isolated from leaf mesophyll of hybrid poplar (Populus nigra X P. maximowiczii) with a mean yield of 10.4 x 10(6) protoplasts per g fresh weight using 2.0% Cellulase 'Onozuka' R-10, 0.8% Macerozyme R-10, 1.2% Hemicellulase, 2.0% Driselase, and 0.05% Pectolyase Y-23 with CPW salts solution containing 0.6 M mannitol, 0.002 M DTT, 3 mM MES at pH 5.6. A liquid plating method produced the highest frequency of dividing protoplasts (48.6%) using an MS medium without NH4NO3. The highest percent of colony formation was 22.8%, produced with fabric supported semi-solid (0.5% w/v) agar plating method using the same culture medium. Growing cell colonies and/or micro-calli were transferred to a fresh semisolid agar medium containing 0.44 μM BAP and 9.0 μM 2,4-D. Multiple shoots were produced from protoplast-derived callus after culture on MS medium containing 6.8 μM zeatin. After root induction on half-strength MS medium that lacked growth regulators, shoots were transferred to pots containing artificial soil mix.

  15. Protective effect of Juglans nigra on sodium arsenite-induced toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon E Owumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of arsenic contaminated water has been implicated in metalloid-induced carcinogenesis. Dietary intake of certain plant products with chemoprotective properties may protect against the onset of diseases and promote maintenance of health. Objectives: We investigated the outcome of black walnut Juglans nigra (JN consumption on sodium arsenite (SA-induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Wister albino rats were treated as follows: Control, SA only (positive control (2.5 mg/kg body weight, JN only (100 mg/kg weight, and JN+SA coadministered. After 5 weeks animals were sacrificed whole blood, femur, liver and testis harvested were assessed for hepatic transaminases and clastogenicity. Histology of the liver, sperm morphology and quality were also assessed. Data were analyzed (ANOVA and expressed as means ±SD. Results: SA treatment elevated hepatic transaminases level in serum (P < 0.05, induced histological changes in liver: fibroplasia and periportal hepatocytes infiltration by mononuclear cells. These changes were ameliorated by JN (P < 0.05 coadministration. SA induced micronuclei formation (P < 0.05. Again JN decreased (P < 0.05 micronuclei formation by 50%. Sperm count and motility decreased (P < 0.05 in all groups compared to control. Conclusion: JN showed no protection against arsenite effect on sperm quality. Hepatoprotective and anticlastogenic effects were apparent suggesting a chemopreventive potential active against arsenite genotoxicity and chromosomal instability which have implication for metalloid-induced carcinogenesis.

  16. Reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein in Parkinson's disease substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parain, K; Murer, M G; Yan, Q; Faucheux, B; Agid, Y; Hirsch, E; Raisman-Vozari, R

    1999-02-25

    Several in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes survival of damaged mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Using a specific antibody directed against human recombinant BDNF, we studied the expression of the protein at the cellular level in the post-mortem mesencephalon of control subjects and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In control subjects, BDNF was expressed in all mesencephalic regions containing dopaminergic neurons, and in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) 65% of the melanized neurons expressed BDNF. In the PD SNpc, the total number of pigmented neurons containing BDNF was reduced to 9.6% of the corresponding control value. In contrast, the number of pigmented neurons non-immunoreactive for BDNF was reduced to 23.9% of the corresponding control value. This result appears to indicate that SNpc melanized neurons not expressing BDNF have a 2.5-fold greater probability of surviving than BDNF-positive melanized neurons. Furthermore, we found that in parkinsonian mesencephalon almost all dopaminergic neurons containing Lewy bodies were immunoreactive for BDNF. These findings demonstrate a reduced expression of BDNF in PD and suggest that BDNF protein expression does not protect melanized SNpc neurons from the degenerative process in this disease.

  17. Black pine (Pinus nigra) barks as biomonitors of airborne mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Beutel, Marc W; Costagliola, Pilario; Gonnelli, Cristina; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Tree barks are relevant interfaces between plants and the external environment, and can effectively retain airborne particles and elements at their surface. In this paper we have studied the distribution of mercury (Hg) in soils and in black pine (Pinus nigra) barks from the Mt. Amiata Hg district in southern Tuscany (Italy), where past Hg mining and present-day geothermal power plants affect local atmospheric Hg concentration, posing serious environmental concerns. Barks collected in heavily Hg-polluted areas of the district display the highest Hg concentration ever reported in literature (8.6mg/kg). In comparison, barks of the same species collected in local reference areas and near geothermal power plants show much lower (range 19-803μg/kg) concentrations; even lower concentrations are observed at a "blank" site near the city of Florence (5-98μg/kg). Results show a general decrease of Hg concentration from bark surface inwards, in accordance with a deposition of airborne Hg, with minor contribution from systemic uptake from soils. Preliminary results indicate that bark Hg concentrations are comparable with values reported for lichens in the same areas, suggesting that tree barks may represent an additional useful tool for biomonitoring of airborne Hg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nicotine modulates GABAergic transmission to dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng XIAO; Ke-chun YANG; Chun-yi ZHOU; Guo-zhang JIN; Jie WU; Jiang-hong YE

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) play important roles in motor control and drug addiction. As the major afferent, GABAergic innervation controls the activity of SNc dopaminergic neurons. Although it is clear that nicotine modulates SNc dopaminergic neurons by activating subtypes of somatodendritic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the detailed mechanisms of this activation remain to be addressed.Methods: In the current study, we recorded GABAA receptor-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIP-SCs) from dissociated SNc dopaminergic neurons that were obtained using an enzyme-free procedure. These neurons preserved some functional terminals after isolation, including those that release GABA.Results: We found that both extra- and intra-cellular calcium modulates sIPSCs in these neurons. Furthermore, both nicotine and endogenous acetylcholine enhance the frequency of sIPSCs. Moreover, endogenous acetylcholine tonically facilitates sIPSC frequency, primarily by activating the a4B2* nAChRs on the GABAergic terminals.Conclusion: Nicotine facilitates GABA release onto SNc dopaminergic neurons mainly via the activation of presynaptic a4B2* nAChRs.

  19. Operant self-stimulation of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Mark A; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Hayrapetyan, Volodya Y; Yang, Lucie; Yin, Henry H

    2013-01-01

    We examined the contribution of the nigrostriatal DA system to instrumental learning and behavior using optogenetics in awake, behaving mice. Using Cre-inducible channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in mice expressing Cre recombinase driven by the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter (Th-Cre), we tested whether selective stimulation of DA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC), in the absence of any natural rewards, was sufficient to promote instrumental learning in naive mice. Mice expressing ChR2 in SNC DA neurons readily learned to press a lever to receive laser stimulation, but unlike natural food rewards the lever pressing did not decline with satiation. When the number of presses required to receive a stimulation was altered, mice adjusted their rate of pressing accordingly, suggesting that the rate of stimulation was a controlled variable. Moreover, extinction, i.e. the cessation of action-contingent stimulation, and the complete reversal of the relationship between action and outcome by the imposition of an omission contingency, rapidly abolished lever pressing. Together these results suggest that selective activation of SNC DA neurons can be sufficient for acquisition and maintenance of a new instrumental action.

  20. Modulation of synaptic GABAA receptor function by zolpidem in substantia nigra pars reticulata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-li ZHANG; Lei CHEN; Yan XUE; Wing-ho YUNG

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) constitutes one of the output centers of the basal ganglia, and its abnormal activity is believed to contribute to some basal ganglia motor disorders. Different lines of evidence revealed a major contribution of GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic inhibition in controlling the activity of SNr. The benzodiazepine binding site within the GABAA receptor is a modulation site of significant clinical interest. A high density of benzodiazepine binding sites has been reported in the rat SNr. In the present study, we investi-gate the effects of activating benzodiazepine binding sites in the SNr. Methods: Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and motor behavior were applied. Results: Superfusion of zolpidem, a benzodiazepine binding agonist, at 100 nmol/L signifi-cantly prolonged the decay time of GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic currents. The prolongation on decay time induced by zolpidem was sensitive to the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil, confirming the specificity on the ben-zodiazepine site. Zolpidem at 1 μmol/L exerted a stronger prolongation on the decay time. A further experiment was performed on behaving rats. A unilateral microinjection of zolpidem into the rat SNr caused a robust contralateral rotation, which was significantly different from that of control animals receiving the vehicle injection. Conclusion: The present in vitro and in vivo findings that zolpidem significantly potentiated GABA currents and thus inhibited the activity of the SNr provide a rationale for further investigations into its potential in the treatment of basal ganglia disorders.

  1. EFEITO FUNGITÓXICO DO ÓLEO DE NIM SOBRE Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum e Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álison Bruno da Silva Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague control is based almost exclusively on application of chemical substances, however these products are toxic to men and animals and cause odd effects on environment quality. In Plague Integrated Management (PIM, the use of selected insecticides and entomopathogenic fungi should be considered as one viable strategy for plague control in agriculture. This work aimed to evaluate, in laboratory, the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae with the oil of Nim. The addition of the product was made to the potato-dextrose-agar medium still liquid (±45°C, in a way that the final concentration obeyed 50% of the producer's recommendation. After fungi inoculation, the dishes were incubated in a cimatized room at 28°C, photophase of 12 hours and relative humidity of 75±5% for 12 day period. The number of conidia per colonie was counted with a Neubauer chamber. Statistic delineament was entirely in random, with two treatments (PDA with insecticide, and a control group (PDA without insecticide, and 9 repetitions for each treatment. The results showed that the insecticide inhibited conidial production in Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae strains when compared to the control group. The diameter of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum colonies suffered significative reduction in its size, compared to control. The tested insecticide, in the concentration and formulation used, presented compatibility with the tested strains.

  2. Neuroprotection and neuronal differentiation studies using substantia nigra dopaminergic cells derived from transgenic mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, J H; Chun, H S; Joh, T H; Cho, S; Conti, B; Lee, J W

    1999-01-01

    The major pathological lesion of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the selective cell death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in substantia nigra (SN). Although the initial cause and subsequent molecular signaling mechanisms leading to DA cell death underlying the PD process remain elusive, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is thought to exert neuroprotective as well as neurotrophic roles for the survival and differentiation of DA neurons in SN. Addressing molecular mechanisms of BDNF action in both primary embryonic mesencephalic cultures and in vivo animal models has been technically difficult because DA neurons in SN are relatively rare and present with many heterogeneous cell populations in midbrain. We have developed and characterized a DA neuronal cell line of embryonic SN origin that is more accessible to molecular analysis and can be used as an in vitro model system for studying SN DA neurons. A clonal SN DA neuronal progenitor cell line SN4741, arrested at an early DA developmental stage, was established from transgenic mouse embryos containing the targeted expression of the thermolabile SV40Tag in SN DA neurons. The phenotypic and morphological differentiation of the SN4741 cells could be manipulated by environmental cues in vitro. Exogenous BDNF treatment produced significant neuroprotection against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, glutamate, and nitric oxide-induced neurotoxicity in the SN4741 cells. Simultaneous phosphorylation of receptor tyrosine kinase B accompanied the neuroprotection. This SN DA neuronal cell line provides a unique model system to circumvent the limitations associated with primary mesencephalic cultures for the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of BDNF action on DA neurons of the SN.

  3. Impact of Combined Subthalamic Nucleus and Substantia Nigra Stimulation on Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidding, U; Gulberti, A; Horn, A; Buhmann, C; Hamel, W; Koeppen, J A; Westphal, M; Engel, A K; Gerloff, C; Weiss, D; Moll, C K E; Pötter-Nerger, M

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the study was to compare the tolerability and the effects of conventional subthalamic nucleus (STN) and combined subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra (STN+SNr) high-frequency stimulation in regard to neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease patients. In this single center, randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial, twelve patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (1 female; age: 61.3 ± 7.3 years; disease duration: 12.3 ± 5.4 years; Hoehn and Yahr stage: 2.2 ± 0.39) were included. Apathy, fatigue, depression, and impulse control disorder were assessed using a comprehensive set of standardized rating scales and questionnaires such as the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS), Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), Becks Depression Inventory (BDI-I), Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (QUIP-RS), and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). Three patients that were initially assigned to the STN+SNr stimulation mode withdrew from the study within the first week due to discomfort. Statistical comparison of data retrieved from patients who completed the study revealed no significant differences between both stimulation conditions in terms of mean scores of scales measuring apathy, fatigue, depression, impulse control disorder, and quality of life. Individual cases showed an improvement of apathy under combined STN+SNr stimulation. In general, combined STN+SNr stimulation seems to be safe in terms of neuropsychiatric side effects, although careful patient selection and monitoring in the short-term period after changing stimulation settings are recommended.

  4. Somatodendritic ion channel expression in substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons across postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Martial A; Woodhouse, Adele; Goaillard, Jean-Marc

    2014-08-01

    Dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) are involved in the control of movement, sleep, reward, learning, and nervous system disorders and disease. To date, a thorough characterization of the ion channel phenotype of this important neuronal population is lacking. Using immunohistochemistry, we analyzed the somatodendritic expression of voltage-gated ion channel subunits that are involved in pacemaking activity in SNc dopaminergic neurons in 6-, 21-, and 40-day-old rats. Our results demonstrate that the same complement of somatodendritic ion channels is present in SNc dopaminergic neurons from P6 to P40. The major developmental changes were an increase in the dendritic range of the immunolabeling for the HCN, T-type calcium, Kv4.3, delayed rectifier, and SK channels. Our study sheds light on the ion channel subunits that contribute to the somatodendritic delayed rectifier (Kv1.3, Kv2.1, Kv3.2, Kv3.3), A-type (Kv4.3) and calcium-activated SK (SK1, SK2, SK3) potassium currents, IH (mainly HCN2, HCN4), and the L- (Cav1.2, Cav1.3) and T-type (mainly Cav3.1, Cav3.3) calcium currents in SNc dopaminergic neurons. Finally, no robust differences in voltage-gated ion channel immunolabeling were observed across the population of SNc dopaminergic neurons for each age examined, suggesting that differing levels of individual ion channels are unlikely to distinguish between specific subpopulations of SNc dopaminergic neurons. This is significant in light of previous studies suggesting that age- or region-associated variations in the expression profile of voltage-gated ion channels in SNc dopaminergic neurons may underlie their vulnerability to dysfunction and disease.

  5. GIRK2 expression in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Stefanie; Fu, Yuhong; Double, Kay; Thompson, Lachlan; Kirik, Deniz; Paxinos, George; Halliday, Glenda M

    2012-08-15

    G-protein-regulated inward-rectifier potassium channel 2 (GIRK2) is reported to be expressed only within certain dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra (SN), although very limited data are available in humans. We examined the localization of GIRK2 in the SN and adjacent ventral tegmental area (VTA) of humans and mice by using either neuromelanin pigment or immunolabeling with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or calbindin. GIRK2 immunoreactivity was found in nearly every human pigmented neuron or mouse TH-immunoreactive neuron in both the SN and VTA, although considerable variability in the intensity of GIRK2 staining was observed. The relative intensity of GIRK2 immunoreactivity in TH-immunoreactive neurons was determined; in both species nearly all SN TH-immunoreactive neurons had strong GIRK2 immunoreactivity compared with only 50-60% of VTA neurons. Most paranigral VTA neurons also contained calbindin immunoreactivity, and approximately 25% of these and nearby VTA neurons also had strong GIRK2 immunoreactivity. These data show that high amounts of GIRK2 protein are found in most SN neurons as well as in a proportion of nearby VTA neurons. The single previous human study may have been compromised by the fixation method used and the postmortem delay of their controls, whereas other studies suggesting that GIRK2 is located only in limited neuronal groups within the SN have erroneously included VTA regions as part of the SN. In particular, the dorsal layer of dopamine neurons directly underneath the red nucleus is considered a VTA region in humans but is commonly considered the dorsal tier of the SN in laboratory species.

  6. Dopamine pathology in schizophrenia: Analysis of total and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase in the substantia nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMMA ePEREZ-COSTAS

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of dopamine neurotransmission in schizophrenia, very few studies have addressed anomalies in the mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH is the rate-limiting enzyme for the production of dopamine, and a possible contributor to the anomalies in the dopaminergic neurotransmission observed in schizophrenia.In this study, we had three objectives: 1 Compare TH expression (mRNA and protein in the SN/VTA of schizophrenia and control postmortem samples. 2 Assess the effect of antipsychotic medications on the expression of TH in the SN/VTA. 3 Examine possible regional differences in TH expression anomalies within the SN/VTA.To achieve these objectives three independent studies were conducted: 1 A pilot study to compare TH mRNA and TH protein levels in the SN/VTA of postmortem samples from schizophrenia and controls. 2 A chronic treatment study was performed in rodents to assess the effect of antipsychotic medications in TH protein levels in the SN/VTA. 3 A second postmortem study was performed to assess TH and phosphorylated TH protein levels in two types of samples: schizophrenia and control samples containing the entire rostro-caudal extent of the SN/VTA, and schizophrenia and control samples containing only mid-caudal regions of the SN/VTA.Our studies showed impairment in the dopaminergic system in schizophrenia that could be mainly (or exclusively located in the rostral region of the SN/VTA. Our studies also showed that TH protein levels were significantly abnormal in schizophrenia, while mRNA expression levels were not affected, indicating that TH pathology in this region may occur posttranscriptionally. Lastly, our antipsychotic animal treatment study showed that TH protein levels were not significantly affected by antipsychotic treatment, indicating that these anomalies are an intrinsic pathology rather than a treatment effect.

  7. Effects of inflammation on hippocampus and substantia nigra responses to novelty in healthy human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil A; Cercignani, Mara; Voon, Valerie; Critchley, Hugo D

    2015-03-01

    Humans are naturally inquisitive. This tendency is adaptive, aiding identification of potentially valuable novel outcomes. The dopaminergic substantia nigra (SN) is implicated in the drive to explore novel stimuli and situations. However, infection and inflammation inhibit the motivation to seek out novelty. This likely serves to limit exposure to uncertain, potentially detrimental outcomes when metabolic resources are limited. Nevertheless, the neural mechanisms through which inflammation constrains novelty seeking are poorly understood. We therefore scanned 16 healthy participants (6 male, mean 27.2±7.3 years), using fMRI, once following experimental inflammation (intramuscular (i.m.) typhoid vaccination) and once after placebo (i.m. saline), with the aim of characterizing effects of inflammation on neural processing of novel and familiar place, and face stimuli. We specifically tested the effects of inflammation on the hypothesized roles of SN and hippocampus in novelty processing. Typhoid vaccination evoked a nearly threefold increase in circulating pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6) levels 3 h after injection, indicating induction of mild systemic inflammation. Enhanced hippocampal responses to novel (compared with familiar) stimuli were observed following both vaccine and placebo, consistent with intact central novelty detection. However, the normal bilateral reactivity of SN to stimulus novelty was significantly attenuated following inflammation. Correspondingly, inflammation also markedly impaired novelty-related functional coupling between the SN and hippocampus. These data extend previous findings of SN sensitivity to mild inflammation associated with changes in psychomotor responding, and suggest that inflammation-induced blunting of SN responses to hippocampal novelty signals may represent a plausible mechanism through which inflammation impairs motivational responses to novelty.

  8. AMP kinase regulates ligand-gated K-ATP channels in substantia nigra dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ke-Zhong; Wu, Yan-Na; Munhall, Adam C; Johnson, Steven W

    2016-08-25

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master enzyme that regulates ATP-sensitive K(+) (K-ATP) channels in pancreatic beta-cells and cardiac myocytes. We used patch pipettes to record currents and potentials to investigate effects of AMPK on K-ATP currents in substantia nigra compacta (SNC) dopamine neurons in slices of rat midbrain. When slices were superfused repeatedly with the K-ATP channel opener diazoxide, we were surprised to find that diazoxide currents gradually increased in magnitude, reaching 300% of the control value 60min after starting whole-cell recording. However, diazoxide current increased significantly more, to 472% of control, when recorded in the presence of the AMPK activator A769662. Moreover, superfusing the slice with the AMPK blocking agent dorsomorphin significantly reduced diazoxide current to 38% of control. Control experiments showed that outward currents evoked by the K-ATP channel opener NN-414 also increased over time, but not currents evoked by the GABAB agonist baclofen. Delaying the application of diazoxide after starting whole-cell recording correlated with augmentation of current. Loose-patch recording showed that diazoxide produced a 34% slowing of spontaneous firing rate that did not intensify with repeated applications of diazoxide. However, superfusion with A769662 significantly augmented the inhibitory effect of diazoxide on firing rate. We conclude that K-ATP channel function is augmented by AMPK, which is activated during the process of making whole-cell recordings. Our results suggest that AMPK and K-ATP interactions may play an important role in regulating dopamine neuronal excitability.

  9. Impact of protective agents and drying methods on desiccation tolerance of Salix nigra L. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagapita, Patricio R; Ott Schneider, Helena; Agudelo-Laverde, Lina M; Buera, M Pilar

    2014-09-01

    Willow seeds are classified as orthodox, but they show some recalcitrant characteristics, as they lose viability in a few weeks at room temperature. The aim of this work was to improve the desiccation tolerance of willow seeds (Salix nigra L.), as a model of sensitive materials to dehydration, through imbibition in solutions and later vacuum (VD) or freeze-drying (FD). Imbibition was conducted with 45% w/v trehalose or polyethylene glycol 400 -PEG- or water prior to dehydration treatments. Water- and especially trehalose-imbibed seeds subjected to VD showed better germination capability with respect to the freeze-dried ones. Water crystallization was mainly responsible for the great loss of capability germination observed in water- or trehalose-imbibed seeds subjected to FD. PEG behavior was better when seeds were FD instead of VD. DSC thermograms of seeds allowed to identify two thermal transitions corresponding to lipids melting and to proteins denaturation. This last transition reveals information about proteins state/functionality. Dehydration of control and PEG- or water-imbibed seeds affected proteins functionality leading to lower germinability. In the case of trehalose-imbibed seeds subjected to VD, proteins maintained their native state along dehydration, and the seeds showed a great germination capacity for all the water content range. Germinated seeds showed higher luminosity (L*), greenness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values than not-germinated seeds independently of the employed agent. Present work reveals that the presence of adequate protective agents as well the dehydration method were the main critical factors involved in willow seed desiccation tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance.

  11. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field.

  12. VaR: Exchange Rate Risk and Jump Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Ying Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the Poisson jumps and exchange rate risk, this paper provides an analytical VaR to manage market risk of international portfolios over the subprime mortgage crisis. There are some properties in the model. First, different from past studies in portfolios valued only in one currency, this model considers portfolios not only with jumps but also with exchange rate risk, that is vital for investors in highly integrated global financial markets. Second, in general, the analytical VaR solution is more accurate than historical simulations in terms of backtesting and Christoffersen's independence test (1998 for small portfolios and large portfolios. In other words, the proposed model is reliable not only for a portfolio on specific stocks but also for a large portfolio. Third, the model can be regarded as the extension of that of Kupiec (1999 and Chen and Liao (2009.

  13. MANAGEMENT OF Amburana cearensis var. acreana IN ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Muñoz Braz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814586This work has as its objectives: a to assess the geographical distribution and population structure of Amburana cearensis var. acreana; b to calculate sustainable cutting rates, according to stipulated cutting cycles, and c to simulate the projected recovery potential in volume based on the calculated cutting rate. It was used data from sustainable forest management plans, and the results will contribute for future decisions about its endangered condition. The results did not corroborate the information that Amburana cearensis var. acreana is endangered in Acre state. However the management sustainability will only be feasible if considered the ideal remaining population structure and the estimative of the optimal cutting rate according to the cutting cycle.

  14. [Glycosides from flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-qin; Xia, Jing-jing; Dong, Jun-xing

    2007-10-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the flower of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum. The compounds were isolated and purified by re-crystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Seven glycosides were identified as kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->3)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->6)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (I), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (II), 7-ketologanin (III), oleoside-11-methyl ester (IV), 7-glucosyl-l1-methyl oleoside (V), ligstroside (VI), oleuropein (VII). Compound I is a new compound. Compounds III and V were isolated from the family of Jasminum for the first time and compounds II, IV and VI were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  15. Static Var Compensator Project for the SPS Electrical Network

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives a progress report on the Static Var Compensator project BEF2 for the SPS electrical network. Following a market survey and a call for tenders, a contract has been awarded to ABB Sweden and the project is now in the phase of detailed performance studies, system design and ordering of the main electrical components. This progress report describes the electrical design, summarises the results of the harmonic filter design studies, discusses the interfacing of the control- and communication system and explains the mechanical layout of the Static Var Compensator and as well as the project co-ordination with the feeding BE substation renovation project. Finally, the project planning is presented and critical paths are evaluated.

  16. Inflows and their Macroeconomic Impact in India a VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Sethi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. The study also examines the trends and composition of capital inflows into India. Using the Vector Autoregression (VAR method, this paper specifically examines effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. This study is based on the monthly data from 1995:04 to 2011:07 and incorporating the macroeconomic variables such as exchange rate (EXR, inflation, money supply (M3, export (EXPO, import (IMP, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX and economic growth (IIP as proxy of GDP. The important observations emerge from the VAR analysis which shows there is dynamic short and long equilibrium relationship between few macroeconomic variables like exchange rate (EXR, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX, index of industrial production (IIP and money supply (M3 with private foreign capital inflows (FINV during the study period from 1995:04 to 2011:07

  17. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Raman; Lee, Do-Hyung; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-05-01

    The complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicine was reported and characterized. The cpDNA of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is 149,539 bp, with 36.3% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,803 bp is separated by a large single-copy region (LSC, 82,805 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 17,128 bp). It encodes 85 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. Of 129 individual genes, 13 genes encoded one intron and three genes have two introns.

  18. Identification of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenzig, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    The following chapter describes a PCR method for the identification of the raspberry root rot pathogen Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi. Furthermore, a nested PCR suitable for the detection of the pathogen in infected raspberry roots and validated against the "Duncan bait test" (EPPO Bull 35:87-91, 2005) is explained. Protocols for different DNA extraction methods are given which can be transferred to other fungal pathogens.

  19. A novel cytotoxic neophysalin from Physalis alkekengi var. francheti

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Hang Zhang; Zheng Tao Wang; Yi Ping Yang; Qi Shi Sun

    2009-01-01

    A new neophysalin, named 5α-hydroxy-25,27-dihydro-4,7-didehydro-7-deoxyneophysalin A(1), along with three other known neophysalins (2-4) were isolated from the calyxes of Physalis alkekengi L. var.francheti (Mast.) Makino. The structure of 1 was determined by means of ID and 2D NMR, UV, IR and mass spectra. Compound 1 displayed potent cytotoxicities in vitro against PC-3 and LNCaP cell lines.

  20. VaR without correlations for portfolio of derivative securities

    OpenAIRE

    Barone-Adesi, Giovanni; Giannopoulos, Kostas; Vosper, Les

    2008-01-01

    We propose filtering historical simulation by GARCH processes to model the future distribution of assets and swap values. Options’ price changes are computed by full reevaluation on the changing prices of underlying assets. Our methodology takes implicitly into account assets’ correlations without restricting their values over time or computing them explicitly. VaR values for portfolios of derivative securities are obtained without linearising them. Historical simulation assigns equal probabi...

  1. Probiotic Activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Rajkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhoea is associated with a modification of the intestinal microflora and colonization of pathogenic bacteria. Tests were performed for seven probiotic yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, designated for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea. To check their possible effectiveness against diarrhoea of different etiologies, the activity against a variety of human pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria was investigated in vitro. In mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii, a statistically significant reduction was observed in the number of cells of Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, by even 55.9 % in the case of L. monocytogenes compared with bacterial monocultures. The influence of yeasts was mostly associated with the shortening of the bacterial lag phase duration, more rapid achievement of the maximum growth rates, and a decrease by 4.4–57.1 % (L. monocytogenes, P. aeruginosa, or an increase by 1.4–70.6 % (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella Typhimurium in the exponential growth rates. Another issue included in the research was the ability of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii to bind pathogenic bacteria to its cell surface. Yeasts have shown binding capacity of E. coli, S. Typhimurium and additionally of S. aureus, Campylobacter jejuni and E. faecalis. However, no adhesion of L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa to the yeast cell wall was noted. The probiotic activity of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii against human pathogens is related to a decrease in the number of viable and active cells of bacteria and the binding capacity of yeasts. These processes may limit bacterial invasiveness and prevent bacterial adherence and translocation in the human intestines.

  2. Potential Endophytic Bacteria for Increasing Paddy Var Rojolele Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desriani Desriani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paddy var Rojoleleis asuperior paddy come from Klaten that released by Department of Agriculture in 2003. Its superior properties are resistant to pests leaf hoppers, fluffier, and fragrant. To increase the productivity of paddy that are of ten used by farmers is to use chemical-based fertilizers. The use of these chemicals will effect to adisruption of ecosystem balancing, reduction the amount of soil microflora which essential forplants. Endophytic bacteria are symbiotic microorganisms living within plant tissues, and does not cause negative effects on the host plant. Endophytic bacteria have a capability increasing crop productivity by producing growth hormone, contributes to plant health, and as bio-control agents. Some endophytic bacteria which contribute to plant growth are: Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp., Staphylococcus sp., Azotobacter sp., And Azospirilum sp., Whereas endophytic bacteria that contribute to the health and plant protection several of them are: Pseudomonas sp., Serratia sp. ,Clavibacter sp., and Bacillus sp. This study was conducted to investigate potential of endophytic bacteria to increase Paddy var Rojolele productivity based on its ability to produce extracellular enzymes and resistance to multiple types of antibiotics. The method were endophytic bacteria isolation from three Paddy varRojolele plants, extracellular enzymes detection and antibiotic resistance testing to chloramfinekol, ampicillin and kanamycin. As the result, 43isolateswere isolated from Paddy var Rojolele. Four isolatesamong them havethe ability to produce extra cellular enzym esandresistant toampicillin, kanamycin, and chloramfinekol. Extra cellular enzyme production capability and resistance to antibiotics makes endophytic bacteria are potentialto improveplant health and also asbio-control agentwhich then willaffect to the productivity of rice. To further ensure its potential to plant, more research is needed.

  3. REDESCUBRIMIENTO DE MYRRHINIUM ATROPURPUREUM VAR. OCTANDRUM (MYRTACEAE: MYRTINAE EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARRA-O. CARLOS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se documenta el redescubrimiento de Myrrhinium atropurpureum var. octandrum(Myrteae DC., Myrtaceae, taxón prácticamente desconocido en Colombia. Se presentala descripción del taxón, así como notas sobre su distribución en Colombia, elhábitat en que se desarrolla y su posible estatus dentro de las categorías de la ListaRoja de la UICN.

  4. A Structural VAR Approach to Estimating Budget Balance Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Robert A Buckle; Kunhong Kim; Julie Tam

    2001-01-01

    The Fiscal Responsibility Act 1994 states that, as a principle of responsible fiscal management, a New Zealand government should ensure total Crown debt is at a prudent level by ensuring total operating expenses do not exceed total operating revenues. In this paper a structural VAR model is estimated to evaluate the impact on the government's cash operating surplus (or budget balance) of four independent disturbances: supply, fiscal, real private demand, and nominal disturbances. Based on the...

  5. On the way of tobacco quitting: A VAR approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Gérard Vaillant; Christian Ben lakhdar; Thérèse Lebrun

    2011-01-01

    In order to describe the process of tobacco quitting, we perform a VAR model and causality tests both on the monthly sales of tobacco products and nicotine dependence drugs in France, for the period going from February 2004 to April 2009. According to the path of tobacco quitting found out, it results that an upward harmonization of tax policy on the different tobacco products could accelerate the tobacco quitting process.

  6. New lignans from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chen, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Yun-Lian

    2002-07-01

    Four new lignans, 3',4'-O,O-demethylenehinokinin (1), chamalignolide (2), 8'beta-hydroxyhinokinin (3) and 7beta,8beta-epoxyzuonin A (4), as well as (-)-hinokinin (5), and (-)-zuonin A (6), were isolated from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana. The structures of these lignans were unambiguously determined by spectroscopic methods. And the absolute configuration of 1 was elucidated with a circular dichroism (CD) spectrum.

  7. Analysis of 4D Var Data Assimilation Application Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trailovic, L.; Etherton, B.; Harrop, C.; Govett, M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper summarizes the challenges encountered with our ongoing development and use of a software system designed to facilitate exploration of computational optimizations and strategies for Data Assimilation (DA). The software system is designed and constructed from scratch using modern software development methods and tools, though it incorporates components of pre-existing systems where appropriate. We present results of experiments that employ this system to test approaches for assimilation of observations using a four-dimensional variational (4D Var) scheme. We propose a modular DA system software architecture and demonstrate its utility using a set of models of varying realism and complexity. The software system design and implementation was initially tested and validated using a simple chaotic atmospheric model. A Quasi-Geostrophic (QG) atmospheric model was used to conduct DA experiments of increased difficulty and to validate the software design at larger scales of model complexity. Our QG DA study focused on 2016 winter weather data where a Nature run was used to represent the "true" state of the atmosphere and observations, whereas observation error covariance and observation operator were adapted from pre-existing DA systems. To increase performance, a parallel-in-time algorithm was applied to solve the proposed 4D Var data assimilation problem. That is, the assimilation window was divided into multiple sub-intervals, which allowed for parallelization of the cost function and gradient computations. Continuity equations of the solution were added as constraints across interval boundaries. This approach produced a different formulation of the variational data assimilation problem than weakly constrained 4D Var. We explored a combination of serial and parallel 4D Var algorithms to increase performance.

  8. Terpenes as Useful Markers in Differentiation of Natural Populations of Relict Pines Pinus heldreichii, P. nigra, and P. peuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić, Zorica S; Nikolić, Biljana M; Ristić, Mihailo S; Tešević, Vele V; Bojović, Srdjan R; Marin, Petar D

    2017-08-01

    Comparative analysis of terpene diversity and differentiation of relict pines Pinus heldreichii, P. nigra, and P. peuce from the central Balkans was performed at the population level. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that the composition of needle terpenes reflects clear divergence among the pine species from different subgenera: P. peuce (subgenus Strobus) vs. P. nigra and P. heldreichii (subgenus Pinus). In addition, despite the described morphological similarities and the fact that P. nigra and P. heldreichii may spontaneously hybridize, our results indicated differentiation of their populations naturally growing in the same area. In accordance with recently proposed concept of 'flavonic evolution' in the genus Pinus, we assumed that the terpene profile of soft pine P. peuce, defined by high amounts of six monoterpenes, is more basal than those of hard pines P. nigra and P. heldreichii, which were characterized by high content levels of mainly sesquiterpenes. In order to establish precise positions of P. heldreichii, P. nigra and P. peuce within the taxonomic and phylogenetic tree, as well as develop suitable conservation strategies and future breeding efforts, it is necessary to perform additional morphological, biochemical, and genetic studies. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. The combined effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT 844 and the black truffle co-inoculation on Pinus nigra seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominguez-Nuñez JA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The inoculation of forest seedlings with mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobacteria can improve the morphology and physiology of the seedlings and benefit the reforestation of Mediterranean areas and the reintroduction of mycorrhizal fungal inocula into these areas. Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii,a forest component of the Mediterranean natural ecosystems, is currently used in the reforestation of Mediterranean regions. Its roots are able to form an ectomycorrhizal symbiosis with the Ascomycetes fungus Tuber melanosporum Vitt., the black truffle. The ecological, economic and social values of this ectomycorrhizal fungus is well known. Previously, we demonstrated that the inoculation of Pinus halepensis seedlings with Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT 844 rhizobacteria and the black truffle T. melanosporum improved the plant growth and N absorption of the seedlings. Furthermore, the addition of P. fluorescens CECT 844 doubled the rate of mycorrhization of T. melanosporum. In the present work, P. nigra seedlings were produced in a nursery under well-watered conditions. We studied the morphophysiological response of these seedlings to a combined T. melanosporum and/or a rhizobacteria P. fluorescens CECT 844 inoculation. Five months after inoculation, the growth parameters (seedling height, basal diameter, and shoot and root dry weight, mycorrhizal colonization, water parameters (osmotic potential at both full and zero turgor and modulus of elasticity, and the total contents and concentrations of N, P, and K in the seedlings roots and shoots were measured. The root growth potentials were subsequently estimated. The addition of P. fluorescens CECT 844 did not significantly improve the mycorrhizal colonization by T. melanosporum on P. nigra seedlings. Additionally, the P. fluorescens inoculation caused few significant improvements in the growth and water parameters. Moreover, apparently opposing effects were observed between the two inoculations regarding the

  10. Extracts of Morus nigra L. Leaves Standardized in Chlorogenic Acid, Rutin and Isoquercitrin: Tyrosinase Inhibition and Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Marcela Medeiros; Fontes, Pedro Ribeiro; Souza, Paula Monteiro; William Fagg, Christopher; Neves Silva Guerra, Eliete; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla; Silveira, Damaris; Fonseca-Bazzo, Yris; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Homem-de-Mello, Maurício; Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola

    Melanogenesis is a process responsible for melanin production, which is stored in melanocytes containing tyrosinase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a target in the cosmetics industry, since it controls undesirable skin conditions such as hyperpigmentation due to the overproduction of melanin. Species of the Morus genus are known for the beneficial uses offered in different parts of its plants, including tyrosinase inhibition. Thus, this project aimed to study the inhibitory activity of tyrosinase by extracts from Morus nigra leaves as well as the characterization of its chromatographic profile and cytotoxicity in order to become a new therapeutic option from a natural source. M. nigra leaves were collected, pulverized, equally divided into five batches and the standardized extract was obtained by passive maceration. There was no significant difference between batches for total solids content, yield and moisture content, which shows good reproducibility of the extraction process. Tyrosinase enzymatic activity was determined for each batch, providing the percentage of enzyme inhibition and IC50 values obtained by constructing dose-response curves and compared to kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. High inhibition of tyrosinase activity was observed (above 90% at 15.625 μg/mL). The obtained IC50 values ranged from 5.00 μg/mL ± 0.23 to 8.49 μg/mL ± 0.59 and were compared to kojic acid (3.37 μg/mL ± 0.65). High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid, rutin and, its major compound, isoquercitrin. The chromatographic method employed was validated according to ICH guidelines and the extract was standardized using these polyphenols as markers. Cytotoxicity, assessed by MTT assay, was not observed on murine melanomas, human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts in tyrosinase IC50 values. This study demonstrated the potential of M. nigra leaf extract as a promising whitening agent of natural source against skin

  11. Geochemical peculiarities of black poplar leaves (Populus nigra L.) in the sites with heavy metals intensive fallouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalaltdinova, Albina; Baranovskaya, Natalya; Rikhvanov, Leonid; Matveenko, Irina

    2013-04-01

    The article deals with the content of 28 chemical elements in the leaves ash of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) growing in Ust-Kamenogorsk city area. It is the major industrial center of Kazakhstan Republic on the territory where the industrial giants of non-ferrous metallurgy and nuclear energy are situated. Comparative analysis with the similar data obtained from leaves ash of Populus nigra L. in Tomsk, Ekibastuz, and Pavlodar cities has revealed that in comparison with other urban areas, leaves ash of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) from Ust-Kamenogorsk city is characterized by elevated concentration rates of Ta, U, Zn, Ag, As, Sb, Br, Sr and Na. Within the city, the sites and areas with abnormal contents of typomorphic pollutants have been revealed. In the central part of the city, in the vicinity of lead-zinc plant and Ulba metallurgical plant, the highest concentrations of Ta, U, Zn, Ag, Au, As, Sb, Cr and Fe were marked. In the northeast, where the titanium-magnesium plant is located, elevated concentrations of Br and Sr were stated. Thus, the impact of major city enterprises which are the main sources of heavy metals is reflected in the element composition. Zn, As, Sb, Ag and Au comes from lead-zinc plant and its refinery plants, while Ulba metallurgical plant can be considered source of Ta and U in the environment, producing tantalum and fuel pellets for nuclear power plants. These companies, due to the current objective circumstances, are located in the central part of the city, have a significant negative effect on the environment and form the risk factors for human health.

  12. Future scenarios and conservation strategies for a rear-edge marginal population of Pinus nigra Arnold in Italian central Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Marchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To forecast the effects of climate change on the spatial distribution of Black pine of Villetta Barrea in its natural range and to define a possible conservation strategy for the species Area of study: A rear-edge marginal population of Pinus nigra spp. nigra in Abruzzo region, central Italian Apennines Matherials and Methods: For its adaptive and genetic traits this population is considered endemic of the Italian peninsula and represents a rear-edge marginal population of nigra subspecies. The spatial distribution of the tree in the administrative Region (Abruzzo was used to define the ecological traits while three modelling techniques (GLM, GAM, Random Forest were used to build a Species distribution model according to two climatic scenarios. Main results: The marginal population's range was predicted to shift at higher elevations as consequence of climatic adaptation. Many zones, represented by the higher part of the mountains surrounding the study area (currently bare and inhospitable for trees, were identified as suitable in future for the species. However, in the case of a rapid climate change, this marginal population may not be able to move as fast as necessary. An in-situ adaptive management integrated with an assisted migration protocol might be considered to enforce the natural regeneration and improve the richness and variability of the genetic pool. Research highlights: Most of the genetic richness is held in small populations at the borders of natural distribution of forest species. Monitoring this MAP could be useful to understand the adaptive processes of the species and could support the future management of many other within-core populations. Keywords: Species Distribution Models; Mediterranean forests; Abruzzo; climate change; altitudinal shift.

  13. Extracts of Morus nigra L. Leaves Standardized in Chlorogenic Acid, Rutin and Isoquercitrin: Tyrosinase Inhibition and Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Pedro Ribeiro; Souza, Paula Monteiro; William Fagg, Christopher; Neves Silva Guerra, Eliete; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla; Silveira, Damaris; Fonseca-Bazzo, Yris; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Homem-de-Mello, Maurício; Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola

    2016-01-01

    Melanogenesis is a process responsible for melanin production, which is stored in melanocytes containing tyrosinase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a target in the cosmetics industry, since it controls undesirable skin conditions such as hyperpigmentation due to the overproduction of melanin. Species of the Morus genus are known for the beneficial uses offered in different parts of its plants, including tyrosinase inhibition. Thus, this project aimed to study the inhibitory activity of tyrosinase by extracts from Morus nigra leaves as well as the characterization of its chromatographic profile and cytotoxicity in order to become a new therapeutic option from a natural source. M. nigra leaves were collected, pulverized, equally divided into five batches and the standardized extract was obtained by passive maceration. There was no significant difference between batches for total solids content, yield and moisture content, which shows good reproducibility of the extraction process. Tyrosinase enzymatic activity was determined for each batch, providing the percentage of enzyme inhibition and IC50 values obtained by constructing dose-response curves and compared to kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. High inhibition of tyrosinase activity was observed (above 90% at 15.625 μg/mL). The obtained IC50 values ranged from 5.00 μg/mL ± 0.23 to 8.49 μg/mL ± 0.59 and were compared to kojic acid (3.37 μg/mL ± 0.65). High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid, rutin and, its major compound, isoquercitrin. The chromatographic method employed was validated according to ICH guidelines and the extract was standardized using these polyphenols as markers. Cytotoxicity, assessed by MTT assay, was not observed on murine melanomas, human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts in tyrosinase IC50 values. This study demonstrated the potential of M. nigra leaf extract as a promising whitening agent of natural source against skin

  14. Future scenarios and conservation strategies for a rear-edge marginal population of Pinus nigra Arnold in Italian central Apennines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchi, M.; Nocentini, S.; Ducci, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: To forecast the effects of climate change on the spatial distribution of Black pine of Villetta Barrea in its natural range and to define a possible conservation strategy for the species. Area of study: A rear-edge marginal population of Pinus nigra spp. nigra in Abruzzo region, central Italian Apennines. Matherials and Methods: For its adaptive and genetic traits this population is considered endemic of the Italian peninsula and represents a rear-edge marginal population of nigra subspecies. The spatial distribution of the tree in the administrative Region (Abruzzo) was used to define the ecological traits while three modelling techniques (GLM, GAM, Random Forest) were used to build a Species distribution model according to two climatic scenarios. Main results: The marginal population's range was predicted to shift at higher elevations as consequence of climatic adaptation. Many zones, represented by the higher part of the mountains surrounding the study area (currently bare and inhospitable for trees), were identified as suitable in future for the species. However, in the case of a rapid climate change, this marginal population may not be able to move as fast as necessary. An in-situ adaptive management integrated with an assisted migration protocol might be considered to enforce the natural regeneration and improve the richness and variability of the genetic pool. Research highlights: Most of the genetic richness is held in small populations at the borders of natural distribution of forest species. Monitoring this MAP could be useful to understand the adaptive processes of the species and could support the future management of many other within-core populations. (Author)

  15. Variation in resistance to the rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina Kleb. in Populus nigra L. in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štochlová P

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Differences in Populus nigra L. clone resistance to the rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina Kleb. (MLP were studied in field trials where infected trees were compared with fungicide-protected trees. MLP rust infections were assessed using a 6-point scale. Four parameters of poplar growth were also measured to gauge host response to infection: shoot thickness, shoot number at the end of the growing season, individual plant dry weight, and dry matter yield per unit area. Five of eight known pathogen virulence types were detected. Cumulative growth in shoot thickness in sprayed and unsprayed plots was similar in clones with high rust pathogen resistance, but significantly different in clones with low resistance. Clones with low resistance also exhibited delayed growth initiation in the year following infection, an effect attributed to lower food storage accumulated during the previous year, reflected in a reduction in stem diameter. Based on stem thickness measurements, it was confirmed growth ceased at the end of August. Average rust severity symptoms ranged from 2.75 to 4.22 on the 6-point scale. The percentage reduction for the various growth parameters resulting from rust infection ranged as follows: individual plant dry weight 5-64%; dry matter yield 21-66%; shoot number 17-46%; and stem diameter 1-35%. Exclusive of stem diameter, these reductions correlated with severity in MLP rust infection. The one exception was tolerance to rust infection displayed by one of the clones. Clones with the lowest growth reductions were 97/152 and 97/157. Growth and yield parameter variation as a result MLP resistance difference was observed among tested P. nigra clones. This variation can be viewed as confirmation that resistance observed in this study and P. nigra clones is a suite of quantitative traits. These findings have important implications for MLP resistance breeding programs.

  16. Analysis list: Su(var)3-7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)3-7 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)3-7.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)3-7.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)3-7.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)3-7.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(v...ar)3-7.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)3-7.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience

  17. Mosquito Passage Dramatically Changes var Gene Expression in Controlled Human Plasmodium falciparum Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Anna; Petter, Michaela; Krumkamp, Ralf; Esen, Meral; Held, Jana; Scholz, Judith A M; Li, Tao; Sim, B Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Duffy, Michael F; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-04-01

    Virulence of the most deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which is encoded by about 60 var genes per parasite genome. Although the expression of particular variants has been associated with different clinical outcomes, little is known about var gene expression at the onset of infection. By analyzing controlled human malaria infections via quantitative real-time PCR, we show that parasite populations from 18 volunteers expressed virtually identical transcript patterns that were dominated by the subtelomeric var gene group B and, to a lesser extent, group A. Furthermore, major changes in composition and frequency of var gene transcripts were detected between the parental parasite culture that was used to infect mosquitoes and Plasmodia recovered from infected volunteers, suggesting that P. falciparum resets its var gene expression during mosquito passage and starts with the broad expression of a specific subset of var genes when entering the human blood phase.

  18. The crystals of a mannose-specific jacalin-related lectin from Morus nigra are merohedrally twinned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabijns, A; Verboven, C; Novoa de Armas, H; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; De Ranter, C J

    2001-04-01

    MornigaM, a lectin from Morus nigra, belongs to the mannose-binding subgroup of the family of jacalin-related plant lectins. It was crystallized in the P6(5) space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 110.74, c = 159.28 A. The partially merohedrally twinned crystals could be detwinned and a subsequent molecular-replacement solution could be found using the coordinates of jacalin. Preliminary analysis clearly shows the tetrameric assembly of this protein. Furthermore, data from MornigaM crystals soaked in a mannose solution were collected.

  19. Controle de Qualidade e triagem fitoquímica da droga vegetal das folhas de Morus nigra L. (MORACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Luis Guizzo; Thaís Cristina Cuba Bredda; Maria Virgínia Costa Scarpa; Fernanda Flores Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Uma rigorosa análise de controle de qualidade é uma das etapas na produção de fitoterápicos. Devido a escassez de estudos sobre Morus nigra L. (MORACEAE), mais conhecida como amora, este trabalho teve como objetivo o controle de qualidade das folhas da amoreira, incluindo uma análise Fitoquímica preliminar, controle de qualidade físico-químico e microbiológico utilizando metodologias farmacopeicas e não farmacopeicas. Os testes fitoquímicos evidenciaram a presença de isoflavonas, taninos hidr...

  20. [The nucleolus of the cell is the site of iron accumulation in the substantia nigra neurons of the human brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhorukova, Ye G; Grigoriev, I P; Kolos, Ye A; Korzhenevskiy, D E

    2012-01-01

    Distribution of iron in the substantia nigra of the human brain (10 men and women aged 27-78 years) was studied using Perls' histochemical method. Iron ions were demonstrated in the nigral neuropil and melanin-containing neurons. For the first time the nuclei of some neurons were found to contain iron accumulations. The intranuclear iron inclusions correspond to the nucleolus according to their sharp outline and sizes. Detection of iron in the neuronal nucleolus may contribute to the understanding of mechanisms of iron neurotoxicity for nigral dopaminergic neurons.

  1. [The role of the substantia nigra in the anticonvulsive and antiaggressive effects of diazepam during pharmacological kindling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandra, A A; Godlevskiĭ, L S; Mazarati, A M; Makul'kin, R F

    1990-01-01

    The seizure activity was investigated on the model of pharmacological kindling which was induced by repeated picrotoxin injections in the subthreshold dose, after the tryptic fragment of T5 protein-human diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) (10 micrograms) injection into a reticular part of substantia nigra. An increase in the seizure reaction and suppression of the antiseizure diazepam action were observed. Intranigral DBI injection induced no change in a threshold of "attacks" in rats which were induced through electric shocks delivered to animals with an electrode floor and no changes in antiaggressive diazepam action were observed under such conditions.

  2. Spatio-temporal variations of functional groups in a Populus nigra L. entomocenosis in the Mitidja plain (Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djazouli, Zahr-Eddine; Doumandji-Mitiche, Bahia; Petit, Daniel

    2009-09-01

    This study presents the first data describing the communities of insects and arachnida colonizing 4 aerial compartments of Populus nigra. In terms of temporal variation and total abundance, the analyses show that the communities are structurally and functionally different. It also appears that the taxonomic richness of the communities, and partly their temporal distribution, change according to the gradient of the energy and defense resources under the effect of seasonal variations. The highest species richness recorded on the leaves compartment is due to the amplitude of histo-physiological modifications observed throughout the growing season.

  3. Differential expression of genes involved in entomopathogenicity of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae and M. anisopliae var. acridum (Clavicipitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro-Leão, M P; Andreote, F D; Araújo, W L; Oliveira, N T

    2011-05-03

    Expression analysis of the genes involved in germination, conidiogenisis and pathogenesis of Metarhizium anisopliae during its saprophytic and pathogenic life stages can help plan strategies to increase its efficacy as a biological control agent. We quantified relative expression levels of the nitrogen response regulator gene (nrr1) and a G-protein regulator of genes involved in conidiogenesis (cag8), using an RT-qPCR assay. Comparisons were made between M. anisopliae var. anisopliae and M. anisopliae var. acridum during germination and conidiogenesis and at different stages of pathogenesis. The cag8 gene was repressed during germination and induced during conidial development and the pathogenic phase, and the nrr1 gene was induced during germination, conidiogenesis and the pathogenic phase. Both genes were more expressed in M. anisopliae var. anisopliae, demonstrating that different varieties of M. anisopliae differ in activation of genes linked to virulence for certain environments and hosts. This suggests that differences among these varieties in the ability to adapt could be attributed not only to specific genomic regions and genes, but also to differential gene expression in this fungus, modulating its ability to respond to environmental stimuli.

  4. VT-1161 Protects Immunosuppressed Mice from Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Fothergill, Annette W; Garvey, Edward P; Hoekstra, William J; Schotzinger, Robert J; Patterson, Thomas F; Filler, Scott G; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2015-12-01

    We studied the efficacy of the investigational drug VT-1161 against mucormycosis. VT-1161 had more potent in vitro activity against Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus than against R. arrhizus var. delemar. VT-1161 treatment demonstrated dose-dependent plasma drug levels with prolonged survival time and lowered tissue fungal burden in immunosuppressed mice infected with R. arrhizus var. arrhizus and was as effective as high-dose liposomal amphotericin B treatment. These results support further development of VT-1161 against mucormycosis.

  5. Cognitive performance patterns in healthy individuals with substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and early Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezzak Yilmaz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN+ is a risk marker for Parkinson’s disease (PD which can be detected before the diagnosis. In healthy individuals, SN+ has been associated with slight deficits in specific cognitive functions, suggesting cognitive impairment as a possible pre-diagnostic marker for PD. However, the pattern of cognitive deficits associated with SN+ has not yet been compared with those present in PD.Methods: Data of 262 healthy individuals with normal echogenicity (SN- and 48 healthy individuals with SN+ were compared with 82 early stage PD patients using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease test battery. First, the test clusters (factors were identified using a principal component analysis (PCA. Mean group performance of cognitive tests belonging to distinct factors, according to the PCA, and single subtest performances were compared using analyses of variance. Second, the number of individuals with abnormal cognitive performances (z-score <-1.0 were compared between groups. Results: Verbal memory, semantic and executive function, and praxis were identified as components of cognitive performances. The SN+ group performed significantly worse than the SN- group in tests assessing semantic and executive function, with a non-significant decrease in verbal memory. On the subtest level, individuals of the SN+ group scored significantly lower than the SN- group on the Boston Naming Test (BNT (p=0.008. In all subtests, the percentages of PD patients with values below the cut-off for abnormal performance were higher than in the SN- group. Moreover, more individuals from the SN+ group scored below the cut-off in the BNT (SN-=8.4%, SN+=20.8%, p=0.01 and TMT-B (SN-=6.9%, SN+=16.7%, p=0.02, compared to the SN- group. Conclusion: This study confirms poorer performance of healthy individuals with SN+ compared to SN- in specific cognitive domains. However, against the SN- group, the cognitive

  6. Coupled oscillator model of the dopaminergic neuron of the substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C J; Callaway, J C

    2000-05-01

    Calcium imaging using fura-2 and whole cell recording revealed the effective location of the oscillator mechanism on dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, pars compacta, in slices from rats aged 15-20 days. As previously reported, dopaminergic neurons fired in a slow rhythmic single spiking pattern. The underlying membrane potential oscillation survived blockade of sodium currents with TTX and was enhanced by blockade of voltage-sensitive potassium currents with TEA. Calcium levels increased during the subthreshold depolarizing phase of the membrane potential oscillation and peaked at the onset of the hyperpolarizing phase as expected if the pacemaker potential were due to a low-threshold calcium current and the hyperpolarizing phase to calcium-dependent potassium current. Calcium oscillations were synchronous in the dendrites and soma and were greater in the dendrites than in the soma. Average calcium levels in the dendrites overshot steady-state levels and decayed over the course of seconds after the oscillation was resumed after having been halted by hyperpolarizing currents. Average calcium levels in the soma increased slowly, taking many cycles to achieve steady state. Voltage clamp with calcium imaging revealed the voltage dependence of the somatic calcium current without the artifacts of incomplete spatial voltage control. This showed that the calcium current had little or no inactivation and was half-maximal at -40 to -30 mV. The time constant of calcium removal was measured by the return of calcium to resting levels and depended on diameter. The calcium sensitivity of the calcium-dependent potassium current was estimated by plotting the slow tail current against calcium concentration during the decay of calcium to resting levels at -60 mV. A single compartment model of the dopaminergic neuron consisting of a noninactivating low-threshold calcium current, a calcium-dependent potassium current, and a small leak current reproduced most features of the

  7. Expression and molecular evolution of two DREB1 genes in black poplar (Populus nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yanguang; Huang, Qinjun; Zhang, Bingyu; Ding, Changjun; Su, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Environmental stresses such as low temperature, drought, and high salinity significantly affect plant growth and yield. As selective forces, these adverse factors play essential roles in shaping phenotypic variation in plant populations. Black poplar (Populus nigra) is an economically and ecologically important forest tree species with widely distributed populations and is thus suitable for experiments detecting evolutionary footprints left by stress. Here, we performed expression and evolutionary analysis of two duplicated DREB A1-subgroup (DREB1) genes, PnDREB68 and PnDREB69, encoding transcription factors that are involved in stress responses. The two genes showed partially overlapping but distinct expression patterns in response to stresses. These genes were strongly and rapidly induced by cold stress in leaves, stems, and roots. In leaf tissue, dehydration stress induced the expression of PnDREB68 but not PnDREB69. PnDREB69 displayed more rapid responses and longer expression durations than PnDREB68 under salt and ABA stress, respectively. Based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, we found significant population genetic differentiation, with a greater FST value (0.09189) for PnDREB69 than for PnDREB68 (0.07743). Nucleotide diversity analysis revealed a two-fold higher πT for PnDREB68 than for PnDREB69 (0.00563 vs. 0.00243), reflecting strong purifying selection acting on the former. The results suggest that positive selection acted on PnDREB69, as evidenced by neutral testing using Tajima's D statistic. The distinct selective forces to which each of the genes was subjected may be associated with expression divergence. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was low for the sequenced region, with a higher level for PnDREB68 than for PnDREB69. Additionally, analysis of the relationship among carbon isotope ratios, SNP classes and gene expression, together with motif and domain analysis, suggested that 14 polymorphisms within the two genes may be candidates

  8. Expression and molecular evolution of two DREB1 genes in black poplar (Populus nigra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanguang Chu

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses such as low temperature, drought, and high salinity significantly affect plant growth and yield. As selective forces, these adverse factors play essential roles in shaping phenotypic variation in plant populations. Black poplar (Populus nigra is an economically and ecologically important forest tree species with widely distributed populations and is thus suitable for experiments detecting evolutionary footprints left by stress. Here, we performed expression and evolutionary analysis of two duplicated DREB A1-subgroup (DREB1 genes, PnDREB68 and PnDREB69, encoding transcription factors that are involved in stress responses. The two genes showed partially overlapping but distinct expression patterns in response to stresses. These genes were strongly and rapidly induced by cold stress in leaves, stems, and roots. In leaf tissue, dehydration stress induced the expression of PnDREB68 but not PnDREB69. PnDREB69 displayed more rapid responses and longer expression durations than PnDREB68 under salt and ABA stress, respectively. Based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis, we found significant population genetic differentiation, with a greater FST value (0.09189 for PnDREB69 than for PnDREB68 (0.07743. Nucleotide diversity analysis revealed a two-fold higher πT for PnDREB68 than for PnDREB69 (0.00563 vs. 0.00243, reflecting strong purifying selection acting on the former. The results suggest that positive selection acted on PnDREB69, as evidenced by neutral testing using Tajima's D statistic. The distinct selective forces to which each of the genes was subjected may be associated with expression divergence. Linkage disequilibrium (LD was low for the sequenced region, with a higher level for PnDREB68 than for PnDREB69. Additionally, analysis of the relationship among carbon isotope ratios, SNP classes and gene expression, together with motif and domain analysis, suggested that 14 polymorphisms within the two genes may be

  9. Effect of deep brain stimulation on substantia nigra neurons in a rat model of Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Sheng-tian; MA Yu; ZHANG Kai; ZHANG Jian-guo

    2012-01-01

    Background Parkinson's disease(PD)is a common neurodegenerative disease,which occurs mainly in the elderly.Recent studies have demonstrated that apoptosis plays an important role in the occurrence and development of PD.Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation(STN-DBS)has been recognized as an effective treatment for PD.Recent clinical observations have shown that STN-DBS was able to delay early PD progression,and experiments in animal models have also demonstrated a protective effect of STN-DBS on neurons.However,the correlation between the neuron-protective effect of STN-DBS and the progression of substantia nigra pars compacta(SNc)neuronal apoptosis is still unknown.The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect and potential mechanism of STN-DBS on SNc neurons in PD rats.Methods After the establishment of a PD rat model by unilateral/2-point injection of 6-hydroxydopamine in the medial forebrain bundle of the brain,DBS by implanting electrodes in the STN was administered.Behavioral changes were observed,and morphological changes of SNc neurons were analyzed by Nissl staining and DNA in situ end-labeling.Through extracellular recording of single neuron discharges and microelectrophoresis,the causes of and changes in SNc excitability during STN-DBS were analyzed,and the protective effect and potential mechanism of action of STN-DBS on SNc neurons in PD rats was investigated.Results SNc neuron apoptosis was significantly decreased(P<0.05)in the stimulation group,compared with the sham stimulation PD group.Spontaneous discharges of SNc neurons were observed in normal rats and PD model rats,and the mean frequency of spontaneous discharges of SNc neurons in normal rats((40.65±11.08)Hz)was higher than that of residual SNc neurons in PD rats((36.71±9.23)Hz).Electrical stimulation of the STN in rats was associated with elevated excitation in unilateral SNc neurons.However,administering the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor blocker

  10. Environment- and activity-dependent dopamine neurotransmitter plasticity in the adult substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumann, Tim D

    2016-04-01

    The ability of neurons to change the amount or type of neurotransmitter they use, or 'neurotransmitter plasticity', is an emerging new form of adult brain plasticity. For example, it has recently been shown that neurons in the adult rat hypothalamus up- or down-regulate dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in response to the amount of light the animal receives (photoperiod), and that this in turn affects anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors (Dulcis et al., 2013). In this Chapter I consolidate recent evidence from my laboratory suggesting neurons in the adult mouse substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) also undergo DA neurotransmitter plasticity in response to persistent changes in their electrical activity, including that driven by the mouse's environment or behavior. Specifically, we have shown that the amounts of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in DA synthesis) gene promoter activity, TH mRNA and TH protein in SNc neurons increases or decreases after ∼20h of altered electrical activity. Also, infusion of ion-channel agonists or antagonists into the midbrain for 2 weeks results in ∼10% (∼500 neurons) more or fewer TH immunoreactive (TH+) SNc neurons, with no change in the total number of SNc neurons (TH+ and TH-). Targeting ion-channels mediating cell-autonomous pacemaker activity in, or synaptic input and afferent pathways to, SNc neurons are equally effective in this regard. In addition, exposing mice to different environments (sex pairing or environment enrichment) for 1-2 weeks induces ∼10% more or fewer TH+ SNc (and ventral tegmental area or VTA) neurons and this is abolished by concurrent blockade of synaptic transmission in midbrain. Although further research is required to establish SNc (and VTA) DA neurotransmitter plasticity, and to determine whether it alters brain function and behavior, it is an exciting prospect because: (1) It may play important roles in movement, motor learning, reward, motivation, memory and cognition; and (2

  11. Utilizing nanobody technology to target non-immunodominant domains of VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev, Sisse B; Florea, Raluca; Nielsen, Morten A

    2014-01-01

    and maternal anemia. IE accumulation is supported by the binding of the parasite-expressed protein VAR2CSA to placental chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). Defining specific CSA-binding epitopes of VAR2CSA, against which to target the immune response, is essential for the development of a vaccine aimed at blocking IE...... adhesion. However, the development of a VAR2CSA adhesion-blocking vaccine remains challenging due to (i) the large size of VAR2CSA and (ii) the extensive immune selection for polymorphisms and thereby non-neutralizing B-cell epitopes. Camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (HcAbs) are known to target epitopes...

  12. Antisense long noncoding RNAs regulate var gene activation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit-Avraham, Inbar; Pozner, Guy; Eshar, Shiri; Fastman, Yair; Kolevzon, Netanel; Yavin, Eylon; Dzikowski, Ron

    2015-03-03

    The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, is attributed to its ability to evade human immunity through antigenic variation. These parasites alternate between expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multicopy gene family named var. Immune evasion through antigenic variation depends on tight regulation of var gene expression, ensuring that only a single var gene is expressed at a time while the rest of the family is maintained transcriptionally silent. Understanding how a single gene is chosen for activation is critical for understanding mutually exclusive expression but remains a mystery. Here, we show that antisense long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) initiating from var introns are associated with the single active var gene at the time in the cell cycle when the single var upstream promoter is active. We demonstrate that these antisense transcripts are incorporated into chromatin, and that expression of these antisense lncRNAs in trans triggers activation of a silent var gene in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, interference with these lncRNAs using complement peptide nucleic acid molecules down-regulated the active var gene, erased the epigenetic memory, and induced expression switching. Altogether, our data provide evidence that these antisense lncRNAs play a key role in regulating var gene activation and mutually exclusive expression.

  13. Incremental 4D-VAR assimilation scheme based on Lorenz model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xidong; XU Dongfeng; XU Xiaohua

    2008-01-01

    Four-dimensional variational(4D-VAR) data assimilation method is a perfect data assimilation solution in theory, but the compu- tational issue is quite difficult in operational implementation. The incremental 4D-VAR assimilation scheme is set up in order to re- duce the computational cost. It is shown that the accuracy of the observations, the length of the assimilation window and the choice of the first guess have an important influence on the assimilation outcome through the contrast experiment. Compared with the standard 4D-VAR assimilation scheme, the incremental 4D-VAR assimilation scheme shows its advantage in the computation speed through an assimilation experiment.

  14. Dynamics of anti-VAR2CSA immunoglobulin G response in a cohort of senegalese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, N G; Salanti, A; Le-Hesran, J-Y;

    2006-01-01

    (VSAPAM). Several studies have shown that 1 var gene, var2csa, is transcribed at high levels and expressed in CSA-binding Plasmodium falciparum parasites. METHODS: Plasma levels of anti-VAR2CSA immunoglobulin G (IgG) in Senegalese women were measured during pregnancy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...... demonstrated that a single P. falciparum infection was able to trigger a VAR2CSA-specific antibody response. Among women with infected placentas, women with high anti-VAR2CSA IgG levels at enrollment were more likely to present with a past infection than with an acute/chronic infection. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-VAR2...

  15. Comparison between 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation methods for the simulation of a heavy rainfall case in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Vincenzo; Maiello, Ida; Capozzi, Vincenzo; Budillon, Giorgio; Ferretti, Rossella

    2017-08-01

    This work aims to provide a comparison between three dimensional and four dimensional variational data assimilation methods (3D-Var and 4D-Var) for a heavy rainfall case in central Italy. To evaluate the impact of the assimilation of reflectivity and radial velocity acquired from Monte Midia Doppler radar into the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model, the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) is used.The two methods are compared for a heavy rainfall event that occurred in central Italy on 14 September 2012 during the first Special Observation Period (SOP1) of the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment) campaign. This event, characterized by a deep low pressure system over the Tyrrhenian Sea, produced flash floods over the Marche and Abruzzo regions, where rainfall maxima reached more than 150 mm 24 h-1.To identify the best QPF, nine experiments are performed using 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation techniques. All simulations are compared in terms of rainfall forecast and precipitation measured by the gauges through three statistical indicators: probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI) and false alarm ratio (FAR). The assimilation of conventional observations with 4D-Var method improves the QPF compared to 3D-Var. In addition, the use of radar measurements in 4D-Var simulations enhances the performances of statistical scores for higher rainfall thresholds.

  16. Isolation of the Endophytic Fungi of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis and Their Effects on the Embryo Development of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun CHENG; Yanqiong YANG; Changling ZHAO; Li WANG; Shuying CHEN; Yuhan SHEN; Jing CHAI; Key words Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis; Endophytic fungus; P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seed; Embryo development; Embryo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Objective] This study aimed to isolate the endophytic fungi of Paris poly- phylla var. yunnanensis and investigate their effects on the embryo development of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds. [Method] The endophytic fungi of P. poly- phylla were isolated and identified morphologically, and their effects on the embryo development of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds were studied by using paraffin sectioning and microphotography. [Result] Nine endophytic fungi, Le. P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis endophytic fungi PPYEF-1, PPYEF-2, PPYEF-3, PPYEF-4, PPYEF- 5, PPYEF-6, PPYEF-7, PPYEF-8 and PPYEF-9 belonging to seven genera in five families, three orders were isolated from the rhizomes. Except PPYEF-4 (Cladospori- um sp.), other fungi could promote the embryo development of the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds, mostly reaching the extremely significant or significant level. PPYEF-9 (Trichoderma sp.) resulted in the highest embryo length and embryo-e- merging ratio. [Conclusion] This paper could provide a reference for the applica- tion of the endophytic fungi of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis in the dormancy- breaking of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds.

  17. Geographically Related Variation in Epicuticular Wax Traits of Pinus nigra Populations from Southern Carpathians and Central Balkans - Taxonomic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić, Zorica S; Zlatković, Bojan K; Jovanović, Snežana Č; Stojanović, Gordana S; Marin, Petar D

    2016-07-01

    The chemical composition of epicuticular waxes of nine populations from three Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold subspecies (namely subsp. nigra, subsp. banatica (Borbás) Novák, and subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) from Southern Carpathians and central Balkan Peninsula were analyzed using GC/MS and GC/FID chromatography, and multivariate statistical techniques with respect to biogeography and taxonomy. In the needle waxes, four primary alcohols and 14 n-alkanes ranging from C21 to C33 were identified, and the most abundant compounds were the four odd-numbered n-alkanes C27 , C25 , C23 , and C29. Multivariate statistical analyses (CDA and CA) have shown existence of three P. nigra groups and suggested clinal differentiation as a mechanism of genetic variation across a geographic area: the first group consisted of the southernmost populations of subsp. pallasiana from Macedonia, the second consisted of the northernmost subsp. banatica populations from Romania, while all populations in Serbia described as three different subspecies (nigra, banatica, and pallasiana) formed the third group together with subsp. nigra population from Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to simple linear regression, geographic latitude and four bioclimatic parameters were moderately correlated with the contents of epicuticular wax compounds that are important in population discrimination, while stepwise multiple regression showed that latitude participated in most of the regression models for predicting the composition of the epicuticular waxes. These results agree with CDA and CA analysis, and confirmed the possibility of recognition of fine geographic differentiation of the analyzed P. nigra populations.

  18. Effect of ZnO nanoparticles on Brassica nigra seedlings and stem explants: growth dynamics and antioxidative response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hira eZafar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs have diverse properties in comparison to respective chemicals due to structure, surface area ratio, morphology, and reactivity. Toxicological effects of metallic NPs to organisms including plants have been reported. However, to the authors’ knowledge there is no report on the effect of NPs on in vitro culture of plant explants. In this study, ZnO NPs at 500-1500 mg/L badly affected Brassica nigra seed germination and seedling growth and raised antioxidative activities and antioxidants concentrations. On the other hand, culturing the stem explants of B. nigra on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium in presence of low concentration of ZnO NPs (1-20 mg/L produced white thin roots with thick root hairs. At 10 mg/L ZnO NPs shoots emergence was also observed. The developed calli/roots showed 79% DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activity at 10 mg/L. While total antioxidant and reducing power potential were also significantly different in presence of ZnO NPs. Non enzymatic antioxidative molecules, phenolics (up to 0.15 µg GAE/mg FW and flavonoids (up to 0.22 µg QE/mg FW, also raised and found NPs concentration dependent. We state that ZnO NPs may induce roots from explants cultured on appropriate medium and can be cultured for production of valuable secondary metabolites.

  19. Genetic diversity of Metrodorea nigra (Rutaceae) from a small forest remnant in Brazil assessed with microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidugli, M C; Ferreira-Ramos, R; de Sousa, A C B; Cidade, F W; Marconi, T G; Mestriner, M A; Groppo, M; Alzate-Marin, A L

    2012-01-09

    Metrodorea nigra (Rutaceae) is an endemic Brazilian tree of great ecological importance, frequently found in the submontane regions of ombrophilous dense and semideciduous forests. This tree is useful for reforesting degraded areas and the wood can be employed in construction. We developed 12 microsatellite markers from a genomic library enriched for GA/CA repeats, for this species. Polymorphisms were assessed in 40 trees of a highly fragmented population found in Cravinhos, State of São Paulo, in southeastern Brazil. Among the 12 loci, 8 were polymorphic and only one had fixed alleles in this population. The number of alleles per locus and expected heterozygosity ranged from 2 to 11 and from 0.190 to 0.889, respectively. These results revealed moderate levels of genetic variation in M. nigra population when compared to other tropical species. Additionally, transferability of the 12 primers was tested in seven other Brazilian Rutaceae tree species (endemics: M. stipularis, Galipea jasminiflora, Esenbeckia leiocarpa and non-endemics: E. febrifuga, E. grandiflora, Balfourodendron riedelianum, Zanthoxylum riedelianum). Transferability ranged among species, but at least 8 loci (~67%) amplified in M. stipularis, demonstrating a high potential for transferring microsatellite markers between species of the same genus in the Rutaceae family.

  20. Anti-apoptotic effect ofShudipingchan granule in the substantia nigra of rat models of Parkinson’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Ye; Xiao-lei Yuan; Jing He; Jie Zhou; Can-xing Yuan; Xu-ming Yang

    2016-01-01

    Levodopa is the gold-standard treatment for Parkinson’s disease. However, although it alleviates the clinical symptoms, it cannot delay the progressive apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons or prevent motor complications in the long term. In the present study, we investigated the effect ofShudipingchan granule on neuronal apoptosis in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease, established by injecting 6-hydroxydopamine into the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area. We then administered levodopa (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally, twice daily) with or withoutShudipingchan granule (7.5 mL/kg intragastrically, twice daily), for 4 weeks. hTe long-term use of levodopa accel-erated apoptosis of nigral cells and worsened behavioral symptoms by activating the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway and downstream apoptotic factors. However, administration ofShudipingchan granule with levodopa reduced expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Bax, increased tyrosine hydroxylase and Bcl-2, reduced apoptosis in the substantia nigra, and markedly improved dyskinesia. hTese ifndings suggest thatShudipingchan granule suppresses neuronal apoptosis by inhibiting the hyper-phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and downregulating expression of anti-apoptotic genes.Shudipingchan granule, used in combination with levodopa, can effectively reduce the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

  1. L-DOPA treatment in MPTP-mouse model of Parkinson's disease potentiates homocysteine accumulation in substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Nivedita; Mazumder, Muhammed Khairujjaman; Paul, Rajib; Choudhury, Amarendranath; Choudhury, Sabanum; Borah, Anupom

    2016-08-15

    One of the intermediates of methionine cycle, the homocysteine (Hcy), elevates in plasma of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients undergoing L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) therapy and has been regarded as a risk factor of the disease. Several evidences pointed out that Hcy causes degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. In rodent, elevated level of Hcy in brain or infusion of the same directly into the substantia nigra (SN) potentiates dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, the influence of L-DOPA therapy on the levels of Hcy in dopamine-rich regions of the brain (striatum and SN) of experimental models of PD is not known. The present study, for the first time, tested the hypothesis that L-DOPA treatment in experimental mouse model of PD potentiates Hcy accumulation in the dopamine-rich regions of the brain. We found a significant elevation of Hcy level in nigrostriatum in naïve as well as parkinsonian mice as a result of chronic L-DOPA treatment. Interestingly, L-DOPA treatment significantly elevates Hcy level in nigra but not in striatum of parkinsonian mice, when compared with L-DOPA naïve group. However, there is no significant decrease in the number of dopaminergic neurons in SN region in the parkinsonian mice given L-DOPA treatment. Thus, the present study demonstrates that L-DOPA treatment potentiates the level of Hcy in the SN without causing aggravated neurodegeneration in parkinsonian mice model.

  2. Downregulation of thioredoxin reductase 1 expression in the substantia nigra pars compacta of Parkinson’s disease mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zihua Liu; Yuhong Jing; Jie Yin; Jiying Mu; Tingting Yao; Liping Gao

    2013-01-01

    Because neurons are susceptible to oxidative damage and thioredoxin reductase 1 is extensively distributed in the central nervous system and has antioxidant properties, we speculated that the enzyme may be involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. A Parkinson’s disease model was produced by intraperitoneal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine into C57BL/6 mice. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR, western blot analysis and colorimetric assay showed that the levels of thioredoxin reductase 1 mRNA and protein were decreased, along with a significant reduction in thioredoxin reductase activity, in the midbrain of Parkinson’s disease mice compared with normal mice. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the number of thioredoxin reductase 1-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of Parkinson’s disease mice was significantly decreased compared with normal mice. These experimental findings suggest that the expression of thioredoxin reductase 1 in the substantia nigra pars compacta of Parkinson’s disease mice is significantly decreased, and that the enzyme may be associated with disease onset.

  3. Efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of commercial hybrid poplar Populus nigra L. x P. maximowiczii A. Henry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yevtushenko, Dmytro P; Misra, Santosh

    2010-03-01

    Many economically important species of Populus, especially those in sections Aigeiros and Tacamahaca, remain recalcitrant to genetic transformation. In this study, a simple and reliable protocol was developed for the efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a difficult-to-transform, but commercially viable, hybrid poplar Populus nigra L. x P. maximowiczii A. Henry (NM6). A plant transformation vector designed to express the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene was used to detect transformation events at early stages of plant regeneration and to optimize parameters affecting poplar transformation. The use of zeatin riboside in shoot-induction medium, regeneration of shoots via indirect organogenesis, and early selection pressure were the major modifications that drastically improved the efficiency of poplar transformation and minimized the number of untransformed regenerants. Transgenic shoots were routinely obtained 4-10 weeks after co-culture with A. tumefaciens, with a greater than 90% rate of plant recovery. Stable transgene integration, ranging from a single insertion to ten copies per genome, was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. The mean transformation frequency was 36.3% and about two-thirds of the lines had 1-2 transgene copies. Among the explants, petioles and leaves had a higher transformation frequency than did stem segments. Growth characteristics and the morphology of transgenic poplar plants were identical to untransformed controls. These findings will accelerate the development of P. nigra x P. maximowiczii plants with novel traits, and may also be useful to improve transformation procedures for other Populus species.

  4. Effects of Ricinus communis, Brassica nigra and mineral oil Kemesol on some biochemical aspects of larvae stage of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatter, Najat A; Abuldahb, Faten F

    2010-04-01

    The third instars larvae of Spodotera littoralis were topically treated with two plant oils, Ricinus communis and Brassica nigra and one mineral oil, Kemesol 95% dissolved in petroleum ether and acetone at concentrations of 0.8, 1.6, 2.0, 3.0 & 4 %. The results revealed that the mean values of the total haemolymph and fat body protein was reduced in larvae treated with B. nigra and Kemesol 95%. A significant decrease was observed in haemolymph and fat body protein contents in larvae treated with all tested compound, the remarked decrease was noticed at the highest dose (4%) in both two solvents.

  5. Avaliação da atividade fitoestrogênica do extrato hidroalcoólico e da infusão das folhas de Morus nigra L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Nunes Bitencourt Vanoni

    2006-01-01

    Avaliou-se a influência do extrato hidroalcoólico e da infusão das folhas de Morus nigra L. em diferentes ensaios biológicos (uterotrófico em ratas adultas ovariectomizadas e em pré-púberes, e pubertal) em ratas Wistar. O objetivo dos ensaios foi avaliar a atividade estrogênica de Morus nigra observando-se o desenvolvimento uterino de ratas adultas ovariectomizadas e pré-púberes, e, a manifestação da abertura do canal vaginal, regularidade do ciclo estral e desenvolvimento uterino de ratas do...

  6. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN.

  7. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Judy A.; Ariss, Jennifer J.; Kousik, Chandrasekar S.; Hassell, Richard L.; Levi, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN. PMID:27168648

  8. Alkaloid content of the seeds from Erythroxylum Coca var. Coca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, John F; Toske, Steven G; Colley, Valerie L

    2005-11-01

    Alkaloid extracts from the seeds of Erythroxylum Coca var. Coca grown in the Chapare Valley of Bolivia were subjected to gas and liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. Several alkaloids from these seeds were detected and characterized, including methylecgonidine, tropine, 3alpha-acetoxytropane, ecgonine methyl ester, cuscohygrine, N-norbenzoyltropine, benzoyltropine, hexanoylecgonine methyl ester, cocaine, cis-cinnamoylcocaine, and trans-cinnamoylcocaine. Methylecgonidine was determined to be the primary constituent and not an analytical artifact. Additionally, two significant new uncharacterized alkaloids were established as present. Recent evidence suggests that some cocaine processors are adding this seed extraction material to cocaine extracted from coca leaf and may impact cocaine impurity signature profiles.

  9. [Chemical constituents from roots of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai-Jiang; He, Lan-Yun

    2014-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the roots of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao. The methanol extract was isolated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by MS and spectral data (1H, 13C-NMR). Seven compounds were isolated and identified as plantainoside A (1), plantainoside B (2), calcedarioside C (3), calcedarioside D (4), platyphylloside (5), hirsutanonol (6), and hirsutanonol-5-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7). Compounds 5-7 were isolated for the first time from the family Gesneriaceae.

  10. Novel diterpenes from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chen, Chia-Hsien; Chien, Shih-Chang; Lin, Hsiu-Chuan

    2004-06-01

    Two novel diterpenes, obtusanal B (1) and obtusadione (2), along with obtusanal A (3), obtunone (4), 12-hydroxy-6,7-secoabieta-8,11,13-triene-6,7-dial, 8,12-dihydroxydielmentha-5,9-diene-7,11-dione and myrcene, isolated from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana, were characterized by spectroscopic means, including 2D-NMR techniques. Compounds 1 and 2 are 7(6-->2)abeoabietane and 14(8-->9)abeoabietane type diterpenes, respectively. Their biosyntheses were proposed.

  11. A New Languidulane Diterpenoid from Salvia mexicana var. mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cárdenas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Salvia mexicana var. mexicana, two C-10 epimers (α and β of salvimexicanolide were isolated. Our interpretation of the data, especially the 13C NMR, led us to conclude that the previously described 13C-NMR spectrum of the α-epimer was not accurately assigned and it actually corresponds to the β-epimer. The structures proposed for the salvimexicanolides were verified by means of NOESY experiments. Dugesin B, arbutin, naringenin and the mixture of oleanolic and ursolic acids were also isolated from this Salvia spp.

  12. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the dynamic association between labor costs and FDI. Further, results suggest that labor market policies should focus on productivity-enhancing tools in addition to price hindering tools.

  13. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhoujun3264@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: zhaoyouxing@itbb.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops. Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  14. Mutagénesis y antimutagénesis en extractos acuosos, clorofórmicos y acetónicos de Ilex paraguariensis var. paraguariensis e Ilex dumosa var. dumosa

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo tuvo por finalidad investigar los posibles efectos mutagénicos y antimutagénicos de dos variedades de Ilex (Ilex paraguariensis var. paraguariensis e Ilex dumosa var. dumosa) empleadas corrientemente en la elaboración de infusiones utilizando ensayos de mutagenicidad in vitro (Ensayo de Salmonella microsoma) e in vivo (Test de Micronúcleo). Se trabajó con Ilex paraguariensis St Hil. var. paraguariensis e Ilex dumosa Reissek var. dumosa, ejemplares frescos proveni...

  15. Underground riparian wood: Buried stem and coarse root structures of Black Poplar (Populus nigra L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, James V.; Rillig, Matthias C.; Gurnell, Angela M.

    2017-02-01

    Despite the potential importance of tree species in influencing the processes of wood recruitment, transport, retention, and decay that control river wood budgets, focus has been relatively limited on this theme within fluvial wood research. Furthermore, one of the least investigated topics is the belowground living wood component of riparian trees. This paper presents observations of the morphology and age of buried stem and coarse root structures of eight Populus nigra individuals located in the riparian woodland of two sites on the middle to lower Tagliamento River, Italy. This species was selected because of its wide distribution along European rivers and its frequent dominance of riparian woodland. Each tree was excavated by hand to expose a minimum of half of the root system with complete exposure of the main axis. Smaller roots were then removed and larger protruding roots cut back to permit access to the main axis. The excavated structures were photographed from multiple angles for photogrammetric modelling; the structure and character of the exposed sediments around the tree's main axis were recorded; and wood samples were taken from the main aboveground stem(s), sections of the main buried axis, and major roots for dendrochronological analysis. Results from these field observations and laboratory dating of the wood samples were combined to describe the belowground morphology of each tree and to draw inferences concerning the impact of fluvial disturbances. Common features of these excavated structures included: (i) rooting depths to below the bar surface where the original tree established, with many young roots also existing at depth; (ii) translocation of the main buried axis in a downstream direction; (iii) a main buried axis comprised mainly of stems that have become buried and then generated new shoots, including multistem patches, and adventitious roots; (iv) the presence of steps and bends in the main buried axis associated with the generation of

  16. Antioxidant, free radical scavenging and invitro cytotoxic studies of ethanolic extract of Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramalingam Ramani; Sushruthi Sudini; Bindu Madhavi Boddupalli; Ravinder Nath Anisetti

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main focus of the study is to determine antioxidant, free radical scavenging and cytotoxic effect of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana using various in vitro assay methods as well as to estimate the amount of total phenol and flavonoid contents. Methods: Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana were collected in February 2008 from Thirumala hills and standard procedure from the literature were used to estimate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. Results: The results suggest that both the extracts can be considered as a valuable source of antioxidants products as the obtained values are more or less near to the used standard compound. Conclusions: The characterization of leucas for antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities are new to literature in this context this extensive in vitro study of the selected two species of leucas for antioxidant activity will be a valuable study for further in vivo activities.

  17. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  18. Primulina beiliuensis var. fimbribracteata (Gesneriaceae, a New Variety in A Limestone Cave from Northern Guangdong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-Dan Lai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Primulina beiliuensis var. fimbribracteata F. Wen & B.D. Lai, a new variety of Gesneriaceae from a limestone cave in Shaoguan, Guangdong, China, is described and illustrated in this report. This new species is similar to P. beiliuensis B. Pan & S.X. Huang var. beiliuensis, but easily differs from the type variety in several morphological characters, both vegetative and reproductive.

  19. Primulina beiliuensis var. fimbribracteata (Gesneriaceae), a New Variety in A Limestone Cave from Northern Guangdong, China

    OpenAIRE

    Bi-Dan Lai; Fang Wen

    2015-01-01

    Primulina beiliuensis var. fimbribracteata F. Wen & B.D. Lai, a new variety of Gesneriaceae from a limestone cave in Shaoguan, Guangdong, China, is described and illustrated in this report. This new species is similar to P. beiliuensis B. Pan & S.X. Huang var. beiliuensis, but easily differs from the type variety in several morphological characters, both vegetative and reproductive.

  20. A Stochastic Dominance Approach to the Basel III Dilemma: Expected Shortfall or VaR?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael); T. Pérez-Amaral (Teodosio)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) (2013) recently proposed shifting the quantitative risk metrics system from Value-at-Risk (VaR) to Expected Shortfall (ES). The BCBS (2013) noted that “a number of weaknesses have been identified with using VaR for deter

  1. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Claessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4% yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  2. Scleria neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis (Cyperaceae, a New Variety from Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind M. Sardesai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new variety of Scleria P. J. Bergius (Cyperaceae S. neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis from Central India is described here with description, line-drawing, photographic illustration and notes. It resembles with S. neesii Kunth var. neesii in overall morphology but differs in having milky white nuts covered with ribbon like hairs on distinct stalk.

  3. Coumarins from Murraya paniculata var. zollingeri endemic to the Timor Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Naoko; Yamada, Hiromi; Ju-ichi, Motoharu; Uji, Tahan; Kinoshita, Takeshi; Ito, Chihiro

    2015-02-01

    Four new coumarins, murrangatin-1'-senecioate (1), 5-methoxypanial (2), mexoticin-2'-senecioate (3) and murralongic acid (4), were isolated from the leaves of Murraya paniculata var. zollingeri, together with 23 known coumarins. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic data. The taxonomic status of M. paniculata var. zollingeri is briefly discussed, along with its similarity to M. paniculata.

  4. Bacillus cereus var. toyoi enhanced systemic immune response in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierack, Peter; Wieler, Lothar H; Taras, David; Herwig, Volker; Tachu, Babila; Hlinak, Andreas; Schmidt, Michael F G; Scharek, Lydia

    2007-07-15

    Probiotic bacteria have been suggested to stimulate the host immune system. In this study we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of probiotic Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on the systemic immunity of piglets. A pool of 70 piglets was divided into a probiotic or control group. We determined the ratios of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subsets and measured proliferative responses and cytokine production of PBMCs and effects on vaccination responses. Blood samples of probiotic-treated piglets showed a significantly lower frequency of CD8(high)/CD3+ T cells and CD8(low)/CD3+ T cells and a significant higher CD4+/CD8+ ratio. IL-4 and IFN-gamma production of polyclonally stimulated PBMCs was on average higher in the probiotic group. Specific proliferative responses of PBMCs to Influenza vaccination antigens were significantly higher and antibody titers against H3N2 Influenza and Mycoplasma vaccination antigens were on average higher in the probiotic group. In conclusion, B. cereus var. toyoi therefore alters the immune status of piglets as indicated by changes in the ratios as well as functionalities of systemic immune cell populations.

  5. The Development and Application of an Integrated VAR Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    2016-07-01

    The VAR ingot has been the focus of several modelling efforts over the years with the result that the thermal regime in the ingot can be simulated quite realistically. Such models provide important insight into solidification of the ingot but present some significant challenges to the casual user such as a process engineer. To provide the process engineer with a tool to assist in the development of a melt practice, a comprehensive model of the complete VAR process has been developed. A radiation heat transfer simulation of the arc has been combined with electrode and ingot models to develop a platform which accepts typical operating variables (voltage, current, and gap) together with process parameters (electrode size, crucible size, orientation, water flow, etc.) as input data. The output consists of heat flow distributions and solidification parameters in the form of text, comma-separated value, and visual toolkit files. The resulting model has been used to examine the relationship between the assumed energy distribution in the arc and the actual energy flux which arrives at the ingot top surface. Utilizing heat balance information generated by the model, the effects of electrode-crucible orientation and arc gap have been explored with regard to the formation of ingot segregation defects.

  6. Genetic Relationships among Prunus mume var. pendula Using AFLP Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Jun; Zhang Qixiang; Ru Guangxin; Mao Qingshan; Yan Xiaolan; Lan Yanping

    2003-01-01

    Genetic relationships among Prunus mume var. pendula were studied by using AFLP markers. 18 accessions representing 14 cultivars ofPrunus murne var. pendula were selected from the germplasm collection at the Research Center of China Mci Flower. Seven Mse I-EcoR I AFLP primer combinations revealed 450 legible bands, and 269 of which were polymorphic markers. A similarity matrix was prepared using the simple matching coefficient of similarity and Nei's (72) distance coefficient. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated the genetic relationships of the cultivars. The information given by AFLP markers was basically consistent with the morphological classification and the evolutionary history of the morphotypes, and roughly supported the new revised classification system for Chinese Mci Cultivars. But there were still several exceptions: 1) the 'Guhong Chuizhi' inserted between the 'Tiaoxue Chuizhi' and the 'Danfen Chuizhi'; 2) the 'Wufu Chuizhi' kept off the Pink Pendant Form, and the 'Moshan Chuizhi' was removed from Viridiflora Pendant Form; 3) the 'Danbi Chuizhi' and the 'Shuangbi Chuizhi' of Viridiflora Pendant Form got together well but fell within the Pink Pendant Form.

  7. Molecular structures of fructans from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mercedes G; Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; Mendoza-Diaz, Guillermo

    2003-12-31

    Agave plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for CO(2) fixation. Fructans are the principal photosynthetic products generated by agave plants. These carbohydrates are fructose-bound polymers frequently with a single glucose moiety. Agave tequilana Weber var. azul is an economically important CAM species not only because it is the sole plant allowed for tequila production but because it is a potential source of prebiotics. Because of the large amounts of carbohydrates in A. tequilana, in this study the molecular structures of its fructans were determined by fructan derivatization for linkage analysis coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Fructans were extracted from 8-year-old A. tequilana plants. The linkage types present in fructans from A. tequilana were determined by permethylation followed by reductive cleavage, acetylation, and finally GC-MS analysis. Analysis of the degree of polymerization (DP) estimated by (1)H NMR integration and (13)C NMR and confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS showed a wide DP ranging from 3 to 29 units. All of the analyses performed demonstrated that fructans from A. tequilana consist of a complex mixture of fructooligosaccharides containing principally beta(2 --> 1) linkages, but also beta(2 --> 6) and branch moieties were observed. Finally, it can be stated that fructans from A. tequilana Weber var. azul are not an inulin type as previously thought.

  8. Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyla var. tridactyla – new hosts of Ampelomyces quisqualis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Czerniawska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the occurrence of fungi of the order Erysiphales on plants of the Słowiański Park located in Goorzów Wielkopolski was investigated. Plant samples were collected once a month, from August to November. The samples examined were above ground plant parts colonized by powdery mildew fungi. A total of 78 samples were collected. Apart from 14 species of the order Erysiphales, Ampelomyces quisqualis parasitizing on Erysiphe cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyl var. tridactyla was found. Ampelomyces quisqualis affected hyphae, oidia, and young cleistothecia of P. mali. In contrast, in E. cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Po. tridactyle var. tridactyla, this hyperparasite colonized only hyphae and oidia. This paper for the first trime informs of A. quisqualis parasitizing on P. mali and Po. tridactyla var. tridactyla.

  9. Empirical analysis on future-cash arbitrage risk with portfolio VaR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongda; Li, Cong; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Ze

    2014-03-01

    This paper constructs the positive arbitrage position by alternating the spot index with Chinese Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolio and estimating the arbitrage-free interval of futures with the latest trade data. Then, an improved Delta-normal method was used, which replaces the simple linear correlation coefficient with tail dependence correlation coefficient, to measure VaR (Value-at-risk) of the arbitrage position. Analysis of VaR implies that the risk of future-cash arbitrage is less than that of investing completely in either futures or spot market. Then according to the compositional VaR and the marginal VaR, we should increase the futures position and decrease the spot position appropriately to minimize the VaR, which can minimize risk subject to certain revenues.

  10. Characterization of a Peruvian isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, a pathogen of grasshoppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Bonifácio Peixoto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the Peruvian isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, CG 863, obtained from the grasshopper Schistocerca interrita, a crop pest in Peru. The characterization was done by comparing this isolate with two other ones of M. anisopliae var. acridum, from Brazil and Australia, and with an isolate of M. anisopliae var. anisopliae. The three M. anisopliae var. acridum isolates had similar growth profiles in agar plates at 25°C and 37°C, and similar RAPD patterns according to the analysis of three primers. However, regarding these parameters and conidial size, these isolates were very distinct when compared to M. anisopliae var. anisopliae isolate. Bioassays indicated that the Peruvian isolate is as pathogenic as the Brazilian isolate against nymphs of Rhammatocerus schistocercoides.

  11. MODEL NON LINIER GARCH (NGARCH UNTUK MENGESTIMASI NILAI VALUE at RISK (VaR PADA IHSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KOMANG TRY BAYU MAHENDRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In investment, risk measurement is important. One of risk measure is Value at Risk (VaR. There are many methods that can be used to estimate risk based on VaR framework. One of them Non Linier GARCH (NGARCH model. In this research, determination of VaR used NGARCH model. NGARCH model allowed for asymetric behaviour in the volatility such that “good news” or positive return and “bad news” or negative return. Based on calculations of VaR, the higher of the confidence level and the longer the investment period, the risk was greater. Determination of VaR using NGARCH model was less than GARCH model.

  12. Insight into Antigenic Diversity of VAR2CSA-DBL5 epsilon Domain from Multiple Plasmodium falciparum Placental Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnidehou, Sedami; Jessen, Leon Ivar; Gangnard, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    Background: Protection against pregnancy associated malaria (PAM) is associated with high levels of anti-VAR2CSA antibodies. This protection is obtained by the parity dependent acquisition of anti-VAR2CSA antibodies. Distinct parity-associated molecular signatures have been identified in VAR2CSA ...

  13. Comparison of the specificity of antibodies to VAR2CSA in Cameroonian multigravidae with and without placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Fang, Rui; Wey, Andrew;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies (Ab) to VAR2CSA prevent Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes from sequestrating in the placenta, i.e., prevent placental malaria (PM). The specificity of Ab to VAR2CSA associated with absence of PM is unknown. Accordingly, differences in the specificity of Ab to VAR2...

  14. Conservation status of white poplar (Populus alba L. and black poplar (Populus nigra L. in the territory of Great War Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijačić-Nikolić Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available T he paper describes t he conservation status of white poplar (Populus alba L. and black poplar (Populus nigra L. in the territory of Great War Island. The activities of in situ and ex situ gene pool conservation have been defined in order to preserve and expand the populations of the above species, as carriers of complex wetland forest ecosystems.

  15. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in the substantia nigra of healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeger, Adriane; Godau, Jana; Berg, Daniela [University of Tuebingen, Department of Neurodegeneration, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research and German Center for Neurodegenerative Disease (DZNE), Tuebingen (Germany); Chadzynski, Grzegorz; Klose, Uwe [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    To investigate the substantia nigra in patients with Parkinson's disease three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging with high spatial resolution at 3 Tesla was performed. Regional variations of spectroscopic data between the rostral and caudal regions of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were evaluated in healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. Nine patients with Parkinson's disease and eight age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Data were acquired by using three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging measurements. The ratios between rostral and caudal voxels of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were calculated for the main-metabolites N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline, and myo-inositol. Additionally, the metabolite/creatine ratios were calculated. In all subjects spectra of acceptable quality could be obtained with a nominal voxel size of 0.252 ml. The calculated rostral-to-caudal ratios of the metabolites as well as of the metabolite/creatine ratios showed with exception of choline/creatine ratio significant differences between healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. The findings from this study indicate that regional variations in N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratios in the regions of the substantia nigra may differentiate patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy controls. (orig.)

  16. The RAPD analysis of Juglans nigra cultivars introduced in Ningxia%宁夏引种黑核桃品种RAPD分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李苗; 黄学琴; 吴全忠; 张丽; 陈虞超; 甘晓燕; 石磊; 宋玉霞

    2011-01-01

    33 pieces of Juglans nigra and 1 Juglans were used as experimental materials,the developed CTAB method was used to extract high quality DNA,and RAPD-PCR by 24 primers was employed to analyze the genetics relationship between the experimental materials.The result showed that 18 RAPD primers could be used in appraise Juglans nigra genetics resource and clustering the experimental materials correctly.Genetics relationship date showed that 33 experimental materials of Juglans nigra was farer than Juglans,nevertheless closer genetics relationship among Juglans nigra experimental materials.%以宁夏引种种植的33份黑核桃树种和1份本地核桃树种为试验材料,采用改进的CTAB法提取高质量模板DNA,通过24条RAPD引物利用RAPD-PCR技术系统分析材料间的遗传关系.结果表明:试验所筛选的18条RAPD引物可以用于黑核桃树种遗传资源鉴定,较为准确地将种间材料聚类;33份黑核桃材料与作为对照参试的普通核桃亲缘关系较远,参试黑核桃材料间则表现出较近的亲缘关系.

  17. Juglans regia and J. nigra, two trees important in traditional medicine: A comparison of leaf essential oil compositions and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Prajwal; Satyal, Prabodh; Dosoky, Noura S; Maharjan, Samjhana; Setzer, William N

    2013-10-01

    The essential oils from the leaves of Juglans regia, collected from Kathmandu, Nepal, and Juglans nigra from Huntsville, Alabama, USA, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 69 compounds were identified in the J. regia oil, accounting for 99.0% of the eluting components of the oil while three different samples of J. nigra were analyzed identifying a total of 99.3%, 99.4% and 99.7% of the oils. The leaf essential oil of J. regia was dominated by the aromatic compounds eugenol (27.5%) and methyl salicylate (16.2%), and the sesquiterpenes germacrene D (21.4%) and (E)-beta-farnesene (8.2%). The essential oils from three different samples of. J. nigra contained (E)-caryophyllene (17.3%-20.4%) and germacrene D (7.1%-22.5%) with smaller amounts of juglone (1.0%-8.8%), alpha-hydrojuglone (1.0-9.5%), and delta-cadinene (3.8%-8.7%). J. regia leaf oil, devoid of juglone, showed allelopathic activity, while J. nigra leaf oil was less phytotoxic. The presence of eugenol and methyl salicylate in the leaves of J. regia are consistent with the traditional uses of this plant to treat toothache, rheumatism, and fungal infections.

  18. Effects of acute and chronic administration of olanzapine in comparison to clozapine and haloperidol on extracellular recordings of substantia nigra reticulata neurons in the rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, W; Heijmen, M; Westerink, B.H.C.; Bruggeman, R; den Boer, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Rationale : Previously, we have shown that the atypical antipsychotics clozapine and risperidone, unlike haloperidol, decreased the firing rate of substantia nigra reticulata (SNR) neurons. As the SNR receives substantial input from the striatum, an area where motoric side-effects of antipsychotics

  19. Identification of bioactive compounds from flowers of black elder (Sambucus nigra L.) that activate the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kathrine Bisgaard; Petersen, R.K.; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    (PPAR) gamma. Extracts of elderflowers (Sambucus nigra) have been found to activate PPARgamma and to stimulate insulin-dependent glucose uptake suggesting that they have a potential use in the prevention and/or treatment of insulin resistance. Bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation of a methanol...

  20. Effects of desiccation on temperate recalcitrant seeds: differential scanning calorimetry, gas chromatography, electron microscopy, and moisture studies on Quercus nigra and Quercus alba

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.F. Connor; F.T. Bonner; J.A Vozzo

    1996-01-01

    Investigations into the nature of desiccation-sensitive, or recalcitrant, seed behavior have as yet failed to identify exact causes of this phenomenon. Experiments with Quercus nigra L. and Quercus alba L. were conducted to examine physiological and biochemical changes brought about by seed desiccation and to determine if there...

  1. EXTRACELLULAR GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC-ACID IN THE SUBSTANTIA-NIGRA RETICULATA MEASURED BY MICRODIALYSIS IN AWAKE RATS - EFFECTS OF VARIOUS STIMULANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TIMMERMAN, W; WESTERINK, BHC

    1995-01-01

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNR) was challenged by local infusion of various receptor-specific agents to obtain additional information on the physiological significance of extracellular GABA levels as measured by microdialysis in awake rats. No

  2. Optimizing expression of the pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate, VAR2CSA in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narum David L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background VAR2CSA is the main candidate for a vaccine against pregnancy-associated malaria, but vaccine development is complicated by the large size and complex disulfide bonding pattern of the protein. Recent X-ray crystallographic information suggests that domain boundaries of VAR2CSA Duffy binding-like (DBL domains may be larger than previously predicted and include two additional cysteine residues. This study investigated whether longer constructs would improve VAR2CSA recombinant protein secretion from Pichia pastoris and if domain boundaries were applicable across different VAR2CSA alleles. Methods VAR2CSA sequences were bioinformatically analysed to identify the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues at the C-termini of DBL domains and revised N- and C-termimal domain boundaries were predicted in VAR2CSA. Multiple construct boundaries were systematically evaluated for protein secretion in P. pastoris and secreted proteins were tested as immunogens. Results From a total of 42 different VAR2CSA constructs, 15 proteins (36% were secreted. Longer construct boundaries, including the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues, generally improved expression of poorly or non-secreted domains and permitted expression of all six VAR2CSA DBL domains. However, protein secretion was still highly empiric and affected by subtle differences in domain boundaries and allelic variation between VAR2CSA sequences. Eleven of the secreted proteins were used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies reacted with CSA-binding infected erythrocytes, indicating that P. pastoris recombinant proteins possessed native protein epitopes. Conclusion These findings strengthen emerging data for a revision of DBL domain boundaries in var-encoded proteins and may facilitate pregnancy malaria vaccine development.

  3. Variability of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils between Myrtus communis var. Leucocarpa DC and var. Melanocarpa DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Maldini, Mariateresa; Addis, Roberta; Chessa, Mario; Foddai, Marzia; Rourke, Jonathan P; Pintore, Giorgio

    2016-04-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from several individuals of Myrtus communis L. (M. communis) growing in different habitats in Sardinia have been studied. The analyses were focused on four groups of samples, namely cultivated and wild M. communis var. melanocarpa DC, characterized by red/purple berries, and cultivated and wild M. communis var. leucocarpa DC, characterized by white berries. Qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrated different EO fingerprints among the studied samples: cultivated and wild leucocarpa variety differs mainly from the melanocarpa variety by a high amount of myrtenyl acetate (>200 mg/mL and 0.4 mg/mL in leucocarpa and melanocarpa varieties respectively). Conversely, the wild group is characterized by a higher amount, compared with the cultivated species, of linalool (about 110 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL respectively), linalyl acetate (about 24 mg/mL and about 6 mg/mL respectively) whereas EOs of the cultivated plants were rich in pinocarveol-cis compared with wild plants (about 2 mg/mL and about 0.5 mg/mL respectively). Principal component analysis applied to the chromatographic data confirm a differentiation and classification of EOs from the four groups of M. communis plants. Finally, antioxidant activity of the studied EOs shows differences between the various categories of samples.

  4. A structural basis for the difference in specificity between the two jacalin-related lectins from mulberry (Morus nigra) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougé, Pierre; Peumans, Willy J; Barre, Annick; Van Damme, Els J M

    2003-04-25

    The activity and specificity of a galactose-specific and a mannose-specific jacalin-related lectin from the bark of the black mulberry (Morus nigra) tree has been re-investigated using different experimental approaches. Both lectins definitely behave as polyspecific lectins recognizing galactose, mannose, and glucose even though MornigaG and MornigaM interact preferentially with galactose and mannose, respectively. The exceptionally extended size of the carbohydrate-binding site of both lectins apparently accounts for their polyspecific character. Parallel studies with other mannose-specific jacalin-related lectins confirmed that their exclusive specificity towards mannose/glucose relies on a reduced size of their carbohydrate-binding site.

  5. Proton MRS of the unilateral substantia nigra in the human brain at 4 tesla: detection of high GABA concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Gülin; Terpstra, Melissa; Tkác, Ivan; Aia, Pratibha; Lowary, Jodi; Tuite, Paul J; Gruetter, Rolf

    2006-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), the cause of which is unknown. Characterization of early SN pathology could prove beneficial in the treatment and diagnosis of PD. The present study shows that with the use of short-echo (5 ms) Stimulated-Echo Acquisition Mode (STEAM) spectroscopy and LCModel, a neurochemical profile consisting of 10 metabolites, including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu), and glutathione (GSH), can be measured from the unilateral SN at 4 tesla. The neurochemical profile of the SN is unique and characterized by a fourfold higher GABA/Glu ratio compared to the cortex, in excellent agreement with established neurochemistry. The presence of elevated GABA levels in SN was validated with the use of editing, suggesting that partial volume effects were greatly reduced. These findings establish the feasibility of obtaining a neurochemical profile of the unilateral human SN by single-voxel spectroscopy in small volumes.

  6. Ketogenic diet prevents neuronal firing increase within the substantia nigra during pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Andrea; Stoddard, Madison; Pisano, Simone; Operto, Francesca Felicia; Iovane, Valentina; Monda, Marcellino; Coppola, Giangennaro

    2016-07-01

    The mechanism responsible for the anti-seizure effect of ketogenic diets is poorly understood. Because the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a "gate" center for seizures, the aim of the present experiment was to evaluate if a ketogenic diet modifies the neuronal response of this nucleus when a seizure-inducing drug is administered in rats. Two groups of rats were given a standard diet (group 1) or a ketogenic diet (group 2) for four weeks, then the threshold for seizure induction and the firing rate of putative GABAergic neurons within the SNr were evaluated with progressive infusion of pentylenetetrazole under general anesthesia. The results demonstrated that the ketogenic diet abolished the correlation between the firing rate response of SNr-neurons and the seizure-threshold. This result suggests that the anti-seizure effect of ketogenic diets can be due to a decrease in reactivity of GABAergic SNr-neurons.

  7. Changes in photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance to CO2, and isoprenoid emissions in Populus nigra plants exposed to excess nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikova, Violeta; Tsonev, Tsonko; Loreto, Francesco; Centritto, Mauro

    2011-05-01

    Poplar (Populus nigra) plants were grown hydroponically with 30 and 200 μM Ni (Ni30 and Ni200). Photosynthesis limitations and isoprenoid emissions were investigated in two leaf types (mature and developing). Ni stress significantly decreased photosynthesis, and this effect depended on the leaf Ni content, which was lower in mature than in developing leaves. The main limitations to photosynthesis were attributed to mesophyll conductance and metabolism impairment. In Ni-stressed developing leaves, isoprene emission was significantly stimulated. We attribute such stimulation to the lower chloroplastic [CO2] than in control leaves. However chloroplastic [CO2] did not control isoprene emission in mature leaves. Ni stress induced the emission of cis-β-ocimene in mature leaves, and of linalool in both leaf types. Induced biosynthesis and emission of isoprenoids reveal the onset of antioxidant processes that may also contribute to reduce Ni stress, especially in mature poplar leaves. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Chemical Constituents of Blackfruit Galangal (Alpinia nigra)%黑果山姜的化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔春峰; 王峥涛; 董辉; 徐珞珊; 郝小江

    2000-01-01

    从姜科植物黑果山姜 Alpinia nigra (Gaertn.) Burtt 种子团中分得5个化合物,经光谱鉴定为黄芪苷(astragalin,Ⅰ)、山柰酚-3-O-葡萄糖醛酸苷(kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide,Ⅱ)、三十七烷酸-α-单甘油酯(heptatriacontanoic acid 2,3-dihydroxypropylester,Ⅲ)、三十七烷酸-β-单甘油酯(heptatriacontanoic acid 1,3-dihydroxypropyl ester,Ⅳ)、三十五烷酸-β-单甘油酯(pentatriacontanoic acid 1,3-dihydroxypropyl ester,Ⅴ).均为从姜科植物中首次分得 ,其中Ⅱ含量高达1%左右.

  9. Morphine-induced changes of adenylate and guanylate cyclase in locus ceruleus, periaqueductal gray, and substantia nigra in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shijun, Hong; Liping, Zhao; Yongqiang, Qu; Zhen, Li; Yonghe, Zhao; Lihua, Li

    2009-01-01

    To observe the changes of adenylate cyclase (AC) and guanylate cyclase (GC) in the cerebral regions including the locus ceruleus, periaqueductal gray, and substantia nigra in rats that were physiologically dependent on morphine. We also investigated the relationship of enzymatic changes in these cerebral regions to the mechanism of morphine dependence. A morphine-dependent rat model was established and withdrawal symptoms evaluated. Enzyme histochemistry was used to detect the variations of AC and GC in cerebral regions. Compared to controls, AC and GC significantly increased in morphine-dependent groups. Comparisons of four different morphine-dependent groups also showed AC and GC significantly differed at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8. Results found that the content of AC and GC increased in these cerebral regions in rats that demonstrated morphine dependence and appeared to be closely linked to increases in AC and GC activity.

  10. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner in the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Parasaissetia nigra in the European Union (EU and identified and evaluated the phytosanitary measures listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Entry through the principal pathways is assessed as moderately likely for plants for planting and very unlikely for living parts of plants, such as fruit and cut flowers with foliage, the discrepancy being mainly due to the difference in probability of transfer to a suitable host. Establishment is rated as very likely outdoors in Mediterranean areas and indoors in the whole risk assessment area (where the pest has been present for a long time, and unlikely outdoors in non-Mediterranean areas. Spread within the EU is considered to be moderately likely because the pest can readily be moved with plant material but is limited by climatic conditions. The magnitude of the potential consequences is rated as minor. The Panel evaluated the effectiveness of current EU phytosanitary measures and concluded that the removal of P. nigra from Annex IIAII would not affect its probability of entry, because the importation from Third countries of some host plants regulated for P. nigra (Citrus, Fortunella, Poncirus species and their hybrids is prohibited in Annex III. However, spread could be affected since there would no longer be a requirement to inspect for this pest before issuing a plant passport (Annex V. However, since the regulated Rutaceae species constitute only a very small proportion of the potential host plants of P. nigra,the current phytosanitary measures are mostly ineffective in preventing the further introduction and spread of P. nigra in the EU. The Panel identified surveillance at the production site and treatment of the consignment as the most effective and technically feasible risk reduction options, particularly when in combination.

  11. Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer MR Imaging Is Superior to Diffusion Tensor Imaging in the Diagnosis and Severity Evaluation of Parkinson's Disease: a Study on Substantia Nigra and Striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei eLi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by nigrostriatal cell loss. To date the diagnosis of PD is still based primarily on the clinical manifestations which may be typical and obvious only in advanced-stage PD. Thus, it is crucial to find a reliable marker for the diagnosis of PD. We conducted this study to assess the diagnostic efficiency of chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer (CEST imaging and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI in PD at 3 Tesla by evaluating changes on substantia nigra and striatum. Twenty-three PD patients and twenty-three age-matched normal controls were recruited. All patients and controls were imaged on a 3 Tesla MR system, using an 8-channel head coil. CEST imaging was acquired in two transverse slices of the head, including substantia nigra and striatum. The magnetization-transfer-ratio asymmetry at 3.5 ppm, MTRasym(3.5ppm, and the total CEST signal intensity between 0 and 4 ppm were calculated. Multi-slice DTI was acquired for all the patients and normal controls. Quantitative analysis was performed on the substantia nigra, globus pallidus, putamen and caudate. The MTRasym(3.5ppm value, the total CEST signal intensity and fractional anisotropy (FA value of the substantia nigra were all significantly lower in PD patients than in normal controls (P = 0.003, P = 0.004 and P < 0.001, respectively. The MTRasym(3.5ppm values of the putamen and the caudate were significantly higher in PD patients than in normal controls (P = 0.010 and P = 0.009, respectively. There were no significant differences for the mean diffusivity (MD in these four regions between PD patients and normal controls. In conclusion, CEST MR imaging provided multiple CEST image contrasts in the substantia nigra and the striatum in PD and may be superior to DTI in the diagnosis of PD.

  12. Gene expression profiling of embryonic human neural stem cells and dopaminergic neurons from adult human substantia nigra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany E S Marei

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSC with self-renewal and multipotent properties serve as an ideal cell source for transplantation to treat neurodegenerative insults such as Parkinson's disease. We used Agilent's and Illumina Whole Human Genome Oligonucleotide Microarray to compare the genomic profiles of human embryonic NSC at a single time point in culture, and a multicellular tissue from postmortem adult substantia nigra (SN which are rich in dopaminergic (DA neurons. We identified 13525 up-regulated genes in both cell types of which 3737 (27.6% genes were up-regulated in the hENSC, 4116 (30.4% genes were up-regulated in the human substantia nigra dopaminergic cells, and 5672 (41.93% were significantly up-regulated in both cell population. Careful analysis of the data that emerged using DAVID has permitted us to distinguish several genes and pathways that are involved in dopaminergic (DA differentiation, and to identify the crucial signaling pathways that direct the process of differentiation. The set of genes expressed more highly at hENSC is enriched in molecules known or predicted to be involved in the M phase of the mitotic cell cycle. On the other hand, the genes enriched in SN cells include a different set of functional categories, namely synaptic transmission, central nervous system development, structural constituents of the myelin sheath, the internode region of axons, myelination, cell projection, cell somata, ion transport, and the voltage-gated ion channel complex. Our results were also compared with data from various databases, and between different types of arrays, Agilent versus Illumina. This approach has allowed us to confirm the consistency of our obtained results for a large number of genes that delineate the phenotypical differences of embryonic NSCs, and SN cells.

  13. Excitatory drive from the Subthalamic nucleus attenuates GABAergic transmission in the Substantia Nigra pars compacta via endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freestone, Peter S; Wu, Xi Hau; de Guzman, Gabriel; Lipski, Janusz

    2015-11-15

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are cannabis-like substances produced in the brain where their primary function is to regulate synaptic transmission by inhibiting neurotransmitter release in a retrograde fashion. We have recently demonstrated a novel mechanism regulating GABAergic transmission from neurons in the Substantia Nigra pars reticulata (SNr) to dopaminergic neurons in the Substantia Nigra pars compacta (SNc) mediated by eCBs. Production of eCBs was initiated by spillover of glutamate, yet the source of the glutamate was not determined (Freestone et al., 2014; Neuropharmacology 79 p467). The present study aimed at elucidating the potential role of glutamatergic terminals arising from neurons in the Subthalamic nucleus (STN) in driving the eCB-mediated modulation of this inhibitory transmission. GABAergic IPSCs or IPSPs evoked in SNc neurons by electrical stimuli delivered to the SNr region were transiently inhibited by electrical or pharmacological (U-tube application of muscarinic agonist carbachol [100 µM]) stimulation of the STN (to 74±5% and 69±4% respectively). In both stimulation protocols, the attenuation of GABAergic transmission was abolished by cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist rimonabant (3 µM), and reduced by group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist CPCCOEt (100 µM), consistent with a glutamate-initiated and eCB-mediated mechanism. The carbachol-induced attenuation of GABAergic transmission was abolished by M3 muscarinic receptor antagonist 4-DAMP (10 µM), confirming a specific activation of STN neurons. These results demonstrate that glutamatergic projection from the STN to dopaminergic SNc neurons underlies an eCB-mediated inhibition of GABAergic input to these neurons.

  14. Abundance and Relative Distribution of Frankia Host Infection Groups Under Actinorhizal Alnus glutinosa and Non-actinorhizal Betula nigra Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Suvidha; Huo, Tian; Dawson, Jeffrey O; Hahn, Dittmar

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to assess the abundance and relative distribution of host infection groups of the root-nodule forming, nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia in four soils with similar physicochemical characteristics, two of which were vegetated with a host plant, Alnus glutinosa, and two with a non-host plant, Betula nigra. Analyses of DAPI-stained cells at three locations, i.e., at a distance of less than 1 m (near stem), 2.5 m (middle crown), and 3-5 m (crown edge) from the stems of both tree species revealed no statistically significant differences in abundance. Frankiae generally accounted for 0.01 to 0.04 % of these cells, with values between 4 and 36 × 10(5) cells (g soil)(-1). In three out of four soils, abundance of frankiae was significantly higher at locations "near stem" and/or "middle crown" compared to "crown edge," while numbers at these locations were not different in the fourth soil. Frankiae of the Alnus host infection group were dominant in all samples accounting for about 75 % and more of the cells, with no obvious differences with distance to stem. In three of the soils, all of these cells were represented by strain Ag45/Mut15. In the fourth soil that was vegetated with older A. glutinosa trees, about half of these cells belonged to a different subgroup represented by strain ArI3. In all soils, the remaining cells belonged to the Elaeagnus host infection group represented by strain EAN1pec. Casuarina-infective frankiae were not found. Abundance and relative distribution of Frankia host infection groups were similar in soils under the host plant A. glutinosa and the non-host plant B. nigra. Results did thus not reveal any specific effects of plant species on soil Frankia populations.

  15. Expression of calbindin D28K in substantia nigra of model rats with Parkinson disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianshuai Gao; Hongmei Liu; Yanxia Ding; Hongjun Wang; Yanqiang Wang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous researches suggested that expression level of calbindin D28K mRNA decreased in substantia nigra (SN) of model rats with Parkinson disease (PD), and this might be related to the decrease of anti-degeneration potentials of dopaminergic neurons.OBJECTIVE: To observe expression changes of calbindin D28K in SN dopaminergic neurons during their degeneration and death in midbrain of PD model rats.DESIGN: Completely randomized grouping design.SETTING: Department of Neurobiology, Xuzhou Medical College.MATERIALS: A total of 92 healthy male SD rats, with the age of 3 months, weighing 200-250 g, were selected from Experimental Animal Center of Xuzhou Medical College [certification: SCXK (su) 2003-0003].Calbindin D28K(CB), tyroxine hydroxylase (TH), ABC kit, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and Nissl dyes were provided by Sigma Company, and sheep serum was provided by Beijing Zhongshan Company.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Neurobiological Center of Xuzhou Medical College from October 2003 to October 2004. ① With lot method, rats were divided into blank control group (n=28), experimental control group (n=28) and experimental group (n=36). Rats in experimental group were injected with 6-OHDA at right corpus striatum for PD modeling; rats in experimental control group were injected with saline at the same site; rats in blank control group did not give any injections. ② On the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days, SN segments on right midbrain from every 5 rats in experimental group were fixed, embedded with paraffin and cut into successively coronary pieces. Rats in other two groups were treated with the same methods and then stained with Nissl to show neuronal form. Meanwhile, CB and TH antibodies staining with immunohistochemistry were used to show CB containing dopaminergic neurons and dopaminergic neurons,and cells were calculated and observed under optic microscope. ③ On the 14th and 28th days, every 4 rats in experimental group and every 4

  16. A hybrid PSO technique for procuring VAR ancillary service in the deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Suez Canal University (Egypt); Yorino, Naoto [Department of Artificial Complex Systems Engineering, Hiroshima University (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    This paper develops a new market-based technique for acquiring VAR ancillary service in the electricity market. The main objective of the developed market is to enable transmission operator ''TO'' to procure VAR service in a long term contract from the critical VAR providers that satisfy minimum VAR service payment while maintaining system security. Reactive power control problem for voltage stability is introduced into the VAR market problem in an explicit manner for normal and emergency states. An integration of particle swarm optimization ''PSO'' is presented with successive linear programming ''SLP'' for dealing with the VAR ancillary service problem. The problem is formulated as a large-scale nonlinear constrained optimization problem with a non-differentiable objective function representing VAR payment and operational costs. This type of problem is hard to be treated straightforwardly by the classical optimization methods. Therefore, we propose here a two-layer hybrid PSO/SLP approach, which is suited for carrying out the difficulties associated with non-differentiable and discontinuous objective functions. The proposed method has been examined on the standard IEEE 57 bus-system and compared with GA/SLP method to demonstrate its capability. (author)

  17. Phosphorylation of SU(VAR3-9 by the chromosomal kinase JIL-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern Boeke

    Full Text Available The histone methyltransferase SU(VAR3-9 plays an important role in the formation of heterochromatin within the eukaryotic nucleus. Several studies have shown that the formation of condensed chromatin is highly regulated during development, suggesting that SU(VAR3-9's activity is regulated as well. However, no mechanism by which this may be achieved has been reported so far. As we and others had shown previously that the N-terminus of SU(VAR3-9 plays an important role for its activity, we purified interaction partners from Drosophila embryo nuclear extract using as bait a GST fusion protein containing the SU(VAR3-9 N-terminus. Among several other proteins known to bind Su(VAR3-9 we isolated the chromosomal kinase JIL-1 as a strong interactor. We show that SU(VAR3-9 is a substrate for JIL-1 in vitro as well as in vivo and map the site of phosphorylation. These findings may provide a molecular explanation for the observed genetic interaction between SU(VAR3-9 and JIL-1.

  18. VAR Analysis of the Monetary Transmission Mechanism in Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlan ATABAEV

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effects of monetary transmission on real output and price level in Kyrgyzstan which is very important issue for central banks. We analyzed the relationships between the money supply, real output, price level, interest rate, credit and real exchange rate by using the vector autoregression approach (VAR and monthly data for 2003-2011. As a result the interest rate channel remains weak, on the other hand it have been revealed that the credit channel has some affects to real output, the exchange rate channel affects the prices. Exchange rate channel remains still the most effective channel. Based on these results, it can be argued that government can use credit and interest rate channel in increasing real output, and the exchange rate channel in achieving price stability in Kyrgyzstan.

  19. Tillers induction in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Augusto Ochekoski Mossanek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bactris gasipaes produces heart-of-palm. Peach palm is a perennial crop that has a tillering capacity, being an alternative to illegal extraction. There is a lack of studies about vegetative propagation technics for this species. The present study aimed to analyze different tillering induction methods in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings in four different seasons. The treatments were: 1 stem bending; 2 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of benzylaminopurine; 3 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of gibberellic acid and; 4 stem girdling. The experimental design was random with 4 replicates of 20 plants per treatment. Anatomical analyses were conducted at the stem, and the tillering and mortality of the treated plants were evaluated. It was possible to identify the stem tissues and the meristematic apex site by anatomical analysis. The stem bending treatments were inefficient; but girdling presented potential as tillers inducer.

  20. Forecasting Macedonian Business Cycle Turning Points Using Qual Var Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovska Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at assessing the usefulness of leading indicators in business cycle research and forecast. Initially we test the predictive power of the economic sentiment indicator (ESI within a static probit model as a leading indicator, commonly perceived to be able to provide a reliable summary of the current economic conditions. We further proceed analyzing how well an extended set of indicators performs in forecasting turning points of the Macedonian business cycle by employing the Qual VAR approach of Dueker (2005. In continuation, we evaluate the quality of the selected indicators in pseudo-out-of-sample context. The results show that the use of survey-based indicators as a complement to macroeconomic data work satisfactory well in capturing the business cycle developments in Macedonia.

  1. Chromosome doubling in Paspalum notatum var. saure (cultivar Pensacola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Weiler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Paspalum notatum is one of the most important native grassland species of southern Brazil, and the main forage source for livestock. The native ecotypes are tetraploid and have apomictic reproduction, which prevents the registration and protection of plant varieties. However, the cultivated variety Paspalum notatum var. saurae (cultivar Pensacola is diploid and sexual. The objective of this study was to artificially produce polyploid cv. Pensacola plants, to be used as female parents in crosses with male tetraploid and apomictic parents. Seedlings and seeds were immersed in colchicine solutions for different periods. A tetraploid chromosome number was confirmed in three plants. The reproduction mode of the resulting polyploid plants will be assessed; if confirmed to be sexual, they can be used in crosses with native apomictic plants to breed new intraspecific hybrids.

  2. Citogenética de Guazuma ulmifolia var. Ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Tapia-Pastrana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó una metodología de extendido en superficie y secado al aire para obtener por vez primera el cariotipo somático de una población de Guazuma ulmifolia var. ulmifolia. El número cromosómico diploide 2n = 16 obtenido a partir de meristemos radiculares confirma recuentos anteriores. La fórmula cariotípica fue 14m + 2st con una ligera asimetría (T.F.% = 42,19. La longitud cromosómica total haploide fue de 11,65 µm con un intervalo cromosómico de 1,11 - 2,05 µm. Los organizadores nucleolares asociados a constricciones secundarias ubicados en el par 3 (m y el polimorfismo que exhibe el par 8 (st pueden ser empleados como marcadores citogenéticos en futuros estudios de otras especies y variedades del género.

  3. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale.

  4. Hot air convective dehydration characteristics of Daucus carota var. Nantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raees-ul Haq

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on experimental and theoretical study of air dehydration kinetics of Daucus carota var. Nantes in laboratory scale drying chamber. Steam blanching as a pretreatment was applied prior to dehydration of shreds and the results indicated a gradual decrease in drying time from 2.9 to 5.5% in temperature range of 50–70°C, for steam blanched samples in comparison to untreated carrots. Four different mathematical drying models (Newton, Page, Modified Page and Henderson and Pabis were evaluated for goodness of fit by comparing their respective R2, χ2, and RMSE parameters. Comparison of the statistical parameters led to conclusion that Page model showed a better quality of fit and presents dehydration characteristics in better way to obtain drying curves than any other model.

  5. Controlling pool depth during VAR of Alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, F.; Beaman, J.; Williamson, R.; Evans, D.

    2016-07-01

    A longtime goal of superalloy producers has been to control the geometry of the liquid pool in solidifying ingots. Accurate pool depth control at appropriate values is expected to result in ingots free of segregation defects. This article describes an industrial VAR experiment in which a 430mm (17 in) diameter Alloy 718 electrode was melted into a 510mm (20 in) ingot. In the experiment, the depth of the liquid pool at the mid-radius was controlled to three different set-points: 137 mm (nominal), 193 mm (deep) and 118 mm (shallow). At each level, the pool depth was marked by a power cutback of several minutes. The ingot was sectioned and longitudinal slices were cut out. Analysis of the photographed ingot revealed that accurate control was obtained for both the nominal and deep pool cases, while the third one was not conclusive.

  6. Corruption Effects on Nigeria: Aggregate and Sectoral Estimates Using VAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Osi Alenoghena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research study investigates the impact of corruption on some key activity sectors of the Nigerian economy between 1996 and 2013 using VAR technique. The empirical estimates demonstrate that corruption affects most significantly agriculture, services, wholesale and retail sectors in Nigeria. As well, the study shows that the control of corruption has significant effect in the reduction of corruption. The study recommends that Nigeria can use an amalgamation of ethics hotlines for reporting corruption, open-door policies to embolden subordinates to consult with bosses for guidance, a “zero-tolerance” policy for breaches, anticorruption training sessions, and complete transparency in governmental operations to minimalize infractions. Nigeria will require strong political will and vision, credibility, frontal assault, new staff, deregulation, unconventional methods, close coordination, harnessing technology and tailoring international experience to local conditions.

  7. ent-Kaurane Diterpenoids from Isodon eriocalyx var. laxiflorat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伟光; 吴海燕; 杜雪; 晋建新; 孙汉董

    2012-01-01

    Four new ent-kaurane diterpenoids, 6fl,13ct,15fl-trihydroxy-16-ene-3a,20-epoxy-ent-kaur- 1,7-dione (1), 6-hydroxy-3a,20-epoxy-5(6)-ene-ent-kaur-l,7,15-trione (2), 6-hydroxy-15fl-acetoxy-3a,20-epoxy-16]3,17-epoxy- 5(6)-ene-ent-kaur-l,7-dione (3), 3ct,17-dihydroxy-15(16)-ene-ent-kaur-7-one (4), along with four known com- pounds 5--8 were isolated from the leaves oflsodon eriocalyx var. laxiflora. The structures were elucidated by ex- tensive spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, MS and NMR). The cytotoxic activities of these compounds were evaluated by MTT assay. Compound 8 showed moderate inhibitory effects on HL-60, SMMC-7721, MCF-7 and SW-480 cell lines.

  8. Deterioration of expanded polystyrene caused by Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, Valeria C; Kuhar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    An expanded-polystyrene factory located in northern Buenos Aires reported unusual dark spots causing esthetic damage in their production. A fungal strain forming black-olive colonies on extract malt agar medium was isolated from the damaged material and identified as Aureobasidium pullullans var. melanogenum. This fungus is particularly known for its capacity to produce hydrolytic enzymes and a biodegradable extracellular polysaccharide known as pullulan, which is used in the manufacture of packaging material for food and medicine. Laboratory tests were conducted to characterize its growth parameters. It was found that the organism was resistant to a wide range of pHs but did not survive at temperatures over 65°C. The proposed action plan includes drying of the material prior to packaging and disinfection of the machinery used in the manufacturing process and of the silos used for raw material storage.

  9. Subsynchronous torsional interactions with static VAR compensators; Influence of HVDC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostamkolai, N.; Piwko, R.J.; Larsen, E.V. (General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (USA)); Fisher, D.A. (New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (USA)); Mobarak, M.A. (New Brunswick Electric Power Commission, Fredericton, NB (Canada)); Poitras, A.E. (Maine Electric Power Co., Augusta, ME (US))

    1991-02-01

    Planning for installation of a static var compensator (SVC) in Chester, Maine, was initiated in 1987. The pre-specification subsynchronous torsional interaction (SSTI) studies showed the SVC might have a negative influence on stability of torsional modes of vibration of the nearby turbine-generators. In a previous paper, the parameters influencing the level of SSTI were identified with the use of a simple system. This paper extends the work to power systems containing an HVDC transmission system. The combined effect of SVC and HVDC on turbine-generator SSTI is investigated with the use of a hypothetical system. Simulation plots for the large machines of New Brunswick and Maine are included to quantify the level of interaction with the Chester SVC. Filtering as a mitigation measure is proposed to eliminate the small level of SSTI attributed to the Chester SVC.

  10. Origin of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans Diploid Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogliati, Massimo; Esposto, Maria C.; Clarke, David L.; Wickes, Brian L.; Viviani, Maria A.

    2001-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is an important human fungal pathogen. Two varieties, C. neoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. gattii, have been identified. Both are heterothallic with two mating types, MATa and MATα. Some rare isolates are self-fertile and are considered occasional diploid or aneuploid strains. In the present study, 133 isolates, mostly from Italian patients, were investigated to detect the presence of diploid strains in the Igiene Università Milano culture collection. All of the diploid isolates were further investigated by different methods to elucidate their origins. Forty-nine diploid strains were identified by flow cytometry. PCR fingerprinting using the (GACA)4 primer showed that the diploid state was associated with two specific genotypes identified as VN3 and VN4. Determination of mating type on V8 juice medium confirmed that the majority of the strains were sterile. PCR and dot blotting using the two pheromone genes (MFa and MFα) as probes identified 36 of the 49 diploid isolates as MATa/α. The results of pheromone gene sequencing showed that two allelic MFα genes exist and are distinct for serotypes A and D. In contrast, the MFa gene sequence was conserved in both serotype alleles. Amplification of serotype-specific STE20 alleles demonstrated that the diploid strains contained one mating locus inherited from a serotype A parent and one inherited from a serotype D parent. The present results suggest that diploid isolates may be common among the C. neoformans population and that in Italy and other European countries serotype A and D populations are not genetically isolated but are able to recombine by sexual reproduction. PMID:11682503

  11. Experimental poisoning by Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Oliveira-Filho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Five male 6-8 month-old Murrah buffalo calves were orally dosed with the fresh aerial parts of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii at doses of 1, 3, 4, 5 and 10g/kg body weight (bw (~1-10mg macrocyclic trichothecenes/kg/bw. The B. megapotamica used for the experiment was harvested on a farm where a recent spontaneous outbreak of poisoning caused by such plant had occurred. Clinical signs appeared 4-20 hours and 4 buffaloes died 18-49 hours after the ingestion of the plant. Clinical signs were apathy, anorexia, and watery diarrhea, fever, colic, drooling, muscle tremors, restlessness, laborious breathing and ruminal atony, and dehydration. The most consistent gross findings were restricted to the gastrointestinal (GI tract consisted of varying degrees of edema and reddening of the mucosa of the forestomach. Histopathological findings consisted of varying degrees of necrosis of the epithelial lining of the forestomach and of lymphocytes within lymphoid organs and aggregates. Fibrin thrombi were consistently found in sub-mucosal vessels of the forestomach and in the lumen of hepatic sinusoids. It is suggested that dehydration, septicemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation participate in the pathogenesis of the intoxication and play a role as a cause of death. A subsample of B. megapotamica var. weirii was frozen-dried and ground and analyzed using UHPLC (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography with high resolution Time of Flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry, it was shown that the plant material contained at least 51 different macrocyclic trichothecenes at a total level of 1.1-1.2mg/g. About 15-20% of the total trichothecenes contents was found to be monosaccharide conjugates, with two thirds of these being glucose conjugates and one third constituted by six aldopentose conjugates (probably xylose, which has never been reported in the literature.

  12. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

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    Rodríguez-Garay Benjamin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB; 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00% and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  13. PCR-RFLP analysis of chitinase genes enables efficient genotyping of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkerli, Jürg; Ghormade, Vandana; Oulevey, Catherine; Widmer, Franco

    2009-10-01

    A new genotyping tool has been developed and evaluated for Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae. The tool is based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of three chitinase genes that are functionally linked to insect-pathogenicity of this fungus. It allowed for discrimination of 14 genotypes among 22 M. anisopliae var. anisopliae strains of a world wide collection. Analyses revealed that the approach may also be applicable to other Metarhizium varieties. The new tool will be useful for genetic characterization of M. anisopliae var. anisopliae strains, and it is applicable for laboratories with limited access to molecular diagnostic equipment.

  14. Mimosa diversiplla var. subglabriseta (MimosoIdeae, Leguminosae, a new record for the flora of Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A Luna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Mimosa diversipila M. Micheli var. subglabriseta Barneby & Fortunato is now reported for first time in Paraguay. A revision of Barneby's initial description of the variety and photographs of one of the Paraguayan specimens are given in this paper.Mimosa diversipila var. subglabriseta (Mimosoideae, Leguminosae, una nueva cita para la flora de Paraguay. Reportamos por primera vez la presencia de Mimosa diversipila M. Micheli var. subglabriseta Barneby & Fortunato en Paraguay. Una revisión de la descripción inicial de Barneby y fotografías de uno de los ejemplares de Paraguay se incluyen en este documento.

  15. Return predictability and intertemporal asset allocation: Evidence from a bias-adjusted VAR model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    We extend the VAR based intertemporal asset allocation approach from Campbell et al. (2003) to the case where the VAR parameter estimates are adjusted for small- sample bias. We apply the analytical bias formula from Pope (1990) using both Campbell et al.'s dataset, and an extended dataset...... with quarterly data from 1952 to 2006. The results show that correcting the VAR parameters for small-sample bias has both quantitatively and qualitatively important e¤ects on the strategic intertemporal part of optimal portfolio choice, especially for bonds: for intermediate values of risk...

  16. Refusion of zircaloy scraps by VAR (vacuum arc remelting): preliminary results; Fusao de cavacos de zircaloy por VAR: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.A.T.; Mucsi, C.S.; Sato, I.M.; Rossi, J.L.; Martinez, L.G., E-mail: lgallego@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Correa, H.P.S. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Orlando, M.T.D. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Fuel elements and structural components of the core of PWR nuclear reactors are made in zirconium alloys known as Zircaloy. Machining chips and shavings resulting from the manufacturing of these components can not be discarded as scrap, once these alloys are strategic materials for the nuclear area, have high costs and are not produced in Brazil on an industrial bases and, consequently, are imported for the manufacture of nuclear fuel. The reuse of Zircaloy chips has economic, strategic and environmental aspects. In this work is proposed a process for recycling Zircaloy scraps using a VAR (vacuum arc remelting) furnace in order to obtain ingots suitable for the manufacture of components of the reactors. The ingots obtained are being studied in order to verify the influence of processing on composition and microstructure of the remelted material. In this work are presented preliminary results of the composition of obtained ingots compared to start material and the resulting microstructure. (author)

  17. Substrato, temperatura de germinação e desenvolvimento pós-seminal de sementes de Dalbergia nigra Germination substrate, temperature and post-seminal development of Dalbergia nigra seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Silva de Andrade

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi definir o tipo de substrato e a temperatura mais adequada à germinação de sementes de Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Fr. All. Ex Benth (jacarandá-da-bahia, e conhecer a morfologia de seu desenvolvimento pós-seminal e caracterizar as plântulas normais, o tipo de germinação e os padrões de anormalidade. As sementes foram semeadas nos substratos sobre papel, rolo de papel e sobre vermiculita, nas temperaturas constantes de 20, 25, 30 e 35°C e alternadas de 20-30°C e 20-35°C. O delineamento estatístico empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado (6x3, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: porcentagem de germinação normal (plântulas normais e velocidade de emergência de plântulas. Os melhores resultados foram verificados nas temperaturas de 25°C e 20-30°C, nos substratos sobre vermiculita e rolo de papel. Plântulas normais foram caracterizadas como faneroepígeas em relação ao tipo de germinação.The objective of this work was to define the germination substrate of Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Fr. All. Ex Benth (jacarandá-da-bahia, to evaluate the most appropriate temperature for its seeds germination, and to study its post-seminal morphology, showing normal and abnormal seedlings patterns. Seeds were sowed on filter paper, towel paper and vermiculite, using the constant temperatures of 20, 25, 30 and 35°C as well as alternate temperatures of 20-30°C and 20-35°C. The statistical design was completely randomized (6x3 with 50 seeds sowed in four replications in which the following parameters were analyzed: normal germination (normal seedlings percentage and speed emergence index. The best results were obtained for temperatures of 25°C and 20-30°C in vermiculite and towel paper substrates. Normal seedlings were classified as faneroepigeal germination type.

  18. Cav1.3 channels control D2-autoreceptor responses via NCS-1 in substantia nigra dopamine neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragicevic, Elena; Poetschke, Christina; Duda, Johanna; Schlaudraff, Falk; Lammel, Stephan; Schiemann, Julia; Fauler, Michael; Hetzel, Andrea; Watanabe, Masahiko; Lujan, Rafael; Malenka, Robert C.; Striessnig, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine midbrain neurons within the substantia nigra are particularly prone to degeneration in Parkinson’s disease. Their selective loss causes the major motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, but the causes for the high vulnerability of SN DA neurons, compared to neighbouring, more resistant ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, are still unclear. Consequently, there is still no cure available for Parkinson’s disease. Current therapies compensate the progressive loss of dopamine by administering its precursor l-DOPA and/or dopamine D2-receptor agonists. D2-autoreceptors and Cav1.3-containing L-type Ca2+ channels both contribute to Parkinson’s disease pathology. L-type Ca2+ channel blockers protect SN DA neurons from degeneration in Parkinson’s disease and its mouse models, and they are in clinical trials for neuroprotective Parkinson’s disease therapy. However, their physiological functions in SN DA neurons remain unclear. D2-autoreceptors tune firing rates and dopamine release of SN DA neurons in a negative feedback loop through activation of G-protein coupled potassium channels (GIRK2, or KCNJ6). Mature SN DA neurons display prominent, non-desensitizing somatodendritic D2-autoreceptor responses that show pronounced desensitization in PARK-gene Parkinson’s disease mouse models. We analysed surviving human SN DA neurons from patients with Parkinson’s disease and from controls, and detected elevated messenger RNA levels of D2-autoreceptors and GIRK2 in Parkinson’s disease. By electrophysiological analysis of postnatal juvenile and adult mouse SN DA neurons in in vitro brain-slices, we observed that D2-autoreceptor desensitization is reduced with postnatal maturation. Furthermore, a transient high-dopamine state in vivo, caused by one injection of either l-DOPA or cocaine, induced adult-like, non-desensitizing D2-autoreceptor responses, selectively in juvenile SN DA neurons, but not ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. With pharmacological

  19. 美国黑核桃SSR反应体系优化%Optimization of SSR Reaction System in Juglans nigra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏; Keith E.Wosete; 程飞; 张硕新

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of the SSR-PCR ( simple sequence repeat-polymerase chain reaction) reaction system is an important basic protocol when SSRs are used for pedigree construction, genotyping or population genetics research in black walnut (Juglans nigra L. ). We systematically tested the concentrations of Taq DNA pdlymerase, BSA, dNTPs, Mg2+ , primers, and template DNA concentration in the PCR reaction to determine.the optimal reaction system. The results indicated that the optimal SSR-PCR reaction conditions for black walnut (J. Nigra L. ) included a total volume of 10 (iL containing 1 μL of 10 ng · μL-1 DNA, 1 μL of 10 X Taq DNA polymerase reaction buffer (1.5 mmol · L-1 Mg2+ ) , 1. 25 μL of 200 mmol · L-1 dNTPs (0. 3 mmol · L-1 ) , 1 μL of 1 mg · mL-1 BSA ( Bovine Serum Albumin, 0. 1 mg · mL-1) , 1.0 μL of 10 μmol · L-1 each primer (when using one pair primer in each PCR reaction) or 0. 5 μL of 10 μmol · L-1 each primer (when using three pairs primer in each PCR reaction) , 0. 5 units Taq polymerase, and 4. 5 μL sterilized distilled water. The thermal cycling conditions were as follows; denaturation 3 min at 94℃ ; 32 cycles of 15 s at 93℃, 1 min at the annealing temperature for the primer, 30 s at 72℃ ; and a final extension of 10 min at 72℃ at the end of the amplification. The results showed that this SSR-PCR protocol resulted in clear, reproducible results suitable for the analysis of population genetics, genotyping, and for molecular ecology.%优化SSR-PCR反应体系是黑核桃(Juglans nigra L.)SSR基因鉴定和群体遗传等研究的基础.本研究通过对PCR反应中Mg2+浓度、牛血清白蛋白(Bovine Serum Albumin,BSA)浓度、Taq聚合酶用量、dNTPs浓度、引物浓度和模板DNA量的组合以及PCR程序组合试验,确定了黑核桃SSR的最佳反应体系,即在10 μL的PCR反应体系中,含10 ng模板DNA,0.1 mg·mL-1牛血清蛋白(BSA),0.25 mmol·L-1 dNTPs,1.5 mmol·L-1 Mg2+1 μL 10XTaq DNA

  20. Cav1.3 channels control D2-autoreceptor responses via NCS-1 in substantia nigra dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragicevic, Elena; Poetschke, Christina; Duda, Johanna; Schlaudraff, Falk; Lammel, Stephan; Schiemann, Julia; Fauler, Michael; Hetzel, Andrea; Watanabe, Masahiko; Lujan, Rafael; Malenka, Robert C; Striessnig, Joerg; Liss, Birgit

    2014-08-01

    Dopamine midbrain neurons within the substantia nigra are particularly prone to degeneration in Parkinson's disease. Their selective loss causes the major motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, but the causes for the high vulnerability of SN DA neurons, compared to neighbouring, more resistant ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, are still unclear. Consequently, there is still no cure available for Parkinson's disease. Current therapies compensate the progressive loss of dopamine by administering its precursor l-DOPA and/or dopamine D2-receptor agonists. D2-autoreceptors and Cav1.3-containing L-type Ca(2+) channels both contribute to Parkinson's disease pathology. L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers protect SN DA neurons from degeneration in Parkinson's disease and its mouse models, and they are in clinical trials for neuroprotective Parkinson's disease therapy. However, their physiological functions in SN DA neurons remain unclear. D2-autoreceptors tune firing rates and dopamine release of SN DA neurons in a negative feedback loop through activation of G-protein coupled potassium channels (GIRK2, or KCNJ6). Mature SN DA neurons display prominent, non-desensitizing somatodendritic D2-autoreceptor responses that show pronounced desensitization in PARK-gene Parkinson's disease mouse models. We analysed surviving human SN DA neurons from patients with Parkinson's disease and from controls, and detected elevated messenger RNA levels of D2-autoreceptors and GIRK2 in Parkinson's disease. By electrophysiological analysis of postnatal juvenile and adult mouse SN DA neurons in in vitro brain-slices, we observed that D2-autoreceptor desensitization is reduced with postnatal maturation. Furthermore, a transient high-dopamine state in vivo, caused by one injection of either l-DOPA or cocaine, induced adult-like, non-desensitizing D2-autoreceptor responses, selectively in juvenile SN DA neurons, but not ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. With pharmacological and genetic

  1. Several domains from VAR2CSA can induce Plasmodium falciparum adhesion-blocking antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanti, Ali; Resende, Mafalda; Ditlev, Sisse B

    2010-01-01

    against a unique P. falciparum membrane protein, named VAR2CSA. This antigen is not expressed in childhood infections, since it binds chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) expressed on the intervillous space in the placenta. A vaccine appears possible because women acquire protective antibodies hindering...... sequestration in the placenta as a function of parity. A challenge for vaccine development is to design small constructs of this large antigen, which can induce broadly protective antibodies. It has previously been shown that one domain of VAR2CSA, DBL4-FCR3, induces parasite adhesion-blocking antibodies....... In this study, it is demonstrated that other domains of VAR2CSA also can induce antibodies with inhibitory activity. METHODS: All VAR2CSA domains from the 3D7 and HB3 parasites were produced in Baculovirus-transfected insect cells. Groups of three rats per protein were immunized and anti-sera were tested...

  2. Final Critical Habitat for the Kincaid's lupine (Lupinus sulphureus (=oreganus) ssp. kincaidii (=var. kincaidii))

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Kincaid's lupine (Lupinus sulphureus (=oreganus) ssp. kincaidii (=var. kincaidii))...

  3. Final Critical Habitat for the Willamette daisy (Erigeron decumbens var. decumbens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Willamette daisy (Erigeron decumbens var. decumbens) occur.

  4. A Vector AutoRegressive (VAR) Approach to the Credit Channel for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    significance of monetary policy and the bank lending view of the credit channel for Mauritius, which is particularly relevant at these times. A vector autoregressive (VAR) ..... with ∆ the difference operator and B the lag operator. 2.2 Causality.

  5. modeling and analysis of a three-phase solid-state var compensator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several methods of var compensation have been applied in solv- ing these problems. ... quires costly and complex external circuits that reduce circuit reliability. One of ..... control is realized without computation of the re- quired reactive power.

  6. Final Critical Habitat for the Kincaid's lupine (Lupinus sulphureus (=oreganus) ssp. kincaidii (=var. kincaidii))

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Kincaid's lupine (Lupinus sulphureus (=oreganus) ssp. kincaidii (=var. kincaidii))...

  7. Bahiensol, a new glycerolipid from a cultured myxomycete Didymium bahiense var. bahiense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misono, Yuka; Ishibashi, Masami; Ito, Akira

    2003-05-01

    Bahiensol (1), a new glycerolipid with antimicrobial activity has been isolated from a cultured plasmodium of myxomycete Didymium bahiense var. bahiense and its planar structure was elucidated by spectral data.

  8. Three new C19-diterpenoid alkaloids from Delphinium laxicymosum var. Pilostachyum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Tang; Dong Lin Chen; Qiao Hong Chen; Xi Xian Jian; Feng Peng Wang

    2007-01-01

    Three new lycoctonine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloids, laxicymine 1, laxicymisine 2, and laxicyminine 3 have been isolated from the whole herb of Delphinium laxicymosum var.pilostachyum W.T.Wang.Their structures were established by spectra data.

  9. Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx Flavonoids Fraction Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Chun-Jun; Xu, Nai-Yu; Li, Xian-Lun; Xia, Long; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Zhi-Tao; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Chen, Dao-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) Hara, belonging to the Labiatae family, is widely used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor drug for the treatment of different inflammations and cancers. Aim of the Study...

  10. Final Critical Habitat for the Wenatchee Mountains Checkermallow (Sidalcea oregana var. calva)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Wenatchee Mountains checker-mallow (Sidalcea oregana var. calva) occur based on the...

  11. Sobre la validez taxonómica de Epithemia Zebra var. Elongata (Epithemiaceae, Bacillariophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Gorritti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorritti, G., Sala, S. E. & Guerrero, J. M. 2000. Sobre la validez taxonómica de Epithemiazebra var. elongata (Epithemiaceae, Bacillariophyceae. Darwiniana 38(3-4: 285-289.Se revisaron materiales de Epithemia zebra var. elongata Grunow ex Frenguelli para establecer lavalidez de este taxón. Se estudiaron con microscopio óptico y electrónico de barrido, ejemplares de lacolección Frenguelli y otros recientemente coleccionados en Tierra del Fuego . El análisis de la variaciónpoblacional de los caracteres morfológicos y morfométricos, y la comparación con los taxones afines:Epithemia adnata (Kützing Brébisson y E. adnata var. minor (Peragallo & Héribaud Patrick, demostróque no existen diferencias entre ellos por lo que E. zebra var. elongata debe ser considerada sinónimo deE. adnata

  12. A New 6,7-Seco-Ent-Kaurane Diterpenoid from Isodon eriocalyx Var. laxiflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new 6,7-seco-ent-kaurane diterpenoid, together with two known ones, was isolated from the leaves of Isodon eriocalyx var. laxiflora C. Y. Wu & H. W. Li. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods.

  13. Final Critical Habitat for the Huachuca water umbel (Lilaeopsis schaffneriana var. recurva)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Huachuca water umbel (Lilaeopsis schaffneriana var. recurva) occur based on the...

  14. Stratospheric age of air computed with trajectories based on various 3D-Var and 4D-Var data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Scheele

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The age of stratospheric air is computed with a trajectory model, using ECMWF ERA-40 3D-Var and operational 4D-Var winds. Analysis as well as forecast data are used. In the latter case successive forecast segments are put together to get a time series of the wind fields. This is done for different forecast segment lengths. The sensitivity of the computed age to the forecast segment length and assimilation method are studied, and the results are compared with observations and with results from a chemistry transport model that uses the same data sets. A large number of backward trajectories are started in the stratosphere, and from the fraction of these trajectories that has passed the tropopause the age of air is computed. First, for ten different data sets 50-day backward trajectories starting in the tropical lower stratosphere are computed. The results show that in this region the computed cross-tropopause transport decreases with increasing forecast segment length. Next, for three selected data sets (3D-Var 24-h and 4D-Var 72-h forecast segments, and 4D-Var analyses 5-year backward trajectories are computed that start all over the globe at an altitude of 20km. For all data sets the computed ages of air in the extratropics are smaller than the observation-based age. For 4D-Var forecast series they are closest to the observation-based values, but still 0.5-1.5 year too small. Compared to the difference in age between the results for the different data sets, the difference in age between the trajectory and the chemistry transport model results is small.

  15. MRI in Parkinson's disease and vascular Parkinsonism; Study on the lesion of substantia nigra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aotsuka, Akiyo; Shinotoh, Hitoshi; Hirayama, Keizo (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Ikehira, Hiroo; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1991-06-01

    We examined the magnetic resonance (MR) image of midbrain and striatum in 30 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 10 patients with vascular Parkinsonism (VP) and 10 age-matched control subjects. Studies were performed on a high field strength (1.5 tesla) MRI unit. T2-weighted spin echo pulse sequence (TR 2500 ms/TE 40 ms) was used. Intensity profiles of a straight line perpendicular to the pars compacta through the center of the red nucleus were made on an image of the midbrain. We measured the width of the valley at half-height between the peaks of intensity representing the red nucleus and the crus cerebri-pars reticulata complex and used this as an index of the width of the pars compacta signal. The mean width of the pars compacta signal was 2.7 mm in the PD group and 4.3 mm in controls. The difference between the means was highly significant (p<0.01). While not significant statistically, there was a trend toward narrowing of the width of pars compacta signal of substantia nigra in the PD group as the Yahr's grade or disease duration progressed. In hemiparkinsonism, MRI revealed significant narrowing of the pars compacta signal on the contra-lateral side to the clinical predominant side. The mean width of the pars compacta signal was 3.9 mm in the VP group, but the decrease was not significant. MRI in VP group showed multiple high intensity area in the basal ganglia and the white matter, and periventricular hyperintensity area (PVHIA). There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of restoration of the signal intensity in the lateral portion of the substantia nigra among PD, VP and control groups. The low signal intensity in the posterolateral putamen was not found in the 3 groups. The narrowing of the pars compacta signal has been attributed either to atrophy of the pars compacta or to increased deposition of iron in this region. The narrowing of the pars compacta signal reflected pathophysiology of PD. (J.P.N.).

  16. Evidence for the involvement of VAR2CSA in pregnancy-associated malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanti, Ali; Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Turner, Louise;

    2004-01-01

    by endemic plasma in a sex-specific and parity-dependent manner; (c) that high anti-VAR2CSA IgG levels can be found in pregnant women from both West and East Africa; and (d) that women with high plasma levels of anti-VAR2CSA IgG give birth to markedly heavier babies and have a much lower risk of delivering...

  17. [Content and distribution of active components in cultivated and wild Taxus chinensis var. mairei plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Shuai; Sun, Qi-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Tian, Sheng-Ni; Bo, Pei-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is an endemic and endangered plant species in China. The resources of T. chinensis var. mairei have been excessively exploited due to its anti-cancer potential, accordingly, the extant T. chinensis var. mairei population is decreasing. In this paper, ultrasonic extraction and HPLC were adopted to determine the contents of active components paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine in cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants, with the content distribution of these components in different parts of the plants having grown for different years and at different slope aspects investigated. There existed obvious differences in the contents of these active components between cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants. The paclitaxel content in the wild plants was about 0.78 times more than that in the cultivated plants, whereas the 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine contents were slishtly higher in the cultivated plants. The differences in the three active components contents between different parts and tree canopies of the plants were notable, being higher in barks and upper tree canopies. Four-year old plants had comparatively higher contents of paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine (0.08, 0.91 and 0.32 mg x g(-1), respectively), and the plants growing at sunny slope had higher contents of the three active components, with significant differences in the paclitaxel and 7-xylosyltaxol contents and unapparent difference in the cephalomannine content of the plants at shady slope. It was suggested that the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants were closely related to the sunshine conditions. To appropriately increase the sunshine during the artificial cultivation of T. chinensis var. mairei would be beneficial to the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants.

  18. Myte: Var Danmark det første land, der ophævede slaveriet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Helle

    2014-01-01

    Danskere har tit travlt med at vaske hænder i forbindelse med slavehandlen, for vi var jo det første land, der lovgav mod slaveriet. Men er det nu også sandt?......Danskere har tit travlt med at vaske hænder i forbindelse med slavehandlen, for vi var jo det første land, der lovgav mod slaveriet. Men er det nu også sandt?...

  19. 3-Hydroxy Fatty Acids from the Flowers of Hypericum lysimachioides var. lysimachioides

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZEN, Hasan Çetin; BAŞHAN, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acid methyl esters in the leaves and flowers of Hypericum lysimachioides var. lysimachioides (Guttiferae) were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The flowers of H. lysimachioides var. lysimachioides produced unusual 3-hydroxy fatty acids [3-hydroxy- tetradecanoic acid (3-OH-C14:0) and 3-hydroxy-octadecanoic acid (3-OH-C18:0)], along with other normal fatty acids. Major components were linolenic and palmitic acids for both leaves and flowers.

  20. Isolation and structure elucidation of a new prenylcoumarin from Murraya paniculata var. omphalocarpa (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Takeshi; Shimada, Motoko

    2002-01-01

    A new C-8 prenylated 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin named omphamurrayin was isolated from the leaves of Murraya paniculata var. omphalocarpa, and its structure was established as 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(1-oxo-2-senecioyl-3-methyl-3-butenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one on the basis of the spectroscopic evidence. The taxonomic status of M. paniculata var. omphalocarpa is briefly discussed, along with its synonymity to M. paniculata from the chemosystematic viewpoint.

  1. Studies on antigenic differences in needle proteins of Pinus sylvestris L., P. mugo Turra, P. uliginosa Neumann and P. nigra Arnold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Prus-Głowaci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of serological methods (double immunodiffusion, immunoabsortion and quantitative immunoprecipitation, using three kinds of antisera: antisylvestris, antimugo and antiuliginosa authors performed a comparison of antigenic properties of proteins from needles of P. sylvestris, P. mugo, P. uliginosa and P. nigra. Proteins characteristic for the species P. sylvesiris, and P. uliginosa were found. On the basis of the results obtained it was established, that the most distinct species are P. mugo and P. sylvestris, P. uliginosa is antigenically different from the two taxa but is showing greater similarity to P. mugo than to P. sylvestris. P. nigra proteins are different from proteins P. sylvestris, P. mugo, and P. uliginosa. They show however, some antigenic similarity to P. sylvestris proteins.

  2. Ocurrencia de Pseudoboa nigra (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 en la República Argentina (Serpentes: Dipsadidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etchepare, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pseudoboa is composed by six species of snakes widely distributed in most of South America, western Panama, and the Tobago and Grenada islands. Due to lack of voucher material, Pseudoboa nigra was excluded from the snakes species lists from Argentina. Here, its presence is confirmed, increasing to 128 the snake species number known for this country.El género Pseudoboa comprende seis especies de serpientes que se distribuyen en gran parte de América del Sur, oeste de Panamá y en las islas Tobago y Granada. Se confirma la presencia en la República Argentina de Pseudoboa nigra, la cual había sido excluida de las listas de especies de serpientes de este país por no contar con material de referencia. Con este registro se alcanzan las 128 especies citadas para la ofidiofauna argentina.

  3. Valor nutricional e potencial nutracêutico de inflorescências de couve-nabo (Brassica napus var napus) e couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleraceae var costata).

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Batista, Cátia Emanuela Oliveira; Carvalho, Ana Maria; FERREIRA, ISABEL C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Na Península Ibérica as verduras (silvestres ou tradicionalmente cultivadas) têm sido alimentos importantes na dieta humana. O valor nutricional de verduras e os seus benefícios para a saúde têm sido reconhecidos como importantes alvos de investigação. Os grelos, inflorescências da couve-nabo (Brassica napus L. var. napus) e os espigos, inflorescências da couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC.) são exemplos de espécies tradicionalmente cultivadas e amplamente consumidas nas re...

  4. Valor nutricional e potencial nutracêutico de inflorescências de couve-nabo (Brassica napus var napus) e couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleraceae var costata).

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Batista, Cátia Emanuela Oliveira; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Na Península Ibérica as verduras (silvestres ou tradicionalmente cultivadas) têm sido alimentos importantes na dieta humana. O valor nutricional de verduras e os seus benefícios para a saúde têm sido reconhecidos como importantes alvos de investigação. Os grelos, inflorescências da couve-nabo (Brassica napus L. var. napus) e os espigos, inflorescências da couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC.) são exemplos de espécies tradicionalmente cultivadas e amplamente consumidas nas re...

  5. Penetration, Post-penetration Development, and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumis melo var. texanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faske, T R

    2013-03-01

    Cucumis melo var. texanus, a wild melon commonly found in the southern United States and two accessions, Burleson Co. and MX 1230, expressed resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in preliminary experiments. To characterize the mechanism of resistance, we evaluated root penetration, post-penetration development, reproduction, and emigration of M. incognita on these two accessions of C. melo var. texanus. Additionally, we evaluated 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus for their reaction against M. incognita in a greenhouse experiment. Fewer (P ≤ 0.05) J2 penetrated the root system of C. melo var. texanus accessions (Burleson Co. and MX 1230) and C. metuliferus (PI 482452) (resistant control), 7 days after inoculation (DAI) than in C. melo 'Hales Best Jumbo' (susceptible control). A delayed (P ≤ 0.05) rate of nematode development was observed at 7, 14, and 21 DAI that contributed to lower (P ≤ 0.05) egg production on both accessions and C. metuliferus compared with C. melo. Though J2 emigration was observed on all Cucumis genotypes a higher (P ≤ 0.05) rate of J2 emigration was observed from 3 to 6 DAI on accession Burleson Co. and C. metuliferus than on C. melo. The 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus varied relative to their reaction to M. incognita with eight supporting similar levels of nematode reproduction to that of C. metuliferus. Cucumis melo var. texanus may be a useful source of resistance against root-knot nematode in melon.

  6. Arundina graminifolia var. revoluta (Arethuseae, Orchidaceae) has fern-type rheophyte characteristics in the leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Eri; Ishikawa, Naoko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and molecular variation between Arundina graminifolia var. graminifolia and the dwarf variety, A. graminifolia var. revoluta, was examined to assess the validity of their taxonomic characteristics and genetic background for identification. Morphological analysis in combination with field observations indicated that A. graminifolia var. revoluta is a rheophyte form of A. graminifolia characterized by narrow leaves, whereas the other morphological characteristics described for A. graminifolia var. revoluta, such as smaller flowers and short stems, were not always accompanied by the narrower leaf phenotype. Molecular analysis based on matK sequences indicated that only partial differentiation has occurred between A. graminifolia var. graminifolia and A. graminifolia var. revoluta. Therefore, we should consider the rheophyte form an ecotype rather than a variety. Anatomical observations of the leaves revealed that the rheophyte form of A. graminifolia possessed characteristics of the rheophytes of both ferns and angiosperms, such as narrower palisade tissue cells and thinner spongy tissue cells, as well as fewer cells in the leaf-width direction and fewer mesophyll cell layers.

  7. Semi-nonparametric VaR forecasts for hedge funds during the recent crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brio, Esther B.; Mora-Valencia, Andrés; Perote, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The need to provide accurate value-at-risk (VaR) forecasting measures has triggered an important literature in econophysics. Although these accurate VaR models and methodologies are particularly demanded for hedge fund managers, there exist few articles specifically devoted to implement new techniques in hedge fund returns VaR forecasting. This article advances in these issues by comparing the performance of risk measures based on parametric distributions (the normal, Student’s t and skewed-t), semi-nonparametric (SNP) methodologies based on Gram-Charlier (GC) series and the extreme value theory (EVT) approach. Our results show that normal-, Student’s t- and Skewed t- based methodologies fail to forecast hedge fund VaR, whilst SNP and EVT approaches accurately success on it. We extend these results to the multivariate framework by providing an explicit formula for the GC copula and its density that encompasses the Gaussian copula and accounts for non-linear dependences. We show that the VaR obtained by the meta GC accurately captures portfolio risk and outperforms regulatory VaR estimates obtained through the meta Gaussian and Student’s t distributions.

  8. Feasibility of Stochastic Voltage/VAr Optimization Considering Renewable Energy Resources for Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Salkuti, Surender Reddy

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic optimization technique for solving the Voltage/VAr control problem including the load demand and Renewable Energy Resources (RERs) variation. The RERs often take along some inputs like stochastic behavior. One of the important challenges i. e., Voltage/VAr control is a prime source for handling power system complexity and reliability, hence it is the fundamental requirement for all the utility companies. There is a need for the robust and efficient Voltage/VAr optimization technique to meet the peak demand and reduction of system losses. The voltages beyond the limit may damage costly sub-station devices and equipments at consumer end as well. Especially, the RERs introduces more disturbances and some of the RERs are not even capable enough to meet the VAr demand. Therefore, there is a strong need for the Voltage/VAr control in RERs environment. This paper aims at the development of optimal scheme for Voltage/VAr control involving RERs. In this paper, Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method is used to cover full range of variables by maximally satisfying the marginal distribution. Here, backward scenario reduction technique is used to reduce the number of scenarios effectively and maximally retain the fitting accuracy of samples. The developed optimization scheme is tested on IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System (RTS) considering the load demand and RERs variation.

  9. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, M age = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman's Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. "Not changed" patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than "improved" and "recovered" patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy.

  10. [Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction and component analysis of leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Zhang, Feng-su; Li, Xiang; Chen, Jian-wei; Yao, Xiao

    2013-12-01

    To research the optimal extraction process of supercritical CO2 extraction and analyze the component of the oil extracted from leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. Using the yield of leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei as the index, investigated the effect of the extraction pressure, extraction temperature and extraction time on the extracting-rate of leaves oil. The chemical composition of the extracted leaves oil was analyzed by derivatized GC-MS. The optimal parameters of the supercritical CO2 extraction of the oil extracted from leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei were determined: CO2 compressor pump frequency was 10 Hz, the extraction pressure was 25 MPa and the temperature of extraction was 45 degrees C, the extraction time was 120 min, the isolator I pressure was 8.0 MPa and the temperature of extraction was 40 degrees C, the isolator II pressure was 5.0 MPa and the temperature of extraction was 35 degrees C. The extracted leaves oil was derivatized with boron trifluoride-methanol complex. Thirty-three kinds of fatty acids were identified by GC-MS. The yield of leaves oils are different from Taxus chinensis var. mairei from 3 habitats. The yield of leaves oil from Donggang, Wuxi city is the highest, about 2.61%. The kinds of fatty acids with high amounts in leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei is identical in general, the kinds of fatty acids with low amounts in leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei have differences.

  11. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M.; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, Mage = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman’s Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. “Not changed” patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than “improved” and “recovered” patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy. PMID:26500589

  12. Hibridação interespecífica entre Gossmum hirsutum L. var. latifolium e G. Herbaceum L. var. africanum Interespecific hybridization between Gossypium hirsutum var. latifolium and G. Herbaceum var. africanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ederaldo José Chiavegato

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi obtida, pelos autores, variabilidade genética para resistência da fibra do algodoeiro a partir da hibridação entre a espécie alotetraplóide cultivada Gossypium hirsutum L. var. latifolium Hutch. e a espécie diplóide selvagem G. herbaceum L. vai. africanum Hutch. A metodologia empregada e as características agronômicas e tecnológicas da fibra do híbrido são descritas e discutidas. Visando à duplicação do número de cromossomos da espécie diplóide, foram realizados nove tratamentos com o alcalóide colchicina, em solução aquosa e em adição com pasta de lanolina, com diferentes concentrações e tempo de ação para o tratamento de sementes, radicelas e gemas apicais: revelou-se mais eficiente o de gemas apicais com colchicina a 1%, em pasta de lanolina, durante 32 horas. Diversos cruzamentos das plantas duplicadas com variedades comerciais de algodoeiro levaram à obtenção de híbrido estéril. A seguir, dois retrocruzamentos foram realizados, sendo que, a partir do primeiro, a fertilidade foi restaurada. Estas plantas, com características agronômicas promissoras, possuem grande variabilidade para resistência da fibra, num nível superior ao de G. hirsutum.Genetic variability was obtained by the authors for fiber strenght in cotton, through hybridization between the cultivated alotetraploid species Gossypium hirsutum L. var. latifolium Hutch. and the wild diploid species G. herbaceum L. africanum Hutch. The underlying methods and the hybrid's characteristics are reported and described. As a first step, the number of chromosomes in the diploid species was duplicated. Nine treatments with aqueous colchicina or colchicina in lanolina paste were carried out, comprising several concentrations and times of application to seeds, radicles and apical buds of the main stem. Success was obtained by treating apical buds with lanolina paste containing 1% colchicina, during 32 hours. Two hundred fourty five crosses between the

  13. Micropropagation of an endangered species Pinus armandii var. Amamiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Ishii

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For micropropagation via organ culture, mature embryos were excised from the seeds of Pinus armandii. Franch. var. amamiana (Koidz. Hatusima, an endangered species only inhabiting the south west islands of Japan. Adventitious buds were induced on the surface of the embryo on 1/2 DCR medium containing BAP, and they grew shoots after subculturing to medium containing activated charcoal or a low concentration of thidiazuron. From the elongated shoots, root primordia and roots were induced in medium containing IBA as an auxine. We found that a low concentration of zeatin or BAP added to the medium was beneficial for plant regeneration of mature embryos of this species. For micropropagation via somatic embryogenesis, embryogenic cell suspensions were induced from a mature and immature seed of P. armandii var. amamiana on MS liquid medium supplemented with 1 ľM 2, 4-D and 3 ľM BAP. The suspensions were incubated in the dark at 250. Induced suspension cells were transferred to ammonium free MS liquid medium supplemented with 1 ľM 2, 4-D, 3 ľM BAP and 30m M L-glutamine and subcultured every 2 weeks. In the other set of the experiment, the induction rate of somatic embryogenesis was high with ammonium free half strength MS medium. In order to develop somatic embryos, the suspension cells were transferred to ammonium free MS medium supplemented with 10 ľM ABA, 0.2% activated charcoal, 10% PEG (MW6000, 30m M L-glutamine and 6% maltose. The cultures were incubated under a 16h light/8h dark photoperiod. After 1-2 months of culture, differentiation of embryos progressed and cotyledonary embryos were obtained. These embryos were transferred on ammonium free MS solid medium under 16 h photoperiod. After 2-3 weeks plantlets with roots and green cotyledons were obtained. Plantlets were transplanted to vermiculite containing modified MS liquid medium in 200 ml culture flasks, then out planted after habituation procedure.

  14. Examination of correlation between histidine and nickel absorption by Morus L., Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Populus nigra L. using HPLC-MS and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Sukran Akkus; Yaman, Mehmet

    2016-08-02

    In this study, HPLC-MS and ICP-MS methods were used for the determination of histidine and nickel in Morus L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Populus nigra L. leaves taken from industrial areas including Gaziantep and Bursa cities. In the determination of histidine by HPLC-MS, all of the system parameters such as flow rate of mobile phase, fragmentor potential, injection volume and column temperature were optimized and found to be 0.2 mL min(-1), 70 V, 15 µL, and 20°C, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, histidine was extracted from plant sample by distilled water at 90°C for 30 min. Concentrations of histidine as mg kg(-1) were found to be between 2-9 for Morus L., 6-13 for Robinia pseudoacacia L., and 2-10 for Populus nigra L. Concentrations of nickel were in the ranges of 5-10 mg kg(-1) for Morus L., 3-10 mg kg(-1) for Robinia pseudoacacia L., and 0.6-4 mg kg(-1) for Populus nigra L. A significant linear correlation (r = 0.78) between histidine and Ni was observed for Populus nigra L., whereas insignificant linear correlation for Robinia pseudoacacia L. (r = 0.22) were seen. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were found to be 0.025 mg Ni L(-1) and 0.075 mg Ni L(-1), respectively.

  15. Stereological estimates of dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and retrorubral field in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Nair-Roberts, R.G.; Chatelain-Badie, S.D.; Benson, E.; White-Cooper, H; BOLAM, J. P.; Ungless, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and retrorubral field play key roles in reward processing, learning and memory, and movement. Within these midbrain regions and admixed with the dopamine neurons, are also substantial populations of GABAergic neurons that regulate dopamine neuron activity and have projection targets similar to those of dopamine neurons. Additionally, there is a small group of putative glutamatergic neurons within the ventral tegmental a...

  16. The effects of heartwood and sapwood on kraft pulp properties of Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold and Abies bornmuelleriana Mattf.

    OpenAIRE

    Ataç, Yasin; EROĞLU, Hüdaverdi

    2013-01-01

    The effects of heartwood and sapwood on kraft pulp properties of Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold. and Abies bornmuelleriana Mattf. were investigated. The differences in terms of chemical composition and fiber properties between the heartwood and sapwood of these species were also examined. Heartwood had more holocellulose and extractive compared to sapwood. Moreover, heartwood fiber length was shorter than that of sapwood. Kraft cookings of heartwood and sapwood each species were separately done under...

  17. Chemical Composition of Ballota macedonica Vandas and Ballota nigra L. ssp. foetida (Vis.) Hayek Essential Oils - The Chemotaxonomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, Aleksandra S; Jovanović, Olga P; Zlatković, Bojan K; Stojanović, Gordana S

    2016-06-01

    The essential oils isolated from fresh aerial parts of Ballota macedonica (two populations) and Ballota nigra ssp. foetida were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Eighty five components were identified in total; 60 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), 34 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Republic of Serbia), and 33 components in the oil of B. nigra ssp. foetida accounting for 93.9%, 98.4%, and 95.8% of the total oils, respectively. The most abundant components in B. macedonica oils were carotol (13.7 - 52.1%), germacrene D (8.6 - 24.6%), and (E)-caryophyllene (6.5 - 16.5%), while B. nigra ssp. foetida oil was dominated by (E)-phytol (56.9%), germacrene D (10.0%), and (E)-caryophyllene (4.7%). Multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) were used to compare and discuss relationships among Ballota species examined so far based on their volatile profiles. The chemical compositions of B. macedonica essential oils are reported for the first time.

  18. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 by the multiherbal commercial product Sambucus Force and its main constituents Echinacea purpurea and Sambucus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrøder-Aasen, Torstein; Molden, Guri; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2012-11-01

    The multiherbal product Sambucus Force contains Echinacea purpurea and Sambucus nigra as its main constituents. The aims of this study were to evaluate Sambucus Force's inhibition potential and inhibition mechanisms towards CYP3A4, and to evaluate the inhibitory co-contribution of E. purpurea and S. nigra. Metabolic studies were performed with recombinant human CYP3A4, with testosterone as substrate. Sambucus Force inhibited CYP3A4 activity with a mean (95% confidence interval) half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50) ) value of 1192 (1091-1302) µg/mL. The inhibitory potency seems exclusively to be exerted by E. purpurea, implicating an insignificant inhibition by S. nigra. The inhibition by E. purpurea as a single herb was in agreement with mechanism-based inhibition with heterotropic positive cooperative effects. Echinacea purpurea acted differently in the multiherbal product, which showed a dual inhibition profile with both an uncompetitive (substrate-dependent) inhibition and a time-dependent (substrate-independent) inhibitory mechanism. These mechanistic differences are suggested to be caused by herb-herb interactions in the multiherbal product. The CYP3A4 inhibition of Sambucus Force in vitro is considered relatively weak, but recommended high herbal dosages might enhance the potential for clinical interactions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Distribution of GABA-ergic Neurons in the Rhesus Monkey Substantia Nigra%猕猴黑质GABA能神经元的分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董大翠; 蔡秋云; 姚大卫; 陈活彝

    2000-01-01

    The higher evolutive rhesus monkeys were used as experimental materials. GABA-ergic neurons were observed under a light microscope. The GABA-ergic neurons in the pars reticulata of substantion nigra were numerous, dominant in the shape of polygonal or shuttle. The GABA neurons in the pars compacta of substantia nigra were less than in the pars reticulata, with the shape dominant in polygonal, round or shuttle.Many GABA-like positive fibres were observed at the inferior colliculus level of substantia nigra.%采用进化程度较高的灵长类动物猕猴作为实验材料,在光镜下观察黑质的GABA能神经元。在黑质网状部GABA能神经元数量多,以多角形和梭形为主,致密部的GABA能神经元较网状部略稀少,胞体形态以多角形、圆形和梭形为主;在下丘平面还可见到许多GABA样阳性神经纤维。

  20. Influence of stand density and soil treatment on the Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. Salzmannii) regeneration in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerro Barja, A. del; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Martinez Garcia, E.; Lopez Serrano, F. R.; Andres Abellan, M.; Garcia Morote, F. A.; Navarro Lopez, R.

    2009-07-01

    Satisfactory results relating to the natural regeneration of the Spanish black pine (Pinus nigra Arn ssp. salzmannii) is generally difficult to achieve. The natural regeneration of this pine was studied comparing two types of soil treatment and various over story densities in six experimental forests. These studies were conducted from 1999 to 2002 and seed rain and germination, as well as seedling survival were observed in a number of specific plots: Brushing, scalping and control plots. In addition various over story densities were used (measured as base area m2/ha). Soil and air temperature together with soil moisture were continuously recorded throughout this summer period. The results showed that seed germination was higher in plots using the scalping technique, as opposed to the brushed or controlled plots. The best seedling survival percentage was found in scalped plots together with a larger basal area. It was also found that seedling survival was lower during the first year than during the second one. The results have practical implications for management of Spanish black pine forests as well as valuable information which could improve the conditions for regeneration. (Author) 82 refs.

  1. Use of cyclodextrins in biotransformation reactions with cell cultures of Morus nigra: biosynthesis of prenylated chalcone isocordoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolasco, Adriana; Fioravanti, Rossella; Rossi, Francesca; Rossi, Paola; Vitali, Alberto

    2010-06-16

    In vivo biotransformation experiments were performed by using a cell suspension culture of Morus nigra expressing a high PT (prenyltransferase) activity, fed with the target substrate 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone. In order to improve the reaction yields by enhancing the chalcone solubility, three different cyclodextrins have been used to host the substrate. The respective complexes have been studied by means of both spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques (Fourier-transform infrared, 1H-NMR and differential scanning calorimetry) and the solution behaviours have been characterized by solubility phase studies. The hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin complex was found to be the most suitable for biotransformation, and the reaction of prenylation resulted in a 6-fold higher yield of the final product when compared with the use of the free substrate. The reaction provided as the sole product the 3'-dimethylallyl derivative isocordoin, a biologically active plant compound. The results obtained allow the development of systems based on the use of biofermentors or the use of immobilized cells in order to enhance the biotransformation yields.

  2. Substantia nigra dopaminergic unit activity in behaving cats: effect of arousal on spontaneous discharge and sensory evoked activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, R E; Jacobs, B L

    1985-12-30

    Single-unit activity of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra was recorded in freely moving cats during a variety of conditions designed to shed light on the hypotheses that these neurons are involved in the regulation of arousal-stress and/or selective attention. Both aversive and non-aversive arousing experimental conditions were used, including tail pinch, immersion of feet in ice-water, white noise, inaccessible food, feeding, grooming, inaccessible rats, and somatosensory stimulation. None of these conditions had an effect on tonic neuronal discharge rate. However, these neurons did exhibit brief excitatory and inhibitory responses to phasic auditory or visual stimuli presented when the cat was sitting quietly. These responses were dramatically attenuated if these stimuli were presented during the aforementioned conditions of behavioral arousal. This sharply contrasts with the inability of these same conditions to influence spontaneous discharge rate. The sensitivity of this neuronal sensory response to the concurrent behavioral condition supports the hypothesis that these neurons are involved in attentional processes or selective responding. The lack of responsiveness of these neurons to a variety of arousal/stress manipulations supports the hypothesis that dopaminergic neurons play a permissive, rather than an active, role in these processes.

  3. Selection of black elderberry (Sambucus nigra L. and evaluation of its fruits usability as biologically valuable food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mratinić Evica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To carry out domestication, five genotypes (B1, B2, R, VG and RK were isolated from natural populations by selection of black elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.. The most prominent biological-technological characteristics were studied during fruit flowering and ripening. Flowering proceeded in the period from mid-April to the 1st decade of June, while ripening lasted from the 1st decade of August to the 1st decade of October. The largest inflorescences were found in genotype R (14.32 cm in diameter. The highest number of berries per inflorescence (on average, 280, the largest berry (on average, 0.21 g, and the best fruit quality (17.19% dry matter, 11.50% sugars, 35 mg vitamin C, and 2.58 g/l total colored matter were all demonstrated by genotype VG. In all isolated genotypes fruit demonstrated biologically high quality, which makes it a good raw material desirable for diverse forms of processing. Its high yield level, pronounced resistance to disease agents and pests, as well as adaptability to adverse conditions are a recommendation for organic-based production.

  4. Leaf Morphology Variation of Populus nigra L. in Natural Populations along the Rivers in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Kajba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The aim was to determine the morphological differences between the hairy type of European black poplar (Populus nigra subsp. caudina and the typical type from the riparian forests populations as well as between the river systems. Hairy black poplar spreads in a mosaic pattern across the Submediterranean climatic type along the River Neretva and the typical European black poplar is growing on alluvial soils along large rivers in the territory of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Material and Methods: Samples for leaf morphometric analysis were collected in 17 natural populations of European black poplar along six rivers in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Results: Discriminant analyses have determined that in the differentiation of population groups largely contribute some characters such as the distance between the leaf widest part and the leaf base (DBW and the petiole length (PL. The differences between populations and analysed groups, as well as the differences between populations belonging to a particular river system, were confirmed for all studied characteristics. Conclusions: Significant differences have been determined between the typical and the hairy type of European black poplar in the studied morphological traits and these dissimilarities are in accordance with the climatic differences in respective habitats of continental riparian forests and the Submediterranean type of climate. Populations sampled in the lower course of the River Neretva, which correspond to the hairy type of the European black poplar, have smaller leaves and a greater angle between the first lower lateral vein and the midrib.

  5. The 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostriatal neurodegeneration produces microglia-like NG2 glial cells in the rat substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Inden, Masatoshi; Minamino, Hideaki; Abe, Mari; Takata, Kazuyuki; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2010-11-01

    Neuron/glial 2 (NG2)-expressing cells are often referred to as oligodendrocyte precursor cells. NG2-expressing cells have also been identified as multipotent progenitor cells. However, microglia-like NG2 glial cells have not been fully examined in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we chose two rat models of PD, i.e., intranigral or intrastriatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), since the cell bodies of dopamine (DA) neurons, which form a nigrostriatal pathway, are in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) while their nerve terminals are in the striatum. In the nigral 6-OHDA-injected model, activated NG2-positive cells were detected in the SNpc but not in the striatum. In contrast, in the striatal 6-OHDA-injected model, these cells were detected in both the SNpc and the striatum. In both models, activated NG2-positive cells were located close to surviving tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the SNpc. In addition, activated NG2-positive cells in the SNpc coexpressed ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1), a microglia/macrophage marker. Interestingly, these double-positive glial cells coexpressed glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). These results suggest that microglia-like NG2 glial cells may help protect DA neurons and may lead to new therapeutic targets in PD.

  6. Are the Economically Optimal Harvesting Strategies of Uneven-Aged Pinus nigra Stands Always Sustainable and Stabilizing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Fullana-Belda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional uneven-aged forest management seeks a balance between equilibrium stand structure and economic profitability, which often leads to harvesting strategies concentrated in the larger diameter classes. The sustainability (i.e., population persistence over time and influence of such economically optimal strategies on the equilibrium position of a stand (given by the stable diameter distribution have not been sufficiently investigated in prior forest literature. This article therefore proposes a discrete optimal control model to analyze the sustainability and stability of the economically optimal harvesting strategies of uneven-aged Pinus nigra stands. For this model, we rely on an objective function that integrates financial data of harvesting operations with a projection matrix model that can describe the population dynamics. The model solution reveals the optimal management schedules for a wide variety of scenarios. To measure the distance between the stable diameter distribution and the economically optimal harvesting strategy distribution, the model uses Keyfitz’s delta, which returns high values for all the scenarios and, thus, suggests that those economically optimal harvesting strategies have an unstabilizing influence on the equilibrium positions. Moreover, the economically optimal harvesting strategies were unsustainable for all the scenarios.

  7. Carbon dioxide laser ablation of dermatosis papulosa nigra: high satisfaction and few complications in patients with pigmented skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Faisal R; Bakkour, Waseem; Ferguson, Janice E; Madan, Vishal

    2016-04-01

    Dermatosis papulosa nigra (DPN) is a common condition of pigmented skin. Whilst lesions are benign, they may be symptomatic or cosmetically disfiguring. Ablative lasers have previously been reported as a useful therapeutic modality in DPN. We report the largest case series to date of patients with DPN ablated with the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. A retrospective case note review was conducted of all patients with DPN treated in our laser clinic in the last five years, and a post-treatment telephone survey was undertaken to assess patient satisfaction. Forty-five patients were identified, with a median age of 41 years (range 25-74 years), of whom 37 (82%) were female. The median number of treatments undertaken was three (range 1-10). Of the 18 respondents to the telephone survey, when asked to grade their satisfaction with the procedure out of 10, median response was 9.5 (range 6-10) with nine patients citing the maximum score of 10. All patients replied that their confidence had improved following the procedure and that they would recommend the treatment to other patients. Five respondents (28%) reported recurrence of a few lesions following CO2 laser ablation; the remaining 13 respondents (72%) reported no recurrence of DPN. No respondents reported any other post-procedural complications (including scarring, hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation). We advocate use of the CO2 laser as a safe, convenient means of treating DPN, with a high degree of patient satisfaction, low recurrence rate and few complications.

  8. Discovery of Walnut Twig Beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, Associated with Forested Black Walnut, Juglans nigra, in the Eastern U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Wiggins

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thousand cankers disease (TCD is an insect-mediated disease of walnut trees (Juglans spp. involving walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis and a fungal pathogen (Geosmithia morbida. Although first documented on walnut species in the western U.S., TCD is now found on black walnut (J. nigra in five states in the eastern U.S. Most collections of P. juglandis or G. morbida are from trees in agriculturally- or residentially-developed landscapes. In 2013, 16 pheromone-baited funnel traps were deployed in or near black walnuts in forested conditions to assess the risk of infestation of forested trees by P. juglandis. Four of the 16 funnel traps collected adult P. juglandis from three forested areas (one in North Carolina and two in Tennessee. These collections, while in forested settings, may still be strongly influenced by human activities. The greatest number of P. juglandis (n = 338 was collected from a forested location in an urbanized area near a known TCD-positive tree. The other two forested locations where P. juglandis (n = 3 was collected were in areas where camping is common, and infested firewood may have introduced P. juglandis unintentionally into the area. Future studies to assess P. juglandis on more isolated forested walnuts are planned.

  9. Disruption of dopaminergic transmission remodels tripartite synapse morphology and astrocytic calcium activity within substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Anthony; Boisseau, Sylvie; Buisson, Alain; Savasta, Marc; Albrieux, Mireille

    2015-04-01

    The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia circuitry particularly sensitive to pathological dopamine depletion. Indeed, hyperactivity of SNr neurons is known to be responsible for some motor disorders characteristic of Parkinson's disease. The neuronal processing of basal ganglia dysfunction is well understood but, paradoxically, the role of astrocytes in the regulation of SNr activity has rarely been considered. We thus investigated the influence of the disruption of dopaminergic transmission on plastic changes at tripartite glutamatergic synapses in the rat SNr and on astrocyte calcium activity. In 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, we observed structural plastic changes of tripartite glutamatergic synapses and perisynaptic astrocytic processes. These findings suggest that subthalamonigral synapses undergo morphological changes that accompany the pathophysiological processes of Parkinson's disease. The pharmacological blockade of dopaminergic transmission (with sulpiride and SCH-23390) increased astrocyte calcium excitability, synchrony and gap junction coupling within the SNr, suggesting a functional adaptation of astrocytes to dopamine transmission disruption in this output nucleus. This hyperactivity is partly reversed by subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation which has emerged as an efficient symptomatic treatment for Parkinson's disease. Therefore, our results demonstrate structural and functional reshaping of neuronal and glial elements highlighting a functional plasticity of neuroglial interactions when dopamine transmission is disrupted.

  10. Alterations in the histaminergic system in the substantia nigra and striatum of Parkinson's patients: a postmortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ling; Bossers, Koen; Luchetti, Sabina; Balesar, Rawien; Lethbridge, Natasha; Chazot, Paul L; Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F

    2012-07-01

    Earlier studies showed neuronal histamine production in the hypothalamic tuberomamillary nucleus to be unchanged in Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas the histamine levels and innervation in the substantia nigra (SN) increased. In the present study we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to assess the changes in the histaminergic system in the SN, caudate nucleus (CN), and putamen (PU) in 7 PD patients and 7 controls. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the histamine receptor-3 (H(3)R), which was localized immunocytochemically in the large pigmented neurons, was significantly decreased in the SN in PD, while histamine receptor-4 (H(4)R)-mRNA expression showed a significant increase in caudate nucleus and PU. In addition, significantly increased mRNA levels of histamine methyltransferase (HMT), a key enzyme involved in histamine metabolism, were found in the SN and in the PU in PD. Moreover, in the SN, the histamine methyltransferase-mRNA showed a strong negative correlation with PD disease duration. Our observations imply the presence of local changes in the histaminergic system that may contribute to PD pathology, and may thus provide a rationale for possible novel therapeutic strategies.

  11. Chronic pramipexole treatment induces compulsive behavior in rats with 6-OHDA lesions of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardou, D; Reyrolle, L; Chassain, C; Durif, F

    2017-08-14

    Dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) reduces motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), but also induces impulsive-compulsive behavior (ICB) in up to 25% of PD patients. These non-motor side effects of DRT generally follow a gradual transition from impulsive to compulsive-like-i.e. repetitive, compelled, and non-pleasurable-behavior. Here, we investigated the effect of chronic pramipexole (PPX) treatment on the onset of compulsive-like behavior, measured via the post-training signal attenuation (PTSA) procedure, in rats with dopaminergic lesions. Accordingly, we aimed to mimic chronic DRT in a PD context, and obtain data on the brain regions that potentially sustain this type of compulsive behavior pattern in rats. We observed that the lesion or treatment alone did not induce compulsive lever pressing in rats. However, rats with lesions of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area as well as with chronic PPX treatment developed strong compulsive lever-pressing behavior, as measured via PTSA. Furthermore, when chronic PPX treatment was discontinued before the PTSA test, the lesioned rats showed the same level of compulsive behavior as sham-operated rats. In fact, lesioned, treated, and compulsive-like rats showed significantly higher Fos expression in the orbitofrontal cortex and dorsal striatum. Thus, chronic PPX treatment in PD rats induced a strong compulsive-like behavior. Furthermore, Fos expression mapping suggests that the behavior was sustained via the activation of the orbitofrontal cortex and dorsal striatum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Abnormal burst patterns of single neurons recorded in the substantia nigra reticulata of behaving 140 CAG Huntington's disease mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Nakhnikian, Alexander; Dorner, Jenelle L; Fischer, Benjamin I; Bower-Bir, Nathan D; Rebec, George V

    2012-03-14

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that causes neurological pathology in the basal ganglia and related circuitry. A key site of HD pathology is striatum, the principal basal ganglia input structure; striatal pathology likely changes basal ganglia output but no existing studies address this issue. In this report, we characterize single-neuron activity in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) of awake, freely behaving 140 CAG knock-in (KI) mice at 16-40 weeks. KI mice are a well characterized model of adult HD and are mildly symptomatic in this age range. As the primary basal ganglia output nucleus in rodents, the SNr receives direct innervation from striatum, as well as indirect influence via polysynaptic inputs. We analyzed 32 single neurons recorded from KI animals and 44 from wild-type (WT) controls. We found increased burst rates, without a concordant change in spike discharge rate, in KI animals relative to WTs. Furthermore, although metrics of burst structure, such as the inter-spike interval in bursts, do not differ between groups, burst rate increases with age in KI, but not WT, animals. Our findings suggest that altered basal ganglia output is a physiological feature of early HD pathology.

  13. Genetic differentiation and spatial structure of Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease in black walnut (Juglans nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadziabdic, Denita; Vito, Lisa M; Windham, Mark T; Pscheidt, Jay W; Trigiano, Robert N; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    The main objectives of this study were to evaluate genetic composition of Geosmithia morbida populations in the native range of black walnut and provide a better understanding regarding demography of the pathogen. The fungus G. morbida, and the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, have been associated with a disease complex of black walnut (Juglans nigra) known as thousand cankers disease (TCD). The disease is manifested as branch dieback and canopy loss, eventually resulting in tree death. In 2010, the disease was detected in black walnut in Tennessee, and subsequently in Virginia and Pennsylvania in 2011 and North Carolina in 2012. These were the first incidences of TCD east of Colorado, where the disease has been established for more than a decade on indigenous walnut species. A genetic diversity and population structure study of 62 G. morbida isolates from Tennessee, Pennsylvania, North Carolina and Oregon was completed using 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci. The results revealed high haploid genetic diversity among seven G. morbida populations with evidence of gene flow, and significant differentiation among two identified genetic clusters. There was a significant correlation between geographic and genetic distance. Understanding the genetic composition and demography of G. morbida can provide valuable insight into recognizing factors affecting the persistence and spread of an invasive pathogen, disease progression, and future infestation predictions. Overall, these data support the hypotheses of two separate, highly diverse pathogen introductions into the native range of black walnut.

  14. Antimicrobial activities of several parts of Pinus brutia, Juniperus oxycedrus, Abies cilicia, Cedrus libani and Pinus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diğrak, M; Ilçim, A; Hakki Alma, M

    1999-11-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial activities of several parts of various trees grown in the Kahramanmaraş region of Turkey were investigated by the disc diffusion method. Chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of leaves, resins, barks, cones and fruits of Pinus brutia Ten., Juniperus oxycedrus L., Abies cilicia Ant. & Kotschy Carr., Cedrus libani A. Rich. and Pinus nigra Arn. were prepared and tested against Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Bacillus subtilis IMG 22, Bacillus cereus FMC 19, Escherichia coli DM, Klebsiella pneumoniae FMC 3, Enterobacter aerogenes CCM 2531, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, Mycobacterium smegmatis RUT, Proteus vulgaris FMC 1, Listeria monocytogenes Scoot A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 5007, Candida albicans CCM 314, Candida tropicalis MDC 86 and Penicillium italicum K. The results showed that antifungal effects were not observed for the whole extracts, E. coli was not inhibited by any of the plant extracts except by the chloroform and acetone extracts of the leaves of A. cilicia, which showed inhibition zones of 16-18 mm, respectively. All the plant extracts used in this study inhibited the development of the other bacteria studied. When the results of this study were compared with an ampicillin standard, it was found that the microorganisms studied were generally susceptible, intermediate or resistant to the extracts of species when compared with the ampicillin standard. On the other hand, the acetone and methanol extracts of Juniperus fruits were found to be quite resistant.

  15. Seizure-induced damage to substantia nigra and globus pallidus is accompanied by pronounced intra- and extracellular acidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, K.; Smith, M.L.; Hansen, A.J.; Siesjoe, B.K. (Univ. of Lund (Sweden))

    1989-12-01

    Status epilepticus of greater than 30-min duration in rats gives rise to a conspicuous lesion in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNPR) and globus pallidus (GP). The objective of the present study was to explore whether the lesion, which encompasses necrosis of both neurons and glial cells, is related to intra- and extracellular acidosis. Using the flurothyl model previously described to produce seizures, we assessed regional pH values with the autoradiographic 5,5-dimethyl(2-14C)oxazolidine-2,4-dione technique. Regional pH values were assessed in animals with continuous seizures for 20 and 60 min, as well as in those allowed to recover for 30 and 120 min after seizure periods of 20 or 60 min. In additional animals, changes in extracellular fluid pH (pHe) were measured with ion-selective microelectrodes, and extracellular fluid (ECF) volume was calculated from the diffusion profile for electrophoretically administered tetramethylammonium. In structures such as the neocortex and the hippocampus, which show intense metabolic activation during seizures, status epilepticus of 20- and 60-min duration was accompanied by a reduction of the composite tissue pH (pHt) of 0.2-0.3 unit. Recovery of pHt was observed upon termination of seizures. In SNPR and in GP, the acidosis was marked to excessive after 20 and 60 min of seizures (delta pHt approximately 0.6 after 60 min).

  16. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Karine M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Sambucus nigra L., and Cassia augustifolia is largely used in Brazil for the treatment of constipation. However, the laxative efficacy of the compound has never been tested in a randomized clinical trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the product. Methods This randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-blinded trial included 20 patients presenting with chronic constipation according to the criteria of the American Association of Gastroenterology. The order of treatments was counterbalanced across subjects: half of the subjects received the phytotherapic compound for a 5-day period, whereas the other half received placebo for the same period. Both treatment periods were separated by a 9-day washout period followed by the reverse treatment for another 5-day period. The primary endpoint was colonic transit time (CTT, measured radiologically. Secondary endpoints included number of evacuations per day, perception of bowel function, adverse effects, and quality of life. Results Mean CTT assessed by X ray was 15.7 hours (95%CI 11.1-20.2 in the active treatment period and 42.3 hours (95%CI 33.5-51.1 during the placebo treatment (p Conclusions The findings of this randomized controlled trial allow to conclude that the phytotherapic compound assessed has laxative efficacy and is a safe alternative option for the treatment of constipation. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00872430

  17. Angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist losartan, reduces MPTP-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhaveri Vimal V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent attention has focused on understanding the role of the brain-renin-angiotensin-system (RAS in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. Direct evidence of a role for the brain-RAS in Parkinson's disease (PD comes from studies demonstrating the neuroprotective effect of RAS inhibitors in several neurotoxin based PD models. In this study, we show that an antagonist of the angiotensin II (Ang II type 1 (AT1 receptor, losartan, protects dopaminergic (DA neurons against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP toxicity both in primary ventral mesencephalic (VM cultures as well as in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc of C57BL/6 mice (Fig. 1. Results In the presence of exogenous Ang II, losartan reduced MPP+ (5 μM induced DA neuronal loss by 72% in vitro. Mice challenged with MPTP showed a 62% reduction in the number of DA neurons in the SNpc and a 71% decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immunostaining of the striatum, whereas daily treatment with losartan lessened MPTP-induced loss of DA neurons to 25% and reduced the decrease in striatal TH+ immunostaining to 34% of control. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that the brain-RAS plays an important neuroprotective role in the MPTP model of PD and points to AT1 receptor as a potential novel target for neuroprotection.

  18. Transplanted Neural Stem Cells: Playing a Neuroprotective Role by Ceruloplasmin in the Substantia Nigra of PD Model Rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jia-Jia; Yin, Ming; Wang, Ze-Jian; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Although mounting evidence suggests that ceruloplasmin (CP) deficiency and iron deposition are pivotal factors responsible for exacerbating demise of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) of the Parkinsonism and neural stem cells (NSCs) are believed to be excellent candidates for compensating the lost dopaminergic neurons, there are few researches to explore the change of CP expression and of iron deposition in the pathological microenvironment of SN after NSCs transplantation and the ability of grafted NSCs to differentiate directionally into dopaminergic neurons under the changed homeostasis. With substantia nigral stereotaxic technique and NSCs transplantation, we found that tyrosine hydroxylase and CP expression decreased and iron deposition increased in the lesioned SN after 6-OHDA administration compared with control, while tyrosine hydroxylase and CP expression increased and iron deposition decreased after NSCs transplantation compared to 6-OHDA administration alone. Only a small number of embedding NSCs are able to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons. These results suggest that grafted NSCs have an influence on improving the content of CP expression, which may play a neuroprotective role by decreasing iron deposition and ameliorating damage of dopaminergic neurons and possibly underline the iron-related common mechanism of Parkinson's disease and Wilson's disease.

  19. Changes in leaf organisation, photosynthetic performance and wood formation during ex vitro acclimatisation of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misalová, A; Durkovic, J; Mamonová, M; Priwitzer, T; Lengyelová, A; Hladká, D; Lux, A

    2009-09-01

    Changes in anatomical organisation of the leaf, photosynthetic performance and wood formation were examined to evaluate the temporal and spatial patterns of acclimatisation of micropropagated slow-growing black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) plantlets to the ex vitro environment. Leaf structure differentiation, the rates of net photosynthesis (P(n)), transpiration (E) and stomatal conductance (g(s)), and secondary xylem growth were determined in the course of a 56-day acclimatisation. Differentiation of palisade parenchyma was observed 7 days after transfer. At this stage, the rates of P(n), E and g(s) reached maximum values, after which the rates of all three gas exchange parameters gradually decreased. The highest proportion of woody area occupied by vessels was also observed 7 days after transfer. An important feature of developing woody tissue is the difference in patterns of vessel distribution from the characteristic differentiation patterns of earlywood and latewood vessels in mature wood of ring-porous trees. Vessels with lumen areas over 3000 microm(2) were only differentiated in acclimatised plantlets, whereas vessels in stems sampled on days 0 and 7 had very small lumen areas of up to 560 microm(2). Full acclimatisation, observed 56 days after transfer to the ex vitro environment, was associated with the rapid growth of new in vivo formed leaves, very low rates of E and g(s), and much increased secondary xylem tissue within the stem area.

  20. Age- and Sex-Related Characteristics of Tonic Gaba Currents in the Rat Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, H.; Bojar, M.; Moshé, S. L.; Galanopoulou, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the pharmacologic effects of GABAergic drugs and the postsynaptic phasic GABAAergic inhibitory responses in the anterior part of the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNRA) are age- and sex-specific. Here, we investigate whether there are age- and sex-related differences in the expression of the δ GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit and GABAAR mediated tonic currents. We have used δ-specific immunochemistry and whole cell patch clamp to study GABAAR mediated tonic currents in the SNRA of male and female postnatal day (PN) PN5-9, PN11-16, and PN25-32 rats. We observed age-related decline, but no sex-specific changes, in bicuculline (BIM) sensitive GABAAR tonic current density, which correlated with the decline in δ subunit in the SNRA between PN15 and 30. Furthermore, we show that the GABAAR tonic currents can be modified by muscimol (GABAAR agonist; partial GABACR agonist), THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol: α4β3δ GABAARs agonist and GABACR antagonist), and zolpidem (α1-subunit selective GABAAR agonist) in age-and sex-dependent manner specific for each drug. We propose that the emergence of the GABAAR-sensitive anticonvulsant effects of the rat SNRA during development may depend upon the developmental decline in tonic GABAergic inhibition of the activity of rat SNRA neurons, although other sex-specific factors are also involved. PMID:25645446

  1. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun A; Shin, Ah-Young; Lee, Min-Seon; Lee, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Ahn, Jongmoon; Nahm, Seokhyeon; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jeong Mee; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2016-02-01

    Oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is one of six subspecies of melon and is cultivated widely in East Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea. Although oriental melon is economically valuable in Asia and is genetically distinct from other subspecies, few reports of genome-scale research on oriental melon have been published. We generated 30.5 and 36.8 Gb of raw RNA sequence data from the female and male flowers, leaves, roots, and fruit of two oriental melon varieties, Korean landrace (KM) and Breeding line of NongWoo Bio Co. (NW), respectively. From the raw reads, 64,998 transcripts from KM and 100,234 transcripts from NW were de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts were used to identify molecular markers (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats), detect tissue-specific expressed genes, and construct a genetic linkage map. In total, 234 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 25 simple sequence repeats were screened from 7,871 and 8,052 candidates, respectively, between the KM and NW varieties and used for construction of a genetic map with 94 F2 population specimens. The genetic linkage map consisted of 12 linkage groups, and 248 markers were assigned. These transcriptome and molecular marker data provide information useful for molecular breeding of oriental melon and further comparative studies of the Cucurbitaceae family.

  2. Gene effect and heterosis in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Mendes Medeiros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterosis has been exploited in Capsicum annuum commercial hybrids; however, the use of heterosis in C. baccatum still remains to be explored, and studies related to the genetics and breeding of this species are scarce. The present study aimed to estimate the combining ability of five parents of C. baccatum var. pendulum , representatives of two distinct types of fruits (namely, lady's finger and cambuci, to calculate heterosis and to evaluate the agronomic potential of the hybrids for yield and fruit quality. The hybrids were produced from a complete diallel without reciprocals. The parents and hybrids were evaluated under field conditions in a randomized block design with three replications, and the following traits were assessed: number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, yield per plant, fruit length, fruit diameter and soluble solids. All traits were significant for general and specific combining ability, indicating that additive and non-additive effects are involved in the genetic control of these traits. The hybrid combinations between the types lady's finger and cambuci provided elongated fruits with smaller diameters and greater weight compared with the parents of the cambuci type. However, these factors did not lead to a significant increase in the yield per plant due to the decreased number of fruits except in hybrid UENF 1616 x UENF 1732. Considering only the parents and hybrids within each type of fruit, the genitor UENF 1624 (lady's finger and the hybrid UENF 1639 x UENF 1732 (cambuci x cambuci stood out for achieving a high yield per plant.

  3. COPULA BASED VaR APPROACH FOR EUROPEAN STOCKS PORTFOLIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Bohdalová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives stochastic assessments of the financial crisis and discusses the Value at Risk European stocks from the point of view of copula based approach. Copula techniques can be based on the connection between rank correlation and certain one–parameter bivariate copulas. This relation allows easy calibration of the parameters. We use more general numerical calibration techniques that are based on maximum likelihood estimation (MLE. Using this approach we want to estimate VaR of the EU stocks portfolio using Monte Carlo simulation. The focus will be on modelling the interdependence between two risk factor returns. We suppose that the risk factor returns have some assumed marginal distributions, which need not be identical, and their dependency is modelled with copulas. We find that standard parametric copula functions (such as Gaussian are not able to provide a good fit to the data. This is especially true when one or more of the marginal distributions has fat tails. We overcome this problem by fitting a t–copula with different marginal which can approximate any possible shape for the joint density.

  4. [Triterpenoid saponins from flower bud of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-Qin; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2008-01-01

    To study the chemical constituent bud of the flowers of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum. The compounds were isolated and purified by recrystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH - 20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six triterpenoid saponins were identified as 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl- hederagenin-28-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl ester (1), hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (2), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (3), hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (4), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (5), hederagenin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (6). Compound 1 is a new compound. Compounds 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 were isolated from the genus Jasminum for the first time.

  5. Bioactive phenylpropanoid analogues from Piper betle L. var. haldia leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiya, Akhtar; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Lal, Uma Ranjan

    2017-02-15

    Phytochemical analyses of the chloroform extract of Piper betle L. var. birkoli, Piperaceae, leaves led to the isolation of two new phenylpropanoid analogues: bis-chavicol dodecanoyl ester (2) and bis-hydroxychavicol dodecanoyl ester (3), along with one known compound: allyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzene (1) on the basis of spectroscopic data 1D ((1)H and (13)C) and 2D ((1)H-(1)H COSY and HMBC) NMR, as well as ESI-MS, FT-IR, HR-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS. Compound 2 and 3 exhibited excellent antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 12.67 μg/mL and 1.08 μg/mL compared to ascorbic acid as a standard antioxidant drug with IC50 value of 6.60 μg/mL. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity against two human oral cancer cell lines (AW13516 and AW8507) showed significant effect with GI50 values of 19.61 and 23.01 μg/mL for compound 2 and 10.25 and 13.12 μg/mL for compound 3, compared to Doxorubicin(®) as a standard cytotoxic drug with GI50 value of < 10 μg/mL.

  6. Micropropagation of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iapichino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a perennial plant cultivated in the Mediterranean region and the Americas for its edible young flower heads. Although vegetative propagation by offshoots or by "ovoli" (underground dormant axillary buds) has been the primary method of propagation, the potential for the diffusion of diseases and the phenotypic variability can be very high. The propagation of this species by axillary shoot proliferation from in vitro-cultured meristems produces systemic pathogen-free plants and a higher multiplication rate as compared to that obtained by conventional agamic multiplication. Axillary shoot proliferation can be induced from excised shoot apices cultured on Murashige and Skoog agar solidified medium supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinins and auxins, depending on genotype. For the production of virus-free plants, meristems, 0.3-0.8 mm long are excised from shoot apices and surface sterilized. The transfer of artichoke microshoots to a medium lacking cytokinins or with low cytokinin concentration is critical for rooting. Adventitious roots develop within 3-5 weeks after transfer to root induction MS medium containing NAA or IAA at various concentrations. However, in vitro rooting frequency rate is dependent on the genotype and the protocol used. Acclimatization of in vitro microshoots having 3-4 roots is successfully accomplished; plantlets develop new roots in ex vitro conditions and continue to grow.

  7. Toxicological assessment of nattokinase derived from Bacillus subtilis var. natto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Bradley J; English, J Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Subtilisin NAT, commonly known as "nattokinase," is a fibrinolytic enzyme produced by the bacterial strain B. subtilis var. natto, which plays a central role in the fermentation of soybeans into the popular Japanese food natto. Recent studies have reported on the potential anticoagulatory and antihypertensive effects of nattokinase administration in humans, with no indication of adverse effects. To evaluate the safety of nattokinase in a more comprehensive manner, several GLP-compliant studies in rodents and human volunteers have been conducted with the enzyme product, NSK-SD (Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd., Japan). Nattokinase was non-mutagenic and non-clastogenic in vitro, and no adverse effects were observed in 28-day and 90-day subchronic toxicity studies conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats at doses up to 167 mg/kg-day and 1000 mg/kg-day, respectively. Mice inoculated with 7.55 × 10(8) CFU of the enzyme-producing bacterial strain showed no signs of toxicity or residual tissue concentrations of viable bacteria. Additionally consumption of 10 mg/kg-day nattokinase for 4 weeks was well tolerated in healthy human volunteers. These findings suggest that the oral consumption of nattokinase is of low toxicological concern. The 90-day oral subchronic NOAEL for nattokinase in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats is 1000 mg/kg-day, the highest dose tested. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata lectin: isolation, characterization, and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata var. variegata seeds are rich in proteins. Previously, one of the major storage proteins of the seeds was found to be a trypsin inhibitor that possessed various biological activities. By using another purification protocol, a glucoside- and galactoside-binding lectin that demonstrated some differences from the previously reported B. variegata lectin could be isolated from the seeds. It involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and Mono Q, and also size exclusion chromatography on Superdex 75. The lectin was not retained on Affi-gel blue gel but interacted with Q-Sepharose. The lectin was a 64-kDa protein with two 32-kDa subunits. It had low thermostability (stable up to 50 °C) and moderate pH stability (stable in pH 3-10). It exhibited anti-proliferative activity on nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells with an IC50 of 12.8 μM after treatment for 48 h. It also slightly inhibited the growth of hepatoma HepG2 cells. The lectin may have potential in aiding cancer treatments.

  9. Transport of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki via fomites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuyk, Sheila; Veal, Lee Ann B; Simpson, Beverley; Omberg, Kristin M

    2011-09-01

    The intentional and controlled release of an aerosolized bacterium provides an opportunity to investigate the implications of a biological attack. Since 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory has worked with several urban areas, including Fairfax County, VA, to design experiments to evaluate biodefense concepts of operations using routine spraying of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). Btk is dispersed in large quantities as a slurry to control the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Understanding whether personnel and equipment pick up residual contamination during sampling activities and transport it to other areas is critical for the formulation of appropriate response and recovery plans. While there is a growing body of literature surrounding the transmission of viral diseases via fomites, there is limited information on the transport of Bacillus species via this route. In 2008, LANL investigated whether field sampling activities conducted near sprayed areas, post-spray, resulted in measurable cross-contamination of sampling personnel, equipment, vehicles, and hotel rooms. Viable Btk was detected in all sample types, indicating transport of the agent occurred via fomites.

  10. ANTIPROLIFERATIVE PROTEIN FROM TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA L. VAR ANGUINA (L. HAINES

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    CHURIYAH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three proteins were isolated from plant parts of Trichosanthes cucumerina L. var anguina (L. Haines, they were TF2 from fruit, TS3 from seed and TR3 from root with molecular masses (Mr approximately 16 - 64 kDa on SDS-PAGE characterization. The proteins were extracted with Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS, then they were precipitated using 80% saturated ammonium sulphate continued with the dialysis using cellophane. The dialysate was fractionated through gel filtration chromatography. The highest yield of protein was 1.109% from the seed (TS3, then 0.356% from the root (TR3, while the lowest was 0.014% from the fruit (TF2. The Lethal Concentration 50 (LC of proteins on brine shrimp lethality test was 50within range of 19 µg/ml - 25 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity test of the TR3 and TS3 proteins on cancer cell lines indicated that both of the proteins could inhibit proliferation of HeLa and K-562 cells with IC up to 45 µg/ml. It is recommended to conduct further researches on 50Trichosanthes plant as a herbal medicine to treat cancer.

  11. Periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica filariasis in French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Chanteau, S; Nguyen-Ngoc, L; Marcet, Y; Gardines, R; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1993-06-01

    In 1992, a study on microfilaremia periodicity was carried out on 12 Wuchereria bancrofti carriers in the Marquesas islands. Blood samples were collected simultaneously every 4 hours during a 48 hour period by finger-prick and venipuncture for determination of microfilaremia by both blood film and membrane filtration technique methods, and for determination of antigenemia. The membrane filtration results showed no significant nycthemeral variations between the microfilaria densities at hours 16:00, 20:00, 24:00, 04:00, 08:00 and 12:00. Conversely, the blood film method showed a significant difference between the microfilaria densities: the microfilaremia was higher during the day (12:00-20:00 hours) than during the night (24:00-08:00 hours). As for antigenemia, using Og 4 C3 monoclonal antibody, there was no significant fluctuation during 48 hours. These results confirm that W. bancrofti var. pacifica is subperiodic and diurnal in French Polynesia. In particular, they substantiate the validity of examining venous blood by the membrane filtration technique as the judgment criterion of choice in therapeutic trials and of examining capillary blood during peak hours by the blood film method for evaluating the endemic level in a population.

  12. Phenolic Glucosides from Dendrobium aurantiacum var. denneanum and Their Bioactivities

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    Liang Xiong

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new 8,4¢-oxyneolignane glucoside 1 has been isolated from the stems of Dendrobium aurantiacum var. denneanum together with six known phenolic glucosides 2-7. The structure of the new compound, including its absolute configuration, was determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods as (–-(7S,8R,7¢E-4-hydroxy-3,3¢,5,5¢-tetramethoxy-8,4¢-oxyneolign-7¢-ene-7,9,9¢-triol 7,9¢-bis-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1. In the in vitro assays, compound 1 and (--syringaresinol-4,4¢-bis-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2 showed evident activity against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Shashenoside I (4 showed a selective cytotoxic activity with the IC50 value of 4.17 μM against the acute myeloid leukemia cell line MV4-11, while it was inactive against 10 other human tumor cell lines.

  13. La salud reproductiva del varón amenazada

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    Marieta Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Comentario: El interés mostrado por la comunidad cientifica por esclarecer la realidad de la salud reproductiva en Europa y en otros países occidentales, ha con-ducido a la redacción de una serie de recomendaciones, propuestas por expertes en el campo, que sirvan de orientación para politicas de financiación de la investigación. El debate sobre el deteriora de la salud reproductiva delvarón europeo ha llegado a su fin. Ya nadie duda de que tante los parámetras de medida directa como los indicadores indirectes de la fertilidad masculina manifiestan ese daño. Lo que es realmente novedoso en la propuesta es, de una parte, la vinculación entre el deteriora en salud reproductiva -incluida la caída secular en los niveles de testosterona circulante del varón-y el riesgode enfermedad cardiovascular y diabetes; de otra parte, la presentación formal de una hipótesis etiológica que requiere la investigación de la exposición materno-infantil a contaminantes químicos con actividad hormonal y sugiere una actitud precautoria. Los disruptores endocrinos son componentes de cosméticos, detergentes, medicamentos y alimentes de consumo y u

  14. Acyl flavonoids, biflavones, and flavonoids from Cephalotaxus harringtonia var. nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Noriko; Nakane, Takahisa; Matsumoto, Sachiko; Hashimoto, Shusuke; Shirota, Osamu; Sekita, Setsuko; Kuroyanagi, Masanori

    2015-10-01

    A methanol extract of the leaves of Cephalotaxus harringtonia var. nana and its ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-soluble fraction demonstrated strong antitumor activity against A549 and HT-29 cell lines. The EtOAc-soluble fraction was purified by column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a reverse-phase column to yield three novel acyl flavonoids and a biflavonoid, along with 15 other known compounds that included flavonoids, biflavonoids, and other phenolics. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated using spectral data from HR-MS and NMR, including two-dimensional NMR studies, as (2R,3R)-3-O-eicosanoyltaxifolin (1), (2R,3R)-3-O-docosanoyltaxifolin (2), (2R,3R)-3-O-tetracosanoyltaxifolin (3), and 6-methyl-4',7,7″-tri-O-methylamentoflavone (4). The isolated compounds, including the known compounds, were tested for possible antitumor activity; some of the biflavones were found to be active. The potent antitumor activity of the extract was attributed to Cephalotaxus alkaloids, such as homoharringtonine (20).

  15. Three New Clerodane Diterpenes from Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula

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    Tung-Ho Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Three new clerodane diterpenes, (4→2-abeo-cleroda-2,13E-dien-2,14-dioic acid (1, (4→2-abeo-2,13-diformyl-cleroda-2,13E-dien-14-oic acid (2, and 16(R&S- methoxycleroda-4(18,13-dien-15,16-olide (3, were isolated from the unripe fruit of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula (Annonaceae together with five known compounds (4–8. The structures of all isolates were determined by spectroscopic analysis. The anti-inflammatory activity of the isolates was evaluated by testing their inhibitory effect on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among the isolated compounds, 16-hydroxycleroda-3,13-dien-15,16-olide (6 and 16-oxocleroda-3,13-dien-15-oic acid (7 showed promising NO inhibitory activity at 10 µg/mL, with 81.1% and 86.3%, inhibition, respectively.

  16. Embryological Studies on Narcissus tazetta var.chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Lili; Wu Jian; Chen Linjiao; Wang Rui; Tian Huiqiao

    2006-01-01

    Chinese narcissus (Narcissus tazetta var.chinensis Roem) blooms but has no seeds.Embryological studies on the species were conducted to discover the causes of its sterility.Its anther wall is composed of four layers of cells,and its tapetum is of the secretory type.The cytokinesis of microspore mother cells is of the successive type,and the tetrad is tetrahedral.During meiosis of microspore mother cells,some chromosomes lagged,and several micronuclei were found in tetrads.Only 27.7% of the pollen grains contained full cytoplasm,and 1.3% of them germinated in culture medium.No pollen grain,however,could germinate on the stigma.The ovary is trilocular with axile placenta,and the ovules are bitegmic,tenuinucellate,and anatropous.Its embryo sac is of the polygonum type.Most embryo sacs degenerated,and only about 4.5% of the ovules contained a normal embryo sac with an egg cell,two synergids,three antipodal,and a central cell containing two polar nuclei.One reason for the sterility of Chinese narcissus is the abnormality of microsporogenesis and megasporogenesis,in which only a few functional pollen grains and embryo sacs are produced.The other reason is that the pollen grains cannot germinate on the stigma.

  17. Ortopnea y hemoptisis en un varón joven

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    Jacobo Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Varón de 21 años visitado en urgencias por ortopnea, hemoptisis y disnea. La radiografía detectó redistribución en hemitórax izquierdo, el ecocardiograma una masa intraauricular izquierda que protruía en el ventrículo izquierdo a través de la válvula mitral, produciendo obstrucción crítica, y la tomografía computarizada (TC una masa que ocupaba la aurícula izquierda desde la vena pulmonar superior izquierda (Fig. 1. Por vía transeptal superior se reseca una masa multilobulada de 6 × 7 cm, con base de implantación en el techo auricular (Fig. 2, que se reconstruyó con pericardio autólogo. La histopatología confirma el diagnóstico de leiomiosarcoma de vena pulmonar muy diferenciado. Al paciente se le dio el alta a los siete días.

  18. Two New Flavonol Glycosides from Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate

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    Yan Qiu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Detailed chemical investigation of the herb Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate resulted in the isolation of two new flavonol glycosides, namely, isorhamnetin-3-O-(6′′-OE- feruloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and isorhamnetin-3-O-(6′′-O-E-feruloyl-β-Dgalactopyranoside (2. In addition, four known compounds, quercetin-3-O-(6′′-acetyl-β-Dglucopyranoside (3, isorhamnetin-3-O-(6′′-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (4, quercetin-3- O-(6′′-O-E-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (5, and isorhamnetin-3-O-(6′′-O-E-pcoumaroyl- β-D-glucopyranoside (6 were obtained. The structures of the new isolates were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis.

  19. Antioxidant properties of European cranberrybush fruit (Viburnum opulus var. edule).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rop, Otakar; Reznicek, Vojtech; Valsikova, Magdalena; Jurikova, Tunde; Mlcek, Jiri; Kramarova, Daniela

    2010-06-23

    In the literature there is little available information concerning European cranberrybush fruit (Viburnum opulus var. edule). This plant can be cultivated, even in harsh climatic conditions, because of its low environmental demands, and it is possible to harvest the fruit even in the snow cover. The aim of this study was to determine the content of polyphenolics, antioxidant activity, flavonoids and vitamin C in the fruit of three cultivars Leningradskaya otbornaya , Souzga and Taezny rubiny of this species. In the case of polyphenolics, high contents [up to 8.29 g of gallic acid/kg of fresh mass (FM)] were observed. The 1,1 -diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2 -azinobis-3-ethyl-benzthiazino-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) tests were applied to determine antioxidant activity, which was also high in comparison with other fruit species. The corresponding correlations between the polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity were in case of the DPPH test r(2) = 0.88 and for the ABTS test r(2) = 0.98. For comparison, the scavenging activity towards reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide) was determined by using a 25% fruit extract of particular cultivars. Antioxidant efficiency was also assessed using the rat liver slice model. Furthermore, the contents of flavonoids and vitamin C were assayed, giving values of 4.89 g/kg and 1.64 g/kg FM, respectively. The work should contribute to the popularization of this species as a promising crop plant in human nutrition.

  20. Neuroprotective Lignans from the Fruits of Schisandra bicolor var. tuberculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Yu, Heng-Yi; Wang, Yan-Mei; Tian, Tian; Wu, Wen-Ming; Zhou, Ming; Meng, Xiang-Gao; Ruan, Han-Li

    2017-04-28

    Nine new lignans (1-9) and ten known analogues (10-19) were isolated from the fruits of Schisandra bicolor var. tuberculata. The structures of compounds 1-9 were established on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis with Cu Kα irradiation techniques, and the absolute configurations of compounds 2-9 were deduced by comparing their experimental ECD spectra and optical rotations with those of compound 1 or similar compounds. All isolates were evaluated for their neuroprotective activities against CoCl2, H2O2, and Aβ25-35-induced SH-SY5Y cell injury, and were found to exhibit different degrees of neuroprotective effects. At a low concentration of 3.2 nM, compounds 3, 8, 9, and 14-19 in CoCl2-induced, compounds 7, 8, 13, 17, and 18 in H2O2-induced, and compounds 2, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 12-19 in Aβ25-35-induced SH-SY5Y cell injury models, showed statistically significant neuroprotective activities, when compared with each negative control group.