Sayed Shahabuddin Hoseini
Full Text Available Night eating syndrome is a common disorder in eating behaviors that occurs in close relation to the night time sleep cycle. Although eating disorders are common in society, night eating syndrome has been left neglected by health care professionals. In this report we present a case of eating disorder that exhibits some novel features of night eating syndrome. Our case was a progressed type of eating disorder which may increase awareness among physicians about sleep-related eating disorders.
Sayed Shahabuddin Hoseini; Zhamak Khorgami; Ahmad Reza Dehpour; Nasrin Shoar; Mohammad Naderan; Saeed Shoar
Night eating syndrome is a common disorder in eating behaviors that occurs in close relation to the night time sleep cycle. Although eating disorders are common in society, night eating syndrome has been left neglected by health care professionals. In this report we present a case of eating disorder that exhibits some novel features of night eating syndrome. Our case was a progressed type of eating disorder which may increase awareness among physicians about sleep-related eating disorders.
Shoar, Saeed; Naderan, Mohammad; Shoar, Nasrin; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Khorgami, Zhamak; Hoseini, Sayed Shahabuddin
Night eating syndrome is a common disorder in eating behaviors that occurs in close relation to the night time sleep cycle. Although eating disorders are common in society, night eating syndrome has been left neglected by health care professionals. In this report we present a case of eating disorder that exhibits some novel features of night eating syndrome. Our case was a progressed type of eating disorder which may increase awareness among physicians about sleep-related eating disorders.
Full Text Available Night eating syndrome (NES is a nosographic entity included among the forms not otherwise specified (EDNOS in eating disorders (ED of the DSM IV. It is characterized by a reduced food intake during the day, evening hyperphagia, and nocturnal awakenings associated with conscious episodes of compulsive ingestion of food. Frequently, NES patients show significant psychopathology comorbidity with affective disorders. This paper describes a case report of an NES patient treated with agomelatine, an antidepressant analogue of melatonin, which acts by improving not only the mood but also by regulating sleep cycles and appetite. After three months of observation, the use of Agomelatine not only improved the mood of our NES patient (assessed in the HAM-D scores but it was also able to reduce the night eating questionnaire, by both reducing the number of nocturnal awakenings with food intake, the time of snoring, the minutes of movement during night sleep (assessed at polysomnography, and the weight (−5.5 kg and optimizing blood glucose and lipid profile. In our clinical case report, agomelatine was able both to reduce the NES symptoms and to significantly improve the mood of our NES patient without adverse side effects during the duration of treatment. Therefore, our case report supports the rationale for further studies on the use of Agomelatine in the NES treatment.
Cleator, J; Abbott, J; Judd, P; Sutton, C; Wilding, J P H
Night eating syndrome (NES) was first identified in 1955 by Stunkard, a psychiatrist specialising in eating disorders (ED). Over the last 20 years considerable progress has been made in defining NES as a significant clinical entity in its own right and it has now been accepted for inclusion in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) due for publication in 2013. NES is considered a dysfunction of circadian rhythm with a disassociation between eating and sleeping. Core criteria include a daily pattern of eating with a significantly increased intake in the evening and/or night time, as manifested by one or both of the following: at least 25% of food intake is consumed after the evening meal or at least two episodes of nocturnal eating per week. An important recent addition to core criteria includes the presence of significant distress and/or impairment in functioning. Stunkard's team recommend further investigation on the pathogenesis of NES, in particular its relationship with traumatic life events, psychiatric comorbidity, the age of onset of NES and course of NES over time. The relationship between NES and other ED also requires further clarification as night-eaters exhibit some features of other ED; previous guidance to separate NES from other ED may have hindered earlier characterisation of NES. Evidence from European and American studies suggests NES features strongly in populations with severe obesity. The complex interplay between depression, impaired sleep and obesity-related comorbidity in severely obese individuals makes understanding NES in this context even more difficult. This review examines evidence to date on the characterisation of NES and concludes by examining the applicability of current NES criteria to individuals with severe obesity.
Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.
The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…
Thisciane Ferreira Pinto
Full Text Available Summary Night eating syndrome (NES is characterized by caloric intake ≥ 25% of total daily after dinner and/or by two or more weekly nocturnal awakenings accompanied by food ingestion. Causes of NES are not entirely clear and seem to involve a desynchronization between the circadian rhythms of food ingestion and sleep, resulting in a delayed pattern of food intake. Estimates of the prevalence of NES in the general population are around 1.5%, and although much higher frequencies have been described in obese individuals, a causal relationship between NES and obesity is not clearly established. Since the first NES reports, several treatment modalities have been proposed, although, in many cases, the evidence is still insufficient and there is no consensus on the ideal approach. In order to conduct a critical review of proposed treatments for NES since its original description, a systematic search of articles published in journals indexed in Medline/Pubmed database in the period 1955-2015 was performed. Seventeen articles addressing non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies met the selection criteria. Based on the articles analyzed, we conclude that serotonergic agents and psychological interventions, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy, have been shown to be effective for the treatment of NES. A combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies must be considered in future studies on the treatment of these patients.
To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. The Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone int...
Kucukgoncu, Suat; Midura, Margaretta; Tek, Cenk
Suat Kucukgoncu, Margaretta Midura, Cenk Tek Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA Abstract: Night Eating Syndrome (NES) is a unique disorder characterized by a delayed pattern of food intake in which recurrent episodes of nocturnal eating and/or excessive food consumption occur after the evening meal. NES is a clinically important disorder due to its relationship to obesity, its association with other psychiatric disorders, and problems concerning sleep. However, NE...
Thompson, Sharon H.; DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino
Night eating syndrome criteria include skipping breakfast, night eating, and sleep difficulties. It is associated with mood disturbances, particularly depression, and may contribute to later obesity development. Most research on night eating syndrome has focused on obese persons seeking weight loss treatment, and little is known about night eating…
Deniz Tuncel; Fatma Özlem Orhan
Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, even...
Roher, Sarah; Latzer, Yael; Geliebter, Allan
To assess and compare negative emotional eating among individuals with and without Night Eating Syndrome (NES) and Binge Eating behavior (BE). The sample consisted of 76 obese participants, who were divided into four groups: the NES Only group; the BEOnly group; the BE and NES group; and the overweight control group with neither BE or NES. RESULTS showed significantly higher negative emotional eating among the BEOnly group, whereas those with NES Only did not report eating in direct response to negative emotions and situations. RESULTS suggest that individuals with BE may be using food as a maladaptive coping mechanism, while individuals with NES eat in the evening hours as a way to avoid the experience of negative emotions.
Birketvedt, G S; Florholmen, J; Sundsfjord, J; Osterud, B; Dinges, D; Bilker, W; Stunkard, A
Investigators first described the night-eating syndrome (NES), which consists of morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, and insomnia, in 1955, but, to our knowledge, this syndrome has never been subjected to careful clinical study. To characterize NES on the basis of behavioral characteristics and neuroendocrine data. A behavioral observational study was conducted between January 1996 and June 1997 in a weight and eating disorders program at the University of Pennsylvania. A neuroendocrine study was conducted from May through August 1997 at the Clinical Research Center of the University Hospital, Tromso, Norway. The behavioral study included 10 obese subjects who met criteria for NES and 10 matched control subjects. The neuroendocrine study included 12 night eaters and 21 control subjects. Behavioral study subjects were observed for 1 week on an outpatient basis, and neuroendocrine study subjects were observed during a 24-hour period in the hospital. The behavioral study measured timing of energy intake, mood level, and sleep disturbances. The neuroendocrine study measured circadian levels of plasma melatonin, leptin, and cortisol. In the behavioral study, compared with control subjects, night eaters had more eating episodes in the 24 hours (mean [SD], 9.3 [0.6] vs 4.2 [0.2]; Pvs 15%; Pmelatonin and leptin levels (Pcortisol (P = .001). A coherent pattern of behavioral and neuroendocrine characteristics was found in subjects with NES.
Full Text Available Suat Kucukgoncu, Margaretta Midura, Cenk Tek Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA Abstract: Night Eating Syndrome (NES is a unique disorder characterized by a delayed pattern of food intake in which recurrent episodes of nocturnal eating and/or excessive food consumption occur after the evening meal. NES is a clinically important disorder due to its relationship to obesity, its association with other psychiatric disorders, and problems concerning sleep. However, NES often goes unrecognized by both health professionals and patients. The lack of knowledge regarding NES in clinical settings may lead to inadequate diagnoses and inappropriate treatment approaches. Therefore, the proper diagnosis of NES is the most important issue when identifying NES and providing treatment for this disorder. Clinical assessment tools such as the Night Eating Questionnaire may help health professionals working with populations vulnerable to NES. Although NES treatment studies are still in their infancy, antidepressant treatments and psychological therapies can be used for optimal management of patients with NES. Other treatment options such as melatonergic medications, light therapy, and the anticonvulsant topiramate also hold promise as future treatment options. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of NES, including its diagnosis, comorbidities, and treatment approaches. Possible challenges addressing patients with NES and management options are also discussed. Keywords: night eating, obesity, psychiatric disorders, weight, depression
Allison, Kelly C; Crow, Scott J; Reeves, Rebecca R; West, Delia Smith; Foreyt, John P; Dilillo, Vicki G; Wadden, Thomas A; Jeffery, Robert W; Van Dorsten, Brent; Stunkard, Albert J
To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. The Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone interviews were conducted using the EDE for those who reported at least eight episodes of objective binge eating in the past month and using the Night Eating Syndrome History and Interview for those who scored > or =25 on the NEQ. Recruitment at four sites (Birmingham, n = 200; Houston, n = 259; Minneapolis, n = 182; and Philadelphia, n = 204) yielded 845 participants (58% women; mean age = 60.1 +/- 6.7 years; mean BMI = 36.2 +/- 6.3 kg/m(2)). Screening scores were met by 47 (5.6%) applicants on the EDE-Q and 71 (8.4%) on the NEQ. Of the 85% (40/47) who completed the EDE interview, 12 were diagnosed with BED, representing 1.4% of the total sample. Of the 72% (51/71) who completed the Night Eating Syndrome History and Interview, 32 were diagnosed with NES, equal to 3.8% of the total sample. Three participants had both BED and NES. Participants with eating disorders were younger, heavier, and reported more eating pathology than those without eating disorders. Among obese adults with type 2 diabetes, NES was reported more frequently than BED, which, in turn, was less common than expected.
Sevinçer, Güzin M; Allison, Kelly C
Night eating syndrome (NES) represents a circadian delay in the pattern of eating. As there are genetic links for other eating- and circadian-based disorders, it is likely that there is a genetic basis for NES as well. We present a family case study of three identified patients and their extensive family history of NES and co-morbid mood disorders. This case report suggested that NES may have a heritable feature, particularly nocturnal ingestions. Of the seven identified cases, four had co-morbid mood disorders, and all descended from a couple with bipolar disorder and delusional disorder. More work is needed to understand the extent of genetic influence on NES, and the relationship between NES and other psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kucukgoncu, Suat; Midura, Margaretta; Tek, Cenk
Night Eating Syndrome (NES) is a unique disorder characterized by a delayed pattern of food intake in which recurrent episodes of nocturnal eating and/or excessive food consumption occur after the evening meal. NES is a clinically important disorder due to its relationship to obesity, its association with other psychiatric disorders, and problems concerning sleep. However, NES often goes unrecognized by both health professionals and patients. The lack of knowledge regarding NES in clinical settings may lead to inadequate diagnoses and inappropriate treatment approaches. Therefore, the proper diagnosis of NES is the most important issue when identifying NES and providing treatment for this disorder. Clinical assessment tools such as the Night Eating Questionnaire may help health professionals working with populations vulnerable to NES. Although NES treatment studies are still in their infancy, antidepressant treatments and psychological therapies can be used for optimal management of patients with NES. Other treatment options such as melatonergic medications, light therapy, and the anticonvulsant topiramate also hold promise as future treatment options. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of NES, including its diagnosis, comorbidities, and treatment approaches. Possible challenges addressing patients with NES and management options are also discussed.
Shillito, James A; Lea, James; Tierney, Stephanie; Cleator, Jacqueline; Tai, Sara; Wilding, John P H
Night Eating Syndrome (NES), as a diagnosis, presents as a combination of disordered eating, sleep and mood. Patients identified as having both NES and obesity demonstrate poorer outcomes in terms of weight loss compared to those with NES only. However, research focusing on psychological factors associated with NES remains relatively underdeveloped. This study aimed to explore the relationship between NES and the experience of emotion from the perspective of patients accessing a weight management service. Ten adults who met diagnostic criteria for moderate or full NES took part in a semi-structured interview. Data were analysed using a constructivist approach to grounded theory. A core concept to emerge from the analysis was termed 'emotional hunger'; reflecting an urge or need to satiate a set of underlying unmet emotional needs. It was underpinned by the following interrelated themes: (1) Cultivating a dependency on food; (2) Relying on food to regulate emotions; (3) Understanding the significance of night-time; (4) Acknowledging the consequences of night eating. This study provides an in-depth understanding of the relationship between NES and the experience of emotion from the perspective of patients attending a weight management service. Results have potential to inform future service development, particularly around the adoption of a more holistic approach to night eating behaviours. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, and insomnia with awakenings followed by nocturnal food ingestion. Recently night eating syndrome, conceptualized as a delayed circadian intake of food. Sleep-related eating disorder, thought to represent a parasomnia and as such included within the revised International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2, and characterized by nocturnal partial arousals associated with recurrent episodes of involuntary food consumption and altered levels of consciousness. Whether, however, sleep-related eating disorder and night eating syndrome represent different diseases or are part of a continuum is still debated. This review summarizes their characteristics, treatment outcomes and differences between them.
Fischer, Sophia; Meyer, Andrea H; Hermann, Ernst; Tuch, Alex; Munsch, Simone
The Night Eating Syndrome (NES) is a recently described disordered eating style whose status in current diagnostic systems needs to be further clarified. The aim of this study was to increase knowledge about the clinical features of NES in a sample of 1514 young adults aged 18-26 years from the general population who participated in an anonymous Internet survey. We first examined characteristics of NES and tried to delineate it from healthy controls as well as from other eating disorders in terms of socio-demography, eating disorder pathology and general psychopathology. Second, we attempted to further clarify the clinical utility of the NES by assessing the degree of distress as well as impairment. Twenty (1.3%) participants with NES were identified and there was only modest overlap between NES and both Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Bulimia nervosa (BN) according to questionnaire-based DSM-IV criteria. Compared to healthy controls, NES individuals reported more pronounced eating disorder pathology as well as general psychopathology (depressive symptoms, chronic social stress). NES seems to be associated with considerable distress and impairment. Implications for the validity and classification of NES are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baldofski, Sabrina; Tigges, Wolfgang; Herbig, Beate; Jurowich, Christian; Kaiser, Stefan; Stroh, Christine; de Zwaan, Martina; Dietrich, Arne; Rudolph, Almut; Hilbert, Anja
Binge-eating disorder (BED) as a distinct eating disorder category and night eating syndrome (NES) as a form of Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders were recently included in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). This study sought to investigate the prevalence of BED and NES and associations with various forms of nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology in prebariatric patients. Within a consecutive multicenter registry study, patients in 6 bariatric surgery centers in Germany were recruited. Overall, 233 prebariatric patients were assessed using the Eating Disorder Examination and self-report questionnaires. Assessment was unrelated to clinical procedures. Diagnostic criteria for full-syndrome BED and NES were currently met by 4.3% and 8.2% of prebariatric patients, respectively. In addition, 8.6% and 6.9% of patients met subsyndromal BED and NES criteria, respectively. Co-morbid BED and NES diagnoses were present in 3.9% of patients. In comparison to patients without any eating disorder symptoms, patients with BED and NES reported greater emotional eating, eating in the absence of hunger, and more symptoms of food addiction. Moreover, differences between patients with BED and NES emerged with more objective binge-eating episodes and higher levels of eating concern, weight concern, and global eating disorder psychopathology in patients with BED. BED and NES were shown to be prevalent among prebariatric patients, with some degree of overlap between diagnoses. Associations with nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology point to their clinical significance and discriminant validity. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Colles, S L; Dixon, J B; O'Brien, P E
Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by a time-delayed pattern of eating relative to sleep, where most food is consumed in the evening and night. This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of NES and nocturnal snacking by exploring the relationship between NES and (1) obesity, (2) binge eating disorder (BED) and (3) psychological distress. One hundred and eighty bariatric surgery candidates, 93 members of a non-surgical weight loss support group and 158 general community respondents (81 males/350 females, mean age: 45.8+/-13.3 years, mean body mass index (BMI): 34.8+/-10.8 and BMI range: 17.7-66.7). NES diagnosis required within the previous 3 months: (1) no appetite for breakfast, (2) consumption of > or =50% of daily energy after 1900 hours and (3) sleep difficulties > or =3 nights/week. Nocturnal snacking (awakening to eat) was recorded. Validated questionnaires assessed BED, symptoms of depression, appearance dissatisfaction (AD) and mental health-related quality of life (MHQoL). NES and binge eating (BE) (> or =1 episode/week) were confirmed by interview. NES criteria were met by 11.1% of the total cohort. Across all groups, BE (P=0.001), BMI (P=0.003) and male gender (P=0.013) explained 10% of NES variance. Individuals with co-morbid NES and BE reported similarly elevated psychological distress as other binge eaters. NES alone was not associated with psychological distress. Those with NES who consumed nocturnal snacks reported poorer MHQoL (P=0.007) and greater depressive symptoms (P=0.039) and hunger (P=0.013) than others with NES. Low MHQoL (P=0.007) and male gender (P=0.022) explained 27% of the variance in the nocturnal snacking group. In this study, NES was positively associated with BMI, BE and male gender. Elevated psychological distress was only apparent in those who consumed nocturnal snacks. Further characterization and understanding of the clinical significance of NES and nocturnal snacking is required.
Calugi, S; Dalle Grave, R; Marchesini, G
To investigate the relationship of metabolic disorders and psychological features with the night eating syndrome (NES) in individuals with moderate-to-severe obesity. Cross-sectional observation. A total of 266 consecutive participants with class II-III obesity, entering an inpatient weight loss program. Participants who reported consuming either a large amount of their caloric intake after the evening meal (roughly self-assessed as > or =25% of daily calories) or the presence of nocturnal feeding at the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) (N=49) were interviewed by the Night Eating Syndrome History and Inventory (NESHI). Assessment also included the clinical/biochemical parameters of the metabolic syndrome and several questionnaires of psychopathology. NES was diagnosed by NESHI criteria (evening hyperphagia (> or =25% of daily food intake after the evening meal) and/or waking at night to eat at least three times a week) in the last 3 months. Twenty-seven participants (10.1%) met NESHI criteria. Differences were not observed between participants with and without NES as to age, body mass index (BMI), prevalence of metabolic syndrome, Binge Eating Scale and Body Shape Questionnaire. NES participants had significantly higher scores of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Impact of Weight on Quality of Life (IWQOL). Among NES cases, the BDI score was indicative of moderate depression in 18.5% of cases and of severe depression in 44.4%. Logistic regression analysis, adjusted for confounders, identified the BDI score as the only variable significantly associated with the diagnosis of NES. Diagnosing NES does not help identify obese individuals with specific medical complications, but indicates more severe psychological distress and depression.
Stunkard, Albert J.; Allison, Kelly C.; Geliebter, Allan; Lundgren, Jennifer D.; Gluck, Marci E.; O’Reardon, John P.
Criteria for inclusion of diagnoses of Axis I disorders in the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) of the American Psychiatric Association are being considered. The 5 criteria that were proposed by Blashfield et al as necessary for inclusion in DSM-IV are reviewed and are met by the night eating syndrome (NES). Seventy-seven publications in refereed journals in the last decade indicate growing recognition of NES. Two core diagnostic criteria have been established: evening hyperphagia (consumption of at least 25% of daily food intake after the evening meal) and/or the presence of nocturnal awakenings with ingestions. These criteria have been validated in studies that used self-reports, structured interviews, and symptom scales. Night eating syndrome can be distinguished from binge eating disorder and sleep-related eating disorder. Four additional features attest to the usefulness of the diagnosis of NES: (1) its prevalence, (2) its association with obesity, (3) its extensive comorbidity, and (4) its biological aspects. In conclusion, research on NES supports the validity of the diagnosis and its inclusion in DSM-V. PMID:19683608
Allison, Kelly; Berner,Laura A.
Laura A Berner,1 Kelly C Allison2 1Department of Psychology, Drexel University, 2Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Night eating syndrome (NES) is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night) and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat). As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. T...
Saraçlı, Özge; Atasoy, Nuray; Akdemir, Asena; Güriz, Olga; Konuk, Numan; Sevinçer, Güzin Mukaddes; Ankaralı, Handan; Atik, Levent
In this study we aimed to investigate the prevalance and clinical correlations of night eating syndrome (NES) in a sample of psychiatric outpatients. Four hundred thirthy three consecutive psychiatric out-patients older than 18years were evaluated in the outpatient clinics using clinical interview according to the DSM-IV with regard to psychiatric diagnosis. Participants were also screened for presence of NES utilizing both clinical interview and self report based on Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) instruments. Sociodemographic and clinical features such as age, gender, education level, socioeconomic level and body mass index (BMI) were also recorded. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90R) were administered. Based on the proposed diagnostic criteria of the NES via utilizing clinical interview method, 97 (32 male, 65 female) of the sample met diagnostic criteria for NES. The point prevalence of NES was 22.4%. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of age, gender, marital status, education and BMI. The patients with NES had higher NEQ, BSQ and SCL-90R subscale scores than patients without NES. Prevalance of depressive disorder, impulse control disorder, and nicotine dependency was higher among patients with NES. No differences were found with regard to the medication (antipsychotics, antidepressants and mood stabilizers). Night eating syndrome is prevalent among psychiatric outpatients and associated with depression, impulse control disorder, and nicotine dependency. Body dissatisfaction and higher symptom severity are also other risk factors for the development of NES. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vinai, Piergiuseppe; Cardetti, Silvia; Studt, Stacia; Carpegna, Gabriella; Ferrato, Noemi; Vallauri, Paola; Casey, Halpern; Vinai, Luisa; Vinai, Paolo; Ferini Strambi, Luigi; Speciale, Maurizio; Manconi, Mauro
The diagnostic criteria for the Night Eating Syndrome (NES) published in 2010 require the presence of two core criteria: evening hyperphagia and/or nocturnal awakenings for ingestion of food and three of five diagnostic descriptors. One of the descriptors is as follows: "The belief that one must eat in order to fall asleep". In this study we evaluated whether this conviction is significantly more prominent in obese individuals suffering from insomnia and nocturnal eating, than among obese patients with insomnia who do not eat at night. Ninety-eight obese subjects afflicted by insomnia were included in this study. Eight were affected by NES, 33 by Binge Eating Disorder (BED), and 13 by both BED and NES. Subjects' insomnia and sleep disturbances were assessed using the Insomnia Severity Index and the Sleep Disturbance Questionnaire. The presence of the belief that one must eat at night in order to sleep was evaluated with the question: "Do you need to eat in order to get back to sleep when you wake up at night?" Patients affected by NES and by both BED and NES were convinced that nocturnal food intake was necessary in order to fall back asleep after a night time awakening. The presence of this belief seemed to be a critical factor in identifying the presence of the Night Eating Syndrome among obese subjects suffering from insomnia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lundgren, J D; Amsterdam, J; Newberg, A; Allison, K C; Wintering, N; Stunkard, A J
We examined serotonin transporter (SERT) binding affinity using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and night eating syndrome (NES). There are similarities between MDD and NES in affective symptoms, appetite disturbance, nighttime awakenings, and, particularly, response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Six non-depressed patients with NES and seven patients with MDD underwent SPECT brain imaging with 123I-ADAM, a radiopharmaceutical agent selective for SERT sites. Uptake ratios of 123I-ADAM SERT binding were obtained for the midbrain, basal ganglia, and temporal lobe regions compared to the cerebellum reference region. Patients with NES had significantly greater SERT uptake ratios (effect size range 0.64-0.84) in the midbrain, right temporal lobe, and left temporal lobe regions than those with MDD whom we had previously studied. Pathophysiological differences in SERT uptake between patients with NES and MDD suggest these are distinct clinical syndromes.
Allison, Kelly C; Studt, Stacia K; Berkowitz, Robert I; Hesson, Louise A; Moore, Reneé H; Dubroff, Jacob G; Newberg, Andrew; Stunkard, Albert J
Night eating syndrome (NES) has become increasingly recognized as a disorder in need of effective treatments. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have shown efficacy in previous trials, so we sought to expand our understanding of the efficacy of escitalopram in the current trial. Thirty-one adults with NES participated in a 12-week open-label trial of escitalopram. Outcome measures included the Night Eating Symptom Scale (NESS), percent of daily intake after the evening meal (% intake) and number of nocturnal ingestions/week (NI), weight, total awakenings/week, mood, and quality of life. Mixed-effects models were used to assess change over time. Significant reductions were observed from week 0 to week 12 for the NESS (30.2 to 15.2), % intake (46% to 17%), NI (5.8 to 1.2), weight (90.2 to 88.6 kg), awakenings (8.1 to 2.7), and BDI-II (12.1 to 7.7). Outcomes did not differ significantly by gender, age, race, or psychiatric co-morbidity status. Eighteen of 31 completed 12 weeks of treatment. This open-label trial of escitalopram showed significant reductions in symptoms associated with NES. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to test these findings. clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01401595. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meule, Adrian; Allison, Kelly C; Platte, Petra
Night eating syndrome is marked by substantial evening or nocturnal food intake, insomnia, morning anorexia, and depressed mood. Night eating severity has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI), binge eating frequency, and emotional eating tendencies. We conducted an online questionnaire study among students (N=729) and explored possible interactive effects between those variables. Night eating severity, binge eating frequency, BMI and emotional eating were all positively correlated with each other. Regression analyses showed that night eating severity was particularly related to more frequent binge episodes and higher BMI at high levels of emotional eating but unrelated to those variables at low levels of emotional eating. Thus, eating as a means of emotion regulation appears to be an important moderator of the relationship between night eating and both binge eating and BMI. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Yahia, Najat; Brown, Carrie; Potter, Stacey; Szymanski, Hailey; Smith, Karen; Pringle, Lindsay; Herman, Christine; Uribe, Manuela; Fu, Zhuxuan; Chung, Mei; Geliebter, Allan
Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by evening hyperphagia and/or nocturnal ingestion. The main objective of this study was to assess the percentage of students complying with symptoms and behaviors consistent with the diagnostic criteria for NES, and explore its association with body mass index (BMI), dietary habits, physical activity, smoking status, and sleep patterns, among a sample of college students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 413 undergraduate students, mean age of 20.6 ± 1.68 SD, at Central Michigan University. Students completed an online survey including demographic information and the Night Eating Diagnostic Questionnaire (NEDQ) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Questionnaire (PSQI). Participants were grouped based on self-reporting of the presence and frequency of night eating-related symptoms and behaviors related to the diagnostic criteria for NES as follows: normal, mild night eater, moderate night eater, and full-syndrome night eater. Pearson's Chi-squared, Student's t test, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used to test the association between students with and without any night eating behavior in relation to BMI, lifestyle variables, and sleep duration/quality. Results showed that the proportion of students complying with symptoms and behaviors consistent with full-syndrome of NES was 1.2%. There were no significant differences between students complying with symptoms and behaviors consistent with any level of NES and those without any night eating behavior regarding BMI, eating habits, physical activity, and smoking status. NES was significantly related to sleep duration (P = 0.023). Students complying with symptoms consistent with any level of NES reported shorter sleep time and had higher total PSQI score (6.73 ± 4.06) than students without the syndrome (5.61 ± 2.61) (P = 0.007). Although the percentage of students complying with full-syndrome NES was relatively low in our student sample
Many "new" syndromes have been proposed for inclusion in the DSM-V. Some disorders acquired popularity through the Internet, but will they be taken seriously and get accepted by the scientific community? We organized an opinion poll among professionals in the field of eating disorders by presenting them a provisional set of diagnostic criteria of four "new" disorders: Night Eating Syndrome, Orthorexia, Muscle Dysmorphia, and Emetophobia. In general, the opinions did not differ much according to the characteristics of the 111 respondents. Among these professionals, Orthorexia is the best known and Night Eating Syndrome the least. Although the majority is familiar with the concept of Muscle Dysmorphia, it is most often viewed as a creation of the popular media and rarely observed in daily practice. In contrast, the other three disorders seem to be taken more seriously in the sense of "genuine" syndromes, which should receive more attention in research and clinical practice. Emetophobia appears to be the least "fashionable" of the four. The findings are discussed in the light of medialization and medicalization.
Berner, Laura A; Allison, Kelly C
Night eating syndrome (NES) is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night) and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat). As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a "Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified," more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed.
Full Text Available Laura A Berner,1 Kelly C Allison2 1Department of Psychology, Drexel University, 2Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Night eating syndrome (NES is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat. As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 as a “Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified,” more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed. Keywords: night eating syndrome, cognitive-behavioral treatment, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss, behavior therapy
Nolan, Laurence J.; Geliebter, Allan
The night eating syndrome (NES) consists of evening hyperphagia and/or nocturnal eating and has been associated with depressed mood, that worsens in the evening. However, it is not consistently related to elevated BMI. The present study was conducted to examine whether a relationship exists between NES and emotional, external, and restrained eating. BMI and sleep quality were also obtained. A sample of 246 students completed the Night Eating Diagnostic Questionnaire (NEDQ), Night Eating Syndr...
Nolan, Laurence J; Geliebter, Allan
The night eating syndrome (NES) consists of evening hyperphagia and/or nocturnal eating and has been associated with depressed mood that worsens in the evening. However, it is not consistently related to elevated BMI. The present study was conducted to examine whether a relationship exists between NES and emotional, external, and restrained eating. BMI and sleep quality were also obtained. A sample of 246 students completed the Night Eating Diagnostic Questionnaire (NEDQ), Night Eating Syndrome History and Inventory (NESHI), Sleep Quality Index (SQI), and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), containing subscales for emotional, external, and restrained eating. They also provided demographic information, including height and weight. Participants were grouped by severity of NES features using the NEDQ and NESHI: normal, mild night eater, moderate night eater, and full night eater syndrome. MANOVA was used to compare DEBQ subscores for the groups; those in the full syndrome category had significantly higher emotional eating scores and external eating scores than those in the normal and mild categories. There was no difference in restrained eating between the normal and full syndrome groups. Those with moderate and full syndrome NES symptoms also reported significantly lower sleep quality. No significant relationship was found between NES and BMI. The results show that NES is associated with more eating in response to negative mood and in response to food cues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nolan, Laurence J.; Geliebter, Allan
The night eating syndrome (NES) consists of evening hyperphagia and/or nocturnal eating and has been associated with depressed mood, that worsens in the evening. However, it is not consistently related to elevated BMI. The present study was conducted to examine whether a relationship exists between NES and emotional, external, and restrained eating. BMI and sleep quality were also obtained. A sample of 246 students completed the Night Eating Diagnostic Questionnaire (NEDQ), Night Eating Syndrome History and Inventory (NESHI), Sleep Quality Index (SQI), and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), containing subscales for emotional, external, and restrained eating. They also provided demographic information, including height and weight. Participants were grouped by severity of NES features using the NEDQ and NESHI: normal, mild night eater, moderate night eater, and full night eater syndrome. MANOVA was used to compare DEBQ subscores for the groups; those in the full syndrome category had significantly higher emotional eating scores and external eating scores than those in the normal and mild categories. There was no difference in restrained eating between the normal and full syndrome groups. Those with moderate and full syndrome NES symptoms also reported significantly lower sleep quality. No significant relationship was found between NES and BMI. The results show that NES is associated with more eating in response to negative mood and in response to food cues. PMID:22664397
Striegel-Moore, RH; Thompson, D; Franko, DL; Barton, B; Affenito, S; Schreiber, GB; Daniels, [No Value
Objective: To describe the prevalence of night eating in a community cohort of black and white girls, using different definitions of night eating as described in the literature. Research Methods and Procedures: Three-day food diaries collected as part of the National Growth and Health Study were
Full Text Available Skipping breakfast is considered to be an unhealthy eating habit linked to predispositions to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because eating dinner late at night can elicit subsequent breakfast skipping, we investigated if skipping breakfast concomitant with late-night-dinner eating (LNDE was associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS and proteinuria in the general Japanese population. We examined self-reported habitual breakfast skipping and LNDE, MetS (modified ATP-III criteria, and proteinuria in a cross-sectional study of 60,800 Japanese adults aged 20–75 years. A total of 14,068 subjects (23.1% skipped breakfast, of whom approximately half (52.8% skipped breakfast alone (without LNDE. The percentages of subjects who skipped breakfast showed a J-shaped relationship with body mass index (BMI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that skipping breakfast concomitant with LNDE (n = 6,645 was significantly associated with MetS and proteinuria, even after adjusting for relevant confounders (odds ratio (95% CI, 1.17 (1.08–1.28, P=0.0003, and 1.37 (1.24–1.52, P<0.0001, resp.. Skipping breakfast alone and LNDE alone were not associated with MetS and proteinuria, respectively. In conclusion, habitual breakfast skipping concomitant with LNDE may represent poorer eating behavior than skipping breakfast alone, associated with MetS, asymptomatic proteinuria, obesity, and low body weight in the general Japanese population.
Martina de Zwaan
Full Text Available Recently, night eating syndrome (NES was included into the DSM-5 as an example of "Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders." The study provides insight into the population prevalence of NES using a large representative German population sample (n = 2,460 with a wide age range (14-85 years. The prevalence of NES was 1.1% using a cut-off on the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ of 25. A positive screening for NES was positively associated with depression and anxiety, eating disorder psychopathology, and body weight.
Ana Beatriz Cauduro Harb
Full Text Available O comportamento e o padrão alimentar são complexos, envolvendo aspectos metabólicos, fisiológicos e ambientais, e apresentando ritmicidade circadiana, herdada e espécie específica, sendo a humana essencialmente diurna. Este estudo tem como objetivo descrever a Síndrome do Comer Noturno, caracterizada por um atraso circadiano do padrão alimentar, mediado por alterações neuroendócrinas ao estresse. Procedeu-se à revisão da bibliografia existente, a partir do exame de artigos publicados pela literatura internacional nas bases de dados dos sites Pubmed, Lilacs, Sirus, referentes ao período de 1955 até as últimas publicações em 2007. Realizou-se um levantamento bibliográfico usando os seguintes descritores: night eating syndrome, sleep, circadian rhythm, appetite, nocturnal eating. Foram localizados 74 artigos e destes foram selecionados 26, cujo tema central era a Síndrome do Comer Noturno. Apesar dos estudos realizados, ainda existe longo percurso a ser percorrido para compreender a gênese da Síndrome do Comer Noturno e as relações intrínsecas desta com outros processos fisiopatogênicos. Tendo em conta que esta síndrome está vinculada ao controle da fome e da saciedade e à dessincronização entre o ritmo alimentar e o ritmo sono/vigília, a compreensão do seu processo gênico poderá demonstrar o impacto da dessincronização dos ritmos circadianos da alimentação no processo saúde-doença, e auxiliar a compreensão de fatores implicados no índice crescente de obesidade da sociedade moderna.Behavior and eating patterns are complex, involve metabolic, physiological and environmental aspects and have inherited and species-specific circadian rhythmicity, with humans being essentially diurnal. The aim of this study is to describe the night eating syndrome, characterized by a delay of the circadian eating patterns and mediated by neuroendocrine stress. A review of the literature found in the Pubmed, Lilacs and Sirus
Richard, Gaëtan; Filatova, Olga A; Samarra, Filipa I P; Fedutin, Ivan D; Lammers, Marc; Miller, Patrick J
Herring-eating killer whales debilitate herring with underwater tail slaps and likely herd herring into tighter schools using a feeding-specific low-frequency pulsed call ('herding' call). Feeding on herring may be dependent upon daylight, as the whales use their white underside to help herd herring; however, feeding at night has not been investigated. The production of feeding-specific sounds provides an opportunity to use passive acoustic monitoring to investigate feeding behaviour at different times of day. We compared the acoustic behaviour of killer whales between day and night, using an autonomous recorder deployed in Iceland during winter. Based upon acoustic detection of underwater tail slaps used to feed upon herring we found that killer whales fed both at night and day: they spent 50% of their time at night and 73% of daytime feeding. Interestingly, there was a significant diel variation in acoustic behaviour. Herding calls were significantly associated with underwater tail slap rate and were recorded significantly more often at night, suggesting that in low-light conditions killer whales rely more on acoustics to herd herring. Communicative sounds were also related to underwater tail slap rate and produced at different rates during day and night. The capability to adapt feeding behaviour to different light conditions may be particularly relevant for predator species occurring in high latitudes during winter, when light availability is limited.
Tu, Chao-Ying; Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Chang, Chin-Hao; Lin, Chao-Cheng
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Internet and paper-and-pencil versions of the Mandarin Chinese version of the Night Eating Questionnaire (C-NEQ) and compared these measures' validity. The C-NEQ was evaluated through two different media: 626 participants completed the C-NEQ on the Internet and 160 participants completed the paper-form C-NEQ at the psychiatric outpatient clinics. A subgroup completed both versions of the C-NEQ (n=50). The Night Eating Syndrome History and Inventory was used to identify individuals with night eating syndrome (NES). The paper-and-pencil and Internet versions of the C-NEQ both showed good internal consistency, reliability, and concurrent validity. Reliability between the Internet and the paper-and-pencil versions of the C-NEQ was excellent (ICC=.96). Diagnostic analysis of the C-NEQ's performance using the Receiver Operation Curve method showed excellent results in both versions; the area under the curve did not differ significantly between the versions. Regarding detecting NES, the Internet version had a higher optimal cutoff point than the paper-and-pencil version (23 and 22, respectively). The Internet and paper-and-pencil versions of the C-NEQ both showed strong reliability and validity; however the two versions appear to differ marginally regarding usage in NES detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grilo, Carlos M; Milsom, Vanessa A; Morgan, Peter T; White, Marney A
To examine the frequency of night eating (NE) and its relation to binge eating disorder (BED), eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and metabolic variables in treatment-seeking obese Hispanic men and women. A consecutive series of 79 obese monolingual Spanish-speaking-only Hispanic patients with BED (N = 40) and without BED (N = 39) were reliably assessed by bilingual research-clinicians using Spanish-language versions of semistructured interviews and measures. Overall, 38% (N = 30) of the 79 patients reported regular NE (≥4 days/month). NE and BED were significantly associated; 70% (21/30) of NE versus 18% (9/49) of non-NE had BED. Patients with NE reported greater frequency of binge-eating and higher levels of eating-disorder psychopathology and depression than non-NE patients; group differences in eating disorder psychopathology and depression levels persisted after controlling for BED status. The NE and non-NE groups did not differ significantly in BMI or metabolic variables. In obese treatment-seeking Hispanic patients, NE and BED were significantly associated and NE was associated with heightened eating-disorder psychopathology and depression even after controlling for BED status. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Meule, Adrian; Allison, Kelly C; Platte, Petra
Night eating syndrome (NES) is marked by substantial evening or nocturnal food intake, insomnia, morning anorexia, and depressed mood. The Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) is the most frequently used instrument for the assessment of NES and available in several languages. The current study aimed at providing and validating a German version of the NEQ using an online study among students (N=729). The German NEQ had acceptable internal consistency (α=.71) and three-week retest-reliability (r=.77). The four-factor structure of the original version (morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, mood/sleep, nocturnal ingestions) could be replicated, except for one item. Convergent validity was supported by moderate positive correlations with eating pathology, emotional eating, and habitual food cravings. Discriminant validity was supported by small positive correlations with relevant, but not eating-related constructs (eveningness preference, impulsivity). Scores on the NEQ were also positively, but weakly, correlated with body mass index (r=.18). The German version of the NEQ appears to be a useful tool for future investigations on night eating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andersen, Gregers Stig; Stunkard, Albert J.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between the habit of eating at night, and the 5-y preceding and 6-y subsequent weight changes in a middle-aged population, with particular focus on the obese. DESIGN: Prospective study with initial examination of the cohort in 1982-83, re-examination in 1987......-94 too. Subjects working night shifts were excluded. MEASUREMENTS: Night eating in 1987-88, 5-y preceding and 6-y subsequent weight change. RESULTS: In total, 9.0% women and 7.4% men reported 'getting up at night to eat'. Obese women with night eating experienced an average 6-y weight gain of 5.2 kg (P=0.......004), whereas only 0.9 kg average weight gain was seen among obese women who did not get up at night to eat. No significant associations were found among all women, or between night eating and the 5-y preceding weight change for women. Night eating and weight change were not associated among men. CONCLUSION...
Marshall, J R
The author describes three cases in which the frequency and intensity of night terrors associated with the posttraumatic syndrome were greatly lessened by administration of imipramine; in one case, the night terrors disappeared completely. Possible explanationss for this effect of imipramine are discussed, including the drug's arousal-preventing action. The author believes that the study of sleep EEGs of patients suffering posttraumatic syndrome will prove fruitful.
Nolan, Laurence J; Geliebter, Allan
Night eating syndrome (NES) is commonly assessed using the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), a validated scale of symptom severity, which does not assess all diagnostic criteria. The Night Eating Diagnostic Questionnaire (NEDQ) assesses all diagnostic criteria, but has not been fully validated. The study purpose was to establish convergent validity for the NEDQ with the NEQ. It was also expected that higher NEDQ scores would be associated with elevated depression, poorer sleep quality, "food addiction," and BMI as in other studies of NES. Students (n = 254) and community members (n = 468) were administered the NEQ, NEDQ, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Zung Self-report Depression Scale (SDS), and the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). Convergent validity between the NEDQ and the NEQ was demonstrated; the scores were significantly positively correlated. There was good agreement between the NEDQ and the NEQ in diagnosis of NES; 56% of those diagnosed by the NEDQ met the threshold score on the NEQ, while the other 44% did not. Only 5 participants out of 33 who met the NEQ threshold score for NES did not meet the NEDQ diagnostic criteria. MANOVA revealed that higher NEDQ was associated with higher SDS and YFAS scores and poorer sleep quality. Full-syndrome NES by the NEDQ was associated with higher BMI in the community group unlike the student group. Scores on all the other questionnaires were higher in the community group. The discrepancies between NEDQ and NEQ diagnosis may be due to differences in construction of the questionnaires and specifically due to the NEDQ being designed for diagnosis. The NEQ provides a convenient global score for NES severity, whereas the NEDQ, which shows convergent validity with the NEQ, provides clinically useful diagnostic categories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lamerz, Andreas; Kuepper-Nybelen, Jutta; Bruning, Nicole; Wehle, Christine; Trost-Brinkhues, Gabriele; Brenner, Hermann; Hebebrand, Johannes; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate
Background: To assess the prevalence of obesity, obesity-related binge eating, non-obesity-related binge eating, and night eating in five- to six-year-old children and to examine the impact of parental eating disturbances. Methods: When 2020 children attended their obligatory health exam prior to school entry in the city of Aachen, Germany, 1979…
Crisp, A H
A third of a million adults in the UK sleepwalk while a million suffer from night terrors. In both conditions the individual is unaware of the fullness of their surroundings and is totally focussed in their concern or activity. Doctors are only likely to become involved if the individual comes to harm or seeks help or if other people are inconvenienced or threatened. The constitutional basis of the disorder is beyond doubt, although the actual expression may be related to stressful life-events resulting from an individual's personality, relationships and circumstances. Treatment may include the provision of a secure environment, counselling, and the use of benzodiazepines and serotonin re-uptake inhibitors.
Shin, Aesun; Lim, Sun-Young; Sung, Joohon; Shin, Hai-Rim; Kim, Jeongseon
Dietary factors contribute to the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, a disorder associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and some cancers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the intake frequencies of certain food groups, eating habits, and the risk of metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional study of Korean men. Study participants were recruited from the National Cancer Center in South Korea. A total of 7,081 men aged 30 years and older were recruited between August 2002 and May 2007. Metabolic syndrome was defined as having three or more of the following conditions: obesity, high blood pressure, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, high triglyceride level, and high fasting blood glucose level. The association of metabolic syndrome and sociodemographic characteristics, food intake frequencies, and eating habits assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, was examined. The prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome for men aged 30 to 39, 40 to 49, 50 to 59, and 60+ years was 18.2%, 19.8%, 21.9%, and 20.5%, respectively. The study participants with metabolic syndrome had significantly higher family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (27.6% vs 21.6%, Peat quickly (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.60 to 3.12 for fast vs slow) and to overeat frequently (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.85 to 3.05 for more than 4 times a week vs less than once a week). The results suggest that high intake of seaweed and oily foods as well as eating habits such as eating faster and frequent overeating, are associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome. In contrast, high fruit intake may be associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome. The importance of dietary habits in metabolic syndrome development needs to be pursued in further studies.
Aneta Michalska; Natalia Szejko; Andrzej Jakubczyk; Marcin Wojnar
Aim. The aim of this paper was to characterise nonspecific eating disorders (other than anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa). Method. The Medline database was searched for articles on nonspecific eating disorders. The following disorders were described: binge eating disorder (BED), pica, rumination disorder, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, night eating syndrome (NES), sleep-related eating disorder (SRED), bigorexia, orthorexia, focusing on diagnosis, symptoms, assessment, comorbid...
Bernadett, Mohácsi; Szemán-N, Anita
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders among women of reproductive age. Symptomes and complications of PCOS have adverse effect on quality of life among concerned women. Most research findings suggest that PCOS is associated with eating disorders, but there are inconsistent results in connection with their relationship in the published literature. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of eating disorders among women with PCOS. Body mass index (BMI), Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and Eating Behaviour Severity Scale (EBSS) were used to measure eating attitudes and behaviors. Furthermore PCOS symptomes were measured by Ferriman-Gallwey Score, Global Acne Grading Score, Savin Scale and other pcos symptoms were also accessed. A total of 318 women were included in this analysis. The sample consists of a PCOS group (N=95), a control group (N=100) and a hyperandrogen group (N=123). The Prevalence of clinical bulimia nervosa was 5.3%, subclinical anorexia nervosa 1.1% and subclinical bulimia nervosa was 10.5% among PCOS women. 1.6% subclinical bulimia nervosa was detected in the hyperandrogen group. The results of the study indicate that the prevalence of clinical and subclinical bulimia nervosa is increased among women with PCOS compared to healthy women. Eating disorders can have significant negative influence on the outcome of the treatment of PCOS. To sum up, these findings suggest that it should be necessary to pay attention to the screening of eating disorders, and the findings also reveals that psychological treatment of eating disorders among women with PCOS is relevant.
Wang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, B; He, Y; Xie, S; Li, M; Miao, X; Chan, E Y Y; Tang, J L; Wong, M C S; Li, Z; Yu, I T S; Tse, L A
This study aims to quantitatively summarize the association between night shift work and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS), with special reference to the dose-response relationship with years of night shift work. We systematically searched all observational studies published in English on PubMed and Embase from 1971 to 2013. We extracted effect measures (relative risk, RR; or odd ratio, OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) from individual studies to generate pooled results using meta-analysis approach. Pooled RR was calculated using random- or fixed-effect model. Downs and Black scale was applied to assess the methodological quality of included studies. A total of 13 studies were included. The pooled RR for the association between 'ever exposed to night shift work' and MetS risk was 1.57 (95% CI = 1.24-1.98, pheterogeneity = 0.001), while a higher risk was indicated in workers with longer exposure to night shifts (RR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.32-2.36, pheterogeneity = 0.936). Further stratification analysis demonstrated a higher pooled effect of 1.84 (95% CI = 1.45-2.34) for studies using the NCEP-ATPIII criteria, among female workers (RR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.10-2.34) and the countries other than Asia (RR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.39-1.95). Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the results. No evidence of publication bias was detected. The present meta-analysis suggested that night shift work is significantly associated with the risk of MetS, and a positive dose-response relationship with duration of exposure was indicated. © 2014 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2014 World Obesity.
Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M
Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.
Agras, W Stewart; Crow, Scott; Mitchell, James E; Halmi, Katherine A; Bryson, Susan
To examine the course of Eating Disorder NOS (EDNOS) compared with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Prospective study of 385 participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for AN, BN, BED, and EDNOS at three sites. Recruitment was from the community and specialty clinics. Participants were followed at 6-month intervals during a 4-year period using the Eating Disorder Examination as the primary assessment. EDNOS remitted significantly more quickly that AN or BN but not BED. There were no differences between EDNOS and full ED syndromes, or the subtypes of EDNOS, in time to relapse following first remission. Only 18% of the EDNOS group had never had or did not develop another ED diagnosis during the study; however, this group did not differ from the remaining EDNOS group. EDNOS appears to be a way station between full ED syndromes and recovery, and to a lesser extent from recovery or EDNOS status to a full ED. Implications for DSM-V are examined.
Brewerton, Timothy D; Anderson, Odette
The case of a 22 year old woman with cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) presenting as an eating disorder is described. The importance of recognizing chronic cannabis use as a cause of episodic vomiting is emphasized, given that CHS can be confused with self-induced purging and cyclic vomiting. This case was further complicated by the well-defined history of anorexia nervosa (binge-purge type), major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, migraine headache, and the initial denial of cannabis use. However, collateral history and a positive drug screen confirmed the diagnosis. The signs, symptoms and pathophysiological mechanisms of CHS are reviewed in light of clinical presentations that mimic eating disorder phenomenology complicated by addiction. Given the trend for increasing legalization of recreational marijuana as well as medical marijuana, CHS is an important and potentially complicating disorder that eating disorder clinicians need to be aware of. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:826-829). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Devitt, Brian M
Saturday night palsy is a colloquial term given to brachial plexus injuries of the arm resulting from stretching or direct pressure against a firm object, often after alcohol or drug consumption. In most circumstances, this condition gives rise to a temporary plexopathy, which generally resolves. However, if the compression is severe and prolonged, a more grave form of this condition known as \\'Crush Syndrome\\' may occur. Skeletal muscle injury, brought about by protracted immobilization, leads to muscle decay, causing rhabdomyolysis, which may in turn precipitate acute renal failure. This condition is potentially fatal and has an extremely high morbidity. The case presented below demonstrates the drastic consequences that can result following an episode of \\'binge\\' drinking in a young man. What is most concerning is that this trend is increasing across society and cases like this may not be as rare in the future.
Geliebter, A; Carnell, S; Gluck, M E
To explore appetite-related hormones following stress in overweight individuals, and their relationship with night eating (NE) status. We measured plasma cortisol and ghrelin concentrations, and recorded ratings of stress and hunger in response to a physiological laboratory stressor (cold pressor test, CPT), in overweight women with (n=11; NE) and without (n=17; non-NE) NE. Following the CPT, cortisol (Plevels increased, as did stress and hunger ratings (all Pcortisol (Plevels than non-NE. NE also had greater cortisol area under the curve (AUC) than non-NE (P=0.019), but not when controlling for baseline cortisol levels. Ghrelin baseline and AUC did not differ between groups. NE showed higher AUC stress (Pcortisol, ghrelin, stress and hunger following a laboratory stressor, and there was some evidence for greater increases in cortisol and subjective stress among NE. The greater AUC cortisol level in NE was due to higher baseline levels, but the group difference in stress was in direct response to the stressor. Our results support a role for cortisol and stress in NE.
Baeza-Velasco, Carolina; Van den Bossche, Thomas; Grossin, Daniel; Hamonet, Claude
Joint Hypermobility Syndrome, also known as Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type (JHS/EDS-HT), is a heritable disorder of connective tissue, common but poorly known by the medical community. Although generalized joint hypermobility and fragility of tissues have been described as core features, recent research highlights the multisystemic nature of JHS/EDS-HT, which presents with a wide range of articular and extra-articular symptoms. Among these, gastrointestinal problems, temporomandibular disorders, and smell and taste abnormalities are common among those affected, having significant implications for eating. The present work reviews the literature linking JHS/EDS-HT and eating problems. Two illustrative case reports, in which JHS/EDS-HT manifestations contribute to developing and maintaining disturbed eating behaviors and significant weight loss, are presented.
Despite the evidence that individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) have a propensity for being underweight or having comorbid eating disorders, no previous research has compared the eating attitudes of adolescent girls with AS to typically developing peers. This study compared reports of eating problems provided by the adolescent girls themselves…
Full Text Available Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of involuntary eating during sleep period and is often associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS. Although pharmacotherapy is recommended for SRED patients, no drug have shown promising effects so far. The patient, a 48-year-old Japanese housewife, first visited our clinic and complained about nighttime eating. She had a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea syndrome, and depression. Insomnia appeared 10 years before the first visit and she often received hypnosedatives; at the same time, she developed nocturnal eating episodes. She had amnesia for these episodes, and she felt urge to move her legs while sleeping. The patient was diagnosed with SRED and RLS. Reduction in the doses of triazolam decreased her nighttime eating frequency, and her complete amnesia changed to vague recall of eating during night. Clonazepam 1.0 mg at bedtime decreased nocturnal eating frequency from 1 to 2 times per month, though sleepwalking remained. Administration of pramipexole 0.125 mg relieved all symptoms including SRED, RLS, and sleepwalking. This is the first paper to report that the combination of clonazepam and pramipexole therapy-reduced SRED episodes and RLS symptoms.
Mertz, Line G B; Christensen, Rikke; Vogel, Ida; Hertz, Jens M; Østergaard, John R
The objectives of the present study were to investigate eating behavior and growth parameters in Angelman syndrome. We included 39 patients with Angelman syndrome. Twelve cases had a larger Class I deletion, eighteen had a smaller Class II deletion, whereas paternal uniparental disomy (pUPD) or a verified UBE3A mutation were present in five and four cases, respectively. Eating behavior was assessed by a questionnaire. Anthropometric measures were obtained from medical records and compared to Danish reference data. Children with pUPD had significantly larger birth weight and birth length than children carrying a deletion or a UBE3A mutation. We found no difference in birth weight or length in children with Class I or Class II deletions. When maternal birth weight and/or birth weight of siblings were taken into consideration, children with Class I deletion had a lower weight at birth than expected, and the weight continued to be reduced during the investigated initial five years of life. In contrast, children with pUPD showed hyperphagic behavior and their weight increased significantly after the age of two years. Accordingly, their body mass index was significantly increased as compared to children with a deletion. At birth, one child showed microcephaly. At five years of age, microcephaly was observed in half of the deletion cases, but in none of the cases with a UBE3A mutation or pUPD. The apparently normal cranial growth in the UBE3A and pUPD patients should however be regarded as the result of a generally increased growth. Eating behavior, pre- and postnatal growth in children with Angelman syndrome depends on genotype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Milsom, Vanessa A.; Barnes, Rachel D.; Boeka, Abbe G.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.
The metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), characterized by vascular symptoms, is strongly correlated with obesity, weight-related medical diseases and mortality, and has increased commensurately with secular increases in obesity in the U.S. Little is known about the distribution of MetSynin obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) or its associations with different developmental trajectories of dieting, binge eating, and obesity problems. Further, inconsistencies in the limited data necessitate...
Full Text Available Introduction: Reduced sleep to increase work hours is common among police officers, when this situation is combined with Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS, health consequences are greater, therefore we believe there is a need of research for these alterations. The aim of this study was to measure the changes in sleep architecture (SA in police officers who currently have Night shift work (NSW and OSAHS. Methods: We compared SA in 107 subjects divided in three groups: the first group included police officers with NSW and severe OSAHS (n = 48; the second group were non-police officers with diurnal work time and severe OSAHS (n = 48 and the third group was formed by healthy controls (n = 11. Polysomnography (PSG variables and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS scores were compared. Results: SA was more disrupted in the group of police officers with NSW and OSAHS than in patients with OSAHS only and in the control group. Police officers with NSW and OSAHS presented an increased number of electroencephalographic activations, apnea/hypopnea index, and sleep latency, and showed lower scores of oxygen saturation, and in the ESS. Multivariate analysis revealed significant influence of age and Body mass index (BMI. Conclusions: Data suggested with caution an additive detrimental effect of NSW and OSAHS in SA and ESS of police officers. However age and BMI must be also taken into account in future studies.
Matejko, Bartlomiej; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Szopa, Magdalena; Trznadel Morawska, Iwona; Malecki, Maciej T; Klupa, Tomasz
Little is known about the impact of sleep duration and late-night snacking on glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes using insulin pumps. The aim of the present study was to examine whether late-night eating habits and short sleep duration are associated with glycemic control in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion-treated type 1 diabetic patients. We included 148 consecutive adult type 1 diabetic subjects using an insulin pump (100 women and 48 men). Participants completed a questionnaire regarding sleep duration (classified as short if ≤6 h) and late-night snacking. Other sources of information included medical records and data from blood glucose meters. Glycemic control was assessed by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and mean self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) readings. The mean age of patients was 26 years, mean type 1 diabetes duration was 13.4 years and mean HbA1c level was 7.2%. In a univariate regression analysis, sleep duration was a predictor of both HbA1c (β = 0.51, P = 0.01) and SMBG levels (β = 11.4, P = 0.02). Additionally, an association was found between frequent late-night snacking and higher SMBG readings (often snacking β = 18.1, P = 0.05), but not with increased HbA1c levels. In the multivariate linear regression, independent predictors for HbA1c and SMBG were sleep duration and patient age. In a univariate logistic regression, sleep duration and frequency of late-night snacking were not predictors of whether HbA1c target levels were achieved. Short sleep duration, but not late-night snacking, seems to be associated with poorer glycemic control in type 1 diabetic patients treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.
Tuck Seng Cheng
Full Text Available Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD deficiency, poor sleep quality, and night-time eating, have been independently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, but their inter-relationships are yet to be evaluated. We aimed to investigate the associations between maternal plasma 25OHD status and sleep quality and circadian eating patterns during pregnancy. Data on pregnant women (n = 890 from a prospective cohort (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes were analyzed. Plasma 25OHD concentration was measured, while the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI and 24-h dietary recall were administered to women at 26–28 weeks’ gestation. Plasma 25OHD status was defined as sufficient (>75 nmol/L, insufficient (50–75 nmol/L, or deficient (<50 nmol/L. Poor sleep quality was defined by a total global PSQI score >5. Predominantly day-time (pDT and predominantly night-time (pNT were defined according to consumption of greater proportion of calories (i.e., >50% from 07:00–18:59 and from 19:00–06:59, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, women with plasma 25OHD deficiency had higher odds of poor sleep quality (odds ratio (OR 3.49; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.84–6.63 and pNT eating (OR: 1.85; 95% CI 1.00–3.41 than those who were 25OHD sufficient. Our findings show the association of maternal plasma 25OHD deficiency with poor sleep quality and pNT eating at mid-pregnancy.
Ferri, Raffaele; Fulda, Stephany; Manconi, Mauro; Högl, Birgit; Ehrmann, Laura; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Zucconi, Marco
The number of periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS index) shows high night-to-night variability, requiring multiple nights for its reliable estimation. It is currently not known if this is also the case for the degree of periodicity of leg movements, quantified by the Periodicity index. To compare night-to-night variability of PLMS and Periodicity indices in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) or periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD). Eighteen idiopathic RLS patients and 9 PLMD patients were recruited. Subjects underwent two consecutive full night polysomnographic studies. Polysomnographic recordings were scored and leg movement activity analyzed during sleep for the computation of the PLMS and Periodicity indices. In both patient groups, the Periodicity index showed a significantly lower degree of variability than that of PLMS index, being >6.5 times lower in RLS patients and 2 times lower in PLMD patients. These data support the use of the Periodicity index in the evaluation of PLMS in RLS and PLMD and indicate that this parameter seems to be more stable than the widely used PLMS index which has higher night-to-night variability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Paganini, Chiara; Peterson, Gregory; Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Krug, Isabel
Studies indicate that Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) features (e.g. insulin instability, food cravings, overproduction of androgens and menstrual irregularities) associate with increased appetite, impaired impulse control and feelings of body dissatisfaction. Counter intuitively, binge eating behaviors have been shown to reinforce PCOS symptomatology, precipitating concurrently body dissatisfaction, weight gain, insulin instability and overproduction of androgens. The present systematic literature review aspires to investigate the relationship between binge eating, in the broader context of eating disorder behaviors, and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), taking into account shared characteristics between EDs (Eating Disorders) and PCOS. To address this aim the PRISMA guidelines are adopted. A total of 21 studies, which investigated the presence of binge eating in PCOS population and the presence of PCOS in EDs population, were synthesized. Findings suggested that an increased prevalence of binge eating has been reported in women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS); and that women suffering from BN (Bulimia Nervosa) and BED (Binge Eating Disorder) are more likely to display polycystic ovaries. Further research on their shared liability is required in order to inform more efficient prevention and treatment initiatives for populations presenting with comorbid features. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
The association between anxiety, hunger, the enjoyment of eating foods and the satiety after food intake in individuals working a night shift compared with after taking a nocturnal sleep: A prospective and observational study.
Santa Cecília Silva, Ane Andrade; Lopes, Tássia do Vale Cardoso; Teixeira, Kely Raspante; Mendes, Jordane Amaral; de Souza Borba, Matheus Eduardo; Mota, Maria Carliana; Waterhouse, Jim; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida
Subjective responses to meals are altered by shortened sleep time and anxiety state, but this effect has been poorly studied in shift workers - who act as a typical model concerning sleep restriction and present high levels of anxiety. The objective of this study was to compare subjective perceptions of meals and the levels of anxiety in the same subjects after working night shifts and after taking a nocturnal sleep, and to investigate associations between the responses to meals and the levels of anxiety under these two conditions. The study evaluated 34 male permanent night-shift workers who worked a 12-h shift followed by a 36-h rest period. Evaluations included: sleep pattern (on three days after working night shifts and after sleeping at night); hunger, enjoyment of eating foods and satiety after a meal (evaluated by visual analogue scales on three non-consecutive days after working night shifts and after nocturnal sleeps); and state of anxiety (on a day after working a night shift and a day after a nocturnal sleep). In the days following a night shift, workers had higher mean hunger scores before lunch and higher anxiety scores than when they had slept at night (p = 0.007 and 0.001, respectively). Linear regression indicated that, after a night shift, anxiety scores were negatively associated with hunger before breakfast (p = 0.04) and lunch (p = 0.03), the enjoyment of eating foods (p = 0.03) and the number of meals eaten during the course of the 24 h (p = 0.03). It is concluded that night shifts increase mean hunger and anxiety scores. Anxiety levels seem to interfere with the responses associated with food consumption. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bernardi, Fabiana; Harb, Ana Beatriz Cauduro; Levandovski, Rosa Maria; Hidalgo, Maria Paz Loayza
Este artigo tem como objetivo revisar aspectos relacionados a transtornos alimentares e suas relações com as alterações no ritmo circadiano. Realizou-se uma busca sistematizada das informações nas bases de dados PubMed usando os seguintes descritores: eating disorders, circadian rhythm, night eating syndrome, binge eating disorder e sleep patterns. Os transtornos alimentares, como a síndrome do comer noturno e o transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica, têm sido considerados e relacionados...
Clyne, Courtney; Latner, Janet D; Gleaves, David H; Blampied, Neville M
The link between negative affect and binge eating in those with binge eating disorder (BED) has been well established. The present study examined the efficacy of a treatment for BED designed to increase recognition and regulation of negative emotion, replicating and extending a previous investigation (Clyne, C., & Blampied, N.M. . Training in emotion regulation as a treatment for binge eating: A preliminary study. Behaviour Change, 21, 269-281) by including a control group, a larger number of participants, and formal diagnoses rather than classifying binge eating symptomatology from self-report questionnaires. Twenty-three women diagnosed with subthreshold or full syndrome BED (using the Eating Disorders Examination) participated in a treatment program that focused on increasing emotional regulation skills. Each participant completed the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire, the Binge Eating Scale, the Emotional Eating Scale, and completed self-monitoring records of binge episodes. Binge abstinence rates following treatment (post-treatment and 1 year follow-up were 78% and 87% respectively) were comparable to other empirically supported treatments for BED. Other positive changes in eating and general pathology were observed. These effects were well-maintained up to 1 year later.
Roehrig, Megan; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.
This study examined the frequency of the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and explored behavioral eating- and weight-related correlates in obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-three treatment-seeking obese BED patients (22 men and 71 women) with and without the MetSyn were compared on demographic features and a number of current and historical eating and weight variables. Sixty percent of the obese patients with BED met criteria for the MetSyn, with men and whites having signifi...
Voznesenskaia, T G; Safonova, V A; Platonova, N M
Eating behavior and comorbid syndromes were investigated in 40 women with obesity. A frequent combination of obesity with disorders of eating behavior, with emotional-personality, psychoautonomic and algesic disorders as well as with appearance of affective disorders during dietetic nutrition ("dietetic depression") required their correction. As a result of insufficiency of serotoninergic system of brain in pathogenesis of such disorders, fluoxetine (prozac)-a selective inhibitor of serotonine reuptake--was used for treatment of eating disorders. Heterogeneity in the structure of the obesity is shown. Disorders of eating behavior were combined with pronounced anxiety, depression, algesic and psychoautonomic syndromes. Therapy with prozac during 3 months in dose of 20 mg daily resulted in decrease of weight. Normalization of eating pattern, decrease of anxiety, depression, reaction to the external stimuli, increase of stress-resistance of patients, alterations in eating liking, decrease of severity of disorders comorbid to obesity were observed. A conclusion is made that prozac is indicated for patients in whom pathology of eating behavior plays a significant role in pathogenesis of obesity.
Utzinger, Linsey M; Gowey, Marissa A; Zeller, Meg; Jenkins, Todd M; Engel, Scott G; Rofey, Dana L; Inge, Thomas H; Mitchell, James E
This study assessed loss of control (LOC) eating and eating disorders (EDs) in adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery for severe obesity. Preoperative baseline data from the Teen Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) multisite observational study (n = 242; median BMI = 51 kg/m 2 ; mean age= 17; 76% female adolescents; 72% Caucasian) included anthropometric and self-report questionnaires, including the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R), the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Kids (IWQOL-Kids) RESULTS: LOC eating (27%) was common and ED diagnoses included binge-eating disorder (7%), night eating syndrome (5%), and bulimia nervosa (1%). Compared to those without LOC eating, those with LOC eating reported greater depressive symptomatology and greater impairment in weight-related quality of life. Before undergoing bariatric surgery, adolescents with severe obesity present with problematic disordered eating behaviors and meet diagnostic criteria for EDs. LOC eating, in particular, was associated with several negative psychosocial factors. Findings highlight targets for assessment and intervention in adolescents before bariatric surgery. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:947-952). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Karacan, Eda; Caglar, Gamze Sinem; Gürsoy, Aslı Yarcı; Yilmaz, Muserref Banu
The main goal of the current study was to examine the associations between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and body dissatisfaction and eating attitudes in a sample of adolescent girls and young women. Body dissatisfaction is 1 of the strongest predictors of the development of negative outcomes such as low self-esteem, and eating disorders. In adolescent age group of patients, both hirsutism and increased body mass index, appearing with PCOS, may be the leading symptoms also resulting or contributing to body dissatisfaction and eating disorder. The sample of 94 Turkish adolescent girls and young women [PCOS (n = 42) vs non-PCOS (n = 52)] completed measures of figure rating scale, the socio-cultural attitudes toward appearance questionnaire, body esteem scale, eating attitude test, and demographics. The results revealed that body esteem was important for predicting eating attitudes in both groups and sociocultural internalization of thinness ideal and body dissatisfaction were also significant factors in PCOS group. However, scores for major study variables (BMI, sociocultural attitudes toward awareness and internalized appearance ideals, body esteem subscales, body dissatisfaction and eating attitudes) in the PCOS group were not significantly higher than those for girls without PCOS. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nurses who work with seriously ill and dying patients are engaged in helping them live fully until they die. Most theories of death and dying deal with conscious activities only. Yet many people find relief form the fear and loneliness of life-threatening illness if given the opportunity to express their totality, meaning their unconscious as well as conscious processes. Working with the mind may not be enough. Attending to the unconscious through dream work can allow inner healing to occur, which can support that person as he or she moves into the unknown. The article describes the AIDS Dreamwork Project, the goals of which are to understand patients better and to help them better understand themselves, to help them live and die more consciously, and to discern patterns in their dreams that may be unique to people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Six themes have been identified in the dreams collected so far: wake-up dreams; reassurance dreams; dreams of opposition, separation, or coming together; transition dreams; transformation dreams; and spiritual or archetypal dreams.
Keel, Pamela K; Klump, Kelly L
The authors explore the extent to which eating disorders, specifically anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), represent culture-bound syndromes and discuss implications for conceptualizing the role genes play in their etiology. The examination is divided into 3 sections: a quantitative meta-analysis of changes in incidence rates since the formal recognition of AN and BN, a qualitative summary of historical evidence of eating disorders before their formal recognition, and an evaluation of the presence of these disorders in non-Western cultures. Findings suggest that BN is a culture-bound syndrome and AN is not. Thus, heritability estimates for BN may show greater variability cross-culturally than heritability estimates for AN, and the genetic bases of these disorders may be associated with differential pathoplasticity.
Forney, K Jean; Bodell, Lindsay P; Haedt-Matt, Alissa A; Keel, Pamela K
Of the two primary features of binge eating, loss of control (LOC) eating is well validated while the role of eating episode size is less clear. Given the ICD-11 proposal to eliminate episode size from the binge-eating definition, the present study examined the incremental validity of the size criterion, controlling for LOC. Interview and questionnaire data come from four studies of 243 women with bulimia nervosa (n = 141) or purging disorder (n = 102). Hierarchical linear regression tested if the largest reported episode size, coded in kilocalories, explained additional variance in eating disorder features, psychopathology, personality traits, and impairment, holding constant LOC eating frequency, age, and body mass index (BMI). Analyses also tested if episode size moderated the association between LOC eating and these variables. Holding LOC constant, episode size explained significant variance in disinhibition, trait anxiety, and eating disorder-related impairment. Episode size moderated the association of LOC eating with purging frequency and depressive symptoms, such that in the presence of larger eating episodes, LOC eating was more closely associated with these features. Neither episode size nor its interaction with LOC explained additional variance in BMI, hunger, restraint, shape concerns, state anxiety, negative urgency, or global functioning. Taken together, results support the incremental validity of the size criterion, in addition to and in combination with LOC eating, for defining binge-eating episodes in purging syndromes. Future research should examine the predictive validity of episode size in both purging and nonpurging eating disorders (e.g., binge eating disorder) to inform nosological schemes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:651-662). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hudson, James I; Lalonde, Justine K; Coit, Caitlin E; Tsuang, Ming T; McElroy, Susan L; Crow, Scott J; Bulik, Cynthia M; Hudson, Margo S; Yanovski, Jack A; Rosenthal, Norman R; Pope, Harrison G
Binge-eating disorder may represent a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome. The objective was to assess longitudinally the relation between binge-eating disorder and components of the metabolic syndrome. At 2.5 and 5 y of follow-up, 134 individuals with binge-eating disorder and 134 individuals with no history of eating disorders, who were frequency-matched for age, sex, and baseline body mass index (BMI), were interviewed during the follow-up interval regarding new diagnoses of 3 metabolic syndrome components: hypertension, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. A comparison of individuals with and without a binge-eating disorder in analyses adjusted for age, sex, baseline BMI, and interval BMI change had hazard ratios (95% CIs) for reporting new diagnoses of metabolic syndrome components of 2.2 (1.2, 4.2; P = 0.023) for dyslipidemia, 1.5 (0.76, 2.9; P = 0.33) for hypertension, 1.6 (0.77, 3.9; P = 0.29) for type 2 diabetes, 1.7 (1.1, 2.6; P = 0.023) for any component, and 2.4 (1.1, 5.7; P = 0.038) for > or =2 components. Binge-eating disorder may confer a risk of components of the metabolic syndrome over and above the risk attributable to obesity alone. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00777634.
Howell, Michael J; Schenck, Carlos H
To determine the frequency of nocturnal eating (NE) and sleep related eating disorder (SRED) in restless legs syndrome (RLS) versus psychophysiological insomnia (INS), and the relationship of these conditions with dopaminergic and sedative-hypnotic medications. Prospective case series. Sleep disorders center. Newly diagnosed RLS or INS. RLS or INS pharmacotherapy with systematic follow up interview for NE/SRED. Patients presenting with RLS (n = 88) or INS (n = 42) were queried for the presence of NE and SRED. RLS patients described nocturnal eating (61%) and SRED (36%) more frequently than INS patients (12% and 0%; both p RLS patients (64%; p = 0.003). Among patients on sedative-hypnotics, amnestic SRED and sleepwalking were more common in the setting of RLS (80%) than INS (8%; p RLS were not secondary to dopaminergic therapy, as RLS patients demonstrated a substantial drop (68% to 34%; p = 0.0026) in the frequency of NE after dopamine agents were initiated, and there were no cases of dopaminergic agents inducing novel NE or SRED. NE is common in RLS and not due to frequent nocturnal awakenings or dopaminergic agents. Amnestic SRED occurs predominantly in the setting of RLS mistreatment with sedating agents. In light of previous reports, these findings suggest that nocturnal eating is a non-motor manifestation of RLS with several clinical implications discussed here.
Mitchell, James E; King, Wendy C; Courcoulas, Anita; Dakin, George; Elder, Katherine; Engel, Scott; Flum, David; Kalarchian, Melissa; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Pender, John; Pories, Walter; Wolfe, Bruce
To describe eating patterns, prevalence of problematic eating behaviors, and determine factors associated with binge eating disorder (BED), before bariatric surgery. Before surgery, 2,266 participants (median age 46 years; 78.6% female; 86.9% white; median body mass index 45.9 kg/m(2) ) of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2) study completed eating behavior survey items in the self-administered LABS-2 Behavior form. Other measures included the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, the LABS-2 Psychiatric and Emotional Test Survey, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12, the Short Form-36 Health Survey, and Impact of Weight Quality of Life-Lite Survey. The majority (92.1%) of participants reported eating dinner regularly, whereas just over half (54.0%) reported eating breakfast regularly. Half of the participants reported eating at least four meals/week at restaurants; two meals/week were fast food. Loss of control eating was reported by 43.4%, night eating syndrome by 17.7%; 15.7% satisfied criteria for binge eating disorder (BED), 2% for bulimia nervosa. Factors that independently increased the odds of BED were being a college graduate, eating more times per day, taking medication for psychiatric or emotional problems, and having symptoms of alcohol use disorder, lower self-esteem and greater depressive symptoms. Before undergoing bariatric surgery a substantial proportion of patients report problematic eating behaviors. Several factors associated with BED were identified, most suggesting other mental health problems, including higher levels of depressive symptomotology. The strengths of this study include the large sample size, the multi-center design and use of standardized assessment practices. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Michalska, Aneta; Szejko, Natalia; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wojnar, Marcin
The aim of this paper was to characterise nonspecific eating disorders (other than anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa). The Medline database was searched for articles on nonspecific eating disorders. The following disorders were described: binge eating disorder (BED), pica, rumination disorder, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, night eating syndrome (NES), sleep-related eating disorder (SRED), bigorexia, orthorexia, focusing on diagnosis, symptoms, assessment, comorbidities, clinical implications and treatment. All of the included disorders may have dangerous consequences, both somatic and psychological. They are often comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Approximately a few percent of general population can be diagnosed with each disorder, from 0.5-4.7% (SRED) to about 7% (orthorexia). With the growing literature on the subject and changes in DSM-5, clinicians recognise and treat those disorders more often. More studies have to be conducted in order to differentiate disorders and treat or prevent them appropriately.
Full Text Available Previous studies looking at the relationship between sleep duration and the metabolic syndrome have only used a dichotomous approach (presence/absence and failed to adjust for important confounding factors. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between self-reported sleep duration and features of the metabolic syndrome in adults.A cross-sectional analysis from the Quebec Family Study (Canada was conducted on 810 participants aged 18 to 65 years. Participants were categorized as short (≤6 h, adequate (7-8 h or long (≥9 h sleepers. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's criteria.Overall, 24.6% of the sample had the metabolic syndrome. A U-shaped relationship between sleep duration and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (33.3%, 22.0% and 28.8% in short, adequate and long sleepers, respectively was observed (P<0.01. Only short sleepers had a significant increase in the odds of having the metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.08-2.84 compared to adequate sleepers after adjustment for age, sex, smoking habits, highest education level, total annual family income, alcohol consumption, coffee intake, menopausal status, daily caloric intake, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Likewise, the clustered cardiometabolic risk score (i.e. continuous risk score based on the metabolic syndrome components was significantly higher in short sleepers compared to adequate sleepers after adjustment for covariates (P<0.05.Sleeping ≤6 h per night is associated with an elevated cardiometabolic risk score and an increase in the odds of having the metabolic syndrome after adjusting for possible confounders. These results strongly suggest that short sleep duration is a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome.
Martini, Fábio Antonio Neia; Borges, Marcelo Brandão; Guedes, Dartagnan Pinto
The objective was to analyze indicators related to eating habits and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a representative sample of adults in a community from State of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample was comprised of 1,112 participants aged ≥ 20 years. Data from sociodemographic issues, indicators regarding eating habits, anthropometric measures, resting arterial pressure, blood glucose and plasma lipids were registered. MetS was assessed according to the NCEP-ATP III criteria. The results showed that adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported by less than 10% of the individuals. Regular consumption of fatty foods (5 days/week) was reported by 54.2% and sugar-added products and soft drinks by 3 8.6% of the interviewees. Gender, age, schooling, socioeconomic level and nutritional status influenced significantly the eating habits. Prevalence of MetS was approximately 24%, significantly higher in men (27.8% vs 20.3%; p = 0.005). Risk to identify MetS in individuals who reported not consuming regularly fruits and vegetables was approximately two times higher than their peers who reported adequate intake (women: OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.51 - 2.38; men: OR = 2.04; 95% CI 1.63 - 2.40). Exposure risk for MetS was progressively higher according to reported higher consumption of fatty foods, sugar-added products and soft drinks. The findings suggest interventions in order to emphasize healthy eating habits, which could help to minimize risk of MetS.
Yilmaz Kaysin, Meryem; Akpinar, Pinar; Aktas, Ilknur; Unlü Ozkan, Feyza; Silte Karamanlioglu, Duygu; Cagliyan Hartevioglu, Hulya; Vural, Nazan
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of short wave diathermy (SWD) in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. In this double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 57 patients (aged 35-65 yrs) were classified into night pain positive (NP[+]) (n = 28) and night pain negative (NP[-]) (n = 29) groups. Both groups were randomly assigned to SWD (NP[+], n = 14; NP[-], n = 14) and sham (NP[+], n = 15; NP[-], n = 14) subgroups. Visual analog scale, Constant-Murley Scale (CS), and Shoulder Disability Questionnaire (SDQ) scores were used for evaluation. There was only a significant difference in pain with activity at 1-mo (mean difference [MD], -1.65; 95% confidence interval, -3.01 to -0.28]) and 2-mo evaluations (MD, -2.1; 95% confidence interval, -3.51 to -0.69) between SWD versus sham groups. In the NP(+) SWD group, the CS pain score was significantly higher than in the NP(+) sham group at all evaluations after treatment. At 1 mo, the NP(-) SWD group showed significantly better pain, strength, total CS, and SDQ scores than the NP(-) sham group. At 2 mos, the pain, range of motion, strength, and total CS and SDQ scores were better in the NP(-) SWD group than in the NP(-) sham group (P impingement syndrome without NP.
Yoo, Ki-Bong; Suh, Hee-Jae; Lee, Minjee; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kwon, Jeoung A; Park, Eun-Cheol
The purpose of this study is to find out the association between eating breakfast, breakfast patterns, and the metabolic syndrome. We used the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2009. A total of 16,734 subjects were included. Breakfast dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between breakfast consumption, breakfast dietary patterns, and the metabolic syndrome. We found that breakfast consumption itself reduced the risk of the metabolic syndrome (odds ratio=0.82, 95% confidence interval=0.69-0.98). We identified two breakfast dietary patterns: the traditional Korean pattern and the dairy-cereal pattern. The dairy-cereal pattern was associated with a reduction in the risk of the metabolic syndrome among breakfast consumers. Compared to no breakfast consumption, the strongest traditional Korean pattern and the highest quartiles for the dairy-cereal pattern were associated with a reduced risk of the metabolic syndrome. Breakfast consumption is associated with the metabolic syndrome. Not all breakfast consumption patterns are associated with a reduced risk of having the metabolic syndrome. In particular, eating either a dairy-cereal breakfast or high energy and fiber breakfast are associated with a reduced risk of the metabolic syndrome.
Udo, Tomoko; McKee, Sherry A; White, Marney A; Masheb, Robin M; Barnes, Rachel D; Grilo, Carlos M
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is strongly linked with cardiovascular disease and type-II diabetes, but there has been debate over which metabolic measures constitute MetS. Obese individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) are one of the high risk populations for developing MetS due to their excess weight and maladaptive eating patterns, yet, the clustering patterns of metabolic measures have not been examined in this patient group. 347 adults (71.8% women) were recruited for treatment studies for obese individuals with BED. We used the VARCLUS procedure in the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) to investigate the clustering pattern of metabolic risk measures. The analysis yielded four factors: obesity (body-mass-index [BMI] and waist circumference), lipids (HDL and triglycerides), blood pressure (systolic and diastolic blood pressure), and glucose regulation (fasting serum glucose and Hb1Ac). The four factors accounted for 84% of the total variances, and variances explained by each factor were not substantially different. There was no inter-correlation between the four factors. Subgroup analyses by sex and by race (Caucasian vs. African American) yielded the same four-factor structure. The factor structure of MetS in obese individuals with BED is not different from those found in normative population studies. This factor structure may be applicable to the diverse population. © 2013.
Wennberg, Maria; Gustafsson, Per E; Wennberg, Patrik; Hammarström, Anne
The objective was to investigate whether irregular eating of meals in adolescence predicts the metabolic syndrome and its components in adulthood, and if any specific meal is of particular importance. Prospective cohort study with 27 years of follow-up. Information on meals (breakfast, school lunch and dinner with family), lifestyle (alcohol consumption, smoking habits, physical activity, consumption of sweets and pastries) at age 16 years was assessed from questionnaires, and presence or not of the metabolic syndrome and its components were defined at age 43 years in 889 participants (82·1% of total cohort). Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals. The Northern Swedish Cohort; all school-leavers of the 9th grade in the town Luleå in 1981. Adolescents (age 16 years). Irregular eating of meals at age 16 years was associated with higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years (OR=1·74; 95% CI 1·12, 2·71), but this was explained by concurrent unhealthy lifestyle at age 16 years. Poor breakfast at age 16 years was the only meal associated with the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years, independent of other meals, BMI (kg/m2) and lifestyle at age 16 years (OR=1·67; 95% CI 1·00, 2·80). Irregular eating of meals in adolescence predicted the metabolic syndrome in adulthood, but not independently of BMI and lifestyle in adolescence. Poor breakfast in adolescence was the only specific meal associated with future metabolic syndrome, even after adjustments. Breakfast eating should be encouraged in adolescence.
Howell, Michael J; Schenck, Carlos H
Identifying abnormal nocturnal eating is critically important for patient care and public health. Obesity is a global pandemic and a leading cause of preventable mortality in the United States, with more than 100,000 deaths annually. Normally, nighttime energy homeostasis is maintained, despite an absence of food intake, through appetite suppression and alterations in glucose metabolism that result in stable energy stores. Two conditions break this nighttime fast and are associated with weight gain as well as medical and neuropsychiatric comorbidities. Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is characterized by isolated nocturnal eating, whereas the night-eating syndrome (NES) is a circadian delay in meal timing leading to evening hyperphagia, nocturnal eating, and morning anorexia. Recently, SRED has been associated with the benzodiazepine receptor agonist zolpidem. Both SRED and NES are treatable and represent potentially reversible forms of obesity. In SRED, the antiseizure medication topiramate and dopaminergics have both demonstrated promising results. Nocturnal eating associated with NES has responded well to sertraline.
Lundgren, Jennifer D; Williams, Karen B; Heitmann, Berit L
/88) predicts number of missing teeth at time two (1993/94), when controlling for age, education, smoking status, body mass, carbohydrate intake, binge eating behavior, and diabetes diagnosis. A negative binomial model predicting number of missing teeth from nocturnal eating while controlling for covariates......The relationship between nocturnal eating, such as that associated with night eating syndrome (NES), and oral health is unknown. This study sought to determine if nocturnal eating is related to tooth loss in a large, epidemiologic sample. Danes (N=2217; age range 30-60 years, M BMI [kg/m(2......)]=25.9, % Male=50.1) enrolled in the Danish MONICA (MONItoring trends and determinants of CArdiovascular disease) were assessed on oral health, eating behavior, anthropometrics, general health, and demographic characteristics in both 1987/88 and 1993/94. We hypothesized that nocturnal eating at time one (1987...
Ozkaya, Hande Mefkure; Keskin, Fatma Ela; Tuten, Abdullah; Korkmaz, Ebru; Oktay, Hulya Zeynep; Kadioglu, Pinar
To determine cutoff values of late-night salivary cortisol (LNSC) using an electrochemiluminescent immunoassay and investigate whether the diagnostic performance of the assay is influenced by the presence of obesity or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of 124 subjects comprising 25 patients with Cushing syndrome (CS), 44 with PCOS (22 nonobese and 22 obese), 21 with constitutional obesity (CO), and 34 healthy subjects (HS) were included in the study. Two consecutive LNSC samples were collected from all participants. The median LNSC levels of patients with CS were significantly higher than LNSC levels of HS, patients with CO, and obese and nonobese patients with PCOS, respectively (Pobese and nonobese patients with PCOS did not differ in terms of median LNSC levels (P>.05 for all). The cutoff values and corresponding sensitivity and specificity were similar between the groups. The comparisons of the area under curve of the first LNSC (0.963; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.910 to 0.989), second LNSC (0.954; 95% CI, 0.898 to 0.984), and the mean of two consecutive LNSC (mLNSC) values (0.962; 95% CI, 0.909 to 0.989) did not differ significantly (P>.05 for all). A cutoff value for mLNSC of 7.45 nmol/L yielded a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 87.5% in HS. In conclusion, LNSC is a reliable test with high diagnostic accuracy in both HS and patients with PCOS and obesity. ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone AUC = area under the curve BMI = body mass index CO = constitutional obesity CS = Cushing syndrome E2 = estradiol ECLIA = electrochemiluminescent immunoassay FPG = fasting plasma glucose FSH = follicle-stimulating hormone HOMA-IR = homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance HPA = hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal HS = healthy subjects IQR = interquartile range LH = luteinizing hormone LNSC = late-night salivary cortisol LR = likelihood ratio mLNSC = mean of two consecutive LNSC samples PCOS = polycystic ovarian syndrome ROC = receiver operating
Grant, Crystal Leigh; Dorrian, Jillian; Coates, Alison Maree; Pajcin, Maja; Kennaway, David John; Wittert, Gary Allen; Heilbronn, Leonie Kaye; Vedova, Chris Della; Gupta, Charlotte Cecilia; Banks, Siobhan
This study examined the impact of eating during simulated night shift on performance and subjective complaints. Subjects were randomized to eating at night (n=5; 23.2 ± 5.5 y) or not eating at night (n=5; 26.2 ± 6.4 y). All participants were given one sleep opportunity of 8 h (22:00 h-06:00 h) before transitioning to the night shift protocol. During the four days of simulated night shift participants were awake from 16:00 h-10:00 h with a daytime sleep of 6 h (10:00 h-16:00 h). In the simulated night shift protocol, meals were provided at ≈0700 h, 1900 h and 0130 h (eating at night); or ≈0700 h, 0930 h, 1410 h and 1900 h (not eating at night). Subjects completed sleepiness, hunger and gastric complaint scales, a Digit Symbol Substitution Task and a 10-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task. Increased sleepiness and performance impairment was evident in both conditions at 0400 h (peating at night. Not eating at night was associated with elevated hunger and a small but significant elevation in stomach upset across the night (pEating at night was associated with elevated bloating on night one, which decreased across the protocol. Restricting food intake may limit performance impairments at night. Dietary recommendations to improve night-shift performance must also consider worker comfort.
Grant, Crystal L; Coates, Alison M; Dorrian, Jillian; Kennaway, David J; Wittert, Gary A; Heilbronn, Leonie K; Pajcin, Maja; Della Vedova, Chris; Gupta, Charlotte C; Banks, Siobhan
Eating during the night may increase the risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes in shift workers. This study examined the impact of either eating or not eating a meal at night on glucose metabolism. Participants underwent four nights of simulated night work (SW1-4, 16:00-10:00 h, food intake to the biological clock could reduce the burden of type 2 diabetes in shift workers.
The validity of the PAM-RL device for evaluating periodic limb movements in sleep and an investigation on night-to-night variability of periodic limb movements during sleep in patients with restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder using this system.
Kobayashi, Mina; Namba, Kazuyoshi; Ito, Eiki; Nishida, Shingo; Nakamura, Masaki; Ueki, Yoichiro; Furudate, Naomichi; Kagimura, Tatsuo; Usui, Akira; Inoue, Yuichi
The status of night-to-night variability for periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) has not been clarified. With this in mind, we investigated the validity of PLMS measurement by actigraphy with the PAM-RL device in Japanese patients with suspected restless legs syndrome (RLS) or periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) and the night-to-night variability of PLMS among the subjects. Forty-one subjects (mean age, 52.1±16.1 years) underwent polysomnography (PSG) and PAM-RL measurement simultaneously. Thereafter, subjects used the PAM-RL at home on four more consecutive nights. The correlation between PLMS index on PSG (PLMSI-PSG) and PLM index on PAM-RL (PLMI-PAM) was 0.781 (PPAM-RL. PAM-RL is thought to be valuable for assessing PLMS even in Japanese subjects. Recording of PAM-RL for three or more consecutive nights may be required to ensure the screening reliability of a patient with suspected pathologically frequent PLMS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Joshua B. Johnson; Jane L. Rodrigue; W. Mark. Ford
In the central Appalachians, conservation concern about bat communities and their population status has become increasingly more significant with the advent and spread of white-nose syndrome (WNS). However, managers often are hampered in their response to WNS by the lack of information on pre-WNS local distribution, abundance, or activity patterns for most bat species...
Zawilska, Jolanta B; Santorek-Strumiłło, Edyta J; Kuna, Paulina
Nighttime eating is categorized as either night eating syndrome (NES) or the sleep-related eating disorder (SRED). Both diseases are often connected with an increase of the body mass, obesity, and with psychiatric disturbances. NES is characterized by evening hyperphagia, abnormally increased food intake after the evening meal, nocturnal awakings with ingestions, morning anorexia, and insomnia. Patients suffering from NES are aware of their nocturnal ingestions. It is suggested that NES is an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing that occurs in people with normal circadian rhythm of sleep. Other factors underlying NES include genetic predispositions, hormonal and neurochemical disturbances, and mood disorders. SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating or drinking after arousal from nighttime sleep, unaware in tight the most cases, with adverse consequences. The distinctive features of SRED are amnesia of night eating episodes and consumption of non-typical food or dangerous articles. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, e.g., restless leg syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, obstructive sleep apnea, and somnambulism. It can be also induced by medicines applied by a patient (e.g. zolpidem). It is hypothesized that the syndrome represents a variation of somnambulism. In the treatment of NES both non-pharmacological methods (psychotherapy, phototherapy) as well as the pharmacotherapy (aimed to increase serotoninergic neurotransmission in the brain, predominantly by sertraline, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor) are used. SRED can be treated by controlling comorbid sleep disorders and eliminating provocative sedative hypnotics.
Full Text Available Objective. Despite evidence from case series, the comorbidity of eating disorders (EDs with schizophrenia is poorly understood. This review aimed to assess the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of EDs in schizophrenia patients and to examine whether the management of EDs can be improved. Methods. A qualitative review of the published literature was performed using the following terms: “schizophrenia” in association with “eating disorders,” “anorexia nervosa,” “bulimia nervosa,” “binge eating disorder,” or “night eating syndrome.” Results. According to our literature review, there is a high prevalence of comorbidity between schizophrenia and EDs. EDs may occur together with or independent of psychotic symptoms in these patients. Binge eating disorders and night eating syndromes are frequently found in patients with schizophrenia, with a prevalence of approximately 10%. Anorexia nervosa seems to affect between 1 and 4% of schizophrenia patients. Psychopathological and neurobiological mechanisms, including effects of antipsychotic drugs, should be more extensively explored. Conclusions. The comorbidity of EDs in schizophrenia remains relatively unexplored. The clearest message of this review is the importance of screening for and assessment of comorbid EDs in schizophrenia patients. The management of EDs in schizophrenia requires a multidisciplinary approach to attain maximized health outcomes. For clinical practice, we propose some recommendations regarding patient-centered care.
Full Text Available Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is around 25% in Europe but its occurrence grows in both genders with increasing age and weight. Lifestyle factors may contribute to the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between metabolic syndrome and eating habits as well as length of sleep and smoking. Participants (519 women and 286 men aged 18–65 years were chosen by random selection and questioned about their eating habits, sleep length and smoking. This information was combined with anthropometric and clinical parameters of metabolic syndrome. The female group was divided into two subgroups depending on climacteric stage (before and after menopause. Metabolic syndrome prevalence does not differ between regions in neither female (29.9% nor male (32.5% group. Body mass index ≥25 was detected in 50.4% of all women and 65.7% of men; 23.5% of all women and 21.7% men had body mass index ≥30. In conclusion, metabolic syndrome prevalence was proved to depend on eating habits and family heredity. Positive correlation between the above mentioned factors demonstrated itself in the total sample but not in individual regions. Metabolic syndrome prevalence in Czech adults is comparable with neighbouring countries. No significant interregional differences in metabolic syndrome prevalence within the Czech Republic were detected. In conclusion, relationship between eating habits and metabolic syndrome was confirmed.
Vosátková, M; Ceřovská, J; Zamrazilová, H; Hoskovcová, P; Dvořáková, M; Zamrazil, V
Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is around 25% in Europe but its occurrence grows in both genders with increasing age and weight. Lifestyle factors may contribute to the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between metabolic syndrome and eating habits as well as length of sleep and smoking. Participants (519 women and 286 men aged 18-65 years) were chosen by random selection and questioned about their eating habits, sleep length and smoking. This information was combined with anthropometric and clinical parameters of metabolic syndrome. The female group was divided into two subgroups depending on climacteric stage (before and after menopause). Metabolic syndrome prevalence does not differ between regions in neither female (29.9%) nor male (32.5%) group. Body mass index ≥25 was detected in 50.4% of all women and 65.7% of men; 23.5% of all women and 21.7% men had body mass index ≥30. In conclusion, metabolic syndrome prevalence was proved to depend on eating habits and family heredity. Positive correlation between the above mentioned factors demonstrated itself in the total sample but not in individual regions. Metabolic syndrome prevalence in Czech adults is comparable with neighbouring countries. No significant interregional differences in metabolic syndrome prevalence within the Czech Republic were detected. In conclusion, relationship between eating habits and metabolic syndrome was confirmed.
Kwon, A Rom; Yoon, Yeong Sook; Min, Kyong Pil; Lee, Yoon Kyung; Jeon, Ji Ho
Eating alone has been an emerging social concern in modern life. However, there is little research on the association between eating alone and Metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to assess the association between eating alone and the MetS and to identify whether sociodemographic factors modify this association. This study included 7725 adults (≥19 years) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2013-2014. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used for assessing the association of eating alone (none, 1 time/day, and ≥2 times/day) with MetS. The percentages of subjects with MetS were 30.4% in men and 24.2% in women. 20.8% of men and 29.2% of women ate alone ≥2 times/day. Individuals who ate alone 2 or more times per day showed higher frequency of living alone, having no spouse, skip meals, and less eating out (p<0.05). Women with eating alone ≥2 times/day had a crude OR of 1.29 (95% CI:1.08-1.53, p-trend=0.001) for MetS compared with women without eating alone. However, this association was no longer significant after adjustments for confounding factors. Eating alone ≥2 times/day was significantly associated with increase abdominal obesity (OR, 95% CI:1.45, 1.10-1.91, p-trend=0.039) and MetS (1.64, 1.28-2.10, p-trend=0.004) in men. Eating alone was associated with a higher likelihood of having a MetS in men without spouse as compared with those with spouse (OR for men without spouse 3.02, 95% CI:1.50-6.11 and OR for men with spouse 1.48, 95% CI:1.22-1.7, p-interaction=0.027). Our results indicate that eating alone may be a potential risk factor for MetS. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Davidson, Charis R; Billings, Deborah L
The Healthy Eating for Reproductive Health study was conducted among 18 (45% non-white) mostly obese (BMI 39.9 ± 6.1) women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who were experiencing infertility and interested in losing weight. A variety of markers were measured at baseline: body mass index (BMI), diet, physical activity, eating behaviors (using an Eating Behavior Inventory, a questionnaire which assesses both positive and negative eating behaviors associated with weight status, with a higher score indicating adoption of eating behaviors which have been shown in prior weight-loss research to promote a healthy weight (EBI) and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, which assesses cognitive and behavioral components of eating among overweight adults), and a quality of life (PCOS Health-Related Quality of Life (PCOSQ)) index, which assesses satisfaction around five 'domains': emotional health, presence of body hair, infertility, weight, and menstrual problems). A comparison group of overweight women without PCOS (n = 28) was used to examine differences in measured outcomes between women with and without PCOS. Participants' habitual diets were high in fat and saturated fat and low in fiber, folate, and iron and contained significantly lower amounts of carbohydrate, iron, and whole grains compared with women without PCOS who had enrolled in a behavioral weight loss programme. Participants had a low EBI (indicating that most were not adopting eating behaviors associated with achieving a healthy weight), disinhibition (indicating participants had a tendency to overeat in the presence of highly palatable foods or were susceptible to emotional cues for eating, such as stress), and hunger scores (indicating participants did not report being susceptible to hunger, prompting overeating) and moderate dietary restraint (indicating they were not consistently attempting to restrict food intake consciously). PCOSQ scores were lowest for infertility and weight domains (indicating
Brion, Agnès; Flamand, Mathilde; Oudiette, Delphine; Voillery, Dorothée; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle
Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) may have some common clinical features with sleepwalking and with eating behavior disorders. The objective of this study was to compare clinical, sleep, and eating behavior measures in patients with SRED vs. sleepwalkers and controls. Overall, 15 patients with SRED, 21 sleepwalkers, and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers underwent interviews, completed sleep, anxiety, depression, and eating behavior scales, and had a night-time videopolysomnography. Patients with SRED were mainly women, had disease onset in adulthood, suffered nightly episodes and insomnia, and had more frequent eating problems in childhood and higher current anorexia scores than sleepwalkers and controls. Unlike controls, they shared several commonalities with sleepwalkers, including a high frequency (66%) of past or current sleepwalking, a similar timing of parasomnia episodes during the first half of the night, numerous arousals from stage N3, and a similarly altered level of daytime sleepiness and anxiety, but higher awareness during parasomnia episodes. Conversely, only 10% of sleepwalkers ate during their sleepwalking episodes. On videopolysomnography, the eating episodes occurred mostly within 1min after awakening from stage N2 (n=9) or stage N3 (n=6). The frequencies of restless legs syndrome, periodic leg movements, and sleep apnea were similar across the three groups. Patients with SRED share several clinical commonalities with sleepwalkers (although their level of awareness is higher) plus former or current eating behavior problems. It suggests that they have specialized a former sleepwalking behavior toward sleep-related eating because they are more vulnerable to eating behavior problems during the daytime. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo revisar aspectos relacionados a transtornos alimentares e suas relações com as alterações no ritmo circadiano. Realizou-se uma busca sistematizada das informações nas bases de dados PubMed usando os seguintes descritores: eating disorders, circadian rhythm, night eating syndrome, binge eating disorder e sleep patterns. Os transtornos alimentares, como a síndrome do comer noturno e o transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica, têm sido considerados e relacionados a um atraso no ritmo circadiano da ingestão alimentar e saciedade prejudicada. Os ritmos circadianos são aqueles que apresentam um período de 24 h, como, por exemplo, o ciclo sono-vigília, temperatura corporal, atividade e comportamento alimentar. Distúrbios provocados pelas alterações nos horários de sono/vigília influenciam o apetite, a saciedade e, consequentemente, a ingestão alimentar, o que parece favorecer o aumento desses transtornos. Percebe-se que o comportamento alimentar pode ser influenciado por ritmos circadianos. Porém, mais estudos e o maior conhecimento sobre a ritmicidade alimentar podem contribuir com o melhor entendimento do comportamento alimentar atual, atuando na prevenção e/ou tratamento de transtornos alimentares.This review aims at reviewing aspects related to eating disorders arising from changes in circadian rhythm. There was a systematic search in PubMed databases, using the following descriptors: eating disorders, circadian rhythm, night eating syndrome, binge eating disorder, and sleep patterns. Eating disorders, such as night eating syndrome and binge eating disorder, have been considered and related to a delay in circadian rhythm in food intake and impaired satiety. Circadian rhythms are those that show a period of 24 h, for example, sleep-wake cycle, body temperature, activity and eating behavior. Disorders related to changes in sleep-wake schedules influence the appetite, satiety and consequently
Wang, Chao-Ping; Hsu, Hui-Ling; Hung, Wei-Chin; Yu, Teng-Hung; Chen, Yen-Hsun; Chiu, Cheng-An; Lu, Li-Fen; Chung, Fu-Mei; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Lee, Yau-Jiunn
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a part of visceral fat deposited around the heart between the pericardium and myocardium along the distribution of coronary arteries. EAT thickness is reported to be associated with coronary atherosclerosis; however, no study has measured EAT volume in patients with type 2 diabetes or investigate its association with coronary artery disease. A hospital-based case control study. A total of 49 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 78 nondiabetic controls were studied. Cardiac multislice computed tomography was used to measure EAT volume, Gensini score, coronary artery calcium score and, coronary lesions. The relationships between EAT volume, markers of coronary atherosclerosis and anthropometric and biochemical parameters of metabolic syndrome (MetS) were investigated. EAT volume was significantly higher in patients with T2DM than in nondiabetic subjects (166.1 +/- 60.6 cm(3) vs. 123.4 +/- 41.8 cm(3), P EAT and diabetic status. EAT volume was significantly associated with components of MetS (BMI, waist circumference, fasting serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels), Gensini score, coronary lesions, coronary disease and coronary calcium scores. Univariate, multivariate and trend analyses confirmed that EAT volume was associated with MetS component clustering and the coronary atherosclerosis index. The analytical results indicate that EAT volume is increased in T2DM patients and is associated with unfavourable components of MetS and coronary atherosclerosis. The close anatomical relationship between EAT and the coronary arteries, combined with other evidence indicating that EAT is a biologically active adipokine-secreting tissue, suggest that EAT participates in the pathogenesis of diabetic coronary atherosclerosis.
Mahbobeh Sadat Hosseini
Full Text Available Background: Despite many effort to identify and control the factors involved in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, there are no available reports indicating the association of healthy eating index (HEI and PCOS. Objective: The present study has been conducted to examine the relationship between HEI and PCOS. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, the study population comprised 297 women aged 20-40 yr referred to Baqiyatallah Hospital Clinics, Tehran, Iran in two groups: case group (n=99 and control group (n=198. The usual dietary data were collected using a validated 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Standard anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and waist circumference were also taken. Unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the PCOS and the HEI. Results: The mean age and body mass index of case and control groups were 29±5.5 vs. 29.5±6 yr and 26.6±4.8 vs. 26±4.2 kg/m², respectively (p=0.752, p=0.822. Mean HEI scores for the case and control groups were found to be 61 and 65, respectively. In final model and after adjustment for confounders, the prevalence of PCOS in subjects in the highest tertile HEI score was significantly (50% less than those in the lowest tertile HEI score (OR=0.50; 95% CI: 0.25-0.74, p=0.001. Conclusion: Our results suggest that HEI score is inversely associated with the risk of PCOS in adult women
Symptoms Night leg cramps By Mayo Clinic Staff Night leg cramps, also called nocturnal leg cramps, are painful, involuntary contractions or spasms of muscles in your legs, usually occurring when you're in bed. Night ...
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet consumed before and after weight loss on eating behavioral traits as measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS. In this fixed sequence study, 19 men with MetS (National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII criteria, aged between 24 and 62 years, first consumed a five-week standardized North American control diet followed by a five-week MedDiet, both under weight-maintaining controlled-feeding conditions. This was followed by a 20-week caloric restriction weight loss period in free-living conditions, without specific recommendations towards adhering to the principles of the MedDiet. Participants were finally subjected to a final five-week MedDiet phase under isoenergetic controlled-feeding conditions. The MedDiet before weight loss had no impact on eating behavioral traits. Body weight reduction by caloric restriction (−10.2% of initial weight was associated with increased cognitive restraint (p < 0.0001 and with reduced disinhibition (p = 0.02 and susceptibility to hunger (p = 0.01. Feeding the MedDiet for five weeks under isoenergetic conditions after the weight loss phase had no further impact on eating behavioral traits. Results of this controlled-feeding study suggest that consumption of the MedDiet per se has no effect on eating behavioral traits as measured by TFEQ, unless it is combined with significant weight loss.
Carbonneau, Élise; Royer, Marie-Michelle; Richard, Caroline; Couture, Patrick; Desroches, Sophie; Lemieux, Simone; Lamarche, Benoît
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) consumed before and after weight loss on eating behavioral traits as measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this fixed sequence study, 19 men with MetS (National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria), aged between 24 and 62 years, first consumed a five-week standardized North American control diet followed by a five-week MedDiet, both under weight-maintaining controlled-feeding conditions. This was followed by a 20-week caloric restriction weight loss period in free-living conditions, without specific recommendations towards adhering to the principles of the MedDiet. Participants were finally subjected to a final five-week MedDiet phase under isoenergetic controlled-feeding conditions. The MedDiet before weight loss had no impact on eating behavioral traits. Body weight reduction by caloric restriction (-10.2% of initial weight) was associated with increased cognitive restraint ( p < 0.0001) and with reduced disinhibition ( p = 0.02) and susceptibility to hunger ( p = 0.01). Feeding the MedDiet for five weeks under isoenergetic conditions after the weight loss phase had no further impact on eating behavioral traits. Results of this controlled-feeding study suggest that consumption of the MedDiet per se has no effect on eating behavioral traits as measured by TFEQ, unless it is combined with significant weight loss.
GRANT, Crystal Leigh; DORRIAN, Jillian; COATES, Alison Maree; PAJCIN, Maja; KENNAWAY, David John; WITTERT, Gary Allen; HEILBRONN, Leonie Kaye; DELLA VEDOVA, Chris; GUPTA, Charlotte Cecilia; BANKS, Siobhan
This study examined the impact of eating during simulated night shift on performance and subjective complaints. Subjects were randomized to eating at night (n=5; 23.2 ± 5.5 y) or not eating at night (n=5; 26.2 ± 6.4 y). All participants were given one sleep opportunity of 8 h (22:00 h-06:00 h) before transitioning to the night shift protocol. During the four days of simulated night shift participants were awake from 16:00 h-10:00 h with a daytime sleep of 6 h (10:00 h-16:00 h). In the simulat...
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Gastrointestinal disorders like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and constipation can affect the quality of life and various factors play a role in these disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the environmental factors related to these problems among Iranian male university students. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 186 male students at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. Rome Criteria III (to identify gastrointestinal disorders, Dutch eating behavior, food pattern brief instrument and international physical activity questionnaires were completed by all participants moreover, their anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: The results showed a significant difference in weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist to hip ratio in the students suffering from constipation compared with the healthy ones. The students with constipation had more significant milk intake and those with IBS had less intake of vegetables. No significant differences were observed in the eating behavior of students with constipation and IBS, and the healthy ones. Conclusions: Weight and other anthropometric indices could be considered as factors related to constipation. According to the results, an appropriate and balanced intake of different food groups with emphasis on vegetables, milk and dairy products could be recommended. Keywords: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, Constipation, Diet, Anthropometry
Leite, Paula Bresciani; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda; Poli, Vanessa Schoenardie; Sanches, Ricardo Badan; Silva, Stephan Garcia Andrade; Fidalgo, João Pedro Novo; Nascimento, Maythe Amaral; de Oliveira, Camila Aparecida Machado; Caranti, Danielle Arisa
Obesity-associated comorbidities greatly impact the quality and expectancy of life. Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder and it is an important risk factor for obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). For these reasons, we aimed to assess the effect of an interdisciplinary therapy on the symptoms of BED and the prevalence of MetS in obese adults. It was hypothesized that the interdisciplinary therapy would decrease symptoms of BED and markers of MetS. Twenty-four volunteers (BMI 34.80±3.17 kg/m 2 ; 41.21±6.28 years old) completed a 32-week intervention. Biochemical characteristics, body composition, the degree of symptoms of binge eating, and macronutrients, and sodium consumption pre- and post-treatment were determined. The prevalence of MetS dropped from 75% to 45.8%, post-therapy. Among the markers of MetS, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure decreased significantly, whereas high-density lipoprotein levels increased. Fasting plasma glucose, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides did not change. Based on binge-eating scale (BES) scores, before therapy, 33.3% of volunteers were classified as moderate bingers, and after therapy all volunteers were classified as having no BED symptoms. No difference in the prevalence of MetS between individuals classified as normal or moderate bingers was observed, but we found a positive post-therapy correlation between the BES score and body fat, gynoid fat and trunk fat. Sodium, fat, and carbohydrate consumption decreased. Protein intake did not change. In conclusion, the interdisciplinary approach was efficient in reducing symptoms of BED and MetS prevalence in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Park, Shin-Ae; Park, Woo-Chul; Kwon, Yu-Jin; Shim, Jae-Yong
Several studies have shown that family meals promote a well-balanced and healthier diet and weight status. Metabolic syndrome is related to eating behavior. This study investigated the association between eating family meals and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. This cross-sectional study included 4,529 subjects who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007-2012). A self-reported questionnaire was used to assess dietary status. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the guidelines of the modified version of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. We compared the overall quality of dietary intake in family meal. Nutritional adequacy ratios for energy, protein, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin B 1 , vitamin B 2 , vitamin C, niacin, and potassium, and the mean adequacy ratio were significantly higher in the family meal group (Pmetabolic syndrome was lower in the family meal group (Pmetabolic syndrome. This study demonstrated that eating family meals appeared to be associated with nutrient adequacy. However, we observed no significant differences in prevalence of metabolic syndrome between the 2 groups.
Koceïr, E A; Benbaïbeche, H; Haffaf, El M; Kacimi, G; Oudjit, B
These twenty last years, the metabolic syndrome was accused in various human pathologies including android obesity and type 2 diabetes. In obesity, increased body weight is frequently associated with excessive caloric food and sedentary activities. The Behaviour Eating Disorders (BED) is involved in over-consumption alimentary. In Algeria, we observed increasingly deviations in life-style alimentary, from the Mediterranean-Cretan model to American fast-food model. To study interactions between the BED, hormonal secretions and metabolic syndrome parameters. The present study was undertaken on Algerian population cohorts composed of 30 obese subjects, 70 type 2 diabetic patients and 30 healthy subjects. The BED was evaluated by TFEQ and DEBQ tests. Anthropometric parameters (waist circumference, IMC), metabolic parameters (glucose, triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C) and hormones (insulin, peptide C, ACTH, cortisol, GH) were determinates by biometrics, spectrophotometry and radioimmunology methods, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed the high correlation between the BED and the metabolic syndrome, particularly a critical insulinoresistance state (IR). This IR generates in periphery a whole of metabolic disorders: dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and hypertrophy of adipose tissue. In diabetic and obese patients, cortisol, ACTH and GH secretions are insidiously altered and to lead metabolic disorders. In this study, the role of the BED in obesity and diabetes genesis seems to be confirmed. In response to nutritional stress, the BED generates a hyperactivity of endocrine pancreas, adrenal gland, and pituitary gland. It appeared that Algerian population is not adapted to fast-food American model.
García-Mayor, Ricardo V; García-Soidán, Francisco J
Relationship between type 1 diabetes and Eating disorders is well-known, less information exists on the relationship between type 2 diabetes (T2DM) people and eating disorders. Review information on the prevalence and impact of type 2 diabetes and eating disorders comorbidity. Search in Medline and PubMed relevant articles on the aforementioned co-morbidity. Review includes articles on epidemiological, clinical and therapeutics aspects. Disordered eating behaviours may affect around 40% of T2DM people, being the predominant clinical forms: Eating Disorders Non otherwise specified (EDNOS), Night Eating Syndrome (NES) and Binge Eating Disorder (BED), however, population-based estimates of T2DM and ED comorbidity are mandatory to determine the prevalence of ED in T2DM people. The association between both entities has a consequence which is an impairment of metabolic control, associated to increase risk of vascular complications and difficult body weight loss, basis of T2DM treatment. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. All rights reserved.
Cadegiani, Flavio A; Kater, Claudio E
Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is caused by an imbalance between training, nutrition and resting, and leads to decreased performance and fatigue; however, the precise underlying triggers of OTS remain unclear. This study investigated the body composition, metabolism, eating, sleeping patterns and mood states among participants with OTS. Selected participants were divided into OTS-affected athletes (OTS, n = 14), healthy athletes (ATL, n = 25), and healthy non-physically active controls (NCS, n = 12). Compared to ATL, OTS showed decreased sleep quality (p = 0.004); increased duration of work or study (p sleep, and increased cognitive activity are likely OTS triggers. OTS appears to induce dehydration, increase body fat, decrease libido, and worsen mood.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether a set of clinical features, which are not included in the DSM-IV or ICD-10 for Asperger Syndrome (AS, are associated with AS in particular or whether they are merely a familial trait that is not related to the diagnosis. Methods Ten large families, a total of 138 persons, of whom 58 individuals fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AS and another 56 did not to fulfill these criteria, were studied using a structured interview focusing on the possible presence of face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility and eating habits and sleeping disturbances. Results The prevalence for face recognition difficulties was 46.6% in individuals with AS compared with 10.7% in the control group. The corresponding figures for subjectively reported presence of aberrant sensibilities were 91.4% and 46.6%, for sleeping disturbances 48.3% and 23.2% and for aberrant eating habits 60.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Conclusion An aberrant processing of sensory information appears to be a common feature in AS. The impact of these and other clinical features that are not incorporated in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV on our understanding of AS may hitherto have been underestimated. These associated clinical traits may well be reflected by the behavioural characteristics of these individuals.
Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; Paavonen, Juulia E; Ylisaukko-Oja, Tero; Sarenius, Susan; Källman, Tiia; Järvelä, Irma; von Wendt, Lennart
Background The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether a set of clinical features, which are not included in the DSM-IV or ICD-10 for Asperger Syndrome (AS), are associated with AS in particular or whether they are merely a familial trait that is not related to the diagnosis. Methods Ten large families, a total of 138 persons, of whom 58 individuals fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AS and another 56 did not to fulfill these criteria, were studied using a structured interview focusing on the possible presence of face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility and eating habits and sleeping disturbances. Results The prevalence for face recognition difficulties was 46.6% in individuals with AS compared with 10.7% in the control group. The corresponding figures for subjectively reported presence of aberrant sensibilities were 91.4% and 46.6%, for sleeping disturbances 48.3% and 23.2% and for aberrant eating habits 60.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Conclusion An aberrant processing of sensory information appears to be a common feature in AS. The impact of these and other clinical features that are not incorporated in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV on our understanding of AS may hitherto have been underestimated. These associated clinical traits may well be reflected by the behavioural characteristics of these individuals. PMID:15826308
... Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Diverticular Disease Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Dumping Syndrome ...
Jennifer J. Thomas
Full Text Available Background. DSM-5 revisions have been criticized in the popular press for overpathologizing normative eating patterns—particularly among individuals with obesity. To evaluate the evidence for this and other DSM-5 critiques, we compared the point prevalence and interrater reliability of DSM-IV versus DSM-5 eating disorders (EDs among adults seeking weight-loss treatment. Method. Clinicians (n=2 assigned DSM-IV and DSM-5 ED diagnoses to 100 participants via routine clinical interview. Research assessors (n=3 independently conferred ED diagnoses via Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and a DSM-5 checklist. Results. Research assessors diagnosed a similar proportion of participants with EDs under DSM-IV (29% versus DSM-5 (32%. DSM-5 research diagnoses included binge eating disorder (9%, bulimia nervosa (2%, subthreshold binge eating disorder (5%, subthreshold bulimia nervosa (2%, purging disorder (1%, night eating syndrome (6%, and other (7%. Interrater reliability between clinicians and research assessors was “substantial” for both DSM-IV (κ = 0.64, 84% agreement and DSM-5 (κ = 0.63, 83% agreement. Conclusion. DSM-5 ED criteria can be reliably applied in an obesity treatment setting and appear to yield an overall ED point prevalence comparable to DSM-IV.
Eddy, Kamryn T.; Murray, Helen B.; Gorman, Mark J.
Background. DSM-5 revisions have been criticized in the popular press for overpathologizing normative eating patterns—particularly among individuals with obesity. To evaluate the evidence for this and other DSM-5 critiques, we compared the point prevalence and interrater reliability of DSM-IV versus DSM-5 eating disorders (EDs) among adults seeking weight-loss treatment. Method. Clinicians (n = 2) assigned DSM-IV and DSM-5 ED diagnoses to 100 participants via routine clinical interview. Research assessors (n = 3) independently conferred ED diagnoses via Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and a DSM-5 checklist. Results. Research assessors diagnosed a similar proportion of participants with EDs under DSM-IV (29%) versus DSM-5 (32%). DSM-5 research diagnoses included binge eating disorder (9%), bulimia nervosa (2%), subthreshold binge eating disorder (5%), subthreshold bulimia nervosa (2%), purging disorder (1%), night eating syndrome (6%), and other (7%). Interrater reliability between clinicians and research assessors was “substantial” for both DSM-IV (κ = 0.64, 84% agreement) and DSM-5 (κ = 0.63, 83% agreement). Conclusion. DSM-5 ED criteria can be reliably applied in an obesity treatment setting and appear to yield an overall ED point prevalence comparable to DSM-IV. PMID:25057413
Thomas, Jennifer J; Koh, Katherine A; Eddy, Kamryn T; Hartmann, Andrea S; Murray, Helen B; Gorman, Mark J; Sogg, Stephanie; Becker, Anne E
DSM-5 revisions have been criticized in the popular press for overpathologizing normative eating patterns-particularly among individuals with obesity. To evaluate the evidence for this and other DSM-5 critiques, we compared the point prevalence and interrater reliability of DSM-IV versus DSM-5 eating disorders (EDs) among adults seeking weight-loss treatment. Clinicians (n = 2) assigned DSM-IV and DSM-5 ED diagnoses to 100 participants via routine clinical interview. Research assessors (n = 3) independently conferred ED diagnoses via Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and a DSM-5 checklist. Research assessors diagnosed a similar proportion of participants with EDs under DSM-IV (29%) versus DSM-5 (32%). DSM-5 research diagnoses included binge eating disorder (9%), bulimia nervosa (2%), subthreshold binge eating disorder (5%), subthreshold bulimia nervosa (2%), purging disorder (1%), night eating syndrome (6%), and other (7%). Interrater reliability between clinicians and research assessors was "substantial" for both DSM-IV (κ = 0.64, 84% agreement) and DSM-5 (κ = 0.63, 83% agreement). DSM-5 ED criteria can be reliably applied in an obesity treatment setting and appear to yield an overall ED point prevalence comparable to DSM-IV.
... and Bulimia What Causes Eating Disorders? Sports and Eating Disorders Effects of Eating Disorders Treatment for Eating Disorders Print ... when they are biologically destined to gain it. Effects of Eating Disorders Eating disorders are serious medical illnesses. They often ...
Full Text Available According to International Classification of Diseases by World Health Organization, eating disorders are behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances . Eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, atypical bulimia nervosa, overeating associated with other psychological disturbances and vomiting associated with other psychological disturbances . Maladaptive eating pattern and inadequate physical activity are seen in adolescents with eating disorders and obesity . Those with comorbid eating disorder and obesity have a poorer prognosis and are at higher risk for future medical problems.
Night terrors are a bizarre sleep disorder that affects young children. The child partially awakes during the night agitated, afraid and terrified, and cannot be consoled. These events, which may be related to emotional turmoil, are self-limiting. Psychiatric evaluation is indicated in certain cases, and drug therapy is almost never necessary. Parents should be reassured that night terrors are not dangerous and do not reflect any serious pathology.
Night terrors are a bizarre sleep disorder that affects young children. The child partially awakes during the night agitated, afraid and terrified, and cannot be consoled. These events, which may be related to emotional turmoil, are self-limiting. Psychiatric evaluation is indicated in certain cases, and drug therapy is almost never necessary. Parents should be reassured that night terrors are not dangerous and do not reflect any serious pathology.
Yamada, Kentaro; Nakayama, Hitomi; Kato, Tomoko; Tajiri, Yuji; Sato, Shuichi; Hirao, Saori; Oshige, Tamami; Hara, Kento; Iwata, Shinpei; Kato, Naoka; Sasaki, Yuko; Hasuo, Rika; Yoshinobu, Satoko; Mitsuzaki, Kenshi; Kato, Tamotsu; Hashinaga, Toshihiko; Muraishi, Kazuhisa; Ohki, Tsuyoshi; Kaku, Hiroh
Nighttime food intake is associated with weight gain and higher HbA1c levels. We experienced night eaters who have no memory of their nocturnal eating in the morning. In this study, the curious night eating behavior was designated as "unremembered nocturnal eating syndrome (UNES)". We screened 1,169 patients with diabetes for sleep quality and abnormal eating behavior at night using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire with an additional question regarding UNES. When abnormal nocturnal eating behavior was noted, detailed clinical information was extracted from interviews with the patients. We identified 9 patients who experienced UNES. They had a higher BMI compared with subjects who reported no such episodes. Among them, 6 patients who consumed food at night without memory 2-5 times per month or more had significantly higher HbA1c levels. Continuous glucose monitoring in a patient with type 1 diabetes revealed an abrupt elevation of glucose levels from midnight when some foods were consumed. Eight of the 9 patients were taking benzodiazepine and/or non-benzodiazepine hypnotic agents when they experienced the episodes. The prevalence of UNES was 0.8% in all subjects and 4% in those taking hypnotic drugs. The ratio of hypnotic drug use in subjects with UNES was significantly higher than for individuals without UNES (89% vs. 17%, pcause of unexpected morning hyperglycemia.
Crisp, A H; Matthews, B M; Oakey, M; Crutchfield, M
OBJECTIVE--To determine some personality and psychoneurotic characteristics of adults who have the sleepwalking-night terrors syndrome. DESIGN--Prospective assessment of two groups of consecutive patients with a firm diagnosis of either of two specific sleep disorders as established clinically and by polysomnography. SETTING--Outpatient sleep disorders clinic and sleep laboratory in a tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS--12 Patients referred consecutively to the clinic in whom a diagnosis of sleepwalking (six) or night terrors (six) was confirmed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Psychological characteristics as measured at the time of clinical assessment by means of the Eysenck personality questionnaire, the hostility and direction of hostility questionnaire, and the Crown-Crisp experiential index. RESULTS--Both groups scored exceptionally highly on the hysteria scale of the Crown-Crisp experiential index and the night terrors group also scored highly on the anxiety scale. The patients with sleepwalking also scored highly on a measure of externally directed hostility. CONCLUSIONS--The physiological and psychological features identified in these patients, possibly reflecting different expressions of a constitutional cerebral characteristic, may be explored in terms of hysterical dissociation. The findings contribute to the debate concerning the nature of sleepwalking, in particular with and without the forensic aspects. PMID:2106985
Crisp, A H; Matthews, B M; Oakey, M; Crutchfield, M
To determine some personality and psychoneurotic characteristics of adults who have the sleepwalking-night terrors syndrome. Prospective assessment of two groups of consecutive patients with a firm diagnosis of either of two specific sleep disorders as established clinically and by polysomnography. Outpatient sleep disorders clinic and sleep laboratory in a tertiary referral centre. 12 Patients referred consecutively to the clinic in whom a diagnosis of sleepwalking (six) or night terrors (six) was confirmed. Psychological characteristics as measured at the time of clinical assessment by means of the Eysenck personality questionnaire, the hostility and direction of hostility questionnaire, and the Crown-Crisp experiential index. Both groups scored exceptionally highly on the hysteria scale of the Crown-Crisp experiential index and the night terrors group also scored highly on the anxiety scale. The patients with sleepwalking also scored highly on a measure of externally directed hostility. The physiological and psychological features identified in these patients, possibly reflecting different expressions of a constitutional cerebral characteristic, may be explored in terms of hysterical dissociation. The findings contribute to the debate concerning the nature of sleepwalking, in particular with and without the forensic aspects.
... syndrome can be helpful in genetic counseling. Complications Obesity-related complications In addition to having constant hunger, ... result from Prader-Willi syndrome include: Effects of binge eating. Eating large amounts of food quickly, called binge ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Night Rover Challenge was to foster innovations in energy storage technology. Specifically, this challenge asked competitors to create an energy...
Describes student demonstrations on the night that U.S. planes bombed Iraq in the Persian Gulf War. Compares attitudes and feelings to the Vietnam War era. Concludes that the students incorrectly supported the Gulf War action. (CFR)
... night terrors, sleep terrors often are paired with sleepwalking. Like sleepwalking, sleep terrors are considered a parasomnia — an undesired ... during naps. A sleep terror may lead to sleepwalking. During a sleep terror episode, a person may: ...
... shout or shake your child. Night terrors and sleepwalking require that you protect your child during sleep. ... disorder, rapid eye movement, REM, screaming, sleep problems, sleepwalking, somnambulism September 1, 2000 Copyright © American Academy of ...
The definition of the night, as the period between sunset and sunrise, is consistent and unalterable, regardless of culture and time. However the perception of the night and its economic, social, and cultural roles are subject to change. Which parameters determine these changes? What can we learn by studying them about the specific character of a culture? Why do people experience the night in different ways in different historical periods and how did this affect their lives? How do references to nocturnal activities in historical sources (works of art, narratives) reveal what the artists/authors wish to communicate to their audiences? Can the night be a meaningful subject of historical and archaeological enquiry? A study of the source material in the Greek world (ca. 400 BC-ca. AD 400) shows a continuous effort to colonize the night with activities of the day, to make the night safer, more productive, more rational, more efficient. The main motors for this change were social developments and religion, no...
Full Text Available Yoko Komada,1 Yoshikazu Takaesu,2 Kentaro Matsui,3 Masaki Nakamura,3 Shingo Nishida,3 Meri Kanno,3,† Akira Usui,3 Yuichi Inoue1,3 1Department of Somnology, 2Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, 3Japan Somnology Center, Institute of Neuropsychiatry, Tokyo, Japan †Meri Kanno passed away on March 1, 2016 Purpose: The aim of this study was to ascertain the clinical characteristics of drug-induced sleep-related eating disorder (SRED. Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 30 patients with primary SRED (without any comorbid sleep disorders and who were not taking any possible causative medications, and ten patients with drug-induced SRED (occurrence of SRED episodes after starting nightly medication of sedative drugs, which completely resolved after dose reduction or discontinuation of the sedatives. Results: All patients with drug-induced SRED took multiple types of sedatives, such as benzodiazepines or benzodiazepine receptor agonists. Clinical features of drug-induced SRED compared with primary SRED were as follows: higher mean age of onset (40 years old in drug-induced SRED vs 26 years old in primary SRED, significantly higher rate of patients who had total amnesia during most of their SRED episodes (75.0% vs 31.8%, significantly lower rate of comorbidity of night eating syndrome (0% vs 63.3%, and significantly lower rate of history of sleepwalking (10.0% vs 46.7%. Increased doses of benzodiazepine receptor agonists may be responsible for drug-induced SRED. Conclusion: The clinical features of drug-induced SRED were different from those of primary SRED, possibly reflecting differences in the underlying mechanisms between these two categories of SREDs. Keywords: nocturnal eating syndrome, night eating, eating disorder, hypnotics, amnesia, sleepwalking, benzodiazepine
Pataky, Zoltan; Carrard, Isabelle; Gay, Valerie; Thomas, Aurélien; Carpentier, Anne; Bobbioni-Harsch, Elisabetta; Golay, Alain
To evaluate the effects of weight loss on endocannabinoids, cardiometabolic and psychological parameters, eating disorders (ED) as well as quality of life (QoL) and to elucidate the role of endocannabinoids in metabolic syndrome (MS). In total, 114 patients with obesity were prospectively included in a 12-month weight loss program. Plasma endocannabinoids were measured by mass spectrometry; ED, psychological and QoL-related parameters were evaluated by self-reported questionnaires; physical activity was measured by accelerometer. Nutritional assessment was done by a 3-day food diary. Among completers (n = 87), body weight decreased in 35 patients (-9.1 ± 8.6 kg), remained stable in 39 patients, and increased in 13 patients (+5.8 ± 3.4 kg). 75% of patients with MS at baseline were free of MS at follow-up, and their baseline plasma N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) values were significantly lower when compared to patients with persisting MS. At baseline, there was a positive relationship between PEA and waist circumference (p = 0.005, R2 = 0.08), fasting glucose (p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.12), total cholesterol (p = 0.001, R2 = 0.11), triglycerides (p = 0.001, R2 = 0.11), LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.03, R2 = 0.05) as well as depression score (p = 0.002, R2 = 0.29). Plasma PEA might play a role in metabolic improvement after weight loss. Even in subjects without weight loss, a multidisciplinary intervention improves psychological outcomes, ED, and QoL. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Last year, the first Science Night attracted nearly 1500 people. Dipping into history for the space of one night? This is the idea of Geneva's Museum of the History of Science, which is organizing its second Science Night, on 7 and 8 July, on the history of science. The first such event, held last year, was a considerable success with almost 15 000 visitors. The second Science Night, to be held in the magnificent setting of the Perle du Lac Park in Geneva, promises to be a winner too. By making science retell its own history, this major event is intended to show how every scientific and technical breakthrough is the culmination of a long period of growth that began hundreds of years in the past. Dozens of activities and events are included in this programme of time travel: visitors can study the night sky through telescopes and see what Galileo first observed, and then go to see a play on the life of the Italian scientist. Another play, commissioned specially for the occasion, will honour Geneva botanist De ...
Allen, Karina L.; Byrne, Susan M.; Forbes, David; Oddy, Wendy H.
A sample of 14-year-old boys and girls were studied using previously collected biomedical, familial, antenatal, demographic, and social data to identify prospective predictors of eating disorders. Findings suggest that parents' perceptions on their child's weight were more powerful predictors of the development of eating disorders compared to…
... weight loss. With anorexia, a person will deny hunger and refuse to eat, practice binge eating and ... to better insure healthy eating patterns, and increases awareness and support. Related Conditions People with eating disorders ...
Weight-loss - eating out; Healthy diet - eating out; Obesity - eating out ... still make a healthy plate. Choose carefully. Avoid eating foods such ... or ask for a take-out box and take half of your meal home. ...
Erpylev, N. P.; Smirnov, M. A.; Bagrov, A. V.
A night sky model is proposed. It includes different components of light polution, such as solar twilight, moon scattered light, zodiacal light, Milky Way, air glow and artificial light pollution. The model is designed for calculating the efficiency of astronomical installations.
King, M B
A total of 748 patients who attended four south London group practices were screened using the eating attitudes test; 1% of women had bulimia nervosa and a further 3% a partial syndrome eating disorder. Eating and weight control behaviour and psychiatric indicators for an eating disorder were analysed. Patients with bulimia nervosa and partial syndromes were remarkably similar. They were mainly women, from the middle to upper classes, in the normal weight range but having had considerable weight fluctuation in the past, more likely to have had a history of menstrual irregularity, often psychologically troubled, and tended to have more family psychopathology. PMID:3099893
Koski, M; Naukkarinen, H
Obesity has a multifaceted etiology that involves genetic, biological and behavioral factors, body growth, eating habits, energy expenditure and the function of adipose tissue. The present study aimed to expand upon knowledge about the relationships among obesity, emotions and eating habits in severely obese individuals using a case-control method. The subject group consisted of 112 individuals (81 females and 31 males) receiving a permanent disability pension primarily for obesity. The control subjects were randomly selected from the same area and were receiving a disability pension for a different primary illness. The controls were matched with the subjects by the place of residence, sex, age, the time since the pension was granted and occupation. Psychiatric interviews were conducted on all participants. The results were analyzed using the chi-squared test (χ 2 -test) and the percent distribution. The subject and control groups were compared using the t-test for paired variables. Conditional logistic regression analysis was also conducted. The emotional state of eating was significantly associated with quarrels and feelings of loneliness. The subjects suffered from night eating syndrome, which was associated with an increased risk of early retirement. Binge eating syndrome was observed more frequently in the study group. The subjects reported feeling increased hunger compared with the controls. A significant percentage of the subjects had a body mass index of ≥ 40. No differences in eating habits were observed between the groups. This study provides information on the relationship between emotions and eating habits in obesity, which is a rarely studied topic. We believe that our study provides a novel and necessary overview of the associations among severe obesity, emotions and eating habits.
Lin, Yu Cheng; Hsieh, I-Chun; Chen, Pau-Chung
To establish a practical method for assessing the general metabolic health conditions among different employee groups, this study utilized the total count of metabolic syndrome (MetS) elements as a parameter, and performed a retrospective analysis comparing changes of MetS component count (MSC) of 5 years among day-time work (DW) and day-andnight rotating shift work (RSW) employees. The data of personal histories, physical examinations, blood tests, abdominal sonographic examinations and occupational records were collected from a cohort of workers in an electronics manufacturing company. We first defined the arithmetic mean value of MSC as MSC density (MSCD) for the employee group; then we compared the changes of MSCD over 5 years between DW and RSW workers. Occupational, personal and health records were analyzed for the 1077 workers with an initial mean age of 32.4 years (standard deviation (SD): 6.2 years), including 565 RSW workers (52%). The initial MSCDs were 1.26 and 1.12 (p = 0.06) for DW and RSW workers, respectively; after 5 years, the increments of MSCD for DW and RSW workers were 0.10 and 0.39, respectively (p group; MSC, MSCD and their transitional changes can be applied as simple and standardized tools for monitoring metabolic health risk profiles when managing employee health, at both the individual and company levels. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Cómo afecta el síndrome Lozano-Barragán y el efecto Sharknado a las organizaciones de producción cinematográficas: Analizando la trayectoria de M. Night Shyamalan (How it affects the Lozano-Barragan Syndrome and the Sharknado effect to the film productions organizations: Analyzing the path of M. Night Shyamalan
Full Text Available Abstract: The main purpose of this document is to state the importance of taking into consideration the desires and needs of the spectators by the film production organizations in their mission of reaching the economic success. It establishes the importance that the economic values and aesthetic values plays in the films. It locates the different degrees of the dissatisfaction in which a spectator can falls into when he or she does not like the movie. Likewise, this paper analyze the filmmaking development of M. Night Shyamalan as well as his rise, fall and new arise by suffer and then eradicate the Lozano-Barragan Syndrome and the Sharknado Effect conditions; concepts that distinguish, first: those film production organizations that blame the dissatisfied spectator, for the box office failure, as well as, they argued that those spectators did not understand the movies nor nature of it; and the second one refers the consequences that meaningless movies, more than just entertain, cause in spectators. Finally, it make some recommendations that could be followed by personal from film production organizations to avoid these Lozano-Barragan syndrome and Sharknado effect in the pursuit of the spectator satisfaction and the increase of the income in the ticket office and the aesthetic values. Resumen: El presente documento tiene como finalidad plasmar la importancia que tiene el tomar en cuenta los deseos y necesidades de los espectadores en la misión de alcanzar el éxito económico que las organizaciones de producción cinematográfica se han impuesto. Se establece la importancia que los valores económicos y valores estéticos juegan en las películas. Se ubican los diferentes grados de insatisfacción en los que puede caer un espectador cuando no le agrada la película. Igualmente, esta investigación analiza el desarrollo cinematográfico de M. Night Shyamalan así como su crecimiento, caída y resurgimiento sufridos al padecer y, posteriormente
UDEC's highly efficient lighting system is finding wide acceptance among industrial and commercial firms as an energy savings means of providing emergency and night lighting. Originating from Skylab, the system consists of small high frequency fluorescent light fixtures powered by solar cells. Advantages of UDEC's lighting system stem from high reliability and high light output with very low energy drain. Principal components of system are long life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed gelatine cell battery that needs no maintenance for eight years and a solid-state automatic battery charger. Installation of UDEC lighting in a company's six-and-a-half acre warehouse office cut the annual night lighting electric bill from 8,000 a year to 300 per year.
Yu Cheng Lin
Full Text Available Objectives: To establish a practical method for assessing the general metabolic health conditions among different employee groups, this study utilized the total count of metabolic syndrome (MetS elements as a parameter, and performed a retrospective analysis comparing changes of MetS component count (MSC of 5 years among day-time work (DW and day-andnight rotating shift work (RSW employees. Material and Methods: The data of personal histories, physical examinations, blood tests, abdominal sonographic examinations and occupational records were collected from a cohort of workers in an electronics manufacturing company. We first defined the arithmetic mean value of MSC as MSC density (MSCD for the employee group; then we compared the changes of MSCD over 5 years between DW and RSW workers. Occupational, personal and health records were analyzed for the 1077 workers with an initial mean age of 32.4 years (standard deviation (SD: 6.2 years, including 565 RSW workers (52%. Results: The initial MSCDs were 1.26 and 1.12 (p = 0.06 for DW and RSW workers, respectively; after 5 years, the increments of MSCD for DW and RSW workers were 0.10 and 0.39, respectively (p < 0.01. By performing multivariate logistic regression analyses, and comparing with DW co-workers, final results indicated that the workers exposed to RSW have 1.7-fold increased risk of elevated MSCD (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.28–2.25, p < 0.01; and are 38% less likely (adjusted rate ratio (aRR 0.62, 95% CI: 0.45–0.86, p < 0.01 to attain decreased MSCD. Conclusions: These observations demonstrate that changes of MSCD are significantly different between DW and RSW workers, and are increasingly associated with RSW exposure. In conclusion, MSCD can represent the general metabolic health conditions of a given employee group; MSC, MSCD and their transitional changes can be applied as simple and standardized tools for monitoring metabolic health risk profiles when managing employee health
... with age. Decline in hearing and vision varies. Children with type 3 Usher syndrome often develop hearing loss by adolescence, requiring hearing aids by mid-to-late adulthood. Night blindness also usually begins during adolescence. Blind spots appear ...
Schenck, C H; Hurwitz, T D; O'Connor, K A; Mahowald, M W
Sleep-related eating disorders distinct from daytime eating disorders have recently been shown to be associated with sleepwalking (SW), periodic limb movement (PLM) disorder and triazolam abuse in a series of 19 adults. We now report eight other primary or combined etiologies identified by clinical evaluations and polysomnographic monitoring of 19 additional adults (mean age 40 years; 58% female): i) obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), with eating during apnea-induced confusional arousals (n = 3); ii) OSA-PLM disorder (n = 1); iii) familial SW and sleep-related eating (n = 2); iv) SW-PLM disorder (n = 1); v) SW-irregular sleep/wake pattern disorder (n = 1); vi) familial restless legs syndrome and sleep-related eating (n = 2); vii) anorexia nervosa with nocturnal bulimia (n = 2) and viii) amitriptyline treatment of migraines (n = 1). In our cumulative series of 38 patients (excluding six with simple obesity from daytime overeating), 44% were overweight (i.e. > 20% excess weight) from sleep-related eating. Nightly sleep-related binge eating (without hunger or purging) had occurred in 84% of patients. Onset of sleep-related eating was also closely linked with i) acute stress involving reality-based concerns about the safety of family members or about relationship problems (n = 6), ii) abstinence from alcohol and opiate/cocaine abuse (n = 2) and iii) cessation of cigarette smoking (n = 2). Current treatment data indicate a primary role of dopaminergic agents (carbidopa/L-dopa; bromocriptine), often combined with codeine and clonazepam, in controlling most cases involving SW and/or PLM disorder. Fluoxetine was effective in two of three patients. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy controlled sleep-related eating in two OSA patients.
A 30-year-old female with a history of anxiety, cannabis use, and Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder presented for residential treatment of a Cannabis Use Disorder. Upon arrival, she had not eaten for two days and was found to be hypotensive with electrolyte disturbances. She was admitted to a nearby hospital, where the Internist diagnosed her with Addison's disease. She was treated with corticosteroid therapy, with rapid normalization of her electrolytes, eating, and anxiety. This is the first published case of undiagnosed Addison's disease presenting as an eating disorder, with cannabis use likely contributing to symptoms. This case elucidates the importance of ruling out other biologic and psychologic causes of clinical presentations before an eating disorder diagnosis can be made.
Nobles, Carrie J; Thomas, Jennifer J; Valentine, Sarah E; Gerber, Monica W; Vaewsorn, Adin S; Marques, Luana
Bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eating disorder (BED) are associated with significant health impairment. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) comprise both psychological (disturbances in mood and affect) and physiological (bloating and changes in appetite) symptoms that may trigger binge-eating and/or purging. Female participants were drawn from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Surveys, conducted from 2001 to 2003. Weighted multivariable logistic regression modeled the association between lifetime PMS and PMDD and lifetime odds of BN or BED. Among 8,694 participants, 133 (1.0%) had BN and 185 (1.8%) BED. Additionally, 366 (4.2%) had PMDD and 3,489 (42.4%) had PMS. Prevalence of PMDD and PMS were 17.4 and 55.4% among those with BN, 10.7 and 48.9% among those with BED and 3.4 and 59.1% among those with subthreshold BED. After adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, body mass index, age at menarche, birth control use, and comorbid mental health conditions, PMDD was associated with seven times the odds of BN (OR 7.2, 95% CI 2.3, 22.4) and PMS with two times the odds of BN (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1, 5.7). Neither PMDD nor PMS were significantly associated with BED. Women with PMS and PMDD have a higher odds of BN, independent of comorbid mental health conditions. PMS and PMDD may be important comorbidities to BN to consider in clinical settings, and future research should investigate whether PMS and PMDD affect the onset and duration of bulimic symptoms as well as the potential for shared risk factors across disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:641-650). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Yeh, Shin-Shyuan Sally; Brown, Rhonda Frances
We evaluated the relationship between poor sleep quality and high body mass index (BMI) in a community-derived sample. In addition, we explored the premise that disordered eating (i.e. eating late at night and/or binge eating, which can occur at night) may partly explain the relationship. An online survey asked 330 participants about their height and weight, recent sleep quality, and recent experiences of binge-eating and night-time eating. Using multiple regression analyses, high BMI was shown to be related to shorter sleep duration, increased sleep latency, use of sleeping medications and worse binge-eating, whereas worse sleep quality was related to worse night-eating, after controlling for depression and demographics. Using mediational analyses, binge-eating was shown to partly mediate the relationship between worse sleep quality to higher BMI, whereas night-eating mediated the reverse association of high BMI to worse sleep quality. The results suggest that night- and/or binge-eating may partly explain the observed relationship between worse sleep quality and overweight/obesity. Thus, the relationship may simply reflect that overweight people are more likely to binge-eat while they wait for sleep to come, and this may contribute to weight gain over time. In addition, the results may indicate that eating rather than weight gain or obesity may be responsible for causing the sleep deficits in overweight people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
For more than 50 years now Sir Patrick Moore has presented the BBC Television series Sky at Night; not a month has been missed – a record for any television series, and a record which may never be broken. Every three years or so a book is published covering the main events in both astronomy and space research. This is the 13th volume, not only a record of the programmes but also of the great advances and discoveries during the period covered - eclipses, comets, and the strange chemical lakes of Titan, for instance, but also anniversaries such as the fifteenth “birthday” of the Hubble Space Telescope, and not forgetting the programme celebrating the Sky at Night’s 50th year, attended by astronaut Piers Sellars and many others who appeared on the programme over the years. All the chapters are self-contained, and fully illustrated. In this new Sky at Night book you will find much to entertain you. It will appeal to amateurs and professionals alike.
The summer student program allows students to participate to the Cern adventure. They can follow several interesting lectures about particle science and participate to the experiment work. As a summer student, I had worked for LHCb experiment. LHCb uses a lot of software to analyze its data. All this software is organized in packages and projects. They are built and tested during the night using an automated system and the results are displayed on a web interface. Actually, LHCb is changing this system. It is looking for a replacement candidate. So I was charged to unify some internal interfaces to permit a swift migration. In this document, I will describe shortly the system used by LHCb, then I will explain what I have done in detail.
A 30-year-old female with a history of anxiety, cannabis use, and Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder presented for residential treatment of a Cannabis Use Disorder. Upon arrival, she had not eaten for two days and was found to be hypotensive with electrolyte disturbances. She was admitted to a nearby hospital, where the Internist diagnosed her with Addison’s disease. She was treated with corticosteroid therapy, with rapid normalization of her electrolytes, eating, and anxiety. This is ...
Faulconbridge, Lucy F.; Bechtel, Colleen F.
Three mental health problems commonly associated with obesity are major depression, binge eating disorder (BED), and Night Eating Syndrome (NES). Evidence from both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies support independent relationships between obesity and depression, and between obesity and binge eating. These problems are most prevalent in severely obese individuals (Class III obesity; a body mass index (BMI) of >40kgm2), many of whom seek bariatric surgery, and we briefly review whether the presence of pre-operative depression, BED or NES affects post-operative outcomes. Historically depressed individuals have been screened out of weight loss trials due to concerns of worsening mood with weight loss. Such practices have precluded the development of effective treatments for depressed, obese individuals, leaving large numbers of people without appropriate care. We present recent advances in this area, and attempt to answer whether depressed individuals can lose clinically significant amounts of weight, show improvements in mood, and adhere to the demands of a weight loss intervention. PMID:24678445
Nobles, Carrie J.; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Valentine, Sarah E.; Gerber, Monica W.; Vaewsorn, Adin S.; Marques, Luana
Objective Bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are associated with significant health impairment. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) comprise both psychological (disturbances in mood and affect) and physiological (bloating and changes in appetite) symptoms that may trigger binge eating and/or purging. Method Female participants were drawn from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Surveys, conducted from 2001–2003. Weighted multivariable logistic regression modeled the association between lifetime PMS and PMDD and lifetime odds of BN or BED. Results Among 8,694 participants, 133 (1.0%) had BN and 185 (1.8%) BED. Additionally, 366 (4.2%) had PMDD and 3,489 (42.4%) had PMS. Prevalence of PMDD and PMS were 17.4% and 55.4% among those with BN, 10.7% and 48.9% among those with BED and 3.4% and 59.1% among those with subthreshold BED. After adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, body mass index, age at menarche, birth control use and comorbid mental health conditions, PMDD was associated with 7-times the odds of BN (OR 7.2, 95% CI 2.3, 22.4) and PMS with 2-times the odds of BN (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1, 5.7). Neither PMDD nor PMS were significantly associated with BED. Discussion Women with PMS and PMDD have a higher odds of BN, independent of comorbid mental health conditions. PMS and PMDD may be important comorbidities to BN to consider in clinical settings, and future research should investigate whether PMS and PMDD affect the onset and duration of bulimic symptoms as well as the potential for shared risk factors across disorders. PMID:27206163
Beauchamp, Marshall T; Lundgren, Jennifer D
Bright light therapy is a noninvasive biological intervention for disorders with nonnormative circadian features. Eating disorders, particularly those with binge-eating and night-eating features, have documented nonnormative circadian eating and mood patterns, suggesting that bright light therapy may be an efficacious stand-alone or adjunctive intervention. The purpose of this systematic literature review, using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, was (1) to evaluate the state of the empirical treatment outcome literature on bright light therapy for eating disorders and (2) to explore the timing of eating behavior, mood, and sleep-related symptom change so as to understand potential mechanisms of bright light therapy action in the context of eating disorder treatment. A comprehensive literature search using PsycInfo and PubMed/MEDLINE was conducted in April 2016 with no date restrictions to identify studies published using bright light therapy as a treatment for eating disorders. Keywords included combinations of terms describing disordered eating (eating disorder, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating, binge, eating behavior, eating, and night eating) and the use of bright light therapy (bright light therapy, light therapy, phototherapy). After excluding duplicates, 34 articles were reviewed for inclusion. 14 published studies of bright light therapy for eating disorders met inclusion criteria (included participants with an eating disorder/disordered-eating behaviors; presented as a case study, case series, open-label clinical trial, or randomized/nonrandomized controlled trial; written in English; and published and available by the time of manuscript review). Results suggest that bright light therapy is potentially effective at improving both disordered-eating behavior and mood acutely, although the timing of symptom response and the duration of treatment effects remain unknown. Future research should
Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...
... More Publications About Eating Disorders Research Results PubMed: Journal Articles about Eating Disorders Contact Us The National Institute of Mental Health Information Resource Center Hours: 8:30 a.m. ...
Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa
Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders.
Cathcart, R A; Hamilton, D W; Drinnan, M J; Gibson, G J; Wilson, J A
To quantify the night-to-night variation in snoring severity; to compare this with inter-subject variation in snoring intensity: to compare multinight mean snoring scores with self-reported subjective scores. Prospective observational study. Subjects were recorded during sleep at their own homes. Twenty patients with socially disruptive snoring awaiting surgery. Over four consecutive nights using a solid-state sound recording device, the mean, standard deviation and intra-class correlation coefficient were calculated for (a) the loudest 1% of sound, (b) snore frequency and (c) total snore duration. Results were correlated with Snoring Symptom Inventory scores assessed immediately prior to these recordings. Overall mean and intrasubject standard deviation for the loudest 1% of sound was 65.0 (+/-4.1) dB, for snore frequency was 245 (+/-104) per hour and for total snore duration was 4.3% (+/-2.1). Intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.78, 0.74 and 0.67, respectively, suggesting only moderate reliability of these outcome measures. No significant correlation was found between objective and subjective scores for either endpoint. Natural night-to-night variation in snoring severity represents a significant proportion of overall snoring variance, thus one night studies of snoring are not reliable. The random error associated with one-night studies exceeds the expected effect size of snoring interventions and so multi-night studies of at least four nights are recommended to reduce the error. However, even multi-night objective measurements correlate poorly with subjective scores of snoring.
... Food Safety for Moms-To-Be: Safe Eats - Eating Out & Bringing In Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... Eggs | Fruits, Veggies & Juices | Ready-to-Eat Foods | Eating Out & Bringing In When you eat out, look at ...
Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...
Phun tshogs dbang rgyal ཕུན་ཚོགས་དབང་རྒྱལ།
Full Text Available The author was born in 1993 in Ska chung (Gaqun Village, Nyin mtha' (Ningmute Township, Rma lho (Henan Mongolian Autonomous County, Rma lho (Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province, PR China. Night dating was popular for teenage boys some years ago. They rode horses and yaks when they went night dating. They generally rode yaks, because horses were important for their families and used for such important tasks as pursuing bandits and going to the county town for grain and supplies. An early experience with night dating is described.
Jensen, Morten Bornø; Philipsen, Mark Philip; Bahnsen, Chris
of three detectors based on heuristic models and one learning-based detector. Evaluation is done on night-time data from the public LISA Traffic Light Dataset. The learning-based detector out- performs the model-based detectors in both precision and recall. The learning-based detector achieves an average......Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any in- telligent vehicle, it must function both at day and at night. However, the majority of TLR research is focused on day-time scenarios. In this paper we will focus on detection of traffic lights at night and evalu- ate the performance...
The POPSCIENCE Team
On Friday 26 September 2014, CERN will be celebrating European Researchers' Night at three venues in Geneva and St. Genis-Pouilly. Inspired by Andy Warhol, this year's theme is “Pop science is for everyone”. Every year, on the last Friday of September, the European Researchers’ Night takes place in about 300 cities all over Europe, with funding from the EU, to promote research and highlight researchers in engaging and fun ways for the general public. Andy Warhol said, “Pop art is for everyone”. This year, “Pop science is for everyone” is the motto of the Researchers’ Night event organised by CERN and its partners*. The night will offer everyone the opportunity to learn about the latest discoveries in physics and cosmology through poetry, theatre and music. This will be in addition to the event's traditional activities for the general public. To attract new audiences,...
The GLOBE at Night citizen-science campaign was introduced in China in 2010. Observations and works made by students are presented. The students were guided to participate in this meaningful international activity by 1) taking light pollution observations of the night sky at different locations, 2) becoming aware of the severity of the effects of light pollution, and 3) making the whole society aware of the importance to save energy by reducing light pollution.
Saunders, D S
In studies of photoperiodic induction of over-wintering diapause, independent variation of the light (L) and dark (D) components of the daily (LD) cycle shows, with few exceptions, that the duration of the night (D) is more important than that of the day (L). Extensions of D to give cycle lengths up to 3 days or more in so-called Nanda-Hamner (NH) experiments suggest that night length is measured repeatedly in the extended night, with peaks of high diapause incidence occurring at intervals close to 24 h. This indicates a circadian involvement in night length measurement. The circadian oscillation revealed in NH experiments is shown to take its principal time cue from the beginning of the night - at a phase close to Circadian time, CT 12 - in series of such experiments with increasing light (L) components, in a manner comparable to other circadian oscillations such as that controlling the adult eclosion rhythm. It is considered that the photoperiodic circadian oscillation is causally involved in the discrimination between short (summer) and long (autumnal) nights, although further 'downstream' actions of the circadian system on the outcome of time measurement are also likely. Therefore Bünning's original hypothesis - or development of it - is considered to offer the most likely explanation for the photoperiodic mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gupta, Charlotte C; Dorrian, Jill; Grant, Crystal L; Pajcin, Maja; Coates, Alison M; Kennaway, David J; Wittert, Gary A; Heilbronn, Leonie K; Della Vedova, Chris B; Banks, Siobhan
Shiftworkers have impaired performance when driving at night and they also alter their eating patterns during nightshifts. However, it is unknown whether driving at night is influenced by the timing of eating. This study aims to explore the effects of timing of eating on simulated driving performance across four simulated nightshifts. Healthy, non-shiftworking males aged 18-35 years (n = 10) were allocated to either an eating at night (n = 5) or no eating at night (n = 5) condition. During the simulated nightshifts at 1730, 2030 and 0300 h, participants performed a 40-min driving simulation, 3-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT-B), and recorded their ratings of sleepiness on a subjective scale. Participants had a 6-h sleep opportunity during the day (1000-1600 h). Total 24-h food intake was consistent across groups; however, those in the eating at night condition ate a large meal (30% of 24-h intake) during the nightshift at 0130 h. It was found that participants in both conditions experienced increased sleepiness and PVT-B impairments at 0300 h compared to 1730 and 2030 h (p eating condition displayed a significant decrease in time spent in the safe zone (p eating condition. Results suggest that, for optimal performance, shiftworkers should consider restricting food intake during the night.
Eating disorder - binge eating; Eating - binge; Overeating - compulsive; Compulsive overeating ... as having close relatives who also have an eating disorder Changes in brain chemicals Depression or other emotions, ...
Sabbagh, Ubadah; Mullegama, Saman; Wyckoff, Gerald J
The purpose of this study was to find genes linked with eating disorders and associated with both metabolic and neural systems. Our operating hypothesis was that there are genetic factors underlying some eating disorders resting in both those pathways. Specifically, we are interested in disorders that may rest in both sleep and metabolic function, generally called Night Eating Syndrome (NES). A meta-analysis of the Gene Expression Omnibus targeting the mammalian nervous system, sleep, and obesity studies was performed, yielding numerous genes of interest. Through a text-based analysis of the results, a number of potential candidate genes were identified. VGF, in particular, appeared to be relevant both to obesity and, broadly, to brain or neural development. VGF is a highly connected protein that interacts with numerous targets via proteolytically digested peptides. We examined VGF from an evolutionary perspective to determine whether other available evidence supported a role for the gene in human disease. We conclude that some of the already identified variants in VGF from human polymorphism studies may contribute to eating disorders and obesity. Our data suggest that there is enough evidence to warrant eGWAS and GWAS analysis of these genes in NES patients in a case-control study.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find genes linked with eating disorders and associated with both metabolic and neural systems. Our operating hypothesis was that there are genetic factors underlying some eating disorders resting in both those pathways. Specifically, we are interested in disorders that may rest in both sleep and metabolic function, generally called Night Eating Syndrome (NES. A meta-analysis of the Gene Expression Omnibus targeting the mammalian nervous system, sleep, and obesity studies was performed, yielding numerous genes of interest. Through a text-based analysis of the results, a number of potential candidate genes were identified. VGF, in particular, appeared to be relevant both to obesity and, broadly, to brain or neural development. VGF is a highly connected protein that interacts with numerous targets via proteolytically digested peptides. We examined VGF from an evolutionary perspective to determine whether other available evidence supported a role for the gene in human disease. We conclude that some of the already identified variants in VGF from human polymorphism studies may contribute to eating disorders and obesity. Our data suggest that there is enough evidence to warrant eGWAS and GWAS analysis of these genes in NES patients in a case-control study.
Lipsky, Rachele K; McGuinness, Teena M
Children and adolescents who eat unusually large amounts of food, feel guilty about it, and try to hide their overeating may be struggling with binge eating disorder (BED), a condition associated with suicidal ideation and other eating disorders. Although BED is new to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the syndrome is becoming increasingly recognized. The study of BED in children and adolescents is in its natal phase, but the importance of recognition and possible treatment strategies are discussed in the current article along with psychiatric nursing implications. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
Gonzalez, Aranzazu; Kohn, Michael R; Clarke, Simon D
The overall prevalence of eating disorders among children and adolescents is rising - the younger age group are more likely to present with anorexia nervosa (AN), while the older adolescent can present with either AN or bulimia nervosa (BN). However, eating disorders exist as part of a spectrum and general practitioners will encounter many adolescents that have an eating disorder that do not yet fulfil diagnostic criteria for either AN or BN. This article aims to provide an overview of assessment and principles of management of eating disorders in the adolescent patient. General practitioners are key in recognising and offering early intervention in cases of incipient eating disorders or problem dieting behaviour. The physical findings of AN are those of protein calorie malnutrition, while in BN, they reflect chronic purging. Failure of outpatient management requires hospitalisation for nutritional rehabilitation with close monitoring of fluid and electrolyte status to prevent the development of refeeding syndrome. Family involvement is vital, particularly in the younger patient, with ongoing family therapy offering the best outcomes.
Preliminary examination of metabolic syndrome response to motivational interviewing for weight loss as compared to an attentional control and usual care in primary care for individuals with and without binge-eating disorder.
Barnes, Rachel D; Barber, Jessica A
Motivational interviewing (MI) treatment for weight loss is being studied in primary care. The effect of such interventions on metabolic syndrome or binge eating disorder (BED), both highly related to excess weight, has not been examined in primary care. This study conducted secondary analyses from a randomized controlled trial to test the impact of MI for weight loss in primary care on metabolic syndrome. 74 adult participants with overweight/obesity recruited through primary care were randomized to 12weeks of either MI, an attentional control, or usual care. Participants completed measurements for metabolic syndrome at pre- and post-treatment. There were no statistically significant differences in metabolic syndrome rates at pre-, X 2 (2)=0.16, p=0.921, or post-, X 2 (2)=0.852, p=0.653 treatment. The rates in metabolic syndrome, however, decreased for MI (10.2%) and attentional control (13.8%) participants, but not for usual care. At baseline, metabolic syndrome rates did not differ significantly between participants with BED or without BED across treatments. At post-treatment, participants with BED were significantly more likely to meet criteria for metabolic syndrome than participants without BED, X 2 (1)=5.145, p=0.023, phi=0.273. Across treatments, metabolic syndrome remitted for almost a quarter of participants without BED (23.1%) but for 0% of those with BED. These preliminary results are based on a small sample and should be interpreted with caution, but they are the first to suggest that relatively low intensity MI weight loss interventions in primary care may decrease metabolic syndrome rates but not for individuals with BED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pavlov, Yuri G; Gais, Steffen; Müller, Friedemann; Schönauer, Monika; Schäpers, Barbara; Born, Jan; Kotchoubey, Boris
Polysomnographic recording of night sleep was carried out in 15 patients with the diagnosis vegetative state (syn. unresponsive wakefulness syndrome). Sleep scoring was performed by three raters, and confirmed by means of a spectral power analysis of the electroencephalogram, electrooculogram and electromyogram. All patients but one exhibited at least some signs of sleep. In particular, sleep stage N1 was found in 13 patients, N2 in 14 patients, N3 in nine patients, and rapid eye movement sleep in 10 patients. Three patients exhibited all phenomena characteristic for normal sleep, including spindles and rapid eye movements. However, in all but one patient, sleep patterns were severely disturbed as compared with normative data. All patients had frequent and long periods of wakefulness during the night. In some apparent rapid eye movement sleep episodes, no eye movements were recorded. Sleep spindles were detected in five patients only, and their density was very low. We conclude that the majority of vegetative state patients retain some important circadian changes. Further studies are necessary to disentangle multiple factors potentially affecting sleep pattern of vegetative state patients. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.
Gucciardi, Enza; Celasun, Nalan; Ahmad, Farah; Stewart, Donna E
Abstract Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and...
For its third edition, the Museum d'histoire des sciences invites you to a Science Night under the banner of waves and undulations. Scientists, artists and storytellers from more than forty institutes and local or regional associations will show in only one weekend that waves and undulations form an integral part of our daily environment. Telephones, televisions, radios, irons, lighting, music, sun rays, stars, rainbows, earthquakes and other natural phenomena - all produce, emit or receive waves or undulations. The visitors attending the Night will be able to get in contact with the nature of waves through interactive exhibitions on sound and light and through hands-on demonstrations arranged around the Bartholoni villa and in the Park of the Perle du lac. An amusing and distracting way to familiarize yourself with the concepts of wavelength, frequency and interference lengths... In addition to the stands, the Night will offer many other activities: reconstructions of critical experiments, scientific consu...
Next week-end, the Geneva Science History Museum invites you to a Science Night under the banner of waves and vibrations. Scientists, artists and storytellers from more than forty institutes and local or regional associations will show that waves and vibrations form an integral part of our environment. You will be able to get in contact with the nature of waves through interactive exhibitions on sound and light and through hands-on demonstrations arranged in the Park of the Perle du Lac. On the CERN stand, you will be able to measure the speed of light with a bar of chocolate, and understand the scattering of waves with plastic ducks. Amazing, no? In addition to the stands, the Night will offer many other activities: reconstructions of experiments, a play, a concert of crystal glasses, an illuminated fountain, a house of spirits. More information Science Night, 6 and 7 July, Park of the Perle du Lac, Geneva
Trotti, Lynn Marie; Bliwise, Donald L; Greer, Sophia A; Sigurdsson, Albert P; Gudmundsdóttir, Gudbjörg Birna; Wessel, Thomas; Organisak, Lisa M; Sigthorsson, Thor; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Sigmundsson, Thordur; Rye, David B
Night-to-night variability of periodic leg movements (PLMs) in restless legs syndrome (RLS) was examined to define the range of intra-subject values, impact upon diagnosing RLS, and clinical correlates. Twenty RLS patients were monitored for 10-15 nights using a validated, tri-axial accelerometer worn on the ankle. The mean difference in PLMs index (PLMI) between the lowest and highest night was 25.1/h (range: 3.9-73.8). Inter-subject differences accounted for nearly five times the variance in PLMI relative to between nights within an individual. Based on a single night of recording, PLMI criterion thresholds of 5, 10, and 15/h were exceeded on approximately 70.1%, 51.9% and 34.1% of individual nights among these patients. Based on five randomly sampled nights of recordings, the likelihood that such thresholds were met on at least a single night increased to 91.2%, 80.8% and 62.7%, respectively. Women exhibited greater variability. Variability in PLMs within RLS subjects was substantial, yet individuals' characteristic PLM level represented a quantitative trait. Variability was unrelated to age or scores on scales of RLS severity, sleepiness, functional status, and mood. A larger number of recording nights increased the likelihood that any criterion was reached.
Full Text Available A review of "A Night For Human Rights", a contemporary art auction curated by Marc Mayer and Julia Lourie to call attention to urgent human rights violations including America's mass incarceration epidemic and the current Syrian refugee crisis.
Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.
We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused
Every year, on the last Friday of September, the European Researchers’ Night (see here) takes place in about 300 cities all over Europe - promoting research in engaging and fun ways for the general public. This year, CERN will be participating once again, hosting dozens of events across the Balexert shopping centre – and we’ll need YOUR help to make the celebration a success. From film screenings and celebrity Q&A sessions to “Ask a Researcher” and build-your-own LEGO LHC events, this year’s Researchers’ Night is going to be jam-packed! The fun will kick off prior to the night itself with a mock-up of the LHC tunnel installed in the central court of the Balexert shopping centre, 8-12 September*. CERN people will be on hand to speak to shoppers about the LHC, and to encourage them to participate in Researchers’ Night! The CERN organisers are recruiting volunteers and support staff for Researchers’ ...
Hartman, D; Crisp, A; Sedgwick, P; Borrow, S
The enduring and contentious hypothesis that sleepwalking and night terrors are symptomatic of a protective dissociative mechanism is examined. This is mobilised when intolerable impulses, feelings and memories escape, within sleep, the diminished control of mental defence mechanisms. They then erupt but in a limited motoric or affective form with restricted awareness and subsequent amnesia for the event. It has also been suggested that such processes are more likely when the patient has a history of major psychological trauma. In a group of 22 adult patients, referred to a tertiary sleep disorders service with possible sleepwalking/night terrors, diagnosis was confirmed both clinically and polysomnographically, and only six patients had a history of such trauma. More commonly these described sleepwalking/night terrors are associated with vivid dream-like experiences or behaviour related to flight from attack. Two such cases, suggestive of a dissociative process, are described in more detail. The results of this study are presented largely on account of the negative findings. Scores on the dissociation questionnaire (DIS-Q) were normal, although generally higher in the small "trauma" subgroup. These were similar to scores characterising individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder. This "trauma" group also scored particularly highly on the anxiety, phobic, and depression scales of the Crown-Crisp experiential index. In contrast the "no trauma" group scored more specifically highly on the anxiety scale, along with major trends to high depression and hysteria scale scores. Two cases are presented which illustrate exceptional occurrence of later onset of sleepwalking/night terrors with accompanying post-traumatic symptoms during wakefulness. It is concluded that a history of major psychological trauma exists in only a minority of adult patients presenting with sleepwalking/night terror syndrome. In this subgroup trauma appears to dictate the subsequent content
Wells, Randall S.; McHugh, Katherine A.; Douglas, David C.; Shippee, Steve; McCabe, Elizabeth Berens; Barros, Nélio B.; Phillips, Goldie T.
Free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) living in Sarasota Bay, Florida appear to have a lower risk of developing insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome compared to a group of dolphins managed under human care. Similar to humans, differences in diet and activity cycles between these groups may explain why Sarasota dolphins have lower insulin, glucose, and lipids. To identify potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome, existing and new data were incorporated to describe feeding and activity patterns of the Sarasota Bay wild dolphin community. Sarasota dolphins eat a wide variety of live fish and spend 10â€“20% of daylight hours foraging and feeding. Feeding occurs throughout the day, with the dolphins eating small proportions of their total daily intake in brief bouts. The natural pattern of wild dolphins is to feed as necessary and possible at any time of the day or night. Wild dolphins rarely eat dead fish or consume large amounts of prey in concentrated time periods. Wild dolphins are active throughout the day and night; they may engage in bouts of each key activity category at any time during daytime. Dive patterns of radio-tagged dolphins varied only slightly with time of day. Travel rates may be slightly lower at night, suggesting a diurnal rhythm, albeit not one involving complete, extended rest. In comparison, the managed dolphins are older; often fed a smaller variety of frozen-thawed fish types; fed fish species not in their natural diet; feedings and engaged activities are often during the day; and they are fed larger but fewer meals. In summary, potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in dolphins may include young age, activity, and small meals fed throughout the day and night, and specific fish nutrients. These protective factors against insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are similar to those reported in humans. Further studies may benefit humans and dolphins.
This paper reports that another Russo-foreign joint venture under attack in the Moscow press has denied charges of impropriety and mismanagement in its operations. The White Nights joint venture last month came under scathing attack from Moscow newspaper Pravda, which alleged the venture has reneged on its promises, is virtually bankrupt, and mistreats Russian employees. White Nights is a joint venture owned 50% by Varyeganneftegaz (VNG), a Russian oil and gas enterprise, and 50% by Salomon Inc. unit Phibro Energy Inc., Greenwich, Conn., and Anglo-Suisse (U.S.S.R.) Ltd., a subsidiary of Anglo-Suisse Inc., Houston. The venture started operations Apr. 1, 1991, with a program of workovers, redevelopment, and horizontal wells in West Varyegan and Tagrinsk oil fields in western Siberia
There exist well-documented accounts of the observations of enhanced night-glow associated with spectacular meteor shower displays. Possible mechanisms responsible for this elusive phenomenon are examined. It is shown that the observed emission is not a direct consequence of the influx of meteors on the Earth but rather has its source in scattering of solar radiation by interplanetary micrometeoroids which form the dense dustclouds ejected by the parent comets of the associated meteor streams. (author)
Hanlon, Roger T; Naud, Marie-José; Forsythe, John W; Hall, Karina; Watson, Anya C; McKechnie, Joy
Cephalopods are well known for their diverse, quick-changing camouflage in a wide range of shallow habitats worldwide. However, there is no documentation that cephalopods use their diverse camouflage repertoire at night. We used a remotely operated vehicle equipped with a video camera and a red light to conduct 16 transects on the communal spawning grounds of the giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama situated on a temperate rock reef in southern Australia. Cuttlefish ceased sexual signaling and reproductive behavior at dusk and then settled to the bottom and quickly adapted their body patterns to produce camouflage that was tailored to different backgrounds. During the day, only 3% of cuttlefish were camouflaged on the spawning ground, but at night 86% (71 of 83 cuttlefish) were camouflaged in variations of three body pattern types: uniform (n=5), mottled (n=33), or disruptive (n=34) coloration. The implication is that nocturnal visual predators provide the selective pressure for rapid, changeable camouflage patterning tuned to different visual backgrounds at night.
... vegetables on hand and ready to eat. Other good snacks include low-fat yogurt, peanut butter and celery, or whole-grain crackers and cheese. Serve lean meats and other good sources of protein , such as fish, eggs, beans, ...
... a healthy way to eat? • What is a balanced diet? • Why is protein important to my body? • What ... Protein foods 5. Dairy foods What is a balanced diet? A balanced diet should include a combination of ...
... Releases Reports to Congress Tribal Leader Letters Urban Leader Letters ... eating is a responsibility of our communities, schools, clinics, society, and families. We all have a role. There is much we can do to promote ...
The aim of this bachelor thesis is to create an eating disorder prevention program. The thesis particularly focuses on the eating disorder problems during adolescence and early adulthood along with the explanation and specification of basic terms, history and cause of the disorder. A strong emphasis is placed on the possibilities of the prevention. A qualitative research was carried out within the scope of this thesis and it brought useful data about the students and their knowledge of the ea...
Kontić Olga; Vasiljević Nadja; Trišović Marija; Jorga Jagoda; Lakić Aneta; Jašović-Gašić Miroslava
Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis...
Full Text Available Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient’s health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one’s own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.
Hartman, D; Crisp, A H; Sedgwick, P; Borrow, S
The enduring and contentious hypothesis that sleepwalking and night terrors are symptomatic of a protective dissociative mechanism is examined. This is mobilised when intolerable impulses, feelings and memories escape, within sleep, the diminished control of mental defence mechanisms. They then erupt but in a limited motoric or affective form with restricted awareness and subsequent amnesia for the event. It has also been suggested that such processes are more likely when the patient has a history of major psychological trauma. In a group of 22 adult patients, referred to a tertiary sleep disorders service with possible sleepwalking/night terrors, diagnosis was confirmed both clinically and polysomnographically, and only six patients had a history of such trauma. More commonly these described sleepwalking/night terrors are associated with vivid dream-like experiences or behaviour related to flight from attack. Two such cases, suggestive of a dissociative process, are described in more detail. The results of this study are presented largely on account of the negative findings. Scores on the dissociation questionnaire (DIS-Q) were normal, although generally higher in the small "trauma" subgroup. These were similar to scores characterising individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder. This "trauma" group also scored particularly highly on the anxiety, phobic, and depression scales of the Crown-Crisp experiential index. In contrast the "no trauma" group scored more specifically highly on the anxiety scale, along with major trends to high depression and hysteria scale scores. Two cases are presented which illustrate exceptional occurrence of later onset of sleepwalking/night terrors with accompanying post-traumatic symptoms during wakefulness. It is concluded that a history of major psychological trauma exists in only a minority of adult patients presenting with sleepwalking/night terror syndrome. In this subgroup trauma appears to dictate the subsequent content of
Geffen, van, K.G.
Almost all terrestrial species on earth have evolved to be active in a certain part of the day, and as a result are adapted to certain light conditions. Diurnal species are active under high light intensities (the period known as the photophase, i.e. daytime), nocturnal species are active in low light intensities (the period known as the scotophase, i.e. night), and crepuscular species are in between, active in twilight (i.e. dusk and dawn). During the course of evolution, light intensity has...
Gates, D; Morwessel, N
This article discusses the occurrence of night terrors (parvor nocturnus) in children. The characteristics of a typical night terror incident are described, as are the common parental reactions to such frightening events. Nurses who work with children and families need to know about the etiology and clinical course of night terrors. They need to be able to differentiate night terrors from other sleep disturbances and determine possible ways to alleviate the occurrences. This article emphasizes assessment, anticipatory guidance, education, and counseling. A practical guide for parents is included to provide families with information on ways to cope with night terrors.
Vendredi 26 septembre 2014, le CERN célèbrera la Nuit européenne des chercheurs à Genève et à St-Genis-Pouilly. Le thème de l’édition 2014 est inspiré d’Andy Warhol : « Pop science is for everyone ». On Friday 26 September 2014, CERN will be celebrating European Researchers' Night at three venues in Geneva and St. Genis-Pouilly. Inspired by Andy Warhol, this year's theme is “Pop science is for everyone”.
Full Text Available Studies have shown that the frequency or worsening of sleep disorders tends to increase with age and that the ability to perform circadian adjustments tends to decrease in individuals who work the night shift. This condition can cause consequences such as excessive sleepiness, which are often a factor in accidents that occur at work. The present study investigated the effects of age on the daytime and nighttime sleep patterns using polysomnography (PSG of long-haul bus drivers working fixed night or day shifts. A total of 124 drivers, free of sleep disorders and grouped according to age (<45 years, N = 85, and ≥45 years, N = 39 and PSG timing (daytime (D PSG, N = 60; nighttime (N PSG, N = 64 participated in the study. We observed a significant effect of bedtime (D vs N and found that the length of daytime sleep was shorter [D: <45 years (336.10 ± 73.75 min vs N: <45 years (398 ± 78.79 min and D: ≥45 years (346.57 ± 43.17 min vs N: ≥45 years (386.44 ± 52.92 min; P ≤ 0.05]. Daytime sleep was less efficient compared to nighttime sleep [D: <45 years (78.86 ± 13.30% vs N: <45 years (86.45 ± 9.77% and D: ≥45 years (79.89 ± 9.45% and N: ≥45 years (83.13 ± 9.13%; P ≤ 0.05]. An effect of age was observed for rapid eye movement sleep [D: <45 years (18.05 ± 6.12% vs D: ≥45 years (15.48 ± 7.11% and N: <45 years (23.88 ± 6.75% vs N: ≥45 years (20.77 ± 5.64%; P ≤ 0.05], which was greater in younger drivers. These findings are inconsistent with the notion that older night workers are more adversely affected than younger night workers by the challenge of attempting to rest during the day.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the duties and working conditions of registered, and enrolled nurses have previously been described from different perspectives, they have not been examined from the night nursing aspect. The aim of the study was to describe the night nursing staff's working experiences. Methods The design of the study is qualitative and descriptive. Interviews were conducted with 10 registered and 10 enrolled nurses working as night staff at a Swedish University Hospital. The interview guide was thematic and concerned the content of their tasks, as well as the working conditions that constitute night nursing. In addition, the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using content analysis. Results The night duties have to be performed under difficult conditions that include working silently in dimmed lighting, and making decisions when fatigue threatens. According to the night staff, its main goals are to provide the patients with rest and simultaneously ensure qualified care. Furthermore, the night nursing staff must prepare the ward for the daytime activities. Conclusion The most important point is the team work, which developed between the registered and enrolled nurses and how necessary this team work is when working at night. In order for nurses working at night to be fully appreciated, the communication between day and night staff in health care organizations needs to be developed. Furthermore, it is important to give the night staff opportunities to use its whole field of competence.
Pinhas, Leora; Heinmaa, Margus; Bryden, Pier; Bradley, Susan; Toner, Brenda
To examine the presence and nature of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours among Jewish Canadian adolescents, as compared with non-Jewish Canadian adolescents in an urban community. A secondary goal was to examine whether rates of eating-disordered behaviour differed among the adolescents based on the degree of Jewish religious observance. High school students (n = 868) from the Toronto area completed a demographic and religious practice questionnaire together with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), a self-report test that discriminated adolescents with syndromal eating disorders from normal adolescents. Jewish females aged 13 to 20 years, but not males, reported significantly more disordered eating behaviours and attitudes, compared with their non-Jewish female counterparts. Twenty-five percent of Jewish females, as compared with 18% of non-Jewish females, scored above the clinical cut-off for the EAT. No differences in vulnerability to disordered eating were found within the group of Jewish females or males related to their degree of religious observance. Adolescent Jewish females, but not males, appear to be at greater risk for abnormal attitudes and behaviours related to eating, compared with their non-Jewish female peers. While the reasons for this finding are unclear, this study is a step toward improving understanding of the relations between sex, culture, religion, and the development of eating disorders. Culturally sensitive and sex-specific prevention strategies and treatment interventions are indicated.
Kales, J D; Kales, A; Soldatos, C R; Caldwell, A B; Charney, D S; Martin, E D
The development and clinical course of night terrors and the personality patterns of patients with this disorder were evaluated in 40 adults who had a current complaint of night terrors. Compared with a group of adult sleepwalkers, the patients with night terrors had a later age of onset for their disorder, a higher frequency of events, and an earlier time of night for the occurrence of episodes. Both groups had high levels of psychopathology, with higher values for the night terror group. This sleepwalkers showed active, outwardly directed behavioral patterns, whereas the night terror patients showed an inhibition of outward expressions of aggression and a predominance of anxiety, depression, tendencies obsessive-compulsive/, and phobicness. Although night terrors and sleepwalking in childhood seem to be related primarily to genetic and developmental factors, their persistence and especially their onset in adulthood are found to be related more to psychological factors.
Full Text Available A 30-year-old female with a history of anxiety, cannabis use, and Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder presented for residential treatment of a Cannabis Use Disorder. Upon arrival, she had not eaten for two days and was found to be hypotensive with electrolyte disturbances. She was admitted to a nearby hospital, where the Internist diagnosed her with Addison’s disease. She was treated with corticosteroid therapy, with rapid normalization of her electrolytes, eating, and anxiety. This is the first published case of undiagnosed Addison’s disease presenting as an eating disorder, with cannabis use likely contributing to symptoms. This case elucidates the importance of ruling out other biologic and psychologic causes of clinical presentations before an eating disorder diagnosis can be made.
[Relationship between the attitudes towards improving eating habits and prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Data from the 2005 National Health and Nutrition Survey and the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions].
Kato, Yoshiko; Hamasaki, Tomoko; Sato, Shinichi; Ando, Yuichi
The aim of the present study was to examine the constructive attitudes towards improving eating habits and their relationship with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (2005) and the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions (2005). Individuals aged >30 years (N=3084) were enrolled in this study. Exploratory factor analyses were performed to examine the constructive attitudes towards improving eating habits by using 14 parameters. In addition, confirmatory factor analysis was performed and the Cronbach α value was calculated. Furthermore, the relationship between attitudes towards improving eating habits and MetS prevalence was examined according to gender by using multinomial logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for age, number of members in a household, exercise habits, and rest by sleeping. Two factors were extracted: balanced diet (BD) and control of food intake (CFI) (Cronbach α, 0.82 and 0.75, respectively). The goodness of fit model, based on the structural equation models, was adequate (goodness of fit, 0.96). No relationship was noted between BD and MetS prevalence. The MetS prevalence differed according to gender: "Strongly suspected MetS (sure MetS)", 16.3% (male, 24.4%; female, 10.7%), "Preliminary MetS (pre MetS)", 15.2% (male, 24.1%; female, 8.9%), "non-suspected MetS (non MetS)", 68.5% (male, 51.5%; female, 80.5%). The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for pre MetS and sure MetS were 0.57 (0.42-0.78) and 0.52 (0.38-0.71) in males and 0.36 (0.25-0.53) and 0.39 (0.27-0.56) in females, respectively, when non MetS was used as a reference. The results of this study indicated that the attitudes towards improving eating habits primarily focused on BD and CFI. Therefore, improving eating habits towards in terms of better CFI would be effective in preventing MetS in both genders.
Korsgaard, Dannie Michael; Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Bjørner, Thomas
This paper documents a pilot study evaluating a simple approach allowing users to eat real food while exploring a virtual environment (VE) through a head-mounted display (HMD). Two cameras mounted on the HMD allowed for video-based stereoscopic see-through when the user’s head orientation pointed...
Collins, Margaret S. R.; Kyle, Rosalind; Smith, Suzanne; Laverty, Anne; Roberts, Sylvia; Eaton-Evans, Jill
A study of 405 Irish children (ages 2-18) with Down syndrome, autism, and cri du chat syndrome, and 280 siblings found most had some level of self-feeding skills. Chewing problems were reported for some children, including siblings of children with Down syndrome and autism. Behavioral problems at meals were common. (Contains references.)…
Kales, A; Soldatos, C R; Bixler, E O; Ladda, R L; Charney, D S; Weber, G; Schweitzer, P K
The families of 25 probands with sleepwalking and 27 probands with night terrors were studied. Eighty per cent of the sleepwalking pedigrees and 96 per cent of the night terror pedigrees included one or more individuals, other than the proband, who were affected by sleepwalking, night terrors, or both. Our data appear to fit a 'two threshold' multifactorial mode of inheritance. This finding supports the hypothesis that sleepwalking and night terrors share a common genetic predisposition, with sleepwalking being a more prevalent and less severe manifestation of the same substrate that underlies night terrors. Heritable factors predispose an individual to develop sleepwalking and/or night terrors, but expression of the trait may be influenced by environmental factors.
Valiensi, Stella Maris; Cristiano, Edgardo; Martínez, Oscar A; Reisin, Ricardo C; Alvarez, Florencia
Zolpidem is a hypnotic drug used in sleep disorders. It binds selectively to alpha 1 subunit of the GABA A benzodiazepine receptor. Zolpidem reduces sleep latency, number of arousals and increases the total time of sleep. However, it is considered that it may increase phase 3 of non rapid eye movement sleep, where somnambulism can take place. Our aim is to report 8 cases of sleep related eating disorders associated with the use of this drug. We have evaluated the medical history of 8 patients who had received zolpidem for sleeping disorders and who have presented sleep related eating disorders. Eight patients (6 women, 2 men) aged between 32 to 72 years old, which received 10 mg of zolpidem/night except 1 that received 12.5 mg, were presented. They have referred strange eating behavior compatible to sleep related eating disorder. Symptoms appeared at a mean of 39.8 days after starting the medication. The numbers of nocturnal episodes recorded by the family or by the patient were 1 to 8 episodes of nocturnal eating per night. The morning after, patients found leftovers from the night before which they did not recall to have eaten. The remission was complete after discontinuing zolpidem. Zolpidem may induce sleep related eating disorder in about 1% of patients, although we consider there may be a subdiagnosis of this phenomenon. It will be important to bear in mind and look for this side effect because all the episodes could easily be controlled by withdrawing the drug.
Incomplete arousal from deep sleep in children causes night time disruption and can present as confusional arousals, sleep walking or night terrors. These nocturnal events are common in childhood but can be extremely concerning to parents and disruptive to families. This article provides a framework for the initial assessment of children's nocturnal events. Occasionally night time disturbances are seizures. A framework discussing the clinical features of typical benign childhood events and how to differentiate them from seizure disorders is presented. Generally, sleep walking and night terrors are self limiting and children grow out of them. However, in some cases there are ongoing precipitants that are important to identify and treat.
... a little planning, it's easy to eat healthy foods at the mall. Here are some choices: a single slice of veggie pizza grilled, not fried, sandwiches (for example, a grilled chicken breast sandwich) deli sandwiches on whole-grain bread a small hamburger a bean burrito a baked ...
Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Johnni; Kolstad, Henrik A
the reference definition (at least 3 h of work between 24:00 and 05:00) and definitions using a period during the night. The overlap with definitions based on starting and ending time was less pronounced (64-71 %). The proportion of classified night shifts differs little when night shifts are based......The aim is to show how different definitions affect the proportion of shifts classified as night shifts. The Danish Working Hour Database was used to calculate number of night shifts according to eight definitions. More than 98% of the total night shifts were night shifts by use of both...... on definitions including a period during the night. Studies based on other definitions may be less comparable....
Influencia de los turnos de trabajo y las guardias nocturnas en la aparición del Síndrome de Burnout en médicos y enfermeras Influence of shift work and night shifts in the onset of the Burnout Syndrome in doctors and nurses
Ambar Deschamps Perdomo
Full Text Available La sociedad actual que funciona 24 horas al día, obliga a las organizaciones y en consecuencia a sus empleados a someterse a horarios de trabajo que van en contra del ritmo natural de la vida. El horario por turno y las guardias, fuera de las horas normales del día, es un tema que cobra importancia, ya que son muchas las implicaciones que esto trae como consecuencia en la salud física y mental de quienes lo realizan. Objetivo: Analizar la evidencia científica existente la influencia de los turnos de trabajo y las guardias nocturnas en la aparición del síndrome de Burnout en médicos y enfermeras. Método: Varias bases de datos han sido analizadas (Medline, Pubmed, Lilacs, Cochrane, con descriptores específicos y según criterios de inclusión se ha obtenido la bibliografía. Resultados: Se localizaron 40 artículos. De los cuales, 16 (40% corresponden a estudios en enfermeras y 24 (60% sobre médicos, principalmente médicos en formación. Parece existir una relación de la influencia de los turnos de trabajo y las guardias nocturnas con la aparición del síndrome de Burnout, en médicos y enfermeras. Conclusión: La identificación de los factores de riesgo psicosocial a los que pueden estar expuestos los médicos permitirá adoptar medidas preventivas, que pueden ser útiles para mejorar la salud y la calidad de vida de este colectivo profesional.Society today works 24 hours a day, forcing organizations and their employees to submit work schedules that go against the natural rhythm of life. Shift work and night work, is an issue that is becoming important, as there are important consequences in physical and mental health of those who work this way. Objective: Analyze the existing scientific evidence of the influence of shift work and night shifts in the onset of burnout syndrome among physicians and nurses. Method: Several databases have been reviewed (Medline, Pubmed, Lilacs, Cochrane, with specific descriptors and bibliography has
Full Text Available Beatriz Jáuregui-Garrido1, Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera2,31Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Virgen del Rocío, 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, 3Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients.Keywords: sudden death, cardiovascular complications, refeeding syndrome, QT interval, hypokalemia
Bourlai, T.; Kalka, N.; Cao, D.; Decann, B.; Jafri, Z.; Nicolo, F.; Whitelam, C.; Zuo, J.; Adjeroh, D.; Cukic, B.; Dawson, J.; Hornak, L.; Ross, A.; Schmid, N. A.
Understanding patterns of human activity from the fusion of multimodal sensor surveillance sources is an important capability. Most related research emphasizes improvement in the performance of biometric systems in controlled conditions characterized by suitable lighting and favorable acquisition distances. However, the need for monitoring humans in night environments is of equal if not greater importance. This chapter will present techniques for the extraction, processing and matching of biometrics under adverse night conditions in the presence of either natural or artificial illumination. Our work includes capture, analysis and evaluation of a broad range of electromagnetic bands suitable for night-time image acquisition, including visible light, near infrared (IR), extended near IR and thermal IR. We develop algorithms for human detection and tracking from night-time imagery at ranges between 5 and 200 meters. Identification algorithms include face, iris, and gait recognition, supplemented by soft biometric features. Our preliminary research indicates the challenges in performing human identification in night-time environments.
Rogozea, R; Florea-Ciocoiu, V
A polygraphic study on resistance to habituation of the somatic (EMG), autonomic (finger vasoconstriction, galvanic skin reaction, respiration, pulse) and EEG (acoustic-evoked potential, EEG-blocking reaction) components of the orienting reaction elicited by a repetitive auditory stimulus was performed in 36 patients with night terrors and in 72 matched subjects in two control groups. The study evidenced a significantly higher resistance to habituation of the orienting reaction in patients with night terrors than in normal subjects (control group I) but significantly lower than in patients with symptomatic epilepsy (control group II). The severity of these habituation disturbances in patients with night terrors depended on the patients' age, the history of nocturnal events and their clinical form, as well as on the etiology of episodes. The habituation changes found in patients with night terrors may be ascribed to the nervous disorders of functional and/or organic nature which generated also the night terrors episodes.
... affects mood and some compulsive behaviors, may also play a role in binge eating. In most cases, the unhealthy overeating habits that develop into binge eating start during childhood. These habits might be a result of eating ...
Snyder, David M; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L; Pionk, Mary Jane; Stein, Martin T
Sophia is a 3-year-old girl who was brought to her pediatrician by her parents who were concerned about inconsolable night-time awakening. Her mother indicated that she has frequent (>6), early nocturnal awakenings accompanied by screaming and crying lasting up to 1 hour since her birth. These episodes increased in intensity and frequency in the past year since the birth of her brother. With a bedtime routine (a cup of water by bedside with a washcloth and touching mother's nose, chin, and cheeks), Sophia falls asleep easily; however, within 1 hour she awakes screaming and flailing unaware of her surroundings and unable to be comforted. There are no tonic-clonic movements. Prior interventions, including a sleep coach and "letting Sophia cry it out," did not change her sleep pattern. Sophia's mother reports that she needs to be on a specific daily routine including set times for awakening, activity, snacks, naps, and meals. Diversion from the routine and separation from her mother results in a tantrum (kicking, hitting, screaming, and inconsolability) often lasting more than 30 minutes. Sophia was born after an uncomplicated 37-week gestation. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia required readmission for 24 hours of phototherapy; serum bilirubin levels were performed daily for 3 weeks after discharge. At 6 weeks, daily episodes of screaming, inconsolability, forceful vomiting, and inability to sleep led to a diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux. Medication trials were not successful, but the symptoms resolved by 5 months. Formula intolerance and difficulty swallowing and chewing different textures of solid food occurred in the first year. Occupational therapy was of "no benefit"; Sophia was overwhelmed by the activity and took a long time to warm up to the therapist. Her texture aversion resolved by 2 years of age. She prefers one-on-one play and has minimal interactions with other children. She has met all her developmental milestones appropriately and has no other health
Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Buresch, Kendra C; Fetchko, Thomas; Gardner, Meg; Hanlon, Roger T
Because visual predation occurs day and night, many predators must have good night vision. Prey therefore exhibit antipredator behaviours in very dim light. In the field, the giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama) assumes camouflaged body patterns at night, each tailored to its immediate environment. However, the question of whether cuttlefish have the perceptual capability to change their camouflage at night (as they do in day) has not been addressed. In this study, we: (1) monitored the camouflage patterns of Sepia officinalis during the transition from daytime to night-time using a natural daylight cycle and (2) tested whether cuttlefish on a particular artificial substrate change their camouflage body patterns when the substrate is changed under dim light (down to starlight, 0.003 lux) in a controlled light field in a dark room setting. We found that cuttlefish camouflage patterns are indeed adaptable at night: animals responded to a change in their visual environment with the appropriate body pattern change. Whether to deceive their prey or predators, cuttlefish use their excellent night vision to perform adaptive camouflage in dim light.
Luehring, F; Obreshkov, E; Quarrie, D; Rybkine, G; Undrus, A
The automated multi-platform software nightly build system is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation and code approval schemes. Code developers from ATLAS participating Institutes spread all around the world use about 30 branches of nightly releases for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers. The nightly releases lead up to, and are the basis of, stable software releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS nightly builds are managed by the fully automated NICOS framework on the computing farm with 44 powerful multiprocessor nodes. The ATN test tool is embedded within the nightly system and provides results shortly after full compilations complete. Other test frameworks are synchronized with NICOS jobs and run larger scale validation jobs using the nightly releases. NICOS web pages dynamically provide information about the progress and results of the builds. For faster feedback, E-mail notifications about nightly releases problems are automatically distributed to the developers responsible.
Æbelø, Amanda; Bastholm, Amanda Mains; Buch, Mathilde Sophie; Asmussen, Søs Træger; Petersen, Gitte
The area of Health Promotion has been investigated numerous of times since the concept was introduced by WHO in the political area in 1948. Health Promotion has been used in many areas of social work ever since, and in Denmark the talk of Health Promotion has been a part of the political debate since 1984. This project brings into focus the EAT-program which is developed by the Copenhagen House of Food in collaboration with the Children and Youth Committee in Copenhagen. The background for th...
Manzanares Braza, Fabián
Easily Eat es una aplicacion web, innovadora y característica por uno de sus peculiares accesos. Dicha aplicación, además de contar con un buscador de restaurantes, está pensada para aquellas personas que les gusta saber lo que van a comer. De esta manera, cualquier usuario de esta aplicación podrá ver con detalles el restaurante que desee, de los registrados en la aplicación, así como las diferentes cartas o menús que ofrecen y todos los detalles de sus platos. De esta manera, no puedes tene...
Nzwalo, Hipólito; Ferreira, Ligia; Peralta, Rita; Bentes, Carla
Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is characterised by eating episodes during the first period of the night sleep with partial loss consciousness, and amnesia. It can rarely be induced by some drugs, including zolpidem. We present a video report of a patient with a 1-year history of SRED caused by zolpidem causing important repercussions in the sleep structure and life quality. The night eating episodes ceased promptly with discontinuation of zolpidem. Upon the follow-up, the sleep structure improved and the daily consequences disappeared. As in few reported cases of zolpidem-induced SRED, our patient was suffering from the parasomnia for a long time before the diagnosis. Active exclusion of symptoms suggestive of SRED in patients under zolpidem treatment can avoid the deleterious effect of the sleep disorder.
Night Sky: A Falcon Field Guide covers both summer and winter constellations, planets, and stars found in the northern hemisphere. Conveniently sized to fit in a pocket and featuring detailed photographs, this informative guide makes it easy to identify objects in the night sky even from one's own backyard. From information on optimal weather conditions, preferred viewing locations, and how to use key tools of the trade, this handbook will help you adeptly navigate to and fro the vast and dynamic nighttime skies, and you'll fast recognize that the night sky's the limit.
Melles, R B; Katz, B
A high incidence of sudden unexplained nocturnal deaths has been reported among young Asian males. These deaths are known as Pokkuri in Japan, Bangungut in the Philippines and Sudden Unexplained Nocturnal Death in the United States. Post mortem analysis has demonstrated cardiac conduction defects in many of the victims. Careful review of the terminal events surrounding these deaths suggests that the victims suffered from night terrors. Night terrors are a sleep disorder characterized by vocalization, motor activity, a nonarousable state, and severe autonomic discharge. The proposed recognition of both night terrors and cardiac anomalies in these patients offers a pathophysiologic mechanism for their sudden death.
The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Builds and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, test...
Undrus, A; The ATLAS collaboration
For over 10 years of development the ATLAS Nightly Build System has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The numerous branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains ~2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by ~1000 developers. The nightly releases lead up to stable releases used for data processing and analysis worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on the ATLAS Build Farm. The ATN testing framework runs unit and integration tests for the nightly releases.
Inglise jazzsaksofonisti Courtney Pine heliplaadi "Resistance" esitluskontserdist 15. dets. Rock Cafés Tallinnas. Inglise laulja Chris Norman läti ansamblitega üritusel "Hansa disco night Nr.4" 9. dets. Kipsala Hallis Riias
Rogozea, R; Florea-Ciocoiu, V
A polygraphic study of the somatic (electromyogram), autonomic (finger plethysmogram, galvanic skin reaction, respiration, pulse), and electroencephalographic (acoustic-evoked potential and EEG-blocking reaction) components of the orienting reaction elicited by an auditory stimulus was performed in 36 patients with night terrors and in 72 matched subjects in two control groups. The study showed a significantly more intense orienting reaction in patients with night terrors than in normal subjects (Control Group I). Moreover, the orienting reaction intensity in subjects with night terrors was significantly lower than in patients with symptomatic epilepsy (Control Group II). The orienting reactions of patients with night terrors depended on the patient's age, the history of nocturnal episodes, and their clinical form, as well as on etiology.
McCanne, Lynn P. Fisher
Recent research indicates that a significant number of college-age women suffer from bulimarexia (also called the gorging-purging syndrome, the binge-purge cycle, bulimia or bulimia nervosa). To examine the relationship of three personality variables (anxiety, assertiveness, and locus of control) to eating disorders, 46 college students…
Full Text Available A consistent eating style might be beneficial to avoid overeating in a food-rich environment. Eating consistency entails maintaining a similar dietary pattern across different eating situations. This construct is relatively under-studied, but the available evidence suggests that eating consistency supports successful weight maintenance and decreases risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Yet, personality and situation predictors of consistency have not been studied.A community-based sample of 164 women completed various personality tests, and 139 of them also reported their eating behaviour 6 times/day over 10 observational days. We focused on observations with meals (breakfast, lunch, or dinner. The participants indicated if their momentary eating patterns were consistent with their own baseline eating patterns in terms of healthiness or size of the meal. Further, participants described various characteristics of each eating situation.Eating consistency was positively predicted by trait self-control. Eating consistency was undermined by eating in the evening, eating with others, eating away from home, having consumed alcohol and having undertaken physical exercise. Interactions emerged between personality traits and situations, including punishment sensitivity, restraint, physical activity and alcohol consumption.Trait self-control and several eating situation variables were related to eating consistency. These findings provide a starting point for targeting interventions to improve consistency, suggesting that a focus on self-control skills, together with addressing contextual factors such as social situations and time of day, may be most promising. This work is a first step to provide people with the tools they need to maintain a consistently healthy lifestyle in a food-rich environment.
Hymowitz, Genna; Salwen, Jessica; Salis, Katie Lee
The extant literature indicates negative self-perceptions are a risk factor for disordered eating (DE) and DE is a risk factor for overweight and obesity. While childhood emotional abuse (EA) is often linked to DE and obesity, it is typically not included in comprehensive models of these health problems. Further investigation of interactions among EA, self-perception, and DE is needed to refine treatments for overweight, obesity, and DE. This study evaluated a model of DE and weight difficulties in which negative self-perception mediate the relationship between EA and DE, and DE predicts body mass index (BMI) in a population of emerging adults. Further, this study investigated the utility of history of EA for prediction of DE and classification of individuals with and without DE. Self-report questionnaires on childhood trauma, psychopathology, and eating behaviors were administered to 598 undergraduate students. Latent variable analysis confirmed the hypothesized model. Recursive partitioning determined that individuals reporting a high level of EA likely meet criteria for night eating syndrome (NES) or binge eating disorder (BED), and history of EA has a moderate to high level of specificity as a predictor of BED and NES. These findings confirm the necessity of evaluating EA and DE in emerging adults with weight difficulties, and the importance of assessing self-perception and DE in individuals with a history of EA. Future studies should investigate the utility of addressing EA and self-perception in interventions for DE and obesity and to determine whether these findings can be generalized to a clinical population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bosquet, L; Papelier, Y; Léger, L; Legros, P
The purpose of the study was to examine whether an unaccustomed increase in training volume would result in characteristics changes in heart rate variability (HRV), in order to determine if this marker can be used to diagnose overtraining. Nine experienced endurance athletes increased their usual amount of training by 100% within 4 weeks. Night ECG was recorded before (baseline) and after (OVER) this period of overload, and after 2 weeks of recovery (REC). We diagnosed overtraining in 6 subjects using both physiological and psychological criteria. No difference was noted in heart rate for night periods (56+/-12, 55+/-10 and 53+/-15 bpm, respectively; p>0.05). We found no significant changes of LF/HF (1.10+/-0.92, 0.96+/-0.57 and 0.59+/-0.43, respectively; p>0.05) or HF expressed in normalized units (54.81+/-20.12, 53.81+/-11.35 and 66.15+/-15.12%, respectively; p>0.05). In the conditions of the present study, HRV during sleep does not seem to be a valid marker of overtraining in male endurance athletes. Before concluding to the uselessness of this tool in the monitoring of the syndrome, longitudinal studies with elite or sub-elite athletes are needed to determine if spontaneously developed overtraining results in the same response.
Schleucher, J.; Vanderveer, P.J.; Sharkey, T.D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
Hexose export from chloroplasts at night has been inferred in previous studies of mutant and transgenic plants. The authors have tested whether hexose export is the normal route of carbon export from chloroplasts at night. The authors used nuclear magnetic resonance to distinguish glucose (Glc) made from hexose export and Glc made from triose export. Glc synthesized in vitro from fructose-6-phosphate in the presence of deuterium-labeled water had deuterium incorporated at C-2, whereas synthesis from triose phosphates caused C-2 through C-5 to become deuterated. In both tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and bean (phaseolus vulgaris L.), Glc from sucrose made at night in the presence of deuterium-enriched water was deuterated only in the C-2 position, indicating that >75% of carbon is exported as hexoses at night. In darkness the phosphate in the cytosol was 28 mM, whereas that in the chloroplasts was 5 mW, but hexose phosphates were 10-fold higher in the cytosol than in the chloroplasts. Therefore, hexose phosphates would not move out of chloroplasts without the input of energy. The authors conclude that most carbon leaves chloroplasts at night as Glc, maltose, or higher maltodextrins under normal conditions.
Full Text Available Binge Eating Disorder, characterized by frequent and persistent overeating episodes that are accompanied by feeling of loss of control over eating without regular compensatory behaviors and was identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition as a new eating disorder category. Binge Eating Disorder is the most common eating disorder among adults. Binge Eating Disorder is associated with significant morbidity, including medical complications related to obesity, eating disorder psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity; reduced quality of life, and impaired social functioning. Current treatments of Binge Eating Disorder include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and bariatric surgery. In this review, the definition, epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and also mainly treatment of Binge Eating Disorder are discussed.
Zapka, Manuela; Heyers, Dominik; Liedvogel, Miriam; Jarvis, Erich D; Mouritsen, Henrik
Magnetic compass orientation in a night-migratory songbird requires that Cluster N, a cluster of forebrain regions, is functional. Cluster N, which receives input from the eyes via the thalamofugal pathway, shows high neuronal activity in night-migrants performing magnetic compass-guided behaviour at night, whereas no activation is observed during the day, and covering up the birds' eyes strongly reduces neuronal activation. These findings suggest that Cluster N processes light-dependent magnetic compass information in night-migrating songbirds. The aim of this study was to test if Cluster N is active during daytime migration. We used behavioural molecular mapping based on ZENK activation to investigate if Cluster N is active in the meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis), a day- and night-migratory species. We found that Cluster N of meadow pipits shows high neuronal activity under dim-light at night, but not under full room-light conditions during the day. These data suggest that, in day- and night-migratory meadow pipits, the light-dependent magnetic compass, which requires an active Cluster N, may only be used during night-time, whereas another magnetosensory mechanism and/or other reference system(s), like the sun or polarized light, may be used as primary orientation cues during the day.
Maor, Noga Roguin; Sayag, Shlomit; Dahan, Rachel; Hermoni, Doron
Israeli youth lead 27 western countries in dieting. The prevalence of eating disorders has been rising in the last 30 years, causing social problems and medical complications. To examine the prevalence of eating disorders among high school students in a region in northern Israel (Misgav) and to examine the relationship between the parents' employment status and the subject's eating disorder. A structured questionnaire was administered to collect demographic data. The short version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to evaluate the subject's attitudes toward and preoccupation with food, dieting, eating, physical appearance, and personal control over eating. Of 360 students approached, 283 (78%) completed the self-report EAT-26. One of every 5 females and one in every 20 males had an abnormal eating attitude. The rate of pathologic EAT-26 results, 20.8%, falls within the high range of similar community-based samples of female adolescents. There were no differences in EAT-26 score between students with an employed or unemployed mother; however, there was a trend for higher EAT-26 scores among those whose father was unemployed (21.4% vs. 12.7%, chi2 = 0.14). The findings support our hypothesis of a relatively high rate of abnormal eating attitudes (as reflected by high EAT-26 score) in this population. Another possible risk factor is having an unemployed father, which warrants further research and attention. Our next step is to introduce an intervention program in the school and to study its effect.
Neelu Jain Gupta
Full Text Available The daily rhythm of feeding-fasting and meal-timing are emerging as important determinants of health. Circadian rhythm research in animal models and retrospective analyses of human nutrition data have shown that reduced length of overnight fasting or increased late night eating increases risk for metabolic diseases including obesity and diabetes. However, the daily rhythm in eating pattern in humans is rarely measured. Traditional methods to collect nutrition information through food diary and food log pay little attention to the timing of eating which may also change from day to day. We adopted a novel cell-phone based approach to longitudinally record all events of food and beverage intake in adults. In a feasibility study daily food-eating patterns of 93 healthy individuals were recorded for 21 days using camera phones. Analysis of the daily eating patterns of these individuals indicates deviation from conventional assumption that people eat three meals-a-day within a 12 h interval. We found that eating events are widespread throughout the day, with 30% consumed in evening and late night hours. There was little difference in eating pattern between weekdays and weekends. In this cohort more than 50% of people spread their caloric intake events over 15 h or longer. One decile of the cohort who were spouses of shift-workers or had flexible work schedule spread their caloric intake over 20 h. Although the nutrition quality and diversity of food consumed is different between South-East Asian and Western countries, such overall disruption of daily eating-fasting rhythm is similar. Therefore, in view of hypothesis that disrupted daily eating pattern may contribute to the global increase in metabolic diseases and modification of daily eating pattern is a potential modifiable behavior to contain these diseases, monitoring eating pattern is an important aspect of lifestyle.
Murday, H K M; Rusli, F D; Blandy, C; Vollenhoven, B
The aim of this case report is to show that hemochromatosis can present, unusually, with night sweats. At presentation, hemochromatosis often tends to have non-specific symptoms, making it easy to misdiagnose, especially if it presents with rare symptoms. Misdiagnosis of hemochromatosis can lead to lethal outcomes, given it can cause multiple organ dysfunctions if left untreated and hence the need to identify it early on. The case we present is a 41-year-old woman with previously undiagnosed hemochromatosis complaining of night sweats. She thought she was menopausal. The diagnosis of hemochromatosis was made solely on investigations given that she did not have any other symptoms other than night sweats. Her serum iron concentrations were within the normal range due to menstruation. It is uncommon for women to present with symptoms of hemochromatosis during their reproductive life since their iron concentration is kept within normal range through monthly menstrual bleeding.
Planned Parenthood of Houston and southeast Texas is currently implementing a reproductive health care clinic with night-time hours. The clinic provides for the reproductive health care needs of college students with after-class jobs, women with two jobs or with night-shift employment, and all other women who do not have time to go to a daytime clinic. The clinic operates twice a month on Fridays and was initially open 10:30 p.m. - 7 a.m., but now it has changed its hours to 7:30 p.m. - 3:30 a.m. The clinic is staffed by one clinician and two clinic assistants, which attend to an average of 17-22 patients per night's schedule. Women who use the clinic keep their appointments better and do not have to wait so long for care.
Angeline M. Nguyen
Full Text Available We report the case of an 18-year-old male who developed both nutritional amblyopia and night blindness. After nearly a lifetime of consuming a bizarre diet limited to French fries, pretzels, crackers, and carbonated sodas, he had a relatively sudden onset of night blindness and bilateral visual loss. The night blindness resolved after taking daily oral vitamin A supplements. Visual acuity gradually improved from light perception, both eyes, to 20/20 right eye and 20/25 left eye after multivitamin supplementation and vitamin B12 injections. The patient had bilateral optic atrophy and bilateral ring scotomas around a small area of fixation. The patient was unable to modify his diet despite professional advice and counseling.
Fonken, Laura K; Workman, Joanna L; Walton, James C; Weil, Zachary M; Morris, John S; Haim, Abraham; Nelson, Randy J
The global increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders coincides with the increase of exposure to light at night (LAN) and shift work. Circadian regulation of energy homeostasis is controlled by an endogenous biological clock that is synchronized by light information. To promote optimal adaptive functioning, the circadian clock prepares individuals for predictable events such as food availability and sleep, and disruption of clock function causes circadian and metabolic disturbances. To determine whether a causal relationship exists between nighttime light exposure and obesity, we examined the effects of LAN on body mass in male mice. Mice housed in either bright (LL) or dim (DM) LAN have significantly increased body mass and reduced glucose tolerance compared with mice in a standard (LD) light/dark cycle, despite equivalent levels of caloric intake and total daily activity output. Furthermore, the timing of food consumption by DM and LL mice differs from that in LD mice. Nocturnal rodents typically eat substantially more food at night; however, DM mice consume 55.5% of their food during the light phase, as compared with 36.5% in LD mice. Restricting food consumption to the active phase in DM mice prevents body mass gain. These results suggest that low levels of light at night disrupt the timing of food intake and other metabolic signals, leading to excess weight gain. These data are relevant to the coincidence between increasing use of light at night and obesity in humans.
Khadijeh Taherifard; Razieh Eslamieh
This paper offers a Lacanian/feminist reading of Night, Mother by the American playwright Marsha Norman. The play Night, Mother will be read according to Lacan’s point of view and the concepts of identity and identity formation are studied in this paper. The play will be analyzed based on the Lacanian concepts of the contrast between the Imaginary Order and the Symbolic Order, and the notion of Death Drive, suggesting that in the play Jessie represents the Symbolic Order and her mother, Thelm...
The Night of Science, which took place in the Parc de la Perle du Lac in Geneva last weekend, was a great success, with 30 000 visitors attending according to the organisers. Many curious people flocked to the stands and animations until late on Saturday night and all afternoon on Sunday. The CERN stand (photo) received a great amount of interest from participants. Both kids and adults discovered the activities of the Laboratory and the data-processing revolution initiated by CERN, from the Web to the Computing Grid. Hats off to the CERN collaborators in the Communication Group and IT Department who made this event a success.
Neeta Misra; Anshul Mehra; Pradyuman Misra; Jaya Mehra
Eating disorders are potentially life-threatening disorders. In this article, we discuss the oral manifestations of eating disorders so as to enable dental practitioners to recognize the effects of eating disorders and to manage the patients with eating disorders.
Martinez-Nicolas, Antonio; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, Maria Angeles
Modern societies are characterized by a 24/7 lifestyle (LS) with no environmental differences between day and night, resulting in weak zeitgebers (weak day light, absence of darkness during night, constant environmental temperature, sedentary LS and frequent snacking), and as a consequence, in an impaired circadian system (CS) through a process known as chronodisruption. Both weak zeitgebers and CS impairment are related to human pathologies (certain cancers, metabolic syndrome and affective and cognitive disorders), but little is known about how to chronoenhance the CS. The aim of this work is to propose practical strategies for chronoenhancement, based on accentuating the day/night contrast. For this, 131 young subjects were recruited, and their wrist temperature (WT), activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep were recorded under free-living conditions for 1 week. Subjects with high contrast (HC) and low contrast (LC) for each variable were selected to analyze the HC effect in activity, body position, environmental temperature, light exposure and sleep would have on WT. We found that HC showed better rhythms than LC for every variable except sleep. Subjects with HC and LC for WT also demonstrated differences in LS, where HC subjects had a slightly advanced night phase onset and a general increase in day/night contrast. In addition, theoretical high day/night contrast calculated using mathematical models suggests an improvement by means of LS contrast. Finally, some individuals classified as belonging to the HC group in terms of WT when they are exposed to the LS characteristic of the LC group, while others exhibit WT arrhythmicity despite their good LS habits, revealing two different WT components: an exogenous component modified by LS and another endogenous component that is refractory to it. Therefore, intensifying day/night contrast in subject's LS has proven to be a feasible measure to chronoenhance the CS.
Sato, Yasuhiro; Fukudo, Shin
The two most clinically serious eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. A drive for thinness and fear of fatness lead patients with anorexia nervosa either to restrict their food intake or binge-eat then purge (through self-induced vomiting and/or laxative abuse) to reduce their body weight to much less than the normal range. A drive for thinness leads patients with bulimia nervosa to binge-eat then purge but fail to reduce their body weight. Patients with eating disorders present with various gastrointestinal disturbances such as postprandial fullness, abdominal distention, abdominal pain, gastric distension, and early satiety, with altered esophageal motility sometimes seen in patients with anorexia nervosa. Other common conditions noted in patients with eating disorders are postprandial distress syndrome, superior mesenteric artery syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and functional constipation. Binge eating may cause acute gastric dilatation and gastric perforation, while self-induced vomiting can lead to dental caries, salivary gland enlargement, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and electrolyte imbalance. Laxative abuse can cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Vomiting and/or laxative abuse can cause hypokalemia, which carries a risk of fatal arrhythmia. Careful assessment and intensive treatment of patients with eating disorders is needed because gastrointestinal symptoms/disorders can progress to a critical condition.
Ozpelit, Mehmet Emre; Ozpelit, Ebru
Objective Diet exerts a crucial role on cardiovascular health. Evidence is mainly based on the content and the amount of dietary intakes. Some recent reports demonstrated that eating behaviour may also be of significant importance in cardiovascular health. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of eating behaviour on heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy subjects. Methods and results In total, 521 healthy subjects with 24-hour Holter ECG recordings filled out a special questionnaire about their eating behaviour and lifestyles. From these patients, 425 subjects were healthy and had recordings suitable for analysis. Five types of eating behaviour were assessed in the questionnaire: (1) adherence to the Mediterranean diet (using the MedDietScore), (2) skipping breakfast, (3) late night eating, (4) having snacks, and (5) rapid eating. Physical exercise level and active working status of the subjects were also assessed. The root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) was used for assessment of HRV. RMSSD values were lower in subjects skipping breakfast compared to subjects having breakfast regularly (26.32 vs 31.52 P = 0.02). Other behavioural patterns did not have any effect on the HRV parameters. Ageing, male sex, sedentary lifestyle and no active working were also found to be associated with reduced HRV in univariate analysis. In multivariate regression analysis, age and skipping breakfast were the only parameters significantly associated with a lower RMSSD (β: -0.222, P: 0.008 and β: -0.191, P: 0.020, respectively) Conclusions The findings of this study showed that skipping breakfast may be a cause of cardiac autonomic dysfunction.
... may also have: Tender lymph nodes in the neck or armpits A sore throat that happens often Digestive issues, like irritable bowel syndrome Chills and night sweats Allergies and sensitivities to ...
Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise; Marks, Saul; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn
Disordered eating behavior (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern because of their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy availability, reproductive function, and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognize that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective judgments of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations, including athletes from aquatic sports, ranges from 18 to 45% in female athletes and from 0 to 28% in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behavior at all periods of development pathway, and coaches and members of the athletes' health care team should be able to recognize early symptoms indicating risk for energy deficiency, DE, and EDs. Coaches and leaders must accept that DE/EDs can be a problem in aquatic disciplines and that openness regarding this challenge is important.
Walsh, Judith M E; Wheat, Mary E; Freund, Karen
OBJECTIVE To describe how primary care clinicians can detect an eating disorder and identify and manage the associated medical complications. DESIGN A review of literature from 1994 to 1999 identified by a medlinesearch on epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy of eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Detection requires awareness of risk factors for, and symptoms and signs of, anorexia nervosa (e.g., participation in activities valuing thinness, family history of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, lanugo hair) and bulimia nervosa (e.g., unsuccessful attempts at weight loss, history of childhood sexual abuse, family history of depression, erosion of tooth enamel from vomiting, partoid gland swelling, and gastroesophageal reflux). Providers must also remain alert for disordered eating in female athletes (the female athlete triad) and disordered eating in diabetics. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary team including a primary care practitioner, nutritionist, and mental health professional. The role of the primary care practitioner is to help determine the need for hospitalization and to manage medical complications (e.g., arrhythmias, refeeding syndrome, osteoporosis, and electrolyte abnormalities such as hypokalemia). CONCLUSION Primary care providers have an important role in detecting and managing eating disorders. PMID:10940151
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000464.htm Tracheostomy tube - eating To use the sharing features on ... when you swallow foods or liquids. Eating and Tracheostomy Tubes When you get your tracheostomy tube, or ...
Prenatal care - eating right ... is hard work for a woman's body. Eating right is one of the best things you can ... a well-rounded diet with all of the right nutrients and getting at least 30 minutes of ...
... sodium Americans eat comes from processed and prepared foods, such as breads, cold cuts, pizza, poultry, soups, sandwiches and burgers, cheese, pasta and meat dishes, and salty snacks. Therefore, healthier choices when shopping and eating out are particularly important. ...
Jong, De Maaike; Caro, Samuel P.; Gienapp, Phillip; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Visser, Marcel E.
Artificial light at night disturbs the daily rhythms of many organisms. To what extent this disturbance depends on the intensity and spectral composition of light remain obscure. Here, we measured daily activity patterns of captive blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) exposed to similar intensities of
Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.
We developed a simple and fast lookup-table based method to derive and apply natural daylight colors to multi-band night-time images. The method deploys an optimal color transformation derived from a set of samples taken from a daytime color reference image. The colors in the resulting colorized
The control rooms of the LHC and its experiments threw open their doors to 150 youngsters on European Researchers Night and the place was buzzing with excitement all evening! It's just possible that a few scientists' vocations were born last Friday night, as the sixth European Researchers Night took place across Europe. CERN was taking part for the first time and invited young people aged from 12 to 19 into the control rooms of the LHC machine and five experiments. From 5.00 in the afternoon until 1.00 in the morning, 150 youngsters and physics teachers got the opportunity to sit with scientists at the controls of the accelerator and experiments. This meeting of minds went down very well for all concerned, the scientists being only too happy to wax lyrical about their passion. The youngsters were thrilled with their visit and amazed at being allowed so close to the controls of these mighty machines. The night-time setting added an extra touch of magic to the whole event. Some just could...
Srinivasan, T.N.; Suresh, T.R.; Jayaram, Vasantha; Fernandez, M. Peter
Data on the nature and extent of major eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia is lacking in non-white, native populations of the developing world, leaving a gap in understanding the determinants of these disorders. In a study on 210 medical students examined by a two-stage survey method, 31 subjects were found to have distress relating to their eating habits and body size not amounting to criterion-based diagnosis of eating disorders. The characteristics of this eating distress syndro...
The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Build and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, testing, and creation of distribution kits. The ATN testing framework of the Nightly System runs unit and integration tests in parallel suites, fully utilizing the resources of multi-core machines, and provides the first results even before compilations complete. The NICOS error detection system is based on several techniques and classifies the compilation and test errors according to their severity. It is periodically tuned to place greater emphasis on certain software defects by highlighting the problems on NICOS web pages and sending automatic e-mail notifications to responsible developers. These and other recent developments will be presented and future plans will be described.
The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Build and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, testing, and creation of distribution kits. The ATN testing framework of the Nightly System runs unit and integration tests in parallel suites, fully utilizing the resources of multi-core machines, and provides the first results even before compilations complete. The NICOS error detection system is based on several techniques and classifies the compilation and test errors according to their severity. It is periodically tuned to place greater emphasis on certain software defects by highlighting the problems on NICOS web pages and sending automatic e-mail notifications to responsible developers. These and other recent developments will be presented and future plans will be described.
You are what you eat—and so is your baby. In addition to being smokefree, eating well during pregnancy is one of the best and most important things you can do for yourself and your baby. But healthy “eating for two” is more than just eating more.
Strien, T. van; Gibson, E.L.; Wade, T.
The Emotional Eating Scale (EES) was constructed to allow a detailed analysis of the relationship between negative mood and disordered eating in obese people with binge eating disorder (Arnow et al. 1995). The questionnaire was published in the appendix of the 1995 publication in the journal
... us in our mission. F.E.A.S.T.'s Eating Disorders Glossary Welcome to our comprehensive quick-reference eating ... Conversion Weight Manipulation Weight restoration, weight restored Zinc Eating disorders biology & pharmacology Antidepressants BDNF - brain-derived neurotophic factor ...
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Kids and Eating Disorders KidsHealth / For Kids / Kids and Eating Disorders What's ... and pee) withdrawing from social activities What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ...
Endogenous hypercortisolism (Cushing syndrome) is one of the most enigmatic diseases in clinical medicine. The diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing syndrome depend on proper laboratory evaluation. In this review, an update is provided on selected critical issues in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing syndrome: the use of late-night salivary cortisol in initial diagnosis and for postoperative surveillance, and the use of prolactin measurement to improve the performance of inferior petrosal sinus sampling to distinguish Cushing disease from ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome during differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Keatts, Dara A; Bardone-Cone, Anna M
This study examined the relation between eating expectancies, assessed via the Eating Expectancy Inventory, and eating disorder recovery. Individuals formerly seen for an eating disorder were categorized as having an active eating disorder ( n = 53), as partially recovered ( n = 15), or as fully recovered ( n = 20). The expectancies of these groups were compared to each other and to 67 non-eating disorder controls. Results revealed that three of the five eating expectancies differed across groups. Non-eating disorder controls and fully recovered individuals endorsed similar levels of the expectancies that eating helps manage negative affect, eating is pleasurable and useful as a reward, and eating leads to feeling out of control. Partially recovered individuals looked more similar to active eating disorder cases on these expectancies. The other two expectancies did not differ across groups. Results provide some indication that certain eating expectancies may be associated with eating disorder recovery.
Fullick, Sarah; Morris, Chris; Jones, Helen; Atkinson, Greg
BACKGROUND Shift-work and a sedentary lifestyle are risk factors for raised blood pressure (BP). Exercise can reduce BP in diurnally-active individuals, but it is unknown whether postexercise hypotension persists when people are active and eating at night. We present the first investigation into the acute effects of exercise on BP monitored during simulated night-work. METHODS Nine normotensive participants, aged 20–42 years, completed at least two crossover trials beginning at 1800 hours. Between 1900 and 2000 hours, participants either rested or exercised at 50% peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and then remained awake throughout the night, completing various tasks until 0515 hours. Six participants completed a total of four trials in which they exercised or rested, whereas either one standardized (60 kJ/kg) meal at 2200 hours or two smaller (30 kJ/kg) meals at 2200 and 0200 hours were eaten. Systolic and diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and wrist activity were recorded every 30 min. RESULTS Following exercise, MAP was significantly (P < 0.0005) lower throughout the night-shift compared with no prior exercise (95% confidence limits for reduction: 4–7 mm Hg). The postexercise reductions in systolic BP and MAP were not moderated by diet, but the reduction in diastolic BP was slightly greater when only one meal was eaten (P < 0.0005). BP was lower even though wrist activity and HR were significantly higher following exercise (P < 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS These data indicate that prior exercise lowers BP throughout a subsequent 8-h night-shift in healthy individuals within the normotensive range. Therefore, regular low-intensity exercise might moderate the well-known association between shift-work participation and raised BP. PMID:19556971
Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid
Health experts advise and expect patients to eat healthily after bariatric surgery. For patients, difficulties with eating might have been a long-standing, problematic part of life—a part that is not necessarily healed by surgery. Empirical research on patients’ experiences of eating practices after bariatric surgery is lacking. Aiming to contribute to the development of clinical practice, we explored meanings attached to eating in the long term and sought descriptions of change and bodily sensations. We interviewed 14 patients at least 5 years after bariatric surgery. The surgical restriction forced changes in the way patients sensed their own body in eating, but the uncertainty related to maintaining weight loss in the long term remained. Meanings attached to eating transcended food as choices situated in a nourishment and health perspective, and were not necessarily changed. Eating was an existential and embodied practice, which remained an ambiguous and sensitive matter after surgery. PMID:25156217
Monterrosa-Castro Álvaro; Boneu-Yépez Deiby John; Muñoz-Méndez José Tomás; Almanza-Obredor Pedro Enrique
Introduction: eating disorders are a group of syndromes that have in common,psychopathological traits that are largely determined by their physical appearance. Theyare much more common in women than in men, predominantly in young people. Thereis increased incidence of eating disorders, which are the result of improved knowledgeand the increasingly early implementation of better instruments for symptoms, riskfactors and the availability of well defined diagnostic criteria.Objective: to identif...
Amirian, Ilda; Andersen, Lærke T; Rosenberg, Jacob
BACKGROUND: Chronic sleep deprivation combined with work during the night is known to affect performance and compromise residents' own safety. The aim of this study was to examine markers of circadian rhythm and the sleep-wake cycle in surgeons working night shifts. METHODS: Surgeons were monitored...... prospectively for 4 days: pre call, on call, post call day 1 (PC1), and post call day 2 (PC2). The urinary metabolite of melatonin and cortisol in saliva were measured to assess the circadian rhythm. Sleep and activity were measured by actigraphy. Subjective measures were assessed by the Karolinska Sleepiness...... Scale and Visual Analog Scale of fatigue, general well-being, and sleep quality. RESULTS: For both metabolite of melatonin and cortisol, a significant difference (P sleep time during the day on call...
Lu, Gang; Wang, Li-jun; Zhang, Yi
A four-channel automotive night vision system is designed and developed .It is consist of the four active near-infrared cameras and an Mulit-channel image processing display unit,cameras were placed in the automobile front, left, right and rear of the system .The system uses near-infrared laser light source，the laser light beam is collimated, the light source contains a thermoelectric cooler (TEC),It can be synchronized with the camera focusing, also has an automatic light intensity adjustment, and thus can ensure the image quality. The principle of composition of the system is description in detail,on this basis, beam collimation,the LD driving and LD temperature control of near-infrared laser light source,four-channel image processing display are discussed.The system can be used in driver assistance, car BLIS, car parking assist system and car alarm system in day and night.
The carriageways heading towards France on the airport section of the motorway will be closed from 8.30 p.m. to 5.00 a.m. in the night of 1 to 2 October and those heading towards Lausanne during the same hours in the night of 2 to 3 October. This is to allow dry-surface road-marking and signage work to be performed. The work will be postponed in the event of bad weather, in which case the new date will be announced on Radio RSR and Radio Lac as well as on the telephone traffic news service 163. Diversions will be in operation. Thank you in advance for your understanding. For further information, tel. 163 or www.autoroute-aeroport.ch Civil Engineering Department, DCTI, State of Geneva
Larsen, Britt Østergaard; Kleif, Helle Bendix; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe
The volunteer programme ‘Night Ravens’ (NR) was founded in Sweden in 1987 and has, over the years, developed into a Scandinavian concept covering large areas of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The NR programme is a crime prevention initiative with adults walking...... the streets at night in identifiable ‘uniforms’ in areas with high activity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of the NR programme in Denmark based on a volunteer set-up with a less intrusive approach to situational crime prevention than, for instance, hot spot policing. The analyses...... with NR organizations to districts without NR organizations. The results show no difference in the crime rates between Danish postcode districts with and without the NR programme. Hence, we cannot identify positive effects of situational crime prevention when evaluating this Scandinavian volunteer...
Lee, Soomi; Crain, Tori L; McHale, Susan M; Almeida, David M; Buxton, Orfeu M
Sleep can serve as both cause and consequence of individuals' everyday experiences. We built upon prior studies of the correlates of sleep, which have relied primarily on cross-sectional data, to examine the antecedents and consequences of sleep using a daily diary design. Specifically, we assessed the temporal sequence between nightly sleep and daily psychosocial stressors. Parents employed in a US information technology company (n = 102) completed eight consecutive daily diaries at both baseline and 1 year later. In telephone interviews each evening, participants reported on the previous night's sleep hours, sleep quality and sleep latency. They also reported daily work-to-family conflict and time inadequacy (i.e. perceptions of not having enough time) for their child and for themselves to engage in exercise. Multi-level models testing lagged and non-lagged effects simultaneously revealed that sleep hours and sleep quality were associated with next-day consequences of work-to-family conflict and time inadequacy, whereas psychosocial stressors as antecedents did not predict sleep hours or quality that night. For sleep latency, the opposite temporal order emerged: on days with more work-to-family conflict or time inadequacy for child and self than usual, participants reported longer sleep latencies than usual. An exception to this otherwise consistent pattern was that time inadequacy for child also preceded shorter sleep hours and poorer sleep quality that night. The results highlight the utility of a daily diary design for capturing the temporal sequences linking sleep and psychosocial stressors. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.
Falkner, David E.
The word "planet" comes from the Latin word planeta and the Greek word planes, which means "wanderer." When the ancient Greeks studied the night sky they noticed that most of the stars remained in the same position relative to all the other stars, but a few stars seem to move in the sky from day to day, week to week, and month to month. The Greeks called these rogue stars "wanderers" because they wandered through the starry background.
Hänel, Andreas; Posch, Thomas; Ribas, Salvador J.; Aubé, Martin; Duriscoe, Dan; Jechow, Andreas; Kollath, Zoltán; Lolkema, Dorien E.; Moore, Chadwick; Schmidt, Norbert; Spoelstra, Henk; Wuchterl, Günther; Kyba, Christopher C. M.
Measuring the brightness of the night sky has become an increasingly important topic in recent years, as artificial lights and their scattering by the Earth's atmosphere continue spreading around the globe. Several instruments and techniques have been developed for this task. We give an overview of these, and discuss their strengths and limitations. The different quantities that can and should be derived when measuring the night sky brightness are discussed, as well as the procedures that have been and still need to be defined in this context. We conclude that in many situations, calibrated consumer digital cameras with fisheye lenses provide the best relation between ease-of-use and wealth of obtainable information on the night sky. While they do not obtain full spectral information, they are able to sample the complete sky in a period of minutes, with colour information in three bands. This is important, as given the current global changes in lamp spectra, changes in sky radiance observed only with single band devices may lead to incorrect conclusions regarding long term changes in sky brightness. The acquisition of all-sky information is desirable, as zenith-only information does not provide an adequate characterization of a site. Nevertheless, zenith-only single-band one-channel devices such as the "Sky Quality Meter" continue to be a viable option for long-term studies of night sky brightness and for studies conducted from a moving platform. Accurate interpretation of such data requires some understanding of the colour composition of the sky light. We recommend supplementing long-term time series derived with such devices with periodic all-sky sampling by a calibrated camera system and calibrated luxmeters or luminance meters.
Researchers Night at Planetarium Calouste Gulbenkian - Ciência Viva Centre in Lisbon. Organised by researchers from LIP (Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas) and including CMS Virtual Visit during which André David Tinoco Mendes and José Rasteiro da Silva, based at Cessy, France, "virtually" discussed science and technology behind the CMS detector with the audience in Lisbon.
Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Crosby, Danielle A; Su, Jessica Houston
Many mothers work in jobs with nonstandard schedules (i.e., schedules that involve work outside of the traditional 9-5, Monday through Friday schedule); this is particularly true for economically disadvantaged mothers. In the present article, we used longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (n = 2,367 mothers of children ages 3-5 years) to examine the associations between maternal nonstandard work and children's behavior problems, with a particular focus on mothers' night shift work. We employed 3 analytic strategies with various approaches to adjusting for observed and unobserved selection factors; these approaches provided an upper and lower bound on the true relationship between night shift work and children's behavior. Taken together, the results provide suggestive evidence for modest associations between exposure to maternal night shift work and higher levels of aggressive and anxious or depressed behavior in children compared with children whose mothers who are not working, those whose mothers work other types of nonstandard shifts, and, for aggressive behavior, those whose mothers work standard shifts.
Kukla, G.; Quayle, R.G.; Karl, T.
The release of greenhouse gases is expected to lead to substantial future warming. The global mean temperature has indeed risen in recent decades. The causes of the observed warming, and its relation to the greenhouse gas buildup are, however, still debated. One important aspect of the observed temperature change relates to its asymmetry during the day and night. The day-night temperature difference over land in North America, most of Eurasia, Oceania, and portions of Africa and Australia shows a decrease since about 1950. The changes of the daily mean temperature in these areas are principally due to the rising night or early morning temperature, and are accompanied by increasing cloudiness. Their results support the notion that the increase of cloud cover, possibly due to industrial sulfur emissions, mitigates the greenhouse warming. The causes of the changing diurnal temperature range and of the increasing cloudiness will have to be clarified and the future SO 2 emissions reliably projected before any trustworthy prediction of future climates can be made. 37 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs
DiMario, F J; Emery, E S
Night terrors are a sleep disorder, resulting from a partial arousal during slow-wave sleep. They usually occur within 2 hours of sleep onset and are characterized by agitation and unresponsiveness to external stimuli. Nineteen children (ten males, nine females) with onset of night terrors before age 7.5 years were studied by means of a questionnaire. Mean observation time (time from onset age to age at survey) was 8.5 years, but longer than 10 years in nine subjects. Seventy percent of the children had their initial frequency of night terrors as their peak frequency, with a tendency for shorter duration of the parasomnia in this group. Children with onset age less than 3.5 years may be expected to attain a peak frequency of at least one episode per week. Children with onset after 3.5 years, but before 7.5 years, may expect to attain a peak frequency of 1-2 episodes per month. There was a mean duration of 3.9 years, with a tendency for longer duration in children with positive family histories of sleep walking. Fifty percent stopped by age 8 years; 36 percent continued into adolescence. No common abnormal behavioral profile or psychopathology was found. Common precipitants of attacks were not identified.
ABSTRACT Cabaret is a term performances of music, comedy, dance, drama, and other special mix of art perfomed by men who dressed in women (ladyboy on stage. Cabaret performances in Oyot Godhong Restaurant intended as new tourist attraction that is expected to increase the interest of tourists to visit Malioboro in Yogyakarta, especially to Oyot Godhong Restaurants. Based descriptive study shows that the characteristics travelers who viewed Kabaret show is very diverse, each of which has perceptions and motivations are different. Cabaret performances have qualified to become the cultural attractions are staged at night (night atraction in the city of Yogyakarta. Based on traveler perception indicates that the cabaret performances have beauty or aesthetics, uniqueness, and values that match the criteria criteria of the standard as a tourist attraction. Performances Cabaret in Oyot Godhong Restaurants able to increase the sale value. Oyot Godhong Restaurants previously only form of tourism facilities (amenities, but is now a restaurant that has a tourist attraction (atraction. Keywords: Cabaret show, night life attractions, tourism attraction, tourists perception, tourism marketing
Rapps, Nora; Becker, Sandra; Teufel, Martin; Zipfel, Stephan
A 30-year-old obese female patient with binge eating behaviour, depressive symptoms and poorly regulated diabetes mellitus was admitted to the department of psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy The body mass index at time of admission was 38 kg/m(2). Fasting and postprandial blood glucose values were markedly increased. HbA(1c) level was 10.2%. Psychological diagnostic showed a binge eating disorder and a major depressive syndrome. After diagnosis, the patient was treated within a psychosomatic concept considering psychotherapeutic and diabetological aspects, including exercises and nutrition. In course of the treatment, the binge eating ceased and connections between binge-eating and depressive symptoms on the one hand as well as life story and psychiological conflicts on the other hand could be drawn. The poorly regulated diabetes improved in parallel. Given that overweight and obesity may be associated with somatic (e.g., diabetes mellitus) and psychic (e.g., eating disorder, depression) diseases, a respective screening and an interdisciplinary treatment are required. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.
van Geffen, Koert G.; van Eck, Emiel; de Boer, Rens A.; van Grunsven, Roy H.A.; Salis, Lucia; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M.
* Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,
The present dissertation addresses psychological influences on eating behavior.Understanding why people eat what they eat in everyday life, that is, motives for eating behavior, is crucial for the development of interventions to promote normal eating and to prevent eating disorders. Furthermore, enhancing knowledge about both, individual and situational factors facilitating (pull factors) or impeding (push factors) healthy eating is essential for the prevention and treatment of obesity and it...
西脇, 泰子; Yasuko, Nishiwaki; 聖徳学園女子短期大学; Shotoku Gakuen Women's Junior College
This survey was conducted on this school's students, with a view to looking at changes in eating habits, centered on eating out. How studests perceptions regarding their eating habits outside the home were measured and evaluated. Results included the following : 1. Eating out has increased. Most respondents replied that eating out was more convenient. 2. Many students have little knowledge regarding a well-balanced, nutritious meal. They have poor eating habits. 3. Few students eat breakfast....
Kinzl, Johann F; Biebl, Wilfried
The various eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior and are seen as typical "psychosomatic disorders". The subdivision of anorexia nervosa into two subtypes, namely "anorexia nervosa restricting type" and "anorexia nervosa bulimic type" has proved to be very good. It is to be assumed that eating disorders are not a homogeneous group, and that the various subtypes of eating disorders are also heterogeneous at several levels. Co-morbid psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders, anxiety disorders, substance-related disorders, and personality disorders, are often found in eating- disordered patients. Many anorectics of the restrictive type and orthorectics show co-morbid psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and avoidant or obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, while a co-morbidity of affective disorders, addiction, personality disorders, especially multi-impulsivity and borderline personality disorder, is frequently found in anorectics of bulimic type, bulimics, and binge eaters. Addictive behavior manifests itself in permanent preoccupation with food and eating, withdrawal symptoms, continuation of disturbed eating behavior in spite of negative consequences, loss of control, and frequent relapse. There are some indications that there is a basic psychological disturbance common to eating disorders, especially bulimia nervosa, and to substance-related disorders, namely a personality disorder with an emotional instability and multi-impulsivity. The possible associations between eating disorders and mental disorders, particularly addictions, will be discussed.
Estimating regional income inequality in Africa has been challenging due to the lack of reliable and consistent sub-national income data. I employ night lights data to circumvent this limitation. I find significant and positive associations between regional inequality visible through night lights and income in Africa. Thus, in the absence of income data, we can construct regional inequality proxies using night lights data. Further investigation on the night lights-based regional inequality tr...
Bowden, David J; Kilburn-Toppin, Fleur; Scoffings, Daniel J
Eating disorders are a major challenge for health professionals, with many patients receiving ineffective care due to underdiagnosis or poor compliance with treatment. The incidence of eating disorders is increasing worldwide, producing an increasing burden on healthcare systems, and they most often affect young patients, with significant long-term complications. The effects of long-term malnutrition manifest in almost every organ system, and many can be detected radiologically, even without overt clinical findings. Musculoskeletal complications including osteoporosis result in a high incidence of insufficiency fractures, with long-term implications for bone health and growth, while respiratory complications are often recognized late due to disordered physiologic responses to infection. Gastrointestinal complications are numerous and in extreme cases may result in fatal outcomes after acute gastric dilatation and rupture subsequent to binge eating. In patients with severely disordered eating, in particular anorexia nervosa, marked derangement of electrolyte levels may result in refeeding syndrome, which requires emergent management. Recognition of such complications is critical to effective patient care and requires radiologists to be aware of the spectrum of imaging abnormalities that may be seen. Since many patients are reluctant to disclose their underlying condition, radiologists also play a critical role in identifying previously undiagnosed eating disorders. ©RSNA, 2013.
Kundert, Deborah King
Although known for its distinctive food-related behaviors, Prader-Willi syndrome is a multisystem disorder with genetic, developmental, and behavioral features. Two separate and distinct eating disorders are noted: initial feeding difficulties and failure to thrive, and later overeating. Additional outcomes observed with this disorder include…
Ayantunde, A.A.; Fernandez-Rivera, S.; Hiernaux, P.H.; Keulen, van H.; Udo, H.M.J.
The influence of night grazing on feeding behavior, nutrition and performance of cattle was studied. Twenty-four steers weighing 367 kg (SD = 76) grazed either from 0900 to 1900 (day grazers), 2100 to 0700 (night grazers) or 0900 to 1900 and 2400 to 0400 (day-and-night grazers) during 13 weeks. Four
Salwen, Jessica K; Hymowitz, Genna F; Bannon, Sarah M; O'Leary, K Daniel
The purpose of this article was to evaluate theories that (1) weight-related abuse (WRA) plays a unique role in the development of disordered eating, above and beyond general childhood verbal abuse and weight-related teasing, and (2) the perceived emotional impact of WRA mediates the relationship between WRA and current disordered eating. Self-report questionnaires on childhood trauma, weight-related teasing, WRA, and current eating behaviors were administered to a total of 383 undergraduate students. In initial regressions, WRA significantly predicted binge eating, emotional eating, night eating, and unhealthy weight control. WRA continued to significantly predict all 4 forms of disordered eating following the introduction of measures of weight-related teasing and childhood verbal abuse into the regression. Latent variable analysis confirmed that perceived emotional impact of WRA mediated the relationship between WRA and disordered eating, and tests for indirect effects yielded a significant indirect effect of WRA on disordered eating through perceived emotional impact. In sum, WRA is a unique construct and the content of childhood or adolescent maltreatment is important in determining eventual psychopathology outcomes. These findings support the necessity of incorporating information on developmental history and cognitive factors into assessment and treatment of individuals with disordered eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Nabag, Fatima O; Al-Mannai, Mariam A
Although emotional eating is positively associated with serious health problems such as obesity and eating disorders, it is rarely investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of emotional eating among urban adolescents in Sudan, one of the poorest countries in the world. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select adolescents aged 14-18 years from governmental schools in Khartoum State, the capital of Sudan. The total sample selected was 945 (507 males, 438 females). A self-reported validated questionnaire was used to collect the data. Of the males, 57% eat mostly or sometimes while watching television, compared with 62% of females (peat when angered than males (9.6% and 5.7%, eat mostly when angered, respectively, peating late at night, eating when bored and eating when anxious. The findings revealed that emotional eating is a growing problem among urban adolescents in Sudan. This creates the need to incorporate emotional eating in any prevention plan to promote healthy eating among these adolescents.
Full Text Available In this paper, we present two carefully documented cases of patients with sleep-related eating disorder (SRED, a parasomnia which is characterized by involuntary compulsive eating during the night and whose pathophysiology is not known. Using video-polysomnography and psychometric examination, we found that both patients present elevated novelty seeking and increased reward sensitivity on reward-related questionnaires. In light of new evidence on the mesolimbic dopaminergic implication in compulsive eating disorders, our findings suggest a role of an active reward system during sleep in the manifestation of SRED.
Borges Maria Beatriz Ferrari
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present paper describes the validation of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R designed for the diagnosis of binge eating disorder (BED and sub-clinical binge eating. METHODS: 89 overweight women seeking treatment for binge eating and/or obesity were assessed with the Portuguese version of the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns and were, subsequently, interviewed with the eating disorders module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I/P. Rates of binge eating disorder and sub-clinical cases of binge eating obtained with the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised were then compared to those obtained with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. RESULTS: In the identification of binge eating, irrespective of the presence of all criteria for binge eating disorder the QEWP-R Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised yielded a sensitivity value of 0.88, a specificity value of 0.63 and a positive predictive value of 0.825. Rates for the identification of the full syndrome of binge eating disorder were: sensitivity value of 0.548, a specificity value of 0.8 and a positive predictive value of 0.793. CONCLUSIONS: The Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised can be useful in a first-step screening procedure to identify probable cases of binge eating. It can be useful as a screening tool and as a first step of clinical assessment of patients seeking treatment for binge eating and/or obesity.
done with Down's Syndrome people, concentrating in their rationality and imaginary. We tried to build with these people and their families an individualized nutritional systematization that contributes to their personal independence in the daily practice of the act of eating. The postulates of symbolic interactionism guided this practice and established a connection with the methodological instruments of sensible listening and observation, besides playful activities. It was evident that the first meaning of the act of eating is built in the family and reinforced in the social life.
This PhD thesis contributes with knowledge about adolescent healthy eating by studying consumer socialisation, social influence and behavioural change in relation to adolescent healthy eating. The introduction provides the important reasons for studying adolescents and healthy eating and explains...... relevant literature on consumer socialisation, social influence and behaviour change through interventions employing feedback in relation to adolescent healthy eating, it is argued that a socio-cognitive approach to consumer socialisation and behaviour change provides a richer and more nuanced...... understanding of adolescent healthy eating. Based on this, the thesis presents three research questions which are investigated in three research papers. The research questions are: 1. Which roles do parents and adolescents have in healthy eating socialisation? 2. How does the social influence from parents...
... infections. Other triggers can include periods without eating (fasting), temperature extremes, lack of sleep, overexertion, allergies, ingesting ... include changes in brain function, hormonal abnormalities, and gastrointestinal problems. Many researchers believe that cyclic vomiting syndrome ...
Polivy, Janet; Herman, C Peter
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have emerged as the predominant eating disorders. We review the recent research evidence pertaining to the development of these disorders, including sociocultural factors (e.g., media and peer influences), family factors (e.g., enmeshment and criticism), negative affect, low self-esteem, and body dissatisfaction. Also reviewed are cognitive and biological aspects of eating disorders. Some contributory factors appear to be necessary for the appearance of eating disorders, but none is sufficient. Eating disorders may represent a way of coping with problems of identity and personal control.
Sullivan, Keri A.
Compares the clinical characteristics of binge eating disorder (BED) and the related syndrome bulimia nervosa (BN). Findings suggest individuals with BED are distinguishable from those with BN on a number of traits, including higher rates of obesity and lower levels of eating concern and dietary restraint. (Contains 29 references and 2 tables.)…
Full Text Available ... For Teens / A Guide to Eating for Sports What's in this article? Eat Extra for Excellence Athletes and Dieting Eat a Variety of Foods Muscular Minerals and Vital Vitamins Protein Power Carb ...
Full Text Available ... para deportistas Eat Extra for Excellence There's a lot more to eating for sports than chowing down ... from getting sick. Eating a balanced diet, including lots of different fruits and veggies, should provide the ...
... Prevention and Wellness Food and Nutrition Men: Eat Right, Stay Healthy Men: Eat Right, Stay Healthy Share Print Men, are you paying ... you’ve got to learn how to eat right to stay healthy all life long. Are you ...
Full Text Available ... For Teens / A Guide to Eating for Sports What's in this article? Eat Extra for Excellence Athletes ... per day to meet their energy needs. So what happens if teen athletes don't eat enough? ...
Full Text Available ... Guide to Eating for Sports What's in this article? Eat Extra for Excellence Athletes and Dieting Eat ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...
Full Text Available ... Guide to Eating for Sports What's in this article? Eat Extra for Excellence Athletes and Dieting Eat ... to dehydration. In large amounts, salt can cause nausea, vomiting, cramps, and diarrhea and may damage the ...
This thesis focuses on the history of talk show in USA with emphasis on its specific form, which is late-night talk show. The first chapter focuses on the creation of new television networks and the overall state of american broadcasting during the first era of the television talk show format. The thesis briefly describes radio broadcasting which served not only as an important source of inspiration for television but also as a starting platform for most talk show hosts. Next chapter theoreti...
Lisle, Jason, Dr
Explore the night sky, identify stars, constellations, and even planets. Stargaze with a telescope, binoculars, or even your naked eye. Allow Dr. Jason Lisle, a research scientist with a masters and PhD in astrophysics, to guide you in examining the beauty of God's Creation with 150 full color star-charts. Learn the best ways and optimal times to observe planets and stars with easy to use illustrations. Create or expand the hobby of stargazing; an outdoor, educational hobby to enjoy with friends or family.
Amir, N; Navon, P; Silverberg-Shalev, R
Night terrors and somnambulism (NTS) are defined as disorders of arousal occurring in children during Stage 3 to 4 of NREM (non-rapid eye movement) sleep. In this study, the interictal EEG recordings in 35 neurologically normal children with clinical NTS were studied. Sixteen children (47%) had disturbed records including: localized slow, spike or sharp wave activity; generalized bursts of high voltage, sharp waves, spikes and slow delta activity or spike and wave complexes; and episodic high-voltage delta activity during wakeful rest. This percentage represents half the incidence of interictal EEG abnormalities in childhood epilepsy, but far greater than the 10 to 15% found in healthy children.
Kimmel, M C; Ferguson, E H; Zerwas, S; Bulik, C M; Meltzer-Brody, S
This article summarizes the literature on obstetric and gynecologic complications associated with eating disorders. We performed a comprehensive search of the current literature on obstetric and gynecologic complications associated with eating disorders using PubMed. More recent randomized-controlled trials and larger data sets received priority. We also chose those that we felt would be the most relevant to providers. Common obstetric and gynecologic complications for women with eating disorders include infertility, unplanned pregnancy, miscarriage, poor nutrition during pregnancy, having a baby with small head circumference, postpartum depression and anxiety, sexual dysfunction and complications in the treatment for gynecologic cancers. There are also unique associations by eating disorder diagnosis, such as earlier cessation of breastfeeding in anorexia nervosa; increased polycystic ovarian syndrome in bulimia nervosa; and complications of obesity as a result of binge eating disorder. We focus on possible biological and psychosocial factors underpinning risk for poor obstetric and gynecological outcomes in eating disorders. Understanding these factors may improve both our understanding of the reproductive needs of women with eating disorders and their medical outcomes. We also highlight the importance of building multidisciplinary teams to provide comprehensive care to women with eating disorders during the reproductive years. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Pinheiro, Andréa Poyastro; Thornton, Laura M; Berrettini, Wade H; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M; Halmi, Katherine A; Kaplan, Allan S; Keel, Pamela; Mitchell, James; Rotondo, Alessandro; Strober, Michael; Woodside, D Blake; Kaye, Walter H; Bulik, Cynthia M
We compared symptom patterns, severity of illness, and comorbidity in individuals with eating disorders with and without impulse control disorders (ICD), and documented the temporal pattern of illness onset. Lifetime ICD were present in 16.6% of 709 women with a history of eating disorders. The most common syndromes were compulsive buying disorder and kleptomania. ICD occurred more in individuals with binge eating subtypes, and were associated with significantly greater use of laxatives, diuretics, appetite suppressants and fasting, and with greater body image disturbance, higher harm avoidance, neuroticism, cognitive impulsivity, and lower self-directedness. In addition, individuals with ICD were more likely to have obsessive-compulsive disorder, any anxiety disorder, specific phobia, depression, cluster B personality disorder, avoidant personality disorder, and to use psychoactive substances. Among those with ICD, 62% reported the ICD predated the eating disorder and 45% reported the onset of both disorders within the same 3-year window. The presence of a lifetime ICD appears to be limited to eating disorders marked by binge eating and to be associated with worse eating-related psychopathology, more pathological personality traits, and more frequent comorbid Axis I and II conditions. Untreated ICD may complicate recovery from eating disorders.
Kimmel, M.C.; Ferguson, E.H.; Zerwas, S.; Bulik, C.M.; Meltzer-Brody, S.
Objective This article summarizes the literature on obstetric and gynecologic complications associated with eating disorders. Method We performed a comprehensive search of the current literature on obstetric and gynecologic complications associated with eating disorders using PubMed. More recent randomized-controlled trials and larger data sets received priority. We also chose those that we felt would be the most relevant to providers. Results Common obstetric and gynecologic complications for women with eating disorders include infertility, unplanned pregnancy, miscarriage, poor nutrition during pregnancy, having a baby with small head circumference, postpartum depression and anxiety, sexual dysfunction and complications in the treatment for gynecologic cancers. There are also unique associations by eating disorder diagnosis, such as earlier cessation of breastfeeding in anorexia nervosa; increased polycystic ovarian syndrome in bulimia nervosa; and complications of obesity as a result of binge eating disorder. Discussion We focus on possible biological and psychosocial factors underpinning risk for poor obstetric and gynecological outcomes in eating disorders. Understanding these factors may improve both our understanding of the reproductive needs of women with eating disorders and their medical outcomes. We also highlight the importance of building multidisciplinary teams to provide comprehensive care to women with eating disorders during the reproductive years. PMID:26711005
Castellini, Giovanni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Benni, Laura; Lazzeretti, Lisa; Ravaldi, Claudia; Rotella, Carlo M; Faravelli, Carlo; Ricca, Valdo
Different studies considered the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of binge eating in bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED), suggesting different pathways. The present 3-year follow-up study evaluated the relationships between psychopathological variables, and objective and subjective binge eating episodes in the two syndromes. 85 BN and 133 BED patients were studied. Objective and subjective binge eating, and psychopathological data were collected in a face-to-face interview, and by means of different self-reported questionnaires. The same assessment was repeated at baseline (T0), at the end of an individual cognitive-behavioral treatment (T1), and 3 years after the end of treatment (T2). At baseline, BN and BED patients showed different emotions associated with binge eating: anger/frustration for BN and depression for BED patients. Objective binge eating frequency reduction across time was associated with lower impulsivity and shape concern in BN patients, and with lower emotional eating and depressive symptoms in BED patients. Lower subjective binge eating frequency at baseline predicted recovery, in both BN and BED patients. Recovery was associated with lower impulsivity and body shape concern at baseline for BN patients, and lower depression and emotional eating for BED patients. Eating psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity, impulsivity and emotional eating have a different pattern of association with objective and subjective binge eating in BN and BED patients, and they act as different moderators of treatment. A different target of intervention for these two syndromes might be taken into account, and subjective binge eating deserves an accurate assessment. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Hansen, Anne B.; Stayner, Leslie; Hansen, Johnni
OBJECTIVES: Night shift work has been associated with poor sleep, weight gain, metabolic syndrome, which are recognised risk factor for diabetes. However, only a few studies have examined the effect of shift work on diabetes risk. Here, we study the association between shift work and incidence...... of diabetes in Danish nurses. METHODS: We used the Danish Nurse Cohort with 28 731 participating female nurses recruited in 1993 (19 898) or 1999 (8833), when self-reported baseline information on diabetes prevalence, lifestyle and working time were collected, and followed them in the Danish Diabetes Register...... for incidence of diabetes until 2013. Nurses reported whether they worked night, evening, rotating or day shifts. We analysed the association between working time and diabetes incidence using a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for diabetes risk factors, separately with and without adjustment for body...
Ellis, Jordan M; Galloway, Amy T; Webb, Rose Mary; Martz, Denise M; Farrow, Claire V
Picky eating is a childhood behavior that vexes many parents and is a symptom in the newer diagnosis of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in adults. Pressure to eat, a parental controlling feeding practice aimed at encouraging a child to eat more, is associated with picky eating and a number of other childhood eating concerns. Low intuitive eating, an insensitivity to internal hunger and satiety cues, is also associated with a number of problem eating behaviors in adulthood. Whether picky eating and pressure to eat are predictive of young adult eating behavior is relatively unstudied. Current adult intuitive eating and disordered eating behaviors were self-reported by 170 college students, along with childhood picky eating and pressure through retrospective self- and parent reports. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that childhood parental pressure to eat, but not picky eating, predicted intuitive eating and disordered eating symptoms in college students. These findings suggest that parental pressure in childhood is associated with problematic eating patterns in young adulthood. Additional research is needed to understand the extent to which parental pressure is a reaction to or perhaps compounds the development of problematic eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sondike, Stephen B; Pisetsky, Emily M; Luzier, Jessica L
The development of eating pathology is a concern following bariatric surgery, even in the absence of any pre-surgical psychopathology. No consistent risk factors have emerged in the literature to identify those at greatest risk. However, post-surgical guidelines encourage eating behaviors that would be considered disordered in other contexts. We present a case of an adolescent developing bulimia nervosa following gastric bypass surgery and the escalation of her symptoms from diligently following recommended food behaviors to a full-syndrome clinical eating disorder. We discuss the differences between appropriate post-surgical eating behaviors and disordered eating behaviors. We provide recommendations for clinicians to screen for eating pathology and referrals to an interprofessional treatment team to address eating disordered behaviors and cognitions.
Full Text Available This paper offers a Lacanian/feminist reading of Night, Mother by the American playwright Marsha Norman. The play Night, Mother will be read according to Lacan’s point of view and the concepts of identity and identity formation are studied in this paper. The play will be analyzed based on the Lacanian concepts of the contrast between the Imaginary Order and the Symbolic Order, and the notion of Death Drive, suggesting that in the play Jessie represents the Symbolic Order and her mother, Thelma, represents the Imaginary Order. The notion of Death Drive and its omnipresence in Jessie’s psyche is discussed and emphasized. Thelma functions as the Other for Jessie, while her father functions as the Mother, a reversal of gender roles in the Lacanian reading. Moreover, the relationship between some of the concepts are explained. It will be explicated how the play can be brought in line with a feminist reading of Lacan by reversing the stereotypical gender roles and subsequently getting close to post-feminist authors.
On 24 September from 5 p.m. to 1 a.m., European Researchers Night will give some 100 young students from local schools the opportunity to sit side by side with scientists and operators in the LHC control rooms. At the same time, a live webcast will connect CERN with various institutes around Europe participating in the Being a European Scientist Today (BEST) project. You are all invited to take part! Copyright Frascati Scienza The European Researchers Night is an EU initiated and funded initiative, which aims at highlighting the appeal of being a researcher. Meeting scientists in a ‘fun’ and festive context gives the public, especially the young, the opportunity to get to know the job better and be inspired to pursue a career in research. “CERN scientists already took part in last year’s event, but only through a web connection with Frascati in Italy”, explains Paola Catapano, a member of the Communication group and organiser of the activities t...
Kimberly E. Baugh
Full Text Available The Nightfire algorithm detects and characterizes sub-pixel hot sources using multispectral data collected globally, each night, by the Suomi National Polar Partnership (NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS. The spectral bands utilized span visible, near-infrared (NIR, short-wave infrared (SWIR, and mid-wave infrared (MWIR. The primary detection band is in the SWIR, centered at 1.6 μm. Without solar input, the SWIR spectral band records sensor noise, punctuated by high radiant emissions associated with gas flares, biomass burning, volcanoes, and industrial sites such as steel mills. Planck curve fitting of the hot source radiances yields temperature (K and emission scaling factor (ESF. Additional calculations are done to estimate source size (m2, radiant heat intensity (W/m2, and radiant heat (MW. Use of the sensor noise limited M7, M8, and M10 spectral bands at night reduce scene background effects, which are widely reported for fire algorithms based on MWIR and long-wave infrared. High atmospheric transmissivity in the M10 spectral band reduces atmospheric effects on temperature and radiant heat retrievals. Nightfire retrieved temperature estimates for sub-pixel hot sources ranging from 600 to 6,000 K. An intercomparison study of biomass burning in Sumatra from June 2013 found Nightfire radiant heat (MW to be highly correlated to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS Fire Radiative Power (MW.
Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood
Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…
Peters, Achim; Langemann, Dirk
How stress, the stress response, and the adaptation of the stress response influence our eating behavior is a central question in brain research and medicine. In this report, we highlight recent advances showing the close links between eating behavior, the stress system, and neurometabolism.
Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…
Wonderlich, Stephen; And Others
Studies the relationship between incest and bulimic behavior. Indicates incest victims are significantly more likely to binge, vomit, experience a loss of control over eating, and report body dissatisfaction than control subjects. Suggests incest may increase risk of bulimic behavior, and that eating problems may be a part of a larger pattern of…
On a new framework for anorexia nervosa, learning to eat is central intervention; as patients regain a normal pattern of eating their problems dissolve. Mandometer®, a development of previous methods, allows simultaneous recording of eating rate and the development of satiety as well as experimental manipulation of eating rate. By measuring eating behavior during the course of a meal with this method, women were divided into those eating at a decelerated rate and those eatin...
Full Text Available Night shift work has been thought to play a role in the etiology of chronic diseases through a disruption of the circadian rhythm, decreased synthesis of melatonin and sleep deprivation. Our aim was to review the epidemiological studies on the association between night shift work and some pathologies in nurses and midwives. We reviewed publications available in the MEDLINE database and published before June 2012, describing the cross-sectional (almost two thirds of all papers and cohort studies. In total, we identified 26 original papers, including 5 epidemiological studies addressing diseases or disorders of the digestive system, 3 - metabolic syndrome, 2 - diabetes type 2, 9 - cardiovascular diseases and CVD risk factors, 5 - obesity/overweight, 2 - menstrual disorders and 3 - poor pregnancy outcomes. The analysis of the literature indicates that night shift work of nurses and midwives is most strongly associated with a higher risk of obesity/overweight. In each of the five studies, which we identified this association was observed (confirmed by the statistical significance of the results, also after adjustment for confounders. The results for diabetes type 2 and disorders of the menstrual cycle are also suggestive. Epidemiological data on the other disorders or pathologies discussed in this article seem to be less certain - their results are inconsistent or their number is too small to draw definite conclusions. Further epidemiological studies of nurses and midwives working on night shifts and prospective observations in particular are recommended to find out whether potential association between the night work and discussed health issues is causal. Med Pr 2013;64(3:397–418
Dominoni, Davide; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko
Artificial light at night is a rapidly increasing phenomenon and it is presumed to have global implications. Light at night has been associated with health problems in humans as a consequence of altered biological rhythms. Effects on wild animals have been less investigated, but light at night has often been assumed to affect seasonal cycles of urban dwellers. Using light loggers attached to free-living European blackbirds (Turdus merula), we first measured light intensity at night which forest and city birds are subjected to in the wild. Then we used these measurements to test for the effect of light at night on timing of reproductive physiology. Captive city and forest blackbirds were exposed to either dark nights or very low light intensities at night (0.3 lux). Birds exposed to light at night developed their reproductive system up to one month earlier, and also moulted earlier, than birds kept under dark nights. Furthermore, city birds responded differently than forest individuals to the light at night treatment, suggesting that urbanization can alter the physiological phenotype of songbirds. Our results emphasize the impact of human-induced lighting on the ecology of millions of animals living in cities and call for an understanding of the fitness consequences of light pollution. PMID:23407836
Mieke M C Bijveld
Full Text Available Congenital Stationary Night Blindness (CSNB is a retinal disorder caused by a signal transmission defect between photoreceptors and bipolar cells. CSNB can be subdivided in CSNB2 (rod signal transmission reduced and CSNB1 (rod signal transmission absent. The present study is the first in which night vision problems are assessed in CSNB patients in a systematic way, with the purpose of improving rehabilitation for these patients. We assessed the night vision problems of 13 CSNB2 patients and 9 CSNB1 patients by means of a questionnaire on low luminance situations. We furthermore investigated their dark adapted visual functions by the Goldmann Weekers dark adaptation curve, a dark adapted static visual field, and a two-dimensional version of the "Light Lab". In the latter test, a digital image of a living room with objects was projected on a screen. While increasing the luminance of the image, we asked the patients to report on detection and recognition of objects. The questionnaire showed that the CSNB2 patients hardly experienced any night vision problems, while all CSNB1 patients experienced some problems although they generally did not describe them as severe. The three scotopic tests showed minimally to moderately decreased dark adapted visual functions in the CSNB2 patients, with differences between patients. In contrast, the dark adapted visual functions of the CSNB1 patients were more severely affected, but showed almost no differences between patients. The results from the "2D Light Lab" showed that all CSNB1 patients were blind at low intensities (equal to starlight, but quickly regained vision at higher intensities (full moonlight. Just above their dark adapted thresholds both CSNB1 and CSNB2 patients had normal visual fields. From the results we conclude that night vision problems in CSNB, in contrast to what the name suggests, are not conspicuous and generally not disabling.
Mission Management Department of the Royal Aerospace Establishment has won a Queen's Award for Technology, jointly with GEC Sensors, in recognition of innovation and success in the development and application of night vision technology for fixed wing aircraft. This work has been carried out to satisfy the operational needs of the Royal Air Force. These are seen to be: - Operations in the NATO Central Region - To have a night as well as a day capability - To carry out low level, high speed penetration - To attack battlefield targets, especially groups of tanks - To meet these objectives at minimum cost The most effective way to penetrate enemy defences is at low level and survivability would be greatly enhanced with a first pass attack. It is therefore most important that not only must the pilot be able to fly at low level to the target but also he must be able to detect it in sufficient time to complete a successful attack. An analysis of the average operating conditions in Central Europe during winter clearly shows that high speed low level attacks can only be made for about 20 per cent of the 24 hours. Extending this into good night conditions raises the figure to 60 per cent. Whilst it is true that this is for winter conditions and in summer the situation is better, the overall advantage to be gained is clear. If our aircraft do not have this capability the potential for the enemy to advance his troops and armour without hinderance for considerable periods is all too obvious. There are several solutions to providing such a capability. The one chosen for Tornado GR1 is to use Terrain Following Radar (TFR). This system is a complete 24 hour capability. However it has two main disadvantages, it is an active system which means it can be jammed or homed into, and is useful in attacking pre-planned targets. Second it is an expensive system which precludes fitting to other than a small number of aircraft.
Olguin, Pablo; Fuentes, Manuel; Gabler, Guillermo; Guerdjikova, Anna I; Keck, Paul E; McElroy, Susan L
To gain further understanding of the general medical comorbidity of binge eating disorder (BED) beyond its association with obesity. We reviewed studies of general medical comorbidity in people with BED or clinically significant binge eating behavior beyond obesity. We also reviewed studies of BED in specific medical conditions. Three broad study categories of medical comorbidity in BED were found: cross-sectional studies of medical conditions in BED; prospective studies of medical conditions in BED; and studies of BED in specific medical conditions. Cross-sectional epidemiologic data suggest that BED is associated with medical conditions related to obesity, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemias, sleep problems/disorders, and pain conditions, and that BED may be related to these conditions independent of obesity and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Prospective data suggest that BED may be associated with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. BED or binge eating behavior is also associated with asthma and gastrointestinal symptoms and disorders, and among women, menstrual dysfunction, pregnancy complications, intracranial hypertension, and polycystic ovary syndrome. BED is associated with substantial medical comorbidity beyond obesity. Further study of the general medical comorbidity of BED and its relationship to obesity and co-occurring psychiatric disorders is greatly needed.
Kahn, Michal; Fridenson, Shimrit; Lerer, Reut; Bar-Haim, Yair; Sadeh, Avi
Despite their high prevalence in daily life, repeated night-wakings and their cognitive and emotional consequences have received less research attention compared to other types of sleep disturbances. Our aim was to experimentally compare the effects of one night of induced infrequent night-wakings (of ∼15 min, each requiring a purposeful response) and sleep restriction on sustained attention and mood in young adults. In a within-between subjects counterbalanced design, 61 healthy adults (40 females; aged 20-29 years) underwent home assessments of sustained attention and self-reported mood at two times: after a normal (control) sleep night, and after a night of either sleep restriction (4h in bed) or induced night-wakings (four prolonged awakenings across 8h in bed). Sleep was monitored using actigraphy and sleep diaries. Sustained attention was assessed using an online continuous performance test (OCPT), and mood was reported online using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Actigraphic data revealed good compliance with experimental sleep requirements. Induced night-wakings and sleep restriction both resulted in more OCPT omission and commission errors, and in increased depression, fatigue and confusion levels and reduced vigor compared to the normal sleep night. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the consequences of induced awakenings and sleep restriction. Our pilot study indicates that, similar to sleep restriction, one night of life-like repeated night-wakings negatively affects mood and sustained attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dickstein, Leah P; Franco, Kathleen N; Rome, Ellen S; Auron, Moises
Eating disorders can lead to serious health problems, and as in many other disorders, primary care physicians are on the front line. Problems that can arise from intentional malnutrition and from purging affect multiple organ systems. Treatment challenges include maximizing weight gain while avoiding the refeeding syndrome.
Martin, M H; Ishino, M
The nursing records of the 242 patients who used the domiciliary night nursing care service in Newham Health District showed that three distinct groups of patients were nursed during 1979 at a cost of 8.8 pounds a day. Forty-three elderly chronically sick and five disabled patients aged under 50 received care for more than 28 days, 63 patients had terminal cancer, and 131 needed short-term care or observation. Data were also collected from a one-day survey of patients receiving care. This domiciliary care enabled the chronically sick and disabled to retain their independence and remain at home. Referrals from casualty departments and general practitioners avoided admission to acute beds. On account of the lack of continual surveillance the service is unsuitable for the elderly mentally ill.
On 25 September, as part of European Researchers’ Night, CERN and POPScience joined forces to welcome the public at the Balexert shopping centre in Geneva. The Bulletin presents its gallery of photographs from the exciting and educational event. Science through comic strips, games, cinema and television: POPScience approaches scientific questions through popular culture, with great success! Around 500 children attended the sessions for schools at Balexert's multiplex cinema, and 600 spectators flocked to the public screenings. Using the big screen, scientists, directors and authors were on hand to disentangle truth from untruths and science from science fiction. The guests, some of whom appeared in person and others via video link, included Jorge Cham, author of PhD Comics and the spin-off film; David Saltzberg, physicist at CMS and scientific consultant for the television series The Big Bang Theory; Kip Thorne, scientific consultant for the film Interstellar; Lawrence ...
Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Autret, Alain; Mascia, Addolorata; Onorati, Paolo; Sebastiano, Fabio; Paolo Quarato, Pier
To describe a case with night terrors (NT) symptomatic of a thalamic lesion. Videopolysomnography and brain MRI were used to study a 48 year old woman with a recent onset of brief episodes, occurring exclusively during nocturnal sleep, where she suddenly sat up in bed, screamed and appeared to be very frightened. Videopolysomnography recorded an episode suggestive of NT. Sleep fragmentation with frequent brief arousals or microarousals was also evident mainly during slow wave sleep. The brain MRI showed increased T2 signal from the right thalamus suggestive of a low-grade tumor. Our case suggests that NT starting in adulthood can, rarely, be symptomatic of neurological disease, and warrant further investigation with MRI. A thalamic dysfunction, disrupting at this level the arousal system, may play a role in provoking NT.
Full Text Available This is a case report of 25-year old, unemployed male, admitted to hospital due to acute onset of the left foot drop, subsequent walking difficulty and numbness of the left calf and foot. Symptoms began after prolonged sleep with previous heroin abuse by sniffing. During neurological examination, mild weakness of knee flexors, moderate weakness of plantar flexors and paralysis of foot dorsiflexors, together with hypesthesia of the left calf, foot and fingers, predominantly in the innervation area of common peroneal nerve on the same side, were observed. The electrophysiologic examination revealed predominant involvement of peroneal division within the sciatic nerve, together with recorded conduction block indicating the compression as possible mechanism of nerve injury. The patient was administered corticosteroid therapy during two months, what resulted in almost complete recovery. The peculiarity of this case report is in the presence of the sciatic nerve "Saturday night palsy" with possible effect of former heroin abuse.
Full Text Available We present the main features of TESS-W, the first version of a series of inexpensive but reliable photometers that will be used to measure night sky brightness. The bandpass is extended to the red with respect of that of the Sky Quality Meter (SQM. TESS-W connects to a router via WIFI and it sends automatically the brightness values to a data repository using Internet of Things protocols. The device includes an infrared sensor to estimate the cloud coverage. It is designed for fixed stations to monitor the evolution of the sky brightness. The photometer could also be used in local mode connected to a computer or tablet to gather data from a moving vehicle. The photometer is being developed within STARS4ALL project, a collective awareness platform for promoting dark skies in Europe, funded by the EU. We intend to extend the existing professional networks to a citizen-based network of photometers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of the role of some psychosomatic factors as alexithymia, mood intolerance, and somatization in both pathogenesis and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN, few studies have investigated the prevalence of psychosomatic syndromes in AN. The aim of this study was to use the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR to assess psychosomatic syndromes in AN and to evaluate if psychosomatic syndromes could identify subgroups of AN patients. Methods 108 AN inpatients (76 AN restricting subtype, AN-R, and 32 AN binge-purging subtype, AN-BP were consecutively recruited and psychosomatic syndromes were diagnosed with the Structured Interview for DCPR. Participants were asked to complete psychometric tests: Body Shape Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory–2, and Temperament and Character Inventory. Data were submitted to cluster analysis. Results Illness denial (63% and alexithymia (54.6% resulted to be the most common syndromes in our sample. Cluster analysis identified three groups: moderate psychosomatic group (49%, somatization group (26%, and severe psychosomatic group (25%. The first group was mainly represented by AN-R patients reporting often only illness denial and alexithymia as DCPR syndromes. The second group showed more severe eating and depressive symptomatology and frequently DCPR syndromes of the somatization cluster. Thanatophobia DCPR syndrome was also represented in this group. The third group reported longer duration of illness and DCPR syndromes were highly represented; in particular, all patients were found to show the alexithymia DCPR syndrome. Conclusions These results highlight the need of a deep assessment of psychosomatic syndromes in AN. Psychosomatic syndromes correlated differently with both severity of eating symptomatology and duration of illness: therefore, DCPR could be effective to achieve tailored treatments.
Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Delsedime, Nadia; Nicotra, Barbara; Giovannone, Cristina; Marzola, Enrica; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo
In spite of the role of some psychosomatic factors as alexithymia, mood intolerance, and somatization in both pathogenesis and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN), few studies have investigated the prevalence of psychosomatic syndromes in AN. The aim of this study was to use the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR) to assess psychosomatic syndromes in AN and to evaluate if psychosomatic syndromes could identify subgroups of AN patients. 108 AN inpatients (76 AN restricting subtype, AN-R, and 32 AN binge-purging subtype, AN-BP) were consecutively recruited and psychosomatic syndromes were diagnosed with the Structured Interview for DCPR. Participants were asked to complete psychometric tests: Body Shape Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, and Temperament and Character Inventory. Data were submitted to cluster analysis. Illness denial (63%) and alexithymia (54.6%) resulted to be the most common syndromes in our sample. Cluster analysis identified three groups: moderate psychosomatic group (49%), somatization group (26%), and severe psychosomatic group (25%). The first group was mainly represented by AN-R patients reporting often only illness denial and alexithymia as DCPR syndromes. The second group showed more severe eating and depressive symptomatology and frequently DCPR syndromes of the somatization cluster. Thanatophobia DCPR syndrome was also represented in this group. The third group reported longer duration of illness and DCPR syndromes were highly represented; in particular, all patients were found to show the alexithymia DCPR syndrome. These results highlight the need of a deep assessment of psychosomatic syndromes in AN. Psychosomatic syndromes correlated differently with both severity of eating symptomatology and duration of illness: therefore, DCPR could be effective to achieve tailored treatments.
Full Text Available Objective: How and why does competition and spectator involvement influence eating behaviors? The primary objective of this article is to explore the nature of eating competitions with the goal of identifying implications for other social situations.Design: Study 1 investigated how many chicken wings were eaten by men and women in a 30-minute eating competition when cheering spectators either were or were not present (compared to a control condition. A second study sought to explain Study 1’s findings through a survey of 93 students who rated male or female competitive eaters (in randomized order based on intelligence, attractiveness, health, strength, and how romantic they expected the eaters to be.Results: Exploratory findings show competitive eaters ate approximately four times as many chicken wings as a similar control group, and the presence of a cheering audience further increased wing consumption for males (but decreased consumption for females. Study 2 suggests part of the over-performance of males may be related to a shared positive perception that competitive male eaters are strong and virile. Conclusions: Even in relatively low-stakes environments, competitive visibility may dramatically increase how much males eat. These preliminary results help illuminate recent discoveries that males overeat in various social situations where there are opportunities for men to show off. This may have relevance for dining behavior – especially among younger males – at parties, banquets, group dinners, and similar social situations.
Khalil, Rami Bou; El Hachem, Charline
To elucidate the possible role of adiponectin, an adipokine secreted by white adipose tissue that plays an important role in the neuromodulation of food intake, in the pathogenesis of eating disorders. A comprehensive review of the available literature via MedLine is done using the term "adiponectin" in association with one of the following terms: "anorexia nervosa", "bulimia nervosa", "binge eating disorder" or "eating disorders". The majority of studies evaluating serum adiponectin levels in patients with eating disorders show that serum adiponectin levels are increased in patients with anorexia nervosa. After refeeding, adiponectin levels tend to rejoin the levels of healthy individuals. Data concerning serum adiponectin levels in patients with bulimia nervosa show that these levels can be equal, higher or lower than those found in healthy controls and lower than those found in anorexia nervosa patients. Binge eating disorder is accompanied with lower serum adiponectin levels than normal. Adiponectin receptor type 1 seems to be more related to the central pathological effect of adiponectin on eating behavior. The potential role that plays adiponectin in the pathogenesis of eating disorders needs to be elucidated by further studies.
Shuzo, Masaki; Komori, Shintaro; Takashima, Tomoko; Lopez, Guillaume; Tatsuta, Seiji; Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Warisawa, Shin'ichi; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro
Continuous monitoring of eating habits could be useful in preventing lifestyle diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Conventional methods consist of self-reporting and calculating mastication frequency based on the myoelectric potential of the masseter muscle. Both these methods are significant burdens for the user. We developed a non-invasive, wearable sensing system that can record eating habits over a long period of time in daily life. Our sensing system is composed of two bone conduction microphones placed in the ears that send internal body sound data to a portable IC recorder. Applying frequency spectrum analysis on the collected sound data, we could not only count the number of mastications during eating, but also accurately differentiate between eating, drinking, and speaking activities. This information can be used to evaluate the regularity of meals. Moreover, we were able to analyze sound features to classify the types of foods eaten by food texture.
Ramirez, Maria E.; McIntosh, David E.; Kruczek, Theresa
Eating disorders, once thought to be exclusively a disorder of the more affluent Western countries, are now spreading around the world. Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in developed countries, epidemiological data for South America is scarce. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used to explore the…
This is a night by night account of the stars. For every night of the year Sir Patrick Moore gives the reader details of interesting objects that can be seen from earth. It is a book for people with a wide interest in astronomy, those who may not have specialised in a specific area of astronomy and wish to expand their knowledge in all areas. This second edition is updated for astronomical events through until 2010.
Sachin Ratan Gedam; Pradeep S. Patil; Imran Ali Shivji
Night terrors and sleepwalking are arousal disorders that occur during the first third of night. Combined existence of sleep disorders are rare phenomenon and found to be associated with behavioural and emotional problems. It becomes difficult to diagnose among sleep disorders and epilepsy is an important differential diagnosis. Management with combined approach of pharmacotherapy and psychological counselling is safe and effective. Here, we present a case of night terrors and sleepwalking to...
Claudia Roberta de Castro Moreno
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present some recent chronobiological findings related to shift and night worker adaptation. First, some key chronobiological concepts concerning the human species are presented. The authors then discuss the possible impacts of work schedules on shift workers' and night workers' health. Finally, countermeasures that might allow adjusting the workers' biological rhythm to shift and night work are discussed.
Mveyange, Anthony Francis
Estimating regional income inequality in Africa has been challenging due to the lack of reliable and consistent sub-national income data. I employ night lights data to circumvent this limitation. I find significant and positive associations between regional inequality visible through night lights...... and income in Africa. Thus, in the absence of income data, we can construct regional inequality proxies using night lights data. Further investigation on the night lights-based regional inequality trends reveals two main findings: first, increasing regional inequality trends between 1992 and 2003; and second...
Llorente, M D; Currier, M B; Norman, S E; Mellman, T A
Night terrors have been classically described in children. Night terrors occurring in adults have been linked to psychopathology. Recent descriptions of sleep panic attacks have raised questions about their relationship to night terrors. Evaluations from a medically affiliated sleep disorders program were reviewed to identify adult patients presenting with events consistent with night terrors. Eleven patients were identified, 10 of whom had polysomnographic evaluation, and their records were reviewed for information relevant to night terrors and psychiatric symptoms. Six of these patients were available for further assessment which included inquiry regarding sleep events, a Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) for psychiatric disorders, and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory II (MCMI-II) for personality-related measurements. In the original sample, night terror episodes featured confused behaviors, motor activity, and absent or fragmented recall. Polysomnography documented arousals from slow wave sleep in 9 of 10 patients. All of the original patients reported psychiatric symptoms. All 6 patients who received the subsequent structured evaluation met lifetime criteria for Axis I conditions (most commonly affective and substance use disorders) and had elevated scores on the personality scales of the MCMI-II. Night terrors were not limited to psychiatric episodes. Night terrors occur in adults that are similar to episodes described in children. While distinct from sleep panic attacks, night terrors appear to occur in adults with histories of psychopathology.
Clark-Stone, Sam; Joyce, Heidi
Eating disorders can be severe and enduring mental illnesses that have serious physical, psychological and social consequences. They can also have a significant effect on the person's friends and family. In this patient group, control of body shape, weight or eating is over-valued and becomes the main or only way of judging self-worth. Eating disorders can be mild and self-limiting, but they commonly run a chronic course unless treatment is successful. Nurses play an important role in early detection, assessment and treatment.
or a cooperative one helping parents. Parents initiated dialogues with family members about healthy eating and felt responsible as role models often fulfilling the adolescents’ demands and acknowledging their help. The findings confirm that parents still have the upper hand, when it comes to healthy eating...... contributes with identifying and understanding barriers and facilitators of adolescents’ healthy eating. The second research question is answered in research paper 2. The paper aimed at testing whether the common belief that children become increasingly influenced by friends at the expense of parents during...... in an intervention is crucial to its success. This has implications for the design and execution of health-promoting interventions....
Rodin, Gary; Olmsted, Marion P; Rydall, Anne C; Maharaj, Sherry I; Colton, Patricia A; Jones, Jennifer M; Biancucci, Lisa A; Daneman, Denis
Research findings from the past decade regarding the association of type 1 diabetes mellitus and eating disorders are critically reviewed in this paper. Although there has been much debate regarding the specificity of this association, a recent large multisite case-controlled study demonstrated that the prevalence rates of both full syndrome and subthreshold eating disorders among adolescent and young adult women with diabetes are twice as high as in their nondiabetic peers. Further, a 4-year follow-up study showed that disordered eating behavior in young women with diabetes often persists and is associated with a threefold increase in the risk of diabetic retinopathy. These eating disturbances tend to be associated with impaired family functioning and with poor diabetes management. Health care professionals should maintain a high index of suspicion for the presence of an eating disturbance among young women with diabetes, particularly among those with persistently poor metabolic control and/or weight and shape concerns. Screening for such disturbances should begin during the prepubertal period among girls with diabetes. A brief psychoeducational intervention leads to a reduction in disturbed eating attitudes and behavior but is not sufficient to improve metabolic control. More intensive treatment approaches, which should include a family-based component, may be needed to improve metabolic control. The evaluation of these and other treatment approaches is indicated in view of the serious short- and long-term health risks associated with eating disorders in young women with diabetes.
Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Wilfley, Denise E; Young, Jami F; Mufson, Laura; Yanovski, Susan Z; Glasofer, Deborah R; Salaita, Christine G
The most prevalent disordered eating pattern described in overweight youth is loss of control (LOC) eating, during which individuals experience an inability to control the type or amount of food they consume. LOC eating is associated cross-sectionally with greater adiposity in children and adolescents and seems to predispose youth to gain weight or body fat above that expected during normal growth, thus likely contributing to obesity in susceptible individuals. No prior studies have examined whether LOC eating can be decreased by interventions in children or adolescents without full-syndrome eating disorders or whether programs reducing LOC eating prevent inappropriate weight gain attributable to LOC eating. Interpersonal psychotherapy, a form of therapy that was designed to treat depression and has been adapted for the treatment of eating disorders, has shown efficacy in reducing binge eating episodes and inducing weight stabilization among adults diagnosed with binge eating disorder. In this paper, we propose a theoretical model of excessive weight gain in adolescents at high risk for adult obesity who engage in LOC eating and associated overeating patterns. A rationale is provided for interpersonal psychotherapy as an intervention to slow the trajectory of weight gain in at-risk youth, with the aim of preventing or ameliorating obesity in adulthood.
Docet, M F; Larrañaga, A; Pérez Méndez, L F; García-Mayor, R V
To determine the rate of abnormal eating behaviours in obese adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with obese adult patients without ADHD. This case-control study includes: obese adult patients defined by a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m², screening positive in the adult ADHD self-report scale-V1.1. (ASRS-V1.1), attending the Nutrition Section, as cases; and obese adult patients screening negative, as controls. Weight, height and BMI were determined in all the participants. The rate of abnormal eating behaviours was determined using an eating pattern questionnaire. Forty-five out of 51 (88.2%) cases vs 127 out of 179 (70.9%) controls had abnormal eating behaviours (p=0.01). Eating between-meal snacks was found in 39 (76.5%) cases vs 107 (59.8%) controls (p=0.03), going on binge eating episodes in 28 (54.9%) vs 42 (23.5%) (p=0.00), waking up at night to eat in 11 (21.6%) vs 16 (8.9%) (p=0.01), eating large amounts of food in 13 (25.5%) vs 38 (21.2%) (p=0.52), and eating in secret in 11 (21.6%) vs 16 (8.9%) (p=0.01), respectively. This is the first study that determines the rate of these abnormal eating behaviours in obese adult patients with ADHD in comparison with obese adult patients without ADHD. A high rate of abnormal eating behaviours was observed in obese patients with ADHD. Our results suggest that ADHD is a risk factor for the development of these abnormal eating behaviours, which may be contributing factors of obesity and the unsuccessful treatment of obese patients.
Binge eating disorder is a common eating disorder that recently has received increasing attention. Goals in treating binge eating disorder typically include controlling binge eating and diminishing excess body weight. A variety of treatment approaches have been used, including diet/lifestyle modification, psychotherapy, and pharmacologic treatment. Diet and lifestyle interventions are somewhat effective in diminishing the binge eating behavior and lead to modest weight loss, but the weight ef...
van Tilburg, Miranda A L; Fortunato, John E; Squires, Megan; Drossman, Douglas A; Dalton, Christine; Lichtman, Steve; Whitehead, William E
Gastrointestinal disturbances as a result of changes in eating patterns have been described in eating disorders. Many patients who experience irritable bowel syndrome report changes in eating patterns as a way to cope with their symptoms. Little is known about the consequences of these practices. The aim of this study was to explore whether repeated eating restriction (defined as not eating ≥ 4 hours while hungry) is associated with motility disturbances. Of 17 patients with irritable bowel syndrome, subjects were divided into those who habitually restrict their eating (n = 8) and those without eating restriction (n = 9) (age range 15-21, mean 19.2; 64.7% girls). Whole-gut transit time was measured by radiopaque markers, gastric sensitivity was measured by water load test (drinking max of 800 mL of water in 5 minutes or until full), and gastric dysrhythmias by an electrogastrogram. Restrictors drank less water (mean 464.4 mL) than nonrestrictors (mean 613 mL; P = 0.02). No difference was found in gastric dysrhythmias (62.5% vs 77.8%; P = 0.5). Whole-gut transit tended to be slower in the restrictors (mean 51.0 hours) than in nonrestrictors (mean 37.5 hours), but this was not significant. Eating restriction appears to be associated with increased gastric sensation. More data are needed from larger studies to determine whether eating behaviors are associated with other motility disturbances.
... Healthy Dining Hall Eating What's in this article? Good Intentions What Does Your Body Need? Choosing Carbs Choosing Veggies (and Fruit) Choosing Protein Choosing Dairy Snack Attacks Meeting Special Dietary Needs Portion Sizes Portion ...
... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...
... your health as a caregiver, too. Provide a balanced diet with a variety of foods . Offer vegetables, fruits, ... special diet. As with anyone, eating a well-balanced, nutritious diet is important for overall health. As the disease ...
... Usually, though, kids do fine just eating a balanced diet of healthy meals and snacks. If you're ... can jeopardize that if it's not healthy. A balanced diet can give an active, growing body all the ...
... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy ... to manage your weight without being hungry. Have you tried to lose weight by cutting down the amount of food you eat? Do ...
... Contain excess fructose • Fruits such as apple, pear, watermelon, papaya, mango, star fruit, guava, dates, figs, raisins ... Eat vitamin E-rich foods such as nuts, seeds and extra virgin olive oil. Consider taking a ...
Roßbach, Sarah; Diederichs, Tanja; Nöthlings, Ute; Buyken, Anette E; Alexy, Ute
During adolescence, a shift from morningness to eveningness occurs, yet school continues to start early in the morning. Hence, adolescents are at risk for social jetlag, i.e. a discrepancy between biological and social timing. It remains to be determined whether chronotype associates with daily and daytime-specific eating patterns during this potentially critical period. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether chronotype is decisive for daily eating patterns [total energy intake (TEI, kcal), total macronutrient intake (% of TEI), eating occasion frequency (n/day), meal frequency (n/day), snack frequency (n/day), duration of nightly fasting], or daytime-specific eating patterns [morning (before 11 am) energy intake (% of TEI), morning macronutrient intake (% of morning energy intake), regular breakfast skipping (no morning energy intake at least on 2 of 3 days, yes/no), evening (after 6 pm) energy intake (% of TEI), evening macronutrient intake (% of evening energy intake), regular dinner skipping (no evening energy intake at least on 2 of 3 days, yes/no)] in German adolescents. Chronotype was assessed by use of the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire and is defined as the midpoint of sleep corrected for sleep-debt accumulated over the workweek (the later the midpoint of sleep, the later the chronotype). A total of 223 participants (10-18 years) provided 346 questionnaires and concurrent 3-day weighed dietary records. Associations between chronotype and eating patterns were analyzed cross-sectionally using multivariable linear and logistic mixed-effects regression models. Adolescents with earlier and later chronotypes did not differ in their daily eating patterns. With respect to daytime-specific eating patterns, 1 h delay in chronotype was associated with 4.0 (95% CI 2.5-6.6) greater odds of regular breakfast skipping (p patterns appear to follow their internal clock rather than socially determined schedules.
Eating disorders are serious psychiatric conditions often demanding specialized psychiatric care. Several effective treatments have been developed and disseminated, but more needs to be done, as not all patients respond well to intervention, let alone achieve recovery. Obvious candidates such as eating disorder diagnosis, symptoms and psychiatric comorbidity have generally failed to explain variability in prognosis and outcome, warranting investigation of a wider range of relevant factors. Ac...
Bahling, Elizabeth F.
Prader-Willi Syndrome, also called "the eating disease", is a low-incidence handicap which cannot be diagnosed in infancy. Most adults reported in the literature are institutionalized and profoundly retarded. A study of the diagnosis and intervention of two Prader-Willi Syndrome children is presented. (Author/JKS)
Moore, Catherine F; Panciera, Julia I; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro
Compulsive eating behaviour is a transdiagnostic construct observed in certain forms of obesity and eating disorders, as well as in the proposed construct of 'food addiction'. Compulsive eating can be conceptualized as comprising three elements: (i) habitual overeating, (ii) overeating to relieve a negative emotional state, and (iii) overeating despite adverse consequences. Neurobiological processes that include maladaptive habit formation, the emergence of a negative affect, and dysfunctions in inhibitory control are thought to drive the development and persistence of compulsive eating behaviour. These complex psychobehavioural processes are under the control of various neuropharmacological systems. Here, we describe the current evidence implicating these systems in compulsive eating behaviour, and contextualize them within the three elements. A better understanding of the neuropharmacological substrates of compulsive eating behaviour has the potential to significantly advance the pharmacotherapy for feeding-related pathologies.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Of mice and mental health: facilitating dialogue between basic and clinical neuroscientists'. © 2018 The Author(s).
Full Text Available Iva Dudova, Jana Kocourkova, Jiri Koutek Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Eating disorders frequently occur in conjunction with autism spectrum disorders, posing diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The comorbidity of anorexia nervosa and Asperger syndrome is a significant clinical complication and has been associated with a poorer prognosis. The authors are presenting the cases of an eleven-year-old girl and a five-and-a-half-year-old girl with comorbid eating disorders and Asperger syndrome. Keywords: eating disorders, early-onset anorexia nervosa, autism spectrum disorders, Asperger syndrome, diagnostics, therapy
Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Judy; McAleavey, Kristen M.; Adkins, Angela D.
Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome have hyperphagia, a characteristic eating disorder defined by a marked delay in the satiety response when compared to controls. This eating disorder has been particularly difficult to control. The authors taught and evaluated effectiveness of regular exercise alone, regular exercise plus healthy eating, and…
De Jong, M.; Ouyang, Jenny; van Grunsven, Roy H. A.; Visser, M.E.; Spoelstra, K.
Studies of wild populations have provided important insights into the effects of artificial light at night on organisms, populations and ecosystems. However, in most studies the exact amount of light at night individuals are exposed to remains unknown. Individuals can potentially control their
Jong, De Maaike; Ouyang, Jenny Q.; Grunsven, van Roy H.A.; Visser, Marcel E.; Spoelstra, Kamiel
Studies of wild populations have provided important insights into the effects of artificial light at night on organisms, populations and ecosystems. However, in most studies the exact amount of light at night individuals are exposed to remains unknown. Individuals can potentially control their
Foote, Bobby D.
Digital night sensor technology offers both advantages and disadvantages over standard analog systems. As the digital night sensor technology matures and disadvantages are overcome, the transition away from analog type sensors will increase with new programs. In response to this growing need RCEVS is actively investing in digital night vision systems that will provide the performance needed for the future. Rockwell Collins and Elbit Systems of America continue to invest in digital night technology and have completed laboratory, ground and preliminary flight testing to evaluate the important key factors for night vision. These evaluations have led to a summary of the maturity of the digital night capability and status of the key performance gap between analog and digital systems. Introduction of Digital Night Vision Systems can be found in the roadmap of future fixed wing and rotorcraft programs beginning in 2015. This will bring a new set of capabilities to the pilot that will enhance his abilities to perform night operations with no loss of performance.
Geffen, van K.G.; Eck, van E.; Boer, de R.; Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Salis, F.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.
1.Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,
Kelly, William E.; McGee, Catherine M.
The present study investigated the relationship between gender roles and night-sky watching in a sample of college students (N=161). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Noctcaelador Inventory (NI) were used to investigate the differences between gender role groups for night-sky watching. The results supported the hypothesis that androgynous…
Wenhui, Ji; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Wang, Houhua
The cooling potential of night ventilation largely depends on the heat exchange at the internal room surfaces. During night time, increased heat transfer on a vertical wall is expected due to cool supply air that flows along the internal wall surface from the top of the wall. This paper presents ...
Kinnier, Richard T.; Dixon, Andrea L.; Scheidegger, Corey; Lindberg, Brent
For many individuals, spiritual inspiration, clarity, or epiphany is often preceded by a "dark night of the soul". St. John of the Cross, a Spanish mystic of the 16th century, first described the concept. Today, the phrase "dark night of the soul" is usually associated with the crisis part of the journey to enlightenment. This article defines and…
Artmann, Nikolai; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Manz, H.
Night-time ventilation is seen as a promising approach for energy efficient cooling of buildings. However, uncertainties in the prediction of thermal comfort restrain architects and engineers from applying this technique. One parameter essentially affecting the performance of night-time ventilation...
Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Dijk, J.; Son, R. van
We present the design and first field trial results of the all-day all-weather INVIS Integrated Night Vision surveillance and observation System. The INVIS augments a dynamic three-band false-color nightvision image with synthetic 3D imagery in a real-time display. The night vision sensor suite
Kushnir, Jonathan; Cohen-Zrubavel, Vered; Kushnir, Baruch
We aimed to assess the association between night diapers use and sleep quality of school-aged children with enuresis. The sleep patterns of 72 school-aged children (ages 6-9 y) with enuresis referred to a clinic specializing in bladder disorders and 63 healthy control children were assessed. Sleep measures were derived from four to five monitoring nights of actigraphy and daily logs. In comparison to controls, children with enuresis who did not wear night diapers had poorer sleep quality as reflected by both actigraphic measures (more activity during sleep and shorter periods of continuous sleep) and one reported measure (lower sleep quality). However, no differences were found on any of the sleep measures between children with enuresis wearing night diapers and controls. The reported sleep quality of all children with enuresis with and without night diapers was lower than controls. Our results suggest that sleep patterns of school-aged children with enuresis who do not wear night diapers are impaired, and the sleep quality of children using night diapers is similar to those of healthy children. Thus, clinicians and healthcare providers should consider recommending sleeping with night diapers for untreated children with enuresis, based on its positive impact on sleep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In 1997 a teacher of the school The Deer of Tauramena established a popular action against the companies that exploit the petroleum of the field Cusiana. Maria Ninfa Diaz and her husband Eleodoro Torres, a couple of peasants tormented behind from years by the presence in their sidewalk of gigantic firebrands that they burn natural gas as forced part of the oil activity. Burdened by the permanent noise of something like that as an enormous torch. Gone mad by the splendor in the nights of minuscule industrial suns. Tired by the increase of the temperature in their corner of the prairie. The life became less pleasant. Before the only sound was fluttering of the bats and the step of the livestock, actors of a time that became past in the immense green sea, when the plain was flat. Perhaps from the optics of the demanded companies this it is an ordinary litigation; it should be won to all coast, so much but when the companies needs to sit down a precedent that is already common place in the plain; doesn't enter with the oil companies and so that they didn't enter with the oil companies the defendants hired an lawyers office that gets paid per hours and they wait, eagerly, to rob Maria Ninfa Diaz of the property where she lives. The author continues relating the impasse between the peasant and the oil multinational company in Colombia
Božić, Mirjana; Vušković, Leposava; Popović, Svetozar; Popović, Jelena; Marković-Topalović, Tatjana
The story about a properly oriented outdoor globe in the hands and minds of Eratosthenes, Jefferson, Milanković and science educators is presented. Having the same orientation in space as the Earth, the Day Night Year Globe (DING) shows in real time the pattern of illumination of the Earth’s surface and its diurnal and seasonal variations. It is an ideal object for the visualization of knowledge and increase in knowledge about: the form of the Earth, Earth’s rotation, Earth’s revolution around the Sun, the length of seasons, solstices, equinoxes, the longitude problem, the distribution of the Sun’s radiation over the Earth, the impact of this radiation on Earth’s climate, and how to use it efficiently. By attaching a movable vane to the poles, or adding pins around the equator to read time, DING becomes a spherical/globe-shaped sundial. So, the DING is simultaneously useful for teaching physics, geophysics, astronomy, use of solar energy and promoting an inquiry-based learning environment for students and the public. (paper)
Klevjer, Thor A.
Krill are key members in marine food webs, and measurement of swimming speed is vital to assess their bioenergetic budgets, feeding, and encounters with predators. We document a consistent and marked diel signal in swimming speed of krill in their natural habitat that is not related to diel vertical migration. The results were obtained using a bottom-mounted, upward-looking echo sounder at 150-m depth in the Oslofjord, Norway, spanning 5 months from late autumn to spring at a temporal resolution of ~1–2 records s−1. Swimming speed was assessed using acoustic target tracking of individual krill. At the start of the registration period, both daytime and nocturnal average swimming speeds of Meganyctiphanes norvegica were ~ 3.5 cm s−1 (~ 1 body lengths ([bl] s−1) in waters with oxygen concentrations of ~ 15–20% O2 saturation. Following intrusion of more oxygenated water, nocturnal average swimming speeds increased to ~ 10 cm s−1 (~ 3 bl s−1), i.e., more than double that of daytime swimming speeds in the same period. We hypothesize that krill activity during the first period was limited by oxygen, and the enhanced swimming at night subsequent to the water renewal is due to increased feeding activity under lessened danger of predation in darkness.
Full Text Available Forecasting urban expansion models are a very powerful tool in the hands of urban planners in order to anticipate and mitigate future urbanization pressures. In this paper, a linear regression forecasting urban expansion model is implemented based on the annual composite night lights time series available from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA. The product known as 'stable lights' is used in particular, after it has been corrected with a standard intercalibration process to reduce artificial year-to-year fluctuations as much as possible. Forecasting is done for ten years after the end of the time series. Because the method is spatially explicit the predicted expansion trends are relatively accurately mapped. Two metrics are used to validate the process. The first one is the year-to-year Sum of Lights (SoL variation. The second is the year-to-year image correlation coefficient. Overall it is evident that the method is able to provide an insight on future urbanization pressures in order to be taken into account in planning. The trends are quantified in a clear spatial manner.
After the 2010 European Researchers' Night, a contest was organised for its participants, asking them to write about their experience. We are now pleased to announce the winner: Yves-Marie Ducimetière, a 14-year-old student at the Lycée International de Ferney-Voltaire. Yves-Marie Ducimetière. The visit began for me around 20.30, as we all joined our respective groups to board a CERN shuttle to our final destination, which was LHCb in my case. I was heading into the unknown! On leaving, I knew nothing about this place, and the discovery made it all the more interesting. Upon arriving, a woman explained that their research looked at antimatter, or rather, the reason why it disappeared from our Universe – she then accompanied us inside. Amazingly, I found the place to be both friendly and serious. One physicist spoke passionately about the purpose of LHCb, in short: colliding particles in order to understand the Big Bang, the origin of t...
Fassino, Secondo; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Amianto, Federico; Facchini, Federico; Rovera, Giovanni Giacomo
The question of how many psychopathologic factors are involved in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) has no definite answer. The combination of psychopathology and personality research may shed a light upon the determinants of eating pathology. The study consists in the administration of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 (EDI-2) to 95 outpatient anorectic women (50 restrictive and 45 binge-purging) and to 92 bulimic outpatient women (78 with and 14 without purging behaviours). The respective scores of each DCA subgroup are compared. Restricter anorectics are characterised by lower novelty seeking on respect to all the other groups and by a higher self-directedness on respect to bingeing-purging anorectics and purging bulimics. Also psychopathologic differences between restricter anorectics and the other groups are extensive. Bingeing-purging anorexia shares many traits with bulimia. In their complex, data suggest and in-deep study aimed to a possible re-classification of EDs which would take impulsiveness in greater consideration. The differences in temperament and character traits may partially be responsible of the repression or discontrol of impulsive eating behaviours in different ED subtypes.
Jandrić, Zora; Abrahim, Aiman; Kelly, Simon; Cannavan, Andrew
On 22 April the IAEA, along with other VIC-based organizations, took part in the biannual Long Night of Research (Lange Nacht der Forschung); an Austria-wide event coordinated by several Austrian government ministries that aims to spark interest in science and research. This was the seventh year of the Long Night of Research, and the first time the IAEA was involved. The VIC was one of around 250 exhibit locations across the country. The event gave visitors a chance to learn about the variety of nuclear applications in various fields. The Food and Environmental Protection Laboratory (FEPL) exhibition booth focused on testing for food authenticity, posing the question ‘is your food what you think it is?’. Food is an essential part of our daily lives. We need our food to be safe and we want to know what we are eating. Nuclear and related techniques can be used to control food safety and to fight food fraud – the deliberate mislabelling of food products
Summary: Light at night (LAN) is now an established environmental problem, not only for astronomers but for the population at large. It has serious ecological effects that are wide ranging, and its environmental effects may be more serious than ever imagined. The ecological and environmental consequences are examined and emphasis is stressed on resolving the problem before it is too late.Introduction: A casual glance at NASA images of the Earth at night1 reveals the lights of thousands of cities. The larger cities will contain millions of street lights, along with commercial, sports and decorative lighting. Most of these lights are on all night, every night, three hundred and sixty-five nights a year, (fig 1), so they must be having a measurable ecological and environmental effect. The most obvious effect of all this excessive lighting is the light pollution suffered by astronomers.
Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jensen, Marie Aarrebo; Hansen, Åse Marie
Among police officers in Denmark, we studied (i) how many consecutive night shifts participants preferred at baseline; (ii) preferences regarding three intervention conditions (two, four, and seven consecutive night shifts followed by the same number of days off/day shifts: '2 + 2', '4 + 4', '7 + 7......') at follow-up; (iii) characteristics of participants preferring each of these intervention conditions. Questionnaire data from a crossover intervention study were used (baseline: n = 73; follow-up: n = 68). At baseline, 49% preferred four consecutive night shifts. At follow-up, 57% preferred '4 + 4', 26...... work. The participants' preferences are likely to be influenced by their previous shift work experience. Practitioner Summary: We investigated police officers' preferences regarding the number of consecutive night shifts. The majority preferred four consecutive night shifts. Those who preferred...
Underwood, Charlotte N; Davies, Thomas W; Queirós, Ana M
Despite being globally widespread in coastal regions, the impacts of light pollution on intertidal ecosystems has received little attention. Intertidal species exhibit many night-time-dependent ecological strategies, including feeding, reproduction, orientation and predator avoidance, which are likely negatively affected by shifting light regimes, as has been observed in terrestrial and aquatic taxa. Coastal lighting may shape intertidal communities through its influence on the nocturnal foraging activity of dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus), a widespread predatory mollusc that structures biodiversity in temperate rocky shores. In the laboratory, we investigated whether the basal and foraging activity of this predator was affected by exposure to night-time lighting both in the presence and absence of olfactory predator cues (Carcinus maenas, common shore crab). Assessments of dogwhelks' behavioural responses to night-time white LED lighting were performed on individuals that had been acclimated to night-time white LED lighting conditions for 16 days and individuals that had not previously been exposed to artificial light at night. Dogwhelks acclimated to night-time lighting exhibited natural refuge-seeking behaviour less often compared to control animals, but were more likely to respond to and handle prey irrespective of whether olfactory predator cues were present. These responses suggest night-time lighting likely increased the energetic demand of dogwhelks through stress, encouraging foraging whenever food was available, regardless of potential danger. Contrastingly, whelks not acclimated under night-time lighting were more likely to respond to the presence of prey under artificial light at night when olfactory predator cues were present, indicating an opportunistic shift towards the use of visual instead of olfactory cues in risk evaluation. These results demonstrate that artificial night-time lighting influences the behaviour of intertidal fauna such that the
Blechert, J; Liedlgruber, M; Lender, A; Reichenberger, J; Wilhelm, F H
Research on eating behavior is limited by an overreliance on self-report. It is well known that actual food intake is frequently underreported, and it is likely that this problem is overrepresented in vulnerable populations. The present research tested a chewing detection method that could assist self-report methods. A trained sample of 15 participants (usable data of 14 participants) kept detailed eating records during one day and one night while carrying a recording device. Signals recorded from electromyography sensors unobtrusively placed behind the right ear were used to develop a chewing detection algorithm. Results showed that eating could be detected with high accuracy (sensitivity, specificity >90%) compared to trained self-report. Thus, electromyography-based eating detection might usefully complement future food intake studies in healthy and vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hyperserotonemia; Serotonergic syndrome; Serotonin toxicity; SSRI - serotonin syndrome; MAO - serotonin syndrome ... brain area. For example, you can develop this syndrome if you take migraine medicines called triptans together ...
Cahill, Leah E; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Mekary, Rania A; Jensen, Majken K; Flint, Alan J; Hu, Frank B; Rimm, Eric B
Among adults, skipping meals is associated with excess body weight, hypertension, insulin resistance, and elevated fasting lipid concentrations. However, it remains unknown whether specific eating habits regardless of dietary composition influence coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. The objective of this study was to prospectively examine eating habits and risk of CHD. Eating habits, including breakfast eating, were assessed in 1992 in 26 902 American men 45 to 82 years of age from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study who were free of cardiovascular disease and cancer. During 16 years of follow-up, 1527 incident CHD cases were diagnosed. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for CHD, adjusted for demographic, diet, lifestyle, and other CHD risk factors. Men who skipped breakfast had a 27% higher risk of CHD compared with men who did not (relative risk, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.53). Compared with men who did not eat late at night, those who ate late at night had a 55% higher CHD risk (relative risk, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.29). These associations were mediated by body mass index, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. No association was observed between eating frequency (times per day) and risk of CHD. Eating breakfast was associated with significantly lower CHD risk in this cohort of male health professionals.
... Reprints Where Can I Find More Information? Share Eating Disorders: About More Than Food Download PDF Download ePub ... you may have an eating disorder. What are eating disorders? Eating disorders are serious medical illnesses marked by ...
Walsh, B Timothy
A disturbance in eating behavior is the defining characteristic of the clinical eating disorders, Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder. Surprisingly little research has been devoted to assessing objectively the nature of the eating disturbances in these disorders, to elucidating what factors contribute to the development and persistence of these disturbances, or to describing how they change with treatment. This review, which is based on a Mars lecture delivered at the 2010 meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior, reviews objective information about the nature of the disturbances of eating behavior in eating disorders. These data suggest that more detailed knowledge of eating behavior is an essential component of a full understanding of eating disorders and may provide a foundation for studies of pathophysiology and for the development of new treatment methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dijkema, Tim; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Braam, Pètra M.; Roesink, Judith M.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Terhaard, Chris H.J.
Purpose: To compare patient-reported xerostomia during daytime and during nighttime with objectively measured parotid and submandibular gland function in a cohort of head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with RT. Materials and methods: A cohort of 138 HNC patients underwent objective measurements of parotid (PF) and submandibular (SMF) gland function and completed a xerostomia questionnaire (XQ) before RT, at 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after RT. No attempt was made to spare the submandibular gland(s). The XQ contained specific questions concerning the sensation of dry mouth during day- (XD) and nighttime (XN), scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Patients with no or mild (grade 1–3) xerostomia and patients with more severe (grade 4–5) complaints were grouped together. Results: Before RT, no association existed between dry mouth complaints and PF or SMF. At 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after RT; 37%, 51% and 36% had grade 4–5 XD and 65%, 64% and 56% had grade 4–5 XN, respectively. Patients with grade 4–5 XD and XN had significantly worse SMF at all time points after RT compared to patients with grade 1–3 XD and XN, while PF was significantly worse only at 6 weeks after RT. In multivariate analyses, SMF was consistently the most important factor related to XN after treatment. PF significantly influenced XD at 6 weeks and 1 year after RT. Conclusions: Differentiating between complaints during day- and nighttime in xerostomia research is necessary. Dry mouth at night is a frequent problem after (parotid-sparing) RT for HNC and is explained by submandibular gland dysfunction. Sparing of the contralateral submandibular gland, in addition to parotid gland sparing, may result in improved patient-reported xerostomia.
Full Text Available Eating disorders, including anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are potentially life-threatening syndromes characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior. An effective treatment strategy for these conditions remains to be established, as patients with eating disorders tend to suffer from multiple relapses. Because ghrelin was originally discovered in the stomach mucosa, it has been widely studied over the past decade in an effort to uncover its potential roles; these studies have shed light on the mechanism by which ghrelin regulates food intake. Thus, studying ghrelin in the context of eating disorders could improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of eating disorders, possibly resulting in a promising new pharmacological treatment strategy for these patients. In addition, early detection and treatment of eating disorders are critical for ensuring recovery of young patients. Oral symptoms, including mucosal, dental, and saliva abnormalities, are typically observed in the early stages of eating disorders. Although oral care is not directly related to the treatment of eating disorders, knowledge of the oral manifestations of eating disorder patients may aid in early detection, resulting in earlier treatment; thus, oral care might contribute to overall patient management and prognosis. Moreover, ghrelin has also been found in saliva, which may be responsible for oral hygiene and digestion-related functions. This review discusses the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in regulating food-intake and the role of saliva and oral care in young patients with eating disorders.
Orhan, Fatma Özlem; Tuncel, Deniz
Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, even...
Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A Shyam
Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations.
Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaBehavioral Sciences Institute and Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Neuroimaging techniques have been useful tools for accurate investigation of brain structure and function in eating disorders. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry have been the most relevant technologies in this regard. The purpose of this review is to update the existing data on neuroimaging in eating disorders. The main brain changes seem to be reversible to some extent after adequate weight restoration. Brain changes in bulimia nervosa seem to be less pronounced than in anorexia nervosa and are mainly due to chronic dietary restrictions. Different subtypes of eating disorders might be correlated with specific brain functional changes. Moreover, anorectic patients who binge/purge may have different functional brain changes compared with those who do not binge/purge. Functional changes in the brain might have prognostic value, and different changes with respect to the binding potential of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and D2/D3 receptors may be persistent after recovering from an eating disorder.Keywords: neuroimaging, brain changes, brain receptors, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders
Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A. Shyam
Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646
Webb, CM; Thuras, P; Peterson, CB; Lampert, J; Miller, D; Crow, SJ
Although previous research has supported the importance of anxiety as an etiological and maintenance factor for eating disorders, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. The role of anxiety in the context of eating behavior is especially unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify anxiety-eliciting eating situations and anxiety management strategies patients use to mitigate anxiety experienced in the context of eating as determined by diagnostic groups and symptom patterns. Fi...
Walsh, B. Timothy
A disturbance in eating behavior is the defining characteristic of the clinical eating disorders, Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder. Surprisingly little research has been devoted to assessing objectively the nature of the eating disturbances in these disorders, to elucidating what factors contribute to the development and persistence of these disturbances, or to describing how they change with treatment. This review, which is based on a Mars lecture delivered at the...
Sep 20, 2013 ... matching career choice to prospective students.1 A preoccupation with food manifests itself ... relationship and stated that high-risk groups for the development of eating disorders include ..... Table IV: Comparison of body mass index, eating attitudes and eating behaviour of the first-year dietetic students ...
Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…
Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N; Lavender, Jason M; Engel, Scott G; Wonderlich, Steve A; Crosby, Ross D; Peterson, Carol B; Simonich, Heather; Crow, Scott; Durkin, Nora; Mitchell, James E
The primary goal of this article is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 min, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in bulimia nervosa. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Abraham, Suzanne; Kellow, John
Functional gastrointestinal-like disorders (FGIDs) are prevalent among eating disorder (ED) patients. The aims are to explore the relationship between quality of life related to eating disorders (QOL ED) and FGIDs. Consecutive ED patients, 18-45 years old, completed the Rome II, QOL ED, Irritable Bowel Syndrome QOL (IBS-QOL) and Bowel Symptom Severity Index (BSSI) questionnaires on admission to hospital for treatment of their ED. Despite the high prevalence of FGIDs (93%), only IBS is clearly correlated with QOL ED scores. The QOL ED subscores significantly related are ED feelings, psychological feelings and effect on daily living. These subscores contain items such as fearing loss of control over your body and feelings, being preoccupied with thoughts of body weight and shape, feeling confused and that eating and exercise have a negative effect on work/study. There were no relationships between QOL ED behavior and individual FGIDs or categories of FGIDs. The QOL ED and IBS-QOL are highly correlated, and there is a positive linear relationship between the QOL ED global and IBS-QOL total and BSSI scores. The presence of IBS (but not other FGIDs) in ED patients is strongly related to eating disordered and psychological feelings. The poorer the QOL ED is, the poorer the IBS-QOL is and the more severe the IBS symptoms are. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.
The citizen-science program on light pollution, GLOBE at Night, has had rich responses during this year's campaign in March 2009. Reporting on some of the highlights, we will hear success stories and lessons learned from educators, students, science centers and astronomy clubs from around the world. Communities will be featured from several cities, such Norman, Oklahoma, Mishawaka, Indiana, Willimantic, Connecticut, and Waynesville, Ohio, which created mini-campaigns that combined local students with public advocates and representatives from local city and county governments. Connecticut kids collaborated with students in Wales, Canada and Romania on GLOBE at Night, and an extensive campaign was planned with the schools near the observatories of north-central Chile. Groups that have received special training in GLOBE at Night and related activities include the "Astronomy from the Ground Up” network of science and nature centers (fostered by the ASP and the NSF), 146 amateur astronomers who are part of the ASP-NASA Night-Sky Network, and the Association of Science-Technology Centers. Special training was given over forums, telecon-powerpoint presentations and blogs, to fit the needs of the communities. Among the more interesting media efforts for the general public, GLOBE at Night was the topic of the March 6 episode of the IYA2009 "Days of Astronomy" podcast. International organizing efforts for GLOBE at Night have been strong in countries like Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom, to name a few. We will also discuss how cities, such as Tucson, Arizona, combined efforts on GLOBE at Night with involvement in the World Wildlife Fund's Earth Hour event (www.earthhour.org). Earth Hour encouraged everyone to turn out their lights from 8:30-9:30 p.m. local time on Saturday, March 28, the final night of GLOBE at Night 2009.
Full Text Available ... In addition, eating candy bars or other sugary snacks just before practice or competition can give athletes ... yogurt, or pasta with tomato sauce). Eat a snack less than 2 hours before the game: If ...
... Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Clinical Trials Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity ... What foods can I eat if I have diabetes? You may worry that having diabetes means going ...
... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Eat for a Healthy Heart Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... preparing meals: Balance calories to manage body weight Eat at least 4.5 cups of fruits and ...
Holm, Lotte; Lund, Thomas Bøker; Niva, Mari
Background/objectives: Daily practices related to eating are embedded in the social and cultural contexts of everyday life. How are such factors associated with diet quality relative to motivational factors? And, are associations universal or context-specific? We analyze the relationship between...... diet quality and the following practices: social company while eating, the regularity and duration of eating and the activity of watching TV while eating. Subjects/methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based internet survey was conducted in April 2012 with stratified random samples...... is based on eight food frequency questions focusing on fats, vegetables, fruits and fish in the diet. Results: Eating activities were associated with diet quality even when motivation to eat healthily and sociodemographic factors were controlled for. The number of daily eating events and eating main meals...
Full Text Available ... eat too much trans fat – like partially hydrogenated oils – and saturated fat, that is found in high fat meat and high fat dairy products, like butter. Choosing when to eat fats is also important ...
Baou, Katerina; Mermigkis, Charalampos; Minaritzoglou, Aliki; Vagiakis, Emmanouil
Treatment-emergent central sleep apnea (TE-CSA) is defined as the emergence or persistence of central respiratory events during the initiation of positive airway pressure (PAP) without a back-up rate in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients and after significant resolution of obstructive events. Previous studies have estimated a prevalence from 0.56 to 20.3%. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of TE-CSA in a Greek adult population. One thousand fifty nine patients with newly diagnosed OSA, who were referred to the Sleep Disorders Center of Evangelismos Hospital of Athens over an 18-month period, were included in this study. A split-night polysomnography (PSG), or two formal overnight PSGs (diagnostic and continuous PAP (CPAP) titration study), were performed. Patients with OSA were divided in two groups; the first group included 277 patients, who underwent two separate studies (diagnostic and CPAP titration study), and the second group 782 patients, who underwent split-night studies. The prevalence of TE-CSA in the first group was 2.53% (7 patients), and in the second group was 5.63% (44 patients). The prevalence of TE-CSA in Greece was lower compared to most previous reported studies. The significant variation in the prevalence of TE-CSA between different centers throughout the world is mainly associated with the used diagnostic criteria as well as methodological and technical aspects.
Thaler, Lea; Steiger, Howard
Eating disorders (EDs) are characterized by intense preoccupation with shape and weight and maladaptive eating practices. The complex of symptoms that characterize EDs often arise through the activation of latent genetic potentials by environmental exposures, and epigenetic mechanisms are believed to link environmental exposures to gene expression. This chapter provides an overview of genetic factors acting in the etiology of EDs. It then provides a background to the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms link stresses such as obstetric complications and childhood abuse as well as effects of malnutrition to eating disorders (EDs). The chapter then summarizes the emerging body of literature on epigenetics and EDs-mainly studies on DNA methylation in samples of anorexia and bulimia. The available evidence base suggests that an epigenetically informed perspective contributes in valuable ways to the understanding of why people develop EDs.
Bruselius-Jensen, Maria Louisa; Egberg Mikkelsen, Bent
Unhealthy eating are common among adolescents and the school is a well suited setting for promoting healthy eating. For the school to play a role here, however an environment must be created, in which the school and the students develop a sense of ownership for a healthy food and nutrition "regime......". This paper highlights the role that the organisation of food provision plays by comparing the attitudes of students towards in-school food provision as opposed to out-of-school provision where food is provided by outside caterers. Schools having internal food production and schools having external food....... Therefore in designing school meal programs aiming at being supportive for healthy eating, it is necessary to try to integrate the food provision in the life of the school....
Full Text Available quite often leave the radio playing all night on the bedside table; my only company in an all too empty house. It shuts out the noises of the night: the cry of the great owl in the rain-forest trees, the scurrying of possums on the roof, or the rustle of the neighbourhood carpet snake, a beautiful multi-coloured python, slithering into or out of the roof-space. I’m used to him (or her. She’s harmless —just another presence in the night.
Sachin Ratan Gedam
Full Text Available Night terrors and sleepwalking are arousal disorders that occur during the first third of night. Combined existence of sleep disorders are rare phenomenon and found to be associated with behavioural and emotional problems. It becomes difficult to diagnose among sleep disorders and epilepsy is an important differential diagnosis. Management with combined approach of pharmacotherapy and psychological counselling is safe and effective. Here, we present a case of night terrors and sleepwalking to highlight the importance of diagnosis and treatment in this condition. To conclude, all medical professionals need to be aware of different parasomnias and its treatment options.
Walker, Constance E.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU) will be coordinating extensive activities to raise awareness of light pollution through running the Cosmic Light theme of the International Year of Light (IYL2015) and by partnering in particular with the popular Globe at Night program.Globe at Night (www.globeatnight.org) is an international campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by having people measure night-sky brightness and submit observations in real-time with smart phone or later with a computer. In 2015, Globe at Night will run for 10-nights each month, an hour after sunset til before the Moon rises. Students can use the data to monitor levels of light pollution around the world, as well as understand light pollution's effects on energy consumption, plants, wildlife, human health and our ability to enjoy a starry night sky.Since its inception in 2006, more than 115,000 measurements from 115 countries have been reported. The last 9 years of data can be explored with Globe at Night's interactive world map or with the 'map app' to view a particular area. A spreadsheet of the data is downloadable from any year. One can compare Globe at Night data with a variety of other databases to see, for example, how light pollution affects the foraging habits of bats.To encourage public participation in Globe at Night during IYL2015, each month will target an area of the world that habitually contributes during that time. Special concerns for how light pollution affects that area and solutions will be featured on the Globe at Night website (www.globeatnight.org), through its Facebook page, in its newsletter or in the 365DaysofAstronomy.org podcasts.Twice during IYL there will be a global Flash Mob event, one on Super Pi Day (March 14, 2015) and a second in mid-September, where the public will be invited to take night-sky brightness measurements en masse. In April, the International Dark-Sky Week hosted by the International Dark-Sky Association will be
Chouk, Mickaël; Vidon, Claire; Deveza, Elise; Verhoeven, Frank; Pelletier, Fabien; Prati, Clément; Wendling, Daniel
Intravenous drug addiction is responsible for many complications, especially cutaneous and infectious. There is a syndrome, rarely observed in rheumatology, resulting in "puffy hands": the puffy hand syndrome. We report two cases of this condition from our rheumatologic consultation. Our two patients had intravenous drug addiction. They presented with an edema of the hands, bilateral, painless, no pitting, occurring in one of our patient during heroin intoxication, and in the other 2 years after stopping injections. In our two patients, additional investigations (biological, radiological, ultrasound) were unremarkable, which helped us, in the context, to put the diagnosis of puffy hand syndrome. The pathophysiology, still unclear, is based in part on a lymphatic toxicity of drugs and their excipients. There is no etiological treatment but elastic compression by night has improved edema of the hands in one of our patients. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
HIV and poor nutrition destroys the immune system. A well-nourished HIV infected person is less likely to develop an opportunistic infection than those with poor nutrition. Emotional stress and opportunistic infections can decrease one's appetite. Eating can become difficult and painful in persons with oropharyngeal infections. HIV-related wasting reduces protein and fat reserves. Vitamin A maintains a healthy immune system. Adding nuts, oil, mashed fish, dark green or orange fruits and vegetables, or fruit juice and replacing some water with fresh milk or coconut milk makes porridge more energy-rich. Fermenting or malting porridge makes it thinner, easier to swallow, and more nutritious. Fermentation allows for increased absorption of some nutrients (e.g., iron and zinc). The diet for persons with HIV-related infections should increase their appetite, and they should ingest enough nutrients to help the gastrointestinal tract manage and recover from diarrhea and to regain weight and strength lost during illness. All HIV-infected persons should eat as much as possible, particularly easy-to-eat and easily-absorbed foods. Those with mouth sores should avoid spicy and peppery foods. Those with a poor appetite should eat small amounts more often than usual. Those with diarrhea should eat easily digestible foods (e.g., soups) and, in some cases, avoid fatty or oily foods and milk. They should drink extra fluids to prevent dehydration. HIV-infected pregnant women should eat foods rich in vitamin A (dark green leaves or orange fruits and vegetables, liver, or egg yolk) and iron. Maternal vitamin A deficiency increases the risk of vertical HIV transmission 3-4 fold. Breast milk is the best food for all infants, particularly during diarrhea. In some communities, nongovernmental organizations provide those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS with food, food production maintenance, and nutrition counseling through their home care services.
Full Text Available Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders, ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal behavior and associated factors in eating disorders are briefly reviewed.
Costa, Marcelle Barrueco; Melnik, Tamara
Eating disorders are psychiatric conditions originated from and perpetuated by individual, family and sociocultural factors. The psychosocial approach to treatment and prevention of relapse is crucial. To present an overview of the scientific evidence on effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in treatment of eating disorders. All systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Cochrane Library on the topic were included. Afterwards, as from the least recent date of these reviews (2001), an additional search was conducted at PubMed with sensitive search strategy and with the same keywords used. A total of 101 primary studies and 30 systematic reviews (5 Cochrane systematic reviews), meta-analysis, guidelines or narrative reviews of literature were included. The main outcomes were: symptomatic remission, body image, cognitive distortion, psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial functioning and patient satisfaction. The cognitive behavioral approach was the most effective treatment, especially for bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and the night eating syndrome. For anorexia nervosa, the family approach showed greater effectiveness. Other effective approaches were interpersonal psychotherapy, dialectic behavioral therapy, support therapy and self-help manuals. Moreover, there was an increasing number of preventive and promotional approaches that addressed individual, family and social risk factors, being promising for the development of positive self-image and self-efficacy. Further studies are required to evaluate the impact of multidisciplinary approaches on all eating disorders, as well as the cost-effectiveness of some effective modalities, such as the cognitive behavioral therapy. RESUMO Transtornos alimentares são doenças psiquiátricas originadas de e perpetuadas por fatores individuais, familiares e socioculturais. A abordagem psicossocial é essencial para o tratamento e a prevenção de recaídas. Apresentar uma vis
Capasso, Anna; Putrella, Claudio; Milano, Walter
This review focuses on Eating Disorders (ED), the role played by neurotransmitters and peptides in ED phenomena as well as the drugs used in the treatment of these diseases. For ED, we mean a syndrome characterized by persistent alteration of eating behavior and the conditions that cause an insufficient ingestion and/or adsorption of foods. There are three different ED diseases: Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and Binge Eating Disorders (BED). ED are complex conditions that arise from a combination of long-standing behavioral, emotional, psychological, interpersonal, and social factors. The neuronal circuits that control the ingestion of food are mainly related to catecholaminergic, serotoninergic and peptidergic systems. In this respect, while serotonin, dopamine and prostaglandin promote the ingestion of food, by contrast, neuropeptide Y, norepinephrine, GABA and opioid peptides inhibit food ingestion, thus, causing the occurence of ED. The drugs mainly used in the treatment of ED are antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants. Additionally, mood stabilizers (lithium), anxiolytics, serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors and antipsychotic drugs are often used in the treatment of ED.
The quality of the prevention of eating disorders represents in several last decades frequently discussed issue in the context of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions, a significant increase of influence of the media, new technologies and knowledge of risk factors. Primary prevention aims to reduce the risk of developing eating disorders, but secondary and tertiary prevention play the important role as well. Effective and coordinated prevention is still missing. Our experience of international cooperation of the last 20 years led to the development and evaluation of prevention programs. We are describing their fast development and ongoing programs following the new trends recommended by WHO.
Atalayer, Deniz; Gibson, Charlisa; Konopacka, Alexandra; Geliebter, Allan
There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders. PMID:22960103
Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Savolainen-Peltonen, Hanna
A vast majority of menopausal women suffer from vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, the mean duration of which may be up to 7-10 years. In addition to a decreased quality of life, vasomotor symptoms may have an impact on overall health. Vasomotor symptoms are associated with overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system, and sympathetic overdrive in turn is associated with metabolic syndrome, which is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Menopausal hot flushes have a complex relationship to different features of the metabolic syndrome and not all data point towards an association between vasomotor symptoms and metabolic syndrome. Thus, it is still unclear whether vasomotor symptoms are an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Research in this area is constantly evolving and we present here the most recent data on the possible association between menopausal vasomotor symptoms and the metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ... some guidelines on what to eat and when: Eat a meal 2 to 4 hours before the game or ... for you. You may want to experiment with meal timing and how much to eat on practice days so that you're better ...
Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.
Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were
Timofeeva, Elena; Calvez, Juliane
Eating disorders are devastating and life-threatening psychiatric diseases. Although clinical and experimental investigations have significantly progressed in discovering the neuronal causes of eating disorders, the exact neuronal and molecular mechanisms of the development and maintenance of these pathologies are not fully understood. The complexity of the neuronal substrate of eating disorders hampers progress in revealing the precise mechanisms. The present re...
Full Text Available ... Guide to Eating for Sports What's in this article? Eat Extra for Excellence Athletes and Dieting Eat ... TeensHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- ...
Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth / For ... Ditch Dehydration Caffeine Game-Day Eats Print en español Guía de alimentación para deportistas Eat Extra for ...
Ray, Shannon L.
Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…
Webb, C M; Thuras, P; Peterson, C B; Lampert, J; Miller, D; Crow, S J
Although previous research has supported the importance of anxiety as an etiological and maintenance factor for eating disorders, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. The role of anxiety in the context of eating behavior is especially unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify anxiety-eliciting eating situations and anxiety management strategies patients use to mitigate anxiety experienced in the context of eating as determined by diagnostic groups and symptom patterns. Fifty-three eating disorder outpatients were administered the Eating and Anxiety Questionnaire (EAQ) and the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale. Ratings indicated significant anxiety in most eating situations, whereas management strategies were more limited yet regularly employed. Factor analysis of the EAQ revealed a 6-factor solution for anxiety management strategies and a 4-factor solution for anxiety-eliciting situations. These results indicate patients with eating disorders report high levels of anxiety associated with eating behaviors but utilize limited yet consistent anxiety management strategies. Effective intervention strategies for managing eating-related anxiety should be incorporated into treatment and may need to be specified for different diagnostic subgroups.
This research project analyzed drivers eye scanning behavior at night when approaching signalized : and unsignalized intersections using the data from a head-mounted eye-tracking system during open road : driving on a prescribed route. During the ...
.... This thesis explores the effect of the Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) process on night vision and thermal images With better contrast, target detection and discrimination can be improved...
...) subjected to simulated catapult dynamics while wearing the Panoramic Night Vision Goggle (PNVG). A series of vertical impacts were conducted with the PNVG using the AFRL/HEPA Vertical Deceleration Tower...
Szydlowski, R.F.; Wrench, L.E.; O'Neill, P.J.
The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Data obtained during both single-setting and night-setback operating modes were used to develop models of each building's heat consumption as a function of the difference between inside and outside temperature. These models were used to estimate seasonal savings that could be obtained from the use of night-setback thermostat control. The measured savings in heating energy from using night temperature setback for the six Fort Devens buildings ranged from 14% to 25%; the mean savings was 19.2%. Based on an energy cost of $0.65/therm of natural gas, the estimated average cost savings of using automatic setback thermostats in these buildings is $780 per year per building
Bourget, Antoine; Guimond, Yann; Franks, John; Van Den Bergh, Marleen
Sustainable mobility is a major public concern, making increased safety one of the major challenges for the car of the future. About half of all serious traffic accidents occur at night, while only a minority of journeys is at night. Reduced visibility is one of the main reasons for these striking statistics and this explains the interest of the automobile industry in Enhanced Night Vision Systems. As an answer to the need for high volume, low cost optics for these applications, Umicore has developed GASIR. This material is transparent in the NEAR and FAR infrared, and is mouldable into high quality finished spherical, aspherical and diffractive lenses. Umicore's GASIR moulded lenses are an ideal solution for thermal imaging for cars (Night Vision) and for sensing systems like pedestrian detection, collision avoidance, occupation detection, intelligent airbag systems etc.
Garland, E J; Smith, D H
Concurrent acute onset of night terrors, somnambulism, and spontaneous daytime panic attacks meeting the criteria for panic disorder is reported in a 10-year-old boy with a family history of panic disorder. Both the parasomnias and the panic disorder were fully responsive to therapeutic doses of imipramine. A second case of night terrors and infrequent full symptom panic attacks is noted in another 10-year-old boy whose mother has panic disorder with agoraphobia. The clinical resemblance and reported differences between night terrors and panic attacks are described. The absence of previous reports of this comorbidity is notable. It is hypothesized that night terror disorder and panic disorder involve a similar constitutional vulnerability to dysregulation of brainstem altering systems.
Biggi, N; Consonni, D; Fragasso, G; Lattuada, G; Perseghin, G L; Verga, R; Costa, G
Aim of the study is to explore in shiftworkers: a) blood pressure and hormonal variations; b) dyslipidemia and blood glucose levels; c) insulin resistence syndrome. We have assessed 48 male workers employes in Amsa SpA, a large municipal enterprise in charge of street cleaning and domestic waste collection, in permanent day and night work as hand sweepers, motor sweepers and delivery tricar drivers. 24 of those workers (daily and nightly) were normotensive and 24 were hypertensive. Our medical checks were: physical examination: BMI; laboratory findings (blood): glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, endothelin, insulin, FFA, HOMA S, HOMA B, HOMA R; assay of salivary cortisol and urinary cortisol in 24 h; 24 h pressure monitoring. Nightly hypertensive: increased consumption in wine and coffee, weight and BMI, total cholesterol and FFA and endothelin. Nightly normotensive: increased consumption in cigarettes and salivary cortisol. Daily hypertensive: increased total cholesterol; 24 h pressure monitoring showed more pronounced variations of pressure in night workers both normotensive and hypertensive in working time. Night shiftwork looks like more stressfull than day shiftwork. Insuline resistance isn't noticed in all four groups.
... the syndrome. How does Beals syndrome compare with Marfan syndrome? People with Beals syndrome have many of the ... bone) and aortic enlargement problems as people with Marfan syndrome, and treatments for these problems are the same. ...
Maaike de Jong
Full Text Available Studies of wild populations have provided important insights into the effects of artificial light at night on organisms, populations and ecosystems. However, in most studies the exact amount of light at night individuals are exposed to remains unknown. Individuals can potentially control their nighttime light exposure by seeking dark spots within illuminated areas. This uncertainty makes it difficult to attribute effects to a direct effect of light at night, or to indirect effects, e.g., via an effect of light at night on food availability. In this study, we aim to quantify the nocturnal light exposure of wild birds in a previously dark forest-edge habitat, experimentally illuminated with three different colors of street lighting, in comparison to a dark control. During two consecutive breeding seasons, we deployed male great tits (Parus major with a light logger measuring light intensity every five minutes over a 24h period. We found that three males from pairs breeding in brightly illuminated nest boxes close to green and red lamp posts, were not exposed to more artificial light at night than males from pairs breeding further away. This suggests, based on our limited sample size, that these males could have been avoiding light at night by choosing a roosting place with a reduced light intensity. Therefore, effects of light at night previously reported for this species in our experimental set-up might be indirect. In contrast to urban areas where light is omnipresent, bird species in non-urban areas may evade exposure to nocturnal artificial light, thereby avoiding direct consequences of light at night.
Craig, G., Macuda, T., Thomas , P., Allison, R., & Jennings, S. (2005). Light source halos in night vision goggles: Psychophysical assessments (Art...J. Requin (Eds.), Tutorials in motor behavior (pp. 281-295). New York: North-Holland. Lees, M.A., Glick , D.D., Kimball, K.A., & Snow, A.C. (1977...Allison, R.S., Guterman, P., Thomas , P., & Jennings, S. (2005). Detection of motion-defined form using night vision goggles. Proceedings of SPIE - The
Heat-related effects on mortality have been widely analyzed using maximum and minimum temperatures as exposure variables. Nevertheless, the main focus is usually on the former with the minimum temperature being limited in use as far as human health effects are concerned. Therefore, new thermal indices were used in this research to describe the duration of night hours with air temperatures higher than the 95% percentile of the minimum temperature (hot night hours) and intensity as the summation of these air temperatures in degrees (hot night degrees). An exposure-response relationship between mortality due to natural, respiratory, and cardiovascular causes and summer night temperatures was assessed using data from the Barcelona region between 2003 and 2013. The non-linear relationship between the exposure and response variables was modeled using a distributed lag non-linear model. The estimated associations for both exposure variables and mortality shows a relationship with high and medium values that persist significantly up to a lag of 1-2 days. In mortality due to natural causes, an increase of 1.1% per 10% (CI95% 0.6-1.5) for hot night hours and 5.8% per each 10° (CI95% 3.5-8.2%) for hot night degrees is observed. The effects of hot night hours reach their maximum with 100% and lead to an increase by 9.2% (CI95% 5.3-13.1%). The hourly description of night heat effects reduced to a single indicator in duration and intensity is a new approach and shows a different perspective and significant heat-related effects on human health.
Dudova, Iva; Kocourkova, Jana; Koutek, Jiri
Eating disorders frequently occur in conjunction with autism spectrum disorders, posing diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The comorbidity of anorexia nervosa and Asperger syndrome is a significant clinical complication and has been associated with a poorer prognosis. The authors are presenting the cases of an eleven-year-old girl and a five-and-a-half-year-old girl with comorbid eating disorders and Asperger syndrome.
Morera-Fumero, Armando L; Díaz-Mesa, Estefanía; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Fernandez-Lopez, Lourdes; Cejas-Mendez, Maria Del Rosario
There are day/night and seasonal changes in biological markers such as melatonin and cortisol. Controversial changes in serum S100B protein levels have been described in schizophrenia. We aim studying whether serum S100B levels present day/night variations in schizophrenia patients and whether S100B levels are related to psychopathology. Sixty-five paranoid schizophrenic inpatients participated in the study. Psychopathology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at admission and discharge. Blood was drawn at 12:00 (midday) and 00:00 (midnight) hours at admission and discharge. Sixty-five healthy subjects matched by age, gender and season acted as control group. At admission and discharge patients had significantly higher serum S100B concentrations at midday and midnight than healthy subjects. At admission, patients showed a day/night variation of S100B levels, with higher S100B levels at 12:00 than at 00:00h (143.7±26.3pg/ml vs. 96.9±16.6pg/ml). This day/night difference was not present in the control group. Midday and midnight S100B at admission decreased when compared to S100B at discharge (midday, 143.7±26.3 vs. 83.0±12, midnight 96.9±16.6 vs. 68.6±14.5). There was a positive correlation between the PANSS positive subscale and S100B concentrations at admission. This correlation was not present at discharge. acute paranoid schizophrenia inpatients present a day/night change of S100B serum levels at admission that disappears at discharge. The correlation between serum S100B concentrations and the PANSS positive scores at admission as well as the decrease of S100B at discharge may be interpreted as an acute biological response to the clinical state of the patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sapia, Jennifer L.
This paper provides information for school psychologists regarding the necessity and benefits of school-based prevention programming for students at risk for developing eating disorders (i.e., females). School-based programming is a cost-effective means of reaching the largest number of individuals at once and identifying those individuals…
Johnson, L.; van den Broek, Egon; Richards, D.; Sklar, E.; Wilensky, U.
A new view on empathic agents is introduced, named: Empathic Agent Technology (EAT). It incorporates a speech analysis, which provides an indication for the amount of tension present in people. It is founded on an indirect physiological measure for the amount of experienced stress, defined as the
Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera1,21Behavioral Sciences Institute, 2Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Clinical applications of electroencephalography (EEG are used with different objectives, EEG being a noninvasive and painless procedure. In respect of eating disorders, in the 1950s a new line of study about the neurological bases of anorexia nervosa was started and has since been developed. The purpose of this review is to update the existing literature data on the main findings in respect of EEG in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. Despite the fact that weight gain tends to normalize some brain dysfunctions assessed by means of EEG, the specific effect of gaining weight remains controversial. Different studies have reported that cortical dysfunctions can be found in patients with anorexia nervosa even after weight gain, whereas others have reported a normalization of EEG in respect of the initial reduced alpha/increased beta power in those patients with refeeding. Findings of studies that have analyzed the possible relationship between eating disorders and depression, based on sleep EEG disturbances, do not support the idea of eating disorders as a variant of depression or affective disorders. Some EEG findings are very consistent with previous neuroimaging results on patients with anorexia nervosa, reporting neural disturbances in response to stimuli that are relevant to the pathology (eg, stimuli like food exposure, different emotional situations, or body images.Keywords: electroencephalography, event-related potentials, sleep, depression, refeeding, weight gain
Yi, Chun-Xia; Heppner, Kristy; Tschöp, Matthias H.
Ghrelin is the only known circulating hormone that acts on peripheral and central targets to increase food intake and promote adiposity. The present review focuses on the possible clinical relevance of ghrelin in the regulation of human feeding behavior in individuals with obesity and other eating
Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary
Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…
Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig; Waaddegaard, Mette
Binge eating disorder kaldes også bulimi uden opkastning eller den tredje spiseforstyrrelse. Det er en udbredt, men mindre kendt spiseforstyrrelse end anoreksi og bulimi. Patienterne er ofte overvægtige og har ikke kompenserende adfærd over for overspisningen i form af opkastning eller brug af...
Brock, Steen; Christiansen, Tenna Holdorff
In this paper we examine how the policies formulated by Danish school authorities concerning eating at school are implemented by staff and interpreted by schoolchildren. We use positioning theory in order to analyse how authorities, staff, and children engage in a mutual positioning, within...
The psychosomatic theory of obesity assumes that binging, eating in response to emotional distress, is characteristic of obese individuals, yet experimental attempts to demonstrate binging have yielded weak support for this assumption. The incidence of binging was investigated by means of structured interviews on food habits with 41 male and 39…
Rockert, Wendi; Kaplan, Allan S; Olmsted, Marion P
This study sought to characterize a large number of adult outpatients diagnosed with eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The sample consisted of 1,449 patients who were classified as anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), or assigned to one of six EDNOS categories. Eating disorder groups were compared on demographic features, symptom frequencies, and psychological functioning. Forty percent of the sample was categorized as EDNOS. A subgroup of purging only patients closely resembled the BN purging subtype. Although EDNOS subthreshold BN patients reported less psychopathology than full syndrome BN they, nevertheless, displayed clinical levels of disturbance. Patients who binge-eat once a week demonstrate a profile of psychological functioning similar to those who binge eat twice a week. Consistent with previous research, in this sample there were subgroups embedded in the EDNOS category that both share similarities with and differ from full syndrome BN. (c) 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Paolino, Sabrina; Cutolo, Maurizio; Pizzorni, Carmen
Morning symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are linked to circadian increase of night inflammation, supported by inadequate cortisol secretion in active disease. Therefore, exogenous glucocorticoid administration in RA is recommended by EULAR and ACR from the beginning of the diagnosis, since may partially act like a "replacement therapy". In addition, the prevention/treatment of the night up-regulation of the immune/inflammatory reaction has been shown more effective when exogenous glucocorticoid administration is managed with a night-time-release formulation. Despite a considerably higher cost than conventional prednisone (immediate release), chronotherapy with night-time-release prednisone has been recognized a cost-effective option for RA patients not on glucocorticoids who are eligible for therapy with biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Interestingly, since different cell populations involved in the inflammatory process are particularly activated during the night (i.e. monocytes, macrophages), other therapeutical approaches used in RA, such as conventional DMARDs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should follow the same concepts of glucocorticoid chronotherapy. Therefore, bedtime methotrexate chronotherapy was found to better manage RA symptoms, and several available NSAIDs (i.e. indomethacin, aceclofenac, ketoprofen, flurbiprofen, lornoxicam) have been recently modified in their formulation, in order to obtain more focused night action.
Full Text Available Sleep quality is often poor in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but these night-time symptoms are frequently unnoticed by physicians and/or not reported by patients themselves. Therefore, the prevalence and clinical impact of sleep disturbances and night-time symptoms in COPD is not well understood and has not been a clinical focus to date. To address this gap, an expert panel meeting was convened in Barcelona, Spain, in March 2011 to discuss the aetiology, evolution, burden, long-term clinical consequences and optimal management of night-time symptoms in COPD. The term “night-time symptoms” in COPD has not been distinctly defined in an objective sense but epidemiological data suggests that the prevalence of nocturnal symptoms and symptomatic sleep disturbance may exceed 75% in patients with COPD. The panel concluded that night-time symptoms in COPD are prevalent and bothersome; that their cause(s are multiple and include demographic factors, such as age and obesity, pharmacotherapy, disease-specific symptoms and the presence of comorbid sleep disorders, and other medical conditions; and that potential long-term consequences can include lung function changes, increased exacerbation frequency, emergence or worsening of cardiovascular disease, cognitive effects, depression, impaired quality of life and increased mortality. To date, few interventional studies have investigated them, but emerging data suggest that bronchodilator therapy can improve them if deployed appropriately. In summary, night-time symptoms in COPD warrant further clinical investigation with validated tools.
Full Text Available Morning symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA are linked to circadian increase of night inflammation, supported by inadequate cortisol secretion in active disease. Therefore, exogenous glucocorticoid administration in RA is recommended by EULAR and ACR from the beginning of the diagnosis, since may partially act like a “replacement therapy”. In addition, the prevention/treatment of the night up-regulation of the immune/inflammatory reaction has been shown more effective when exogenous glucocorticoid administration is managed with a night-time-release formulation. Despite a considerably higher cost than conventional prednisone (immediate release, chronotherapy with night-time-release prednisone has been recognized a cost-effective option for RA patients not on glucocorticoids who are eligible for therapy with biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs. Interestingly, since different cell populations involved in the inflammatory process are particularly activated during the night (i.e. monocytes, macrophages, other therapeutical approaches used in RA, such as conventional DMARDs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs should follow the same concepts of glucocorticoid chronotherapy. Therefore, bedtime methotrexate chronotherapy was found to better manage RA symptoms, and several available NSAIDs (i.e. indomethacin, aceclofenac, ketoprofen, flurbiprofen, lornoxicam have been recently modified in their formulation, in order to obtain more focused night action.
Benabu, J-C; Stoll, F; Gonzalez, M; Mathelin, C
The aim of this review was to determine the link between night/shift work and breast cancer. The analysed articles were taken from the PUBMED database between 1996 and 2015. The keywords used were "breast cancer risk", "night work" and "shift work". In total, 25 articles were selected. Night/shift workers are more at risk to develop a breast cancer (relative risk (RR) between 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02-1.20 and 1.48; 95% CI: 1.36-1.61 in the meta-analyses). However, this risk is not found by some cohort and case-control studies. The circadian rhythm disruption, responsible of disorderliness of melatonin secretion, could be one of the mechanisms involved in the increase of that risk. Hormonal status of night/shift workers, their geographic origin, their lifestyle and their vitamin D deficiency appear as other mechanisms potentially responsible for increased risk of cancer in this professional population. Moreover, a dose-effect connection may exist, with an increase of the risk with the number of years of night/shift work. Night/shift work is associated with a moderate increased risk of breast cancer, especially among women who worked over 20 years. Recommendations concerning the breast monitoring in this population could be diffused. The benefit of melatonin supplementation remains to be assessed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.
Maltese, François; Adda, Mélanie; Bablon, Amandine; Hraeich, Sami; Guervilly, Christophe; Lehingue, Samuel; Wiramus, Sandrine; Leone, Marc; Martin, Claude; Vialet, Renaud; Thirion, Xavier; Roch, Antoine; Forel, Jean-Marie; Papazian, Laurent
The relationship between tiredness and the risk of medical errors is now commonly accepted. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of an intensive care unit (ICU) night shift on the cognitive performance of a group of intensivists. The influence of professional experience and the amount of sleep on cognitive performance was also investigated. A total of 51 intensivists from three ICUs (24 seniors and 27 residents) were included. The study participants were evaluated after a night of rest and after a night shift according to a randomized order. Four cognitive skills were tested according to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. All cognitive abilities worsened after a night shift: working memory capacity (11.3 ± 0.3 vs. 9.4 ± 0.3; p sleep. The other three cognitive skills were altered, regardless of the amount of sleep during the night shift. The cognitive abilities of intensivists were significantly altered following a night shift in the ICU, regardless of either the amount of professional experience or the duration of sleep during the shift. The consequences for patients' safety and physicians' health should be further evaluated.
Jacobi, Corinna; Abascal, Liana; Taylor, C Barr
The current study reviews the state of eating disorder screens. Screens were classified by their purported screening function: identification of cases with (a) anorexia nervosa only; (b) bulimia nervosa only; (c) eating disorders in general; (d) partial syndrome, eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), or subclinical; (e) not a-d but at high risk. Information is presented on development, psychometric properties, and external validation (e.g., sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values). Screens differ widely with regard to objective, psychometric properties and the validation methodology used. Most screens that identify cases are not appropriate for the identification of at-risk behaviors. Little data on the external validity of screens are available. Screens should be used with caution. A sequential procedure, in which subjects identified as being at risk during the first stage is followed by more specific diagnostic tests during the second stage, might overcome some of the limitations of the one-stage screening approach.
Holm, Lotte; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Gronow, Jukka
It is often claimed that in post-industrial societies eating is characterised by the dissolution of traditional cultural patterns regarding eating rhythms, the structure of meals and the social context of eating. This paper presents results from a Nordic quantitative and comparative study which...... was conducted in 1997 based on interviews with almost 5000 individuals from four nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden). The study showed that even through some flexibility was evident, eating was characterized by nationally different, but socially coordinated rhythms. Two distinct meal patterns...... were identified, a "western" pattern with one daily hot meal (Denmark, Norway), and an "eastern" patterns with two, daily hot meals (Finalnad, Sweden). Even though a lot of eating took place in solitude, eating was most often a social activity. It is concluded that daily eating patterns are still...
Bakalar, Jennifer L; Shank, Lisa M; Vannucci, Anna; Radin, Rachel M; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (i.e., DSM-5) currently recognizes three primary eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. The origins of eating disorders are complex and remain poorly understood. However, emerging research highlights a dimensional approach to understanding the multifactorial etiology of eating disorders as a means to inform assessment, prevention, and treatment efforts. Guided by research published since 2011, this review summarizes recent findings elucidating risk factors for the development of eating disorders across the lifespan in three primary domains: (1) genetic/biological, (2) psychological, and (3) socio-environmental. Prospective empirical research in clinical samples with full-syndrome eating disorders is emphasized with added support from cross-sectional studies, where relevant. The developmental stages of puberty and the transition from adolescence to young adulthood are discussed as crucial periods for the identification and prevention of eating disorders. The importance of continuing to elucidate the mechanisms underlying gene by environmental interactions in eating disorder risk is also discussed. Finally, controversial topics in the field of eating disorder research and the clinical implications of this research are summarized.
Vad Winkler, Laura; Andersen, Marianne; Hørder, Kirsten
BACKGROUND:: Craniopharyngiomas are slow-growing tumors, which can either be asymptomatic or present themselves with visual, neuropsychiatric or endocrine disturbances. Eating disorders (EDs) are syndromes with unknown etiology, associated with multiple endocrine abnormalities. In pediatric cases...... the possibility of an as yet unidentified structural hypothalamic disorder to be implicated in the etiopathogeny of ED. (c) 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord, 2009....
Hajna, Samantha; Leblanc, Paul J; Faught, Brent E; Merchant, Anwar T; Cairney, John; Hay, John; Liu, Jian
To identify key eating behaviours in children and their parents and to determine the associations between these behaviours and measures of body composition in children. Data were collected on a sample of 431 peri-adolescent children (12.4±0.3 years) and their parents from the Niagara Region. Body composition was assessed by trained research assistants. Eating behaviours were assessed using a revised version of the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire. Principal component analyses were used to identify key eating behaviours among children, mothers and fathers. Linear regression models were used to assess their associations with body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio, waist-to-hip ratio, waist girth, and hip girth measures in children. Emotional/uncontrolled eating and eating by the television in children and their mothers were positively associated with measures of body composition in children. Other eating behaviours that were associated with larger measures of body composition in children included low frequency of eating meals with parents, frequent sweet beverage consumption and snacking and eating "on-the-go" in children, eating "on-the-go" in mothers, and emotional eating and eating by the television/late at night in fathers. The eating behaviours of children and mothers, and to a lesser degree fathers, are important predictors of children's body composition. Public health interventions designed to help mothers and children reduce the frequency of emotional/uncontrolled eating and eating by the television may be effective means of facilitating positive weight outcomes in children.
Full Text Available Norbert Dahmen, Julia Becht, Alice Engel, Monika Thommes, Peter TonnPsychiatry Department, University of Mainz, GermanyAbstract: Narcoleptic patients suffer frequently from obesity and type II diabetes. Most patients show a deficit in the energy balance regulating orexinergic system. Nevertheless, it is not known, why narcoleptic patients tend to be obese. We examined 116 narcoleptic patients and 80 controls with the structured interview for anorectic and bulimic eating disorders (SIAB to test the hypothesis that typical or atypical eating attacks or eating disorders may be more frequent in narcoleptic patients. No difference in the current prevalence of eating disorders bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or anorexia nervosa was found, nor was the frequency of eating attacks higher in the narcolepsy group. We conclude that present eating disorders and eating attacks as defined in DSM IV are not the reason for the observed differences in body composition. Additional factors, such as basal metabolic rates and lifestyle factors need to be considered.Keywords: narcolepsy, eating disorder, SIAB, bulimia, anorexia, eating attack
Full Text Available Sleep-related breathing disorders in children are a clinical problem which is more and more often diagnosed by doctors nowadays. They can be the basis for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome that causes a number of complications: lowering the quality of life, behavioural problems, complications involving cardiovascular system. The incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in the paediatric population is estimated to be at the level of 2%. The symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome can be divided into daytime and night ones. Night symptoms in children include: snoring, apnoea, breathing with open mouth (both during the day and at night, dry tongue and mouth during sleep, agitated sleep in unnatural positions. Among daytime symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome there are: irritability, aggressiveness, hyperactivity, attention deficit disorder, delayed development and growth pattern (mainly failure to thrive, learning problems, morning headaches. Parents often do not connect the night and daytime symptoms with the possible development of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in their children. The main predisposing factor of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in children is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Effective and in most cases preferred treatment for the management of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in children is adenotonsillectomy. Polysomnography and polygraphy are diagnostic tools helpful in the study of sleep-related disorders. The objective of this study was to systematise the knowledge on the epidemiology, aetiology, clinical image and prevention of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in children.
Di Luzio, GianCarlo
In this narrative review article, some considerations are reported on the psychoanalytic point of view of self-psychology on eating disorders in a multidisciplinary team approach, a theoretic and clinical perspective in which the Author recognizes himself. Some author's clinical ideas and concepts as "negative self", "eclipse of the self", "rebound syndrome", "bluff syndrome", "deficit of subjective attribution", related to the topic of the deficit of the Self, are exposed along with technical aspects, clinical material and references to the comparison of psychoanalysis with the EBM literature on psychotherapy of EDs and its contemporary role in an integrated multi-disciplinary treatment of these disorders.
Devore, Elizabeth E; Massa, Jennifer; Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Schernhammer, Eva S; Wu, Kana; Zhang, Xuehong; Willett, Walter C; Fuchs, Charles S; Chan, Andrew T; Ogino, Shuji; Giovannucci, Edward; Wei, Esther K
This study aims to investigate the associations of rotating night shift work history and sleep duration with risk of colorectal adenoma. We evaluated 56,275 cancer-free participants of the Nurses' Health Study II, who had their first colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy between 1991 and 2011; rotating night shift work and sleep duration were reported by mailed questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) of colorectal adenoma, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), across categories of rotating night shift work history (none, 1-4, 5-9, and ≥10 years) and sleep duration (≤5, 6, 7, 8, and ≥9 h/day). We found no association between duration of rotating night shift work and occurrence of colorectal adenoma (p-trend across shift work categories = 0.5). Women with the longest durations of rotating night shift work (≥10 years) had a similar risk of adenoma compared to women without a history of rotating night shift work (multivariable-adjusted RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.83-1.11). Similarly, there were no associations of shorter or longer sleep durations with adenoma risk (p-trend = 0.2 across sleep durations of ≤5 through 7 h/day and p-trend = 0.5 across sleep durations of 7 through ≥9 h/day). Results were similar when we examined associations according to adenoma location and subtype. Our results do not support an association between rotating night shift work or sleep duration and risk of colorectal adenoma in women.
Levy, Y; Glovinsky, Y
Dark adaptation rate, scotopic retinal sensitivity and contrast sensitivity under mesopic conditions, but not visual acuity, have been shown to be directly related to the ability to identify military targets at night. These parameters can be used to select personnel for specific military tasks demanding excellent night vision, as well as to assess pharmacological effects on night vision. To evaluate the mid-term (2 to 6-week period) stability of night vision tests based on assessment of the above parameters. Dark adaptation rate, scotopic retinal sensitivity and contrast sensitivity under mesopic conditions were studied in 16 young volunteers during a 6-week period. Tests of scotopic retinal sensitivity (after 30 min of dark adaptation) exhibited high reproducibility and a low fluctuation rate, with a high correlation between values at week 0 and at 2-week intervals during the following 6 weeks of the study (rs (week 0 to week 6) = 0.81, p = 0.0001). The reproducibility of mesopic contrast sensitivity tests (average of 1.5, 3, 6 and 12 cycles per degree, (cpd)) was fair (rs (week 0 to week 2) = 0.67, p = 0.0045), whereas that of dark adaptation rate tests was poor. In view of the reproducibility characteristics of these night vision tests, assessment of night vision ability in pilots and military personnel, as well as assessment of pharmacological effects on night vision, may be based on scotopic retinal sensitivity (after 30 min of dark adaptation) and contrast sensitivity under mesopic conditions (average of 1.5, 3, 6 and 12 cpd).
Anderson, Lisa M; Reilly, Erin E; Schaumberg, Katherine; Dmochowski, Sasha; Anderson, Drew A
Mindful eating and intuitive eating are promoted as means to circumvent potentially maladaptive dietary restraint while maintaining a healthy weight. Although theoretically related, no studies have examined the correlations between intuitive eating, mindful eating, and restraint in the same sample. This study sought to examine these constructs and their correlations with body mass index (BMI), eating-disordered behaviors, and meal consumption in a college sample. Participants (N = 125) completed a laboratory taste-test meal and measures of each eating-related construct using the EDDS, IES, MEQ, and TFEQ-Restraint Subscale. Mindful eating, intuitive eating, and restraint were not strongly correlated. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that restraint and intuitive eating accounted for significant variance in disordered eating and BMI. Elevated restraint was associated with increased BMI and disordered eating; elevated intuitive eating was associated with decreased BMI and disordered eating. Mindful eating did not correlate with any outcome variables. Follow-up analyses suggested that specific intuitive eating subscales accounted for unique variance in the relation between intuitive eating and disordered eating. Intuitive eating was the only construct that was significantly associated with meal consumption. Intuitive eating and restraint appear to be only weakly correlated, and each is differentially associated with meal consumption. Mindful eating does not appear to relate to outcome variables.
Santin, Julia; Mery, Victoria; Elso, María José; Retamal, Eva; Torres, Catalina; Ivelic, José; Godoy, Jaime
We aimed to describe a group of adults diagnosed with sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) at the Sleep Medicine Center of the Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile. We performed a descriptive study of 34 consecutive patients who met the criteria of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders for SRED evaluated during a 3-year period who did not have an eating disorder according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. All patients had a structured clinical interview performed by a sleep specialist and completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Polysomnography (PSG) was performed when clinically indicated for ruling out other sleep-related disorders (18 patients; 52.9%). Patients' demographic and clinical data, comorbidities, and treatment response also were analyzed. Most patients were women (n=23; 67.6%). The average age at the time of diagnosis was 39±13.8 (17-67 years) and the latency since symptom onset was 8.3±8.8 years. Most patients had several episodes per night (average, 2.6±1.6; 1-8) and all except one patient had partial or total amnesia of these events (n=33; 97%). Comorbidities were frequent and included insomnia (n=20; 58.8%), restless legs syndrome (RLS) (n=16; 47%), sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) (n=9; 26%), psychiatric disorders (n=13; 38.2%), and overweight or obesity (n=14; 41.1%). Most patients were hypnotic users (n=21; 61.7%) and reported weight-centered anxiety (n=23; 67.6%). Twenty patients (58.8%) were treated with topiramate, 17 of whom had adequate symptomatic responses. Our SRED patients showed female preponderance, amnesia during the episodes, association with other sleep disorders, use of hypnotics, weight-centered anxiety, and positive response to topiramate. The presence of anxiety focused on weight in most patients may be an important element in the emergence of this behavior during sleep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pike, Kathleen M; Hoek, Hans W; Dunne, Patricia E
Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. While historically, eating disorders were conceptualized as primarily afflicting Caucasian adolescent or young adult women within high-income, industrialized Western Europe and North America, eating disorders are increasingly documented in diverse countries and cultures worldwide. This study highlights recent trends that reflect the changing landscape of culture and eating disorders: stabilization of the incidence of anorexia nervosa and possibly lower incidence rates of bulimia nervosa in Caucasian North American and Northern European groups; increasing rates of eating disorders in Asia; increasing rates of eating disorders in the Arab region; and increasing rates of binge eating and bulimia nervosa in Hispanic and Black American minority groups in North America. The changing face of eating disorders calls for a new conceptualization of culture in both the emergence and spread of eating disorders across the globe.
Sproesser, Gudrun; Klusmann, Verena; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta
The present study investigated people's perception of their own as compared to their peers' healthy eating and related these perceptions to actual healthy eating, BMI, and subsequent healthy eating behavior. Data were collected within the framework of the longitudinal cohort study Konstanz Life Study (T1: N = 770; T2: N = 510). Our results demonstrated an optimistic bias on the group level. Specifically, people rated their own eating behavior as healthier on average than that of their average peers. This comparative optimism occurred even when actual healthy eating was unfavorable and BMI was high. However, it increased with actual healthy eating behavior. Importantly, optimistic perceptions were positively related to the intention to eat healthily and healthy eating six months later. Hence, the results suggest that an optimistic comparative view of one's own healthy eating is grounded in reality and boosts rather than deters subsequent health behavior. This implies that there might not be a need to reduce optimistic perceptions of healthy eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harvey, Kate; Rosselli, Francine; Wilson, G. Terence; DeBar, Lynn L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.
Objective We sought to describe meal and snack frequencies of individuals with recurrent binge eating and examine the association between these eating patterns and clinical correlates. Method Data from 106 women with a minimum diagnosis of recurrent binge eating were utilized. Meal and snack frequencies were correlated with measures of weight, eating disorder features, and depression. Participants who ate breakfast every day (n=25) were compared with those who did not (n=81) on the same measures. Results Breakfast was the least, and dinner the most, commonly consumed meal. Evening snacking was the most common snacking occasion. Meal patterns were not significantly associated with clinical correlates; however, evening snacking was associated with binge eating. Discussion Our findings largely replicated those reported in earlier research. More research is needed to determine the role of breakfast consumption in binge eating. PMID:21661003
Zeeck, Almut; Stelzer, Nicola; Linster, Hans Wolfgang; Joos, Andreas; Hartmann, Armin
This study compares 20 binge eaters (BED), 23 obese patients (OB) and 20 normal weight controls (CO) with regard to everyday emotions and the relationship between emotions, the desire to eat and binge eating. Modified versions of the Differential Affect Scale and Emotional Eating Scale were used and the TAS-20 and Symptom-Check-List-27 administered to assess overall psychopathology and alexithymia. BED-subjects show a more negative pattern of everyday emotions, higher alexithymia scores and the strongest desire to eat, especially if emotions are linked to interpersonal aspects. The emotion most often reported preceding a binge was anger. Feelings of loneliness, disgust, exhaustion or shame lead to binge eating behaviour with the highest probability. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio; Santiago Fernández, María José; Estébanez Humanes, Sonia
To study the personality characteristics in patients with eating behaviour disorders and the influence of these characteristics, and certain clinical syndromes on the progress of these disorders, particularly when they have lasted more than seven years. Study of comorbidity using a diagnostic test. Eating behaviour disorders unit outpatients. A total of 147 patients with eating behaviour disorders being treated as outpatients. They were of normal weight, with a mean age of 22.24 years. Assessment of personality and clinical syndromes using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II). Means of the personality and clinical syndromes scales and determination of prevalence using a rate-base>84. At least one personality disorder was detected in 25.33% of patients with anorexia, 30.44% with bulimia nervosa and 32.13% with binge-eating disorder. In the purgative and non-purgative forms the prevalence was 31.07% and 24.75%, respectively. An obsessive disorder is more common in anorexia (39.77%); a histrionic disorder in bulimia (46.66%); a dependent disorder in the purgative forms (46.15%), and an obsessive one in the no-purgative forms (35.36%). As regards the mean scores, they were significantly higher in patients with bulimia for the histrionic disorder (Pdisorder for more than seven years registered more anxiety (Ppersonality styles and clinical syndromes associated with eating behaviour disorders can be an important therapeutic and prognostic tool.
Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Smits, Marcel G.; Curfs, Leopold M. G.
Prevalence of severe sleep problems and its association with other variables were investigated with 109 individuals who have Angelman syndrome. Severe settling problems, frequent night waking, and early waking were found in 2%, 37%, and 10% of the individuals, respectively. Sleep problems were persistent in this sample. No statistically…
Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W; Rupp, Claudia I; Lackner-Seifert, Kerstin; Frey, Nadja; Whitworth, Alexandra B; Pope, Harrison G; Kinzl, Johann
Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders (ED) in middle-aged women. We mailed anonymous questionnaires to 1,500 Austrian women aged 40-60 years, assessing ED (defined by DSM-IV), subthreshold ED, body image, and quality of life. We broadly defined "subthreshold ED" by the presence of either (1) binge eating with loss of control or (2) purging behavior, without requiring any of the other usual DSM-IV criteria for frequency or severity of these symptoms. Of the 715 (48%) responders, 33 [4.6%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.3-6.4%] reported symptoms meeting full DSM-IV criteria for an ED [bulimia nervosa = 10; binge eating disorder = 11; eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) = 12]. None displayed anorexia nervosa. Another 34 women (4.8%; CI: 3.4-6.6%) displayed subthreshold ED. These women showed levels of associated psychopathology virtually equal to the women with full-syndrome diagnoses. ED appear common in middle-aged women, with a preponderance of binge eating disorder and EDNOS diagnoses as compared to the "classical" diagnoses of anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Interestingly, middle-aged women with even very broadly defined subthreshold ED showed distress and impairment comparable to women with full-scale ED. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Day, Jemma; Ternouth, Andrew; Collier, David A
The eating disorders anorexia and bulimia nervosa have traditionally been regarded as entirely separate from obesity. Eating disorders have been regarded as Western culture-bound syndromes, arising in societies with excessive emphasis on weight, shape and appearance, and best treated by psychological therapies, in particular cognitive behavioural therapy or family-based interventions. In contrast, obesity has been considered a medical illness with metabolic and genetic origins, and thought to be best treated by mainstream medicine, involving dietary, drug or surgical treatment. We believe that this polarisation is fundamentally flawed, and research and treatment of both types of disorder would be better served by greater appreciation of the psychosocial components of obesity and the biological and genetic components of eating disorders. There are similarities in phenotype (such as excessive attempts at weight control, binge eating behaviours) and in risk factors (such as low self-esteem, external locus of control, childhood abuse and neglect, dieting, media exposure, body image dissatisfaction, weight-related teasing and shared susceptibility genes). One example of shared genetic risk is the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) gene, in which the valine allele of the Val66Met amino acid polymorphism predisposes to obesity, whereas the methionine allele predisposes to eating disorders. Thus the evidence suggests that these disorders will have both shared and distinct susceptibility factors; some will predispose to both types of disorder, some will push in opposite directions, and some will separate them.
Dakanalis, Antonios; Riva, Giuseppe; Serino, Silvia; Colmegna, Fabrizia; Clerici, Massimo
The clinical utility of the severity criterion for binge eating disorder (BED), introduced in the DSM-5 as a means of addressing heterogeneity and variability in the severity of this disorder, was evaluated in 189 treatment-seeking adults with (DSM-5) BED. Participants classified with mild, moderate, severe and extreme severity of BED, based on their weekly frequency of binge eating episodes, differed significantly from each other in body mass index (BMI), eating disorder features, putative factors involved in the maintenance process of the disorder, comorbid mood, anxiety and personality disorders, psychological distress, social maladjustment and illness-specific functional impairment (medium-to-large effect sizes). They were also statistically distinguishable in metabolic syndrome prevalence, even after adjusting for BMI (large effect size), suggesting the possibility of non-BMI-mediated mechanisms. The implications of the findings, providing support for the utility of the binge frequency as a severity criterion for BED, and directions for future research are outlined. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Shaw, Heather; Stice, Eric; Becker, Carolyn Black
This article reviews eating disorder (ED) prevention programs, highlighting features that define successful programs and particularly promising interventions, and how they might be further refined. The field of ED prevention has advanced considerably both theoretically and methodologically compared with the earlier ED prevention programs, which were largely psychoeducational and met with limited success. Recent meta-analytic findings show that more than half (51%) of ED prevention interventions reduced ED risk factors and more than a quarter (29%) reduced current or future eating pathology (EP). A couple of brief programs have been shown to reduce the risk for future onset of EP and obesity. Selected interactive, multisession programs offered to participants older than 15 years, delivered by professional interventionists and including body acceptance or dissonance-induction content, produced larger effects. Understanding and applying these results can help inform the design of more effective prevention programs in the future.
Henderson, S.; Walker, C. E.; Geary, E.; Pompea, S. M.
Increased and robust understanding of our environment requires learning opportunities that take place outside of the traditional K-12 classroom and beyond the confines of the school day. GLOBE at Night is a new event within The GLOBE Program that provides a mechanism for a nontraditional learning activity involving teachers, students, and their families taking observations of the night sky around the world and reporting their observations via a central data base for analysis. To support activities centered on authentic research experiences such as GLOBE at Night, The GLOBE Program has changed its approach to professional development (PD). The new focus of GLOBE PD efforts is centered on teachers being able to facilitate student research in and out of the classroom reflective of authentic scientific research experiences. It has been recognized that there is a critical need for effective teacher professional development programs that support teacher involvement in meaningful scientific research that encourages partnerships between scientists, teachers, and students. Partnerships promoting scientific research for K-12 audiences provides the foundation for The GLOBE Program, an international inquiry-based program designed to engage teachers with their students in partnership with research scientists to better understand the environment at local, regional, and global scales. GLOBE is an ongoing international science and education program that unites students, teachers, and scientists in the study of the Earth System. Students participating in GLOBE engage in hands-on activities, including the collection, analysis, and sharing of research quality scientific data with their peers around the world. Students interact with members of the science community who use the data collected from locations around the world in their research - data that would often not be available otherwise. As of September 2005, over 30,000 teachers representing over 16,000 schools worldwide have
Hulley, A J; Hill, A J
To examine the presence of eating disorder syndromes in elite women distance runners in the United Kingdom and any associated differences in training, dieting, general health, and well-being. Athletes were selected from the top of their respective ranking lists for all middle and long-distance races in 1996/1997. All running disciplines were included (track, road, cross-country, and fell/mountain running). Athletes were sent the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire and a questionnaire on demographics, athletic training, diet, and health. Of the 226 athletes identified, 181 (81%) completed and returned the questionnaires. Twenty-nine athletes (16%) had an eating disorder at the time of the study (7 had anorexia nervosa [AN], 2 had bulimia nervosa [BN], and 20 had eating disorders not otherwise specified [EDNOS]) and a further 6 had received previous treatment. Comparing the eating disorder group with the rest of the sample showed no difference in age, height, preferred race distance, or the number of hours/week spent training. However, they had a significantly lower body mass index (BMI), lower self-esteem, and poorer mental health. Current and past dieting were significantly more common in the eating disorder group. The levels of AN and EDNOS are higher than would be expected in similarly aged, nonathletic women. The demands for leanness rather than exercise intensity appear to be the main risk in these elite runners. The early detection and prevention of eating disorders in women athletes should have high priority. Copyright 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Soldatos, C R; Vela-Bueno, A; Bixler, E O; Schweitzer, P K; Kales, A
This is the first controlled study to show a lack of relation between a positive history of sleepwalking or night terrors in adults and daytime EEG abnormalities. We recorded a standard clinical EEG on 35 adult sleepwalkers (SW), 35 adult night terror patients (NT), and 35 control subjects (CS). Three subjects in the SW group showed abnormalities: one during both the resting record (RR) and hyperventilation (HV), and two only during HV. None in the NT group showed any EEG abnormality. Two control subjects showed abnormalities of both RR and HV, and a third only during HV. The number of abnormal EEGs within each group was limited, and the three groups did not significantly differ from one another. Our results suggest that the daytime clinical EEG is of limited value in evaluating adults with the primary complaint of sleepwalking or night terrors. However, further all-night sleep EEG studies utilizing clinical montage are needed to investigate the temporal relationship of sleepwalking and night terror events to possible EEG abnormalities.
Books, Candie; Coody, Leon C; Kauffman, Ryan; Abraham, Sam
The purpose of this research was to study night shift work and its health effects on nurses. This was a quantitative study using descriptive design; it also incorporated three qualitative open-ended questions to complement the study. The data were collected using Survey Monkey, with an Internet-based confidential data collection tool. The population of relevance to this study was nurses employed in hospital settings in the United States. E-mail addresses and Facebook were used to recruit participants. Results indicated that there is an increased risk of sleep deprivation, family stressors, and mood changes because of working the night shift. Rotating shifts were mentioned as a major concern for night shift nurses. Respondents agreed that complaints about fatigue and fatigue-related illnesses in night shift workers were ignored. There was also a general perception among nurses working the night shift that sleep deprivation leads to negative health consequences including obesity; however, they were not as high a concern as rotating shifts or fatigue.
Hoyer, Silvestra; Zupančič, Andreja
The article deals with eating habits of students. Its purpose was to ascertaineating habits of students living outside their primary home and are under different forms of stress. Methods: the pattern is represented by students living in student homer where they can cook and prepare their own meals. In the research, 81 students living in the students home on Cesta v Mestni log in Ljubljana. The inquiry was composed from 34 questions. The data were processed with Microsoft Excel. Body mass inde...
Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera1,21Behavioral Sciences Institute, 2Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Clinical applications of electroencephalography (EEG) are used with different objectives, EEG being a noninvasive and painless procedure. In respect of eating disorders, in the 1950s a new line of study about the neurological bases of anorexia nervosa was started and has since been developed. The purpose of this review is to update the existing literature data on the main...
As part of the "Move! Eat better" campaign, Novae’s nutrition adviser, Irène Rolfo, will give a talk on the subject of everyday good nutrition. This will be held in the main building auditorium at 12:30 on Thursday, 20 September 2012. Don’t miss this informative event. For more information, go to http://cern.ch/bpmm
Goebel-Fabbri, Ann E.
The problem of insulin restriction is an important women's health issue in type 1 diabetes. This behavior is associated with increased rates of diabetes complications and decreased quality of life. Clinical and technological research is greatly needed to improve treatment tools and strategies for this problem. In this commentary, the author describes the scope of the problem of eating disorders and diabetes, as well as offers ideas about ways technology may be applied to help solve this compl...
Barbieri, R.; Rattazzi, R.
A model is outlined, where the top quark gets a mass by a supersymmetric extension of the Higgs effect, eating a quark-gaugino. The GIM-violating phenomenology of a Q=2/3 vector-like quark, mixing with the standard up-type quarks, is described. The modifications of supersymmetry signals and the problem of giving masses to all other quarks and leptons, except the top, by radiative corrections are also briefly discussed. (author) 9 refs.; 3 figs
Wichmann, Susan; Martin, D. R.
Defines different eating disorders, discusses athlete eating problems, and presents the signs physicians should look for that signal the presence of an eating disorder. The article also discusses the tailoring of treatment programs, questions to ask athletes about eating habits, and society's influence on an athlete's eating behavior. (GLR)
Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole
Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders…
Herpertz, S; Petrak, F; Kruse, J; Kulzer, B; Lange, K; Albus, C
Adolescent and young women with type 1 diabetes mellitus demonstrate a more than random coincidence with bulimia nervosa. However, the prevalence of eating disorders that do not fulfil the criteria of bulimia nervosa is also raised in women of this age group yet without diabetes mellitus. The comorbidity of type 1 diabetes and an eating disorder poses a risk factor in the development of diabetic follow-up diseases. Patients with an eating disorder and type 1 diabetes are characterized by an insufficient metabolic control and the early development of diabetic complications such as a retinopathy. The binge eating disorder, according to research aspects initially a new eating disorder entity, may especially be observed in overweight and obesity. Even if a binge eating disorder in persons with a type 2 diabetes does not occur more frequently than in those metabolically healthy persons, it does depict a risk factor for an accelerated weight gain which as rule involves an increase of insulin resistance.
In June 2015, the newspapers in England once again pointed at the media industry as responsible for the spread of eating disorders. This article reviews this argument and previous research on the role of the media industry in the perpetration of images that may foster eating disorders. It has been recently argued, coherently with previous research, that the media may be responsible for the spread of eating disorders. This article reviews this literature, and evaluates what the real role of the media in the spread of eating disorders is. The article argues that considering the portrait of thin models in the media industry as responsible for eating disorders is a misanalysis of the problem and evaluates some of the more profound reasons that may lead to the adoption of the disordered eating symptomatology.
Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José
This study tests the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) psychometric properties and correlates, and the moderator effect of body image flexibility on the association between emotional eating and binge eating.
Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Methods: Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol was test the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. Results: The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair feeding paradigm. Conclusion: Overall these results support the validity of our chronic subordination stress to model binge eating disorder allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food
Razzoli, Maria; Sanghez, Valentina; Bartolomucci, Alessandro
Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol was test the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair feeding paradigm. Overall these results support the validity of our chronic subordination stress to model binge eating disorder allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food intake.
Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Takano, Masahiro
Sleep-related eating disorder is characterized by parasomnia with recurrent episodes of nocturnal eating or drinking during the main sleep period. Several drugs, including atypical antipsychotics, induce sleep-related eating disorder. However, aripiprazole has not previously been associated with sleep-related eating disorder. A 41-year-old Japanese man visited our clinic complaining of depression. The patient was treated with sertraline, which was titrated up to 100 mg for 4 weeks. A sleep inducer and an anxiolytic were coadministered. His depressive mood slightly improved, but it continued for an additional 4 months. Subsequently, aripiprazole (3 mg) was added as an adjunctive therapy. After 3 weeks, the patient's mother found that the patient woke up and ate food at night. The next morning, the patient was amnesic for this event, felt full, and wondered why the bags of food were empty. This episode lasted for 2 days. The patient gained 5 kg during these 3 weeks. After the aripiprazole dose was reduced to 1.5 mg, the patient's nocturnal eating episodes rapidly and completely disappeared. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report of sleep-related eating disorder induced by aripiprazole, and it indicates that this disorder should be considered a possible side effect of aripiprazole. Although aripiprazole is used mainly in patients with schizophrenia, its recently documented use as an adjunctive therapy in patients with depression might induce hitherto unknown side effects.
Berkman, Nancy D; Bulik, Cynthia M; Brownley, Kimberly A; Lohr, Kathleen N; Sedway, Jan A; Rooks, Adrienne; Gartlehner, Gerald
OBJECTIVES The RTI International-University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Evidence-based Practice Center (RTI-UNC EPC) systematically reviewed evidence on efficacy of treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED), harms associated with treatments, factors associated with the treatment efficacy and with outcomes of these conditions, and whether treatment and outcomes for these conditions differ by sociodemographic characteristics. DATA SOURCES We searched MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Applied Health (CINAHL), PSYCHINFO, the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), the National Agricultural Library (AGRICOLA), and Cochrane Collaboration libraries. REVIEW METHODS We reviewed each study against a priori inclusion/exclusion criteria. For included articles, a primary reviewer abstracted data directly into evidence tables; a second senior reviewer confirmed accuracy. We included studies published from 1980 to September 2005, in all languages. Studies had to involve populations diagnosed primarily with AN, BN, or BED and report on eating, psychiatric or psychological, or biomarker outcomes. RESULTS We report on 30 treatment studies for AN, 47 for BN, 25 for BED, and 34 outcome studies for AN, 13 for BN, 7 addressing both AN and BN, and 3 for BED. The AN literature on medications was sparse and inconclusive. Some forms of family therapy are efficacious in treating adolescents. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) may reduce relapse risk for adults after weight restoration. For BN, fluoxetine (60 mg/day) reduces core bulimic symptoms (binge eating and purging) and associated psychological features in the short term. Individual or group CBT decreases core behavioral symptoms and psychological features in both the short and long term. How best to treat individuals who do not respond to CBT or fluoxetine remains unknown. In BED, individual or group CBT reduces binge eating and improves abstinence rates for up